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Sample records for 5-ht6 receptor antagonist

  1. Possible differences in modes of agonist and antagonist binding at human 5-HT6 receptors.

    PubMed

    Pullagurla, Manik R; Westkaemper, Richard B; Glennon, Richard A

    2004-09-01

    A graphics model of the human 5-HT6 receptor was constructed and automated docking studies were performed. The model suggests that 5-HT6 antagonist arylsulfonyltryptamines might bind differently than that of the agonist serotonin. Furthermore, the model explains many of the empirical results from our previous structure-affinity studies. PMID:15357994

  2. Distribution of cells responsive to 5-HT6 receptor antagonist-induced hypophagia

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, Alastair S.; Burke, Luke K.; Shaw, Jill; Evans, Mark L.; Heisler, Lora K.

    2014-01-01

    The central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) system is well established as an important regulator of appetite and continues to remain a focus of obesity research. While much emphasis has focussed on the 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) in 5-HT's anorectic effect, pharmacological manipulation of the 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) also reduces appetite and body weight and may be amenable to obesity treatment. However, the neurological circuits that underlie 5-HT6R-induced hypophagia remain to be identified. Using c-fos immunoreactivity (FOS-IR) as a marker of neuronal activation, here we mapped the neuroanatomical targets activated by an anorectic dose of the 5-HT6R antagonist SB-399885 throughout the brain. Furthermore, we quantified SB-399855 activated cells within brain appetitive nuclei, the hypothalamus, dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Our results reveal that 5-HT6R antagonist-induced hypophagia is associated with significantly increased neuronal activation in two nuclei with an established role in the central control of appetite, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the NTS. In contrast, no changes in FOS-IR were observed between treatment groups within other hypothalamic nuclei or DRN. The data presented here provide a first insight into the neural circuitry underlying 5-HT6R antagonist-induced appetite suppression and highlight the PVH and NTS in the coordination of 5-HT6R hypophagia. PMID:24566060

  3. 5-HT6 Receptor Antagonists: Potential Efficacy for the Treatment of Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Natasja M W J; Kruse, Chris G

    2015-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine6 receptor (5-HT6R) antagonists have shown efficacy in animal models for cognitive impairment in multiple cognitive domains relevant for schizophrenia. Improvements were found with 5-HT6R antagonists in preclinical tests for episodic memory, social cognition, executive function, working memory and several other tests for both learning and memory. In contrast, there is little evidence for efficacy on attention. It will be interesting to further investigate 5-HT6R antagonists in neurodevelopmental animal models which are based on prenatal exposure to specific environmental insults, and are characterized by a high level of face, construct and predictive validity for cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia. It is also important to do more add-on preclinical studies of 5-HT6 antagonists with antipsychotics. Possible mechanisms of action to improve cognition have been described. 5-HT6R antagonists decrease GABA release and GABAergic interneuron excitability, which subsequently disinhibits glutamate and/or acetylcholine release and results in enhancement of synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, cognition could be improved by 5-HT6R antagonists, because these compounds increase the number of NCAM PSA-immunoreactive neurons in the dendate gyrus, inhibit mTOR and Fyn-tyrosine kinase and interact with DARPP-32. Interestingly, there is increasing preclinical evidence that could support additional benefits of 5-HT6R ligandson comorbid conditions in schizophrenia such as drug abuse, depression, anxiety, obesity andantipsychotic-induced EPS. Finally, we briefly give an overview of the 5-HT6R compounds that are currently in clinical development for the treatment of cognitive impairment in both schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26044973

  4. Novel 5-HT6 receptor antagonists/D2 receptor partial agonists targeting behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    PubMed

    Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Marcinkowska, Monika; Bucki, Adam; Śniecikowska, Joanna; Pawłowski, Maciej; Kazek, Grzegorz; Siwek, Agata; Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Partyka, Anna; Wasik, Anna; Wesołowska, Anna; Mierzejewski, Paweł; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2015-03-01

    We describe a novel class of designed multiple ligands (DMLs) combining serotonin 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) antagonism with dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) partial agonism. Prototype hybrid molecules were designed using docking to receptor homology models. Diverse pharmacophore moieties yielded 3 series of hybrids with varying in vitro properties at 5-HT6R and D2R, and at M1 receptor and hERG channel antitargets. 4-(piperazin-1-yl)-1H-indole derivatives showed highest antagonist potency at 5-HT6R, with 7-butoxy-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one and 2-propoxybenzamide derivatives having promising D2R partial agonism. 2-(3-(4-(1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-indol-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)propoxy)benzamide (47) exhibited nanomolar affinity at both 5-HT6R and D2R and was evaluated in rat models. It displayed potent antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like activity in the Porsolt and Vogel tests, respectively, more pronounced than that of a reference selective 5-HT6R antagonist or D2R partial agonist. In addition, 47 also showed antidepressant-like activity (Porsolt's test) and anxiolytic-like activity (open field test) in aged (>18-month old) rats. In operant conditioning tests, 47 enhanced responding for sweet reward in the saccharin self-administration test, consistent with anti-anhedonic properties. Further, 47 facilitated extinction of non-reinforced responding for sweet reward, suggesting potential procognitive activity. Taken together, these studies suggest that DMLs combining 5-HT6R antagonism and D2R partial agonism may successfully target affective disorders in patients from different age groups without a risk of cognitive deficits. PMID:25557493

  5. 5-HT6 receptors and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    During the past 20 years, the 5-HT6 receptor has received increasing attention and become a promising target for improving cognition. Several studies with structurally different compounds have shown that not only antagonists but also 5-HT6 receptor agonists improve learning and memory in animal models. A large number of publications describing the development of ligands for this receptor have come to light, and it is now quite evident that 5-HT6 receptors have great pharmaceutical potential in terms of related patents. However, 5-HT6 receptor functionality is much more complex than initially defined. According to the existing data, different cellular pathways may be activated, depending on the drug being used. This article reviews preclinical and clinical evidence of the effects that 5-HT6 receptor compounds have on cognition. In addition, the biochemical and neurochemical mechanisms of action through which 5-HT6 receptor compounds can influence cognition will be described. Overall, several 5-HT6-targeted compounds can reasonably be regarded as powerful drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23607787

  6. 1-Sulfonyl-6-Piperazinyl-7-Azaindoles as potent and pseudo-selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fabritius, Charles-Henry; Pesonen, Ullamari; Messinger, Josef; Horvath, Raymond; Salo, Harri; Gałęzowski, Michał; Galek, Mariusz; Stefańska, Klaudia; Szeremeta-Spisak, Joanna; Olszak-Płachta, Marta; Buda, Anna; Adamczyk, Justyna; Król, Marcin; Prusis, Peteris; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Mikulski, Maciej; Kuokkanen, Katja; Chapman, Hugh; Obuchowicz, Radosław; Korjamo, Timo; Jalava, Niina; Nowak, Mateusz

    2016-06-01

    A series of 1-Sulfonyl-6-Piperazinyl-7-Azaindoles, showing strong antagonistic activity to 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) was synthesized and characterized. The series was optimized to reduce activity on D2 receptor. Based on the selectivity against this off-target and the analysis of the ADME-tox profile, compound 1c was selected for in vivo efficacy assessment, which demonstrated procognitive effects as shown in reversal of scopolamine induced amnesia in an elevated plus maze test in mice. Compound 3, the demethylated version of compound 1c, was profiled against a panel of 106 receptors, channels and transporters, indicating only D3 receptor as a major off-target. Compound 3 has been selected for this study over compound 1c because of the higher 5-HT6R/D2R binding ratio. These results have defined a new direction for the design of our pseudo-selective 5-HT6R antagonists. PMID:27117428

  7. N1-Azinylsulfonyl-1H-indoles: 5-HT6 Receptor Antagonists with Procognitive and Antidepressant-Like Properties.

    PubMed

    Zajdel, Paweł; Marciniec, Krzysztof; Satała, Grzegorz; Canale, Vittorio; Kos, Tomasz; Partyka, Anna; Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Wesołowska, Anna; Basińska-Ziobroń, Agnieszka; Wójcikowski, Jacek; Daniel, Władysława A; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Popik, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    A series of N1-azinylsulfonyl-3-(1,2,3,6,tetrahyrdopyridin-4-yl)-1H-indole derivatives was designed to obtain highly potent 5-HT6 receptor ligands. The study allowed for the identification of 25 (4-{[5-methoxy-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)-1H-indol-1-yl]sulfonyl}isoquinoline), a potent and selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. The selected compound, was evaluated in vivo in a novel object recognition (NOR) and forced swim (FST) tests in rats, demonstrating distinct pro-cognitive and antidepressant-like properties (MED = 1 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg, i.p., respectively). Compound SB-742457, used as comparator, reversed memory deficits in NOR task in similar doses, while in FST it was active in 10-30-fold higher dose (3 mg/kg). In contrast to SB-742457, which was active in Vogel test (MED = 3 mg/kg), compound 25 displayed no anxiolytic activity. PMID:27326337

  8. Design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of indolylsulfonamide amines as potent and selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Nirogi, Ramakrishna V S; Bandyala, Thrinath Reddy; Reballi, Veena; Konda, Jagadishu Babu; Daulatabad, Anand V; Khagga, Mukkanti

    2015-02-01

    A series of N'-[3-(indole-1-sulfonyl) aryl]-N,N-dimethyl ethane-1,2-diamines and N'-[3-(indole-1-sulfonyl) aryl]-N,N-dimethyl propane-1,3-diamines was designed and synthesized as 5-HT6 receptor ligands. These compounds, when screened in a functional reporter gene-based assay, displayed potent antagonistic activity with Kb values in the range of 1.8-60 nM. The lead compound 9y has shown good ADME surrogate properties, acceptable pharmacokinetic profile and is active in animal models of cognition like novel object recognition test and Morris water maze. It was selected for detailed profiling. PMID:24666297

  9. ADN-1184 a monoaminergic ligand with 5-HT6/7 receptor antagonist activity: pharmacological profile and potential therapeutic utility

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczkowski, M; Mierzejewski, P; Bieńkowski, P; Wesołowska, A; Newman-Tancredi, A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Many dementia patients exhibit behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD) that include psychosis, aggressivity, depression and anxiety. Antipsychotic drugs are frequently prescribed but fail to significantly attenuate mood deficits, may interfere with cognitive function and are associated with motor and cardiac side effects, which are problematic in elderly patients. A need therefore exists for drugs that are better suited for the treatment of BPSD. Experimental Approach We used in vitro cellular and in vivo behavioural tests to characterize ADN-1184, a novel arylsulfonamide ligand with potential utility for treatment of BPSD. Key Results ADN-1184 exhibits substantial 5-HT6/5-HT7/5-HT2A/D2 receptor affinity and antagonist properties in vitro. In tests of antipsychotic-like activity, it reversed MK-801-induced hyperactivity and stereotypies and inhibited conditioned avoidance response (MED = 3 mg·kg−1 i.p.). Remarkably, ADN-1184 also reduced immobility time in the forced swim test at low doses (0.3 and 1 mg·kg−1 i.p.; higher doses were not significantly active). Notably, up to 30 mg·kg−1 ADN-1184 did not impair memory performance in the passive avoidance test or elicit significant catalepsy and only modestly inhibited spontaneous locomotor activity (MED = 30 mg·kg−1 i.p.). Conclusions and Implications ADN-1184 combines antipsychotic-like with antidepressant-like properties without interfering with memory function or locomotion. This profile is better than that of commonly used atypical antipsychotics tested under the same conditions and suggests that it is feasible to identify drugs that improve BPSD, without exacerbating cognitive deficit or movement impairment, which are of particular concern in patients with dementia. PMID:24199650

  10. AVN-211, Novel and Highly Selective 5-HT6 Receptor Small Molecule Antagonist, for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ivachtchenko, Alexandre V; Lavrovsky, Yan; Ivanenkov, Yan A

    2016-03-01

    Within the past decade several novel targets have been indicated as key players in Alzheimer-type dementia and associated conditions, including a "frightening" memory loss as well as severe cognitive impairments. These proteins are deeply implicated in crucial cell processes, e.g., autophagy, growth and progression, apoptosis, and metabolic equilibrium. Since recently, 5-HT6R has been considered as one of the most prominent biological targets in AD drug therapy. Therefore, we investigated the potential procognitive and neuroprotective effects of our novel selective 5-HT6R antagonist, AVN-211. During an extensive preclinical evaluation the lead compound demonstrated a relatively high therapeutic potential and improved selectivity toward 5-HT6R as compared to reference drug candidates. It was thoroughly examined in different in vivo behavioral models directly related to AD and showed evident improvements in cognition and learning. In many cases, the observed effect was considerably greater than that determined for the reported drugs and drug candidates, including memantine, SB-742457, and Lu AE58054, evaluated under the same conditions. In addition, AVN-211 showed a similar or better anxiolytic efficacy than fenobam, rufinamide, lorazepam, and buspirone in an elevated plus-maze model, elevated platform, and open field tests. The compound demonstrated low toxicity and no side effects in vivo, an appropriate pharmacokinetic profile, and stability. In conclusion, AVN-211 significantly delayed or partially halted the progressive decline in memory function associated with AD, which makes it an interesting drug candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Advanced clinical trials are currently under active discussion and in high priority. PMID:26886442

  11. Therapeutic Potential of 5-HT6 Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Karila, Delphine; Freret, Thomas; Bouet, Valentine; Boulouard, Michel; Dallemagne, Patrick; Rochais, Christophe

    2015-10-22

    Given its predominant expression in the central nervous system (CNS), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT: serotonin) subtype 6 receptor (5-HT6R) has been considered as a valuable target for the development of CNS drugs with limited side effects. After 2 decades of intense research, numerous selective ligands have been developed to target this receptor; this holds potential interest for the treatment of neuropathological disorders. In fact, some agents (mainly antagonists) are currently undergoing clinical trial. More recently, a series of potent and selective agonists have been developed, and preclinical studies have been conducted that suggest the therapeutic interest of 5-HT6R agonists. This review details the medicinal chemistry of these agonists, highlights their activities, and discusses their potential for treating cognitive issues associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), depression, or obesity. Surprisingly, some studies have shown that both 5-HT6R agonists and antagonists exert similar procognitive activities. This article summarizes the hypotheses that could explain this paradox. PMID:26099069

  12. The 5-HT6 receptor antagonist idalopirdine potentiates the effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibition on neuronal network oscillations and extracellular acetylcholine levels in the rat dorsal hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Herrik, Kjartan F; Mørk, Arne; Richard, Nelly; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Bastlund, Jesper F; de Jong, Inge E M

    2016-08-01

    The 5-HT6 receptor has emerged as a promising target for cognitive disorders and combining a 5-HT6 receptor antagonist with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) represents a novel approach for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A recent phase 2 trial showed that the selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist idalopirdine (Lu AE58054) improved cognition in patients with moderate AD on stable treatment with the AChEI donepezil. Here we investigated the effects of idalopirdine in combination with donepezil on hippocampal function using in vivo electrophysiology and microdialysis. Network oscillations in the hippocampus were recorded during electrical stimulation of the brainstem nucleus pontis oralis (nPO) in the anesthetized rat and hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) levels were measured in the freely-moving rat. In addition, potential pharmacokinetic interactions between idalopirdine and donepezil were assessed. Idalopirdine alone did not affect hippocampal network oscillations or ACh levels. Donepezil (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg i.v.) dose-dependently increased hippocampal theta and gamma power during nPO stimulation. Idalopirdine (2 mg/kg i.v.), administered 1 h prior to donepezil, potentiated the theta and gamma response to 0.3 mg/kg donepezil and prolonged the gamma response to 1 mg/kg donepezil. Donepezil (1.3 mg/kg s.c.) increased extracellular ACh levels in the hippocampus and this was further augmented by administration of idalopirdine (10 mg/kg p.o.) 2 h prior to donepezil. These effects could not be attributed to a pharmacokinetic interaction between the compounds. This study demonstrates that idalopirdine potentiates the effects of donepezil on two pharmacodynamic biomarkers associated with cognition, i.e. neuronal oscillations and extracellular ACh levels in the hippocampus. Such potentiation could contribute to the procognitive effects of idalopirdine observed in donepezil-treated AD patients. PMID:27039041

  13. Oral administration of the 5-HT6 receptor antagonists SB-357134 and SB-399885 improves memory formation in an autoshaping learning task.

    PubMed

    Perez-García, Georgina; Meneses, Alfredo

    2005-07-01

    In this work we aimed to re-examine the 5-HT6 receptor role, by testing the selective antagonists SB-357134 (1-30 mg/kg p.o.) and SB-399885 (1-30 mg/kg p.o.) during memory consolidation of conditioned responses (CR%), in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning task. Bioavailability, half-life and minimum effective dose to induce inappetence for SB-357134 were 65%, 3.4 h, and 30 mg/kg p.o., and for SB-399885 were 52%, 2.2 h, and 50 mg/kg p.o., respectively. Oral acute and chronic administration of either SB-357134 or SB-399885 improved memory consolidation compared to control groups. Acute administration of SB-357134, at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, produced a CR% inverted-U curve, eliciting the latter dose a 7-fold increase relative to saline group. Acute injection of SB-399885 produced significant CR% increments, being 1 mg/kg the most effective dose. Repeated administration (7 days) of either SB-357134 (10 mg/kg) or SB-399885 (1 mg/kg) elicited the most significant CR% increments. Moreover, modeling the potential therapeutic benefits of 5-HT6 receptor blockade, acute or repeated administration of SB-399885, at 10 mg/kg reversed memory deficits produced by scopolamine or dizocilpine, and SB-357134 (3 and 10 mg/kg) prevented amnesia and even improved performance. These data support the notion that endogenously 5-HT acting, via 5-HT6 receptor, improves memory consolidation. PMID:15964617

  14. Dimethyl sulfoxide: an antagonist in scintillation proximity assay [(35)S]-GTPgammaS binding to rat 5-HT(6) receptor cloned in HEK-293 cells?

    PubMed

    Mereghetti, Ilario; Cagnotto, Alfredo; Mennini, Tiziana

    2007-03-15

    We have tested by [(35)S]-GTPgammaS binding the intrinsic activity of three full agonists (serotonin, 5-methoxytryptamine and 5-methoxy-2-methyl-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) on rat 5-HT(6) receptors cloned in HEK-293 cells, using the scintillation proximity assay. Serotonin and 5-methoxytryptamine are soluble in water, while the agonist 5-methoxy-2-methyl-N,N-dimethyltryptamine is soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). In [(35)S]-GTPgammaS binding 5-HT and 5-methoxytryptamine were able to increase basal binding, while 5-methoxy-2-methyl-N,N-dimethyltryptamine surprisingly showed an inverse agonist activity. So we have tested 5-HT and 5-methoxytryptamine in the presence of DMSO: in this condition the two agonists behaved as antagonists. This interfering effect of DMSO was not observed when GTP-europium filtration binding was used in place of scintillation proximity assay using [(35)S]-GTPgammaS. In addition, DMSO did not affect [(3)H]-5HT binding or cAMP accumulation in cloned HEK-293 cells expressing rat 5-HT(6) receptors. In conclusion, we demonstrated that DMSO, the most common solvent used to dissolve compounds insoluble in water, interferes with the method of scintillation proximity assay using [(35)S]-GTPgammaS. DMSO does not affect basal signal, nor the GTPgammaS binding itself, as indicated by the experiments with GTP-europium. Therefore its interfering effect is likely to occur at the binding of antibodies in the scintillation proximity assay. PMID:17049618

  15. Design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of multitarget-directed ligands with both serotonergic subtype 4 receptor (5-HT4R) partial agonist and 5-HT6R antagonist activities, as potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yahiaoui, Samir; Hamidouche, Katia; Ballandonne, Céline; Davis, Audrey; de Oliveira Santos, Jana Sopkova; Freret, Thomas; Boulouard, Michel; Rochais, Christophe; Dallemagne, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) activation and blockade of the 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) are known to enhance the release of numerous neurotransmitters whose depletion is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, 5-HT4R agonists seem to favor production of the neurotrophic soluble amyloid protein precursor alpha (sAPPα). Consequently, combining 5-HT4R agonist/5-HT6R antagonist activities in a single chemical compound would constitute a novel approach able to display both a symptomatic and disease-modifying effect in AD. Seventeen novel derivatives of RS67333 (1) were synthesized and evaluated as potential dual-target compounds. Among them, four agents showed nanomolar and submicromolar affinities toward 5-HT4R and 5-HT6R, respectively; one of them, 7m, was selected on the basis of its in vitro affinity (Ki5-HT4R = 5.3 nM, Ki5-HT6R = 219 nM) for further in vivo experiments, where 7m showed an antiamnesic effect in the mouse at 1 mg/kg ip. PMID:27266998

  16. The selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist SLV has putative cognitive- and social interaction enhancing properties in rodent models of cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, N M W J; van Loevezijn, A; Wicke, K M; de Haan, M; Venhorst, J; Lange, J H M; de Groote, L; van der Neut, M A W; Prickaerts, J; Andriambeloson, E; Foley, A G; van Drimmelen, M; van der Wetering, M; Kruse, C G

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, our aim was to investigate whether the novel highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine6 (5-HT6) receptor antagonist SLV can ameliorate impairments in cognition and social interaction with potential relevance for both schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). SLV sub-chronically - treated Wistar rats reared in isolation showed significantly enhanced prepulse inhibition (PPI) and object recognition performance when compared to vehicle - treated rats. In the isolated rats, also a significant reduction in expression of hippocampal neural cell adhesion molecule polysialylation (NCAM-PSA) was found which was ameliorated following treatment with SLV (30mg/kg). The social engagement deficit in rats exposed in utero (on gestational day 12.5) to valproic acid (VPA) was reversed by treatment with SLV (30mg/kg). SLV (20 and 30mg/kg, p.o.) fully reversed MK-801 - induced deficits in the ORT and also scopolamine - induced deficits in both the Object Recognition Task (ORT) and Object Location Task (OLT) in Wistar rats. In addition, a combination of sub-optimal doses of SLV and donepezil attenuated scopolamine-induced ORT deficits. Furthermore, SLV (10mg/kg, p.o.) reversed spontaneous alternation deficits in the T-maze induced by MK-801 administration in Swiss mice and in aged C57Bl/6J mice. SLV additionally improved T-Maze spatial learning and passive avoidance learning in Sprague-Dawley rats with amyoid-beta (Aβ) injections into the hippocampus. In contrast, no benefits were found with SLV or the tested reference compounds (donepezil and RVT-101) on cognitive performance of 12months old Tg2576 mice. Also, in the social recognition task, an absence of cognitive enhancing properties was observed with SLV on "normal forgetting" in Wistar rats. Finally, analysis of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) frequency recorded from pyramidal cells revealed a reduction in the presence of 1μM of SLV. In conclusion, SLV was investigated in several rodent

  17. Memory consolidation and amnesia modify 5-HT6 receptors expression in rat brain: an autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Manuel-Apolinar, L; Castillo, C; Castillo, E

    2007-03-12

    Traditionally, the search for memory circuits has been centered on examinations of amnesic and AD patients, cerebral lesions and, neuroimaging. A complementary alternative might be the use of autoradiography with radioligands. Indeed, ex vivo autoradiographic studies offer the advantage to detect functionally active receptors altered by pharmacological tools and memory formation. Hence, herein the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-399885 and the amnesic drugs scopolamine or dizocilpine were used to manipulate memory consolidation and 5-HT(6) receptors expression was determined by using [(3)H]-SB-258585. Thus, memory consolidation was impaired in scopolamine and dizocilpine treated groups relative to control vehicle but improved it in SB-399885-treated animals. SB-399885 improved memory consolidation seems to be associated with decreased 5-HT(6) receptors expression in 15 out 17 brain areas. Scopolamine or dizocilpine decreased 5-HT(6) receptors expression in nine different brain areas and increased it in CA3 hippocampus or other eight areas, respectively. In brain areas thought to be in charge of procedural memory such basal ganglia (i.e., nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, and fundus striate) data showed that relative to control animals amnesic groups showed diminished (scopolamine) or augmented (dizocilpine) 5-HT(6) receptor expression. SB-399885 showing improved memory displayed an intermediate expression in these same brain regions. A similar intermediate expression occurs with regard to amygdala, septum, and some cortical areas in charge of explicit memory storage. However, relative to control group amnesic and SB-399885 rats in the hippocampus, region where explicit memory is formed, showed a complex 5-HT(6) receptors expression. In conclusion, these results indicate neural circuits underlying the effects of 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists in autoshaping task and offer some general clues about cognitive processes in general. PMID:17267053

  18. Time-course of 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression during memory consolidation and amnesia.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Rivas, A; Pérez-García, G; González-Espinosa, C; Meneses, A

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that antagonists of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor(6) (5-HT(6)) improve memory and reverse amnesia although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hence, in this paper RT-PCR was used to evaluate changes in mRNA expression of 5-HT(6) receptor in trained and untrained rats treated with the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-399885 and amnesic drugs scopolamine or dizocilpine. Changes in mRNA expression of 5-HT(6) receptor were investigated at different times in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Data indicated that memory in the Pavlovian/instrumental autoshaping task was a progressive process associated to reduced mRNA expression of 5-HT(6) receptor in the three structures examined. SB-399885 improved long-term memory at 48h, while the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine or the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine impaired it at 24h. Autoshaping training and treatment with SB-399885 increased 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression in (maximum increase) prefrontal cortex and striatum, 24 or 48h. The scopolamine-induced amnesia suppressed 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression while the dizocilpine-induced amnesia did not modify 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression. SB-399885 and scopolamine or dizocilpine were able to reestablish memory and 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression. These data confirmed previous memory evidence and of more interest is the observation that training, SB-399885 and amnesic drugs modulated 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Further investigation in different memory tasks, times and amnesia models together with more complex control groups might provide further clues. PMID:19733250

  19. 5-HT6 receptor agonism facilitates emotional learning

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Marcela; Martynhak, Bruno J.; Andreatini, Roberto; Svenningsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) and its receptors play crucial roles in various aspects of mood and cognitive functions. However, the role of specific 5-HT receptors in these processes remains to be better understood. Here, we examined the effects of the selective and potent 5-HT6 agonist (WAY208466) on mood, anxiety and emotional learning in mice. Male C57Bl/6J mice were therefore tested in the forced swim test (FST), elevated plus-maze (EPM), and passive avoidance tests (PA), respectively. In a dose-response experiment, mice were treated intraperitoneally with WAY208466 at 3, 9, or 27 mg/kg and examined in an open field arena open field test (OFT) followed by the FST. 9 mg/kg of WAY208466 reduced immobility in the FST, without impairing the locomotion. Thus, the dose of 9 mg/kg was subsequently used for tests of anxiety and emotional learning. There was no significant effect of WAY208466 in the EPM. In the PA, mice were trained 30 min before the treatment with saline or WAY208466. Two separate sets of animals were used for short term memory (tested 1 h post-training) or long term memory (tested 24 h post-training). WAY208466 improved both short and long term memories, evaluated by the latency to enter the dark compartment, in the PA. The WAY208466-treated animals also showed more grooming and rearing in the light compartment. To better understand the molecular mechanisms and brain regions involved in the facilitation of emotional learning by WAY208466, we studied its effects on signal transduction and immediate early gene expression. WAY208466 increased the levels of phospho-Ser845-GluA1 and phospho-Ser217/221-MEK in the caudate-putamen. Levels of phospho-Thr202/204-Erk1/2 and the ratio mature BDNF/proBDNF were increased in the hippocampus. Moreover, WAY208466 increased c-fos in the hippocampus and Arc expression in both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The results indicate antidepressant efficacy and facilitation of emotional learning by 5-HT6 receptor agonism via

  20. Low-dose prazosin in combination with 5-HT6 antagonist PRX-07034 has antipsychotic effects.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Renny; Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Shinde, Anil; Irupannanavar, Shantaveer

    2015-01-01

    An extensive amount of research has focused on the development of new pharmacological agents to treat schizophrenia. Varying from person to person, schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disease with symptoms of positive, negative, and cognitive deficits. PRX-07034, a 5-hydroxytryptamine6 (5-HT6) receptor antagonist has been evaluated for its potential in treating obesity and cognitive deficits. This study evaluated PRX-07034 (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg body mass, by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection), in combination with a low dose of prazosin (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), for its antipsychotic potential. The research utilized a stereotypy assay, an open field test, an object recognition task, and prepulse inhibition. Dizocilpine, a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, was also administered in the above-mentioned assays as a psychomimetic. The combination of PRX-07034 and prazosin alleviated stereotypy and hyperlocomotor activity while enhancing memory in an object recognition task, and reversed sensory-gating deficits induced by dizocilpine. Examination of the medial prefrontal cortex revealed that a combination of PRX-07034 and prazosin reduced the dizocilpine-mediated increase of 5-HT. These results suggest that the combination of a 5-HT6 antagonist with low doses of prazosin could have therapeutic potential in the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:25429515

  1. Chronic activation of 5-HT4 receptors or blockade of 5-HT6 receptors improve memory performances.

    PubMed

    Quiedeville, Anne; Boulouard, Michel; Hamidouche, Katia; Da Silva Costa-Aze, Virginie; Nee, Gerald; Rochais, Christophe; Dallemagne, Patrick; Fabis, Frédéric; Freret, Thomas; Bouet, Valentine

    2015-10-15

    5-HT4 and 5-HT6 serotonergic receptors are located in brain structures involved in memory processes. Neurochemical and behavioural studies have demonstrated that acute activation of 5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4R) or blockade of 5-HT6 receptors (5-HT6R) improves memory. To evaluate the potential of these two receptors as targets in the treatment of memory disorders encountered in several situations (ageing, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, etc.), it is necessary to assess whether their beneficial effects occur after chronic administration, and if such treatment induces adverse effects. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of chronic 5-HT4R or 5-HT6R modulation on recognition memory, and to observe the possible manifestation of side effects (modification of weight gain, locomotor activity or exploratory behaviour, etc.). Mice were treated for 14 days with a 5-HT4R partial agonist (RS-67333) or a 5-HT6R antagonist (SB-271046) at increasing doses. Memory performances, locomotor activity, and exploration were assessed. Both chronic 5-HT4R activation and 5-HT6R blockade extended memory traces in an object recognition test, and were not associated with any adverse effects in the parameters assessed. Chronic modulation of one or both of these receptors thus seems promising as a potential strategy for the treatment memory deficits. PMID:26187692

  2. Sulfonyl-containing modulators of serotonin 5-HT6 receptors and their pharmacophore models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivachtchenko, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    Data published in recent years on the synthesis of serotonin 5-HT6 receptor modulators are summarized. Modulators with high affinity for 5-HT6 receptors exhibiting different degrees of selectivity — from highly selective to semiselective and multimodal — are described. Clinical trial results are reported for the most promising serotonin 5-HT6 receptor modulators attracting special attention of medicinal chemists. The bibliography includes 128 references.

  3. Idalopirdine - a small molecule antagonist of 5-HT6 with therapeutic potential against obesity.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Magdalena; Marcinkowska, Monika; Bucki, Adam; Olczyk, Adrian; Kołaczkowski, Marcin

    2015-12-01

    5HT6 receptor antagonists offer the potential for safe and effective drugs against obesity, because they can reduce weight without causing serious side effects in the cardiovascular system. Also, their anorexic effect is associated with reduced food intake via an enhancement of satiety. In the present study we investigated the anorexic effect of idalopirdine (LuAE58054) in a model of obesity induced by high-fat diet. To induce obesity in rats, the animals were treated with feed with a fat content of 40 %. Body weight was controlled and the amount of food and water consumed was determined. The influence of the test compound on the lipid profile and glucose level was measured, as well as locomotor activity in home cages on the 20th day of the treatment. LuAE58054, at 5 mg kg(-1)/day i.p., was significantly anorectic in this model of obesity. Animals treated with LuAE58054 weighed 8 and 9.2 % less than the control obese animals on the 12th and 21st days, respectively. It significantly reduced food intake and the amount of peritoneal fat in animals, and reduced the level of triglycerides in plasma. LuAE58054 did not have a statistically significant effect on the spontaneous activity of diet-induced obese rats. The present study clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of LuAE58054 in reducing body weight. This compound is in phase III of clinical trials for the treatment of cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. It is a 5HT6 receptor antagonist and is, therefore, free of those unacceptable side effects that preclude chronic use of anti-obesity drugs with other mechanisms of action. The search for an effective and safe anti-obesity drug is essential for an increasingly obese population; therefore, the anorectic action of LuAE58054 is important and there is a need for more research in this direction. PMID:26419385

  4. Optimization of N'-(arylsulfonyl)pyrazoline-1-carboxamidines by exploiting a novel interaction site in the 5-HT6 antagonistic binding pocket.

    PubMed

    van Loevezijn, Arnold; Venhorst, Jennifer; Iwema Bakker, Wouter I; Lange, Jos H M; de Looff, Wouter; Henzen, Remco; de Vries, Jelle; van de Woestijne, Rob P; den Hartog, Arnold P; Verhoog, Stefan; van der Neut, Martina A W; de Bruin, Natasja M W J; Kruse, Chris G

    2016-03-15

    The discovery of non-basic N'-(arylsulfonyl)pyrazoline-1-carboxamidines as 5-HT6 antagonists with unique structural features was recently disclosed. Here we describe how this structural class was further developed by addressing an unexplored interaction site of the 5-HT6 receptor. Compound 13 resulting from this effort is a highly potent and selective 5-HT6 antagonist with improved metabolic stability. It is furthermore devoid of hERG affinity. Despite its modest CNS/plasma ratio, a high brain free fraction ensured substantial exposure to allow for rodent cognition studies. PMID:26876931

  5. Binding of serotonin and N1-benzenesulfonyltryptamine-related analogs at human 5-HT6 serotonin receptors: receptor modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Dukat, Małgorzata; Mosier, Philip D; Kolanos, Renata; Roth, Bryan L; Glennon, Richard A

    2008-02-14

    A population of 100 graphics models of the human 5-HT6 serotonin receptor was constructed based on the structure of bovine rhodopsin. The endogenous tryptamine-based agonist serotonin (5-HT; 1) and the benzenesulfonyl-containing tryptamine-derived 5-HT6 receptor antagonist MS-245 (4a) were automatically docked with each of the 100 receptor models using a genetic algorithm approach. Similar studies were conducted with the more selective 5-HT6 receptor agonist EMDT (5) and optical isomers of EMDT-related analog 8, as well as with optical isomers of MS-245 (4a)-related and benzenesulfonyl-containing pyrrolidine 6 and aminotetralin 7. Although associated with the same general aromatic/hydrophobic binding cluster, 5-HT (1) and MS-245 (4a) were found to preferentially bind with distinct receptor conformations, and did so with different binding orientations (i.e., poses). A 5-HT pose/model was found to be common to EMDT (5) and its analogs, whereas that identified for MS-245 (4a) was found common to benzenesulfonyl-containing compounds. Specific amino acid residues were identified that can participate in binding, and evaluation of a sulfenamide analog of MS-245 indicates for the first time that the presence of the sulfonyl oxygen atoms enhances receptor affinity. The results indicate that the presence or absence of an N1-benzenesulfonyl group is a major determinant of the manner in which tryptamine-related agents bind at 5-HT6 serotonin receptors. PMID:18201064

  6. Striatal 5-HT6 Receptors Regulate Cocaine Reinforcement in a Pathway-Selective Manner.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Matthew; Gibson, Alec W; Smirnov, Denis; Nair, Sunila G; Neumaier, John F

    2016-08-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the ventral striatum integrates many neurochemical inputs including dopamine and serotonin projections from midbrain nuclei to modulate drug reward. Although D1 and D2 dopamine receptors are differentially expressed in the direct and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (dMSNs and iMSNs, respectively), 5-HT6 receptors are expressed in both pathways, more strongly than anywhere else in the brain, and are an intriguing target for neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, we used viral vectors utilizing dynorphin or enkephalin promoters to drive expression of 5-HT6 receptors or green fluorescent protein (GFP) selectively in the dMSNs or iMSNs of the NAc shell. Rats were then trained to self-administer cocaine. Increased 5-HT6 receptor expression in dMSNs did not change any parameter of cocaine self-administration measured. However, increasing 5-HT6 receptors in iMSNs reduced the amount of cocaine self-administered under fixed-ratio schedules, especially at low doses, increased the time to the first response and the length of the inter-infusion interval, but did not alter motivation as measured by progressive ratio 'break point' analysis. Modeling of cocaine pharmacokinetics in NAc showed that increased 5-HT6 receptors in iMSNs reduced the rat's preferred tissue cocaine concentration at each dose. Finally, increased 5-HT6 receptors in iMSNs facilitated conditioned place preference for a low dose of cocaine. We conclude that 5-HT6 receptors in iMSNs of NAcSh increase the sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of cocaine, particularly at low doses, suggesting that these receptors may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of cocaine addiction. PMID:27032690

  7. Design, synthesis and preliminary screening of novel 3-(2-N,N-dimethylaminoethylthio) indole derivatives as potential 5-HT(6) receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Kambhampati, Ramasastri; Konda, Jagadishbabu; Reballi, Veena; Shinde, Anil K; Dubey, Pramod K; Nirogi, Ramakrishna V S

    2008-06-01

    The synthesis and potential 5-hydroxytryptamine(6) receptor (5-HT6R) antagonist activity of a novel series of N-arylsulfonyl-3-(2-N,N-dimethylaminoethylthio) indoles has been reported. The molecular modeling, synthesis and in-vitro radioligand binding data of this series are discussed. The present article describes 37 derivatives of the title series. It was observed that the increased side-chain length with the insertion of a sulfur atom did not lead to the loss of binding affinity of these compounds, although the affinities were reduced. The compounds exhibited moderate affinity and selectivity to human 5-HT6 receptors. PMID:18569332

  8. Dynamics and structural determinants of ligand recognition of the 5-HT6 receptor.

    PubMed

    Vass, Márton; Jójárt, Balázs; Bogár, Ferenc; Paragi, Gábor; Keserű, György M; Tarcsay, Ákos

    2015-12-01

    In order to identify molecular models of the human 5-HT6 receptor suitable for virtual screening, homology modeling and membrane-embedded molecular dynamics simulations were performed. Structural requirements for robust enrichment were assessed by an unbiased chemometric analysis of enrichments from retrospective virtual screening studies. The two main structural features affecting enrichment are the outward movement of the second extracellular loop and the formation of a hydrophobic cavity deep in the binding site. These features appear transiently in the trajectories and furthermore the stretches of uniformly high enrichment may only last 4-10 ps. The formation of the inner hydrophobic cavity was also linked to the active-like to inactive-like transition of the receptor, especially the so-called connector region. The best structural models provided significant and robust enrichment over three independent ligand sets. PMID:26572911

  9. Pharmacological evaluation of the anxiolytic-like effects of EMD 386088, a partial 5-HT6 receptor agonist, in the rat elevated plus-maze and Vogel conflict tests.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Siwek, Agata; Partyka, Anna; Kubacka, Monika; Mogilski, Szczepan; Wasik, Anna; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Wesołowska, Anna

    2014-10-01

    The 5-HT6 is one of the most recent additions to the 5-HT receptor family. Its pharmacological profile and anatomical distribution is suggestive of a putative role in mood disorders. Most of preclinical evidence suggests an anxiolytic-like action of 5-HT6 receptor antagonists. Evaluation the anxiolytic-like effects of EMD 386088, a partial 5-HT6receptor agonist, and its putative mechanism of action in rats. EMD 386088, administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg evoked specific anxiolytic-like activity in the automated version of the conflict drinking Vogel and the elevated plus-maze tests visible by increasing all parameters indicating a potential anti-anxiety effect. Its activity was blocked by the selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist SB 271046, but not by the selective GABAA/benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil. EMD 386088 did not intensify an anxiolytic-like effect produced by diazepam in the elevated plus-maze test. These findings suggest that EMD 386088, a 5-HT6 receptor agonist, produces anxiolytic-like activity after systemic administration which may result from direct stimulation of 5-HT6 receptors. PMID:24905144

  10. Central nervous system effects of the interaction between risperidone (single dose) and the 5-HT6 antagonist SB742457 (repeated doses) in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Liem-Moolenaar, Marieke; Rad, Mandana; Zamuner, Stefano; Cohen, Adam F; Lemme, Francesca; Franson, Kari L; van Gerven, Joop M A; Pich, Emilio Merlo

    2011-01-01

    AIM Several lines of evidence suggest a possible role of 5-HT6receptor antagonists in cognitive dysfunction of schizophrenia. Atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone, are currently used in these disorders. Therefore, the pharmacological interactions between the 5-HT6 antagonist SB-742457 and risperidone were investigated in the light of possible co-medication. METHODS A randomized, double-blind, two-way crossover design was used to study the interaction between multiple doses SB-742457 50 mg and a single dose risperidone 2 mg in 18 healthy subjects. RESULTS Treatment was well tolerated. The most common adverse event was somnolence in 83% during the combination vs. 50% of subjects after risperidone, 32% after placebo and 11% after SB-742457. Combination treatment produced a statistically significant increase in the maximum plasma concentration of risperidone and had no effect on SB-742457 pharmacokinetics. Risperidone decreased saccadic peak velocity, finger tapping, adaptive tracking, subjective alertness, delayed word recognition and body sway and increased electroencephalogram (EEG) theta power and prolactin. The only pharmacodynamic interaction of risperidone and SB-742457 was an increase of absolute EEG alpha (ratio = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.40, P = 0.0004) and beta power (ratio = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.27, P = 0.016). No significant effects of SB-742457 alone were found. CONCLUSION The pharmacokinetic interactions between SB-742457 and risperidone detected in this study were not clinically relevant. The increase in EEG alpha and beta power is incompatible with enhanced risperidone activity, but could point to mild arousing effects of the combination. Most pharmacodynamic changes of risperidone are consistent with previously reported data. The potential cognitive effects of SB-742457 remain to be established. PMID:21223356

  11. Antidepressant-like activity of EMD 386088, a 5-HT6 receptor partial agonist, following systemic acute and chronic administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Siwek, Agata; Partyka, Anna; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Wasik, Anna; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Wesołowska, Anna

    2015-10-01

    The study was designed to examine the potency of EMD 386088, a 5-HT6 receptor partial agonist, to exert antidepressant-like properties in animal models following acute and chronic intraperitoneal administration to rats. The modified rat forced swim test (FST) was utilized to examine a potential antidepressant effect of EMD 386088 after acute treatment (30 min before the test) and three times in a 24-h administration scheme (24 h, 5 h, and 30 min prior to the FST). The olfactory bulbectomy (OB) model was used to assess its antidepressant-like properties after chronic treatment (the drug was administered once daily for 14 days). EMD 386088 showed an antidepressant-like effect in all conducted tests. Its activity in FST after its acute administration (5 mg/kg) was blocked by the selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist SB 271046. The obtained results seem to be specific, as there was no observed locomotor stimulation by the drug given at a lower/antidepressant dose. In the three times in the 24-h treatment scheme, EMD 386088 (2.5 mg/kg) exerted antidepressant properties in FST as well as increased locomotor activity in the open field test. Chronic administration of EMD 386088 (2.5 mg/kg) significantly improved the learning deficit in OB rats without affecting performance in Sham-operated (SH) animals in the passive avoidance test, and reduced OB-related rats' locomotor hyperactivity, but did not change the number of rearing + peeping episodes. The obtained findings suggest that EMD 386088 produces antidepressant-like activity after systemic acute and chronic administration which may result from direct stimulation of 5-HT6 receptors. PMID:26077660

  12. QSAR studies of bioactivities of 1-(azacyclyl)-3-arylsulfonyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines as 5-HT6 receptor ligands using physicochemical descriptors and MLR and ANN-modeling.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; Freitas, Matheus P; Ghasemi, Nahid

    2010-09-01

    Four molecular descriptors were selected from a pool of variables using genetic algorithm, and then used to built a QSAR model for a series of 1-(azacyclyl)-3-arylsulfonyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines as 5-HT(6) receptor agonists or antagonists, useful for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. Simple multiple linear regression (MLR) and a nonlinear method, artificial neural network (ANN), were used to model the bioactivities of the compounds; while MLR gave an acceptable model for predictions, the ANN-based model improved significantly the predictive ability, being more reliable for the prediction and design of novel 5-HT(6) receptor ligands. Topology and molecular/group sizes are important requirements to take into account during the development of novel analogs. PMID:20547432

  13. Direct interaction and functional coupling between human 5-HT6 receptor and the light chain 1 subunit of the microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B-LC1).

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Hee; Kim, Dong Hyuk; Lee, Kang Ho; Im, Sun-Kyoung; Hur, Eun-Mi; Chung, Kwang Chul; Rhim, Hyewhon

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) receptors of type 6 (5-HT6R) play important roles in mood, psychosis, and eating disorders. Recently, a growing number of studies support the use of 5-HT6R-targeting compounds as promising drug candidates for treating cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanistic linkage between 5-HT6R and such functions remains poorly understood. By using yeast two-hybrid, GST pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitation assays, here we show that human 5-HT6R interacts with the light chain 1 (LC1) subunit of MAP1B protein (MAP1B-LC1), a classical microtubule-associated protein highly expressed in the brain. Functionally, we have found that expression of MAP1B-LC1 regulates serotonin signaling in a receptor subtype-specific manner, specifically controlling the activities of 5-HT6R, but not those of 5-HT4R and 5-HT7R. In addition, we have demonstrated that MAP1B-LC1 increases the surface expression of 5-HT6R and decreases its endocytosis, suggesting that MAP1B-LC1 is involved in the desensitization and trafficking of 5-HT6R via a direct interaction. Together, we suggest that signal transduction pathways downstream of 5-HT6R are regulated by MAP1B, which might play a role in 5-HT6R-mediated signaling in the brain. PMID:24614691

  14. Direct Interaction and Functional Coupling between Human 5-HT6 Receptor and the Light Chain 1 Subunit of the Microtubule-Associated Protein 1B (MAP1B-LC1)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soon-Hee; Kim, Dong Hyuk; Lee, Kang Ho; Im, Sun-Kyoung; Hur, Eun-Mi; Chung, Kwang Chul; Rhim, Hyewhon

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) receptors of type 6 (5-HT6R) play important roles in mood, psychosis, and eating disorders. Recently, a growing number of studies support the use of 5-HT6R-targeting compounds as promising drug candidates for treating cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer’s disease. However, the mechanistic linkage between 5-HT6R and such functions remains poorly understood. By using yeast two-hybrid, GST pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitation assays, here we show that human 5-HT6R interacts with the light chain 1 (LC1) subunit of MAP1B protein (MAP1B-LC1), a classical microtubule-associated protein highly expressed in the brain. Functionally, we have found that expression of MAP1B-LC1 regulates serotonin signaling in a receptor subtype-specific manner, specifically controlling the activities of 5-HT6R, but not those of 5-HT4R and 5-HT7R. In addition, we have demonstrated that MAP1B-LC1 increases the surface expression of 5-HT6R and decreases its endocytosis, suggesting that MAP1B-LC1 is involved in the desensitization and trafficking of 5-HT6R via a direct interaction. Together, we suggest that signal transduction pathways downstream of 5-HT6R are regulated by MAP1B, which might play a role in 5-HT6R-mediated signaling in the brain. PMID:24614691

  15. Serotonin homeostasis and serotonin receptors as actors of cortical construction: special attention to the 5-HT3A and 5-HT6 receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Vitalis, Tania; Ansorge, Mark S.; Dayer, Alexandre G.

    2013-01-01

    Cortical circuits control higher-order cognitive processes and their function is highly dependent on their structure that emerges during development. The construction of cortical circuits involves the coordinated interplay between different types of cellular processes such as proliferation, migration, and differentiation of neural and glial cell subtypes. Among the multiple factors that regulate the assembly of cortical circuits, 5-HT is an important developmental signal that impacts on a broad diversity of cellular processes. 5-HT is detected at the onset of embryonic telencephalic formation and a variety of serotonergic receptors are dynamically expressed in the embryonic developing cortex in a region and cell-type specific manner. Among these receptors, the ionotropic 5-HT3A receptor and the metabotropic 5-HT6 receptor have recently been identified as novel serotonergic targets regulating different aspects of cortical construction including neuronal migration and dendritic differentiation. In this review, we focus on the developmental impact of serotonergic systems on the construction of cortical circuits and discuss their potential role in programming risk for human psychiatric disorders. PMID:23801939

  16. Chemoproteomic Approach to Explore the Target Profile of GPCR ligands: Application to 5-HT1A and 5-HT6 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Ana M; González-Vera, Juan A; Rueda-Zubiaurre, Ainoa; Alonso, Dulce; Vázquez-Villa, Henar; Martín-Couce, Lidia; Palomares, Óscar; López, Juan A; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; Benhamú, Bellinda; López-Rodríguez, María L; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Silvia

    2016-01-22

    Determination of the targets of a compound remains an essential aspect in drug discovery. A complete understanding of all binding interactions is critical to recognize in advance both therapeutic effects and undesired consequences. However, the complete polypharmacology of many drugs currently in clinical development is still unknown, especially in the case of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligands. In this work we have developed a chemoproteomic platform based on the use of chemical probes to explore the target profile of a compound in biological systems. As proof of concept, this methodology has been applied to selected ligands of the therapeutically relevant serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT6 receptors, and we have identified and validated some of their off-targets. This approach could be extended to other drugs of interest to study the targeted proteome in disease-relevant systems. PMID:26560738

  17. Effects of risperidone, clozapine and the 5-HT6 antagonist GSK-742457 on PCP-induced deficits in reversal learning in the two-lever operant task in male Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, N M W J; van Drimmelen, M; Kops, M; van Elk, J; Wetering, M Middelveld-van de; Schwienbacher, I

    2013-05-01

    Reasoning and problem solving deficits have been reported in schizophrenic patients. In the present study, we have tested rats in a two-lever reversal learning task in a Skinner box to model these deficits. In other studies using the Skinner box, atypical antipsychotics fully reversed phencyclidine (PCP)-induced impairments in reversal learning which is in contrast to clinical observations where antipsychotics lack the ability to fully reverse cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Therefore, it can be argued that the outcome of these tests may lack predictive value. In the present study, after training on a spatial discrimination between two levers, rats were exposed to a reversal of the previously learned stimulus-response contingency during 5 days. We first investigated the effects of sub-chronic treatment with the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists dizocilpine (MK-801) and PCP on reversal learning and extinction in male Sprague Dawley rats. Subsequently, we studied the effects of different PCP treatment regimes. Then, we investigated whether the atypical antipsychotics risperidone and clozapine and the 5-hydroxytryptamine6 (5-HT6) antagonist GSK-742457 could reverse the PCP-induced deficits. All drugs were administered subcutaneously (s.c.). MK-801 did not impair reversal learning, while PCP (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) induced a clear deficit in reversal learning. Both compounds, however, disrupted extinction at all tested doses. Risperidone and clozapine were both ineffective in significantly ameliorating the PCP-induced deficit in reversal learning which fits well with the clinical observations. The lowest dose of clozapine (1.25 mg/kg) had an intermediate effect in ameliorating the deficit in reversal learning induced by PCP (not different from control or PCP-treated rats). The lowest dose of GSK-742457 (0.63 mg/kg) fully reversed the PCP-induced deficits while the higher dose (5.0 mg/kg) had an intermediate effect. PMID:23384714

  18. Highly potent, non-basic 5-HT6 ligands. Site mutagenesis evidence for a second binding mode at 5-HT6 for antagonism.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ralph N; Stabler, Russel S; Repke, David B; Kress, James M; Walker, Keith A; Martin, Renee S; Brothers, Julie M; Ilnicka, Mariola; Lee, Simon W; Mirzadegan, Tara

    2010-06-01

    A series of 5-HT(6) ligands derived from (R)-1-(amino)methyl-6-(phenyl)sulfonyltetralin was prepared that yielded several non-basic analogs having sub-nanomolar affinity. Ligand structure-activity relationships, receptor point mutation studies, and molecular modeling of these novel ligands all combined to reveal a new alternative binding mode to 5-HT(6) for antagonism. PMID:20434910

  19. Multi-Step Protocol for Automatic Evaluation of Docking Results Based on Machine Learning Methods--A Case Study of Serotonin Receptors 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(7).

    PubMed

    Smusz, Sabina; Mordalski, Stefan; Witek, Jagna; Rataj, Krzysztof; Kafel, Rafał; Bojarski, Andrzej J

    2015-04-27

    Molecular docking, despite its undeniable usefulness in computer-aided drug design protocols and the increasing sophistication of tools used in the prediction of ligand-protein interaction energies, is still connected with a problem of effective results analysis. In this study, a novel protocol for the automatic evaluation of numerous docking results is presented, being a combination of Structural Interaction Fingerprints and Spectrophores descriptors, machine-learning techniques, and multi-step results analysis. Such an approach takes into consideration the performance of a particular learning algorithm (five machine learning methods were applied), the performance of the docking algorithm itself, the variety of conformations returned from the docking experiment, and the receptor structure (homology models were constructed on five different templates). Evaluation using compounds active toward 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors, as well as additional analysis carried out for beta-2 adrenergic receptor ligands, proved that the methodology is a viable tool for supporting virtual screening protocols, enabling proper discrimination between active and inactive compounds. PMID:25806997

  20. New serotonin 5-HT(6) ligands from common feature pharmacophore hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Doddareddy, Munikumar Reddy; Choo, Hyunah; Cho, Yong Seo; No, Kyoung Tai; Park, Woo-Kyu; Pae, Ae Nim

    2008-01-01

    Serotonin 5-HT6 receptor antagonists are thought to play an important role in the treatment of psychiatry, Alzheimer's disease, and probably obesity. To find novel and potent 5-HT6 antagonists and to provide a new idea for drug design, we used a ligand-based pharmacophore to perform the virtual screening of a commercially available database. A three-dimensional common feature pharmacophore model was developed by using the HipHop program provided in Catalyst software and was used as a query for screening the database. A recursive partitioning (RP) model which can separate active and inactive compounds was used as a filtering system. Finally a sequential virtual screening procedure (SQSP) was conducted, wherein both the common feature pharmacophore and the RP model were used in succession to improve the results. Some of the hits were selected based on druglikeness, ADME properties, structural diversity, and synthetic accessibility for real biological evaluation. The best hit compound showed a significant IC50 value of 9.6 nM and can be used as a lead for further drug development. PMID:18044950

  1. Study of a mechanism responsible for potential antidepressant activity of EMD 386088, a 5-HT6 partial agonist in rats.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Siwek, Agata; Partyka, Anna; Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Lucyna; Michaluk, Jerzy; Romańska, Irena; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Wesołowska, Anna

    2016-08-01

    It was shown that 5-HT6 receptor agonists can exert pharmacological activity due to various modifications in monoamines' level and metabolism activity in rats' brain structures. This finding was correlated with antidepressant- or anxiolytic-like properties of these compounds. The study was designed to establish a possible mechanism of the antidepressant-like activity of the partial 5-HT6 receptor agonist EMD386088 (5-chloro-2-methyl-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)-1H-indole hydrochloride) in rats. The concentrations of monoamines (dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), and serotonin (5-HT)) and the rate of their metabolism were measured ex vivo in the brain structures (hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, striatum) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The rats were killed after the forced swim test (FST); the collected tissue samples were used to ex vivo experiments. The potency of EMD386088 to blockade dopamine transporter (DAT) was tested in a functional in vitro study. FST was used to assess the involvement of D1- and D2-like receptor subfamilies in antidepressant-like properties of EMD386088. Neurochemical data from ex vivo experiments showed that antiimmobility activity of EMD386088 may be connected with the activation of dopaminergic system, while neither noradrenergic nor serotonergic ones are involved in its effect. EMD386088 also possesses a significant affinity for DAT which may be a mechanism in the abovementioned effect. Behavioral data seem to confirm the importance of dopaminergic system activation in antidepressant-like activity of EMD386088, since this effect, observed in the FST, was abolished by the preferential D1- and D2-like receptor subfamily antagonists SCH23390 and sulpiride, respectively. Dopaminergic system is involved in antidepressant-like activity of EMD386088. PMID:27106213

  2. ADN-1184, a monoaminergic ligand with 5-HT6/7 receptor antagonist action, exhibits activity in animal models of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Anna; Wasik, Anna; Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Mierzejewski, Paweł; Bieńkowski, Przemysław; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Wesołowska, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) include apathy, sleep problems, irritability, wandering, elation, agitation/aggression, and mood disorders such as depression and/or anxiety. Elderly patients are usually treated with second-generation antipsychotics; however, they present not enough efficacy against all symptoms observed. Hence, there still is an unmet need for novel pharmacotherapeutic agents targeted BPSD. A novel arylsulfonamide derivative ADN-1184 has been developed that possesses a preclinical profile of activity corresponding to criteria required for treatment of both psychosis and depressive symptoms of BPSD without exacerbating cognitive impairment or inducing motor disturbances. To broaden its pharmacological efficacy toward anxiety symptoms, its anxiolytic properties have been examined in common animal preclinical models in rats and mice. ADN-1184 significantly increased the number of entries into open arms measured in the elevated plus-maze test; however, it simultaneously increased parameters of exploratory activity. In the Vogel conflict drinking test, ADN-1184 dose-dependently and significantly increased the number of shocks accepted and the number of licks. Moreover, in mice, it also had specific anxiolytic-like activity in the four-plate test, and only negligible one at a specific mid-range dose measured in the spontaneous marble burying test. The obtained findings reveal that ADN-1184 displays anxiolytic-like activity in animal models of anxiety which employed punished stimuli. In its unusual combination of some anxiolytic action with already proven antipsychotic and antidepressant properties, and lack of any disruptive impact on learning and memory processes and motor coordination, ADN-1184 displays a profile that would be desired for a novel therapeutic for BPSD. PMID:26979176

  3. Investigation of the Structure Requirement for 5-HT6 Binding Affinity of Arylsulfonyl Derivatives: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ming; Li, Yan; Li, Hanqing; Zhang, Shuwei

    2011-01-01

    5-HT6 receptor has been implicated in a series of diseases including anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and cognitive dysfunctions. 5-HT6 ligands have been reported to play a significant role in the treatment for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Presently, a large series of 223 5-HT6 ligands were studied using a combinational method by 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics calculations for further improvement of potency. The optimal 3D models exhibit satisfying statistical results with r2ncv, q2 values of 0.85 and 0.50 for CoMFA, 0.81 and 0.53 for CoMSIA, respectively. Their predictive powers were validated by external test set, showing r2pred of 0.71 and 0.76. The contour maps also provide a visual representation of contributions of steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic and hydrogen bond fields as well as the prospective binding models. In addition, the agreement between 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation proves the rationality of the developed models. These results, we hope, may be helpful in designing novel and potential 5-HT6 ligands. PMID:21954341

  4. Vasopressin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is the principal hormone involved in regulating the tonicity of body fluids. Less appreciated is the role that AVP plays in a variety of other physiologic functions including glucose metabolism, cardiovascular homeostasis, bone metabolism, and cognitive behavior. AVP receptor antagonists are now available and currently approved to treat hyponatremia. There is a great deal of interest in exploring the potential benefits that these drugs may play in blocking AVP-mediated effects in other organ systems. The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the expanding role of AVP receptor antagonists and what disease states these drugs may eventually be used for. PMID:25604388

  5. Aryl biphenyl-3-ylmethylpiperazines as 5-HT7 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeeyeon; Kim, Youngjae; Tae, Jinsung; Yeom, Miyoung; Moon, Bongjin; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L; Lee, Kangho; Rhim, Hyewhon; Choo, Il Han; Chong, Youhoon; Keum, Gyochang; Nam, Ghilsoo; Choo, Hyunah

    2013-11-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7 R) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of depression and neuropathic pain. The 5-HT7 R antagonist SB-269970 exhibited antidepressant-like activity, whereas systemic administration of the 5-HT7 R agonist AS-19 significantly inhibited mechanical hypersensitivity and thermal hyperalgesia. In our efforts to discover selective 5-HT7 R antagonists or agonists, aryl biphenyl-3-ylmethylpiperazines were designed, synthesized, and biologically evaluated against the 5-HT7 R. Among the synthesized compounds, 1-([2'-methoxy-(1,1'-biphenyl)-3-yl]methyl)-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (28) was the best binder to the 5-HT7 R (pKi =7.83), and its antagonistic property was confirmed by functional assays. The selectivity profile of compound 28 was also recorded for the 5-HT7 R over other serotonin receptor subtypes, such as 5-HT1 R, 5-HT2 R, 5-HT3 R, and 5-HT6 R. In a molecular modeling study, the 2-methoxyphenyl moiety attached to the piperazine ring of compound 28 was proposed to be essential for the antagonistic function. PMID:24039134

  6. Selective orexin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lebold, Terry P; Bonaventure, Pascal; Shireman, Brock T

    2013-09-01

    The orexin, or hypocretin, neuropeptides (orexin-A and orexin-B) are produced on neurons in the hypothalamus which project to key areas of the brain that control sleep-wake states, modulation of food intake, panic, anxiety, emotion, reward and addictive behaviors. These neuropeptides exert their effects on a pair of G-protein coupled receptors termed the orexin-1 (OX1) and orexin-2 (OX2) receptors. Emerging biology suggests the involvement of these receptors in psychiatric disorders as they are thought to play a key role in the regulation of multiple systems. This review is intended to highlight key selective OX1 or OX2 small-molecule antagonists. PMID:23891187

  7. Xanthines as Adenosine Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    The natural plant alkaloids caffeine and theophylline were the first adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists described in the literature. They exhibit micromolar affinities and are non-selective. A large number of derivatives and analogs have subsequently been synthesized and evaluated as AR antagonists. Very potent antagonists have thus been developed with selectivity for each of the four AR subtypes. PMID:20859796

  8. Peripheral serotonin-mediated system suppresses bone development and regeneration via serotonin 6 G-protein-coupled receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Hyung-Mun; Park, Kyung-Ran; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin is important in brain functions and involved in neurological diseases. It is also drawn considerable attention in bone disease since it mainly produced by the gut. Serotonin 6 G-protein-coupled receptor (5-HT6R) is clinical targets for the treatment of neurological diseases. However, 5-HT6R as a therapeutic target in bone has not been reported. Herein, we found that 5-HT6R showed higher expression in bone, and its expression was increased during bone remodeling and osteoblast differentiation. The activation of 5-HT6R by ST1936 caused the inhibition of ALP activity and mineralization in primary osteoblast cultures, which was antagonized by SB258585, an antagonist and by the knockdown of 5-HT6R. Further investigation indicated that 5-HT6R inhibited osteoblast differentiation via Jab1 in BMP2 signaling but not PKA and ERK1/2. In vivo studies showed that the activation of 5-HT6R inhibited bone regeneration in the calvarial defect mice and also delayed bone development in newborn mice; this response was antagonized by SB258585. Therefore, our findings indicate a key role of 5-HT6R in bone formation through serotonin originating in the peripheral system, and suggest that it is a novel therapeutic target for drug development in the bone repair and bone diseases. PMID:27581523

  9. Peripheral serotonin-mediated system suppresses bone development and regeneration via serotonin 6 G-protein-coupled receptor.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyung-Mun; Park, Kyung-Ran; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin is important in brain functions and involved in neurological diseases. It is also drawn considerable attention in bone disease since it mainly produced by the gut. Serotonin 6 G-protein-coupled receptor (5-HT6R) is clinical targets for the treatment of neurological diseases. However, 5-HT6R as a therapeutic target in bone has not been reported. Herein, we found that 5-HT6R showed higher expression in bone, and its expression was increased during bone remodeling and osteoblast differentiation. The activation of 5-HT6R by ST1936 caused the inhibition of ALP activity and mineralization in primary osteoblast cultures, which was antagonized by SB258585, an antagonist and by the knockdown of 5-HT6R. Further investigation indicated that 5-HT6R inhibited osteoblast differentiation via Jab1 in BMP2 signaling but not PKA and ERK1/2. In vivo studies showed that the activation of 5-HT6R inhibited bone regeneration in the calvarial defect mice and also delayed bone development in newborn mice; this response was antagonized by SB258585. Therefore, our findings indicate a key role of 5-HT6R in bone formation through serotonin originating in the peripheral system, and suggest that it is a novel therapeutic target for drug development in the bone repair and bone diseases. PMID:27581523

  10. Endothelin receptors and their antagonists.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Janet J; Davenport, Anthony P

    2015-03-01

    All three members of the endothelin (ET) family of peptides, ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3, are expressed in the human kidney, with ET-1 being the predominant isoform. ET-1 and ET-2 bind to two G-protein-coupled receptors, ETA and ETB, whereas at physiological concentrations ET-3 has little affinity for the ET(A) receptor. The human kidney is unusual among the peripheral organs in expressing a high density of ET(B). The renal vascular endothelium only expresses the ET(B) subtype and ET-1 acts in an autocrine or paracrine manner to release vasodilators. Endothelial ETB in kidney, as well as liver and lungs, also has a critical role in scavenging ET-1 from the plasma. The third major function is ET-1 activation of ET(B) in in the nephron to reduce salt and water re-absorption. In contrast, ET(A) predominate on smooth muscle, causing vasoconstriction and mediating many of the pathophysiological actions of ET-1. The role of the two receptors has been delineated using highly selective ET(A) (BQ123, TAK-044) and ET(B) (BQ788) peptide antagonists. Nonpeptide antagonists, bosentan, macitentan, and ambrisentan, that are either mixed ET(A)/ET(B) antagonists or display ET(A) selectivity, have been approved for clinical use but to date are limited to pulmonary hypertension. Ambrisentan is in clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. This review summarizes ET-receptor antagonism in the human kidney, and considers the relative merits of selective versus nonselective antagonism in renal disease. PMID:25966344

  11. Synthesis of azepino[4,5-b]indol-4-ones via MCR/free radical cyclization and in vitro-in silico studies as 5-Ht6R ligands.

    PubMed

    Rentería-Gómez, Angel; Islas-Jácome, Alejandro; Díaz-Cervantes, Erik; Villaseñor-Granados, Tayde; Robles, Juvencio; Gámez-Montaño, Rocío

    2016-05-01

    A series of nine new 3-acetamide-azepino[4,5-b]indol-4-ones were synthesized in two steps: (i) multicomponent reaction (Ugi-4CR/SN2) and (ii) free radical-mediated cyclization. These compounds, along with their tetrazole-based analogs, were studied in vitro to assess their binding with the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 6 receptor (5-Ht6R). The 3-acetamide-azepino[4,5-b]indol-4-ones displayed moderate affinity, whereas the 3-tetrazolylmethyl-azepino[4,5-b]indol-4-ones affinity values are lower. However, one of the 3-acetamide-azepino[4,5-b]indol-4-ones exhibited a hit value of Ki (211.2nM) to the 5-Ht6R. Minimal-energy structures of one cis-amide and its tetrazole-based analog (calculated by means of the Density Functional Theory) were analyzed to assess some interesting bioisosterism aspects. Interactions and binding energies between all products and the 5-Ht6R were calculated through in silico molecular couplings. Finally, a QSAR model was proposed using the results of the in vitro assays. PMID:26996373

  12. Tetrahydroquinoline derivatives as opioid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cunyu; Westaway, Susan M; Speake, Jason D; Bishop, Michael J; Goetz, Aaron S; Carballo, Luz Helena; Hu, Mike; Epperly, Andrea H

    2011-01-15

    Opioid receptors play an important role in both behavioral and homeostatic functions. We herein report tetrahydroquinoline derivatives as opioid receptor antagonists. SAR studies led to the identification of the potent antagonist 2v, endowed with 1.58nM (K(i)) functional activity against the μ opioid receptor. DMPK data suggest that novel tetrahydroquinoline analogs may be advantageous in peripheral applications. PMID:21193310

  13. Differences in the central nervous system distribution and pharmacology of the mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 receptor compared with rat and human receptors investigated by radioligand binding, site-directed mutagenesis, and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Warren D; Abrahamsen, Bjarke; Blaney, Frank E; Calver, Andrew R; Aloj, Lucia; Price, Gary W; Medhurst, Andrew D

    2003-12-01

    There is increasing evidence for a role of 5-hydroxytrypta-mine-6 (5-HT6) receptors in cognitive function. In the rat and human brain, 5-HT6 receptors are widely expressed and highly enriched in the basal ganglia. However, in the mouse brain, only very low levels of 5-HT6 receptor mRNA and receptor protein, measured by TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and selective radioligand binding, could be detected, with no evidence of enrichment in the basal ganglia. The mouse receptor was cloned and transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells to characterize its pharmacological profile. Despite significant sequence homology between human, rat, and mouse 5-HT6 receptors, the pharmacological profile of the mouse receptor was significantly different from the rat and human receptors. Four amino acid residues, conserved in rat and human and divergent in mouse receptors, were identified, and various mutant receptors were generated and their pharmacologies studied. Residues 188 (tyrosine in mouse, phenylalanine in rat and human) in transmembrane region 5 and 290 (serine in mouse, asparagine in rat and human) in transmembrane region 6 were identified as key amino acids responsible for the different pharmacological profiles. Molecular modeling of the receptor and docking of selective and nonselective compounds was undertaken to elucidate the ligand receptor interactions. The binding pocket was predicted to be different in the mouse compared with rat and human 5-HT6 receptors, and the models were in excellent agreement with the observed mutation results and have been used extensively in the design of further selective 5-HT6 antagonists. PMID:14645659

  14. Endothelin receptor antagonists in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Channick, Richard N; Sitbon, Olivier; Barst, Robyn J; Manes, Alessandra; Rubin, Lewis J

    2004-06-16

    Endothelin receptor antagonism has emerged as an important therapeutic strategy in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Laboratory and clinical investigations have clearly shown that endothelin (ET)-1 is overexpressed in several forms of pulmonary vascular disease and likely plays a significant pathogenetic role in the development and progression of pulmonary vasculopathy. Oral endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) have been shown to improve pulmonary hemodynamics, exercise capacity, functional status, and clinical outcome in several randomized placebo-controlled trials. Bosentan, a dual-receptor antagonist, is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for class III and IV patients with PAH, based on two phase III trials. In addition to its efficacy as sole therapy, bosentan may have a role as part of a combination of drugs such as a prostanoid or sildenafil. The selective endothelin receptor-A antagonists sitaxsentan and ambrisentan are currently undergoing investigation. PMID:15194180

  15. Histamine-2 Receptor Antagonists and Semen Quality.

    PubMed

    Banihani, Saleem A

    2016-01-01

    Histamine-2 receptor antagonists are a class of drugs used to treat the acid-related gastrointestinal diseases such as ulcer and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Although such drugs, especially ranitidine and famotidine, are still widely used, their effects on semen quality, and hence on male infertility, is still unclear. This MiniReview systematically addresses and summarizes the effect of histamine-2 receptor antagonists (cimetidine, ranitidine, nizatidine and famotidine) on semen quality, particularly, on sperm function. Cimetidine appears to have adverse effects on semen quality. While the effects of ranitidine and nizatidine on semen quality are still controversial, famotidine does not appear to change semen quality. Therefore, additional studies will be required to clarify whether histamine-2 receptor-independent effects of these drugs play a role in semen quality as well as further clinical studies including direct comparison of the histamine-2 receptor antagonists. PMID:26176290

  16. Medicinal chemistry of competitive kainate receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Ann M; Bunch, Lennart

    2011-02-16

    Kainic acid (KA) receptors belong to the group of ionotropic glutamate receptors and are expressed throughout in the central nervous system (CNS). The KA receptors have been shown to be involved in neurophysiological functions such as mossy fiber long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic plasticity and are thus potential therapeutic targets in CNS diseases such as schizophrenia, major depression, neuropathic pain and epilepsy. Extensive effort has been made to develop subtype-selective KA receptor antagonists in order to elucidate the physiological function of each of the five subunits known (GluK1-5). However, to date only selective antagonists for the GluK1 subunit have been discovered, which underlines the strong need for continued research in this area. The present review describes the structure-activity relationship and pharmacological profile for 10 chemically distinct classes of KA receptor antagonists comprising, in all, 45 compounds. To the medicinal chemist this information will serve as reference guidance as well as an inspiration for future effort in this field. PMID:22778857

  17. Agonists and antagonists for P2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Costanzi, Stefano; Joshi, Bhalchandra V.; Besada, Pedro; Shin, Dae Hong; Ko, Hyojin; Ivanov, Andrei A.; Mamedova, Liaman

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has identified nucleotide agonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors and nucleotide antagonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y12 and P2X1 receptors. Selective non-nucleotide antagonists have been reported for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y6, P2Y12, P2Y13, P2X2/3/P2X3 and P2X7 receptors. For example, the dinucleotide INS 37217 (Up4dC) potently activates the P2Y2 receptor, and the non-nucleotide antagonist A-317491 is selective for P2X2/3/P2X3 receptors. Nucleotide analogues in which the ribose moiety is substituted by a variety of novel ring systems, including conformation-ally locked moieties, have been synthesized as ligands for P2Y receptors. The focus on conformational factors of the ribose-like moiety allows the inclusion of general modifications that lead to enhanced potency and selectivity. At P2Y1,2,4,11 receptors, there is a preference for the North conformation as indicated with (N)-methanocarba analogues. The P2Y1 antagonist MRS2500 inhibited ADP-induced human platelet aggregation with an IC50 of 0.95 nM. MRS2365, an (N)-methanocarba analogue of 2-MeSADP, displayed potency (EC50) of 0.4 nM at the P2Y1 receptor, with >10 000-fold selectivity in comparison to P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors. At P2Y6 receptors there is a dramatic preference for the South conformation. Three-dimensional structures of P2Y receptors have been deduced from structure activity relationships (SAR), mutagenesis and modelling studies. Detailed three-dimensional structures of P2X receptors have not yet been proposed. PMID:16805423

  18. Antiplatelet therapy: thrombin receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Tello-Montoliu, Antonio; Tomasello, Salvatore D; Ueno, Masafumi; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2011-01-01

    Activated platelets stimulate thrombus formation in response to rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque or endothelial cell erosion, promoting atherothrombotic disease. Multiple pathways contribute to platelet activation. Aspirin, an irreversible inhibitor of thromboxane A2 synthesis, in combination with clopidogrel, an inhibitor of P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate platelet receptors, represent the current standard-of-care of antiplatelet therapy for patients with acute coronary syndrome and for those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Although these agents have demonstrated significant clinical benefit, the increased risk of bleeding and the recurrence of thrombotic events represent substantial limitations. Thrombin is one of the most important platelet activators. The inhibition of protease-activated receptor 1 showed a good safety profile in preclinical studies. In fact, phase II studies with vorapaxar (SCH530348) and atopaxar (E5555) showed no increase of bleeding events in addition to the current standard-of-care of antiplatelet therapy. Although the results of phase III trials for both drugs are awaited, this family is a promising new addition to the current clinical practice for patients with atherothrombotic disease, not only as an alternative, but also as additional therapy. PMID:21906120

  19. Vasopressin receptor antagonists: Characteristics and clinical role.

    PubMed

    Rondon-Berrios, Helbert; Berl, Tomas

    2016-03-01

    Hyponatremia, the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients is associated with increased risk of mortality even when mild and apparently asymptomatic. Likewise morbidity manifested as attention deficits, gait disturbances, falls, fractures, and osteoporosis is more prevalent in hyponatremic subjects. Hyponatremia also generates a significant financial burden. Therefore, it is important to explore approaches that effectively and safely treat hyponatremia. Currently available strategies are physiologically sound and affordable but lack evidence from clinical trials and are limited by variable efficacy, slow response, and/or poor compliance. The recent emergence of vasopressin receptor antagonists provides a class of drugs that target the primary pathophysiological mechanism, namely vasopressin mediated impairment of free water excretion. This review summarizes the historical development, pharmacology, clinical trials supporting efficacy and safety, shortcomings, as well as practical suggestions for the use of vasopressin receptor antagonists. PMID:27156765

  20. Azines as histamine H4 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lazewska, Dorota; Kiec-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Since 2000, when the histamine H4 receptor (H4R) was cloned, it has constituted an interesting target for drug development. Pharmacological studies suggest the potential utility of histamine H4R antagonists/inverse agonists in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, e.g. allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, colitis, or pruritus. The first H4R ligands were non-selective compounds, but intensive chemical and pharmacological work has led to the discovery of highly potent and selective H4R antagonists (e.g. JNJ7777120, CZC-13788, PF-2988403, A-940894, A-987306). The first compound (UR-63325) has finally entered into clinical studies for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases (completing the phase I ascending dose trial) and has been found to be safe and well tolerated. The number of scientific publications and patent applications in the H4 field is increasing annually. Among the diverse chemical structures of the H4R antagonists described a 2-aminopyrimidine scaffold is repeatedly found. This review looked at recent advances in the search for H4R antagonists as reflected in patent applications/patents and peer-reviewed publications over the last two years. The work concerns azines (mono-, di-, triazines) and their fused analogues. The chemistry and pharmacology has been described. PMID:22202103

  1. Rational discovery of novel nuclear hormone receptor antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schapira, Matthieu; Raaka, Bruce M.; Samuels, Herbert H.; Abagyan, Ruben

    2000-02-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) are potential targets for therapeutic approaches to many clinical conditions, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological diseases. The crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of agonist-bound NRs enables the design of compounds with agonist activity. However, with the exception of the human estrogen receptor-, the lack of antagonist-bound "inactive" receptor structures hinders the rational design of receptor antagonists. In this study, we present a strategy for designing such antagonists. We constructed a model of the inactive conformation of human retinoic acid receptor- by using information derived from antagonist-bound estrogen receptor-α and applied a computer-based virtual screening algorithm to identify retinoic acid receptor antagonists. Thus, the currently available crystal structures of NRs may be used for the rational design of antagonists, which could lead to the development of novel drugs for a variety of diseases.

  2. Pharmacodynamic properties of leukotriene receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Nicosia, S

    1999-06-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are among the most important mediators of asthma; cysteine-containing LTs (cysteinyl-LTs, i.e. LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4) are very potent bronchoconstrictors and participate in the inflammatory component of asthma by inducing mucus hypersecretion, plasma extravasation, mucosal oedema and eosinophil recruitment. Therefore, compounds able to inhibit either the formation or the action of LTs are potential antiasthma drugs and, at present, the cysteinyl-LT receptor antagonists (LTRAs) appear to be the most promising. The receptors for cysteinyl-LTs, termed CysLT receptors, are heterogeneous; at least two different classes have so far been recognized, named CysLT1 (blocked by the so-called classical antagonists, such as FPL 55712, ICI 198,615, ICI 204,219, SK&F 104353, MK-476 and others) and CysLT2 (insensitive to the classical antagonists, but sensitive to BAY u9773). The authors' results indicate that even more receptor subclasses might exist in human airways, which discriminate between LTC4 and LTD4, both asthma mediators. Among the many LTRAs, zafirlukast (Accolate, ICI 204,219), montelukast (Singulair, MK-476) and pranlukast (Onon, ONO-1078) are available for clinical use. All the LTRAs are able to inhibit LTD4-induced bronchoconstriction in humans, albeit with different potencies. With respect to antigen challenge, all of them inhibit the early phase of response, whereas only the most recently developed and potent ones are effective in the late phase. LTRAs are effective in asthma triggered by exercise, cold or aspirin. Furthermore, although they are not bronchodilators per se, they increase basal forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with mild-to-moderate asthma, indicating that, in these individuals, constant cysteinyl-LT release contributes to maintaining increased bronchial tone. Finally, the effect of LTRAs is additive to that of beta-agonists and is potentiated by antihistamine compounds. In conclusion, the available results clearly

  3. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 4-nitroindole derivatives as 5-HT2A receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Faisal; Viswanath, Ambily Nath Indu; Pae, Ae Nim; Rhim, Hyewhon; Park, Woo-Kyu; Choo, Hea-Young Park

    2015-03-15

    A novel series of 4-nitroindole sulfonamides containing a methyleneamino-N,N-dimethylformamidine were prepared. The binding of these compounds to 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C was evaluated, and most of the compounds showed IC50 values of less than 1μM, and exhibited high selectivity for the 5-HT2C receptor. However, little selectivity was observed in the functional assay for 5-HT6 receptors. The computational modeling studies further validated the biological results and also demonstrated a reasonable correlation between the activity of compounds and the mode of superimposition with specified pharmacophoric features. PMID:25684421

  4. Endothelin receptor antagonists in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, J; Hoeper, M M

    2008-02-01

    The endothelin (ET) system, especially ET-1 and the ET(A) and ET(B) receptors, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Together with prostanoids and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, ET receptor antagonists have become mainstays in the current treatment of PAH. Three substances are currently available for the treatment of PAH. One of these substances, bosentan, blocks both ET(A) and ET(B) receptors, whereas the two other compounds, sitaxsentan and ambrisentan, are more selective blockers of the ET(A) receptor. There is ongoing debate as to whether selective or nonselective ET receptor blockade is advantageous in the setting of PAH, although there is no clear evidence that receptor selectivity is relevant with regard to the clinical effects of these drugs. For the time being, other features, such as safety profiles and the potential for pharmacokinetic interactions with other drugs used in the treatment of PAH, may be more important than selectivity or nonselectivity when selecting treatments for individual patients. PMID:18238950

  5. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and endothelial function

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Bradley A.; Leopold, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperaldosteronism has been associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired vascular reactivity in patients with hypertension or congestive heart failure. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists spironolactone and eplerenone have been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality, in part, by ameliorating the adverse effects of aldosterone on vascular function. Although spironolactone and eplerenone are increasingly utilized in patients with cardiovascular disease, widespread clinical use is limited by the development of gynecomastia with spironolactone and hyperkalemia with both agents. This suggests that the development of newer agents with favorable side effect profiles is warranted. PMID:18729003

  6. Novel paramagnetic AT1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tan, Nichole P H; Taylor, Michelle K; Bottle, Steven E; Wright, Christine E; Ziogas, James; White, Jonathan M; Schiesser, Carl H; Jani, Nitya V

    2011-11-28

    Novel paramagnetic selective angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonists (sartans) bearing nitroxides (3, 4) have been prepared and their pharmacology evaluated in vitro as well as in vivo. Compounds 3, 4 proved to be effective sartans with pK(B) estimates in the range 6.2-9.1. In addition, the sodium salt (11) of 4 (R = Bu) is able to protect against vascular injury in hypertensive rats as determined by its ability to attenuate the development of intimal thickening caused by balloon injury of the carotid artery. PMID:21963998

  7. Serotonin 6 receptor controls alzheimer’s disease and depression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Sanghyeon; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and depression in late life are one of the most severe health problems in the world disorders. Serotonin 6 receptor (5-HT6R) has caused much interest for potential roles in AD and depression. However, a causative role of perturbed 5-HT6R function between two diseases was poorly defined. In the present study, we found that a 5-HT6R antagonist, SB271036 rescued memory impairment by attenuating the generation of Aβ via the inhibition of γ-secretase activity and the inactivation of astrocytes and microglia in the AD mouse model. It was found that the reduction of serotonin level was significantly recovered by SB271036, which was mediated by an indirect regulation of serotonergic neurons via GABA. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine significantly improved cognitive impairment and behavioral changes. In human brain of depression patients, we then identified the potential genes, amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family A, member 2 (APBA2), well known AD modulators by integrating datasets from neuropathology, microarray, and RNA seq. studies with correlation analysis tools. And also, it was demonstrated in mouse models and patients of AD. These data indicate functional network of 5-HT6R between AD and depression. PMID:26449188

  8. Multiple Targeting Approaches on Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Khanfar, Mohammad A.; Affini, Anna; Lutsenko, Kiril; Nikolic, Katarina; Butini, Stefania; Stark, Holger

    2016-01-01

    With the very recent market approval of pitolisant (Wakix®), the interest in clinical applications of novel multifunctional histamine H3 receptor antagonists has clearly increased. Since histamine H3 receptor antagonists in clinical development have been tested for a variety of different indications, the combination of pharmacological properties in one molecule for improved pharmacological effects and reduced unwanted side-effects is rationally based on the increasing knowledge on the complex neurotransmitter regulations. The polypharmacological approaches on histamine H3 receptor antagonists on different G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes as well as on NO-signaling mechanism are described, supported with some lead structures. PMID:27303254

  9. Multiple Targeting Approaches on Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Khanfar, Mohammad A; Affini, Anna; Lutsenko, Kiril; Nikolic, Katarina; Butini, Stefania; Stark, Holger

    2016-01-01

    With the very recent market approval of pitolisant (Wakix®), the interest in clinical applications of novel multifunctional histamine H3 receptor antagonists has clearly increased. Since histamine H3 receptor antagonists in clinical development have been tested for a variety of different indications, the combination of pharmacological properties in one molecule for improved pharmacological effects and reduced unwanted side-effects is rationally based on the increasing knowledge on the complex neurotransmitter regulations. The polypharmacological approaches on histamine H3 receptor antagonists on different G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes as well as on NO-signaling mechanism are described, supported with some lead structures. PMID:27303254

  10. Indole-like Trk receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tammiku-Taul, Jaana; Park, Rahel; Jaanson, Kaur; Luberg, Kristi; Dobchev, Dimitar A; Kananovich, Dzmitry; Noole, Artur; Mandel, Merle; Kaasik, Allen; Lopp, Margus; Timmusk, Tõnis; Karelson, Mati

    2016-10-01

    The virtual screening for new scaffolds for TrkA receptor antagonists resulted in potential low molecular weight drug candidates for the treatment of neuropathic pain and cancer. In particular, the compound (Z)-3-((5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-2-oxindole and its derivatives were assessed for their inhibitory activity against Trk receptors. The IC50 values were computationally predicted in combination of molecular and fragment-based QSAR. Thereafter, based on the structure-activity relationships (SAR), a series of new compounds were designed and synthesized. Among the final selection of 13 compounds, (Z)-3-((5-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-N-methyl-2-oxindole-5-sulfonamide showed the best TrkA inhibitory activity using both biochemical and cellular assays and (Z)-3-((5-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-2-oxindole-5-sulfonamide was the most potent inhibitor of TrkB and TrkC. PMID:27318978

  11. Serotonin₆ receptors in the dorsal hippocampus regulate depressive-like behaviors in unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned Parkinson's rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun-Cheng; Li, Jun-Yi; Tan, Hui-Hui; Du, Cheng-Xue; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Yu-Ming; Ma, Wei-Lin; Zhang, Li

    2015-08-01

    Preclinical studies indicate both activation and blockade of serotonin6 (5-HT6) receptors may produce antidepressant-like effects. Depression is a common symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD); however, its pathophysiology is unclear. Here we examined whether 5-HT6 receptors in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) involve in the regulation of PD-associated depression. Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle in rats induced depressive-like responses as measured by the sucrose preference and forced swim tests when compared to sham-operated rats. In sham-operated rats, intra-DH injection of 5HT6 receptor agonist WAY208466 or antagonist SB258585 increased sucrose consumption and decreased immobility time, indicating the induction of antidepressant effects. In the lesioned rats, WAY208466 also produced antidepressant effects, whereas SB258585 decreased sucrose consumption and increased immobility time, indicating the induction of depressive-like behaviors. Neurochemical results showed that WAY208466 did not change dopamine (DA) levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), DH and habenula, and noradrenaline (NA) levels in the DH and habenula in sham-operated rats, and SB258585 increased DA and NA levels in these structures. Further, WAY208466 increased DA levels in the mPFC, DH and habenula, and NA level in the habenula in the lesioned rats, and SB258585 decreased DA levels in the mPFC and habenula. Additionally, the lesion did not change the density of neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1/5-HT6 receptor co-expressing neurons in the DH. Compared to sham-operated rats, these findings suggest that the effects of 5-HT6 receptors in PD-associated depression may be mediated through different neurochemical mechanisms, and the DH is an important site involved in these effects. PMID:25863121

  12. Endothelin receptor antagonists in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Langleben, David

    2007-03-01

    The recognition that endothelin-1 contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension has led to the development of clinically useful endothelin receptor antagonists that improve symptoms and functional capacity and alter the natural history of the disease in a beneficial way. The antagonists have varying degrees of selectivity for the two classes of endothelin receptor, termed ETA and ETB, and the varying degrees may translate into clinical differences. Endothelin receptor antagonists have become an integral part of therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension, and the indications for their use are expanding. PMID:17338931

  13. Prostanoid receptor antagonists: development strategies and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Jones, RL; Giembycz, MA; Woodward, DF

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the primary products of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)/prostaglandin synthase(s), which occurred between 1958 and 1976, was followed by a classification system for prostanoid receptors (DP, EP1, EP2 …) based mainly on the pharmacological actions of natural and synthetic agonists and a few antagonists. The design of potent selective antagonists was rapid for certain prostanoid receptors (EP1, TP), slow for others (FP, IP) and has yet to be achieved in certain cases (EP2). While some antagonists are structurally related to the natural agonist, most recent compounds are ‘non-prostanoid’ (often acyl-sulphonamides) and have emerged from high-throughput screening of compound libraries, made possible by the development of (functional) assays involving single recombinant prostanoid receptors. Selective antagonists have been crucial to defining the roles of PGD2 (acting on DP1 and DP2 receptors) and PGE2 (on EP1 and EP4 receptors) in various inflammatory conditions; there are clear opportunities for therapeutic intervention. The vast endeavour on TP (thromboxane) antagonists is considered in relation to their limited pharmaceutical success in the cardiovascular area. Correspondingly, the clinical utility of IP (prostacyclin) antagonists is assessed in relation to the cloud hanging over the long-term safety of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Aspirin apart, COX inhibitors broadly suppress all prostanoid pathways, while high selectivity has been a major goal in receptor antagonist development; more targeted therapy may require an intermediate position with defined antagonist selectivity profiles. This review is intended to provide overviews of each antagonist class (including prostamide antagonists), covering major development strategies and current and potential clinical usage. PMID:19624532

  14. Structure activity relationship studies of 3-arylsulfonyl-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-imines as potent 5-HT₆ antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuanghua; Huang, Yazhong; Wu, Yong-Jin; He, Huan; Grant-Young, Katherine A; Bertekap, Robert L; Whiterock, Valerie; Brassil, Patrick; Lentz, Kimberley; Sivaprakasam, Prasanna; Langley, David R; Westphal, Ryan S; Scola, Paul M

    2014-03-01

    Comprehensive structure activity relationship (SAR) studies were conducted on a focused screening hit, 2-(methylthio)-3-(phenylsulfonyl)-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-imine (1, IC50: 4.0 nM), as 5-HT6 selective antagonists. Activity was improved some 2-4 fold when small, electron-donating groups were added to the central core as observed in 19, 20 and 26. Molecular docking of key compounds in a homology model of the human 5-HT6 receptor was used to rationalize our structure-activity relationship (SAR) findings. In pharmacokinetic experiments, compound 1 displayed good brain uptake in rats following intra-peritoneal administration, but limited oral bioavailability. PMID:24495863

  15. Deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist responsive to anakinra.

    PubMed

    Schnellbacher, Charlotte; Ciocca, Giovanna; Menendez, Roxanna; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Duarte, Ana M; Rivas-Chacon, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    We describe a 3-month-old infant who presented to our institution with interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist deficiency (DIRA), which consists of neutrophilic pustular dermatosis, periostitis, aseptic multifocal osteomyelitis, and persistently high acute-phase reactants. Skin findings promptly improved upon initiation of treatment with anakinra (recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist), and the bony lesions and systemic inflammation resolved with continued therapy. PMID:22471702

  16. Serotonin induces the migration of PC12 cells via the serotonin receptor 6/cAMP/ERK pathway

    PubMed Central

    KOIZUMI, KEITA; NAKAJIMA, HIDEO

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) functions as a chemoattractant that modulates neural migration during prenatal and early postnatal development. However, its molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. The effect of 5-HT on neural cell migration was examined using PC12 neuron-like cell line. Transwell migration assay was used to determine the effect of 5-HT on PC12 cell migration. The results demonstrated that 5-HT and nerve growth factor (NGF) induced PC12 cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, 5-HT receptor antagonists suggest that 5-HT-induced migration was mediated by serotonin receptor 6 (5-HT6), a Gs-protein coupled receptor that elevates the intercellular cAMP level. By contrast, antagonists of serotonin receptor 3 (5-HT3) did not show any effects on PC12 cell migration. Clozapine, an inhibitor of cAMP accumulation mediated by 5-HT6, significantly reduced the effect of 5-HT on the PC12 cell migration. An inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) also suppressed migration. These results suggest that 5-HT induces PC12 cell migration by activating cAMP/ERK signaling pathways, which is mediated by 5-HT6 receptor. PMID:24649064

  17. Discovery of cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonists by virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gil Nam; Kim, Kwang Rok; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Bae, Myung Ae; Kang, Nam Sook

    2010-09-01

    In this work, we tried to find a new scaffold for a CB1 receptor antagonist using virtual screening. We first analyzed structural features for the known cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonists and, then, we built pharmacophore models using the HipHop concept and carried out a docking study based on our homology CB1 receptor 3D structure. The most active compound, including thiazole-4-one moiety, showed an activity value of 125 nM IC(50), with a good PK profile. PMID:20667724

  18. Non-NMDA receptor antagonist-induced drinking in rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Z.; Johnson, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    Glutamate has been implicated in the central control of mechanisms that maintain body fluid homeostasis. The present studies demonstrate that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of the non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3 dione (CNQX) induce drinking in rats. The dipsogenic effect of i.c.v. DNQX was antagonized by the non-NMDA receptor agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA). The water intake induced by DNQX was also blocked by pretreatment with a NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, but not by angiotensin type 1 (AT1) or acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonists (losartan and atropine). The results indicate that non-NMDA receptors may exert a tonic inhibitory effect within brain circuits that control dipsogenic activity and that functional integrity of NMDA receptors may be required for the non-NMDA receptor antagonists to induce water intake. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  19. Azogabazine; a photochromic antagonist of the GABAA receptor.

    PubMed

    Huckvale, Rosemary; Mortensen, Martin; Pryde, David; Smart, Trevor G; Baker, James R

    2016-07-12

    The design and synthesis of azogabazine is described, which represents a highly potent (IC50 = 23 nM) photoswitchable antagonist of the GABAA receptor. An azologization strategy is adopted, in which a benzyl phenyl ether in a high affinity gabazine analogue is replaced by an azobenzene, with resultant retention of antagonist potency. We show that cycling from blue to UV light, switching between trans and cis isomeric forms, leads to photochemically controlled antagonism of the GABA ion channel. PMID:27327397

  20. Fluorescent Human EP3 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tomasch, Miriam; Schwed, J Stephan; Kuczka, Karina; Meyer Dos Santos, Sascha; Harder, Sebastian; Nüsing, Rolf M; Paulke, Alexander; Stark, Holger

    2012-09-13

    Exchange of the lipophilc part of ortho-substituted cinnamic acid lead structures with different small molecule fluorophoric moieties via a dimethylene spacer resulted in hEP3R ligands with affinities in the nanomolar concentration range. Synthesized compounds emit fluorescence in the blue, green, and red range of light and have been tested concerning their potential as a pharmacological tool. hEP3Rs were visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy on HT-29 cells, on murine kidney tissues, and on human brain tissues and functionally were characterized as antagonists on human platelets. Inhibition of PGE2 and collagen-induced platelet aggregation was measured after preincubation with novel hEP3R ligands. The pyryllium-labeled ligand 8 has been shown as one of the most promising structures, displaying a useful fluorescence and highly affine hEP3R antagonists. PMID:24900547

  1. Cholestasis of pregnancy, pruritus and 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Roman; Hudcova, Jana

    2004-09-01

    Pruritus, an early symptom of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, may be severe. Conventional treatment includes ursodeoxycholic acid and cholestyramine. Ondansetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist antiemetic, has been shown to reduce pruritus of different etiologies including cholestasis. We now report the successful preoperative use of ondansetron in a patient with pruritus from intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. While the mechanism for our patient's response is poorly understood, 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonists should be further evaluated and possibly considered as a treatment option for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy-related pruritus. PMID:15315599

  2. Histamine 2 Receptor Antagonists and Proton Pump Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brinkworth, Megan D; Aouthmany, Mouhammad; Sheehan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Within the last 50 years, the pharmacologic market for gastric disease has grown exponentially. Currently, medical management with histamine 2 receptor antagonist and proton pump inhibitors are the mainstay of therapy over surgical intervention. These are generally regarded as safe medications, but there are growing numbers of cases documenting adverse effects, especially those manifesting in the skin. Here we review the pharmacology, common clinical applications, and adverse reactions of both histamine 2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors with a particular focus on the potential for allergic reactions including allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:27172303

  3. Discovery of Tertiary Sulfonamides as Potent Liver X Receptor Antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Zuercher, William J.; Buckholz†, Richard G.; Campobasso, Nino; Collins, Jon L.; Galardi, Cristin M.; Gampe, Robert T.; Hyatt, Stephen M.; Merrihew, Susan L.; Moore, John T.; Oplinger, Jeffrey A.; Reid, Paul R.; Spearing, Paul K.; Stanley, Thomas B.; Stewart, Eugene L.; Willson, Timothy M.

    2010-08-12

    Tertiary sulfonamides were identified in a HTS as dual liver X receptor (LXR, NR1H2, and NR1H3) ligands, and the binding affinity of the series was increased through iterative analogue synthesis. A ligand-bound cocrystal structure was determined which elucidated key interactions for high binding affinity. Further characterization of the tertiary sulfonamide series led to the identification of high affinity LXR antagonists. GSK2033 (17) is the first potent cell-active LXR antagonist described to date. 17 may be a useful chemical probe to explore the cell biology of this orphan nuclear receptor.

  4. Neuroprotection by NMDA receptor antagonists in a variety of neuropathologies.

    PubMed

    Palmer, G C

    2001-09-01

    Because of adverse reactions, early efforts to introduce high affinity competitive or use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonists into patients suffering from stroke, head trauma or epilepsy met with failure. Later it was discovered that both low affinity use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonists and compounds with selective affinity for the NR2B receptor subunit met the criteria for safe administration into patients. Furthermore, these low affinity antagonists exhibit significant mechanistic differences from their higher affinity counterparts. Success of the latter is attested to the ability of the following low affinity compounds to be marketed: 1) Cough suppressant-dextromethorphan (available for decades); 2) Parkinson's disease--amantadine, memantine and budipine; 3) Dementia--memantine; and 4) Epilepsy--felbamate. Moreover, Phase III clinical trials are ongoing with remacemide for epilepsy and Huntington's disease and head trauma for HU-211. A host of compounds are or were under evaluation for the possible treatment of stroke, head trauma, hyperalgesia and various neurodegenerative disorders. Despite the fact that other drugs with associated NMDA receptor mechanisms have reached clinical status, this review focuses only on those competitive and use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonists that reached clinical trails. The ensuing discussions link the in vivo pharmacological investigations that led to the success/mistakes/ failures for eventual testing of promising compounds in the clinic. PMID:11554551

  5. Novel alkoxy-oxazolyl-tetrahydropyridine muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Shannon, H E; Bymaster, F P; Hendrix, J C; Quimby, S J; Mitch, C H

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to compare a novel series of alkoxy-oxazolyl-tetrahydropyridines (A-OXTPs) as muscarinic receptor antagonists. The affinity of these compounds for muscarinic receptors was determined by inhibition of [3H]pirenzepine to M1 receptors in hippocampus, [3H]QNB to M2 receptors in brainstem, and [3H]oxotremorine-M to high affinity muscarinic agonist binding sites in cortex. All of the compounds had higher affinity for [3H]pirenzepine than for [3H]QNB or [3H]oxotremorine-M labeled receptors, consistent with an interpretation that they are relatively selective M1 receptor antagonists, although none were as selective as pirenzepine. In addition, dose-response curves were determined for antagonism of oxotremorine-induced salivation (mediated by M3 receptors) and tremor (mediated by non-M1 receptors) in mice. In general, the A-OXTPs were equipotent and equieffective in antagonizing both salivation and tremor, although there were modest differences for some compounds. Dose-response curves also were determined on behavior maintained under a spatial-alternation schedule of food presentation in rats as a measure of effects on working memory. The A-OXTPs produced dose-related decreases in percent correct responding at doses three- to ten-fold lower than those which decreased rates of responding. However, only one compound, MB-OXTP, produced effects on percent correct responding consistent with a selective effect on memory as opposed to non-memory variables. The present results provide evidence that these alkoxy-oxazolyl-tetrahydropyridines are a novel series of modestly M1-selective muscarinic receptor antagonists, and that one member of the series, MB-OXTP, appears to be more selective in its effects on memory than previously studies muscarinic antagonists. PMID:7753969

  6. Endothelin receptor antagonists as disease modifiers in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Nagalakshmi; Derk, Chris T

    2011-02-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem connective tissue disease of unknown etiology that is characterized by inflammation, vascular dysfunction and fibrosis of the skin and visceral organs. SSc is clinically diverse both in terms of the burden of skin and organ involvement and the rate of progression of the disease. Recent studies indicate that the endothelin system, especially ET-1 and the ETA and ETB receptors may play a key role in the pathogenesis of SSc. A new class of drugs, endothelin receptor antagonists has been introduced for treatment of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Bosentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist as well as Sitaxsentan and Ambrisentan, selective blockers of the ETA receptor have proven effective in SSc-PAH. This effect may be mediated through both a vasodilatory and antifibrotic effect, thus making these agents attractive as potential disease modifying agents for SSc. PMID:21184655

  7. 2-Cycloalkyl phenoxyacetic acid CRTh2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sandham, David A; Aldcroft, Clive; Baettig, Urs; Barker, Lucy; Beer, David; Bhalay, Gurdip; Brown, Zarin; Dubois, Gerald; Budd, David; Bidlake, Louise; Campbell, Emma; Cox, Brian; Everatt, Brian; Harrison, David; Leblanc, Catherine J; Manini, Jodie; Profit, Rachael; Stringer, Rowan; Thompson, Katy S; Turner, Katharine L; Tweed, Morris F; Walker, Christoph; Watson, Simon J; Whitebread, Steven; Willis, Jennifer; Williams, Gareth; Wilson, Caroline

    2007-08-01

    High throughput screening identified a phenoxyacetic acid scaffold as a novel CRTh2 receptor antagonist chemotype, which could be optimised to furnish a compound with functional potency for inhibition of human eosinophil shape change and oral bioavailability in the rat. PMID:17531480

  8. The muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and atropine are competitive antagonists at 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Martin; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Scopolamine is a high affinity muscarinic antagonist that is used for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are used for the same purpose and are structurally related to scopolamine. To examine whether 5-HT3 receptors are affected by scopolamine we examined the effects of this drug on the electrophysiological and ligand binding properties of 5-HT3A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells, respectively. 5-HT3 receptor-responses were reversibly inhibited by scopolamine with an IC50 of 2.09 μM. Competitive antagonism was shown by Schild plot (pA2 = 5.02) and by competition with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists [(3)H]granisetron (Ki = 6.76 μM) and G-FL (Ki = 4.90 μM). The related molecule, atropine, similarly inhibited 5-HT evoked responses in oocytes with an IC50 of 1.74 μM, and competed with G-FL with a Ki of 7.94 μM. The reverse experiment revealed that granisetron also competitively bound to muscarinic receptors (Ki = 6.5 μM). In behavioural studies scopolamine is used to block muscarinic receptors and induce a cognitive deficit, and centrally administered concentrations can exceed the IC50 values found here. It is therefore possible that 5-HT3 receptors are also inhibited. Studies that utilise higher concentrations of scopolamine should be mindful of these potential off-target effects. PMID:27108935

  9. Use of the H3 receptor antagonist radioligand [3H]-A-349821 to reveal in vivo receptor occupancy of cognition enhancing H3 receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Miller, TR; Milicic, I; Bauch, J; Du, J; Surber, B; Browman, KE; Marsh, K; Cowart, M; Brioni, JD; Esbenshade, TA

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The histamine H3 receptor antagonist radioligand [3H]-A-349821 was characterized as a radiotracer for assessing in vivo receptor occupancy by H3 receptor antagonists that affect behaviour. This model was established as an alternative to ex vivo binding methods, for relating antagonist H3 receptor occupancy to blood levels and efficacy in preclinical models. Experimental approach: In vivo cerebral cortical H3 receptor occupancy by [3H]-A-349821 was determined in rats from differences in [3H]-A-349821 levels in the isolated cortex and cerebellum, a brain region with low levels of H3 receptors. Comparisons were made to relate antagonist H3 receptor occupancy to blood levels and efficacy in a preclinical model of cognition, the five-trial inhibitory avoidance response in rat pups. Key results: In adult rats, [3H]-A-349821, 1.5 µg·kg−1, penetrated into the brain and cleared more rapidly from cerebellum than cortex; optimally, [3H]-A-349821 levels were twofold higher in the latter. With increasing [3H]-A-349821 doses, cortical H3 receptor occupancy was saturable with a binding capacity consistent with in vitro binding in cortex membranes. In studies using tracer [3H]-A-349821 doses, ABT-239 and other H3 receptor antagonists inhibited H3 receptor occupancy by [3H]-A-349821 in a dose-dependent manner. Blood levels of the antagonists corresponding to H3 receptor occupancy were consistent with blood levels associated with efficacy in the five-trial inhibitory avoidance response. Conclusions and implications: When employed as an occupancy radiotracer, [3H]-A-349821 provided valid measurements of in vivo H3 receptor occupancy, which may be helpful in guiding and interpreting clinical studies of H3 receptor antagonists. PMID:19413577

  10. Extra-helical binding site of a glucagon receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Jazayeri, Ali; Doré, Andrew S; Lamb, Daniel; Krishnamurthy, Harini; Southall, Stacey M; Baig, Asma H; Bortolato, Andrea; Koglin, Markus; Robertson, Nathan J; Errey, James C; Andrews, Stephen P; Teobald, Iryna; Brown, Alastair J H; Cooke, Robert M; Weir, Malcolm; Marshall, Fiona H

    2016-05-12

    Glucagon is a 29-amino-acid peptide released from the α-cells of the islet of Langerhans, which has a key role in glucose homeostasis. Glucagon action is transduced by the class B G-protein-coupled glucagon receptor (GCGR), which is located on liver, kidney, intestinal smooth muscle, brain, adipose tissue, heart and pancreas cells, and this receptor has been considered an important drug target in the treatment of diabetes. Administration of recently identified small-molecule GCGR antagonists in patients with type 2 diabetes results in a substantial reduction of fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations. Although an X-ray structure of the transmembrane domain of the GCGR has previously been solved, the ligand (NNC0640) was not resolved. Here we report the 2.5 Å structure of human GCGR in complex with the antagonist MK-0893 (ref. 4), which is found to bind to an allosteric site outside the seven transmembrane (7TM) helical bundle in a position between TM6 and TM7 extending into the lipid bilayer. Mutagenesis of key residues identified in the X-ray structure confirms their role in the binding of MK-0893 to the receptor. The unexpected position of the binding site for MK-0893, which is structurally similar to other GCGR antagonists, suggests that glucagon activation of the receptor is prevented by restriction of the outward helical movement of TM6 required for G-protein coupling. Structural knowledge of class B receptors is limited, with only one other ligand-binding site defined--for the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRF1R)--which was located deep within the 7TM bundle. We describe a completely novel allosteric binding site for class B receptors, providing an opportunity for structure-based drug design for this receptor class and furthering our understanding of the mechanisms of activation of these receptors. PMID:27111510

  11. μ Opioid receptor: novel antagonists and structural modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaserer, Teresa; Lantero, Aquilino; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Spetea, Mariana; Schuster, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    The μ opioid receptor (MOR) is a prominent member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and the molecular target of morphine and other opioid drugs. Despite the long tradition of MOR-targeting drugs, still little is known about the ligand-receptor interactions and structure-function relationships underlying the distinct biological effects upon receptor activation or inhibition. With the resolved crystal structure of the β-funaltrexamine-MOR complex, we aimed at the discovery of novel agonists and antagonists using virtual screening tools, i.e. docking, pharmacophore- and shape-based modeling. We suggest important molecular interactions, which active molecules share and distinguish agonists and antagonists. These results allowed for the generation of theoretically validated in silico workflows that were employed for prospective virtual screening. Out of 18 virtual hits evaluated in in vitro pharmacological assays, three displayed antagonist activity and the most active compound significantly inhibited morphine-induced antinociception. The new identified chemotypes hold promise for further development into neurochemical tools for studying the MOR or as potential therapeutic lead candidates.

  12. μ Opioid receptor: novel antagonists and structural modeling

    PubMed Central

    Kaserer, Teresa; Lantero, Aquilino; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Spetea, Mariana; Schuster, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The μ opioid receptor (MOR) is a prominent member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and the molecular target of morphine and other opioid drugs. Despite the long tradition of MOR-targeting drugs, still little is known about the ligand-receptor interactions and structure-function relationships underlying the distinct biological effects upon receptor activation or inhibition. With the resolved crystal structure of the β-funaltrexamine-MOR complex, we aimed at the discovery of novel agonists and antagonists using virtual screening tools, i.e. docking, pharmacophore- and shape-based modeling. We suggest important molecular interactions, which active molecules share and distinguish agonists and antagonists. These results allowed for the generation of theoretically validated in silico workflows that were employed for prospective virtual screening. Out of 18 virtual hits evaluated in in vitro pharmacological assays, three displayed antagonist activity and the most active compound significantly inhibited morphine-induced antinociception. The new identified chemotypes hold promise for further development into neurochemical tools for studying the MOR or as potential therapeutic lead candidates. PMID:26888328

  13. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Preti, Delia; Saponaro, Giulia; Szallasi, Arpad

    2015-01-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel is an irritant sensor highly expressed on nociceptive neurons. The clinical use of TRPA1 antagonists is based on the concept that TRPA1 is active during disease states like neuropathic pain. Indeed, in Phase 2a proof-of-concept studies the TRPA1 antagonist GRC17536 has shown efficacy in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. Moreover, animal studies suggest that the therapeutic value of TRPA1 antagonists extends beyond pain to pruritus, asthma and cough with limited safety concerns. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the patent literature (since 2007) on small-molecule inhibitors of the TRPA1 channel. Despite the clear progress, many unanswered questions remain. Future advancement to Phase 3 studies will assess the real translational potential of this research field. PMID:25853468

  14. Receptor mechanisms and circuitry underlying NMDA antagonist neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Farber, N B; Kim, S H; Dikranian, K; Jiang, X P; Heinkel, C

    2002-01-01

    NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists are used in clinical anesthesia, and are being developed as therapeutic agents for preventing neurodegeneration in stroke, epilepsy, and brain trauma. However, the ability of these agents to produce neurotoxicity in adult rats and psychosis in adult humans compromises their clinical usefulness. In addition, an NMDA receptor hypofunction (NRHypo) state might play a role in neurodegenerative and psychotic disorders, like Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Thus, understanding the mechanism underlying NRHypo-induced neurotoxicity and psychosis could have significant clinically relevant benefits. NRHypo neurotoxicity can be prevented by several classes of agents (e.g. antimuscarinics, non-NMDA glutamate antagonists, and alpha(2) adrenergic agonists) suggesting that the mechanism of neurotoxicity is complex. In the present study a series of experiments was undertaken to more definitively define the receptors and complex neural circuitry underlying NRHypo neurotoxicity. Injection of either the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine or the non-NMDA antagonist NBQX directly into the cortex prevented NRHypo neurotoxicity. Clonidine, an alpha(2) adrenergic agonist, protected against the neurotoxicity when injected into the basal forebrain. The combined injection of muscarinic and non-NMDA Glu agonists reproduced the neurotoxic reaction. Based on these and other results, we conclude that the mechanism is indirect, and involves a complex network disturbance, whereby blockade of NMDA receptors on inhibitory neurons in multiple subcortical brain regions, disinhibits glutamatergic and cholinergic projections to the cerebral cortex. Simultaneous excitotoxic stimulation of muscarinic (m(3)) and glutamate (AMPA/kainate) receptors on cerebrocortical neurons appears to be the proximal mechanism by which the neurotoxic and psychotomimetic effects of NRHypo are mediated. PMID:11803444

  15. Rational design of high affinity tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Boyle, S; Guard, S; Higginbottom, M; Horwell, D C; Howson, W; McKnight, A T; Martin, K; Pritchard, M C; O'Toole, J; Raphy, J

    1994-05-01

    The rational design of a non-peptide tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, [(2-benzofuran)-CH2OCO]-(R)-alpha-MeTrp-(S)-NHCH(CH3)P h (28, PD 154075) is described. Compound 28 has a Ki = 9 and 0.35 nM for the NK1 receptor binding site in guinea-pig cerebral cortex membranes and human IM9, cells respectively (using [125I] Bolton-Hunter-SP as the radioligand). It is a potent antagonist in vitro where it antagonises the contractions mediated by SPOMe in the guinea-pig ileum (KB = 0.3 nM). Compound 28 is active in vivo in the guinea-pig plasma extravasation model, where it is able to block the SPOMe-induced protein plasma extravasation (monitored by Evans Blue) in the bladder with an ID50 of 0.02 mg kg-1 iv. PMID:7922147

  16. Discovery of aryloxy tetramethylcyclobutanes as novel androgen receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chuangxing; Linton, Angelica; Kephart, Susan; Ornelas, Martha; Pairish, Mason; Gonzalez, Javier; Greasley, Samantha; Nagata, Asako; Burke, Benjamin J; Edwards, Martin; Hosea, Natilie; Kang, Ping; Hu, Wenyue; Engebretsen, Jon; Briere, David; Shi, Manli; Gukasyan, Hovik; Richardson, Paul; Dack, Kevin; Underwood, Toby; Johnson, Patrick; Morell, Andrew; Felstead, Robert; Kuruma, Hidetoshi; Matsimoto, Hiroaki; Zoubeidi, Amina; Gleave, Martin; Los, Gerrit; Fanjul, Andrea N

    2011-11-10

    An aryloxy tetramethylcyclobutane was identified as a novel template for androgen receptor (AR) antagonists via cell-based high-throughput screening. Follow-up to the initial "hit" established 5 as a viable lead. Further optimization to achieve full AR antagonism led to the discovery of 26 and 30, both of which demonstrated excellent in vivo tumor growth inhibition upon oral administration in a castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) animal model. PMID:21936524

  17. The H2-receptor antagonist era in duodenal ulcer disease.

    PubMed Central

    Marks, I. N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the remarkable impact of H2-receptor antagonists on duodenal ulcer management. The development and the scientific rationale of these agents are presented, and efficacy and safety aspects in the short- and long-term treatment of duodenal ulcer disease discussed. Attention is focused on the possible role of "acid rebound" in ulcer relapse following the withdrawal of therapy and on the clinical relevance of prolonged suppression of acid secretion in patients on long-term therapy. PMID:1364125

  18. Estrogen Receptor Agonists and Antagonists in the Yeast Estrogen Bioassay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si; Bovee, Toine F H

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based bioassays can be used to predict the eventual biological activity of a substance on a living organism. In vitro reporter gene bioassays are based on recombinant vertebrate cell lines or yeast strains and especially the latter are easy-to-handle, cheap, and fast. Moreover, yeast cells do not express estrogen, androgen, progesterone or glucocorticoid receptors, and are thus powerful tools in the development of specific reporter gene systems that are devoid of crosstalk from other hormone pathways. This chapter describes our experience with an in-house developed RIKILT yeast estrogen bioassay for testing estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists, focusing on the applicability of the latter. PMID:26585147

  19. A prototypical Sigma-1 receptor antagonist protects against brain ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Schetz, John A.; Perez, Evelyn; Liu, Ran; Chen, Shiuhwei; Lee, Ivan; Simpkins, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the Sigma-1 ligand 4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine (PPBP) protects the brain from ischemia. Less clear is whether protection is mediated by agonism or antagonism of the Sigma-1 receptor, and whether drugs already in use for other indications and that interact with the Sigma-1 receptor might also prevent oxidative damage due to conditions such as cerebral ischemic stroke. The antipsychotic drug haloperidol is an antagonist of Sigma-1 receptors and in this study it potently protects against oxidative stress-related cell death in vitro at low concentrations. The protective potency of haloperidol and a number of other butyrophenone compounds positively correlate with their affinity for a cloned Sigma-1 receptor, and the protection is mimicked by a Sigma-1 receptor-selective antagonist (BD1063), but not an agonist (PRE-084). In vivo, an acute low dose (0.05 mg/kg s.c.) of haloperidol reduces by half the ischemic lesion volume induced by a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. These in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical results suggest that a low dose of acutely administered haloperidol might have a novel application as a protective agent against ischemic cerebral stroke and other types of brain injury with an ischemic component. PMID:17919467

  20. Novel potent selective phenylglycine antagonists of metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Bedingfield, J S; Jane, D E; Kemp, M C; Toms, N J; Roberts, P J

    1996-08-01

    The metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor antagonist properties of novel phenylglycine analogues were investigated in adult rat cortical slices (mGlu receptors negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase), neonatal rat cortical slices and in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells (mGlu receptors coupled to phosphoinositide hydrolysis). (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG), (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-sulphonophenylglycine (MSPG), (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-tetrazolylphenylglycine (MTPG), (RS)-alpha-methyl-3-carboxymethyl-4-hydroxyphenylglycine (M3CM4HPG) and (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-hydroxy-3-phosphonomethylphenylglycine (M4H3PMPG) were demonstrated to have potent and selective effects against 10 microM L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4)- and 0.3 microM (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(2-carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (L-CCG-1)-mediated inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in the adult rat cortex. In contrast, these compounds demonstrated either weak or no antagonism at mGlu receptors coupled to phosphoinositide hydrolysis in either neonatal rat cortex or in cultured cerebellar granule cells. These compounds thus appear to be useful discriminatory pharmacological tools for mGlu receptors and form the basis for the further development of novel antagonists. PMID:8864696

  1. Targeting a family B GPCR/RAMP receptor complex: CGRP receptor antagonists and migraine

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Eric L; Salvatore, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    The clinical effectiveness of antagonizing the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor for relief of migraine pain has been clearly demonstrated, but the road to the development of these small molecule antagonists has been daunting. The key hurdle that needed to be overcome was the CGRP receptor itself. The vast majority of the current antagonists recognize similar epitopes on the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1). RAMP1 is a relatively small, single, transmembrane-spanning protein and along with the G-protein-coupled receptor CLR comprise a functional CGRP receptor. The tri-helical extracellular domain of RAMP1 plays a key role in the high affinity binding of CGRP receptor antagonists and drives their species-selective pharmacology. Over the years, a significant amount of mutagenesis data has been generated to identify specific amino acids or regions within CLR and RAMP1 that are critical to antagonist binding and has directed attention to the CLR/RAMP1 extracellular domain (ECD) complex. Recently, the crystal structure of the CGRP receptor ECD has been elucidated and not only reinforces the early mutagenesis data, but provides critical insight into the molecular mechanism of CGRP receptor antagonism. This review will highlight the drug design hurdles that must be overcome to meet the desired potency, selectivity and pharmacokinetic profile while retaining drug-like properties. Although the development of these antagonists has proved challenging, blocking the CGRP receptor may one day represent a new way to manage migraine and offer hope to migraine sufferers. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Secretin Family (Class B) G Protein-Coupled Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.166.issue-1 PMID:21871019

  2. Inhibition of ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors by antagonists: strategy to estimate the association and the dissociation rate constant of antagonists with very strong affinity to the receptors.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, H; Inoue, Y; Hori, K

    1992-10-01

    Since binding of an agonist to an ionotropic neurotransmitter receptor causes not only channel opening, but also desensitization of the receptor, inhibition of the receptor by the antagonist sometimes becomes very complicated. The transient state kinetics of ligand association and dissociation, and desensitization of the receptor were considered on the basis of the minimal model proposed by Hess' group, and the following possibilities were proposed. 1) When an agonist is simultaneously applied to the receptor with an antagonist whose affinity to the receptor is extremely strong and different from that of the agonist, it is usually impossible to estimate the real inhibition constant exactly from the responses because desensitization of the receptor proceeds before the equilibrium of the ligand binding. Simultaneous addition of the antagonist with strong affinity to the receptor may apparently accelerate inactivation (desensitization) of the receptor. The association rate constant of the antagonist can be estimated by analyses of the rate of the inactivation in the presence and the absence of the antagonist. 2) A preincubated antagonist with a slow dissociation rate constant, i.e., a very effective inhibitor, may cause apparent noncompetitive inhibition of the receptor, since the receptor is desensitized by an agonist as soon as the antagonist dissociates from the receptor and the dissociation of the antagonist from the receptor becomes the rate-determining step. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) was expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injecting mRNA prepared from Electrophorus electricus electroplax and used for the experiments on inhibition by an antagonist.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1337082

  3. Functionalized Congeners of P2Y1 Receptor Antagonists:

    SciTech Connect

    de Castro, Sonia; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Hong, Kunlun; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Costanzi, Stefano; Hechler, Béatrice; Gachet, Christian; Harden, T. Kendall; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    The P2Y{sub 1} receptor is a prothrombotic G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by ADP. Preference for the North (N) ring conformation of the ribose moiety of adenine nucleotide 3',5'-bisphosphate antagonists of the P2Y{sub 1} receptor was established by using a ring-constrained methanocarba (a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) ring as a ribose substitute. A series of covalently linkable N{sup 6}-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2'-deoxyadenosine-3',5'-bisphosphates containing extended 2-alkynyl chains was designed, and binding affinity at the human (h) P2Y{sub 1} receptor determined. The chain of these functionalized congeners contained hydrophilic moieties, a reactive substituent, or biotin, linked via an amide. Variation of the chain length and position of an intermediate amide group revealed high affinity of carboxylic congener 8 (K{sub i} 23 nM) and extended amine congener 15 (K{sub i} 132 nM), both having a 2-(1-pentynoyl) group. A biotin conjugate 18 containing an extended {epsilon}-aminocaproyl spacer chain exhibited higher affinity than a shorter biotinylated analogue. Alternatively, click coupling of terminal alkynes of homologous 2-dialkynyl nucleotide derivatives to alkyl azido groups produced triazole derivatives that bound to the P2Y{sub 1} receptor following deprotection of the bisphosphate groups. The preservation of receptor affinity of the functionalized congeners was consistent with new P2Y{sub 1} receptor modeling and ligand docking. Attempted P2Y{sub 1} antagonist conjugation to PAMAM dendrimer carriers by amide formation or palladium-catalyzed reaction between an alkyne on the dendrimer and a 2-iodopurine-derivatized nucleotide was unsuccessful. A dialkynyl intermediate containing the chain length favored in receptor binding was conjugated to an azide-derivatized dendrimer, and the conjugate inhibited ADP-promoted human platelet aggregation. This is the first example of attaching a strategically functionalized P2Y receptor antagonist to a PAMAM dendrimer to

  4. Pharmacological characterization of antagonists of the C5a receptor

    PubMed Central

    Paczkowski, Natalii J; Finch, Angela M; Whitmore, Jacqueline B; Short, Anna J; Wong, Allan K; Monk, Peter N; Cain, Stuart A; Fairlie, David P; Taylor, Stephen M

    1999-01-01

    Potent and highly selective small molecule antagonists have recently been developed by us for C5a receptors (C5aR) on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). In this study we compared a new cyclic antagonist, F-[OPdChaWR], with an acyclic derivative, MeFKPdChaWr, for their capacities to bind to C5aR on human PMN and human umbilical artery membranes. We also compared their inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO) secretion from human PMNs and their inhibition of human umbilical artery contraction induced by human recombinant C5a.In both PMNs and umbilical artery, the cyclic and acyclic C5a antagonists displayed insurmountable antagonism against C5a. There were differences in selectivities for the C5aR with F-[OPdChaWR] (pKb 8.64±0.21) being 30 times more potent than MeFKPdChaWr (pKb 7.16±0.11, P<0.05) in PMNs, but of similar potency (pKb 8.19±0.38 vs pKb 8.28±0.29, respectively) in umbilical artery. This trend was also reflected in their relative binding affinities, both antagonists having similar affinities (−logIC50 values) for C5aR in umbilical artery membranes (F-[OPdChaWR], 7.00±0.46; MeFKPdChaWr, 7.23±0.17), whereas in PMN membranes the C5aR affinity of the cycle F-[OPdChaWR] (7.05±0.06) was four times higher than that of acyclic MeFKPdChaWr (6.43±0.24, P<0.05).In summary, the results reveal that these antagonists are insurmountable in nature against C5a for C5aR on at least two human cell types, and the differences in relative receptor binding affinities and antagonistic potencies against C5a are consistent with differences in receptors within these cell types. The nature of these differences is yet to be elucidated. PMID:10602324

  5. Characterization of a novel non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qun-Yi; Zhang, Meng; Hallis, Tina M.; DeRosier, Therese A.; Yue, Jian-Min; Ye, Yang; Mais, Dale E.; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2010-01-15

    Selective antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are desirable for the treatment of hypercortisolemia associated with Cushing's syndrome, psychic depression, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and glaucoma. NC3327, a non-steroidal small molecule with potent binding affinity to GR (K{sub i} = 13.2 nM), was identified in a high-throughput screening effort. As a full GR antagonist, NC3327 greatly inhibits the dexamethasone (Dex) induction of marker genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, but has a minimal effect on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a GR responsive pro-inflammatory gene. Interestingly, the compound recruits neither coactivators nor corepressors to the GR complex but competes with glucocorticoids for the interaction between GR and a coactivator peptide. Moreover, NC3327 does not trigger GR nuclear translocation, but significantly blocks Dex-induced GR transportation to the nucleus, and thus appears to be a 'competitive' GR antagonist. Therefore, the non-steroidal compound, NC3327, may represent a new class of GR antagonists as potential therapeutics for a variety of cortisol-related endocrine disorders.

  6. Adenosine receptor antagonists alter the stability of human epileptic GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Roseti, Cristina; Martinello, Katiuscia; Fucile, Sergio; Piccari, Vanessa; Mascia, Addolorata; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Quarato, Pier Paolo; Manfredi, Mario; Esposito, Vincenzo; Cantore, Gianpaolo; Arcella, Antonella; Simonato, Michele; Fredholm, Bertil B.; Limatola, Cristina; Miledi, Ricardo; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    We examined how the endogenous anticonvulsant adenosine might influence γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor stability and which adenosine receptors (ARs) were involved. Upon repetitive activation (GABA 500 μM), GABAA receptors, microtransplanted into Xenopus oocytes from neurosurgically resected epileptic human nervous tissues, exhibited an obvious GABAA-current (IGABA) run-down, which was consistently and significantly reduced by treatment with the nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist CGS15943 (100 nM) or with adenosine deaminase (ADA) (1 units/ml), that inactivates adenosine. It was also found that selective antagonists of A2B (MRS1706, 10 nM) or A3 (MRS1334, 30 nM) receptors reduced IGABA run-down, whereas treatment with the specific A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX (10 nM) was ineffective. The selective A2A receptor antagonist SCH58261 (10 nM) reduced or potentiated IGABA run-down in ≈40% and ≈20% of tested oocytes, respectively. The ADA-resistant, AR agonist 2-chloroadenosine (2-CA) (10 μM) potentiated IGABA run-down but only in ≈20% of tested oocytes. CGS15943 administration again decreased IGABA run-down in patch-clamped neurons from either human or rat neocortex slices. IGABA run-down in pyramidal neurons was equivalent in A1 receptor-deficient and wt neurons but much larger in neurons from A2A receptor-deficient mice, indicating that, in mouse cortex, GABAA-receptor stability is tonically influenced by A2A but not by A1 receptors. IGABA run-down from wt mice was not affected by 2-CA, suggesting maximal ARs activity by endogenous adenosine. Our findings strongly suggest that cortical A2–A3 receptors alter the stability of GABAA receptors, which could offer therapeutic opportunities. PMID:18809912

  7. Crystal Structure of Antagonist Bound Human Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Chrencik, Jill E.; Roth, Christopher B.; Terakado, Masahiko; Kurata, Haruto; Omi, Rie; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Warshaviak, Dora; Nakade, Shinji; Asmar-Rovira, Guillermo; Mileni, Mauro; Mizuno, Hirotaka; Griffith, Mark T.; Rodgers, Caroline; Han, Gye Won; Velasquez, Jeffrey; Chun, Jerold; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lipid biology continues to emerge as an area of significant therapeutic interest, particularly as the result of an enhanced understanding of the wealth of signaling molecules with diverse physiological properties. This growth in knowledge is epitomized by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which functions through interactions with six cognate G protein-coupled receptors. Herein we present three crystal structures of LPA1 in complex with antagonist tool compounds selected and designed through structural and stability analysis. Structural analysis combined with molecular dynamics identified a basis for ligand access to the LPA1 binding pocket from the extracellular space contrasting with the proposed access for the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor. Characteristics of the LPA1 binding pocket raise the possibility of promiscuous ligand recognition of phosphorylated endocannabinoids. Cell-based assays confirmed this hypothesis, linking the distinct receptor systems through metabolically related ligands with potential functional and therapeutic implications for treatment of disease. PMID:26091040

  8. Vasopressin receptor antagonists, heart failure, and polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Torres, Vicente E

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of nonpeptide orally bioavailable vasopressin antagonists devoid of agonistic activity (vaptans) has made possible the selective blockade of vasopressin receptor subtypes for therapeutic purposes. Vaptans acting on the vasopressin V2 receptors (aquaretics) have attracted attention as a possible therapy for heart failure and polycystic kidney disease. Despite a solid rationale and encouraging preclinical testing, aquaretics have not improved clinical outcomes in randomized clinical trials for heart failure. Additional clinical trials with select population targets, more flexible dosing schedules, and possibly a different drug type or combination (balanced V1a/V2 receptor antagonism) may be warranted. Aquaretics are promising for the treatment of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and have been approved in Japan for this indication. More studies are needed to better define their long-term safety and efficacy and optimize their utilization. PMID:25493947

  9. Nicotinic Receptor Antagonists as Treatments for Nicotine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Peter A.; Bardo, Michael T.; Dwoskin, Linda P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven efficacy of current pharmacotherapies for tobacco dependence, relapse rates continue to be high, indicating that novel medications are needed. Currently, several smoking cessation agents are available, including varenicline (Chantix®), bupropion (Zyban®), and cytisine (Tabex®). Varenicline and cytisine are partial agonists at the α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Bupropion is an antidepressant but is also an antagonist at α3β2* ganglionic nAChRs. The rewarding effects of nicotine are mediated, in part, by nicotine-evoked dopamine (DA) release leading to sensitization, which is associated with repeated nicotine administration and nicotine addiction. Receptor antagonists that selectivity target central nAChR subtypes mediating nicotine-evoked DA release should have efficacy as tobacco use cessation agents with the therapeutic advantage of a limited side-effect profile. While α-conotoxin MII (α-CtxMII)-insensitive nAChRs (e.g., α4β2*) contribute to nicotine-evoked DA release, these nAChRs are widely distributed in the brain, and inhibition of these receptors may lead to nonselective and untoward effects. In contrast, α-CtxMII-sensitive nAChRs mediating nicotine-evoked DA release offer an advantage as targets for smoking cessation, due to their more restricted localization primarily to dopaminergic neurons. Small drug-like molecules that are selective antagonists at α-CtxMII-sensitive nAChR subtypes that contain α6 and β2 subunits have now been identified. Early research identified a variety of quaternary ammonium analogs that were potent and selective antagonists at nAChRs mediating nicotine-evoked DA release. More recent data have shown that novel, non-quaternary bis-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine analogs potently inhibit (IC50<1 nM) nicotine-evoked DA release in vitro by acting as antagonists at α-CtxMII-sensitive nAChR subtypes; these compounds also decrease NIC self-administration in rats. PMID:24484986

  10. GABAA receptor modulating steroid antagonists (GAMSA) are functional in vivo.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Maja; Strömberg, Jessica; Ragagnin, Gianna; Doverskog, Magnus; Bäckström, Torbjörn

    2016-06-01

    GABAA receptor modulating steroid antagonists (GAMSA) selectively inhibit neurosteroid-mediated enhancement of GABA-evoked currents at the GABAA receptor. 3α-hydroxy-neurosteroids, notably allopregnanolone and tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC), potentiate GABAA receptor-mediated currents. On the contrary, various 3β-hydroxy-steroids antagonize this positive neurosteroid-mediated modulation. Importantly, GAMSAs are specific antagonists of the positive neurosteroid-modulation of the receptor and do not inhibit GABA-evoked currents. Allopregnanolone and THDOC have both negative and positive actions. Allopregnanolone can impair encoding/consolidation and retrieval of memories. Chronic administration of a physiological allopregnanolone concentration reduces cognition in mice models of Alzheimer's disease. In humans an allopregnanolone challenge impairs episodic memory and in hepatic encephalopathy cognitive deficits are accompanied by increased brain ammonia and allopregnanolone. Hippocampal slices react in vitro to ammonia by allopregnanolone synthesis in CA1 neurons, which blocks long-term potentiation (LTP). Thus, allopregnanolone may impair learning and memory by interfering with hippocampal LTP. Contrary, pharmacological treatment with allopregnanolone can promote neurogenesis and positively influence learning and memory of trace eye-blink conditioning in mice. In rat the GAMSA UC1011 inhibits an allopregnanolone-induced learning impairment and the GAMSA GR3027 restores learning and motor coordination in rats with hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, the GAMSA isoallopregnanolone antagonizes allopregnanolone-induced anesthesia in rats, and in humans it antagonizes allopregnanolone-induced sedation and reductions in saccadic eye velocity. 17PA is also an effective GAMSA in vivo, as it antagonizes allopregnanolone-induced anesthesia and spinal analgesia in rats. In vitro the allopregnanolone/THDOC-increased GABA-mediated GABAA receptor activity is antagonized

  11. Toxicological Differences Between NMDA Receptor Antagonists and Cholinesterase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaodong; Lin, Xiaotian; Hu, Rui; Sun, Nan; Hao, Jingru; Gao, Can

    2016-08-01

    Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), represented by donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine, used to be the only approved class of drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. After the approval of memantine by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonists have been recognized by authorities and broadly used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Along with complementary mechanisms of action, NMDA antagonists and ChEIs differ not only in therapeutic effects but also in adverse reactions, which is an important consideration in clinical drug use. And the number of patients using NMDA antagonists and ChEIs concomitantly has increased, making the matter more complicated. Here we used the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System for statistical analysis , in order to compare the adverse events of memantine and ChEIs. In general, the clinical evidence confirmed the safety advantages of memantine over ChEIs, reiterating the precautions of clinical drug use and the future direction of antidementia drug development. PMID:26769920

  12. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene therapy for arthritis.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, B R

    1999-08-01

    Rheumtatoid arthritis (RA) is a crippling, autoimmune disease, and is characterized by inflammation and destruction of joint tissue. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been identified as a key pro-inflammatory cytokine responsible for inflammation. One of the mechanisms of regulation of activity of IL-1 is IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra)-mediated: IL-1RA competes with IL-1 for binding to the IL-1 receptor. Significant progress has been made in the potential application of IL-1ra gene therapyfor the treatment of arthritis. Various vectors have been tested for the delivery of the IL-1ra gene to the intra-articular region. Recent studies in humans have provided encouraging prospects for IL-1ra-mediated arthritis gene therapy. PMID:11713759

  13. Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists in Preventing Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng; Zhang, Hao; Du, Bo-Xiang; Xu, Feng-Ying; Zou, Zui; Sui, Bo; Shi, Xue-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Newly developed neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonists have been recently tried in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to explore whether NK-1R antagonists were effective in preventing PONV. The PRISMA statement guidelines were followed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that tested the preventive effects of NK-1R antagonists on PONV were identified by searching EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library databases followed by screening. Data extraction was performed using a predefined form and trial quality was assessed using a modified Jadad scale. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of PONV. Meta-analysis was performed for studies using similar interventions. Network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to compare the anti-vomiting effects of placebo, ondansetron, and aprepitant at different doses. Fourteen RCTs were included. Meta-analysis found that 80 mg of aprepitant could reduce the incidences of nausea (3 RCTs with 224 patients, pooled risk ratio (RR) = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.47 to 0.75), and vomiting (3 RCTs with 224 patients, pooled RR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.37) compared with placebo. Neither 40 mg (3 RCTs with 1171 patients, RR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.60) nor 125 mg (2 RCTs with 1058 patients, RR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.78) of aprepitant showed superiority over 4 mg of ondansetron in preventing postoperative vomiting. NMA did not find a dose-dependent effect of aprepitant on preventing postoperative vomiting. Limited data suggested that NK-1R antagonists, especially aprepitant were effective in preventing PONV compared with placebo. More large-sampled high-quality RCTs are needed. PMID:25984662

  14. 3D pharmacophore models for thromboxane A(2) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Liu, Yixi; Wang, Songqing

    2009-10-01

    Thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) is an endogenous arachidonic acid derivative closely correlated to thrombosis and other cardiovascular diseases. The action of TXA(2) can be effectively inhibited with TXA(2) receptor antagonists (TXRAs). Previous studies have attempted to describe the interactions between the TXA(2) receptor and its ligands, but their conclusions are still controversial. In this study, ligand-based computational drug design is used as a new and effective way to investigate the structure-activity relationship of TXRAs. Three-dimensional pharmacophore models of TXRAs were built with HypoGenRefine and HipHop modules in CATALYST software. The optimal HypoGenRefine model was developed on the basis of 25 TXRAs. It consists of two hydrophobic groups, one aromatic ring, one hydrogen-bond acceptor and four excluded volumes. The optimal HipHop model contains two hydrophobic groups and two hydrogen-bond acceptors. These models describe the key structure-activity relationship of TXRAs, can predict their activities, and can thus be used to design novel antagonists. PMID:19263096

  15. Evodiamine as a novel antagonist of aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hui; Tu, Yongjiu; Zhang, Chun; Fan, Xia; Wang, Xi; Wang, Zhanli; Liang, Huaping

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Evodiamine interacted with the AhR. {yields} Evodiamine inhibited the specific binding of [{sup 3}H]-TCDD to the AhR. {yields} Evodiamine acts as an antagonist of the AhR. -- Abstract: Evodiamine, the major bioactive alkaloid isolated from Wu-Chu-Yu, has been shown to interact with a wide variety of proteins and modify their expression and activities. In this study, we investigated the interaction between evodiamine and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Molecular modeling results revealed that evodiamine directly interacted with the AhR. Cytosolic receptor binding assay also provided the evidence that evodiamine could interact with the AhR with the K{sub i} value of 28.4 {+-} 4.9 nM. In addition, we observed that evodiamine suppressed the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced nuclear translocation of the AhR and the expression of CYP1A1 dose-dependently. These results suggested that evodiamine was able to bind to the AhR as ligand and exhibit antagonistic effects.

  16. Differential effect of glucocorticoid receptor antagonists on glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation and DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Spiga, Francesca; Knight, David M; Droste, Susanne K; Conway-Campbell, Becky; Kershaw, Yvonne; MacSweeney, Cliona P; Thomson, Fiona J; Craighead, Mark; Peeters, Bernard WMM; Lightman, Stafford L

    2016-01-01

    The effects of RU486 and S-P, a more selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist from Schering-Plough, were investigated on glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation and DNA binding. In the in vitro study, AtT20 cells were treated with vehicle or with RU486, S-P or corticosterone (3–300 nM) or co-treated with vehicle or glucocorticoid receptor antagonists (3–300 nM) and 30 nM corticosterone. Both glucocorticoid receptor antagonists induced glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation but only RU486 induced DNA binding. RU486 potentiated the effect of corticosterone on glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation and DNA binding, S-P inhibited corticosterone-induced glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation, but not glucocorticoid receptor-DNA binding. In the in vivo study, adrenalectomized rats were treated with vehicle, RU486 (20 mg/kg) and S-P (50 mg/kg) alone or in combination with corticosterone (3 mg/kg). RU486 induced glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation in the pituitary, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and glucocorticoid receptor-DNA binding in the hippocampus, whereas no effect of S-P on glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation or DNA binding was observed in any of the areas analysed. These findings reveal differential effects of RU486 and S-P on areas involved in regulation of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity in vivo and they are important in light of the potential use of this class of compounds in the treatment of disorders associated with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20093322

  17. N-Benzylpiperidine Derivatives as α7 Nicotinic Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Criado, Manuel; Mulet, José; Sala, Francisco; Sala, Salvador; Colmena, Inés; Gandía, Luis; Bautista-Aguilera, Oscar M; Samadi, Abdelouahid; Chioua, Mourad; Marco-Contelles, José

    2016-08-17

    A series of multitarget directed propargylamines, as well as other differently susbstituted piperidines have been screened as potential modulators of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Most of them showed antagonist actions on α7 nAChRs. Especially, compounds 13, 26, and 38 displayed submicromolar IC50 values on homomeric α7 nAChRs, whereas they were less effective on heteromeric α3β4 and α4β2 nAChRs (up to 20-fold higher IC50 values in the case of 13). Antagonism was concentration dependent and noncompetitive, suggesting that these compounds behave as negative allosteric modulators of nAChRs. Upon the study of a series of less complex derivatives, the N-benzylpiperidine motif, common to these compounds, was found to be the main pharmacophoric group. Thus, 2-(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-ethylamine (48) showed an inhibitory potency comparable to the one of the previous compounds and also a clear preference for α7 nAChRs. In a neuroblastoma cell line, representative compounds 13 and 48 also inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, cytosolic Ca(2+) signals mediated by nAChRs. Finally, compounds 38 and 13 inhibited 5-HT3A serotonin receptors whereas they had no effect on α1 glycine receptors. Given the multifactorial nature of many pathologies in which nAChRs are involved, these piperidine antagonists could have a therapeutic potential in cases where cholinergic activity has to be negatively modulated. PMID:27254782

  18. Orexin receptor antagonists as therapeutic agents for insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Equihua, Ana C.; De La Herrán-Arita, Alberto K.; Drucker-Colin, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Insomnia is a common clinical condition characterized by difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or non-restorative sleep with impairment of daytime functioning. Currently, treatment for insomnia involves a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBTi) and pharmacological therapy. Among pharmacological interventions, the most evidence exists for benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor agonist drugs (GABAA receptor), although concerns persist regarding their safety and their limited efficacy. The use of these hypnotic medications must be carefully monitored for adverse effects. Orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides have been shown to regulate transitions between wakefulness and sleep by promoting cholinergic/monoaminergic neural pathways. This has led to the development of a new class of pharmacological agents that antagonize the physiological effects of orexin. The development of these agents may lead to novel therapies for insomnia without the side effect profile of hypnotics (e.g., impaired cognition, disturbed arousal, and motor balance difficulties). However, antagonizing a system that regulates the sleep-wake cycle may create an entirely different side effect profile. In this review, we discuss the role of orexin and its receptors on the sleep-wake cycle and that of orexin antagonists in the treatment of insomnia. PMID:24416019

  19. NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine impairs feature integration in visual perception.

    PubMed

    Meuwese, Julia D I; van Loon, Anouk M; Scholte, H Steven; Lirk, Philipp B; Vulink, Nienke C C; Hollmann, Markus W; Lamme, Victor A F

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent interactions between neurons in the visual cortex are crucial for the integration of image elements into coherent objects, such as in figure-ground segregation of textured images. Blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in monkeys can abolish neural signals related to figure-ground segregation and feature integration. However, it is unknown whether this also affects perceptual integration itself. Therefore, we tested whether ketamine, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, reduces feature integration in humans. We administered a subanesthetic dose of ketamine to healthy subjects who performed a texture discrimination task in a placebo-controlled double blind within-subject design. We found that ketamine significantly impaired performance on the texture discrimination task compared to the placebo condition, while performance on a control fixation task was much less impaired. This effect is not merely due to task difficulty or a difference in sedation levels. We are the first to show a behavioral effect on feature integration by manipulating the NMDA receptor in humans. PMID:24223927

  20. NMDA Receptor Antagonist Ketamine Impairs Feature Integration in Visual Perception

    PubMed Central

    Meuwese, Julia D. I.; van Loon, Anouk M.; Scholte, H. Steven; Lirk, Philipp B.; Vulink, Nienke C. C.; Hollmann, Markus W.; Lamme, Victor A. F.

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent interactions between neurons in the visual cortex are crucial for the integration of image elements into coherent objects, such as in figure-ground segregation of textured images. Blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in monkeys can abolish neural signals related to figure-ground segregation and feature integration. However, it is unknown whether this also affects perceptual integration itself. Therefore, we tested whether ketamine, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, reduces feature integration in humans. We administered a subanesthetic dose of ketamine to healthy subjects who performed a texture discrimination task in a placebo-controlled double blind within-subject design. We found that ketamine significantly impaired performance on the texture discrimination task compared to the placebo condition, while performance on a control fixation task was much less impaired. This effect is not merely due to task difficulty or a difference in sedation levels. We are the first to show a behavioral effect on feature integration by manipulating the NMDA receptor in humans. PMID:24223927

  1. The Serotonin-6 Receptor as a Novel Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Hyung-Mun

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter that is found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. 5-HT mediates its diverse physiological responses through 7 different 5-HT receptor families: 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors. Among them, the 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) is the most recently cloned serotonin receptor and plays important roles in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the etiology of neurological diseases. Compared to other 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT6R has been considered as an attractive CNS therapeutic target because it is expressed exclusively in the CNS and has no known isoforms. This review evaluates in detail the role of the 5-HT6R in the physiology and pathophysiology of the CNS and the potential usefulness of 5-HT6R ligands in the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of CNS disorders. Preclinical studies provide support for the use of 5-HT6R ligands as promising medications to treat the cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's disease, obesity, depression, and anxiety. PMID:22355260

  2. [Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension: endothelin-receptor antagonists].

    PubMed

    Hoeper, M M

    2006-12-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is of significance in the pathophysiology and prognosis of pulmonary hypertension (PHT). Bosentan, an endothelin-receptor antagonist, currently plays a central role in the treatment of PHT, because it improves exercise capacity, hemodynamics, clinical symptoms and right ventricular function, achieving a survival duration of 2- 3 years. Bosentan causes an increase of transaminases in about 10% of patients, but this effect is reversible on dosage reduction or discontinuing the medication. However, transaminases should be measured every 4 weeks while patients are on bosentan. Almost all current guidelines list bosentan as of equal value to sildenafil or prostacyclin analogues in the first-line treatment of patients in NYHA functional class III and also, with narrower indications, of those in class IV. PMID:17139593

  3. Substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines as selective antagonists for the orexin 1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Perrey, David A; German, Nadezhda A; Gilmour, Brian P; Li, Jun-Xu; Harris, Danni L; Thomas, Brian F; Zhang, Yanan

    2013-09-12

    Increasing evidence implicates the orexin 1 (OX1) receptor in reward processes, suggesting OX1 antagonism could be therapeutic in drug addiction. In a program to develop an OX1 selective antagonist, we designed and synthesized a series of substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines and determined their potency in OX1 and OX2 calcium mobilization assays. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed limited steric tolerance and a preference for electron deficiency at the 7-position. Pyridylmethyl groups were shown to be optimal for activity at the acetamide position. Computational studies resulted in a pharmacophore model and confirmed the SAR results. Compound 72 significantly attenuated the development of place preference for cocaine in rats. PMID:23941044

  4. Prostaglandins, H2-receptor antagonists and peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Bright-Asare, P; Habte, T; Yirgou, B; Benjamin, J

    1988-01-01

    Peptic ulcer develops when offensive factors overwhelm defensive processes in the gastroduodenal mucosa. Offensive factors include NSAIDs, hydrochloric acid-peptic activity, bile reflux, and some products of the lipoxygenase pathway such as leukotriene B4; whereas defensive processes are largely mediated by prostaglandins through poorly understood mechanisms uniformly termed cytoprotection. Cytoprotection, a physiological process working through the products of arachidonic acid metabolism, may result from the net effect of the protective actions of prostaglandins versus the damaging actions of leukotrienes. Some prostaglandins also have antisecretory effects. Therefore the peptic ulcer healing effects of prostaglandin analogues, all of which have significant antisecretory activity, may be more due to their antisecretory effects than primarily to their effects on mucosal defences. Certain drug-induced gastroduodenal lesions, e.g. NSAID-induced ulcers, which are often unresponsive to H2-receptor antagonists, have been healed and their recurrence prevented by the use of PGE1 and PGE2 analogues. All the prostaglandin analogues investigated to date in humans have the potential for inducing abortion, an important side effect which may limit their worldwide use. The optimal prostaglandin analogue for ulcer healing should not induce abortion and should be potently cytoprotective. The predominant damaging agent in the development of peptic ulcer disease is gastric hydrochloric acid. Thus, the worldwide established efficacy and safety of H2-receptor antagonists such as cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine and most recently of roxatidine acetate suggest that these agents have become the standard by which other forms of anti-ulcer therapy should be judged. PMID:2905237

  5. Adenosine receptor antagonist and augmented vasodilation during hypoxic exercise.

    PubMed

    Casey, Darren P; Madery, Brandon D; Pike, Tasha L; Eisenach, John H; Dietz, Niki M; Joyner, Michael J; Wilkins, Brad W

    2009-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that adenosine contributes to augmented skeletal muscle vasodilation during hypoxic exercise. In separate protocols, subjects performed incremental rhythmic forearm exercise (10% and 20% of maximum) during normoxia and normocapnic hypoxia (80% arterial O2 saturation). In protocol 1 (n = 8), subjects received an intra-arterial administration of saline (control) and aminophylline (adenosine receptor antagonist). In protocol 2 (n = 10), subjects received intra-arterial phentolamine (alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist) and combined phentolamine and aminophylline administration. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; in ml x min(-1).100 mmHg(-1)) was calculated from forearm blood flow (in ml/min) and blood pressure (in mmHg). In protocol 1, the change in FVC (DeltaFVC; change from normoxic baseline) during hypoxic exercise with saline was 172 +/- 29 and 314 +/- 34 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1) (10% and 20%, respectively). Aminophylline administration did not affect DeltaFVC during hypoxic exercise at 10% (190 +/- 29 ml x min(-1)x100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.4) or 20% (287 +/- 48 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.3). In protocol 2, DeltaFVC due to hypoxic exercise with phentolamine infusion was 313 +/- 30 and 453 +/- 41 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1) (10% and 20% respectively). DeltaFVC was similar at 10% (352 +/- 39 ml min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.8) and 20% (528 +/- 45 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.2) hypoxic exercise with combined phentolamine and aminophylline. In contrast, DeltaFVC to exogenous adenosine was reduced by aminophylline administration in both protocols (P < 0.05 for both). These observations suggest that adenosine receptor activation is not obligatory for the augmented hyperemia during hypoxic exercise in humans. PMID:19661449

  6. Expression of histamine H4 receptor in human epidermal tissues and attenuation of experimental pruritus using H4 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Yamaura, Katsunori; Oda, Manabu; Suwa, Eriko; Suzuki, Masahiko; Sato, Hiromi; Ueno, Koichi

    2009-10-01

    Many medicines exist which can cause pruritus (itching) as "serious adverse events." Many severe pruritic conditions respond poorly to histamine H1 receptor antagonists; there is no generally accepted antipruritic treatment. Recently described histamine H4 receptors are expressed in haematopoietic cells and have been linked to the pathology of allergy and asthma. We previously reported their expression in human dermal fibroblasts; in this study we have investigated H4 receptor expression in human epidermal tissue and found it to be greater in keratinocytes in the epidermal upper layer than in the lower layer. We have also investigated the effect of histamine H4 receptor antagonists on histamine H1 receptor antagonist-resistant pruritus using a mouse model. Scratching behavior was induced by histamine (300 nmol) or substance P (100 nmol) injected intradermally into the rostral part of the back of each mouse. Fexofenadine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist, reduced scratching induced by histamine but not by substance P, whereas JNJ7777120, a histamine H4 receptor antagonist, significantly reduced both histamine- and substance P-induced scratching. These results suggest that H4 receptor antagonists may be useful for treatment of H1 receptor antagonist-resistant pruritus. PMID:19652466

  7. Metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists but not NMDA antagonists affect conditioned taste aversion acquisition in the parabrachial nucleus of rats.

    PubMed

    Vales, Karel; Zach, Petr; Bielavska, Edita

    2006-02-01

    The effect of glutamate receptor antagonists on conditioned taste aversion (CTA) was studied in rats. The association of the short-term memory of a gustatory conditioned stimulus (CS) with visceral malaise (unconditioned stimulus, US) in the CTA paradigm takes place in the parabrachial nuclei (PBN) of the brainstem. The first direct evidence of participation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the PBN during CTA demonstrated that the extracellular level of glutamate rises during saccharin drinking (Bielavska et al. in Brain Res 887:413-417, 2000). Our results show an effect of microdialysis administration of selective GluR antagonists into the PBN on the formation of CTA engram. We used four glutamate receptor (GluR) antagonists of different types (D-AP5, MK-801 as antagonists of ionotropic GluR and L-AP3, MSPG as antagonists of metabotropic GluR). The disruptive effect of MK-801 on CTA formation in the PBN is concentration-dependent, with the greatest inhibition under the higher concentrations eliciting significant disruption. The application of D-AP5 (0.1, 1, 5 mM) did not elicit a statistically significant blockade of CTA acquisition. This indicates that the association of the US-CS in the PBN is not dependent on NMDA receptors. On the contrary, application of L-AP3 (0.1, 1, 5 mM) blocked the CS-US association. PMID:16273405

  8. Adenosine receptor agonists attenuate and adenosine receptor antagonists exacerbate opiate withdrawal signs.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, G B; Sears, M T

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a role for adenosine in mediating opiate effects. Adenosine receptors and their functions have been shown to be regulated by chronic opiate treatment. This study examines the role of adenosine receptors in the expression of opiate withdrawal behaviors. The effects of single doses of parenterally administered adenosine receptor subtype-selective agonists and antagonists on opiate withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent mice were measured. Mice received subcutaneous morphine pellet treatment for 72 h and then underwent naloxone-precipitated withdrawal after pretreatment with adenosinergic agents. Adenosine agonists attenuated different opiate withdrawal signs. The A1 agonist R-N6(phenylisopropyl)adenosine (0, 0.01, 0.02 mg/kg, IP) significantly reduced wet dog shakes and withdrawal diarrhea, while the A2a-selective agonist 2-p-(2-carboxethyl)phenylethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine or CGS 21680 (0, 0.01, 0.05 mg/kg, IP) significantly inhibited teeth chattering and forepaw treads. Adenosine receptor antagonists enhanced different opiate withdrawal signs. The adenosine A1 antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (0, 1, 10 mg/kg, IP) significantly increased weight loss and the A2 antagonist, 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (0, 1 and 10 mg/kg, IP) enhanced wet dog shakes and withdrawal diarrhea. Treatment effects of adenosinergic agents were not due to nonspecific motor effects, as demonstrated by activity monitoring studies. These results support a role for adenosine receptors in the expression of opiate withdrawal and suggest the potential utility of adenosine agonists in its treatment. PMID:8741956

  9. Dihydromorphine-peptide hybrids with delta receptor agonistic and mu receptor antagonistic actions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.B.; Medzihradsky, F.; Woods, J.H.

    1986-03-05

    The actions of two morphine derivatives with short peptide side chains were evaluated upon the contraction of the isolated mouse vas deferens and upon displacement of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat brain membranes. NIH-9833 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl) was a potent agonist upon the vas deferens. Its EC50 for inhibition of the twitch was 1.2 +/- 0.1 nM. Both naltrexone (10/sup -7/ M) a relatively nonselective opioid antagonist, and ICI-174864 (10/sup -/' M) a highly selective delta receptor antagonist, blocked the actions of NIH-9833 which indicates that this drug is a delta receptor agonist. In contrast, NIH-9835 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-glycyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl), which differs from NIH-9835 by the presence of a single amino acid residue, was devoid of opioid agonistic activity but was a potent antagonist of the inhibitory actions on the vas deferens of morphine and sufentanil. NIH-9833 and NIH-9835 were potent displacers of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat cerebral membranes with EC50's of 0.58 nM and 1.7 nM, respectively. The observation that addition of a single glycyl group changes a dihydromorphine-peptide analog from a potent delta receptor agonist to an equally potent mu receptor antagonist suggests that the two receptor sites might be structurally quite similar.

  10. Vasopressin receptor antagonists and their role in clinical medicine

    PubMed Central

    Narayen, Girish; Mandal, Surya Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality in hospitalized patients. Its treatment is based not only on extracellular fluid volume status of patients but also on its pathogenetic mechanisms. Conventional treatment of hyponatremia like fluid restriction, which is useful in euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia, has very poor patient compliance over long term. Vasopressin receptor antagonists (Vaptans) are a new group of nonpeptide drugs which have been used in various clinical conditions with limited success. Whereas conivaptan is to be administered intravenously, the other vaptans like tolvaptan, lixivaptan, and satavaptan are effective as oral medication. They produce aquaresis by their action on vasopressin type 2 (V2R) receptors in the collecting duct and thus increase solute free water excretion. Vaptans are being used as an alternative to fluid restriction in euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremic patients. Efficacy of vaptans is now well accepted for management of correction of hyponatremia over a short period. However, its efficacy in improving the long-term morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic hyponatremia due to cirrhosis and heart failure is yet to be established. Vaptans have not become the mainstay treatment of hyponatremia yet. PMID:22470853

  11. CGRP Receptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Paul L.; Vause, Carrie V.

    2011-01-01

    Based on preclinical and clinical studies, the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is proposed to play a central role in the underlying pathology of migraine. CGRP and its receptor are widely expressed in both the peripheral and central nervous system by multiple cell types involved in the regulation of inflammatory and nociceptive responses. Peripheral release of CGRP from trigeminal nerve fibers within the dura and from the cell body of trigeminal ganglion neurons is likely to contribute to peripheral sensitization of trigeminal nociceptors. Similarly, the release of CGRP within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis can facilitate activation of nociceptive second order neurons and glial cells. Thus, CGRP is involved in the development and maintenance of persistent pain, central sensitization, and allodynia, events characteristic of migraine pathology. In contrast, CGRP release within the brain is likely to function in an anti-nociceptive capacity. This review will focus on the development and clinical data on CGRP receptor antagonists as well as discussing their potential roles in migraine therapy via modulation of multiple cell types within the peripheral and central nervous systems. PMID:20433208

  12. Angiotensin II receptor blockade in normotensive subjects: A direct comparison of three AT1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mazzolai, L; Maillard, M; Rossat, J; Nussberger, J; Brunner, H R; Burnier, M

    1999-03-01

    Use of angiotensin (Ang) II AT1 receptor antagonists for treatment of hypertension is rapidly increasing, yet direct comparisons of the relative efficacy of antagonists to block the renin-angiotensin system in humans are lacking. In this study, the Ang II receptor blockade induced by the recommended starting dose of 3 antagonists was evaluated in normotensive subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, 4-way crossover study. At 1-week intervals, 12 subjects received a single dose of losartan (50 mg), valsartan (80 mg), irbesartan (150 mg), or placebo. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system was assessed before and 4, 24, and 30 hours after drug intake by 3 independent methods: inhibition of the blood pressure response to exogenous Ang II, in vitro Ang II receptor assay, and reactive changes in plasma Ang II levels. At 4 hours, losartan blocked 43% of the Ang II-induced systolic blood pressure increase; valsartan, 51%; and irbesartan, 88% (P<0.01 between drugs). The effect of each drug declined with time. At 24 hours, a residual effect was found with all 3 drugs, but at 30 hours, only irbesartan induced a marked, significant blockade versus placebo. Similar results were obtained when Ang II receptor blockade was assessed with an in vitro receptor assay and by the reactive rise in plasma Ang II levels. This study thus demonstrates that the first administration of the recommended starting dose of irbesartan induces a greater and longer lasting Ang II receptor blockade than that of valsartan and losartan in normotensive subjects. PMID:10082498

  13. The role of serotonin receptor subtypes in treating depression: a review of animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Gregory V.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are effective in treating depression. Given the existence of different families and subtypes of 5-HT receptors, multiple 5-HT receptors may be involved in the antidepressant-like behavioral effects of SSRIs. Objective Behavioral pharmacology studies investigating the role of 5-HT receptor subtypes in producing or blocking the effects of SSRIs were reviewed. Results Few animal behavior tests were available to support the original development of SSRIs. Since their development, a number of behavioral tests and models of depression have been developed that are sensitive to the effects of SSRIs, as well as to other types of antidepressant treatments. The rationale for the development and use of these tests is reviewed. Behavioral effects similar to those of SSRIs (antidepressant-like) have been produced by agonists at 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2C, 5-HT4, and 5-HT6 receptors. Also, antagonists at 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3, 5- HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors have been reported to produce antidepressant-like responses. Although it seems paradoxical that both agonists and antagonists at particular 5-HT receptors can produce antidepressant-like effects, they probably involve diverse neurochemical mechanisms. The behavioral effects of SSRIs and other antidepressants may also be augmented when 5-HT receptor agonists or antagonists are given in combination. Conclusions The involvement of 5-HT receptors in the antidepressant-like effects of SSRIs is complex and involves the orchestration of stimulation and blockade at different 5-HT receptor subtypes. Individual 5-HT receptors provide opportunities for the development of a newer generation of antidepressants that may be more beneficial and effective than SSRIs. PMID:21107537

  14. Biomolecular recognition of antagonists by α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: Antagonistic mechanism and structure-activity relationships studies.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Ding, Fei

    2015-08-30

    As the key constituent of ligand-gated ion channels in the central nervous system, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and neurodegenerative diseases are strongly coupled in the human species. In recently years the developments of selective agonists by using nAChRs as the drug target have made a large progress, but the studies of selective antagonists are severely lacked. Currently these antagonists rest mainly on the extraction of partly natural products from some animals and plants; however, the production of these crude substances is quite restricted, and artificial synthesis of nAChR antagonists is still one of the completely new research fields. In the context of this manuscript, our primary objective was to comprehensively analyze the recognition patterns and the critical interaction descriptors between target α7 nAChR and a series of the novel compounds with potentially antagonistic activity by means of virtual screening, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation, and meanwhile these recognition reactions were also compared with the biointeraction of α7 nAChR with a commercially natural antagonist - methyllycaconitine. The results suggested clearly that there are relatively obvious differences of molecular structures between synthetic antagonists and methyllycaconitine, while the two systems have similar recognition modes on the whole. The interaction energy and the crucially noncovalent forces of the α7 nAChR-antagonists are ascertained according to the method of Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area. Several amino acid residues, such as B/Tyr-93, B/Lys-143, B/Trp-147, B/Tyr-188, B/Tyr-195, A/Trp-55 and A/Leu-118 played a major role in the α7 nAChR-antagonist recognition processes, in particular, residues B/Tyr-93, B/Trp-147 and B/Tyr-188 are the most important. These outcomes tally satisfactorily with the discussions of amino acid mutations. Based on the explorations of three-dimensional quantitative structure

  15. Antagonist of prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 induces metabolic alterations in liver of mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Zhang, Limin; An, Yanpeng; Zhang, Lulu; Song, Yipeng; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2015-03-01

    Prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (EP4) is one of the receptors for prostaglandin E2 and plays important roles in various biological functions. EP4 antagonists have been used as anti-inflammatory drugs. To investigate the effects of an EP4 antagonist (L-161982) on the endogenous metabolism in a holistic manner, we employed a mouse model, and obtained metabolic and transcriptomic profiles of multiple biological matrixes, including serum, liver, and urine of mice with and without EP4 antagonist (L-161982) exposure. We found that this EP4 antagonist caused significant changes in fatty acid metabolism, choline metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism. EP4 antagonist exposure also induced oxidative stress to mice. Our research is the first of its kind to report information on the alteration of metabolism associated with an EP4 antagonist. This information could further our understanding of current and new biological functions of EP4. PMID:25669961

  16. Stilbenes as κ-Selective, Non-nitrogenous Opioid Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The natural stilbene pawhuskin A has been shown to function as an opioid receptor antagonist, with preferential binding to the κ receptor. This finding encouraged assembly of a set of analogues to probe the importance of key structural features. Assays on these compounds determined that one (compound 29) shows potent opioid receptor binding activity and significantly improved selectivity for the κ receptor. These studies begin to illuminate the structural features of these non-nitrogenous opioid receptor antagonists that are required for activity. PMID:24456556

  17. Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists Decrease Cancer Risk in Asthma Patients.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Ju; Wu, Ping-Hsun; Sheu, Chau-Chyun; Hsu, Ya-Ling; Chang, Wei-An; Hung, Jen-Yu; Yang, Chih-Jen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Kuo, Po-Lin; Huang, Ming-Shyan

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the potential of using cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) for chemoprevention, but this has not been investigated in any clinical setting. We therefore investigated the chemopreventive effect of LTRAs in a nationwide population-based study. From the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we enrolled adults with newly-diagnosed asthma between 2001 and 2011. Among these patients, each LTRA user was matched with five randomly-selected LTRA non-users by sex, age, asthma diagnostic year and modified Charlson Comorbidity Index score. We considered the development of cancer as the outcome. Totally, 4185 LTRA users and 20925 LTRA non-users were identified. LTRA users had a significantly lower cancer incidence rate than LTRA non-users did. Multivariable Cox regression analyses adjusting for baseline characteristics and comorbidities showed LTRA use was an independent protecting factor (hazard ratio = 0.31 [95% CI: 0.24-0.39]), and cancer risk decreased progressively with higher cumulative dose of LTRAs. In conclusion, this study revealed that the LTRA use decreased cancer risk in a dose-dependent manner in asthma patients. The chemopreventive effect of LTRAs deserves further study. PMID:27052782

  18. Side Effects of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in Asthmatic Children

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Unsal Karkiner, Canan Sule; Gunay, Ilker; Can, Demet

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are drugs which have been widely used more than ten years. As the use of LTRAs increases, our knowledge with respect to their side effects increases as well. Objectives: The objective of our study was to evaluat the observed side effects of LTRAs used in patients with astma. Patients and Methods: 1024 patients treated only with LTRAs owing to asthma or early wheezing were included in the study for a five-year period. The observed side effects of LTRAs in these patients were retrospectively investigated. The side effects were divided into two parts as psychiatric and non-psychiatric. Results: Among the 1024 cases included in the study, 67.5% of the patients out of 41 with side effects were male, 32.5% were female and the average age was 6.5 years. The rate of patients with asthma was 63.41% and 36.58% of the patients had early wheezing. It was determined that sex, age and diagnosis (early wheezing or asthma) of the patients were ineffective in the emergence of side effects. The average period for the emergence of side effects was the first month. It was observed that hyperactivity was the most frequently observed psychiatric side effect and that abdominal pain was the non-psychiatric side effect. Conclusions: The side effects of LTRAs were common in children. Therefore, patients must be informed at the beginning of the treatment and they must be evaluated at certain intervals. PMID:26495098

  19. Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists Decrease Cancer Risk in Asthma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Ju; Wu, Ping-Hsun; Sheu, Chau-Chyun; Hsu, Ya-Ling; Chang, Wei-An; Hung, Jen-Yu; Yang, Chih-Jen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Kuo, Po-Lin; Huang, Ming-Shyan

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the potential of using cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) for chemoprevention, but this has not been investigated in any clinical setting. We therefore investigated the chemopreventive effect of LTRAs in a nationwide population-based study. From the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we enrolled adults with newly-diagnosed asthma between 2001 and 2011. Among these patients, each LTRA user was matched with five randomly-selected LTRA non-users by sex, age, asthma diagnostic year and modified Charlson Comorbidity Index score. We considered the development of cancer as the outcome. Totally, 4185 LTRA users and 20925 LTRA non-users were identified. LTRA users had a significantly lower cancer incidence rate than LTRA non-users did. Multivariable Cox regression analyses adjusting for baseline characteristics and comorbidities showed LTRA use was an independent protecting factor (hazard ratio = 0.31 [95% CI: 0.24–0.39]), and cancer risk decreased progressively with higher cumulative dose of LTRAs. In conclusion, this study revealed that the LTRA use decreased cancer risk in a dose-dependent manner in asthma patients. The chemopreventive effect of LTRAs deserves further study. PMID:27052782

  20. Applicability of DPI formulations for novel neurokinin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Kumon, M; Yabe, Y; Kasuya, Y; Suzuki, M; Kusai, A; Yonemochi, E; Terada, K

    2008-05-22

    A novel triple neurokinin receptor antagonist (TNRA) could have pharmaceutical efficacy for asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. TNRA is potentially developed as inhalation medicine. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the applicability of dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation for TNRA. DPI formulation containing lactose was used for this feasibility study. Mechanofusion process for surface modification was applied on lactose particles to prepare four different DPI formulations. The mixture of TNRA and lactose was administered to rats intratracheally using an insufflator. The deposition pattern and blood concentration profile of TNRA were evaluated. Although there was no significant difference in deposition on deep lungs between the four formulations, DPI formulations containing mechanofusion-processed lactose showed longer T(max) and t(1/2) and higher AUC(0-infinity) and MRT compared to that containing intact lactose. On the other hand, the contact angle measurement showed that the mechanofusion process decreased the polar part of the surface energy of the lactose. Therefore, the prolongation of the wetting of the formulated powder mixture seemed to delay the dissolution of TNRA deposited in respiratory tract. It was concluded that DPI formulation containing mechanofusion-processed lactose could be suitable for inhalation of TNRA. PMID:18294787

  1. Chromatographic resolution of angiotensin II receptor antagonists (sartans).

    PubMed

    Tahir, Muhammad Saqlain; Adnan, Ahmad; Syed, Quratulain

    2016-08-01

    First time a simple, sensitive and unified quantification method has been developed to analyze the complete class of angiotensin II receptor antagonists which are used in the treatment of hypertension either alone or in combination with some other drugs. The most important advantage of developed method was that the eight separate drugs can be determined on a single chromatographic system without modifications in detection wavelength and mobile phase. The drugs were separated on a Purospher Star 4.6mm×25cm, 5μm, C18 column maintained at 40°C with 1mLmin(-1) flow rate using ultra violet detection at 254nm. Good separation (Rs>2.0) was achieved in a short analysis allowing simultaneous determination of all eight sartans. The effect of variation in flow rate, detection wavelength and column oven temperature was also studied. The proposed method was statistically validated in terms of precision, accuracy, linearity, specificity and robustness. The newly developed method proved to be specific, robust and accurate for the quantification of eight sartans in commercial pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:27258943

  2. Leukotriene receptor antagonists for chronic urticaria: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients with chronic urticaria respond inadequately to first line treatment with antihistamines. Leukotreine receptor antagonists (LTRA) are also used for chronic urticaria, although firm recommendations on their use are lacking. We performed a systematic review of randomised trials to determine the role of LTRA in treatment of chronic urticaria. A search of PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, LILACS, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Web of Science for relevant randomized control trials or cross over studies yielded 10 eligible studies. The heterogeneity of trials were high, preventing valid meta-analysis of data. Most trials indicated that LTRA are not superior to placebo or antihistamine therapy, while combination therapy of LTRA and antihistamines appear to be more efficacious compared to antihistamine alone. The side effect profile and tolerability of this group of drugs is acceptable. The use of LTRA as monotherapy cannot be recommended. LTRA are effective add-on therapy to anti-histamines, and their use in patients responding poorly to antihistamines is justifiable. Further well designed randomized controlled trials with clear and standardized outcome measures are needed to determine the role of LTRA in chronic urticaria. PMID:24817895

  3. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists for Treatment of Hypertension and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Sica, Domenic A.

    2015-01-01

    Spironolactone and eplerenone are both mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists. These compounds block both the epithelial and nonepithelial actions of aldosterone, with the latter assuming increasing clinical relevance. Spironolactone and eplerenone both affect reductions in blood pressure either as mono- or add-on therapy; moreover, they each afford survival benefits in diverse circumstances of heart failure and the probability of renal protection in proteinuric chronic kidney disease. However, as use of mineralocorticoid-blocking agents has expanded, the hazards inherent in taking such drugs have become more apparent. Whereas the endocrine side effects of spironolactone are in most cases little more than a cosmetic annoyance, the potassium-sparing effects of both spironolactone and eplerenone can prove disastrous, even fatal, if sufficient degrees of hyperkalemia emerge. For most patients, however, the risk of developing hyperkalemia in and of itself should not discourage the sensible clinician from bringing these compounds into play. Hyperkalemia should always be considered a possibility in patients receiving either of these medications; therefore, anticipatory steps should be taken to minimize the likelihood of its occurrence if long-term therapy of these agents is being considered. PMID:27057293

  4. Bioactivation pathways of the cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist rimonabant.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Moa Andresen; Isin, Emre M; Castagnoli, Neal; Milne, Claire E

    2011-10-01

    In the present work, the characterization of the biotransformation and bioactivation pathways of the cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist rimonabant (Acomplia) is described. Rimonabant was approved in Europe in 2006 for the treatment of obesity but was withdrawn in 2008 because of a significant drug-related risk of serious psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present work is to characterize the biotransformation and potential bioactivation pathways of rimonabant in vitro in human and rat liver microsomes. The observation of a major iminium ion metabolite led us to perform reactive metabolite trapping, covalent binding to proteins, and time-dependent inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 studies. The major biotransformation pathways were oxidative dehydrogenation of the piperidinyl ring to an iminium ion, hydroxylation of the 3 position of the piperidinyl ring, and cleavage of the amide linkage. In coincubations with potassium cyanide, three cyanide adducts were detected. A high level of covalent binding of rimonabant in human liver microsomes was observed (920 pmol equivalents/mg protein). In coincubations with potassium cyanide and methoxylamine, the covalent binding was reduced by approximately 40 and 30%, respectively, whereas GSH had no significant effect on covalent binding levels. Rimonabant was also found to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4 irreversibly in a time-dependent manner. In view of these findings, it is noteworthy that, to date, no toxicity findings related to the formation of reactive metabolites from rimonabant have been reported. PMID:21733882

  5. Prazosin, an alpha 1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the Lewis rat.

    PubMed Central

    Brosnan, C F; Goldmuntz, E A; Cammer, W; Factor, S M; Bloom, B R; Norton, W T

    1985-01-01

    Prazosin, an antagonist of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors, has been found to suppress the clinical and histological expression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the Lewis rat. Suppression was more significant in females than in males and was a dose-dependent phenomenon. Analysis of the effect of other adrenergic receptor antagonists supports the conclusion that the suppressive effect of prazosin is a consequence of blockade of the alpha 1-receptor since treatment with either the alpha 2-antagonist yohimbine or the beta-antagonist propranolol exacerbated the disease, whereas treatment with the long-acting mixed alpha 1/alpha 2-antagonist phenoxybenzamine had some suppressive activity. Treatment with prazosin was also able to suppress clinical and histological signs of EAE in animals sensitized by adoptive transfer with activated spleen or lymph node cells. Whether prazosin acts through altering vascular permeability or the immune response, or both, remains to be determined. Images PMID:2994053

  6. Identification of potent CNS-penetrant thiazolidinones as novel CGRP receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Pramod; Anderson, Corey; Binch, Hayley; Hadida, Sabine; Yoo, Sanghee; Bergeron, Danielle; Decker, Caroline; terHaar, Ernst; Moore, Jonathan; Garcia-Guzman, Miguel; Termin, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been implicated in acute migraine pathogenesis. In an effort to identify novel CGRP receptor antagonists for the treatment of migraine, we have discovered thiazolidinone 49, a potent (Ki=30 pM, IC50=1 nM), orally bioavailable, CNS-penetrant CGRP antagonist with good pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:24405707

  7. Discovery and pharmacological profile of new hydrophilic 5-HT(4) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Brudeli, Bjarne; Navaratnarajah, Mirusha; Andressen, Kjetil Wessel; Manfra, Ornella; Moltzau, Lise Román; Nilsen, Nils Olav; Levy, Finn Olav; Klaveness, Jo

    2014-09-15

    The synthesis and pharmacological data of some new and potent hydrophilic 5-HT4 receptor antagonists are described. Propanediol derivative 25 was identified as a potent antagonist with low affinity for the hERG potassium channel and promising pharmacokinetics. PMID:25149506

  8. Discovery of novel non-steroidal reverse indole mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Anthony K; Bunte, Ellen Vande; Mal, Rudrajit; Lan, Ping; Sun, Zhongxiang; Crespo, Alejandro; Wiltsie, Judyann; Clemas, Joseph; Gibson, Jack; Contino, Lisa; Lisnock, JeanMarie; Zhou, Gaochao; Garcia-Calvo, Margarita; Jochnowitz, Nina; Ma, Xiuying; Pan, Yi; Brown, Patricia; Zamlynny, Beata; Bateman, Thomas; Leung, Dennis; Xu, Ling; Tong, Xinchun; Liu, Kun; Crook, Martin; Sinclair, Peter

    2016-06-15

    Reported herein are a series of reverse indoles that represent novel non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists. The key structure-activity relationships (SAR) are presented below. This reverse indole series is exemplified by a compound that demonstrated efficacy in an acute natriuresis rodent model comparable to marketed MR antagonists, spironolactone and eplerenone. PMID:27161805

  9. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor-2 Antagonists: Therapeutic Potential and Potential Risks

    PubMed Central

    Blankenbach, Kira V.; Schwalm, Stephanie; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Meyer zu Heringdorf, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling system with its specific G-protein-coupled S1P receptors, the enzymes of S1P metabolism and the S1P transporters, offers a multitude of promising targets for drug development. Until today, drug development in this area has nearly exclusively focused on (functional) antagonists at the S1P1 receptor, which cause a unique phenotype of immunomodulation. Accordingly, the first-in class S1P1 receptor modulator, fingolimod, has been approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and novel S1P1 receptor (functional) antagonists are being developed for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, lupus erythematodes, or polymyositis. Besides the S1P1 receptor, also S1P2 and S1P3 are widely expressed and regulate many diverse functions throughout the body. The S1P2 receptor, in particular, often exerts cellular functions which are opposed to the functions of the S1P1 receptor. As a consequence, antagonists at the S1P2 receptor have the potential to be useful in a contrasting context and different areas of indication compared to S1P1 antagonists. The present review will focus on the therapeutic potential of S1P2 receptor antagonists and discuss their opportunities as well as their potential risks. Open questions and areas which require further investigations will be emphasized in particular. PMID:27445808

  10. Kynurenic acid amides as novel NR2B selective NMDA receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Borza, István; Kolok, Sándor; Galgóczy, Kornél; Gere, Anikó; Horváth, Csilla; Farkas, Sándor; Greiner, István; Domány, György

    2007-01-15

    A novel series of kynurenic acid amides, ring-enlarged derivatives of indole-2-carboxamides, was prepared and identified as in vivo active NR2B subtype selective NMDA receptor antagonists. The synthesis and SAR studies are discussed. PMID:17074483

  11. QT interval prolongation and torsade de pointes: Synergistic effect of flecainide and H1 receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Materán, Carlos; Díaz-Oliva, Eloy; Fernández-Rodríguez, Diego; Hernández-Afonso, Julio

    2016-01-01

    A high percentage of patients having atrial fibrillation (AF) presents with paroxysmal AF. Flecainide, the prototypic class Ic anti-arrhythmic drug is the most effective drug to maintain sinus rhythm in this subgroup of patients, though the drug has potential pro-arrhythmic effects. Furthermore, the H1 receptor antagonists are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the symptomatic treatment of pruritus. Despite having low number of adverse effects, the H1 receptor antagonists have cardiotoxic effects. Flecainide and H1 receptor antagonists present arrhythmic complications including QT interval prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). The case presented here is a 65-year-old female who was diagnosed of atrial fibrillation and presented with rashes in lower extremities. The patient was treated using flecainide and H1 receptor antagonists (loratadine and hydroxyzine) that prolonged QT interval and induced TdP. The concomitant administration of flecainide and H1 receptor antagonists seems to have a synergistic effect in QT interval prolongation and subsequent TdP. The concurrent administration of H1 receptor antagonists to patients receiving class Ic anti-arrhythmic drugs should be avoided in order to reduce arrhythmic risk in this population. PMID:27440957

  12. Pharmacophore modeling of dual angiotensin II and endothelin A receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wei-Zhe; Lü, Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Zhan-Li

    2009-09-01

    Three-dimensional pharmacophore models were generated for AT1 and ET(A) receptors based on highly selective AT1 and ET(A) antagonists using the program Catalyst/HipHop. Both the best pharmacophore model for selective AT1 antagonists (Hypo-AT(1)-7) and ETA antagonists (Hypo-ET(A)-1) were obtained through a careful validation process. All five features contained in Hypo-AT(1)-7 and Hypo-ET(A)-1 (hydrogen-bond acceptor (A), hydrophobic aliphatic (Z), negative ionizable (N), ring aromatic (R), and hydrophobic aromatic (Y)) seem to be essential for antagonists in terms of binding activity. Dual AT1 and ET(A) receptor antagonists (DARAs) can map to both Hypo-AT(1)-7 and Hypo-ET(A)-1, separately. Comparison of Hypo-AT(1)-7 and Hypo-ET(A)-1, not only AT1 and ET(A) antagonist pharmacophore models consist of essential features necessary for compounds to be highly active and selective toward their corresponding receptor, but also have something in common. The results in this study will act as a valuable tool for designing and researching structural relationship of novel dual AT1 and ET(A) receptor antagonists. PMID:20055175

  13. Development of 1,3-diphenyladamantane derivatives as nonsteroidal progesterone receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shuichi; Takeuchi, Yuki; Tanatani, Aya; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Shinya

    2015-02-15

    Nonsteroidal progesterone receptor (PR) full antagonists are needed as tools for elucidating the physiological functions of PR and as candidates for treatment of various diseases. We designed and synthesized 1,3-diphenyladamantane derivatives, and investigated their PR-antagonistic activity in comparison with our recently developed boron cluster-based PR antagonists. Among the synthesized adamantane derivatives, compound 9a exhibited the most potent PR-antagonistic activity (IC50: 25nM) and showed high binding affinity for the PR ligand-binding domain, comparable with that of the boron cluster-based PR antagonists. These results suggest that disubstituted adamantane, like the boron cluster m-carborane, is a promising hydrophobic pharmacophore for further structural development of nonsteroidal PR antagonists. PMID:25593098

  14. Effect of Acute and Chronic Electroconvulsive Shock on 5-Hydroxytrypamine 6 Receptor Immunoreactivity in Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Kang, Seungwoo; Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Sun-Hye; Shin, Seungkeun; Lee, Hyung Ha

    2014-01-01

    Electroconvulsive shock (ECS) induces not only an antidepressant effect but also adverse effects such as amnesia. One potential mechanism underlying both the antidepressant and amnesia effect of ECS may involve the regulation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) 6 (5-HT6) receptor, but less is known about the effects of acute ECS on the changes in 5-HT6 receptor expression in the hippocampus. In addition, as regulation of 5-HT receptor expression is influenced by the number of ECS treatment and by interval between ECS treatment and sacrifice, it is probable that magnitude and time-dependent changes in 5-HT6 receptor expression could be influenced by repeated ECS exposure. To explore this possibility, we observed and compared the changes of 5-HT6 receptor immunoreactivity (5-HT6 IR) in rat hippocampus at 1, 8, 24, or 72 h after the treatment with either a single ECS (acute ECS) or daily ECS for 10 days (chronic ECS). We found that acute ECS increased 5-HT6 IR in the CA1, CA3, and granule cell layer of hippocampus, reaching peak levels at 8 h and returning to basal levels 72 h later. The magnitude and time-dependent changes in 5-HT6 IR observed after acute ECS were not affected by chronic ECS. These results demonstrate that both acute and chronic ECS transiently increase the 5-HT6 IR in rat hippocampus, and suggest that the magnitude and time-dependent changes in 5-HT6 IR in the hippocampus appear not to be influenced by repeated ECS treatment. PMID:25258570

  15. Both glutamate receptor antagonists and prefrontal cortex lesions prevent induction of cocaine sensitization and associated neuroadaptations.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Hu, X T; Berney, T G; Vartanian, A J; Stine, C D; Wolf, M E; White, F J

    1999-12-01

    Behavioral sensitization to psychomotor stimulants is accompanied by a number of alterations in the mesoaccumbens dopamine (DA) system, including DA autoreceptor subsensitivity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and DA D1 receptor supersensitivity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We investigated the role of excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmission in the induction of cocaine sensitization and these accompanying DA receptor alterations. To do so, we used three glutamate receptor antagonists, the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg), the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist CGS 19755 (10.0 mg/kg), and the AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX (12.5 mg/kg). Rats received daily double injections of either one of these antagonists or saline with either cocaine (15.0 mg/kg) or saline for 5 days. Cocaine sensitization was defined as an increase in horizontal locomotor activity in response to cocaine challenge (7.5 mg/kg) on the third day of withdrawal. All three antagonists prevented the induction of cocaine sensitization. Extracellular single cell recordings revealed that these antagonists also prevented the induction of DA autoreceptor subsensitivity in the VTA and DA D1 receptor supersensitivity in the NAc. To determine whether the relevant glutamate receptors were under regulation by medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) EAA efferents, we next lesioned the mPFC bilaterally with ibotenic acid at least 7 days before repeated cocaine treatment began. These lesions also prevented the induction of cocaine sensitization and the associated neuroadaptations. Our findings indicate that glutamate transmission from mPFC to the mesoaccumbens DA system is critical for the induction of cocaine sensitization and its cellular correlates. PMID:10523754

  16. NOP receptor mediates anti-analgesia induced by agonist-antagonist opioids.

    PubMed

    Gear, R W; Bogen, O; Ferrari, L F; Green, P G; Levine, J D

    2014-01-17

    Clinical studies have shown that agonist-antagonist opioid analgesics that produce their analgesic effect via action on the kappa-opioid receptor, produce a delayed-onset anti-analgesia in men but not women, an effect blocked by co-administration of a low dose of naloxone. We now report the same time-dependent anti-analgesia and its underlying mechanism in an animal model. Using the Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal assay in male rats, we found that nalbuphine, pentazocine, and butorphanol each produced analgesia during the first hour followed by anti-analgesia starting at ∼90min after administration in males but not females, closely mimicking its clinical effects. As observed in humans, co-administration of nalbuphine with naloxone in a dose ratio of 12.5:1 blocked anti-analgesia but not analgesia. Administration of the highly selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 produced analgesia without subsequent anti-analgesia, and confirmed by the failure of the selective kappa antagonist nor-binaltorphimine to block nalbuphine-induced anti-analgesia, indicating that anti-analgesia is not mediated by kappa-opioid receptors. We therefore tested the role of other receptors in nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) and sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors were chosen on the basis of their known anti-analgesic effects and receptor binding studies. The selective NOP receptor antagonists, JTC801, and J-113397, but not the sigma receptor antagonist, BD 1047, antagonized nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Furthermore, the NOP receptor agonist NNC 63-0532 produced anti-analgesia with the same delay in onset observed with the three agonist-antagonists, but without producing preceding analgesia and this anti-analgesia was also blocked by naloxone. These results strongly support the suggestion that clinically used agonist-antagonists act at the NOP receptor to produce anti-analgesia. PMID:24188792

  17. Alcohol- and alcohol antagonist-sensitive human GABAA receptors: tracking δ subunit incorporation into functional receptors.

    PubMed

    Meera, Pratap; Olsen, Richard W; Otis, Thomas S; Wallner, Martin

    2010-11-01

    GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) have long been a focus as targets for alcohol actions. Recent work suggests that tonic GABAergic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic δ subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs is uniquely sensitive to ethanol and enhanced at concentrations relevant for human alcohol consumption. Ethanol enhancement of recombinant α4β3δ receptors is blocked by the behavioral alcohol antagonist 8-azido-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (Ro15-4513), suggesting that EtOH/Ro15-4513-sensitive receptors mediate important behavioral alcohol actions. Here we confirm alcohol/alcohol antagonist sensitivity of α4β3δ receptors using human clones expressed in a human cell line and test the hypothesis that discrepant findings concerning the high alcohol sensitivity of these receptors are due to difficulties incorporating δ subunits into functional receptors. To track δ subunit incorporation, we used a functional tag, a single amino acid change (H68A) in a benzodiazepine binding residue in which a histidine in the δ subunit is replaced by an alanine residue found at the homologous position in γ subunits. We demonstrate that the δH68A substitution confers diazepam sensitivity to otherwise diazepam-insensitive α4β3δ receptors. The extent of enhancement of α4β3δH68A receptors by 1 μM diazepam, 30 mM EtOH, and 1 μM β-carboline-3-carboxy ethyl ester (but not 1 μM Zn(2+) block) is correlated in individual recordings, suggesting that δ subunit incorporation into recombinant GABA(A)Rs varies from cell to cell and that this variation accounts for the variable pharmacological profile. These data are consistent with the notion that δ subunit-incorporation is often incomplete in recombinant systems yet is necessary for high ethanol sensitivity, one of the features of native δ subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs. PMID:20699325

  18. Alcohol- and Alcohol Antagonist-Sensitive Human GABAA Receptors: Tracking δ Subunit Incorporation into Functional Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Meera, Pratap; Olsen, Richard W.; Otis, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    GABAA receptors (GABAARs) have long been a focus as targets for alcohol actions. Recent work suggests that tonic GABAergic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic δ subunit-containing GABAARs is uniquely sensitive to ethanol and enhanced at concentrations relevant for human alcohol consumption. Ethanol enhancement of recombinant α4β3δ receptors is blocked by the behavioral alcohol antagonist 8-azido-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (Ro15-4513), suggesting that EtOH/Ro15-4513-sensitive receptors mediate important behavioral alcohol actions. Here we confirm alcohol/alcohol antagonist sensitivity of α4β3δ receptors using human clones expressed in a human cell line and test the hypothesis that discrepant findings concerning the high alcohol sensitivity of these receptors are due to difficulties incorporating δ subunits into functional receptors. To track δ subunit incorporation, we used a functional tag, a single amino acid change (H68A) in a benzodiazepine binding residue in which a histidine in the δ subunit is replaced by an alanine residue found at the homologous position in γ subunits. We demonstrate that the δH68A substitution confers diazepam sensitivity to otherwise diazepam-insensitive α4β3δ receptors. The extent of enhancement of α4β3δH68A receptors by 1 μM diazepam, 30 mM EtOH, and 1 μM β-carboline-3-carboxy ethyl ester (but not 1 μM Zn2+ block) is correlated in individual recordings, suggesting that δ subunit incorporation into recombinant GABAARs varies from cell to cell and that this variation accounts for the variable pharmacological profile. These data are consistent with the notion that δ subunit-incorporation is often incomplete in recombinant systems yet is necessary for high ethanol sensitivity, one of the features of native δ subunit-containing GABAARs. PMID:20699325

  19. CGRP receptor antagonists and antibodies against CGRP and its receptor in migraine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Edvinsson, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Recently developed calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonistic molecules have shown promising results in clinical trials for acute treatment of migraine attacks. Drugs from the gepant class of CGRP receptor antagonists are effective and do not cause vasoconstriction, one of the major limitations in the use of triptans. However their use had to be discontinued because of risk of liver toxicity after continuous exposure. As an alternative approach to block CGRP transmission, fully humanized monoclonal antibodies towards CGRP and the CGRP receptor have been developed for treatment of chronic migraine (attacks >15 days/month). Initial results from phase I and II clinical trials have revealed promising results with minimal side effects and significant relief from chronic migraine as compared with placebo. The effectiveness of these various molecules raises the question of where is the target site(s) for antimigraine action. The gepants are small molecules that can partially pass the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and therefore, might have effects in the CNS. However, antibodies are large molecules and have limited possibility to pass the BBB, thus effectively excluding them from having a major site of action within the CNS. It is suggested that the antimigraine site should reside in areas not limited by the BBB such as intra- and extracranial vessels, dural mast cells and the trigeminal system. In order to clarify this topic and surrounding questions, it is important to understand the localization of CGRP and the CGRP receptor components in these possible sites of migraine-related regions and their relation to the BBB. PMID:25731075

  20. Blockade of Cocaine or σ Receptor Agonist Self Administration by Subtype-Selective σ Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Hiranita, Takato; Kopajtic, Theresa A.; Rice, Kenner C.; Mesangeau, Christophe; Narayanan, Sanju; Abdelazeem, Ahmed H.; McCurdy, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of sigma receptor (σR) subtypes has been based on radioligand binding and, despite progress with σ1R cellular function, less is known about σR subtype functions in vivo. Recent findings that cocaine self administration experience will trigger σR agonist self administration was used in this study to assess the in vivo receptor subtype specificity of the agonists (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084 [2-(4-morpholinethyl) 1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride], and 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) and several novel putative σR antagonists. Radioligand binding studies determined in vitro σR selectivity of the novel compounds, which were subsequently studied for self administration and antagonism of cocaine, (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084, or DTG self administration. Across the dose ranges studied, none of the novel compounds were self administered, nor did they alter cocaine self administration. All compounds blocked DTG self administration, with a subset also blocking (+)-pentazocine and PRE-084 self administration. The most selective of the compounds in binding σ1Rs blocked cocaine self administration when combined with a dopamine transport inhibitor, either methylphenidate or nomifensine. These drug combinations did not decrease rates of responding maintained by food reinforcement. In contrast, the most selective of the compounds in binding σ2Rs had no effect on cocaine self administration in combination with either dopamine transport inhibitor. Thus, these results identify subtype-specific in vivo antagonists, and the utility of σR agonist substitution for cocaine self administration as an assay capable of distinguishing σR subtype selectivity in vivo. These results further suggest that effectiveness of dual σR antagonism and dopamine transport inhibition in blocking cocaine self administration is specific for σ1Rs and further support this dual targeting approach to development of cocaine antagonists. PMID:27189970

  1. Blockade of Cocaine or σ Receptor Agonist Self Administration by Subtype-Selective σ Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jonathan L; Hiranita, Takato; Kopajtic, Theresa A; Rice, Kenner C; Mesangeau, Christophe; Narayanan, Sanju; Abdelazeem, Ahmed H; McCurdy, Christopher R

    2016-07-01

    The identification of sigma receptor (σR) subtypes has been based on radioligand binding and, despite progress with σ1R cellular function, less is known about σR subtype functions in vivo. Recent findings that cocaine self administration experience will trigger σR agonist self administration was used in this study to assess the in vivo receptor subtype specificity of the agonists (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084 [2-(4-morpholinethyl) 1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride], and 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) and several novel putative σR antagonists. Radioligand binding studies determined in vitro σR selectivity of the novel compounds, which were subsequently studied for self administration and antagonism of cocaine, (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084, or DTG self administration. Across the dose ranges studied, none of the novel compounds were self administered, nor did they alter cocaine self administration. All compounds blocked DTG self administration, with a subset also blocking (+)-pentazocine and PRE-084 self administration. The most selective of the compounds in binding σ1Rs blocked cocaine self administration when combined with a dopamine transport inhibitor, either methylphenidate or nomifensine. These drug combinations did not decrease rates of responding maintained by food reinforcement. In contrast, the most selective of the compounds in binding σ2Rs had no effect on cocaine self administration in combination with either dopamine transport inhibitor. Thus, these results identify subtype-specific in vivo antagonists, and the utility of σR agonist substitution for cocaine self administration as an assay capable of distinguishing σR subtype selectivity in vivo. These results further suggest that effectiveness of dual σR antagonism and dopamine transport inhibition in blocking cocaine self administration is specific for σ1Rs and further support this dual targeting approach to development of cocaine antagonists. PMID:27189970

  2. Antagonist but not agonist labeling of serotonin-1A receptors is decreased in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stockmeier, Craig A.; Howley, Eimear; Shi, Xiaochun; Sobanska, Anna; Clarke, Gerard; Friedman, Lee; Rajkowska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin-1A receptors may play a role in the pathophysiology of depression and suicide. In postmortem brain tissue, agonist binding to serotonin-1A receptors is reportedly increased or unchanged in depression or suicide, while neuroimaging studies report a decrease in antagonist binding to these receptors in subjects with depression. In this study, both agonist and antagonist radioligand binding to serotonin-1A receptors were examined in postmortem orbitofrontal cortex from subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). Brain tissue was collected at autopsy from 11 subjects with MDD and 11 age- and gender-matched normal control subjects. Two depressed subjects had a recent psychoactive substance use disorder. Six subjects with MDD had a prescription for an antidepressant drug in the last month of life, and, of these six, postmortem bloods from only two subjects tested positive for an antidepressant drug. There was no significant difference between cohorts for age, postmortem interval or tissue pH. The receptor agonist [3H]8-OH-DPAT or the antagonist [3H]MPPF were used to autoradiographically label serotonin-1A receptors in frozen sections from cytoarchitectonically-defined left rostral orbitofrontal cortex (area 47). There was no significant difference between depressed and control subjects in agonist binding to serotonin-1A receptors. However, antagonist binding was significantly decreased in outer layers of orbitofrontal cortex in MDD. This observation in postmortem tissue confirms reports using an antagonist radioligand in living subjects with depression. Decreased antagonist binding to serotonin-1A receptors in outer layers of orbitofrontal cortex suggests diminished receptor signaling and may be linked to corresponding neuronal changes detected previously in these depressed subjects. PMID:19215942

  3. Improvement of Cold Tolerance by Selective A1 Adenosine Receptor Antagonists in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, T. F.; Li, D. J.; Jacobson, K. A.; Wang, L. C. H.

    2015-01-01

    Previously we have shown that the improvement of cold tolerance by theophylline is due to antagonism at adenosine receptors rather than inhibition of phosphodiesterase. Since theophylline is a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist for both A1 and A2 receptors, the present study investigated the adenosine receptor subtype involved in theophylline’s action. Acute systemic injection of selective A1 receptor antagonists (1,3-dialkyl-8-aryl or 1,3-dialkyl-8-cyclopentyl xanthine derivatives) significantly increased both the total and maximal heat production as well as cold tolerance. In contrast, injection of a relatively selective A2 receptor antagonist, 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (compound No. 19), failed to significantly alter the thermogenic response of the rat under cold exposure. Further, the relative effectiveness of these compounds in increasing total thermogenesis was positively correlated with their potency in blocking the A1 adenosine receptor (r= .52, p<0.01), but not in A2 adenosine receptor (r= .20, p<0.2). It is likely that the thermally beneficial effects of adenosine A1 antagonists are due to their attenuation of the inhibitory effects of endogenously released adenosine on lipolysis and glucose utilization, resulting in increased substrate mobilization and utilization for enhanced thermogenesis. PMID:2263650

  4. In silico binding characteristics between human histamine H1 receptor and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojian; Yang, Qian; Li, Minyong; Yin, Dali; You, Qidong

    2010-09-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the H(1) receptor antagonists have important therapeutic significance in the treatment of various allergic disorders, but little was known about the binding mode between the receptor and antagonists since the crystal structure of G-protein coupling receptors (GPCRs) were hard to obtain. In this paper, a theoretical three-dimensional model of human histamine H(1) receptor (HHR1) was developed on the basis of recently reported high resolution structures of human A(2A) adenosine receptor, human beta(2)-adrenoceptor and turkey beta(1)-adrenoceptor. Furthermore, three representative H(1) receptor antagonists were chosen for docking studies. Subsequently, a qualitative pharmacophore model was developed by Hiphop algorithm based on the docking conformations of these three antagonists. In this paper, active environment, certain key residues, and the corresponding pharmacophore features of H(1) receptor were identified by such combinations of receptor-based and ligand-based approaches, which would give sufficient guidance for the rational design of novel antihistamine agents. PMID:20179978

  5. The pharmacological properties of a novel MCH1 receptor antagonist isolated from combinatorial libraries

    PubMed Central

    Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Chung, Shinjae; Dooley, Colette T.; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Chunying; Saito, Yumiko; Clark, Stewart D; Houghten, Richard A.; Civelli, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide that exhibits potent orexigenic activity. In rodents, it exerts its actions by interacting with one receptor, MCH1 receptor which is expressed in many parts of the central nervous system (CNS). To study the physiological implications of the MCH system, we need to be able to block it locally and acutely. This necessitates the use of MCH1 receptor antagonists. While MCH1 receptor antagonists have been previously reported, they are mainly not accessible to academic research. We apply here a strategy that leads to the isolation of a high affinity and selective MCH1 receptor antagonist amenable to in vivo analyses without further chemical modifications. This antagonist, TPI 1361-17, was identified through the screening of multiple non-peptide positional scanning synthetic combinatorial libraries (PS-SCL) totaling more than eight hundred thousand compounds in conditions that allow for the identification of only high-affinity compounds. TPI 1361-17 exhibited an IC50 value of 6.1 nM for inhibition of 1 nM MCH-induced Ca2+ mobilization and completely displaced the binding of [125I] MCH to rat MCH1 receptor. TPI 1361-17 was found specific, having no affinity for a variety of other G-protein coupled receptors and channels. TPI 1361-17 was found active in vivo since it blocked MCH-induced food intake by 75 %. Our results indicate that TPI 1361-17 is a novel and selective MCH1 receptor antagonist and is an effective tool to study the physiological functions of the MCH system. These results also illustrate the successful application of combinatorial library screening to identify specific surrogate antagonists in an academic setting. PMID:19041642

  6. Identification of Receptor Ligands and Receptor Subtypes Using Antagonists in a Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Cell Biosensor Separation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Harvey A.; Orwar, Owe; Scheller, Richard H.; Zare, Richard N.

    1995-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis system with single-cell biosensors as a detector has been used to separate and identify ligands in complex biological samples. The power of this procedure was significantly increased by introducing antagonists that inhibited the cellular response from selected ligand-receptor interactions. The single-cell biosensor was based on the ligand-receptor binding and G-protein-mediated signal transduction pathways in PC12 and NG108-15 cell lines. Receptor activation was measured as increases in cytosolic free calcium ion concentration by using fluorescence microscopy with the intracellular calcium ion indicator fluo-3 acetoxymethyl ester. Specifically, a mixture of bradykinin (BK) and acetylcholine (ACh) was fractionated and the components were identified by inhibiting the cellular response with icatibant (HOE 140), a selective antagonist to the BK B_2 receptor subtype (B_2BK), and atropine, an antagonist to muscarinic ACh receptor subtypes. Structurally related forms of BK were also identified based on inhibiting B_2BK receptors. Applications of this technique include identification of endogenous BK in a lysate of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep G2) and screening for bioactivity of BK degradation products in human blood plasma. The data demonstrate that the use of antagonists with a single-cell biosensor separation system aids identification of separated components and receptor subtypes.

  7. Differentiation of agonist conformation and antagonist conformation in multiple opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, N; Yamawaki, Y; Kuroda, H; Nukina, I; Ofuji, T

    1981-12-11

    To differentiate the opiate (naloxone) receptor and the enkephalin receptor in rat brain, we solubilized the receptor molecules by detergent and determined the molecular weights by gel filtration. The receptor preparation was bound to [3H] naloxone or [3H] Met5-enkephalin, and was solubilized by Triton X-100. On gel chromatography with a Sepharose 6B column, the agonist and the antagonist conformation of opioid receptors eluted as molecules with the molecular weights of 240,000, and 120,000 and with Stokes' radii of 5.5 nm and 4.3 nm, respectively. Further, it was also disclosed that Na+ was bound to the antagonist conformation of opioid receptors but not to the agonist conformation. PMID:6275320

  8. New insights into the stereochemical requirements of the bradykinin B1 receptor antagonists binding.

    PubMed

    Lupala, Cecylia S; Gomez-Gutierrez, Patricia; Perez, Juan J

    2016-07-01

    Bradykinin (BK) is a nonapeptide involved in several pathophysiological conditions including among others, septic and haemorrhagic shock, anaphylaxis, arthritis, rhinitis, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease. Accordingly, BK antagonists have long been sought after for therapeutic intervention. Action of BK is mediated through two different G-protein coupled receptors known as B1 and B2. Although there are several B1 antagonists reported in literature, their pharmacological profile is not yet optimal so that new molecules need to be discovered. In the present work we have constructed an atomistic model of the B1 receptor and docked diverse available non-peptide antagonists in order to get a deeper insight into the structure-activity relationships involving binding to this receptor. The model was constructed by homology modeling using the chemokine CXC4 and bovine rhodopsin receptors as template. The model was further refined using molecular dynamics for 600ns with the protein embedded in a POPC bilayer. From the refinement process we obtained an average structure that was used for docking studies using the Glide software. Antagonists selected for the docking studies include Compound 11, Compound 12, Chroman28, SSR240612, NPV-SAA164 and PS020990. The results of the docking study underline the role of specific receptor residues in ligand binding. The results of this study permitted to define a pharmacophore that describes the stereochemical requirements of antagonist binding, and can be used for the discovery of new compounds. PMID:27469392

  9. 5-HT2B Receptor Antagonists Inhibit Fibrosis and Protect from RV Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Wiebke; Schymura, Yves; Novoyatleva, Tatyana; Luitel, Himal; Tretyn, Aleksandra; Pullamsetti, Soni Savai; Weissmann, Norbert; Seeger, Werner; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Schermuly, Ralph Theo

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The serotonin (5-HT) pathway was shown to play a role in pulmonary hypertension (PH), but its functions in right ventricular failure (RVF) remain poorly understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of Terguride (5-HT2A and 2B receptor antagonist) or SB204741 (5-HT2B receptor antagonist) on right heart function and structure upon pulmonary artery banding (PAB) in mice. Methods. Seven days after PAB, mice were treated for 14 days with Terguride (0.2 mg/kg bid) or SB204741 (5 mg/kg day). Right heart function and remodeling were assessed by right heart catheterization, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histomorphometric methods. Total secreted collagen content was determined in mouse cardiac fibroblasts isolated from RV tissues. Results. Chronic treatment with Terguride or SB204741 reduced right ventricular fibrosis and showed improved heart function in mice after PAB. Moreover, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists diminished TGF-beta1 induced collagen synthesis of RV cardiac fibroblasts in vitro. Conclusion. 5-HT2B receptor antagonists reduce collagen deposition, thereby inhibiting right ventricular fibrosis. Chronic treatment prevented the development and progression of pressure overload-induced RVF in mice. Thus, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists represent a valuable novel therapeutic approach for RVF. PMID:25667920

  10. Pathophysiology of the cysteinyl leukotrienes and effects of leukotriene receptor antagonists in asthma.

    PubMed

    Bisgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes, synthesized de novo from cell membrane phospholipids, are proinflammatory mediators that play an important role in the pathophysiology of asthma. These mediators are among the most potent of bronchoconstrictors and cause vasodilation, increased microvascular permeability, exudation of macromolecules and edema. The cysteinyl leukotrienes also have potent chemoattractant properties for eosinophils, causing an influx of eosinophils into the airway mucosa, which further fuels the inflammatory process. In addition, the cysteinyl leukotrienes are potent secretagogues and reduce ciliary motility, which may hinder mucociliary clearance. Asthmatic patients demonstrate increased production of cysteinyl leukotrienes during naturally occurring asthma and acute asthma attacks as well as after allergen and exercise challenge. The leukotriene receptor antagonists montelukast, zafirlukast and pranlukast inhibit bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients undergoing allergen, exercise, cold air or aspirin challenge. They attenuate the hallmarks of asthmatic inflammation, including eosinophilia in the airway mucosa and peripheral blood. Moreover, exhaled nitric oxide concentrations, another correlate of airway inflammation, are decreased during montelukast treatment in children. Cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis is not blocked by corticosteroid therapy. This important observation suggests that the leukotriene receptor antagonists represent a novel therapeutic approach, one that may provide benefits that are additive with corticosteroid therapy. This supposition is supported by clinical observations that treatment with leukotriene receptor antagonists significantly improve asthma control when added to inhaled corticosteroid therapy. Moreover, the bronchodilator properties of the leukotriene receptor antagonists are additive with those of beta agonists. These data provide strong support for the use of leukotriene receptor antagonists for treating asthma. PMID

  11. Abscisic Acid Analogues That Act as Universal or Selective Antagonists of Phytohormone Receptors.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Nandhakishore; Nelson, Ken M; Douglas, Amy F; Jheengut, Vishal; Alarcon, Idralyn Q; McKenna, Sean A; Surpin, Marci; Loewen, Michele C; Abrams, Suzanne R

    2016-09-13

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays many important roles in controlling plant development and physiology, from flowering to senescence. ABA is now known to exert its effects through a family of soluble ABA receptors, which in Arabidopsis thaliana has 13 members divided into three clades. Homologues of these receptors are present in other plants, also in relatively large numbers. Investigation of the roles of each homologue in mediating the diverse physiological roles of ABA is hampered by this genetic redundancy. We report herein the in vitro screening of a targeted ABA-like analogue library and identification of novel antagonist hits, including the analogue PBI686 that had been developed previously as a probe for identifying ABA-binding proteins. Further in vitro characterization of PBI686 and development of second-generation leads yielded both receptor-selective and universal antagonist hits. In planta assays in different species have demonstrated that these antagonist leads can overcome various ABA-induced physiological changes. While the general antagonists open up a hitherto unexplored avenue for controlling plant growth through inhibition of ABA-regulated physiological processes, the receptor-selective antagonist can be developed into chemical probes to explore the physiological roles of individual receptors. PMID:27523384

  12. Integrative role for serotonergic and glutamatergic receptor mechanisms in the action of NMDA antagonists: potential relationships to antipsychotic drug actions on NMDA antagonist responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Breese, George R; Knapp, Darin J; Moy, Sheryl S

    2002-06-01

    NMDA receptor antagonists worsen symptoms in schizophrenia and induce schizophrenic-like symptoms in normal individuals. In animals, NMDA antagonist-induced behavioral responses include increased activity, head weaving, deficits in paired pulse inhibition and social interaction, and increased forced swim immobility. Repeated exposure to NMDA antagonists in animals results in behavioral sensitization-a phenomenon accentuated in rats with dopaminergic neurons lesioned during development. In keeping with an involvement of serotonin and glutamate release in NMDA antagonist action, selected behaviors induced by NMDA antagonists are minimized by 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists and mGLU2 receptor agonists. These observations provide promising new approaches for treating acute NMDA antagonist-induced psychosis. Further, acute atypical antipsychotic drugs also minimize NMDA antagonist actions to a greater degree than typical antipsychotics. However, because knowledge concerning acute versus chronic effectiveness of various antipsychotic drugs against NMDA antagonist neuropathology is limited, future studies to define more fully the basis of their differences in efficacy after chronic treatment could provide an understanding of their actions on neural mechanisms responsible for the core pathogenesis of schizophrenia. PMID:12204191

  13. Rigidified 2-aminopyrimidines as histamine H4 receptor antagonists: effects of substitution about the rigidifying ring.

    PubMed

    Koenig, John R; Liu, Huaqing; Drizin, Irene; Witte, David G; Carr, Tracy L; Manelli, Arlene M; Milicic, Ivan; Strakhova, Marina I; Miller, Thomas R; Esbenshade, Timothy A; Brioni, Jorge D; Cowart, Marlon

    2010-03-15

    Three novel series of histamine H(4) receptor (H(4)R) antagonists containing the 2-aminopyrimidine motif are reported. The best of these compounds display good in vitro potency in both functional and binding assays. In addition, representative compounds are able to completely block itch responses when dosed ip in a mouse model of H(4)-agonist induced scratching, thus demonstrating their activities as H(4)R antagonists. PMID:20171098

  14. Design and evaluation of xanthine based adenosine receptor antagonists: Potential hypoxia targeted immunotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Rhiannon; Lee, Joslynn; Chevalier, Vincent; Sadler, Sara; Selesniemi, Kaisa; Hatfield, Stephen; Sitkovsky, Michail; Ondrechen, Mary Jo; Jones, Graham B.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular modeling techniques were applied to the design, synthesis and optimization of a new series of xanthine based adenosine A2A receptor antagonists. The optimized lead compound was converted to a PEG derivative and a functional in vitro bioassay used to confirm efficacy. Additionally, the PEGylated version showed enhanced aqueous solubility and was inert to photoisomerization, a known limitation of existing antagonists of this class. PMID:24126093

  15. Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists as Antitumor Drugs in Gastrointestinal Cancer: A New Approach

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Miguel; Coveñas, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) cancer is the term for a group of cancers affecting the digestive system. After binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor, the undecapeptide substance P (SP) regulates GI cancer cell proliferation and migration for invasion and metastasis, and controls endothelial cell proliferation for angiogenesis. SP also exerts an antiapoptotic effect. Both SP and the NK-1 receptor are located in GI tumor cells, the NK-1 receptor being overexpressed. By contrast, after binding to the NK-1 receptor, NK-1 receptor antagonists elicit the inhibition (epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition) of the proliferation of GI cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner, induce the death of GI cancer cells by apoptosis, counteract the Warburg effect, inhibit cancer cell migration (counteracting invasion and metastasis), and inhibit angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition). NK-1 receptor antagonists are safe and well tolerated. Thus, the NK-1 receptor could be considered as a new target in GI cancer and NK-1 receptor antagonists (eg, aprepitant) could be a new promising approach for the treatment of GI cancer. PMID:27488320

  16. Selective P2X7 receptor antagonists for chronic inflammation and pain

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly-Roberts, Diana; Jarvis, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    ATP, acting on P2X7 receptors, stimulates changes in intracellular calcium concentrations, maturation, and release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and following prolonged agonist exposure, cell death. The functional effects of P2X7 receptor activation facilitate several proinflammatory processes associated with arthritis. Within the nervous system, these proinflammatory processes may also contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Emerging data from genetic knockout studies have indicated specific roles for P2X7 receptors in inflammatory and neuropathic pain states. The discovery of multiple distinct chemical series of potent and highly selective P2X7 receptor antagonists have enhanced our understanding of P2X7 receptor pharmacology and the diverse array of P2X7 receptor signaling mechanisms. These antagonists have provided mechanistic insight into the role(s) P2X7 receptors play under pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we integrate the recent discoveries of novel P2X7 receptor-selective antagonists with a brief update on P2X7 receptor pharmacology and its therapeutic potential. PMID:18568426

  17. Kinetic properties of “dual” orexin receptor antagonists at OX1R and OX2R orexin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Callander, Gabrielle E.; Olorunda, Morenike; Monna, Dominique; Schuepbach, Edi; Langenegger, Daniel; Betschart, Claudia; Hintermann, Samuel; Behnke, Dirk; Cotesta, Simona; Fendt, Markus; Laue, Grit; Ofner, Silvio; Briard, Emmanuelle; Gee, Christine E.; Jacobson, Laura H.; Hoyer, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Orexin receptor antagonists represent attractive targets for the development of drugs for the treatment of insomnia. Both efficacy and safety are crucial in clinical settings and thorough investigations of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics can predict contributing factors such as duration of action and undesirable effects. To this end, we studied the interactions between various “dual” orexin receptor antagonists and the orexin receptors, OX1R and OX2R, over time using saturation and competition radioligand binding with [3H]-BBAC ((S)-N-([1,1′-biphenyl]-2-yl)-1-(2-((1-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)thio)acetyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxamide). In addition, the kinetics of these compounds were investigated in cells expressing human, mouse and rat OX1R and OX2R using FLIPR® assays for calcium accumulation. We demonstrate that almorexant reaches equilibrium very slowly at OX2R, whereas SB-649868, suvorexant, and filorexant may take hours to reach steady state at both orexin receptors. By contrast, compounds such as BBAC or the selective OX2R antagonist IPSU ((2-((1H-Indol-3-yl)methyl)-9-(4-methoxypyrimidin-2-yl)-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecan-1-one) bind rapidly and reach equilibrium very quickly in binding and/or functional assays. Overall, the “dual” antagonists tested here tend to be rather unselective under non-equilibrium conditions and reach equilibrium very slowly. Once equilibrium is reached, each ligand demonstrates a selectivity profile that is however, distinct from the non-equilibrium condition. The slow kinetics of the “dual” antagonists tested suggest that in vitro receptor occupancy may be longer lasting than would be predicted. This raises questions as to whether pharmacokinetic studies measuring plasma or brain levels of these antagonists are accurate reflections of receptor occupancy in vivo. PMID:24376396

  18. Kinetic properties of "dual" orexin receptor antagonists at OX1R and OX2R orexin receptors.

    PubMed

    Callander, Gabrielle E; Olorunda, Morenike; Monna, Dominique; Schuepbach, Edi; Langenegger, Daniel; Betschart, Claudia; Hintermann, Samuel; Behnke, Dirk; Cotesta, Simona; Fendt, Markus; Laue, Grit; Ofner, Silvio; Briard, Emmanuelle; Gee, Christine E; Jacobson, Laura H; Hoyer, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Orexin receptor antagonists represent attractive targets for the development of drugs for the treatment of insomnia. Both efficacy and safety are crucial in clinical settings and thorough investigations of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics can predict contributing factors such as duration of action and undesirable effects. To this end, we studied the interactions between various "dual" orexin receptor antagonists and the orexin receptors, OX1R and OX2R, over time using saturation and competition radioligand binding with [(3)H]-BBAC ((S)-N-([1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl)-1-(2-((1-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)thio)acetyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxamide). In addition, the kinetics of these compounds were investigated in cells expressing human, mouse and rat OX1R and OX2R using FLIPR® assays for calcium accumulation. We demonstrate that almorexant reaches equilibrium very slowly at OX2R, whereas SB-649868, suvorexant, and filorexant may take hours to reach steady state at both orexin receptors. By contrast, compounds such as BBAC or the selective OX2R antagonist IPSU ((2-((1H-Indol-3-yl)methyl)-9-(4-methoxypyrimidin-2-yl)-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecan-1-one) bind rapidly and reach equilibrium very quickly in binding and/or functional assays. Overall, the "dual" antagonists tested here tend to be rather unselective under non-equilibrium conditions and reach equilibrium very slowly. Once equilibrium is reached, each ligand demonstrates a selectivity profile that is however, distinct from the non-equilibrium condition. The slow kinetics of the "dual" antagonists tested suggest that in vitro receptor occupancy may be longer lasting than would be predicted. This raises questions as to whether pharmacokinetic studies measuring plasma or brain levels of these antagonists are accurate reflections of receptor occupancy in vivo. PMID:24376396

  19. Orexin 1 receptor antagonists in compulsive behavior and anxiety: possible therapeutic use

    PubMed Central

    Merlo Pich, Emilio; Melotto, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen years after the discovery of hypocretin/orexin a large body of evidence has been collected supporting its critical role in the modulation of several regulatory physiological functions. While reduced levels of hypocretin/orexin were initially associated with narcolepsy, increased levels have been linked in recent years to pathological states of hypervigilance and, in particular, to insomnia. The filing to FDA of the dual-activity orexin receptor antagonist (DORA) suvorexant for the indication of insomnia further corroborates the robustness of such evidences. However, as excessive vigilance is also typical of anxiety and panic episodes, as well as of abstinence and craving in substance misuse disorders. In this review we briefly discuss the evidence supporting the development of hypocretin/orexin receptor 1 (OX1) antagonists for these indications. Experiments using the OX1 antagonist SB-334867 and mutant mice have involved the OX1 receptor in mediating the compulsive reinstatement of drug seeking for ethanol, nicotine, cocaine, cannabinoids and morphine. More recently, data have been generated with the novel selective OX1 antagonists GSK1059865 and ACT-335827 on behavioral and cardiovascular response to stressors and panic-inducing agents in animals. Concluding, while waiting for pharmacologic data to become available in humans, risks and benefits for the development of an OX1 receptor antagonist for Binge Eating and Anxiety Disorders are discussed. PMID:24592206

  20. Characterization of PCS1055, a novel muscarinic M4 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Croy, Carrie H; Chan, Wai Y; Castetter, Andrea M; Watt, Marla L; Quets, Anne T; Felder, Christian C

    2016-07-01

    Identification of synthetic ligands selective for muscarinic receptor subtypes has been challenging due to the high sequence identity and structural homology among the five muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Here, we report the pharmacological characterization of PCS1055, a novel muscarinic M4 receptor antagonist. PCS1055 inhibited radioligand [(3)H]-NMS binding to the M4 receptor with a Ki=6.5nM. Though the potency of PCS1055 is lower than that of pan-muscarinic antagonist atropine, it has better subtype selectivity over previously reported M4-selective reagents such as the muscarinic-peptide toxins (Karlsson et al., 1994; Santiago and Potter, 2001a) at the M1 subtype, and benzoxazine ligand PD102807 at the M3-subtype (Bohme et al., 2002). A detailed head-to-head comparison study using [(3)H]-NMS competitive binding assays characterizes the selectivity profiles of PCS1055 to that of other potent muscarinic-antagonist compounds PD102807, tropicamide, AF-DX-384, pirenzapine, and atropine. In addition to binding studies, the subtype specificity of PCS1055 is also demonstrated by functional receptor activation as readout by GTP-γ-[(35)S] binding. These GTP-γ-[(35)S] binding studies showed that PCS1055 exhibited 255-, 69.1-, 342- and >1000-fold greater inhibition of Oxo-M activity at the M4 versus the M1-, M2(-), M3-or M5 receptor subtypes, respectively. Schild analyses indicates that PCS1055 acts as a competitive antagonist to muscarinic M4 receptor, and confirms the affinity of the ligand to be low nanomolar, Kb=5.72nM. Therefore, PCS1055 represents a new M4-preferring antagonist that may be useful in elucidating the roles of M4 receptor signaling. PMID:27085897

  1. Attenuation of D-1 antagonist-induced D-1 receptor upregulation by conccomitant D-2 receptor blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Parashos, S.A.; Barone, P.; Tucci, I.; Chase, T.N.

    1987-11-16

    The effect of chronic selective D-1 and/or D-2 dopamine receptor blockade on regional D-1 receptor binding was studied in rat brain following chronic treatment with the specific D-1 antagonist SCH 23390 and/or the predominantly D-2 antagonist haloperidol. D-1 receptor density and affinity were evaluated by quantitative autoradiography using /sup 125/I-SCH 23982. Chronic SCH 23390 treatment increased D-1 receptor density by 30 to 40% in the striatum, accumbens and tuberculum olfactorium; receptor affinity remained unchanged. Haloperidol had no effect on D-1 receptor Bmax or Kd values, although, when administered with SCH 23390, reduced the D-1 receptor upregulation induced by the D-1 antagonist in striatum and tuberculum olfactorium, but not in nucleus accumbens, These results may be attributable to D-1/D-2 dopamine receptor interactions occurring in the striatum and tuberculum olfactorium and may have implications for the prevention and treatment of drug-induced extrapyramidal disorders. 34 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  2. Functional antagonistic properties of clozapine at the 5-HT3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Hermann, B; Wetzel, C H; Pestel, E; Zieglgänsberger, W; Holsboer, F; Rupprecht, R

    1996-08-23

    The atypical neuroleptic clozapine is thought to exert its psychopharmacological actions through a variety of neurotransmitter receptors. It binds preferentially to D4 and 5-HT2 receptors; however, little is known on it's interaction with the 5-HT3 receptor. Using a cell line stably expressing the 5-HT3 receptor, whole-cell voltage-clamp analysis revealed functional antagonistic properties of clozapine at low nanomolar concentrations in view of a binding affinity in the upper nanomolar range. Because the concentration of clozapine required for an interaction with the 5-HT3 receptor can be achieved with therapeutical doses, functional antagonistic properties at this ligand-gated ion channel may contribute to its unique psychopharmacological profile. PMID:8780717

  3. Aldosterone and aldosterone receptor antagonists in patients with chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Nappi, Jean M; Sieg, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone synthesized by the adrenal glands that has several regulatory functions to help the body maintain normal volume status and electrolyte balance. Studies have shown significantly higher levels of aldosterone secretion in patients with congestive heart failure compared with normal patients. Elevated levels of aldosterone have been shown to elevate blood pressure, cause left ventricular hypertrophy, and promote cardiac fibrosis. An appreciation of the true role of aldosterone in patients with chronic heart failure did not become apparent until the publication of the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study. Until recently, the use of aldosterone receptor antagonists has been limited to patients with severe heart failure and patients with heart failure following myocardial infarction. The Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization and Survival Study in Heart Failure (EMPHASIS-HF) study added additional evidence to support the expanded use of aldosterone receptor antagonists in heart failure patients. The results of the EMPHASIS-HF trial showed that patients with mild-to-moderate (New York Heart Association Class II) heart failure had reductions in mortality and hospitalizations from the addition of eplerenone to optimal medical therapy. Evidence remains elusive about the exact mechanism by which aldosterone receptor antagonists improve heart failure morbidity and mortality. The benefits of aldosterone receptor antagonist use in heart failure must be weighed against the potential risk of complications, ie, hyperkalemia and, in the case of spironolactone, possible endocrine abnormalities, in particular gynecomastia. With appropriate monitoring, these risks can be minimized. We now have evidence that patients with mild-to-severe symptoms associated with systolic heart failure will benefit from the addition of an aldosterone receptor antagonist to the standard therapies of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta

  4. Identification of short-acting κ-opioid receptor antagonists with anxiolytic-like activity.

    PubMed

    Peters, Matthew F; Zacco, Anna; Gordon, John; Maciag, Carla M; Litwin, Linda C; Thompson, Carolann; Schroeder, Patricia; Sygowski, Linda A; Piser, Timothy M; Brugel, Todd A

    2011-07-01

    The κ-opioid receptor plays a central role in mediating the response to stressful life events. Inhibiting κ-opioid receptor signaling is proposed as a mechanism for treating stress-related conditions such as depression and anxiety. Preclinical testing consistently confirms that disruption of κ-opioid signaling is efficacious in animal models of mood disorders. However, concerns about the feasibility of developing antagonists into drugs stem from an unusual pharmacodynamic property of prototypic κ-opioid receptor-selective antagonists; they inhibit receptor signaling for weeks to months after a single dose. Several fundamental questions include - is it possible to identify short-acting antagonists; is long-lasting inhibition necessary for efficacy; and is it safe to develop long-acting antagonists in the clinic. Here, we test representative compounds (AZ-ECPC, AZ-MTAB, and LY-DMPF) from three new chemical series of κ-opioid receptor ligands for long-lasting inhibition. Each compound dose-dependently reversed κ-opioid agonist-induced diuresis. However, unlike the prototypic antagonist, nBNI, which fully inhibited evoked diuresis for at least four weeks, the new compounds showed no inhibition after one week. The two compounds with greater potency and selectivity were tested in prenatally-stressed rats on the elevated plus maze, an exploration-based model of anxiety. Spontaneous exploration of open arms in the elevated plus maze was suppressed by prenatal stress and restored with both compounds. These findings indicate that persistent inhibition is not an inherent property of κ-opioid-selective antagonists and that post-stress dosing with transient inhibitors can be effective in a mood disorder model. This further supports κ-opioid receptor as a promising target for developing novel psychiatric medications. PMID:21539838

  5. Pharmacological characterization of YM598, a selective endothelin-A receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Sudoh, Katsumi; Yuyama, Hironori; Noguchi, Yukiko; Fujimori, Akira; Ukai, Masashi; Ohtake, Akiyoshi; Sato, Shuichi; Sasamata, Masao; Miyata, Keiji

    2004-11-01

    The binding affinities of YM598, a novel endothelin-A (ETA) receptor antagonist, for native human ETA receptors expressed in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and endothelin-B (ETB) subtypes in the human melanoma cell line SKMel- 28 were compared with those of atrasentan and bosentan. The in vivo ETA receptor antagonist activities of YM598 and atrasentan were also evaluated in pithed rats. The inhibitory dissociation constant values of YM598, atrasentan and bosentan were 0.772, 0.0551 and 4.75 nM, respectively, for native human ETA receptors, and 143, 4.80 and 40.9 nM, respectively, for native human ETB subtypes. The calculated selectivity ratios of YM598, atrasentan and bosentan for ETA versus ETB receptors were 222, 136 and 13.0, respectively. In pithed rats, YM598 and atrasentan inhibited the big endothelin-1 (1 nmol/kg)-induced pressor response in a dose-dependent manner, after both intravenous and oral administration. The inhibitory effect of YM598 was less potent than that of atrasentan when these agents were intravenously administered, but those of both agents were comparable when orally administered. These results suggest that YM598 has a high selectivity for native human ETA receptors against ETB receptors, and that YM598 is superior to atrasentan as an ETA receptor antagonist, with regard to pharmacological bioavailability in rats. PMID:15838329

  6. A mechanistic basis for converting a receptor tyrosine kinase agonist to an antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, W. David; Daugherty, Jennifer; Gao, ChongFeng; Xie, Qian; Miranti, Cindy; Gherardi, Ermanno; Vande Woude, George; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activates the Met receptor tyrosine kinase by binding and promoting receptor dimerization. Here we describe a mechanistic basis for designing Met antagonists based on NK1, a natural variant of HGF containing the N-terminal and the first kringle domain. Through detailed biochemical and structural analyses, we demonstrate that both mouse and human NK1 induce Met dimerization via a conserved NK1 dimer interface. Mutations designed to alter the NK1 dimer interface abolish its ability to promote Met dimerization but retain full Met-binding activity. Importantly, these NK1 mutants act as Met antagonists by inhibiting HGF-mediated cell scattering, proliferation, branching, and invasion. The ability to separate the Met-binding activity of NK1 from its Met dimerization activity thus provides a rational basis for designing Met antagonists. This strategy of antagonist design may be applicable for other growth factor receptors by selectively abolishing the receptor activation ability but not the receptor binding of the growth factors.

  7. Ineffectiveness of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists for treatment-resistant depression: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2016-09-01

    Emerging preclinical and clinical evidences suggest a potential role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the pathophysiology of depression. Several clinical trials have investigated the efficacy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists in treatment-resistant depression. We carried out this meta-analysis to investigate whether nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists significantly improve symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder who have an inadequate response to standard antidepressant therapy. A comprehensive literature search identified six randomized-controlled trials. These six trials, which included 2067 participants, were pooled for this meta-analysis using a random-effects model. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists failed to show superior efficacy compared with placebo in terms of the mean change in the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score [mean difference=-0.12 (95% confidence interval (CI)=-0.96 to 0.71]; response rate [risk ratio=0.92 (95% CI=0.83-1.02)]; and remission rate [risk ratio=1.01 (95% CI=0.83-1.23)]. This meta-analysis failed to confirm preliminary positive evidence for the efficacy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists in treatment-resistant depression. Further studies investigating the efficacy of various alternative treatment strategies for treatment-resistant depression will help clinicians to better understand and choose better treatment options for these populations. PMID:26982579

  8. Binding of antagonists of H1 and H2 histamine receptors to peripheral blood lymphocytes of atopic and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Zak-Nejmark, T; Małolepszy, J; Osos, M; Nadobna, G; Jutel, M

    1991-01-01

    The binding of the antagonists of histamine H1 and H2 receptors by peripheral blood lymphocytes from atopic and healthy subjects was investigated. We found that lymphocytes from atopic subjects showed statistically significant decrease in the binding of H2 receptor antagonist - ranitidine. In addition, lymphocytes from atopic and control subjects had similar capacity of binding of H1 receptor antagonist - promethazine. The ratio of the amount of H1 and H2 antagonists, bound to lymphocytes from atopic and healthy subjects, was calculated. The difference between the values in the group of atopic (2.55) and control subjects (1.55) was statistically significant. PMID:1841552

  9. Allosteric interactions of three muscarine antagonists at bovine tracheal smooth muscle and cardiac M2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Roffel, A F; Elzinga, C R; Meurs, H; Zaagsma, J

    1989-03-01

    The kinetics of [3H]dexetimide dissociation from muscarine receptors in bovine cardiac left ventricular and tracheal smooth muscle membranes were studied in the absence and presence of three muscarine antagonists. It was found that [3H]dexetimide dissociation from cardiac muscarine receptors was monophasic and very fast (half life less than 1 min) and was slowed by the cardioselective muscarine antagonists, gallamine, methoctramine and AF-DX 116, concentration dependently. [3H]Dexetimide dissociation from tracheal muscarine receptors was biphasic, with a fast phase (half-life less than 1 min) followed after 4-5 min by a slow phase (half-life = 38.5 min). The fast component, but not the slow component, was slowed by the muscarine antagonists with concentration dependencies very similar to those found in the heart. We conclude from these data that the major population of tracheal smooth muscle muscarine receptors resembles the cardiac M2 type not only with respect to equilibrium binding affinities but also with respect to the secondary, allosteric binding site on the muscarine receptor. The results also imply that the cardiac receptor subtype is much more sensitive to allosteric modulation than the glandular/smooth muscle receptor subtype. PMID:2714370

  10. Rational Design of Potent Antagonists to the Human Growth Hormone Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Germaine; Cunningham, Brian C.; Fukunaga, Rikiro; Nagata, Shigekazu; Goeddel, David V.; Wells, James A.

    1992-06-01

    A hybrid receptor was constructed that contained the extracellular binding domain of the human growth hormone (hGH) receptor linked to the transmembrane and intracellular domains of the murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor. Addition of hGH to a myeloid leukemia cell line (FDC-P1) that expressed the hybrid receptor caused proliferation of these cells. The mechanism for signal transduction of the hybrid receptor required dimerization because monoclonal antibodies to the hGH receptor were agonists whereas their monovalent fragments were not. Receptor dimerization occurs sequentially-a receptor binds to site 1 on hGH, and then a second receptor molecule binds to site 2 on hGH. On the basis of this sequential mechanism, which may occur in many other cytokine receptors, inactive hGH analogs were designed that were potent antagonists to hGH-induced cell proliferation. Such antagonists could be useful for treating clinical conditions of hGH excess, such as acromegaly.

  11. Modeling the interactions between alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors and their antagonists.

    PubMed

    Du, Lupei; Li, Minyong

    2010-09-01

    As crucial members of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, alpha (1)-adrenergic receptors (alpha(1)-ARs) are recognized to intervene the actions of endogenous catecholamines such as norepinephrine and epinephrine. So far three distinct alpha(1)-AR subtypes, alpha(1A), alpha(1B) and alpha(1D), have been characterized by functional analysis, radio-ligand binding and molecular biology studies. The alpha(1)-ARs are of therapeutic interest because of their distinct and critical roles in many physiological processes, containing hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia, smooth muscle contraction, myocardial inotropy and chronotropy, and hepatic glucose metabolism. Accordingly, designing subtype-selective antagonists for each of the three alpha(1)-AR subtypes has been an enthusiastic region of medicinal research. Even though a large number of studies on GPCRs have been conducted, understanding of how known antagonists bind to alpha(1)-ARs still remains sketchy and has been a serious impediment to search for potent and subtype-selective alpha(1)-AR antagonists because of the lack of detailed experimental structural knowledge. This review deliberates the simulation of alpha(1)-ARs and their interactions with antagonists by using ligand-based (pharmacophore identification and QSAR modeling) and structure-based (comparative modeling and molecular docking) approaches. Combined with experimental data, these computational attempts could improve our understanding of the structural basis of antagonist binding and the molecular basis of receptor activation, thus offering a more reasonable approach in the design of drugs targeting alpha(1)-ARs. PMID:20412040

  12. Opposite effects of GABAA and NMDA receptor antagonists on ethanol-induced behavioral sleep in rats.

    PubMed

    Beleslin, D B; Djokanović, N; Jovanović Mićić, D; Samardzić, R

    1997-01-01

    The effects of the GABAA receptor antagonists, pentylenetetrazol, bicuculline, and picrotoxin, the glycine antagonist, strychnine, and the NMDA receptor antagonist, memantine, on ethanol-induced behavioral sleep and body temperature were investigated. Pentylenetetrazol, bicuculline, and picrotoxin given prior and following ethanol reduced the behavioral sleep and potentiated the hypothermia caused by ethanol. However, convulsions appeared when bicuculline, but not pentylenetetrazol and picrotoxin, were given following ethanol. After the reversal of unconsciousness in rats without convulsions the animals remained awake throughout the experiments without motor incoordination, hyperexcitability, and sedation, but they were in hypothermia within 12 h. The glycine antagonist, strychnine, given prior or after ethanol had virtually no effect on ethanol-induced behavioral sleep and hypothermia. Ethanol given prior or following strychnine failed to antagonize strychnine-induced convulsions. The NMDA receptor antagonist, memantine, given following ethanol potentiated the behavioral sleep and had virtually no effect on hypothermia induced by ethanol. It is suggested that the ethanol-induced behavioral sleep may be attributed to its ability to enhance the GABAergic mechanisms and to inhibit NMDA-mediated excitatory responses. However, the ethanol-induced hypothermia may be ascribed solely to the facilitation of GABAergic transmission. Further, it is postulated that a bidirectional inhibitory system subserves the regulation of behavioral sleep and convulsions. However, one-way inhibitory system underlies the ethanol-induced hypothermia. PMID:9085718

  13. Inhibition of Morphine Tolerance and Dependence by the NMDA Receptor Antagonist MK-801

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Keith A.; Akil, Huda

    1991-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of the glutamate receptor is an important mediator of several forms of neural and behavioral plasticity. The present studies examined whether NMDA receptors might be involved in the development of opiate tolerance and dependence, two examples of behavioral plasticity. The noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 attenuated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine without affecting acute morphine analgesia. In addition, MK-801 attenuated the development of morphine dependence as assessed by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. These results suggest that NMDA receptors may be important in the development of opiate tolerance and dependence.

  14. (-) Arctigenin and (+) pinoresinol are antagonists of the human thyroid hormone receptor β.

    PubMed

    Ogungbe, Ifedayo Victor; Crouch, Rebecca A; Demeritte, Teresa

    2014-11-24

    Lignans are important biologically active dietary polyphenolic compounds. Consumption of foods that are rich in lignans is associated with positive health effects. Using modeling tools to probe the ligand-binding pockets of molecular receptors, we found that lignans have high docking affinity for the human thyroid hormone receptor β. Follow-up experimental results show that lignans (-) arctigenin and (+) pinoresinol are antagonists of the human thyroid hormone receptor β. The modeled complexes show key plausible interactions between the two ligands and important amino acid residues of the receptor. PMID:25383984

  15. (−) Arctigenin and (+) Pinoresinol Are Antagonists of the Human Thyroid Hormone Receptor β

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lignans are important biologically active dietary polyphenolic compounds. Consumption of foods that are rich in lignans is associated with positive health effects. Using modeling tools to probe the ligand-binding pockets of molecular receptors, we found that lignans have high docking affinity for the human thyroid hormone receptor β. Follow-up experimental results show that lignans (−) arctigenin and (+) pinoresinol are antagonists of the human thyroid hormone receptor β. The modeled complexes show key plausible interactions between the two ligands and important amino acid residues of the receptor. PMID:25383984

  16. Slow receptor dissociation kinetics differentiate macitentan from other endothelin receptor antagonists in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Gatfield, John; Mueller Grandjean, Celia; Sasse, Thomas; Clozel, Martine; Nayler, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Two endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs), bosentan and ambrisentan, are currently approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a devastating disease involving an activated endothelin system and aberrant contraction and proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC). The novel ERA macitentan has recently concluded testing in a Phase III morbidity/mortality clinical trial in PAH patients. Since the association and dissociation rates of G protein-coupled receptor antagonists can influence their pharmacological activity in vivo, we used human PASMC to characterize inhibitory potency and receptor inhibition kinetics of macitentan, ambrisentan and bosentan using calcium release and inositol-1-phosphate (IP(1)) assays. In calcium release assays macitentan, ambrisentan and bosentan were highly potent ERAs with K(b) values of 0.14 nM, 0.12 nM and 1.1 nM, respectively. Macitentan, but not ambrisentan and bosentan, displayed slow apparent receptor association kinetics as evidenced by increased antagonistic potency upon prolongation of antagonist pre-incubation times. In compound washout experiments, macitentan displayed a significantly lower receptor dissociation rate and longer receptor occupancy half-life (ROt(1/2)) compared to bosentan and ambrisentan (ROt(1/2):17 minutes versus 70 seconds and 40 seconds, respectively). Because of its lower dissociation rate macitentan behaved as an insurmountable antagonist in calcium release and IP(1) assays, and unlike bosentan and ambrisentan it blocked endothelin receptor activation across a wide range of endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentrations. However, prolongation of the ET-1 stimulation time beyond ROt(1/2) rendered macitentan a surmountable antagonist, revealing its competitive binding mode. Bosentan and ambrisentan behaved as surmountable antagonists irrespective of the assay duration and they lacked inhibitory activity at high ET-1 concentrations. Thus, macitentan is a competitive ERA with

  17. Identification of Trisubstituted-pyrazol Carboxamide Analogs as Novel and Potent Antagonists of Farnesoid X Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Donna D.; Lin, Wenwei; Forman, Barry M.; Chen, Taosheng

    2014-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NRIH4) plays a major role in the control of cholesterol metabolism. This suggests that antagonizing the transcriptional activity of FXR is a potential means to treat cholestasis and related metabolic disorders. Here we describe the synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of trisubstituted-pyrazol carboxamides as novel and potent FXR antagonists. One of these novel FXR antagonists, 4j has an IC50 of 7.5 nM in an FXR binding assay and 468.5 nM in a cell-based FXR antagonistic assay. Compound 4j has no detectable FXR agonistic activity or cytotoxicity. Notably, 4j is the most potent FXR antagonist identified to date; it has a promising in vitro profile and could serve as an excellent chemical tool to elucidate the biological function of FXR. PMID:24775917

  18. [Discovery and pharmacological properties of selective neurokinin-receptor antagonists, FK224 and FK888].

    PubMed

    Fujii, T

    1995-09-01

    In order to create a new drug for the treatment of respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic bronchitis, having a novel therapeutic mechanism, we have been trying to develop new compounds with neurokinin (NK)-receptor antagonistic effects. We used [3H]-substance P binding to guinea pig lung membrane for the first screening system and successfully discovered FK224 from a fermentation product and FK888 from chemical design studies using an octapeptide antagonist (D-Pro4,D-Trp7,9,10) SP4-11 as the parent compound. FK224 and FK888 showed different selectivities against the NK-receptor subtypes (NK1, NK2, NK3); FK888 was a highly potent NK1-selective antagonist, and FK224 was a NK1 + NK2 dual receptor antagonist. Neither compound had any activity on the NK3 receptor. In the in vivo experiments, FK224 and FK888 significantly inhibited the constriction and plasma extravasation in the airway induced by agonist injection. These compounds also showed inhibitory effects on the airway response induced by capsaicin and antidromic stimulation of vagus nerves. Furthermore, FK224 and FK888 were effective on the mucus secretion in the airway and the cough reflex induced by citric acid challenge. There were some differences in the effects of FK224 and FK888 in the in vivo experiments, and it was suggested that the NK1 receptor and NK2 receptor were mainly involved in neurogenic inflammation and airway constriction, respectively. FK224 and FK888 are now undergoing clinical studies to test the effectiveness of a NK antagonist in human respiratory diseases. PMID:8529964

  19. Histamine H3 receptor antagonist decreases cue-induced alcohol reinstatement in mice.

    PubMed

    Nuutinen, Saara; Mäki, Tiia; Rozov, Stanislav; Bäckström, Pia; Hyytiä, Petri; Piepponen, Petteri; Panula, Pertti

    2016-07-01

    We have earlier found that the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonism diminishes motivational aspects of alcohol reinforcement in mice. Here we studied the role of H3Rs in cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in C57BL/6J mice using two different H3R antagonists. Systemic administration of H3R antagonists attenuated cue-induced alcohol seeking suggesting that H3R antagonists may reduce alcohol craving. To understand how alcohol affects dopamine and histamine release, a microdialysis study was performed on C57BL/6J mice and the levels of histamine, dopamine and dopamine metabolites were measured in the nucleus accumbens. Alcohol administration was combined with an H3R antagonist pretreatment to reveal whether modulation of H3R affects the effects of alcohol on neurotransmitter release. Alcohol significantly increased the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens but did not affect histamine release. Pretreatment with H3R antagonist ciproxifan did not modify the effect of alcohol on dopamine release. However, histamine release was markedly increased with ciproxifan. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that H3R antagonism attenuates cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in mice. Alcohol alone does not affect histamine release in the nucleus accumbens but H3R antagonist instead increases histamine release significantly suggesting that the mechanism by which H3R antagonist inhibits alcohol seeking found in the present study and the decreased alcohol reinforcement, reward and consumption found earlier might include alterations in the histaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens. These findings imply that selective antagonists of H3Rs could be a therapeutic strategy to prevent relapse and possibly diminish craving to alcohol use. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Histamine Receptors'. PMID:26107118

  20. Isoquinoline derivatives as potent CRTH2 receptor antagonists: synthesis and SAR.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa-Shimono, Rie; Sekiguchi, Yoshinori; Koami, Takeshi; Kawamura, Madoka; Wakasugi, Daisuke; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Wakahara, Shunichi; Matsumoto, Kayo; Takayama, Tetsuo

    2012-05-01

    Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of a novel series of isoquinoline CRTH2 receptor antagonists are described. One of the most potent compounds, TASP0376377 (6m), showed not only potent binding affinity (IC(50)=19 nM) but also excellent functional antagonist activity (IC(50)=13 nM). TASP0376377 was tested for its ability of a chemotaxis assay to show the effectiveness (IC(50)=23 nM), which was in good agreement with the CRTH2 antagonist potency. Furthermore, TASP0376377 showed sufficient selectivity for binding to CRTH2 over the DP1 prostanoid receptor (IC(50)>1 μM) and COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes (IC(50)>10 μM). PMID:22469703

  1. Structure-based design of eugenol analogs as potential estrogen receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Anita, Yulia; Radifar, Muhammad; Kardono, Leonardus Bs; Hanafi, Muhammad; Istyastono, Enade P

    2012-01-01

    Eugenol is an essential oil mainly found in the buds and leaves of clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill and Perry), which has been reported to have activity on inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis induction in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. This biological activity is correlated to its activity as an estrogen receptor antagonist. In this article, we present the construction and validation of structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) protocols to identify the potent estrogen receptor α (ER) antagonists. The selected protocol, which gave acceptable enrichment factors as a virtual screening protocol, subsequently used to virtually screen eugenol, its analogs and their dimers. Based on the virtual screening results, dimer eugenol of 4-[4-hydroxy-3-(prop-2-en-1- yl)phenyl]-2-(prop-2-en-1-yl)phenol is recommended to be developed further in order to discover novel and potent ER antagonists. PMID:23144548

  2. Bradykinin as a pain mediator: receptors are localized to sensory neurons, and antagonists have analgesic actions

    SciTech Connect

    Steranka, L.R.; Manning, D.C.; DeHaas, C.J.; Ferkany, J.W.; Borosky, S.A.; Connor, J.R.; Vavrek, R.J.; Stewart, J.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1988-05-01

    Autoradiographic studies localize (/sup 3/H)bradykinin receptor binding sites to the substantia gelatinosa, dorsal root, and a subset of small cells in both the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia of the guinea pig. (/sup 3/H)Bradykinin labeling is also observed over myocardinal/coronary visceral afferent fibers. The localization of (/sup 3/H)bradykinin receptors to nociceptive pathways supports a role for bradykinin in pain mediation. Several bradkykinin antagonists block bradykinin-induced acute vascular pain in the rat. The bradykinin antagonists also relieve bradykinin- and urate-induced hyperalgesia in the rat paw. These results indicate that bradykinin is a physiologic mediator of pain and that bradykinin antagonists have analgesic activity in both acute and chronic pain models.

  3. Orexin Receptor Antagonists: New Therapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Roecker, Anthony J; Cox, Christopher D; Coleman, Paul J

    2016-01-28

    Since its discovery in 1998, the orexin system, composed of two G-protein coupled receptors, orexins 1 and 2, and two neuropeptide agonists, orexins A and B, has captured the attention of the scientific community as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity, anxiety, and sleep/wake disorders. Genetic evidence in rodents, dogs, and humans was revealed between 1999 and 2000, demonstrating a causal link between dysfunction or deletion of the orexin system and narcolepsy, a disorder characterized by hypersomnolence during normal wakefulness. These findings encouraged efforts to discover agonists to treat narcolepsy and, alternatively, antagonists to treat insomnia. This perspective will focus on the discovery and development of structurally diverse orexin antagonists suitable for preclinical pharmacology studies and human clinical trials. The work described herein culminated in the 2014 FDA approval of suvorexant as a first-in-class dual orexin receptor antagonist for the treatment of insomnia. PMID:26317591

  4. Attenuation of antagonist-induced impairment of dopamine receptors by L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, M.I.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether chronic,long-term postnatal challenge of rat pups per se, with specific dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists, would modify the ontogeny of the respective receptor types. Since the neuropeptide L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide (PLG) attenuates the effect of haloperidol on dopamine D2 receptors in adult rats it was of interest to determine whether PLG would modulate antagonists-induced alterations in the ontogeny of striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Half of the rats were treated daily for 32 days from birth with SCH-23390, a selective dopamine D1 antagonist; or spiroperidol, a selective dopamine D2 antagonists; or both SCH-23390 and spiroperidol; or saline. The other half of the litters were treated with PLG, in combination with the other treatments. Animals were decapitated at 5, 8, and 12 weeks from birth for neurochemical analysis of the striatum. Chronic SCH-23390 treatment produced a 70-80% decrease in the binding of ({sup 3}H) SCH-23390 to striatal homogenates. The alteration at 5 weeks was associated with a 78% decrease in the Bmax for ({sup 3}H) SCH-23390 binding, and no change in the K{sub D}. Similarly, at 5, 8, and 12 weeks, chronic spiroperidol treatment reduced the binding of ({sup 3}H) spiroperidol to striatal homogenates by 70-80%.

  5. I. Effects of a Dopamine Receptor Antagonist on Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas ,Reproduction

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study used a 21 d fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction assay to test the hypothesis that exposure to the dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) antagonist, haloperidol, would impair fish reproduction. Additionally, a 96 h experiment with fathead minnows and zebrafish (Danio ...

  6. 7-Azaindole-3-acetic acid derivatives: potent and selective CRTh2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sandham, David A; Adcock, Claire; Bala, Kamlesh; Barker, Lucy; Brown, Zarin; Dubois, Gerald; Budd, David; Cox, Brian; Fairhurst, Robin A; Furegati, Markus; Leblanc, Catherine; Manini, Jodie; Profit, Rachael; Reilly, John; Stringer, Rowan; Schmidt, Alfred; Turner, Katharine L; Watson, Simon J; Willis, Jennifer; Williams, Gareth; Wilson, Caroline

    2009-08-15

    High throughput screening identified a 7-azaindole-3-acetic acid scaffold as a novel CRTh2 receptor antagonist chemotype, which could be optimised to furnish a highly selective compound with good functional potency for inhibition of human eosinophil shape change in whole blood and oral bioavailability in the rat. PMID:19592244

  7. Synthetic approaches to site selective deuterium incorporation in a novel CRTh2 receptor antagonist clinical candidate.

    PubMed

    Sandham, David A; Page, Christopher J

    2014-03-01

    Selection of acidic or basic reaction conditions, combined with appropriate temperatures, allowed for site selective direct incorporation of deuterium at multiple positions in the 7-azaindole-3-acetic acid CRTh2 receptor antagonist clinical candidate NVP-QAV680. PMID:24452929

  8. A Time-course Study with the Androgen Receptor Antagonist Flutamide in Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flutamide, a drug registered to treat some types of prostate cancer in humans, has been used for many years as a model androgen receptor (AR) antagonist in studies aimed at characterizing disruption of the vertebrate hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Various studies hav...

  9. Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase Modulates NMDA Receptor Antagonist Mediated Alterations in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bendix, Ivo; Serdar, Meray; Herz, Josephine; von Haefen, Clarissa; Nasser, Fatme; Rohrer, Benjamin; Endesfelder, Stefanie; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Spies, Claudia D.; Sifringer, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to induce neurodegeneration in newborn rats. However, in clinical practice the use of NMDA receptor antagonists as anesthetics and sedatives cannot always be avoided. The present study investigated the effect of the indirect cholinergic agonist physostigmine on neurotrophin expression and the extracellular matrix during NMDA receptor antagonist induced injury to the immature rat brain. The aim was to investigate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity, as well as expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after co-administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 (dizocilpine) and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor physostigmine. The AChE inhibitor physostigmine ameliorated the MK801-induced reduction of BDNF mRNA and protein levels, reduced MK801-triggered MMP-2 activity and prevented decreased TIMP-2 mRNA expression. Our results indicate that AChE inhibition may prevent newborn rats from MK801-mediated brain damage by enhancing neurotrophin-associated signaling pathways and by modulating the extracellular matrix. PMID:24595240

  10. Benzofuran-substituted urea derivatives as novel P2Y(1) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Thalji, Reema K; Aiyar, Nambi; Davenport, Elizabeth A; Erhardt, Joseph A; Kallal, Lorena A; Morrow, Dwight M; Senadhi, Shobha; Burns-Kurtis, Cynthia L; Marino, Joseph P

    2010-07-15

    Benzofuran-substituted urea analogs have been identified as novel P2Y(1) receptor antagonists. Structure-activity relationship studies around the urea and the benzofuran moieties resulted in compounds having improved potency. Several analogs were shown to inhibit ADP-mediated platelet activation. PMID:20542694

  11. New benzoyl urea derivatives as novel NR2B selective NMDA receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Borza, I; Greiner, I; Kolok, S; Galgóczy, K; Ignácz-Szendrei, Gy; Horváth, Cs; Farkas, S; Gáti, T; Háda, V; Domány, Gy

    2006-09-01

    A novel series of benzoyl urea derivatives was prepared and identified as NR2B selective NMDA receptor antagonists. The influence of the substitution of the piperidine ring on the biological activity of the compounds was studied. Compound 9 was active in the formalin test in mice. PMID:17020160

  12. CHOLECYSTOKININ RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST HALTS PROGRESSION OF PANCREATIC CANCER PRECURSOR LESIONS AND FIBROSIS IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jill P.; Cooper, Timothy K.; McGovern, Christopher O.; Gilius, Evan L.; Zhong, Qing; Liao, Jiangang; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Matters, Gail L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Exogenous administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) induces hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the pancreas with an increase in DNA content. We hypothesized that endogenous CCK is involved with the malignant progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions and the fibrosis associated with pancreatic cancer. Methods The presence of CCK receptors in early PanIN lesions was examined by immunohistochemistry in mouse and human pancreas. Pdx1-Cre/LSL-KrasG12D transgenic mice were randomized to receive either untreated drinking water or water supplemented with a CCK-receptor antagonist (proglumide, 0.1mg/ml). Pancreas from mice were removed and examined histologically for number and grade of PanINs after 1, 2 or 4 months of antagonist therapy. Results Both CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were identified in early stage PanINs from mouse and human pancreas. The grade of PanIN lesions was reversed and progression to advanced lesions arrested in mice treated with proglumide compared to controls (p=0.004). Furthermore, pancreatic fibrosis was significantly reduced in antagonist-treated animals compared to vehicle (pitalic>0.001). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that endogenous CCK is in part responsible for the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. Use of CCK-receptor antagonists may have a role in cancer prophylaxis in high risk subjects, and may reduce fibrosis in the microenvironment. PMID:25058882

  13. A cross-laboratory preclinical study on the effectiveness of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in stroke.

    PubMed

    Maysami, Samaneh; Wong, Raymond; Pradillo, Jesus M; Denes, Adam; Dhungana, Hiramani; Malm, Tarja; Koistinaho, Jari; Orset, Cyrille; Rahman, Mahbubur; Rubio, Marina; Schwaninger, Markus; Vivien, Denis; Bath, Philip M; Rothwell, Nancy J; Allan, Stuart M

    2016-03-01

    Stroke represents a global challenge and is a leading cause of permanent disability worldwide. Despite much effort, translation of research findings to clinical benefit has not yet been successful. Failure of neuroprotection trials is considered, in part, due to the low quality of preclinical studies, low level of reproducibility across different laboratories and that stroke co-morbidities have not been fully considered in experimental models. More rigorous testing of new drug candidates in different experimental models of stroke and initiation of preclinical cross-laboratory studies have been suggested as ways to improve translation. However, to our knowledge, no drugs currently in clinical stroke trials have been investigated in preclinical cross-laboratory studies. The cytokine interleukin 1 is a key mediator of neuronal injury, and the naturally occurring interleukin 1 receptor antagonist has been reported as beneficial in experimental studies of stroke. In the present paper, we report on a preclinical cross-laboratory stroke trial designed to investigate the efficacy of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in different research laboratories across Europe. Our results strongly support the therapeutic potential of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in experimental stroke and provide further evidence that interleukin 1 receptor antagonist should be evaluated in more extensive clinical stroke trials. PMID:26661169

  14. Structure of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor bound to an antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, Kazuko; Kruse, Andrew C.; Asada, Hidetsugu; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shiroishi, Mitsunori; Zhang, Cheng; Weis, William I.; Okada, Tetsuji; Kobilka, Brian K.; Haga, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Takuya

    2012-03-15

    The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system regulates the activity of multiple organ systems. Muscarinic receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves. Their role in the unconscious regulation of organ and central nervous system function makes them potential therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 receptor) is essential for the physiological control of cardiovascular function through activation of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels, and is of particular interest because of its extensive pharmacological characterization with both orthosteric and allosteric ligands. Here we report the structure of the antagonist-bound human M2 receptor, the first human acetylcholine receptor to be characterized structurally, to our knowledge. The antagonist 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate binds in the middle of a long aqueous channel extending approximately two-thirds through the membrane. The orthosteric binding pocket is formed by amino acids that are identical in all five muscarinic receptor subtypes, and shares structural homology with other functionally unrelated acetylcholine binding proteins from different species. A layer of tyrosine residues forms an aromatic cap restricting dissociation of the bound ligand. A binding site for allosteric ligands has been mapped to residues at the entrance to the binding pocket near this aromatic cap. The structure of the M2 receptor provides insights into the challenges of developing subtype-selective ligands for muscarinic receptors and their propensity for allosteric regulation.

  15. In silico modelling of prostacyclin and other lipid mediators to nuclear receptors reveal novel thyroid hormone receptor antagonist properties.

    PubMed

    Perez Diaz, Noelia; Zloh, Mire; Patel, Pryank; Mackenzie, Louise S

    2016-01-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) is a key mediator involved in cardiovascular homeostasis, acting predominantly on two receptor types; cell surface IP receptor and cytosolic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ. Having a very short half-life, direct methods to determine its long term effects on cells is difficult, and little is known of its interactions with nuclear receptors. Here we used computational chemistry methods to investigate the potential for PGI2, beraprost (IP receptor agonist), and GW0742 (PPARβ/δ agonist), to bind to nuclear receptors, confirmed with pharmacological methods. In silico screening predicted that PGI2, beraprost, and GW0742 have the potential to bind to different nuclear receptors, in particular thyroid hormone β receptor (TRβ) and thyroid hormone α receptor (TRα). Docking analysis predicts a binding profile to residues thought to have allosteric control on the TR ligand binding site. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that beraprost and GW0742 display TRβ and TRα antagonistic properties; beraprost IC50 6.3×10(-5)mol/L and GW0742 IC50 4.9×10(-6)mol/L. Changes to triiodothyronine (T3) induced vasodilation of rat mesenteric arteries measured on the wire myograph were measured in the presence of the TR antagonist MLS000389544 (10(-5)mol/L), beraprost (10(-5)mol/L) and GW0742 (10(-5)mol/L); all significantly inhibited T3 induced vasodilation compared to controls. We have shown that both beraprost and GW0742 exhibit TRβ and TRα antagonist behaviour, and suggests that PGI2 has the ability to affect the long term function of cells through binding to and inactivating thyroid hormone receptors. PMID:26686607

  16. ( sup 3 H)SCH39166, a D1 dopamine receptor antagonist: Binding characteristics and localization

    SciTech Connect

    Wamsley, J.K.; Hunt, M.E.; McQuade, R.D.; Alburges, M.E. )

    1991-02-01

    Schering-Plough Research has developed a new, more specific analogue of SCH23390. This compound, SCH39166, has been shown to be a potent, specific, D1 receptor antagonist with several features which are advantageous over its predecessor. In this report, the binding characteristics of (3H)SCH39166 are described by in vitro analysis in rat brain tissues. The binding was shown to be of high affinity (Kd in the low nM range), saturable, and specific (readily displaceable with SCH23390, but not with the D2 receptor antagonists sulpiride or haloperidol). The binding of SCH39166 is more selective for binding to D1 receptors than SCH23390 with regard to overlap of the latter compound onto 5HT2 and 5HT1C receptors. Autoradiographic localization of D1 receptor sites labeled with (3H)SCH39166 showed a very specific distribution in areas known to contain high quantities of D1 receptors. These regions included the deepest layer of the cerebral cortex, the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, entopeduncular nucleus, and substantia nigra-pars reticulata, as well as less dense binding in a few other areas. At the concentration of ligand used (1 nM), there was a noticeable paucity of labeling in lamina IV of the cerebral cortex and in the choroid plexus, regions of high 5HT2 and 5HT1C receptor binding, respectively. Thus, SCH39166 represents a new D1 receptor antagonist which shows a greater specificity for the D1 receptor than its predecessor SCH23390. As previously shown, another distinct advantage of this compound is its stability in primates which should allow the determination of the effects and utility of D1 receptor antagonism in vivo.

  17. Histamine H₄ Receptor Antagonists: A New Approach for Tinnitus Treatment?

    PubMed

    Hagenow, Jens; Stark, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Tinnitus, a disorder with disruptive sound perception in the head without an external source, affects around 15 % of the worldwide adult population. Since there is no approved drug for the treatment for this symptom, novel strategies need to be developed to provide relief for the patient. A patent from the small French start-up company Sensorion suggests the use of histamine H4 receptor (H4R) inhibitors as potential treatment. Since histamine and its receptor subtypes are strongly involved in neuronal and inflammatory processes in vestibular areas, targeting the H4R could be a novel way to gain a treatment for tinnitus. Although mRNA and protein levels of H4R have been demonstrated on isolated spiral ganglion neurons from mice, the methods of receptor detection as well as the species relevance of the data are under discussion and require considerable further verification, especially on a disease with a high medical need like tinnitus. PMID:25909438

  18. Oxycodone with an opioid receptor antagonist: A review.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mellar P; Goforth, Harold W

    2016-01-01

    The rationale for putting opioid antagonists with an agonist is to improve pain control, to reduce side effects, and/or to reduce abuse. The combination of prolonged release (PR) oxycodone and naloxone reduces constipation as demonstrated in multiple studies and has been designated a tamper-resistant opioid by the Food and Drug Administration. Bioequivalence of the combination product compared with PR oxycodone has not been established. Several of the pivotal studies provided suboptimal laxative support in the control arm of the randomized trials. Two noninferiority trials have demonstrated equivalent analgesia between PR oxycodone and the combination product at doses of less than 120 mg of oxycodone per day. There appears to be an analgesic ceiling above 80-120 mg of oxycodone per day. Safety monitoring during randomized trials was not been well described in published manuscripts. Benefits appear to be better for those with chronic noncancer pain compared with individuals with cancer when constipation was the primary outcome. PMID:26908305

  19. Mesenteric vascular reactivity to histamine receptor agonists and antagonists. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Walus, K.M.; Fondacaro, J.D.; Jacobson, E.D.

    1981-05-01

    Response patterns of intestinal blood flow, oxygen extraction and consumption, blood flow distribution, and motility were assessed during intraarterial infusions of histamine, histamine after H1 or H2 blockade, dimaprit or dimaprit after H2 blockade. Histamine produced an initial peak response of blood flow with a slow decrease thereafter. Oxygen extraction was evenly depressed throughout the infusion, and oxygen consumption increased at the beginning. All initial responses were blocked by tripelennamine. Ranitidine, a new H2 antagonist, accelerated the decay of all responses. Dimaprit produced effects identical to those of histamine after tripelennamine. Distribution of blood flow was unchanged at the beginning of histamine infusion, but subsequently showed a shift to muscularis which was blocked by tripelennamine. Histamine usually stimulated intestinal contractions and this effect was abolished by tripelennamine. Thus, H1 stimulation, besides producing an initial vasodilation, increases oxygen uptake and redistributes flow to the muscularis.

  20. TNF-α receptor antagonist attenuates isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats

    PubMed Central

    YANG, NENGLI; LIANG, YAFENG; YANG, PEI; WANG, WEIJIAN; ZHANG, XUEZHENG; WANG, JUNLU

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), a common clinical in aged patients, is characterized by deficits in cognitive functions in patients following anesthesia and surgery. It has been demonstrated that isoflurane may lead to cognitive impairment in aged rats; however, effective clinical interventions for preventing this disorder are limited. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α has been suggested to be involved in neuroinflammation as well as the development of POCD. Accordingly, the present study aimed to investigate whether TNF-α signaling is involved in the isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats, and whether TNF-α receptor antagonist are able to attenuate isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats. A population of 20-month-old rats were administered TNF-α receptor antagonist R-7050 or an equal volume of saline by intraperitoneal injection 12 h prior to exposure to isoflurane to model cognitive impairment following anesthesia in old patients. Then the rats were exposed to 1.3% isoflurane for 4 h. In the control group, rats showed impaired cognitive functions evaluated by Morris water maze assay after isoflurane exposure. Furthermore, isoflurane exposure induced marked upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 in the hippocampus tissue. In the experimental group, intracisternal administration of TNF-α receptor antagonist R-7050 significantly attenuated isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Further investigation revealed that intracisternal administration of TNF-α receptor antagonist R-7050 notably suppressed isoflurane-induced activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling. Collectively, the present results suggest that TNF-α receptor antagonist may serve as a potential agent for the prevention of anesthesia-induced cognitive decline in aged patients. PMID:27347079

  1. APORPHINOID ANTAGONISTS OF 5-HT2A RECEPTORS: FURTHER EVALUATION OF RING A SUBSTITUENTS AND THE SIZE OF RING C

    PubMed Central

    Ponnala, Shashikanth; Kapadia, Nirav; Navarro, Hernán A.; Harding, Wayne W.

    2014-01-01

    A series of ring A modified analogs of nantenine as well as structural variants in ring C were synthesized and evaluated for antagonist activity at 5-HT2A and α1A receptors. Halogenation improves 5-HT2A antagonist potency in molecules containing a C1 methoxyl/C2 methoxyl or C1 methoxyl/C2 hydroxyl moiety. Bromination or iodination (but not chlorination) with the latter moiety also significantly increased α1A antagonist potency. Homologation or contraction of ring C adversely affected antagonist activity at both receptors, implying that a six-membered ring C motif is beneficial for high antagonist potency at both receptors. Molecular docking studies suggest that the improved antagonist activity (by virtue of improved affinity) of C3 halogenated aporphines in this study, is attributable to favorable interactions with the C3 halogen and F339 and/or F340. PMID:24766771

  2. GR-127935-sensitive mechanism mediating hypotension in anesthetized rats: are 5-HT5B receptors involved?

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Maldonado, Carolina; López-Sánchez, Pedro; Anguiano-Robledo, Liliana; Leopoldo, Marcello; Lacivita, Enza; Terrón, José A

    2015-04-01

    The 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR-127935, inhibits hypotensive responses produced by the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT7 receptor agonist, and 5-HT5A/5B receptor ligand, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), in rats. This work further characterized the above mechanism using more selective 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptor antagonists. Also, expression of 5-HT5A and 5-HT5B receptor mRNAs in blood vessels was searched by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Decreases in diastolic blood pressure induced by 5-CT (0.001-10 μg/kg, intravenously) were analyzed in anesthetized rats that had received intravenous vehicle (1 mL/kg), SB-224289 (5-HT1B antagonist; 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg), BRL15572 (5-HT1D antagonist; 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg), SB-224289 + BRL15572 (0.3 mg/kg, each), or SB-224289 + BRL15572 (0.3 mg/kg, each) + GR-127935 (1 mg/kg). Because only the latter treatment inhibited 5-CT-induced hypotension, suggestive of a mechanism unrelated to 5-HT1B/1D receptors, the effects of antagonists/ligands at 5-HT5A (SB-699551, 1 mg/kg), 5-HT6 (SB-399885, 1 mg/kg), and 5-HT1B/1D/5A/5B/7 receptors (ergotamine, 0.1 mg/kg) on 5-CT-induced hypotension were tested. Interestingly, only ergotamine blocked 5-CT-induced responses; this effect closely paralleled that of SB-224289 + BRL-15572 + GR-127935. Neither did ergotamine nor GR-127935 inhibit hypotensive responses induced by the 5-HT7 receptor agonist, LP-44. Faint but clear bands corresponding to 5-HT5A and 5-HT5B receptor mRNAs in aorta and mesenteric arteries were detected. Results suggest that the GR-127935-sensitive mechanism mediating hypotension in rats is unrelated to 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT5A, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors. This mechanism, however, resembles putative 5-HT5B receptors. PMID:25502305

  3. Bazedoxifene-scaffold-based mimetics of solomonsterols A and B as novel pregnane X receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hodnik, Žiga; Peterlin Mašič, Lucija; Tomašić, Tihomir; Smodiš, Domen; D'Amore, Claudio; Fiorucci, Stefano; Kikelj, Danijel

    2014-06-12

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR), a member of the NR1I nuclear receptor family, acts as a xenobiotic sensor and a paramount transcriptional regulator of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The overexpression of PXR in various cancer cells indicates the importance of PXR as a drug target for countering multidrug resistance in anticancer treatments. We describe the discovery of novel bazedoxifene-scaffold-based PXR antagonists inspired by the marine sulfated steroids solomonsterol A and B as natural leads. A luciferase reporter assay on a PXR-transfected HepG2 cell line identified compounds 19-24 as promising PXR antagonists. Further structure-activity relationship studies of the most active PXR antagonist from the series (compound 20, IC50 = 11 μM) revealed the importance of hydroxyl groups as hydrogen-bond donors for PXR antagonistic activity. PXR antagonists 20 and 24 (IC50 = 14 μM), in addition to the downregulation of PXR expression, exhibited inhibition of PXR-induced CYP3A4 expression, which illustrates their potential to suppress PXR-regulated phase-I drug metabolism. PMID:24828006

  4. Inhibition of Ebola and Marburg Virus Entry by G Protein-Coupled Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Han; Lear-Rooney, Calli M.; Johansen, Lisa; Varhegyi, Elizabeth; Chen, Zheng W.; Olinger, Gene G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Filoviruses, consisting of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), are among the most lethal infectious threats to mankind. Infections by these viruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans and nonhuman primates with high mortality rates. Since there is currently no vaccine or antiviral therapy approved for humans, there is an urgent need to develop prophylactic and therapeutic options for use during filoviral outbreaks and bioterrorist attacks. One of the ideal targets against filoviral infection and diseases is at the entry step, which is mediated by the filoviral glycoprotein (GP). In this report, we screened a chemical library of small molecules and identified numerous inhibitors, which are known G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists targeting different GPCRs, including histamine receptors, 5-HT (serotonin) receptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, and adrenergic receptor. These inhibitors can effectively block replication of both infectious EBOV and MARV, indicating a broad antiviral activity of the GPCR antagonists. The time-of-addition experiment and microscopic studies suggest that GPCR antagonists block filoviral entry at a step following the initial attachment but prior to viral/cell membrane fusion. These results strongly suggest that GPCRs play a critical role in filoviral entry and GPCR antagonists can be developed as an effective anti-EBOV/MARV therapy. IMPORTANCE Infection of Ebola virus and Marburg virus can cause severe illness in humans with a high mortality rate, and currently there is no FDA-approved vaccine or therapeutic treatment available. The 2013-2015 epidemic in West Africa underscores a lack of our understanding in the infection and pathogenesis of these viruses and the urgency of drug discovery and development. In this study, we have identified numerous inhibitors that are known G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists targeting different GPCRs. These inhibitors can effectively block replication of

  5. Enantiopure Indolo[2,3-a]quinolizidines: Synthesis and Evaluation as NMDA Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Nuno A L; Sureda, Francesc X; Pérez, Maria; Amat, Mercedes; Santos, Maria M M

    2016-01-01

    Enantiopure tryptophanol is easily obtained from the reduction of its parent natural amino acid trypthophan (available from the chiral pool), and can be used as chiral auxiliary/inductor to control the stereochemical course of a diastereoselective reaction. Furthermore, enantiopure tryptophanol is useful for the syntheses of natural products or biological active molecules containing the aminoalcohol functionality. In this communication, we report the development of a small library of indolo[2,3-a]quinolizidines and evaluation of their activity as N-Methyl d-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists. The indolo[2,3-a]quinolizidine scaffold was obtained using the following key steps: (i) a stereoselective cyclocondensation of (S)- or (R)-tryptophanol with appropriate racemic δ-oxoesters; (ii) a stereocontrolled cyclization on the indole nucleus. The synthesized enantiopure indolo[2,3-a]quinolizidines were evaluated as NMDA receptor antagonists and one compound was identified to be 2.9-fold more potent as NMDA receptor blocker than amantadine (used in the clinic for Parkinson's disease). This compound represents a hit compound for the development of novel NMDA receptor antagonists with potential applications in neurodegenerative disorders associated with overactivation of NMDA receptors. PMID:27509489

  6. Effects of P2Y12 receptor antagonists beyond platelet inhibition - comparison of ticagrelor with thienopyridines.

    PubMed

    Nylander, Sven; Schulz, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    The effect and clinical benefit of P2Y12 receptor antagonists may not be limited to platelet inhibition and the prevention of arterial thrombus formation. Potential additional effects include reduction of the pro-inflammatory role of activated platelets and effects related to P2Y12 receptor inhibition on other cells apart from platelets. P2Y12 receptor antagonists, thienopyridines and ticagrelor, differ in their mode of action being prodrugs instead of direct acting and irreversibly instead of reversibly binding to P2Y12 . These key differences may provide different potential when it comes to additional effects. In addition to P2Y12 receptor blockade, ticagrelor is unique in having the only well-documented additional target of inhibition, the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1. The current review will address the effects of P2Y12 receptor antagonists beyond platelets and the protection against arterial thrombosis. The discussion will include the potential for thienopyridines and ticagrelor to mediate anti-inflammatory effects, to conserve vascular function, to affect atherosclerosis, to provide cardioprotection and to induce dyspnea. PMID:26758983

  7. Identification of a GPER/GPR30 antagonist with improved estrogen receptor counterselectivity.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Megan K; Field, Angela S; Burai, Ritwik; Ramesh, Chinnasamy; Petrie, Whitney K; Bologa, Cristian G; Oprea, Tudor I; Yamaguchi, Yuri; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi; Sklar, Larry A; Hathaway, Helen J; Arterburn, Jeffrey B; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2011-11-01

    GPER/GPR30 is a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled estrogen receptor that regulates many aspects of mammalian biology and physiology. We have previously described both a GPER-selective agonist G-1 and antagonist G15 based on a tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline scaffold. The antagonist lacks an ethanone moiety that likely forms important hydrogen bonds involved in receptor activation. Computational docking studies suggested that the lack of the ethanone substituent in G15 could minimize key steric conflicts, present in G-1, that limit binding within the ERα ligand binding pocket. In this report, we identify low-affinity cross-reactivity of the GPER antagonist G15 to the classical estrogen receptor ERα. To generate an antagonist with enhanced selectivity, we therefore synthesized an isosteric G-1 derivative, G36, containing an isopropyl moiety in place of the ethanone moiety. We demonstrate that G36 shows decreased binding and activation of ERα, while maintaining its antagonist profile towards GPER. G36 selectively inhibits estrogen-mediated activation of PI3K by GPER but not ERα. It also inhibits estrogen- and G-1-mediated calcium mobilization as well as ERK1/2 activation, with no effect on EGF-mediated ERK1/2 activation. Similar to G15, G36 inhibits estrogen- and G-1-stimulated proliferation of uterine epithelial cells in vivo. The identification of G36 as a GPER antagonist with improved ER counterselectivity represents a significant step towards the development of new highly selective therapeutics for cancer and other diseases. PMID:21782022

  8. Small-molecule endothelin receptor antagonists: a review of patenting activity across therapeutic areas.

    PubMed

    Mucke, Hermann A M

    2009-06-01

    In the field of nonpeptide NCEs with endothelin receptor antagonist activity, a burst in corporate IP filings occurred in the 1990s once the human endothelin system had been characterized, but patent activity has declined in the past decade. Universities have not been active in this area of research to a degree that would have led to many patent applications. While three endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, sitaxentan and ambrisentan) are already available for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, the use of such compounds for the larger therapy areas of heart failure, cancer and nephropathy is still being evaluated in late-stage clinical trials. Marketed and advanced-stage endothelin receptor blockers have remarkably little chemical diversity; thus, the substantially larger chemical space defined by patenting remains to be explored. PMID:19517317

  9. Drug Insight: endothelin-receptor antagonists for pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald

    2005-12-01

    Rapid advances in the understanding of endothelin as a naturally occurring peptide with developmental and regulatory roles in normal physiology, along with a number of deleterious effects under pathologic conditions (including vasoconstriction, fibrosis, vascular hypertrophy, and inflammation) have led to the development of endothelin-receptor antagonists (ERAs). Bosentan, an antagonist with dual specificity for the endothelin-receptor subtypes A and B, has been shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in placebo-controlled clinical trials and is now approved in many countries, including the US, Canada, and Europe, for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), including PAH associated with rheumatic diseases. ERAs with specificity for the endothelin-receptor subtype A, including sitaxsentan and ambrisentan, are currently undergoing investigation. This article reviews PAH associated with systemic rheumatic diseases and describes the role of ERAs in this setting. PMID:16932638

  10. Homology modeling and antagonist binding site study of the human histamine H2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Qi, Tao; Wei, Jing

    2012-11-01

    On the basis of the high resolution crystal structures of bovine rhodopsin, human beta2-adrenergic receptor and human A(2a) adenosine receptor, three-dimensional structure of the human histamine H2 receptor (HHR2) was developed by homology modeling. Results of the evaluations suggest that a high quality homology model for HHR2 has been obtained. Three antagonists, cimetidine, ranitidine and nizatidine, were applied to binding site study with this model through molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area calculations. One aspartic acid, Asp98 in transmembrane domain 7 (TM3), has been identified as major contributors to ligand binding by H-bond interactions. Asn159 in TM4 and Asp186 in TM5 are of great importance in stabilizing HHR2- antagonist complexes. Two hydrophobic sites especially two residues, Val99 in TM3 and Phe254 in TM6, were identified to be essential for their strong hydrophobic interactions with antagonists. The findings reported here are in agreement with available experimental mutagenesis data. This study should be very helpful for a better understanding of the action mode of the antagonist and for guiding further drug design and mutagenesis studies. PMID:22779803

  11. Identification of a New Morpholine Scaffold as a P2Y12 Receptor Antagonist.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Young Ha; Lee, Joo-Youn; Park, Hee Dong; Kim, Tae Hun; Park, Min Chul; Choi, Gildon; Kim, Sunghoon

    2016-01-01

    The P2Y12 receptor is critical for platelet activation and is an attractive drug target for the prevention of atherothrombotic events. Despite the proven antithrombotic efficacy of P2Y12 inhibitors, these thienopyridine scaffolds are prodrugs that lack important features of the ideal antithrombotic agent. For this reason, ticagrelor-a new chemical class of P2Y12 receptor antagonist-was developed, but it can cause shortness of breath and various types of bleeding. Moreover, ticagrelor is a cytochrome P450 3A4 substrate/inhibitor and, therefore, caution should be exercised when it is used concomitantly with strong CYP3A4 inducers/inhibitors. There is a need for novel P2Y12 receptor antagonist scaffolds that are reversible and have high efficacy without associated side effects. Here, we describe a novel antagonist containing a morpholine moiety that was identified by screening libraries of commercially available compounds. The molecule, Compound E, acted on P2Y12, but not P2Y1 and P2Y13, and exhibited pharmacological characteristics that were distinct from those of ticagrelor, acting instead on P2Y12 via an allosteric mechanism. These results provide a basis for the development/optimization of a new class of P2Y12 antagonists. PMID:27563870

  12. A new class of pseudopeptide antagonists of the kinin B1 receptor containing alkyl spacers.

    PubMed

    Galoppini, C; Meini, S; Tancredi, M; Di Fenza, A; Triolo, A; Quartara, L; Maggi, C A; Formaggio, F; Toniolo, C; Mazzucco, S; Papini, A; Rovero, P

    1999-02-11

    Four previously reported kinin receptor peptide antagonists, including the B1 receptor-selective peptides desArg10-HOE 140 (H-D-Arg-Arg-Pro-Hyp-Gly-Thi-Ser-D-Tic-Oic-OH) and B-9858 (H-Lys-Lys-Arg-Pro-Hyp-Gly-Igl-Ser-D-Igl-Oic-OH), have been modified by replacement of the central tetrapeptide Pro-Hyp-Gly-Xaa with linear alkyl spacers of variable length. The analogue of desArg10-HOE 140 containing the 11-aminoundecanoic acid as spacer, MEN 11575 [H-D-Arg-Arg-NH-(CH2)10-CO-Ser-D-Tic-Oic-OH], was found to be slightly more potent than the unmodified peptide (pA2 = 7.1) as a kinin B1 receptor antagonist in the rat ileum longitudinal smooth muscle assay. Moreover, MEN 11575 is devoid of residual agonist activity at the kinin B1 receptor (rat ileum) and antagonist activity at the kinin B2 receptor (guinea pig ileum longitudinal smooth muscle). Both these activities are displayed by the parent peptide desArg10-HOE 140. Therefore, despite its greatly simplified chemical structure, MEN 11575 shows an improved pharmacological profile in terms of both potency and selectivity, and it represents a good template for the development of new peptidomimetic kinin B1 receptor antagonists. We also report an attempt to investigate the conformational role of the flexible, linear spacer of MEN 11575 and to design more constrained analogues, possibly locked in the bioactive conformation, using semirigid spacers based on Calpha-tetrasubstituted alpha-amino acids of the family of 1-aminocycloalkane-1-carboxylic acids (Acnc). PMID:9986712

  13. Antagonists of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are potent growth inhibitors of prostate carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, L A; Krinks, C H Van; Durham, J; Tomkins, S E; Burnett, R D; Jones, E L; Chandraratna, R A S; Brown, G

    2001-01-01

    Novel synthetic antagonists of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) have been developed. To avoid interference by serum retinoids when testing these compounds, we established serum-free grown sub-lines (>3 years) of the prostate carcinoma lines LNCaP, PC3 and DU145. A high affinity pan-RAR antagonist (AGN194310, Kd for binding to RARs = 2–5 nM) inhibited colony formation (by 50%) by all three lines at 16–34 nM, and led to a transient accumulation of flask-cultured cells in G1 followed by apoptosis. AGN194310 is 12–22 fold more potent than all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) against cell lines and also more potent in inhibiting the growth of primary prostate carcinoma cells. PC3 and DU145 cells do not express RARβ, and an antagonist with predominant activity at RARβ and RARγ (AGN194431) inhibited colony formation at concentrations (∼100 nM) commensurate with a Kd value of 70 nM at RARγ. An RARα antagonist (AGN194301) was less potent (IC50 ∼200 nM), but was more active than specific agonists of RARα and of βγ. A component(s) of serum and of LNCaP-conditioned medium diminishes the activity of antagonists: this factor is not the most likely candidates IGF-1 and EGF. In vitro studies of RAR antagonists together with data from RAR-null mice lead to the hypothesis that RARγ-regulated gene transcription is necessary for the survival and maintenance of prostate epithelium. The increased potencies of RAR antagonists, as compared with agonists, suggest that antagonists may be useful in the treatment of prostate carcinoma. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11487280

  14. Serotonin 2C receptor antagonists induce fast-onset antidepressant effects.

    PubMed

    Opal, M D; Klenotich, S C; Morais, M; Bessa, J; Winkle, J; Doukas, D; Kay, L J; Sousa, N; Dulawa, S M

    2014-10-01

    Current antidepressants must be administered for several weeks to produce therapeutic effects. We show that selective serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) antagonists exert antidepressant actions with a faster-onset (5 days) than that of current antidepressants (14 days) in mice. Subchronic (5 days) treatment with 5-HT2C antagonists induced antidepressant behavioral effects in the chronic forced swim test (cFST), chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm and olfactory bulbectomy paradigm. This treatment regimen also induced classical markers of antidepressant action: activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). None of these effects were induced by subchronic treatment with citalopram, a prototypical selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Local infusion of 5-HT2C antagonists into the ventral tegmental area was sufficient to induce BDNF in the mPFC, and dopamine D1 receptor antagonist treatment blocked the antidepressant behavioral effects of 5-HT2C antagonists. 5-HT2C antagonists also activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) in the mPFC, effects recently linked to rapid antidepressant action. Furthermore, 5-HT2C antagonists reversed CMS-induced atrophy of mPFC pyramidal neurons. Subchronic SSRI treatment, which does not induce antidepressant behavioral effects, also activated mTOR and eEF2 and reversed CMS-induced neuronal atrophy, indicating that these effects are not sufficient for antidepressant onset. Our findings reveal that 5-HT2C antagonists are putative fast-onset antidepressants, which act through enhancement of mesocortical dopaminergic signaling. PMID:24166413

  15. Major Depressive Disorder and Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Sun, Huijiao; Chen, Hao; Yang, Xicheng; Xiao, Li; Liu, Renyu; Shao, Liming; Qiu, Zhuibai

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disease worldwide. The clinical use of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)/serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRIs) for this condition have been widely accepted, but they were challenged by unacceptable side-effects, potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) or slow onset/lack of efficacy. The endogenous opioid system is involved in stress and emotion regulatory processes and its role in MDD has been implicated. Although several KOR antagonists including JDTic and PF-04455242 were discontinued in early clinical trials, ALKS 5461 and CERC-501(LY-2456302) survived and entered into Phase-III and Phase-II trials, respectively. Considering the efficacy and safety of early off-label use of buprenorphine in the management of the treatment-resistant depression (TRD), it will be not surprising to predict the potential success of ALKS 5461 (a combination of buprenorphine and ALKS-33) in the near future. Moreover, CERC-501 will be expected to be available as monotherapy or adjuvant therapy with other first-line antidepressants in the treatment of TRD, if ongoing clinical trials continue to provide positive benefit-risk profiles. Emerging new researches might bring more drug candidates targeting the endogenous opioid system to clinical trials to address current challenges in MDD treatment in clinical practice. PMID:27213169

  16. Species differences in the effects of the κ-opioid receptor antagonist zyklophin.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Sunil; Aldrich, Jane V; Walker, Brendan M

    2016-03-01

    We have shown that dysregulation of the dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor (DYN/KOR) system contributes to escalated alcohol self-administration in alcohol dependence and that KOR antagonists with extended durations of action selectively reduce escalated alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent animals. As KOR antagonism has gained widespread attention as a potential therapeutic target to treat alcoholism and multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, we tested the effect of zyklophin (a short-acting KOR antagonist) on escalated alcohol self-administration in rats made alcohol-dependent using intermittent alcohol vapor exposure. Following dependence induction, zyklophin was infused centrally prior to alcohol self-administration sessions and locomotor activity tests during acute withdrawal. Zyklophin did not impact alcohol self-administration or locomotor activity in either exposure condition. To investigate the neurobiological basis of this atypical effect for a KOR antagonist, we utilized a κ-, μ-, and δ-opioid receptor agonist-stimulated GTPyS coupling assay to examine the opioid receptor specificity of zyklophin in the rat brain and mouse brain. In rats, zyklophin did not affect U50488-, DAMGO-, or DADLE-stimulated GTPyS coupling, whereas the prototypical KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (norBNI) attenuated U50488-induced stimulation in the rat brain tissue at concentrations that did not impact μ- and δ-receptor function. To reconcile the discrepancy between the present rat data and published mouse data, comparable GTPyS assays were conducted using mouse brain tissue; zyklophin effects were consistent with KOR antagonism in mice. Moreover, at higher concentrations, zyklophin exhibited agonist properties in rat and mouse brains. These results identify species differences in zyklophin efficacy that, given the rising interest in the development of short-duration KOR antagonists, should provide valuable information for therapeutic development efforts. PMID:26992699

  17. CysLT1 leukotriene receptor antagonists inhibit the effects of nucleotides acting at P2Y receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mamedova, Liaman; Capra, Valérie; Accomazzo, Maria Rosa; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Ferrario, Silvia; Fumagalli, Marta; Abbracchio, Maria P.; Rovati, G. Enrico; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    Montelukast and pranlukast are orally active leukotriene receptor antagonists selective for the CysLT1 receptor. Conversely, the hP2Y1,2,4,6,11,12,13,14 receptors represent a large family of GPCRs responding to either adenine or uracil nucleotides, or to sugar-nucleotides. Montelukast and pranlukast were found to inhibit nucleotide-induced calcium mobilization in a human monocyte-macrophage like cell line, DMSO-differentiated U937 (dU937). Montelukast and pranlukast inhibited the effects of UTP with IC50 values of 7.7 and 4.3 μM, respectively, and inhibited the effects of UDP with IC50 values of 4.5 and 1.6 μM, respectively, in an insurmountable manner. Furthermore, ligand binding studies using [3H]LTD4 excluded the possibility of orthosteric nucleotide binding to the CysLT1 receptor. dU937 cells were shown to express P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, P2Y11, P2Y13 and P2Y14 receptors. Therefore, these antagonists were studied functionally in a heterologous expression system for the human P2Y receptors. In 1321N1 astrocytoma cells stably expressing human P2Y1,2,4,6 receptors, CysLT1 antagonists inhibited both the P2Y agonist-induced activation of phospholipase C and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. IC50 values at P2Y1 and P2Y6 receptors were <1 μM. In control astrocytoma cells expressing an endogenous M3 muscarinic receptor, 10 μM montelukast had no effect on the carbachol-induced rise in intracellular Ca2+. These data demonstrated that CysLT1 receptor antagonists interact functionally with signaling pathways of P2Y receptors, and this should foster the study of possible implications for the clinical use of these compounds in asthma or in other inflammatory conditions. PMID:16280122

  18. Prophylactic effects of the histamine H1 receptor antagonist epinastine and the dual thromboxane A2 receptor and chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells antagonist ramatroban on allergic rhinitis model in mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuh; Inoue, Toshio; Yamamoto, Atsuki; Sugimoto, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The prophylactic use of anti-allergic drugs has been proposed to be effective in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis in humans. However, there is little information regarding the prophylactic effect of thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) receptor antagonist on allergic rhinitis. Recent studies revealed that a TXA(2) receptor antagonist ramatroban could block the prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) receptor and chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2). In the present study, we investigated the prophylactic effects of the histamine H(1) receptor antagonist epinastine and the TXA(2) receptor antagonist ramatroban and seratrodast on mouse models of allergic rhinitis. Female BALB/c mice were sensitized by an intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin and alum on days 0, 5, 14 and 21. Seven days later, mice were sensitized by intranasal application of ovalbumin thrice a week. Drugs were administered once a day from day 22. The severity of allergic rhinitis was assessed by determining the extent of 2 nasal allergic symptoms (sneezing and nasal rubbing). Histamine sensitivity and eosinophil infiltration into the nasal mucosa were also determined. Epinastine and ramatroban significantly reduced nasal symptoms and the number of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa. Seratrodast showed no effect on nasal symptoms and eosinophil infiltration into the nasal mucosa. In addition, histamine sensitivity was reduced by epinastine and ramatroban. These results indicate that epinastine and ramatroban induce the prophylactic effect on allergic rhinitis. PMID:21467637

  19. Discovery and development of orexin receptor antagonists as therapeutics for insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Winrow, CJ; Renger, JJ

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia persistently affects the quality and quantity of sleep. Currently approved treatments for insomnia primarily target γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A) receptor signalling and include benzodiazepines and GABA-A receptor modulators. These drugs are used to address this sleep disorder, but have the potential for side effects such as tolerance and dependence, making them less attractive as maintenance therapy. Forward and reverse genetic approaches in animals have implicated orexin signalling (also referred to as hypocretin signalling) in the control of vigilance and sleep/wake states. Screening for orexin receptor antagonists using in vitro and in vivo methods in animals has identified compounds that block one or other of the orexin receptors (single or dual orexin receptor antagonists [SORAs and DORAs], respectively) in animals and humans. SORAs have primarily been used as probes to further elucidate the roles of the individual orexin receptors, while a number of DORAs have progressed to clinical development as pharmaceutical candidates for insomnia. The DORA almorexant demonstrated significant improvements in a number of clinically relevant sleep parameters in animal models and in patients with insomnia but its development was halted. SB-649868 and suvorexant have demonstrated efficacy and tolerability in Phase II and III trials respectively. Furthermore, suvorexant is currently under review by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of insomnia. Based on the publication of recent non-clinical and clinical data, orexin receptor antagonists potentially represent a targeted, effective and well-tolerated new class of medications for insomnia. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Orexin Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-2 PMID:23731216

  20. Preladenant, a selective A(2A) receptor antagonist, is active in primate models of movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Robert A; Bedard, Paul J; Varty, Geoffrey B; Kazdoba, Tatiana M; Di Paolo, Therese; Grzelak, Michael E; Pond, Annamarie J; Hadjtahar, Abdallah; Belanger, Nancy; Gregoire, Laurent; Dare, Aurelie; Neustadt, Bernard R; Stamford, Andrew W; Hunter, John C

    2010-10-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Extrapyramidal Syndrome (EPS) are movement disorders that result from degeneration of the dopaminergic input to the striatum and chronic inhibition of striatal dopamine D(2) receptors by antipsychotics, respectively. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are selectively localized in the basal ganglia, primarily in the striatopallidal ("indirect") pathway, where they appear to operate in concert with D(2) receptors and have been suggested to drive striatopallidal output balance. In cases of dopaminergic hypofunction, A(2A) receptor activation contributes to the overdrive of the indirect pathway. A(2A) receptor antagonists, therefore, have the potential to restore this inhibitor imbalance. Consequently, A(2A) receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential in diseases of dopaminergic hypofunction such as PD and EPS. Targeting the A(2A) receptor may also be a way to avoid the issues associated with direct dopamine agonists. Recently, preladenant was identified as a potent and highly selective A(2A) receptor antagonist, and has produced a significant improvement in motor function in rodent models of PD. Here we investigate the effects of preladenant in two primate movement disorder models. In MPTP-treated cynomolgus monkeys, preladenant (1 or 3 mg/kg; PO) improved motor ability and did not evoke any dopaminergic-mediated dyskinetic or motor complications. In Cebus apella monkeys with a history of chronic haloperidol treatment, preladenant (0.3-3.0 mg/kg; PO) delayed the onset of EPS symptoms evoked by an acute haloperidol challenge. Collectively, these data support the use of preladenant for the treatment of PD and antipsychotic-induced movement disorders. PMID:20655910

  1. Roles of Amino Acids and Subunits in Determining the Inhibition of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Competitive Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Dilger, James P.; Vidal, Ana Maria; Liu, Man; Mettewie, Claire; Suzuki, Takahiro; Pham, Anh; Demazumder, Deeptankar

    2008-01-01

    Background Binding sites for agonists and competitive antagonists (nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents) are located at the α–δ and α–ε subunit interfaces of adult nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Most information about the amino acids that participate in antagonist binding comes from binding studies with (+)-tubocurarine and metocurine. These bind selectively to the α–ε interface but are differentially sensitive to mutations. To test the generality of this observation, the authors measured current inhibition by five competitive antagonists on wild-type and mutant acetylcholine receptors. Methods HEK293 cells were transfected with wild-type or mutant (αY198F, εD59A, εD59N, εD173A, εD173N, δD180K) mouse muscle acetylcholine receptor complementary DNA. Outside-out patches were excised and perfused with acetylcho-line in the absence and presence of antagonist. Concentration–response curves were constructed to determine antagonist IC50. An antagonist-removal protocol was used to determine dissociation and association rates. Results Effects of mutations were antagonist specific. αY198F decreased the IC50 of (+)-tubocurarine 10-fold, increased the IC50 of vecuronium 5-fold, and had smaller effects on other antagonists. (+)-Tubocurarine was the most sensitive antagonist to εD173 mutations. εD59 mutations had large effects on metocurine and cisatracurium. δD180K decreased inhibition by pancuronium, vecuronium, and cisatracurium. Inhibition by these antagonists was increased for receptors containing two δ subunits but no ε subunit. Differences in IC50 arose from differences in both dissociation and association rates. Conclusion Competitive antagonists exhibited different patterns of sensitivity to mutations. Except for pancuronium, the antagonists were sensitive to mutations at the α–ε interface. Pancuronium, vecuronium, and cisatracurium were selective for the α–δ interface. This suggests the possibility of synergistic

  2. 5-HT2 Receptor Regulation of Mitochondrial Genes: Unexpected Pharmacological Effects of Agonists and Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jennifer L; Wills, Lauren P; McOmish, Caitlin E; Demireva, Elena Y; Gingrich, Jay A; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2016-04-01

    In acute organ injuries, mitochondria are often dysfunctional, and recent research has revealed that recovery of mitochondrial and renal functions is accelerated by induction of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB). We previously reported that the nonselective 5-HT2 receptor agonist DOI [1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-2-amine] induced MB in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs). The goal of this study was to determine the role of 5-HT2 receptors in the regulation of mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in the kidney. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP-809,101 [2-[(3-chlorophenyl)methoxy]-6-(1-piperazinyl)pyrazine] and antagonist SB-242,084 [6-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-N-[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]-1H-indole-1-carboxyamide dihydrochloride] were used to examine the induction of renal mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in RPTCs and in mouse kidneys in the presence and absence of the 5-HT2C receptor. Unexpectedly, both CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased RPTC respiration and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA expression in RPTCs at 1-10 nM. In addition, CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased mRNA expression of PGC-1α and the mitochondrial proteins NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) β subcomplex 8 in mice. These compounds increased mitochondrial genes in RPTCs in which the 5-HT2C receptor was downregulated with small interfering RNA and in the renal cortex of mice lacking the 5-HT2C receptor. By contrast, the ability of these compounds to increase PGC-1α mRNA and respiration was blocked in RPTCs treated with 5-HT2A receptor small interfering RNA or the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist eplivanserin. In addition, the 5-HT2A receptor agonist NBOH-2C-CN [4-[2-[[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]amino]ethyl]-2,5-dimethoxybenzonitrile] increased RPTC respiration at 1-100 nM. These results suggest that agonism of the 5-HT2A receptor induces MB and that the classic 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP

  3. Effects of Urotensin II Receptor Antagonist, GSK1440115, in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Portnoy, Alison; Kumar, Sanjay; Behm, David J.; Mahar, Kelly M.; Noble, Robert B.; Throup, John P.; Russ, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urotensin II (U-II) is highly expressed in the human lung and has been implicated in regulating respiratory physiology in preclinical studies. Our objective was to test antagonism of the urotensin (UT) receptor by GSK1440115, a novel, competitive, and selective inhibitor of the UT receptor, as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of asthma. Methods: Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of single doses of GSK1440115 (1–750 mg) were assessed in a Phase I, placebo controlled study in 70 healthy subjects. In a Phase Ib study, 12 asthmatic patients were randomized into a two-period, single-blind crossover study and treated with single doses of 750 mg GSK1440115 or placebo and given a methacholine challenge. Results: Administration of GSK1440115 was safe and well-tolerated in healthy subjects and asthmatic patients. In both studies, there was a high degree of variability in the observed PK following oral dosing with GSK1440115 at all doses. There was a marked food effect in healthy subjects at the 50 mg dose. In the presence of food at the 750 mg dose, the time to maximal concentration was between 2 and 6 h and the terminal half-life was short at approximately 2 h. All asthmatic patients maintained greater than the predicted concentration levels necessary to achieve predicted 96% receptor occupancy for ≥3 h (between 4 and 7 h post-dose). There were no apparent trends or relationships between the systemic plasma exposure of GSK1440115 and pharmacodynamic endpoints, PC20 after methacholine challenge and FEV1, in asthmatics. Conclusion: While GSK1440115 was safe and well-tolerated, it did not induce bronchodilation in asthmatics, or protect against methacholine-induced bronchospasm, suggesting that acute UT antagonism is not likely to provide benefit as an acute bronchodilator in this patient population. PMID:23641215

  4. P2X1 Receptor Antagonists Inhibit HIV-1 Fusion by Blocking Virus-Coreceptor Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Giroud, Charline; Marin, Mariana; Hammonds, Jason; Spearman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 Env glycoprotein-mediated fusion is initiated upon sequential binding of Env to CD4 and the coreceptor CXCR4 or CCR5. Whereas these interactions are thought to be necessary and sufficient to promote HIV-1 fusion, other host factors can modulate this process. Previous studies reported potent inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by selective P2X1 receptor antagonists, including NF279, and suggested that these receptors play a role in HIV-1 entry. Here we investigated the mechanism of antiviral activity of NF279 and found that this compound does not inhibit HIV-1 fusion by preventing the activation of P2X1 channels but effectively blocks the binding of the virus to CXCR4 or CCR5. The notion of an off-target effect of NF279 on HIV-1 fusion is supported by the lack of detectable expression of P2X1 receptors in cells used in fusion experiments and by the fact that the addition of ATP or the enzymatic depletion of ATP in culture medium does not modulate viral fusion. Importantly, NF279 fails to inhibit HIV-1 fusion with cell lines and primary macrophages when added at an intermediate stage downstream of Env-CD4-coreceptor engagement. Conversely, in the presence of NF279, HIV-1 fusion is arrested downstream of CD4 binding but prior to coreceptor engagement. NF279 also antagonizes the signaling function of CCR5, CXCR4, and another chemokine receptor, as evidenced by the suppression of calcium responses elicited by specific ligands and by recombinant gp120. Collectively, our results demonstrate that NF279 is a dual HIV-1 coreceptor inhibitor that interferes with the functional engagement of CCR5 and CXCR4 by Env. IMPORTANCE Inhibition of P2X receptor activity suppresses HIV-1 fusion and replication, suggesting that P2X signaling is involved in HIV-1 entry. However, mechanistic experiments conducted in this study imply that P2X1 receptor is not expressed in target cells or involved in viral fusion. Instead, we found that inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by a specific P2X1

  5. Effect of Y-25130, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonist, on gastric emptying in mice.

    PubMed

    Haga, K; Asano, K; Inaba, K; Morimoto, Y; Setoguchi, M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of Y-25130 on gastric emptying of nutrient test meals (solid chow) was examined in mice. In a dose range of 0.01-1 mg/kg, p.o., Y-25130 significantly accelerated gastric emptying of solid meals in a dose-dependent manner, at an ED30 of 0.021 mg/kg. Other 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists and prokinetic agents having 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonistic properties accelerated the emptying of solid meals in the following rank order of potency: Y-25130 = granisetron > or = tropisetron > ondansetron > cisapride > metoclopramide. The acceleration of the gastric emptying showed a good correlation with the antagonistic potencies of these compounds on 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptors, determined by the inhibition test of the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex in anesthetized rats (r2 = 0.99). Domperidone (1 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) and trimebutine (10 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) failed to increase the rate of emptying from the stomach. Cisplatin (30 mg/kg, i.p.), a chemotherapeutic agent, significantly delayed the gastric emptying of solid meals, and Y-25130 (0.1-1 mg/kg, p.o.) prevented such a delay in emptying in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Y-25130 accelerates the gastric emptying in mice by antagonism of the 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor. PMID:7625886

  6. Development of novel NK3 receptor antagonists with reduced environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Koki; Okazaki, Shiho; Ohno, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Fuko; Ohkura, Satoshi; Maeda, Kei-Ichiro; Fujii, Nobutaka; Oishi, Shinya

    2016-08-15

    The neurokinin B (NKB)-neurokinin-3 receptor (NK3R) signaling positively regulates the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. The NK3R-selective antagonists may suppress the reproductive functions of mammals. For development of novel NK3R antagonists with reduced environmental toxicity, a structure-activity relationship study of an NK3R antagonist, talnetant, was carried out. Among several talnetant derivatives with labile functional groups in the natural environment, 3-mercaptoquinoline 2f exhibited a comparable biological activity to that of the parent talnetant. Additionally, compound 2f was converted into the disulfide 3f or isothiazolone 8 by air-oxidation, both of which showed no binding affinity to NK3R. PMID:27298001

  7. Identification of spirooxindole and dibenzoxazepine motifs as potent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lotesta, Stephen D; Marcus, Andrew P; Zheng, Yajun; Leftheris, Katerina; Noto, Paul B; Meng, Shi; Kandpal, Geeta; Chen, Guozhou; Zhou, Jing; McKeever, Brian; Bukhtiyarov, Yuri; Zhao, Yi; Lala, Deepak S; Singh, Suresh B; McGeehan, Gerard M

    2016-03-15

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists continue to be a prevalent area of research in the pharmaceutical industry. Herein we report the discovery of various spirooxindole and dibenzoxazepine constructs as potent MR antagonists. SAR analysis of our spirooxindole hit led to highly potent compounds containing polar solubilizing groups, which interact with the helix-11 region of the MR ligand binding domain (LBD). Various dibenzoxazepine moieties were also prepared in an effort to replace a known dibenzoxepane system which interacts with the hydrophobic region of the MR LBD. In addition, an X-ray crystal structure was obtained from a highly potent compound which was shown to exhibit both partial agonist and antagonist modes of action against MR. PMID:26897089

  8. Differential effects of GABAA receptor antagonists in the control of respiratory neuronal discharge patterns.

    PubMed

    Dogas, Z; Krolo, M; Stuth, E A; Tonkovic-Capin, M; Hopp, F A; McCrimmon, D R; Zuperku, E J

    1998-11-01

    To ascertain the role of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in shaping and controlling the phasic discharge patterns of medullary respiratory premotor neurons, localized pressure applications of the competitive GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (BIC) and the noncompetitive GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin (PIC) were studied. Multibarrel micropipettes were used in halothane anesthetized, paralyzed, ventilated, vagotomized dogs to record single unit activity from inspiratory and expiratory neurons in the caudal ventral respiratory group and to picoeject GABAA receptor antagonists. The moving time average of phrenic nerve activity was used to determine respiratory phase durations and to synchronize cycle-triggered histograms of discharge patterns. Picoejection of BIC and PIC had qualitatively different effects on the discharge patterns of respiratory neurons. BIC caused an increase in the discharge rate during the neuron's active phase without inducing activity during the neuron's normally silent phase. The resulting discharge patterns were amplified replicas (x2-3) of the underlying preejection phasic patterns. In contrast, picoejection of PIC did not increase the peak discharge rate during the neuron's active phase but induced a tonic level of activity during the neuron's normally silent phase. The maximum effective BIC dose (15 +/- 1.8 pmol/min) was considerably smaller than that for PIC (280 +/- 53 pmol/min). These findings suggest that GABAA receptors with differential pharmacology mediate distinct functions within the same neuron, 1) gain modulation that is BIC sensitive but PIC insensitive and 2) silent-phase inhibition blocked by PIC. These studies also suggest that the choice of an antagonist is an important consideration in the determination of GABA receptor function within the respiratory motor control system. PMID:9819249

  9. The necessity and effectiveness of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuhisa

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and diabetic nephropathy is the most common primary disease necessitating dialysis treatment in the world including Japan. Major guidelines for treatment of hypertension in Japan, the United States and Europe recommend the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers, which suppress the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), as the antihypertensive drugs of first choice in patients with coexisting diabetes. However, even with the administration of RAS inhibitors, failure to achieve adequate anti-albuminuric, renoprotective effects and a reduction in cardiovascular events has also been reported. Inadequate blockade of aldosterone may be one of the reasons why long-term administration of RAS inhibitors may not be sufficiently effective in patients with diabetic nephropathy. This review focuses on treatment in diabetic nephropathy and discusses the significance of aldosterone blockade. In pre-nephropathy without overt nephropathy, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist can be used to enhance the blood pressure-lowering effects of RAS inhibitors, improve insulin resistance and prevent clinical progression of nephropathy. In CKD categories A2 and A3, the addition of a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist to an RAS inhibitor can help to maintain 'long-term' antiproteinuric and anti-albuminuric effects. However, in category G3a and higher, sufficient attention must be paid to hyperkalemia. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists are not currently recommended as standard treatment in diabetic nephropathy. However, many studies have shown promise of better renoprotective effects if mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists are appropriately used. PMID:25762415

  10. Activity of new NOP receptor ligands in a rat peripheral mononeuropathy model: Potentiation of Morphine anti-allodynic activity by NOP receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Khroyan, Taline V.; Polgar, Willma E.; Orduna, Juan; Jiang, Faming; Olsen, Cris; Toll, Lawrence; Zaveri, Nurulain T.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of new NOP receptor agonists and antagonists in the rat chronic constriction injury model was investigated. Intraperitoneally administered NOP receptor agonist SR14150 and antagonists SR16430 and SR14148, had no effect on mechanical allodynia when given alone. The nonselective NOP/mu-opioid receptor agonist SR16435, however, produced an anti-allodynic response, similar to morphine and reversible by naloxone. Notably, co-administration of the NOP receptor antagonists potentiated the anti-allodynic activity of both morphine and SR16435. Increased levels of the NOP receptor are implicated in the reduced efficacy of morphine in neuropathic pain. Our results suggest the utility of NOP receptor antagonists for potentiating opioid efficacy in chronic pain. PMID:19285491