Sample records for 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-ht reuptake

  1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) Cellular Sequestration during Chronic Exposure Delays 5-HT3 Receptor Resensitization due to Its Subsequent Release*

    PubMed Central

    Hothersall, J. Daniel; Alexander, Amy; Samson, Andrew J.; Moffat, Christopher; Bollan, Karen A.; Connolly, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonergic synapse is dynamically regulated by serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) with elevated levels leading to the down-regulation of the serotonin transporter and a variety of 5-HT receptors, including the 5-HT type-3 (5-HT3) receptors. We report that recombinantly expressed 5-HT3 receptor binding sites are reduced by chronic exposure to 5-HT (IC50 of 154.0 ± 45.7 ?m, t½ = 28.6 min). This is confirmed for 5-HT3 receptor-induced contractions in the guinea pig ileum, which are down-regulated after chronic, but not acute, exposure to 5-HT. The loss of receptor function does not involve endocytosis, and surface receptor levels are unaltered. The rate and extent of down-regulation is potentiated by serotonin transporter function (IC50 of 2.3 ± 1.0 ?m, t½ = 3.4 min). Interestingly, the level of 5-HT uptake correlates with the extent of down-regulation. Using TX-114 extraction, we find that accumulated 5-HT remains soluble and not membrane-bound. This cytoplasmically sequestered 5-HT is readily releasable from both COS-7 cells and the guinea pig ileum. Moreover, the 5-HT level released is sufficient to prevent recovery from receptor desensitization in the guinea pig ileum. Together, these findings suggest the existence of a novel mechanism of down-regulation where the chronic release of sequestered 5-HT prolongs receptor desensitization. PMID:25281748

  2. Pharmacological characterization of RP 62203, a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT2 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Doble, A.; Girdlestone, D.; Piot, O.; Allam, D.; Betschart, J.; Boireau, A.; Dupuy, A.; Guérémy, C.; Ménager, J.; Zundel, J.L.; Blanchard, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    1 RP 62203 (2-[3-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)-piperazinyl)propyl]naphto[1,8-cd]isothiazole-1, 1-dioxide) is a novel naphtosultam derivative which shows very high affinity for 5-HT2 receptors in the rat cerebral cortex (Ki = 50.0 pM). 2 RP 62203 is relatively selective for this sub-type of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor, having lower affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor and very low affinity for the 5-HT3 receptor. RP 62203 displayed low to moderate affinity for ?1-adrenoceptors, dopamine D2 receptors and histamine H1 receptors. 3 In vivo binding experiments demonstrated that oral administration of low doses of RP 62203 led to a long-lasting (>6h) occupation of cortical 5-HT2 receptors (ID50 = 0.39 mg kg-1). 4 In cortical slices from the neonatal rat, RP 62203 potently inhibited inositol phosphate formation evoked by 5-HT, with an IC50 of 7.76 nM. 5 The activity of neurones in the raphé and their responses to microiontophoretically applied 5-HT were studied with extracellular recording electrodes in the anaesthetized rat. RP 62203 potently and dose-dependently blocked excitations evoked by 5-HT when administered at doses of 0.5–4.0 mg kg-1, i.p. In contrast, neither 5-HT-evoked depressions nor glutamate-evoked excitations of raphé neuronal firing were blocked by RP 62203 at doses as high as 8.0 mg kg-1, i.p. 6 Head twitches induced by 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) could be abolished by low doses of RP 62203 in mice (ED50 = 0.44 mg kg-1, p.o.) and in rats (ED50 = 1.54 p.o.). Similar results were obtained with mescaline and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). 7 The potency of RP 62203 was compared with that of three other 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, ritanserin, ICI 169,369 and ICI 170,809. In all models, RP 62203 showed similar activity to ritanserin, whilst either ICI 169,369 or ICI 170,809 was several fold less active. 8 It is concluded that RP 62203 is a potent and selective antagonist at 5-HT2 receptors in the rodent central nervous system. PMID:1596688

  3. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-induced Cl ? transport is mediated by 5HT 3 and 5HT 4 receptors in the rat distal colon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Misra R. Budhoo; R. Paul Harris; John M. Kellum

    1996-01-01

    In the rat distal colon, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced Cl? secretion is seen as a rise in short circuit current (Isc). We investigated the 5-HT receptor mediating 5-HT-induced Cl? secretion in the rat distal colon. Rat distal colon was prepared either by stripping away the muscularis propria with the neural ganglia, or by leaving it intact. The tissue was mounted in Ussing

  4. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reduces total peripheral resistance during chronic infusion: direct arterial mesenteric relaxation is not involved.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert Patrick; Pattison, Jill; Thompson, Janice M; Tiniakov, Ruslan; Scrogin, Karie E; Watts, Stephanie W

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) delivered over 1 week results in a sustained fall in blood pressure in the sham and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt rat. We hypothesized 5-HT lowers blood pressure through direct receptor-mediated vascular relaxation. In vivo, 5-HT reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP), increased heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac index, and reduced total peripheral resistance during a 1 week infusion of 5-HT (25 µg/kg/min) in the normotensive Sprague Dawley rat. The mesenteric vasculature was chosen as an ideal candidate for the site of 5-HT receptor mediated vascular relaxation given the high percentage of cardiac output the site receives. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that mRNA transcripts for the 5-HT2B, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT7 receptors are present in sham and DOCA-salt superior mesenteric arteries. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot validated the presence of the 5-HT2B, 5- HT1B and 5-HT7 receptor protein in sham and DOCA-salt superior mesenteric artery. Isometric contractile force was measured in endothelium-intact superior mesenteric artery and mesenteric resistance arteries in which the contractile 5- HT2A receptor was antagonized. Maximum concentrations of BW-723C86 (5- HT2B agonist), CP 93129 (5-HT1B agonist) or LP-44 (5-HT7 agonist) did not relax the superior mesenteric artery from DOCA-salt rats vs. vehicle. Additionally, 5-HT (10-9 M to 10-5 M) did not cause relaxation in either contracted mesenteric resistance arteries or superior mesenteric arteries from normotensive Sprague- Dawley rats. Thus, although 5-HT receptors known to mediate vascular relaxation are present in the superior mesenteric artery, they are not functional, and are therefore not likely involved in a 5-HT-induced fall in total peripheral resistance and MAP. PMID:22559843

  5. LY215840, a potent 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2 receptor antagonist, blocks vascular and platelet 5-HT2 receptors and delays occlusion in a rabbit model of thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M L; Robertson, D W; Bloomquist, W E; Wilson, H C

    1992-04-01

    Certain ergolines are potent and selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2 receptor antagonists. Previous studies with two ergoline esters, LY53857 and sergolexole, documented their potency as 5-HT2 receptor antagonists and their metabolism in rats to a less active metabolite, 1-isopropyl dihydrolysergic acid. LY215840, an ergoline amide, has been identified as a potent 5-HT2 receptor antagonist that is not hydrolyzed to 1-isopropyl dihydrolysergic acid. In the rat jugular vein, LY215840 (3 x 109-10) to 10(-8) M) blocked 5-HT2 receptors mediating contraction to 5-HT in vitro. After i.v. and p.o. administration to rats, LY215840 was a potent 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, documented by its ability to block the pressor response to 5-HT administered i.v. Furthermore, after i.v. and p.o. administration of LY215840, blockade of vascular 5-HT2 receptors persisted in excess of 2 and 6 hr, respectively. LY215840 also blocked vascular 5-HT2 receptors in doses that did not affect alpha-1, beta-1 receptors or angiotensin II pressor responses, documenting the selectivity of LY215840 as an inhibitor of 5-HT2 and not other vascular receptors that modulate vasoconstriction. In addition to inhibiting vascular 5-HT2 receptors, LY215840 also inhibited 5-HT-amplified, ADP-induced aggregation (another 5-HT2 receptor-mediated response) in both rabbit and human platelets. Because of its ability to block both platelet and vascular 5-HT2 receptors, we studied the effectiveness of LY215840 in the rabbit carotid artery model of vascular occlusion. Low i.v. doses of LY215840 markedly prolonged time to vascular occlusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1560366

  6. Possible in vivo 5-HT reuptake blocking properties of 8-OH-DPAT assessed by measuring hippocampal extracellular 5-HT using microdialysis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Assié, M. B.; Koek, W.

    1996-01-01

    1. The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptor agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), has been shown to label 5-HT reuptake sites. 2. To study the functional consequences of this property, the effects of 8-OH-DPAT were compared with those of the 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, paroxetine and clomipramine, and of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist flesinoxan, in vitro on 5-HT reuptake, and in vivo on the extracellular concentration of 5-HT by use of microdialysis, in rat hippocampus. Because 5-HT reuptake inhibitors reportedly attenuate the ability of (+)-fenfluramine to increase the extracellular concentration of 5-HT, the possible reversal of these effects of 8-OH-DPAT and by paroxetine were examined. 3. 8-OH-DPAT, paroxetine and clomipramine inhibited [3H]-5-HT reuptake in rat hippocampal synaptosomes (pIC50: 6.00, 8.41 and 7.00, respectively). In contrast, flesinoxan did not alter 5-HT reuptake (pIC50 < 5). 4. 8-OH-DPAT (10 and 100 microM), paroxetine (0.1 microM) and clomipramine (1 microM), administered through the dialysis probe, significantly increased the hippocampal extracellular concentration of 5-HT. In contrast, flesinoxan (100 microM) did not alter extracellular 5-HT. Moreover, the effects of 100 microM 8-OH-DPAT were not blocked by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100635 (0.16 mg kg-1, s.c.). 5. The increase in extracellular 5-HT induced by 10 mg kg-1, i.p., (+)-fenfluramine was prevented not only by 0.1 microM paroxetine, but also by 100 microM 8-OH-DPAT. In addition, systemic administration of 10 mg kg-1, but not 2.5 mg kg-1, i.p. 8-OH-DPAT attenuated the increase in extracellular 5-HT induced by 2.5 mg kg-1, i.p., (+)-fenfluramine. 6. These findings suggest that the increase in extracellular 5-HT produced by local administration of 8-OH-DPAT does not involve its 5-HT1A receptor agonist properties, but may result, at least in part, from its 5-HT reuptake blocking properties. PMID:8922730

  7. Acute 5HT Reuptake Blockade Potentiates Human Amygdala Reactivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin L Bigos; Bruce G Pollock; Howard J Aizenstein; Patrick M Fisher; Robert R Bies; Ahmad R Hariri

    2008-01-01

    Variability in serotonin (5-HT) function is associated with individual differences in normal mood and temperament, as well as psychiatric illnesses, all of which are influenced by amygdala function. This study evaluated the acute effects of 5-HT reuptake blockade on amygdala function using pharmacological functional MRI. Eight healthy men completed a double-blind balanced crossover study with the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor,

  8. Effects of DAU 6215, a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) antagonist on electrophysiological properties of the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Passani, M. B.; Pugliese, A. M.; Azzurrini, M.; Corradetti, R.

    1994-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to test the effects of DAU 6215 (endo-N-(8-methyl-8-azabicyclo-[3.2.1]-octo-3-yl)-2,3-dihydro-2-ox o-1H- benzimidazole-1-carboxamide carboxamide hydrochloride), a newly synthesized, selective 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) antagonist, on the cell membrane properties and on characterized 5-HT-mediated responses of pyramidal neurones in the hippocampal CA1 region. 2. Administration of DAU 6215, even at concentrations several hundred fold its Ki, did not affect the cell membrane properties of pyramidal neurones, nor modify extracellularly recorded synaptic potentials, evoked by stimulating the Schaffer's collaterals. 3. Micromolar concentrations (15-30 microM) of 5-HT elicited several responses in pyramidal neurones that are mediated by distinct 5-HT receptor subtypes. DAU 6215 did not antagonize the 5-HT1A-induced membrane hyperpolarization and conductance increase, a response that was blocked by the selective 5-HT1A antagonist NAN-190 (1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-[4-(2-phtalamido)butyl- piperazine). Similarly, DAU 6215 did not affect the membrane depolarization and decrease in amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization, elicited by the activation of putative 5-HT4 receptors. 4. 5-HT increased the frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic potentials (s.p.s.ps) recorded in pyramidal neurones loaded with chloride. In agreement with previous observations, most of the s.p.s.ps were reversed GABAergic events, produced by the activation of 5-HT3 receptors on interneurones, because they persisted in the presence of the glutamate NMDA and non NMDA antagonists, D-aminophosphonovaleric acid (APV; 50 microM) and 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX; 25 microM), and were elicited by the selective 5-HT3 agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT (2-Me-5-HT, 50 microM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8075890

  9. Ribosomal S6 Kinase 2 Directly Phosphorylates the 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A) Serotonin Receptor, Thereby Modulating 5-HT2A Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, Ryan T.; Sheffler, Douglas J.; Willard, Belinda; Kinter, Michael; Kiselar, Janna G.; Roth, Bryan L.

    2009-01-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A) receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily (GPCR) and plays a key role in transducing a variety of cellular signals elicited by 5-hydroxytryptamine in both peripheral and central tissues. Despite its broad physiological importance, our current understanding of 5-HT2A receptor regulation is incomplete. We recently reported the novel finding that the multifunctional ERK effector ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) physically interacts with the 5-HT2A receptor third intracellular (i3) loop and modulates receptor signaling (Sheffler, D. J., Kroeze, W. K., Garcia, B. G., Deutch, A. Y., Hufeisen, S. J., Leahy, P., Bruning, J. C., and Roth, B. L. (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103, 4717–4722). We report here that RSK2 directly phosphorylates the 5-HT2A receptor i3 loop at the conserved residue Ser-314, thereby modulating 5-HT2A receptor signaling. Furthermore, these studies led to the discovery that RSK2 is required for epidermal growth factor-mediated heterologous desensitization of the 5-HT2A receptor. We arrived at these conclusions via multiple lines of evidence, including in vitro kinase experiments, tandem mass spectrometry, and site-directed mutagenesis. Our findings were further validated using phospho-specific Western blot analysis, metabolic labeling studies, and whole-cell signaling experiments. These results support a novel regulatory mechanism in which a downstream effector of the ERK/MAPK pathway directly interacts with, phosphorylates, and modulates signaling of the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor. To our knowledge, these findings are the first to demonstrate that a downstream member of the ERK/MAPK cascade phosphorylates a GPCR as well as mediates cross-talk between a growth factor and a GPCR. PMID:19103592

  10. The action of SDZ 205,557 at 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3 and 5-HT4) receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Eglen, R. M.; Alvarez, R.; Johnson, L. G.; Leung, E.; Wong, E. H.

    1993-01-01

    1. The interaction of the novel antagonist, SDZ 205,557 (2-methoxy-4-amino-5-chloro benzoic acid 2-(diethylamino) ethyl ester), at 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors has been assessed in vitro and in vivo. 2. In guinea-pig hippocampus and in the presence of 0.4 microM 5-carboxamidotryptamine, 5-HT4-mediated stimulation of adenylyl cyclase was competitively antagonized by SDZ 205,557, with a pA2 value of 7.5, and a Schild slope of 0.81. In rat carbachol-contracted oesophagus, 5-HT4-receptor mediated relaxations were surmountably antagonized by SDZ 205,557 with a similar pA2 value (7.3). This value was agonist-independent with the exception of (R)-zacopride, against which a significantly lower value (6.4) was observed. 3. In functional studies of 5-HT3 receptors, SDZ 205,557 exhibited an affinity of 6.2 in guinea-pig ileum compared with 6.9 at binding sites labelled by [3H]-quipazine in NG108-15 cells. In the anaesthetized, vagotomized micropig, SDZ 205,557 produced only a transient blockade of 5-HT4-mediated tachycardia. This contrasted with tropisetron, which was active for over 60 min after administration. The half-lives for the inhibitory responses of SDZ 205,557 and tropisetron were 23 and 116 min, respectively. 4. In conclusion, SDZ 205,557 has similar affinity for 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors. The apparent selectivity observed in guinea-pig is due to the atypical nature of the 5-HT3 receptor in this species. The short duration of action of this novel antagonist may complicate its use in vivo. SDZ 205,557 should, therefore, be used with appropriate caution in studies defining the 5-HT4 receptor. PMID:8448587

  11. Autoreceptor Antagonists Enhance the Effect of the Reuptake Inhibitor Citalopram on Extracellular 5HT: this Effect Persists After Repeated Citalopram Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C GUNDLAH; S HJORTH; S. B AUERBACH

    1997-01-01

    The effect of repeated administration of the reuptake inhibitor citalopram (10 mg\\/kg s.c., b.i.d. for 14 days) or saline on extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and autoreceptor sensitivity was assessed using microdialysis in the frontal cortex (FCx) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) of unanesthetized rats. Acute citalopram (5 mg\\/kg s.c.) challenge produced significant increases in DH and FCx 5-HT. The nonselective 5-HT1A\\/1B receptor

  12. The effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine 5HT 2 receptor antagonists on nerve conduction velocity and endoneurial perfusion in diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman E. Cameron; Mary A. Cotter

    2003-01-01

    Reduced peripheral nerve perfusion participates in the aetiology of diabetic neuropathy. 5-Hydroxtryptamine causes vasa nervorum vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation, which are enhanced by diabetes. To assess whether these mechanisms could contribute to neuropathy, the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT2 receptor antagonist treatment were examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.One study determined the dose-response relationship for AT1015 (N-[2-[4-(5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-ylidene)piperidino]ethyl]-1-formyl-4-piperidinecarboxamide monohydrochloride monohydrate). Two weeks AT1015

  13. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-induced vasodilatation in the isolated perfused rat kidney: are endothelial 5-HT1A receptors involved?

    PubMed

    Verbeuren, T J; Mennecier, P; Laubie, M

    1991-08-16

    Left kidneys obtained from male Wistar rats were perfused with Tyrode solution; the perfusion pressure was measured continuously and taken as an index of vascular resistance in the kidneys. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; 3-50 nmol) caused dose-dependent dilator responses in kidneys preconstricted with noradrenaline (0.6 microM) and pretreated with ritanserin (10 nM) and ICS 205930 (10 nM). The 5-HT1 agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT; 16-64 nmol) also caused renal dilatations under similar conditions. The dilator responses to both 5-HT and 5-CT were antagonized by the non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist metergoline (0.2 microM) and by the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist BMY 7378 (0.4 microM). The guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (30 microM) and the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA; 100 microM) significantly attenuated the dilator responses to 5-HT and 5-CT. The 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT; 0.5-16 nmol) also caused dose-dependent dilator responses in preconstricted rat kidneys. These responses were antagonized by metergoline and BMY 7378 and significantly attenuated by the NO inhibitors hemoglobin (10 microM) and L-NNA. The renal dilator responses noted with the beta-adrenoceptor blocker tertatolol (1-32 nmol) were also antagonized by metergoline and BMY 7378 and significantly reduced by L-NNA and hemoglobin. Both 8-OH-DPAT and tertatolol (1-30 microM) significantly reduced the vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin II (20 pmol). Our data indicate that 5-HT receptors located on the vascular endothelium of the renal circulation are involved in the dilator actions of 5-HT, 5-CT, 8-OH-DPAT and tertatolol, and suggest that these receptors resemble the 5-HT1A subtype. PMID:1838983

  14. Characterization and localization of a peripheral neural 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor subtype (5-HT1P) with a selective agonist, /sup 3/H-5-hydroxyindalpine

    SciTech Connect

    Branchek, T.A.; Mawe, G.M.; Gershon, M.D.

    1988-07-01

    Peripheral neural 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors are different from both classes 5-HT1 and 5-HT2, which have been described from studies of 5-HT receptors in the brain. Recently, it has been shown that, as in the CNS, there is more than a single type of neural receptor for 5-HT in the enteric nervous system. One of these, called 5-HT1P, has a high affinity for 3H-5-HT, initiates a long-lasting depolarization of enteric neurons associated with an increase in membrane resistance, and is the physiological receptor through which enteric serotoninergic neurons mediate slow EPSPs. The other receptor, called 5-HT3 (5-HT2P), does not bind /sup 3/H-5-HT with high affinity, and initiates a brief depolarization of enteric neurons with decreased input resistance, but a physiological action of 5-HT mediated by these receptors has not yet been identified. Hydroxylated indalpines have been found to be agonists at 5-HT1P receptors. We have now examined 5-HT1P receptors using 5-hydroxyindalpine (5-OHIP) as a probe. The action of 5-OHIP on enteric neurons was determined electrophysiologically and compared with that of 5-HT; the binding of /sup 3/H-5-OHIP to isolated enteric membranes was studied by rapid filtration, and to frozen sections of tissue by radioautography. /sup 3/H-5-OHIP binding was compared with that of /sup 3/H-5-HT. 5-OHIP, like 5-HT, induced a triphasic response in most enteric neurons: an initial short-lived depolarization, during which input resistance fell, followed by recovery, and then a long-lasting depolarization, during which the input resistance increased. 5-OHIP bound saturably, reversibly, and with high affinity to enteric membranes (Kd = 7.6 +/- 0.7 nM; Bmax = 76 +/- 14 fmol/mg protein).

  15. Identity of inhibitory presynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) autoreceptors in the rat brain cortex with 5HT 1B binding sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Engel; M. Göthert; D. Hoyer; E. Schlicker; K. Hillenbrand

    1986-01-01

    1.In rat brain cortex slices preincubated with [3H]5-HT, the potencies of 17 5-HT receptor agonists to inhibit the electrically evoked3H overflow and the affinities of 13 antagonists (including several ß-adrenoceptor blocking agents) to antagonize competitively the inhibitory effect of unlabelled 5-HT on evoked3H overflow were determined.2.The affinities of the compounds for 5-HT1B and 5-HT2 binding sites in rat brain cortex

  16. Long-term 5HT reuptake blockade, but not monoamine oxidase inhibition, decreases the function of terminal 5HT autoreceptors: an electrophysiological study in the rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Blier; Yves Chaput; Claude de Montigny

    1988-01-01

    5-HT-containing terminals possess autoreceptors which modulate the release of 5-HT into the synaptic cleft. Tritiated imipramine ([3H]IMI), and more specifically [3H]citalopram and [3H]paroxetine, bind to a site associated with the 5-HT reuptake carrier on the 5-HT terminals. The function of terminal 5-HT autoreceptors is decreased following long-term treatment with the 5-HT reuptake blocker citalopram. The present study was undertaken to

  17. W ay100635-induced Augmentation of the 5HT-elevating Action of Citalopram: Relative Importance of the Dose of the 5HT 1A (Auto)receptor Blocker Versus that of the 5HT Reuptake Inhibitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S HJORTH; D WESTLIN; H. J BENGTSSON

    1997-01-01

    The elevation of extracellular 5-HT after systemic administration of 5-HT reuptake inhibiting drugs is strongly potentiated by agents capable of blocking 5-HT1A autoreceptors in the midbrain raphe. The present in vivo microdialysis study was aimed at assessing the relative importance of 5-HT reuptake inhibition versus 5-HT1A autoreceptor blockade in this interaction. Citalopram (0.5 or 5.0 mg\\/kg s.c.) dose-dependently increased dialysate

  18. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)4 receptors in post mortem human brain tissue: distribution, pharmacology and effects of neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, G P; Mason, S L; Meldrum, A; De Keczer, S; Parnes, H; Eglen, R M; Wong, E H

    1995-01-01

    1. The distribution, pharmacology and effects of neurodegenerative diseases on 5-HT4 receptors in human brain have been characterized in vitro. 2. The 5-HT4 receptor in post mortem human brain tissue was specifically labelled with [3H]-GR 113808. In human putamen, this ligand labelled a homogeneous population of sites, with an apparent affinity (-log Kd) of 10.1 and a density (Bmax) of 5.73 fmol mg-1 tissue. The pharmacology of this site was characterized by use of a series of displacing ligands, and the following rank order of apparent affinities (with mean +/- s.d. -log Ki values in parentheses) was generated: GR113808 (10.05 +/- 0.04) > SDZ 205,557 (8.65 +/- 0.08) > DAU 6285 (7.95 +/- 0.04) > BIMU-1 (7.81 +/- 0.06) > DAU 6215 (7.42 +/- 0.23) > tropisetron (7.39 +/- 0.23) > 5-HT (7.32 +/- 1.00) > BIMU-8 (7.25 +/- 0.04) > (R)-zacopride (5.82 +/- 0.04). The Hill coefficients were not significantly different from unity, consistent with an interaction at a single site. A comparison of the affinities of these compounds with those obtained from guinea-pig striatum indicated no evidence of species differences. 3. The regional distribution of 5-HT4 receptors was assessed by determining the density of binding sites for [3H]-GR 113808.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7780656

  19. The pharmacology and distribution of human 5-hydroxytryptamine2B (5-HT2B) receptor gene products: comparison with 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Bonhaus, D. W.; Bach, C.; DeSouza, A.; Salazar, F. H.; Matsuoka, B. D.; Zuppan, P.; Chan, H. W.; Eglen, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    1. Full length clones of the human 5-HT2B receptor were isolated from human liver, kidney and pancreas. The cloned human 5-HT2B receptors had a high degree of homology (approximately 80%) with the rat and mouse 5-HT2B receptors. 2. PCR amplification was used to determine the tissue distribution of human 5-HT2B receptor mRNA. mRNA encoding the 5-HT2B receptor was expressed with greatest abundance in human liver and kidney. Lower levels of expression were detected in cerebral cortex, whole brain, pancreas and spleen. Expression was not detected in heart. 3. Northern blot analysis confirmed the presence of 5-HT2B receptor mRNA (a 2.4 kB sized band) in pancreas, liver and kidney. An additional 3.2 kB sized band of hybridization was detected in liver and kidney. This raises the possibility of a splice variant of the receptor or the presence of an additional homologous receptor. 4. The human 5-HT2B receptor was expressed in Cos-7 cells and its ligand binding characteristics were compared to similarly expressed human 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. The ligand specificity of the human 5-HT2B receptor (5-HT > ritanserin > SB 204741 > spiperone) was distinct from that of the human 5-HT2A (ritanserin > spiperone > 5-HT > SB 204741) and 5-HT2C (ritanserin > 5-HT > spiperone = SB 204741) receptors. On the basis of a higher affinity for ketanserin and a lower affinity for yohimbine the human 5-HT2B receptor also appeared to differ from the rat 5-HT2B receptor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 PMID:7582481

  20. Regulation of Oligomeric Organization of the Serotonin 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) Receptor Observed by Spatial Intensity Distribution Analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Richard J.; Pediani, John D.; Godin, Antoine G.; Milligan, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    The questions of whether G protein-coupled receptors exist as monomers, dimers, and/or oligomers and if these species interconvert in a ligand-dependent manner are among the most contentious current issues in biology. When employing spatial intensity distribution analysis to laser scanning confocal microscope images of cells stably expressing either a plasma membrane-associated form of monomeric enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or a tandem version of this fluorophore, the eGFP tandem was identified as a dimer. Similar studies on cells stably expressing an eGFP-tagged form of the epidermal growth factor receptor demonstrated that, although largely a monomer in the basal state, this receptor rapidly became predominantly dimeric upon the addition of its ligand epidermal growth factor. In cells induced to express an eGFP-tagged form of the serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) receptor, global analysis of construct quantal brightness was consistent with the predominant form of the receptor being dimeric. However, detailed spatial intensity distribution analysis demonstrated the presence of multiple forms ranging from monomers to higher-order oligomers. Furthermore, treatment with chemically distinct 5-HT2C receptor antagonists resulted in a time-dependent change in the quaternary organization to one in which there was a preponderance of receptor monomers. This antagonist-mediated effect was reversible, because washout of the ligand resulted in the regeneration of many of the oligomeric forms of the receptor. PMID:25825490

  1. Regulation of Oligomeric Organization of the Serotonin 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) Receptor Observed by Spatial Intensity Distribution Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ward, Richard J; Pediani, John D; Godin, Antoine G; Milligan, Graeme

    2015-05-15

    The questions of whether G protein-coupled receptors exist as monomers, dimers, and/or oligomers and if these species interconvert in a ligand-dependent manner are among the most contentious current issues in biology. When employing spatial intensity distribution analysis to laser scanning confocal microscope images of cells stably expressing either a plasma membrane-associated form of monomeric enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or a tandem version of this fluorophore, the eGFP tandem was identified as a dimer. Similar studies on cells stably expressing an eGFP-tagged form of the epidermal growth factor receptor demonstrated that, although largely a monomer in the basal state, this receptor rapidly became predominantly dimeric upon the addition of its ligand epidermal growth factor. In cells induced to express an eGFP-tagged form of the serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) receptor, global analysis of construct quantal brightness was consistent with the predominant form of the receptor being dimeric. However, detailed spatial intensity distribution analysis demonstrated the presence of multiple forms ranging from monomers to higher-order oligomers. Furthermore, treatment with chemically distinct 5-HT2C receptor antagonists resulted in a time-dependent change in the quaternary organization to one in which there was a preponderance of receptor monomers. This antagonist-mediated effect was reversible, because washout of the ligand resulted in the regeneration of many of the oligomeric forms of the receptor. PMID:25825490

  2. (1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4 iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane)-induced head-twitches in the rat are mediated by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 2A receptors: modulation by novel 5-HT2A/2C antagonists, D1 antagonists and 5-HT1A agonists.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, R; Brocco, M; Audinot, V; Gobert, A; Veiga, S; Millan, M J

    1995-04-01

    In this study, the involvement of serotonergic and dopaminergic receptors in the modulation of the head-twitch (HTW) response to the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A/5-HT2C agonist, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane, was characterized in rats using novel and selective ligands at 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, D1, D2 and 5-HT1A receptors. HTW were dose-dependently inhibited by the 5-HT2A/2C antagonists, ritanserin, metergoline, mesulergine, mianserin, ICI 169,369 and LY 58,537, by the preferential 5-HT2A antagonist, ketanserin and by the novel, selective 5-HT2A antagonist, SR 46349B. A further selective 5-HT2A antagonist, MDL 100,907, very potently abolished HTW (ED50 = 0.005 mg/kg). The order of relative potency correlated highly with their affinity at 5-HT2A (r = 0.83) but not 5-HT2C receptors (r = 0.06). In addition, the novel, selective 5-HT2C antagonist, SB 200,646A, failed to abolish HTW and the 5-HT2C agonists/5-HT2A antagonists, 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine and 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine, blocked, rather than elicited, HTW. The D1 antagonists, SCH 23390, NNC 112, NNC 756, SCH 39166 and A 69024, in this order of relative potency that correlated with their affinity at D1 receptors (r = 0.98), blocked HTW. The D2 antagonists, raclopride, eticlopride and haloperidol also blocked HTW. The 5-HT1A agonists, S 14671, S 14506, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin, buspirone, ipsapirone and (+)-flesinoxan, abolished HTW. The action of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin was blocked by (-)-tertatolol (ID50 = 4.5 mg/kg), a novel 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. Similarly, (-)-tertatolol attenuated the action of S 14506 and abolished that of S 14671, buspirone and ipsapirone. A role of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in the action of 5-HT1A agonists was suggested by the finding that parachlorophenylalanine (3 x 300 mg/kg, i.p.), which depleted cerebral pools of 5-HT, did not modify the activity of ipsapirone. The present data demonstrate that 5-HT2A receptors mediate HTW in rats and that both D1 and D2 receptors as well as (postsynaptic) 5-HT1A receptors play a role in their expression. PMID:7714755

  3. Functional interactions between muscarinic M2 receptors and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)4 receptors and beta 3-adrenoceptors in isolated oesophageal muscularis mucosae of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Eglen, R. M.; Peelle, B.; Pulido-Rios, M. T.; Leung, E.

    1996-01-01

    1. Relaxations of isolated oesophageal muscularis mucosae of rat are mediated by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), acting at 5-HT4 receptors, and isoprenaline, principally acting via beta 3-adrenoceptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that muscarinic M2 receptors, also present in this tissue, functionally oppose 5-HT and beta-adrenoceptor-relaxant effects in this preparation. 2. Contractions of rat oesophageal muscularis mucosae were induced, in a concentration-dependent manner, by the muscarinic receptor agonist, oxotremorine M (pEC50 = 6.7 +/- 0.1). The contractile responses to oxotremorine M were surmountably antagonized by the following compounds, (pKB values in parentheses): atropine (9.1 +/- 0.2), 4-DAMP (4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methyl piperidine methiodide, 8.7 +/- 0.1), p-F-HHSiD (para-fluoro-hexa-hydro-siladifenidol, 7.5 +/- 0.1), zamifenacin (8.6 +/- 0.3), himbacine (7.2 +/- 0.2), pirenzepine (6.8 +/- 0.3) and methoctramine (6.2 +/- 0.2). These data are consistent with a role for muscarinic M3 receptors mediating contractions to oxotremorine M. The contractile response was associated with a low receptor reserve, since the responses were shifted to the right and virtually abolished by the alkylating agent, 4-DAMP mustard (4-diphenylacetoxy-N-(2-chloroethyl) piperidine, 40 nM; 60 min equilibration). 3. In tissues precontracted with U46619 (0.7 microM; approx. EC90), isoprenaline (pEC50 = 8.0 +/- 0.1) and 5-HT (pEC50 = 7.5 +/- 0.2) induced concentration-dependent relaxations. The isoprenaline potency was slightly, but significantly, different in tissues precontracted with oxotremorine M (isoprenaline, pEC50 = 7.4 +/- 0.2). In contrast, the potency of 5-HT (pEC50 = 7.5 +/- 0.2), in tissues that were precontracted with 1 microM (EC90) oxotremorine M, was identical. When these experiments were repeated in the presence of the muscarinic M2 receptor antagonist, methoctramine (1 microM), there was no effect on the relaxant potencies to either 5-HT or isoprenaline. Collectively, these data suggest that muscarinic M2 receptors do not, under these conditions, modulate relaxant potencies to either 5-HT or isoprenaline. 4. In a second protocol, tissues were pre-contracted with U46619 (0.7 microM) and relaxed with either 5-HT (0.1 microM) or isoprenaline (0.1 microM). In these tissues (in which the muscarinic M3 receptor population was extensively depleted by alkylation), oxotremorine M caused concentration-dependent re-contractions (i.e. reversal of relaxations). In tissues relaxed with 5-HT, the potency of oxtremorine M was 5.9 +/- 0.2, while in tissues relaxed with isoprenaline, the potency (pEC50) = 5.6 +/- 0.3. These re-contractions were antagonized, in a surmountable fashion, by methoctramine (1 microM; pKB = 7.6 +/- 0.1). Similar observations were seen when relaxations were induced by isoprenaline (1 microM; pKB = 7.5 +/- 0.2). Under these conditions, therefore, the pKB values are consistent with activation of muscarinic M2 receptors, and inconsistent with activation of M3 receptors. 5. It is concluded that in isolated oesophageal muscularis mucosae of rat, muscarinic M3 receptors mediate direct contractions and are associated with a low receptor reserve. When this population is depleted, and the tissues relaxed via activation of receptors that augment adenylyl cyclase activity, a functional role for muscarinic M2 receptors is revealed. PMID:8894184

  4. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 5HT2C Receptors Form a Protein Complex with N-Methyl-d-aspartate GluN2A Subunits and Activate Phosphorylation of Src Protein to Modulate Motoneuronal Depolarization*

    PubMed Central

    Bigford, Gregory E.; Chaudhry, Nauman S.; Keane, Robert W.; Holohean, Alice M.

    2012-01-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-gated ion channels are known to play a critical role in motoneuron depolarization, but the molecular mechanisms modulating NMDA activation in the spinal cord are not well understood. This study demonstrates that activated 5HT2C receptors enhance NMDA depolarizations recorded electrophysiologically from motoneurons. Pharmacological studies indicate involvement of Src tyrosine kinase mediates 5HT2C facilitation of NMDA. RT-PCR analysis revealed edited forms of 5HT2C were present in mammalian spinal cord, indicating the availability of G-protein-independent isoforms. Spinal cord neurons treated with the 5HT2C agonist MK 212 showed increased SrcTyr-416 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner thus verifying that Src is activated after treatment. In addition, 5HT2C antagonists and tyrosine kinase inhibitors blocked 5HT2C-mediated SrcTyr-416 phosphorylation and also enhanced NMDA-induced motoneuron depolarization. Co-immunoprecipitation of synaptosomal fractions showed that GluN2A, 5HT2C receptors, and Src tyrosine kinase form protein associations in synaptosomes. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated GluN2A and 5HT2C receptors co-localize on the processes of spinal neurons. These findings reveal that a distinct multiprotein complex links 5-hydroxytryptamine-activated intracellular signaling events with NMDA-mediated functional activity. PMID:22291020

  5. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 5HT2C receptors form a protein complex with N-methyl-D-aspartate GluN2A subunits and activate phosphorylation of Src protein to modulate motoneuronal depolarization.

    PubMed

    Bigford, Gregory E; Chaudhry, Nauman S; Keane, Robert W; Holohean, Alice M

    2012-03-30

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-gated ion channels are known to play a critical role in motoneuron depolarization, but the molecular mechanisms modulating NMDA activation in the spinal cord are not well understood. This study demonstrates that activated 5HT2C receptors enhance NMDA depolarizations recorded electrophysiologically from motoneurons. Pharmacological studies indicate involvement of Src tyrosine kinase mediates 5HT2C facilitation of NMDA. RT-PCR analysis revealed edited forms of 5HT2C were present in mammalian spinal cord, indicating the availability of G-protein-independent isoforms. Spinal cord neurons treated with the 5HT2C agonist MK 212 showed increased Src(Tyr-416) phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner thus verifying that Src is activated after treatment. In addition, 5HT2C antagonists and tyrosine kinase inhibitors blocked 5HT2C-mediated Src(Tyr-416) phosphorylation and also enhanced NMDA-induced motoneuron depolarization. Co-immunoprecipitation of synaptosomal fractions showed that GluN2A, 5HT2C receptors, and Src tyrosine kinase form protein associations in synaptosomes. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated GluN2A and 5HT2C receptors co-localize on the processes of spinal neurons. These findings reveal that a distinct multiprotein complex links 5-hydroxytryptamine-activated intracellular signaling events with NMDA-mediated functional activity. PMID:22291020

  6. Interactions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with the serotonin 5HT 2C receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E.-P. Pälvimäki; H. Majasuo; A. Laakso; M. Kuoppamäki; E. Syvälahti; B. L. Roth; J. Hietala

    1996-01-01

    Interactions of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) citalopram, fluoxetine and its main metabolite norfluoxetine, and the tricyclic anti-depressant (TCA) imipramine with the rat serotonin 5-HT2C receptor in a clonal cell line and in the rat choroid plexus were investigated by radioligand binding and phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis assays. For comparison, the affinities of a variety of other antidepressants of different

  7. Characterization of [³H]Lu AE60157 ([³H]8-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-3-phenylsulfonylquinoline) binding to 5-hydroxytryptamine? (5-HT?) receptors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Witten, Louise; Bang-Andersen, Benny; Nielsen, Søren Møller; Miller, Silke; Christoffersen, Claus Tornby; Stensbøl, Tine Bryan; Brennum, Lise Tøttrup; Arnt, Jørn

    2012-02-15

    The serotonin6 (5-HT(6)) receptor has received attention for its proposed role in cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. This has lead to a search for selective 5-HT(6) receptor ligands useful for in vivo imaging in animals and humans. The novel 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist Lu AE60157 (8-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-3-phenylsulfonylquinoline) displays high affinity for the human (h) 5-HT(6) receptor (K(d) 0.2nM), and broad profiling in 60 additional binding and enzyme assays showed that Lu AE60157 displays 16-fold selectivity to the h5-HT(2A) receptor (K(i) 3.2nM) and >100-fold selectivity to all other evaluated targets. Lu AE60157 was labeled with tritium in the N-methyl group and evaluated as a radioligand in vitro as well as in vivo in rats and mice. Autoradiography experiments showed that [(3)H]Lu AE60157 bound preferentially to rat brain regions with expected high 5-HT(6) receptor density. Furthermore, [(3)H]Lu AE60157 showed good brain penetration after systemic administration and high (about 75%) specific in vivo binding to the striatal 5-HT(6) receptor in rats. The striatal binding of [(3)H]Lu AE60157 was fully displaced by selective 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists (SB-742457; Lu AE58054) and antipsychotics known to inhibit the binding of 5-HT(6) receptors in vitro (clozapine; olanzapine; sertindole), but was not displaced by antipsychotics lacking high 5-HT(6) receptor affinities (risperidone; haloperidol; quetiapine). No specific binding to mouse brain tissue in vivo could be obtained. In conclusion, [(3)H]Lu AE60157 is suitable for measuring in vivo occupancies of 5-HT(6) receptor ligands in rat brain regions in which 5-HT(2A) receptors do not interfere. PMID:22155399

  8. Neuropharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine

    PubMed Central

    Richard Green, A

    2006-01-01

    This review outlines the history of our knowledge of the neuropharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin), focusing primarily on the work of U.K. scientists. The existence of a vasoconstrictive substance in the blood has been known for over 135 years. The substance was named serotonin and finally identified as 5-HT in 1949. The presence of 5-HT in the brain was reported by Gaddum in 1954 and it was Gaddum who also demonstrated that the action of 5-HT (in the gut) was antagonised by the potent hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide. This provoked the notion that 5-HT played a pivotal role in the control of mood and subsequent investigations have generally confirmed this hypothesis. Over the last 50 years a good understanding has been gained of the mechanisms involved in control of the storage, synthesis and degradation of 5-HT in the brain. Knowledge has also been gained on control of the functional activity of this monoamine, often by the use of behavioural models. A considerable literature also now exists on the mechanisms by which many of the drugs used to treat psychiatric illness alter the functional activity of 5-HT, particularly the drugs used to treat depression. Over the last 20 years the number of identified 5-HT receptor subtypes has increased from 2 to 14, or possibly more. A major challenge now is to utilise this knowledge to develop receptor-specific drugs and use the information gained to better treat central nervous system disorders. PMID:16402098

  9. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5HT, serotonin)-1A receptor in brain areas of alcohol-preferring P and non-preferring NP rats

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, L.R.; Wong, D.T.; Li, T.K.; Lumeng, L. (Lilly Research Labs., Indianapolis, IN (United States) Indiana Univ., Indianapolis (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Binding of {sup 3}H-80HDPAT to 5HT-1A receptor in membranes isolated from cerebral cortex of P and NP rats which had not been exposed to ethanol were equally sensitive to the displacement by nanomolar concentrations of agonists, including 5HT, buspirone and ipsapirone, and of antagonists metergoline and spiperone. Binding with increasing concentrations of {sup 3}H-80HDPAT was saturable in membranes of cerebral cortex from P and NP rats. Scatchard analysis revealed single components of binding sites with dissociation constants of 1.54 and 2.03 nM and maximum density of 177.3 and 129.3 fmol/mg protein, respectively, suggesting higher affinity and density of 5HT-1A receptors in cerebral cortex of P than NP rats. Higher densities are also found in other brain areas, including hypothalamus, striatum and hippocampus, of P than NP rats, but not in brainstem. Thus, an enrichment of 5HT-1A receptors in specific brain areas was developed during selective breeding for alcohol preference, or an upregulation of the receptors resulted from the lower concentrations of 5HT in brain areas of P as compared with NP rats.

  10. N'-(arylsulfonyl)pyrazoline-1-carboxamidines as novel, neutral 5-hydroxytryptamine 6 receptor (5-HT?R) antagonists with unique structural features.

    PubMed

    van Loevezijn, Arnold; Venhorst, Jennifer; Iwema Bakker, Wouter I; de Korte, Cor G; de Looff, Wouter; Verhoog, Stefan; van Wees, Jan-Willem; van Hoeve, Martijn; van de Woestijne, Rob P; van der Neut, Martina A W; Borst, Alice J M; van Dongen, Maria J P; de Bruin, Natasja M W J; Keizer, Hiskias G; Kruse, Chris G

    2011-10-27

    The 5-HT(6) receptor (5-HT(6)R) has been in the spotlight for several years regarding CNS-related diseases. We set out to discover novel, neutral 5-HT(6)R antagonists to improve off-target selectivity compared to basic amine-containing scaffolds dominating the field. High-throughput screening identified the N'-(sulfonyl)pyrazoline-1-carboxamidine scaffold as a promising neutral core for starting hit-to-lead. Medicinal chemistry, molecular modeling, small molecule NMR and X-ray crystallography were subsequently applied to optimize the leads into antagonists (compounds 1-49) displaying high 5-HT(6)R affinity with optimal off-target selectivity. Unique structural features include a pseudoaromatic system and an internal hydrogen bond freezing the bioactive conformation. While physicochemical properties and CNS availability were generally favorable, significant efforts had to be made to improve metabolic stability. The optimized structure 42 is an extremely selective, hERG-free, high-affinity 5-HT(6)R antagonist showing good human in vitro metabolic stability. Rat pharmacokinetic data were sufficiently good to enable further in vivo profiling. PMID:21866910

  11. The interplay between brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels and cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Nonkes, Lourens J P; van Bussel, Inge P G; Verheij, Michel M M; Homberg, Judith R

    2011-12-01

    Cocaine addiction is a major health problem that affects millions of people. Cocaine acts by inhibiting dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT)] reuptake. The dopaminergic system is generally assumed to be involved in the reinforcing aspects of the drug, but the role of 5-HT in the addictive potential of cocaine is unclear. In light of pharmacological manipulations and cocaine use-related disease states affecting brain 5-HT levels, we review studies on the effect of cocaine on central 5-HT function. In addition, the contribution of 5-HT to the rewarding, aversive, discriminative and subjective, as well as the motivational and reinforcing effects of cocaine is discussed. We specifically focus on net changes in the extracellular 5-HT levels that occur as a consequence of acute and chronic cocaine exposure and how these influence cocaine abuse-related behaviour. Overall, the data indicate that 5-HT plays a major role in the psychomotor stimulant, rewarding and discriminative stimulant effects of cocaine, but also affects the motivational and reinforcing effects of the drug. In addition, 5-HT mediates, to some extent, the aversive effects of cocaine. Difficulties with data interpretation are discussed. PMID:22015806

  12. Evidence for the differential co-localization of neurokinin-1 receptors with 5HT receptor subtypes in rat forebrain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sepehr Hafizi; Florence Serres; Qi Pei; Susan Totterdell; Trevor Sharp

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that like selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) reuptake inhibitors, antagonists at neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1Rs) may have antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. NK1Rs are present in 5-HT innervated forebrain regions which may provide a common point of interaction between these two transmitter systems. This study aimed to investigate for cellular co-localization between NK1Rs and 5-HT receptor subtypes in mood-related brain regions

  13. (?)Pindolol, but not buspirone, potentiates the citalopram-induced rise in extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Hjorth

    1996-01-01

    Recent open clinical studies suggest that pindolol and buspirone may enhance the efficacy and\\/or shorten the latency to antidepressant action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) in unipolar major depressive disorder. The present investigation addressed the possibility that these agents share the ability to enhance the extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-elevating response to the SSRI citalopram. For the purpose, in vivo microdialysis

  14. Acute and chronic treatment with 5HT reuptake inhibitors differentially modulate emotional responses in anxiety models in rodents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy Griebel; Jean-Luc Moreau; François Jenck; René Misslin; James R. Martin

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated behavioural effects of very potent 5-HT reuptake inhibitors after acute treatment (cianopramine and citalopram), as well as after chronic treatment (cianopramine), in two behavioural models of anxiety: 1) the light\\/dark choice procedure in mice and 2) the elevated plus-maze test in rats. In addition, the responses of mice to novelty in a free exploration paradigm were assessed

  15. Evidence for involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B autoreceptors in the enhancement of serotonin turnover in the mouse brain following repeated treatment with fluoxetine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carina Stenfors; Svante B Ross

    2002-01-01

    The effect of repeated treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine on synthesis and turnover of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was studied in the mouse brain in vivo. The concentration of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 5-HT was measured in hypothalamus, hippocampus and frontal cortex after inhibition of the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase activity with m-hydroxybenzylhydrazine (NSD 1015). Fluoxetine 6.9

  16. Effects of sertraline and citalopram given repeatedly on the responsiveness of 5HT receptor subpopulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Maj; E. Moryl

    1992-01-01

    Summary The effect of repeated treatment (5 and 10 mg\\/kg,po, twice daily, 14 days) with sertraline and citalopram (antidepressants which selectively inhibit the reuptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) on the responsiveness of different 5-HT receptors to their agonists, was examined in rats and mice. Sertraline and citalopram (both at a dose 5 and 10 mg\\/kg) antagonized (the first one more potently)

  17. The regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine release from superfused synaptosomes by 5-hydroxytryptamine and its immediate precursors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh A. Suter; Keith J. Collard

    1983-01-01

    The effect ofl-tryptophan, 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on the K+-evoked release of [3H]5-HT from superfused rat brain synaptosomes was studied. 5-HT at concentrations above 10 nM significantly inhibited the K+-evoked release of [3H]5-HT. A slight enhancement of [3H]5-HT release was observed at a concentration of 5nM. In contrast tryptophan at a concentration of 10 nM significantly enhanced [3H]5-HT release

  18. The 5HT 1A receptor antagonist (S)UH301 augments the increase in extracellular concentrations of 5HT in the frontal cortex produced by both acute and chronic treatment with citalopram

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lotta Arborelius; George G. Nomikos; Peter Hertel; Peter Salmi; Pernilla Grillner; Berit Backlund Höök; Uli Hacksell; Torgny H. Svensson

    1996-01-01

    In a recent study, utilizing single cell recording techniques, we have shown that administration of 5-HT1A receptor antagonists, e.g. (S)-UH-301, to rats concomitantly treated, acute or chronically, with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram significantly increases the activity of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) containing neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). Here we report correlative experiments using microdialysis in freely moving

  19. Blockade of the high-affinity noradrenaline transporter (NET) by the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor escitalopram: an in vivo microdialysis study in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hai T; Guiard, Bruno P; Bacq, Alexandre; David, Denis J; David, Indira; Quesseveur, Gaël; Gautron, Sophie; Sanchez, Connie; Gardier, Alain M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Escitalopram, the S(+)-enantiomer of citalopram is the most selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor approved. Although all 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increase extracellular levels of 5-HT ([5-HT]ext). some also enhance, to a lesser extent, extracellular levels of noradrenaline ([NA]ext). However, the mechanisms by which SSRIs activate noradrenergic transmission in the brain remain to be determined. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH This study examined the effects of escitalopram, on both [5-HT]ext and [NA]ext in the frontal cortex (FCx) of freely moving wild-type (WT) and mutant mice lacking the 5-HT transporter (SERT?/?) by using intracerebral microdialysis. We explored the possibilities that escitalopram enhances [NA]ext, either by a direct mechanism involving the inhibition of the low- or high-affinity noradrenaline transporters, or by an indirect mechanism promoted by [5-HT]ext elevation. The forced swim test (FST) was used to investigate whether enhancing cortical [5-HT]ext and/or [NA]ext affected the antidepressant-like activity of escitalopram. KEY RESULTS In WT mice, a single systemic administration of escitalopram produced a significant increase in cortical [5-HT]ext and [NA]ext. As expected, escitalopram failed to increase cortical [5-HT]ext in SERT?/? mice, whereas its neurochemical effects on [NA]ext persisted in these mutants. In WT mice subjected to the FST, escitalopram increased swimming parameters without affecting climbing behaviour. Finally, escitalopram, at relevant concentrations, failed to inhibit cortical noradrenaline and 5-HT uptake mediated by low-affinity monoamine transporters. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These experiments suggest that escitalopram enhances, although moderately, cortical [NA]extin vivo by a direct mechanism involving the inhibition of the high-affinity noradrenaline transporter (NET). PMID:22233336

  20. Multiparameter optimization in CNS drug discovery: design of pyrimido[4,5-d]azepines as potent 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT?C) receptor agonists with exquisite functional selectivity over 5-HT?A and 5-HT?B receptors.

    PubMed

    Storer, R Ian; Brennan, Paul E; Brown, Alan D; Bungay, Peter J; Conlon, Kelly M; Corbett, Matthew S; DePianta, Robert P; Fish, Paul V; Heifetz, Alexander; Ho, Danny K H; Jessiman, Alan S; McMurray, Gordon; de Oliveira, Cesar Augusto F; Roberts, Lee R; Root, James A; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu; Shapiro, Michael J; Skerten, Melanie; Westbrook, Dominique; Wheeler, Simon; Whitlock, Gavin A; Wright, John

    2014-06-26

    A series of 4-substituted pyrimido[4,5-d]azepines that are potent, selective 5-HT2C receptor partial agonists is described. A rational medicinal chemistry design strategy to deliver CNS penetration coupled with SAR-based optimization of selectivity and agonist potency provided compounds with the desired balance of preclinical properties. Lead compounds 17 (PF-4479745) and 18 (PF-4522654) displayed robust pharmacology in a preclinical canine model of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and no measurable functional agonism at the key selectivity targets 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B in relevant tissue-based assay systems. Utilizing recent advances in the structural biology of GPCRs, homology modeling has been carried out to rationalize binding and agonist efficacy of these compounds. PMID:24878222

  1. Design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of azetedine and pyrrolidine derivatives as dual norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and 5-HT(1A) partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Martin; Campbell, Brian M; Dounay, Amy B; Gray, David L; Xie, Longfei; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Stratman, Nancy C; Zoski, Kim; Drummond, Elena; Bora, Gary; Probert, Al; Whisman, Tammy

    2011-01-15

    Compounds with combined norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) and serotonin 1A (5-HT(1A)) partial agonist pharmacology may offer a new therapeutic approach for treating symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders including ADHD, depression, and anxiety. Herein we describe the design and optimization of novel chemical matter that exhibits favorable dual NRI and 5-HT(1A) partial agonist activity. Lead compounds in this series were found to be devoid of activity at the dopamine transporter and were shown to be brain penetrant with high receptor occupancy. PMID:21185183

  2. DSP-1053, a novel serotonin reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT1A partial agonistic activity, displays fast antidepressant effect with minimal undesirable effects in juvenile rats

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Taro; Matsumoto, Yuji; Yamamoto, Masanori; Matsumoto, Kenji; Baba, Satoko; Nakamichi, Keiko; Matsuda, Harumi; Nishimuta, Haruka; Yabuuchi, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Enhancement of serotonergic neurotransmission has been the main stream of treatment for patients with depression. However, delayed therapeutic onset and undesirable side effects are major drawbacks for conventional serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Here, we show that DSP-1053, a novel serotonin reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT1A partial agonistic activity, displays fast antidepressant efficacy with minimal undesirable effects, especially nausea and emesis in animal models. DSP-1053 bound human serotonin transporter and 5-HT1A receptor with the Ki values of 1.02 ± 0.06 and 5.05 ± 1.07 nmol/L, respectively. This compound inhibited the serotonin transporter with an IC50 value of 2.74 ± 0.41 nmol/L and had an intrinsic activity for 5-HT1A receptors of 70.0 ± 6.3%. In rat microdialysis, DSP-1053, given once at 3 and 10 mg kg?1, dose-dependently increased extracellular 5-HT levels. In the rat forced swimming test, 2-week administration of DSR-1053 (1 mg kg?1) significantly reduced rats immobility time after treatment, whereas paroxetine (3 and 10 mg kg?1) required 3-week administration to reduce rats immobility time. In olfactory bulbectomy model, 1- and 2-week administration of DSP-1053 reduced both of emotional scores and activity in the open field, whereas paroxetine required 2 weeks to show similar beneficial effects. Although single administration of DSP-1053-induced emesis and vomiting in the rat and Suncus murinus, multiple treatment with this compound, but not with paroxetine, decreased the number of vomiting episodes. These results highlight the important role of 5-HT1A receptors in both the efficacy and tolerability of DSP-1053 as a new therapeutic option for the treatment of depression. PMID:26171224

  3. Early desensitization of somato-dendritic 5HT 1A autoreceptors in rats treated with fluoxetine or paroxetine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Poul; Nora Laaris; Edith Doucet; Anne-Marie Laporte; Michel Hamon; Laurence Lanfumey

    1995-01-01

    Electrophysiological and autoradiographic approaches were used to assess possible changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 5-HT1A receptors in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus after a subchronic treatment with fluoxetine or paroxetine, two specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors with antidepressant properties. Fluoxetine or paroxetine were injected daily (5 mg\\/kg, i.p.) for various time periods up to 21 days. Electrophysiological recordings performed 24 h after

  4. Olanzapine augments the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors by suppressing GABAergic inhibition via antagonism of 5-HT6 receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Nozomi; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Nishitani, Naoya; Yamashiro, Mayumi; Shirakawa, Hisashi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kaneko, Shuji

    2015-08-01

    The combination of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and atypical antipsychotic drugs shows better therapeutic efficacy than SSRI monotherapy in the treatment of depression. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the augmenting effects of olanzapine are not fully understood. Here, we report that olanzapine enhances the SSRI-induced increase in extracellular serotonin (5-HT) levels and antidepressant-like effects by inhibiting GABAergic neurons through 5-HT6 receptor antagonism in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). In organotypic raphe slice cultures, treatment with olanzapine (1-100 ?M) enhanced the increase in extracellular 5-HT levels in the presence of fluoxetine (10 ?M) or citalopram (1 ?M). The enhancing effect of olanzapine was not further augmented by the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline. Electrophysiological analysis revealed that olanzapine (50 ?M) decreased the firing frequency of GABAergic neurons in acute DRN slices. Among many serotonergic agents, the 5-HT6 receptor antagonist SB399885 (1-100 ?M) mimicked the effects of olanzapine by enhancing the SSRI-induced increase in extracellular 5-HT levels, which was not further augmented by bicuculline or olanzapine. SB399885 (50 ?M) also decreased the firing frequency of GABAergic neurons in the DRN. In addition, an intraperitoneal administration of SB399885 (10 mg/kg) to mice significantly enhanced the antidepressant-like effect of a subeffective dose of citalopram (3 mg/kg) in the tail-suspension test. These results suggest that olanzapine decreases local inhibitory GABAergic tone in the DRN through antagonism of 5-HT6 receptors, thereby increasing the activity of at least part of serotonergic neurons, which may contribute to the augmentation of the efficacy of SSRIs. PMID:25863120

  5. 5-HT3 Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Lummis, Sarah C. R.

    2012-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptors are cation-selective Cys loop receptors found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. There are five 5-HT3 receptor subunits (A–E), and all functional receptors require at least one A subunit. Regions from noncontiguous parts of the subunit sequence contribute to the agonist-binding site, and the roles of a range of amino acid residues that form the binding pocket have been identified. Drugs that selectively antagonize 5-HT3 receptors (the “setrons”) are the current gold standard for treatment of chemotherapy-induced and postoperative nausea and vomiting and have potential for the treatment of a range of other conditions. PMID:23038271

  6. Excitation and inhibition of rat medial vestibular nucleus neurones by 5-hydroxytryptamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Johnston; Bridin Murnion; D. S. McQueen; M. B. Dutia

    1993-01-01

    The effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and related compounds on the discharge rate of tonically active medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurones were studied in an in vitro slice preparation of the dorsal brainstem of the rat. The majority (87 of 107, 82%) of MVN neurones were excited by 5-HT. Nine cells (8%) showed a biphasic response to 5-HT, which consisted of

  7. Acute effects of Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin), a dual 5-HT reuptake and PDE4 inhibitor, in the human amygdala and its connection to the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Terburg, David; Syal, Supriya; Rosenberger, Lisa A; Heany, Sarah; Phillips, Nicole; Gericke, Nigel; Stein, Dan J; van Honk, Jack

    2013-12-01

    The South African endemic plant Sceletium tortuosum has a long history of traditional use as a masticatory and medicine by San and Khoikhoi people and subsequently by European colonial farmers as a psychotropic in tincture form. Over the past decade, the plant has attracted increasing attention for its possible applications in promoting a sense of wellbeing and relieving stress in healthy individuals and for treating clinical anxiety and depression. The pharmacological actions of a standardized extract of the plant (Zembrin) have been reported to be dual PDE4 inhibition and 5-HT reuptake inhibition, a combination that has been argued to offer potential therapeutic advantages. Here we tested the acute effects of Zembrin administration in a pharmaco-fMRI study focused on anxiety-related activity in the amygdala and its connected neurocircuitry. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, 16 healthy participants were scanned during performance in a perceptual-load and an emotion-matching task. Amygdala reactivity to fearful faces under low perceptual load conditions was attenuated after a single 25?mg dose of Zembrin. Follow-up connectivity analysis on the emotion-matching task showed that amygdala-hypothalamus coupling was also reduced. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the attenuating effects of S. tortuosum on the threat circuitry of the human brain and provide supporting evidence that the dual 5-HT reuptake inhibition and PDE4 inhibition of this extract might have anxiolytic potential by attenuating subcortical threat responsivity. PMID:23903032

  8. 5HT Induces cAMP Production in Crypt Colonocytes at a 5HT 4Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco C. Albuquerque; Elise H. Smith; John M. Kellum

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that both 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) induce chloride efflux from crypt colonocytes in the rat distal colon; antagonist studies suggest that the 5-HT response is mediated primarily by the 5-HT4receptor. Since this receptor is known to be positively coupled to adenylate cyclase, we postulated that 5-HT should induce generation of cAMP, which should be inhibited

  9. The 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor agonist mosapride does not antagonize morphine-induced respiratory depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörn Lötsch; Carsten Skarke; Andreas Schneider; Thomas Hummel; Gerd Geisslinger

    2005-01-01

    Background: On the basis of experiments in rats, serotonin 4 receptor (5-hydroxytryptamine 4 [5-HT4]) agonists have been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy for the selective treatment of respiratory depression caused by opioids while leaving analgesic effects unaffected. The effects in rats have been seen with the 5-hydroxytryptamine 4a (5-HT4a) agonist BIMU8, which is currently not available for use in

  10. Effect of volatile anesthetics on endogenous tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptamine in rat lung

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Parent-Ermini I; Ruben R. Ben-Harari

    1990-01-01

    Volatile anesthetics inhibit the pulmonary inactivation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) possibly via an effect on endogenous\\u000a lung 5-HT. The consequent higher systemic arterial 5-HT concentrations may predispose the heart to dysrhythmias. The direct\\u000a effect of the anesthetics on endogenous 5-HT, its metabolites, and precursors in the isolated ventilated perfused rat lung\\u000a was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Halothane (0.45, 1.4, and

  11. The mechanism of tetrahydroaminoacridine-evoked release of endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine and dopamine from rat brain tissue prisms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, T N; De Souza, R J; Cross, A J; Green, A R

    1989-12-01

    1 Tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) is an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor which may have a greater therapeutic effect in Alzheimer-type dementia (ATD) than other cholinergic agents. This suggests possible non-cholinergic properties. We have therefore studied the effects of THA on the release of endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from rat cortical prisms and dopamine from striatal prisms. 2 In the presence of K+ (1 mM), THA stimulated release of both 5-HT and dopamine. THA (100 microM)-evoked monoamine release was comparable, but not additive with the release produced by K+ (35 mM). The effect was not maximal at 1 mM THA. THA-evoked release of 5-HT was independent of the presence of Ca2+ in the external medium. 3 Drugs acting on the cholinergic system, nicotine, mecamylamine, atropine, oxotremorine, physostigmine and neostigmine (all 10 microM) had no effect on 5-HT and dopamine-release. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP), a potent acetylcholine-releasing agent, had no effect on 5-HT release and was approximately 100 fold less active than THA on dopamine release. 4 Both THA and reserpine enhanced the release of 5-HT in the presence of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline. Reserpine- but not THA-evoked release was abolished in the absence of pargyline. Reserpine (5 mg kg-1, i.p.) markedly depleted brain monoamine concentrations 3 h after injection, while THA (15 mg kg-1, i.p.) had no effect. 5 Chloroamphetamine and fenfluramine both released 5-HT in a Ca2(+)-independent manner and with a similar potency to THA, while (+)-amphetamine released dopamine with a similar potency to THA. The effects of the amphetamines were not maximal at 1 mM. However, unlike THA, chloroamphetamine-evoked release of 5-HT was additive with release evoked by K+ (35 mM). 6 Clomipramine (IC50 = 0.036 microM) and THA (IC50 = 19.9 microM) all inhibited the uptake of [3H]-5-HT into a P2 membrane preparation. However, none of these compounds inhibited [3H]-5-HT uptake into tissue prisms during the release experiments in which the reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (5 microM) was present. 7 We conclude that THA does not release endogenous 5-HT through a cholinergic, reserpine- or amphetamine-like mechanism or through inhibition of reuptake. The possibility exists that the release may occur via blockade of 4-AP-insensitive K+ channels. PMID:2611486

  12. Head and whole-body jerking in guinea pigs are differentially modulated by 5HT 1A, 5HT 1B\\/1D and 5HT 2A receptor antagonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Kurre Nielsen

    1998-01-01

    The present study examined the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT receptor subtypes on 5-hydroxytryptamine- (5-HT-) mediated myoclonus in guinea pigs, evaluating head and whole-body jerking as two distinct behavioural responses. Myoclonus was induced by the 5-HT precursor l-5-hydroxytryptophan (l-5-HTP) and the non-selective 5-HT1A\\/1B\\/5-HT2 receptor agonist 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT). The selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide trihydrochloride) inhibited both head and whole-body jerking.

  13. The involvement of 5HT 3 and 5HT 4 receptors in two models of gastrointestinal transit in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Pascual; A. Alsasua; C. Goicoechea; M. I. Mart??n

    2002-01-01

    Our aim was to study the involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)3 and 5-HT4 receptors in two models of gastrointestinal transit (GIT) in mice: the 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced diarrhea and intestinal inflammation produced by an irritant agent, croton oil (CO). 5-HTP (10 mg\\/kg) produced diarrhea that was significantly inhibited after pretreatment with ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist) or RS 39604 (5-HT4 antagonist) (1–5 mg\\/kg). The

  14. Modulation of neuromuscular activity by 5-hydroxytryptamine and endogenous peptides in the snail, Helix aspersa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip E. Lloyd

    1980-01-01

    1.Twitches produced by stimulation of the nerve leading to the pharyngeal retractor muscle (PRM) relax more rapidly after a tetanic stimulation.2.Perfusion of the PRM with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) mimics this relaxing action. 5-HT is the only factor present in the PRM that causes an increase in twitch relaxation rate. When the 5-HT content of the PRM is reduced by pre-treatment with

  15. In vivo occupancy of the 5-HT1A receptor by a novel pan 5-HT1(A/B/D) receptor antagonist, GSK588045, using positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Comley, Robert A; van der Aart, Jasper; Gulyás, Balázs; Garnier, Martine; Iavarone, Laura; Halldin, Christer; Rabiner, Eugenii A

    2015-05-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine 1 (5-HT1) receptor blockade in combination with serotonin reuptake inhibition may provide a more rapid elevation of synaptic 5-HT compared to serotonin reuptake alone, by blocking the inhibitory effect of 5-HT1 receptor activation on serotonin release. GSK588045 is a novel compound with antagonist activity at 5-HT1A/1B/1D receptors and nanomolar affinity for the serotonin transporter, which was in development for the treatment of depression and anxiety. Here we present the results of an in vivo assessment of the relationship between plasma exposure and 5-HT1A receptor occupancy. Six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were scanned using the PET ligand [(11)C]WAY100635 before and after dosing with GSK588045 (0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg 60 min i.v. infusion). Data was quantified using a simplified reference tissue model, with the cerebellar time-activity curve used as an input function. Plasma levels of GSK588045 were measured, and the EC50 of GSK588045 for 5-HT1A receptor occupancy was estimated. An Emax model described the relationship between the GSK588045 plasma concentration and 5-HT1A receptor occupancy data well. EC50 estimates (and 95% confidence intervals) for raphe nuclei and the frontal cortex were 6.99 (2.48 to 11.49) and 7.80 (2.84 to 12.76) ng/ml respectively. GSK588045 dose dependently blocked the signal of the PET ligand [(11)C]WAY100635, confirming its brain entry and occupancy of 5-HT1A receptors in the primate brain. The estimated EC50 at the post-synaptic heteroreceptors and somatodendritic autoreceptors is similar. 5-HT1 receptor blockade by compounds such as GSK588045 may provide a faster alternate mechanism of antidepressant and anxiolytic action than standard SSRI treatment. PMID:25476970

  16. 5-hydroxytryptamine medications for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Burke, L K; Heisler, L K

    2015-06-01

    The central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) system represents a fundamental component of the brain's control of energy homeostasis. Medications targeting the 5-HT pathway have been at the forefront of obesity treatment for the past 15 years. Pharmacological agents targeting 5-HT receptors (5-HTR), in combination with genetic models of 5-HTR manipulation, have uncovered a role for specific 5-HTRs in energy balance and reveal the 5-HT2 C R as the principal 5-HTR mediating this homeostatic process. Capitalising on this neurophysiological machinery, 5-HT2 C R agonists improve obesity and glycaemic control in patient populations. The underlying therapeutic mechanism has been probed using model systems and appears to be achieved primarily through 5-HT2 C R modulation of the brain melanocortin circuit via activation of pro-opiomelanocortin neurones signalling at melanocortin4 receptors. Thus, 5-HT2 C R agonists offer a means to improve obesity and type 2 diabetes, which are conditions that now represent global challenges to human health. PMID:25925636

  17. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-induced calcium-channel gating in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ferriere, F; Khan, N A; Meyniel, J P; Deschaux, P

    1997-01-01

    The present study was conducted on peripheral blood lympho-cytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to assess the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; 'serotonin') in calcium signalling. 5-HT-induced increases in intracellular free calcium concentrations, [Ca2+]i, and its action was mediated by 5-HT receptor subtype 3 (5-HT3), but not by 5-HT receptor subtype 1A (5-HT1A) or subtype 2 (5-HT2) in these cells. In Ca2+-containing medium (1 mM CaCl2), 5-HT and 2-methyl-5-HT (5-HT3 receptor agonist) induced increases in [Ca2+]i, whereas in Ca2+-free medium (0 Ca2+, 1 mM EGTA), these two agents failed to evoke increases in [Ca2+]i in these cells, demonstrating that 5-HT mobilizes Ca2+ from the extracellular environment. Furthermore, 5-HT-induced increases in [Ca2+]i are not contributed to by the intracellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pool, as thapsigargin, an agent that recruits Ca2+ from ER stores, had additive effects on 5-HT-induced [Ca2+]i responses in fish peripheral lymphocytes. 5-HT-induced increases in [Ca2+]i were mediated by 5-HT3 receptors via gating the calcium through L-type, but not N-type, calcium channels in trout lymphocytes. PMID:9173890

  18. Pulmonary inactivation of 5-hydroxytryptamine is decreased during cigarette smoke ventilation of rat isolated lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Karhi, T.; Rantala, A.; Toivonen, H.

    1982-01-01

    1 The effect of cigarette smoke ventilation on the inactivation of [14C]-5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was studied in isolated perfused lungs of the rat. 2 [14C]-5-HT 9.6 nmol was infused into the pulmonary circulation of rat lungs in 3 min. The nonrecirculating perfusion effluent was collected during the 5-HT infusion in three consecutive 1 min fractions. The amount of metabolites of 5-HT was determined from the perfusion effluent and from the perfused lungs. 3 The amount of metabolites of 5-HT in the perfused lungs was also decreased by cigarette smoke ventilation, although the total amount of radioactivity in the lung tissue was not significantly changed. 5 The decreased pulmonary inactivation of 5-HT may cause increased circulating levels of 5-HT, which would explain some cardiovascular changes during smoking. PMID:7139186

  19. 5HT Inhibits Calcium Current and Synaptic Transmission from Sensory Neurons in Lamprey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdeljabbar El Manira; Weiqi Zhang; Erik Svensson; Nathalie Bussieres

    In the lamprey spinal cord, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) immu- noreactivity (ir) is present in the ventromedial plexus originating from intraspinal neurons, ventrolateral column arising from the brainstem, and dorsal column. The latter 5-HT system origi- nates from small dorsal root ganglion neurons. Combined Lu- cifer yellow intracellular labeling of the intraspinal sensory neu- rons, dorsal cells, and 5-HT immunohistochemistry showed close

  20. Mechanisms of action of 5-hydroxytryptamine and endogenous peptides on a neuromuscular preparation in the snail, Helix aspersa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip E. Lloyd

    1980-01-01

    1.The pharyngeal retractor muscle (PRM) responds to nerve stimulation with excitatory junction potentials and graded action potentials.2.Low concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) increase the rate of relaxation after a contraction with no effect on the duration of the electrical response. 5-HT at these concentrations also increases the electrical excitability and action potential amplitude in the PRM.3.High concentrations of 5-HT (above 10-6

  1. Formation of 5Hydroxytryptamine in an Aqueous Solution of 5Hydroxytryptophan treated with X-rays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jovic; Z. Supek

    1961-01-01

    IT has been found that 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine) is formed by the action of ultra-violet irradiation on 5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan) aqueous solution, as a result of a decarboxylation process1. It is of interest to investigate whether the same process takes place under the influence of X-irradiation.

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? ameliorates pulmonary arterial hypertension by inhibiting 5-hydroxytryptamine 2B receptor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahan; Tian, Xiao Yu; Mao, Guangmei; Fang, Xi; Fung, Man Lung; Shyy, John Y-J; Huang, Yu; Wang, Nanping

    2012-12-01

    An elevated plasma level of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or upregulation of 5-HT receptor signaling or both is implicated in vascular contraction and remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Recently, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonists have been shown to ameliorate PAH. However, their effects on the 5-HT-induced contraction of pulmonary arteries remain unknown. Here, we examined the role of PPAR? in inhibiting 5-HT2B receptor (5-HT2BR) to ameliorate PAH. Pulmonary arteries from PAH rats induced by monocrotaline or chronic hypoxia showed an enhanced vasoconstriction in response to BW723C86, a specific agonist for 5-HT2BR. Expression of 5-HT2BR was also increased in pulmonary arteries from the PAH rats, accompanied by vascular remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy. Treatment with the PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone in vivo reversed the expression and the vasocontractive effect of 5-HT2BR as well as the thickening of pulmonary arteries. In pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, 5-HT induced the gene expression of 5-HT2BR, which was inhibited by rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, or adenovirus-mediated overexpression of constitutively activated PPAR?. The pharmacological effect of PPAR? was through the suppression of the 5-HT-induced activator protein-1 activity. These results demonstrated the beneficial effect of PPAR? on 5-HT2BR-mediated vasocontraction, providing a new mechanism for the potential use of PPAR? agonists in PAH. PMID:23108648

  3. Allosteric modulation of the 5-HT3 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Paul Andrew

    2011-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that play important roles in depression, anxiety, substance abuse, emesis, inflammatory pain, spinal nociception, gastrointestinal function, and cardiovascular reflexes. Probably the most studied modulators of 5-HT3 receptors are the high affinity competitive ‘setron’ antagonists typified by ondansetron. However, there exists a broad range of compounds that modulate the 5-HT3 receptor, not through the orthosteric site but by binding to allosteric sites. Most notable are therapeutic compounds ascribed to certain targets but that allosterically modulate 5-HT3 receptors at clinically relevant concentrations. PMID:21342788

  4. Effect of angiotensin II and 5-hydroxytryptamine on the vessels of the human foetal cotyledon.

    PubMed Central

    Abramovich, D. R.; Page, K. R.; Wright, F.

    1983-01-01

    1 The actions of angiotensin II (AT II) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on the vessels of the human isolated, perfused, cotyledon were examined in vitro. 1 The cotyledonary vessels were shown to respond to both AT II and 5-HT over the range 10(-8) to (10(-4) M. 3 The preparation was found to be more responsive to AT II than 5-HT. 4 The findings confirm that the responsiveness of the cotyledonary vessels differs from the vessels of the umbilical cord, and that this behaviour does not depend upon the integrity of the endothelium associated with these vessels. PMID:6871553

  5. Neural 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors regulate chloride secretion in guinea pig distal colon.

    PubMed

    Cooke, H J; Wang, Y Z; Frieling, T; Wood, J D

    1991-11-01

    The effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on epithelial short-circuit current (Isc) were determined and related to the 5-HT effects on electrical and synaptic behavior of neurons in the submucosal plexus of the guinea pig colon. 5-HT evoked a biphasic increase in Isc that was reduced by bumetanide, Cl(-)-free solutions, atropine, and mecamylamine and abolished by tetrodotoxin. The 5-HT response was mimicked by 2-methyl-5-HT, but not by 5-hydroxyindalpine, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane, and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT). ICS 205-930 suppressed the 5-HT response. Electrical field stimulation of submucosal neurons evoked an increase in Isc indicative of Cl- secretion that was reduced by 5-MeOT and enhanced by 2-methyl-5-HT. Application of 5-HT to submucosal neurons by micropressure ejection resulted in membrane depolarization, augmented excitability, and repetitive spike discharge. The depolarization was biphasic, consisting of rapidly and slowly activating components. The rapidly activating component was suppressed by ICS 205-930. Fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by electrical stimulation of interganglionic connectives were suppressed by 5-HT and 5-MeOT. These results suggest that 5-HT activates 5-HT3 receptors, which mediate fast excitatory responses in submucosal neurons, leading to release of acetylcholine at nicotinic and muscarinic synapses and stimulation of Cl- secretion. Presynaptic inhibition suppresses acetylcholine release and results in attenuation of neurally evoked Cl- secretion. PMID:1951703

  6. An electrophysiological study of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors of neurones in the molluscan nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Gerschenfeld, H. M.; Stefani, E.

    1966-01-01

    1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has been iontophoretically applied to the membrane of central neurones of Cryptomphallus aspersa; CILDA neurones (cells with inhibition of long duration) (Gerschenfeld & Tauc, 1964) are the only cells sensitive to 5-HT. The responses to 5-HT is always a depolarization. The CILDA cells studied were also depolarized by ACh. 2. From experiments in which pulses of 5-HT and ACh were applied from a double-barrelled micropipette to the CILDA cell soma, it has been calculated that 5-HT and ACh receptors were located at different distances from the injecting micropipette tip. It has also been calculated from the diffusion equation that in the same CILDA cell a 5-HT concentration of 8·2 × 10-9 M and a ACh concentration of 1·3 × 10-8 M caused a similar peak depolarization. 3. CILDA neurones show `anomalous' rectification. 5-HT increases the membrane conductance of CILDA. 4. 5-HT receptors of CILDA neurone are desensitized by repeated application of 5-HT. The desensitization lasts for ca. 40 sec. 5. 5-HT receptors are blocked by lysergic acid diethylamide and its derivatives. Morphine chlorhydrate blocks them non-competitively. 6. Some inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (trancylpromine, isocarboxazide, iproniazide and nialamide) have been tested. They do not prolong the action of 5-HT, but block the 5-HT receptors. 7. No crossed desensitization between 5-HT and ACh has been observed. Atropine blocks both ACh-receptors and 5-HT receptors, 5-HT receptors appear to be blocked to a greater extent. 8. The data presented support the assumption of a excitatory transmitter role of 5-HT to CILDA neurones, but further evidence is necessary to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:5918062

  7. Dopamine uptake inhibitor-induced rotation in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats involves both D1 and D2 receptors but is modulated through 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline receptors.

    PubMed

    Lane, E L; Cheetham, S; Jenner, P

    2005-03-01

    Dopamine uptake inhibitors may provide a means of sustaining endogenous and exogenous striatal dopamine levels in Parkinson's disease, but most are not selective and also inhibit the noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporters. To determine the involvement of the individual monoamine transporters in the production of motor activity, the effect of the nonselective monoamine uptake inhibitor BTS 74 398 1-([1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)cyclobutyl]-2-(3-diaminethylaminopropylthio) ethanone monocitrate) and the selective dopamine, GBR 12909 [1-(2-(bis-(4-fluorphenyl)-methyl)ethyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine) dihydrochloride], noradrenaline (nisoxetine), and 5-HT (fluvoxamine) reuptake inhibitors on circling in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat was investigated. GBR 12909 induced ipsilateral circling, but fluvoxamine and nisoxetine were without effect. However, when administered with GBR 12909, fluvoxamine enhanced rotation, whereas nisoxetine had no effect. The results suggest that 5-HT, but not noradrenaline, reuptake inhibition facilitates dopamine-mediated motor activity. To test this hypothesis, BTS 74 398 was administered in combination with selective dopamine, 5-HT, and noradrenaline receptor antagonists. Both D(1) and D(2) receptor antagonists, SCH 23390 [R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine] and raclopride, inhibited BTS 74 398-induced circling. In contrast, the 5-HT(1A) 5-HT(1A/B) antagonists, WAY 100635 (N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-2-pyridinyl-cyclohexane-carboxamide maleate) and pindolol, and the 5-HT(2A) antagonist, ketanserin, had no effect. The nonspecific 5-HT((1/2)) antagonists, methysergide and metergoline, and the specific 5-HT(2C) antagonist, N-desmethylclozapine, enhanced BTS 74 398-induced circling, as did the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan. Overall, the data suggest that inhibition of the 5-HT and noradrenaline transporters modulate dopamine uptake inhibitor-mediated motor activity. However, the mechanism of this interaction is complex, involving opposing effects of noradrenaline and 5-HT agonism and antagonism. PMID:15542624

  8. 5-HT4 and 5-HT2 receptors antagonistically influence gap junctional coupling between rat auricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Derangeon, Mickaël; Bozon, Véronique; Defamie, Norah; Peineau, Nicolas; Bourmeyster, Nicolas; Sarrouilhe, Denis; Argibay, Jorge A; Hervé, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine-4 (5-HT(4)) receptors have been proposed to contribute to the generation of atrial fibrillation in human atrial myocytes, but it is unclear if these receptors are present in the hearts of small laboratory animals (e.g. rat). In this study, we examined presence and functionality of 5-HT(4) receptors in auricular myocytes of newborn rats and their possible involvement in regulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC, responsible for the cell-to-cell propagation of the cardiac excitation). Western-blotting assays showed that 5-HT(4) receptors were present and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that 5-HT(4b) was the predominant isoform. Serotonin (1 microM) significantly reduced cAMP concentration unless a selective 5-HT(4) inhibitor (GR113808 or ML10375, both 1 microM) was present. Serotonin also reduced the amplitude of L-type calcium currents and influenced the strength of GJIC without modifying the phosphorylation profiles of the different channel-forming proteins or connexins (Cxs), namely Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45. GJIC was markedly increased when serotonin exposure occurred in presence of a 5-HT(4) inhibitor but strongly reduced when 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors were inhibited, showing that activation of these receptors antagonistically regulated GJIC. The serotoninergic response was completely abolished when 5-HT(4), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) were simultaneously inhibited. A 24 h serotonin exposure strongly reduced Cx40 expression whereas Cx45 was less affected and Cx43 still less. In conclusion, this study revealed that 5-HT(4) (mainly 5-HT(4b)), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors coexisted in auricular myocytes of newborn rat, that 5-HT(4) activation reduced cAMP concentration, I(Ca)(L) and intercellular coupling whereas 5-HT(2A) or 5-HT(2B) activation conversely enhanced GJIC. PMID:19615378

  9. Coexpression of 5HT 2A and 5HT 4 receptors coupled to distinct signaling pathways in human intestinal muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Kuemmerle; Karnam S. Murthy; John R. Grider; Daniel C. Martin; Gabriel M. Makhlouf

    1995-01-01

    Background & Aims: The type and function of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors on intestinal muscle cells in humans are not known. 5-HT receptors were characterized pharmacologically and by radioligand binding. Methods: Contraction, relaxation, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and adenosine 3?,5?-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) formation, and 5-HT binding were measured in dispersed muscle cells and in cells in which only one receptor type was

  10. Characterization of a novel /sup 3/H-5-hydroxytryptamine binding site subtype in bovine brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Heuring, R.E.; Peroutka, S.J.

    1987-03-01

    /sup 3/H-5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) binding sites were analyzed in bovine brain membranes. The addition of either the 5-HT1A-selective drug 8-OH-DPAT (100 nM) or the 5-HT1C-selective drug mesulergine (100 nM) to the assay resulted in a 5-10% decrease in specific /sup 3/H-5-HT binding. Scatchard analysis revealed that the simultaneous addition of both drugs decreased the Bmax of /sup 3/H-5-HT binding by 10-15% without affecting the KD value (1.8 +/- 0.3 nM). Competition studies using a series of pharmacologic agents revealed that the sites labeled by /sup 3/H-5-HT in bovine caudate in the presence of 100 nM 8-OH-DPAT and 100 nM mesulergine appear to be homogeneous. 5-HT1A selective agents such as 8-OH-DPAT, ipsapirone, and buspirone display micromolar affinities for these sites. RU 24969 and (-)pindolol are approximately 2 orders of magnitude less potent at these sites than at 5-HT1B sites which have been identified in rat brain. Agents displaying nanomolar potencies for 5-HT1C sites such as mianserin and mesulergine are 2-3 orders of magnitude less potent at the /sup 3/H-5-HT binding sites in bovine caudate. In addition, both 5-HT2- and 5-HT3-selective agents are essentially inactive at these binding sites. These /sup 3/H-5-HT sites display nanomolar affinity for 5-carboxyamidotryptamine, 5-methoxytryptamine, metergoline, and 5-HT. Apparent Ki values of 10-100 nM are obtained for d-LSD, RU 24969, methiothepin, tryptamine, methysergide, and yohimbine, whereas I-LSD and corynanthine are significantly less potent. In addition, these /sup 3/H-5-HT labeled sites are regulated by guanine nucleotides and calcium. Regional studies indicate that this class of sites is most dense in the basal ganglia but exists in all regions of bovine brain. These data therefore demonstrate the presence of a homogeneous class of 5-HT1 binding sites in bovine caudate that is pharmacologically distinct from previously defined 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1C, 5-HT2, and 5-HT3 receptor subtypes. (Abstract Truncated)

  11. 5-Hydroxytryptamine does not reduce sympathetic nerve activity or neuroeffector function in the splanchnic circulation.

    PubMed

    Darios, Emma S; Barman, Susan M; Orer, Hakan S; Morrison, Shaun F; Davis, Robert P; Seitz, Bridget M; Burnett, Robert; Watts, Stephanie W

    2015-05-01

    Infusion of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in conscious rats results in a sustained (up to 30 days) fall in blood pressure. This is accompanied by an increase in splanchnic blood flow. Because the splanchnic circulation is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system, we hypothesized that 5-HT would: 1) directly reduce sympathetic nerve activity in the splanchnic region; and/or 2) inhibit sympathetic neuroeffector function in splanchnic blood vessels. Moreover, removal of the sympathetic innervation of the splanchnic circulation (celiac ganglionectomy) would reduce 5-HT-induced hypotension. In anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, mean blood pressure was reduced from 101±4 to 63±3mm Hg during slow infusion of 5-HT (25?g/kg/min, i.v.). Pre- and postganglionic splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity were unaffected during 5-HT infusion. In superior mesenteric arterial rings prepared for electrical field stimulation, neither 5-HT (3, 10, 30nM), the 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP 93129 nor 5-HT1/7 receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine inhibited neurogenic contraction compared to vehicle. 5-HT did not inhibit neurogenic contraction in superior mesenteric venous rings. Finally, celiac ganglionectomy did not modify the magnitude of fall or time course of 5-HT-induced hypotension when compared to animals receiving sham ganglionectomy. We conclude it is unlikely 5-HT interacts with the sympathetic nervous system at the level of the splanchnic preganglionic or postganglionic nerve, as well as at the neuroeffector junction, to reduce blood pressure. These important studies allow us to rule out a direct interaction of 5-HT with the splanchnic sympathetic nervous system as a cause of the 5-HT-induced fall in blood pressure. PMID:25732865

  12. Chronic escitalopram treatment caused dissociative adaptation in serotonin (5-HT) 2C receptor antagonist-induced effects in REM sleep, wake and theta wave activity.

    PubMed

    Kostyalik, Diána; Kátai, Zita; Vas, Szilvia; Pap, Dorottya; Petschner, Péter; Molnár, Eszter; Gyertyán, István; Kalmár, Lajos; Tóthfalusi, László; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2014-03-01

    Several multi-target drugs used in treating psychiatric disorders, such as antidepressants (e.g. agomelatine, trazodone, nefazodone, amitriptyline, mirtazapine, mianserin, fluoxetine) or most atypical antipsychotics, have 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) receptor-blocking property. Adaptive changes in 5-HT2C receptor-mediated functions are suggested to contribute to therapeutic effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants after weeks of treatment, at least in part. Beyond the mediation of anxiety and other functions, 5-HT2C receptors are involved in sleep regulation. Anxiety-related adaptive changes caused by antidepressants have been studied extensively, although sleep- and electroencephalography (EEG)-related functional studies are still lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic SSRI treatment on 5-HT2C receptor antagonist-induced functions in different vigilance stages and on quantitative EEG (Q-EEG) spectra. Rats were treated with a single dose of the selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB-242084 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle at the beginning of passive phase following a 20-day-long SSRI (escitalopram; 10 mg/kg/day, osmotic minipump) or VEHICLE pretreatment. Fronto-parietal electroencephalogram, electromyogram and motility were recorded during the first 3 h of passive phase. We found that the chronic escitalopram pretreatment attenuated the SB-242084-caused suppression in rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). On the contrary, the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist-induced elevations in passive wake and theta (5-9 Hz) power density during active wake and REMS were not affected by the SSRI. In conclusion, attenuation in certain, but not all vigilance- and Q-EEG-related functions induced by the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, suggests dissociation in 5-HT2C receptor adaptation. PMID:24395141

  13. Lactam and oxazolidinone derived potent 5-hydroxytryptamine 6 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hostetler, Greg; Dunn, Derek; McKenna, Beth Ann; Kopec, Karla; Chatterjee, Sankar

    2014-05-01

    Lactam and oxazolidinone derived potent 5-hydroxytryptamine 6 (5-HT6) receptor antagonists have been disclosed. One potent member from the lactam series, racemic compound 14 (Ki of 2.6 nM in binding assay, IC50 of 15 nM in functional cAMP antagonism assay) was separated into corresponding enantiomers that displayed the effect of chirality on binding potency (Ki of 1.6 nM and 3000 nM, respectively). The potent enantiomer displayed an IC50 of 8 nM in cAMP antagonism assay, selectivity against a number of family members as well as brain permeability in rats after 6h post oral administration. PMID:24704027

  14. Effect of triamterene on 5-hydroxytryptamine biosynthesis in different brain areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Steinberg; Claudia García Bonelli; Modesto Carlos Rubio

    1985-01-01

    Triamterene is structurally similar to the natural cofactor of tryptophan hydroxylase, (6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin. The hydroxylation of tryptophan has been studied by measuring the accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and the concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in brainstem, frontal cortex and hypothalamus after inhibition ofl-amino acid decarboxylase with benserazide hydrochloride and administration of either the vehicle or triamterene. Triamterene (30

  15. Effect of a transverse cerebral hemisection on 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in the rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bédard; A. Carlsson; M. Lindqvist

    1972-01-01

    Hemisection of the brains of rats was performed at a level slightly rostral to the mesencephalo-diencephalic junction. In chronic experiments (7 to 14 days after the lesion) a considerable decrease in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels was found in the ipsilateral hemiforebrain. In acute experiments (3 to 6 h after the lesion) the effect of the lesion on

  16. Effects of the Selective 5Hydroxytryptamine Uptake Inhibitors Paroxetine and Zimeldine on EEG Sleep and Waking Stages in the Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horst Kleinlogel; Hans R. Burki

    1987-01-01

    The effects of oral paroxetine and zimeldine on EEG sleep-waking phases in the rat were investigated over a wide dose range. To ascertain that at the doses used for the EEG studies paroxetine and zimeldine selectively affect the serotoninergic system, their effects on brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine and noradrenaline were determined. It was found that paroxetine and zimeldine at doses

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of 5HT 2A receptors in peripheral sensory axons in rat glabrous skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan M Carlton; Richard E Coggeshall

    1997-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a well known inflammatory mediator and algesic substance. It has been hypothesized that 5-HT can have a direct action on peripheral sensory axons, but there has been no anatomical demonstration of 5-HT receptors on peripheral primary afferent processes. The present study shows that 32% of unmyelinated axons at the dermal-epidermal junction are immunohistochemically stained with antibodies

  18. The role of the 5HT 4 receptor in Cl ? secretion in human jejunal mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Misra R. Budhoo; R. Paul Harris; John M. Kellum

    1996-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a mediator of chloride ion (Cl?) secretion in the intestine which can be seen as a rise in short circuit current (ISC) in the Ussing chamber model. We investigated the 5-HT receptor mediating 5-HT-induced Cl? secretion in the human jejunum in vitro. Jejunal segments obtained from patients having gastric bypass surgery for obesity, were stripped of muscularis

  19. Expression of the 5HT receptors in rat brain during memory consolidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Meneses; L Manuel-Apolinar; L Rocha; E Castillo; C Castillo

    2004-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system displays more than 14 receptors subtypes on brain areas involved in learning and memory processes, and pharmacological manipulation of specific receptors selectively affects memory formation. In order to begin the search of 5-HT receptors expression during memory formation, in this work, we aimed to determine, by autoradiography (using [3H] 5-HT as ligand, 2nM, specific activity 123Ci\\/mmol),

  20. Antibodies and Antisense Oligonucleotide for Probing the Distribution and Putative Functions of Central 5HT6Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Hamon; Edith Doucet; Karine Lefèvre; Marie-Christine Miquel; Laurence Lanfumey; Ricardo Insausti; Diana Frechilla; Joaquin Del Rio; Daniel Vergé

    1999-01-01

    Among the recently cloned serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors, the 5-HT6subtype is of special interest for at least two reasons: 1) it is abundant in limbic areas which participate in the control of mood and emotion; and 2) some antidepressants and antipsychotics are potent 5-HT6receptor antagonists. Studies using polyclonal anti-5-HT6receptor antibodies and an antisense oligonucleotide were performed in order to investigate

  1. Peripheral 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 Serotonergic Receptors Modulate Parasympathetic Neurotransmission in Long-Term Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Beatriz; Martín, María Luisa; San Román, Luis; Morán, Asunción

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the modulation of serotonin on the bradycardia induced in vivo by vagal electrical stimulation in alloxan-induced long-term diabetic rats. Bolus intravenous administration of serotonin had a dual effect on the bradycardia induced either by vagal stimulation or exogenous Ach, increasing it at low doses and decreasing it at high doses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), effect reproduced by 5-carboxamidotryptamine maleate (5-CT), a 5-HT1/7 agonist. The enhancement of the bradycardia at low doses of 5-CT was reproduced by 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) and abolished by WAY-100,635, 5-HT1A antagonist. Pretreatment with 5-HT1 antagonist methiothepin blocked the stimulatory and inhibitory effect of 5-CT, whereas pimozide, 5-HT7 antagonist, only abolished 5-CT inhibitory action. In conclusion, long-term diabetes elicits changes in the subtype of the 5-HT receptor involved in modulation of vagally induced bradycardia. Activation of the 5-HT1A receptors induces enhancement, whereas attenuation is due to 5-HT7 receptor activation. This 5-HT dual effect occurs at pre- and postjunctional levels. PMID:21403818

  2. Pharmacological characterization of 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced contraction in the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, T; Ukai, H; Komori, S; Taneike, T

    2006-04-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes involved in 5-HT-induced contraction of the chicken gastrointestinal tract were characterized pharmacologically using subtype-selective agonists and antagonists. The proventriculus (area of stomach adjacent to the oesophagus) and ileum are examined. 5-HT applied cumulatively caused sustained contraction of the proventriculus that was not decreased by tetrodotoxin, atropine or l-nitro-arginine methylester (l-NAME). alpha-Methyl-5-HT showed the same potency as that of 5-HT, indicating the involvement of the 5-HT(2) receptor. (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-amino-propane (DOI), 5-methoxytryptamine and 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (mCPP) were potent, and 2-methyl-5-HT, 5-carboxamidotryptamine, BW723C86 and 6-chloro-2-(1-piperazinyl)pyrazine hydrochloride (MK212) were moderate, but (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT), [endo-N-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo-(3,2,1)oct-3-yl]-2,3-dihydro-(1-methyl)ethyl-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-1-carboxamide (BIMU-8) and cisapride were weak agonists. Correlation of pEC(50) values of these agonists with documented pEC(50) values for 5-HT(2C) receptor was higher than 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B). Cinanserin, ketanserin, methiothepin, methysergide, mianserin, (8-[5-(2,4-dimethoxy-5-(4-trifluoromethylphenylsulphonamido)phenyl-5-oxopentyl)-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4,5]decane-2,4-dione hydrochloride (RS102221), N-(1-methyl-1H-indolyl-5-yl)-N'-(3-methyl-5-isothiazolyl)urea (SB204741), spiperone and N-desmethylclozapine concentration-dependently inhibited the contractile responses to 5-HT. Correlation of pK(b)/pA(2) of antagonists with documented pK(i) for 5-HT(2C) receptor was highest among 5-HT(2) receptor subtypes. In the methysergide- and ketanserin-treated proventriculus, 5-HT, 2-methyl-5-HT and cisapride did not enhance the electrical field stimulation (5 Hz)-induced cholinergic contractions. 5-HT applied non-cumulatively caused transient contraction of ileum, and the responses were partly decreased by atropine or tetrodotoxin. 5-Methoxytryptamine, alpha-methyl-5-HT, 5-carboxamidotryptamine, L692,247 and DOI were potent agonists. However, 2-methyl-5-HT, cisapride, BW723C86, 8-OH-DPAT and 5-nonyloxytryptamine, mCPP and MK212 were less effective. Ketanserin and methysergide decreased the 5-HT-induced ileal contraction, but neither GR113808 nor SB269970 inhibited the responses. In conclusion, 5-HT causes contraction of the proventriculus via 5-HT(2C)-like receptors present on smooth muscle. 5-HT also causes contraction of the ileum, but the underlying mechanisms are complex, involving neural and smooth muscle components, and both 5-HT(1)- and 5-HT(2)-like receptors. Neural 5-HT receptors similar to 5-HT(3)/5-HT(4) receptors were not found in the chicken proventriculus and ileum. PMID:16553644

  3. Characterization of 5-HT3 and 'atypical' 5-HT receptors mediating guinea-pig ileal contractions in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Eglen, R. M.; Swank, S. R.; Walsh, L. K.; Whiting, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    1. Neuronal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors mediating contraction of guinea-pig ileal segments have been characterized in vitro by the use of methysergide to block 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2 receptors. Concentration-response curves to 5-HT were biphasic (first phase, defined as those responses occurring between 1 nM and 0.32 microM 5-HT, -log EC50 = 7.15 +/- 0.08; second phase, defined as these responses occurring between 0.32 microM and 32 microM 5-HT, -log EC50 = 5.32 +/- 0.03) but monophasic to 5-methoxytryptamine (-log EC50 = 7.0 +/- 0.08) and 2 methyl 5-HT (-log EC50 = 5.2 +/- 0.13). The maximal response of the first phase to 5-HT and the maximal response to 5-methoxytryptamine were 30 +/- 4% and 35 +/- 5% respectively of the maximum response to the second phase of the 5-HT concentration-effect curve (set at 100%). In contrast, the maximal response to 2-methyl-5-HT equalled that obtained with 5-HT (second phase). 2. The responses comprising the second phase of the concentration-effect curve to 5-HT were antagonized by 1 microM ICS 205-930, ondansetron, granisetron, quipazine, N-methyl-quipazine and (R,S)-zacopride and the following pKB values, with 5-HT as the agonist, were obtained at the 5-HT3 receptor: ICS 205-930 7.61 +/- 0.05, ondansetron 6.90 +/- 0.04, granisetron 7.90 +/- 0.04, (S)-zacopride 8.11 +/- 0.06, (R,S)-zacopride 7.64 +/- 0.11, and (R)-zacopride 7.27 +/- 0.06.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2076474

  4. Effect of exogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine on pathogenicity of Entamoeba histolytica in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Acharya, D P; Sen, M R; Sen, P C

    1989-08-01

    In an effort to find out the mechanism(s) operative in enhancing the pathogenicity of E. histolytica in hosts under heat stress reported earlier, effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on the virulence of the parasite was examined in just weaned Charles Foster strain of albino rats. Pathogenicity of 10 strains of E. histolytica, from various forms of intestinal amoebiasis, grown in modified Boeck and Drbohlav's medium was assessed by caecal scoring. Administration of 5-HT in infected animals significantly enhanced the pathogenicity of all the seven strains tested. Treatment of the host with the 5-HT precursor L-tryptophan also increased the caecal scores examined with three strains of E. histolytica. Prior blocking of tissue 5-HT receptors by administration of methysergide almost completely abolished the pathogenicity enhancing effect of 5-HT treatment. This suggested that 5-HT itself and not any of its metabolites was responsible for the observed increase in pathogenicity of E. histolytica on 5-HT treatment of the host. PMID:2561282

  5. Hypothalamic paraventricular 5-hydroxytryptamine inhibits the effects of ghrelin on eating and energy substrate utilization

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Paul J.; John, Catherine S.; Nicholson, Marjorie L.; Chapman, Colin D.; Loera, Katherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin microinjections into discrete regions of the hypothalamus, including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), stimulate eating and promote carbohydrate oxidation, effects similar to PVN microinjection of neuropeptide Y (NPY). We have also reported that NPY’s orexigenic and metabolic effects are antagonized by pretreatment with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or 5-HT receptor agonists. In order to determine whether 5-HT also inhibits ghrelin’s orexigenic and metabolic actions, the present study examined the effects of 5-HT pretreatment on ghrelin-induced alterations in eating and energy substrate utilization following direct injections into the hypothalamic PVN. Both 5-HT (5–20 nmol) and ghrelin (100 pmol) were administered at the onset of the dark cycle. Food intake was measured 2 h postinjection. A separate group of rats (n=8) was injected with 5-HT paired with ghrelin and respiratory quotient (RQ; VCO2/VO2) was measured over 2 h using an open circuit calorimeter. PVN injections of ghrelin increased food intake and increased RQ, reflecting a shift in energy substrate utilization in favor of carbohydrate oxidation. 5-HT effectively blocked the effects of ghrelin on both food intake and RQ. We then administered the 5-HT2A/2C, receptor agonist, DOI, immediately prior to ghrelin. Similar to 5-HT, PVN DOI blocked ghrelin-induced eating and inhibited the peptide’s effect on substrate utilization. These data are in agreement with other evidence suggesting that ghrelin functions as a gut-brain peptide in the control of food intake and energy metabolism, and indicate that 5-HT acts within the PVN to modulate ghrelin’s orexigenic and metabolic signaling. PMID:20573591

  6. Chronic tryptophan deprivation attenuates gating deficits induced by 5-HT1A, but not 5-HT2 receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Stancampiano, Roberto; Frau, Roberto; Bini, Valentina; Collu, Maria; Carta, Manolo; Fadda, Fabio; Bortolato, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) exerts a pleiomorphic function in the modulation of information processing, through the activation of multiple receptor families. In particular, stimulation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors leads to sensorimotor gating impairments and perceptual perturbations. Previous evidence has shown that chronic deprivation of l-tryptophan (TRP), the precursor of 5-HT, results in marked reductions of 5-HT brain levels, as well as neuroplastic alterations in 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A expression and/or signaling. Building on these premises, in the present study we tested whether a prolonged TRP deprivation may differentially impact the roles of these receptors in the regulation of the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex, a dependable index of gating. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 14 days with either a regimen with negligible TRP content (TR?) or the same diet supplemented of TRP (TR+). At the end of this schedule, rats were treated with the prototypical 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (62.5–250 ?g/kg, subcutaneous, s.c.) or the 5-HT2 receptor agonist DOI (.25–1 mg/kg, s.c.). Notably, the PPI deficits induced by 8-OH-DPAT in TR? rats were significantly milder than those observed in their TR+ counterparts; these effects were fully prevented by the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100135 (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Conversely, TRP deprivation did not affect the PPI-disrupting properties of DOI. These findings suggest that prolonged 5-HT depletion attenuates the influence of 5-HT1A, but not 5-HT2 receptors on sensorimotor gating, confirming the distinct mechanisms of these two targets in PPI regulation. PMID:23141373

  7. Chronic tryptophan deprivation attenuates gating deficits induced by 5-HT(1A), but not 5-HT? receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Stancampiano, Roberto; Frau, Roberto; Bini, Valentina; Collu, Maria; Carta, Manolo; Fadda, Fabio; Bortolato, Marco

    2013-10-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) exerts a multifaceted function in the modulation of information processing, through the activation of multiple receptor families. In particular, stimulation of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors leads to sensorimotor gating impairments and perceptual perturbations. Previous evidence has shown that chronic deprivation of L-tryptophan (TRP), the precursor of 5-HT, results in marked reductions of 5-HT brain levels, as well as neuroplastic alterations in 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) expression and/or signaling. Building on these premises, in the present study we tested whether a prolonged TRP deprivation may differentially impact the roles of these receptors in the regulation of the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex, a dependable index of gating. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 14 days with either a regimen with negligible TRP content (TR-) or the same diet supplemented of TRP (TR+). At the end of this schedule, rats were treated with the prototypical 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (62.5-250 ?g/kg, subcutaneous, s.c.) or the 5-HT? receptor agonist DOI (0.25-1 mg/kg, s.c.). Notably, the PPI deficits induced by 8-OH-DPAT in TR- rats were significantly milder than those observed in their TR+ counterparts; these effects were fully prevented by the 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY-100135 (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Conversely, TRP deprivation did not affect the PPI-disrupting properties of DOI. These findings suggest that prolonged 5-HT depletion attenuates the influence of 5-HT(1A), but not 5-HT? receptors on sensorimotor gating, confirming the distinct mechanisms of these two targets in PPI regulation. PMID:23141373

  8. A 5HT 4 -like receptor in human right atrium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto J. Kaumann; Louise Sanders; Anthony M. Brown; Kenneth J. Murray; Morris J. Brown

    1991-01-01

    The effects of 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) and the gastrokinetic benzamides renzapride and cisapride on contractile force were investigated using isolated paced right atrial appendages from patients treated with ß-adrenoceptor blocking agents who were undergoing open heart surgery. These effects were compared to those of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). The effects of the drugs on atrial cyclic AMP levels and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase

  9. 5-HT1A/1B Receptors as Targets for Optimizing Pigmentary Responses in C57BL/6 Mouse Skin to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hua-Li; Pang, Si-Lin; Liu, Qiong-Zhen; Wang, Qian; Cai, Min-Xuan; Shang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Stress has been reported to induce alterations of skin pigmentary response. Acute stress is associated with increased turnover of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) whereas chronic stress causes a decrease. 5-HT receptors have been detected in pigment cells, indicating their role in skin pigmentation. To ascertain the precise role of 5-HT in stress-induced pigmentary responses, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to chronic restraint stress and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CRS and CUMS, two models of chronic stress) for 21 days, finally resulting in abnormal pigmentary responses. Subsequently, stressed mice were characterized by the absence of a black pigment in dorsal coat. The down-regulation of tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related proteins (TRP1 and TRP2) expression in stressed skin was accompanied by reduced levels of 5-HT and decreased expression of 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) system. In both murine B16F10 melanoma cells and normal human melanocytes (NHMCs), 5-HT had a stimulatory effect on melanin production, dendricity and migration. When treated with 5-HT in cultured hair follicles (HFs), the increased expression of melanogenesis-related genes and the activation of 5-HT1A, 1B and 7 receptors also occurred. The serum obtained from stressed mice showed significantly decreased tyrosinase activity in NHMCs compared to that from nonstressed mice. The decrease in tyrosinase activity was further augmented in the presence of 5-HTR1A, 1B and 7 antagonists, WAY100635, SB216641 and SB269970. In vivo, stressed mice received 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a member of the class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine; FX) and 5-HTR1A/1B agonists (8-OH-DPAT/CP94253), finally contributing to the normalization of pigmentary responses. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the serotoninergic system plays an important role in the regulation of stress-induced depigmentation, which can be mediated by 5-HT1A/1B receptors. 5-HT and 5-HTR1A/1B may constitute novel targets for therapy of skin hypopigmentation disorders, especially those worsened with stress. PMID:24586946

  10. Insensitivity of NMRI mice to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the tail suspension test can be reversed by co-treatment with 5-hydroxytryptophan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob P. R. Jacobsen; Elsebet Ø. Nielsen; Rene Hummel; John Paul Redrobe; Naheed Mirza; Pia Weikop

    2008-01-01

    Rationale  Exploring differences between mouse strains in drug effects in models of antidepressant-like activity may provide clues to\\u000a the neurobiology of antidepressant responses.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The objective of this study was to explore whether insensitivity to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in NMRI\\u000a mice in the tail suspension test can be related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We compared NMRI and C57Bl\\/6

  11. An inhibitory prejunctional 5-HT1-like receptor in the isolated perfused rat kidney. Apparent distinction from the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1C subtypes.

    PubMed

    Charlton, K G; Bond, R A; Clarke, D E

    1986-01-01

    The present study has identified a receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) which functions to inhibit the stimulus-induced release of [3H] noradrenaline following sympathetic periarterial nerve stimulation to the isolated perfused rat kidney. In addition to 5-HT (IC30 = 4.5 X 10(-8) mol/l), both 5-carboxamidotryptamine (IC30 = 8 X 10(-9) mol/l) and 5-methoxy-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl) indole (RU-24969, IC30 = 2.5 X 10(-7) mol/l) acted as agonists whereas 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) was inactive. The inhibitory effect of 5-HT on the electrically-evoked release of tritium was antagonized in a concentration-dependent manner by methiothepin (IC50 = 4 X 10(-9) mol/l), metergoline (IC50 = 4 X 10(-8) mol/l) and methysergide (IC50 = 1.3 X 10(-7) mol/l) but not by cyproheptadine, ketanserin, mesulergine, (-)-propranolol, (+/-)-pindolol, (+/-)-cyanopindolol, metoclopramide or phentolamine. It is concluded that the receptor to 5-HT conforms to general criteria defining 5-HT1-like receptors but at the present time the receptor site cannot be fitted to the designated 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B or 5-HT1C subtypes. PMID:3951568

  12. The GR127935-sensitive 5-HT1 receptors mediating canine internal carotid vasoconstriction: resemblance to the 5-HT1B, but not to the 5-HT1D or 5-ht1F, receptor subtype

    PubMed Central

    Centurión, David; Sánchez-López, Araceli; De Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod R; Villalón, Carlos M

    2001-01-01

    This study has further investigated the pharmacological profile of the GR127935-sensitive 5-HT1 receptors mediating vasoconstriction in the internal carotid bed of anaesthetized vagosympathectomized dogs. One-minute intracarotid infusions of the agonists 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; 0.1–10??g?min?1; endogenous ligand) and sumatriptan (0.3–10??g?min?1; 5-HT1B/1D), but not PNU-142633 (1–1000??g?min?1; 5-HT1D) or LY344864 (1–1000??g?min?1; 5-ht1F), produced dose-dependent decreases in internal carotid blood flow without changing blood pressure or heart rate. The responses to 5-HT were apparently resistant to blockade by i.v. administration of the antagonists SB224289 (300??g?kg?1; 5-HT1B), BRL15572 (300??g?kg?1; 5-HT1D) or ritanserin (100??g?kg?1; 5-HT2). In contrast, the responses to sumatriptan were antagonized by SB224289, but not by BRL15572. In the animals receiving SB224289, but not those receiving BRL15572, the subsequent administration of ritanserin abolished the 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction and unmasked a vasodilator component. Similarly, in ritanserin-treated animals, the subsequent administration of SB224289, but not BRL15572, completely blocked the 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction, revealing vasodilatation. In animals receiving initially BRL15572, the subsequent administration of SB224289 did not affect (except at 10??g?min?1) the vasoconstrictor responses to 5-HT. Notably, in animals pretreated with 1000??g?kg?1 of mesulergine, a 5-HT2/7 receptor antagonist, 5-HT produced a dose-dependent vasoconstriction, which was practically abolished by SB224289. After BRL15572, no further blockade was produced and the subsequent administration of ritanserin was similarly inactive. These results suggest that the GR127935-sensitive 5-HT1 receptors mediating canine internal carotid vasoconstriction resemble the 5-HT1B but not the 5-HT1D or 5-ht1F, receptor subtype. PMID:11226129

  13. The role of the 5HT 2A and 5HT 2C receptors in the stimulus effects of hallucinogenic drugs III: the mechanistic basis for supersensitivity to the LSD stimulus following serotonin depletion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Fiorella; S. Helsley; D. S. Lorrain; R. A. Rabin; J. C. Winter

    1995-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effects ofp-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) andp-chloroamphetamine (PCA) administration on (1) the levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in rat brain, (2) the sensitivity of LSD-trained rats to the stimulus effects of LSD, and (3) the maximal levels of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor mediated phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis in rat brain. PCA and

  14. Central 5HT7 receptors are critical for reflex activation of cardiac vagal drive in anaesthetized rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel O. Kellett; G. Ramage; David Jordan

    2004-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin)-containing neurones contribute to reflex activation of parasympathetic outflow in a number of species, but the 5-HT receptors mediating these effects have yet to be fully determined. The present experiments demonstrate that central 5-HT7 receptors are involved in the vagal bradycardia evoked during the cardiopulmonary reflex, baroreflexes and the chemoreflex, as well as other autonomic changes caused by

  15. Comparative Study of Pre and Postsynaptic 5HT1A Receptor Modulation of Anxiety in Two Ethological Animal Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra E. File; Luis E. Gonzalez; Nick Andrews

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the roles of the presynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5-HT1A) receptors in the median raphenucleus (MRN) and of the postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in its projection area of the dorsal hippocampus in the social interaction and elevated plus-maze tests of anxiety. Direct administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist (6)-8- hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT, 200 ng) into the MRN

  16. The role of the 5-HT1D receptor as a presynaptic autoreceptor in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Pullar, Ian A; Boot, John R; Broadmore, Richard J; Eyre, Tina A; Cooper, Jane; Sanger, Graham J; Wedley, Susan; Mitchell, Stephen N

    2004-06-16

    The present study investigated the role of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin)1D receptor as a presynaptic autoreceptor in the guinea pig. In keeping with the literature, the 5-HT1B selective antagonist, 1'-methyl-5-[[2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]carbonyl]-2,3,6,7-tetrahydrospiro [furo[2,3-f]indole-3,4'-piperidine]oxalate (SB224289) potentiated [3H]5-HT outflow from pre-labelled slices of guinea pig cerebral cortex confirming its role as a presynaptic autoreceptor in this species. In addition, the 5-HT1D receptor-preferring antagonists, 1-[2-[4-(6-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl)-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyridin-1-yl]-ethyl]-3-pyridin-4-yl-methyl-tetrahydro-pyrimidin-2-one (LY367642), (R)-1-[2-(4-(6-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl-)-3,6-dihydro-1(2H)-pyridinyl)ethyl]-3,4-dihydro-1H-2-benzopyran-6-carboxamide (LY456219), (S)-1-[2-(4-(6-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl-)-3,6-dihydro-1(2H)-pyridinyl)ethyl]-3,4-dihydro-1H-2-benzopyran-6-carboxamide (LY456220) and 1-[2-[4-(4-fluoro-benzoyl)-piperidin-1-yl]-ethyl]-3,3-dimethyl-1,2-dihydro-indol-2-one (LY310762), potentiated [3H]5-HT outflow from this preparation with potencies (EC50 values=31-140 nM) in the same range as their affinities for the guinea pig 5-HT1D receptor (Ki values=100-333 nM). The selective 5-HT1D receptor agonist, R-2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-2-[1-[3-(5-[1,2,4]triazol-4-yl-1H-indol-3-yl)-propyl]-piperidin-4-ylamino]-ethanol dioxylate (L-772,405), inhibited [3H]5-HT outflow. In microdialysis studies, administration of either SB224289 or LY310762 at 10 mg/kg by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route, potentiated the increase in extracellular 5-HT concentration produced by a maximally effective dose of the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (at 20 mg/kg i.p.). In addition, the 5-HT1D receptor-preferring antagonist and 5-HT transporter inhibitor, LY367642 (at 10 mg/kg i.p.), elevated extracellular 5-HT concentrations to a greater extent than a maximally effective dose of fluoxetine. It is concluded that the 5-HT1D receptor, like the 5-HT1B receptor, may be a presynaptic autoreceptor in the guinea pig. PMID:15189767

  17. Tertatolol, a new beta-blocker, is a serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine1A) receptor antagonist in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Prisco, S; Cagnotto, A; Talone, D; De Blasi, A; Mennini, T; Esposito, E

    1993-05-01

    The interaction of tertatolol (d,l-hydroxy-2'-t-butylamino-3'propyloxy-8-thiochromane HCl) with 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5-HT) receptors in several brain areas were investigated. Both ligand binding techniques and an electrophysiological approach were used. First, the affinity of tertatolol for different 5-HT receptor subtypes was measured, as assayed by a competition binding experiment using specific ligands in several brain areas. It was found that (-)-tertatolol binds to 5-HT1 receptor subtypes in rat brain, particularly the 5-HT1A subtype in the hippocampus (Ki = 5.9 nM). (-)-Tertatolol showed much lower affinity for 5-HT1B (Ki = 118.4 nM), 5-HT1C (Ki = 699.6 nM) and 5-HT2 (Ki = 678.6 nM) receptors. The binding of tertatolol to hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors was stereospecific in that the affinity of (+)-tertatolol to these receptors (Ki = 311.6 nM) was about 20 times lower as compared to that of (-)-tertatolol. There was no significant binding of tertatolol to 5-HT1D, 5-HT3, alpha-1 adrenergic receptors or to the serotonin uptake site. Electrophysiological techniques were used to study the effects of (-)-tertatolol on the activity of 5-HT-containing neurons in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus. Acute i.v. injection of (-)-tertatolol caused a slight increase in the basal firing rate of the majority of 5-HT neurons studied. Pretreatment with (-)-tertatolol (1 mg/kg i.v.) significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-proylamino) tetralin (0.25-64 micrograms/kg i.v.) on the firing rate of dorsal raphe nucleus 5-HT neurons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8496820

  18. Liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity and metabolism of brain 5HT in rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hillier; P. H. Redfern

    1975-01-01

    TRYPTOPHAN is the amino acid precursor of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) both peripherally and in the central nervous system, but the metabolism of tryptophan by way of the 5-HT pathway accounts for only 1 % of urinary tryptophan metabolites1. The major route of tryptophan metabolism starts with its conversion to formylkyneurenine by tryptophan pyrrolase2, and it has been suggested3,4 that depressive illness

  19. Hyperleptinemia elicited by the 5HT precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan in mice: involvement of insulin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Yamada; Yumi Sugimoto; Masanori Ujikawa; Hideki Goko; Tatsuo Yagura

    2003-01-01

    Mechanisms for hyperleptinemia elicited by a serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), were investigated. 5-HTP elicited apparent increases in serum leptin levels of mice. Administration of 5-HTP did not alter expression of leptin mRNA in white adipose tissues. Furthermore, neither 5-HTP nor 5-HT increased leptin secretion from isolated fat pads of mice. Since insulin is known to enhance leptin release,

  20. Utility of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Olivier, Berend

    2004-07-01

    The introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has revolutionized our understanding of the treatment of premature ejaculation. Lifelong premature ejaculation may be a neurobiological phenomenon, namely part of a biological variability of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in men. Animal studies support this view, and an animal model for premature and delayed ejaculation has recently been developed. It is proposed that drug treatment of premature ejaculation should consist of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2c receptor stimulation and/or 5-HT1A receptor inhibition. A meta-analysis of 35 daily treatment studies with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and clomipramine demonstrated comparable efficacy of clomipramine with the SSRIs sertraline and fluoxetine in delaying ejaculation, whereas the efficacy of the SSRI paroxetine was greater than all other SSRIs and clomipramine. It is postulated that acute treatment with SSRIs, including those with short half-lives, will not produce an ejaculation delay equivalent to that induced by daily treatment of SSRIs. PMID:15298071

  1. Effect of Acanthopanax senticosus on 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in the dorsal raphe of exercised rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Taek Rhim; Hong Kim; Sung-Jin Yoon; Sung-Soo Kim; Hyun-Kyung Chang; Taeck-Hyun Lee; Hee-Hyuk Lee; Min-Chul Shin; Mal-Soon Shin; Chang-Ju Kim

    2007-01-01

    Acanthopanax senticosus Harms (AS) is classified into the family of Araliaceae. The plant has been used as an analeptic aid, which improves weakened physical status and strength. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) catalyzes the rate-f the raphe nuclei. These are associated with “central fatigue hypotheses” in the brain.In the present study, the effects of

  2. Transcriptome Fingerprints Distinguish Hallucinogenic and Nonhallucinogenic 5Hydroxytryptamine 2A Receptor Agonist Effects in Mouse Somatosensory Cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier Gonzalez-Maeso; Tony Yuen; Barbara J. Ebersole; Elisa Wurmbach; Alena Lira; Mingming Zhou; Noelia Weisstaub; Rene Hen; Jay A. Gingrich; Stuart C. Sealfon

    2003-01-01

    Most neuropharmacological agents and many drugs of abuse modulate the activity of heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptors. Al- though the effects of these ligands result from changes in cellular signaling, their neurobehavioral activity may not correlate with results of in vitro signal transduction assays. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) partial agonists that have similar pharmacological profiles differ in the behavioral responses they elicit.

  3. Prolonged effects of intraventricular galanin on a 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) receptor mediated function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Razani, H; Díaz-Cabiale, Z; Misane, I; Wang, F H; Fuxe, K; Ogren, S O

    2001-02-16

    Galanin (3 nmol/rat), 2 h after its intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration to male rats, attenuated the passive avoidance (PA) retention deficit induced by the 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino)tetraline (8-OH-DPAT) (0.2 mg/kg) The reduction in the postjunctional 5-HT(1A) receptor-mediated response after i.c.v. galanin was not associated with changes in the mRNA levels and agonist binding properties of cortical limbic 5-HT(1A) receptors, believed to be the target receptors mediating the PA deficit caused by 8-OH-DPAT. These results suggest that acute increases of galanin transmission in vivo even after 2 h can counteract limbic 5-HT(1A) receptor-mediated responses of relevance for affective disorders without significantly affecting gene expression and binding characteristics of cortical limbic 5-HT(1A) receptors. PMID:11166958

  4. Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to the Serotonin 5HT 2A Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun Wu; Elizabeth J. Yoder; Jean Shih; Kevin Chen; Peter Dias; Liangru Shi; Xiang-Dong Ji; Jia Wei; James M. Conner; Shant Kumar; Mark H. Ellisman; Sujay K. Singh

    SUMMARY Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) mediates many functions of the cen- tral and peripheral nervous systems by its interaction with specific neuronal and glial re- ceptors. Fourteen serotonin receptors belonging to seven families have been identified through physiological, pharmacological, and molecular cloning studies. Monoclonal anti- bodies (MAbs) specific for each of these receptor subtypes are needed to characterize their expression, distribution,

  5. Increased food intake in satiated rats induced by the 5HT antagonists methysergide, metergoline and ritanserin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Fletcher

    1988-01-01

    Two series of experiments examined whether 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) antagonists induce feeding in rats. In the first series of experiments separate groups of rats were injected with various doses of methysergide, cyproheptadine, metergoline or ritanserin prior to a 2 h period of access to a wet mash diet which induced vigorous feeding under control conditions. None of the antagonists increased food

  6. 5-HT2CRs Expressed by Pro-Opiomelanocortin Neurons Regulate Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yong; Jones, Juli E.; Kohno, Daisuke; Williams, Kevin W.; Lee, Charlotte E.; Choi, Michelle J.; Anderson, Jason G.; Heisler, Lora K.; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Lowell, Bradford B.; Elmquist, Joel K.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Drugs activating 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptors (5-HT2CRs) potently suppress appetite, but the underlying mechanisms for these effects are not fully understood. To tackle this issue, we generated mice with global 5-HT2CR deficiency (2C null) and mice with 5-HT2CRs re-expression only in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons (2C/POMC mice). We show that 2C null mice predictably developed hyperphagia, hyperactivity, and obesity and showed attenuated responses to anorexigenic 5-HT drugs. Remarkably, all these deficiencies were normalized in 2C/POMC mice. These results demonstrate that 5-HT2CR expression solely in POMC neurons is sufficient to mediate effects of serotoninergic compounds on food intake. The findings also highlight the physiological relevance of the 5-HT2CR-melanocortin circuitry in the long-term regulation of energy balance. PMID:19038216

  7. Investigation into the 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced atropine-resistant neurogenic contraction of guinea-pig proximal colon.

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, S.; Shimo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to characterize the receptors mediating the atropine-resistant neurogenic contraction to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the longitudinal muscle of the guinea-pig proximal colon and to determine the type of tachykinin receptors involved in the contractile response to 5-HT by the use of selective antagonists. 2. In the presence of atropine (0.3 microM), guanethidine (5 microM), hexamethonium (100 microM), ketanserin (0.1 microM) and indomethacin (3 microM), 5-HT (0.01-3 microM) produced concentration-dependent neurogenic contractions of colonic strips and at 0.3 microM produced a maximal effect (pEC50 = 7.39 +/- 0.09, n = 18). The 5-HT4 receptor stimulant, 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT, 0.03-10 microM) also produced neurogenic contractions with similar maximum effect to those of 5-HT (pEC50 = 6.89 +/- 0.16). 3. The 5-HT4 receptor antagonist, DAU 6285 (3 microM) shifted the concentration-response curves to both 5-HT and 5-MeOT to the right without significant depression of the maximum, but the 5-HT1/5-HT2 receptor antagonist, metitepine (0.1 microM) and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron (0.3 microM) had no effect on the control curves to 5-HT and 5-MeOT. 4. The selective NK1 receptor antagonist, FK 888 (1 microM) markedly attenuated the contractions to 5-HT and 5-MeOT. In contrast, the selective NK2 receptor antagonist, SR 48968 (10 nM) and the selective NK3 receptor antagonist, SR 142801 (10 nM) had no effect on the contractions to 5-HT and 5-MeOT. 5. These results indicate that the 5-HT-induced atropine-resistant neurogenic contraction of guinea-pig proximal colon is due to activation of 5-HT4 receptors, presumably located on excitatory motor neurones, innervating the longitudinal muscle. The contraction evoked by activation of the 5-HT4 receptors is mediated primarily via NK1 receptors but not NK2 or NK3, suggesting that the 5-HT4 receptor-mediated contraction is evoked indirectly via tachykinin release from tachykinin-releasing excitatory neurones. PMID:8732267

  8. Both exogenous 5-HT and endogenous 5-HT, released by fluoxetine, enhance distension evoked propulsion in guinea-pig ileum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gwynne, Rachel M; Clarke, Amanda J; Furness, John B; Bornstein, Joel C

    2014-01-01

    The roles of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors in the modulation of intestinal propulsion by luminal application of 5-HT and augmentation of endogenous 5-HT effects were studied in segments of guinea-pig ileum in vitro. Persistent propulsive contractions evoked by saline distension were examined using a modified Trendelenburg method. When 5-HT (30 nM), fluoxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; 1 nM), 2-methyl-5-HT (5-HT3 receptor agonist; 1 mM), or RS 67506 (5-HT4 receptor agonist, 1 ?M) was infused into the lumen, the pressure needed to initiate persistent propulsive activity fell significantly. A specific 5-HT4 receptor antagonist, SB 207266 (10 nM in lumen), abolished the effects of 5-HT, fluoxetine, and RS 67506, but not those of 2-methyl-5-HT. Granisetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist; 1 ?M in lumen) abolished the effect of 5-HT, fluoxetine, RS 67506, and 2-methyl-5-HT. The NK3 receptor antagonist SR 142801 (100 nM in lumen) blocked the effects of 5-HT, fluoxetine, and 2-methyl-5-HT. SB 207266, granisetron, and SR 142801 had no effect by themselves. Higher concentrations of fluoxetine (100 and 300 nM) and RS 67506 (3 and 10 ?M) had no effect on the distension threshold for propulsive contractions. These results indicate that luminal application of exogenous 5-HT, or increased release of endogenous mucosal 5-HT above basal levels, acts to lower the threshold for propulsive contractions in the guinea-pig ileum via activation of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors and the release of tachykinins. The results further indicate that basal release of 5-HT is insufficient to alter the threshold for propulsive motor activity. PMID:25285066

  9. Both exogenous 5-HT and endogenous 5-HT, released by fluoxetine, enhance distension evoked propulsion in guinea-pig ileum in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gwynne, Rachel M.; Clarke, Amanda J.; Furness, John B.; Bornstein, Joel C.

    2014-01-01

    The roles of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors in the modulation of intestinal propulsion by luminal application of 5-HT and augmentation of endogenous 5-HT effects were studied in segments of guinea-pig ileum in vitro. Persistent propulsive contractions evoked by saline distension were examined using a modified Trendelenburg method. When 5-HT (30 nM), fluoxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; 1 nM), 2-methyl-5-HT (5-HT3 receptor agonist; 1 mM), or RS 67506 (5-HT4 receptor agonist, 1 ?M) was infused into the lumen, the pressure needed to initiate persistent propulsive activity fell significantly. A specific 5-HT4 receptor antagonist, SB 207266 (10 nM in lumen), abolished the effects of 5-HT, fluoxetine, and RS 67506, but not those of 2-methyl-5-HT. Granisetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist; 1 ?M in lumen) abolished the effect of 5-HT, fluoxetine, RS 67506, and 2-methyl-5-HT. The NK3 receptor antagonist SR 142801 (100 nM in lumen) blocked the effects of 5-HT, fluoxetine, and 2-methyl-5-HT. SB 207266, granisetron, and SR 142801 had no effect by themselves. Higher concentrations of fluoxetine (100 and 300 nM) and RS 67506 (3 and 10 ?M) had no effect on the distension threshold for propulsive contractions. These results indicate that luminal application of exogenous 5-HT, or increased release of endogenous mucosal 5-HT above basal levels, acts to lower the threshold for propulsive contractions in the guinea-pig ileum via activation of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors and the release of tachykinins. The results further indicate that basal release of 5-HT is insufficient to alter the threshold for propulsive motor activity. PMID:25285066

  10. 5-HT is a potent relaxant in rat superior mesenteric veins

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Stephanie W; Darios, Emma S; Seitz, Bridget M; Thompson, Janice M

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) reduces blood pressure of the conscious rat when administered chronically (1 week). 5-HT does not directly relax isolated arteries, and microsphere experiments in 5-HT-infused rats suggested that 5-HT increased flow to the splanchnic bed. We hypothesized that 5-HT increased splanchnic flow because of direct venous relaxation; our focus was thus on the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) as an important vein in splanchnic circulation. Real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western analyses supported the predominant expression of the 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor in the SMV. The SMV was mounted in tissue baths for measurement of isometric contraction. 5-HT caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1)-contracted vein. The threshold of 5-HT-induced venous relaxation was significantly lower than for 5-HT-induced venous contraction (?2 vs. 700 nmol/L, respectively). A series of serotonergic agonists established in their use of receptor characterization was tested, and the following rank order of potency found for agonist-induced relaxation (receptor selectivity): 5-CT (5-HT1/5-HT7)>5-HT = LP-44 (5-HT7)>PNU109291 (5-HT1D) = BW723C86 (5-HT2B). 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A/7), CP93129 (5-HT1B), mCPBG (5-HT3/4), AS19 (5-HT7) and TCB-2 (5-HT2A) did not relax the isolated vein. Consistent with these findings, two different 5-HT7 receptor antagonists SB 269970 and LY215840 but not the 5-HT2B receptor antagonist LY272015 nor the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor LNNA abolished 5-CT-induced relaxation of the isolated SMV. 5-CT (1 ?g kg?1 min?1, sc) also reduced blood pressure over 7 days. These findings suggest that 5-HT directly relaxes the SMV primarily through activation of the 5-HT7 receptor. PMID:25692021

  11. GABAB-receptor mediated inhibition of potassium-evoked release of endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine from mouse frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Gray, J A; Green, A R

    1987-07-01

    The effect of baclofen, the GABAB-agent, on the potassium-evoked release of endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from slices of mouse frontal cortex has been investigated. The release of endogenous 5-HT evoked by addition of K+ (35 mM) was inhibited by (+/-)-baclofen in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 0.1 microM. Inhibition of K+-evoked release of 5-HT was produced by (+/-)- and (-)-baclofen but not (+)-baclofen. This action of the (-)-enantiomer was not altered by the presence of the (+)-enantiomer. Addition of GABA (0.1-10 microM) also induced a dose-dependent inhibition of 5-HT release. This effect was neither enhanced by flurazepam (1 microM) nor antagonized by bicuculline (10 microM). The progabide metabolite, 4-[( (4-chlorophenyl) (5-fluoro-2-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]amino)butyric acid (SL75.102) (1 microM) inhibited the K+-evoked release of 5-HT by 61%. These data suggest that baclofen is a potent inhibitor of the K+-evoked release of endogenous 5-HT from the cortex and further indicate that the release of 5-HT may be controlled by a GABAB-receptor located presynaptically. PMID:3038240

  12. Role of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the regulation of brain neuropeptides in normal and diabetic rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolta, Malak G.; Williams, Byron B.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) alteration on brain dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), beta-endorphin (beta-E), and immunoreactive insulin was studied in Sprague-Dawley diabetic and control rats. Diabetes was induced using alloxan (45 mg/kg), 15 days prior to sacrificing. Both control and diabetic animals were treated with either p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg) three days prior to sacrificing or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) twice daily for three days. PCPA treatment significantly decreased brain content of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindolel acetic acid, while it caused significant increase and decrease in brain beta-E and insulin levels, respectively, in both normal and diabetic rat. Meanwhile, the administration of fluoxetine resulted in significant increase in brain content of 5-HT, DA, NE and insulin but significant decline of beta-E in diabetic and saline control rats. The results of this experiment indicate that 5-HT may be regulating both beta-E and insulin regardless of the availability of pancreatic insulin.

  13. Cartography of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A Receptor Subtypes in Prefrontal Cortex and Its Projections.

    PubMed

    Mengod, Guadalupe; Palacios, José M; Cortés, Roser

    2015-07-15

    Since the development of chemical neuroanatomical tools in the 1960s, a tremendous wealth of information has been generated on the anatomical components of the serotonergic system, at the microscopic level in the brain including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC receives a widespread distribution of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) terminals from the median and dorsal raphe nuclei. 5-HT receptors were first visualized using radioligand autoradiography in the late 1980s and early 1990s and showed, in contrast to 5-HT innervation, a differential distribution of binding sites associated with different 5-HT receptor subtypes. Due to the cloning of the different 5-HT receptor subtype genes in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it was possible, using in situ hybridization histochemistry, to localize cells expressing mRNA for these receptors. Double in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry allowed for the chemical characterization of the phenotype of cells expressing 5-HT receptors. Tract tracing technology allowed a detailed cartography of the neuronal connections of PFC and other brain areas. Based on these data, maps have been constructed that reflect our current understanding of the different circuits where 5-HT receptors can modulate the electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral functions of the PFC. We will review current knowledge regarding the cellular localization of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in mammalian PFC and their possible functions in the neuronal circuits of the PFC. We will discuss data generated in our laboratory as well as in others, focusing on localization in the pyramidal and GABAergic neuronal cell populations in different mammalian species using molecular neuroanatomy and on the connections with other brain regions. PMID:25739427

  14. The role of 5-hydroxytryptamine as a transmitter between identified leech neurones in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, L P

    1983-01-01

    The synthesis, storage, release and synaptic actions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin) were studied in order to characterize the synaptic connexion that develops between pairs of identified neurones dissected from the central nervous system of the leech and maintained in culture. Experiments were made with Retzius cells (which are known to contain 5-HT in vivo) and pressure sensory neurones on which they form chemical synapses in culture. Individual, isolated Retzius cells in culture synthesized [3H]5-HT from either [3H]tryptophan or [3H]5-hydroxytryptophan [( 3H]5-HTP). These cells did not synthesize other putative neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine, dopamine, octopamine, noradrenaline or gamma-aminobutyric acid from their respective precursors. The monoaminergic character of Retzius cells was also demonstrated by staining with Neutral Red and by histofluorescence. Individual, isolated Retzius cells that had synthesized and accumulated [3H]5-HT released this compound when depolarized. Transmitter release was calcium-dependent and was blocked by magnesium. When incubated with [3H]5-HT and washed, Retzius cells in culture accumulated approximately 100 times more labelled 5-HT than did non-serotonergic cells, and 10 times more than Retzius cell somata acutely isolated from the animal and incubated in vitro. Chlorimipramine, a blocker of 5-HT uptake, decreased the amount of [3H]5-HT accumulated by Retzius cells and also caused a reversible increase in the amplitude of the synaptic response in the pressure sensory cell elicited by stimulation of the Retzius cell. Pressure sensory neurones in culture and in vivo responded to 5-HT focally applied by pressure ejection from a micropipette. Small pulses elicited a small, slow hyperpolarization. This response was due, at least in part, to an increase in chloride conductance and desensitized rapidly. With larger pulses, a larger, faster non-desensitizing depolarization was elicited. Together, these results provide evidence that 5-HT released from Retzius cells could be responsible for the chemical synaptic potentials seen in pressure sensory neurones in culture. Images Fig. 9 PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:6310087

  15. Expression of serotonin and its 5-HT1A receptor in canine cutaneous mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Fröberg, G Kastengren; Lindberg, R; Ritter, M; Nordlind, K

    2009-01-01

    Mast cells of a number of different animal species have been reported to contain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), a monoamine capable of numerous and complex actions, which may include an impact on tumour growth. Limited previous studies have suggested that normal or neoplastic canine mast cells do not express 5-HT. In the present study, canine cutaneous mast cell tumours (MCTs) of Patnaik histological grades I-III were investigated immunohistochemically for expression of 5-HT and its receptor (R) 5-HT1A. The proportion of positively labelled cells and the intensity of labelling of individual cells were determined. Both 5-HT and the 5-HT1A receptor were expressed by non-neoplastic dermal mast cells and neoplastic mast cells. More neoplastic mast cells expressed 5-HT than the 5-HT1AR. Poorly differentiated tumours expressed fewer of both molecules, but the better differentiated mast cells at the periphery of such lesions had more consistent 5-HT expression. 5-HT and the 5-HT1A receptor may be involved in the differentiation of canine MCTs and in the microvascular complications associated with these neoplasms. PMID:19446835

  16. Peptide YY3-36 and 5-hydroxytryptamine mediate emesis induction by trichothecene deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin).

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenda; Bates, Melissa A; Bursian, Steven J; Flannery, Brenna; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Link, Jane E; Zhang, Haibin; Pestka, James J

    2013-05-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium sp. that frequently occurs in cereal grains, has been associated with human and animal food poisoning. Although a common hallmark of DON-induced toxicity is the rapid onset of emesis, the mechanisms for this adverse effect are not fully understood. Recently, our laboratory has demonstrated that the mink (Neovison vison) is a suitable small animal model for investigating trichothecene-induced emesis. The goal of this study was to use this model to determine the roles of two gut satiety hormones, peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and cholecystokinin (CCK), and the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in DON-induced emesis. Following ip exposure to DON at 0.1 and 0.25mg/kg bw, emesis induction ensued within 15-30min and then persisted up to 120min. Plasma DON measurement revealed that this emesis period correlated with the rapid distribution and clearance of the toxin. Significant elevations in both plasma PYY3-36 (30-60min) and 5-HT (60min) but not CCK were observed during emesis. Pretreatment with the neuropeptide Y2 receptor antagonist JNJ-31020028 attenuated DON- and PYY-induced emesis, whereas the CCK1 receptor antagonist devezapide did not alter DON's emetic effects. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron completely suppressed induction of vomiting by DON and the 5-HT inducer cisplatin. Granisetron pretreatment also partially blocked PYY3-36-induced emesis, suggesting a potential upstream role for this gut satiety hormone in 5-HT release. Taken together, the results suggest that both PYY3-36 and 5-HT play contributory roles in DON-induced emesis. PMID:23457120

  17. Uptake, storage and secretion of 5-hydroxytryptamine and its amino acid precursor by dispersed rat pancreas acinar cells.

    PubMed Central

    Stern, L; Tenenhouse, A; Yu, E W

    1983-01-01

    Rat pancreas acinar cells contain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; 10.86 +/- 2.52 ng/i.u. amylase), all of which can be accounted for by the 5-HT recovered from the zymogen granule fraction of these cells (10.70 +/- 3.06 ng/i.u. amylase). When incubated with [14C]5-HT dispersed acinar cells take up the amine and concentrate it in zymogen granules. These cells will also take up [14C]5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan), decarboxylate it and store the [14C]5-HT so produced in zymogen granules. 5-HTP itself is not taken up by the granules. 5-HT is incorporated into zymogen granules early in their formation; no amine is accumulated by mature zymogen granules and the amine within the mature granule is not exchangeable with extragranular amine. When dispersed acinar cells pre-labelled with [14C]5-HT and [3H]leucine are stimulated with caerulein, there is a synchronous increase in amylase activity and secretion of [14C]5-HT and [3H]protein; the ratios of [3H]protein/[14C]5-HT in zymogen granules and in the secretory products are identical. Pancreas acinar cells take up L-DOPA, decarboxylate it and store the dopamine produced in zymogen granules but the dopamine is not retained by the granules (t1/2 approximately equal to 90 min) and dopamine secretion from cells exposed to caerulein could not be demonstrated. It is concluded that 5-HT is a normal component of rat pancreas acinar cell zymogen granule. The granular amine has a turnover rate similar to that of granular protein and is released when the cells are stimulated to secrete protein. All the 5-HT released from the cell originates in zymogen granules. Images Fig. 6 PMID:6193271

  18. Deconstructing 5-HT6 receptor effects on striatal circuit function.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, D; Brodsky, M; Neumaier, J F

    2015-07-23

    Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) constitute 95% of neurons in the dorsal striatum subdivided into direct (striatonigral) and indirect (striatopallidal) pathways. Whereas D1 and D2 receptors and several neuropeptides, including dynorphin and enkephalin, are differentially expressed in these neurons, 5-hydroxytryptamine 6 receptors (5-HT6) are expressed in both pathways. Previous results demonstrate that concurrent 5-HT6 receptor overexpression in MSNs of both pathways in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) interferes with instrumental learning and that 5-HT6 overexpression in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) relieves rats from inflexible habitual behaviors. We hypothesized that 5-HT6 receptor-mediated co-activation of both pathways interferes with the differential activation/inhibition of direct/indirect pathways by dopamine. To test this idea, we cloned novel viral vectors to selectively overexpress 5-HT6 receptors in direct or indirect pathway MSNs to deconstruct their role in modulating instrumental learning and habitual responding. We found that increasing 5-HT6 receptor expression in either direct or indirect pathway MSNs of the posterior DMS selectively enhanced or impaired initial acquisition of a discrete instrumental learning task respectively, though all rats were ultimately able to learn the task. In a separate set of experiments, 5-HT6 receptor overexpression in indirect pathway MSNs of the DLS facilitated behavioral flexibility in rats overtrained on a repetitive pressing task using a variable interval schedule of reinforcement, during an omission contingency training session and subsequent probe testing. Together these findings further the notion that 5-HT6 signaling causes balanced activation of opposing MSN pathways by serotonin in sub-regions of the dorsal striatum allowing for more reflective modalities of behavior. PMID:25934037

  19. Flibanserin, a potential antidepressant drug, lowers 5-HT and raises dopamine and noradrenaline in the rat prefrontal cortex dialysate: role of 5-HT1A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Invernizzi, Roberto William; Sacchetti, Giuseppina; Parini, Stefania; Acconcia, Sabrina; Samanin, Rosario

    2003-01-01

    Using in vivo intracerebral microdialysis in conscious, freely moving rats, we examined the effect of flibanserin, a potential antidepressant drug with high affinity for human 5-HT1A receptors and four–50-fold lower affinity for 5-HT2A and D4 receptors, on basal extracellular concentrations of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) in selected regions of the rat brain. Flibanserin at 3 and 10 mg kg?1 significantly reduced extracellular 5-HT in the prefrontal cortex (by 30 and 45%) and dorsal raphe (35 and 44%), but had no effect on extracellular 5-HT in the ventral hippocampus. The 3 and 10 mg kg?1 doses raised extracellular NA to a similar extent in the prefrontal cortex (47 and 50%). In all, 10 mg kg?1 raised extracellular DA in the prefrontal cortex (63%) whereas 3 mg kg?1 had no significant effect. Pretreatment with the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100,635 (0.3 mg kg?1) 30 min before 10 mg kg?1 flibanserin completely antagonized the latter's effects on extracellular 5-HT, DA and NA in the prefrontal cortex. WAY100,635 by itself had no effect on cortical extracellular monoamines. The results show that the stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors plays a major role in the effect of flibanserin on brain extracellular 5-HT, DA and NA. PMID:12890707

  20. Adenosine receptor-induced cyclic AMP generation and inhibition of 5-hydroxytryptamine release in human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, J A; Hill, S J; Alexander, S P; Rubin, P C; Horn, E H

    1995-01-01

    1. We have assessed the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on collagen-induced 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release and cyclic AMP generation in human platelets. 2. 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) and CGS 21680 elicited accumulations of cyclic AMP with mean EC50 values of 2678 and 980 nM, respectively. The maximal response to CGS 21680 was approximately half that of the response to 10 microM NECA. 3. NECA and CGS 21680 inhibited collagen-induced 5-hydroxytryptamine release with mean EC50 values of 960 and 210 nM, respectively. The maximal response to CGS 21680 was approximately 25% of the response to 10 microM NECA. 4. The A1/A2a-selective adenosine receptor antagonist PD 115,199 was more potent as an inhibitor of NECA-elicited responses than the A1-selective antagonist DPCPX with calculated Ki values of 22-32 nM and > 10 microM, respectively. 5. In the presence of a cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, the effects of CGS 21680 on cyclic AMP accumulation and 5-HT release were enhanced to levels similar to those elicited by 10 microM NECA. In the absence of phosphodiesterase inhibition, CGS 21680 did not antagonise the effects of NECA. Furthermore, endogenous adenosine did not contribute to the effects of CGS 21680 when phosphodiesterase was inhibited. 6. We conclude that an A2a adenosine receptor appears to be involved in the NECA-elicited increases in cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of 5-HT release in human platelets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8527267

  1. The relaxant 5-HT receptor in the dog coronary artery smooth muscle: pharmacological resemblance to the cloned 5-ht7 receptor subtype.

    PubMed Central

    Terrón, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    1. The relaxant effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the dog isolated coronary artery deprived of endothelium is mediated by a receptor unrelated to the 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3 or 5-HT4 types. Based upon the pharmacological characteristics of this relaxant 5-HT receptor and those reported for the new members of the 5-HT receptor family, the present study explored the possibility that the relaxant 5-HT receptor referred to above, corresponds to the cloned 5-ht7 subtype. Thus, the relaxing and/or blocking effects of several 5-HT receptor drugs as well as some typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs with high affinity for the cloned 5-ht7 receptor in precontracted ring segments were analyzed. 2. 5-HT, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) and 5-methoxytryptamine, but not 8-OH-DPAT or sumatriptan, produced concentration-dependent relaxations in endothelium-denuded canine coronary artery rings precontracted with prostaglandin F2a (2 microM). Clozapine (1 microM) produced in some cases a small relaxing effect and antagonized 5-HT- and 5-CT-induced relaxation suggesting a partial agonist effect. In the presence of the 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, GR127935 (100 nM), the rank order of agonist potency was 5-CT > 5-HT > clozapine > or = 5-methoxytryptamine. 8-OH-DPAT and sumatriptan remained inactive as agonists. 3. In GR127935-treated preparations, methiothepin (3 nM) and mianserin (1 microM), as well as the antipsychotics, clozapine (1 microM), pimozide (300 nM), risperidone (3 nM) and spiperone (1 microM), failed to induce a significant relaxation in prostaglandin F2x-precontracted vessels, but produced significant rightward displacements of the concentration-response curves to 5-HT and 5-CT without significantly reducing the Emax. In a final set of experiments with 5-CT, metergoline (100 nM) and mesulergine (300 nM) behaved as competitive antagonists. In contrast, lisuride (3 nM) noncompetitively antagonized 5-CT-induced relaxation. The estimated affinity (apparent pKa values) of the above antagonist drugs for the relaxant 5-HT receptor significantly correlated with their reported affinity at the cloned 5-ht7 receptor. 4. Taken together, the above pharmacological data may suggest that the relaxant 5-HT receptor in the smooth muscle of the canine coronary artery is similar to the cloned 5-ht7 receptor subtype. PMID:8832067

  2. Differential expression of 5HT 2A and 5HT 2C receptor mRNAs in mice prone, or resistant, to chronic high-fat diet-induced obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu-Feng Huang; Mei Han; Len H Storlien

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the levels of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C (2A and 2C receptors of 5-hydroxytryptamine; serotonin) receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions in the brain of chronic high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) and obese-resistant (DR) mice. Thirty-one mice were used in this study. Twenty-four mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HF: 40% of calories from fat) for 4 weeks and

  3. Changes in intensity of serotonin syndrome caused by adverse interaction between monoamine oxidase inhibitors and serotonin reuptake blockers.

    PubMed

    Tao, Rui; Rudacille, Mary; Zhang, Gongliang; Ma, Zhiyuan

    2014-07-01

    Drug interaction between inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAOIs) and selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) reuptake (SSRIs) induces serotonin syndrome, which is usually mild but occasionally severe in intensity. However, little is known about neural mechanisms responsible for the syndrome induction and intensification. In this study, we hypothesized that the syndrome induction and intensity utilize two different but inter-related mechanisms. Serotonin syndrome is elicited by excessive 5-HT in the brain (presynaptic mechanism), whereas syndrome intensity is attributed to neural circuits involving 5-HT2A and NMDA receptors (postsynaptic mechanism). To test this hypothesis, basal 5-HT efflux and postsynaptic circuits were pharmacologically altered in rats by once daily pretreatment of the MAOI clorgyline for 3, 6, or 13 days. Syndrome intensity was estimated by measuring 5-HT efflux, neuromuscular activity, and body-core temperature in response to challenge injection of clorgyline combined with the SSRI paroxetine. Results showed that the onset of serotonin syndrome is caused by 5-HT efflux exceeding 10-fold above baseline, confirming the presynaptic hypothesis. The neuromuscular and body-core temperature abnormalities, which were otherwise mild in drug-naive rats, were significantly intensified to a severe level in rats pretreated with daily clorgyline for 3 and 6 days but not in rats pretreated for 13 days. The intensified effect was blocked by M100907 and MK-801, suggesting that variation in syndrome intensity was mediated through a 5-HT2A and NMDA receptor-engaged circuit. Therefore, we concluded that pretreatments of MAOI pharmacologically alter the activity of postsynaptic circuits, which is responsible for changes in syndrome intensity. PMID:24577320

  4. Analysis of the agonist activity of fenoldopam (SKF 82526) at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Christie, M. I.; Harper, D.; Smith, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    1. The 5-HT2 receptor agonist activity of fenoldopam (SKF 82526) was characterized in the rabbit isolated aorta preparation. 2. Fenoldopam was an agonist at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor with lower affinity and efficacy than the naturally occurring agonist 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Fenoldopam had an affinity (pKA) of 5.84 +/- 0.04 and efficacy (tau) of 0.57 +/- 0.04, whereas 5-HT had a pKA of 6.65 +/- 0.12 and tau of 2.66 +/- 0.41. 3. The constrictor effects of fenoldopam and 5-HT were competitively antagonized by the 5-HT2 antagonist, ketanserin, with pKB values of 8.81 +/- 0.11 and 8.83 +/- 0.10 respectively. 4. Prior incubation with fenoldopam produced a concentration-related rightward shift of a subsequent 5-HT concentration-response curve. This inhibition was specific for 5-HT since constrictor responses to angiotensin II were unaffected. 5. This study indicates that the D1 receptor agonist, fenoldopam, acts as an agonist at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor, but with an affinity and efficacy less than that of the naturally occurring agonist, 5-HT. PMID:1361397

  5. Cloning, expression and pharmacology of a truncated splice variant of the human 5-HT7 receptor (h5-HT7(b))

    PubMed Central

    Jasper, J R; Kosaka, A; To, Z P; Chang, D J; Eglen, R M

    1997-01-01

    The rat 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)7 receptor displays two splice variations, a long form, and a truncated splice isoform, arising from the introduction of a stop codon near the carboxy-terminus. The human 5-HT7 receptor gene contains at least two introns and encodes a 445 amino acid 5-HT receptor. A truncated splice variation in the human 5-HT7 receptor was isolated from a human placental cDNA library. In accordance with current NC-IUPHAR nomenclature guidelines, it is suggested that this receptor be denoted as the h5-HT7(b) receptor and the long form of the receptor as h5-HT7(a). The h5-HT7(b) receptor was stably expressed in HEK 293 cells and ligand affinities were determined by displacement of [3H]-5-carboxyamidotryptamine (5-CT; Kd=0.28±0.06?nM, Bmax=7.3±1.7?pmol mg?1 protein). The rank order of affinities (pKi) for a series of ligands was: 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, 9.65)>5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, 9.41)>methiothepin (8.87)>mesulergine (7.87)>8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT, 6.85)>ketanserin (6.44). The h5-HT7(b) receptor coupled positively to adenylyl cyclase in HEK 293 cells. This response was elicited by a number of agonists with the following order of potency (pEC50): 5-CT (8.7±0.11)>5-MeOT (5-methoxytryptamine; 8.1±0.20)>5-HT (7.5±0.13)>tryptamine (5.6±0.36)>8-OH-DPAT (5.3±0.28)>5-methoxytryptamine (5.0±0.06). This rank order was comparable to that observed in the radioligand binding studies. In a similar fashion to that described for the 5-HT7(a) receptor, PCR studies suggested that the 5-HT7(b) receptor mRNA is found in great abundance throughout the brain, in the small intestine and aorta. It is concluded that the h5-HT7 receptor, like the rat receptor, exists as splice variants exhibiting similar pharmacology, signal transduction and distribution. It is thus likely that there exists a complex physiological role for alternate splicing products of the 5-HT7 receptor gene. PMID:9298538

  6. Assessment of 5-hydroxytryptamine efflux in rat brain during a mild, moderate and severe serotonin-toxicity syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gongliang; Krishnamoorthy, Swapna; Ma, Zhiyuan; Vukovich, Nick P.; Huang, Xupei; Tao, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-toxicity syndrome, an iatrogenic brain disorder induced by excessive efflux of 5-HT, has received much attention because of increasing incidents of serotonergic antidepressants. However, the neural mechanism by which extracellular 5-HT is elevated to a toxic level for the syndrome remains to be determined. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that extracellular 5-HT is composed of two component effluxes responsible for distinct aspects of the syndrome. The first set of experiments was to characterize the syndrome by measuring changes in neuromuscular signs, body-core temperature and mortality rate. Our results indicate that the syndrome severity can be categorized into mild, moderate and severe levels. The second set of experiments was to determine a threshold of extracellular 5-HT for induction of each level of the syndrome. Our results demonstrate that there were an 11-fold increase in the mild syndrome and an over 55-fold increase in the severe syndrome. In the last series of experiments, the excessive increases in 5-HT were pharmacologically separated into primary and secondary component effluxes with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonists cyproheptadine and ketanserin and NMDA receptor antagonist (+)-MK-801. Our results suggest primary component efflux was caused by direct drug effects on 5-HT biosynthetic and metabolic pathways and secondary efflux ascribed to indirect drug effect on a positive feedback circuit involving 5-HT2A and NMDA receptors. In summary, the primary efflux could be an initial cause for the induction of the syndrome while the secondary efflux might involve deterioration of the syndrome. PMID:19464285

  7. The 5-HT4 receptor agonist, tegaserod, is a potent 5-HT2B receptor antagonist in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, D T; Smith, J A M; Marquess, D; Vickery, R G; Armstrong, S R; Pulido-Rios, T; McCullough, J L; Sandlund, C; Richardson, C; Mai, N; Humphrey, P P A

    2004-01-01

    Tegaserod (Zelnorm®) is a potent 5-hydroxytryptamine4 (5-HT4) receptor agonist with clinical efficacy in disorders associated with reduced gastrointestinal motility and transit. The present study investigated the interaction of tegaserod with 5-HT2 receptors, and compared its potency in this respect to its 5-HT4 receptor agonist activity. Tegaserod had significant binding affinity for human recombinant 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors (pKi=7.5, 8.4 and 7.0, respectively). The 5-HT2B receptor-binding affinity of tegaserod was identical to that at human recombinant 5-HT4(c) receptors (mean pKi=8.4) in human embryonic kidney-293 (HEK-293) cells stably transfected with the human 5-HT4(c) receptor. Tegaserod (0.1–3 ?M) inhibited 5-HT-mediated contraction of the rat isolated stomach fundus potently (pA2=8.3), consistent with 5-HT2B receptor antagonist activity. Tegaserod produced, with similar potency, an elevation of adenosine 3?,5? cyclic monophosphate in HEK-293 cells stably transfected with the human 5-HT4(c) receptor (mean pEC50=8.6), as well as 5-HT4 receptor-mediated relaxation of the rat isolated oesophagus (mean pEC50=8.2) and contraction of the guinea-pig isolated colon (mean pEC50=8.3). Following subcutaneous administration, tegaserod (0.3 or 1 mg kg?1) inhibited contractions of the stomach fundus in anaesthetized rats in response to intravenous dosing of ?-methyl 5-HT (0.03 mg kg?1) and BW 723C86 (0.3 mg kg?1), selective 5-HT2B receptor agonists. At similar doses, tegaserod (1 and 3 mg kg?1 subcutaneously) evoked a 5-HT4 receptor-mediated increase in colonic transit in conscious guinea-pigs. The data from this study indicate that tegaserod antagonizes 5-HT2B receptors at concentrations similar to those that activate 5-HT4 receptors. It remains to be determined whether this 5-HT2B receptor antagonist activity of tegaserod contributes to its clinical profile. PMID:15466450

  8. 5-HT inhibits calcium current and synaptic transmission from sensory neurons in lamprey.

    PubMed

    El Manira, A; Zhang, W; Svensson, E; Bussières, N

    1997-03-01

    In the lamprey spinal cord, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) immunoreactivity (ir) is present in the ventromedial plexus originating from intraspinal neurons, ventrolateral column arising from the brainstem, and dorsal column. The latter 5-HT system originates from small dorsal root ganglion neurons. Combined Lucifer yellow intracellular labeling of the intraspinal sensory neurons, dorsal cells, and 5-HT immunohistochemistry showed close appositions between 5-HT-ir fibers and dorsal cell axons. Application of 5-HT depressed monosynaptic EPSPs evoked in giant interneurons by stimulation of single dorsal cells, dorsal roots, or dorsal column without any detectable change in the input resistance of postsynaptic neurons. Furthermore, the amplitude of AMPA-evoked depolarizations in giant interneurons was unaffected by 5-HT. The lack of postsynaptic effects of 5-HT indicates that the decrease of the amplitude of sensory monosynaptic EPSPs by 5-HT is mediated by presynaptic mechanisms. The inhibition of monosynaptic EPSPs by 5-HT was not counteracted by an antagonist of 5-HT1A receptors. 5-HT also reduced the amplitude of the calcium current recorded in isolated dorsal cells and slowed down its kinetics. The inhibition of calcium channels could represent the mechanism mediating the depression of synaptic transmission at the axonal level. These results show that activation of 5-HT receptors on dorsal cell axons as well as on other sensory neurons mediates inhibition of sensory synaptic transmission to giant interneurons. In intact animals, 5-HT could be released from small 5-HT neurons in dorsal root ganglia, which thus may underlie direct sensory-sensory interactions. PMID:9030637

  9. Ion permeation through 5-hydroxytryptamine-gated channels in neuroblastoma N18 cells

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Ionic currents induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in cultured neuroblastoma N18 cells were studied using whole-cell voltage clamp. The response was blocked by 1-10 nM 5-HT3 receptor-specific antagonists MDL 7222 or ICS 205-930, but not by 1 microM 5-HT1/5-HT2 receptor antagonist spiperone or 5-HT2 receptor-specific antagonist ketanserin. These 5-HT3 receptors seem to be ligand-gated channels because the response (a) did not require internal ATP or GTP, (b) persisted with long internal dialysis of CsF (90 mM), A1F4- (100 microM), or GTP gamma S (100 microM), and (c) with ionophoretic delivery of 5-HT developed with a delay of less than 10 ms and rose to a peak in 34-130 ms. Fluctuation analysis yielded an apparent single-channel conductance of 593 fS. The relative permeabilities of the channel for a variety of ions were determined from reversal potentials. The channel was only weakly selective among small cations, with permeability ratios PX/PNa of 1.22, 1.10, 1.01, 1.00, and 0.99 for Cs+, K+, Li+, Na+, and Rb+, and 1.12, 0.79, and 0.73 for Ca2+, Ba2+, and Mg2+ (when studied in mixtures of 20 mM divalent ions and 120 mM N-methyl-D-glucamine). Apparent permeability ratios for the divalent ions decreased as the concentration of divalent ions was increased. Small monovalent organic cations were highly permeant. Large organic cations such as Tris and glucosamine were measurably permeant with permeability ratios of 0.20 and 0.08, and N-methyl-D-glucamine was almost impermeant. Small anions, NO3-, Cl-, and F-, were slightly permeant with permeability ratios of 0.08, 0.04, and 0.03. The results indicate that the open 5-HT3 receptor channel has an effective minimum circular pore size of 7.6 A and that ionic interactions in the channel may involve negative charges near the pore mouth. PMID:2286832

  10. Effect of acute administration of the 5-HT1A receptor ligand, lesopitron, on rat cortical 5-HT and dopamine turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Ballarín, M; Carceller, A; Guitart, X

    1994-01-01

    1. The involvement of presynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5-HT1A) autoreceptors in the anxiolytic-like properties of lesopitron (E-4424) (2-(4-[4-(4-chloro-1-pyrazolyl)butyl]-1- piperazinyl)pyrimidine) was studied. Brain microdialysis was used to examine the effect of the drug on the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the frontal cortex of awake, freely moving rats. Moreover, extracellular cortical 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were also studied to assess the possible participation of dopaminergic systems. 2. Lesopitron administered at a dose which induces anxiolytic behavior in rats (30 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) markedly reduced 5-HT levels (to 45% of the basal value) in cortical perfusates, having no effect on 5-HIAA, DOPAC and HVA. The effects of lesopitron were compared with those produced by the anxiolytic, and structurally related compound, buspirone. 3. Buspirone administered at a dose inducing anxiolytic-like effects in rats (5 mg kg-1, i.p.) produced a marked decrease in cortical 5-HT levels (to 20% of the basal value), but in contrast to lesopitron, buspirone produced a pronounced increase in cortical DOPAC (to 300% of the basal value) and HVA (to 400% of the basal value) levels. Buspirone administered at a low dose (30 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) was unable to affect cortical 5-HT levels. 4. To test the hypothesis that the 5-HT decreasing effect of lesopitron could be due to 5-HT1A autoreceptor (somatodendritic)-mediated inhibition of 5-HT neurotransmission, lesopitron was administered locally into the raphe nuclei.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7530571

  11. Antagonistic properties of McNeil-A-343 at 5-HT4 and 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Sagrada, A; Schiavi, G B; Cereda, E; Ladinsky, H

    1994-01-01

    1. This study describes the in vitro interaction of the muscarinic ligand McNeil-A-343 with two 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes, the 5-HT4 and 5-HT3 receptors, using functional as well as radioligand binding studies. 2. In the rat oesophageal muscularis mucosae, precontracted with carbachol, McNeil-A-343 was a competitive antagonist (pA2 6.2) of the 5-HT4 receptor which mediates the relaxation induced by 5-HT. The compound per se relaxed the oesophagus at high concentration only (> or = 10 microM), an effect unchanged by desensitization of the 5-HT4 receptor with 10 microM 5-methoxytryptamine. In the same preparation in the absence of tone, McNeil-A-343 displaced the carbachol concentration-response curve to the right, yielding an apparent affinity (pA2) of 4.9 for muscarinic receptors. 3. In the rat isolated superior cervical ganglion preparation, after blockade of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, McNeil-A-343 caused a concentration-dependent depolarization that was unaffected by 100 nM ondansetron. The concentration-fast depolarization curve to 5-HT, mediated by the 5-HT3 receptor, was displaced to the right by McNeil-A-343, which showed an apparent affinity (pA2) of 4.8 for the 5-HT3 subtype. 4. In binding studies, McNeil-A-343 recognized a single population of 5-HT4 receptors in pig caudate nucleus, with a pKI of 5.9. The binding affinity of McNeil-A-343 for 5-HT3 receptors in NG 108-15 cells was approximately four times lower (pKI 5.3). Binding affinities (pKI) for muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat tissues were 5.3 (M1, cortex), 5.2 (M2, heart) and 4.9 (M3, submandibular glands), respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7532081

  12. Characterization of putative 5-ht7 receptors mediating direct relaxation in Cynomolgus monkey isolated jugular vein.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, E.; Walsh, L. K.; Pulido-Rios, M. T.; Eglen, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors mediating contraction and relaxation are present in Cynomolgus monkey isolated jugular vein denuded of endothelium. 2. In the absence of spasmogen, alpha-methyl-5-HT and sumatriptan contracted the tissues with potency values (pEC50) of 6.8 (n = 2) and 6.4 +/- 0.1 (mean +/- s.e. mean, n = 3), respectively. In contrast, 5-HT caused an initial contraction (10 nM - 1 microM), followed by relaxation (1 microM - 32 microM). The contractile effect of alpha-methyl-5-HT was antagonized by ketanserin with a pKB value of 8.1 (n = 2). 5-Carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT) and 8-OH-DPAT did not contract or relax the tissues in the absence of spasmogen. 3. In tissues precontracted with U46619 (10 nM) and in the presence of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, and 5-HT4 receptor blockade, 5-CT and 5-MeOT caused endothelium-independent relaxation with potency values of 7.5 +/- 0.1 (n = 21) and 5.7 +/- 0.1 (n = 4), respectively. The potency of 5-HT was 7.2 (n = 2) while alpha-methyl-5-HT did not start to relax the tissues below a concentration of 10 microM. 4. Relaxations elicited by 5-CT were antagonized by the following compounds (with pKB values in parentheses): methiothepin (9.7), mesulergine (8.1), metergoline (8.0), clozapine (7.8), mianserin (7.7), spiperone (7.3), ritanserin (7.1), methysergide (7.0) and ketanserin (5.7). 5. It is concluded that the 5-HT receptor mediating endothelium-independent relaxation may be a functional correlate of the putative 5-ht7 receptor. PMID:8851512

  13. Up-regulation of circulating hemocyte population in response to bacterial challenge is mediated by octopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine via Rac1 signal in Spodoptera exigua

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geun Seob Kim; Yonggyun Kim

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial challenge induced a significant increase in the total hemocyte population within 4h in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. Octopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) are known to play critical roles in mediating insect immune responses. This study analyzed the effects of both biogenic monoamines on mediating up-regulation of circulating hemocyte population in response to bacterial challenge. Injection of either octopamine or

  14. Bombesin, gastrin\\/CCK, 5-hydroxytryptamine-, neurotensin-, somatostatin-, and VIP-like immunoreactivity and catecholamine fluorescence in the gut of the elasmobranch, Squalus acanthias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Holmgren; Stefan Nilsson

    1983-01-01

    The presence of peptides and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in neurons and endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, was investigated by means of immunohisto-chemistry, and the distribution of catecholamines by use of the Falck-Hillarp fluorescence-histochemical technique. Bombesin-like immunore-activity was present in numerous nerves in all layers and all parts of the gut, and also in endocrine

  15. Differences in response to 5-HT4 receptor agonists and antagonists of the 5-HT4-like receptor in human colon circular smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Tam, F. S.; Hillier, K.; Bunce, K. T.; Grossman, C.

    1995-01-01

    1. In isolated circular smooth muscle strips of human colon 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) produced a concentration-related inhibition of spontaneous motility. 2. The azabicycloalkyl benzimidazolones, BIMU 8 and BIMU 1, which have 5-HT4 receptor stimulant properties, inhibited motility with EC50 values of 0.76 microM and 3.19 microM respectively and their Emax values were not significantly different from 5-HT (EC50, 0.13 microM). 3. The 5-HT4 receptor antagonist, DAU 6285 (1-10 microM), displaced the 5-HT concentration-response curve to the right in a parallel concentration-dependent manner without depressing the maximum. The Schild plot was linear and the slope did not differ significantly from unity giving a pA2 value of 6.32. 4. The high affinity selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist, GR 113808, at a concentration of 3 nM displaced the 5-HT concentration-response curve in a parallel manner giving an apparent pKB estimate of 8.9 +/- 0.24. However, higher concentrations of 10-100 nM GR 113808 did not result in a further significant displacement of the 5-HT concentration-response curve and there was no suppression of Emax. 5. GR 113808 (10 nM) also caused a parallel displacement of the concentration-response curve to the 5-HT4 receptor agonist, 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT) giving apparent pKB values ranging from 8.3-9.3. 6. GR 113808 (3-100 nM) failed to displace 5-HT or 5-MeOT concentration-response curves in tissue strips from 3 patients out of a total of 10 patients studied in whom the response to 5-HT and 5-MeOT was normal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7647972

  16. Increased defaecation caused by 5HT 4 receptor activation in the mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen E. Banner; Martin I. Smith; Darren Bywater; Laramie M. Gaster; Gareth J. Sanger

    1996-01-01

    The precursor to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-hydroxytryptophan, (5-HTP, 5–50 mg · kg?1) administered subcutaneously (s.c.) to conscious, fed mice caused a dose dependent increase in faecal pellet and fluid output. To avoid provoking watery diarrhoea, all experiments were performed using 5-HTP at 10 mg · kg?1. This dose caused maximal increases in the fluid content (471 ± 41%) and number of

  17. QGP-1 cells release 5HT via TRPA1 activation; a model of human enterochromaffin cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitoshi Doihara; Katsura Nozawa; Ryosuke Kojima; Eri Kawabata-Shoda; Toshihide Yokoyama; Hiroyuki Ito

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we discovered that transient receptor potential ankyrin1 channel (TRPA1) is highly expressed in human and rat enterochromaffin\\u000a (EC) cells, and those TRPA1 agonists such as allyl isothiocyanates (AITC) and cinnamaldehyde (CA) enhance the release of serotonin\\u000a (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) from EC cells in vitro. In this study, QGP-1 cells, a human pancreatic endocrine cell line, were\\u000a found to highly express

  18. Regulation of rat cortical 5-hydroxytryptamine2A-receptor mediated electrophysiological responses by repeated daily treatment with electroconvulsive shock or imipramine

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Gerard J.

    2008-01-01

    Down-regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) receptors has been a consistent effect induced by most antidepressant drugs. In contrast, electroconvulsive shock (ECS) up-regulates the number of 5-HT2A receptor binding sites. However, the effects of antidepressants on 5-HT2A receptor-mediated responses on identified cells of the cerebral cortex has not been examined. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine and ECS on 5-HT2A receptor-mediated electrophysiological responses involving glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and piriform cortex, respectively. The electrophysiological effects of activating 5-HT2A receptors was consistent with 5-HT2A receptor binding regulation for imipramine and ECS except for the mPFC where chronic ECS decreased the potency of 5-HT at a 5-HT2A receptor-mediated response. These findings are consistent with the general hypothesis that chronic antidepressant treatments shift the balance of serotonergic neurotransmission towards inhibitory effects in the cortex. PMID:18294819

  19. Predicted structures and dynamics for agonists and antagonists bound to serotonin 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Kyung; Li, Youyong; Abrol, Ravinder; Heo, Jiyoung; Goddard, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Subtype 2 Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors are major drug targets for schizophrenia, feeding disorders, perception, depression, migraines, hypertension, anxiety, hallucinogens, and gastrointestinal dysfunctions.1 We report here the predicted structure of 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptor bound to highly potent and selective 5-HT2B antagonist PRX-08066 3, (pKi: 30 nM), including the key binding residues [V103 (2.53), L132 (3.29), V190 (4.60), and L347 (6.58)] determining the selectivity of binding to 5-HT2B over 5-HT2A. We also report structures of the endogenous agonist (5-HT) and a HT2B selective antagonist 2 (1-methyl-1-1,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrrolo[2,3-g]quinoline-5-carboxylic acid pyridine-3-ylamide). We examine the dynamics for the agonist-bound and the antagonist-bound HT2B receptors in explicit membrane and water finding dramatically different patterns of water migration into the NPxxY motif and the binding site that correlates with the stability of ionic locks in the D(E)RY region PMID:21299232

  20. 5-HT PRECURSOR LOADING, BUT NOT 5-HT RECEPTOR AGONISTS, INCREASES MOTOR FUNCTION AFTER SPINAL CORD CONTUSION IN ADULT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Y.; Jacob-Vadakot, S.; Dugan, E.A.; McBride, S.; Olexa, R.; Simansky, K.; Murray, M.; Shumsky, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Serotonergic (5-HT) receptors are upregulated following spinal cord transection. Stimulation by administration of serotonergic receptor agonists has been successful in improving hindlimb function. We tested whether this strategy would be successful in incomplete injury models (moderate or severe thoracic contusion) where descending projections are partially spared which should produce less denervation-induced receptor upregulation. Adult rats received midthoracic moderate (MOD: 25 mm drop) or severe (SEV: 50 mm drop) contusion injuries. Distribution of 5-HT and its transporter and expression of 5-HT2C receptors were evaluated in lumbar spinal cord and motor response to 5-HT receptor activation was assessed using open field locomotion (BBB) score, percent weight supported treadmill stepping (%WS) and evaluation of hindlimb muscle activation (tremor and serotonin syndrome). 5-HT immunostaining 3 months post-contusion revealed few 5-HT fibers caudal to the severe contusion, and more spared caudal to the moderate contusion. The distribution of 5-HT transporter paralleled 5-HT staining, but was more greatly reduced. Thus serotonin reuptake may be less efficient in the injured spinal cord. Immunostaining for the 5-HT2C receptor in the dorsal and ventral horns at L5 showed significant upregulation in SEV, compared to sham or MOD rats. Neither 5-HT2C nor 5-HT1A receptor agonists, alone or in combination, nor the serotonin transporter inhibitor d-fenfluramine modified BBB scores or %WS in either group. Despite the increased sensitivity of postsynaptic targets, agonist treatment did not improve function in SEV rats. We conclude that selective 5-HT2C or 5-HT1A receptor activation was not effective in improving hindlimb function after incomplete lesions. In contrast, the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (L-5-HTP), which activates all classes of 5-HT receptors, increased both %WS and hindlimb activity in the MOD group. While no side effects were observed in normal or MOD rats, SEV rats displayed hindlimb tremors and 33% mortality, indicating hypersensitivity to the precursor. PMID:19840787

  1. Serotonin 5-HT2 receptor interactions with dopamine function: implications for therapeutics in cocaine use disorder.

    PubMed

    Howell, Leonard L; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine exhibits prominent abuse liability, and chronic abuse can result in cocaine use disorder with significant morbidity. Major advances have been made in delineating neurobiological mechanisms of cocaine abuse; however, effective medications to treat cocaine use disorder remain to be discovered. The present review will focus on the role of serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine) neurotransmission in the neuropharmacology of cocaine and related abused stimulants. Extensive research suggests that the primary contribution of 5-HT to cocaine addiction is a consequence of interactions with dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. The literature on the neurobiological and behavioral effects of cocaine is well developed, so the focus of the review will be on cocaine with inferences made about other monoamine uptake inhibitors and releasers based on mechanistic considerations. 5-HT receptors are widely expressed throughout the brain, and several different 5-HT receptor subtypes have been implicated in mediating the effects of endogenous 5-HT on DA. However, the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in particular have been implicated as likely candidates for mediating the influence of 5-HT in cocaine abuse as well as to traits (e.g., impulsivity) that contribute to the development of cocaine use disorder and relapse in humans. Lastly, new approaches are proposed to guide targeted development of serotonergic ligands for the treatment of cocaine use disorder. PMID:25505168

  2. Parallel functional activity profiling reveals valvulopathogens are potent 5-hydroxytryptamine(2B) receptor agonists: implications for drug safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi-Ping; Setola, Vincent; Yadav, Prem N; Allen, John A; Rogan, Sarah C; Hanson, Bonnie J; Revankar, Chetana; Robers, Matt; Doucette, Chris; Roth, Bryan L

    2009-10-01

    Drug-induced valvular heart disease (VHD) is a serious side effect of a few medications, including some that are on the market. Pharmacological studies of VHD-associated medications (e.g., fenfluramine, pergolide, methysergide, and cabergoline) have revealed that they and/or their metabolites are potent 5-hydroxytryptamine(2B) (5-HT(2B)) receptor agonists. We have shown that activation of 5-HT(2B) receptors on human heart valve interstitial cells in vitro induces a proliferative response reminiscent of the fibrosis that typifies VHD. To identify current or future drugs that might induce VHD, we screened approximately 2200 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved or investigational medications to identify 5-HT(2B) receptor agonists, using calcium-based high-throughput screening. Of these 2200 compounds, 27 were 5-HT(2B) receptor agonists (hits); 14 of these had previously been identified as 5-HT(2B) receptor agonists, including seven bona fide valvulopathogens. Six of the hits (guanfacine, quinidine, xylometazoline, oxymetazoline, fenoldopam, and ropinirole) are approved medications. Twenty-three of the hits were then "functionally profiled" (i.e., assayed in parallel for 5-HT(2B) receptor agonism using multiple readouts to test for functional selectivity). In these assays, the known valvulopathogens were efficacious at concentrations as low as 30 nM, whereas the other compounds were less so. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the pEC(50) data revealed that ropinirole (which is not associated with valvulopathy) was clearly segregated from known valvulopathogens. Taken together, our data demonstrate that patterns of 5-HT(2B) receptor functional selectivity might be useful for identifying compounds likely to induce valvular heart disease. PMID:19570945

  3. Vortioxetine restores reversal learning impaired by 5-HT depletion or chronic intermittent cold stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Ashley; Pehrson, Alan L; Sánchez, Connie; Morilak, David A

    2014-10-01

    Current treatments for depression, including serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are only partially effective, with a high incidence of residual symptoms, relapse, and treatment resistance. Loss of cognitive flexibility, a component of depression, is associated with dysregulation of the prefrontal cortex. Reversal learning, a form of cognitive flexibility, is impaired by chronic stress, a risk factor for depression, and the stress-induced impairment in reversal learning is sensitive to chronic SSRI treatment, and is mimicked by serotonin (5-HT) depletion. Vortioxetine, a novel, multimodal-acting antidepressant, is a 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, a 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, and inhibits the 5-HT transporter. Using adult male rats, we first investigated the direct effects of vortioxetine, acting at post-synaptic 5-HT receptors, on reversal learning that was compromised by 5-HT depletion using 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA), effectively eliminating any contribution of 5-HT reuptake blockade. PCPA induced a reversal learning impairment that was alleviated by acute or sub-chronic vortioxetine administration, suggesting that post-synaptic 5-HT receptor activation contributes to the effects of vortioxetine. We then investigated the effects of chronic dietary administration of vortioxetine on reversal learning that had been compromised in intact animals exposed to chronic intermittent cold (CIC) stress, to assess vortioxetine's total pharmacological effect. CIC stress impaired reversal learning, and chronic vortioxetine administration prevented the reversal-learning deficit. Together, these results suggest that the direct effect of vortioxetine at 5-HT receptors may contribute to positive effects on cognitive flexibility deficits, and may enhance the effect of 5-HT reuptake blockade. PMID:24852131

  4. Identification of 5-HT receptor subtypes enhancing inhibitory transmission in the rat spinal dorsal horn in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is one of the major neurotransmitters widely distributed in the CNS. Several 5-HT receptor subtypes have been identified in the spinal dorsal horn which act on both pre- and postsynaptic sites of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. However, the receptor subtypes and sites of actions as well as underlying mechanism are not clarified rigorously. Several electrophysiological studies have been performed to investigate the effects of 5-HT on excitatory transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the spinal cord. In the present study, to understand the effects of 5-HT on the inhibitory synaptic transmission and to identify receptor subtypes, the blind whole cell recordings were performed from SG neurons of rat spinal cord slices. Results Bath applied 5-HT (50??M) increased the frequency but not amplitudes of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in 58% of neurons, and both amplitude and frequency in 23% of neurons. The frequencies of GABAergic and glycinergic mIPSCs were both enhanced. TTX (0.5??M) had no effect on the increasing frequency, while the enhancement of amplitude of IPSCs was eliminated. Evoked-IPSCs (eIPSCs) induced by focal stimulation near the recording neurons in the presence of CNQX and APV were enhanced in amplitude by 5-HT. In the presence of Ba2+ (1?mM), a potassium channel blocker, 5-HT had no effect on both frequency and amplitude. A 5-HT2A receptor agonist, TCB-2 mimicked the 5-HT effect, and ketanserin, an antagonist of 5-HT2A receptor, inhibited the effect of 5-HT partially and TCB-2 almost completely. A 5-HT2C receptor agonist WAY 161503 mimicked the 5-HT effect and this effect was blocked by a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, N-desmethylclozapine. The amplitudes of sIPSCs were unaffected by 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C agonists. A 5-HT3 receptor agonist mCPBG enhanced both amplitude and frequency of sIPSCs. This effect was blocked by a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ICS-205,930. The perfusion of 5-HT2B receptor agonist had no effect on sIPSCs. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that 5-HT modulated the inhibitory transmission in SG by the activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors subtypes located predominantly at inhibitory interneuron terminals, and 5-HT3 receptors located at inhibitory interneuron terminals and soma-dendrites, consequently enhanced both frequency and amplitude of IPSCs. PMID:22906126

  5. Characterization of a postjunctional 5-HT receptor mediating relaxation of guinea-pig isolated ileum.

    PubMed

    Carter, D; Champney, M; Hwang, B; Eglen, R M

    1995-07-14

    The 5-HT receptor mediating postjunctional relaxation of precontracted guinea-pig ileum has been characterized using several agonists and antagonists. Substance P precontracted tissues were potently relaxed by 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin), 5-CT (5-carboxamidotryptamine) and several other indoles. The rank order of potency, with pEC50 values in parentheses, was 5-CT (7.6) > 5-methoxytryptamine (5.7) > 5-HT (5.5) > alpha-methyl-5-HT (4.7) > 2-methyl-5-HT (< 4.0) = tryptamine (< 4.0) = N,N-dimethyl-tryptamine (< 4.0) = N,N-dimethyl-5-HT (< 4.0) = dipropyl-5-CT (< 4.0) = sumatriptan (< 4.0). 8-OH-DPAT (8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin) acted as a potent (6.3), but partial, agonist with respect to 5-HT. The responses to 5-CT were antagonized by several compounds with the following rank order of affinity, with pKB values in parentheses: LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide; 8.1) = mesulergine (7.8) > methysergide (7.6) = spiperone (7.6) > clozapine (7.3) > (-)-pindolol (< 6.0) > ketanserin (< 6.0) = ondansetron (< 6.0) = GR 113808 ([1-(2-methane-sulphonamido-ethyl)-piperidin-4-yl]-methyl-in dole-3- carboxylate maleate; < 6.0). The relaxant responses to 5-HT were also resistant to tetrodotoxin. These data are consistent with a functional 5-HT receptor, mediating relaxation of guinea-pig ileum, which exhibits an operational profile similar to that of the cloned guinea-pig 5-ht7 receptor. This study, therefore, provides evidence for a functional correlate of the 5-ht7 gene product. PMID:8566092

  6. Effects of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine on an identified 5-hydroxytryptamine-containing neurone in the central nervous sytem of the snail Helix pomatia.

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, N N; Pentreath, V W

    1976-01-01

    1. The effect of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) on an identified 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-containing neurone in the CNS of the snail was studied by histochemical, biochemical and electrophysiological methods. 2. Low concentrations of 5,7-DHT decreased the endogenous 5-HT content of the neurone without affecting the amino acids, while relatively large amounts of the drug proportionately lowered 5-HT and in addition slightly decreased the tryptophan and methionine content of the cell. 3. 5,7-DHT blocked the uptake of [3H]-5-HT into the neurone; the close analogue 5,6-DHT was more potent. 4. As well as slightly influencing the accumulation of [3H]-tryptophan by the neurone 5,7-DHT inhibited the metabolism of this amino acid to form 5-HT, probably by affecting the enzyme tryptophan-hydroxylase. 5. 5,7-DHT produced a postsynaptic blockade of transmission from the neurone by blocking the 5-HT receptors of the follower neurones. This effect appeared to be specific for 5-HT receptors. 6. The data support the idea that 5,7-DHT is neurotoxic for indoleamine-containing neurones. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:1252663

  7. Immunohistochemical localization of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the gonad and digestive gland of Mya arenaria (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Garnerot, F; Pellerin, J; Blaise, C; Mathieu, M

    2006-12-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) C(10)H(12)N(2)O plays a central role in several physiological processes in marine molluscs, especially in reproduction. 5-HT acts as a neurohormone to modulate spawning, parturition and meiosis by reinitiating prophase in arrested oocytes. Preliminary experiments using 10(-5)M 5-HT dissolved in aquarium water showed that 5-HT induced spawning movements in ripe clams and in both sexes of Mya arenaria while only a few males released sperm. The occurrence of serotoninergic fibers was demonstrated by PAP immunohistochemical reaction in the gonad of both sexes during gametogenesis. In an organism infected by the trematode parasite Prosorhynchus squamatus, we showed that serotoninergic innervation completely disappeared around the gonad's follicles. Although the gonad and digestive gland are intertwined, no serotoninergic innervations were found in the digestive gland. These findings suggest, for the first time to our knowledge in the soft shell clam, that serotonin might be involved in the regulation of gametogenesis. PMID:16889777

  8. 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptors mediating vasoconstriction in pulmonary arteries from control and pulmonary hypertensive rats.

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, M. R.; Sweeney, G.; Baird, M.; McCulloch, K. M.; Houslay, M.; Morecroft, I.

    1996-01-01

    1. We investigated 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-receptor mediated vasoconstriction in the main, first branch and resistance pulmonary arteries removed from control and pulmonary hypertensive rats. Contractile responses to 5-HT, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, non-selective 5-HT1 agonist), and sumatriptan (5-HT1D-like receptor agonist) were studied. The effects of methiothepin (non-selective 5-HT1 + 2-receptor antagonist) and ketanserin (5-HT2A receptor antagonist) and GR55562 (a novel selective 5-HT1D receptor antagonist) on 5-HT-mediated responses were also studied. Basal levels of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate ([cyclic AMP]i) and guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate ([cyclic GMP]i) were determined and we assessed the degree of inherent tone in the vessels under study. 2. 5-HT was most potent in the resistance arteries. pEC50 values were 5.6 +/- 0.1, 5.3 +/- 0.1, 5.0 +/- 0.2 in the resistance arteries, pulmonary branch and main pulmonary artery, respectively (n = at least 5 from 5 animals). The sensitivity to, and maximum response of, 5-HT was increased in all the arteries removed from the chronic hypoxic (CH) rats. In CH rats the pEC50 values were 5.9 +/- 0.2, 6.3 +/- 0.2, 6.4 +/- 0.2 and the increase in the maximum response was 35%, 51% and 41% in the resistance arteries, pulmonary branch and main pulmonary artery, respectively. Sumatriptan did not contract any vessel from the control rats whilst 5-CT did contract the resistance arteries. In the CH rats, however, they both contracted the resistance arteries (responses to sumatriptan were small) (pEC50: 5-CT; 5.4 +/- 0.2) and the pulmonary artery branches (pEC50: sumatriptan, 5.4 +/- 0.2; 5-CT, 5.4 +/- 0.2). 5-CT also caused a contraction in the main pulmonary artery (pEC50: 6.0 +/- 0.3). 3. Ketanserin (1 nM-1 microM) caused a competitive antagonism of the 5-HT response in all vessels tested. In control rats, the estimated pKb values for ketanserin in resistance arteries, pulmonary branches and main pulmonary artery were 8.3, 7.8 and 9.2, respectively. Methiothepin (1 nM-1 microM) inhibited responses to 5-HT in the first branch (estimated pKb value: 7.8) and main pulmonary artery. In CH rats, the estimated pKb values for ketanserin in resistance arteries, pulmonary branches and main pulmonary artery were 7.7, 8.3 and 9.6, respectively. Methiothepin also inhibited contractions to 5-HT in the pulmonary artery branch and main pulmonary artery with estimated pKb values of 7 and 9.5, respectively. In control animals, GR55562 had no effect on responses to 5-HT in any of the vessels tested. In the CH rats the estimated pKb values for GR55562 were 6.5, 7.8 and 7.0 in the pulmonary resistance arteries, first branch and main pulmonary artery, respectively. 4. Large pulmonary arteries from controls demonstrated inherent tone and this was increased three fold in the CH rats. The resistance arteries from controls demonstrated little inherent tone though this was enhanced in those from the CH rats. 5. [Cyclic AMP]i was 259 +/- 23 pmol mg-1 protein in the pulmonary artery branches removed from control rats and decreased to 192 +/- 11 pml mg-1 protein in the CH rats (P < 0.01, n = 8). [Cyclic GMP]i also decreased in the pulmonary artery branches (from 550 +/- 15, control to 462 +/- 31 pmol mg-1 protein in CH vessels, n = 8, P < 0.01) and in the main pulmonary arteries (from 566 +/- 33, control to 370 +/- 25 pmol mg-1 protein in CH vessels, n = 8, P < 0.001). No changes in either [cyclic AMP]i or [cyclic GMP]i were observed in the resistance arteries. 6. The results suggest that the increased vasoconstrictor response to 5-HT in CH rat pulmonary arteries is due to an increase in 5-HT2A-receptor mediated contraction combined with an increase in r5-HT1B-like receptor-mediated contraction. An increase in vascular tone and decreased levels of [cyclic GMP]i in the large pulmonary arteries may contribute to the observed increase in activity of r5-HT1B-like receptor PMID:8922741

  9. Rapid desensitization and resensitization of 5-HT sub 2 receptor mediated phosphatidyl inositol hydrolysis by serotonin agonists in quiescent calf aortic smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pauwels, P.J.; Van Gompel, P.; Leysen, J.E. (Janssen Research Foundation, Beerse (Belgium))

    1990-01-01

    Agonist regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine{sub 2} (5-HT{sub 2}) receptors was studied in calf aortic smooth muscle cultures incubated in a quiescent, defined synthetic medium that does not stimulate cell proliferation, but that provides cells with supplements that maintain cell viability. In these cells, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates accumulation showed the characteristics of a 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled transducing system according to the inhibition of the response by 5-HT{sub 2} antagonists at nanomolar concentrations. The 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled response became rapidly desensitized during continued incubation with 5-HT and 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOM); nearly full desensitization was obtained in two hours with 10 {mu}M 5-HT and DOM pretreatment. The recovery of the response had a half-live of 5 hours after 2 hours pretreatment and of 9.5 to 12.5 hours after 24 to 96 hours agonist pretreatment. The DOM-induced desensitization of the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled response was fully blocked by 0.1 {mu}M cinanserin. Cinanserin alone did not induce desensitization or up-regulation of the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled response at 0.1 {mu}M.

  10. Immunolabeling of the rat central nervous system with antibodies partially selective of the short form of the 5HT 3 receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Doucet; M. C. Miquel; A. Nosjean; D. Vergé; M. Hamon; M. B. Emerit

    1999-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies were raised against a synthetic hexadecapeptide corresponding to the portion of the second intracytoplasmic loop of the short form of the mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine-3A receptor subunit (5-HT3A-S), which differs from the long form (5-HT3A-L) by the removal of six amino acids. Antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as soon as two months after the first injection to rabbits

  11. Mechanism-based pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic modeling of the estrogen-like effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on neural 5HT in ovariectomized mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun Hao; Ping Gong; Shi-Qing Sun; Hai-Ping Hao; Guang-Ji Wang; Yue Dai; Yuan-Cheng Chen; Yan Liang; Lin Xie; Fei-Yan Li; Hao-Ye Li

    2011-01-01

    We sought to develop a mechanism-based pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK–PD) model to characterize the effects of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) and estradiol (E2) on neural 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration in ovariectomized mice.PK data of Rb1 and E2 were obtained in plasma and brain. Brain levels of 5-HT, tryptophan (TRP), 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were determined after a single intravenous injection of Rb1

  12. The role of nucleus accumbens shell GABA receptors on ventral tegmental area intracranial self-stimulation and a potential role for the 5HT2C receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave J Hayes; John Hoang; Andrew J Greenshaw

    2011-01-01

    Brain ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2C receptors are implicated in the neuronal regulation of reward- and aversion-related behaviour. Within the mesocorticolimbic pathways of the brain, relationships between GABA containing neurons and 5-HT2C receptor activity may be important in this context. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the role of NAc shell GABA receptors on ventral tegmental

  13. Involvement of neurokinins in the non-cholinergic response to activation of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors in guinea-pig ileum.

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, M. J.; Cenarruzabeitia, E.; Del Río, J.; Lasheras, B.

    1994-01-01

    1. The involvement of neurokinins in the non-cholinergically-mediated contractile response induced by stimulation of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors has been examined in the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparation of the guinea-pig ileum. 2. The 5-HT3 receptor agonist, 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (2-methyl-5-HT), showed a lower potency in this preparation than the more selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist 5-methoxytryptamine. The effect of both drugs was markedly reduced by atropine. 3. Substance P (SP) and neurokinin B (NKB) produced biphasic concentration-response curves in the preparation. Neurokinin A (NKA), the NK1 receptor agonist, [Sar9,Met(O2)11]SP and the NK3 receptor agonist, senktide yielded monophasic concentration-response curves. 4. After desensitization of the NK1 receptor with SP or [Sar9,met(O2)11]SP, in the presence of atropine, the contractile response to 2-methyl-5-HT was entirely blocked. Desensitization of NK3 receptors with NKB, also in the presence of atropine, fully suppressed the 5-HT4 receptor-mediated contraction evoked by 5-methoxytryptamine. 5. In preparations prelabelled with [3H]-choline, SP produced a concentration-dependent increase in tritium overflow, an index of [3H]-acetylcholine release, while an inverse relationship was found with NKB. At low neurokinin concentrations, the releasing effect of NKB was much more marked. 6. It is suggested that in the response to 5-HT3 receptor stimulation, there is a role for SP and acetylcholine. NKB appears to be preferentially involved in the release of acetylcholine elicited by stimulation of 5-HT4 receptors. PMID:7516254

  14. The classification of peripheral 5-HT2-like receptors using tryptamine agonist and antagonist analogues.

    PubMed Central

    Leff, P.; Martin, G. R.; Morse, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    In a previous study, we attempted to verify the classification of 5-hydroxytryptamine2 (5-HT2) receptors in three vascular tissues, by use of the conventional antagonists, ketanserin, spiperone, methysergide and trazodone. However, it was not possible to conclude homogeneity of the receptor type in the three tissues due to the inconsistent behaviour of these antagonists, in particular, their apparently variable affinities between the tissues. These results led to the reliability of the conventional antagonists being questioned as receptor probes. In the present study, a set of tryptamine analogues were investigated in two of the tissues, the rabbit aorta and the rat jugular vein. Unlike the conventional antagonists, these compounds bear a close chemical relation to the natural agonist, 5-HT. In both tissues, alpha, alpha-dimethyltryptamine demonstrated apparently simple competitive antagonism of 5-HT-induced constrictions. Its affinity was estimated to be the same in each case. The affinities and relative efficacies of 5-HT, 5-cyanotryptamine, N,N-dimethyltryptamine and N-benzyl-5-methoxytryptamine were also found to be indistinguishable between the two tissues. Unlike the conventional 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, these tryptamine analogues failed to distinguish between the 5-HT receptors in the rabbit aorta and rat jugular vein implying that they truly belong to the same class. In view of this result, it is suggested that simple tryptamine analogues are more reliable probes for 5-HT receptor classification than ligands which bear little or no chemical relation to the natural agonist. PMID:3801784

  15. Endothelium-Dependent Relaxant Responses to Selective 5HT1B\\/1D Receptor Agonists in the Isolated Middle Cerebral Artery of the Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob Hansen-Schwartz; Natalie Løvland Hoel; Elisabeth Nilsson; Peer Tfelt-Hansen; Lars Edvinsson

    2003-01-01

    The vasomotor effects of triptans in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) of rats were studied using the pressurised arteriography method and in vitro vessel baths. Using the arteriograph, MCAs from Sprague-Dawley rats were mounted on two glass micropipettes, pressurised to 85 mm Hg and luminally perfused. Luminally added 5- hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), sumatriptan and rizatriptan induced maximal dilatations of 22 ±

  16. 5-HT1A Receptor Function in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Savitz, Jonathan; Lucki, Irwin; Drevets, Wayne C

    2009-01-01

    Dysfunction of the serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A) may play a role in the genesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Here we review the pharmacological, post-mortem, positron-emission tomography (PET), and genetic evidence in support of this statement. We also touch briefly on two MDD-associated phenotypes, cognitive impairment and somatic pain. The results of pharmacological challenge studies with 5-HT1A receptor agonists are indicative of blunted endocrine responses in depressed patients. Lithium, valproate, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and other treatment, such as electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT), all increase post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptor signaling through either direct or indirect effects. Reduced somatodendritic and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor numbers or affinity have been reported in some post-mortem studies of suicide victims, a result consistent with well-replicated PET analyses demonstrating reduced 5-HT1A receptor binding potential in diverse regions such as the dorsal raphe, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala and hippocampus. 5-HT1A receptor knockout (KO) mice display increased anxiety-related behavior, which, unlike in their wild-type counterparts, cannot be rescued with AD treatment. In humans, the G allele of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 5-HT1A receptor gene (HTR1A; rs6295), which abrogates a transcription factor binding site for Deaf-1 and Hes5, has been reported to be over-represented in MDD cases. Conversely, the C allele has been associated with better response to AD drugs. We raise the possibility that 5-HT1A receptor dysfunction represents one potential mechanism underpinning MDD and other stress-related disorders. PMID:19428959

  17. Interaction between 5-HTTLPR and 5-HT1B genotype status enhances cerebral 5-HT1A receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Baldinger, Pia; Kraus, Christoph; Rami-Mark, Christina; Gryglewski, Gregor; Kranz, Georg S; Haeusler, Daniela; Hahn, Andreas; Spies, Marie; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus; Rujescu, Dan; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-05-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission is thought to underlie a dynamic interrelation between different key structures of the serotonin system. The serotonin transporter (SERT), which is responsible for the reuptake of serotonin from the synaptic cleft into the neuron, as well as the serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) and -1B (5-HT1B) receptors, inhibitory auto-receptors in the raphe region and projection areas, respectively, are likely to determine serotonin release. Thereby, they are involved in the regulation of extracellular serotonin concentrations and the extent of serotonergic effects in respective projection areas. Complex receptor interactions can be assessed in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET) and single-nucleotide-polymorphisms, which are thought to alter protein expression levels. Due to the complexity of the serotonergic system, gene × gene interactions are likely to regulate transporter and receptor expression and therefore subsequently serotonergic transmission. In this context, we measured 51 healthy subjects (mean age 45.5 ± 12.9, 38 female) with PET using [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635 to determine 5-HT1A receptor binding potential (5-HT1A BPND). Genotyping for rs6296 (HTR1B) and 5-HTTLPR (SERT gene promoter polymorphism) was performed using DNA isolated from whole blood. Voxel-wise whole-brain ANOVA revealed a positive interaction effect of genotype groups (5-HTTLPR: LL, LS+SS and HTR1B: rs6296: CC, GC+GG) on 5-HT1A BPND with peak t-values in the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus. More specifically, highest 5-HT1A BPND was identified for individuals homozygous for both the L-allele of 5-HTTLPR and the C-allele of rs6296. This finding suggests that the interaction between two major serotonergic structures involved in serotonin release, specifically the SERT and 5-HT1B receptor, results in a modification of the inhibitory serotonergic tone mediated via 5-HT1A receptors. PMID:25652393

  18. Modulation of synaptic transmission and excitation-contraction coupling in the opener muscle of the crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus, by 5-hydroxytryptamine and octopamine.

    PubMed

    Fischer, L; Florey, E

    1983-01-01

    The modulatory actions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and octopamine (OA) were investigated in the opener nerve-muscle preparation of the crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus. Membrane resistance and resting potential were unaltered by 5-HT and OA at concentrations up to 2.5 X 10(-5) M; but EPSP-amplitudes were increased, up to 3-fold by OA and up to 18-fold by 5-HT. The lowest effective concentration was 2.5 X 10(-9) M; a maximal effect was produced at 2.5 X 10(-6) M. The effect was reversible only after prolonged washing. The enhancement of EPSPs by 5-HT or OA is due to an increased amplitude of the synaptic current; the current duration is not altered. The facilitation ratio (ratio of amplitudes of a pair of EPSPs) is not significantly affected by 5-HT or OA despite the often enormous increase of the absolute EPSP-amplitudes. The modulatory action also affects the excitation-contraction (e-c) coupling process: the effectiveness of e-c coupling was increased 7.4-fold by 5-HT (2.5 X 10(-6) M) and 18.7-fold by OA (5 X 10(-6) M). The threshold potential of e-c coupling was not affected. PMID:6300277

  19. Differences in agonist dissociation constant estimates for 5-HT at 5-HT2-receptors: a problem of acute desensitization?

    PubMed Central

    Leff, P.; Martin, G. R.

    1988-01-01

    1. The agonist dissociation constant for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was estimated in the guinea-pig isolated trachea by the method of receptor inactivation. The value obtained (pKA = 6.45) was significantly lower than estimates previously obtained in the rabbit aorta and rat jugular vein, although all three tissues are supposed to contain the same 5-HT2 class of receptor. 2. The antagonist dissociation constant for alpha,alpha-dimethyltryptamine was also estimated in the guinea-pig trachea. The pKB value (5.43) was not significantly different from previous estimates in the rabbit aorta and rat jugular vein, consistent with receptor homogeneity between the three tissues. 3. The effect-time profiles corresponding to individual 5-HT applications were more transient in the guinea-pig trachea than in the rabbit aorta. This difference could be accounted for using a simple model of acute receptor desensitization (Leff, 1986), assuming that the conversion of active agonist-receptor complexes into inactive ones was faster in the guinea-pig trachea than in the rabbit aorta. 4. Computer simulation of the desensitization model showed that the discrepancy of pKA estimates for 5-HT between the rabbit aorta and guinea-pig trachea could also be explained using the same rate constant difference that accounted for the difference in effect-time profiles. This analysis indicated that the estimate made in the trachea was erroneously low, whereas that made in the aorta was concluded to be correct. 5. The apparent association between transience of response and pKA estimates is discussed with particular attention to the reliability of agonist affinity estimates in receptor classification. PMID:3228675

  20. Peripheral 5-HT2-like receptors. Can they be classified with the available antagonists?

    PubMed Central

    Leff, P.; Martin, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Interactions between 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and the so-called 5-HT2 receptor antagonists ketanserin, spiperone, trazodone and methysergide were studied in isolated preparations of the rabbit aorta, rat jugular vein, and rat caudal artery. Trazodone and spiperone were apparently simple competitive antagonists since they produced antagonism that was surmountable over the concentration range studied and, in each tissue, their apparent affinity appeared to be independent of the antagonist concentration. Furthermore, concentration-ratios obtained with the two antagonists in combination suggested that antagonism was additive, implying mutual competition with a single population of 5-HT receptors. Ketanserin was a non-surmountable antagonist of 5-HT in the rat caudal artery and methysergide demonstrated surmountable, competitive antagonism only in the rabbit aorta. Antagonist dissociation constants estimated for apparently competitive interactions showed that ketanserin, spiperone and trazodone expressed affinities which differed according to the tissue used. In the case of trazodone, affinity estimates differed by as much as 12 fold. These discrepancies were independent of the 5-HT receptor agonist used and could not be attributed to an inadequate equilibration of the antagonist. These results can be interpreted in two ways: either the receptors in the different tissues are heterogeneous or the antagonists used here must be considered as unreliable probes for the classification of 5-HT2-like receptors. PMID:2943354

  1. Therapeutic Potential of 5-HT2C Receptor Agonists for Addictive Disorders.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Guy A; Fletcher, Paul J

    2015-07-15

    The neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) has long been associated with the control of a variety of motivated behaviors, including feeding. Much of the evidence linking 5-HT and feeding behavior was obtained from studies of the effects of the 5-HT releaser (dex)fenfluramine in laboratory animals and humans. Recently, the selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin received FDA approval for the treatment of obesity. This review examines evidence to support the use of selective 5-HT2C receptor agonists as treatments for conditions beyond obesity, including substance abuse (particularly nicotine, psychostimulant, and alcohol dependence), obsessive compulsive, and excessive gambling disorder. Following a brief survey of the early literature supporting a role for 5-HT in modulating food and drug reinforcement, we propose that intrinsic differences between SSRI and serotonin releasers may have underestimated the value of serotonin-based pharmacotherapeutics to treat clinical forms of addictive behavior beyond obesity. We then highlight the critical involvement of the 5-HT2C receptor in mediating the effect of (dex)fenfluramine on feeding and body weight gain and the evidence that 5-HT2C receptor agonists reduce measures of drug reward and impulsivity. A recent report of lorcaserin efficacy in a smoking cessation trial further strengthens the idea that 5-HT2C receptor agonists may have potential as a treatment for addiction. This review was prepared as a contribution to the proceedings of the 11th International Society for Serotonin Research Meeting held in Hermanus, South Africa, July 9-12, 2014. PMID:25870913

  2. The effect of oral 5HTP administration on 5HTP and 5HT immunoreactivity in monoaminergic brain regions of rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina P Lynn-Bullock; Kristy Welshhans; Sarah L Pallas; Paul S Katz

    2004-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), which is the rate-limiting precursor in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) biosynthesis, is used as an oral supplement to enhance serotonin levels in humans. To evaluate its effects on serotonin levels and localization, 5-hydroxytryptophan was administered to Sprague–Dawley rats either orally or via intraperitoneal injection. 5-Hydroxytryptophan-immunoreactivity was co-localized with serotonin-immunoreactivity in the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus of control animals and

  3. Increased 5HT 3 -mediated signalling in pelvic afferent neurons from mice deficient in P2X 2 and\\/or P2X 3 receptor subunits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bei Ma; Gregory Wynn; Philip M. Dunn; Geoffrey Burnstock

    2006-01-01

    Extracellular ATP and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) are both involved in visceral sensory pathways by interacting with P2X and\\u000a 5-HT3 receptors, respectively. We have investigated the changes in P2X and 5-HT3-mediated signalling in pelvic afferent neurons in mice deficient in P2X2 and\\/or P2X3 subunits by whole-cell recording of L6–S2 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and by multi-unit recording of pelvic afferents of

  4. Robust presynaptic serotonin 5-HT1B receptor inhibition of the striatonigral output and its sensitization by chronic fluoxetine treatment.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shengyuan; Li, Li; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2015-05-01

    The striatonigral projection is a striatal output pathway critical to motor control, cognition, and emotion regulation. Its axon terminals in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) express a high level of serotonin (5-HT) type 1B receptors (5-HT1BRs), whereas the SNr also receives an intense 5-HT innervation that expresses 5-HT transporters, providing an anatomic substrate for 5-HT and selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-based antidepressant treatment to regulate the striatonigral output. In this article we show that 5-HT, by activating presynaptic 5-HT1BRs on the striatonigral axon terminals, potently inhibited the striatonigral GABA output, as reflected in the reduction of the striatonigral inhibitory postsynaptic currents in SNr GABA neurons. Functionally, 5-HT1BR agonism reduced the striatonigral GABA output-induced pause of the spontaneous high-frequency firing in SNr GABA neurons. Equally important, chronic SSRI treatment with fluoxetine enhanced this presynaptic 5-HT1BR-mediated pause reduction in SNr GABA neurons. Taken together, these results indicate that activation of the 5-HT1BRs on the striatonigral axon terminals can limit the motor-promoting GABA output. Furthermore, in contrast to the desensitization of 5-HT1 autoreceptors, chronic SSRI-based antidepressant treatment sensitizes this presynaptic 5-HT1BR-mediated effect in the SNr, a novel cellular mechanism that alters the striatonigral information transfer, potentially contributing to the behavioral effects of chronic SSRI treatment. PMID:25787955

  5. Molecular characterization and analysis of a putative 5-HT receptor involved in reproduction process of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; He, Maoxian

    2014-08-01

    5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine; serotonin) has been linked to a variety of biological roles including gonad maturation and sequential spawning in bivalve molluscs. To gain a better understanding of the effects of 5-HT on developmental regulation in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, the isolation, cloning, and expression of the 5-HT receptor was investigated in this study. A full-length cDNA (2541 bp) encoding a putative 5-HT receptor (5-HTpf) of 471 amino acids was isolated from the ovary of the pearl oyster. It shared 71% and 51% homology, respectively, with the Crassostrea gigas 5-HT receptor and the Aplysia californica 5-HT1ap. The 5-HTpf sequence possessed the typical characteristics of seven transmembrane domains and a long third inner loop. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated that 5-HTpf was classified into the 5-HT1 subtype together with other invertebrate 5-HT1 receptors. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that 5-HTpf is widely expressed in all tissues tested, is involved in the gametogenesis cycle, embryonic and larval development stages, and expression is induced by E2 in ovarian tissues. These results suggest that 5-HTpf is involved in the reproductive process, specifically in the induction of oocyte maturation and spawning of P. fucata. PMID:24852353

  6. Galanin modulates 5-hydroxytryptamine functions. Focus on galanin and galanin fragment/5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptor interactions in the brain.

    PubMed

    Fuxe, K; Jansson, A; Diaz-Cabiale, Z; Andersson, A; Tinner, B; Finnman, U B; Misane, I; Razani, H; Wang, F H; Agnati, L F; Ogren, S O

    1998-12-21

    The reciprocal interactions between galanin and 5-HT1A receptors in the rat brain are presented. Galanin and its NH2-terminal fragments antagonize 5-HT1A receptor-mediated transmission at the postjunctional level, whereas galanin receptor activation mimics the inhibitory action of 5-HT1A receptor activation at the soma-dendritic level, leading to reductions of 5-HT metabolism and release. These interactions have been shown in both receptor binding studies and functional studies. In view of the present findings, galanin antagonists may represent a new type of anti-depressant drug, based on the 5-HT hypothesis of depression, by enhancing 5-HT release and postjunctional 5-HT1A-mediated transmission. Moreover, following intracerebroventricular injection galanin was found to be internalized in a population of hippocampal nerve cells mainly representing GABA, somatostatin, and/or NPY-immunoreactive nerve cells. The relevance of these findings is discussed in relation to the concept of volume transmission. PMID:9928178

  7. Selective recognition of 5-hydroxytryptamine and dopamine on a multi-walled carbon nanotube-chitosan hybrid film-modi?ed microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huiren; Wang, Li; Luo, Jinping; Song, Yilin; Liu, Juntao; Zhang, Song; Cai, Xinxia

    2015-01-01

    It is dif?cult to determine dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) accurately because of the interference of ascorbic acid (AA) in vitro, which has a high concentration and can be oxidized at a potential close to DA and 5-HT at a conventional electrode, combined with the overlapping voltammetric signal of DA and 5-HT at a bare electrode. Herein, chitosan (CS) was used as a stabilizing matrix by electrochemical reaction, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified onto the microelectrode array (MEA). The CS-MWCNT hybrid film-modified MEA was quite effective at simultaneously recognizing these species in a mixture and resolved the overlapping anodic peaks of AA, DA and 5-HT into three well-de?ned oxidation peaks in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at -80 mV, 105 mV and 300 mV (versus Ag|AgCl), respectively. The linear responses were obtained in the range of 5 × 10(-6) M to 2 × 10(-4) M for DA (r = 0.996) and in the range of 1 × 10(-5) M to 3 × 10(-4) M for 5-HT (r = 0.999) using the DPV under the presence of a single substance. While DA coexisted with 5-HT in the interference of 3 × 10(-4) M AA, the linear responses were obtained in the range of 1 × 10(-5) M to 3 × 10(-4) M for selective molecular recognition of DA (r = 0.997) and 5-HT (r = 0.997) using the DPV. Therefore, this proposed MEA was successfully used for selective molecular recognition and determination of DA and 5-HT using the DPV, which has a potential application for real-time determination in vitro experiments. PMID:25580900

  8. Selective Recognition of 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Dopamine on a Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Chitosan Hybrid Film-Modified Microelectrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huiren; Wang, Li; Luo, Jinping; Song, Yilin; Liu, Juntao; Zhang, Song; Cai, Xinxia

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to determine dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) accurately because of the interference of ascorbic acid (AA) in vitro, which has a high concentration and can be oxidized at a potential close to DA and 5-HT at a conventional electrode, combined with the overlapping voltammetric signal of DA and 5-HT at a bare electrode. Herein, chitosan (CS) was used as a stabilizing matrix by electrochemical reaction, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified onto the microelectrode array (MEA). The CS-MWCNT hybrid film-modified MEA was quite effective at simultaneously recognizing these species in a mixture and resolved the overlapping anodic peaks of AA, DA and 5-HT into three well-defined oxidation peaks in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at ?80 mV, 105 mV and 300 mV (versus Ag|AgCl), respectively. The linear responses were obtained in the range of 5 × 10?6 M to 2 × 10?4 M for DA (r = 0.996) and in the range of 1 × 10?5 M to 3 × 10?4 M for 5-HT (r = 0.999) using the DPV under the presence of a single substance. While DA coexisted with 5-HT in the interference of 3 × 10?4 M AA, the linear responses were obtained in the range of 1 × 10?5 M to 3 × 10?4 M for selective molecular recognition of DA (r = 0.997) and 5-HT (r = 0.997) using the DPV. Therefore, this proposed MEA was successfully used for selective molecular recognition and determination of DA and 5-HT using the DPV, which has a potential application for real-time determination in vitro experiments. PMID:25580900

  9. ( sup 3 H)-DOB(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenylisopropylamine) and ( sup 3 H) ketanserin label two affinity states of the cloned human 5-hydroxytryptamine2 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Branchek, T.; Adham, N.; Macchi, M.; Kao, H.T.; Hartig, P.R. (Neurogenetic Corporation, Paramus, NJ (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The binding properties of the 5-hydroxytryptamine2 (5-HT2) receptor have been the subject of much interest and debate in recent years. The hallucinogenic amphetamine derivative 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenylisopropylamine (DOB) has been shown to bind to a small number of binding sites with properties very similar to (3H)ketanserin-labeled 5-HT2 receptors, but with much higher agonist affinities. Some researchers have interpreted this as evidence for the existence of a new subtype of 5-HT2 receptor (termed 5-HT2A), whereas others have interpreted these data as indicative of agonist high affinity and agonist low affinity states for the 5-HT2 receptor. In this investigation, a cDNA clone encoding the serotonin 5-HT2 receptor was transiently transfected into monkey kidney Cos-7 cells and stably transfected into mouse fibroblast L-M(TK-) cells. In both systems, expression of this single serotonin receptor cDNA led to the appearance of both (3H)DOB and (3H)ketanserin binding sites with properties that matched their binding characteristics in mammalian brain homogenates. Addition of guanosine 5'-(beta, gamma-imido) triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) to this system caused a rightward shift and steepening of agonist competition curves for (3H) ketanserin binding, converting a two-site binding curve to a single low affinity binding state. Gpp(NH)p addition also caused a 50% decrease in the number of high affinity (3H)DOB binding sites, with no change in the dissociation constant of the remaining high affinity states. These data on a single human 5-HT2 receptor cDNA expressed in two different transfection host cells indicate that (3H)DOB and (3H)ketanserin binding reside on the same gene product, apparently interacting with agonist and antagonist conformations of a single human 5-HT2 receptor protein.

  10. The aggression and behavioral abnormalities associated with monoamine oxidase A deficiency are rescued by acute inhibition of serotonin reuptake.

    PubMed

    Godar, Sean C; Bortolato, Marco; Castelli, M Paola; Casti, Alberto; Casu, Angelo; Chen, Kevin; Ennas, M Grazia; Tambaro, Simone; Shih, Jean C

    2014-09-01

    The termination of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neurotransmission is regulated by its uptake by the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), as well as its degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A. MAO-A deficiency results in a wide set of behavioral alterations, including perseverative behaviors and social deficits. These anomalies are likely related to 5-HTergic homeostatic imbalances; however, the role of 5-HTT in these abnormalities remains unclear. To ascertain the role of 5-HTT in the behavioral anomalies associated to MAO-A deficiency, we tested the behavioral effects of its blocker fluoxetine on perseverative, social and aggressive behaviors in transgenic animals with hypomorphic or null-allele MAO-A mutations. Acute treatment with the 5-HTT blocker fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced aggressive behavior in MAO-A knockout (KO) mice and social deficits in hypomorphic MAO-A(Neo) mice. Furthermore, this treatment also reduced perseverative responses (including marble burying and water mist-induced grooming) in both MAO-A mutant genotypes. Both MAO-A mutant lines displayed significant reductions in 5-HTT expression across the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and striatum, as quantified by immunohistochemical detection; however, the down-regulation of 5-HTT in MAO-A(Neo) mice was more pervasive and widespread than in their KO counterparts, possibly indicating a greater ability of the hypomorphic line to enact compensatory mechanisms with respect to 5-HT homeostasis. Collectively, these findings suggest that the behavioral deficits associated with low MAO-A activity may reflect developmental alterations of 5-HTT within 5-HTergic neurons. Furthermore, the translational implications of our results highlight 5-HT reuptake inhibition as an interesting approach for the control of aggressive outbursts in MAO-A deficient individuals. PMID:24882701

  11. 1-Thia-4,7-diaza-spiro[4.4]nonane-3,6-dione: a structural motif for 5-hydroxytryptamine 6 receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Hostetler, Greg; Dunn, Derek; McKenna, Beth A; Kopec, Karla; Chatterjee, Sankar

    2014-02-01

    A series of potent 5-hydroxytryptamine 6 (5-HT?) receptor antagonists based on 1-thia-4,7-diaza-spiro[4.4]nonane-3,6-dione motif has been disclosed. Enantiomers of potent racemate compound 8a (K(i) = 26 nM) displayed difference in activity (K(i) of 15 nM versus 855 nM) signaling the influence of the stereochemistry of the chiral center on potency. In addition, the potent enantiomer displayed significant selectivity in biological activities over several related family members. PMID:24119217

  12. Neuropeptide Y increases the inhibitory effects of clonidine on potassium evoked 3 H-noradrenaline but not 3 H-5-hydroxytryptamine release from synaptosomes of the hypothalamus and the frontoparietal cortex of the male Sprague-Dawley rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Martire; K. Fuxe; G. Pistritto; P. Preziosi; L. F. Agnati

    1989-01-01

    Summary The release of3H-noradrenaline (3H-NA) and of3H-5-hydroxytryptamine (3H-5-HT) evoked by high-K+ (15 mM) was studied in synaptosomes isolated from the hypothalamus and the frontoparietal cortex of the male Sprague-Dawley rat using a superfusion apparatus. Based on concentration-response curves obtained by analyzing the full-time course of the inhibitory effects of clonidine on3H-NA and on3H-5-HT release neuropeptide Y (NPY) (1 nM) was

  13. Simultaneous visualization of aortic and [3H]5-hydroxytryptamine-accumulating cell bodies in the nodose ganglion of the cat

    PubMed Central

    Gaudin-Chazal, G.; Portalier, P.; Puizillout, J. J.; Vigier, D.

    1983-01-01

    1. Single- and double-tracer experiments were performed in cats to investigate the relationship between the aortic cells and the cell bodies accumulating 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the nodose ganglion. In one series of experiments, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was applied to the central end of the aortic nerve, anterogradely transported and accumulated in ganglionar perikarya. The distribution of HRP-positive neurones was reconstructed in serial sections through the nodose ganglion. In a second series of experiments, the distribution of [3H]5-HT-accumulating cell bodies was assessed following incubation of the nodose ganglion in [3H]5-HT. The third series of experiments combined the treatments of the preceding ones: anterograde transport of HRP in the aortic nerve followed by incubation of the nodose ganglion in [3H]5-HT. 2. The results from these experiments provide more information with regard to (i) the topographical relationship between the aortic and [3H]5-HT-accumulating cell bodies in the same ganglion and (ii) the distribution and number of double-labelled neurones, giving further indications about histochemical components of the aortic nerve. 3. The HRP experiments demonstrated that HRP-positive cells show a preferential pattern of topographical organization. They were mostly located in the medial border of the ganglion where the laryngeal and aortic nerves enter. On the other hand, [3H]5-HT-accumulating neurones were scattered throughout the ganglion. 4. In double-tracer experiments, three populations of labelled cell bodies were distinguished in the same nodose ganglion: (1) single HRP-cells; (2) single [3H]5-HT-accumulating cells and (3) double-labelled cells. The distribution of the latter population exhibited no preferential localization. Quantitative estimates indicated that double-labelled neurones constituted 65-85% of the population of HRP-positive cell bodies. 5. These results show that most aortic neurones are able to take up exogenous serotonin and may be serotonergic neurones. They suggest that serotonin may be involved in physiological effects mediated via the aortic nerves. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2 PMID:6875933

  14. Preclinical and clinical characterization of the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist DU-125530 for antidepressant treatment

    PubMed Central

    Scorza, MC; Lladó-Pelfort, L; Oller, S; Cortés, R; Puigdemont, D; Portella, MJ; Pérez-Egea, R; Alvarez, E; Celada, P; Pérez, V; Artigas, F

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The antidepressant efficacy of selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and other 5-HT-enhancing drugs is compromised by a negative feedback mechanism involving 5-HT1A autoreceptor activation by the excess 5-HT produced by these drugs in the somatodendritic region of 5-HT neurones. 5-HT1A receptor antagonists augment antidepressant-like effects in rodents by preventing this negative feedback, and the mixed ?-adrenoceptor/5-HT1A receptor antagonist pindolol improves clinical antidepressant effects by preferentially interacting with 5-HT1A autoreceptors. However, it is unclear whether 5-HT1A receptor antagonists not discriminating between pre- and post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors would be clinically effective. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We characterized the pharmacological properties of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist DU-125530 using receptor autoradiography, intracerebral microdialysis and electrophysiological recordings. Its capacity to accelerate/enhance the clinical effects of fluoxetine was assessed in a double-blind, randomized, 6 week placebo-controlled trial in 50 patients with major depression (clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01119430). KEY RESULTS DU-125530 showed equal (low nM) potency to displace agonist and antagonist binding to pre- and post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors in rat and human brain. It antagonized suppression of 5-hydroxytryptaminergic activity evoked by 8-OH-DPAT and SSRIs in vivo. DU-125530 augmented SSRI-induced increases in extracellular 5-HT as effectively as in mice lacking 5-HT1A receptors, indicating a silent, maximal occupancy of pre-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors at the dose used. However, DU-125530 addition to fluoxetine did not accelerate nor augment its antidepressant effects. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS DU-125530 is an excellent pre- and post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. However, blockade of post-synaptic 5- HT1A receptors by DU-125530 cancels benefits obtained by enhancing pre-synaptic 5-hydroxytryptaminergic function. PMID:22050051

  15. Molecular properties of 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor-type binding sites purified from NG108-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Boess, F G; Lummis, S C; Martin, I L

    1992-11-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor-type binding sites were solubilised from NG108-15 mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid cells using five different detergents [n-octyl-beta-D-glucoside, Triton X-100, 3-[3-(cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulphonate (CHAPS), sodium cholate, and deoxycholate] and the solubilisation efficiencies compared. The equilibrium binding, kinetic properties, and pharmacological profile of solubilised binding sites were similar to those of 5-HT3 receptor-type binding sites (5-HT3R) in membrane preparations determined using [3H]GR65630. The solubilised binding sites were purified using an affinity column constructed by coupling the high-affinity antagonist GR119566X to an Affi-Gel 15 resin. The affinity of purified 5-HT3R for [3H]-GR65630 was reduced threefold compared to the crude soluble preparation, but the pharmacological profile was similar. The sedimentation coefficient of the purified protein (11S, detergent: CHAPS) was determined by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The apparent molecular mass of the detergent/binding site complex (370 kDa) was determined by size exclusion chromatography in the presence of n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside. Gel electrophoresis of the purified protein revealed bands at apparent molecular masses of 36, 40, 50, and 76 kDa. Electron microscopy of the negatively stained purified protein showed the presence of round particles of 8-9 nm diameter with a 2-nm stained pit in the centre, closely resembling the doughnut shapes described for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. PMID:1402914

  16. Serotonin contracts the rat mesenteric artery by inhibiting 4-aminopyridine-sensitive Kv channels via the 5-HT2A receptor and Src tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Sung, Dong Jun; Noh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jae Gon; Park, Sang Woong; Kim, Bokyung; Cho, Hana; Bae, Young Min

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) is a neurotransmitter that regulates a variety of functions in the nervous, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Despite such importance, 5-HT signaling pathways are not entirely clear. We demonstrated previously that 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-sensitive voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels determine the resting membrane potential of arterial smooth muscle cells and that the Kv channels are inhibited by 5-HT, which depolarizes the membranes. Therefore, we hypothesized that 5-HT contracts arteries by inhibiting Kv channels. Here we studied 5-HT signaling and the detailed role of Kv currents in rat mesenteric arteries using patch-clamp and isometric tension measurements. Our data showed that inhibiting 4-AP-sensitive Kv channels contracted arterial rings, whereas inhibiting Ca(2+)-activated K(+), inward rectifier K(+) and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels had little effect on arterial contraction, indicating a central role of Kv channels in the regulation of resting arterial tone. 5-HT-induced arterial contraction decreased significantly in the presence of high KCl or the voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (VGCC) inhibitor nifedipine, indicating that membrane depolarization and the consequent activation of VGCCs mediate the 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction. The effects of 5-HT on Kv currents and arterial contraction were markedly prevented by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonists ketanserin and spiperone. Consistently, ?-methyl 5-HT, a 5-HT2 receptor agonist, mimicked the 5-HT action on Kv channels. Pretreatment with a Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor, 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, prevented both the 5-HT-mediated vasoconstriction and Kv current inhibition. Our data suggest that 4-AP-sensitive Kv channels are the primary regulator of the resting tone in rat mesenteric arteries. 5-HT constricts the arteries by inhibiting Kv channels via the 5-HT2A receptor and Src tyrosine kinase pathway. PMID:24336234

  17. Role of Central Serotonin in Anticipation of Rewarding and Punishing Outcomes: Effects of Selective Amygdala or Orbitofrontal 5-HT Depletion.

    PubMed

    Rygula, Rafal; Clarke, Hannah F; Cardinal, Rudolf N; Cockcroft, Gemma J; Xia, Jing; Dalley, Jeff W; Robbins, Trevor W; Roberts, Angela C

    2014-05-30

    Understanding the role of serotonin (or 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in aversive processing has been hampered by the contradictory findings, across studies, of increased sensitivity to punishment in terms of subsequent response choice but decreased sensitivity to punishment-induced response suppression following gross depletion of central 5-HT. To address this apparent discrepancy, the present study determined whether both effects could be found in the same animals by performing localized 5-HT depletions in the amygdala or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of a New World monkey, the common marmoset. 5-HT depletion in the amygdala impaired response choice on a probabilistic visual discrimination task by increasing the effectiveness of misleading, or false, punishment and reward, and decreased response suppression in a variable interval test of punishment sensitivity that employed the same reward and punisher. 5-HT depletion in the OFC also disrupted probabilistic discrimination learning and decreased response suppression. Computational modeling of behavior on the discrimination task showed that the lesions reduced reinforcement sensitivity. A novel, unitary account of the findings in terms of the causal role of 5-HT in the anticipation of both negative and positive motivational outcomes is proposed and discussed in relation to current theories of 5-HT function and our understanding of mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:24879752

  18. Comparisons of hallucinogenic phenylisopropylamine binding affinities at cloned human 5HT2A, 5HT2B and 5HT2C receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Nelson; V. L. Lucaites; D. B. Wainscott; R. A. Glennon

    1999-01-01

    Since the classical hallucinogens were initially reported to produce their behavioral effects via a 5-HT2 agonist mechanism (i.e., the 5-HT2 hypothesis of hallucinogen action), 5-HT2 receptors have been demonstrated to represent a family of receptors that consists of three distinct subpopulations: 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors. Today, there is greater support for 5-HT2A than for 5-HT2C receptor involvement in the

  19. Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans Serotonin Reuptake Transporter MOD-5 Reveal Serotonin-Dependent and -Independent

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, H. Robert

    Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans Serotonin Reuptake Transporter MOD-5 Reveal Serotonin the only sero- tonin reuptake transporter (SERT) in C. elegans. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; fluoxetine; serotonin; reuptake; modulation of behavior; SSRI The activity of serotonin (5-HT), a key

  20. The 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 6 agonist EMD 386088 ameliorates ketamine-induced deficits in attentional set shifting and novel object recognition, but not in the prepulse inhibition in rats.

    PubMed

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Fija?, Katarzyna; Potasiewicz, Agnieszka; Popik, Piotr; Kos, Tomasz

    2013-05-01

    Preclinical data suggest that the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 6 (5-HT6) receptor may be a potential target for the development of new therapies for treating cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia and other central nervous system disorders. Recent evidence indicates that not only blockade but also activation of 5-HT6 receptors exerts procognitive effects. Nevertheless, little is known about the potential efficacy of 5-HT6 receptor agonists in models of schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the 5-HT6 receptor agonist, EMD 386088, on the ketamine-induced deficits in the attentional set-shifting task (ASST), novel object recognition (NOR) task and prepulse inhibition (PPI) task in rats. Acute administration of EMD 386088 (2.5 and 5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) to Sprague-Dawley rats reversed the deficit in the ASST induced by repeated ketamine administration. Moreover, the ketamine-induced deficit in the NOR task was ameliorated by EMD 386088 at a dose of 5 mg/kg. However, in contrast to the antipsychotic drug clozapine, the 5-HT6 agonist did not affect PPI disrupted by ketamine. The present study demonstrated the beneficial effects of the 5-HT6 agonist in ameliorating some of the ketamine-induced deficits relevant to schizophrenia. It thus seems likely that the 5-HT6 receptor activation may represent a useful pharmacological approach to the treatment of cognitive disturbances observed in this disorder. PMID:23479455

  1. A Chemocentric Informatics Approach to Drug Discovery: Identification and Experimental Validation of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators as ligands of 5-Hydroxytryptamine-6 Receptors and as Potential Cognition Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Hajjo, Rima; Setola, Vincent; Roth, Bryan L.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We have devised a chemocentric informatics methodology for drug discovery integrating independent approaches to mining biomolecular databases. As a proof of concept, we have searched for novel putative cognition enhancers. First, we generated Quantitative Structure- Activity Relationship (QSAR) models of compounds binding to 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 receptor (5HT6R), a known target for cognition enhancers, and employed these models for virtual screening to identify putative 5-HT6R actives. Second, we queried chemogenomics data from the Connectivity Map (http://www.broad.mit.edu/cmap/) with the gene expression profile signatures of Alzheimer’s disease patients to identify compounds putatively linked to the disease. Thirteen common hits were tested in 5-HT6R radioligand binding assays and ten were confirmed as actives. Four of them were known selective estrogen receptor modulators that were never reported as 5-HT6R ligands. Furthermore, nine of the confirmed actives were reported elsewhere to have memory-enhancing effects. The approaches discussed herein can be used broadly to identify novel drug-target-disease associations. PMID:22537153

  2. Tong Xie Yao Fang relieves irritable bowel syndrome in rats via mechanisms involving regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine and substance P

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yue; Zhong, Lei; Wang, Jian-Wei; Zhao, Xue-Ying; Zhao, Wen-Jing; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the Chinese medicine Tong Xie Yao Fang (TXYF) improves dysfunction in an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) rat model. METHODS: Thirty baby rats for IBS modeling were separated from mother rats (1 h per day) from days 8 to 21, and the rectum was expanded by angioplasty from days 8 to 12. Ten normal rats were used as normal controls. We examined the effects of TXYF on defection frequency, colonic transit function and smooth muscle contraction, and the expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and substance P (SP) in colonic and hypothalamus tissues by Western blot and RT-PCT techniques in both normal rats and IBS model rats with characterized visceral hypersensitivity. RESULTS: Defecation frequency was 1.8 ± 1.03 in normal rats and 4.5 ± 1.58 in IBS model rats (P < 0.001). However, the defecation frequency was significantly decreased (3.0 ± 1.25 vs 4.5 ± 1.58, P < 0.05), while the time (in seconds) of colon transit function was significantly increased (256.88 ± 20.32 vs 93.36 ± 17.28, P < 0.001) in IBS + TXYF group rats than in IBS group rats. Increased colonic smooth muscle tension and contract frequency in IBS model rats were significantly decreased by administration of TXYF. Exogenous agonist stimulants increased spontaneous activity and elicited contractions of colon smooth muscle in IBS model rats, and all of these actions were significantly reduced by TXYF involving 5-HT and SP down-regulation. CONCLUSION: TXYF can modulate the activity of the enteric nervous system and alter 5-HT and SP activities, which may contribute to the symptoms of IBS. PMID:25914462

  3. Changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine and cortisol plasma levels in menopausal women after inhalation of clary sage oil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Bok; Cho, Eun; Kang, Young-Sook

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the antidepressant-like effects of clary sage oil on human beings by comparing the neurotransmitter level change in plasma. The voluntary participants were 22 menopausal women in 50's. Subjects were classified into normal and depression tendency groups using each of Korean version of Beck Depression Inventory-I (KBDI-I), KBDI-II, and Korean version of Self-rating Depression Scale. Then, the changes in neurotransmitter concentrations were compared between two groups. After inhalation of clary sage oil, cortisol levels were significantly decreased while 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration was significantly increased. Thyroid stimulating hormone was also reduced in all groups but not statistically significantly. The different change rate of 5-HT concentration between normal and depression tendency groups was variable according to the depression measurement inventory. When using KBDI-I and KBDI-II, 5-HT increased by 341% and 828% for the normal group and 484% and 257% for the depression tendency group, respectively. The change rate of cortisol was greater in depression tendency groups compared with normal groups, and this difference was statistically significant when using KBDI-II (31% vs. 16% reduction) and Self-rating Depression Scale inventory (36% vs. 8.3% reduction). Among three inventories, only KBDI-II differentiated normal and depression tendency groups with significantly different cortisol level. Finally, clary sage oil has antidepressant-like effect, and KBDI-II inventory may be the most sensitive and valid tool in screening for depression status or severity. PMID:24802524

  4. Functional 5HT receptors in human occipital artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphaela Verheggen; Andreas Meier; Inga Werner; Andreas Wienekamp; Thomas Kruschat; Trond Brattelid; FinnOlav Levy; Alberto Kaumann

    2004-01-01

    5-HT receptors were studied in human occipital arteries, obtained from patients during neurosurgery. We detected mRNA for the following receptors (incidence): 5-HT 1B (14\\/18), 5-HT 1D (15\\/18), 5-HT 2A (16\\/18), 5-HT 2B (8\\/8), 5-HT 4(a) (13\\/18), 5-HT 4(b) (5\\/18), 5-HT 4(g) (7\\/18), 5-HT 4(i) (1\\/18), 5-HT 7(a\\/b) (10\\/18) and 5-HT 7(d) (12\\/18). 5-HT contracted and relaxed arterial rings at low

  5. Palonosetron versus first-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonists for emesis prophylaxis in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chou, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Yeh-Ku; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Chang, Kuang-Hsi; Hwang, Wen-Li; Teng, Chieh-Lin Jerry

    2014-07-01

    First-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists (RAs) are currently the standard of care for prophylaxis against allo-HSCT-induced emesis. However, the efficacy of this combination in allo-HSCT recipients is not entirely satisfying. We sought to compare the efficacy of first-generation 5-HT3 RAs with that of second-generation 5-HT3 RAs in emesis prevention in allo-HSCT recipients. A total of 51 consecutive patients undergoing allo-HSCT for various hematological diseases in our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who received daily first-generation 5-HT3 RAs, and 60-h palonosetron for emesis prophylaxis were stratified into the standard (n?=?23) and palonosetron (n?=?28) groups, respectively. Emesis severity and rescue therapy requirements in patients between these two groups were compared. Our results showed patients in standard and palonosetron groups had comparable severity of both acute and delayed emesis. However, 52.2 % of the patients in the standard group required rescue therapy, compared to only 21.4 % of the patients in the palonosetron group (p?=?0.046). Subgroup analysis showed rescue therapy for acute emesis was required by 26.1 % of the patients in the standard group and by only 3.6 % of the patients in the palonosetron group (p?=?0.037). In conclusion, palonosetron and first-generation 5-HT3 RAs were at least equally effective in emesis prophylaxis for allo-HSCT recipients. Patients receiving palonosetron, especially for acute emesis, required rescue therapy less frequently than those receiving first-generation 5-HT3 RAs. PMID:24604014

  6. Distribution of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 Receptors Along the Human Colon

    PubMed Central

    Yaakob, Nor S; Chinkwo, Kenneth A; Chetty, Navinisha; Coupar, Ian M; Irving, Helen R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Several disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are associated with abnormal serotonin (5-HT) signaling or metabolism where the 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors are clinically relevant. The aim was to examine the distribution of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors in the normal human colon and how this is associated with receptor interacting chaperone 3, G protein coupled receptor kinases, and protein LIN-7 homologs to extend previous observations limited to the sigmoid colon or the upper intestine. Methods Samples from ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid human colon were dissected into 3 separate layers (mucosa, longitudinal, and circular muscles) and ileum samples were dissected into mucosa and muscle layers (n = 20). Complementary DNA was synthesized by reverse transcription from extracted RNA and expression was determined by quantitative or end point polymerase chain reaction. Results The 5-HT3 receptor subunits were found in all tissues throughout the colon and ileum. The A subunit was detected in all samples and the C subunit was expressed at similar levels while the B subunit was expressed at lower levels and less frequently. The 5-HT3 receptor E subunit was mainly found in the mucosa layers. All splice variants of the 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptors were expressed throughout the colon although the 5-HT4 receptor d, g, and i variants were expressed less often. Conclusions The major differences in 5-HT receptor distribution within the human colon are in relation to the mucosa and muscular tissue layers where the 5-HT3 receptor E subunit is predominantly found in the mucosal layer which may be of therapeutic relevance. PMID:26130632

  7. Mutagenic analysis of the intracellular portals of the human 5-HT3A receptor.

    PubMed

    Carland, Jane E; Cooper, Michelle A; Livesey, Matthew R; Hales, Tim G; Peters, John A; Lambert, Jeremy J

    2013-11-01

    Structural models of Cys-loop receptors based on homology with the Torpedo marmorata nicotinic acetylcholine receptor infer the existence of cytoplasmic portals within the conduction pathway framed by helical amphipathic regions (termed membrane-associated (MA) helices) of adjacent intracellular M3-M4 loops. Consistent with these models, two arginine residues (Arg(436) and Arg(440)) within the MA helix of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3A (5-HT3A) receptors act singularly as rate-limiting determinants of single-channel conductance (?). However, there is little conservation in primary amino acid sequences across the cytoplasmic loops of Cys-loop receptors, limiting confidence in the fidelity of this particular aspect of the 5-HT3A receptor model. We probed the majority of residues within the MA helix of the human 5-HT3A subunit using alanine- and arginine-scanning mutagenesis and the substituted cysteine accessibility method to determine their relative influences upon ?. Numerous residues, prominently those at the 435, 436, 439, and 440 positions, were found to markedly influence ?. This approach yielded a functional map of the 5-HT3A receptor portals, which agrees well with the homology model. PMID:24030822

  8. 3D QSAR based design of novel oxindole derivative as 5HT7 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chitta, Aparna; Sivan, Sree Kanth; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2014-06-01

    To understand the structural requirements of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT7) receptor inhibitors and to design new ligands against 5HT7 receptor with enhanced inhibitory potency, a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study with comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) for a data set of 56 molecules consisting of oxindole, tetrahydronaphthalene, aryl ketone substituted arylpiperazinealkylamide derivatives was performed. Derived model showed good statistical reliability in terms of predicting 5HT7 inhibitory activity of the molecules, based on molecular property fields like steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor and hydrogen bond acceptor fields. This is evident from statistical parameters like conventional r2 and a cross validated (q2) values of 0.985, 0.743 for CoMFA and 0.970, 0.608 for CoMSIA, respectively. Predictive ability of the models to determine 5HT7 antagonistic activity is validated using a test set of 16 molecules that were not included in the training set. Predictive r2 obtained for the test set was 0.560 and 0.619 for CoMFA and CoMSIA, respectively. Steric, electrostatic fields majorly contributed toward activity which forms the basis for design of new molecules. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) calculation using QikProp 2.5 (Schrodinger 2010, Portland, OR) reveals that the molecules confer to Lipinski's rule of five in majority of the cases. PMID:24456291

  9. Dihydroergocristine-induced stimulation of the 5-HT autoreceptor in the hypothalamus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Moret, C; Briley, M

    1986-02-01

    In slices of the hypothalamus of the rat, prelabelled with [3H]5-hydroxytryptamine ([3H]5-HT), dihydroergocristine (DHEC) decreased in a concentration-dependent manner (0.01-1 microM) the release of [3H]transmitter elicited by stimulation. In the presence of phentolamine (1 microM), sulpiride (1 microM), atropine (1 microM) or methiothepin (0.1 microM), the effect of DHEC remained unchanged. However, methiothepin at 1 microM and citalopram at 1 microM antagonized the inhibition induced by DHEC. Methiothepin at 0.1 microM has been shown to be sufficient to shift to the right the concentration-effect curve of D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on the stimulation-evoked release of [3H]5-HT by a factor of 10. However, in the present experiments, 1 microM methiothepin was required to antagonize the effect of DHEC. Thus, the alpha adrenergic, dopaminergic and cholinergic activities of DHEC do not seem to be responsible for its effect on the release of 5-HT. The lower potency of methiothepin suggests, however, that stimulation of the 5-HT autoreceptor by DHEC may not fully explain the results. PMID:3010160

  10. Autoradiographic comparison of [125I]LSD-labeled 5-HT2A receptor distribution in rat and guinea pig brain.

    PubMed

    Watts, S W; Gackenheimer, S L; Gehlert, D R; Cohen, M L

    1994-06-01

    Although the density and distribution of 5-HT2A (5-hydroxytryptamine-2A) receptors is well established for rat brain, the 5-HT2A receptor distribution and density in guinea pig brain has not been extensively studied. In the present in vitro study, we have utilized 125I-lysergic acid diethylamide ([125I]LSD) to quantify and compare 5-HT2A receptor density in coronal sections of rat and guinea pig brain. Spiperone (1 microM) and sulpiride (1 microM) were used to displace [125I]LSD binding from 5-HT2A and D2 binding sites, respectively. Ligand binding was quantified by computer-aided image analysis densitometry (MCID). Similar to the rat, areas of highest specific 5-HT2A receptor binding (fmol/mg protein) in guinea pig brain included the claustrum and Layer 4 of the cerebral cortex. Significant binding was also found in remaining neocortical layers, islands of Calleja, caudate putamen, olfactory bulb, nucleus accumbens, and choroid plexus. While the rat brain exhibited a high level of specific binding in the tenia tecta and mammillary nuclei, little binding was observed in these regions in the guinea pig. In both rat and guinea pig, low specific binding was found in amygdaloid, thalamic, or cerebellar areas. These studies indicate a general similarity between 5-HT2A binding site distribution and relative density in guinea pig and rat brain but point to a few brain regions where significant differences exist. PMID:7981639

  11. Role of 5-HT3 Receptor on Food Intake in Fed and Fasted Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bingjin; Shao, Dongyuan; Luo, Yungang; Wang, Pu; Liu, Changhong; Zhang, Xingyi; Cui, Ranji

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. However, the relative contribution of 5-HT3 receptor remains unclear. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of 5-HT3 receptor in control of feeding behavior in fed and fasted mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Food intake and expression of c-Fos, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and 5-HT in the brain were examined after acute treatment with 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR-57227 alone or in combination with 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron. Food intake was significantly inhibited within 3 h after acute treatment with SR 57227 in fasted mice but not fed mice, and this inhibition was blocked by ondansetron. Immunohistochemical study revealed that fasting-induced c-Fos expression was further enhanced by SR 57227 in the brainstem and the hypothalamus, and this enhancement was also blocked by ondansetron. Furthermore, the fasting-induced downregulation of POMC expression in the hypothalamus and the TH expression in the brain stem was blocked by SR 57227 in the fasted mice, and this effect of SR 57227 was also antagonized by ondansetron. Conclusion/Significance Taken together, our findings suggest that the effect of SR 57227 on the control of feeding behavior in fasted mice may be, at least partially, related to the c-Fos expression in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as POMC system in the hypothalamus and the TH system in the brain stem. PMID:25789930

  12. Effects of 5HT1B\\/1D receptor agonist rizatriptan on cerebral blood flow and blood volume in normal circulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidehiko Okazawa; Tatsuro Tsuchida; Marco Pagani; Tetsuya Mori; Masato Kobayashi; Fumiko Tanaka; Yoshiharu Yonekura

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the vasoconstrictor effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1B\\/1D) receptor agonists for migraine treatment, changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood volume induced by rizatriptan were assessed by positron emission tomography (PET). Eleven healthy volunteers underwent PET studies before and after rizatriptan administration. Dynamic PET data were acquired after bolus injection of H215O to analyze CBF and arterial-to-capillary blood volume

  13. Secondary mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia depend on descending facilitation mediated by spinal 5-HT?, 5-HT? and 5-HT? receptors.

    PubMed

    Godínez-Chaparro, B; López-Santillán, F J; Orduña, P; Granados-Soto, V

    2012-10-11

    In the present study we determined the role of spinal 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT) and 5-HT(4/6/7) receptors in the long-term secondary mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia induced by formalin in the rat. Formalin produced acute nociceptive behaviors (flinching and licking/lifting) followed by long-term secondary mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia in both paws. In addition, formalin increased the tissue content of 5-HT in the ipsilateral, but not contralateral, dorsal part of the spinal cord compared to control animals. Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of 5,7-dihydroxytriptamine (5,7-DHT), a serotonergic neurotoxin, diminished tissue 5-HT content in the ipsilateral and contralateral dorsal parts of the spinal cord. Accordingly, i.t. 5,7-DHT prevented formalin-induced secondary allodynia and hyperalgesia in both paws. I.t. pre-treatment (-10 min) with ML-10302 (5-HT(4) agonist), EMD-386088 (5-HT(6) agonist) and LP-12 (5-HT(7) agonist) significantly increased secondary mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia in both paws. In contrast, i.t. pre-treatment (-20 min) with GR-125487 (5-HT(4) antagonist), SB-258585 (5-HT(6) antagonist) and SB-269970 (5-HT(7) antagonist) significantly prevented formalin-induced long-term effects in both paws. In addition, these antagonists prevented the pro-nociceptive effect of ML-10302, EMD-386088 and LP-12, respectively. The i.t. post-treatment (6 days after formalin injection) with GR-125487, SB-258585 and SB-269970 reversed formalin-induced secondary allodynia and hyperalgesia in both paws. These results suggest that spinal 5-HT, released from the serotonergic projections in response to formalin injection, activates pre- or post-synaptic 5-HT(4/6/7) receptors at the dorsal root ganglion/spinal cord promoting the development and maintenance of secondary allodynia and hyperalgesia. PMID:22796074

  14. Drug-induced defaecation in rats: role of central 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Croci, T.; Landi, M.; Bianchetti, A.; Manara, L.

    1995-01-01

    1. We investigated the acute effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and of the 5-HT1A receptor agonists, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), buspirone and SR 57746A, on rat faecal pellet output and water content. 2. 5-HT, 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone and SR 57746A, a new selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist, displaced [3H]-8-OH-DPAT from specific binding sites in rat hippocampus membranes (Ki, nM; 1.8, 1.2, 15, 3.1 respectively) and stimulated rat defaecation dose-dependently. SR 57746A and buspirone induced 1 g dry weight of faeces at 1.3 and 6.1 mg kg-1, p.o. (AD1) respectively. 8-OH-DPAT and 5-HT stimulated defaecation after s.c. injection (AD1, 0.07 and 7.5 mg kg-1, respectively). All these agents increased faecal water content. 3. The putative 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, pindolol, injected s.c. or i.c.v., significantly reduced the defaecation induced by systemically administered 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone or SR 57746A, but not 5-HT. 4. Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine (i.p.) or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (i.c.v.), according to protocols designed to cause either generalized or CNS-limited 5-HT depletion respectively, also reduced the defaecation induced by buspirone or SR 57746A. 5. No specific 5-HT1A binding sites could be labelled by incubating rat colon membranes with [3H]-8-OH-DPAT, and in vitro preparations of rat colon segments showed no response to 8-OH-DPAT or SR 57746A up to 5 microM. 6. After eight days' repeated daily treatment, complete tolerance developed to the stimulant effects of SR 57746A and buspirone on faecal water content, but not on faecal pellet output.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7647978

  15. Discriminating between 5-HT3A and 5-HT3AB receptors

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, AJ; Lummis, SCR

    2013-01-01

    The 5-HT3B subunit was first cloned in 1999, and co-expression with the 5-HT3A subunit results in heteromeric 5-HT3AB receptors that are functionally distinct from homomeric 5-HT3A receptors. The affinities of competitive ligands at the two receptor subtypes are usually similar, but those of non-competitive antagonists that bind in the pore often differ. A competitive ligand and allosteric modulator that distinguishes 5-HT3A from 5-HT3AB receptors has recently been described, and the number of non-competitive antagonists identified with this ability has increased in recent years. In this review, we discuss the differences between 5-HT3A and 5-HT3AB receptors and describe the possible sites of action of compounds that can distinguish between them. PMID:23489111

  16. Spinal 5-HT3AR contributes to BmK I-induced inflammatory pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jin; Jiao, Yun-Lu; Li, Zheng-Wei; Ji, Yong-Hua

    2015-06-25

    Subcutaneous injection of BmK I could be adopted to well establish a novel pain model. Moreover, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) receptor is involved in regulating animal pain-related behaviors. However, the underlying mechanism of 5-HT3R on BmK I-induced pain remains unclear. Animal behavioral testing, RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to yield the following results: first, intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of BmK I (10 ?g) induced elevated mRNA and protein levels of 5-HT3AR in bilateral L4-L5 spinal cord; Second, intrathecal (i.t.) injection of ondansetron (a specific antagonist of 5-HT3AR) reduced spontaneous pain responses, attenuated unilateral thermal and bilateral mechanical hypersensitivity elicited by BmK I; Microglia could be activated by BmK I (i.pl.) in both sides of L4-L5 spinal cord, and this effect was reversed by intrathecal pre-treatment with 5-HT3AR antagonist. Meanwhile, the 5-HT3AR in L4-L5 spinal cord was almost co-localized with NeuN (a marker of nerve cell), but not co-expressed with Iba-1 (a marker of microglia). Finally, the expression level of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 was reduced by intrathecal pre-treatment with ondansetron. Our results indicate that both 5-HT3AR signaling pathway and microglia are activated in the process of induction and maintenance of BmK I-induced pain nociception. Meanwhile, our results suggest that the neuronal 5-HT3AR may communicate with microglia indirectly via CX3CL1 which is involved in regulating the BmK I-induced hyperalgesia and sensitization. PMID:26109301

  17. Inhibitory action of niflumic acid on noradrenaline- and 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced pressor responses in the isolated mesenteric vascular bed of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Criddle, D N; Soares de Moura, R; Greenwood, I A; Large, W A

    1997-01-01

    The effects of niflumic acid, an inhibitor of calcium-activated chloride currents, were compared with the actions of the calcium channel blocker nifedipine on noradrenaline- and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced pressor responses of the rat perfused isolated mesenteric vascular bed.Bolus injections of noradrenaline (1 and 10?nmol) increased the perfusion pressure in a dose-dependent manner. Nifedipine (1??M) inhibited the increase in pressure produced by 1?nmol noradrenaline by 31±5%. Niflumic acid (10 and 30??M) also inhibited the noradrenaline-induced increase in perfusion pressure and 30??M niflumic acid reduced the pressor response to 1?nmol noradrenaline by 34±6%.The increases in perfusion elicited by 5-HT (0.3 and 3?nmol) were reduced by niflumic acid (10 and 30??M) in a concentration-dependent manner and 30??M niflumic acid inhibited responses to 0.3 and 3?nmol 5-HT by, respectively, 49±8% and 50±7%. Nifedipine (1??M) decreased the pressor response to 3?nmol 5-HT by 44±9%.In the presence of a combination of 30??M niflumic acid and 1??M nifedipine the inhibition of the pressor effects of noradrenaline (10?nmol) and 5-HT (3?nmol) was not significantly greater than with niflumic acid (30??M) alone. Thus the effects of niflumic acid and nifedipine were not additive.In Ca-free conditions the transient contractions induced by 5-HT (3?nmol) were not reduced by 30??M niflumic acid, suggesting that this agent does not inhibit calcium release from the intracellular store or the binding of 5-HT to its receptor.Niflumic acid 30??M did not inhibit the pressor responses induced by KCl (20 and 60??mol) which were markedly reduced by 1??M nifedipine. In addition, 1??M levcromakalim decreased pressor responses produced by 20??mol KCl. These data suggest that niflumic acid does not block directly calcium channels or activate potassium channels.It is concluded that niflumic acid selectively reduces a component of noradrenaline- and 5-HT-induced pressor responses by inhibiting a mechanism which leads to the opening of voltage-gated calcium channels. Our data suggest that the Ca2+-activated chloride conductance may play a pivotal role in the activation of voltage-gated calcium channels in agonist-induced constriction of resistance blood vessels. PMID:9138686

  18. Brain 5-HT deficiency increases stress vulnerability and impairs antidepressant responses following psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Benjamin D; Ni, Jason R; Caron, Marc G

    2015-02-24

    Brain serotonin (5-HT) deficiency and exposure to psychosocial stress have both been implicated in the etiology of depression and anxiety disorders, but whether 5-HT deficiency influences susceptibility to depression- and anxiety-like phenotypes induced by psychosocial stress has not been formally established. Most clinically effective antidepressants increase the extracellular levels of 5-HT, and thus it has been hypothesized that antidepressant responses result from the reversal of endogenous 5-HT deficiency, but this hypothesis remains highly controversial. Here we evaluated the impact of brain 5-HT deficiency on stress susceptibility and antidepressant-like responses using tryptophan hydroxylase 2 knockin (Tph2KI) mice, which display 60-80% reductions in brain 5-HT. Our results demonstrate that 5-HT deficiency leads to increased susceptibility to social defeat stress (SDS), a model of psychosocial stress, and prevents the fluoxetine (FLX)-induced reversal of SDS-induced social avoidance, suggesting that 5-HT deficiency may impair antidepressant responses. In light of recent clinical and preclinical studies highlighting the potential of inhibiting the lateral habenula (LHb) to achieve antidepressant and antidepressant-like responses, we also examined whether LHb inhibition could achieve antidepressant-like responses in FLX-insensitive Tph2KI mice subjected to SDS. Our data reveal that using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to inhibit LHb activity leads to reduced SDS-induced social avoidance behavior in both WT and Tph2KI mice. This observation provides additional preclinical evidence that inhibiting the LHb might represent a promising alternative therapeutic approach under conditions in which selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors are ineffective. PMID:25675490

  19. Postnatal Day 2 to 11 Constitutes a 5-HT-Sensitive Period Impacting Adult mPFC Function

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Tahilia J.; Yu, Qinghui; Goodfellow, Nathalie M.; Caffrey Cagliostro, Martha K.; Teissier, Anne; Morelli, Emanuela; Demireva, Elena Y.; Chemiakine, Alexei; Rosoklija, Gorazd B.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Lambe, Evelyn K.; Ansorge, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Early-life serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] signaling modulates brain development, which impacts adult behavior, but 5-HT-sensitive periods, neural substrates, and behavioral consequences remain poorly understood. Here we identify the period ranging from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P11 as 5-HT sensitive, with 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade increasing anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and impairing fear extinction learning and memory in adult mice. Concomitantly, P2–P11 5-HTT blockade causes dendritic hypotrophy and reduced excitability of infralimbic (IL) cortex pyramidal neurons that normally promote fear extinction. By contrast, the neighboring prelimbic (PL) pyramidal neurons, which normally inhibit fear extinction, become more excitable. Excitotoxic IL but not PL lesions in adult control mice reproduce the anxiety-related phenotypes. These findings suggest that increased 5-HT signaling during P2–P11 alters adult mPFC function to increase anxiety and impair fear extinction, and imply a differential role for IL and PL neurons in regulating affective behaviors. Together, our results support a developmental mechanism for the etiology and pathophysiology of affective disorders and fear-related behaviors. PMID:25209278

  20. The neuropeptide galanin as an in vivo modulator of brain 5-HT1A receptors: possible relevance for affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Ogren, Sven Ove; Razani, Haleh; Elvander-Tottie, Elin; Kehr, Jan

    2007-09-10

    The neuropeptide galanin is widely distributed throughout the central nervous system with multiple and diverse biological functions mediated by different receptor subtypes. In the rat, galanin-like immunoreactivity is expressed in a population of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) neurons in the dorsal raphe with extensive projections to the forebrain areas, e.g., hippocampus. This review summarizes results from experimental studies in rodents showing that in vivo galanin is a potent modulator of brain 5-HT transmission, and in particular 5-HT1A receptor-mediated functions. Galanin, given intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.), was demonstrated to have strong inhibitory interactions with 5-HT1A receptor functions, particularly in the dorsal raphe but also in the hippocampus. Since pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in the dorsal raphe and hippocampus are implicated in the action of antidepressant drugs and in depressive disorders, it is suggested that galanin receptors may be an important target for development of novel antidepressant drugs. This view is supported by a recent study in the rat showing that the galanin antagonist M35, given i.c.v., could block the depression-like behavior in the forced swim test induced by galanin, while M35 produced an antidepressant-like effect on its own. PMID:17585970

  1. Postnatal day 2 to 11 constitutes a 5-HT-sensitive period impacting adult mPFC function.

    PubMed

    Rebello, Tahilia J; Yu, Qinghui; Goodfellow, Nathalie M; Caffrey Cagliostro, Martha K; Teissier, Anne; Morelli, Emanuela; Demireva, Elena Y; Chemiakine, Alexei; Rosoklija, Gorazd B; Dwork, Andrew J; Lambe, Evelyn K; Gingrich, Jay A; Ansorge, Mark S

    2014-09-10

    Early-life serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] signaling modulates brain development, which impacts adult behavior, but 5-HT-sensitive periods, neural substrates, and behavioral consequences remain poorly understood. Here we identify the period ranging from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P11 as 5-HT sensitive, with 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade increasing anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and impairing fear extinction learning and memory in adult mice. Concomitantly, P2-P11 5-HTT blockade causes dendritic hypotrophy and reduced excitability of infralimbic (IL) cortex pyramidal neurons that normally promote fear extinction. By contrast, the neighboring prelimbic (PL) pyramidal neurons, which normally inhibit fear extinction, become more excitable. Excitotoxic IL but not PL lesions in adult control mice reproduce the anxiety-related phenotypes. These findings suggest that increased 5-HT signaling during P2-P11 alters adult mPFC function to increase anxiety and impair fear extinction, and imply a differential role for IL and PL neurons in regulating affective behaviors. Together, our results support a developmental mechanism for the etiology and pathophysiology of affective disorders and fear-related behaviors. PMID:25209278

  2. Molecular regulation of sexual preference revealed by genetic studies of 5-HT in the brains of male mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Jiang, Yun'ai; Si, Yunxia; Kim, Ji-Young; Chen, Zhou-Feng; Rao, Yi

    2011-04-01

    Although the question of to whom a male directs his mating attempts is a critical one in social interactions, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling mammalian sexual preference. Here we report that the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is required for male sexual preference. Wild-type male mice preferred females over males, but males lacking central serotonergic neurons lost sexual preference although they were not generally defective in olfaction or in pheromone sensing. A role for 5-HT was demonstrated by the phenotype of mice lacking tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2), which is required for the first step of 5-HT synthesis in the brain. Thirty-five minutes after the injection of the intermediate 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), which circumvented Tph2 to restore 5-HT to the wild-type level, adult Tph2 knockout mice also preferred females over males. These results indicate that 5-HT and serotonergic neurons in the adult brain regulate mammalian sexual preference. PMID:21441904

  3. Participation of cyclooxygenase pathway in the vasoconstriction induced by 5-HT in the in situ autoperfused kidney of long-term diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Beatriz; García, Mónica; Rodríguez-Barbero, Alicia; Román, Luis San; Martin, María Luisa; Morán, Asunción

    2011-05-20

    We attempted to characterize the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor type/subtype and mediator mechanisms involved in the contractile effects of 5-HT in the in situ autoperfused kidney of long-term diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single subcutaneous injection of alloxan. Intra-arterial (i.a.) bolus injection of 5-HT (0.00000125 to 0.1?g/kg) increased renal perfusion pressure in a dose dependent way but did not affect the systemic blood pressure in long-term diabetic rats. The selective 5-HT2 receptor agonist, ?-methyl-5-HT, caused a local vasoconstrictor effect in the in situ autoperfused rat kidney similar to 5-HT. However, BW723C86, a selective 5-HT2B receptor agonist, m-CPP (1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine), a selective 5-HT2B/2C receptor agonist, the 5-HT1 receptor agonist, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), and the selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist, 1-phenylbiguanide did not modify the renal perfusion pressure. In long-term diabetic rats, vasoconstriction elicited by 5-HT and ?-methyl-5-HT was significantly decreased by ritanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist), spiperone (a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist), and the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, indomethacin (non-selective COX inhibitor), FR 122047 or nimesulide (selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors, respectively), but was not modified by pretreatment with SB 206553 (3,5-dihydro-5-methyl-N-3-pyridinylbenzo[1,2.b:4,5-b']dipyrrole(1H)-carboxamide hydrochloride), a non-selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, prazosin, propranolol, enalapril or losartan. The results of protein expression support these results: COX-1 and COX-2 are expressed in renal tissue. Inducible COX (COX-2) is overexpressed in long-term diabetes. Our data suggest that, in the in-situ autoperfused kidney of long-term diabetic rats, 5-HT vasoconstrictor action is mediated, through cyclooxygenase pathway, by local activation of 5-HT2A receptors. PMID:21414306

  4. Synergistic effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 and neurokinin 1 receptor antagonism in rodent models of somatic and visceral pain.

    PubMed

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Mohammadi, Ehsan; Tyler, Karl; Pietra, Claudio; Bee, Lucy A; Dickenson, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    Synergistic activity has been observed between serotonergic 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) and tachykinergic neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor-mediated responses. This study investigated the efficacy of a 5-HT3 antagonist, palonosetron, and a NK1 antagonist, netupitant, alone or in combination in rodent models of somatic and visceral colonic hypersensitivity. In a rat model of experimental neuropathic pain, somatic hypersensitivity was quantified by the number of ipsilateral paw withdrawals to a von Frey filament (6g). Electrophysiologic responses were recorded in the dorsal horn neurons after mechanical or thermal stimuli. Acute colonic hypersensitivity was induced experimentally in rats by infusing dilute acetic acid (0.6%) directly into the colon. Colonic sensitivity was assessed by a visceromotor behavioral response quantified as the number of abdominal contractions in response to graded isobaric pressures (0-60 mm Hg) of colorectal distension. Palonosetron or netupitant was administered alone or in combination via oral gavage. When dosed alone, both significantly reduced somatic sensitivity, decreased the evoked response of spinal dorsal horn neurons to mechanical or thermal stimulation, and caused significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of colonic hypersensitivity in a dose-dependent manner. The combined administration of palonosetron and netupitant at doses that were ineffective alone significantly reduced both somatic and visceral sensitivity and decreased the evoked response of spinal dorsal horn neurons to mechanical or thermal stimulation. In summary, the combination of palonosetron with a NK1 receptor antagonist showed synergistic analgesic activity in rodent models of somatic and visceral hypersensitivity, and may prove to be a useful therapeutic approach to treat pain associated with irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:25077526

  5. Induction of hypothermia as a model of 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptor-mediated activity in the rat: a pharmacological characterization of the actions of novel agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Millan, M J; Rivet, J M; Canton, H; Le Marouille-Girardon, S; Gobert, A

    1993-03-01

    In this study, we examined the localization of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptors mediating hypothermia in the rat, evaluated the pharmacological specificity of this response and examined the influence of a series of novel 5-HT1A receptor ligands upon core temperature. Administered s.c., 8-hydroxy-(2-di-n-propylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT), an agonist at both pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, elicited pronounced hypothermia. In contrast, BMY 7378, which shows low efficacy at postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors but high efficacy at presynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, elicited only mild hypothermia. Similarly, 8-OH-DPAT was more efficacious than BMY 7378 in eliciting corticosterone secretion, a response mediated by postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, whereas BMY 7378 was as efficacious as 8-OH-DPAT in inhibiting striatal accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptophan, a response mediated by presynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. These data suggest, by analogy, that postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors mediate hypothermia, an interpretation supported by the observation that destruction of central 5-HT neurons with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine failed to reduce 8-OH-DPAT-induced hypothermia (DIH). Agonists at 5-HT1B, 5-HT1C, 5-HT2 and/or 5-HT3 receptors did not elicit hypothermia, and drugs releasing 5-HT elicited hyperthermia. In contrast, DIH was fully mimicked by the novel 5-HT1A receptors agonists, eltoprazine, WY 48,723, MDL 72832, tandospirone, S 14671, S 14506 and WY 50,324, whereas the novel partial agonist, zalospirone, was less efficacious. DIH was blocked by (-)-alprenolol, (+/-)-pindolol and the novel beta-blocker, (-)-tertatolol, which also has high affinity for 5-HT1A receptors; in distinction, betaxolol and ICI 118,551, antagonists at beta-1 and beta-2 adrenoceptors, respectively, were inactive. Spiperone, NAN-190 and BMY 7378 also inhibited DIH whereas ritanserin, SCH 39166, raclopride and prazosin, antagonists at 5-HT2 receptors, D1 and D2 dopamine receptors and alpha-1 adrenoceptors, respectively, were inactive. The novel 5-HT1A antagonists, WAY 100,135, MDL 73005 EF and (very potently) SDZ 216-525 all blocked DIH. Potency for induction of hypothermia and inhibition of DIH correlated well with affinity for 5-HT1A binding sites. In conclusion, hypothermia is a highly specific and sensitive response to activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. Furthermore, DIH is inhibited by their selective blockade. At postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors mediating hypothermia, eltoprazine, WY 48,723, MDL 72832 and tandospirone are agonists, zalospirone is a partial agonist and (-)-tertatolol, WAY 100,135, MDL 73005 EF and SDZ 216-525 are antagonists. PMID:8450471

  6. Serotonin potentiates high-glucose-induced endothelial injury: the role of serotonin and 5-HT(2A) receptors in promoting thrombosis in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kumi; Niki, Hisae; Nagai, Hitoshi; Nishikawa, Masakuni; Nakagawa, Haruto

    2012-01-01

    To clarify the involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in promotion of thrombogenesis in diabetes, we examined the inhibitory effect of sarpogrelate, a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist, on thrombus formation in diabetic rats. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, polyethylene tube-induced thrombus formation was enhanced compared with that in normal rats. The thrombogenesis was inhibited by sarpogrelate; cilostazol, a PDE3 inhibitor; and aspirin, a COX inhibitor, by 75.8%, 42.3%, and 34.3%, respectively. The inhibition by sarpogrelate was more pronounced in diabetic rats than normal ones. High glucose and 5-HT increased the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and combination of both high glucose and 5-HT further potentiated the effect. Sarpogrelate but not aspirin inhibited the increase in VCAM-1 expression induced by high glucose and 5-HT. These findings suggest that 5-HT mediates the enhanced thrombogenesis in diabetes and suggests that a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist may have novel therapeutic potential for the treatment of diabetic complications. PMID:22785018

  7. 5-HT6 receptors and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    During the past 20 years, the 5-HT6 receptor has received increasing attention and become a promising target for improving cognition. Several studies with structurally different compounds have shown that not only antagonists but also 5-HT6 receptor agonists improve learning and memory in animal models. A large number of publications describing the development of ligands for this receptor have come to light, and it is now quite evident that 5-HT6 receptors have great pharmaceutical potential in terms of related patents. However, 5-HT6 receptor functionality is much more complex than initially defined. According to the existing data, different cellular pathways may be activated, depending on the drug being used. This article reviews preclinical and clinical evidence of the effects that 5-HT6 receptor compounds have on cognition. In addition, the biochemical and neurochemical mechanisms of action through which 5-HT6 receptor compounds can influence cognition will be described. Overall, several 5-HT6-targeted compounds can reasonably be regarded as powerful drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23607787

  8. Inhibition of 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis and Ca2+ mobilization in canine cultured tracheal smooth muscle cells by phorbol ester.

    PubMed

    Yang, C M; Fen, L W; Tsao, H L; Chiu, C T

    1997-07-01

    1. Regulation of the increase in inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) production and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i by protein kinase C (PKC) was investigated in canine cultured tracheal smooth muscle cells (TSMCs). Stimulation of TSMCs by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) caused an initial transient [Ca2+]i peak followed by a sustained elevation of [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner. 2. Pretreatment of TSMCs with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 1 microM) for 30 min blocked the 5-HT-induced IP3 formation and Ca2+ mobilization. This inhibition was reduced after the cells had been incubated with PMA for 8 h, and within 48 h the 5-HT-induced Ca2+ mobilization reached the same extent as control cells. 3. The concentration of PMA that gave half-maximal inhibition of 5-HT-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was 4 nM. Pretreatment of TSMCs with staurosporine (1 microM) of GF109203X (0.1 microM), PKC inhibitors, inhibited the ability of PMA to attenuate 5-HT-induced responses, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of PMA was mediated through the activation of PKC. 4. In parallel with the effect of PMA on 5-HT-induced IP3 formation and Ca2+ mobilization, the translocation and down-regulation of PKC isozymes were determined by Western blot analysis in TSMCs. Analysis of cell extracts by Western blotting with antibodies against different PKC isozymes revealed that TSMCs expressed PKC-alpha, beta I, beta II, delta, epsilon, theta and zeta. With PMA treatment of the cells for various times, translocation of PKC-alpha, beta I, beta II, delta, epsilon, and theta from the cytosol to the membrane was seen after 5 min, 30 min, 2 h, and 4 h treatment. However, 24 h treatment caused a partial down-regulation of these PKC isozymes PKC-zeta was not significantly translocated and down-regulated at any of the times tested. 5. In conclusion, these results suggest that activation of PKC may inhibit the receptor-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and consequently attenuate the [Ca2+]i increase or inhibit both responses independently. The translocation of PKC-alpha, beta I, beta II, delta, epsilon, and theta induced by PMA caused an attenuation of 5-HT-stimulated IP3 accumulation and Ca2+ mobilization in TSMCs. PMID:9222540

  9. Short communication: Circulating serotonin (5-HT) concentrations on day 1 of lactation as a potential predictor of transition-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Laporta, J; Moore, S A E; Peters, M W; Peters, T L; Hernandez, L L

    2013-08-01

    The monoamine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) has been described as a homeostatic regulator of lactation. Recently, our laboratory determined that 5-HT is involved in the regulation of calcium and glucose homeostasis during the transition period in rodents. More specifically, we demonstrate that 5-HT is responsible for calcium mobilization from bone and upregulation of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes and mammary gland glucose transporters. Our objective was to investigate the correlation between circulating 5-HT concentrations and circulating ionized calcium, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), and glucose concentrations on d 1 postpartum. We also investigated the correlation between circulating 5-HT and milk fever and ketosis incidence and severity in multiparous Holstein cows at the onset of lactation. Blood samples were collected from 42 multiparous cows on d 1 of lactation and analyzed for 5-HT, calcium, glucose, and PTHrP. Milk fever (determined subjectively for each cow on d 1 postpartum) and ketosis incidence and severity (scale 1 to 4, determined objectively for each cow during the first 10 d postpartum) were recorded for all animals. Serum 5-HT was positively correlated with serum calcium and with plasma PTHrP (r>0.37). Serum 5-HT was negatively correlated with milk fever incidence and with ketosis severity (most severe ketosis incidence recorded during the first 10 d postpartum; r<-0.33). Serum calcium and plasma glucose concentrations were negatively correlated with milk fever and ketosis severity, respectively (r<-0.39). These data indicate that 5-HT potentially plays a role in the regulation of calcium and glucose homeostasis during the transition period in cattle, which we previously demonstrated in rodents. Increased circulating concentrations of 5-HT might decrease milk fever at the onset of lactation and ketosis severity during the first 10 d postpartum in dairy cows. Understanding this physiological axis could help describe the underlying mechanisms associated with these periparturient metabolic disorders in dairy cows. PMID:23746592

  10. 5-HT(6) receptor and cognition.

    PubMed

    Codony, Xabier; Vela, Jose Miguel; Ramírez, Maria Javier

    2011-02-01

    Since its discovery in 1993 and subsequent development of selective antagonists, a growing number of studies support the use of serotonin 5-HT(6) receptor antagonism as a promising mechanism for treating cognitive dysfunction. Lately, several studies with structurally different compounds have shown that not only antagonists, but also 5-HT(6) receptor agonists improve learning and memory in animal models. There is even an antagonist, SB-742457, that has completed phase II trials for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In addition to describe preclinical and clinical evidence of the effect of 5-HT(6) receptor compounds on cognition, this article will also focus on the purported biochemical and neurochemical mechanisms of action by which 5-HT(6) receptor compounds could influence cognition in health and disease. PMID:21330210

  11. Up-regulation of circulating hemocyte population in response to bacterial challenge is mediated by octopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine via Rac1 signal in Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geun Seob; Kim, Yonggyun

    2010-06-01

    Bacterial challenge induced a significant increase in the total hemocyte population within 4h in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. Octopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) are known to play critical roles in mediating insect immune responses. This study analyzed the effects of both biogenic monoamines on mediating up-regulation of circulating hemocyte population in response to bacterial challenge. Injection of either octopamine or 5-HT induced a significant increase in the total hemocyte count in the hemolymph without any bacterial challenge. On the other hand, the monoamine antagonists, phentolamine (an octopamine antagonist) and ketanserin (a 5-HT antagonist) each suppressed the increase of the circulating hemocyte counts in response to bacterial challenge. This rapid change of circulating hemocyte population did not appear to be the result of de novo hemocyte production from the hematopoietic organ because a physical block ("ligation") of hemolymph circulation between thorax and abdomen did not inhibit the increase of hemocyte counts in the isolated abdomen in response to bacterial challenge. The effects of the two monoamines on hemocyte numbers were not dependent on the mediatory effects of eicosanoids, because dexamethasone, an eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitor, had no effect on the hemocyte recruitment induced by the monoamines. On the other hand, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, NKY80, significantly impaired hemocyte mobilization in response to bacterial challenge, implying involvement of cyclic AMP in the control of hemocyte numbers. Also, a Rac1 inhibitor, NSC23766, significantly antagonized the effects of monoamines in increasing circulating hemocyte numbers. Rac1 activity was necessary to form F-actins in the hemocytes of S. exigua, where its activity showed a quantitative correlation with hemocyte-spreading behavior. This study suggests that octopamine and 5-HT mediate a rapid increase of circulating hemocyte population in response to bacterial challenge via Rac1 signal in S. exigua. PMID:19961854

  12. The impact of 5-hydroxytryptamine-receptor antagonists on chemotherapy treatment adherence, treatment delay, and nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Palli, Swetha Rao; Grabner, Michael; Quimbo, Ralph A; Rugo, Hope S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the incidence of chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting (CINV) and chemotherapy treatment delay and adherence among patients receiving palonosetron versus other 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist (5-HT3 RA) antiemetics. Materials and methods This retrospective claims analysis included adults with primary malignancies who initiated treatment consisting of single-day intravenous highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) or moderately EC (MEC) regimens. Treatment delay was defined as a gap in treatment at least twice the National Comprehensive Cancer Network-specified cycle length, specific to each chemotherapy regimen. Treatment adherence was determined by the percentage of patients who received the regimen-specific recommended number of chemotherapy cycles within the recommended time frame. Results We identified 1,832 palonosetron and 2,387 other 5-HT3 RA (“other”) patients who initiated HEC therapy, and 1,350 palonosetron users and 1,379 patients on other antiemetics who initiated MEC therapy. Fewer patients receiving palonosetron experienced CINV versus other (HEC, 27.5% versus 32.2%, P=0.0011; MEC, 36.1% versus 41.7%, P=0.0026), and fewer treatment delays occurred among patients receiving palonosetron versus other (HEC, 3.2% versus 6.0%, P<0.0001; MEC, 17.0% versus 26.8%, P<0.0001). Compared with the other cohort, patients receiving palonosetron were significantly more adherent to the index chemotherapy regimen with respect to the recommended time frame (HEC, 74.7% versus 69.7%, P=0.0004; MEC, 43.1% versus 37.3%, P=0.0019) and dosage (HEC, 27.3% versus 25.8%, P=0.0004; MEC, 15.0% versus 12.6%, P=0.0019). Conclusion Palonosetron more effectively reduced occurrence of CINV in patients receiving HEC or MEC compared with other agents in this real-world setting. Additionally, patients receiving palonosetron had better adherence and fewer treatment delays than patients receiving other 5-HT3 RAs.

  13. Prevention by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, of morphine-dependence and tolerance in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Hui, S. C.; Sevilla, E. L.; Ogle, C. W.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effect of ondansetron, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, was studied in morphine-addicted rats. Morphine-dependence and tolerance, induced by drinking increasing concentrations of morphine sulphate in 5% sucrose solution for 3 weeks, were demonstrated by the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome and tail flick response to a thermal noxious stimulus (water at 50 degrees C), respectively. 2. Morphine-dependence, assessed by naloxone precipitated withdrawal, was undetectable by the 6th day, when the animals drank only tap water for 7 days after the 3-week induction period. 3. When detoxified rats were offered sucrose and morphine solutions for 10 days, the recurrence of opiate solution preference with relapse to dependence and tolerance was observed. 4. Giving ondansetron (0.1 or 1 microgram kg-1; i.p.; twice daily) on the 14th day of, or 7 days prior to, the 3-week induction period reduced dependence and tolerance seen during the 3-week morphine induction and the 10-day drinking preference periods. 5. 5-Hydroxytryptamine2 (5-HT2) receptor antagonism by cyproheptadine (100 or 250 micrograms kg-1; i.p.; twice daily) did not influence morphine-dependence and tolerance. 6. These findings suggest that ondansetron may be useful for treating opiate addiction and lowering the recidivism rate. PMID:8799580

  14. Synergistic effect of 5-HT1A and ?1 receptor activation on prefrontal dopaminergic transmission under circulating steroid deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Naoki; Ago, Yukio; Hasebe, Shigeru; Nishimura, Akira; Mori, Kazuya; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2013-12-01

    Serotonin (5-HT)1A and ?1 receptors have been implicated in psychiatric disorders. We previously found that combined 5-HT reuptake inhibition and ?1 receptor activation has a synergistic effect on prefrontal dopaminergic transmission in adrenalectomized/castrated mice lacking circulating steroid hormones. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying this neurochemical synergism. Systemic administration of fluvoxamine, a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor with agonistic activity towards the ?1 receptor, increased prefrontal dopamine (DA) levels, and adrenalectomy/castration potentiated this fluvoxamine-induced increase in DA. This enhancement of DA release was blocked by WAY100635 (a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist), but not by ritanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist), azasetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist) or SB269970 (a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist). Individually, osemozotan (a 5-HT1A receptor agonist) and (+)-SKF-10,047 (a ?1 receptor agonist) did not alter prefrontal monoamine levels in adrenalectomized/castrated and sham-operated mice differentially. In contrast, co-administration of these drugs increased prefrontal DA levels to a greater extent in adrenalectomized/castrated mice than in sham-operated animals. Furthermore, co-administration of osemozotan and (+)-SKF-10,047 increased expression of the neuronal activity marker c-Fos in the ventral tegmental area of adrenalectomized/castrated mice, but not in sham-operated animals. These findings suggest that combined activation of 5-HT1A and ?1 receptors has a synergistic effect on prefrontal dopaminergic transmission under circulating steroid deficiency, and that this interaction may play an important role in the regulation of the prefrontal DA system. PMID:23851260

  15. 5-HT antagonists and blockade of neuronal (5-HT) receptors on ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Nash, H L; Wallis, D I; Ash, G

    1984-01-01

    Potential changes in superior cervical ganglion cells evoked by 5-HT or the nicotinic agonist, dimethyl-phenyl piperazinium (DMPP), were recorded using the sucrose-gap method and a number of putative 5-HT antagonists tested for potency and selectivity. Selective blockade of 5-HT responses was produced by 5-HT itself and, in increasing order of potency, by cocaine, metoclopramide and quipazine. A non-selective blockade was observed with bufotenine and d-tubocurarine. Substances which had no effect on 5-HT responses included methysergide and other compounds related to LSD, cinanserin, cyproheptadine, phenylbiguanide and morphine. The results provide further information about the 5-HT receptor on sympathetic ganglion cells and support the view that this receptor is distinct from neuronal receptors in the myenteric plexus and on cholinergic nerve terminals. PMID:6149168

  16. Endogenous angiotensin II and the reflex response to stimulation of cardiopulmonary serotonin 5HT3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Veelken, R; Hilgers, K F; Scrogin, K E; Mann, J F E; Schmieder, R E

    1998-01-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II modulates cardiovascular baroreflexes; whether or not the peptide influences chemosensitive cardiovascular reflexes is not known. We tested the hypothesis that Ang II modulates the reflex control of sympathetic nerve activity exerted by 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5HT3) cardiopulmonary receptors.The 5HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide (PBG), infused intravenously for 15?min, elicited a sustained reflex decrease of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) but only transient (<3?min) changes of arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in methohexital-anaesthesized rats.Infusion of Ang II at a dose that did not affect baseline BP, HR and RSNA enhanced the PBG-evoked reflex decrease of RSNA (?54±5% in Ang II treated versus ?33±6% in control rats after 15?min PBG, P<0.05, n=6 each) in methohexital-anaesthetized rats.The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor lisinopril blunted the reflex responses to PBG in anaesthetized as well as conscious animals. The effect of the ACE inhibitor was abolished by concomitant infusion of Ang II.The reflex response to stimulation of cardiopulmonary 5HT3 afferents was also impaired by the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1) blocker ZD7155 but not by the type 2 (AT2) blocker PD 123319.Infusion of a volume load to stimulate cardiopulmonary baroreceptors induced a gradual decrease of RSNA which was impaired by exogenous Ang II (RSNA ?26±6% in Ang II treated versus ?47±6% in control rats after volume load, P<0.05, n=6 each) but unaffected by ACE inhibition.The reflex control of RSNA by cardiopulmonary 5HT3 receptors is enhanced by Ang II via AT1 receptors. Thus, Ang II facilitates a chemosensitive cardiovascular reflex, in contrast to its inhibitory influences on mechanosensitive reflexes. PMID:9886768

  17. Characterization of electroencephalographic and biochemical responses at 5-HT promoting drug-induced onset of serotonin syndrome in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhiyuan; Rudacille, Mary; Prentice, Howard M.; Tao, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Many psychotropic substances used either for medications or illicit recreational purposes are able to produce an increase in extracellular serotonin (5HT) in the CNS. 5HT is well known to improve mood, however, only when the levels of its release are in an appropriate range. Excessive 5HT is harmful, and will generally result in serotonin syndrome. To date, clinical diagnosis of serotonin syndrome relies exclusively on observation of symptoms because of a lack of available laboratory tests. The goal of the present study was to characterize the onset of the syndrome using laboratory settings to determine excessive 5HT-evoked neurological abnormalities. Experiments were carried out in rats with the syndrome being elicited by three groups of 5HT-promoting drugs: 1) (±)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); 2) a combination of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor clorgyline with the 5HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan; 3) clorgyline combined with the serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor paroxetine. The onset of the syndrome was characterized by electroencephalography (EEG), tremor and brain/plasma 5HT tests. We found that a mild syndrome was associated with reduced EEG amplitudes while a severe syndrome strongly with seizure-like EEG activity and increased tremor activity. The occurrence of the syndrome was confirmed with microdialysis, showing excessive 5HT efflux in brain dialysate and the increased concentration of unbound 5HT in the plasma. Our findings suggest that the syndrome onset can be revealed with EEG recording, measurements of tremor activity and changes of unbound 5HT concentration in the plasma. PMID:23286698

  18. The influence of cerebral 5-hydroxytryptamine on catalepsy induced by brain-amine depleting neuroleptics or by cholinomimetics.

    PubMed

    Fuenmayor, L D; Vogt, M

    1979-10-01

    1 Catalepsy was produced in rats and mice by the subcutaneous injection of either tetrabenazine or the butyrophenone U-32,802A (4'-fluoro-4-{[4-(p-fluorophenyl)-3-cyclohexen-1-yl]amino} butyrophenone hydrochloride). Catalepsy was evaluated by the duration of total immobility on a vertical grid.2 Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) reduced the intensity of catalepsy by 50% or more, whereas its time course remained the same.3 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), 10 mg/kg, enhanced the catalepsy induced by U-32,802A or tetrabenazine, provided it was administered soon (45 min) after the neuroleptic; injections at 90 min had no effect. Otherwise untreated rats given this dose of 5-HTP behaved normally on the grid.4 The anticataleptic effect of PCPA was reversed by 5-HTP.5 Measurable changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) metabolism in the rat forebrain accompanied the modification of catalepsy by 5-HTP and PCPA.6 Methysergide (5 mg/kg) given 30 min before the neuroleptics to either mice or rats reduced the catalepsy, assessed 2.5 h after the methysergide. It also prevented the increase in neuroleptic-induced catalepsy following 5-HTP, 10 mg/kg.7 Tryptophan, like 5-HTP, increased the catalepsy seen in mice after U-32,802A and tetrabenazine, and increased the production of 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid in the forebrain.8 In the rat, intracerebroventricular injection of physostigmine produced catalepsy which was not modified by methysergide or PCPA but was abolished by atropine. Similarly, in the mouse, catalepsy induced by the subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine was abolished by atropine but not affected by either methysergide or 5-HTP.9 Atropine greatly reduced the catalepsy induced by U-32,802A and tetrabenazine but lowered striatal homovanillic acid (HVA) only after U-32,802A. D,L-DOPA, 20 mg/kg, diminished the cataleptogenic effect of both neuroleptics and raised striatal HVA.10 The results support the view that there is a facilitating or permissive action of 5-HT-containing neurones on neuroleptic-induced catalepsy. PMID:40649

  19. Effects of Experimental Hypothyroidism on 5HT1A, 5HT2A Receptors, 5HT Uptake Sites and Tryptophan Hydroxylase Activity in Mature Rat Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Kulikov; Xavier Moreau; Régine Jeanningros

    1999-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the repercussions of deficiency in thyroid function with and without thyroid hormone (TH) replacement on the neurochemical entities which underly serotonin (5-HT) neutrotransmission, namely 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A receptors, 5-HT transporter and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in the mature brain. Surgically thyroidectomized male Wistar rats received: (1) an iodine-free diet to produce severe hypothyroidism; (2) hormonal replacement

  20. The R-enantiomer of citalopram counteracts escitalopram-induced increase in extracellular 5HT in the frontal cortex of freely moving rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mørk; M. Kreilgaard; C. Sánchez

    2003-01-01

    The selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, citalopram, is a racemic mixture of an S(+)- and R(?)-enantiomer, escitalopram and R-citalopram, respectively. The present study compares the effects of escitalopram, R-citalopram and citalopram on extracellular levels of 5-HT in the frontal cortex of freely moving rats. In addition, co-injection of escitalopram and R-citalopram (ratios 1:2 and 1:4) were assessed. In some experiments

  1. Characterization of 8-OH-DPAT-induced hypothermia in mice as a 5-HT1A autoreceptor response and its evaluation as a model to selectively identify antidepressants.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, K. F.; Phillips, I.; Hearson, M.; Prow, M. R.; Heal, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    1. 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) dose-dependently induced hypothermia in mice. 2. The 5-HT1A receptor partial agonists, buspirone, gepirone and ipsapirone, also dose-dependently induced hypothermia. 3. The 8-OH-DPAT temperature response was antagonized by the 5-HT1 receptor antagonists quipazine (2 mg kg-1, i.p.), (+/-)-propranolol (10 mg kg-1, i.p.). (+/-)-pindolol (5 mg kg-1, i.p.), spiroxatrine (0.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) and metitepine (0.05 mg kg-1, i.p.), but not by 5-HT2 (ketanserin) or 5-HT3 (MDL 72222, GR 38032F) receptor antagonists. 4. The response was also antagonized by the dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, haloperidol and BRL 34778. No other catecholamine or muscarinic receptors were involved in mediating the response. 5. Destruction of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-containing neurones with the neurotoxin, 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (75 micrograms, i.c.v.), abolished the response to 8-OH-DPAT indicating that the 5-HT1A receptors involved were located on 5-HT neurones. 6. Chronic antidepressant treatment down-regulated this 8-OH-DPAT response. In addition, chronic administration of anxiolytics and neuroleptics was also effective in this respect. Down-regulation was also observed following repeated administration of 8-OH-DPAT (0.5 mg kg-1, s.c.), (+/-)-pindolol (10 mg kg-1, i.p.) and ketanserin (0.5 mg kg-1, i.p.). 7. In conclusion, these data confirm that 8-OH-DPAT-induced hypothermia is mediated by 5-HT1A autoreceptors. They also indicate that the response involves D2 receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1422568

  2. Rotavirus Stimulates Release of Serotonin (5-HT) from Human Enterochromaffin Cells and Activates Brain Structures Involved in Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Engblom, David; Karlsson, Thommie; Rodriguez-Diaz, Jesus; Buesa, Javier; Taylor, John A.; Loitto, Vesa-Matti; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Ahlman, Håkan; Lundgren, Ove; Svensson, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children. A virus-encoded enterotoxin, NSP4 is proposed to play a major role in causing RV diarrhoea but how RV can induce emesis, a hallmark of the illness, remains unresolved. In this study we have addressed the hypothesis that RV-induced secretion of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) by enterochromaffin (EC) cells plays a key role in the emetic reflex during RV infection resulting in activation of vagal afferent nerves connected to nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and area postrema in the brain stem, structures associated with nausea and vomiting. Our experiments revealed that RV can infect and replicate in human EC tumor cells ex vivo and in vitro and are localized to both EC cells and infected enterocytes in the close vicinity of EC cells in the jejunum of infected mice. Purified NSP4, but not purified virus particles, evoked release of 5-HT within 60 minutes and increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in a human midgut carcinoid EC cell line (GOT1) and ex vivo in human primary carcinoid EC cells concomitant with the release of 5-HT. Furthermore, NSP4 stimulated a modest production of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3), but not of cAMP. RV infection in mice induced Fos expression in the NTS, as seen in animals which vomit after administration of chemotherapeutic drugs. The demonstration that RV can stimulate EC cells leads us to propose that RV disease includes participation of 5-HT, EC cells, the enteric nervous system and activation of vagal afferent nerves to brain structures associated with nausea and vomiting. This hypothesis is supported by treating vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. PMID:21779163

  3. Rotavirus stimulates release of serotonin (5-HT) from human enterochromaffin cells and activates brain structures involved in nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Hagbom, Marie; Istrate, Claudia; Engblom, David; Karlsson, Thommie; Rodriguez-Diaz, Jesus; Buesa, Javier; Taylor, John A; Loitto, Vesa-Matti; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Ahlman, Håkan; Lundgren, Ove; Svensson, Lennart

    2011-07-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children. A virus-encoded enterotoxin, NSP4 is proposed to play a major role in causing RV diarrhoea but how RV can induce emesis, a hallmark of the illness, remains unresolved. In this study we have addressed the hypothesis that RV-induced secretion of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) by enterochromaffin (EC) cells plays a key role in the emetic reflex during RV infection resulting in activation of vagal afferent nerves connected to nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and area postrema in the brain stem, structures associated with nausea and vomiting. Our experiments revealed that RV can infect and replicate in human EC tumor cells ex vivo and in vitro and are localized to both EC cells and infected enterocytes in the close vicinity of EC cells in the jejunum of infected mice. Purified NSP4, but not purified virus particles, evoked release of 5-HT within 60 minutes and increased the intracellular Ca²? concentration in a human midgut carcinoid EC cell line (GOT1) and ex vivo in human primary carcinoid EC cells concomitant with the release of 5-HT. Furthermore, NSP4 stimulated a modest production of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP?), but not of cAMP. RV infection in mice induced Fos expression in the NTS, as seen in animals which vomit after administration of chemotherapeutic drugs. The demonstration that RV can stimulate EC cells leads us to propose that RV disease includes participation of 5-HT, EC cells, the enteric nervous system and activation of vagal afferent nerves to brain structures associated with nausea and vomiting. This hypothesis is supported by treating vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis with 5-HT? receptor antagonists. PMID:21779163

  4. Antiallodynic effect of tianeptine via modulation of the 5-HT7 receptor of GABAergic interneurons in the spinal cord of neuropathic rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai; Heo, Bong Ha; Kim, Woong Mo; Kim, Yong Chul; Yoon, Myung Ha

    2015-06-26

    Although tianeptine, an atypical antidepressant has been reported to have antinociceptive effects, the mode of action is different from that of tricyclic antidepressants despite structural similarities. We examined the antiallodynic effect of intrathecal tianeptine in neuropathic pain rats and determined the involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 7 (5-HT7) receptor of the GABAergic interneurons in the spinal cord. Neuropathic pain was induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL). After observation of the effect from intrathecal tianeptine, a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (SB-269970) was administered intrathecally 10min before delivery of tianeptine, to determine the contribution of spinal 5-HT7 receptor on the activity of tianeptine. GAD expression and GABA concentrations were assessed. Intrathecal tianeptine dose-dependently attenuated mechanical allodynia in SNL rats. Pre-treatment with intrathecal SB-269970 reversed the antiallodynic effect of tianeptine. Both GAD65 expression and the GABA concentration in the spinal cord were decreased in neuropathic rats but were increased by tianeptine. Additionally, 5-HT7 receptor and GAD65 were co-localized in the spinal cord. Intrathecal tianeptine reduces neuropathic pain. 5-HT7 receptor of the GABAergic interneurons together with GAD65 plays a role in the activity of tianeptine at the spinal cord level. PMID:25982324

  5. Specific interaction of 5HT-moduline with human 5HT1b as well as 5HT1d receptors expressed in transfected cultured cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Claude Rousselle; Mathieu Plantefol; Marie-Paule Fillion; Olivier Massot; Petrus J. Pauwels; Gilles Fillion

    1998-01-01

    5-HT1B receptors are the predominant auto- and heteroreceptors located on serotonergic and non-serotonergic terminals where they\\u000a regulate the neuronal release of neurotransmitters. 5-HT-moduline (Leu-Ser-Ala-Leu) has been shown to specifically interact\\u000a with a very high apparent affinity and in a non-competitive manner with 5-HT1B receptors (Massot et al. 1996; Rousselle et al. 1996). Using transfected cells expressing either 5-HT1B or 5-HT1D

  6. Effects of (-)-tertatolol, (-)-penbutolol and (+/-)-pindolol in combination with paroxetine on presynaptic 5-HT function: an in vivo microdialysis and electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Gartside, S E; Clifford, E M; Cowen, P J; Sharp, T

    1999-05-01

    The antidepressant efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) might be enhanced by co-administration of 5-HT1A receptor antagonists. Thus, we have recently shown that the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY 100635, blocks the inhibitory effect of an SSRI on 5-HT cell firing, and enhances its ability to elevate extracellular 5-HT in the forebrain. Here we determined whether the beta-adrenoceptor/5-HT1A receptor ligands (+/-)-pindolol, (-)-tertatolol and (-)-penbutolol, interact with paroxetine in a similar manner. Both (-)-tertatolol (2.4 mg kg(-1) i.v.) and (-)-penbutolol (2.4 mg kg(-1) i.v.) enhanced the effect of paroxetine (0.8 mg kg(-1) i.v.) on extracellular 5-HT in the frontal cortex, whilst (+/-)-pindolol (4 mg kg(-1) i.v.) did not. (-)-Tertatolol (2.4 mg kg(-1) i.v.) alone caused a slight increase in 5-HT however, (-)-penbutolol (2.4 mg kg(-1) i.v.) alone had no effect. In electrophysiological studies (-)-tertatolol (2.4 mg kg(-1) i.v.) alone had no effect on 5-HT cell firing but blocked the inhibitory effect of paroxetine. In contrast, (-)-penbutolol (0.1-0.8 mg kg(-1) i.v.) itself inhibited 5-HT cell firing, and this effect was reversed by WAY 100635 (0.1 mg kg(-1) i.v.). We have recently shown that (+/-)-pindolol inhibits 5-HT cell firing via a WAY 100635-sensitive mechanism. Our data suggest that (-)-tertatolol enhances the effect of paroxetine on forebrain 5-HT via blockade of 5-HT1A autoreceptors which mediate paroxetine-induced inhibition of 5-HT cell firing. In comparison, the mechanisms by which (-)-penbutolol enhances the effect of paroxetine on extracellular 5-HT is unclear, since (-)-penbutolol itself appears to have agonist properties at the 5-HT1A autoreceptor. Indeed, the agonist action of (+/-)-pindolol at 5-HT1A autoreceptors probably explains its inability to enhance the effect of paroxetine on 5-HT in the frontal cortex. Overall, our data suggest that both (-)-tertatolol and (-)-penbutolol are superior to (+/-)-pindolol in terms of enhancing the effect of an SSRI on extracellular 5-HT. Both (-)-tertatolol and (-)-penbutolol are worthy of investigation for use as adjuncts to SSRIs in the treatment of major depression. PMID:10369467

  7. Effects of (?)-tertatolol, (?)-penbutolol and (±)-pindolol in combination with paroxetine on presynaptic 5-HT function: an in vivo microdialysis and electrophysiological study

    PubMed Central

    Gartside, S E; Clifford, E M; Cowen, P J; Sharp, T

    1999-01-01

    The antidepressant efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) might be enhanced by co-administration of 5-HT1A receptor antagonists. Thus, we have recently shown that the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY 100635, blocks the inhibitory effect of an SSRI on 5-HT cell firing, and enhances its ability to elevate extracellular 5-HT in the forebrain. Here we determined whether the ?-adrenoceptor/5-HT1A receptor ligands (±)-pindolol, (?)-tertatolol and (?)-penbutolol, interact with paroxetine in a similar manner.Both (?)-tertatolol (2.4?mg?kg?1 i.v.) and (?)-penbutolol (2.4?mg?kg?1 i.v.) enhanced the effect of paroxetine (0.8?mg?kg?1 i.v.) on extracellular 5-HT in the frontal cortex, whilst (±)-pindolol (4?mg?kg?1 i.v.) did not. (?)-Tertatolol (2.4?mg?kg?1 i.v.) alone caused a slight increase in 5-HT however, (?)-penbutolol (2.4?mg?kg?1 i.v.) alone had no effect.In electrophysiological studies (?)-tertatolol (2.4?mg?kg?1 i.v.) alone had no effect on 5-HT cell firing but blocked the inhibitory effect of paroxetine. In contrast, (?)-penbutolol (0.1–0.8?mg?kg?1 i.v.) itself inhibited 5-HT cell firing, and this effect was reversed by WAY 100635 (0.1?mg?kg?1 i.v.). We have recently shown that (±)-pindolol inhibits 5-HT cell firing via a WAY 100635-sensitive mechanism.Our data suggest that (?)-tertatolol enhances the effect of paroxetine on forebrain 5-HT via blockade of 5-HT1A autoreceptors which mediate paroxetine-induced inhibition of 5-HT cell firing. In comparison, the mechanisms by which (?)-penbutolol enhances the effect of paroxetine on extracellular 5-HT is unclear, since (?)-penbutolol itself appears to have agonist properties at the 5-HT1A autoreceptor. Indeed, the agonist action of (±)-pindolol at 5-HT1A autoreceptors probably explains its inability to enhance the effect of paroxetine on 5-HT in the frontal cortex.Overall, our data suggest that both (?)-tertatolol and (?)-penbutolol are superior to (±)-pindolol in terms of enhancing the effect of an SSRI on extracellular 5-HT. Both (?)-tertatolol and (?)-penbutolol are worthy of investigation for use as adjuncts to SSRIs in the treatment of major depression. PMID:10369467

  8. Role of atypical opiates in OCD. Experimental approach through the study of 5HT 2A\\/C receptor-mediated behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Olga Rojas-Corrales; Juan Gibert-Rahola; Juan A. Mico

    2007-01-01

    Rationale  The selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) represent the first-line pharmacotherapy for obsessive–compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD), and atypical antipsychotic drugs, which block 5-HT2A receptors, are used in augmentation strategies. Opiate\\u000a drugs are also effective in treatment-refractory OCD and Tourette syndrome. The 5-HT2A-related behavior (i.e., head twitch)\\u000a has been related with tics, stereotypes, and compulsive symptoms observed in Tourette syndrome and OCD.

  9. Kinetic modeling of the serotonin 5-HT1B receptor radioligand [11C]P943 in humans

    PubMed Central

    Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Neumeister, Alexander; Planeta-Wilson, Beata; Williams, Wendol A; Singhal, Tarun; Kim, Sunhee; Maguire, R Paul; McCarthy, Timothy; Frost, J James; Huang, Yiyun; Ding, Yu-Shin; Carson, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    [11C]P943 is a new radioligand recently developed to image and quantify serotonin 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1B) receptors with positron emission tomography (PET). The purpose of this study was to evaluate [11C]P943 for this application in humans, and to determine the most suitable quantification method. Positron emission tomography data and arterial input function measurements were acquired in a cohort of 32 human subjects. Using arterial input functions, compartmental modeling, the Logan graphical analysis, and the multilinear method MA1 were tested. Both the two tissue-compartment model and MA1 provided good fits of the PET data and reliable distribution volume estimates. Using the cerebellum as a reference region, BPND binding potential estimates were computed. [11C]P943 BPND estimates were significantly correlated with in vitro measurements of the density of 5-HT1B receptors, with highest values in the occipital cortex and pallidum. To evaluate noninvasive methods, two- and three-parameter graphical analyses, Simplified Reference Tissue Models (SRTM and SRTM2), and Multilinear Reference Tissue Models (MRTM and MRTM2) were tested. The MRTM2 model provided the best correlation with MA1 binding-potential estimates. Parametric images of the volume of distribution or binding potential of [11C]P943 could be computed using both MA1 and MRTM2. The results show that [11C]P943 provides quantitative measurements of 5-HT1B binding potential. PMID:19773803

  10. Inhibition of 5-HT neuron activity and induction of depressive-like behavior by high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Temel, Yasin; Boothman, Laura J; Blokland, Arjan; Magill, Peter J; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Sharp, Trevor

    2007-10-23

    Bilateral, high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the surgical therapy of choice for movement disability in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), but this procedure evokes debilitating psychiatric effects, including depressed mood, of unknown neural origin. Here, we report the unexpected finding that HFS of the STN inhibits midbrain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons to evoke depression-related behavioral changes. We found that bilateral HFS of the STN consistently inhibited (40-50%) the firing rate of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus of the rat, but not neighboring non-5-HT neurons. This effect was apparent at clinically relevant stimulation parameters (> or =100 Hz, > or =30 microA), was not elicited by HFS of either neighboring or remote structures to the STN, and was still present in rat models of PD. We also found that bilateral HFS of the STN evoked clear-cut, depressive-like behavior in a widely used experimental paradigm of depression (forced swim test), and this effect was also observed in a PD model. Importantly, the depressive-like behavior elicited by HFS of the STN was reversed by a selective 5-HT-enhancing antidepressant, thereby linking the behavioral change to decreased 5-HT neuronal activity. Overall, these findings link reduced 5-HT function to the psychiatric effects of HFS of the STN observed in PD patients and provide a rational basis for their clinical management. More generally, the powerful interaction between the STN and 5-HT system uncovered here offers insights into the high level of comorbidity of basal ganglia disease and mood disorder. PMID:17942692

  11. In Vivo Quantification of 5-HT2A Brain Receptors in Mdr1a KO Rats with 123I-R91150 Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Noé; Moulin-Sallanon, Marcelle; Fender, Pascal; Tournier, Benjamin B; Ginovart, Nathalie; Charnay, Yves; Millet, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    AbstractOur goal was to identify suitable image quantification methods to image 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) receptors in vivo in Mdr1a knockout (KO) rats (i.e., P-glycoprotein KO) using 123I-R91150 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The 123I-R91150 binding parameters estimated with different reference tissue models (simplified reference tissue model [SRTM], Logan reference tissue model, and tissue ratio [TR] method) were compared to the estimates obtained with a comprehensive three-tissue/seven-parameter (3T/7k)-based model. The SRTM and Logan reference tissue model estimates of 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND) correlated well with the absolute receptor density measured with the 3T/7k gold standard (r > .89). Quantification of 5-HT2AR using the Logan reference tissue model required at least 90 minutes of scanning, whereas the SRTM required at least 110 minutes. The TR method estimates were also highly correlated to the 5-HT2AR density (r > .91) and only required a single 20-minute scan between 100 and 120 minutes postinjection. However, a systematic overestimation of the BPND values was observed. The Logan reference tissue method is more convenient than the SRTM for the quantification of 5-HT2AR in Mdr1a KO rats using 123I-R91150 SPECT. The TR method is an interesting and simple alternative, despite its bias, as it still provides a valid index of 5-HT2AR density. PMID:26105563

  12. Serotonergic modulation of extrapyramidal motor disorders in mice and rats: Role of striatal 5HT 3 and 5HT 6 receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukihiro Ohno; Junta Imaki; Yukari Mae; Tsuyoshi Takahashi; Ayaka Tatara

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies showed that 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors play an important role in controlling the extrapyramidal motor disorders. However, the functions of other 5-HT receptor subtypes remain elusive. To elucidate the role of 5-HT receptors, specifically of 5-HT3?5-HT7 subtypes, in modifying antipsychotic- induced extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), we studied the effects of the 5-HT stimulant 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and various 5-HT

  13. Suppression of inflammatory events associated to intestinal ischemia-reperfusion by 5-HT1A blockade in mice.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Simona; Arcaro, Valentina; Vivo, Valentina; Rapalli, Alberto; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Cantoni, Anna Maria; Saccani, Francesca; Flammini, Lisa; Domenichini, Giuseppe; Ballabeni, Vigilio; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2014-03-01

    Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is a potentially life-threatening disease, ensuing from various clinical conditions. Experimentally, either protective or detrimental roles have been attributed to 5-HT in the functional and morphological injury caused by mesenteric I/R. Recently, we proved the involvement of 5-HT2A receptors in the intestinal dysmotility and leukocyte recruitment induced by 45min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) followed by 24h reperfusion in mice. Starting from these premises, the aim of our present work was to investigate the role played by endogenous 5-HT in the same experimental model where 45min SMA clamping was followed by 5h reflow. To this end, we first observed that ischemic preconditioning before I/R injury (IPC+I/R) reverted the increase in 5-HT tissue content and in inflammatory parameters induced by I/R in mice. Second, the effects produced by intravenous administration of 5-HT1A ligands (partial agonist buspirone 10mgkg(-1), antagonist WAY100135 0.5-5mgkg(-1)), 5-HT2A antagonist sarpogrelate (10mgkg(-1)), 5-HT3 antagonist alosetron (0.1mgkg(-1)), 5-HT4 antagonist GR125487 (5mgkg(-1)) and 5-HT re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine (10mgkg(-1)) on I/R-induced inflammatory response were investigated in I/R mice and compared to those obtained in sham-operated animals (S). Our results confirmed the significant role played by 5-HT2A receptors not only in the late but also in the early I/R-induced microcirculatory dysfunction and showed that blockade of 5-HT1A receptors protected against the intestinal leukocyte recruitment, plasma extravasation and reactive oxygen species formation triggered by SMA occlusion and reflow. The ability of ?7 nicotinic receptor (?7nAchR) antagonist methyllycaconitine (5mgkg(-1)) to counteract the beneficial action provided by buspirone on I/R-induced neutrophil infiltration suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect produced by 5-HT1A receptor antagonism could be partly ascribed to the indirect activation of ?7nAch receptors. PMID:24548822

  14. Obsessive compulsive disorder, response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the serotonin transporter gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E A Billett; M A Richter; N King; A Heils; K P Lesch; J L Kennedy

    1997-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common illness, characterized by anxiety- provoking thoughts and the need to perform rituals. OCD is most commonly treated with a class of pharmacological agents known as serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). SRIs block the reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) into the presynaptic neuron, a process mediated by the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). The successful use of SRIs

  15. The role of 5-HT1A receptors in mediating acute negative effects of antidepressants: implications in pediatric depression

    PubMed Central

    Rahn, K A; Cao, Y-J; Hendrix, C W; Kaplin, A I

    2015-01-01

    Acute antidepressant exposure elevates the frequency of impulsive behavior and suicidal thoughts in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Long-term antidepressant treatment, however, is beneficial for pediatric MDD, so it is necessary to explore novel treatments that prevent the potentially dangerous consequences of acute antidepressant initiation. In the present study, a treatment strategy designed to reverse the acute negative behavioral effects of antidepressants was tested in rodents. Co-administration of the 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR) antagonist WAY-100635 reversed the negative effects of acute fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, but not reboxetine, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, supporting the involvement of 5-HT1AR in mediating the negative consequences of acute selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. No 5-HT1AR antagonists are currently approved for use in pediatric populations, so alternative strategies should be explored. One such strategy was suggested based on the hypothesis that the rate of 5-HT1AR activation and the subsequent inhibition of serotonergic neuron activity caused by acute SSRI administration is proportional to the loading rate of an antidepressant. Existing pharmacological data were examined, and significant correlations were observed between the half-life of antidepressants and the rate of suicide-related events (SREs). Specifically, antidepressants with longer half-lives have lower rates of SREs. On the basis of these data, novel dosing strategies were developed for five antidepressants to mimic the pharmacological profile of the antidepressant with the longest half-life, fluoxetine. These dosing strategies could be used to decrease the rate of SREs associated with acute antidepressant treatment in pediatric MDD until an improved pharmacological treatment is developed. PMID:25942044

  16. 5HT2A and 5HT2C Receptors Exert Opposing Effects on Locomotor Activity in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam L Halberstadt; Iris van der Heijden; Michael A Ruderman; Victoria B Risbrough; Jay A Gingrich; Mark A Geyer; Susan B Powell

    2009-01-01

    Although it is well established that hallucinogens act as 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor agonists, little is known about the relative contributions of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors to the acute behavioral effects of these drugs. The behavioral pattern monitor was used to characterize the effects of the hallucinogen 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) on locomotor and investigatory behavior in mice. Studies were also conducted

  17. (-)-pindolol and (+/-)-tertatolol affect rat hippocampal 5-HT levels through mechanisms involving not only 5-HT1A, but also 5-HT1B receptors.

    PubMed

    Assie, M B; Koek, W

    1996-02-01

    The present work examined, using in vivo microdialysis, the effects of 0.16-10 mg/kg of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, (-)-pindolol and (+/-)-tertatolol, which have additional 5-HT1A receptor antagonist properties, on extracellular 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus of chloral hydrate-anaesthetized rats. These effects were compared with those observed when (-)-pindolol and (+/-)-tertatolol were given together with the 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT (0.31 mg/kg i.p.). When given alone, (-)-pindolol and (+/-)-tertatolol increased 5-HT levels not only after systemic administration (at 2.5 and 10 mg/kg s.c.), but also when perfused locally through the dialysis probe (at a concentration of 10 microM). At doses equal to or lower than those that increased 5-HT when given alone, (-)-pindolol and (+/-)-tertatolol inhibited the decrease of extracellular 5-HT levels induced by 8-OH-DPAT. At higher doses, however, (-)-pindolol and (+/-)-tertatolol were less able to reverse these effects of 8-OD-DPAT. The selective beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, (+/-)-betaxolol, did not alter 5-HT levels, either when given alone or when given together with 8-OD-DPAT. Although the antagonism of the 8-OH-DPAT-induced decrease of 5-HT levels by (-)-pindolol and (+/-)-tertatolol is likely to be related to their 5-HT1A antagonist properties, their ability to increase extracellular 5-HT levels when given alone may involve interactions with 5-HT1B receptors at hippocampal 5-HT terminals. PMID:8734491

  18. Monoamine reuptake inhibitors enhance the discriminative state induced by cocaine in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn A. Cunningham; Patrick M. Callahan

    1991-01-01

    Cocaine inhibits the reuptake of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT). To investigate the relative role of such reuptake processes in the discriminative stimulus properties of cocaine, male rats (N=16) were trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg\\/kg) from saline in a two-lever, water-reinforced drug discrimination task and were administered neuroactive compounds during substitution or combination tests. The DA reuptake

  19. Involvement of 5HT3 Receptors in Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Tropisetron on Experimental TNBS-Induced Colitis in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Motavallian, Azadeh; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Rabbani, Mohammad; Andalib, Sasan; Mahzouni, Parvin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: There is a pressing need for research leading to the development of new effective drugs with lower side effects and more efficacy for treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-3 receptor antagonists have been shown in in vivo and in vitro studies. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of tropisetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, on an immune-based animal model of IBD. Methods: In the present study, the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of colitis in the rat was used. Two hours after induction of colitis in rats, tropisetron (2 mg/kg), dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), meta-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG, 5 mg/kg), a 5-HT3 receptor agonist, or tropisetron + mCPBG were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administrated for 6 days. Animals were then sacrificed; macroscopic, histological, biochemical (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) assessments and ELISA test (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1 beta) were performed on distal colon samples. Results: Tropisetron or dexamethasone treatment significantly reduced macroscopic and microscopic colonic damages. In addition, a significant reduction in MPO activity and colonic levels of inflammatory cytokines was seen. The beneficial effects of tropisetron were antagonized by concurrent administration of mCPBG. Conclusion: The present study indicates that the protective effects of tropisetron on TNBS-induced colitis can be mediated by 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:24455480

  20. Differential cross-tolerance development between single and repeated immobilization stress on the antinociceptive effect induced by ?-endorphin, 5-hydroxytryptamine, morphine, and WIN55,212-2 in the inflammatory mouse pain mode.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young-Jun; Kwon, Min-Soo; Choi, Seung-Min; Lee, Jin-Koo; Park, Soo-Hyun; Jung, Jun-Sub; Sim, Yun-Beom; Suh, Hong-Won

    2011-02-01

    We have evaluated the possible underlying mechanisms of immobilization stress-induced analgesia (SIA) by behavioral cross-tolerance studies and molecular studies. In the behavioral studies, the cross-tolerance between single or repeated immobilization SIA and the antinociceptive effects of ?-endorphin, morphine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), or WIN55,212-2 were assessed. Both single and repeated (×7) immobilization stress significantly attenuated the ?-endorphin and 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced antinociception in the 2nd phase of formalin response, respectively. However, these cross-tolerances disappeared in prolonged repetition of the stress (×14). Neither single nor repeated (×7 and ×14) immobilization stress affected the antinociceptive effect of morphine or WIN55,212-2 at all. We also found that immobilization stress activated hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene and ?-endorphin expression. Since, it has potent inhibitory activity on the noxious stimuli-induced POMC expression, immobilization stress seemed to dissipate the POMC gene expression process. Meanwhile, we did not find any changes in the opioid receptors' (mu-, delta- and kappa-receptor) and the cannabinoid receptors' (CB1 and CB2) expressions in the midbrain regions elicited by single or repeated stress. These results suggested that a single immobilization stress activates the descending pain modulatory system, which is mainly mediated through endorphinergic and serotonergic activation. Moreover, the tolerance of SIA induced by repeated stresses may be due to the prolonged activation of these systems induced by repeated immobilization. PMID:21380811

  1. Roles for CCK1 and 5-HT3 receptors in the effects of CCK on presympathetic vasomotor neuronal discharge in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Saita, Mitsuhiko; Verberne, Anthony J M

    2003-01-01

    The role of peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) receptors and cholecystokinin type 1 (CCK1) receptors in the inhibitory effects of phenylbiguanide (PBG) and CCK on arterial blood pressure, heart rate and the discharge of presympathetic vasomotor neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) was studied in ?-chloralose-anaesthetized rats. CCK (1 and 4 ?g kg?1, i.v.) and PBG (2 and 10 ?g kg?1, i.v.) reduced arterial blood pressure and heart rate, and inhibited the discharge of single RVLM presympathetic vasomotor neurones in a dose-related manner. Devazepide (0.5 mg kg?1, i.v.), a selective CCK1 receptor antagonist, blocked the effects of CCK on arterial blood pressure, heart rate and neuronal discharge but did not significantly alter these responses to PBG. MDL72222 (0.1 mg kg?1, i.v.), a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, blocked the effects of PBG on arterial blood pressure, heart rate and presympathetic neuronal discharge. MDL72222 attenuated the effects of CCK on arterial blood pressure, heart rate and RVLM presympathetic neuronal discharge. Vehicle did not significantly alter any of the responses to CCK or PBG. These experiments suggest that systemically administered CCK acts directly through CCK1 receptors to modulate sympathetic vasomotor function. In addition, the actions of CCK also are partly dependent on activation of 5-HT3 receptors. CCK may release 5-HT which then acts at 5-HT3 receptors to produce sympathetic vasomotor inhibition. In contrast, the actions of PBG are entirely dependent on 5-HT3 receptors and are independent of any actions at the CCK1 receptor. PMID:12770947

  2. Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors functional regulation during enhanced liver cell proliferation by GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles treatment.

    PubMed

    Shilpa, Joy; Pretty, Mary Abraham; Anitha, Malat; Paulose, Cheramadathikudyil Skaria

    2013-09-01

    Liver is one of the major organs in vertebrates and hepatocytes are damaged by many factors. The liver cell maintenance and multiplication after injury and treatment gained immense interest. The present study investigated the role of Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) coupled with chitosan nanoparticles in the functional regulation of Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors mediated cell signaling mechanisms, extend of DNA methylation and superoxide dismutase activity during enhanced liver cell proliferation. Liver injury was achieved by partial hepatectomy of male Wistar rats and the GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles treatments were given intraperitoneally. The experimental groups were sham operated control (C), partially hepatectomised rats with no treatment (PHNT), partially hepatectomised rats with GABA chitosan nanoparticle (GCNP), 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle (SCNP) and a combination of GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle (GSCNP) treatments. In GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle treated group there was a significant decrease (P<0.001) in the receptor expression of Gamma aminobutyric acid B and a significant increase (P<0.001) in the receptor expression of 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A when compared to PHNT. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate content and its regulatory protein, presence of methylated DNA and superoxide dismutase activity were decreased in GCNP, SCNP and GSCNP when compared to PHNT. The Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors coupled signaling elements played an important role in GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles induced liver cell proliferation which has therapeutic significance in liver disease management. PMID:23748019

  3. Serotonergic dysfunction in addiction: effects of alcohol, cigarette smoking and heroin on platelet 5-HT content.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, L G; Dufeu, P; Heinz, A; Kuhn, S; Rommelspacher, H

    1997-10-10

    The impact of ethanol, cigarette smoking and heroin on serotonin function was evaluated, first in alcoholics during chronic ethanol intoxication and in opiate addicts after long-term heroin consumption, and secondly in both patient groups after detoxification treatment (i.e. a short-term abstinence of 8 days). Our results showed that the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) content in platelets was: (1) increased in the subgroup of anti-social alcoholics; (2) transiently and differently altered in alcoholics compared to opiate addicts; and (3) lowered in drinking alcoholics and normal in alcoholics who were drinking as well as smoking (that may occur via MAO-B inhibition by smoke). The findings indicate that alterations of the peripheral and possibly the central serotonin system may occur as predisposing factors for alcoholism in individuals with anti-social traits; they may also have some impact on the progression of alcoholism due to its lowered function during chronic ethanol intoxication that is substantially modified by smoking. PMID:9406907

  4. Time-dependent modulation of glutamate synapses onto 5-HT neurons by antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Geddes, Sean D; Assadzada, Saleha; Sokolovski, Alexandra; Bergeron, Richard; Haj-Dahmane, Samir; Béïque, Jean-Claude

    2015-08-01

    Antidepressants, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are thought to exert their clinical effects by enhancing serotonin (5-HT) transmission. However, animal studies show that the full magnitude of this enhancement is reached only following prolonged treatments with SSRIs, consistent with the well-described therapeutic delay of this class of medications. Thus, the clinical efficacy of SSRIs most likely does not emerge from their acute pharmacological actions, but rather indirectly from cellular alterations that develop over the course of a sustained treatment. Here, we show that sustained administration of the SSRI citalopram leads to a homeostatic-like increase in the strength of excitatory glutamate synapses onto 5-HT neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus that was apparent following one week of treatment. A shorter treatment with citalopram rather induced a paradoxical decrease in the strength of these synapses, which manifested itself by both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. As such, these results show that an SSRI treatment induced a concerted and time-dependent modulation of the synaptic drive of 5-HT neurons, which are known to be critically involved in mood regulation. This regulation, and its time course, provide a mechanistic framework that may be relevant not only for explaining the therapeutic delay of antidepressants, but also for the perplexing increases in suicide risks reportedly occurring early in the course of antidepressant treatments. PMID:25747603

  5. Differential patterns of local cerebral glucose utilization in response to 5-hydroxytryptamine agonists.

    PubMed

    Kelly, P A; Davis, C J; Goodwin, G M

    1988-06-01

    Local cerebral glucose utilization was measured in parallel groups of conscious rats following intravenous injection of either 1 mg/kg 8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino)tetralin (a 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A binding site agonist), 3 mg/kg 5-methoxy 3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)1H indole, succinate (a 5-hydroxytryptamine1B agonist), or saline alone, using the 2-deoxyglucose quantitative autoradiographic techniques (n = 5 in each of the three groups). Following both drugs, local rates of glucose use in the majority of the 72 brain areas analysed remained unaltered, but in some other regions either increases or decreases were observed. In keeping with the observed behavioural response to 8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino)tetralin there were marked increases in cerebellum (+56%) and motor cortex where a columnar arrangement of increased metabolism (+34%) contrasted with adjacent columns of decrease (-26%). Hippocampal areas showed moderate decreases in glucose use (-13 to -21%). All areas which increased following 8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino)tetralin also increased following 5-methoxy 3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)1H indole, succinate, but in the latter case all elements of the basal ganglia were also increased, including globus pallidus (+105%) and the striatum where the changes (+54%) were limited to a discrete dorsal region of the nucleus. In the hippocampus only dorsal dentate gyrus was decreased (-24%) whilst a moderate increase (+16%) was observed in dorsal subiculum. The complexity of these results contrasts with previous 2-deoxyglucose investigations where less specific 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor ligands were used, and suggests that certain aspects of brain function may be selectively targeted by systemic pharmacological manipulation of endogenous serotonergic systems. PMID:2970017

  6. Convergence of Melatonin and Serotonin (5-HT) Signaling at MT2/5-HT2C Receptor Heteromers.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Maud; Gbahou, Florence; Guillaume, Jean-Luc; Daulat, Avais M; Benleulmi-Chaachoua, Abla; Luka, Marine; Chen, Patty; Kalbasi Anaraki, Dina; Baroncini, Marc; Mannoury la Cour, Clotilde; Millan, Mark J; Prevot, Vincent; Delagrange, Philippe; Jockers, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    Inasmuch as the neurohormone melatonin is synthetically derived from serotonin (5-HT), a close interrelationship between both has long been suspected. The present study reveals a hitherto unrecognized cross-talk mediated via physical association of melatonin MT2 and 5-HT2C receptors into functional heteromers. This is of particular interest in light of the "synergistic" melatonin agonist/5-HT2C antagonist profile of the novel antidepressant agomelatine. A suite of co-immunoprecipitation, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, and pharmacological techniques was exploited to demonstrate formation of functional MT2 and 5-HT2C receptor heteromers both in transfected cells and in human cortex and hippocampus. MT2/5-HT2C heteromers amplified the 5-HT-mediated Gq/phospholipase C response and triggered melatonin-induced unidirectional transactivation of the 5-HT2C protomer of MT2/5-HT2C heteromers. Pharmacological studies revealed distinct functional properties for agomelatine, which shows "biased signaling." These observations demonstrate the existence of functionally unique MT2/5-HT2C heteromers and suggest that the antidepressant agomelatine has a distinctive profile at these sites potentially involved in its therapeutic effects on major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Finally, MT2/5-HT2C heteromers provide a new strategy for the discovery of novel agents for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:25770211

  7. Serotonin 5-HT2 and 5-HT1A-like receptors differentially modulate aggressive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Oralee; Becnel, Jaime; Nichols, Charles D.

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is widespread throughout the animal kingdom, and is a complex social behavior influenced by both genetics and environment. Animals typically fight over resources that include food, territory, and sexual partners. Of all the neurotransmitters, serotonin has been the most implicated in modulating aggressive behaviors in mammalian systems. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, the involvement of serotonin itself in aggressive behaviors has been recently established, however, the underlying mechanisms have largely remained elusive. Here we describe the influence of different serotonin receptor subtypes on aggressive behaviors in Drosophila. Drosophila express homologs of three mammalian serotonin receptors: the 5-HT1A, 5-HT2, and 5-HT7 receptors. Significantly, these receptors mediate important behaviors in mammalian systems ranging from feeding, aggression, and sleep, to cognition. To examine the role of the 5-HT2Dro receptor, we utilized the selective 5-HT2 receptor agonist (R)-1-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl]-2-aminopropane (DOI), and the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin. To examine the role of 5-HT1A-like receptors we used the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT), and the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635. We find that activation of 5-HT2 receptors with (R)-DOI appears to decrease overall aggression, whereas activation of 5-HT1A-like receptors with 8-OH-DPAT increases overall aggression. Furthermore, the different serotonin receptor circuitries appear to mediate different aspects of aggression: 5-HT2 receptor manipulation primarily alters lunging and boxing, whereas 5-HT1A-like receptor manipulation primarily affects wing threats and fencing. Elucidating the effects of serotonergic systems on aggression in the fly is a significant advancement not only in establishing the fly as a system to study aggression, but as a system relevant to elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying aggression in mammals, including humans. PMID:19041376

  8. Involvement of 5-HT2A receptors in the serotonin (5-HT) syndrome caused by excessive 5-HT efflux in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Swapna; Ma, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Gongliang; Wei, Jianning; Auerbach, Sidney B; Tao, Rui

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that serotonin (5-HT) syndromes, particularly for the malignant cases, can be alleviated by ice water mists, cooling blankets and many other external cooling measures. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that external cooling measures reduce the responsivity of 5-HT(2A) receptors to excessive 5-HT efflux, which may be a possible mechanism underlying the treatment of serotonin syndrome. To test this, rat experiments were carried out in the standard and cool ambient temperature (T(amb) ) by administration of the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan combined with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor clorgyline. The first set of experiments was to assess severity of the syndromes by measuring body temperature responses. Consistent with the hypothesis, we found that the syndrome was malignant at the standard T(amb) of 22°C but alleviated at 12 or 6°C, these results being similar to those in rats pre-treated with the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin. The second set of experiments was to utilize microdialysis to determine the relationship between the syndrome severity and 5-HT levels at the above-mentioned T(amb) . We found that excessive 5-HT efflux consisted of primary and secondary components through two distinct mechanisms. Furthermore, the secondary component efflux, which can be ascribed to 5-HT(2A) receptor activation, was proportionally reduced at the cool T(amb) of 12 and 6°C. In conclusion, results of this study support the hypothesis that cooling T(amb) reduces the functional activity of 5-HT(2A) receptors, thus alleviating the malignant syndrome. PMID:20456331

  9. 5-Hydroxytryptamine2A receptor binding activity of compounds from Litsea sessilis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Lip Yong; Lo, Mee Wah; Mustafa, Muhammad Rais; Goh, Swee Hock; Imiyabir, Zamrie

    2009-03-01

    A 96-well microplate filtration based 5-HT(2A) receptor-radioligand binding assay was optimized and adopted to carry out a bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of the leaves of Litsea sessilis. This purification led to the isolation of two compounds identified as (+)-boldine (1) and (+)-dehydrovomifoliol (2). (+)-Boldine binds to 5-HT(2A) receptors at high concentrations with a K(i) value of 2.16 microm. However, (+)-dehydrovomifoliol showed minimal competitive inhibition on the binding of [(3)H]ketanserin to the same receptor with a K(i) value of 2.06 mm. These results suggest that (+)-boldine influences the activity of 5-HT(2A) receptors through competitive binding as an agonist or antagonist. PMID:18844258

  10. Serotonin (5HT) release in the dorsal raphé and ventral hippocampus: Raphé control of somatodendritic and terminal 5HT release

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. F. Matos; C. Urban; F. D. Yocca

    1996-01-01

    Summary Somatodendritic and terminal release of serotonin (5-HT) was investigated by simultaneously measuring extracellular concentrations of 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the dorsal raphé and ventral hippocampus in freely moving rats. Perfusion of tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1µM and 10µM) into the dorsal raphé simultaneously decreased dorsal raphé and hippocampal 5-HT release. However, following TTX perfusion into the

  11. Agonist activity of LSD and lisuride at cloned 5HT2A and 5HT2C receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina T. Egan; Katharine Herrick-Davis; Keith Miller; Richard A. Glennon; M. Teitler

    1998-01-01

    Evidence from studies with phenylisopropylamine hallucinogens indicates that the 5HT2A receptor is the likely target for the initiation of events leading to hallucinogenic activity associated with LSD?and related\\u000a drugs. Recently, lisuride (a purported non-hallucinogenic congener of LSD) was reported to be a potent antagonist at the 5HT2C receptor and an agonist at the 5HT2A receptor. LSD exhibited agonist activity at

  12. 5-Hydroxytryptamine Type 3 Receptor Modulates Opioid-induced Hyperalgesia and Tolerance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, De-Yong; Li, XiangQi; Clark, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Background Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) and tolerance are challenging maladaptations associated with opioids in managing pain. Recent genetic studies and the existing literature suggest the 5-hydroxy tryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor participates in these phenomena. The location of the relevant receptor populations and the interactions between the 5-HT3 system and other systems controlling OIH and tolerance have not been explored, however. We hypothesized that 5-HT3 receptors modulate OIH and tolerance, and that this modulation involves the control of expression of multiple neurotransmitter and receptor systems. Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a standardized 4-day morphine administration protocol. The 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron was administered either during or after the conclusion of morphine administration. Mechanical testing was used to quantify OIH, and thermal tail flick responses were used to measure morphine tolerance. In other experiments spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion tissues were harvested for analysis of messenger RNA levels by real-time polymerase chain reaction or immunochemistry analysis. Results The results showed 1) Systemic or intrathecal injection of ondansetron significantly prevented and reversed OIH, but not local intraplantar injection. 2) Systemic or intrathecal injection of ondansetron prevented and reversed tolerance, and 3) Ondansetron blocked morphine induced increases of multiple genes -relevant to OIH and tolerance in dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord. Conclusions Morphine acts via a 5-HT3 dependent mechanism to support multiple maladaptations to the chronic administration of morphine. Furthermore, the use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may provide a new avenue to prevent or reverse OIH and tolerance associated with chronic opioid use. PMID:21368652

  13. RU 24969-induced emesis in the cat - 5-HT1 sites other than 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B or 5-HT1C implicated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.

    1990-01-01

    RU 24969 was administered s.c. to cats and found to elicit emesis with a maximally effective dose of 1.0 mg/kg 5-Methoxytryptamine was found to have lower efficacy and to produce a higher incidence of nonspecific effects while trifluoromethylphenylpiperizine (TFMPP) was devoid of emetic effects. The emesis elicited by 1.0 mg/kg of RU 24969 was not altered by pretreatment with phentolamine, haloperidol, yohimbine or (-)-propranolol, indicating that catecholamines played no role in this response. The emesis was prevented by metergoline and methysergide but not by ketanserin, cyproheptadine, mesulergine, ICS 205 930, methiothepin, trimethobenzamide or BMY 7378. An indirect argument is presented that implicates a role for 5-HT1D sites. This conclusion must remain tentative until drugs selective for this site are synthesized and tested. The emesis was also prevented by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamine)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), confirming that this drug has a general antiemetic effect in cats.

  14. The 5-HT2C receptor gene Cys23Ser polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Paddy Kc; Schaik, Ron van; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that the persistent short intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)2C receptor functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism and the duration of IELT in men with LPE. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted in 64 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. All men were genotyped for Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of Cys and Ser variants of 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism were determined. Association between Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotypes and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE were investigated. As a result, the geometric mean, median and natural mean IELT were 25.2, 27.0, 33.9 s, respectively. Of all men, 20.0%, 10.8%, 23.1% and 41.5% ejaculated within 10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-60 s after vaginal penetration. Of the 64 men, the Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotype frequency for the Cys23Ser polymorphism of the 5-HT2C receptor gene was 81% and 19%, respectively. The geometric mean IELT of the wildtypes (Cys/Cys) is significantly lower (22.6 s; 95% CI 18.3-27.8 s) than in male homozygous mutants (Ser/Ser) (40.4 s; 95% CI 20.3-80.4 s) (P = 0.03). It is concluded that Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism is associated with the IELT in men with LPE. Men with Cys/Cys genotype have shorter IELTs than men with Ser/Ser genotypes. PMID:24799636

  15. The 5-HT2C receptor gene Cys23Ser polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Paddy KC; van Schaik, Ron; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that the persistent short intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)2C receptor functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism and the duration of IELT in men with LPE. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted in 64 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. All men were genotyped for Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of Cys and Ser variants of 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism were determined. Association between Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotypes and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE were investigated. As a result, the geometric mean, median and natural mean IELT were 25.2, 27.0, 33.9 s, respectively. Of all men, 20.0%, 10.8%, 23.1% and 41.5% ejaculated within 10, 10–20, 20–30 and 30–60 s after vaginal penetration. Of the 64 men, the Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotype frequency for the Cys23Ser polymorphism of the 5-HT2C receptor gene was 81% and 19%, respectively. The geometric mean IELT of the wildtypes (Cys/Cys) is significantly lower (22.6 s; 95% CI 18.3–27.8 s) than in male homozygous mutants (Ser/Ser) (40.4 s; 95% CI 20.3–80.4 s) (P = 0.03). It is concluded that Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism is associated with the IELT in men with LPE. Men with Cys/Cys genotype have shorter IELTs than men with Ser/Ser genotypes. PMID:24799636

  16. Contextual fear conditioning modulates hippocampal AMPA-, GluN1- and serotonin receptor 5-HT1A-containing receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Sase, Sunetra; Stork, Oliver; Lubec, Gert; Li, Lin

    2015-02-01

    Although the roles of AMPAR (?-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor), NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) and 5HT1AR (5-hydroxytryptamine sub type 1A) in contextual fear conditioning (cFC) have been studied, information about receptor-containing complexes (RC) is not available. Moreover, there are no data on membrane or endosomal NMDA-, 5HT1A- or AMPA-RC levels, which would likely be indicative of the trafficking of these receptors. cFC was carried out in C57BL/6j mice and animals were sacrificed in the individual phases and hippocampi were taken for the determination of receptor complex and subunit levels using BN- and SDS-PAGE with subsequent Western blotting. GluA1-4, GluN1 (NMDAR subunit NR1)- and 5HT1A-RC were differentially regulated during the individual phases and differentially regulated in the membrane and endosomal fractions. GluA1-RC levels in the membrane were increased in acquisition, consolidation and retrieval phases; GluA2-RC and GluA3-RC membrane levels were reduced and modulated in early endosomes during these phases. GluA4-RC and GluN1-RC levels as well as their subunits showed the same pattern in the membrane during consolidation while 5HT1A-RC membrane and endosome levels were mainly increased during consolidation and retrieval. Taken together, the results suggest that levels of 5-HT1A-RC, NMDA-RC and AMPA-RC and subunits in membrane and endosomal preparations are paralleling individual phases of cFC. The findings from the current study suggest phase-specific receptor complex and subunit formation and propose that receptor complexes should be examined in parallel with receptor subunits to aid the interpretation of previous work and to design future work on neurotransmitter receptors in memory paradigms. PMID:25264576

  17. Rapid Anxiolytic Effects of a 5-HT4 Receptor Agonist Are Mediated by a Neurogenesis-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Mendez-David, Indira; David, Denis J; Darcet, Flavie; Wu, Melody V; Kerdine-Römer, Saadia; Gardier, Alain M; Hen, René

    2014-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) display a delayed onset of action of several weeks. Past work in naive rats showed that 5-HT4 receptor agonists had rapid effects on depression-related behaviors and on hippocampal neurogenesis. We decided to investigate whether 5-HT4 receptor stimulation was necessary for the effects of SSRIs in a mouse model of anxiety/depression, and whether hippocampal neurogenesis contributed to these effects. Using the mouse corticosterone model of anxiety/depression, we assessed whether chronic treatment with a 5-HT4 receptor agonist (RS67333, 1.5?mg/kg/day) had effects on anxiety- and depression-related behaviors, as well as on hippocampal neurogenesis in comparison with chronic fluoxetine treatment (18?mg/kg/day). Then, using our anxiety/depression model combined with ablation of hippocampal neurogenesis, we investigated whether neurogenesis was necessary for the behavioral effects of subchronic (7 days) or chronic (28 days) RS67333 treatment. We also assessed whether a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist (GR125487, 1?mg/kg/day) could prevent the behavioral and neurogenic effects of fluoxetine. Chronic treatment with RS67333, similar to fluoxetine, induced anxiolytic/antidepressant-like activity and stimulated adult hippocampal neurogenesis, specifically facilitating maturation of newborn neurons. However, unlike fluoxetine, anxiolytic effects of RS67333 were already present after 7 days and did not require hippocampal neurogenesis. Chronic treatment with GR125487 prevented both anxiolytic/antidepressant-like and neurogenic effects of fluoxetine, indicating that 5-HT4 receptor activation is necessary for these effects of SSRIs. 5-HT4 receptor stimulation could represent an innovative and rapid onset therapeutic approach to treat depression with comorbid anxiety. PMID:24287720

  18. 5HT 1A receptor antagonists increase the activity of serotonergic cells in the dorsal raphe nucleus in rats treated acutely or chronically with citalopram

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lotta Arborelius; George G. Nomikos; Pernilla Grillner; Peter Hertel; Berit Backlund Höök; Uli Hacksell; Torgny H. Svensson

    1995-01-01

    In this study we have examined the acute effects of systemic administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), citalopram, in combination with either of the two selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonists, (S)-5-fluoro-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)-tetralin [(S)-UH-301] or (+)-N-tertbutyl 3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-phenylpropionamide dihydrochloride [(+)-WAY100135], on the activity of single 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of anesthetized rats using extracellular recording techniques. Acute administration

  19. The Impact of 5-HT3RA Use on Cost and Utilization in Patients with Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Broder, Michael S.; Faria, Claudio; Powers, Annette; Sunderji, Jehangeer; Cherepanov, Dasha

    2014-01-01

    Background Individual studies have assessed the impact of standard prophylactic therapy with 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists (5-HT3RAs) for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) on cost and utilization, but no synthesis of the findings exists. Objective To systematically review published literature on costs and utilization associated with CINV prophylaxis with palonosetron and other 5-HT3RAs. Methods PubMed and the National Institute for Health Research Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, conferences of 4 organizations (ie, Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy, American Society of Clinical Oncology, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research, and Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer), and the bibliographies of relevant articles were queried for the medical subject headings and key terms of “ondansetron,” “granisetron,” “palonosetron,” “dolasetron mesylate,” “costs,” “cost analysis,” and “economics.” We included records published (full-length articles after 1997 and conference presentations after 2010) in English and with human patients, reporting data on cost and utilization (rescue medication, outpatient and inpatient services) associated with the use of 5-HT3RAs for the treatment or prevention of CINV. Results Of the 434 identified studies, 32 are included in the current analysis: 7 studies report costs, 18 report utilization, and 7 studies report both. The costs are reported in US dollars (7 studies), in Euros (5 studies), and in Canadian dollars (2 studies). The studies vary in designs, patients, 5-HT3RA regimens, and the definition of outcomes. The US studies report higher drug costs for CINV prophylaxis with palonosetron compared with ondansetron, lower medical outpatient and inpatient costs for palonosetron versus other 5-HT3RAs, and higher acquisition costs for palonosetron versus ondansetron or other 5-HT3RAs. Fewer patients receiving palonosetron versus with ondansetron or other 5-HT3RAs required rescue medication or used outpatient or inpatient care. In Europe and in Canada, the total pharmacy costs and use of rescue medications reported are lower for patients receiving prophylaxis with palonosetron. Conclusions This analysis shows that prophylaxis with palonosetron for the treatment of CINV is associated with higher acquisition treatment costs, but also with lower use of rescue medications and outpatient and inpatient services compared with ondansetron or other 5-HT3RAs in the United States. Therefore, the use of palonosetron as a standard treatment may lead to reduced service utilization for CINV. PMID:24991400

  20. Effects of amantadine and budipine on antidepressant drug-evoked changes in extracellular 5-HT in the frontal cortex of freely moving rats

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Jenny C E; Whitton, Peter S

    2005-01-01

    Evidence has recently suggested that NMDA receptors may play a role in the aetiology and possible treatment of depression and that weak noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists such as amantadine can synergize with conventional antidepressants in a model of the illness. To try to obtain a neurochemical rationale for these findings, we have studied the effects of acute and chronic administration of amantadine or the related drug budipine on cortical release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) following the antidepressants reboxitine (REB), paroxetine (PAROX) and clomipramine (CLOM) in freely moving rats by using microdialysis. Acute administration of amantadine (40?mg?kg?1), budipine (10?mg?kg?1), REB (10?mg?kg?1), PAROX (10?mg?kg?1) or CLOM (10?mg?kg?1) all failed to significantly alter extracellular 5-HT in the cortex. However, when either amantadine or budipine was administered 30?min prior to any of the three antidepressants, a significant rise in 5-HT was observed. For chronic studies, the effects of the drugs were studied at 4, 7, 14 and 21 days. Amantadine and budipine did not significantly alter extracellular 5-HT at any time point. The three antidepressant drugs all elicited a gradual increase in 5-HT, which became significant after 14 days and tended to plateau thereafter. When either amantadine (20?mg?kg?1) or budipine (5?mg?kg?1) was coadministered with any of the three antidepressants, two differences were seen compared with the effects of the antidepressants alone. Firstly, the time required for significant increases in cortical 5-HT was reduced with elevated levels now being observed by 7 days. Secondly, the absolute magnitude of the increase in extracellular 5-HT was markedly greater in these rats from day 7 until the end of the experiment. If, as is widely considered, an increase in extracellular 5-HT represents a critical step in the mechanism of action of antidepressants, these data suggest that combined treatment with clinically tolerated NMDA antagonists such as amantadine could reduce the delay in therapeutic onset of antidepressants as well as possibly enhance their efficacy. PMID:15834446

  1. Postnatal Development of Serotonergic Innervation, 5HT1A Receptor Expression, and 5HT Responses in Rat Motoneurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edmund M. Talley; Negar N. Sadr; Douglas A. Bayliss

    We compared the electrophysiological responses to serotonin (5-HT) of neonatal and juvenile rat hypoglossal motoneurons (HMs) by using intracellular recording techniques in a brainstem slice preparation. In neonatal HMs (#P8), 5-HT caused a sub- stantial decrease in the amplitude of spike afterhyperpolariza- tion (AHP) that was associated with an increase in the minimal repetitive firing frequency (Fmin). Previous work has

  2. Central beta-adrenoceptors can modulate 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced tremor in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hallberg, H.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of two beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists with different lipophilicities were studied on tremor induced by L-5-hydroxytryptophan (L-5-HTP) in pargyline- and carbidopa-pretreated rats. Tremor was recorded and analysed by an objective method based on accelerometry. Clenbuterol, a lipophilic beta 2-selective agonist, dose-dependently enhanced tremor intensity, whereas the hydrophilic beta 2-agonist terbutaline had no effect. The clenbuterol-induced enhancement of tremor was completely abolished by the beta 2-selective antagonist ICI 118,551 but unchanged by the beta 1-selective antagonist metoprolol. The results suggest that centrally located beta 2-adrenoceptors can mediate a modulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced tremor in rats. PMID:2869814

  3. Attenuation of phencyclidine-induced object recognition deficits by the combination of atypical antipsychotic drugs and pimavanserin (ACP 103), a 5-hydroxytryptamine(2A) receptor inverse agonist.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, S; Horiguchi, M; Huang, M; Li, Z; Shahid, M; Neill, J C; Meltzer, H Y

    2010-02-01

    Subchronic administration of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP), in rodents has been shown to produce impairment in novel object recognition (NOR), a model of visual learning and memory. We tested the hypothesis that the selective 5-HT(2A) inverse agonists, pimavanserin and (R)-(+)-alpha-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-[2-(4-fluorophenylethyl]-4-piperidinemethanol (M100907), would potentiate subeffective doses of atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) to reverse the NOR deficits. Female rats received vehicle or PCP (2 mg/kg b.i.d.) for 7 days, followed by a 7-day washout. Pimavanserin (3 mg/kg) or M100907 (1 mg/kg) alone, or four atypicial APDs, risperidone (0.05-0.1 mg/kg), melperone (1-3 mg/kg), olanzapine (1-2 mg/kg), or N-desmethylclozapine (1-2 mg/kg), and the typical APD, haloperidol (0.05-0.1 mg/kg), were administered alone, or in combination with pimavanserin or M100907, before NOR testing. The exploration times of objects during 3-min acquisition and retention trials, separated by a 1-min interval, were compared by analysis of variance. Vehicle-, but not PCP-treated, animals, explored the novel object significantly more than the familiar in the retention trial (p < 0.05-0.01). Pretreatment with the higher doses of the atypical APDs, but not pimavanserin, M100907, or haloperidol alone, reversed the effects of PCP. The effect of risperidone was blocked by haloperidol pretreatment. Coadministration of pimavanserin or M100907, with ineffective doses of the atypical APDs, but not haloperidol, also reversed the PCP-induced deficit in NOR. These results support the importance of 5-hydroxytryptamine(2A) receptor blockade relative to D(2) receptor blockade in the ability of atypicals to ameliorate the effect of subchronic PCP, a putative measure of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:19864614

  4. A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of the 5-Hydroxytryptamine Transporter Gene-Linked Promoter Region Polymorphism on Susceptibility to Lifelong Premature Ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sheng; Shao, Hongbao; Dai, Feng; Peng, Tao; Qin, Feng; Feng, Ninghan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Premature ejaculation (PE) has been reported as the most common male sexual dysfunction with global prevalence rates estimated at approximately 30%. The neurobiogenesis of ejaculation is very complex and involves the serotoninergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. Recently, genetic polymorphisms located on SLC6A4 gene codifying for 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), the major regulator of serotonic neurotransmission, have been linked with the pathogenesis and risk of PE. Apparently studies of this type of polymorphism in PE have show conflicting results. Methods A meta-analysis was performed that are available in relation with 5-HTT gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism and the risk of lifelong PE (LPE) in men to clarify this relationship. We searched Pubmed and Embase (last search updated on Aug 2012) using ‘premature ejaculation’, ‘polymorphism or variant’, ‘genotype’, ‘ejaculatory function’, and ‘rapid ejaculation’ as keywords and reference lists of studies corresponded to the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. These studies involved the total number of 481 LPE men and 466 health control men subjects. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate this relationship. Results In the overall analysis, significant associations between LPE risk and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were found (L-allele vs. S-allele OR?=?0.86, 95% CI?=?0.79–0.95, P?=?0.002; LL vs. SS: OR?=?0.80, 95% CI?=?0.68–0.95, P?=?0.009; LS vs. SS: OR?=?0.85, 95% CI?=?0.76–0.97, P?=?0.012 and LL+LS vs. SS: OR?=?0.88, 95% CI?=?0.81–0.95, P?=?0.002). Moreover, in subgroup analysis based on ethnicity, similar significant associations were detected. The Egger’s test did not reveal presence of a publication bias. Conclusions Our investigations demonstrate that 5-HTTLPR (L>S) polymorphism might protect men against LPE risk. Further studies based on larger sample size and gene-environment interactions should be conducted the role of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and LPE risk. PMID:23383022

  5. Role of 5-hydroxytryptamine in amphetamine effects on punished and unpunished behaviour.

    PubMed

    Leone, C M; de Aguiar, J C; Graeff, F G

    1983-01-01

    In order to assess the contribution of serotonergic (5-HT) mechanisms in the suppressant effect of amphetamine on punished responding, dose-effect curves of amphetamine on key-pecking behaviour of pigeons maintained by food presentation and punished by electric-shock were determined before and after pretreatment with methergoline, a potent and specific 5-HT receptor blocker in the central nervous system. A multiple fixed-interval 5 min, fixed-interval 5 min schedule of reinforcement in which every response, except the reinforced one, was punished in one of the two components (mult FI5 FI5-shock) was used. Effective doses of amphetamine decreased unpunished as well as punished FI response rates. However, the decreases in punished behaviour were more evident and dose-dependent. Methergoline markedly increased FI responding in the punished FI component but only slightly increased or decreased unpunished FI response rates. The most effective dose of methergoline for increasing punished responding was 0.56 mg/kg. Pretreatment with this dose of methergoline unmasked the facilitatory effects of amphetamine on unpunished responding, but did not antagonize its suppressant effect on punished responding. Therefore, although 5-HT seems to mediate punishment-induced response suppression and to inhibit the facilitatory effects of amphetamine on unpunished responding, it is not apparently involved in the suppressant effect of amphetamine on punished behaviour. PMID:6408676

  6. BIMT 17, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist/5-HT2A receptor antagonist, directly activates postsynaptic 5-HT inhibitory responses in the rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Borsini, F; Ceci, A; Bietti, G; Donetti, A

    1995-09-01

    BIMT 17 (1-[2-[4-(3-trifluoromethyl phenyl) piperazin-1-yl] ethyl] benzimidazol- [1H]-2-one), a 5-HT1A receptor agonist/5-HT2A receptor antagonist (see Borsini et al., accompanying paper), in a dose range of 1-10 mg/kg i.v., dose-dependently inhibited the electrical activity of rat medial prefronto-cortical neurons, whereas buspirone, in a dose range of 0.1-1000 micrograms/kg, increased it. 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and 1-[2-(2-thenoylamino)ethyl]-4-[1-(7-methoxynaphthyl)] piperazine (S 14671) presented biphasic patterns of response; they increased electrical activity at doses in the range of 0.1-10 micrograms/kg and 0.1-3 micrograms/kg i.v. respectively, and reduced it at high doses, 30-300 micrograms/kg and 10-30 micrograms/kg i.v., respectively. The inhibitory effect of BIMT 17 on the firing rate of neurons in the frontal cortex was antagonized by the 5-HT1A antagonists tertatolol and WAY 100135, and was still present after destruction of serotonin (5-HT) containing neuronal endings by the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT; 150 micrograms/rat, given intraventricularly), which reduced the cortical 5-HT content by 85%. This destruction of 5-HT neurons, while suppressing the ability of 8-OH-DPAT to inhibit the firing rate at high doses, did not change the excitatory action of this compound at low doses. The addition of ritanserin, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, potentiated both the excitatory and inhibitory effects of 8-OH-DPAT on neuronal electrical activity. Direct microiontophoretic application (100 nA/20 s) of 5-HT and BIMT 17, but not that of 8-OH-DPAT, onto medial prefronto-cortical neurons, decreased the firing rate of these neurons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8584043

  7. (1R, 3S)-(?)-Trans-PAT: A novel full-efficacy serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist with 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor inverse agonist/antagonist activity

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Raymond G.; Fang, Lijuan; Huang, Yingsu; Wilczynski, Andrzej; Sivendran, Sashikala

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptors signal primarily through G?q to activate phospholipase C (PLC) and formation of inositol phosphates (IP) and diacylglycerol. The human 5-HT2C receptor, expressed exclusively in the central nervous system, is involved in several physiological and psychological processes. Development of 5-HT2C agonists that do not also activate 5-HT2A or 5-HT2B receptors is challenging because transmembrane domain identity is about 75% among 5-HT2 subtypes. This paper reports 5-HT2 receptor affinity and function of (1R,3S)-(?)-trans-1-phenyl-3-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (PAT), a small molecule that produces anorexia and weight-loss after peripheral administration to mice. (?)-Trans-PAT is a stereoselective full-efficacy agonist at human 5-HT2C receptors, plus, it is a 5-HT2A/5-HT2B inverse agonist and competitive antagonist. The Ki of (?)-trans-PAT at 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors is 410, 1200, and 37 nM, respectively. Functional studies measured activation of PLC/[3H]-IP formation in clonal cells expressing human 5-HT2 receptors. At 5-HT2C receptors, (?)-trans-PAT is an agonist (EC50 = 20 nM) comparable to serotonin in potency and efficacy. At 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors, (?)-trans-PAT is an inverse agonist (IC50 = 490 and 1,000 nM, respectively) and competitive antagonist (KB = 460 and 1400 nM, respectively) of serotonin. Experimental results are interpreted in light of molecular modeling studies indicating the (?)-trans-PAT protonated amine can form an ionic bond with D3.32 of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors, but, not with 5-HT2B receptors. In addition to probing 5-HT2 receptor structure and function, (?)-trans-PAT is a novel lead regarding 5-HT2C agonist/5-HT2A inverse agonist drug development for obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19397907

  8. A Role for Serotonin (5-HT) in Hepatic Stellate Cell Function and Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ruddell, Richard G.; Oakley, Fiona; Hussain, Ziafat; Yeung, Irene; Bryan-Lluka, Lesley J.; Ramm, Grant A.; Mann, Derek A.

    2006-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are key cellular components of hepatic wound healing and fibrosis. There is emerging evidence that the fibrogenic function of HSCs may be influenced by neurochemical and neurotrophic factors. This study addresses the potential for the serotonin (5-HT) system to influence HSC biology. Rat and human HSCs express the 5-HT1B, 5-HT1F 5-HT2A 5-HT2B, and 5-HT7 receptors, with expression of 5-HT1B 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B being induced on HSC activation. Induction of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B was 106 ± 39- and 52 ± 8.5-fold that of quiescent cells, respectively. 5-HT2B was strongly associated with fibrotic tissue in diseased rat liver. Treatment of HSCs with 5-HT2 antagonists suppressed proliferation and elevated their rate of apoptosis; by contrast 5-HT was protective against nerve growth factor-induced apoptosis. 5-HT synergized with platelet-derived growth factor to stimulate increased HSC proliferation. HSCs were shown to express a functional serotonin transporter and to participate in both active uptake and release of 5-HT. We conclude that HSCs express key regulatory components of the 5-HT system enabling them to store and release 5-HT and to respond to the neurotransmitter in a profibrogenic manner. Antagonists that selectively target the 5-HT class of receptors may be exploited as antifibrotic drugs. PMID:16936262

  9. Role of 5-ht2c receptor density on behaviour in mice 

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, Paula Louise

    2011-07-05

    The neurotransmitters serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) play roles in eating disorders, mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, and in the regulation of locomotion. The 5-HT2C receptor is one of fourteen 5-HT receptor subtypes...

  10. Effects of serotonin re-uptake inhibition on ventilatory control in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R Henderson; Darlene M Konkle; Gordon S Mitchell

    1999-01-01

    Fluoxetine (Prozac®) inhibits serotonin (5-HT) re-uptake, thereby enhancing serotonergic effects. Since serotonin is known to affect ventilation in a variety of circumstances, we investigated the effects of chronic serotonin re-uptake inhibition with fluoxetine on selected ventilatory responses including: (1) eupnea; (2) the hypercapnic ventilatory response at rest; (3) the exercise ventilatory response and (4) repeated trials of hypercapnic exercise. Ventilatory

  11. Characterizing new fluorescent tools for studying 5-HT? receptor pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Jack, Thomas; Simonin, Jonathan; Ruepp, Marc-David; Thompson, Andrew J; Gertsch, Jürg; Lochner, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The pharmacological characterization of ligands depends upon the ability to accurately measure their binding properties. Fluorescence provides an alternative to more traditional approaches such as radioligand binding. Here we describe the binding and spectroscopic properties of eight fluorescent 5-HT3 receptor ligands. These were tested on purified receptors, expressed receptors on live cells, or in vivo. All compounds had nanomolar affinities with fluorescent properties extending from blue to near infra-red emission. A fluorescein-derivative had the highest affinity as measured by fluorescence polarization (FP; 1.14 nM), flow cytometry (FC; 3.23 nM) and radioligand binding (RB; 1.90 nM). Competition binding with unlabeled 5-HT3 receptor agonists (5-HT, mCPBG, quipazine) and antagonists (granisetron, palonosetron, tropisetron) yielded similar affinities in all three assays. When cysteine substitutions were introduced into the 5-HT3 receptor binding site the same changes in binding affinity were seen for both granisetron and the fluorescein-derivative, suggesting that they both adopt orientations that are consistent with co-crystal structures of granisetron with a homologous protein (5HTBP). As expected, in vivo live imaging in anaesthetized mice revealed staining in the abdominal cavity in intestines, but also in salivary glands. The unexpected presence of 5-HT3 receptors in mouse salivary glands was confirmed by Western blots. Overall, these results demonstrate the wide utility of our new high-affinity fluorescently-labeled 5-HT3 receptor probes, ranging from in vitro receptor pharmacology, including FC and FP ligand competition, to live imaging of 5-HT3 expressing tissues. PMID:25460187

  12. Comparative desensitization of the human 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors expressed in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y

    PubMed Central

    Briddon, S.J.; Leslie, R.A.; Elliott, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    We have used previously characterized clones of the human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, constitutively expressing either the human 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptor to compare their desensitization profiles after exposure to 5-HT.5-HT stimulated [3H]-inositol phosphate ([3H]-IPx) production at both the 5-HT2C (pEC50=8.03±0.15) and 5-HT2A receptors (pEC50=7.15±0.08), with maximal responses occurring after exposure to 1??M and 10??M 5-HT, respectively.Exposure of cells to maximally effective concentrations of 5-HT caused time- and concentration-dependent desensitization of [3H]-IPx formation. The 5-HT2A response desensitized slower (t1/2=110?min) and with lower sensitivity than that of the 5-HT2C receptor (t1/2=12.5?min). In each case, desensitization was blocked by co-administration of a specific receptor antagonist. Following exposure to 10??M 5-HT for 2?h, both receptors exhibited extensive desensitization, with subsequent responses to 5-HT reduced by more than 80%.5-HT stimulated Ins(1,4,5)P3 production with a potency similar to that for [3H]-IPx production at each receptor. In both cases Ins(1,4,5)P3 levels peaked rapidly then returned to basal level within a short time. This peak consistently occurred earlier for the 5-HT2C receptor (5?s) than for the 5-HT2A receptor (20?s).Prior exposure of SH-SY5Y/5-HT2C cells to 5-HT (1??M/15?min) caused a significant decrease in the 5-HT-stimulated peak in Ins(1,4,5)P3 levels whereas no such change occurred in SH-SY5Y/5-HT2A cells following exposure to 10??M 5-HT for 15?min.These results indicate that the human 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors both exhibit desensitization at the level of inositol phosphate formation when expressed in the same cellular environment, with the 5-HT2C receptor being more sensitive to 5-HT-mediated desensitization than the 5-HT2A receptor. PMID:9831908

  13. Synthesis and structure-affinity relationships of novel small molecule natural product derivatives capable of discriminating between serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, David F.; Canseco, Diana C.; Sheth, Pratikkumar; Johnson, James E.; Schetz, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to develop ligands that distinguish between clinically relevant 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C serotonin receptor subtypes have been challenging, because their sequences have high homology. Previous studies reported that a novel aplysinopsin belonging to a chemical class of natural products isolated from a marine sponge was selective for the 5-HT2C over the 5-HT2A receptor subtype. Our goal was to explore the 5-HT2A/2C receptor structure-affinity relationships of derivatives based on the aplysinopsin natural product pharmacophore. Twenty aplysinopsin derivatives were synthesized, purified and tested for their affinities for cloned human serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor subtypes. Four compounds in this series had >30-fold selectivity for 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors. The compound (E)-5-((5,6-dichloro-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-2-imino-1,3-dimethylimidazolidin-4-one (UNT-TWU-22, 16) had approximately 2100-fold selectivity for the serotonin 5-HT2C receptor subtype: an affinity for 5-HT2C equal to 46 nM and no detectable affinity for the 5-HT1A or 5-HT2A receptor subtypes. The two most important factors controlling 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptor subtype selectivity were the combined R1, R3-alkylation of the imidazolidinone ring and the type and number of halogens on the indole ring of the aplysinopsin pharmacophore. PMID:20570529

  14. 5HT modulation of auditory and visual sensorimotor gating: II. Effects of the 5HT 2A antagonist MDL 100,907 on disruption of sound and light prepulse inhibition produced by 5HT agonists in Wistar rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Padich; T. C. McCloskey; J. H. Kehne

    1996-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests an important role of 5-HT, and 5-HT2A receptors in particular, in the etiology and treatment of schizophrenia. The prepulse inhibition paradigm is used as a model for sensorimotor gating processes that are disrupted in schizophrenia. The present study used the selective serotonin2A (5-HT2A) antagonist and putative antipsychotic agent MDL 100,907 to evaluate the contribution of 5-HT2A receptors

  15. Multiple regulatory variants modulate expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptors in human cortex

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ryan M.; Papp, Audrey C.; Webb, Amy; Ruble, Cara L.; Munsie, Leanne M.; Nisenbaum, Laura K.; Kleinman, Joel E.; Lipska, Barbara K.; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Background The 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor, encoded by HTR2A, is a major post-synaptic target for serotonin in the human brain and a therapeutic drug target. Despite hundreds of genetic associations investigating HTR2A polymorphisms in neuropsychiatric disorders and therapies, the role of genetic HTR2A variability in health and disease remains uncertain. Methods To discover and characterize regulatory HTR2A variants, we sequenced whole transcriptomes from ten human brain regions with massively-parallel RNA sequencing and measured allelic expression of multiple HTR2A mRNA transcript variants. Following discovery of functional variants, we further characterized their impact on genetic expression in vitro. Results Three polymorphisms modulate the use of novel alternative exons and untranslated regions (UTRs), changing expression of RNA and protein. The frequent promoter variant rs6311, widely implicated in human neuropsychiatric disorders, decreases usage of an upstream transcription start site encoding a longer 5?UTR with greater translation efficiency. rs76665058, located in an extended 3?UTR and unique to individuals of African descent, modulates allelic HTR2A mRNA expression. The third SNP, unannotated and present in only a single subject, directs alternative splicing of exon 2. Targeted analysis of HTR2A in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study reveals associations between functional variants and depression severity or citalopram response. Conclusions Regulatory polymorphisms modulate HTR2A mRNA expression in an isoform-specific manner, directing the usage of novel untranslated regions and alternative exons. These results provide a foundation for delineating the role of HTR2A and serotonin signaling in CNS disorders. PMID:23158458

  16. 5-HT3 Receptor Brain-Type B-Subunits are Differentially Expressed in Heterologous Systems.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Jeremias; Thompson, Andrew J; McGonigle, Ian; Price, Kerry L; Bouzat, Cecilia; Lummis, Sarah C R

    2015-07-15

    Genes for five different 5-HT3 receptor subunits have been identified. Most of the subunits have multiple isoforms, but two isoforms of the B subunits, brain-type 1 (Br1) and brain-type 2 (Br2) are of particular interest as they appear to be abundantly expressed in human brain, where 5-HT3B subunit RNA consists of approximately 75% 5-HT3Br2, 24% 5-HT3Br1, and <1% 5-HT3B. Here we use two-electrode voltage-clamp, radioligand binding, fluorescence, whole cell, and single channel patch-clamp studies to characterize the roles of 5-HT3Br1 and 5-HT3Br2 subunits on function and pharmacology in heterologously expressed 5-HT3 receptors. The data show that the 5-HT3Br1 transcriptional variant, when coexpressed with 5-HT3A subunits, alters the EC50, nH, and single channel conductance of the 5-HT3 receptor, but has no effect on the potency of competitive antagonists; thus, 5-HT3ABr1 receptors have the same characteristics as 5-HT3AB receptors. There were some differences in the shapes of 5-HT3AB and 5-HT3ABr1 receptor responses, which were likely due to a greater proportion of homomeric 5-HT3A versus heteromeric 5-HT3ABr1 receptors in the latter, as expression of the 5-HT3Br1 compared to the 5-HT3B subunit is less efficient. Conversely, the 5-HT3Br2 subunit does not appear to form functional channels with the 5-HT3A subunit in either oocytes or HEK293 cells, and the role of this subunit is yet to be determined. PMID:25951416

  17. Effects of Sustained Administration of Quetiapine Alone and in Combination with a Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor on Norepinephrine and Serotonin Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Chernoloz, Olga; El Mansari, Mostafa; Blier, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Quetiapine is now used in the treatment of unipolar and bipolar disorders, both alone and in combination with other medications. In the current study, the sustained administration of quetiapine and N-Desalkyl quetiapine (NQuet) in rats in a 3?:?1 mixture (hQuetiapine (hQuet)) was used to mimic quetiapine exposure in patients because rats do not produce the latter important metabolite of quetiapine. Sustained administration of hQuet for 2 and 14 days, respectively, significantly enhanced the firing rate of norepinephrine (NE) neurons by blocking the cell body ?2-adrenergic autoreceptors on NE neurons, whether it was given alone or with a serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor. The 14-day regimen of hQuet enhanced the tonic activation of postsynaptic ?2- but not ?1-adrenergic receptors in the hippocampus. This increase in NE transmission was attributable to increased firing of NE neurons, the inhibition of NE reuptake by NQuet, and the attenuated function of terminal ?2-adrenergic receptors on NE terminals. Sustained administration of hQuet for 2 and 14 days, respectively, significantly inhibited the firing rate of 5-HT, whether it was given alone or with a 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, because of the blockade of excitatory ?1-adrenergic receptors on 5-HT neurons. Nevertheless, the 14-day regimen of hQuet enhanced the tonic activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in the hippocampus. This increase in 5-HT transmission was attributable to the attenuated inhibitory function of the ?2-adrenergic receptors on 5-HT terminals and possibly to direct 5-HT1A receptor agonism by NQuet. The enhancement of NE and 5-HT transmission by hQuet may contribute to its antidepressant action in mood disorders. PMID:22373941

  18. 5-HT2CRs expressed by pro-opiomelanocortin neurons regulate insulin sensitivity in liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mice lacking 5-HT 2C receptors displayed hepatic insulin resistance, a phenotype normalized by re-expression of 5-HT2CRs only in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. 5-HT2CR deficiency also abolished the anti-diabetic effects of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (a 5-HT2CR agonist); these effects were re...

  19. The 5-HT[subscript 3A] Receptor Is Essential for Fear Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo, Makoto; Nakamura, Yukiko; Ishida, Yusuke; Yamada, Takahiro; Shimada, Shoichi

    2014-01-01

    The 5-HT [subscript 3] receptor, the only ionotropic 5-HT receptor, is expressed in limbic regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cortex. However, it is not known whether it has a role in fear memory processes. Analysis of 5-HT [subscript 3A] receptor knockout mice in fear conditioning paradigms revealed that the 5-HT [subscript 3A]…

  20. Serotonin acts through 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors to exert biphasic actions on GnRH neuron excitability in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Janardhan P; Roa, Juan; Herbison, Allan E; Han, Seong Kyu

    2014-02-01

    The effect of serotonin (5-HT) on the electrical excitability of GnRH neurons was examined using gramicidin perforated-patch electrophysiology in transgenic GnRH-green fluorescent protein mice. In diestrous female, the predominant effect of 5-HT was inhibition (70%) with 50% of these cells also exhibiting a late-onset excitation. Responses were dose dependent (EC(50) = 1.2?M) and persisted in the presence of amino acid receptor antagonists and tetrodotoxin, indicating a predominant postsynaptic action of 5-HT. Studies in neonatal, juvenile, peripubertal, and adult mice revealed that 5-HT exerted less potent responses from GnRH neurons with advancing postnatal age in both sexes. In adult male mice, 5-HT exerted less potent hyperpolarizing responses with more excitations compared with females. In addition, adult proestrous female GnRH neurons exhibited reduced inhibition and a complete absence of biphasic hyperpolarization-excitation responses. Studies using 5-HT receptor antagonists demonstrated that the activation of 5-HT(1A) receptors mediated the inhibitory responses, whereas the excitation was mediated by the activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors. The 5-HT-mediated hyperpolarization involved both potassium channels and adenylate cyclase activation, whereas the 5-HT excitation was dependent on protein kinase C. The effects of exogenous 5-HT were replicated using fluoxetine, which enhances endogenous 5-HT levels. These studies demonstrate that 5-HT exerts a biphasic action on most GnRH neurons whereby a fast 5HT(1A)-mediated inhibition occurs alongside a slow 5-HT(2A) excitation. The balance of 5-HT-evoked inhibition vs excitation is developmentally regulated, sexually differentiated, and variable across the estrous cycle and may play a role in regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis throughout postnatal development. PMID:24265447

  1. Involvement of 5HT 1C -receptors in drug-induced penile erections in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hemmie H. G. Berendsen; François Jenck; Chris L. E. Broekkamp

    1990-01-01

    Drug-induced penile erections (PE) were initially suggested to be 5-HT1B receptor mediated. However, since the discovery of the 5-HT1C receptor a number of compounds, considered to be 5-HT1B selective, appear to bind more strongly to the 5-HT1C receptor and this prompted a re-evaluation of the receptor subtype involved in PE induction. PE could be induced by the 5-HT agonists mCPP

  2. A novel class of 5HT 2a receptor antagonists: Aryl aminoguanidines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry U. Bryant; David L. Nelson; Donald Button; Harlan W. Cole; Melvyn B. Baez; Virginia L. Lucaites; David B. Wainscott; Cecilia Whitesitt; Jon Reel; Richard Simon; Gary A. Koppel

    1996-01-01

    Local delivery of serotonin (5-HT) produces a rapid edematous response in soft tissues via increased fluid extravasation which is prevented by 5-HT2 antagonists such as ketanserin or mianserin. Here we report the effects of a new class of aminoguanidine 5-HT2 antagonists, with relative selectivity for 5-HT2A receptors which are potent inhibitors of 5-HT-induced paw edema in the rat. Radioligand binding

  3. SB 242084, a Selective and Brain Penetrant 5HT 2C Receptor Antagonist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. KENNETT; M. D. WOOD; F. BRIGHT; B. TRAIL; G. RILEY; V. HOLLAND; K. Y. AVENELL; T. STEAN; N. UPTON; S. BROMIDGE; I. T. FORBES; A. M. BROWN; D. N. MIDDLEMISS; T. P. BLACKBURN

    1997-01-01

    SB 242084 has a high affinity (pKi 9.0) for the cloned human 5-HT2C receptor and 100- and 158-fold selectivity over the closely related cloned human 5-HT2B and 5-HT2A subtypes respectively. SB 242084 had over 100-fold selectivity over a range of other 5-HT, dopamine and adrenergic receptors. In studies of 5-HT-stimulated phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis using SH-SY5Y cells stably expressing the cloned human

  4. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 2A receptor gene polymorphism is associated with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sujitha, Subash Padmajeya; Nair, Asha; Banerjee, Moinak; Lakshmanan, Srinivasan; Harshavaradhan, Sampth; Gunasekaran, Soosiah; Gopinathan, Anilkumar

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Schizophrenia, the debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder, is known to be heritable, involving complex genetic mechanisms. Several chromosomal regions associated with schizophrenia have been identified during the past; putative gene (s) in question, to be called the global signature for the pathophysiology of the disease, however, seems to evade us. The results obtained from the several population-wise association-non association studies have been diverse. We therefore, undertook the present study on Tamil speaking population in south India to examine the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the serotonin receptor gene (5HT2A) and the occurrence of the disease. Methods: Blood samples collected from 266 cases and 272 controls were subjected to genotyping (PCR amplification of candidate SNPs, RFLP and sequencing). The data on the SNPs were subjected to statistical analysis for assessing the gene frequencies in both the cases and the controls. Results: The study revealed significant association between the genotypic frequencies of the serotonin receptor polymorphism and schizophrenia. SNP analysis revealed that the frequencies of GG (30%, rs6311) and CC genotypes (32%, rs6313), were higher in patients (P<0.05) than in controls. The study also showed presence of G and C alleles in patients. Significant levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) were found to exist between the genotype frequencies of rs6311 and rs6313. Interpretation & conclusions: This study indicated an association between the SNPs (rs6311 and rs6313) of the serotonin receptor 5HT2A and schizophrenia. HapMap analysis revealed that in its genotype distribution, the Tamil speaking population was different from several other populations across the world, signifying the importance of such ethnicity-based studies to improve our understanding of this complex disease. PMID:25758572

  5. Cellular and subcellular localization of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B receptors in the rat central nervous system: immunocytochemical, autoradiographic and lesion studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Sari; M.-C Miquel; M.-J Brisorgueil; G Ruiz; E Doucet; M Hamon; D Vergé

    1999-01-01

    The localization of 5-hydroxytryptamine1B receptors in the rat central nervous system was investigated using anti-peptide antibodies that recognize a selective portion of the third intracytoplasmic loop of the receptor protein. At the light microscope level the densest 5-hydroxytryptamine1B receptor-like immunoreactivity was observed in ventral pallidum, globus pallidus, substantia nigra and dorsal subiculum. In addition, moderate immunoreactivity was found in the

  6. THE EFFECTS OF 5HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN AND 5HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE ON DOPAMINE SYNTHESIS AND RELEASE IN RAT BRAIN STRIATAL SYNAPTOSOMES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Andrews; Robert L. Patrick; Jack D. Barchas

    1978-01-01

    The effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and serotonin (5-HT) on dopamine synthesis and release in rat brain striatal synaptosomes have been examined and compared to the effects of tyramine and dopamine. Serotonin inhibited dopamine synthesis from tyrosine, with 25% inhibition occurring at 3 ~M-S-HT and 60% inhibition at 200~~. Dopamine synthesis from DOPA was also inhibited by 5-HT, with 30% inhibition

  7. Pharmacological Studies of the Acute Effects of (+)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine on Locomotor Activity: Role of 5HT1B\\/1D and 5HT2 Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G Bankson; Kathryn A Cunningham

    2002-01-01

    The role of serotonin 5-HT2 receptors (5-HT2R) in the hyperactivity induced by (+)-3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine ((+)-MDMA; 3 mg\\/kg) was investigated. Hyperactivity induced by (+)-MDMA was robustly potentiated by the 5-HT2B\\/2CR antagonist SB 206553 (1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg\\/kg). Administration of the 5-HT1B\\/1DR antagonist GR 127935 (2.5 mg\\/kg) or the 5-HT2AR antagonist M100907 (1.0 mg\\/kg) partially suppressed the potentiated hyperactivity seen following SB

  8. A component of 5HT-evoked depolarization of the rat isolated vagus nerve is mediated by a putative 5HT4 receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith F. Rhodes; James Coleman; Norman Lattimer

    1992-01-01

    This study describes a component of 5-HT-evoked depolarization of the rat isolated vagus nerve which was unaffected by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron. A grease-gap extracellular recording technique was used. Ondansetron (10–100 nmol\\/1) displaced the 5-HT concentration-response curve to the right yielding a pA2 value of 8.6 (8.5–8.8), consistent with 5-HT3 receptor antagonism, and revealing a component of the 5-HT

  9. New methoxy-chroman derivatives, 4[N-(5-methoxy-chroman-3-yl)N- propylamino]butyl-8-azaspiro-(4,5)-decane-7,9-dione [(+/-)-S 20244] and its enantiomers, (+)-S 20499 and (-)-S 20500, with potent agonist properties at central 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Kidd, E J; Haj-Dahmane, S; Jolas, T; Lanfumey, L; Fattaccini, C M; Guardiola-Lemaitre, B; Gozlan, H; Hamon, M

    1993-02-01

    The potential interaction of the new methoxy-chroman derivatives: (+/-)-S 20244 (4-[N-(5-methoxy-chroman-3-yl)N-propylamino]butyl-8-azaspiro- (4,5)-decane-7,9-dione) and its enantiomers (+)-S 20499 and (-)-S 20500 with central 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5-HT1A) receptors was assessed using biochemical and electrophysiological tests in the rat. In vitro binding assays revealed that these drugs bound with high affinity to 5-HT1A sites in hippocampal membranes (Ki: 0.19 nM for (+)-S 20499, 0.95 nM for (-)-S 20500 and 0.35 nM for the racemate (+/-) S 20244). As seen with the prototypical 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin, (+/-)-S 20244, (+)-S 20499 and (-)-S 20500 inhibited forskolin-activated adenylate cyclase in hippocampal homogenates with potencies corresponding to their respective affinities for 5-HT1A sites. The maximal inhibitory effect of the chroman derivatives was not additive with that of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n- propylamino)tetralin and could be competitively reduced by 5-HT1A antagonists such as (-)-propranolol and (+/-)-tertatolol. Electrophysiological recordings within the dorsal raphe nucleus both in vitro (in brain-stem slices) and in vivo (in chloral hydrate anesthetized rats) showed that (+)-S 20499, (+/-)-S 20244 and (-)-S 20500 induced, in that order of (decreasing) potency, a dose-dependent reduction in the spontaneous firing of serotoninergic neurons. In vitro, as well as in vivo, the inhibitory influence of the chroman derivatives on the discharge frequency of serotoninergic neurons could be competitively antagonized by (+/-)-tertatolol. Finally, oral administration of increasing doses of the most potent enantiomer, (+)-S 20499, induced a marked reduction in the rate of 5-HT turnover, without affecting that of dopamine, in various brain areas. All these biochemical and electrophysiological data indicate that (+)-S 20499 is a highly potent agonist at both presynaptic (i.e., somatodendritic) and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in the rat brain. PMID:8094756

  10. Changes in 5-HT2A-mediated behavior and 5-HT2A- and 5-HT1A receptor binding and expression in conditional BDNF knock-out mice

    PubMed Central

    Klein, AB; Santini, MA; Aznar, S; Knudsen, GM; Rios, M

    2010-01-01

    Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression have been implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. To investigate pathological mechanisms elicited by perturbed BDNF signaling, we examined mutant mice with central depletion of BDNF (BDNF2L/2LCk-cre). A severe impairment specific for the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2A) in prefrontal cortex was described previously in these mice. This is of much interest, as 5-HT2A receptors have been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders and in anxiety-related behavior. Here we further characterized the serotonin receptor alterations triggered by BDNF depletion. 5-HT2A (3H-MDL100907) and 5-HT1A (3H-WAY100635) receptor autoradiography revealed site-specific alterations in BDNF mutant mice. They exhibited lower 5-HT2A receptor binding in frontal cortex but increased binding in hippocampus. Additionally, 5-HT1A receptor binding was decreased in hippocampus of BDNF mutants, but unchanged in frontal cortex. Molecular analysis indicated corresponding changes in 5-HT2A and 1A mRNA expression but normal 5-HT2C content in these brain regions in BDNF2L/2LCk-cre mice. We investigated whether the reduction in frontal 5-HT2A receptor binding was reflected in reduced functional output in two 5-HT2A-receptor mediated behavioral tests, the head-twitch response (HTR) and the ear-scratch response (ESR). BDNF2L/2LCk-cre mutants treated with the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI showed a clearly diminished ESR but no differences in HTR compared to wildtypes. These findings illustrate the context-dependent effects of deficient BDNF signaling on the 5-HT receptor system and 5-HT2A-receptor functional output. PMID:20576498

  11. Regional differences in expression of TPH-1, SERT, 5-HT(3) and 5-HT(4) receptors in the human stomach and duodenum.

    PubMed

    van Lelyveld, N; Ter Linde, J; Schipper, M E I; Samsom, M

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the understanding of the role of serotonergic signalling in normal gastroduodenal function at a molecular level. Mucosal biopsy specimens were collected from the fundus, antrum and duodenum of 11 healthy subjects. Serotonin (5-HT)-positive cells were counted and the mRNA levels of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), serotonin transporter (SERT), 5-HT(4) receptor and 5-HT(3) receptor subunits were quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The number of 5-HT-positive cells was larger in the duodenum compared with the stomach (P < 0.001). Serotonin transport protein expression was 19-fold higher in the duodenum compared with the antrum and 457-fold higher compared with the fundus (P < 0.001). Tryptophan hydroxylase-1 expression was lower in the duodenum compared with the antrum and fundus (regional differences -2.3 and -3.6, respectively). The 5-HT(4) receptor and the 5-HT(3C) and 5-HT(3E) receptor subunits were more abundantly expressed in duodenum compared with the stomach (P < 0.001). The larger number of 5-HT-positive cells, the higher expression of 5-HT(3) and 5-HT(4) receptors, and in particularly the higher uptake capacity of 5-HT in the duodenum, point out to a more prominent role of serotonergic signalling at the mucosal level in the duodenum compared with the stomach. PMID:17509016

  12. [Facilitation of synaptic transmission and connections of entorhinal-hippocampal pathway by 5-HT2C receptor subtype: multi-electrode array recordings].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Jin, Jian-Hui; Wang, Yan; Wang, Rui-Rui; Li, Zhen; Chen, Jun

    2012-06-25

    Using 64-channels (8 × 8) multi-electrode array technique (MED-64 system), the modulatory actions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 2C receptor subtype on the entorhinal (EC)-hippocampal synaptic transmission and connections were studied. One of freshly dissociated acute hippocampal slices of rats which was placed on the MED-64 probe, was subject to constant perfusion with oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF, 95% O2 and 5% CO2). Two hours after ACSF incubation, simultaneous multi-site electrophysiological recordings were performed. One electrode was selected to be used for perforant path (PP) stimulation, and the remaining 63 electrodes were used for recordings of network field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) within both CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) that have been previously proved to be mediated by glutamate non-NMDA receptors. After stability of network fEPSPs was achieved, (±)-1(2, 5-Dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI, an agonist of 5-HT2C receptor subtype), or SB242084 (6-Chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-N-[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]-1H-indole-1-carboxyamide dihydrochloride hydrate) (a selective antagonist of 5-HT2C receptor subtype) was applied for 10 min perfusion, respectively. Two-dimensional current source density (2D-CSD) analysis was also transformed by bilinear interpolation at each point of the 64 electrodes for spatial imaging of the fEPSP network responses. Based upon the polarities of fEPSP and 2D-CSD imaging, it was clearly shown that synaptic activations were evoked to occur within the molecular layer of DG and pyramidal cell layer of CA1 by the PP stimulation in which negative-going field potentials and current sink (blue) could be recorded. While, positive-going field potentials and current source (yellow) were mainly localized within the granule cell layer and hilus of DG and alveus of CA1, reflecting spread of electrical signals derived from depolarized region toward CA3 area or subiculum and fimbria along the axons. Perfusion of the hippocampal slices with DOI resulted in a significant enlargement of synaptic connection size at network level and enhancement of synaptic efficacy. However, on the contrary, perfusion with SB242084 produced reversal effect with either reduction in synaptic network size or decreased magnitude of fEPSPs (amplitude and slope) in the CA1 and DG. These results suggest that endogenous 5-HT causes facilitation of EC-CA1 and EC-DG synaptic transmission and connections via acting on 5-HT2C receptor subtype, leading to gain in synaptic transmission and enlargement of synaptic connections. PMID:22717628

  13. Relieving visceral hyperalgesia effect of Kangtai capsule and its potential mechanisms via modulating the 5-HT and NO level in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Long; Huang, Xiao-Qi; Xu, Shi-Jie; Liao, Jin-Bin; Wang, Ru-Jun; Lu, Xiao-Feng; Xie, You-Liang; Zhou, Fu-Sheng; Su, Zi-Ren; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2013-02-15

    Kangtai capsule (KT) is one type of traditional Chinese medicine preparation derived from the proved recipe, which was frequently applied as an effective clinical treatment of IBS. However, there still lack the reasonable and all-round analytical approach and the scientific studies on its underlying mechanisms. Therefore, our study aimed to develop the novel method for evaluating its quality as well as to interpret the potential mechanisms. In our study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint was applied to provide a chemical profile of KT. The neonatal maternal separation (NMS) on Sprague-Dawley pups was employed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of KT by virtue of various parameters including visceral hyperalgesia, serum nitric oxide (NO) level, and tissue 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) level. Consequently, a chromatographic condition, which was carried at 30°C with a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min on AQUA 3? C18 column with mobile phase of acetonitrile and water-phosphoric acid (100:0.1, v/v), was established to give a common fingerprint chromatography under 254 nm with a similarity index of 0.963 within ten batches of KT samples. On the NMS model, KT markedly elevated the pain threshold of NMS rats. Furthermore, KT at three doses significantly decreased 5-HT content from distal colon of visceral hyperalgesia rats induced by NMS, while the significant decrease of 5-HT content in serum was only observed in the group with KT at high dose. However, compared with that in NMS rats without KT, there was no apparent difference of 5-HT level from brain issue in the rats with various doses. Besides, KT could substantially elevate the concentration of NO in the serum. The results showed our study developed the simple, rapid, accurate, reproducible qualitative and quantitative analysis by HPLC fingerprint for the quality control for KT. Data from the pharmacological investigation suggested that the curative effect of KT to the visceral hypersensitivity may be concerned with the level of 5-HT and NO in vivo, promising its potential in irritable bowel syndrome treatment. PMID:23141427

  14. The 5-HT1-like receptor mediating the increase in canine external carotid blood flow: close resemblance to the 5-HT1D subtype.

    PubMed Central

    Villalón, C M; Terrón, J A

    1994-01-01

    1. It has recently been shown that the increase in external carotid blood flow induced by 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT) in the anaesthetized dog, being mimicked by 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), inhibited by methiothepin, vagosympathectomy and sympatho-inhibitory drugs, and resistant to blockade by ritanserin and MDL 72222, is mediated by stimulation of prejunctional 5-HT1-like receptors leading to an inhibitory action on carotid sympathetic nerves; these 5-HT1-like receptors are unrelated to either the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B or 5-HT1C (now 5-HT2C) receptor subtypes. Inasmuch as 5-CT, 5-methoxytryptamine, sumatriptan and metergoline display high affinity, amongst other 5-HT binding sites, for the 5-HT1D subtype, in the present study we have used these drugs in an attempt to determine whether the above inhibitory prejunctional 5-HT1-like receptors correlate with the 5-HT1D subtype. 2. One-minute intracarotid (i.c.) infusions of 5-HT (0.3, 1, 3 and 10 micrograms), 5-CT (0.01, 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 micrograms), 5-methoxytryptamine (1, 3, 10 and 30 micrograms) and sumatriptan (1, 3, 10, 30 and 100 micrograms) resulted in dose-dependent increases in external carotid blood flow (without changes in mean arterial blood pressure or heart rate) with the following rank order of agonist potency: 5-CT >> 5-HT > 5-methoxytryptamine > or = sumatriptan. Interestingly, sumatriptan-induced vasodilatation was followed by a more pronounced vasoconstriction. 3. The external carotid vasodilator effects of 5-HT, 5-CT, 5-methoxytryptamine and sumatriptan were dose-dependently and specifically antagonized by metergoline (10, 30 and/or 100 micrograms kg-1, i.v.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7812603

  15. Depression vulnerability and 5-hydroxytryptophan prophylaxis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herman van Praag; Sietse de Haan

    1980-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that (1) The group of vital (endogenous) depressions encompasses a subgroup with a central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) deficiency. (2) Abolition of this deficiency—with the aid of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), a 5-HT precursor, or clomipramine, a 5-HT reuptake inhibitor—leads to abatement of depressive symptoms. It therefore seems plausible that the suspected 5-HT deficiency contributes to the development of

  16. The role of 5-HT1A receptors in the anti-aversive effects of cannabidiol on panic attack-like behaviors evoked in the presence of the wild snake Epicrates cenchria crassus (Reptilia, Boidae).

    PubMed

    Twardowschy, André; Castiblanco-Urbina, Maria Angélica; Uribe-Mariño, Andres; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Salgado-Rohner, Carlos José; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2013-12-01

    The potential anxiolytic and antipanic properties of cannabidiol have been shown; however, its mechanism of action seems to recruit other receptors than those involved in the endocannabinoid-mediated system. It was recently shown that the model of panic-like behaviors elicited by the encounters between mice and snakes is a good tool to investigate innate fear-related responses, and cannabidiol causes a panicolytic-like effect in this model. The aim of the present study was to investigate the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) co-participation in the panicolytic-like effects of cannabidiol on the innate fear-related behaviors evoked by a prey versus predator interaction-based paradigm. Male Swiss mice were treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) administrations of cannabidiol (3 mg/kg, i.p.) and its vehicle and the effects of the peripheral pre-treatment with increasing doses of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (0.1, 0.3 and 0.9 mg/kg, i.p.) on instinctive fear-induced responses evoked by the presence of a wild snake were evaluated. The present results showed that the panicolytic-like effects of cannabidiol were blocked by the pre-treatment with WAY-100635 at different doses. These findings demonstrate that cannabidiol modulates the defensive behaviors evoked by the presence of threatening stimuli, and the effects of cannabidiol are at least partially dependent on the recruitment of 5-HT1A receptors. PMID:23926240

  17. Agonistic Properties of Cannabidiol at 5HT1a Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethan B. Russo; Andrea Burnett; Brian Hall; Keith K. Parker

    2005-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major, biologically active, but psycho-inactive component of cannabis. In this cell culture-based report, CBD is shown to displace the agonist, [3H]8-OH-DPAT from the cloned human 5-HT1a receptor in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, the major psychoactive component of cannabis, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) does not displace agonist from the receptor in the same micromolar concentration range. In signal

  18. In search of potent 5-HT6 receptor inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Hostetler, Greg; Dunn, Derek; McKenna, Beth Ann; Kopec, Karla; Chatterjee, Sankar

    2014-06-01

    A series of non-sulfonamide/non-sulfone derived potent 5-HT6 receptor inverse agonists has been disclosed. Representative compound 9 (Ki  = 14 nm) displayed selectivity against a set of family members as well as brain permeability 6 h post-oral administration. In addition, the separated enantiomers of compound 9 displayed difference in activity indicating the influence of chirality on potency. PMID:24406060

  19. Evidence for the existence of FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complexes in the midbrain raphe 5-HT system.

    PubMed

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Narvaez, Manuel; Pérez-Alea, Mileidys; Tarakanov, Alexander O; Jiménez-Beristain, Antonio; Mudó, Giuseppa; Agnati, Luigi F; Ciruela, Francisco; Belluardo, Natale; Fuxe, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    The ascending midbrain 5-HT neurons known to contain 5-HT1A autoreceptors may be dysregulated in depression due to a reduced trophic support. With in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) and supported by co-location of the FGFR1 and 5-HT1A immunoreactivities in midbrain raphe 5-HT cells, evidence for the existence of FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complexes were obtained in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei of the Sprague-Dawley rat. Their existence in the rat medullary raphe RN33B cell cultures was also established. After combined FGF-2 and 8-OH-DPAT treatment, a marked and significant increase in PLA positive clusters was found in the RN33B cells. Similar results were reached upon coactivation by agonists in HEK293T cells using the Fluorescent Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) technique resulting in increased FRETmax and reduced FRET50 values. The heteroreceptor complex formation was dependent on TMV of the 5-HT1A receptor since it was blocked by incubation with TMV but not with TMII. Taken together, the 5-HT1A autoreceptors by being recruited into a FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complex in the midbrain raphe 5-HT nerve cells may develop a novel function, namely a trophic role in many midbrain 5-HT neuron systems originating from the dorsal and medianus raphe nuclei. PMID:25485703

  20. Effects of ginger constituents on the gastrointestinal tract: role of cholinergic M3 and serotonergic 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Pertz, Heinz H; Lehmann, Jochen; Roth-Ehrang, René; Elz, Sigurd

    2011-07-01

    The herbal drug ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) may be effective for treating nausea, vomiting, and gastric hypomotility. In these conditions, cholinergic M (3) receptors and serotonergic 5-HT (3) and 5-HT (4) receptors are involved. The major chemical constituents of ginger are [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol. We studied the interaction of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol (racemates), and [6]-shogaol with guinea pig M (3) receptors, guinea pig 5-HT (3) receptors, and rat 5-HT (4) receptors. In whole segments of guinea pig ileum (bioassay for contractile M (3) receptors), [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol slightly but significantly depressed the maximal carbachol response at an antagonist concentration of 10 µM. In the guinea pig myenteric plexus preparation (bioassay for contractile 5-HT (3) receptors), 5-HT maximal responses were depressed by [10]-gingerol from 93 ± 3 % to 65 ± 6 % at an antagonist concentration of 3 µM and to 48 ± 3 % at an antagonist concentration of 5 µM following desensitization of 5-HT (4) receptors and blockade of 5-HT (1) and 5-HT (2) receptors. [6]-Shogaol (3 µM) induced depression to 61 ± 3 %. In rat esophageal tunica muscularis mucosae (bioassay for relaxant 5-HT (4) receptors), [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol (2-6.3 µM) showed no agonist effects. The maximal 5-HT response remained unaffected in the presence of the compounds. It is concluded that the efficiency of ginger in reducing nausea and vomiting may be based on a weak inhibitory effect of gingerols and shogaols at M (3) and 5-HT (3) receptors. 5-HT (4) receptors, which play a role in gastroduodenal motility, appear not to be involved in the action of these compounds. PMID:21305447

  1. Expression of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in the hippocampus is required for social stress resilience and the antidepressant-like effects induced by the nicotinic partial agonist cytisine.

    PubMed

    Mineur, Yann S; Einstein, Emily B; Bentham, Matthew P; Wigestrand, Mattis B; Blakeman, Sam; Newbold, Sylvia A; Picciotto, Marina R

    2015-03-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) blockers potentiate the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in some treatment-resistant patients; however, it is not known whether these effects are independent, or whether the two neurotransmitter systems act synergistically. We first determined that the SSRI fluoxetine and the nicotinic partial agonist cytisine have synergistic effects in a mouse model of antidepressant efficacy, whereas serotonin depletion blocked the effects of cytisine. Using a pharmacological approach, we found that the 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT also potentiated the antidepressant-like effects of cytisine, suggesting that this subtype might mediate the interaction between the serotonergic and cholinergic systems. The 5-HT1A receptors are located both presynaptically and postsynaptically. We therefore knocked down 5-HT1A receptors in either the dorsal raphe (presynaptic autoreceptors) or the hippocampus (a brain area with high expression of 5-HT1A heteroreceptors sensitive to cholinergic effects on affective behaviors). Knockdown of 5-HT1A receptors in hippocampus, but not dorsal raphe, significantly decreased the antidepressant-like effect of cytisine. This study suggests that serotonin signaling through postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in the hippocampus is critical for the antidepressant-like effects of a cholinergic drug and begins to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying interactions between the serotonergic and cholinergic systems related to mood disorders. PMID:25288485

  2. (+/-)-1-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane(DOI) and alpha-methyl-5-HT: 5-HT2 receptor agonistic action on phosphatidylinositol metabolism in the rat fronto-cingulate and entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Edwards, E; Ashby, C R; Wang, R Y

    1992-07-01

    In the present study, the effects of 5-HT and two 5-HT1c/5-HT2 receptor agonists, (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and alpha-methyl-serotonin (alpha-Me-5-HT) on phosphoinositide hydrolysis were compared, to determine whether DOI and alpha-Me-5-HT were full agonists. Consistent with the results obtained from previous studies, both (+/-)-DOI and alpha-Me-5-HT stimulated turnover of phosphoinositide in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the response obtained with these 5-HT1c/5-HT2 receptor agonists was only 30-40% of that of 5-HT. The stimulation of hydrolysis of phosphoinositide, produced by both 5-HT2 receptor agonists, was potently antagonized by ritanserin (a 5-HT1c/5-HT2 receptor antagonist) and alpha-phenyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperine methanol [(+)-MDL 11,939, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist] but not by granisetron (BRL a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist), suggesting that the action of DOI and alpha-Me-5-HT was primarily mediated by 5-HT2 receptors. When the effect of increasing the concentration of 5-HT on turnover of phosphoinositide was measured in the presence of a 1 microM concentration of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron, the response obtained was similar to the response produced by the 5-HT2 receptor agonists, DOI and alpha-Me-5-HT. These results confirm the previous finding that 5-HT stimulates hydrolysis of phosphoinositide by interacting with 5-HT1c/5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors. Moreover, they suggest that DOI and alpha-Me-5-HT are full agonists at the 5-HT2 receptor, coupled to hydrolysis of phosphoinositide in the cortex of the rat. PMID:1407401

  3. Glyceride lipases in nerve endings of guinea-pig brain and their stimulation by noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine and adrenaline.

    PubMed

    Vyvoda, O S; Rowe, C E

    1973-02-01

    1. Combined guinea-pig cortex and cerebellum was shown to contain triglyceride lipase, diglyceride lipase and monoglyceride lipase, which were assayed by the release of [1-(14)C]palmitate from [1-(14)C]palmitoylglycerol esters. Triglyceride lipase and diglyceride lipase were found in all particulate fractions. 2. With osmotically ruptured synaptosomes the rates of release of palmitate from glyceryl tripalmitate and glyceryl dipalmitate were 7-25mumol/h per g of protein and 0.18-0.69mmol/h per g of protein respectively. The logarithm of the rate of hydrolysis of glyceryl monopalmitate increased linearly with the logarithm of protein concentration. The pH optima of triglyceride lipase and diglyceride lipase were between 7 and 8. The pH optimum for monoglyceride lipase was approx. 8. 3. Triglyceride lipase and diglyceride lipase of osmotically ruptured synaptosomes were stimulated by noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine and adrenaline. Triglyceride lipase of isolated synaptic membranes was stimulated by 0.01-1mm-noradrenaline. Aging of membranes at 0 degrees C decreased activity, which could still be stimulated by noradrenaline. Diglyceride lipase of isolated membranes was stimulated by 1mum-1mm-noradrenaline. The activity of triglyceride lipase in isolated synaptic vesicles was diminished by 1mm-5-hydroxytryptamine. PMID:4725038

  4. Glyceride lipases in nerve endings of guinea-pig brain and their stimulation by noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine and adrenaline

    PubMed Central

    Vyvoda, O. S.; Rowe, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    1. Combined guinea-pig cortex and cerebellum was shown to contain triglyceride lipase, diglyceride lipase and monoglyceride lipase, which were assayed by the release of [1-14C]palmitate from [1-14C]palmitoylglycerol esters. Triglyceride lipase and diglyceride lipase were found in all particulate fractions. 2. With osmotically ruptured synaptosomes the rates of release of palmitate from glyceryl tripalmitate and glyceryl dipalmitate were 7–25?mol/h per g of protein and 0.18–0.69mmol/h per g of protein respectively. The logarithm of the rate of hydrolysis of glyceryl monopalmitate increased linearly with the logarithm of protein concentration. The pH optima of triglyceride lipase and diglyceride lipase were between 7 and 8. The pH optimum for monoglyceride lipase was approx. 8. 3. Triglyceride lipase and diglyceride lipase of osmotically ruptured synaptosomes were stimulated by noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine and adrenaline. Triglyceride lipase of isolated synaptic membranes was stimulated by 0.01–1mm-noradrenaline. Aging of membranes at 0°C decreased activity, which could still be stimulated by noradrenaline. Diglyceride lipase of isolated membranes was stimulated by 1?m–1mm-noradrenaline. The activity of triglyceride lipase in isolated synaptic vesicles was diminished by 1mm-5-hydroxytryptamine. PMID:4725038

  5. Signal transduction by the 5-HT2A receptor and its H452Y polymorphic variant 

    E-print Network

    Barclay, Zoë Jade

    2010-01-01

    The 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) is implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and is thought to mediate the actions of a number of hallucinogenic and antipsychotic drugs. Additionally, certain polymorphic ...

  6. Rational Drug Design Leading to the Identification of a Potent 5-HT2C Agonist Lacking 5-HT2B Activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The 5-HT2C receptor is an attractive drug target in the quest for new therapeutics to treat a variety of human disorders. We have previously undertaken a structural optimization campaign that has led to some potent and moderately selective 5-HT2C receptor agonists. After expanding our structure–function library, we were able to combine our data sets so as to allow the design of compounds of improved selectivity and potency. We disclose herein the structural optimization of our previously reported 5-HT2B/5-HT2C agonists, which has led to the identification of a highly selective 5-HT2C agonist, (+)-trans-[2-(2-cyclopropylmethoxyphenyl)cyclopropyl]methylamine hydrochloride, with an EC50 of 55 nM and no detectable agonism at the 5-HT2B receptor. PMID:22778800

  7. Adult AMPA GLUA1 receptor subunit loss in 5-HT neurons results in a specific anxiety-phenotype with evidence for dysregulation of 5-HT neuronal activity.

    PubMed

    Weber, Tillmann; Vogt, Miriam A; Gartside, Sarah E; Berger, Stefan M; Lujan, Rafael; Lau, Thorsten; Herrmann, Elke; Sprengel, Rolf; Bartsch, Dusan; Gass, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Both the glutamatergic and serotonergic (5-HT) systems are implicated in the modulation of mood and anxiety. Descending cortical glutamatergic neurons regulate 5-HT neuronal activity in the midbrain raphe nuclei through ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. To analyze the functional role of GLUA1-containing AMPA receptors in serotonergic neurons, we used the Cre-ERT2/loxP-system for the conditional inactivation of the GLUA1-encoding Gria1 gene selectively in 5-HT neurons of adult mice. These Gria1(5-HT-/-) mice exhibited a distinct anxiety phenotype but showed no alterations in locomotion, depression-like behavior, or learning and memory. Increased anxiety-related behavior was associated with significant decreases in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) expression and activity, and subsequent reductions in tissue levels of 5-HT, its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and norepinephrine in the raphe nuclei. However, TPH2 expression and activity as well as monoamine levels were unchanged in the projection areas of 5-HT neurons. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings of 5-HT neurons revealed that, while ?1-adrenoceptor-mediated excitation was unchanged, excitatory responses to AMPA were enhanced and the 5-HT1A autoreceptor-mediated inhibitory response to 5-HT was attenuated in Gria1(5-HT-/-) mice. Our data show that a loss of GLUA1 protein in 5-HT neurons enhances AMPA receptor function and leads to multiple local molecular and neurochemical changes in the raphe nuclei that dysregulate 5-HT neuronal activity and induce anxiety-like behavior. PMID:25547714

  8. Pathology and Neurotoxicity in Dogs after Repeat Dose Exposure to a Serotonin 5-HT1B Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jane C.F.; Ciaccio, Paul; Schroeder, Patricia; Wright, Lindsay; Westwood, Russell; Berg, Anna-Lena

    2014-01-01

    AZD3783, a cationic amphiphilic drug and a potent inhibitor of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1B) receptor, was explored as a potential treatment for depression. To support clinical trials, repeat dose toxicity studies in rats and dogs were conducted. Here we report toxicity findings in dogs after dosing from 1 to 3 months. In the 1-month study, there were minimal neuronal vacuolation in the brain, a marked increase in liver enzymes accompanied by hepatocellular degeneration/necrosis and phospholipidosis (PLD), and PLD/cholecystitis in the gallbladder of animals dosed at 47 mg/kg/day. In the 3-month study, neurotoxicity resulted in euthanasia of one animal dosed at 30 mg/kg/day after 86 days. Extensive pathologic changes were seen in all animals in retina epithelium (inclusion bodies), brain (neuronal vacuolation, degeneration, or necrosis and nerve fiber degeneration), spinal ganglia (vacuolation, degeneration, or necrosis), as well as sciatic and optic nerves (degeneration). Pigment-laden macrophages were observed in the lung, kidney, liver, gallbladder, bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, and lymphoid tissues. Also seen were vitrel and retinal hemorrhage in the eyes. A brain concentration and pathology study showed that the concentration of AZD3783 in the brain was approximately 4 times higher than in the plasma after 4 weeks of dosing, however, they were similar in all regions examined, and did not correlate with areas with pathologic findings. Our findings with AZD3783 in dogs have not been reported previously with other CNS compounds that effect through serotonergic pharmacology. PMID:24791065

  9. Pathology and Neurotoxicity in Dogs after Repeat Dose Exposure to a Serotonin 5-HT1B Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jane C F; Ciaccio, Paul; Schroeder, Patricia; Wright, Lindsay; Westwood, Russell; Berg, Anna-Lena

    2014-04-01

    AZD3783, a cationic amphiphilic drug and a potent inhibitor of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1B) receptor, was explored as a potential treatment for depression. To support clinical trials, repeat dose toxicity studies in rats and dogs were conducted. Here we report toxicity findings in dogs after dosing from 1 to 3 months. In the 1-month study, there were minimal neuronal vacuolation in the brain, a marked increase in liver enzymes accompanied by hepatocellular degeneration/necrosis and phospholipidosis (PLD), and PLD/cholecystitis in the gallbladder of animals dosed at 47 mg/kg/day. In the 3-month study, neurotoxicity resulted in euthanasia of one animal dosed at 30 mg/kg/day after 86 days. Extensive pathologic changes were seen in all animals in retina epithelium (inclusion bodies), brain (neuronal vacuolation, degeneration, or necrosis and nerve fiber degeneration), spinal ganglia (vacuolation, degeneration, or necrosis), as well as sciatic and optic nerves (degeneration). Pigment-laden macrophages were observed in the lung, kidney, liver, gallbladder, bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, and lymphoid tissues. Also seen were vitrel and retinal hemorrhage in the eyes. A brain concentration and pathology study showed that the concentration of AZD3783 in the brain was approximately 4 times higher than in the plasma after 4 weeks of dosing, however, they were similar in all regions examined, and did not correlate with areas with pathologic findings. Our findings with AZD3783 in dogs have not been reported previously with other CNS compounds that effect through serotonergic pharmacology. PMID:24791065

  10. Can 5-HT3 antagonists contribute toward the treatment of schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Ellenbroek, Bart A; Prinssen, Eric P M

    2015-02-01

    In one of his earlier papers, Lex Cools stated that the 'concept of an impaired balance between the in series connected […] dopamine system, […] 5-HT system and […] noradrenaline system offers a single coherent and integrated theory of schizophrenia' (Cools, 1975). Since then, considerable attention has focused on the interaction between dopamine and 5-HT and it is now well accepted that most antipsychotics (especially the second-generation drugs) modulate both dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors. However, the vast majority of research has focused on the 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. In the present paper, we review the literature pertaining to the 5-HT3 receptor, the only ionotropic 5-HT receptor. We discuss both the interactions between 5-HT3 receptors and dopamine, and the animal and human literature investigating the role of 5-HT3 receptors in schizophrenia. The results show that the interactions between 5-HT3 receptors and dopamine are complex, but that 5-HT3 receptors do not have a strong influence on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. However, when added to standard antipsychotic medication, several recent studies have found that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists can induce a statistically significantly improvement in negative and cognitive symptoms. The implications of these findings in relation to animal modelling and drug development are discussed. PMID:25356732

  11. Immunohistological localization of 5-HT in the CNS and feeding system of the Stable Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    5-HT immunoreactive neurons were detected in the CNS of the stable fly. The finding of strong innervations of the cibarial pump muscles and the foregut by 5-HT IR neurons in the feeding-related systems suggests that 5-HT may play a crucial role in the control of the feeding behavior in both the larv...

  12. Transcriptional regulation of the 5-HT1A receptor: implications for mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor is an abundant post-synaptic 5-HT receptor (heteroreceptor) implicated in regulation of mood, emotion and stress responses and is the major somatodendritic autoreceptor that negatively regulates 5-HT neuronal activity. Based on animal models, an integrated model for opposing roles of pre- and post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors in anxiety and depression phenotypes and response to antidepressants is proposed. Understanding differential transcriptional regulation of pre- versus post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors could provide better tools for their selective regulation. This review examines the transcription factors that regulate brain region-specific basal and stress-induced expression of the 5-HT1A receptor gene (Htr1a). A functional polymorphism, rs6295 in the Htr1a promoter region, blocks the function of specific repressors Hes1, Hes5 and Deaf1, resulting in increased 5-HT1A autoreceptor expression in animal models and humans. Its association with altered 5-HT1A expression, depression, anxiety and antidepressant response are related to genotype frequency in different populations, sample homogeneity, disease outcome measures and severity. Preliminary evidence from gene × environment studies suggests the potential for synergistic interaction of stress-mediated repression of 5-HT1A heteroreceptors, and rs6295-induced upregulation of 5-HT1A autoreceptors. Targeted therapeutics to inhibit 5-HT1A autoreceptor expression and induce 5-HT1A heteroreceptor expression may ameliorate treatment of anxiety and major depression. PMID:22826341

  13. Localization of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A positive cells in the brainstems of control age-matched and Alzheimer individuals

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, L. Y.; Kung, H. F.

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin receptor 1A and 2A positive cells in postmortem brainstems were demonstrated via immunohistochemistry in eight control age-matched elderly individuals and eight Alzheimer patients. The 5-HT1A positive cells were found in substantia nigra, pontile nucleus, and vagal as well as dorsal raphe nucleus, while 5-HT2A receptor positive cells were found in motor, sensory and spinal trigeminal nuclei, pontile nucleus, substantia nigra, and nucleus solitarius. A comparison in density of positive cells per unit area was made between control age-matched and Alzheimer individuals. Statistically significant differences (p???0.01) in density were observed in 5-HT1A cells in pontile, dorsal raphe, and vagal nuclei between control age-matched and Alzheimer, and in 5-HT2A positive cells in the sensory trigeminal nucleus, between control and Alzheimer. This de novo study indicated the presence of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor positive cells in the above nuclei of human brainstem and revealed differences in density between control age-matched and Alzheimer, indicating possible functional derangements in Alzheimer patients in these areas. In addition, colocalization studies indicated that 5-HT1A receptors were in cholinergic cells and gamma-aminobutyric acid positive fibers were linked to 5-HT2A receptor positive cells. It is hoped that understanding these two important 5-HT receptors and their localization might lead to advances in future therapeutic development. PMID:20508993

  14. Role of serotonin 5HT 1A and opioid receptors in the antiallodynic effect of tramadol in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther Berrocoso; M. Dolores De Benito; Juan A. Mico

    2007-01-01

    Rationale  Tramadol (1RS, 2RS)-2-[(dimethylamino)-methyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-cyclohexanol) is an atypical centrally acting analgesic agent with weak opioid\\u000a receptor affinity that, like some antidepressants, enhances the extraneuronal concentrations of the monoamine neurotransmitters,\\u000a noradrenaline and serotonin, by interfering with their re-uptake and release mechanisms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential role of 5-HT1A receptors and opioids receptors in the analgesic effect of tramadol

  15. Characterization of human 5-HT4(d) receptor desensitization in CHO cells

    PubMed Central

    Mialet, Jeanne; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Lezoualc'h, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Serotonin 5-HT4 receptor isoforms differ in their C-terminal tail and yet little is known about their regulation. In this study, we investigated the desensitization of two human 5-HT4 receptors stably expressed in CHO cells, with a special emphasis on the h5-HT4(d) isoform. Exposure of h5-HT4(d) and h5-HT4(e) receptors to 1 ?M 5-HT induced a rapid desensitization of the adenylyl cyclase response. The h5-HT4(d) receptor desensitized with a faster rate (t1/2<5 min) than the h5-HT4(e) receptor (t1/2=15 min) and after 10 min 5-HT treatment cAMP production was reduced by ?70%. 5-HT-induced h5-HT4(d) receptor desensitization was mimicked by 8-Bromo-cAMP, a cAMP analogue, and was inhibited by [n-[2-(p-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulphonamide, 2HCl] (H-89), an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Inhibitors of endocytosis (sucrose, 0.45 M and concanavaline A, 0.25 mg ml?1) partially reversed the h5-HT4(d) receptor desensitization process. Given the prominent role of PKA in agonist-induced desensitization, we mutated the four putative PKA phosphorylation sites present in the third intracellular loop (Ser242, Thr253, Thr255) and the C terminal tail (Ser338) of the h5-HT4(d) receptor. Surprisingly, mutated receptors in which either one or all four putative phosphorylation sites were substituted to alanine did not impair receptor desensitization suggesting that PKA might act on nonconsensus sites. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the C-terminal tail of h5-HT4 receptors may influence the rate of agonist-induced desensitization and we provide evidence for a major role of PKA in h5-HT4(d) receptor desensitization. PMID:12569069

  16. The influence of 5-HT2 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists to modify drug induced disinhibitory effects in the mouse light/dark test

    PubMed Central

    Costall, Brenda; Naylor, Robert J

    1997-01-01

    The ability of 5-HT2 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists to modify the disinhibitory profile of diazepam and other agents was investigated in male BKW mice in the light/dark test box. The 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptor antagonists ritanserin, MDL11939 and RP62203 and also methysergide, which failed to modify mouse behaviour when administered alone, caused dose-related enhancements (4 to 8 fold) in the potency of diazepam to disinhibit behavioural responding to the aversive situation of the test box. Ritanserin was shown to enhance the disinhibitory potency of other benzodiazepines, chlordiazepoxide (4 fold), temazepam (10 fold) and lorazepam (10 fold), the 5-HT1A receptor ligands, 8-OH-DPAT (25 fold), buspirone (100 fold) and lesopitron (500 fold), the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, ondansetron (100 fold) R(+)-zacopride (100 fold) and S(?)-zacopride (greater than a 1000 fold), the substituted benzamides, sulpiride (10 fold) and tiapride (5 to 10 fold) and the cholecystokinin (CCK)A receptor antagonist, devazepide (100 fold). It also reduced the onset of action of disinhibition following treatment with the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor parachlorophenylalanine. Ritanserin failed to enhance the disinhibitory effects of the CCKB receptor antagonist CI-988, the angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist losarten or the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor ceranapril. The 5-HT4 receptor antagonists SDZ205-557, GR113808 and SB204070 caused dose-related reductions in the disinhibitory effect of diazepam, returning values to those shown in vehicle treated controls. The antagonists failed to modify mouse behaviour when administered alone. GR113808 was also shown to cause a dose-related antagonism of the disinhibitory effects of chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone, lesopitron, ondansetron, R(+)-zacopride, sulpiride, tiapride, devazepide, CI-988, losarten, ceranapril and parachlorophenylalanine. It was concluded that in BKW mice (a) the failure of 5-HT2 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists when administered alone to modify behaviour in the light/dark test indicates an absence of an endogenous 5-HT tone at the 5-HT2 and 5-HT4 receptors and (b) the enhancement by the 5-HT2 receptor antagonists and attenuation by the 5-HT4 receptor antagonists of drug-induced disinhibition indicates a plurality of 5-HT receptor involvement in the mediation of drug-induced disinhibitory profiles in the mouse. PMID:9401775

  17. Characteristics of 5-HT3 binding sites in NG108-15, NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells and rat cerebral cortex using [3H]-quipazine and [3H]-GR65630 binding.

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, N. A.; Wong, E. H.; Loury, D. N.; Stefanich, E.; Michel, A. D.; Eglen, R. M.; Whiting, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    1. The biochemical and pharmacological properties of 5-HT3 receptors in homogenates of NG108-15 and NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells and rat cerebral cortex have been ascertained by the use of [3H]-quipazine and [3H]-GR65630 binding. 2. In NG108-15 and NCB-20 cell homogenates, [3H]-quipazine bound to a single class of high affinity (NG108-15: Kd = 6.2 +/- 1.1 nM, n = 4; NCB-20: Kd = 3.0 +/- 0.9 nM, n = 4; means +/- s.e.means) saturable (NG108-15: Bmax = 1340 +/- 220 fmol mg-1 protein; NCB-20: Bmax = 2300 +/- 200 fmol mg-1 protein) binding sites. In rat cortical homogenates, [3H]-quipazine bound to two populations of binding sites in the absence of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) uptake inhibitor, paroxetine (Kd1 = 1.6 +/- 0.5 nM, Bmax1 = 75 +/- 14 fmol mg-1 protein; Kd2 = 500 +/- 300 nM, Bmax2 = 1840 +/- 1040 fmol mg-1 protein, n = 3), and to a single class of high affinity binding sites (Kd = 2.0 +/- 0.5 nM, n = 3; Bmax = 73 +/- 6 fmol mg-1 protein) in the presence of paroxetine. The high affinity (nanomolar) component probably represented 5-HT3 binding sites and the low affinity component represented 5-HT uptake sites. 3. [3H]-paroxetine bound with high affinity (Kd = 0.02 +/- 0.003 nM, n = 3) to a site in rat cortical homogenates in a saturable (Bmax = 323 +/- 45 fmol mg-1 protein, n = 3) and reversible manner.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1830236

  18. Outcomes Associated with 5-HT3-RA Therapy Selection in Patients with Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: A Retrospective Claims Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Claudio; Li, Xuan; Nagl, Norman; McBride, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common side effect of chemotherapy, and may present during the administration of chemotherapy (ie, acute CINV) or within 25 to 120 hours of chemotherapy (ie, delayed CINV). Preventing CINV with the initiation of chemotherapy is important, because the risk for CINV in future chemotherapy cycles increases if CINV occurs in the first or previous treatment cycle. Inadequately controlled CINV is associated with increased resource utilization and costs, particularly for patients receiving highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. Objective To evaluate the clinical and economic impacts of delayed CINV events in patients who receive initial and maintenance therapy with the newer-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonist (5-HT3-RA) palonosetron compared with patients who receive initial and maintenance therapy with an older 5-HT3-RA agent. Methods A retrospective database analysis was conducted using the OptumInsight database covering the years 2005–2011 (96% commercially insured members, 4% Medicaid members). Patients with cancer who received initial therapy with an emetogenic single-day chemotherapy regimen and a 5-HT3-RA agent (ie, dolasetron, granisetron, ondansetron, or palonosetron) were included in the analysis. The outcomes measured included the overall rates of delayed CINV for cycles 1 to 6, by 5-HT3-RA cohort. For cycles 2 to 6, calculations were based on patients who experienced CINV in the previous cycle, maintained the same 5-HT3-RA for all cycles, and had chemotherapy with a similar level of emetic potential. The economic outcomes (ie, cost and utilization) were also collected and calculated. Results A total of 26,974 patients were included in the analysis. The overall rate for delayed CINV at cycle 1 was 15.6%, and the lowest rate was for palonosetron at 15%. The patients who initiated palonosetron had lower CINV rates throughout all cycles. The regression analysis compared individual agents to palonosetron and demonstrated higher odds of CINV in the second cycle for the older agents (ondansetron: odds ratio [OR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–1.74; P <.002; granisetron: OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.39–2.08; P <.001; dolasetron: OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.27–2.15; P = .002). This trend continued through cycle 6, and not all ORs were significant. Over 6 cycles, ondansetron cost an additional $126,775 compared with palonosetron; granisetron an additional $169,838 versus palonosetron; and dolasetron an additional $148,960. Conclusions Current guidelines support the use of 5-HT3-RA agents for the prevention of CINV. As shown in this analysis, the selection of a specific 5-HT3-RA agent has a clinical and subsequent economic impact on patients with cancer experiencing delayed CINV. Specifically, patients receiving therapy with palonosetron had a lower incidence of delayed CINV and incurred lower overall costs. PMID:24991390

  19. Recent developments in 5HT-related pharmacology of animal models of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Gardner, C R

    1986-05-01

    The proposed anxioselective drug, buspirone, interacts with 5HT1 receptors. An analogue, MJ 13805, produces a 5HT behavioural syndrome blocked by central 5HT pathway lesion. Both compounds inhibit 5HT neurone firing. An association of any such action with models of anxiety is not yet possible. Several compounds selective for 5HT receptor sub-types have been tested in models of anxiety. Ritanserin, a selective 5HT2 antagonist, shows activity in an emergence test but not conflict models. Preliminary clinical reports indicate qualitatively different anxiolytic activity from that of benzodiazepines. TVXQ 7821 is selective for 5HT1 receptors and has shown activity in several models of anxiety. 8OHDPAT and RU 24969 are 5HT1 agonists, selective for 5HT1A and 5HT1B sites respectively. 8OHDPAT released punished drinking but reversed a similar effect of PCPA. Its mode of action remains unclear. RU 24969 has shown no marked anxiolytic-like activity in food or water-motivated conflicts. Further studies are necessary before associating modulation of central 5HT systems with anxiolytic activity, either in animal models or patients. PMID:2873594

  20. Do imipramine and dihydroergosine possess two components - one stimulating 5-HT sub 1 and the other inhibiting 5-HT sub 2 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Pericic, D.; Mueck-Seler, D. (Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Yugoslavia))

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms by which imipramine and dihydroergosine stimulate the 5-HT syndrome in rats and inhibit the head-twitch response in rats and mice were studied. Imipramine- and dihydroergosine-included stimulation of the 5-HT syndrome was inhibited stereoselectively by propranolol, a high affinity ligand for 5-HT{sub 1} receptor sites, but not by ritanserin, a specific 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonist. (-) -Propranolol potentiated the inhibitory effect of imipramine, but not of dihydroergosine on the head-twitch response, while ritanserin was without effect. As expected, 8-OH-DPAT, a selective 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor agonist, stimulated, and 5-HT{sub 1B} agonists CGS 12066B and 1-(trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP) failed to stimulate the 5-HT syndrome induced in rats by pargyline and 5-HTP administration. A higher dose of ritanserin inhibited the syndrome. While 8-OH-DPAT alone produced all behavioral components of the 5-HT syndrome, dihydroergosine or imipramine alone even at very high doses never produced tremor or a more intensive forepaw padding as seen when these drugs were given in combination with pargyline and 5-HTP. A single administration of (-)-propranolol also inhibited the head-twitch response. This effect lasted in mice longer that after ritanserin administration. In in vitro experiments dihydroergosine expressed approximately twenty-fold higher affinity for {sup 3}H-ketanserin binding sites than imipramine.

  1. Effect of chronic administration of the selective serotonin (5HT) uptake inhibitor citalopram on extracellular 5HT and apparent autoreceptor sensitivity in rat forebrain in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidney B. Auerbach; Stephan Hjorth

    1995-01-01

    Rats were administered the selective serotonin (5-HT) uptake blocker citalopram or saline for 14 days to determine if prolonged treatment would lead to changes in extracellular 5-HT or autoreceptor sensitivity. One day after drug withdrawal, dialysis probes were implanted in the frontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus. Dialysis experiments were carried out using chloral hydrate anesthetized rats. The experimental protocol comprised

  2. Conformational state of human cardiac 5-HT(4(g)) receptors influences the functional effects of polyclonal anti-5-HT(4) receptor antibodies.

    PubMed

    Di Scala, Emmanuella; Rose, Stéphanie; Hérault, Olivier; Argibay, Jorge; Cosnay, Pierre; Bozon, Véronique

    2007-04-01

    The functional effects of the anti-G21V antibody directed against the second extracellular loop of human heart 5-HT(4) receptors can differ when the receptors are expressed in different cell lines. Here, we extend these studies to show variation in the responses of 5-HT(4(g)) receptors to the antibody within the same expression system. In a previous report no effect of the anti-G21V antibodies had been shown upon 5-HT(4(g)) receptors expressed in CHO cells. Here the same antibodies alone or when added before 5-HT had a functional "inverse-agonist like" effect upon 5-HT(4(g)) receptors expressed in a separate line of CHO cells. Although these CHO cells showed a lower efficacy of cAMP production evoked by 5-HT than the previous report they express a similar h5-HT(4(g)) receptor density. Inhibition of either phosphodiesterases or Gi proteins had no effect upon the action of the antibody. Conformational states of the 5-HT(4) receptor and/or equilibrium between different states of receptors may then determine the functional effect of antibodies against this receptor. PMID:17222392

  3. Efficacy of selective 5-HT6 receptor ligands determined by monitoring 5-HT6 receptor-mediated cAMP signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Gonzalo; Sánchez, Elisabeth; Pujol, Marta; Pérez, Pilar; Codony, Xavier; Holenz, Jörg; Buschmann, Helmut; Pauwels, Petrus J

    2006-01-01

    Two novel selective 5-HT6 receptor ligands E-6801 (6-chloro-N-(3-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-1H-indol-5-yl)imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole-5-sulfonamide) and E-6837 (5-chloro-N-(3-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-1H-indol-5-yl)naphthalene-2-sulfonamide) were investigated and compared to the putative 5-HT6 receptor antagonists SB-271046 (5-chloro-N-(4-methoxy-3-(piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-3-methylbenzo[b]thiophene-2-sulfonamide) and Ro 04-06790 (N-(2,6-bis(methylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl)-4-aminobenzenesulfonamide) using a cAMP-mediated pathway. Forskolin stimulation, to increase the magnitude of agonist cAMP responses, and site-directed mutagenesis of the 5-HT6 receptor, in order to yield constitutively active receptor, were applied. 5-HT (Emax, % over basal: 200), E-6801 (120) and E-6837 (23) induced cAMP formation at the rat 5-HT6 receptor. In the copresence of forskolin, cAMP responses were more potent and enhanced to 294 (5-HT, % over forskolin), 250 (E-6801) and 207 (E-6837), respectively. 5-HT-mediated cAMP formation was dose-dependently blocked by SB-271046 (pA2: 8.76±0.22) and Ro 04-6790 (pA2: 7.89±0.10) and not affected by the copresence of forskolin. Both E-6801 and E-6837 yielded partial antagonism of the 5-HT response in the absence of forskolin, whereas antagonism was either completely absent (E-6801) or attenuated (E-6837) in the copresence of forskolin. Intrinsic activity of these 5-HT6 receptor ligands at a constitutively active human S267K 5-HT6 receptor in Cos-7 cells indicated similar efficacy (Emax, % over basal) for 5-HT (97), E-6801 (91) and E-6837 (100), while Ro 04-6790 (-33) and SB-271046 (-39) were equi-efficacious inverse agonists. The use of either forskolin or a constitutively active S267K 5-HT6 receptor enhances the resolution for monitoring the efficacy of 5-HT6 receptor ligands. E-6801 and E-6837 are potent partial agonists at the 5-HT6 receptor. Ro 04-6790 and SB-271046 appear to act as inverse agonists/antagonists. PMID:16865095

  4. Reduction of in vivo striatal 5-hydroxytryptamine release by 8-OH-DPAT after inactivation of Gi/G(o) proteins in dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Romero, L; Celada, P; Artigas, F

    1994-11-14

    5-HT1A receptor agonists reduce firing-dependent terminal 5-HT synthesis and release by activating somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors. We have examined the effects of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n- propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT, 0.1 mg/kg s.c.) on in vivo striatal 5-HT release in conscious rats with somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors inactivated by the application of pertussis toxin in the dorsal raphe nucleus. The uncoupling of 5-HT1A receptors from hyperpolarizing potassium channels was demonstrated by the inability of the intra-raphe application of citalopram to reduce striatal release (control animals had a 47% reduction, an effect prevented by previous treatment with the 5-HT1A antagonist (-)-tertatolol). Yet 8-OH-DPAT (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) decreased striatal 5-HT release by 66% (peak effect) in pertussis toxin-treated rats, a value comparable to that found in naive animals (74%). This raises the possibility that other 8-OH-DPAT-sensitive serotonergic receptors different from 5-HT1A autoreceptors may be involved in the control of terminal 5-HT release. PMID:7883021

  5. 5-HT neurons of the area postrema become c-Fos-activated after increases in plasma sodium levels and transmit interoceptive information to the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neurons of the area postrema (AP) represent one neuronal phenotype implicated in the regulation of salt appetite. Tryptophan hydroxylase (Tryp-OH, synthetic enzyme-producing 5-HT) immunoreactive neurons in the AP of rats become c-Fos-activated following conditions in which plasma sodium levels are elevated; these include intraperitoneal injections of hypertonic saline and sodium repletion. Non-Tryp-OH neurons also became c-Fos-activated. Sodium depletion, which induced an increase in plasma osmolality but caused no significant change in the plasma sodium concentration, had no effect on the c-Fos activity in the AP. Epithelial sodium channels are expressed in the Tryp-OH-immunoreactive AP neurons, possibly functioning in the detection of changes in plasma sodium levels. Since little is known about the neural circuitry of these neurons, we tested whether the AP contributes to a central pathway that innervates the reward center of the brain. Stereotaxic injections of pseudorabies virus were made in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and after 4 days, this viral tracer produced retrograde transneuronal labeling in the Tryp-OH and non-Tryp-OH AP neurons. Both sets of neurons innervate the NAc via a multisynaptic pathway. Besides sensory information regarding plasma sodium levels, the AP?NAc pathway may also transmit other types of chemosensory information, such as those related to metabolic functions, food intake, and immune system to the subcortical structures of the reward system. Because these subcortical regions ultimately project to the medial prefrontal cortex, different types of chemical signals from visceral systems may influence affective functions. PMID:24598462

  6. Inhibitors of serotonin reuptake and specific imipramine binding in human blood plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Brusov, O.S.; Fomenko, A.M.; Katasonov, A.B.; Lidemann, R.R.

    1985-12-01

    This paper describes a method of extraction of endogenous inhibitors of specific IMI binding and of 5-HT reuptake, from human blood plasma and the heterogeneity of these compounds is demonstrated. Specific binding was determined as the difference between binding of /sup 3/H-IMI in the absence and in the presence of 50 microM IMI. Under these conditions, specific binding amounted to 70-80% of total binding of /sup 3/H-IMI. It is shown that extract obtained from human blood contains a material which inhibits dose-dependently both 5-HT reuptake and specific binding of /sup 3/H-IMI. Gel-chromatography of extracts of human blood plasma on Biogel P-2 is also shown.

  7. Single administration of 5-HT1A agonists decreases 5-HT1A presynaptic, but not postsynaptic receptor-mediated responses: relationship to antidepressant-like action.

    PubMed

    Kennett, G A; Marcou, M; Dourish, C T; Curzon, G

    1987-06-12

    The 5-HT1A agonists, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), buspirone or TVXQ 7821 (ipsapirone) but not the 5-HT1B agonist RU 24969, attenuated the hyperphagic response to 8-OH-DPAT administered on the next day. Attenuation was still apparent on the fifth day after either 8-OH-DPAT or buspirone but not on the tenth day after 8-OH-DPAT administration. The ability of 8-OH-DPAT to reduce raphe 5-HIAA levels was also impaired by previous 8-OH-DPAT treatment. However, the 8-OH-DPAT or 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced 5-HT syndromes were unaltered. The results indicate that a single pretreatment with 5-HT1A agonists rapidly desensitises 5-HT1A presynaptic receptor-mediated responses. This effect may mediate the antidepressant-like action of the drugs in an animal model of depression. PMID:2442002

  8. Similar anxiolytic effects of agonists targeting serotonin 5-HT1A or cannabinoid CB receptors on zebrafish behavior in novel environments

    PubMed Central

    Connors, Kristin A.; Valenti, Theodore W.; Lawless, Kelly; Sackerman, James; Onaivi, Emmanuel S.; Brooks, Bryan W.; Gould, Georgianna G.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine are present and bioaccumulate in aquatic ecosystems have spurred studies of fish serotonin transporters (SERTs) and changes in SSRI-sensitive behaviors as adverse outcomes relevant for risk assessment. Many SSRIs also act at serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. Since capitolizing on this action may improve treatments of clinical depression and other psychiatric disorders, novel multimodal drugs that agonize 5-HT1A and block SERT were introduced. In mammals both 5-HT1A and CB agonists, such as buspirone and WIN55,212-2, reduce anxious behaviors. Immunological and behavioral evidence suggests that 5-HT1A-like receptors may function similarly in zebrafish (Danio rerio), yet their pharmacological properties are not well characterized. Herein we compared the density of [3H] 8-hydroxy-2-di-n-propylamino tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) binding to 5-HT1A-like sites in the zebrafish brain, to that of simalarly G?i/o-coupled cannabinoid receptors. [3H] 8-OH-DPAT specific binding was 176 ± 8, 275 ± 32, and 230 ± 36 fmol/mg protein in the hypothalamus, optic tectum, and telencephalon. [3H] WIN55,212-2 binding density was higher in those same brain regions at 6 ± 0.3, 5.5 ± 0.4 and 7.3 ± 0.3 pm/mg protein. The aquatic light-dark plus maze was used to examine behavioral effects of 5-HT1A and CB receptor agonists on zebrafish novelty-based anxiety. With acute exposure to the 5-HT1A partial-agonist buspirone (50 mg/L), or dietary exposure to WIN55,212-2 (7 ?g/week) zebrafish spent more time in and/or entered white arms more often than controls (p < 0.05). Acute exposure to WIN55,212-2 at 0.5-50 mg/L, reduced mobility. These behavioral findings suggest that azipirones, like cannabinoid agonists, have anxiolytic and/or sedative properties on fish in novel environments. These observations highlight the need to consider potential ecological risks of azapirones and multimodal antidepressants in the future. PMID:24411165

  9. BIMT 17, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist and 5-HT1A receptor full agonist in rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Borsini, F; Giraldo, E; Monferini, E; Antonini, G; Parenti, M; Bietti, G; Donetti, A

    1995-09-01

    In the search for antidepressant agents with a rapid onset of action, we have found that compound BIMT 17 (1-[2-[4-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazin-1- yl]ethyl]benzimidazol-[1H]-2-one) shows a good affinity for cerebral cortical 5-HT1A (pKi = 7.72) and 5-HT2A (pKi = 6.90) receptors, with no appreciable affinity for the other 5-HT receptor subtypes, including 5-HT2C. BIMT 17 reduced forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in the cerebral cortex (pEC50 = 6.09) and in the hippocampus (pEC50 = 6.50), and antagonized 5-HT-induced phosphatidylinositol turnover (pKi = 6.96) in the cerebral cortex. The effect on cAMP accumulation was blocked by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist tertatolol. Buspirone, 8-OH-DPAT and S 14671 (1-[2-(2-thenoylamino)ethyl]- 4[1-(7-methoxynaphtyl)]-piperazine), claimed to be 5-HT1A receptor agonists, did not reduce forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation in the cerebral cortex. On the basis of these data, it was concluded that BIMT 17 was the only compound that behaved as a full agonist with respect to the cAMP response in the cortex, while exerting concurrent agonism at 5-HT1A receptors and antagonism at 5-HT2A receptors. These characteristics might explain the peculiar behavior of BIMT 17 in mimicking the inhibitory action of 5-HT on the basal firing rate of the cortical neurons (see accompanying paper). PMID:8584042

  10. In vitro and in vivo profile of SB 206553, a potent 5-HT2C/5-HT2B receptor antagonist with anxiolytic-like properties.

    PubMed

    Kennett, G A; Wood, M D; Bright, F; Cilia, J; Piper, D C; Gager, T; Thomas, D; Baxter, G S; Forbes, I T; Ham, P; Blackburn, T P

    1996-02-01

    1. SB 206553 (5-methyl-1-(3-pyridylcarbamoyl)-1,2,3,5-tetrahydropyrrolo[2 ,3-f]indole) displays a high affinity (pK1 7.9) for the cloned human 5-HT2C receptor expressed in HEK 293 cells and the 5-HT2B receptor (pA2 8.9) as measured in the rat stomach fundus preparation. SB 206553 has low affinity for cloned human 5-HT2A receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells (pK1 5.8) and (pK1 < 6) for a wide variety of other neurotransmitter receptors. 2. SB 206553 appears to be a surmountable antagonist of 5-HT-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in HEK 293 cells expressing the human 5-HT2C receptor (pKB 9.0). 3. The compound potently (ID50 5.5 mg kg-1, p.o., 0.27 mg kg-1, i.v.) inhibited the hypolocomotor response to m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), a putative model of 5-HT2C/5-HT2B receptor function in vivo. 4. At similar doses (2-20 mg kg-1, p.o.) SB 206553 increased total interaction scores in a rat social interaction test and increased punished responding in a rat Geller-Seifter conflict test. These effects are consistent with the possession of anxiolytic properties. 5. SB 206553 also increased suppressed responding in a marmoset conflict model of anxiety at somewhat higher doses (15 and 20 mg kg-1, p.o.) but also reduced unsuppressed responding. 6. These results suggest that SB 206553 is a potent mixed 5-HT2C/5-HT2B receptor antagonist with selectivity over the 5-HT2A and all other sites studied and possesses anxiolytic-like properties. PMID:8821530

  11. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: A Review of its Effects on Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Costagliola, Ciro; Parmeggiani, Francesco; Semeraro, Francesco; Sebastiani, Adolfo

    2008-01-01

    The increase in serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission is considered to be one of the most efficacious medical approach to depression and its related disorders. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) represent the most widely antidepressive drugs utilized in the medical treatment of depressed patients. Currently available SSRIs include fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, citalopram and escitalopram. The primary SSRIs pharmacological action’s mechanism consists in the presynaptic inhibition on the serotonin reuptake, with an increased availability of this amine into the synaptic cleft. Serotonin produces its effects as a consequence of interactions with appropriate receptors. Seven distinct families of 5-HT receptors have been identified (5-HT1 to 5-HT7), and subpopulations have been described for several of these. The interaction between serotonin and post-synaptic receptors mediates a wide range of functions. The SSRIs have a very favorable safety profile, although clinical signs of several unexpected pathologic events are often misdiagnosed, in particular, those regarding the eye. In all cases reported in the literature the angle-closure glaucoma represents the most important SSRIs-related ocular adverse event. Thus, it is not quite hazardous to hypothesize that also the other reported and unspecified visual disturbances could be attributed - at least in some cases - to IOP modifications. The knowledge of SSRIs individual tolerability, angle-closure predisposition and critical IOP could be important goals able to avoid further and more dangerous ocular side effects. PMID:19587851

  12. Pharmacokinetic and Safety Evaluation of Palonosetron, a 5Hydroxytryptamine3 Receptor Antagonist, in U.S. and Japanese Healthy Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall Stoltz; Jong-Chol Cyong; Ajit Shah; Simona Parisi

    2004-01-01

    Palonosetron (Aloxi™, Onicit®) is a selective 5-HT3receptor antagonist recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the prevention of acute and delayed chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. This study was performed to determine the pharmacokinetics and assess the safety and tolerability of intravenous (IV) palonosetron in healthy U.S. and Japanese subjects. Subjects were administered a single IV dose of

  13. On the uptake and storage of 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-hydroxytryptophan and catecholamines by adrenal chromaffin cells and nerve endings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Kent; R. E. Coupland

    1984-01-01

    Light-microscopic autoradiographs of the adrenal medulla at various intervals after the intravenous injection of [3H] 5-HTP, [3H] 5-HT, [3H] noradrenaline and [3H] adrenaline have been studied. The distribution of silver grains following [3H] 5-HTP uptake was found to be uniform over each of the two main cell populations, adrenaline-storing (A) cells and noradrenaline-storing (NA) cells in the adrenal medulla, but

  14. 5Hydroxytryptamine contributes significantly to a reflex pathway by which the duodenal mucosa protects itself from gastric acid injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders J. Smith; Alfred E. Chappell; Andre G. Buret; Kim E. Barrett; Hui Dong

    2006-01-01

    Although duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DMBS) is currently accepted as an important defense mechanism against acid-induced duodenal in- jury, the mechanism and the regulation of DMBS are largely unknown. 5-HT may regulate DMBS, but little is known about its physiological relevance in DMBS and the underlying mechanism(s). Thus, the aims of the present study were to demonstrate the role of

  15. Modulatory effects of magnolol on potassium-stimulated 5-hydroxytryptamine release from rat cortical and hippocampal slices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tung-Hu Tsai; Tze-Fun Lee; Chieh-Fu Chen; Lawrence C. H. Wang

    1995-01-01

    Magnolol, a phenolic constituent of magnolia bark, is a known central nervous system depressant. To examine the possibility that magnolol may elicit its depressant effect by modulating central serotonergic activity, its effect on 35 mM K+-stimulated 5-[3H]HT release from rat hippocampal and frontal cortical slices were examined. Inclusion of magnolol (1–100 ?M) had no effect on 5-HT release in hippocampal

  16. Modulatory Role of Postsynaptic 5-Hydroxytryptamine Type 1A Receptors in (±)-8-Hydroxy-N,N-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin-Induced Hyperphagia in Mice.

    PubMed

    Brosda, Jan; Müller, Nadine; Bert, Bettina; Fink, Heidrun

    2015-07-15

    Brain serotonin (5-HT) is involved in the control of food intake. The ingestive effects of 5-HT are mediated by various receptor subtypes, among others the 5-HT1A receptor. While the involvement of presynaptic 5-HT1A receptors is regarded as certain, the role of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors is rather vague. Here, we studied the role of the 5-HT1A receptor on feeding in non-food-deprived and food-deprived (young adult and adult, both sexes) wild-type NMRI mice as well as transgenic NMRI mice, which are characterized by a distinct overexpression of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. The known hyperphagic effect of the 5-HT1A receptor full agonist 8-OH-DPAT ((±)-8-hydroxy-N,N-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin) in non-food-deprived animals was demonstrated in male NMRI wild-type mice and could be antagonized by the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635. In transgenic mice, this hyperphagic response was induced at lower doses, with an earlier onset and even in females. However, in adult male transgenic mice, the hyperphagic effect did not occur. In food-deprived NMRI wild-type as well as transgenic mice, 8-OH-DPAT first induced a hypophagic and subsequently a hyperphagic effect. Again, in transgenic animals most responses occurred at lower doses and with an earlier onset. The results indicate that postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors exert a modulatory function in food intake in free-feeding and fasted mice, which for the first time shows an involvement of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in feeding behavior. Understanding the function of pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors may help to achieve new insights into the regulation of food intake and foster prospective treatment strategies for eating disorders. PMID:25781502

  17. The interaction of trichloroethanol with murine recombinant 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Downie, D L; Hope, A G; Belelli, D; Lambert, J J; Peters, J A; Bentley, K R; Steward, L J; Chen, C Y; Barnes, N M

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of ethanol, chloral hydrate and trichloroethanol upon the 5-HT3 receptor have been investigated by use of electrophysiological techniques applied to recombinant 5-HT3 receptor subunits (5-HT3R-A or 5-HT3R-As) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Additionally, the influence of trichloroethanol upon the specific binding of [3H]-granisetron to membrane preparations of HEK 293 cells stably transfected with the murine 5-HT3R-As subunit and 5-HT3 receptors endogenous to NG 108-15 cell membranes was assessed. 2. Ethanol (30-300 mM), chloral hydrate (1-30 mM) and trichloroethanol (0.3-10 mM), produced a reversible, concentration-dependent, enhancement of 5-HT-mediated currents recorded from oocytes expressing either the 5-HT3R-A, or the 5-HT3R-As subunit. 3. Trichloroethanol (5 mM) produced a parallel leftward shift of the 5-HT concentration-response curve, reducing the EC50 for 5-HT from 1 +/- 0.04 microM (n = 4) to 0.5 +/- 0.01 microM (n = 4) for oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-A. A similar shift, from 2.1 +/- 0.05 microM (n = 11) to 1.3 +/- 0.1 microM (n = 4), was observed in oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-As subunit. Trichloroethanol (5 mM) had little or no effect upon the maximum current produced by 5-HT for either recombinant receptor. 4. Trichloroethanol (5 mM) similarly reduced the EC50 for 2-methyl-5-HT from 13 +/- 0.4 microM (n = 4) to 4.6 +/- 0.2 microM (n = 4) and from 15 +/- 2 microM (n = 4) to 5 +/- 0.4 microM (n = 4) for oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-A and 5-HT3R-As subunit respectively. Additionally, trichloroethanol (5 mM) produced a clear enhancement of the maximal current to 2-methyl-5-HT (expressed as a percentage of the maximal current to 5-HT) from 63 +/- 0.7% (n = 4) to 101 +/- 1.6% (n = 4) and from 9 +/- 0.2% (n = 4) to 74 +/- 2% (n = 4) for oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-A and 5-HT3R-As subunit respectively. 5. Trichloroethanol (2.5 mM) had no effect upon the Kd, or Bmax, of specific [3H]-granisetron binding to membrane homogenates of NG 108-15 cells or HEK 293 cells. Similarly, competition for [3H]-granisetron binding by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists ondansetron and tropisetron was unaffected. However, competition for [3H]-granisetron binding by the 5-HT3 receptor agonists, 5-HT, 2-methyl-5-HT and phenylbiguanide was enhanced by trichloroethanol (2.5 mM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7541281

  18. Pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic modelling of fluvoxamine 5-HT transporter occupancy in rat frontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Geldof, M; Freijer, J I; van Beijsterveldt, L; Langlois, X; Danhof, M

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: The pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK–PD) correlation of fluvoxamine 5-HT transporter (SERT) occupancy was determined in rat frontal cortex ex vivo. Experimental approach: Rats (n=47) with permanent arterial and venous cannulas received a 30?min intravenous infusion of fluvoxamine (1 or 7.3?mg?kg?1). At various time points after dosing, brains were collected for determination of fluvoxamine concentration and SERT occupancy. In addition, the time course of fluvoxamine concentration in plasma was determined up to the time of brain collection. In a separate study (n=26), the time course of fluvoxamine concentration in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) and plasma was determined. The results of the investigations were interpreted by nonlinear mixed effects modeling Key results: Highest SERT occupancy was reached at the first time point (10 or 15?min) and maintained for 1.5 and 7?h after 1 and 7.3?mg?kg?1, respectively. Thereafter, SERT occupancy decreased linearly at a rate of 8%?h?1. SERT occupancy could be directly related to plasma, brain ECF and brain tissue concentrations by a hyperbolic function (Bmax model). Maximal SERT occupancy (Bmax) was 95%. Estimated concentrations at half-maximal SERT occupancy (EC50) in plasma, ECF and brain tissue were 0.48, 0.22 and 14.8?ng?mL?1 respectively. The minimum value of the objective function decreased 12 points for ECF and brain tissue concentrations relative to plasma (P<0.01), presumably as a result of nonlinear brain distribution. Conclusions and implications: The proposed PK–PD model constitutes a useful basis for prediction of the time course of ex vivo SERT occupancy in behavioural studies with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:18493251

  19. Pharmacological evidence that 5-HT1D activation induces renal vasodilation by NO pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    García-Pedraza, José-Ángel; García, Mónica; Martín, María-Luisa; Morán, Asunción

    2015-06-01

    5-HT is a powerful vasoconstrictor substance in renal vasculature (mainly by 5-HT2 activation). Nevertheless, 5-HT is notable for its dual cardiovascular effects, producing both vasodilator and vasoconstrictor actions. This study aimed to investigate whether, behind the predominant serotonergic vasoconstrictor action, THE 5-HT system may exert renal vasodilator actions, and, if so, characterize the 5-HT receptors and possible indirect pathways. Renal perfusion pressure (PP), systemic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) measurement in in situ autoperfused rat kidney was determined in phenylephrine infused rats. Intra arterial (i.a.) bolus administration of 5-HT (0.00000125-0.1 ?g/kg) decreased renal PP in the presence of a phenylephrine continuous infusion (phenylephrine-infusion group), without modifying SBP or HR. These vasodilator responses were potentiated by 5-HT2 antagonism (ritanserin, 1 mg/kg i.v.), whereas the responses were abolished by 5-HT1/7 antagonist (methiothepin, 100 ?g/kg i.v.) or 5-HT1D antagonist (LY310762, 1 mg/kg i.v.). The i.a. administration (0.00000125 to 0.1 ?g/kg) of 5-CT or L-694,247 (5-HT1D agonist) mimicked 5-HT vasodilator effect, while other agonists (1-PBG, ?-methyl-5-HT, AS-19 (5-HT7 ), 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A ) or CGS-12066B (5-HT1B )) did not alter baseline haemodynamic variables. L-694,247 vasodilation was abolished by i.v. bolus of antagonists LY310762 (5-HT1D , 1 mg/kg) or L-NAME (nitric oxide, 10 mg/kg), but not by i.v. bolus of indomethacin (cyclooxygenase, 2 mg/kg) or glibenclamide (ATP-dependent K(+) channel, 20 mg/kg). These outcomes suggest that 5-HT1D activation produces a vasodilator effect in the in situ autoperfused kidney of phenylephrine-infusion rats mediated by the NO pathway. PMID:25854421

  20. Palonosetron triggers 5HT 3 receptor internalization and causes prolonged inhibition of receptor function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camilo Rojas; Ajit G. Thomas; Jesse Alt; Marigo Stathis; Jie Zhang; Edward B. Rubenstein; Silvia Sebastiani; Sergio Cantoreggi; Barbara S. Slusher

    2010-01-01

    Palonosetron is a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that has demonstrated superiority in preventing both acute and delayed emesis when compared to older first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The objective of this work was to determine if palonosetron exhibits unique molecular interactions with the 5-HT3 receptor that could provide a scientific rationale for observed clinical efficacy differences. Previously, we showed that palonosetron

  1. Palonosetron Exhibits Unique Molecular Interactions with the 5HT3 Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camilo Rojas; Marigo Stathis; Ajit G. Thomas; Edward B. Massuda; Jesse Alt; Jie Zhang; Ed Rubenstein; Silvia Sebastiani; Sergio Cantoreggi; Solomon H. Snyder; Barbara Slusher

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Palonosetron is a 5-HT3-receptor antagonist (5-HT3-RA) that has been shown to be superior to other 5-HT3-RAs in phase III clinical trials for the prevention of acute, delayed, and overall chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The improved clinical efficacy of palonosetron may be due, in part, to its more potent binding and longer half-life. However, these attributes alone are not sufficient

  2. Estimation of the rate of 5HT synthesis in the mouse brain by varius methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Morot-Gaudry; M. Hamon; S. Bourgoin; J. P. Ley; J. Glowinski

    1974-01-01

    Non-isotopic and isotopic methods were used to estimate the rate of 5-HT synthesis in the mouse brain. 5-HT and 5_HIAA levels were measured in tissues up to 10 min after the i. p. injection of pargyline (75 or 150 mg\\/kg) or pheniprazine (5 or 10 mg\\/kg) (5-HT and 5-HIAA, MAO-inhibitor methods). 5-HIAA levels were also estimated at various times after

  3. RS 23597-190: a potent and selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed Central

    Eglen, R. M.; Bley, K.; Bonhaus, D. W.; Clark, R. D.; Hegde, S. S.; Johnson, L. G.; Leung, E.; Wong, E. H.

    1993-01-01

    1. The pharmacological properties of RS 23597-190 (3-(piperdine-1-yl)-propyl-4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxy benzoate hydrochloride) have been studied in vitro and in vivo. 2. RS 23597-190 competitively antagonized 5-HT4 receptor-mediated relaxations of rat, carbachol precontracted oesophageal muscularis mucosae, (pA2 = 7.8 +/- 0.1; Schild slope = 1.2 +/- 0.2). Affinity estimates (-log KB) at 5-HT4 receptors using either renzapride or SC-53116 as agonists yielded a -log KB value of 8.0 +/- 0.01. In contrast, RS 23597-190 failed to antagonize contractile responses to 5-HT of guinea-pig ileal 5-HT3 receptors, even at concentrations up to 10 microM. 3. Increases in short-circuit current, induced by 5-HT, were studied in guinea-pig ileal mucosal sheets. Concentration-response curves to 5-HT were biphasic, with the high potency phase to 5-HT inhibited by RS 23597-190 and mimicked by 5-methoxytryptamine. The -log KB value for RS 23597-190 at the high potency phase was 7.3 confirming that 5-HT4 receptors mediated the high potency phase. 4. In rat isolated vagus nerve, 5-HT elicited a slow, maintained depolarization at low concentrations and a rapid, transient depolarization at higher concentrations. The high potency, slow depolarizing phase to 5-HT was abolished selectively in the presence of 1 microM RS 23597-190 and the low potency phase was abolished selectively in the presence of 1 microM ondansetron. These data confirm that 5-HT4 and 5-HT3 receptors mediated slow and fast depolarization responses, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8220871

  4. Effects of acute and repeated administration of citalopram on extracellular levels of serotonin in rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chantal Moret; Mike Briley

    1996-01-01

    The effects of acute (2 days) and repeated (21 days) administration (50 mg\\/kg in the diet) of the selective serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) reuptake inhibitor, citalopram, on extracellular levels of 5-HT and their modulation by terminal autoreceptors in the hypothalamus of freely moving rats were compared in vivo by microdialysis. When studied without washout, extracellular levels of 5-HT were increased by

  5. 5-HT6 receptor antagonists as potential therapeutics for cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Rossé, Gérard; Schaffhauser, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive impairment (CI) has been recognized as a core feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia. The 5-HT(6) receptor is an attractive target for the development of cognitive enhancers due to its unique localization and pharmacology. 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists have been shown to modulate multiple neurotransmitter systems and therefore enhance cognition in preclinical studies. This premise translated into the clinical efficacy of the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-742457 in mild-to-moderate AD patients. Advances in the understanding of the structure-activity-relationship, the design of novel 5-HT(6) receptor ligands and their potential application for the treatment of CI are reviewed. PMID:20166958

  6. Identification of ginsenoside interaction sites in 5HT 3A receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung-Hwan Lee; Jun-Ho Lee; Sang-Mok Lee; Sang Min Jeong; In-Soo Yoon; Joon-Hee Lee; Sun-Hye Choi; Mi Kyung Pyo; Hyewhon Rhim; Hyoung-Chun Kim; Choon-Gon Jang; Byoung-Cheol Lee; Chul-Seung Park; Seung-Yeol Nah

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), one of the active components of Panax ginseng, non-competitively inhibits 5-HT3A receptor channel activity on extracellular side of the cell. Here, we sought to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying Rg3-induced 5-HT3A receptor regulation. We used the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique to investigate the effect of Rg3 on 5-HT-mediated ion currents (I5-HT) in Xenopus oocytes

  7. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin transporter genotype modulate performance monitoring functions but not their electrophysiological correlates.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Adrian G; Endrass, Tanja; Reuter, Martin; Kubisch, Christian; Ullsperger, Markus

    2015-05-27

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been hypothesized to be implicated in performance monitoring by promoting behavioral inhibition in the face of aversive events. However, it is unclear whether this is restricted to external (punishment) or includes internal (response errors) events. The aim of the current study was to test whether higher 5-HT levels instigate inhibition specifically in the face of errors, measured as post-error slowing (PES), and whether this is represented in electrophysiological correlates of error processing, namely error-related negativity (ERN) and positivity. Therefore, from a large sample of human subjects (n = 878), two extreme groups were formed regarding hypothesized high and low 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) expression based on 5-HTTLPR and two additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs25531, rs25532). Seventeen higher (LL) and 15 lower (SS) expressing Caucasian subjects were administered the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (10 mg) intravenously in a double-blind crossover design. We found pharmacogenetic evidence for a role of 5-HT in mediating PES: SSRI administration increased PES in both genetic groups, and SS subjects displayed higher PES. These effects were absent on post-conflict slowing. However, ERN and error positivity were unaffected by pharmacogenetic factors, but ERN was decoupled from behavioral adaptation by SSRI administration in the LL group. Thus, pharmacogenetic evidence suggests that increased 5-HT levels lead to behavioral inhibition in the context of internal aversive events, but electrophysiological correlates of performance monitoring appear unrelated to the 5-HT system. Therefore, our findings are consistent with theories suggesting that 5-HT mediates the link between aversive processing and inhibition. PMID:26019334

  8. Uropathic Observations in Mice Expressing a Constitutively Active Point Mutation in the 5HT3A Receptor Subunit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anindya Bhattacharya; Hong Dang; Quan-Ming Zhu; Birthe Schnegelsberg; Nora Rozengurt; Gary Cain; Rachelle Prantil; David A. Vorp; Nicholas Guy; David Julius; Anthony P. D. W. Ford; Henry A. Lester; Debra A. Cockayne

    2004-01-01

    Mutant mice with a hypersensitive serotonin (5-HT)3A receptor were generated through targeted exon replacement. A valine to serine mutation (V13S) in the channel-lining M2 domain of the 5-HT3A receptor subunit rendered the 5-HT3 receptor70-fold more sensitive to serotonin and produced constitutive activity when combined with the 5-HT3B subunit. Mice homozygous for the mutant allele (5- HT3A vs\\/vs ) had decreased

  9. 5HT and 5HT-SO4, but not tryptophan or 5-HIAA levels in single feeding neurons track animal hunger state

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, N. G.; Zhang, X.; Stuart, J. N.; Moroz, L. L.; Sweedler, J. V.; Gillette, R.

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an intrinsic modulator of neural network excitation states in gastropod molluscs. 5-HT and related indole metabolites were measured in single, well-characterized serotonergic neurons of the feeding motor network of the predatory sea-slug Pleurobranchaea californica. Indole amounts were compared between paired hungry and satiated animals. Levels of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-HT-SO4 in the metacerebral giant neurons were observed in amounts approximately four-fold and two-fold, respectively, below unfed partners 24 h after a satiating meal. Intracellular levels of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and of free tryptophan did not differ significantly with hunger state. These data demonstrate that neurotransmitter levels and their metabolites can vary in goal-directed neural networks in a manner that follows internal state. PMID:18036151

  10. Fluvoxamine alleviates seizure activity and downregulates hippocampal GAP-43 expression in pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice: role of 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Alhaj, Momen W; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2015-06-01

    Epilepsy has been documented to lead to many changes in the nervous system including cell loss and mossy fiber sprouting. Neuronal loss and aberrant neuroplastic changes in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus have been identified in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model. Antiseizure activity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been reported in several studies. In the current study, the protective effect of fluvoxamine against PTZ-kindling was investigated in terms of seizure scores, neuronal loss, and regulation of hippocampal neuroplasticity. Further, the role of 5-HT3 receptors was determined. Kindling was induced by repeated injections of PTZ (35?mg/kg) thrice weekly, for a total of 13 injections. One hundred male albino mice were allocated into 10 groups: (1) saline, (2) PTZ, (3) diazepam (1?mg/kg)+PTZ, (4-6) fluvoxamine (5, 10 or 20?mg/kg)+PTZ, (7) ondansetron+fluvoxamine (20?mg/kg)+PTZ, (8) ondansetron+PTZ group, (9) ondansetron (2?mg/kg, i.p.)+saline, and (10) fluvoxamine (20?mg/kg)+saline. PTZ-kindled mice showed high seizure activity, hippocampal neuronal loss, and expression of growth-associated phosphoprotein (GAP-43) compared with saline-treated mice. Repeated administration of fluvoxamine (20?mg/kg) in PTZ-kindled mice suppressed seizure scores, protected against hippocampal neuronal loss, and downregulated GAP-43 expression, without producing any signs of the 5-HT syndrome in healthy rats. Importantly, pretreatment with a selective 5-HT3 receptor blocker (ondansetron) attenuated the aforementioned effects of fluvoxamine. In conclusion, the ameliorating effect of fluvoxamine on hippocampal neurons and neuroplasticity in PTZ-kindled mice was, at least in part, dependent on enhancement of hippocampal serotoninergic transmission at 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:25590967

  11. The Effects of Hypothyroidism on 5HT1A and 5HT2A Receptors and the Serotonin Transporter Protein in the Rat Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Kulikov; R. Jeanningro

    2001-01-01

    The effects of hypothyroidism on 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors and the serotonin transporter protein were studied in thyroidectomized male Wistar rats in two experimental groups: 1) animals kept on an iodine-free diet (hypothyroid rats) and 2) animals kept on thyroxine (15 µg\\/kg) for 21 days (giving normal thyroid hormone levels, euthyroid animals). Sham-operated rats served as controls. Binding of [3H]8-OH-DPAT

  12. Effect of a specific 5HT uptake inhibitor, citalopram (Lu 10-171), on 3 H-5HT uptake in rat brain synaptosomes in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Hyttel; H. Lundbeck

    1978-01-01

    The uptake of 3H-5-HT in synaptosomes from rat brains was investigated. Addition of DA or NA had only a slight or no effect on the uptake. When the uptake into NA and DA neurons was inhibited by the addition of high concentrations of NA and DA, the uptake of 3H-5-HT was unchanged. This was also found after destruction of NA

  13. The role of the 5HT 2A and 5HT 2C receptors in the stimulus effects of hallucinogenic drugs I: Antagonist correlation analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Fiorella; R. A. Rabin; J. C. Winter

    1995-01-01

    Investigations conducted over the past 3 decades have demonstrated that serotonergic receptors, specifically the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C subtypes, play an important role in the behavioral effects of hallucinogenic compounds. The present study was designed to determine the respective significance of these two receptors in the stimulus effects of LSD and (?)DOM in the rat. Specifically, the interactions of a series

  14. WAY 100,135 and (-)-tertatolol act as antagonists at both 5-HT1A autoreceptors and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, F; Rivet, J M; Gobert, A; Canton, H; Millan, M J

    1993-08-24

    In binding studies, WAY 100,135 (N-tertiobutyl-3-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazinyl]-2-phenylpropana mide) and (-)-tertatolol showed affinities (Ki) of 29 nM and 10 nM, respectively, at 5-HT1A receptors. In vivo, they both dose dependently blocked the flat-body posture and corticosterone secretion provoked by an action of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, S 14671 (1-[2-(2-thenoyl-amino)ethyl]-4-[1-(7- methoxynaphtyl)]piperazine), at postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. Alone, they exerted little effect. The firing rate of dorsal raphe neurones, which bear inhibitory 5-HT1A autoreceptors, was reduced by S 14671 whereas it was not affected by WAY 100,135 and was increased by (-)-tertatolol. Both WAY 100,135 and (-)-tertatolol blocked the ability of S 14671 to inhibit raphe firing. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that WAY 100,135 and (-)-tertatolol behave as antagonists at both 5-HT1A autoreceptors and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in vivo. PMID:8243546

  15. Slow excitatory post-synaptic potentials in myenteric AH neurons of the guinea-pig ileum are reduced by the 5-hydroxytryptamine7 receptor antagonist SB 269970.

    PubMed

    Monro, R L; Bornstein, J C; Bertrand, P P

    2005-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a key modulator of neuronal excitability in the central and peripheral nervous system. In the enteric nervous system, 5-HT causes a slow depolarization in the intrinsic sensory neurons, but the receptor responsible for this has not been correlated with known gene products. The aim of this study was to determine whether the newly characterized 5-HT7 receptor may participate in the 5-HT-mediated depolarization of, and synaptic transmission to, the intrinsic sensory neurons of the guinea-pig ileum. Intracellular electrophysiological recordings were made from intrinsic sensory neurons identified as myenteric AH neurons from guinea-pig ileum. 5-HT (5 microM) applied to the cell body evoked both a fast depolarization (5-HT3 mediated) and/or a slow depolarization (5-HT1P-like). The 5-HT1/5/7 receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) (5 microM) evoked only a slow depolarization. When the fast depolarization evoked by 5-HT was blocked with granisetron (1 microM, 5-HT3 receptor antagonist), only a slow depolarization remained; this was abolished by the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB 269970 (1 microM, control: 14+/-2 mV, granisetron+SB 269970: -1+/-2 mV). The slow depolarization evoked by 5-CT was also significantly reduced by SB 269970 (control: 14+/-1 mV, SB 269970: 5+/-2 mV) suggesting a 5-HT7 receptor was activated by exogenous application of 5-CT and 5-HT. Slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by stimulating descending neural pathways (containing serotonergic fibers) were reduced by SB 269970 (control: 8+/-3 mV, SB 269970: 3+/-1 mV). However, SB 269970 had no effect on slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by stimulation of circumferential (tachykinergic) pathways (control: 7+/-1 mV, SB 269970: 6+/-1 mV). These data are consistent with the presence on enteric AH neurons of functional 5-HT7 receptors that participate in slow synaptic transmission. PMID:16009503

  16. Stress-induced alterations in 5-HT1A receptor transcriptional modulators NUDR and Freud-1

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Daigle, Mireille; Misztak, Paulina; Sowa-Kucma, Magdalena; Rafalo, Anna; Curzytek, Katarzyna; Kubera, Marta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Nowak, Gabriel; Albert, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    The effect of stress on the mRNA and protein level of the 5-HT1A receptor and two of its key transcriptional modulators, NUDR and Freud-1, was examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (Hp) using rodent models: olfactory bulbectomy (OB) and prenatal stress (PS) in male and female rats; chronic mild stress in male rats (CMS) and pregnancy stress. In PFC, CMS induced the most widespread changes, with significant reduction in both mRNA and protein levels of NUDR, 5-HT1A receptor and in Freud-1 mRNA; while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor and Freud-1 protein levels were also decreased. In male, but not female OB rats PFC Freud-1 and 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were reduced, while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor, Freud-1 and NUDR mRNA’s but not protein were reduced. In PS rats PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein was reduced more in females than males; while in Hp Freud-1 protein was increased in females. In pregnancy stress, PFC NUDR, Freud-1 and 5-HT1A protein receptor levels were reduced, and in HP 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were also reduced; in HP only NUDR and Freud-1 mRNA levels were reduced. Overall, CMS and stress during pregnancy produced the most salient changes in 5-HT1A receptor and transcription factor expression, suggesting a primary role for altered transcription factor expression in chronic regulation of 5-HT1A receptor expression. By contrast, OB (in males) and PS (in females) produced gender-specific reductions in PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein levels, suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. These and previous data suggest that chronic stress might be a key regulator of NUDR/Freud-1 gene expression. PMID:24946016

  17. Expression of serotonin (5-HT) during CNS development of the cephalopod mollusk, Idiosepius notoides.

    PubMed

    Wollesen, Tim; Degnan, Bernard M; Wanninger, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    Cephalopods are unique among mollusks in exhibiting an elaborate central nervous system (CNS) and remarkable cognitive abilities. Despite a profound knowledge of the neuroanatomy and neurotransmitter distribution in their adult CNS, little is known about the expression of neurotransmitters during cephalopod development. Here, we identify the first serotonin-immunoreactive (5-HT-ir) neurons during ontogeny and describe the establishment of the 5-HT system in the pygmy squid, Idiosepius notoides. Neurons that are located dorsally to each optic lobe are the first to express 5-HT, albeit only when the lobular neuropils are already quite elaborated. Later, 5-HT is expressed in almost all lobes, with most 5-HT-ir cell somata appearing in the subesophageal mass. Further lobes with numerous 5-HT-ir cell somata are the subvertical and posterior basal lobes and the optic and superior buccal lobes. Hatching squids possess more 5-HT-ir neurons, although the proportions between the individual brain lobes remain the same. The majority of 5-HT-ir cell somata appears to be retained in the adult CNS. The overall distribution of 5-HT-ir elements within the CNS of adult I. notoides resembles that of adult Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis. The superior frontal lobe of all three species possesses few or no 5-HT-ir cell somata, whereas the superior buccal lobe comprises many cell somata. The absence of 5-HT-ir cell somata in the inferior buccal lobes of cephalopods and the buccal ganglia of gastropods may constitute immunochemical evidence of their homology. This integrative work forms the basis for future studies comparing molluscan, lophotrochozoan, ecdysozoan, and vertebrate brains. PMID:20976473

  18. Novel benzodioxopiperazines acting as antagonists at postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors and as agonists at 5-HT1A autoreceptors: a comparative pharmacological characterization with proposed 5-HT1A antagonists.

    PubMed

    Millan, M J; Canton, H; Gobert, A; Lejeune, F; Rivet, J M; Bervoets, K; Brocco, M; Widdowson, P; Mennini, T; Audinot, V

    1994-01-01

    The novel benzodioxopiperazines [4-(benzodioxan-5-yl)1-[2- (benzocyclobutane-1-yl)ethyl]piperazine] (S 14489), [4-(benzodioxan-5-yl)1-(indan-2-yl)piperazine)] (S 15535) and [4-(benzodioxan-5-yl)1-[2(indan-1-yl)ethyl]piperazine (S15931) competitively displaced the binding of [3H]-8-OH-DPAT at serotonin (5-HT)1A receptors with affinities (pKis) of 9.2, 8.8 and 8.9, respectively. These values compared favorably with those of the structurally related eltoprazine (8.0) and the proposed 5-HT1A antagonists NAN-190 (9.2), MDL 73005 EF (8.9), SDZ 216-525 (8.8), BMY 7378 (8.7), (-)-tertatolol (8.1), (-)-alprenolol (7.7), WAY 100,135 (7.5) and spiperone (6.9). The affinities of S 14489, S 15535 and S 15931 for other 5-HT receptor types (5-HT1B, 5-HT1C, 5-HT1D, 5-HT2 and 5-HT3) were about 50 to 1000-fold lower. The spontaneous tail-flicks, flat-body posture and hypothermia mediated by an action of the 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT at postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors were dose-dependently and completely antagonized by S 14489, S 15535 and S15931 at doses of 0.63 to 10.0 and 2.5 to 40.0 mg/kg for s.c. and oral administration, respectively. They did not induce these responses alone, and in their presence, dose-response curves for 8-OH-DPAT were shifted in parallel to the right without loss of maximal effect. By contrast, eltoprazine, MDL 73005 EF, BMY 7378 and NAN-190 behaved as "partial" agonists and only incompletely antagonized the actions of 8-OH-DPAT in these tests. At 5-HT1A autoreceptors, S 14489, S 15535 and S 15931 acted as agonists in inhibiting striatal 5-hydroxytryptophan accumulation (0.16-2.5 mg/kg, s.c.) and in abolishing the electrical activity of the dorsal raphe nucleus (0.005-0.100 mg/kg, i.v.). Eltoprazine, BMY 7378, NAN-190 and MDL 73005 EF also behaved as agonists at these 5-HT1A autoreceptors, whereas WAY 100,135, spiperone, (-)-tertatolol, (-)-alprenolol and SDZ 216-525 inhibited neither accumulation nor firing. WAY 100,135 and spiperone antagonized the inhibition of DRN firing induced by S 14489, S 15535 and S 15931. The affinity of 15535 for dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, as well as for beta-, alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors, was > 100-fold lower than its affinity for 5-HT1A receptors. Further, in vivo, at doses of 10.0 to 40.0 mg/kg, s.c., it showed minimal activity in tests of dopamine D2 (and D1) receptor-mediated activity. Similarly, in vivo, S 15535 was weakly active in a test of alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8301575

  19. P2X3 receptors induced inflammatory nociception modulated by TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Krimon, Suzy; Araldi, Dionéia; do Prado, Filipe César; Tambeli, Cláudia Herrera; Oliveira-Fusaro, Maria Cláudia G; Parada, Carlos Amílcar

    2013-11-01

    It has been described that endogenous ATP via activation of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors contributes to inflammatory nociception in different models, including the formalin injected in subcutaneous tissue of the rat's hind paw. In this study, we have evaluated whether TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors, whose activation is essential to formalin-induced inflammatory nociception, are involved in the nociception induced by activation of P2X3 receptors on subcutaneous tissue of the rat's hind paw. We have also evaluated whether the activation of P2X3 receptors increases the susceptibility of primary afferent neurons to formalin action modulated by activation of TRPA1, 5-HT3 or 5-HT1A receptors. Nociceptive response intensity was measured by observing the rat's behavior and considering the number of times the animal reflexively raised its hind paw (flinches) in 60min. Local subcutaneous administration of the selective TRPA1, 5-HT3 or 5-HT1A receptor antagonists HC 030031, tropisetron and WAY 100,135, respectively, prevented the nociceptive responses induced by the administration in the same site of the non-selective P2X3 receptor agonist ??meATP. Administration of the selective P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor antagonist A-317491 or pretreatment with oligonucleotides antisense against P2X3 receptor prevented the formalin-induced behavioral nociceptive responses during the first and second phases. Also, the co-administration of a subthreshold dose of ??meATP with a subthreshold dose of formalin induced nociceptive behavior, which was prevented by local administration of tropisetron, HC 030031 or WAY 100, 135. These findings have demonstrated that the activation of P2X3 receptors induces inflammatory nociception modulated by TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors. Also, they suggest that inflammatory nociception is modulated by the release of endogenous ATP and P2X3 receptor activation, which in turn, increases primary afferent nociceptor susceptibility to the action of inflammatory mediators via interaction with TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors in the peripheral tissue. PMID:24120766

  20. 5-HT3 Receptor Brain-Type B-Subunits are Differentially Expressed in Heterologous Systems

    E-print Network

    Corradi, Jeremias; Thompson, Andrew J.; McGonigle, Ian; Price, Kerry. L.; Bouzat, Cecilia; Lummis, Sarah C. R.

    2015-05-07

    competed with similar affinities with a rank order of potency of palonosetron > granisetron > MDL- 72222 > mCPBG > d-TC (Fig 5). These data are consistent with previous studies on 5-HT3A and 5-HT3AB receptors that have demonstrated similar antagonist...

  1. Exploring a potential palonosetron allosteric binding site in the 5-HT3 receptor?

    PubMed Central

    Del Cadia, Marta; De Rienzo, Francesca; Weston, David A.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Menziani, Maria Cristina; Lummis, Sarah C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Palonosetron (Aloxi) is a potent second generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist whose mechanism of action is not yet fully understood. Palonosetron acts at the 5-HT3 receptor binding site but recent computational studies indicated other possible sites of action in the extracellular domain. To test this hypothesis we mutated a series of residues in the 5-HT3A receptor subunit (Tyr73, Phe130, Ser163, and Asp165) and in the 5-HT3B receptor subunit (His73, Phe130, Glu170, and Tyr143) that were previously predicted by in silico docking studies to interact with palonosetron. Homomeric (5-HT3A) and heteromeric (5-HT3AB) receptors were then expressed in HEK293 cells to determine the potency of palonosetron using both fluorimetric and radioligand methods to test function and ligand binding, respectively. The data show that the substitutions have little or no effect on palonosetron inhibition of 5-HT-evoked responses or binding. In contrast, substitutions in the orthosteric binding site abolish palonosetron binding. Overall, the data support a binding site for palonosetron at the classic orthosteric binding pocket between two 5-HT3A receptor subunits but not at allosteric sites previously identified by in silico modelling and docking. PMID:24128813

  2. Heart rate within male crayfish: social interactions and effects of 5HT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura R. Listerman; Jasson Deskins; Haymo Bradacs; Robin L. Cooper

    2000-01-01

    Behaviors, such as those that establish dominant and subordinate social status, are thought to be driven by various neuromodulators and hormones. In crustaceans, the level of serotonin (5-HT) in the hemolymph is correlated with degree of aggressiveness. The crustacean heart is neurogenic and is modulated by neural secretion of 5-HT in the hemolymph, which bathes the cardiac tissue. We discuss

  3. Exploring a potential palonosetron allosteric binding site in the 5-HT(3) receptor.

    PubMed

    Del Cadia, Marta; De Rienzo, Francesca; Weston, David A; Thompson, Andrew J; Menziani, Maria Cristina; Lummis, Sarah C R

    2013-12-01

    Palonosetron (Aloxi) is a potent second generation 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist whose mechanism of action is not yet fully understood. Palonosetron acts at the 5-HT(3) receptor binding site but recent computational studies indicated other possible sites of action in the extracellular domain. To test this hypothesis we mutated a series of residues in the 5-HT3A receptor subunit (Tyr(73), Phe(130), Ser(163), and Asp(165)) and in the 5-HT3B receptor subunit (His(73), Phe(130), Glu(170), and Tyr(143)) that were previously predicted by in silico docking studies to interact with palonosetron. Homomeric (5-HT(3)A) and heteromeric (5-HT(3)AB) receptors were then expressed in HEK293 cells to determine the potency of palonosetron using both fluorimetric and radioligand methods to test function and ligand binding, respectively. The data show that the substitutions have little or no effect on palonosetron inhibition of 5-HT-evoked responses or binding. In contrast, substitutions in the orthosteric binding site abolish palonosetron binding. Overall, the data support a binding site for palonosetron at the classic orthosteric binding pocket between two 5-HT3A receptor subunits but not at allosteric sites previously identified by in silico modelling and docking. PMID:24128813

  4. High-affinity fluorescent ligands for the 5-HT3 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Simonin, Jonathan; Vernekar, Sanjeev Kumar V.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Hothersall, J. Daniel; Connolly, Christopher N.; Lummis, Sarah C.R.; Lochner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis, photophysical and biological characterization of a small library of fluorescent 5-HT3 receptor ligands is described. Several of these novel granisetron conjugates have high quantum yields and show high affinity for the human 5-HT3AR. PMID:22189135

  5. Varenicline Interactions at the 5-HT3 Receptor Ligand Binding Site are Revealed by 5-HTBP.

    PubMed

    Price, Kerry L; Lillestol, Reidun K; Ulens, Chris; Lummis, Sarah C R

    2015-07-15

    Cys-loop receptors are the site of action of many therapeutic drugs. One of these is the smoking cessation agent varenicline, which has its major therapeutic effects at nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors but also acts at 5-HT3 receptors. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of the 5-HT binding protein (5-HTBP) in complex with varenicline, and test the predicted interactions by probing the potency of varenicline in a range of mutant 5-HT3 receptors expressed in HEK293 cells and Xenopus oocytes. The structure reveals a range of interactions between varenicline and 5-HTBP. We identified residues within 5 Å of varenicline and substituted the equivalent residues in the 5-HT3 receptor with Ala or a residue with similar chemical properties. Functional characterization of these mutant 5-HT3 receptors, using a fluorescent membrane potential dye in HEK cells and voltage clamp in oocytes, supports interactions between varenicline and the receptor that are similar to those in 5-HTBP. The structure also revealed C-loop closure that was less than in the 5-HT-bound 5-HTBP, and hydrogen bonding between varenicline and the complementary face of the binding pocket via a water molecule, which are characteristics consistent with partial agonist behavior of varenicline in the 5-HT3 receptor. Together, these data reveal detailed insights into the molecular interaction of varenicline in the 5-HT3 receptor. PMID:25648658

  6. Specific labelling of serotonin 5-HT(1B) receptors in rat frontal cortex with the novel, phenylpiperazine derivative, [3H]GR125,743. A pharmacological characterization.

    PubMed

    Millan, M J; Newman-Tancredi, A; Lochon, S; Touzard, M; Aubry, S; Audinot, V

    2002-04-01

    Although several tritiated agonists have been used for radiolabelling serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)(1B) receptors in rats, data with a selective, radiolabelled antagonist have not been presented. Inasmuch as [3H]GR125,743 specifically labels cloned, human and native guinea pig 5-HT(1B) receptors and has been employed for characterization of cerebral 5-HT(1B) receptor in the latter species [Eur. J. Pharmacol. 327 (1997) 247.], the present study evaluated its utility for characterization of native, cerebral 5-HT(1B) sites in the rat. In homogenates of frontal cortex, [3H]GR125,743 (0.8 nM) showed rapid association (t(1/2)=3.4 min), >90% specific binding and high affinity (K(d)=0.6 nM) for a homogeneous population of receptors with a density (B(max)) of 160 fmol/mg protein. In competition binding studies, affinities were determined for 15 chemically diverse 5-HT(1B) agonists, including 2-[5-[3-(4-methylsulphonylamino)benzyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-1H-indole-3-yl]ethylamine (L694,247; pK(i), 10.4), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT; 9.7), 3-[3-(2-dimethylamino-ethyl)-1H-indol-6-yl]-N-(4-methoxybenzyl)acrylamide (GR46,611; 9.6), 5-methoxy-3-(1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)-1H-indole (RU24,969; 9.5), dihydroergotamine (DHE; 8.6), 5-H-pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridin-5-one,1,4-dihydro-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl (CP93,129; 8.4), anpirtoline (7.9), sumatriptan (7.4), 1-[2-(3-fluorophenyl)ethyl]-4-[3-[5-(1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)-1H-indol-3-yl]propyl]piperazine (L775,606; 6.4) and (minus sign)-1(S)-[2-[4-(4-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl]-N-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-2-benzopyran-6-carboxamide (PNU109,291; <5.0). Similarly, affinities were established for 13 chemically diverse antagonists, including N-[4-methoxy-3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]-3-methyl-4-(4-pyridyl)benzamide (GR125,743; pK(i), 9.1), (-)cyanopindolol (9.0), (-)-tertatolol (8.2), N-(4-methoxy-3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]-2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiozol-3-yl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide (GR127,935; 8.2), N-[3-(1,4-benzodioxan-5-yl)piperidin-4-yl]N-(indan-2yl)amine (S18127; 7.9), metergoline (7.8), (-)-pindolol (7.6), 1'-methyl-5-[2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-biphenyl-4-ylcarbonyl]-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-spiro[furo[2,3-f]indole-3,4'-piperidine] (SB224,289; 7.5) and ketanserin (<5.0). These rank orders of affinity correspond to the binding profile of 5-HT(1B) rather than 5-HT(1D) receptors. The low affinities of L775,066 and PNU109,291 versus L694,247 should be noted, as well as the low affinity of ketanserin as compared to SB224,289. Finally, in line with species differences, the affinities of several ligands including CP93,129, RU24,969, (-)-pindolol and (-)-propanolol in rat 5-HT(1B) sites were markedly different to guinea pig 5-HT(1B) sites labelled with [3H]GR125,743. In conclusion, [3H]GR125,743 is an appropriate tool for the radiolabelling of native, rat 5-HT(1B) receptors and permitted determination of the affinities of an extensive series of ligands at these sites. PMID:11888550

  7. 5-HT1A receptor blockade increases penile erections induced by indirect serotonin agonists.

    PubMed

    Simon, P; Bertrand, J; Costentin, J

    1993-12-13

    Indirect serotonergic agonists, whether promoters of 5-HT release such as fenfluramine (5 mg kg-1) or inhibitors of 5-HT uptake such as fluoxetine (10 mg kg-1), elicited in rats penile erections at a modest but significant level. Their effects were markedly potentiated by the beta-blocker tertatolol, (0.6-5 mg kg-1) which displays 5-HT1A receptor blocking activity, but not by the beta-blocker labetalol (6.25 and 25 mg kg-1), which lacks such activity. In addition, tertatolol, but not labetalol, potentiated penile erections induced by meta-chloro-phenylpiperazine (1 mg kg-1). Thus, it appears that increasing serotonergic transmission increases only moderately penile erections because of the functional opposition exerted by 5-HT1A (inhibition) and 5-HT1C (activation) serotonin receptors on this response. PMID:7905292

  8. 5-HT2 and 5-HT7 receptor agonists facilitate plantar stepping in chronic spinal rats through actions on different populations of spinal neurons

    PubMed Central

    S?awi?ska, Urszula; Miazga, Krzysztof; Jordan, Larry M.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable evidence from research in neonatal and adult rat and mouse preparations to warrant the conclusion that activation of 5-HT2 and 5-HT1A/7 receptors leads to activation of the spinal cord circuitry for locomotion. These receptors are involved in control of locomotor movements, but it is not clear how they are implicated in the responses to 5-HT agonists observed after spinal cord injury. Here we used agonists that are efficient in promoting locomotor recovery in paraplegic rats, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OHDPAT) (acting on 5-HT1A/7 receptors) and quipazine (acting on 5-HT2 receptors), to examine this issue. Analysis of intra- and interlimb coordination confirmed that the locomotor performance was significantly improved by either drug, but the data revealed marked differences in their mode of action. Interlimb coordination was significantly better after 8-OHDPAT application, and the activity of the extensor soleus muscle was significantly longer during the stance phase of locomotor movements enhanced by quipazine. Our results show that activation of both receptors facilitates locomotion, but their effects are likely exerted on different populations of spinal neurons. Activation of 5-HT2 receptors facilitates the output stage of the locomotor system, in part by directly activating motoneurons, and also through activation of interneurons of the locomotor central pattern generator (CPG). Activation of 5-HT7/1A receptors facilitates the activity of the locomotor CPG, without direct actions on the output components of the locomotor system, including motoneurons. Although our findings show that the combined use of these two drugs results in production of well-coordinated weight supported locomotion with a reduced need for exteroceptive stimulation, they also indicate that there might be some limitations to the utility of combined treatment. Sensory feedback and some intraspinal circuitry recruited by the drugs can conflict with the locomotor activation. PMID:25191231

  9. Activation of 5-HT6 Receptors Modulates Sleep–Wake Activity and Hippocampal Theta Oscillation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The modulatory role of 5-HT neurons and a number of different 5-HT receptor subtypes has been well documented in the regulation of sleep–wake cycles and hippocampal activity. A high level of 5-HT6 receptor expression is present in the rat hippocampus. Further, hippocampal function has been shown to be modulated by both 5-HT6 agonists and antagonists. In the current study, the potential involvement of 5-HT6 receptors in the control of hippocampal theta rhythms and sleep–wake cycles has been investigated. Hippocampal activity was recorded by intracranial hippocampal electrodes both in anesthetized (n = 22) and in freely moving rats (n = 9). Theta rhythm was monitored in different sleep–wake states in freely moving rats and was elicited by stimulation of the brainstem reticular formation under anesthesia. Changes in theta frequency and power were analyzed before and after injection of the 5-HT6 antagonist (SAM-531) and the 5-HT6 agonist (EMD386088). In freely moving rats, EMD386088 suppressed sleep for several hours and significantly decreased theta peak frequency, while, in anesthetized rats, EMD386088 had no effect on theta power but significantly decreased theta frequency, which could be blocked by coadministration of SAM-531. SAM-531 alone did not change sleep–wake patterns and had no effect on theta parameters in both unanesthetized and anesthetized rats. Decreases in theta frequency induced by the 5-HT6 receptor agonist correspond to previously described electrophysiological patterns shared by all anxiolytic drugs, and it is in line with its behavioral anxiolytic profile. The 5-HT6 antagonist, however, failed to potentiate theta power, which is characteristic of many pro-cognitive substances, indicating that 5-HT6 receptors might not tonically modulate hippocampal oscillations and sleep–wake patterns. PMID:23336058

  10. RS-127445: a selective, high affinity, orally bioavailable 5-HT2B receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Bonhaus, Douglas W; Flippin, Lee A; Greenhouse, Robert J; Jaime, Saul; Rocha, Cindy; Dawson, Mark; Van Natta, Kristine; Chang, L K; Pulido-Rios, Tess; Webber, Andrea; Leung, Edward; Eglen, Richard M; Martin, Graeme R

    1999-01-01

    Efforts to define precisely the role of 5-HT2B receptors in normal and disease processes have been hindered by the absence of selective antagonists. To address this deficiency, we developed a series of naphthylpyrimidines as potentially useful 5-HT2B receptor antagonists. RS-127445 (2-amino-4-(4-fluoronaphth-1-yl)-6-isopropylpyrimidine) was found to have nanomolar affinity for the 5-HT2B receptor (pKi=9.5±0.1) and 1,000 fold selectivity for this receptor as compared to numerous other receptor and ion channel binding sites. In cells expressing human recombinant 5-HT2B receptors, RS-127445 potently antagonized 5-HT-evoked formation of inositol phosphates (pKB=9.5±0.1) and 5-HT-evoked increases in intracellular calcium (pIC50=10.4±0.1). RS-127445 also blocked 5-HT-evoked contraction of rat isolated stomach fundus (pA2=9.5±1.1) and (±)?-methyl-5-HT-mediated relaxation of the rat jugular vein (pA2=9.9±0.3). RS-127445 had no detectable intrinsic activity in these assays. In rats, the fraction of RS-127445 that was bioavailable via the oral or intraperitoneal routes was 14 and 60% respectively. Intraperitoneal administration of RS-127445 (5?mg?kg?1) produced plasma concentrations predicted to fully saturate accessible 5-HT2B receptors for at least 4?h. In conclusion, RS-127445 is a selective, high affinity 5-HT2B receptor antagonist suitable for use in vivo. The therapeutic potential of this molecule is being further evaluated. PMID:10455251

  11. Effects of age of serotonin 5-HT2 receptors in cocaine abusers and normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    We measured the effect of age on serotonin 5-HT2 receptor availability and compared it with the effects on dopamine D2 receptors on 19 chronic cocaine abusers (35.2{plus_minus}9.8 years, range 18-54 years old) and 19 age matched normal controls using positron emission tomography (PET) and F-18 N-methylspiperone (NMS). 5-HT2 Receptor availability was measure din frontal (FR), occipital (OC), cingulate (CI) and orbitofrontal (OF) cortices using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest to that in the cerebelium (CB) which is a function of Bmax/Kd. D2 receptor availability in the basal ganglia was measured using the {open_quotes}ratio index{close_quotes} (slope of striatum/CB versus time over 180 min of the scan) which is a function of Bmax. 5-HT2 Receptor availability differed among regions and were as follows: CI>OF>OC>FC.5-HT2 Receptor availability decreased significantly with age. This effect was more accentuated for 5-HT2 receptor availability in FR than in OC(df=1, p<0.025). Striatal dopamine D2 receptors were also found to decrease significantly with age (r=0.63, p<0.007). In a given subject, D2 receptor availability was significantly correlated with 5-HT2 receptor availability in FR (r=0.51, p<0.035) but not in OC. The values for 5-HT2 receptor availability were not different in normal subjects and cocaine abusers. These results document a decline in 5-HT2 and D2 receptors with age and document an association between frontal 5-HT2 and striatal D2 receptor availability. These results did not show any changes in 5-HT2 receptor availability in cocaine abusers as compared to control subjects.

  12. Enhanced Function of Prefrontal Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptors in a Rat Model of Psychiatric Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Benekareddy, Madhurima; Goodfellow, Nathalie M.; Lambe, Evelyn K.; Vaidya, Vidita A.

    2014-01-01

    Prefrontal serotonin 5-HT2 receptors have been linked to the pathogenesis and treatment of affective disorders, yet their function in psychiatric vulnerability is not known. Here, we examine the effects of 5-HT2 receptors in a rat model of psychiatric vulnerability using electrophysiology, gene expression, and behavior. Following the early stress of chronic maternal separation, we found that serotonin has atypical 5-HT2 receptor-mediated excitatory effects in the adult prefrontal cortex that were blocked by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist MDL 100907. In the absence of a serotonergic agonist, the intrinsic excitability of the prefrontal cortex was not enhanced relative to controls. Yet, in response to stimulation of 5-HT2 receptors, adult animals with a history of early stress exhibit heightened prefrontal network activity in vitro, enhanced immediate early gene expression in vivo, and potentiated head shake behavior. These changes arise in the absence of any major alteration of prefrontal 5-HT2A/C mRNA expression or 5-HT2 receptor binding. Our microarray results and quantitative PCR validation provide insight into the molecular changes that accompany such enhanced 5-HT2 receptor function in adult animals following early stress. We observed persistent prefrontal transcriptome changes, with significant enrichment of genes involved in cellular developmental processes, regulation of signal transduction, and G-protein signaling. Specific genes regulated by early stress were validated in an independent cohort, and several altered genes were normalized by chronic blockade of 5-HT2 receptors in adulthood. Together, our results demonstrate enhanced prefrontal 5-HT2 receptor function and persistent alterations in prefrontal gene expression in a rat model of psychiatric vulnerability. PMID:20826676

  13. Stress-Induced Depression Is Alleviated by Aerobic Exercise Through Up-Regulation of 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1A Receptors in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Woon; Lim, Baek Vin; Baek, Dongjin; Ryu, Dong-Soo; Seo, Jin Hee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Stress is associated with depression, which induces many psychiatric disorders. Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT), acts as a biochemical messenger and regulator in the brain. It also mediates several important physiological functions. Depression is closely associated with an overactive bladder. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on stress-induced depression while focusing on the expression of 5-HT 1A (5-H1A) receptors in the dorsal raphe. Methods: Stress was induced by applying a 0.2-mA electric foot shock to rats. Each set of electric foot shocks comprised a 6-second shock duration that was repeated 10 times with a 30-second interval. Three sets of electric foot shocks were applied each day for 7 days. For the confirmation of depressive state, a forced swimming test was performed. To visualize the expression of 5-HT and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), immunohistochemistry for 5-HT and TPH in the dorsal raphe was performed. Expression of 5-H1A receptors was determined by western blot analysis. Results: A depressive state was induced by stress, and treadmill exercise alleviated the depression symptoms in the stress-induced rats. Expressions of 5-HT, TPH, and HT 1A in the dorsal raphe were reduced by the induction of stress. Treadmill exercise increased 5-HT, TPH, and HT 1A expressions in the stress-induced rats. Conclusions: Treadmill exercise enhanced 5-HT synthesis through the up-regulation of 5-HT1A receptors, and improved the stress-induced depression. In the present study, treadmill exercise improved depression symptoms by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor expression. The present results suggest that treadmill exercise might be helpful for the alleviation of overactive bladder and improve sexual function. PMID:25833478

  14. Combinatorial QSAR modeling of specificity and subtype selectivity of ligands binding to serotonin receptors 5HT1E and 5HT1F.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang S; Tang, Hao; Golbraikh, Alexander; Tropsha, Alexander

    2008-05-01

    The Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) approach has been applied to model binding affinity and receptor subtype selectivity of human 5HT1E and 5HT1F receptor-ligands. The experimental data were obtained from the PDSP Ki Database. Several descriptor types and data-mining approaches have been used in the context of combinatorial QSAR modeling. Data mining approaches included k Nearest Neighbor, Automated Lazy Learning (ALL), and PLS; descriptor types included MolConnZ, MOE, DRAGON, Frequent Subgraphs (FSG), and Molecular Hologram Fingerprints (MHFs). Highly predictive QSAR models were generated for all three data sets (i.e., for ligands of both receptor subtypes and for subtype selectivity), and different individual techniques were proved best in each case. For real value activity data available for 5HT1E and 5HT1F ligand binding, models were characterized by leave-one-out cross-validated R(2) (q(2)) for the training sets and predictive R(2) values for the test sets. The best models for 5HT1E ligands were obtained with the kNN approach combined with MolConnZ descriptors (q(2)=0.69, R(2)=0.92); for 5HT1F ligands ALL QSAR method using MolConnZ descriptors gave the best results (R(2)=0.92). Rigorously validated classification models were also developed for the 5HT1E/5HT1F subtype selectivity data set with high correct classification accuracy for both training (CCRtrain=0.88) and test (CCRtest=1.00) sets using kNN with MolConnZ descriptors. The external predictive power of QSAR models was further validated by virtual screening of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) screening library to recover 5HT1E agonists and antagonists (not present in the original PDSP data set) with high enrichment factors. The successful development of externally predictive and interpretative QSAR models affords further design and discovery of novel subtype specific GPCR agents. PMID:18470978

  15. Interaction of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C Receptors in R(?)-2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine-Elicited Head Twitch Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Simoneau, J.; Cohen, M. S.; Zimmerman, S. M.; Henson, C. M.; Rice, K. C.; Woods, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Drug-elicited head-twitch behavior is a useful model for studying hallucinogen activity at 5-HT2A receptors in the mouse. Chemically diverse compounds active in this assay yield biphasic dose-effect curves, but there is no compelling explanation for the “descending” portion of these functions. A set of experiments was designed to test the hypothesis that the induction of head-twitch behavior is mediated by agonist actions at 5-HT2A receptors, whereas the inhibition of head-twitch behavior observed at higher doses results from competing agonist activity at 5-HT2C receptors. The effects of the phenethylamine hallucinogen R(?)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) on head-twitch behavior were studied over a range of doses in the mouse, generating a characteristic biphasic dose-response curve. Pretreatment with the selective 5-HT2A antagonist (+)-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-[2-(4-fluorophenylethyl)]-4-piperidine-methanol (M100907) shifted only the ascending limb of the DOI dose-effect function, whereas pretreatment with the nonselective 5-HT2A/2C antagonist 3-{2-[4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl}quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (ketanserin) produced a parallel shift to the right in the DOI dose-response curve. Administration of the 5-HT2C agonist S-2-(chloro-5-fluoro-indol-l-yl)-1-methylethylamine (Ro 60-0175) noncompetitively inhibited DOI-elicited head-twitch behavior across the entire dose-effect function. Finally, pretreatment with the selective 5-HT2C antagonists 6-chloro-5-methyl-1-[(2-[2-methylpyrid-3-yloxy]pyrid-5yl)carbamoyl]indoline (SB242084) or 8-[5-(2,4-dimethoxy-5-(4-trifluoromethylphenylsulfonamido)phenyl-5-oxopentyl]-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4,5]decane-2,4-dione hydrochloride (RS 102221) did not alter DOI-elicited head-twitch behavior on the ascending limb of the dose-response curve but shifted the descending limb of the DOI dose-response function to the right. The results of these experiments provide strong evidence that DOI-elicited head-twitch behavior is a 5-HT2A agonist-mediated effect, with subsequent inhibition of head-twitch behavior being driven by competing 5-HT2C agonist activity. PMID:20858706

  16. Serotonin provides an accessory signal to enhance T-cell activation by signaling through the 5-HT7 receptor

    PubMed Central

    León-Ponte,, Matilde; Ahern, Gerard P.

    2007-01-01

    Although typically considered a neurotransmitter, there is substantial evidence that serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders. Despite these findings, the precise role of 5-HT in modulating immune function, particularly T-cell function, remains elusive. We report that naive T cells predominantly express the type 7 5-HT receptor (5-HTR), and expression of this protein is substantially enhanced on T-cell activation. In addition, T-cell activation leads to expression of the 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A receptors. Significantly, exogenous 5-HT induces rapid phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) and I?B? in naive T cells. 5-HT–induced activation of ERK1/2 and NF?B is inhibited by preincubation with a specific 5-HT7 receptor antagonist. Thus, 5-HT signaling via the 5-HT7 receptor may contribute to early T-cell activation. In turn, 5-HT synthesized by T cells may act as an autocrine factor. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that inhibition of 5-HT synthesis with parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA) impairs T-cell activation and proliferation. Combined, these data demonstrate a fundamental role for 5-HT as an intrinsic cofactor in T-cell activation and function and suggest an alternative mechanism through which immune function may be regulated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase–mediated catabolism of tryptophan. PMID:17158224

  17. Luciferase Reporter Gene Assay on Human 5-HT Receptor: Which Response Element Should Be Chosen?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiming; Xu, Zhongyu; Wu, Dang; Li, Jian; Song, Cheng; Lu, Weiqiang; Huang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) receptors are valuable molecular targets for antipsychotic drug discovery. Current reported methods for detecting 5-HT receptors, such as cAMP accumulation and calcium influx assay, are often demanding specialized instruments and inconvenient. The luciferase reporter gene assay, based on the responsible-element-regulated expression of luciferase, has been widely applied in the high-throughput functional assay for many targets because of its high sensitivity and reliability. However, 5-HT receptors couple to multiple G-proteins regulate respective downstream signalling pathways and are usually detected using different response elements. Hence, finding a suitable response element to fulfil the detection of different 5-HT receptors and make the results of luciferase reporter gene assays generalizable is very useful for active compounds screening. Here, we conducted three luciferase reporter assays using CRE, NFAT, and SRE response elements attached to 5-HT to detect the activation of different 5-HT receptors in CHO-K1 cells. The potencies and efficacies of the reported ligands (agonists and antagonists) were determined and compared. Our results indicate that CRE-luciferase reporter gene is sensitive and reliable to detect the activities of G protein-coupled 5-HT receptors. PMID:25622827

  18. Synthesis and pharmacological properties of a new hydrophilic and orally bioavailable 5-HT4 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Brudeli, Bjarne; Moltzau, Lise Román; Nguyen, Cam H T; Andressen, Kjetil Wessel; Nilsen, Nils Olav; Levy, Finn Olav; Klaveness, Jo

    2013-06-01

    5-HT4 receptor antagonists have been suggested to have clinical potential in treatment of atrial fibrillation, diarrhea-prone irritable bowel syndrome and urinary incontinence. Recently, the use of 5-HT4 antagonists has been suggested to have a therapeutic benefit in heart failure. Affinity for the hERG potassium ion channel and increased risk for prolonged QT intervals and arrhythmias has been observed for several 5-HT4 ligands. Serotonin may also have beneficial effects in the central nervous system (CNS) through stimulation of the 5-HT4 receptor, and reduced distribution of 5-HT4 antagonists to the CNS may therefore be an advantage. Replacing the amide and N-butyl side chain of the 5-HT4 receptor antagonist SB207266 with an ester and a benzyl dimethyl acetic acid group led to compound 9; a hydrophilic 5-HT4 antagonist with excellent receptor binding and low affinity for the hERG potassium ion channel. To increase oral bioavailability of carboxylic acid 9, two different prodrug approaches were applied. The tert-butyl prodrug 11 did not improve bioavailability, and LC-MS analysis revealed unmetabolized prodrug in the systemic circulation. The medoxomil ester prodrug 10 showed complete conversion and sufficient bioavailability of 9 to advance into further preclinical testing for treatment of heart failure. PMID:23711770

  19. Cloning, characterization, and chromosomal localization of a human 5-HT6 serotonin receptor.

    PubMed

    Kohen, R; Metcalf, M A; Khan, N; Druck, T; Huebner, K; Lachowicz, J E; Meltzer, H Y; Sibley, D R; Roth, B L; Hamblin, M W

    1996-01-01

    We describe the cloning and characterization of a human 5-HT6 serotonin receptor. The open reading frame is interrupted by two introns in positions corresponding to the third cytoplasmic loop and the third extracellular loop. The human 5-HT6 cDNA encodes a 440-amino-acid polypeptide whose sequence diverges significantly from that published for the rat 5-HT6 receptor. Resequencing of the rat cDNA revealed a sequencing error producing a frame shift within the open reading frame. The human 5-HT6 amino acid sequence is 89% similar to the corrected rat sequence. The recombinant human 5-HT6 receptor is positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase and has pharmacological properties similar to the rat receptor with high affinity for several typical and atypical antipsychotics, including clozapine. The receptor is expressed in several human brain regions, most prominently in the caudate nucleus. The gene for the receptor maps to the human chromosome region 1p35-p36. This localization overlaps that established for the serotonin 5-HT1D alpha receptor, suggesting that these may be closely linked. Comparison of genomic and cDNA clones for the human 5-HT6 receptor also reveals an Rsal restriction fragment length polymorphism within the coding region. PMID:8522988

  20. Central effects of 5-HT on activity of respiratory and hypoglossally innervated muscles in newborn kittens.

    PubMed Central

    Khater-Boidin, J; Rose, D; Duron, B

    1996-01-01

    1. In decerebrate kittens (n = 29), electrical activity was studied in the 3rd intercartilaginous (inspiratory), the 9th internal intercostal (expiratory) and the hypoglossally innervated muscles (geniohyoid m. and sternohyoid m.) evoked by the application of 5-HT (n = 16) or related agents (5-HT1A agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (n = 6) and 5-HT2 agonist, DOI floor of the IVth ventricle. 2. The application of a control solution (n = 2) produced no significant changes either in minute inspiratory frequency (Fi) or in the electrical activity of the muscles studied. Except for these controls, only one trial with one dose of one drug was performed in a given kitten. 3. A dose-related decrease in Fi was observed in response to 5-HT. Low doses (50-500 nmol, n1 = 8) induced a long-lasting bradypnoea; high doses (5000-10,000 nmol, n2 = 8) induced prolonged periods of apnoea. 4. The apnoeas observed in tracheotomized (n = 3) or non-tracheotomized (n2 = 8) kittens were mainly of central origin and linked to the lengthening of expiratory time. The expiratory muscle activation came on with the reinforcement of the activity of hypoglossally innervated muscles. 5. Application of agonists showed that both the 5-HT-dependent modulation of Fi and the effects of 5-HT on the activity of the muscles studied resulted predominantly from activation of 5-HT2 receptors. PMID:8866368

  1. Computational exploration of polymorphisms in 5-hydoxytryptamine 5-HT?A and 5-HT?A receptors associated with psychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Dass, J Febin Prabhu; Sudandiradoss, C

    2012-07-01

    The huge polymorphic data have been prioritized towards a specific disease based on sequence and structure homology tools to a large extent. In this study, we have explored the potential non-synonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (nsSNP) in serotonin (5-HT) receptors involved in psychotic syndromes and their response pathway. The most damaging point mutations were screened from 12 classes of serotonin receptors comprising 7743 variants. In 5HT(1A) receptor, two alleles were found to be highly deleterious located at ligand binding extracellular-2 and one at intracellular loop-3 domains. Similarly, we found two alleles predicted to be highly damaging in 5HT(2A) residing at N and C-Terminal domains. The above alleles were further confirmed based on their flexibility and stability difference using the molecular dynamic simulation analysis. Integrating these results appeared promising for being able to filter out potential non-synonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms for neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22521746

  2. Pet imaging of human pituitary 5-HT2 receptors with F-18 setoperone

    SciTech Connect

    Fischman, A.J.; Bonab, A.A.; Babich, J.W. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) receptors play an important role in the regulation of pituitary function. In particular, 5HT agonists stimulate ACTH, {beta}-endorphin, prolactin and growth hormone secretion but inhibit TSH release. 5-HT binding sites have been identified by autoradiographic studies of rat and human pituitary. In the present investigation, we used PET with F-18 setoperone to image 5-HT2 receptors in normal humans. Setoperone, a piperidine derivative with potent 5-HT2 receptor blocking properties was labelled with F-18 by nucleophilic substitution on the nitro derivative. After HPLC purification, specific activity was between 10,000 and 15,000 mCi/{mu} mole and radiochemical purity was >98%. Six healthy male volunteers were injected with 5-7 mCi of F-18. Setoperone and serial PET images and arterial blood samples were collected over 2 hrs. Specific binding to 5-HT2 receptors in the frontal cortex (FC), striatum (ST) and pituitary (P) was quantitated using the cerebellum (C) as reference. The tracer showed clear retention in FC, ST and P (known to contain a high density of 5-HT2 receptors) relative to C (known to be devoid of 5-HT2 receptors). In all subjects, FC/C, ST/C and P/C ratios increased during the first hr. and remained stable thereafter. For FC and ST, the ratios reached similar values; 3.92{plus_minus}0.73 and 3.53{plus_minus}0.32. For pituitary, a significantly higher ratio, was measured at all times; 6.53{plus_minus}1.82 (p<0.01). These results indicate that F-18 setoperone is an effective PET radiopharmaceutical for imaging 5-HT2 receptors in the human pituitary. Future applications of this agent could provide important new insights into neuroendocrine function.

  3. De novo design of a picomolar nonbasic 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Nugiel, David A; Krumrine, Jennifer R; Hill, Daniel C; Damewood, James R; Bernstein, Peter R; Sobotka-Briner, Cynthia D; Liu, Jianwei; Zacco, Anna; Pierson, M Edward

    2010-02-25

    We describe herein the discovery of novel, de novo designed, 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonists that lack a basic moiety and that provide improved hERG and in vitro phospholipidosis profiles. We used a known 5-HT(1B) antagonist template as our starting point and focused on replacing the piperazine moiety. Pyrazole-based ideas were designed and synthesized among a small library of piperazine replacements. To our knowledge, these are the first potent, nonbasic, functionally active antagonists of the 5-HT(1B) receptor. PMID:20088516

  4. Analysis of the 5-HT1A receptor involvement in passive avoidance in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Misane, Ilga; Johansson, Christina; Ove Ögren, Sven

    1998-01-01

    The effects of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist DOB, the selective 5-HT1A agonist NDO 008 (3-dipropylamino-5-hydroxychroman), and the two enantiomers of the selective 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT (R(+)-8-OH-DPAT and S(?)-8-OH-DPAT) were studied in a step-through passive avoidance (PA) test in the male rat.The 5-HT1A agonists injected prior to training (conditioning) produced a dose-dependent impairment of PA retention when examined 24?h later. R(+)-8-OH-DPAT was four times more effective than S(?)-8-OH-DPAT to cause an impairment of PA retention. Both NDO 008 and the two enantiomers of 8-OH-DPAT induced the serotonin syndrome at the dose range that produced inhibition of the PA response, thus, indicating activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors.Neither NDO 008 nor R(+)-8-OH-DPAT induced head-twitches, a behavioural response attributed to stimulation of postsynaptic 5-HT2A receptors. In contrast, DOB induced head-twitches at the 0.01?mg?kg?1 dose while a 200 times higher dose was required to produce a significant impairment of PA retention.The impairment of PA retention induced by both NDO 008 and R(+)-8-OH-DPAT was fully blocked by the active S(+)- enantiomer of the selective 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100135 and the mixed 5-HT1A/?-adrenoceptor antagonist L(?)-alprenolol. In contrast, the mixed 5-HT2A/2C antagonists ketanserin and pirenperone were found to be ineffective. Moreover, the ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118551, the ?1-antagonist metoprolol as well as the mixed ?-adrenoceptor blocker D(+)-alprenolol all failed to modify the deficit of PA retention by NDO 008 and R(+)-8-OH-DPAT. None of the 5-HT1A or 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonists tested or the ?-blockers altered PA retention by themselves.A 3 day pretreatment procedure (200+100+100?mg?kg?1) with the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) did not alter PA retention and did not prevent the inhibitory action of the 5-HT1A agonists, indicating that their effects on PA do not depend on endogenous 5-HT.The effects of NDO 008 on PA were also studied using a state-dependent learning paradigm. NDO 008 was found to produce a disruption of PA when given either prior to training or retention or both prior to training and retention but it failed to affect PA retention when given immediately after training.These findings indicate that the deficit of passive avoidance retention induced by the 5-HT1A agonists is mainly a result of stimulation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors but not 5-HT2A receptors. The 5-HT1A receptor stimulation appears to interfere with learning processes operating at both acquisition and retrieval. PMID:9806333

  5. Binding of STW 5 (Iberogast ®) and its components to intestinal 5HT, muscarinic M 3, and opioid receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Simmen; O. Kelber; S. N. Okpanyi; R. Jaeggi; B. Bueter; D. Weiser

    2006-01-01

    Clinical studies with the fixed herbal combination product STW 5 (Iberogast®) have indicated an efficacy comparable to metoclopramide (5-HT3 antagonist) and cisapride (5-HT4 agonist) in functional gastro-intestinal diseases like functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Since serotonin (5-HT3 and 5-HT4) and muscarinic M3 receptors are known to play a central role in the etiology of FD and IBS,

  6. Increased Exploratory Activity and Altered Response to LSD in Mice Lacking the 5HT 5A Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Régis Grailhe; Christian Waeber; Stephanie C Dulawa; Jean P Hornung; Xiaoxi Zhuang; Dani Brunner; Mark A Geyer; René Hen

    1999-01-01

    In order to determine the distribution and function of the 5-HT5A serotonin receptor subtype, we generated knockout mice lacking the 5-HT5A gene. Comparative autoradiography studies of brains of wild-type (wt) and 5-HT5A knockout (5A-KO) mice revealed the existence of binding sites with high affinity for [125I]LSD that correspond to 5-HT5A receptors and that are concentrated in the olfactory bulb, neocortex,

  7. Enhancement of the FGFR1 signaling in the FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complex in midbrain raphe 5-HT neuron systems. Relevance for neuroplasticity and depression.

    PubMed

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Pérez-Alea, Mileidys; Narvaez, Manuel; Tarakanov, Alexander O; Mudó, Giuseppa; Jiménez-Beristain, Antonio; Agnati, Luigi F; Ciruela, Francisco; Belluardo, Natale; Fuxe, Kjell

    2015-07-31

    New findings show existence of FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complexes in 5-HT nerve cells of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei of the rat midbrain and hippocampus. Synergistic receptor-receptor interactions in these receptor complexes indicated their enhancing role in hippocampal plasticity. The existence of FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complexes also in midbrain raphe 5-HT nerve cells open up the possibility that antidepressant drugs by increasing extracellular 5-HT levels can cause an activation of the FGF-2/FGFR1 mechanism in these nerve cells as well. Therefore, the agonist modulation of the FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complexes and their specific role is now determined in rat medullary raphe RN33B cells and in the caudal midline raphe area of the midbrain rich in 5-HT nerve cells. The combined i.c.v. treatment with FGF-2 and the 5-HT1A agonist 8-OHDPAT synergistically increased FGFR1 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the raphe midline area of the midbrain and in the RN33B cells. Cotreatment with FGF2 and the 5-HT1A agonist induced RN33B cell differentiation as seen from development of an increased number and length of extensions per cell and their increased 5-HT immunoreactivity. These signaling and differentiation events were dependent on the receptor interface since they were blocked by incubation with TMV but not by TMII of the 5-HT1A receptor. Taken together, the 5-HT1A autoreceptors by being part of a FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complex in the midbrain raphe 5-HT nerve cells appears to have also a trophic role in the central 5-HT neuron systems besides playing a key role in reducing the firing of these neurons. PMID:25957476

  8. The serotonin 5HT 2A receptor agonist TCB2: a behavioral and neurophysiological analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meredith A. Fox; Helen T. French; Justin L. LaPorte; Adele R. Blackler; Dennis L. Murphy

    2010-01-01

    Rationale  There are few reports on the high-affinity 5-HT2A agonist (4-Bromo-3,6-dimethoxybenzocyclobuten-1-yl)methylamine hydrobromide (TCB-2).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  Here we provide the first behavioral and neurophysiological profile of TCB-2 in C57BL\\/6J mice, with direct comparisons to\\u000a the 5-HT2A\\/2C agonist (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOI), in addition to determinations of 5-HT2A mediation via pretreatment with the selective 5-HT2A antagonist MDL 11,939.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In a dose-dependent manner, TCB-2 induced head twitches, decreased

  9. Cannabinoid Regulation of Serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) Receptor Signaling

    E-print Network

    Franklin, Jade Marie

    2013-08-31

    Accumulating evidence indicates that sustained cannabinoid agonist exposure may precipitate the onset of some neuropsychiatric disorders that are associated with dysfunction of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A ) receptor neurotransmission ...

  10. Fluvoxamine increased glutamate release by activating both 5-HT(3) and sigma-1 receptors in prelimbic cortex of chronic restraint stress C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yingmei; Yu, Shunying; Guo, Xiaoyun; Li, Xia; Li, Ting; Li, Huafang; Dong, Yi

    2012-04-01

    Emerging evidence from therapeutic trials in humans and animal models suggests that in the treatment of depression, antidepressants play a role by targeting the glutamatergic system. Fluvoxamine is one of the widely used SSRIs which has been considered to target monoamine neurotransmitter reuptake mechanisms. However, whether fluvoxamine has an effect on the glutamate release is still unclear. The present experiment studied the effect of fluvoxamine on presynaptic glutamate release in prelimbic cortex, both in control C57BL/6 mice and chronic restraint stress C57BL/6 mice, and further investigated the mechanism underlying this effect by using patch clamp, on-line fluorimetry, pharmacological approaches combined with other techniques. The results showed that fluvoxamine increased the glutamate release in the depression model mice but it had no effect on the glutamate release in the control mice. The mechanism underlying these effects in depression model mice was that, fluvoxamine firstly activated presynaptic 5-HT(3) receptors, which transiently increased the Ca(2+) concentration. The increase of Ca(2+) concentration via 5-HT(3) receptors caused the activation of sigma-1 receptors, which were activated by fluvoxamine. The activation of sigma-1 receptors increased the intrasynaptosomal Ca(2+) concentration significantly through the outflow of endoplasmic reticulum calcium and finally activated PKC. These results suggested that fluvoxamine may have a selective effect and different mechanism based on the condition of animal. PMID:22306004

  11. Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical visualization of 5HT 1B receptors in the rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youssef Sari; Karine Lefèvre; Mircea Bancila; Monique Quignon; Marie-Christine Miquel; Xavier Langlois; Michel Hamon; Daniel Vergé

    1997-01-01

    Specific antipeptide antibodies were used for the immunohistochemical visualization of 5-HT1B receptors in the rat brain. A dense, specific 5-HT1B receptor-like immunoreactivity was found in the globus pallidus, the dorsal subiculum and the substantia nigra. At the light microscope level, immunostaining was diffuse within the neuropil but absent from cell bodies. Observations at the electron microscope level in the substantia

  12. Transcriptional dysregulation of 5-HT1A autoreceptors in mental illness

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor is among the most abundant and widely distributed 5-HT receptors in the brain, but is also expressed on serotonin neurons as an autoreceptor where it plays a critical role in regulating the activity of the entire serotonin system. Over-expression of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor has been implicated in reducing serotonergic neurotransmission, and is associated with major depression and suicide. Extensive characterization of the transcriptional regulation of the 5-HT1A gene (HTR1A) using cell culture systems has revealed a GC-rich "housekeeping" promoter that non-selectively drives its expression; this is flanked by a series of upstream repressor elements for REST, Freud-1/CC2D1A and Freud-2/CC2D1B factors that not only restrict its expression to neurons, but may also regulate the level of expression of 5-HT1A receptors in various subsets of neurons, including serotonergic neurons. A separate set of allele-specific factors, including Deaf1, Hes1 and Hes5 repress at the HTR1A C(-1019)G (rs6295) polymorphism in serotonergic neurons in culture, as well as in vivo. Pet1, an obligatory enhancer for serotonergic differentiation, has been identified as a potent activator of 5-HT1A autoreceptor expression. Taken together, these results highlight an integrated regulation of 5-HT1A autoreceptors that differs in several aspects from regulation of post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors, and could be selectively targeted to enhance serotonergic neurotransmission. PMID:21619616

  13. Visualisation of serotonin-1A (5HT 1A ) receptors in the central nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Passchier; Aren van Waarde

    2001-01-01

    The 5-HT1A subtype of receptors for the neurotransmitter serotonin is predominantly located in the limbic forebrain and is involved in the modulation of emotion and the function of the hypothalamus. Since 5-HT1A receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety, depression, hallucinogenic behaviour, motion sickness and eating disorders, they are an important target for drug therapy. Here, we review the

  14. Anxiolytic effects of prelimbic 5-HT(1A) receptor activation in the hemiparkinsonian rat.

    PubMed

    Hui, Yan Ping; Wang, Tao; Han, Ling Na; Li, Li Bo; Sun, Yi Na; Liu, Jian; Qiao, Hong Fei; Zhang, Qiao Jun

    2015-01-15

    This study sought to assess whether unilateral lesions of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) using 6-hydroxydopamine in rats are able to induce anxiety-like behaviors, the role of serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptors of the prelimbic (PrL) sub-region of ventral medial prefrontal cortex in the regulation of these behaviors, the density of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and co-localization of 5-HT1A receptor and neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1-immunoreactive (EAAC1-ir) cells in the PrL. Unilaterally lesioning the MFB induced anxiety-like behaviors as measured by the open-field and elevated plus maze tests when compared to sham-operated rats. Intra-PrL injection of 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (50, 100, and 500 ng/rat) decreased the percentage of time spent in the center of the open-field and percentages of open arm entries and open arm time in sham-operated rats, indicating the induction of anxiogenic responses, and administration of 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (60, 120, and 240 ng/rat) showed anxiolytic effects. However, 8-OH-DPAT, at the same doses, increased the percentage of time spent in the center of the open-field and percentages of open arm entries and open arm time in the lesioned rats, indicating the induction of anxiolytic effects, and WAY-100635 produced anxiogenic responses. Unilateral MFB lesion decreased the density of 5-HT neurons in the DRN, and percentage of EAAC1-ir cells expressing 5-HT1A receptors in the PrL. These results suggest that unilateral lesions of the MFB in rats may induce anxiety-like behaviors, and activation of 5-HT1A receptors in the PrL has anxiolytic effects in the rat model of Parkinson's disease. PMID:24906197

  15. SAR of psilocybin analogs: discovery of a selective 5-HT 2C agonist.

    PubMed

    Sard, Howard; Kumaran, Govindaraj; Morency, Cynthia; Roth, Bryan L; Toth, Beth Ann; He, Ping; Shuster, Louis

    2005-10-15

    An SAR study of psilocybin and psilocin derivatives reveals that 1-methylpsilocin is a selective agonist at the h5-HT(2C) receptor. The corresponding phosphate derivative, 1-methylpsilocybin, shows efficacy in an animal model for obsessive-compulsive disorder, as does 4-fluoro-N,N-dimethyltryptamine. These results suggest a new area for development of novel 5-HT(2C) agonists with applications for drug discovery. PMID:16061378

  16. SAR of psilocybin analogs: Discovery of a selective 5HT 2C agonist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard Sard; Govindaraj Kumaran; Cynthia Morency; Bryan L. Roth; Beth Ann Toth; Ping He; Louis Shuster

    2005-01-01

    An SAR study of psilocybin and psilocin derivatives reveals that 1-methylpsilocin is a selective agonist at the h5-HT2C receptor. The corresponding phosphate derivative, 1-methylpsilocybin, shows efficacy in an animal model for obsessive–compulsive disorder, as does 4-fluoro-N,N-dimethyltryptamine. These results suggest a new area for development of novel 5-HT2C agonists with applications for drug discovery.

  17. Modifications of 5HT 4 receptor expression in rat brain during memory consolidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Manuel-Apolinar; L. Rocha; D. Pascoe; E. Castillo; C. Castillo; A. Meneses

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacological evidence indicates a specific role of 5-HT4 receptors on memory function. These receptors are members of G-protein-coupled 7-transmembrane domain receptor superfamily, are positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase, and are heterogeneously located in some structures important for memory, such as the hippocampus and cortical regions. To further clarify 5-HT4 receptors' role in memory, the expression of these receptors in passive

  18. Expression of hippocampal serotonin receptors 5-HT2C and 5-HT5A in a rat model of diet-induced obesity supplemented with tryptophan.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Esparza, Sarahi; Berumen, Laura C; Padilla, Karla; Miledi, Ricardo; García-Alcocer, Guadalupe

    2015-05-01

    Food intake regulation is a complex mechanism that involves endogenous substances and central nervous system structures like hypothalamus or even hippocampus. The neurotransmitter serotonin is distinguished as food intake mediator; within its multiples receptors, the 5-HT2C type is characterized by its inhibitory appetite action but there is no information about 5-HT5A receptors involvement in obesity disease. It is also unknown if there are any changes in the receptors expression in rats hippocampus with induced obesity during development through a high energy diet (HED) supplemented with tryptophan (W). To appreciate the receptors expression pattern in the hippocampus, obesity was induced to young Sprague Dawley rats through a HED and supplemented with W. Immunocytochemical and western blot techniques were used to study the receptor distribution and quantify the protein expression. The rats with HED diet developed obesity until week 13 of treatment. The 5-HT2C receptor expression decreased in CA1, CA2, CA3 and DG of HED group; and also in CA2, CA3 and DG for HEDW group. The 5-HT5A receptor expression only decreased in DG for HED group. Variations of the two serotonin receptors subtypes support their potential role in obesity. PMID:25720309

  19. Control of hippocampal theta rhythm by serotonin: Role of 5-HT2c receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sörman, Elin; Wang, Dannie; Hajos, Mihaly; Kocsis, Bernat

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampus plays an important role in learning and memory and has been implicated in a number of diseases, including epilepsy, anxiety and schizophrenia. A prominent feature of the hippocampal network is the capability to generate rhythmic oscillations. Serotonergic modulation is known to play an important role in the regulation of theta rhythm. 5-HT2c receptors represent a specific target of psychopharmacology and, in particular, the behavioural effects of the 5-HT2c receptor agonist m-CPP have been thoroughly tested. The present study used this compound and the selective 5-HT2c receptor antagonist SB-242084 to elucidate the role of 5-HT2c receptors in the generation of hippocampal oscillations. Hippocampal EEG was recorded and the power in the theta frequency range was monitored in different behaviours in freely moving rats and after brainstem stimulation in anesthetized animals. We found that in freely moving rats, m-CPP suppressed hippocampal theta rhythm and the effect was stronger during REM sleep than during waking theta states. Under urethane anesthesia, m-CPP decreased the power for both spontaneous and elicited theta rhythm in a dose-dependent manner and the 5-HT2c antagonist reversed this effect. The results of this study demonstrate that 5-HT2c receptors are important element of the serotonergic modulation of hippocampal theta oscillations and thus pharmacological interactions with these receptors can modulate physiological and pathological processes associated with limbic theta activity. PMID:21281651

  20. Large scale expression and purification of the rat 5-HT2c receptor.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoqin; Robertson, Nathan; Jazayeri, Ali; Gasperina, Antonietta Geroni; Schertler, Gebhard; Li, Xiaodan

    2015-02-01

    5-HT2c G-protein coupled receptors located in the central nervous system bind the endogenous neurotransmitters serotonin and couple to G protein to mediate excitatory neurotransmission, which inhibits dopamine and norepinephrine release in the brain. Thus, 5-HT2c receptors play important roles in cognitive function and are potent drug targets. Structural information is needed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of ligand-binding and receptor-activation of the 5-HT2c receptor. Lacking of an efficient expression system that produces sufficient amounts of active and homogenous receptors hinders progress in the functional and structural characterization of the 5-HT2c receptor. We present here a protocol which can be used easily to obtain milligram amount of purified rat 5-HT2c receptors. We established this protocol by protein engineering and optimization of expression and purification based on radioligand-binding assay. The purified and well-characterized rat 5-HT2c receptors are active, stable, homogenous, and ready for 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional crystallization experiments. PMID:25448824

  1. Impaired impulse control is associated with a 5-HT2A receptor polymorphism in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tsuang, Hui-Chun; Chen, Wei J; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Chen, Teng-Yi; Chang, Yi-Lin; Huang, Kuo-Hao; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2013-07-30

    The impact of the serotonin2a (5-HT2A) receptor gene on the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is inconclusive despite accumulating evidence implicating the 5-HT2A receptor. To simplify the complexity of genetic analysis, we used an endophenotype approach. The relationship between Continuous Performance Test (CPT) performance and 5-HT2A receptor gene variance was examined. Both patients with schizophrenia (n=255) and healthy volunteers (n=380) were recruited. All were genotyped for the -1438A/G polymorphism and assessed with the CPT. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms were used to evaluate patients' clinical symptoms. The distribution of the 5-HT2A genotypes between patients and healthy controls was similar. Impulse control in schizophrenic patients, assessed with the false-alarm rate of the CPT, differed significantly between those with different 5-HT2A genotypes. We hypothesize that the 5-HT2A receptor gene is a modifier gene of schizophrenia and suggest that additional studies are warranted. PMID:23063294

  2. 5-HT6 receptor antagonists as novel cognitive enhancing agents for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Upton, Neil; Chuang, Tsu Tshen; Hunter, Ann J; Virley, David J

    2008-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurological condition characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive performance accompanied by behavioral and psychological syndromes, such as depression and psychosis. The neurochemical correlates of these clinical manifestations now appear to involve dysfunctions of multiple neurotransmitter pathways. Because of the extensive serotonergic denervation that has been observed in the AD brain and the important role played by serotonin (5-HT) in both cognition and behavioral control, this neurotransmitter system has become a focus of concerted research efforts to identify new treatments for AD. 5-HT exerts its diverse physiological and pharmacological effects through actions on multiple receptor subtypes. One of the newest members of this family is the 5-HT6 receptor, a subtype localized almost exclusively in the CNS, predominating in brain regions associated with cognition and behavior. With the subsequent development of selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonists, preclinical studies in rodents and primates have elucidated the function of this receptor subtype in more detail. It is increasingly clear that blockade of 5-HT6 receptors leads to an improvement of cognitive performance in a wide variety of learning and memory paradigms and also results in anxiolytic and antidepressant-like activity. These actions are largely underpinned by enhancements of cholinergic, glutamatergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission, together with learning-associated neuronal remodeling. A preliminary report that the cognitive enhancing properties of a 5-HT6 receptor antagonist (namely, SB-742457) extends into AD sufferers further highlights the therapeutic promise of this mechanistic approach. PMID:18625457

  3. Potentiation of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced hyperthermia by harmaline and the involvement of activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xi-Ling; Shen, Hong-Wu; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2015-02-01

    5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and harmaline are serotonin (5-HT) analogs often abused together, which alters thermoregulation that may indicate the severity of serotonin toxicity. Our recent studies have revealed that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor harmaline leads to greater and prolonged exposure to 5-HT agonist 5-MeO-DMT that might be influenced by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) status. This study was to define the effects of harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT on thermoregulation in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, as well as the involvement of 5-HT receptors. Animal core body temperatures were monitored noninvasively in the home cages after implantation of telemetry transmitters and administration of drugs. Harmaline (5 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) alone was shown to induce hypothermia that was significantly affected by CYP2D6 status. In contrast, higher doses of 5-MeO-DMT (10 and 20 mg/kg) alone caused hyperthermia. Co-administration of harmaline (2, 5 or 15 mg/kg) remarkably potentiated the hyperthermia elicited by 5-MeO-DMT (2 or 10 mg/kg), which might be influenced by CYP2D6 status at certain dose combination. Interestingly, harmaline-induced hypothermia was only attenuated by 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, whereas 5-MeO-DMT- and harmaline-5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia could be suppressed by either WAY-100635 or 5-HT2A receptor antagonists (MDL-100907 and ketanserin). Moreover, stress-induced hyperthermia under home cage conditions was not affected by WAY-100635 but surprisingly attenuated by MDL-100907 and ketanserin. Our results indicate that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor largely potentiates 5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia that involves the activation of both 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. These findings shall provide insights into development of anxiolytic drugs and new strategies to relieve the lethal hyperthermia in serotonin toxicity. PMID:25446678

  4. Hallucinogen-like effects of N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT): possible mediation by serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in rodents.

    PubMed

    Fantegrossi, William E; Reissig, Chad J; Katz, Elyse B; Yarosh, Haley L; Rice, Kenner C; Winter, Jerrold C

    2008-01-01

    N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT) is a synthetic tryptamine hallucinogen which has been used psychotherapeutically in humans, but has been studied preclinically only rarely. In the present studies, DPT was tested in a drug-elicited head-twitch assay in mice, and in rats trained to discriminate lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), N,N-dimethyl-4-phosphoryloxytryptamine (psilocybin), or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). A separate group of rats was also trained to recognize DPT itself as a discriminative stimulus, and in all cases, the behavioral effects of DPT were challenged with the selective serotonin (5-HT)2A antagonist M100907, the 5-HT1A selective antagonist WAY-100635, or their combination. In the head-twitch assay, DPT elicited dose-dependent effects, producing a biphasic dose-effect curve. WAY-100635 produced a parallel rightward shift in the dose-effect curve for head twitches, indicative of surmountable antagonism, but the antagonist effects of M100907 were functionally insurmountable. DPT produced partial to full substitution when tested in rats trained to discriminate LSD, psilocybin or MDMA, and served as a discriminative stimulus. In all cases, the antagonist effects of M100907 were more profound than were those of WAY-100635. DPT is thus active in two rodent models relevant to 5-HT2 agonist activity. The effectiveness with which M100907 antagonizes the behavioral actions of this compound strongly suggest that the 5-HT2A receptor is an important site of action for DPT, but the modulatory actions of WAY-100635 also imply a 5-HT1A-mediated component to the actions of this compound. PMID:17905422

  5. Modulation of locomotor activity by multiple 5-HT and dopaminergic receptor subtypes in the neonatal mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Madriaga, M A; McPhee, L C; Chersa, T; Christie, K J; Whelan, P J

    2004-09-01

    Recently, it has been shown that bath-applied 5-HT can elicit fictive locomotion from perinatal mouse preparations. Since 5-HT acts on multiple receptor subtypes, the focus of this study was to examine which receptor families contribute to the genesis and modulation of locomotor activity. Blockade of 5-HT(2) (ketanserin or N-desmethylclozapine) or 5-HT(7) receptors (SB-269970) could reversibly block or modulate the locomotor-like pattern. A 5-HT(2) agonist (alpha-methyl-5-HT) was shown to be capable of activating the rhythm. Bath application of 5-HT(7) agonists (5-CT) generally led to a tonic increase in neurogram discharge, accompanied by bouts of rhythmic activity. Blockade of dopaminergic receptors (D(1) [R-(+)-SCH-23390 or LE 300]/D(2) [(+/-)-sulpiride or L-741,626] ) could reversibly disrupt the rhythm and most effectively did so when the D(1) and D(2) antagonists were added together. Conversely, 5-HT(2) and D(1)/D(2) agonists can interact to evoke locomotor activity. Overall, our data show that, in the neonatal mouse preparation, 5-HT evoked locomotion is partly dependent on activation of 5-HT(2), 5-HT(7), and dopaminergic receptor subtypes. PMID:15163678

  6. Tryptophan as a Link between Psychopathology and Somatic States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SASCHA RUSSO; IDO P. KEMA; M. REBECCA FOKKEMA; C. BOON; PAX H. B. WILLEMSE; ELISABETH G. E. DE VRIES; JOHANNES A. DEN BOER; JAKOB KORF

    2003-01-01

    TRP tryptophan; 5-HT 5-hydroxytryptamine; BBB blood- brain barrier; 5-HIAA 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid; 5-HTP 5-hydroxytryptophan; CSF cerebrospinal fluid; IDO indoleam- ine 2,3 dioxygenase; NMDA N-methyl-D-aspartate; CNS cen- tral nervous system; SSRI serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of 5-HT(3) and NK(1) receptor antagonists in prevention of emesis.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Camilo; Raje, Mithun; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Slusher, Barbara S

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are major side effects of chemotherapy and one key reason for non-compliance with cancer treatment. The introduction of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in the 1990s was a major advance in the prevention of acute emesis, and highlighted the critical role of serotonin in the emetic response. The next major advance in the treatment of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) occurred in 2003 with the introduction of aprepitant, a tachykinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist. Aprepitant not only reduced acute emesis but also helped in the reduction of delayed emesis. Also in 2003, palonosetron, a second generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist became available. Unlike the first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, palonosetron demonstrated efficacy in preventing both acute and delayed emesis. This review focuses on the mechanism of action of 5-HT3 and NK1 receptor antagonists in acute and delayed CINV prevention. We discuss first, the medicinal chemistry that led to the discovery of these antagonists to underline their common structural features. Second, we discuss their performance in the clinic and what it tells us about the emetic response. Finally, we present recent mechanistic studies that help provide a rationale for efficacy differences between palonosetron and other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in the clinic. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that palonosetron can inhibit substance P-mediated responses, presumably through its unique interactions with the 5-HT3 receptor. The crossroads of acute and delayed emesis seem to include interactions among the 5-HT3 and NK1 receptor signaling pathways and inhibitions of these interactions could lead to improved treatment of CINV. PMID:24184669

  8. Impact of intracellular domain flexibility upon properties of activated human 5-HT3 receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Kozuska, J L; Paulsen, I M; Belfield, W J; Martin, I L; Cole, D J; Holt, A; Dunn, S M J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose It has been proposed that arginine residues lining the intracellular portals of the homomeric 5-HT3A receptor cause electrostatic repulsion of cation flow, accounting for a single-channel conductance substantially lower than that of the 5-HT3AB heteromer. However, comparison of receptor homology models for wild-type pentamers suggests that salt bridges in the intracellular domain of the homomer may impart structural rigidity, and we hypothesized that this rigidity could account for the low conductance. Experimental Approach Mutations were introduced into the portal region of the human 5-HT3A homopentamer, such that putative salt bridges were broken by neutralizing anionic partners. Single-channel and whole cell currents were measured in transfected tsA201 cells and in Xenopus oocytes respectively. Computational simulations of protein flexibility facilitated comparison of wild-type and mutant receptors. Key Results Single-channel conductance was increased substantially, often to wild-type heteromeric receptor values, in most 5-HT3A mutants. Conversely, introduction of arginine residues to the portal region of the heteromer, conjecturally creating salt bridges, decreased conductance. Gating kinetics varied significantly between different mutant receptors. EC50 values for whole-cell responses to 5-HT remained largely unchanged, but Hill coefficients for responses to 5-HT were usually significantly smaller in mutants. Computational simulations suggested increased flexibility throughout the protein structure as a consequence of mutations in the intracellular domain. Conclusions and Implications These data support a role for intracellular salt bridges in maintaining the quaternary structure of the 5-HT3 receptor and suggest a role for the intracellular domain in allosteric modulation of cooperativity and agonist efficacy. Linked Article This article is commented on by Vardy and Kenakin, pp. 1614–1616 of volume 171 issue 7. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12550. PMID:24283776

  9. Ketanserin, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, decreases nicotine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Levin, Edward D; Slade, Susan; Johnson, Michael; Petro, Ann; Horton, Kofi; Williams, Paul; Rezvani, Amir H; Rose, Jed E

    2008-12-14

    Nicotine intake constitutes a principal mechanism for tobacco addiction. In addition to primary effects on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, nicotine has cascading effects, which may also underlie its neurobehavioral actions. Nicotine induces serotonin (5-HT) release, which has not classically been thought to be involved in tobacco addiction as dopamine has. However, addiction can be characterized more as a disorder of compulsion than a disorder of enjoyment. 5-HT mechanisms play key roles in compulsive disorders. Nicotine-induced 5-HT release may be a key to tobacco addiction. Ketanserin, a 5-HT2a and 5-HT2c receptor antagonist, significantly attenuates nicotine effects on attention and memory. These studies were conducted to determine if ketanserin would reduce nicotine self-administration in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N=12) were given initial food pellet training and then 10 sessions of nicotine self-administration training (0.03 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.). Then the rats were administered ketanserin (1 or 2 mg/kg, s.c.) or the saline vehicle. Ketanserin (2 mg/kg) significantly decreased nicotine self-administration. This did not seem to be due to sedative or amnestic effects of ketanserin. In a second study, the effects of repeated administration of 2 mg/kg ketanserin (N=11) vs. saline injections (N=10) were examined. In the initial phase, the acute effectiveness of ketanserin in significantly reducing nicotine self-administration was replicated. The effect became attenuated during the following several sessions, but the significant effect became re-established during the final phases of this two-week study. 5-HT mechanisms play critical roles in the maintenance of nicotine self-administration. Better understanding of those roles may help lead to new 5-HT-based treatments for tobacco addiction. PMID:18950618

  10. Characterization of MDL 73005EF as a 5-HT1A selective ligand and its effects in animal models of anxiety: comparison with buspirone, 8-OH-DPAT and diazepam.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, P. C.; Tricklebank, M. D.; Middlemiss, D. N.; Mir, A. K.; Hibert, M. F.; Fozard, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    1. With radioligand binding techniques, MDL 73005 EF (8-[2-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-yl-methylamino)ethyl]-8-az aspiro[4, 5]decane-7,9-dione methyl sulphonate) shows high affinity (pIC50 8.6) and selectivity (greater than 100 fold compared to other monoamine and benzodiazepine receptor sites) for the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A recognition site; it was both more potent and more selective than buspirone in this respect. 2. In rats pretreated with reserpine, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propyl-amino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) induced forepaw treading and flat body posture; in the same model, MDL 73005EF and buspirone showed minimal agonist activity and at high doses MDL 73005EF inhibited responses to 8-OH-DPAT. 3. In rats trained to discriminate 8-OH-DPAT from saline in a drug discrimination paradigm, both MDL 73005EF and buspirone generalized dose-dependently and completely to the 8-OH-DPAT cue. 4. To define the anxiolytic potential of MDL 73005EF, it was examined in the elevated plus-maze test and in the water-lick conflict test in comparison with diazepam and buspirone. In both tests MDL 73005EF induced effects similar to those seen following diazepam. Buspirone had similar effects to both MDL 73005EF and diazepam in the water-lick conflict test but opposite effects in the elevated plus-maze. 8-OH-DPAT also had opposite effects in the elevated plus-maze test to MDL 73005EF and diazepam. 5. The anti-conflict effects of MDL 73005EF were reversed by low doses of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT; those of buspirone were neither antagonised nor mimicked by 8-OH-DPAT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1970269

  11. Blockade of 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptors prevents cisplatin-induced but not motion- or xylazine-induced emesis in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine3 antagonists have been reported to prevent emesis elicited by cisplatin and radiation. This study investigated the possibility that drugs with this mechanism of action may be useful in preventing emesis elicited by other stimuli. The drugs ICS 205-930 (0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg) and MDL 72222 (0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg) were administered SC to cats before challenging them with either provocative motion or an emetic dose of xylazine. In no instance was a significant reduction in emesis evident. Zacopride was also administered before motion testing (0.01 to 10.0 mg/kg) and found to not have efficacy. To test the possibility that species or route of administration were factors in the negative results, 1.0 mg/kg of ICS 205-930 was administered SC before IV infusion of 7.5 mg/kg of cisplatin. There was a total suppression of emesis for the duration of the six-hour observation periods. This result verifies other work which found 5-hydroxytryptamine3 antagonists to be effective in preventing emesis elicited by cancer chemotherapeutic treatments. However, there is no evidence that they are effective in other syndromes, such as motion sickness and xylazine-induced emesis.

  12. Does Pharmacogenomics Account for Variability in Control of Acute Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting with 5-Hydroxytryptamine Type 3 Receptor Antagonists?

    PubMed Central

    Trammel, Morgan; Roederer, Mary; Patel, Jai; McLeod, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting is one of the most concerning adverse drug effects from cytotoxic chemotherapy. Despite appropriate use of antiemetic guidelines, 20–30% of patients experience breakthrough nausea and vomiting secondary to chemotherapy. To assess the variability of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist efficacy caused by genetic variation, a review of the available literature was conducted. From the literature, three sources of pharmacogenomic variability were identified: polymorphisms associated with 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor subunits, drug metabolism via cytochromes P450, and drug transport in the body. Testing for receptor subunit polymorphisms is not applicable to a clinical setting at this time; however, cytochrome P450 2D6 testing is FDA-approved and widely accessible. Cytochrome P450 2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers and poor metabolizers displayed altered antiemetic efficacy when compared with intermediate metabolizers and extensive metabolizers. We postulate that testing for cytochrome P450 2D6 phenotypes may be the most accessible way to provide individualized antiemetic therapy in the future. PMID:23512709

  13. Effect of AWD 52-39 on vasoconstriction induced by noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine in vitro and in vivo in rats.

    PubMed

    Müller, H; Glusa, E

    1992-02-01

    The vascular effect of the potential nootropic AWD 52-39 (1; N,N-diacetoxyethyl-9,10-dihydrolysergic acid amide) as well as its influence on noradrenaline- or 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction were studied in the isolated rat aorta and in anesthetized normotensive and pithed rats. Vasoconstriction was determined by measuring the increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP). Both in vitro and in pithed rats, 1 caused a slight vasoconstriction, whereas a dose-dependent short-lasting decrease in mean arterial pressure was found in normotensive rats. In vitro and in pithed rats, 1 exerted no influence on the noradrenaline-induced vasoconstriction, while the 5-HT-induced contractile response was significantly inhibited. These findings characterize 1 as a competitive antagonist at vascular 5-HT2 receptors without any alpha-adrenolytic effect. PMID:1635923

  14. Allosteric activation of the 5-HT3AB receptor by mCPBG.

    PubMed

    Miles, Timothy F; Lester, Henry A; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2015-04-01

    The 5-HT3AB receptor contains three A and two B subunits in an A-A-B-A-B order. However, serotonin function at the 5-HT3AB receptor has been shown to depend solely on the A-A interface present in the homomeric receptor. Using mutations at sites on both the primary (E122) and complementary (Y146) faces of the B subunit, we demonstrate that meta-chlorophenyl biguanide (mCPBG), a 5-HT3 selective agonist, is capable of binding to and activating the 5-HT3AB receptor at all five subunit interfaces of the heteromer. Further, mCPBG is capable of allosterically modulating the activity of serotonin from these sites. While these five binding sites are similar enough that they conform to a monophasic dose - response relationship, we uncover subtle differences in the heteromeric binding sites. We also find that the A-A interface appears to contribute disproportionately to the efficacy of 5-HT3AB receptor activation. PMID:25541413

  15. Amisulpride promotes cognitive flexibility in rats: the role of 5-HT7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Popik, Piotr

    2013-07-01

    The antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may contribute to the antidepressant and procognitive actions of the atypical antipsychotic drug, amisulpride. It has been previously demonstrated that the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist reversed restraint stress-induced cognitive impairments in a rat model of frontal-dependent attentional set-shifting task (ASST). Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of amisulpride against stress-evoked cognitive inflexibility. The second goal was to elucidate whether the pro-cognitive effect of amisulpride could be due to the compound's action at 5-HT7 receptors. Rats repeatedly exposed (1 h daily for 7 days) to restraint stress demonstrated impaired performance on the extra-dimensional (ED) set-shifting stage of the ASST. Amisulpride (3 mg/kg) given to stressed rats 30 min before testing reversed this restraint-induced cognitive inflexibility and improved ED performance of the unstressed control group. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist, AS19 (10 mg/kg), abolished the pro-cognitive efficacy of amisulpride (3 mg/kg). The present study suggests that the antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may contribute to the mechanisms underlining the pro-cognitive action of amisulpride. These results may have therapeutic implications in frontal-like deficits associated with stress-related disorders. PMID:23603557

  16. GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles decrease striatal neuronal degeneration and motor deficits during liver injury.

    PubMed

    Shilpa, J; Paulose, C S

    2014-07-01

    The metabolic alterations resulted from hepatic injury and cell loss lead to synaptic defects and neurodegeneration that undoubtedly contribute motor deficits. In the present study, GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles mediated liver cell proliferation influenced by growth factor and cytokines and neuronal survival in corpus striatum of partially hepatectomised rats was evaluated. Liver cell proliferation was initiated and progressed by the combined effect of increased expression of growth factor, insulin like growth factor-1 and decreased expressions of cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-? and Akt-1. This was confirmed by the extent of incorporation of thymidine analogue, BrdU, in the DNA of rapidly dividing cells. Inappropriate influx of compounds to corpus striatum resulting from incomplete metabolism elevated GABAB and 5-HT2A neurotransmissions compared to those treated with nanoparticles. This directly influenced cyclic AMP response element binding protein, glial cell derived neurotrophic factor and brain derived neurotrophic factor in the corpus striatum that facilitate neurogenesis, neuronal survival, development, differentiation and neuroprotection. Motor deficits due to liver injury followed striatal neuronal damage were scored by grid walk and rotarod studies, which confirmed the regain of motor activity by GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle treatment. The present study revealed the therapeutic significance of GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles in liver based diseases and related striatal neuronal damage that influenced by GABA and 5-HT. PMID:24682906

  17. Aggression and anxiety in adolescent AAS-treated hamsters: A role for 5HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Thomas R; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2015-07-01

    Previously, we have shown that anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) exposure throughout adolescence stimulates offensive aggression while also reducing anxious behaviors during the exposure period. Interestingly, AAS exposure through development correlates with alterations to the serotonin system in regions known to contain 5HT3 receptors that influence the control of both aggression and anxiety. Despite these effects, little is known about whether these separate developmental AAS-induced behavioral alterations occur as a function of a common neuroanatomical locus. To begin to address this question, we localized 5HT3 receptors in regions that have been implicated in aggression and anxiety. To examine the impact these receptors may have on AAS alterations to behavior, we microinjected the 5HT3 agonist mCPBG directly into a region know for its influence over aggressive behavior, the lateral division of the anterior hypothalamus, and recorded alterations to anxious behaviors using the elevated plus maze. AAS exposure primarily reduced the presence of 5HT3 receptors in aggression/anxiety regions. Accordingly, mCPBG blocked the anxiolytic effects of adolescent AAS exposure. These data suggest that the 5HT3 receptor plays a critical role in the circuit modulating developmental AAS-induced changes to both aggressive and anxious behaviors, and further implicates the lateral division of the anterior hypothalamus as an important center for the negative behavioral effects of developmental AAS-exposure. PMID:25959831

  18. Life Beyond Kinases: Structure-based Discovery of Sorafenib as Nanomolar Antagonist of 5-HT Receptors