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Sample records for 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-ht reuptake

  1. Mediation by 5-HT1D receptors of 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced contractions of rabbit middle and posterior cerebral arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Deckert, V.; Pruneau, D.; Elghozi, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor-mediated contraction of endothelium denuded rabbit middle (MCA) and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries was characterized by use of selective agonists and antagonists for different 5-HT receptor subtypes. 2. 5-HT and various 5-HT receptor agonists contracted the arteries with the following rank order of potency in MCA: 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) > 5-HT > 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT) > sumatriptan > alpha-methyl-5-HT (alpha-Me-5-HT) >> 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and in PCA: 5-CT > 5-HT > sumatriptan > 5-MeOT > alpha-Me-5-HT >> 8-OH-DPAT. With few exceptions, the maximal contractile responses of these agonists were similar to that induced by 5-HT. 3. The selective antagonists of 5-HT2A/2C (ketanserin), 5-HT4 (SDZ 205-557) and 5-HT1A/1B (S-(-)-propranolol) sites were devoid of inhibitory effect on 5-HT-mediated contraction in both MCA and PCA, thus excluding activation of the corresponding receptors. 4. In both arteries, the contraction-response curve to 5-HT was unaffected by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ICS 205-930 (0.01 and 0.1 microM) whilst a small (3 and 6 fold displacement) was seen with MDL 72222 (0.1 and 1 microM). 5. The mixed 5-HT1-like/5-HT2A receptor antagonist, methiothepin (0.001-0.1 microM), was a potent antagonist of 5-HT-induced contractions in both arteries, giving pA2 values of 9.4 +/- 0.7 and 9.6 +/- 0.8 in MCA and PCA, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7921624

  2. Fading of 5-HT4 receptor-mediated inotropic responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine is caused by phosphodiesterase activity in porcine atrium.

    PubMed

    Kaumann, Alberto J; Levy, Finn Olav

    2006-01-01

    Inotropic responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in human and porcine atrium can fade, suggesting 5-HT(4) receptor desensitization. De Maeyer et al., however, show in this issue that inhibition of phosphodiesterases with isobutyl-methyl-xanthine prevents fading of 5-HT(4) receptor-mediated responses to 5-HT and the partial agonist prucalopride in porcine atrium. PMID:16331292

  3. Predictive In Silico Studies of Human 5-hydroxytryptamine Receptor Subtype 2B (5-HT2B) and Valvular Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Terry-Elinor; Kumar, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) receptors are neuromodulator neurotransmitter receptors which when activated generate a signal transduction pathway within cells resulting in cell-cell communication. 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2B (5-HT2B) is a subtype of the seven members of 5-hydroxytrytamine (5-HT) family of receptors which is the largest member of the super family of 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Not only do 5-HT receptors play physiological roles in the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal and endocrine function and the central nervous, but they also play a role in behavioral functions. In particular 5-HT2B receptor is wide spread with regards to its distribution throughout bodily tissues and is expressed at high levels in the lungs, peripheral tissues, liver, kidney and prostate just to name a few. Hence 5-HT2B participates in multiple biological functions including CNS regulation, regulation of gastrointestinal motality, cardiovascular regulation and 5-HT transport system regulation. While 5-HT2B is a viable drug target and has therapeutic indications for treating obesity, psychotherapy, Parkinsons disease etc. there is a growing concern regarding adverse drug reactions, specifically valvulopathy associated with 5-HT2B agonists. Due to the sequence homology experienced by 5-HT2 subtypes there is also a concern regarding the off target effects of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C agonists. The concept of subtype selectivity is of paramount importance and can be tackled with the aid of in silico studies, specifically cheminformatics, to develop models to predict valvulopathy associated toxicity of drug candidates prior to clinical trials. This review has highlighted three in silico approaches thus far that have been successful in either predicting 5-HT2B toxicity of molecules or identifying important interactions between 5-HT2B and drug molecules that bring about valvulopathy related toxicities. PMID:23675941

  4. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)-induced valvulopathy: compositional valvular alterations are associated with 5HT2B receptor and 5HT transporter transcript changes in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Elangbam, Chandikumar S; Job, Lauren E; Zadrozny, Leah M; Barton, Joanna C; Yoon, Lawrence W; Gates, Lisa D; Slocum, Nikki

    2008-08-01

    Several drugs have been linked to valvulopathy in humans, including therapeutic agents for obesity, Parkinson's disease and migraine. There is increasing evidence that the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2B receptor (5HT2BR) activation and/or increased circulating 5HT (5-hydroxytryptamine) may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of drug-induced valvulopathy. In the present study, we investigated whether 7-day 5HT subcutaneous injections led to structural and compositional abnormalities in conjunction with transcriptomic modulation of 5HT2BR and 5HT transporter (5HTT) genes in the aortic and mitral valves of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Subcutaneous injections of 5HT for 7 days resulted in thickening and compositional alteration of aortic and mitral valves in SD rats. More specifically, valve-leaflets from 5HT-treated rats had greater valve thickness, a higher amount of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and a lower amount of collagen. The compositional alteration was associated with up-regulation and down-regulation of 5HT2BR and 5HTT genes, respectively. The present study strongly suggests that the activation of 5HT2BR and inhibition of 5HTT played a significant role in the pathogenesis of 5HT-induced valvulopathy in SD rats. Thus, these findings further highlight the necessity and/or utilization of animal models to screen potential valvular effects of serotonergic compounds. PMID:18511249

  5. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)-induced valvulopathy: compositional valvular alterations are associated with 5HT2B receptor and 5HT transporter transcript changes in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Elangbam CS; Job LE; Zadrozny LM; Barton JC; Yoon LW; Gates LD; Slocum N

    2008-08-01

    Several drugs have been linked to valvulopathy in humans, including therapeutic agents for obesity, Parkinson's disease and migraine. There is increasing evidence that the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2B receptor (5HT2BR) activation and/or increased circulating 5HT (5-hydroxytryptamine) may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of drug-induced valvulopathy. In the present study, we investigated whether 7-day 5HT subcutaneous injections led to structural and compositional abnormalities in conjunction with transcriptomic modulation of 5HT2BR and 5HT transporter (5HTT) genes in the aortic and mitral valves of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Subcutaneous injections of 5HT for 7 days resulted in thickening and compositional alteration of aortic and mitral valves in SD rats. More specifically, valve-leaflets from 5HT-treated rats had greater valve thickness, a higher amount of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and a lower amount of collagen. The compositional alteration was associated with up-regulation and down-regulation of 5HT2BR and 5HTT genes, respectively. The present study strongly suggests that the activation of 5HT2BR and inhibition of 5HTT played a significant role in the pathogenesis of 5HT-induced valvulopathy in SD rats. Thus, these findings further highlight the necessity and/or utilization of animal models to screen potential valvular effects of serotonergic compounds.

  6. Regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine2 (5-HT2) receptor expression in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells by SR 46349B, a selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi-Carmona, M; Prabonnaud, V; Bouaboula, M; Poinot-Chazel, C; Casellas, P; Le Fur, G; Herbert, J M

    1994-01-01

    Regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT2) receptor expression by SR 46349B, a potent and selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, was investigated in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Binding of [3H]SR 46349B to rat vascular smooth muscle cells was time-dependent, reversible, and saturable. [3H]SR 46349B bound to one class of specific binding sites with high affinity (KD = 1.3 +/- 0.3 nM; Bmax = 176 +/- 42 fmol/10(5) cells). Exposure of cells to a 1 microM concentration of the 5-HT2 agonist (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane ((+/-)-DOI) or the antagonist ketanserin led to a significant decrease in 5-HT2 receptor density as measured by [3H]SR 46349B binding. In contrast, exposure of cells to 1 microM SR 46349B caused a marked increase in the maximal binding capacity of [3H]SR 46349B, with a maximal effect at 24 h (73% increase). The affinity constant was not affected by prior exposure to (+/-)-DOI, ketanserin, or SR 46349B. Furthermore, exposure of cells to 1 microM (+/-)-DOI or ketanserin produced, 48 h later, a decrease in the ability of (+/-)-DOI to stimulate phosphoinositide turnover in the cells, whereas treatment with SR 46349B induced a significant stimulation of the 5-HT2 receptor-linked signal transduction. This effect occurred with no changes in the amount of 5-HT2 receptor mRNAs as measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. These results indicate that SR 46349B increases 5-HT2 receptor binding and functions without altering steady-state 5-HT2 mRNA levels in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. PMID:8276825

  7. Antagonistic actions of renal dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine: endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT1A receptors and antinatriuresis during high sodium intake.

    PubMed Central

    Soares-da-Silva, P.; Vieira-Coelho, M. A.; Pestana, M.

    1996-01-01

    1. The present study has examined the effect of (+)-WAY 100135, a selective antagonist of 5-HT1A receptors, and ketanserin, an antagonist of 5-HT2 receptors, on the urinary excretion of Na+, K+, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and their metabolites in rats treated with the selective type A monoamine oxidase (MAO-A) inhibitor, Ro 41-1049 (15 mg kg-1 day-1) in conditions of normal sodium (NS) and high sodium (HS; 1.0% NaCl in drinking water) intake. 2. Male Wistar rats were placed in metabolic cages and were given tap water (NS diet) in the first 4 days of the study and then challenged to a HS diet for another 7 days. Ro 41-1049 was given in drinking water only in the last 3 days of the HS diet, whereas (+)-WAY 100135 (5 and 10 mg kg-1 day-1, s.c.) or ketanserin (2 mg kg-1 day-1, s.c.) were administered in the last 4 days of the HS intake period. 3. Daily urinary excretion (in nmol kg-1 day-1) of dopamine (82 +/- 2), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC; 198 +/- 9), homovanillic acid (HVA; 915 +/- 47), 5-HT (586 +/- 37) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA; 1035 +/- 64) in the HS intake period was similar or higher than that in NS diet (dopamine = 68 +/- 2, DOPAC = 197 +/- 4, HVA = 923 +/- 42, 5-HT = 539 +/- 132, 5-HIAA = 1286 +/- 95). The administration of Ro 41-1049 on 3 consecutive days reduced the urinary excretion of dopamine, DOPAC and HVA, respectively, by 35-51% (P < 0.05), 73-85% (P < 0.05) and 59-66% (P < 0.05); the urinary excretion of 5-HT increased 2 fold (P < 0.01) and the levels of 5-HIAA were reduced by 39-77% (P < 0.05). 4. During HS intake (7 days), daily urinary excretion of Na+ increased 5.5 fold (from 6.7 +/- 0.2 to 36.5 +/- 0.9 mmol kg-1 day-1), without changes in the urinary excretion of K+ (from 11.2 +/- 0.2 to 11.9 +/- 0.5 mmol kg-1 day-1) and urinary osmolality (from 1083.8 +/- 26.7 to 1117.7 +/- 24.1 mOsm kg-1 H2O). MAO-A inhibition during HS intake was found to produce a 47-68% decrease in Na+ excretion (from 39.1 +/- 0.7 to 15.1 +/- 2.5 mmol kg-1 day-1, n = 4; P < 0.02) and urine volume (from 160.4 +/- 3.3 to 43.8 +/- 9.0 ml kg-1 day-1, n = 4; P < 0.02) without changes in K+ (from 11.1 +/- 0.5 to 9.2 +/- 0.6 mmol kg-1 day-1, n = 4) and creatinine (from 29.1 +/- 2.3 to 28.4 +/- 2.1 mg kg-1 day-1) excretion; urine osmolality increased 2 fold (from 936.3 +/- 40.3 to 2210.7 +/- 157.4 mOsm kg-1 H2O, n = 4; P < 0.02). Administration of (+)-WAY 100135 (5 and 10 mg kg-1 day-1), but not of ketanserin (2 mg kg-1 day-1), was found to inhibit the antinatriuretic effect induced by Ro 41-1049 during HS intake. 5. It is suggested that MAO-A inhibition during HS intake leads to an increased availability of 5-HT in renal tissues, the effect of which is a decrease in the urinary excretion of Na+, involving the activation of tubular 5-HT1A receptors. PMID:8882615

  8. Induction and maintenance of ganglionic long-term potentiation require activation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Alkadhi, K A; Salgado-Commissariat, D; Hogan, Y H; Akpaudo, S B

    1996-01-01

    1. An extracellular recording technique was used to study the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) on the tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of the nicotinic pathway of transmission in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) of the rat. The postganglionic compound action potential (CAP), made submaximal by treatment with hexamethonium (O.4 mM), was used as an index of transmission in the ganglion. 2. Serotonin (10 microM) markedly enhanced the magnitude of LTP without affecting the post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). The serotonin (2-30 microM) concentration-response curve for LTP was bell shaped as no enhancement was seen with 30 microM serotonin. This may largely be due to activation of a 5-HT1 receptor subtype and not to desensitization. 3. When superfused before tetanus, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxydipropylamino-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT, 5 microM) prevented the expression of LTP without affecting PTP. 4. Pretreatment of ganglia with the 5-HT2 receptor agonist R-(+)-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (R-(+)-DOI, 1 microM) enhanced the tetanus-induced LTP. Similar treatment with the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserin (3 microM) had no significant effect on LTP. 5. Pretreatment of ganglia with the 5-HT3 receptor agonist 1-m-(chlorophenyl) biguanide (m-CPGB, 1 microM), markedly increased (300%) the tetanus-induced LTP. Similar pretreatment with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist 3-tropanyl-3,5-dichlorobenzoate (MDL 72222, 0.5 microM) completely prevented the expression of LTP. Fully expressed LTP was reversibly blocked by MDL 72222 when applied during the maintenance phase of LTP. 6. Tetanic stimulation of monoamine-depleted ganglia (from reserpine-pretreated rats, 3 mg kg-1 for 24 h) failed to induced LTP. 7. In monoamine-depleted ganglia, tetanus preceded by superfusion with m-CPBG readily induced LTP. MDL 72222 completely blocked this LTP. However in these ganglia tetanus failed to induced LTP when m-CPBG was given 2 min (during PTP) or 1 h after tetanus. 8. Tetanic stimulation of monoamine-depleted ganglia in the presence of R-(+)-DOI failed to induced LTP. 9. We conclude that tetanus-induced LTP of the SCG of the rat requires activation of 5-HT3 receptors both for induction and maintenance. PMID:8910231

  9. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HT1DR) promotes colorectal cancer metastasis by regulating Axin1/?-catenin/MMP-7 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Qing; Liu, Xuan; Zhou, Lihong; Song, Haiyan; Zhou, Xiqiu; Xu, Yangxian; Chen, Zhesheng; Cai, Jianfeng; Ji, Guang; Li, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in human cancer contributes to tumor metastasis, but the role of 5-HT receptor family in cancer has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we report overexpression of 5-HT1D receptor (5-HT1DR) was associated with Wnt signaling pathway and advanced tumor stage. The underlying mechanism of 5-HT1DR-promoted tumor invasion was through its activation on the Axin1/?-catenin/MMP-7 pathway. In an orthotopic colorectal cancer mouse model, we demonstrated that a 5-HT1DR antagonist (GR127935) effectively inhibited tumor metastasis through targeting Axin1. Furthermore, in intestinal epithelium cells, we observed that 5-HT1DR played an important role in cell invasion via Axin1/?-catenin/MMP-7 pathway. Together, our findings reveal an essential role of the physiologic level of 5-HT1DR in pulmonary metastasis of colorectal cancer. PMID:26214021

  10. Characterization and localization of a peripheral neural 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor subtype (5-HT1P) with a selective agonist, /sup 3/H-5-hydroxyindalpine

    SciTech Connect

    Branchek, T.A.; Mawe, G.M.; Gershon, M.D.

    1988-07-01

    Peripheral neural 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors are different from both classes 5-HT1 and 5-HT2, which have been described from studies of 5-HT receptors in the brain. Recently, it has been shown that, as in the CNS, there is more than a single type of neural receptor for 5-HT in the enteric nervous system. One of these, called 5-HT1P, has a high affinity for 3H-5-HT, initiates a long-lasting depolarization of enteric neurons associated with an increase in membrane resistance, and is the physiological receptor through which enteric serotoninergic neurons mediate slow EPSPs. The other receptor, called 5-HT3 (5-HT2P), does not bind /sup 3/H-5-HT with high affinity, and initiates a brief depolarization of enteric neurons with decreased input resistance, but a physiological action of 5-HT mediated by these receptors has not yet been identified. Hydroxylated indalpines have been found to be agonists at 5-HT1P receptors. We have now examined 5-HT1P receptors using 5-hydroxyindalpine (5-OHIP) as a probe. The action of 5-OHIP on enteric neurons was determined electrophysiologically and compared with that of 5-HT; the binding of /sup 3/H-5-OHIP to isolated enteric membranes was studied by rapid filtration, and to frozen sections of tissue by radioautography. /sup 3/H-5-OHIP binding was compared with that of /sup 3/H-5-HT. 5-OHIP, like 5-HT, induced a triphasic response in most enteric neurons: an initial short-lived depolarization, during which input resistance fell, followed by recovery, and then a long-lasting depolarization, during which the input resistance increased. 5-OHIP bound saturably, reversibly, and with high affinity to enteric membranes (Kd = 7.6 +/- 0.7 nM; Bmax = 76 +/- 14 fmol/mg protein).

  11. 5-Hydroxytryptamine drives apoptosis in biopsylike Burkitt lymphoma cells: reversal by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Serafeim, Adamantios; Grafton, Gillian; Chamba, Anita; Gregory, Christopher D; Blakely, Randy D; Bowery, Norman G; Barnes, Nicholas M; Gordon, John

    2002-04-01

    Serotonin (5-HT), a well-known neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, has been implicated in diverse aspects of immune regulation. Here we show that 5-HT can efficiently drive programmed cell death in established Burkitt lymphoma (BL) lines that remain faithful to the original biopsy phenotype (group 1). Group 1 BL cells cultured in the presence of 5-HT exhibited marked suppression of DNA synthesis that was accompanied by extensive apoptosis-serotonin-driven apoptosis was complete within 24 hours, was preceded by early caspase activation, and was accompanied by a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential. BL cells that had drifted to a lymphoblastic group 3 phenotype were relatively resistant to these actions of serotonin, and the forced ectopic expression of either bcl-2 or bcl-x(L) provided substantial protection from 5-HT-induced apoptosis. 5-HT receptor antagonists (SDZ205-557, granisetron, methysergide) failed to inhibit serotonin-induced apoptosis, whereas the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)-fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), and citalopram (Celexa)-substantially blocked the monoamine actions. Western blot analysis showed that BL cells expressed protein for the 5-HT transporter, and transport assays confirmed active uptake of serotonin by the cells. Unlike what was suggested for neuronal cells, there was no evidence that intracellular oxidative metabolites were responsible for the 5-HT-induced programmed death of BL cells. These data indicate that serotonin drives apoptosis in biopsylike BL cells after its entry through an active transport mechanism, and they suggest a novel therapeutic modality for Burkitt lymphoma. PMID:11895792

  12. SB-649915, a novel, potent 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B autoreceptor antagonist and 5-HT re-uptake inhibitor in native tissue.

    PubMed

    Scott, Claire; Soffin, Ellen M; Hill, Matthew; Atkinson, Peter J; Langmead, Christopher J; Wren, Paul B; Faedo, Stefania; Gordon, Laurie J; Price, Gary W; Bromidge, Steve; Johnson, Christopher N; Hagan, James J; Watson, Jeannette

    2006-04-24

    An increase in brain 5-HT levels is thought to be the key mechanism of action which results in an antidepressant response. It has been proven that selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors are effective antidepressants but the delay to therapeutic onset of these agents is thought to be due to the time required for 5-HT1A, and possibly 5-HT1B, autoreceptor desensitisation. Therefore an agent incorporating 5-HT re-uptake inhibition coupled with 5-HT1A and/or 5-HT1B autoreceptor antagonism may provide a fast acting clinical agent. The current studies describe the in vitro profile of SB-649915 (6-[(1-{2-[(2-methylquinolin-5-yl)oxy]ethyl}piperidin-4-yl)methyl]-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one), a novel compound which has high affinity for human recombinant 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors (pKi values of 8.6, 8.0, 8.8, respectively) and the human recombinant 5-HT transporter (pKi value of 9.3). SB-649915 also displays high affinity for rat, guinea pig, mouse and marmoset native tissue 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors and rat native tissue 5-HT transporters (pKi values>or=7.5). In functional [35S]GTPgammaS binding studies, SB-649915 (up to 1 microM) does not display intrinsic activity in HEK293 cells expressing human recombinant 5-HT1A receptors but acts as a partial agonist at human recombinant 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors with intrinsic activity values of 0.3 and 0.7, respectively, as compared to the full agonist 5-HT. From Schild analysis, SB-649915 caused a concentration-dependent, rightward shift of 5-HT-induced stimulation of basal [35S]GTPgammaS binding in cells expressing human recombinant 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptors to yield pA2 values of 9.0 and 7.9, respectively. In electrophysiological studies in rat dorsal raphe nucleus, SB-649915 did not affect the cell firing rate up to 1 microM but attenuated (+)8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin-induced inhibition of cell firing with an apparent pKb value of 9.5. SB-649915 (1 microM) significantly attenuated exogenous 5-HT-induced inhibition of electrically-stimulated [3H]5-HT release from guinea pig cortex. In studies designed to enhance endogenous 5-HT levels, and therefore increase tone at 5-HT1B autoreceptors, SB-649915 significantly potentiated [3H]5-HT release at 100 and 1000 nM. In LLCPK cells expressing human recombinant 5-HT transporters and in rat cortical synaptosomes, SB-649915 inhibited [3H]5-HT re-uptake with pIC50 values of 7.9 and 9.7, respectively. In summary, SB-649915 is a novel, potent 5-HT1A/1B autoreceptor antagonist and 5-HT re-uptake inhibitor in native tissue systems and represents a novel mechanism that could offer fast acting antidepressant action. PMID:16571351

  13. Rational Design, Pharmacomodulation, and Synthesis of Dual 5-Hydroxytryptamine 7 (5-HT7)/5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A) Receptor Antagonists and Evaluation by [(18)F]-PET Imaging in a Primate Brain.

    PubMed

    Deau, Emmanuel; Robin, Elodie; Voinea, Raluca; Percina, Nathalie; Satała, Grzegorz; Finaru, Adriana-Luminita; Chartier, Agnès; Tamagnan, Gilles; Alagille, David; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Morisset-Lopez, Séverine; Suzenet, Franck; Guillaumet, Gérald

    2015-10-22

    We report the synthesis of 46 tertiary amine-bearing N-alkylated benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-ones, imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2(3H)-ones, imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-2(3H)-ones, benzo[d]oxazol-2(3H)-ones, oxazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-2(3H)-ones and N,N'-dialkylated benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-ones. These compounds were evaluated against 5-HT7R, 5-HT2AR, 5-HT1AR, and 5-HT6R as potent dual 5-HT7/5-HT2A serotonin receptors ligands. A thorough study of the structure-activity relationship of the aromatic rings and their substituents, the alkyl chain length and the tertiary amine was conducted. 1-(4-(4-(4-Fluorobenzoyl)piperidin-1-yl)butyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one (79) and 1-(6-(4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)piperidin-1-yl)hexyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one (81) were identified as full antagonist ligands on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, KB = 4.9 and 5.9 nM, respectively) and inositol monophosphate (IP1, KB = 0.6 and 16 nM, respectively) signaling pathways of 5-HT7R and 5-HT2AR. Both antagonists crossed the blood-brain barrier as evaluated with [(18)F] radiolabeled compounds [(18)F]79 and [(18)F]81 in a primate's central nervous system using positron emission tomography. Both radioligands showed standard uptake values ranging from 0.8 to 1.1, a good plasmatic stability, and a distribution consistent with 5-HT7R and 5-HT2AR in the CNS. PMID:26348247

  14. The bulky N6 substituent of cabergoline is responsible for agonism of this drug at 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors and thus is a determinant of valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Kekewska, Alexandra; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter; Pertz, Heinz H

    2011-07-01

    Fibrotic valvular heart disease (VHD) has been observed in patients with Parkinson's disease treated with dopamine receptor agonists such as pergolide and cabergoline. 5-Hydroxytryptamine(2B) receptor (5-HT(2B)R) agonism is the most likely cause, but other 5-HT receptors may also play a role in VHD. We aimed at characterizing the molecular fragment of cabergoline responsible for agonism at 5-HT(2B)R and 5-HT(2A)R. Cabergoline with an allyl substituent at N(6) behaved as a potent 5-HT(2B)R full agonist in relaxation of porcine pulmonary arteries and as a weaker 5-HT(2A)R partial agonist in contraction of coronary arteries. The same was true for cabergoline derivatives with cyclopropylmethyl, propyl, or ethyl at N(6). However, agonism was converted into antagonism, when the N(6) substituent was methyl. 6-Methylcabergoline retained agonism compared with cabergoline at human dopamine D(2LONG) and human dopamine D(2SHORT) receptors as determined by guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate binding. In porcine aortic valve cusps, 5-HT-induced contractions were inhibited by ketanserin (5-HT(2A/2C)R antagonist) but not by N-(1-methyl-1H-5-indolyl)-N'-(3-methyl-5-isothiazolyl)urea (SB204741) (5-HT(2B)R antagonist). In porcine valvular interstitial cells, cabergoline-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, an initiator of cellular proliferation and activity, was blocked by (R)-(+)-4-(1-hydroxy-1-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)methy1)-N-2-(4-fluorophenylethyl)piperidine (MDL100907) (5-HT(2A)R antagonist) and N-[4-methoxy-3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)phenyl]-2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4-carboxamide (GR127935) (5-HT(1B)R antagonist), whereas the stimulatory effect on [(3)H]proline and [(3)H]glucosamine incorporations (indices of extracellular matrix collagen and glycosaminoglycan) was blocked by MDL100907. We conclude that the bulky N(6) substituent of cabergoline is responsible for 5-HT(2A)R and 5-HT(2B)R agonism. The increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and production of extracellular matrix by cabergoline are mediated by 5-HT(2A)Rs. However, the moderate potency of cabergoline at native 5-HT(2A)Rs suggests that these are not the preferential target in VHD in vivo. PMID:21518772

  15. Pharmacological characterization of a rat 5-hydroxytryptamine type3 receptor subunit (r5-HT3A(b)) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Ian D; Lambert, Jeremy J; Yang, Jay; Dempster, John; Peters, John A

    1998-01-01

    The present study has utilized the two electrode voltage-clamp technique to examine the pharmacological profile of a splice variant of the rat orthologue of the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3A subunit (5-HT3A(b)) heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. At negative holding potentials, bath applied 5-HT (300 nM–10 μM) evoked a transient, concentration-dependent (EC50=1.1±0.1 μM), inward current. The response reversed in sign at a holding potential of −2.1±1.6 mV. The response to 5-HT was mimicked by the 5-HT3 receptor selective agonists 2-methyl-5-HT (EC50=4.1±0.2 μM), 1-phenylbiguanide (EC50=3.0±0.1 μM), 3-chlorophenylbiguanide (EC50=140± 10 nM), 3,5-dichlorophenylbiguanide (EC50=14.5±0.4 nM) and 2,5-dichlorophenylbiguanide (EC50= 10.2±0.6 nM). With the exception of 2-methyl-5-HT, all of the agonists tested elicited maximal current responses comparable to those produced by a saturating concentration (10 μM) of 5-HT. Responses evoked by 5-HT at EC50 were blocked by the 5-HT3 receptor selective antagonist ondansetron (IC50=231±22 pM) and by the less selective agents (+)-tubocurarine (IC50=31.9± 0.01 nM) and cocaine (IC50=2.1±0.2 μM). The data are discussed in the context of results previously obtained with the human and mouse orthologues of the 5-HT3A subunit. Overall, the study reinforces the conclusion that species differences detected for native 5-HT3 receptors extend to, and appear largely explained by, differences in the properties of homo-oligomeric receptors formed from 5-HT3A subunit orthologues. PMID:9756382

  16. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1A (5HT1A) receptors mediate increases in plasma glucose independent of corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Gehlert, Donald R; Shaw, Janice

    2014-12-15

    Hypothalamic 5HT1A receptors play an important role in the regulation of satiety, glycemia and endocrine status. In the present study, 8-OH-DP administered centrally and peripherally to C57/Bl6 mice and plasma glucose insulin and corticosterone were evaluated. In these studies, dose and time dependent increases in glucose and corticosterone were observed while no alterations in insulin were seen. The increases in plasma corticosterone were prevented by prior central or peripheral administration of LY426965, a specific 5HT1A antagonist. Intracerebroventricular coadministration of a 5HT1A antagonist with 8-OH-DPAT prevented the increase in plasma glucose establishing this response as a centrally mediated response in mice. Given that increases in plasma corticosterone are associated with increases in plasma glucose, we conducted experiments to determine if increased plasma corticosterone was the mechanism by which 8-OH-DPAT increased plasma glucose. Prior administration of the glucocorticoid antagonist mifepristone did not affect the increase in plasma glucose produced by 8-OH-DPAT. Prior administration of the glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor, metyrapone, reduced basal corticosterone and the concentrations of corticosterone associated with 8-OH-DPAT administration. However, metyrapone administration did not affect the increases in plasma glucose. Therefore, 5HT1A receptors regulate glucose through brain mechanisms, but not through regulation of the hypophyseal-pituitary axis. Antagonism of brain 5HT1A receptors may enable discovery of novel antidiabetic agents. PMID:25446927

  17. Antihypertensive effects of chronic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT2) receptor blockade with ketanserin in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, A; Persson, B; Henning, M; Hedner, T

    1984-08-01

    The effects of chronic oral treatment with the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor blocking agent ketanserin (17 mg/100 g dry food) on blood pressure, heart weight, peripheral vascular reactivity, baroreceptor sensitivity, central cardiovascular reactivity and central catecholamine turnover were investigated in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Blood pressure measurements were performed in conscious rats 24 h after insertion of catheters. After 6 weeks treatment basal blood pressure was reduced (16%) compared to control rats (given identical food, except for ketanserin). Both heart weight and body weight were reduced (both to 93% of control values) leaving heart weight/body weight ratio unchanged. Pressor responses to phenylephrine and depressor responses to isoprenaline (after pretreatment with reserpine and atropin) were not different while the blood pressure increase to 5-hydroxytryptamine was inhibited, indicating that after 6 weeks treatment the blood pressure reduction is not directly related to alpha-adrenoceptor blockade. Cardiovascular response to stress (jet air), baroreceptor sensitivity (bradycardia to phenylephrine) and central catecholamine synthesis rates (accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptophan and dihydroxyphenylalanine after synthesis inhibition) were unchanged supporting earlier evidence that central mechanisms probably do not contribute to the hypotensive effects of ketanserin. PMID:6493349

  18. Comparison of the performance of different DFT methods in the calculations of the molecular structure and vibration spectra of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yue; Gao, Hongwei

    2012-04-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter which plays an important role in treating acute or clinical stress. The comparative performance of different density functional theory (DFT) methods at various basis sets in predicting the molecular structure and vibration spectra of serotonin was reported. The calculation results of different methods including mPW1PW91, HCTH, SVWN, PBEPBE, B3PW91 and B3LYP with various basis sets including LANL2DZ, SDD, LANL2MB, 6-31G, 6-311++G and 6-311+G* were compared with the experimental data. It is remarkable that the SVWN/6-311++G and SVWN/6-311+G* levels afford the best quality to predict the structure of serotonin. The results also indicate that PBEPBE/LANL2DZ level show better performance in the vibration spectra prediction of serotonin than other DFT methods.

  19. Interactions of metoclopramide and ergotamine with human 5-HT3A receptors and human 5-HT reuptake carriers

    PubMed Central

    Walkembach, Jan; Brss, Michael; Urban, Bernd W; Barann, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The actions of metoclopramide and ergotamine, drugs which are used as a combined migraine medication, on human (h)5-HT3A receptors and 5-HT reuptake carriers, stably expressed in HEK-293 cells, were studied with patch-clamp- and ([3H]5-HT)-uptake techniques. At clinical concentrations, metoclopramide inhibited peak and integrated currents through h5-HT3A receptors concentration-dependently (IC50=0.064 and 0.076??M, respectively) when it was applied in equilibrium (60?s before and during 5-HT (30??M) exposure). The onset and offset time constants of metoclopramide action were 1.3 and 2.1?s, respectively. The potency of metoclopramide when exclusively applied during the agonist pulse decreased more than 200-fold (IC50=19.0??M, peak current suppression). Metoclopramide (0.10??M) did not alter the EC50 of 5-HT-induced peak currents. In contrast to the lack of competitive interaction between metoclopramide and 5-HT in this functional assay, metoclopramide inhibited specific [3H]GR65630 binding to human h5-HT3A receptors in a surmountable manner. This seeming discrepancy between functional studies and radioligand binding experiments may be accounted for by (1) the slow kinetics of inhibition of peak currents by metoclopramide compared with the fast onset and offset kinetics of 5-HT-induced currents and (2) the low efficacy of metoclopramide in inhibiting radioligand binding (e.g. only 20% binding inhibition compared to 79% peak current suppression by 200?nM metoclopramide). At low concentrations (110?nM), ergotamine had no effect on 5-HT (30??M)-induced peak currents. Above clinical concentrations, ergotamine (>3??M) inhibited them. When both drugs were applied together (0.10??M metoclopramide+0.001 to 0.01??M ergotamine), an inhibition of both, peak and integrated current responses was observed. Neither metoclopramide (?30??M) nor ergotamine (?30??M) had an effect on the 5-HT reuptake carrier as they did not alter the citalopram-sensitive [3H]5-HT uptake. PMID:16041395

  20. Synergistic action of 5-HT2A antagonists and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Marek, Gerard J; Carpenter, Linda L; McDougle, Christopher J; Price, Lawrence H

    2003-02-01

    Recently, the addition of drugs with prominent 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist properties (risperidone, olanzapine, mirtazapine, and mianserin) to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been shown to enhance therapeutic responses in patients with major depression and treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These 5-HT(2) antagonists may also be effective in ameliorating some symptoms associated with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). At the doses used, these drugs would be expected to saturate 5-HT(2A) receptors. These findings suggest that the simultaneous blockade of 5-HT(2A) receptors and activation of an unknown constellation of other 5-HT receptors indirectly as a result of 5-HT uptake inhibition might have greater therapeutic efficacy than either action alone. Animal studies have suggested that activation of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors may counteract the effects of activating 5-HT(2A) receptors. Additional 5-HT receptors, such as the 5-HT(1B/1D/5/7) receptors, may similarly counteract the effects of 5-HT(2A) receptor activation. These clinical and preclinical observations suggest that the combination of highly selective 5-HT(2A) antagonists and SSRIs, as well as strategies to combine high-potency 5-HT(2A) receptor and 5-HT transporter blockade in a single compound, offer the potential for therapeutic advances in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:12589395

  1. Regulation of Oligomeric Organization of the Serotonin 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) Receptor Observed by Spatial Intensity Distribution Analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Richard J.; Pediani, John D.; Godin, Antoine G.; Milligan, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    The questions of whether G protein-coupled receptors exist as monomers, dimers, and/or oligomers and if these species interconvert in a ligand-dependent manner are among the most contentious current issues in biology. When employing spatial intensity distribution analysis to laser scanning confocal microscope images of cells stably expressing either a plasma membrane-associated form of monomeric enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or a tandem version of this fluorophore, the eGFP tandem was identified as a dimer. Similar studies on cells stably expressing an eGFP-tagged form of the epidermal growth factor receptor demonstrated that, although largely a monomer in the basal state, this receptor rapidly became predominantly dimeric upon the addition of its ligand epidermal growth factor. In cells induced to express an eGFP-tagged form of the serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) receptor, global analysis of construct quantal brightness was consistent with the predominant form of the receptor being dimeric. However, detailed spatial intensity distribution analysis demonstrated the presence of multiple forms ranging from monomers to higher-order oligomers. Furthermore, treatment with chemically distinct 5-HT2C receptor antagonists resulted in a time-dependent change in the quaternary organization to one in which there was a preponderance of receptor monomers. This antagonist-mediated effect was reversible, because washout of the ligand resulted in the regeneration of many of the oligomeric forms of the receptor. PMID:25825490

  2. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of 5-(4-[4-(5-Cyano-3-indolyl)-butyl)-butyl]-1-piperazinyl)-benzofuran-2-carboxamide (EMD 68843): a combined selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake and 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) receptor partial agonist.

    PubMed

    Page, Michelle E; Cryan, John F; Sullivan, Arthur; Dalvi, Ashutosh; Saucy, Berangere; Manning, David R; Lucki, Irwin

    2002-09-01

    5-(4-[4-(5-Cyano-3-indolyl)-butyl)-butyl]-1-piperazinyl)-benzofuran-2-carboxamide (EMD 68843; vilazodone) is a novel compound with combined high affinity and selectivity for the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporter and 5-HT(1A) receptors. EMD 68843 was tested as a prototype compound, which benefits from dual pharmacological effects that could increase extracellular 5-HT to levels higher than those produced by conventional selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In Sf9 cells, EMD 68843 increased guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thiotriphosphate) binding to 69% of the magnitude of the full 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist R-(1)-trans-8-hydroxy-2-[N-n-propyl-N-(39-iodo-29-propenyl)] aminotetralin (8-OH-PIPAT), indicating that it is a partial agonist at 5-HT(1A) receptors. Acute, systemic administration of EMD 68843 produced a larger maximal increase of extracellular 5-HT than the SSRI fluoxetine in both the ventral hippocampus (HPv) (558 versus 274%) and the frontal cortex (FC) (527 versus 165%). Regional differences in the response to the two drugs were also observed. These effects may be attributed to the differential regulation of 5-HT release in the HPv and FC by 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors. When challenged with the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), EMD 68843-induced increases in extracellular 5-HT were greatly reduced in the HPv but to a lesser extent in the FC. In behavioral studies, EMD 68843 produced antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test in both rats and mice but only within a narrow dosage range. Like fluoxetine, EMD 68843 did not produce the symptoms of the 5-HT behavioral syndrome in rats but, unlike fluoxetine, pretreatment with EMD 68843 blocked expression of the 5-HT behavioral syndrome induced by 8-OH-DPAT. Taken together, the results show that EMD 68843 augments extracellular 5-HT levels in forebrain regions to a greater extent than fluoxetine. At higher doses, however, weak efficacy of EMD 68843 at postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors may inhibit the expression of rodent antidepressant-like behaviors. PMID:12183683

  3. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 5HT2C Receptors Form a Protein Complex with N-Methyl-d-aspartate GluN2A Subunits and Activate Phosphorylation of Src Protein to Modulate Motoneuronal Depolarization*

    PubMed Central

    Bigford, Gregory E.; Chaudhry, Nauman S.; Keane, Robert W.; Holohean, Alice M.

    2012-01-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-gated ion channels are known to play a critical role in motoneuron depolarization, but the molecular mechanisms modulating NMDA activation in the spinal cord are not well understood. This study demonstrates that activated 5HT2C receptors enhance NMDA depolarizations recorded electrophysiologically from motoneurons. Pharmacological studies indicate involvement of Src tyrosine kinase mediates 5HT2C facilitation of NMDA. RT-PCR analysis revealed edited forms of 5HT2C were present in mammalian spinal cord, indicating the availability of G-protein-independent isoforms. Spinal cord neurons treated with the 5HT2C agonist MK 212 showed increased SrcTyr-416 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner thus verifying that Src is activated after treatment. In addition, 5HT2C antagonists and tyrosine kinase inhibitors blocked 5HT2C-mediated SrcTyr-416 phosphorylation and also enhanced NMDA-induced motoneuron depolarization. Co-immunoprecipitation of synaptosomal fractions showed that GluN2A, 5HT2C receptors, and Src tyrosine kinase form protein associations in synaptosomes. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated GluN2A and 5HT2C receptors co-localize on the processes of spinal neurons. These findings reveal that a distinct multiprotein complex links 5-hydroxytryptamine-activated intracellular signaling events with NMDA-mediated functional activity. PMID:22291020

  4. Localization of serotoni (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) with partial purification and characterization of a serotonin binding protein in the intestinal tissue of the nematode Ascaris suum

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    An intracellular 5-HT binding protein (SBP) from intestinal tissue was partially purified and characterized. Binding of ({sup 3}H) 5-HT to the protein appeared to be Fe{sup +2}-sensitive and maximal (20.8pmol/mg protein) at 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}M Fe{sup +2} and 10{sup {minus}7}M ({sup 3}H) 5-HT. There were two 5-HT binding sites present at optimum Fe{sup +2} concentrations. The Bmax values of these sites were more sensitive to Fe{sup +2} than Kd values. Sulfhydryl reducing agents, cation chelators, Fe{sup +3}, Ca{sup +2} and antagonists of 5-HT uptake and storage inhibited binding of 5-HT to SBP. Gel exclusion chromatography indicated the presence of a 45Kda SBP that in 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}M Fe{sup +2} may form aggregates ranging in size from approximately 80 to >1000Kda. The data indicate these in vitro aggregates may correspond to the electron-opaque patches observed in situ. Ascaris suum may provide a model system to further elucidate the physiological role of analogous serotonin binding proteins that have been identified in mammalian systems.

  5. Identification of Three Residues Essential for 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A-Metabotropic Glutamate 2 (5-HT2AmGlu2) Receptor Heteromerization and Its Psychoactive Behavioral Function*

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Jos L.; Muguruza, Carolina; Umali, Adrienne; Mortillo, Steven; Holloway, Terrell; Pilar-Cullar, Fuencisla; Mocci, Giuseppe; Seto, Jeremy; Callado, Luis F.; Neve, Rachael L.; Milligan, Graeme; Sealfon, Stuart C.; Lpez-Gimnez, Juan F.; Meana, J. Javier; Benson, Deanna L.; Gonzlez-Maeso, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin and glutamate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) neurotransmission affects cognition and perception in humans and rodents. GPCRs are capable of forming heteromeric complexes that differentially alter cell signaling, but the role of this structural arrangement in modulating behavior remains unknown. Here, we identified three residues located at the intracellular end of transmembrane domain four that are necessary for the metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptor to be assembled as a GPCR heteromer with the serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A) receptor in the mouse frontal cortex. Substitution of these residues (Ala-6774.40, Ala-6814.44, and Ala-6854.48) leads to absence of 5-HT2AmGlu2 receptor complex formation, an effect that is associated with a decrease in their heteromeric ligand binding interaction. Disruption of heteromeric expression with mGlu2 attenuates the psychosis-like effects induced in mice by hallucinogenic 5-HT2A agonists. Furthermore, the ligand binding interaction between the components of the 5-HT2AmGlu2 receptor heterocomplex is up-regulated in the frontal cortex of schizophrenic subjects as compared with controls. Together, these findings provide structural evidence for the unique behavioral function of a GPCR heteromer. PMID:23129762

  6. Hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) stimulates the active transport of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) into platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Bosin, T.R.

    1986-03-01

    Platelets function in a variety of physiological and pathological processes which may be altered by oxidant injury. One such process is the active transport 5-HT, which is an important mechanism in the control of circulating 5-HT levels. Exposure of mouse platelets (10/sup 8//ml) to H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ caused a time-dependent and dose-dependent increase in 5-HT (10/sup -7/M) uptake. The uptake 4 and 10 min following H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ (50 ..mu..M) was 228% and 145% of control values, respectively. Fluoxetine (10/sup -6/M) blocked all 5-HT uptake and catalase (1500 U/ml) blocked the H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-stimulated uptake. Enzymatically produced H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ (glucose/glucose oxidase) and xanthine (X)/xanthine oxidase (XO) generated oxygen radicals produced quantitatively and qualitatively similar results. The stimulatory response of platelets to X/XO generated oxidants was unaffected by superoxide dismutase (250 U/ml) but, was inhibited using heat-denatured XO, allopurinol (0.5 mM) and catalase; fluoxetine inhibited all 5-HT uptake. Platelets exposed to X/XO in the presence of chelated (EDTA, 100 ..mu..M) or unchelated FeSO/sub 4/, FeNH/sub 4/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ or CuCl (50 ..mu..M) did not have altered 5-HT uptake. These data indicate that brief exposure of platelets to physiological levels of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ results in marked, reversible stimulation of active 5-HT uptake which may represent a homeostatic defense mechanism when H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is elevated in the platelet microenvironment.

  7. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5HT, serotonin)-1A receptor in brain areas of alcohol-preferring P and non-preferring NP rats

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, L.R.; Wong, D.T.; Li, T.K.; Lumeng, L. Indiana Univ., Indianapolis )

    1991-03-11

    Binding of {sup 3}H-80HDPAT to 5HT-1A receptor in membranes isolated from cerebral cortex of P and NP rats which had not been exposed to ethanol were equally sensitive to the displacement by nanomolar concentrations of agonists, including 5HT, buspirone and ipsapirone, and of antagonists metergoline and spiperone. Binding with increasing concentrations of {sup 3}H-80HDPAT was saturable in membranes of cerebral cortex from P and NP rats. Scatchard analysis revealed single components of binding sites with dissociation constants of 1.54 and 2.03 nM and maximum density of 177.3 and 129.3 fmol/mg protein, respectively, suggesting higher affinity and density of 5HT-1A receptors in cerebral cortex of P than NP rats. Higher densities are also found in other brain areas, including hypothalamus, striatum and hippocampus, of P than NP rats, but not in brainstem. Thus, an enrichment of 5HT-1A receptors in specific brain areas was developed during selective breeding for alcohol preference, or an upregulation of the receptors resulted from the lower concentrations of 5HT in brain areas of P as compared with NP rats.

  8. Adding 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor type 3 antagonists may reduce drug-induced nausea in poor insight obsessive-compulsive patients taking off-label doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: a 52-week follow-up case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Poor-insight obsessive-compulsive disorder (PI-OCD) is a severe form of OCD where the 'typically obsessive' features of intrusive, 'egodystonic' feelings and thoughts are absent. PI-OCD is difficult to treat, often requiring very high doses of serotonergic drugs as well as antipsychotic augmentation. When this occurs, unpleasant side effects as nausea are common, eventually further reducing compliance to medication and increasing the need for pharmacological alternatives. We present the case of a PI-OCD patient who developed severe nausea after response to off-label doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine. Drug choices are discussed, providing pharmacodynamic rationales and hypotheses along with reports of rating scale scores, administered within a follow-up period of 52 weeks. A slight reduction of fluoxetine dose, augmentation with mirtazapine and a switch from amisulpride to olanzapine led to resolution of nausea while preserving the anti-OCD therapeutic effect. Mirtazapine and olanzapine have already been suggested for OCD treatment, although a lack of evidence exists about their role in the course of PI-OCD. Both mirtazapine and olanzapine also act as 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor type 3 (5-HT3) blockers, making them preferred choices especially in cases of drug-induced nausea. PMID:21143969

  9. Adding 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor type 3 antagonists may reduce drug-induced nausea in poor insight obsessive-compulsive patients taking off-label doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: a 52-week follow-up case report.

    PubMed

    Fornaro, Michele; Martino, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    Poor-insight obsessive-compulsive disorder (PI-OCD) is a severe form of OCD where the 'typically obsessive' features of intrusive, 'egodystonic' feelings and thoughts are absent. PI-OCD is difficult to treat, often requiring very high doses of serotonergic drugs as well as antipsychotic augmentation. When this occurs, unpleasant side effects as nausea are common, eventually further reducing compliance to medication and increasing the need for pharmacological alternatives. We present the case of a PI-OCD patient who developed severe nausea after response to off-label doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine. Drug choices are discussed, providing pharmacodynamic rationales and hypotheses along with reports of rating scale scores, administered within a follow-up period of 52 weeks. A slight reduction of fluoxetine dose, augmentation with mirtazapine and a switch from amisulpride to olanzapine led to resolution of nausea while preserving the anti-OCD therapeutic effect. Mirtazapine and olanzapine have already been suggested for OCD treatment, although a lack of evidence exists about their role in the course of PI-OCD. Both mirtazapine and olanzapine also act as 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor type 3 (5-HT3) blockers, making them preferred choices especially in cases of drug-induced nausea. PMID:21143969

  10. The effect of altered 5-hydroxytryptamine levels on beta-endorphin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, Karam F. A.; Mash, Deborah C.; Walker, Charles A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of altering the concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on beta-endorphin (beta-Ep) content in the hypothalamus, thalamus, and periaqueductal gray (PAG)-rostral pons regions of the rat brain. The selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), significantly lowered beta-Ep content in the hypothalamus and the PAG. Parachlorophenylalanine, which inhibits 5-HT synthesis, significantly elevated beta-Ep in all brain parts studied. Intracisternal injections of the neurotoxin 5-prime, 7-prime-dihydroxytryptamine with desmethylimipramine pretreatment significantly increased beta-Ep content in the hypothalamus and the PAG. In adrenalectomized rats, fluoxetine significantly decreased beta-Ep levels in the hypothalamus and increased the levels in the PAG. The results indicate that 5-HT may modulate the levels of brain beta-Ep.

  11. Cortical 5-hydroxytryptamine2A-receptor mediated excitatory synaptic currents in the rat following repeated daily fluoxetine administration

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Gerard J.

    2008-01-01

    Down-regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) receptors has been a consistent effect induced by most antidepressant drugs. The evidence for down-regulation of 5-HT2A receptor binding following subchronic treatment with fluoxetine and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is mixed. The question of 5-HT2A receptor sensitivity during chronic administration of antidepressants is important since activation of 5-HT2A receptors is associated with impulsivity. Continued activation of 5-HT2A receptors may functionally oppose activation of other non-5-HT2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex associated with the clinical efficacy of SSRI treatment. Therefore, the effects of repeated daily administration of fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p. 3 weeks) on pharmacologically characterized electrophysiological response mediated by 5-HT2A receptor activation, 5-HT-induced excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), in rat prefrontal cortical slices was examined. The concentration-response curve for 5-HT-induced EPSCs was unchanged following subchronic fluoxetine treatment. This subchronic fluoxetine treatment failed to modify electrophysiological responses to AMPA in layer V pyramidal cells as well. These findings would be consistent with the hypothesis that blockade of 5-HT2A receptors may enhance the effects of SSRIs or serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). PMID:18486339

  12. Blockade of the high-affinity noradrenaline transporter (NET) by the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor escitalopram: an in vivo microdialysis study in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hai T; Guiard, Bruno P; Bacq, Alexandre; David, Denis J; David, Indira; Quesseveur, Gal; Gautron, Sophie; Sanchez, Connie; Gardier, Alain M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Escitalopram, the S(+)-enantiomer of citalopram is the most selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor approved. Although all 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increase extracellular levels of 5-HT ([5-HT]ext). some also enhance, to a lesser extent, extracellular levels of noradrenaline ([NA]ext). However, the mechanisms by which SSRIs activate noradrenergic transmission in the brain remain to be determined. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH This study examined the effects of escitalopram, on both [5-HT]ext and [NA]ext in the frontal cortex (FCx) of freely moving wild-type (WT) and mutant mice lacking the 5-HT transporter (SERT?/?) by using intracerebral microdialysis. We explored the possibilities that escitalopram enhances [NA]ext, either by a direct mechanism involving the inhibition of the low- or high-affinity noradrenaline transporters, or by an indirect mechanism promoted by [5-HT]ext elevation. The forced swim test (FST) was used to investigate whether enhancing cortical [5-HT]ext and/or [NA]ext affected the antidepressant-like activity of escitalopram. KEY RESULTS In WT mice, a single systemic administration of escitalopram produced a significant increase in cortical [5-HT]ext and [NA]ext. As expected, escitalopram failed to increase cortical [5-HT]ext in SERT?/? mice, whereas its neurochemical effects on [NA]ext persisted in these mutants. In WT mice subjected to the FST, escitalopram increased swimming parameters without affecting climbing behaviour. Finally, escitalopram, at relevant concentrations, failed to inhibit cortical noradrenaline and 5-HT uptake mediated by low-affinity monoamine transporters. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These experiments suggest that escitalopram enhances, although moderately, cortical [NA]extin vivo by a direct mechanism involving the inhibition of the high-affinity noradrenaline transporter (NET). PMID:22233336

  13. Two cases of mild serotonin toxicity via 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Hiroto; Umeda, Sumiyo; Nibuya, Masashi; Terao, Takeshi; Nisijima, Koichi; Nomura, Soichiro

    2014-01-01

    We propose the possibility of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptor involvement in mild serotonin toxicity. A 64-year-old woman who experienced hallucinations was treated with perospirone (8 mg/day). She also complained of depressed mood and was prescribed paroxetine (10 mg/day). She exhibited finger tremors, sweating, coarse shivering, hyperactive knee jerks, vomiting, diarrhea, tachycardia, and psychomotor agitation. After the discontinuation of paroxetine and perospirone, the symptoms disappeared. Another 81-year-old woman, who experienced delusions, was treated with perospirone (8 mg/day). Depressive symptoms appeared and paroxetine (10 mg/day) was added. She exhibited tachycardia, finger tremors, anxiety, agitation, and hyperactive knee jerks. The symptoms disappeared after the cessation of paroxetine and perospirone. Recently, the effectiveness of coadministrating 5-HT1A agonistic psychotropics with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been reported, and SSRIs with 5-HT1A agonistic activity have been newly approved in the treatment of depression. Perospirone is a serotonindopamine antagonist and agonistic on the 5-HT1A receptors. Animal studies have indicated that mild serotonin excess induces low body temperature through 5-HT1A, whereas severe serotonin excess induces high body temperature through 5-HT2A activation. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that mild serotonin excess induces side effects through 5-HT1A, and severe serotonin excess induces lethal side effects with hyperthermia through 5-HT2A. Serotonin toxicity via a low dose of paroxetine that is coadministered with perospirone, which acts agonistically on the 5-HT1A receptor and antagonistically on the 5-HT2A receptor, clearly indicated 5-HT1A receptor involvement in mild serotonin toxicity. Careful measures should be adopted to avoid serotonin toxicity following the combined use of SSRIs and 5-HT1A agonists. PMID:24627634

  14. Brain 5-hydroxytryptamine and learned resistance to punishment.

    PubMed

    Davis, N M; Gray, J A

    1983-05-01

    Rats can learn to persist in making a response that is punished. Brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) systems are known to mediate acute responding to punishment. This work investigates 5-HT involvement in learned resistance to punishment. Forebrain 5-HT was depleted by intracerebral injection of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine. Lesioned rats were fully able to learn resistance to punishment, although acute responding to punishment was impaired. Forebrain 5-HT does not mediate learned resistance to punishment. PMID:6860457

  15. DSP-1053, a novel serotonin reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT1A partial agonistic activity, displays fast antidepressant effect with minimal undesirable effects in juvenile rats

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Taro; Matsumoto, Yuji; Yamamoto, Masanori; Matsumoto, Kenji; Baba, Satoko; Nakamichi, Keiko; Matsuda, Harumi; Nishimuta, Haruka; Yabuuchi, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Enhancement of serotonergic neurotransmission has been the main stream of treatment for patients with depression. However, delayed therapeutic onset and undesirable side effects are major drawbacks for conventional serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Here, we show that DSP-1053, a novel serotonin reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT1A partial agonistic activity, displays fast antidepressant efficacy with minimal undesirable effects, especially nausea and emesis in animal models. DSP-1053 bound human serotonin transporter and 5-HT1A receptor with the Ki values of 1.020.06 and 5.051.07nmol/L, respectively. This compound inhibited the serotonin transporter with an IC50 value of 2.740.41nmol/L and had an intrinsic activity for 5-HT1A receptors of 70.06.3%. In rat microdialysis, DSP-1053, given once at 3 and 10mgkg?1, dose-dependently increased extracellular 5-HT levels. In the rat forced swimming test, 2-week administration of DSR-1053 (1mgkg?1) significantly reduced rats immobility time after treatment, whereas paroxetine (3 and 10mgkg?1) required 3-week administration to reduce rats immobility time. In olfactory bulbectomy model, 1- and 2-week administration of DSP-1053 reduced both of emotional scores and activity in the open field, whereas paroxetine required 2weeks to show similar beneficial effects. Although single administration of DSP-1053-induced emesis and vomiting in the rat and Suncus murinus, multiple treatment with this compound, but not with paroxetine, decreased the number of vomiting episodes. These results highlight the important role of 5-HT1A receptors in both the efficacy and tolerability of DSP-1053 as a new therapeutic option for the treatment of depression. PMID:26171224

  16. 5-hydroxytryptamine induced relaxation in the pig urinary bladder neck

    PubMed Central

    Recio, Paz; Barahona, Mara Victoria; Orensanz, Luis M; Bustamante, Salvador; Martnez, Ana Cristina; Benedito, Sara; Garca-Sacristn, Albino; Prieto, Dolores; Hernndez, Medardo

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is one of the inhibitory mediators in the urinary bladder outlet region. Here we investigated mechanisms involved in 5-HT-induced relaxations of the pig bladder neck. Experimental approach Urothelium-denuded strips of pig bladder were mounted in organ baths for isometric force recordings of responses to 5-HT and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Key results After phenylephrine-induced contraction, 5-HT and 5-HT receptor agonists concentration-dependently relaxed the preparations, with the potency order: 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) > 5-HT = RS67333 > ()-8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralinhydrobromide > m-chlorophenylbiguanide > ?-methyl-5-HT > ergotamine. 5-HT and 5-CT relaxations were reduced by the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (2R)-1-[(3-hydroxyphenyl)sulphonyl]-2-[2-(4-methyl-1-piperidinyl)ethyl]pyrrolidine hydrochloride and potentiated by (S)-N-tert-butyl-3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazin-1-yl)-2-phenylpropanamide dihydrochloride (WAY 100135) and cyanopindolol, 5-HT1A and 5-HT1A/1B receptor antagonists respectively. Inhibitors of 5-HT1B/1D, 5-HT2, 5-HT2B/2C, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT5A and 5-HT6 receptors failed to modify 5-HT responses. Blockade of monoamine oxidase A/B, noradrenergic neurotransmission, ?-adrenoceptors, muscarinic and purinergic receptors, nitric oxide synthase, guanylate cyclase and prostanoid synthesis did not alter relaxations to 5-HT. Inhibitors of Ca2+-activated K+ and ATP-dependent K+ channels failed to modify 5-HT responses but blockade of neuronal voltage-gated Na+-, Ca2+-and voltage-gated K+ (Kv)-channels potentiated these relaxations. Adenylyl cyclase activation and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibition potentiated and reduced, respectively, 5-HT-induced responses. Under non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic, non-nitrergic conditions, EFS induced neurogenic, frequency-dependent, relaxations which were resistant to WAY 100135 and cyanopindolol. Conclusions and implications 5-HT relaxed the pig urinary bladder neck through muscle 5-HT7 receptors linked to the cAMP-PKA pathway. Prejunctional 5-HT1A receptors and Kv channels modulated 5-HT-induced relaxations whereas postjunctional K+ channels were not involved in such responses. 5-HT7 receptor antagonists could be useful in the therapy of urinary incontinence produced by intrinsic sphincter deficiency. PMID:19309355

  17. 5-HT1A Autoreceptors in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus Convey Vulnerability to Compulsive Cocaine Seeking.

    PubMed

    You, In-Jee; Wright, Sherie R; Garcia-Garcia, Alvaro L; Tapper, Andrew R; Gardner, Paul D; Koob, George F; David Leonardo, E; Bohn, Laura M; Wee, Sunmee

    2016-04-01

    Cocaine addiction and depression are comorbid disorders. Although it is well recognized that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) plays a central role in depression, our understanding of its role in addiction is notably lacking. The 5-HT system in the brain is carefully controlled by a combined process of regulating 5-HT neuron firing through 5-HT autoreceptors, neurotransmitter release, enzymatic degradation, and reuptake by transporters. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of 5-HT1A autoreceptors, which would lessen 5-HT neuron firing, contributes to cocaine-seeking behaviors. Using 5-HT neuron-specific reduction of 5-HT1A autoreceptor gene expression in mice, we demonstrate that 5-HT1A autoreceptors are necessary for cocaine conditioned place preference. In addition, using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) technology, we found that stimulation of the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) afferents to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) abolishes cocaine reward and promotes antidepressive-like behaviors. Finally, using a rat model of compulsive-like cocaine self-administration, we found that inhibition of dorsal raphe 5-HT1A autoreceptors attenuates cocaine self-administration in rats with 6 h extended access, but not 1 h access to the drug. Therefore, our findings suggest an important role for 5-HT1A autoreceptors, and thus DRNNAc 5-HT neuronal activity, in the etiology and vulnerability to cocaine reward and addiction. Moreover, our findings support a strategy for antagonizing 5-HT1A autoreceptors for treating cocaine addiction. PMID:26324408

  18. Discovery of a new series of centrally active tricyclic isoxazoles combining serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibition with alpha2-adrenoceptor blocking activity.

    PubMed

    Andrs, J Ignacio; Alczar, Jess; Alonso, Jos M; Alvarez, Rosa M; Bakker, Margot H; Biesmans, Ilse; Cid, Jos M; De Lucas, Ana I; Fernndez, Javier; Font, Luis M; Hens, Koen A; Iturrino, Laura; Lenaerts, Ilse; Martnez, Sonia; Megens, Anton A; Pastor, Joaqun; Vermote, Patrick C M; Steckler, Thomas

    2005-03-24

    The synthesis and pharmacology of a new series of 3-piperazinylmethyl-3a,4-dihydro-3H-[1]benzopyrano[4,3-c]isoxazoles that combine central serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibition with alpha(2)-adrenoceptor blocking activity is described as potential antidepressants. Four compounds were selected for further evaluation, and the combination of both activities was found to be stereoselective, residing mainly in one enantiomer. Reversal of the loss of righting induced by the alpha(2)-agonist medetomidine in rats confirmed the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor blocking activity in vivo and also demonstrated CNS penetration. Antagonism of p-chloroamphetamine (pCA)-induced excitation as well as blockade of the neuronal 5-HT depletion induced by p-CA administration in rats confirmed their ability to block the central 5-HTT, even after oral administration. Replacement of the oxygen atom at the 5-position of the tricyclic scaffold by a nitrogen or a carbon atom, as well as O-substitution at position 7, led also to active compounds, both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:15771448

  19. Antagonism of 5-hydroxytryptamine2A Receptor Results in Decreased Contractile Response of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Vein to Tall Fescue Alkaloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

  20. Allergic sensitization modifies the pulmonary expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Crdoba-Rodrguez, Guadalupe; Vargas, Mario H; Ruiz, Vctor; Carbajal, Vernica; Campos-Bedolla, Patricia; Mercadillo-Herrera, Paulina; Arreola-Ramrez, Jos Luis; Segura-Medina, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    There is mounting evidence that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) plays a role in asthma. However, scarce information exists about the pulmonary expression of 5-HT receptors and its modification after allergic sensitization. In the present work, we explored the expression of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-ht5a, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors in lungs from control and sensitized guinea pigs through qPCR and Western blot. In control animals, mRNA from all receptors was detectable in lung homogenates, especially from 5-HT2A and 5-HT4 receptors. Sensitized animals had decreased mRNA expression of 5-HT2A and 5-HT4 receptors and increased that of 5-HT7 receptor. In contrast, they had increased protein expression of 5-HT2A receptor in bronchial epithelium and of 5-HT4 receptor in lung parenchyma. The degree of airway response to the allergic challenge was inversely correlated with mRNA expression of the 5-HT1A receptor. In summary, our results showed that major 5-HT receptor subtypes are constitutively expressed in the guinea pig lung, and that allergic sensitization modifies the expression of 5-HT2A, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors. PMID:26657047

  1. The mechanism of tetrahydroaminoacridine-evoked release of endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine and dopamine from rat brain tissue prisms.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, T. N.; De Souza, R. J.; Cross, A. J.; Green, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    1 Tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) is an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor which may have a greater therapeutic effect in Alzheimer-type dementia (ATD) than other cholinergic agents. This suggests possible non-cholinergic properties. We have therefore studied the effects of THA on the release of endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from rat cortical prisms and dopamine from striatal prisms. 2 In the presence of K+ (1 mM), THA stimulated release of both 5-HT and dopamine. THA (100 microM)-evoked monoamine release was comparable, but not additive with the release produced by K+ (35 mM). The effect was not maximal at 1 mM THA. THA-evoked release of 5-HT was independent of the presence of Ca2+ in the external medium. 3 Drugs acting on the cholinergic system, nicotine, mecamylamine, atropine, oxotremorine, physostigmine and neostigmine (all 10 microM) had no effect on 5-HT and dopamine-release. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP), a potent acetylcholine-releasing agent, had no effect on 5-HT release and was approximately 100 fold less active than THA on dopamine release. 4 Both THA and reserpine enhanced the release of 5-HT in the presence of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline. Reserpine- but not THA-evoked release was abolished in the absence of pargyline. Reserpine (5 mg kg-1, i.p.) markedly depleted brain monoamine concentrations 3 h after injection, while THA (15 mg kg-1, i.p.) had no effect. 5 Chloroamphetamine and fenfluramine both released 5-HT in a Ca2(+)-independent manner and with a similar potency to THA, while (+)-amphetamine released dopamine with a similar potency to THA. The effects of the amphetamines were not maximal at 1 mM. However, unlike THA, chloroamphetamine-evoked release of 5-HT was additive with release evoked by K+ (35 mM). 6 Clomipramine (IC50 = 0.036 microM) and THA (IC50 = 19.9 microM) all inhibited the uptake of [3H]-5-HT into a P2 membrane preparation. However, none of these compounds inhibited [3H]-5-HT uptake into tissue prisms during the release experiments in which the reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (5 microM) was present. 7 We conclude that THA does not release endogenous 5-HT through a cholinergic, reserpine- or amphetamine-like mechanism or through inhibition of reuptake. The possibility exists that the release may occur via blockade of 4-AP-insensitive K+ channels. PMID:2611486

  2. The mechanism of tetrahydroaminoacridine-evoked release of endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine and dopamine from rat brain tissue prisms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, T N; De Souza, R J; Cross, A J; Green, A R

    1989-12-01

    1 Tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) is an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor which may have a greater therapeutic effect in Alzheimer-type dementia (ATD) than other cholinergic agents. This suggests possible non-cholinergic properties. We have therefore studied the effects of THA on the release of endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from rat cortical prisms and dopamine from striatal prisms. 2 In the presence of K+ (1 mM), THA stimulated release of both 5-HT and dopamine. THA (100 microM)-evoked monoamine release was comparable, but not additive with the release produced by K+ (35 mM). The effect was not maximal at 1 mM THA. THA-evoked release of 5-HT was independent of the presence of Ca2+ in the external medium. 3 Drugs acting on the cholinergic system, nicotine, mecamylamine, atropine, oxotremorine, physostigmine and neostigmine (all 10 microM) had no effect on 5-HT and dopamine-release. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP), a potent acetylcholine-releasing agent, had no effect on 5-HT release and was approximately 100 fold less active than THA on dopamine release. 4 Both THA and reserpine enhanced the release of 5-HT in the presence of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline. Reserpine- but not THA-evoked release was abolished in the absence of pargyline. Reserpine (5 mg kg-1, i.p.) markedly depleted brain monoamine concentrations 3 h after injection, while THA (15 mg kg-1, i.p.) had no effect. 5 Chloroamphetamine and fenfluramine both released 5-HT in a Ca2(+)-independent manner and with a similar potency to THA, while (+)-amphetamine released dopamine with a similar potency to THA. The effects of the amphetamines were not maximal at 1 mM. However, unlike THA, chloroamphetamine-evoked release of 5-HT was additive with release evoked by K+ (35 mM). 6 Clomipramine (IC50 = 0.036 microM) and THA (IC50 = 19.9 microM) all inhibited the uptake of [3H]-5-HT into a P2 membrane preparation. However, none of these compounds inhibited [3H]-5-HT uptake into tissue prisms during the release experiments in which the reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (5 microM) was present. 7 We conclude that THA does not release endogenous 5-HT through a cholinergic, reserpine- or amphetamine-like mechanism or through inhibition of reuptake. The possibility exists that the release may occur via blockade of 4-AP-insensitive K+ channels. PMID:2611486

  3. DETECTION OF MICROWAVE HEATING IN 5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE-INDUCED HYPOTHERMIC MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intraperitoneal injection of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in unrestrained and unanesthetized mice held at 22C causes a hypothermia which is maximal after approximately 15 minutes. When mice injected with 5-HT were held in a controlled environment of 22C and 50% relative humidit...

  4. 5-Hydroxytryptamine and myoclonus induced by 1,2-di-hydroxybenzene (catechol) in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, D.; Jenner, P.; Marsden, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    Myoclonus induced by catechol in the guinea-pig is not altered by manipulation of cerebral 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). The administration of catechol does not alter brain levels of 5-HT or its metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid. This form of myoclonus therefore is not of relevance to the 5-HT-sensitive post-anoxic action myoclonus occurring in man. PMID:93500

  5. Endogenous 5-HT outflow from chicken aorta by 5-HT uptake inhibitors and amphetamine derivatives

    PubMed Central

    DELGERMURUN, Dugar; ITO, Shigeo; OHTA, Toshio; YAMAGUCHI, Soichiro; OTSUGURO, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Chemoreceptor cells aggregating in clusters in the chicken thoracic aorta contain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and have voltage-dependent ion channels and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are characteristics typically associated with neurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 5-HT uptake inhibitors, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine and clomipramine (CLM), and amphetamine derivatives, p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) and methamphetamine (MET), on endogenous 5-HT outflow from the isolated chick thoracic aorta in vitro. 5-HT was measured by using a HPLC system with electrochemical detection. The amphetamine derivatives and 5-HT uptake inhibitors caused concentration-dependent increases in endogenous 5-HT outflow. PCA was about ten times more effective in eliciting 5-HT outflow than MET. The 5-HT uptake inhibitors examined had similar potency for 5-HT outflow. PCA and CLM increased 5-HT outflow in a temperature-dependent manner. The outflow of 5-HT induced by PCA or 5-HT uptake inhibitors was independent of extracellular Ca2+ concentration. The 5-HT outflow induced by CLM, but not that by PCA, was dependent on the extracellular NaCl concentration. These results suggest that the 5-HT uptake system of 5-HT-containing chemoreceptor cells in the chicken thoracic aorta has characteristics similar to those of 5-HT-containing neurons in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). PMID:26321443

  6. Endogenous 5-HT outflow from chicken aorta by 5-HT uptake inhibitors and amphetamine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Delgermurun, Dugar; Ito, Shigeo; Ohta, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Otsuguro, Ken-Ichi

    2016-02-01

    Chemoreceptor cells aggregating in clusters in the chicken thoracic aorta contain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and have voltage-dependent ion channels and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are characteristics typically associated with neurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 5-HT uptake inhibitors, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine and clomipramine (CLM), and amphetamine derivatives, p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) and methamphetamine (MET), on endogenous 5-HT outflow from the isolated chick thoracic aorta in vitro. 5-HT was measured by using a HPLC system with electrochemical detection. The amphetamine derivatives and 5-HT uptake inhibitors caused concentration-dependent increases in endogenous 5-HT outflow. PCA was about ten times more effective in eliciting 5-HT outflow than MET. The 5-HT uptake inhibitors examined had similar potency for 5-HT outflow. PCA and CLM increased 5-HT outflow in a temperature-dependent manner. The outflow of 5-HT induced by PCA or 5-HT uptake inhibitors was independent of extracellular Ca(2+) concentration. The 5-HT outflow induced by CLM, but not that by PCA, was dependent on the extracellular NaCl concentration. These results suggest that the 5-HT uptake system of 5-HT-containing chemoreceptor cells in the chicken thoracic aorta has characteristics similar to those of 5-HT-containing neurons in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). PMID:26321443

  7. Release of ( sup 14 C)5-hydroxytryptamine from human platelets by red wine

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, J.; Glover, V.; Sandler, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Red wine, at a final dilution of 1/50, caused released of ({sup 14}C)5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from preloaded platelets, an effect which was not observed with any white wines or beers tested. Since 5-HT, is probably released from body stores during migraine attacks and red wine is known to provoke migraine episodes in susceptible individuals, release of 5-HT, possibly from central stores, could represent a plausible mechanism for its mode of action.

  8. Sodium-dependent accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine by rat blood platelets

    PubMed Central

    Sneddon, J. M.

    1969-01-01

    1. The influence of sodium and potassium on the accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) by rat blood platelets was investigated. 2. An absolute dependence of 5-HT uptake on the sodium concentration in the medium was found. 3. Removal of potassium reduced the uptake by about 60%. High concentrations of potassium inhibited sodium-dependent accumulation. 4. The observations have been discussed in terms of a carrier-mediated transport process for 5-HT operating in the platelet membrane. PMID:5348470

  9. Functional expression of 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Takao; Kaneshige, Kota; Kurosaki, Teruko; Nishio, Hiroaki

    2010-05-28

    In the previous study, we reported the gene expression for proteins related to the function of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) and elucidated the expression patterns of 5-HT{sub 2} receptor subtypes in mouse osteoblasts. In the present study, we evaluated the possible involvement of 5-HT receptor subtypes and its inactivation system in MC3T3-E1 cells, an osteoblast cell line. DOI, a 5-HT{sub 2A} and 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor selective agonist, as well as 5-HT concentration-dependently increased proliferative activities of MC3T3-E1 cells in their premature period. This effect of 5-HT on cell proliferation were inhibited by ketanserin, a 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor specific antagonist. Moreover, both DOI-induced cell proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1 and 2 proteins were inhibited by PD98059 and U0126, selective inhibitors of MEK in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment with fluoxetine, a 5-HT specific re-uptake inhibitor which inactivate the function of extracellular 5-HT, significantly increased the proliferative activities of MC3T3-E1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data indicate that 5-HT fill the role for proliferation of osteoblast cells in their premature period. Notably, 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor may be functionally expressed to regulate mechanisms underlying osteoblast cell proliferation, at least in part, through activation of ERK/MAPK pathways in MC3T3-E1 cells.

  10. 5-HT inhibits spontaneous contractility of isolated sheep mesenteric lymphatics via activation of 5-HT(4) receptors.

    PubMed

    McHale, N G; Thornbury, K D; Hollywood, M A

    2000-11-01

    Spontaneous isometric contractions were measured in rings of sheep mesenteric lymphatic vessels in vitro. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) produced a concentration-dependent decrease in spontaneous contraction frequency and force which was not antagonised by either the nonspecific 5-HT(1)/5-HT(2) receptor antagonist methysergide (1 microM) or the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ondansetron (1 microM). The 5-HT(4) receptor agonist BIMU-8 mimicked the inhibitory effect of 5-HT and its effects were abolished by the 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist DAU 6285 (1 microM). DAU-6285 also abolished the inhibitory effect of 5-HT and unmasked a weak excitatory response, which was mimicked by the 5-HT(2) receptor agonist alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine maleate. This excitatory response was, in turn, blocked by the 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist pirenperone (1 microM). The results of this study suggest that sheep mesenteric lymphatics possess both 5-HT(4) receptors and 5-HT(2) receptors. The inhibitory 5-HT(4) receptor appeared to be the predominant subtype since the excitatory response to 5-HT could only be observed in the presence of the 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist DAU 6285. PMID:11078642

  11. 5-hydroxytryptamine medications for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Burke, L K; Heisler, L K

    2015-06-01

    The central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) system represents a fundamental component of the brain's control of energy homeostasis. Medications targeting the 5-HT pathway have been at the forefront of obesity treatment for the past 15 years. Pharmacological agents targeting 5-HT receptors (5-HTR), in combination with genetic models of 5-HTR manipulation, have uncovered a role for specific 5-HTRs in energy balance and reveal the 5-HT2 C R as the principal 5-HTR mediating this homeostatic process. Capitalising on this neurophysiological machinery, 5-HT2 C R agonists improve obesity and glycaemic control in patient populations. The underlying therapeutic mechanism has been probed using model systems and appears to be achieved primarily through 5-HT2 C R modulation of the brain melanocortin circuit via activation of pro-opiomelanocortin neurones signalling at melanocortin4 receptors. Thus, 5-HT2 C R agonists offer a means to improve obesity and type 2 diabetes, which are conditions that now represent global challenges to human health. PMID:25925636

  12. Recent advances in understanding the role of serotonin in gastrointestinal motility in functional bowel disorders: alterations in 5-HT signalling and metabolism in human disease.

    PubMed

    Spiller, R

    2007-08-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is present in abundance within the gut, most stored in enterochromaffin cell granules. It is released by a range of stimuli, most potently by mucosal stroking. Released 5-HT stimulates local enteric nervous reflexes to initiate secretion and propulsive motility. It also acts on vagal afferents altering motility and in large amounts induces nausea. Rapid reuptake by a specific transporter (serotonin transporter, SERT) limits its diffusion and actions. Abnormally increased 5-HT is found in a range of gastrointestinal disorders including chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, carcinoid syndrome, coeliac disease, inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhoea (IBS-D), especially that developing following enteric infection. Impaired SERT has been described in IBS-D and might account for some of the increase in mucosal 5-HT availability. 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists inhibit chemotherapy-induced nausea and diarrhoea associated with both carcinoid syndrome and IBS. While IBS-D is associated with increased 5-HT postprandially, IBS with constipation (IBS-C) is associated with impaired 5-HT response and responds to 5-HT(4) agonists such as Prucalopride and 5-HT(4) partial agonists such as Tegaserod. PMID:17620085

  13. In vivo occupancy of the 5-HT1A receptor by a novel pan 5-HT1(A/B/D) receptor antagonist, GSK588045, using positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Comley, Robert A; van der Aart, Jasper; Gulys, Balzs; Garnier, Martine; Iavarone, Laura; Halldin, Christer; Rabiner, Eugenii A

    2015-05-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine 1 (5-HT1) receptor blockade in combination with serotonin reuptake inhibition may provide a more rapid elevation of synaptic 5-HT compared to serotonin reuptake alone, by blocking the inhibitory effect of 5-HT1 receptor activation on serotonin release. GSK588045 is a novel compound with antagonist activity at 5-HT1A/1B/1D receptors and nanomolar affinity for the serotonin transporter, which was in development for the treatment of depression and anxiety. Here we present the results of an in vivo assessment of the relationship between plasma exposure and 5-HT1A receptor occupancy. Six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were scanned using the PET ligand [(11)C]WAY100635 before and after dosing with GSK588045 (0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg 60 min i.v. infusion). Data was quantified using a simplified reference tissue model, with the cerebellar time-activity curve used as an input function. Plasma levels of GSK588045 were measured, and the EC50 of GSK588045 for 5-HT1A receptor occupancy was estimated. An Emax model described the relationship between the GSK588045 plasma concentration and 5-HT1A receptor occupancy data well. EC50 estimates (and 95% confidence intervals) for raphe nuclei and the frontal cortex were 6.99 (2.48 to 11.49) and 7.80 (2.84 to 12.76) ng/ml respectively. GSK588045 dose dependently blocked the signal of the PET ligand [(11)C]WAY100635, confirming its brain entry and occupancy of 5-HT1A receptors in the primate brain. The estimated EC50 at the post-synaptic heteroreceptors and somatodendritic autoreceptors is similar. 5-HT1 receptor blockade by compounds such as GSK588045 may provide a faster alternate mechanism of antidepressant and anxiolytic action than standard SSRI treatment. PMID:25476970

  14. 5-hydroxytryptamine strongly inhibits fluid secretion in guinea pig pancreatic duct cells

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Naruse, Satoru; Kitagawa, Motoji; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Toshiyuki; Ko, Shigeru B.H.; Yamamoto, Akiko; Hamada, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Tetsuo

    2001-01-01

    We studied the distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT-) containing cells in the guinea pig pancreas and examined the effects of 5-HT on fluid secretion by interlobular pancreatic ducts. The 5-HTimmunoreactive cells with morphological characteristics of enterochromaffin (EC) cells were scattered throughout the duct system and were enriched in islets of Langerhans. The fluid secretory rate in the isolated interlobular ducts was measured by videomicroscopy. Basolateral applications of 5-HT strongly but reversibly reduced HCO3-dependent, as well as secretin- and acetylcholine- (ACh-) stimulated, fluid secretion, whereas 5-HT applied into the lumen had no such effects. Secretin-stimulated fluid secretion could be inhibited by a 5-HT3 receptor agonist, but not by agonists of the 5-HT1, 5-HT2, or 5-HT4 receptors. Under the stimulation with secretin, 5-HT decreased the intracellular pH (pHi) and reduced the rate of pHi recovery after acid loading with NH4+, suggesting that 5-HT inhibits the intracellular accumulation of HCO3. The elevation of intraductal pressure in vivo reduced secretin-stimulated fluid secretion, an effect that could be attenuated by a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist. Thus, 5-HT, acting through basolateral 5-HT3 receptors, strongly inhibits spontaneous, secretin-, and ACh-stimulated fluid secretion by guinea pig pancreatic ducts. 5-HT released from pancreatic ductal EC cells on elevation of the intraductal pressure may regulate fluid secretion of neighboring duct cells in a paracrine fashion. PMID:11544281

  15. Contractile effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-carboxamidotryptamine in the equine jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Delesalle, Cathérine; Deprez, Piet; Schuurkes, Jan A J; Lefebvre, Romain A

    2005-01-01

    The use of human prokinetic drugs in colic horses leads to inconsistent results. This might be related to differences in gastrointestinal receptor populations. The motor effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) on the equine mid-jejunum were therefore studied. Longitudinal muscle preparations were set up for isotonic measurement. 5-HT induced tonic contractions with superimposed phasic activity; these responses were not influenced by tetrodotoxin and atropine, suggesting a non-neurogenic, non-cholinergic pathway. The 5-HT receptor antagonists GR 127935 (5-HT1B,D), ketanserin (5-HT2A), SB 204741 (5-HT2B), RS 102221 (5-HT2C), granisetron (5-HT3), GR 113808 (5-HT4) and SB 269970 (5-HT7) had no influence on the 5-HT-induced response; the 5-HT1A receptor antagonists NAN 190 (pKb=8.13±0.06) and WAY 100635 (pKb=8.69±0.07), and the 5-HT1,2,5,6,7 receptor antagonist methysergide concentration-dependently inhibited the 5-HT-induced contractile response. The 5-HT1,7 receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) induced a contractile response similar to that of 5-HT; its effect was not influenced by tetrodotoxin and atropine, and SB 269970, but antagonised by WAY 100635. 8-OHDPAT, buspiron and flesinoxan, which are active at rat and human 5-HT1A receptors, had no contractile influence. These results suggest that the contractile effect of 5-HT in equine jejunal longitudinal muscle is due to interaction with muscular 5-HT receptors, which cannot be characterised between the actually known classes of 5-HT receptors. PMID:16230998

  16. The 5-HT{sub 2A} serotoninergic receptor is expressed in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line and reveals a mitogenic effect of serotonin

    SciTech Connect

    Sonier, Brigitte; Arseneault, Madeleine; Lavigne, Carole; Ouellette, Rodney J.; Vaillancourt, Cathy . E-mail: cathy.vaillancourt@iaf.inrs.ca

    2006-05-19

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has been described as a mitogen in a variety of cell types and carcinomas. It exerts its mitogenic effect by interacting with a wide range of 5-HT receptor types. Certain studies suggest that some selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors promote breast cancer in animals and humans. This study attempts to clarify the role of serotonin in promoting the growth of neoplastic mammary cells. Expression of the 5-HT{sub 2A} serotoninergic receptor subtype in MCF-7 cells was determined by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence analysis. The mitogenic effect of 5-HT on MCF-7 cells was determined by means of the MTT proliferation assay. We have demonstrated that the 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor subtype is fully expressed in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, in terms of encoding mRNA and receptor protein. Automated sequencing has confirmed that the 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor present in this cell line is identical to the 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor found in human platelets and in human cerebral cortex. Furthermore, this receptor was found by immunofluorescence to be on the plasma membrane. MTT proliferation assays revealed that 5-HT and DOI, a selective 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor subtype agonist, stimulated MCF-7 cell. These results indicate that 5-HT plays a mitogenic role in neoplastic mammary cells. Our data also indicate that 5-HT exerts this positive growth effect on MCF-7 cells through, in part, the 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor subtype, which is fully expressed in this cell line.

  17. Effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine on neurogenic vasoconstriction in the isolated, autoperfused hindquarters of the rat.

    PubMed

    Calama, E; Ortíz de Urbina, A V; Morán, A; Martín, M L; San Román, L

    2005-10-01

    1. In the present study, we analysed the effect of different doses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; intravenous infusions of 0.001-40 microg/kg per min) in the autoperfused hindquarters of the rat subjected to electrical stimulation (frequencies of 0.5-20 Hz) of the lumbar chains, investigating the relationship between the adrenergic and serotonergic systems in this vascular bed. 2. Because we observed that 5-HT inhibited the increases in perfusion pressure induced by electrical stimulation of the lumbar chains, we used different agonists and antagonists to analyse the mechanism of action of 5-HT. 3. The effect of 5-HT was inhibited by methiothepin (a non-specific 5-HT receptor antagonist), but not by ritanserin (a selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonist). The effects of 5-HT were mimicked by 5-carboxamidotryptamine (a 5-HT1 receptor agonist) and L-694 247 (a selective 5-HT1D receptor agonist), but not by 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin (a 5-HT1A receptor agonist), CGS-12066B (a 5-HT1B receptor agonist), alpha-methyl-5-HT (a 5-HT2 receptor agonist), 1-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine (a 5-HT2C receptor agonist) or 1-phenylbiguanide (a 5-HT3 receptor agonist). The selective 5-HT1D/1B receptor antagonist BRL 15572 inhibited the effect of the agonist L-694 247. 4. Our data suggest that 5-HT inhibits the increases in perfusion pressure induced by the electrical stimulation of the lumbar chains, acting on presynaptic 5-HT1D receptors and decreasing the release of noradrenaline from the sympathetic nerves in the hindquarter vascular bed of the rat. PMID:16173953

  18. 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptors that facilitate excitatory neuromuscular transmission in the guinea-pig isolated detrusor muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Messori, E.; Rizzi, C. A.; Candura, S. M.; Lucchelli, A.; Balestra, B.; Tonini, M.

    1995-01-01

    1. In isolated detrusor strips from the guinea-pig urinary bladder, contractile responses to electrical field stimulation were mostly mediated by neurally released acetylcholine (ACh) and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). 2. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) produced a concentration-dependent increase in the amplitude of stimulated detrusor strip contractions. The 5-HT concentration-response curve showed a biphasic profile: the high potency phase was obtained at sub-micromolar concentrations (10-300 nM), while the low potency phase in the range 1-30 microM. The maximum response of the first phase was 30% of the total 5-HT response. 3. Like 5-HT, the 5-HT3 receptor agonist, 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (2-methyl-5-HT: 0.3-100 microM), the 5-HT2 receptor agonist, (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI: 30 nM-3 microM) and the 5-HT4 receptor agonist, 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT: 0.1-30 microM) potentiated, though with lower potency, detrusor contractions. The resulting concentration-response curves were monophasic in nature. 2-Methyl-5-HT had a maximum effect comparable to that of 5-HT. By contrast, the maximal effects of DOI and 5-MeOT were only 20% and 30% of that elicited by 30 microM 5-HT, respectively. 4. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, granisetron (0.3 microM) had no effect on the high potency phase, but caused a rightward parallel shift of the low potency phase of the 5-HT curve (pKB = 7.3).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7582490

  19. Excitation and depression of cortical neurones by 5-hydroxytryptamine

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, M. H. T.; Straughan, D. W.

    1967-01-01

    1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and various 5-HT antagonists have been applied micro-electrophoretically from multibarrelled micropipettes into the environment of single neurones in the post-sigmoid and suprasylvian gyri of the cat cerebral cortex. 2. In unanaesthetized animals (encphale isol) a high proportion of neurones (30%) were excited by 5-HT. This excitation usually had a rapid onset and was seen both in spontaneously active neurones and in otherwise quiescent neurones in which firing was induced by L-glutamate. Some neurones were so sensitive that the uncontrolled diffusion from micropipettes was sufficient to excite them. More cells were excited by 5-HT applied as a cation from solutions of the bimaleate salt than when solutions of the creatinine sulphate salt were used. 3. In a high proportion of cells (33%) spontaneous firing or amino acid excitation was depressed by 5-HT. 4. A mixed effect was seen in a small proportion (6%) of the cells tested; usually 5-HT caused an excitation initially which was followed by a depression. In other cells, desensitization occurred, and the excitatory effect of 5-HT was diminished or lost. 5. When glutamate was used to excite otherwise quiescent cells, there was a significant increase in the number of cells excited by 5-HT and a significant decrease in the number of cells unaffected compared with spontaneously active cells. 6. The micro-electrophoretic application of D-lysergic diethylamide (LSD 25), 2-brom LSD (BOL 148), methysergide (UML 491), or 2?- (3-dimethylaminopropylthio)cinnamanilide (SQ 10643) temporarily prevented excitation by 5-HT in half the cells tested. LSD and SQ 10643 were particularly potent in this respect. This antagonism of 5-HT excitation could still be seen when excitation of the cell by L-glutamate or acetylcholine (ACh) was unaffected. 7. The depression induced by 5-HT was not prevented by the application of known 5-HT antagonists in the majority of the cells tested (93%). In two cells, however, the depression was reversibly prevented by these antagonists. 8. Some cells tested with 5-HT were also tested with ACh or ()-noradrenaline. The response of a cell to ACh was not significantly related to its response to 5-HT. The degree of correlation between the responses to noradrenaline and 5-HT was large, but not statistically significant with the small number of cells studied. 9. The effects of 5-HT on cells in animals anaesthetized with ?-chloralose did not differ significantly from its effects in unanaesthetized preparations. It is suggested that the use of this anaesthetic may prove a useful alternative to unanaesthetized preparations. 10. The systemic injection of small quantities of thiopentone sodium selectively and reversibly reduced the sensitivity of some units to excitation by 5-HT at a time when the response to glutamate was unaffected. On other occasions, the 5-HT excitation was unaffected, though the response to glutamate was reduced. 11. These results are discussed in relation to the possible nature of the 5-HT receptors in the cerebral cortex, and the interfering effects of anaesthesia on the response of brain cells to potential transmitter substances. PMID:6065878

  20. Vasoconstrictor responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine in the autoperfused hindquarters of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Calama, E; Morán, A; Ortiz de Urbina, A V; Martín, M L; San Román, L

    2004-06-01

    In this work we studied the responses and receptors involved in the effects of intra-arterial 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the in situ autoperfused hindquarters of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Intra-arterial administration of the highest doses (50-1,000 ng/kg) produced a vasoconstrictor effect that was inhibited by ritanserin (a selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonist), SB 206553 (a selective 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor antagonist) and spiperone (a nonspecific 5-HT(1/2A) receptor antagonist), and was mimicked by alpha-methyl-5-HT (a selective 5-HT2 receptor agonist) and m-CPP (a selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist), but not by the intra-arterial administration of BW 723C86, a selective 5HT2B receptor agonist. SB 206553 and spiperone inhibited alpha-methyl-5HT-induced vasoconstriction in the hindquarters of SHR. Our data suggest that the vasoconstrictor response induced by 5-HT in the autoperfused hindquarters of SHR is mainly mediated by the activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. PMID:15118345

  1. Modulation of Human 5-Hydroxytryptamine Type 3AB Receptors by Volatile Anesthetics and n-Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Renna; Rsch, Dirk; Solt, Ken; Raines, Douglas E.; Davies, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Functional 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptors can be formed by 5-HT3A subunits alone or in combination with the 5-HT3B subunit, but only the 5-HT3A receptor has been previously studied with respect to the modulation by volatile anesthetics and n-alcohols. Using two-electrode voltage-clamp, we show for the first time the modulation of heteromeric human (h)5-HT3AB receptors, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, by a series of n-alcohols and halogenated volatile anesthetics. At twice their anesthetic concentration, compounds having a molecular volume of less than 110 3 enhanced submaximal 5-HT-evoked current. Compounds larger than 110 3 inhibited submaximal 5-HT-evoked current. In experiments examining 5-HT concentration-response relationships, chloroform and butanol caused a slight decrease in the 5-HT EC50. Sevoflurane and octanol inhibited 5-HT-evoked current at all 5-HT concentrations tested but had no effect upon the 5-HT EC50. Compared with previous data on homomeric h5-HT3A receptors, the presence of the h5-HT3B subunit reduces the enhancement of h5-HT3 receptors by smaller halogenated volatile anesthetics and n-alcohols. In summary, these results suggest that heteromeric h5-HT3AB receptors are modulated by halogenated volatile anesthetics at clinically relevant concentrations, in addition to n-alcohols, suggesting that these receptors may be another physiological target for these compounds. The modulation is dependent upon the molecular volume of the compound, further supporting the concept of an anesthetic binding pocket of limited volume common on other Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels. Incorporation of the 5-HT3B subunit alters either the anesthetic binding site or the allosteric interactions between anesthetic binding and channel opening. PMID:15831437

  2. Effects of nomifensine in vitro on uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine and dopamine into human platelets

    PubMed Central

    Ehsanullah, R. S. B.; Turner, P.

    1977-01-01

    1 The effect of nomifensine on the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) into human platelet-rich plasma has been studied. 2 A significant inhibition of DA uptake was observed at nomifensine 10-6M. 3 5-HT uptake was significantly inhibited only at nomifensine 10-4M or more. 4 These results are consistent with those from previous animal experiments and suggest that the human platelet may be used as a model for studying DA uptake as well as that of 5-HT. PMID:911650

  3. Modulation of crayfish retinal sensitivity by 5-hydroxytryptamine.

    PubMed

    Archiga, H; Bauelos, E; Frixione, E; Picones, A; Rodrguez-Sosa, L

    1990-05-01

    The responsiveness of crayfish retinal photoreceptors to light was enhanced by exposure to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), either following injection into whole animals or following topical application to isolated eyestalks or retinas. The effect was measured as an increment in the amplitude of the receptor potential, and was dose-dependent in the range 10(-6)-10(-3) mol l-1 (injected as a 0.1 microliter dose in intact animals). It was more pronounced at low levels of illumination and was reversibly blocked by methysergide. The enhancement was a consequence of a dual effect: (a) retraction of the proximal pigment granules within the photoreceptors, with a corresponding increase in the light-admittance function of the retina; and (b) a direct effect, facilitating a membrane conductance increase which mediated the generation of the receptor potential. A set of axons in the lamina ganglionaris with a 5-HT-like immunoreactivity was found in the vicinity of the photoreceptor axons. 5-HT antagonists were capable of blocking the physiological retraction of pigment granules in photoreceptors at night, suggesting that 5-HT acts as a modulator during the nocturnal phase of the circadian cycle in the crayfish retina. PMID:2355208

  4. An electrophysiological study of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors of neurones in the molluscan nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Gerschenfeld, H. M.; Stefani, E.

    1966-01-01

    1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has been iontophoretically applied to the membrane of central neurones of Cryptomphallus aspersa; CILDA neurones (cells with inhibition of long duration) (Gerschenfeld & Tauc, 1964) are the only cells sensitive to 5-HT. The responses to 5-HT is always a depolarization. The CILDA cells studied were also depolarized by ACh. 2. From experiments in which pulses of 5-HT and ACh were applied from a double-barrelled micropipette to the CILDA cell soma, it has been calculated that 5-HT and ACh receptors were located at different distances from the injecting micropipette tip. It has also been calculated from the diffusion equation that in the same CILDA cell a 5-HT concentration of 8·2 × 10-9 M and a ACh concentration of 1·3 × 10-8 M caused a similar peak depolarization. 3. CILDA neurones show `anomalous' rectification. 5-HT increases the membrane conductance of CILDA. 4. 5-HT receptors of CILDA neurone are desensitized by repeated application of 5-HT. The desensitization lasts for ca. 40 sec. 5. 5-HT receptors are blocked by lysergic acid diethylamide and its derivatives. Morphine chlorhydrate blocks them non-competitively. 6. Some inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (trancylpromine, isocarboxazide, iproniazide and nialamide) have been tested. They do not prolong the action of 5-HT, but block the 5-HT receptors. 7. No crossed desensitization between 5-HT and ACh has been observed. Atropine blocks both ACh-receptors and 5-HT receptors, 5-HT receptors appear to be blocked to a greater extent. 8. The data presented support the assumption of a excitatory transmitter role of 5-HT to CILDA neurones, but further evidence is necessary to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:5918062

  5. Pharmacological characterization of 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced excitation of afferent cervical vagus nerve in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, M.; Ikeda, T.; Abe, M.; Togashi, H.; Minami, M.; Saito, H.

    1992-01-01

    1. An excitatory response to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was measured from the afferent vagus nerve of anaesthetized rats. Measurements were determined by an extracellular recording from the whole nerve. 2. Intravenous bolus injection of 5-HT (1.56-100 micrograms kg-1) evoked a dose-dependent excitation of afferent vagus nerve activity. This response was blocked not only by a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, GR38032F (10 and 100 micrograms kg-1), but also by a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin (10 and 100 micrograms kg-1). 3. Both a 5-HT3 receptor agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT (3.12-100 micrograms kg-1), and a 5-HT2 receptor agonist, alpha-methyl-5-HT (3.12-50 micrograms kg-1), produced a dose-dependent excitation of afferent vagus nerve activity. These excitatory effects were antagonized by GR38032F (10 micrograms kg-1) and ketanserin (10 micrograms kg-1), respectively. 4. A 5-HT1 like receptor agonist, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (50 micrograms kg-1), and a putative 5-HT4 receptor agonist, 5-methoxytryptamine (100 micrograms kg-1), failed to produce excitatory effects on the afferent vagus nerve. 5. These results suggest that the 5-HT-induced excitatory response of the afferent vagus nerve might be mediated not only via 5-HT3 receptors but also via 5-HT2 receptors in anaesthetized rats. It is unlikely, however, that either 5-HT1-like or putative 5-HT4 receptors are involved in the excitatory response of the afferent vagus nerve to 5-HT. PMID:1387026

  6. Influence of sodium substitutes on 5-HT-mediated effects at mouse 5-HT3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Barann, M; Schmidt, K; Gthert, M; Urban, B W; Bnisch, H

    2004-01-01

    The influence of sodium ion substitutes on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced flux of the organic cation [14C]guanidinium through the ion channel of the mouse 5-HT3 receptor and on the competition of 5-HT with the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist [3H]GR 65630 was studied, unless stated otherwise, in mouse neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells. Under physiological conditions (135 mM sodium), 5-HT induced a concentration-dependent [14C]guanidinium influx with an EC50 (1.3 ?M) similar to that in electrophysiological studies. The stepwise replacement of sodium by increasing concentrations of the organic cation hydroxyethyl trimethylammonium (choline) concentration dependently caused both a rightward shift of the 5-HT concentrationresponse curve and an increase in the maximum effect of 5-HT. Complete replacement of sodium resulted in a 34-fold lower potency of 5-HT and an almost two times higher maximal response. A low potency of 5-HT in choline buffer was also observed in other 5-HT3 receptor-expressing rodent cell lines (NG 108-15 or NCB 20). Replacement of Na+ by Li+ left the potency and maximal effects of 5-HT almost unchanged. Replacement by tris (hydroxymethyl) methylamine (Tris), tetramethylammonium (TMA) or N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) caused an increase in maximal response to 5-HT similar to that caused by choline. The potency of 5-HT was only slightly reduced by Tris, to a high degree decreased by TMA (comparable to the decrease by choline), but not influenced by NMDG. The potency of 5-HT in inhibiting [3H]GR65630 binding to intact cells was 35-fold lower when sodium was completely replaced by choline, but remained unchanged after replacement by NMDG. The results are compatible with the suggestion that choline competes with 5-HT for the 5-HT3 receptor; the increase in maximal response may be partly due to a choline-mediated delay of the 5-HT-induced desensitization. For studies of 5-HT-evoked [14C]guanidinium flux through 5-HT3 receptor channels, NMDG appears to be an ideal' sodium substituent since it increases the signal-to-noise ratio without interfering with 5-HT binding. PMID:15148263

  7. Gamma-mangostin, a novel type of 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Chairungsrilerd, N; Furukawa, K I; Ohta, T; Nozoe, S; Ohizumi, Y

    1998-01-01

    Gamma-mangostin, purified from the fruit hull of the medicinal plant Garcinia mangostana caused a parallel rightwards shift of the concentration/response curve for the contraction elicited by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the rabbit aorta (pA2 = 8.2) without affecting the contractile responses to KCl, phenylephrine (alpha1) or histamine (H1). The perfusion pressure response of rat coronary artery to 5-HT (5-HT2A) was reduced concentration dependently by gamma-mangostin (IC50 = 0.32 microM). 5-HT amplified, ADP-induced aggregation of rabbit platelets (5-HT2A) was inhibited by gamma-mangostin (IC50 = 0.29 microM), whereas that induced by thrombin was not affected, nor did gamma-mangostin affect 5-HT-induced contraction of the guinea-pig ileum (5-HT3)in the presence of 5-HT1, 5-HT2 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists. Furthermore, 5-HT-induced contraction of the rat fundus (5-HT2B) and 5-HT-induced relaxation of the rabbit aorta in the presence of ketanserin (5-HT1) and carbachol-induced contraction of the guinea-pig ileum (muscarinic M3) were not affected by gamma-mangostin (5 microM). Gamma-mangostin inhibited [3H]spiperone binding to cultured rat aortic myocytes (IC50 = 3.5 nM). The Kd for [3H]spiperone binding was increased by gamma-mangostin (3 nM) from 11.7 to 27.4 nM without affecting Bmax. These results suggest that gamma-mangostin is a novel competitive antagonist, free from a nitrogen atom, for the 5-HT2A receptors in vascular smooth muscles and platelets. PMID:9459569

  8. Identification of a novel 5-HT(4) receptor splice variant (r5-HT(4c1)) and preliminary characterisation of specific 5-HT(4a) and 5-HT(4b) receptor antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ray, Alison M; Kelsell, Rosemary E; Houp, Jennifer A; Kelly, Fiona M; Medhurst, Andrew D; Cox, Helen M; Calver, Andrew R

    2009-02-14

    The human 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT(4)) receptor is encoded by a highly complex gene which gives rise to at least 10 distinct splice variants. However, the functional relevance of these variants is unknown. In rat, only three such variants have been identified, 5-HT(4a) (r5-HT(4a)), 5-HT(4b) (r5-HT(4b)) and 5-HT(4e) (r5-HT(4e)). In the current study we identify and characterise the pharmacology of a novel rat splice variant (r5-HT(4c1)) and present the first comprehensive analysis of 5-HT(4) splice variant mRNA expression levels throughout the rat gastrointestinal tract. In addition, we describe preliminary characterisation of the first 5-HT(4) splice variant specific antibodies. In transfected cells, r5-HT(4c1) receptor exhibited similar binding properties to r5-HT(4a) and r5-HT(4b). Functional studies showed that 5-HT(4) agonists prucalopride (4-amino-5-chloro-2,3-dihydro-N-[1-(3-methoxypropyl)-4-piperidinyl]-7-benzofuran carboxamide monohydrochloride and renzapride (+/-)-endo-4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxy-N-(1-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-4-yl)benzamide monohydrochloride) acted as partial agonists at r5-HT(4c1), but full agonists at r5-HT(4a) and r5-HT(4b). Moreover, in contrast to r5-HT(4a) and r5-HT(4b), r5-HT(4c1) was not constitutively active. TaqMan mRNA analysis showed that r5-HT(4a) expression in brain and dorsal root ganglion exceeded that in the gastrointestinal tract, whilst the reverse was true for r5-HT(4b) and r5-HT(4c1). mRNA expression of each variant also increased distally throughout the gastrointestinal tract with the highest levels in the colon. r5-HT(4a) and r5-HT(4b) specific immunoreactivity was abundant on enteric neurons in jejunum, ileum and colon as well as neurons and satellite cells of the dorsal root ganglion. Only r5-HT(4b) immunoreactivity was observed on endocrine cells in the duodenum. These data could have implications in rat models and aid understanding of 5-HT(4) splice variant function. PMID:19100256

  9. Toward selective drug development for the human 5-hydroxytryptamine 1E receptor: a comparison of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1E and 1F receptor structure-affinity relationships.

    PubMed

    Klein, Michael T; Dukat, Małgorzata; Glennon, Richard A; Teitler, Milt

    2011-06-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 1E receptor is highly expressed in the human frontal cortex and hippocampus, and this distribution suggests the function of 5-HT(1E) receptors might be linked to memory. To test this hypothesis, behavioral experiments are needed. Because rats and mice lack a 5-HT(1E) receptor gene, knockout strategies cannot be used to elucidate this receptor's functions. Thus, selective pharmacological tools must be developed. The tryptamine-related agonist BRL54443 [5-hydroxy-3-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-1H-indole] is one of the few agents that binds 5-HT(1E) receptors with high affinity and some selectively; unfortunately, it binds equally well to 5-HT(1F) receptors (K(i) ≈ 1 nM). The differences between tryptamine binding requirements of these two receptor populations have never been extensively explored; this must be done to guide the design of analogs with greater selectivity for 5-HT(1E) receptors versus 5-HT(1F) receptors. Previously, we determined the receptor binding affinities of a large series of tryptamine analogs at the 5-HT(1E) receptor; we now examine the affinities of this same series of compounds at 5-HT(1F) receptors. The affinities of these compounds at 5-HT(1E) and 5-HT(1F) receptors were found to be highly correlated (r = 0.81). All high-affinity compounds were full agonists at both receptor populations. We identified 5-N-butyryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine as a novel 5-HT(1F) receptor agonist with >60-fold selectivity versus 5-HT(1E) receptors. There is significant overlap between 5-HT(1E) and 5-HT(1F) receptor orthosteric binding properties; thus, identification of 5-HT(1E)-selective orthosteric ligands will be difficult. The insights generated from this study will inform future drug development and molecular modeling studies for both 5-HT(1E) and 5-HT(1F) receptors. PMID:21422162

  10. Purification of 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptors from porcine brain

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephanie; Barnes, Nicholas M

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the purification of the 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor from a native tissue source, pig cerebral cortex. From a range of detergents, the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 was demonstrated to exhibit the least inhibition of [3H]-(S)-zacopride binding to membrane bound 5-HT3 receptors from pig cerebral cortex at concentrations above its critical micellular concentration (CMC). This detergent was therefore selected to solubilize 5-HT3 binding sites from homogenates of pig cerebral cortex. Maximum yield (43.8±3.7%, mean±s.e.mean, n=13) was obtained with Triton X-100 at 0.4% (22.1×CMC). Radioligand binding studies with [3H]-(S)-zacopride indicated that the solubilized 5-HT3 receptor displayed near identical pharmacology to the membrane bound receptor (the correlation coefficient (r) between the pKi values of structurally unrelated compounds competing for [3H]-(S)-zacopride binding in the membrane bound and solubilized 5-HT3 receptor preparations was 0.99, Bmax=20.7±4.2 fmol mg−1 protein, Kd=1.57±0.53 nM, mean±s.e.mean, n=6). Solubilized (0.4% Triton X-100) 5-HT3 receptors were affinity purified using Affi-Gel 15 coupled to the high affinity 5-HT3 receptor ligand GR119566X. Radioligand binding studies indicated that the pharmacological profile of the affinity purified 5-HT3 receptor, assessed using ligands with a range of affinities spanning 3 orders of magnitude, was similar to that in both crude homogenates (r=0.85) and solubilized 5-HT3 receptor sites (r=0.85) from pig brain. The specific activity for the purified 5-HT3 receptor overlapped the theoretical specific activity of the receptor (Bmax=3.27±1.41 and 5.35±2.33 nmol mg−1 protein, assessed by saturation and competition studies respectively, mean±s.e.mean, n=3–4), which indicated a 60 000–100 000 fold purification of the membrane bound receptor. Under non-reducing conditions, samples of the affinity purified protein failed to enter a 10% separating gel in SDS–PAGE analysis, indicating a molecular mass for the receptor complex of >200 kDa. Further investigation of the non-reduced purified protein with a 7.5% separating gel gave a mass for the complex of ∼279 kDa. Under reducing conditions, SDS–PAGE analysis of the affinity purified 5-HT3 receptor resulted in 3–6 silver stained bands at apparent molecular masses of 37, 44–50, 52, 57–61, 63 and 65–71 kDa (n=12). Unlike protein bands at 45, 50, 60 and 66 kDa, the bands corresponding to proteins of 52, 57, 63 and 71 kDa consistently gave no reaction with an antiserum specific for the cloned A subunit of the 5-HT3 receptor in both a modified dot blot procedure and a Western blot procedure (n=2–5). We conclude that we have purified the 5-HT3 receptor from pig brain to homogeneity and suggest this may contain non-5-HT3-A receptor subunit(s). PMID:9375961

  11. Antidepressant-like effects of sodium butyrate in combination with estrogen in rat forced swimming test: involvement of 5-HT(1A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Huang, Qian; Xu, Hao; Niu, Lei; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2009-01-23

    Sodium butyrate (NaB), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has been implicated in the antidepressant-like effects either injected as a single drug or in combination with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), such as fluoxetine. Estrogen is also demonstrated to have antidepressant effect especially together with fluoxetine. We investigated whether NaB administered in combination with estradiol benzoate (EB) exerted antidepressant-like effect in forced swimming test (FST) in ovariectomized female rats. Furthermore, we detected the mRNA expressions of serotonin receptors and neuropeptides in hypothalamus, both of which participate in the mood disorder. Ovariectomized female SD rats were treated with vehicle, NaB, EB or NaB combined with EB for 7 days and then subjected to FST. The expressions of serotonin receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine receptor), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNA in the hypothalamus were detected by real time PCR. We found that co-treated with NaB and EB resulted in a significant decrease in immobility behavior in FST, a measure for depression-like behavioral. 5-HT(1A) antagonist, WAY 100635, significantly block the antidepressant-like effects induced by NaB plus EB. The mRNA expression of the serotonin-1A [5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT(1A))] receptor was increased in the co-treated group in hypothalamus, while there was no difference in the mRNA expression of 5-HT(2A) or 5-HT(2C). The mRNA expression of CRH or AVP was not significantly altered either. In conclusion, NaB may exert antidepressant-like effects in combination with EB in ovariectomized female rats through 5-HT(1A) receptor, via altering the expression of 5-HT(1A) in the hypothalamus. PMID:18817816

  12. 5-HT4 and 5-HT2 receptors antagonistically influence gap junctional coupling between rat auricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Derangeon, Mickaël; Bozon, Véronique; Defamie, Norah; Peineau, Nicolas; Bourmeyster, Nicolas; Sarrouilhe, Denis; Argibay, Jorge A; Hervé, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine-4 (5-HT(4)) receptors have been proposed to contribute to the generation of atrial fibrillation in human atrial myocytes, but it is unclear if these receptors are present in the hearts of small laboratory animals (e.g. rat). In this study, we examined presence and functionality of 5-HT(4) receptors in auricular myocytes of newborn rats and their possible involvement in regulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC, responsible for the cell-to-cell propagation of the cardiac excitation). Western-blotting assays showed that 5-HT(4) receptors were present and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that 5-HT(4b) was the predominant isoform. Serotonin (1 microM) significantly reduced cAMP concentration unless a selective 5-HT(4) inhibitor (GR113808 or ML10375, both 1 microM) was present. Serotonin also reduced the amplitude of L-type calcium currents and influenced the strength of GJIC without modifying the phosphorylation profiles of the different channel-forming proteins or connexins (Cxs), namely Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45. GJIC was markedly increased when serotonin exposure occurred in presence of a 5-HT(4) inhibitor but strongly reduced when 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors were inhibited, showing that activation of these receptors antagonistically regulated GJIC. The serotoninergic response was completely abolished when 5-HT(4), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) were simultaneously inhibited. A 24 h serotonin exposure strongly reduced Cx40 expression whereas Cx45 was less affected and Cx43 still less. In conclusion, this study revealed that 5-HT(4) (mainly 5-HT(4b)), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors coexisted in auricular myocytes of newborn rat, that 5-HT(4) activation reduced cAMP concentration, I(Ca)(L) and intercellular coupling whereas 5-HT(2A) or 5-HT(2B) activation conversely enhanced GJIC. PMID:19615378

  13. Contractile 5-HT1 receptors in human isolated pial arterioles: correlation with 5-HT1D binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, E.; Bouchard, D.

    1991-01-01

    1. The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor responsible for inducing vasoconstriction in human isolated pial arterioles has been pharmacologically characterized. 2. Of several 5-HT agonists tested, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) was the most potent and the rank order of agonist potency can be summarized as: 5-CT greater than 5-HT greater than RU 24969 = alpha-methyl-5-HT = methysergide much greater than MDL 72832 = 2-methyl-5-HT much greater than 2-dipropylamino-8-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-naphthalene (8-OH-DPAT). With few exceptions, the maximal contractile responses of these agonists were comparable to that induced by 5-HT. 3. A correlation analysis performed between the agonists vascular potency (pD2 values) and their affinities (pKD values) published at various subtypes of 5-HT binding sites showed a positive significant correlation with rat cortical 5-HT1B (r = 0.86; P less than 0.01) and human caudate 5-HT1D (r = 0.98; P less than 0.005) subtypes. 4. Selective antagonists at 5-HT2 (ketanserin, mianserin, MDL 11939) and 5-HT3 (MDL 72222) sites were totally devoid of inhibitory activity on the 5-HT-induced contraction, an observation which agreed with the agonist data and further excluded activation of these receptors. In contrast, the 5-HT1-like/5-HT2 antagonist methiothepin and the non-selective 5-HT1D compound metergoline inhibited with high affinity the contraction induced by 5-HT with respective pA2 values of 8.55 +/- 0.16 and 6.88 +/- 0.05. This contractile response was, however, insensitive to 5-HT1B (propranolol) and 5-HT1C (mesulergine, mianserin) antagonists.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2043924

  14. Characterization of a novel /sup 3/H-5-hydroxytryptamine binding site subtype in bovine brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Heuring, R.E.; Peroutka, S.J.

    1987-03-01

    /sup 3/H-5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) binding sites were analyzed in bovine brain membranes. The addition of either the 5-HT1A-selective drug 8-OH-DPAT (100 nM) or the 5-HT1C-selective drug mesulergine (100 nM) to the assay resulted in a 5-10% decrease in specific /sup 3/H-5-HT binding. Scatchard analysis revealed that the simultaneous addition of both drugs decreased the Bmax of /sup 3/H-5-HT binding by 10-15% without affecting the KD value (1.8 +/- 0.3 nM). Competition studies using a series of pharmacologic agents revealed that the sites labeled by /sup 3/H-5-HT in bovine caudate in the presence of 100 nM 8-OH-DPAT and 100 nM mesulergine appear to be homogeneous. 5-HT1A selective agents such as 8-OH-DPAT, ipsapirone, and buspirone display micromolar affinities for these sites. RU 24969 and (-)pindolol are approximately 2 orders of magnitude less potent at these sites than at 5-HT1B sites which have been identified in rat brain. Agents displaying nanomolar potencies for 5-HT1C sites such as mianserin and mesulergine are 2-3 orders of magnitude less potent at the /sup 3/H-5-HT binding sites in bovine caudate. In addition, both 5-HT2- and 5-HT3-selective agents are essentially inactive at these binding sites. These /sup 3/H-5-HT sites display nanomolar affinity for 5-carboxyamidotryptamine, 5-methoxytryptamine, metergoline, and 5-HT. Apparent Ki values of 10-100 nM are obtained for d-LSD, RU 24969, methiothepin, tryptamine, methysergide, and yohimbine, whereas I-LSD and corynanthine are significantly less potent. In addition, these /sup 3/H-5-HT labeled sites are regulated by guanine nucleotides and calcium. Regional studies indicate that this class of sites is most dense in the basal ganglia but exists in all regions of bovine brain. These data therefore demonstrate the presence of a homogeneous class of 5-HT1 binding sites in bovine caudate that is pharmacologically distinct from previously defined 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1C, 5-HT2, and 5-HT3 receptor subtypes. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Constitutively Active 5-HT Receptors: An Explanation of How 5-HT Antagonists Inhibit Gut Motility in Species Where 5-HT is Not an Enteric Neurotransmitter?

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Nick J.

    2015-01-01

    Antagonists of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors are well known to inhibit gastrointestinal (GI)-motility and transit in a variety of mammals, including humans. Originally, these observations had been interpreted by many investigators (including us) as evidence that endogenous 5-HT plays a major role in GI motility. This seemed a logical assumption. However, the story changed dramatically after recent studies revealed that 5-HT antagonists still blocked major GI motility patterns (peristalsis and colonic migrating motor complexes) in segments of intestine depleted of all 5-HT. Then, these results were further supported by Dr. Gershons' laboratory, which showed that genetic deletion of all genes that synthesizes 5-HT had minor, or no inhibitory effects on GI transit in vivo. If 5-HT was essential for GI motility patterns and transit, then one would expect major disruptions in motility and transit when 5-HT synthesis was genetically ablated. This does not occur. The inhibitory effects of 5-HT antagonists on GI motility clearly occur independently of any 5-HT in the gut. Evidence now suggests that 5-HT antagonists act on 5-HT receptors in the gut which are constitutively active, and don't require 5-HT for their activation. This would explain a long-standing mystery of how 5-HT antagonists inhibit gut motility in species like mice, rats, and humans where 5-HT is not an enteric neurotransmitter. Studies are now increasingly demonstrating that the presence of a neurochemical in enteric neurons does not mean they function as neurotransmitters. Caution should be exercised when interpreting any inhibitory effects of 5-HT antagonists on GI motility. PMID:26732863

  16. Ca2+ influx into identified leech neurons induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine.

    PubMed

    Dierkes, Paul Wilhelm; Schlue, Wolf-Rdiger

    2005-01-01

    The role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) in the control of leech behavior is well established and has been analyzed extensively on the cellular level; however, hitherto little is known about the effect of 5-HT on the cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in leech neurons. As [Ca(2+)](i) plays a pivotal role in numerous cellular processes, we investigated the effect of 5-HT on [Ca(2+)](i) (measured by Fura-2) in identified leech neurons under different experimental conditions, such as changed extracellular ion composition and blockade of excitatory synaptic transmission. In pressure (P), lateral nociceptive (N1), and Leydig neurons, 5-HT induced a [Ca(2+)](i) increase which was predominantly due to Ca(2+) influx since it was abolished in Ca(2+)-free solution. The 5-HT-induced Ca(2+) influx occurred only if the cells depolarized sufficiently, indicating that it was mediated by voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. In P and N1 neurons, the membrane depolarization was due to Na(+) influx through cation channels coupled to 5-HT receptors, whereby the dose-dependency suggests an involvement in excitatory synaptic transmission. In Leydig neurons, 5-HT receptor-coupled cation channels seem to be absent. In these cells, the membrane depolarization activating the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels was evoked by 5-HT-triggered excitatory glutamatergic input. In Retzius, anterior pagoda (AP), annulus erector (AE), and median nociceptive (N2) neurons, 5-HT had no effect on [Ca(2+)](i). PMID:15452848

  17. Cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of a human 5-hydroxytryptamine 1D receptor pseudogene.

    PubMed

    Shuck, M E; Veldman, S A; Bienkowski, M J

    1993-12-31

    A third member of the human 5HT1D gene family has been identified using a combination of homology cloning and DNA sequence analysis. This human gene is most related to the 5HT1D alpha subtype (77% shared identity) and is a pseudogene, based on the lack of an open reading frame (ORF) caused by multiple in-frame stop codons and nucleotide (nt) deletions relative to the functional 5HT1D alpha gene (encoding the 5-hydroxytryptamine 1D alpha receptor). The 5HT1D pseudogene also contained an insertion that shares 87% identity to the Alu consensus sequence. Phylogenetic analysis of the three human genes in this family reveals that although the two functional genes, 5HT1D alpha and 5HT1D beta, are detected in all mammalian species examined, the 5HT1D pseudogene is only detected in a subset of primates (catarrhines) that evolved approximately 35-45 million years (Myr) ago. Alternatively, based on the 23% divergence between the functional 5HT1D alpha gene and the 5HT1D pseudogene, we estimate that these two genes began to diverge approximately 50 Myr ago. PMID:8299968

  18. Effect of volatile anesthetics on endogenous tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptamine in rat lung.

    PubMed

    Parent-Ermini, A; Ben-Harari, R R

    1990-01-01

    Volatile anesthetics inhibit the pulmonary inactivation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) possibly via an effect on endogenous lung 5-HT. The consequent higher systemic arterial 5-HT concentrations may predispose the heart to dysrhythmias. The direct effect of the anesthetics on endogenous 5-HT, its metabolites, and precursors in the isolated ventilated perfused rat lung was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Halothane (0.45, 1.4, and 2.3 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC] and 35% nitrous oxide (N2O) increased lung 5-HT (11, 70, 94, and 54% respectively). The effect of 0.45 MAC halothane and 35% N2O on 5-HT was synergistic. Isoflurane (2.9 MAC) had no effect on lung 5-HT. The lung concentration of tryptophan (TRP) was increased 51% by 2.9 MAC isoflurane, but the rate of efflux of TRP from the lung was unchanged. There was no effect of the anesthetics on 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). The ratio of 5-HT:5-HTP was significantly increased by 2.3 MAC halothane and 0.5 MAC halothane +35% N2O. The 5-HTP:TRP ratio was unchanged. The metabolite of 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), was not always detected. The results suggest that the increase in lung 5-HT by halothane reflects an increase in 5-HTP decarboxylase activity and that halothane and isoflurane exert selective effects on lung 5-HT synthesis. The results do not support the hypothesis that lung 5-HT controls the inactivation of 5-HT in the pulmonary circulation. PMID:2126833

  19. Metabolic kinetics of 5-hydroxytryptamine and the research targets of functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Jing, Fuchun; Zhang, Jun

    2014-11-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter in both the central and enteric nervous systems. It has diverse functions in regulating gastrointestinal motility and visceral sensitivity, emotion, appetite, pain and sensory perception, cognition, sexual activity and sleep. These functions are mainly associated with the metabolic kinetics of 5-HT in different tissues. Tryptophan hydroxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme and modulates serotonin synthesis. Vesicular monoamine transporter 1 plays a role in 5-HT storage and release. Degradation of 5-HT is mediated by monoamine oxidase-A. All these factors influence the action of 5-HT in vivo. Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are characterized by a series of symptoms including abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, anxiety and depression, in the absence of identifiable structural or biochemical abnormalities. They are frequently accompanied by changed gut motility or visceral sensitivity. An increasing body of research has found FGIDs to be closely associated with 5-HT, and drugs such as citalopram, paroxetine, venlafaxine, alosetron, tegaserod, prucalopride and mosapride have all been developed or discovered from the perspective of the metabolic kinetics of 5-HT. This review discusses the relationship between the metabolic kinetics of 5-HT and research targets in the field of FGIDs and suggests areas of future study that may be useful for understanding these disorders and identification of potential therapeutic targets. PMID:24916714

  20. Spinal 5-HT1A, not the 5-HT1B or 5-HT3 receptors, mediates descending serotonergic inhibition for late-phase mechanical allodynia of carrageenan-induced peripheral inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joung Min; Jeong, Seong Wook; Yang, Jihoon; Lee, Seong Heon; Kim, Woon Mo; Jeong, Seongtae; Bae, Hong Beom; Yoon, Myung Ha; Choi, Jeong Il

    2015-07-23

    Previous electrophysiological studies demonstrated a limited role of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor (5-HT3R), but facilitatory role of 5-HT1AR and 5-HT1BR in spinal nociceptive processing of carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain. The release of spinal 5-HT was shown to peak in early-phase and return to baseline in late-phase of carrageenan inflammation. We examined the role of the descending serotonergic projections involving 5-HT1AR, 5-HT1BR, and 5-HT3R in mechanical allodynia of early- (first 4h) and late-phase (24h after) carrageenan-induced inflammation. Intrathecal administration of 5-HT produced a significant anti-allodynic effect in late-phase, but not in early-phase. Similarly, intrathecal 5-HT1AR agonist (8-OH-DPAT) attenuated the intensity of late-phase allodynia in a dose dependent fashion which was antagonized by 5-HT1AR antagonist (WAY-100635), but produced no effect on the early-phase allodynia. However, other agonists or antagonists of 5-HT1BR (CP-93129, SB-224289) and 5-HT3R (m-CPBG, ondansetron) did not produce any anti- or pro-allodynic effect in both early- and late- phase allodynia. These results suggest that spinal 5-HT1A, but not 5-HT1B or 5-HT3 receptors mediate descending serotonergic inhibition on nociceptive processing of late-phase mechanical allodynia in carrageenan-induced inflammation. PMID:26037417

  1. The central vasomotor effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, K. P.; Tangri, K. K.

    1959-01-01

    In the dog, injection of 5-hydroxytryptamine into the cerebral ventricles caused hypotension, inhibition of the pressor response to occlusion of the carotid artery and inhibition of the pressor or depressor response evoked by electrical stimulation of the central end of the cut vagus. Hypotension and inhibition of the vagal vasomotor response also occurred in dogs in which the carotid sinuses had been denervated and the vagi cut. The site of action was central. Local cerebral vascular changes could not have been responsible for the action. The central vasomotor effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine are mediated through the sympathetic outflow. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the effects of intravenous 5-hydroxytryptamine and the mechanism of action of reserpine. PMID:13800344

  2. Mice lacking the serotonin 5-HT2B receptor as an animal model of resistance to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Silvina Laura; Narboux-Nme, Nicolas; Boutourlinsky, Katia; Doly, Stphane; Maroteaux, Luc

    2016-02-01

    Depressive disorders are among the most prevalent neuropsychiatric dysfunctions worldwide, with high rates of resistance to antidepressant treatment. Genetic factors clearly contribute to the manifestation of depression as well as to the response to antidepressants. Transgenic mouse models appear as seminal tools to disentangle this complex disorder. Here, we analyzed new key aspects of the phenotype of knock-out mice for the gene encoding the serotonin 2B receptor (Htr2B(-/-)), including basal phenotype, ability to develop a depressive-like phenotype upon chronic isolation, and effect of chronic exposure to fluoxetine on chronically stressed Htr2B(-/-) mice. We find, here, that Htr2B(-/-) mice display an antidepressant-like phenotype, which includes reduced latency to feed in the novelty suppressed feeding test, basal increase in hippocampal BDNF levels, no change in TrkB and p75 protein levels, and an increased preference for sucrose consumption compared to wild type (Htr2B(+/+)) mice. Nevertheless, we show that these mice can develop depressive-like behaviors when socially isolated during four weeks. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have been previously shown to be ineffective in non-stressed Htr2B(-/-) mice. We evaluated, here, the effects of the SSRI fluoxetine in chronically stressed Htr2B(-/-) mice and similarly no behavioral or plastic effect was induced by this antidepressant. All together, these results highlight the suitability to study resistance to SSRI antidepressants of this mouse model displaying panoply of conditions among which behavioral, neurotrophic and plastic causative factors can be analyzed. PMID:26727039

  3. Chronic escitalopram treatment caused dissociative adaptation in serotonin (5-HT) 2C receptor antagonist-induced effects in REM sleep, wake and theta wave activity.

    PubMed

    Kostyalik, Dina; Ktai, Zita; Vas, Szilvia; Pap, Dorottya; Petschner, Pter; Molnr, Eszter; Gyertyn, Istvn; Kalmr, Lajos; Tthfalusi, Lszl; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2014-03-01

    Several multi-target drugs used in treating psychiatric disorders, such as antidepressants (e.g. agomelatine, trazodone, nefazodone, amitriptyline, mirtazapine, mianserin, fluoxetine) or most atypical antipsychotics, have 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) receptor-blocking property. Adaptive changes in 5-HT2C receptor-mediated functions are suggested to contribute to therapeutic effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants after weeks of treatment, at least in part. Beyond the mediation of anxiety and other functions, 5-HT2C receptors are involved in sleep regulation. Anxiety-related adaptive changes caused by antidepressants have been studied extensively, although sleep- and electroencephalography (EEG)-related functional studies are still lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic SSRI treatment on 5-HT2C receptor antagonist-induced functions in different vigilance stages and on quantitative EEG (Q-EEG) spectra. Rats were treated with a single dose of the selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB-242084 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle at the beginning of passive phase following a 20-day-long SSRI (escitalopram; 10 mg/kg/day, osmotic minipump) or VEHICLE pretreatment. Fronto-parietal electroencephalogram, electromyogram and motility were recorded during the first 3 h of passive phase. We found that the chronic escitalopram pretreatment attenuated the SB-242084-caused suppression in rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). On the contrary, the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist-induced elevations in passive wake and theta (5-9 Hz) power density during active wake and REMS were not affected by the SSRI. In conclusion, attenuation in certain, but not all vigilance- and Q-EEG-related functions induced by the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, suggests dissociation in 5-HT2C receptor adaptation. PMID:24395141

  4. Peripheral 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 Serotonergic Receptors Modulate Parasympathetic Neurotransmission in Long-Term Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Beatriz; Martn, Mara Luisa; San Romn, Luis; Morn, Asuncin

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the modulation of serotonin on the bradycardia induced in vivo by vagal electrical stimulation in alloxan-induced long-term diabetic rats. Bolus intravenous administration of serotonin had a dual effect on the bradycardia induced either by vagal stimulation or exogenous Ach, increasing it at low doses and decreasing it at high doses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), effect reproduced by 5-carboxamidotryptamine maleate (5-CT), a 5-HT1/7 agonist. The enhancement of the bradycardia at low doses of 5-CT was reproduced by 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) and abolished by WAY-100,635, 5-HT1A antagonist. Pretreatment with 5-HT1 antagonist methiothepin blocked the stimulatory and inhibitory effect of 5-CT, whereas pimozide, 5-HT7 antagonist, only abolished 5-CT inhibitory action. In conclusion, long-term diabetes elicits changes in the subtype of the 5-HT receptor involved in modulation of vagally induced bradycardia. Activation of the 5-HT1A receptors induces enhancement, whereas attenuation is due to 5-HT7 receptor activation. This 5-HT dual effect occurs at pre- and postjunctional levels. PMID:21403818

  5. Responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine evoked in the hemisected spinal cord of the neonate rat.

    PubMed Central

    Connell, L. A.; Wallis, D. I.

    1988-01-01

    1. Superfusion of isolated hemisected spinal cord from neonate rats with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) (10(-6) to 10(-3) M) evoked concentration-related depolarizations. The maximal depolarization elicited by a concentration of 10(-4) M was 1.0 +/- 0.1 mV (mean +/- s.e.mean, n = 30). Noradrenaline in a similar range of concentrations also elicited depolarizations. 2. The depolarizations probably originate in motoneurones as a result of direct interaction of the amines with these cells, since responses were unaltered by tetrodotoxin (10(-7) M) or Ca2+-free/Mg2+-rich medium. 3. 5-Carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), S(+)-alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (alpha-Me5-HT) and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT) evoked similar depolarizations to 5-HT. Tryptamine evoked depolarizations of smaller maximal amplitude. 5-Hydroxytryptophan, 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino) tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) and 5-methoxy-3-[1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl]-1-H-indole succinate (RU 24969) had no depolarizing action. 4. Concentration-response (CR) curves were determined for 5-HT, 5-CT, alpha-Me5-HT, 5-MeOT and tryptamine. The ED50 value for 5-HT was 20.5 +/- 1.2 microM. The equipotent molar ratios (EPMRs) for 5-CT and alpha-Me5-HT were close to unity, while 5-MeOT was approximately 3 times and tryptamine 13 to 14 times less potent than 5-HT. 5. The relative agonist potency of 5-HT with respect to other tryptamine analogues capable of depolarizing motoneurones was increased when 5-HT uptake was blocked by citalopram (10(-7) M). In the presence of citalopram, 5-HT was 2.7 times more potent than alpha-Me5-HT and 16.9 times more potent than 5-CT. The apparent order of potency was 5-HT greater than alpha-Me5-HT greater than 5-CT (greater than 5-MeOT much greater than tryptamine). 6. The monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline (5 x 10(-4) M), had no effect on depolarizations to 5-HT, 5-CT or alpha-Me5-HT. 7. Methiothepin, 1 alpha H, 3 alpha, 5H-tropan-3-yl-3,5-dichlorobenzoate methanesulphonate (MDL 72222) and [3 alpha-tropanyl]-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid ester hydrochloride (ICS 205-930) had no effect on 5-HT depolarizations elicited in motoneurones. Ketanserin (0.75 x 10(-7) M to 10(-6) M) showed modest antagonistic action and depressed maximal response amplitude; the pIC50 was 6.5.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3207976

  6. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors induce spontaneous interneuronal activity in the leech nervous system.

    PubMed

    Calvio, Mara A; Iscla, Irene R; Szczupak, Lidia

    2005-05-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a conspicuous neuromodulator of sensory-motor networks that affects a variety of neurons at different levels of the network hierarchy. Because of its many possible targets, it has been difficult to obtain a comprehensive picture of how 5-HT achieves its final modulatory output on any given network. Our hypothesis is that the profile of 5-HT actions is dictated by its pattern of release from endogenous sites. We tested this hypothesis in the leech nervous system by means of a selective serotonin reuptake blocker (SSRI), fluoxetine. Fluoxetine evoked barrages of synaptic potentials in identified sensory, motor, and interneurons. This effect was mimicked by the tricyclic antidepressants imipramine and clomipramine, and by the SSRI citalopram, with relative efficacies that matched their known relative selectivities for the 5-HT transporter. The synaptic responses evoked by fluoxetine in different neurons were temporally correlated, suggesting that they had a common origin. The profile of the synaptic responses matched that expected from the activation of the mechanosensory pressure cells, known to act by polysynaptic pathways. The results suggest that endogenous 5-HT acted on cord spanning interneurons. On the other hand, bath-applied 5-HT evoked an effect different from that of the SSRI. Taken together, the results evidenced that the pattern of action of the monoamine is dictated by the spatial distribution of the 5-HT release sites. PMID:15625090

  7. Mutation screening of the 5-hydroxytryptamine7 receptor gene among Finnish alcoholics and controls.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, U; Koulu, M; Bergen, A; Eggert, M; Naukkarinen, H; Virkkunen, M; Linnoila, M; Goldman, D

    1998-02-27

    Impaired central serotonin neurotransmission has been associated with increased aggression, impaired impulse control and diurnal activity rhythm disturbances among humans. Neuroanatomic distribution and pharmacological properties of the serotonin 5-HT7 receptor suggest that it may play a role in psychiatric disorders and in circadian rhythm regulation. In this study a point mutation causing proline279 --> leucine amino acid substitution in the 5-hydroxytryptamine7 (5-HT7) receptor gene was discovered. This 5-HT7Leu279 variant was observed in six of 825 individuals, all of whom are heterozygous for the substitution. Three of them are alcoholic offenders (3/255), two are relatives of an offender without the 5-HT7Leu279 allele (2/255) and one is a healthy control without any psychiatric diagnosis (1/248). The allele frequency of the 5-HT7Leu279 variant is 0.004 (6/758) among Finns. Although the 5-HT7Leu279 variant is approximately three times more common among alcoholic offenders than among healthy controls, it is not significantly associated with alcoholism or impulsivity in the present study. The 5-HT7Leu279 allele may, however, be a predisposing allele in a subgroup of alcoholic offenders with multiple behavioral problems. PMID:9707296

  8. Differential regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine release by GABAA and GABAB receptors in midbrain raphe nuclei and forebrain of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tao, R.; Ma, Z.; Auerbach, S. B.

    1996-01-01

    1. Extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was determined in dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), median raphe nucleus (MRN) and nucleus accumbens by use of microdialysis in unanaesthetized rats. 2. Infusion of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor agonist muscimol into DRN and MRN resulted in decreased 5-HT in DRN and MRN, respectively. Muscimol infusion into nucleus accumbens had no effect on 5-HT. 3. Infusion of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline into DRN resulted in increased DRN and nucleus accumbens 5-HT. Bicuculline infusion into MRN had no effect on 5-HT. This suggests that endogenous GABA had a tonic, GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory effect on 5-HT in DRN, but not in MRN. 4. Infusion of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen into DRN produced a decrease in DRN 5-HT. Baclofen infusion into nucleus accumbens resulted in decreased nucleus accumbens 5-HT. This suggests that GABAB receptors are present in the area of cell bodies and terminals of 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neurones. 5. Infusion of the GABAB receptor antagonists phaclofen and 2-hydroxysaclofen had no effect on midbrain raphe and forebrain 5-HT. This suggests that GABAB receptors did not contribute to tonic inhibition of 5-HT release. 6. In conclusion, 5-HT release is physiologically regulated by distinct subtypes of GABA receptors in presynaptic and postsynaptic sites. Images Figure 1 PMID:8968546

  9. The serotonin 5-HT3 receptor: a novel neurodevelopmental target

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Mareen; Smidt, Marten P.; van Hooft, Johannes A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), next to being an important neurotransmitter, recently gained attention as a key-regulator of pre- and postnatal development in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Several receptors for 5-HT are expressed in the developing brain including a ligand-gated ion channel, the 5-HT3 receptor. Over the past years, evidence has been accumulating that 5-HT3 receptors are involved in the regulation of neurodevelopment by serotonin. Here, we review the spatial and temporal expression patterns of 5-HT3 receptors in the pre- and early postnatal rodent brain and its functional implications. First, 5-HT3 receptors are expressed on GABAergic interneurons in neocortex and limbic structures derived from the caudal ganglionic eminence. Mature inhibitory GABAergic interneurons fine-tune neuronal excitability and thus are crucial for the physiological function of the brain. Second, 5-HT3 receptors are expressed on specific glutamatergic neurons, CajalRetzius cells in the cortex and granule cells in the cerebellum, where they regulate morphology, positioning, and connectivity of the local microcircuitry. Taken together, the 5-HT3 receptor emerges as a potential key-regulator of network formation and function in the CNS, which could have a major impact on our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in which 5-HT plays a role. PMID:23761731

  10. Indirect action of 5-hydroxytryptamine on the isolated muscularis mucosae of the guinea-pig oesophagus

    PubMed Central

    Kamikawa, Yuichiro; Shimo, Yasuo

    1983-01-01

    1 The site of action of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was examined on the isolated muscularis mucosae attached to the submucous plexus of the guinea-pig oesophagus. Isotonic responses of the longitudinal muscularis mucosae were recorded. 2 5-HT produced a transient contraction of the muscularis mucosae at concentrations higher than 3 ?M. The contraction was rapid in onset, reaching a peak in about 15 s or less, and was restored to the basal level after 20 to 30 s without washing out 5-HT. When the 5-HT-induced contraction faded to the basal tone, successive applications of 5-HT no longer produced any contracture. 3 Nicotine (Nic), at concentrations higher than 10 ?M, also produced a transient contraction which had a very similar pattern to that induced by 5-HT. Again, the successive application of Nic no longer produced any contracture following prior treatment with Nic itself. However, the 5-HT-induced contraction was not modified by the presence of Nic. 4 Exogenously applied acetylcholine (ACh) produced a concentration-dependent contraction of the muscularis mucoase, the 50% effective concentration (EC50) was 69 5.6 nM. The contraction was sustained during incubation with ACh, and was not modified by prior treatment with 5-HT or Nic. 5 The 5-HT (100 ?M)-induced contraction was completely abolished by tetrodotoxin (0.2 ?M) and atropine (0.2 ?M). This means that the action is mediated by stimulating cholinergic nerves in the submucous plexus attached to muscularis mucosae. Moreover, the stimulating action of 5-HT does not involve nicotinic receptors, since the action was not blocked by hexamethonium (100 ?M). 6 Among several 5-MT antagonists examined, methysergide (1 ?M), ketanserin (1 ?M) and morphine (100 ?M) failed to modify the 5-HT (100 ?M)-induced contraction significantly. Cinanserin (0.1-3 ?M), cyproheptadine (3-100 nM) and phenoxybenzamine (0.1-3 ?M) inhibited the 5-HT-induced contraction, in a concentration-dependent manner, and each highest concentration abolished the response. However, none of these antagonists was specific for 5-HT, but the Nic (100 ?M) or ACh (0.1 ?M)-induced contractions were also inhibited by them. 7 The present results indicate that 5-HT contracts the muscularis mucosae of the guinea-pig oesophagus indirectly by stimulating cholinergic nerves in the submucous plexus, and has no direct action on the muscularis mucosae. In addition, the type of 5-HT receptors responsible for the stimulant action may be different from those in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels or brain, because of the different effects of 5-HT antagonists. PMID:6824809

  11. The action of 5-hydroxytryptamine on chemoreceptor discharges of the cat's carotid body.

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, K

    1975-01-01

    1 Chemoreceptor discharges were recorded in vivo from fine filaments of the carotid sinus nerve containing a single or several active units; their frequency was used as an index of receptor activity. The effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on chemoreceptors were studied in 26 adult cats. At times, sinus baroreceptor discharges were recorded from the carotid nerve and the effect of 5-HT on the discharges was examined. 2 Intra-carotid injections of 5-HT (2-20 mug) induced a sharp and brief increase in chemoreceptor discharges, followed by depression or block which lasted for several seconds. Repeated injections at short intervals, and a small dose after a large dose of 5-HT resulted in depressed or blocked response to 5-HT. 3 5-HT in high doses (10-20 mug, i.a.) slightly depressed the chemoreceptor discharges induced by either acetylcholine (ACh) or NaCN, when these substances were applied within 20 s after 5-HT. 5-HT (5-20 mug, i.a.) applied during asphyxia induced a further increase in chemoreceptor discharges, soon followed by block of the discharges lasting for several seconds. 4 Atropine or hexamethonium in high doses did not change the chemoreceptor response to 5-HT, while that to ACh was markedly depressed. 5 (+)-Lysergic diethylamide (LSD), methysergide or gramine did not alter the response to 5-HT, while LSD in low doses produced a marked increase in chemoreceptor discharges. 6 Acute and chronic treatment with reserpine (5-10 mg/kg, i.v.) of the animals did not change the sensitivity and the reactivity of the chemoreceptor to ACh and NaCN, while the chemoreceptor response to 5-HT was augmented, indicating an increase in the sensitivity of chemoreceptors to 5-HT. 7 5-HT in small doses (2-10 mug, i.a.) induced a marked increase in sinus baroreceptor discharges; subsequently discharges were depressed or blocked for several seconds. 8 The results are discussed in relation to possible mechanism of action of 5-HT on the chemoreceptors. It is concluded that the exogenous 5-HT probably acts directly on the chemosensory nerve endings and depolarizes them, but 5-HT contained in the carotid body does not play a significant role in the generation of chemoreceptor discharges. PMID:1182345

  12. The effect of DA-9701 on 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced contraction of feline esophageal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyung Hoon; Nam, Yoonjin; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Kim, In Kyeom; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter found in blood platelets, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and the central nervous system (CNS) of animals and humans. The signaling pathways of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced contractions in cat esophageal smooth muscle cell (ESMC)s have been identified, but the downstream components of the 5-HT signaling pathway remain unclear. DA-9701 is the standardized extract of the Pharbitis nil Choisy seed (Pharbitidis Semen, Convolvulaceae) and the root of Corydalis yahusuo W.T. Wang (Corydalis Tuber, Papaveraceae). DA-9701 is known to have strong gastroprokinetic effects and a good safety profile. In this study, we investigated the 5-HT signaling pathway at the G-protein level, and we explored the mechanisms by which DA-9701 induces smooth muscle contraction. Freshly isolated smooth muscle cells were harvested from the feline esophagus, and cells were permeabilized to measure their length. 5-HT produced esophageal smooth muscle contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 5-HT produced a relatively long-acting contraction. 5-HT binds to the 5-HT2, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors to induce smooth muscle contraction in feline ESMCs. These receptors, which are located in esophageal smooth muscle, are coupled to G?q, G?o and G?s. These G proteins activate PLC, which leads to Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent MLCK activation, resulting in MLC20 phosphorylation and cell contraction. Conversely, DA-9701 inhibits 5-HT-induced contraction by inhibiting MLC20 phosphorylation. PMID:24759073

  13. Hypothalamic paraventricular 5-hydroxytryptamine inhibits the effects of ghrelin on eating and energy substrate utilization.

    PubMed

    Currie, Paul J; John, Catherine S; Nicholson, Marjorie L; Chapman, Colin D; Loera, Katherine E

    2010-11-01

    Ghrelin microinjections into discrete regions of the hypothalamus, including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), stimulate eating and promote carbohydrate oxidation, effects similar to PVN microinjection of neuropeptide Y (NPY). We have also reported that NPY's orexigenic and metabolic effects are antagonized by pretreatment with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or 5-HT receptor agonists. In order to determine whether 5-HT also inhibits ghrelin's orexigenic and metabolic actions, the present study examined the effects of 5-HT pretreatment on ghrelin-induced alterations in eating and energy substrate utilization following direct injections into the hypothalamic PVN. Both 5-HT (5-20 nmol) and ghrelin (100 pmol) were administered at the onset of the dark cycle. Food intake was measured 2h postinjection. A separate group of rats (n=8) was injected with 5-HT paired with ghrelin and respiratory quotient (RQ; VCO(2)/VO(2)) was measured over 2h using an open circuit calorimeter. PVN injections of ghrelin increased food intake and increased RQ, reflecting a shift in energy substrate utilization in favor of carbohydrate oxidation. 5-HT effectively blocked the effects of ghrelin on both food intake and RQ. We then administered the 5-HT(2A/2C), receptor agonist, DOI, immediately prior to ghrelin. Similar to 5-HT, PVN DOI blocked ghrelin-induced eating and inhibited the peptide's effect on substrate utilization. These data are in agreement with other evidence suggesting that ghrelin functions as a gut-brain peptide in the control of food intake and energy metabolism, and indicate that 5-HT acts within the PVN to modulate ghrelin's orexigenic and metabolic signaling. PMID:20573591

  14. Mepacrine, a tool for investigating the 5-hydroxytryptamine organelles of blood platelets by fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lorez, H P; Da Prada, M; Rendu, F; Pletscher, A

    1977-01-01

    In the blood platelets of various species exposed to mepacrine, the average number of green-yellow fluorescent granules (probably identical with the 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT] storage organelles) corresponded to that of flashes emitted by the platelets on prolonged irradiation with violet-blue light. In platelets of fawn-hooded rats the number of granules did not markedly differ from that of normal rat platelets, but the fluorescence intensity and the uptake of mepacrine in vitro showed a marked decrease and the flashes were less numerous. The heavy population of human platelets exhibited considerably more granular structures than the light population. The data suggest that (1) in normal, mepacrine-loaded platelets one flash corresponds to one 5-HT organelle and (2) mepacrine is a useful tool for investigating the number and function of the 5-HT organelles in live platelets and possibly for studying platelet age. PMID:556622

  15. 5-Hydroxytryptamine promotes hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation by influencing β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Sarwat; Shi, Xiaoke; Lin, Zesi; Chen, Guo-Qing; Pan, Xiao-Hua; Wu, Justin Che-Yuen; Ho, John W; Lee, Nikki P; Gao, Hengjun; Zhang, Ge; Lu, Aiping; Bian, Zhao Xiang

    2016-02-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), a neurotransmitter and vasoactive factor, has been reported to promote proliferation of serum-deprived hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells but the detailed intracellular mechanism is unknown. As Wnt/β-catenin signalling is highly dysregulated in a majority of HCC, this study explored the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling by 5-HT. The expression of various 5-HT receptors was studied by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in HCC cell lines as well as in 33 pairs of HCC tumours and corresponding adjacent non-tumour tissues. Receptors 5-HT1D (21/33, 63.6%), 5-HT2B (12/33, 36.4%) and 5-HT7 (15/33, 45.4%) were overexpressed whereas receptors 5-HT2A (17/33, 51.5%) and 5-HT5 (30/33, 90.1%) were reduced in HCC tumour tissues. In vitro data suggests 5-HT increased total β-catenin, active β-catenin and decreased phosphorylated β-catenin protein levels in serum deprived HuH-7 and HepG2 cells compared to control cells under serum free medium without 5-HT. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling was evidenced by increased expression of β-catenin downstream target genes, Axin2, cyclin D1, dickoppf-1 (DKK1) and glutamine synthetase (GS) by qPCR in serum-deprived HCC cell lines treated with 5-HT. Additionally, biochemical analysis revealed 5-HT disrupted Axin1/β-catenin interaction, a critical step in β-catenin phosphorylation. Increased Wnt/β-catenin activity was attenuated by antagonist of receptor 5-HT7 (SB-258719) in HCC cell lines and patient-derived primary tumour tissues in the presence of 5-HT. SB-258719 also reduced tumour growth in vivo. This study provides evidence of Wnt/β-catenin signalling activation by 5-HT and may represent a potential therapeutic target for hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:26474915

  16. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine agonists and antagonists on the responses of rat spinal motoneurones to raphe obscurus stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, M. H.; Davies, M.; Girdlestone, D.; Foster, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    1. The excitability of lumbar spinal motoneurones was studied in halothane-anaesthetized rats by recording with microelectrodes the amplitude of the population spike evoked antidromically by stimulation of the cut ventral roots. 2. Electrical stimulation of the nucleus raphe obscurus for 1 min at 20 Hz increased the population spike amplitude and, as shown by intracellular recording, depolarized motoneurones. This response could be mimicked by microinjection of DL-homocysteic acid into raphe obscurus but the response was not present in animals pretreated with the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT). 3. Microiontophoretically applied 5-HT had very similar effects on the extracellularly recorded population spike to those caused by stimulation of the raphe obscurus. These responses to 5-HT were larger in 5,7-DHT-pretreated animals. 4. The effects of 5-HT were potently mimicked by iontophoretically applied 5-carboxamidotryptamine but 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) was without effect. 5. Antagonists were applied by microiontophoresis and also by intravenous injection. Ketanserin, the selective 5-HT2 antagonist, did not antagonize the effects of 5-HT. Neither did the 5-HT3-receptor antagonist MDL 72222 or the selective 5-HT1 binding ligand cyanopindolol. 6. The non-selective 5-HT1/5-HT2-receptor antagonist methysergide was an effective antagonist of both the effects of 5-HT and the response to raphe obscurus stimulation. Methysergide did not reduce the excitatory effects of noradrenaline. 7. It is concluded that 5-HT application and stimulation of raphe obscurus increase the excitability of motoneurones by an action on a 5-HT1-like receptor which appears to be different from the 5-HT1A-and the 5-HT1B-binding sites characterized by others. PMID:3228671

  17. Effects of repeated treatment with fluoxetine and citalopram, 5-HT uptake inhibitors, on 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors in the rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, V; Zak-Knapik, J; Mackowiak, M

    1994-01-01

    Repeated treatment with fluoxetine and citalopram, which are potent 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, resulted in different regulation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors in the rat brain. Their effects were compared with those of other antidepressants: imipramine, mianserin and levoprotiline. The density of 5-HT1A receptors, labelled with [3H]8-OH-DPAT, in the rat hippocampus was enhanced after citalopram, imipramine, mianserin and levoprotiline, but not altered after fluoxetine administration. [3H]Ketanserin binding sites, which label 5-HT2 receptors, were increased after fluoxetine and levoprotiline, but decreased after citalopram, imipramine and mianserin in the rat cerebral cortex. Acute administration of fluoxetine, but not citalopram, resulted in a decreased density of 5-HT1A receptors. 5-HT2 receptors were not changed by acute administration of either fluoxetine or citalopram. The obtained results indicate that besides 5-HT reuptake inhibiting properties of both compounds, there may exist an additional mechanism(s) of their action, which leads to different regulation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors. PMID:8148368

  18. Comparison of monoamine reuptake inhibitors for the immobility time and serotonin levels in the hippocampus and plasma of sub-chronically forced swim stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ghulam; Naqvi, Sabira; Dar, Ahsana

    2012-04-01

    The current study was aimed at comparing the behavioral and biochemical (5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels) effects of monoamine reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine, venlafaxine and imipramine) in sub-chronically forced swim stressed rats. At the given doses of 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg, among aforesaid antidepressants, the imipramine treatment alone caused significant decline in the immobility time of rats (IC(50) 20 mg/kg). In the hippocampus of rats, the imipramine treatment caused significant elevation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) whereas, the fluoxetine and venlafaxine elicited significant increase in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels. Likewise, in the plasma of rats, the imipramine treatment significantly increased the 5-HIAA levels whereas, the fluoxetine and venlafaxine treatment significantly elevate the 5-HT levels. It can therefore be inferred that the imipramine did not act like other monoamine reuptake inhibitors in biochemical study, which could possibly underlie its ability to be detected in forced swim test (behavioral study). Moreover, the re-uptake inhibition of 5-HT is not accountable for the antidepressant action exhibited in forced swim test. PMID:22459475

  19. A morphological study of the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine and indomethacin on rat mesenteric venules.

    PubMed

    Northover, A M

    1978-08-01

    A method is described for preparing venules of the rat mesentery for electron microscopy after the application of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and pretreatment with indomethacin. Local application of 5-HT caused the leakage of colloidal carbon and the emigration of leucocytes into the venule wall. 5-HT also caused endothelial cells to bulge and their nuclei to contort. It increased the number of protrusions on both the luminal and abluminal surfaces of the endothelium and increased the width of the subendothelial space, and the degree of vesiculation in the endothelial cells. Systemic treatment with indomethacin significantly decreased the amount of carbon passing through the endothelium after the local application of 5-HT, but enhanced some of the other effects of 5-HT. Thus it increased the bulging of endothelial cells and contortion of their nuclei, and further increased the number of surface protrusions and the subendothelial space. It had no effect on the emigration of leucocytes resulting from the application of 5-HT. PMID:708589

  20. A morphological study of the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine and indomethacin on rat mesenteric venules.

    PubMed Central

    Northover, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for preparing venules of the rat mesentery for electron microscopy after the application of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and pretreatment with indomethacin. Local application of 5-HT caused the leakage of colloidal carbon and the emigration of leucocytes into the venule wall. 5-HT also caused endothelial cells to bulge and their nuclei to contort. It increased the number of protrusions on both the luminal and abluminal surfaces of the endothelium and increased the width of the subendothelial space, and the degree of vesiculation in the endothelial cells. Systemic treatment with indomethacin significantly decreased the amount of carbon passing through the endothelium after the local application of 5-HT, but enhanced some of the other effects of 5-HT. Thus it increased the bulging of endothelial cells and contortion of their nuclei, and further increased the number of surface protrusions and the subendothelial space. It had no effect on the emigration of leucocytes resulting from the application of 5-HT. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:708589

  1. Cellular resilience: 5-HT neurons in Tph2(-/-) mice retain normal firing behavior despite the lack of brain 5-HT.

    PubMed

    Montalbano, Alberto; Waider, Jonas; Barbieri, Mario; Baytas, Ozan; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Corradetti, Renato; Mlinar, Boris

    2015-11-01

    Considerable evidence links dysfunction of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transmission to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders characterized by compromised "social" cognition and emotion regulation. It is well established that the brain 5-HT system is under autoregulatory control by its principal transmitter 5-HT via its effects on activity and expression of 5-HT system-related proteins. To examine whether 5-HT itself also has a crucial role in the acquisition and maintenance of characteristic rhythmic firing of 5-HT neurons, we compared their intrinsic electrophysiological properties in mice lacking brain 5-HT, i.e. tryptophan hydroxylase-2 null mice (Tph2(-/-)) and their littermates, Tph2(+/-) and Tph2(+/+), by using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in a brainstem slice preparation and single unit recording in anesthetized animals. We report that the active properties of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-HT neurons in vivo (firing rate magnitude and variability; the presence of spike doublets) and in vitro (firing in response to depolarizing current pulses; action potential shape) as well as the resting membrane potential remained essentially unchanged across Tph2 genotypes. However, there were subtle differences in subthreshold properties, most notably, an approximately 25% higher input conductance in Tph2(-/-) mice compared with Tph2(+/-) and Tph2(+/+) littermates (p<0.0001). This difference may at least in part be a consequence of slightly bigger size of the DRN 5-HT neurons in Tph2(-/-) mice (approximately 10%, p<0.0001). Taken together, these findings show that 5-HT neurons acquire and maintain their signature firing properties independently of the presence of their principal neurotransmitter 5-HT, displaying an unexpected functional resilience to complete brain 5-HT deficiency. PMID:26409296

  2. Presynaptic displacement of serotonin by alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine in the nucleus tractus solitarius of the rat.

    PubMed

    Helfman, C C; Anderson, G F; Barraco, R A

    1995-04-14

    Rat brain slices containing the nucleus tractus solitarius loaded with [3H]5-hydroxytryptamine ([3H]5-HT) for superfusion were stimulated at (3 Hz, 25 mA, 1 min) resulting in fractional release ratios S2/S1 of 0.89 for [3H]5-HT in the presence of the serotonin uptake inhibitor 1.0 microM 6-nitroquipazine (6-NQ). alpha-Methylserotonin (alpha-Me-5-HT; 1.0 microM), a non-selective 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor agonist, significantly reduced the S2/S1 ratio of [3H]5-HT without affecting the basal release ratios B2/B1 1.00 +/- 0.04. Without 6-NQ in the perfusion medium 1.0 microM alpha-Me-5-HT sharply increased the basal release B2/B1 to 2.21 (P < 0.01). In low Ca2+ medium the S2/S1 ratio was reduced to 0.06 and alpha-Me-5-HT promoted a B2/B1 release of 2.17 (P < 0.01). The 5-HT3 antagonist LY-278,584 did not block alpha-Me-5-HT induced basal release of [3H]5-HT. Both pindolol and LY-53,857 blocked the autoinhibitory effects of alpha-Me-5-HT, but only LY-53,857 and 6-NQ blocked the basal release induced by alpha-Me-5-HT. These results suggest that alpha-Me-5-HT reduces neurotransmitter release through the serotonin autoreceptor and displaces serotonin through a non-exocytotic release mechanism. PMID:7609920

  3. The role of the serotonin receptor subtypes 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 and its interaction in emotional learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Stiedl, Oliver; Pappa, Elpiniki; Konradsson-Geuken, Åsa; Ögren, Sven Ove

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a multifunctional neurotransmitter innervating cortical and limbic areas involved in cognition and emotional regulation. Dysregulation of serotonergic transmission is associated with emotional and cognitive deficits in psychiatric patients and animal models. Drugs targeting the 5-HT system are widely used to treat mood disorders and anxiety-like behaviors. Among the fourteen 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) subtypes, the 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R are associated with the development of anxiety, depression and cognitive function linked to mechanisms of emotional learning and memory. In rodents fear conditioning and passive avoidance (PA) are associative learning paradigms to study emotional memory. This review assesses the role of 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R as well as their interplay at the molecular, neurochemical and behavioral level. Activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1ARs impairs emotional memory through attenuation of neuronal activity, whereas presynaptic 5-HT1AR activation reduces 5-HT release and exerts pro-cognitive effects on PA retention. Antagonism of the 5-HT1AR facilitates memory retention possibly via 5-HT7R activation and evidence is provided that 5HT7R can facilitate emotional memory upon reduced 5-HT1AR transmission. These findings highlight the differential role of these 5-HTRs in cognitive/emotional domains of behavior. Moreover, the results indicate that tonic and phasic 5-HT release can exert different and potentially opposing effects on emotional memory, depending on the states of 5-HT1ARs and 5-HT7Rs and their interaction. Consequently, individual differences due to genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms play an essential role for the responsiveness to drug treatment, e.g., by SSRIs which increase intrasynaptic 5-HT levels thereby activating multiple pre- and postsynaptic 5-HTR subtypes. PMID:26300776

  4. 5-HT1A/1B Receptors as Targets for Optimizing Pigmentary Responses in C57BL/6 Mouse Skin to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hua-Li; Pang, Si-Lin; Liu, Qiong-Zhen; Wang, Qian; Cai, Min-Xuan; Shang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Stress has been reported to induce alterations of skin pigmentary response. Acute stress is associated with increased turnover of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) whereas chronic stress causes a decrease. 5-HT receptors have been detected in pigment cells, indicating their role in skin pigmentation. To ascertain the precise role of 5-HT in stress-induced pigmentary responses, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to chronic restraint stress and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CRS and CUMS, two models of chronic stress) for 21 days, finally resulting in abnormal pigmentary responses. Subsequently, stressed mice were characterized by the absence of a black pigment in dorsal coat. The down-regulation of tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related proteins (TRP1 and TRP2) expression in stressed skin was accompanied by reduced levels of 5-HT and decreased expression of 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) system. In both murine B16F10 melanoma cells and normal human melanocytes (NHMCs), 5-HT had a stimulatory effect on melanin production, dendricity and migration. When treated with 5-HT in cultured hair follicles (HFs), the increased expression of melanogenesis-related genes and the activation of 5-HT1A, 1B and 7 receptors also occurred. The serum obtained from stressed mice showed significantly decreased tyrosinase activity in NHMCs compared to that from nonstressed mice. The decrease in tyrosinase activity was further augmented in the presence of 5-HTR1A, 1B and 7 antagonists, WAY100635, SB216641 and SB269970. In vivo, stressed mice received 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a member of the class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine; FX) and 5-HTR1A/1B agonists (8-OH-DPAT/CP94253), finally contributing to the normalization of pigmentary responses. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the serotoninergic system plays an important role in the regulation of stress-induced depigmentation, which can be mediated by 5-HT1A/1B receptors. 5-HT and 5-HTR1A/1B may constitute novel targets for therapy of skin hypopigmentation disorders, especially those worsened with stress. PMID:24586946

  5. Functional properties of a cloned 5-hydroxytryptamine ionotropic receptor subunit: comparison with native mouse receptors.

    PubMed

    Hussy, N; Lukas, W; Jones, K A

    1994-12-01

    1. A comparative study of the whole-cell and single-channel properties of cloned and native mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine ionotropic receptors (5-HT3) was undertaken using mammalian cell lines expressing the cloned 5-HT3 receptor subunit A (5-HT3R-A), superior cervical ganglia (SCG) neurones and N1E-115 cells. 2. No pharmacological difference was found in the sensitivity to the agonists 5-HT and 2-methyl-5-HT, or to the antagonists d-tubocurare and 3-tropanyl-3,5-dichlorobenzoate (MDL-72222). 3. Current-voltage (I-V) relationships of whole-cell currents showed inward rectification in the three preparations. Rectification was stronger both in cells expressing the 5-HT3R-A subunit and in N1E-115 cells when compared with SCG neurones. 4. No clear openings could be resolved in 5-HT-activated currents in patches excised from cells expressing the 5-HT3R-A subunit or N1E-115 cells. Current fluctuation analysis of whole-cell and excised-patch records revealed a slope conductance of 0.4-0.6 pS in both preparations. Current-voltage relationships of these channels showed strong rectification that fully accounted for the whole-cell voltage dependence. 5. In contrast, single channels of about 10 pS were activated by 5-HT in patches excised from SCG neurones. The weak voltage dependence of their conductance did not account completely for the rectification of whole-cell currents. A lower unitary conductance (3.4 pS) was inferred from whole-cell noise analysis. 6. We conclude that the receptor expressed from the cloned cDNA is indistinguishable from the 5-HT3 receptor of N1E-115 cells, suggesting an identical structure for these two receptors. The higher conductance and different voltage dependence of the 5-HT3 receptor in SCG neurones might indicate the participation of an additional subunit in the structure of native ganglionic 5-HT3 receptors. Homo-oligomeric 5-HT3R-A channels may also be present as suggested by the lower conductance estimated by whole-cell noise analysis. PMID:7537814

  6. Functional properties of a cloned 5-hydroxytryptamine ionotropic receptor subunit: comparison with native mouse receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hussy, N; Lukas, W; Jones, K A

    1994-01-01

    1. A comparative study of the whole-cell and single-channel properties of cloned and native mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine ionotropic receptors (5-HT3) was undertaken using mammalian cell lines expressing the cloned 5-HT3 receptor subunit A (5-HT3R-A), superior cervical ganglia (SCG) neurones and N1E-115 cells. 2. No pharmacological difference was found in the sensitivity to the agonists 5-HT and 2-methyl-5-HT, or to the antagonists d-tubocurare and 3-tropanyl-3,5-dichlorobenzoate (MDL-72222). 3. Current-voltage (I-V) relationships of whole-cell currents showed inward rectification in the three preparations. Rectification was stronger both in cells expressing the 5-HT3R-A subunit and in N1E-115 cells when compared with SCG neurones. 4. No clear openings could be resolved in 5-HT-activated currents in patches excised from cells expressing the 5-HT3R-A subunit or N1E-115 cells. Current fluctuation analysis of whole-cell and excised-patch records revealed a slope conductance of 0.4-0.6 pS in both preparations. Current-voltage relationships of these channels showed strong rectification that fully accounted for the whole-cell voltage dependence. 5. In contrast, single channels of about 10 pS were activated by 5-HT in patches excised from SCG neurones. The weak voltage dependence of their conductance did not account completely for the rectification of whole-cell currents. A lower unitary conductance (3.4 pS) was inferred from whole-cell noise analysis. 6. We conclude that the receptor expressed from the cloned cDNA is indistinguishable from the 5-HT3 receptor of N1E-115 cells, suggesting an identical structure for these two receptors. The higher conductance and different voltage dependence of the 5-HT3 receptor in SCG neurones might indicate the participation of an additional subunit in the structure of native ganglionic 5-HT3 receptors. Homo-oligomeric 5-HT3R-A channels may also be present as suggested by the lower conductance estimated by whole-cell noise analysis. PMID:7537814

  7. Pharmacological Characterization of 5-HT1A Autoreceptor-Coupled GIRK Channels in Rat Dorsal Raphe 5-HT Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Montalbano, Alberto; Corradetti, Renato; Mlinar, Boris

    2015-01-01

    G protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels in 5-HT neurons are assumed to be principal effectors of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A) autoreceptors, but their pharmacology, subunit composition and the role in regulation of 5-HT neuron activity have not been fully elucidated. We sought for a pharmacological tool for assessing the functional role of GIRK channels in 5-HT neurons by characterizing the effects of drugs known to block GIRK channels in the submicromolar range of concentrations. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recording in brainstem slices were used to determine concentration-response relationships for the selected GIRK channel blockers on 5-HT1A autoreceptor-activated inwardly rectifying K+ conductance in rat dorsal raphe 5-HT neurons. 5-HT1A autoreceptor-activated GIRK conductance was completely blocked by the nonselective inwardly rectifying potassium channels blocker Ba2+ (EC50 = 9.4 ?M, full block with 100 ?M) and by SCH23390 (EC50 = 1.95 ?M, full block with 30 ?M). GIRK-specific blocker tertiapin-Q blocked 5-HT1A autoreceptor-activated GIRK conductance with high potency (EC50 = 33.6 nM), but incompletely, i.e. ~16% of total conductance resulted to be tertiapin-Q-resistant. U73343 and SCH28080, reported to block GIRK channels with submicromolar EC50s, were essentially ineffective in 5-HT neurons. Our data show that inwardly rectifying K+ channels coupled to 5-HT1A autoreceptors display pharmacological properties generally expected for neuronal GIRK channels, but different from GIRK1-GIRK2 heteromers, the predominant form of brain GIRK channels. Distinct pharmacological properties of GIRK channels in 5-HT neurons should be explored for the development of new therapeutic agents for mood disorders. PMID:26460748

  8. Two types of receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine on the cholinergic nerves of the guinea-pig myenteric plexus.

    PubMed Central

    Kilbinger, H.; Pfeuffer-Friederich, I.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on spontaneous and electrically-evoked release of [3H]-acetylcholine (ACh) from guinea-pig myenteric plexus preparations preincubated with [3H]-choline have been investigated in the absence of cholinesterase inhibitors. 5-HT caused a transient increase in spontaneous release and an inhibition of the electrically-evoked release of [3H]-ACh. The 5-HT-induced contractions of the longitudinal muscle were clearly related to the increase in spontaneous release. The inhibitory effect was not due to activation of alpha-adrenoceptors since it was also observed in the presence of tolazoline and on strips from reserpine-pretreated guinea-pigs. After desensitization of the excitatory 5-HT receptors with 5-HT or metoclopramide the effects of 5-HT on spontaneous [3H]-ACh release were largely reduced. A variety of established antagonists at neuronal 5-HT receptors (i.e. metitepine 0.1-1 microM; methysergide 1 microM; ketanserin 0.1-1 microM; MDL 72222 0.1 microM; tropacocaine 1 microM) failed to block the excitation. The inhibition by 5-HT of the electrically evoked [3H]-ACh release was competitively antagonized by metitepine (pA2 7.6) and methysergide (pA2 7.0) but not by ketanserin. Tachyphylaxis to the inhibitory action of 5-HT did not occur. The results suggest that the excitatory 5-HT receptor ('M'-receptor) differs in its pharmacological properties from other neuronal 5-HT receptors. The presynaptically located inhibitory receptor may roughly correspond to the 5-HT1 receptor subtype but probably differs from the 5-HT autoreceptor. PMID:3161573

  9. beta-Adrenoceptor antagonists inhibit the behavioural responses of rats to increased brain 5-hydroxytryptamine.

    PubMed Central

    Costain, D W; Green, A R

    1978-01-01

    1 The effect of various beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced hyperactivity response produced in rats by administration of tranylcypromine (10 mg/kg i.p.) followed by L-tryptophan (50 mg/kg i.p.) has been investigated. 2 (+/-)-Alprenolol, (+/-)-timolol, (+/-)-sotalol, (+/-)-pindolol (all at 40 mg/kg) all inhibited the hyperactivity response to some degree when given 45 min before the tranylcypromine, as did (+/-)-oxprenolol when given after the L-tryptophan. 3 beta-Adrenoceptor antagonists that are not found in the brain appreciable amount after peripheral injection, (+/-)-atenolol, (+/-)-practolol, (+/-)-labetalol and (+/-)-acebutalol, did not inhibit the 5-HT-mediated behaviour. 4 Neither the beta1-selective drug (+/-)-metoprolol, nor the beta2-selective drug (+/-)-butoxamine inhibited the behavioral response. 5 The drugs that blocked the 5-HT-mediated behaviour did not alter brain 5-HT concentrations, synthesis rate or the accumulation of 5-HT following tranylcypromine/L-tryptophan. However, they did inhibit the hyperactivity produced by the suggested 5-HT agonist, 5-methoxy N,N-dimethyltryptamine, indicating that the beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs were inhibiting the post-synaptic 5-HT-mediated response. 6 Circling produced by methamphetamine (3 mg/kg) in unilateral nigro-striatal lesioned rats was not altered by alprenolol, sotalol, pindolol or metaprolol, indicating that these drugs do not alter dopamine-mediated behaviour. 7 It is concluded that non-selective (beta1 and beta2) adrenoceptor antagonists which have a high brain/blood ratio following their peripheral injection, block 5-HT-mediated behavioural responses in the rat. PMID:30503

  10. Electrophysiological and arrhythmogenic effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine on human atrial cells are reduced in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Pau, Davide; Workman, Antony J.; Kane, Kathleen A.; Rankin, Andrew C.

    2007-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is proarrhythmic in atrial cells from patients in sinus rhythm (SR) via activation of 5-HT4 receptors, but its effects in atrial cells from patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are unknown. The whole-cell perforated patch-clamp technique was used to record L-type Ca2+ current (ICaL), action potential duration (APD) and arrhythmic activity at 37C in enzymatically isolated atrial cells obtained from patients undergoing cardiac surgery, in SR or with chronic AF. In the AF group, 5-HT (10?M) produced an increase in ICaL of 11521% above control (n=10 cells, 6 patients) that was significantly smaller than that in the SR group (23233%; p<0.05; n=27 cells, 12 patients). Subsequent co-application of isoproterenol (1?M) caused a further increase in ICaL in the AF group (by 25694%) that was greater than that in the SR group (226%; p<0.05). The APD at 50% repolarisation (APD50) was prolonged by 143ms by 5-HT in the AF group (n=37 cells, 14 patients). This was less than that in the SR group (274ms; p<0.05; n=58 cells, 24 patients). Arrhythmic activity in response to 5-HT was observed in 22% of cells in the SR group, but none was observed in the AF group (p<0.05). Atrial fibrillation was associated with reduced effects of 5-HT, but not of isoproterenol, on ICaL in human atrial cells. This reduced effect on ICaL was associated with a reduced APD50 and arrhythmic activity with 5-HT. Thus, the potentially arrhythmogenic influence of 5-HT may be suppressed in AF-remodelled human atrium. PMID:16989857

  11. The canine external carotid vasoconstrictor 5-HT1 receptor: blockade by 5-HT1B (SB224289), but not by 5-HT1D (BRL15572) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    De Vries, P; Sánchez-López, A; Centurión, D; Heiligers, J P; Saxena, P R; Villalón, C M

    1998-11-27

    In vagosympathectomised dogs pre-treated intravenously (i.v.) with mesulergine (300 microg/kg), 1-min intracarotid (i.c.) infusions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; 0.3-30 microg/min) and sumatriptan (1-30 microg/min) dose-dependently decreased external carotid blood flow, without affecting mean blood pressure or heart rate. Treatment with the selective 5-HT1B receptor antagonist SB224289 (2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1'-methyl-5-[2'-methyl-4'(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazo l-3-yl) biphenyl-4-carbonyl]furo[2,3f]indole-3-spiro-4'-piperidine hydrochloride; 30-300 microg/kg, i.v.) produced a potent, specific and dose-dependent blockade of this response, whereas the selective 5-HT1D receptor antagonist BRL15572 (1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-[3,3-diphenyl(2-(S,R) hydroxypropanyl)piperazine]hydrochloride; 30-300 microg/kg, i.v.) was ineffective. It is concluded that mainly 5-HT1B, but not 5-HT1D receptors mediate the canine external carotid vasoconstriction by 5-HT and sumatriptan. PMID:9865532

  12. Evidence for depressant 5-HT1-like receptors on rat brainstem neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, M.; Wilkinson, L. S.; Roberts, M. H.

    1988-01-01

    1. The technique of microiontophoresis was used to evaluate the contribution of 5-HT1-like, 5-HT2- and 5-HT3-receptors to the depressant effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on neurones in the midline of the medullary brainstem of the rat in vivo. 2. Depressant responses to 5-HT were resistant to antagonism by the 5-HT2-receptor antagonist ketanserin and the 5-HT3-receptor antagonist MDL 72222 applied either microiontophoretically or administered systemically. 3. Microiontophoretic or systemic administration of the 5-HT antagonist metergoline, which shows nanomolar affinity for the 5-HT1-binding site, also failed to attenuate the depressant responses to 5-HT. 4. Systemic administration of high doses of methysergide (30-40 mg kg-1) attenuated the depressant responses to 5-HT but did not block depressant responses to GABA or excitatory responses to glutamate. 5. The depressant effects of 5-HT were potently mimicked by the 5-HT1-like receptor agonists 5-carboxamidotryptamine and 8-OH-DPAT. 6. These results indicate that neither 5-HT2-receptors nor 5-HT3-receptors are involved in the depressant effects of 5-HT on midline brainstem neurones. The depressant effects of 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) and 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and blockade of the response to 5-HT by high doses of methysergide suggests the involvement of 5-HT1-like receptors. The lack of effect of metergoline, however, indicates that this receptor may be different from any of the 5-HT1 binding sites yet described. PMID:3395787

  13. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-mediated increase in glutamate uptake by the leech giant glial cell.

    PubMed

    Hirth, Ingolf C; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2006-12-01

    The clearance of synaptically released glutamate is one of the pivotal functions of glial cells. We have studied the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, 30 microM), a neurotransmitter and neurohormone in the leech central nervous system with a versatile action spectrum, on the efficacy of glial glutamate uptake. The activity of the glutamate uptake carrier in the giant glial cell in isolated ganglia of Hirudo medicinalis was monitored by measuring the membrane current and the change in the intracellular Na(+) concentration (Na(+) (i)) as induced by the glutamate carrier substrate D-aspartate (D-asp, 1 mM). 5-HT increased the D-asp-induced current (EC(50) at 5 microM) and rise in Na(+) (i), an effect which was mimicked by the membrane-permeable cyclic nucleotide analogue dibutyryl-cyclic AMP (db-cAMP). The adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ 22,536 and the protein kinase A antagonist Rp-cAMP inhibited the effect of 5-HT. Blocking the G protein in the giant glial cell by injecting GDP-beta-S suppressed the effect of 5-HT, but not the effect of db-cAMP, on the D-asp-induced current. Our results suggest that 5-HT enhances the glial uptake of glutamate via cAMP- and PKA-mediated pathway. PMID:16958089

  14. The role of the 5-HT1D receptor as a presynaptic autoreceptor in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Pullar, Ian A; Boot, John R; Broadmore, Richard J; Eyre, Tina A; Cooper, Jane; Sanger, Graham J; Wedley, Susan; Mitchell, Stephen N

    2004-06-16

    The present study investigated the role of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin)1D receptor as a presynaptic autoreceptor in the guinea pig. In keeping with the literature, the 5-HT1B selective antagonist, 1'-methyl-5-[[2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]carbonyl]-2,3,6,7-tetrahydrospiro [furo[2,3-f]indole-3,4'-piperidine]oxalate (SB224289) potentiated [3H]5-HT outflow from pre-labelled slices of guinea pig cerebral cortex confirming its role as a presynaptic autoreceptor in this species. In addition, the 5-HT1D receptor-preferring antagonists, 1-[2-[4-(6-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl)-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyridin-1-yl]-ethyl]-3-pyridin-4-yl-methyl-tetrahydro-pyrimidin-2-one (LY367642), (R)-1-[2-(4-(6-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl-)-3,6-dihydro-1(2H)-pyridinyl)ethyl]-3,4-dihydro-1H-2-benzopyran-6-carboxamide (LY456219), (S)-1-[2-(4-(6-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl-)-3,6-dihydro-1(2H)-pyridinyl)ethyl]-3,4-dihydro-1H-2-benzopyran-6-carboxamide (LY456220) and 1-[2-[4-(4-fluoro-benzoyl)-piperidin-1-yl]-ethyl]-3,3-dimethyl-1,2-dihydro-indol-2-one (LY310762), potentiated [3H]5-HT outflow from this preparation with potencies (EC50 values=31-140 nM) in the same range as their affinities for the guinea pig 5-HT1D receptor (Ki values=100-333 nM). The selective 5-HT1D receptor agonist, R-2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-2-[1-[3-(5-[1,2,4]triazol-4-yl-1H-indol-3-yl)-propyl]-piperidin-4-ylamino]-ethanol dioxylate (L-772,405), inhibited [3H]5-HT outflow. In microdialysis studies, administration of either SB224289 or LY310762 at 10 mg/kg by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route, potentiated the increase in extracellular 5-HT concentration produced by a maximally effective dose of the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (at 20 mg/kg i.p.). In addition, the 5-HT1D receptor-preferring antagonist and 5-HT transporter inhibitor, LY367642 (at 10 mg/kg i.p.), elevated extracellular 5-HT concentrations to a greater extent than a maximally effective dose of fluoxetine. It is concluded that the 5-HT1D receptor, like the 5-HT1B receptor, may be a presynaptic autoreceptor in the guinea pig. PMID:15189767

  15. Hippocampal 5-HT1A Receptor and Spatial Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Glikmann-Johnston, Yifat; Saling, Michael M.; Reutens, David C.; Stout, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition is fundamental for survival in the topographically complex environments inhabited by humans and other animals. The hippocampus, which has a central role in spatial cognition, is characterized by high concentration of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) receptor binding sites, particularly of the 1A receptor (5-HT1A) subtype. This review highlights converging evidence for the role of hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors in spatial learning and memory. We consider studies showing that activation or blockade of the 5-HT1A receptors using agonists or antagonists, respectively, lead to changes in spatial learning and memory. For example, pharmacological manipulation to induce 5-HT release, or to block 5-HT uptake, have indicated that increased extracellular 5-HT concentrations maintain or improve memory performance. In contrast, reduced levels of 5-HT have been shown to impair spatial memory. Furthermore, the lack of 5-HT1A receptor subtype in single gene knockout mice is specifically associated with spatial memory impairments. These findings, along with evidence from recent cognitive imaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) with 5-HT1A receptor ligands, and studies of individual genetic variance in 5-HT1A receptor availability, strongly suggests that 5-HT, mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor subtype, plays a key role in spatial learning and memory. PMID:26696889

  16. Vasodilator and vasoconstrictor responses induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine in the in situ blood autoperfused hindquarters of the anaesthetized rat.

    PubMed

    Calama, E; Fernández, M M; Morán, A; Martín, M L; San Román, L

    2002-08-01

    In the present study we attempted to characterise the responses and receptors involved in the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) in in situ autoperfused rat hindquarters. Intra-arterial administration of the lowest doses of 5-HT used (0.12-12.5 ng/kg) induced vasodilator responses, whereas the highest doses (25-1000 ng/kg) produced vasoconstriction. The vasodilator effect was inhibited by methiothepin (a non-specific 5-HT(1,2,5,6,7) receptor antagonist) and by a 5-HT(1D/1B) receptor antagonist, i.e., 3-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-1,1-diphenyl-2-propanolol (BRL 15572), but not by ritanserin (a selective 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist), 5-methyl-1-(3-pyridylcarbamoyl)-1,2,3,5-tetrahydropyrrolo[2,3-f] indole (SB 206553, a selective 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor antagonist) or mesulergine (a non-specific serotonergic antagonist that shows affinity to the 5-HT(7) receptor). This vasodilator effect was mimicked by administration of a selective 5-HT(1) receptor agonist - 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) - and by 2-[5-[3-(4-methylsulphonylamino)benzyl-1,2,4-1 H-indol-3-yl]ethanamine (L-694,247, a selective 5-HT(1D/1B) receptor agonist). Methiothepin, but not mesulergine, inhibited 5-CT-induced vasodilatation and the selective 5-HT(1D/1B) receptor antagonist (BRL 15572) inhibited the vasodilator action induced by L-694,247. The vasoconstrictor effect of 5-HT was significantly decreased by methiothepin, ritanserin and SB 206553, and was mimicked by alpha-methyl-5-HT (a selective 5-HT(2) receptor agonist) but not by administration of BW 723C86, a selective 5HT(2B) receptor agonist. Ritanserin, SB 206553 and spiperone (a non-specific 5-HT(1/2A) receptor antagonist) inhibited the alpha-methyl-5HT-induced vasoconstriction.Our data suggest that the vasodilator response induced by 5-HT in autoperfused rat hindquarters is mainly mediated by 5-HT(1D/1B) receptors, whereas the vasoconstrictor effect is mainly due to the activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors. PMID:12122496

  17. Multiple 5-HT receptors in the guinea-pig superior cervical ganglion.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, C. J.; Newberry, N. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. We have studied the pharmacology of the depolarization by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) of the guinea-pig isolated superior cervical ganglion (SCG) using the grease-gap technique. We studied the effects of selective and non-selective antagonists on the responses to 5-HT and other 5-HT receptor agonists. 2. We have extended the pharmacology of the 5-HT3 receptor in this preparation by studying the effects of granisetron, BRL 46470 and mianserin on the concentration-response curve (CRC) to 2-methyl-5-HT. As with other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, these compounds exhibited a lower affinity for guinea-pig 5-HT3 receptors than for rat 5-HT3 receptors. 3. We have confirmed that low concentrations of 5-HT (< or = 1 microM) mediate ketanserin-sensitive responses and higher concentrations of 5-HT also recruit 5-HT3 receptors. The responses to low concentrations of 5-HT were antagonized by low concentrations of ketanserin, spiperone, mianserin, DOI and LSD indicating probably mediation by 5-HT2A receptors. At high concentrations, the hallucinogen, DOI, but not LSD, evoked a ketanserin-sensitive depolarization. 4. Although mianserin could bind to the 5-HT2A receptors in this preparation, we could not demonstrate a down-regulation of depolarizations evoked by these receptors after a 10 day oral treatment with mianserin (10 mg kg-1, daily). 5. 5-Carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) evoked a prolonged depolarization. Although high concentrations of 5-CT (> or = microM) appeared to activate 5-HT2A receptors, lower concentrations of 5-CT evoked a response with a distinct pharmacology. After studying the action of 20 selective and non-selective 5-HT receptor ligands we believe that this response may be mediated by a novel receptor; but its pharmacology is closest to that of receptors in the 5-HT2 receptor family. Like 5-CT, 5-HT (3-300 microM) could evoke an LSD-sensitive response in the presence of the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, tropisetron (all 1 microM). 6. We conclude that 5-HT activates three pharmacologically distinct receptors to depolarize the guinea-pig SCG. Low concentrations of 5-HT appear to activate 5-HT2A receptors. Higher concentrations of 5-HT also activate 5-HT3 receptors and a possible novel 5-HT receptor. The novel receptor could be a species homologue of a 5-HT2 receptor or an, as yet, unclassified 5-HT receptor. PMID:8825338

  18. Regulation of extrasynaptic 5-HT by SERT function in 5-HT-absorbing neurons underscores adaptation behavior in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Jafarau, Gholamali; Xie, Yusu; Kullyev, Andrey; Liang, Bin; Sze, Ji Ying

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT)-absorbing neurons use serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) to uptake serotonin (5-HT) from extracellular space but do not synthesize it. While 5-HT-absorbing neurons have been identified in diverse organisms from C. elegans to humans, their function has not been elucidated. Here, we show that SERT in 5-HT-absorbing neurons controls behavioral response to food deprivation in C. elegans. The AIM and RIH interneurons uptake 5-HT released from chemosensory neurons and secretory neurons. Genetic analyses suggest that 5-HT secreted by both synaptic vesicles and dense core vesicles diffuse readily to the extrasynaptic space adjacent to the AIM and RIH neurons. Loss of mod-5/SERT function blocks the 5-HT absorption. mod-5/SERT mutants have been shown to exhibit exaggerated locomotor response to food deprivation. We found that transgenic expression of MOD-5/SERT in the 5-HT-absorbing neurons fully corrected the exaggerated behavior. Experiments of cell-specific inhibition of synaptic transmission suggest that the synaptic release of 5-HT from the 5-HT-absorbing neurons is not required for this behavioral modulation. Our data point to the role of 5-HT-absorbing neurons as temporal-spatial regulators of extrasynaptic 5-HT. Regulation of extrasynaptic 5-HT levels by 5-HT-absorbing neurons may represent a fundamental mechanism of 5-HT homeostasis, integrating the activity of 5-HT-producing neurons with distant targets in the neural circuits, and could be relevant to some actions of SSRIs in human. PMID:21677178

  19. 5-HT4 receptor agonists: similar but not the same.

    PubMed

    De Maeyer, J H; Lefebvre, R A; Schuurkes, J A J

    2008-02-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine(4) (5-HT(4)) receptors are an interesting target for the management of patients in need of gastrointestinal (GI) promotility treatment. They have proven therapeutic potential to treat patients with GI motility disorders. Lack of selectivity for the 5-HT(4) receptor has limited the clinical success of the agonists used until now. For instance, next to their affinity for 5-HT(4) receptors, both cisapride and tegaserod have appreciable affinity for other receptors, channels or transporters [e.g. cisapride: human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) is K(+) channel and tegaserod: 5-HT(1) and 5-HT(2) receptors]. Adverse cardiovascular events observed with these compounds are not 5-HT(4) receptor-related. Recent efforts have led to the discovery of a series of selective 5-HT(4) receptor ligands, with prucalopride being the most advanced in clinical development. The selectivity of these new compounds clearly differentiates them from the older generation compounds by minimizing the potential of target-unrelated side effects. The availability of selective agonists enables the focus to shift to the exploration of 5-HT(4) receptor-related differences between agonists. Based on drug- and tissue-related properties (e.g. differences in receptor binding, receptor density, effectors, coupling efficiency), 5-HT(4) receptor agonists are able to express tissue selectivity, i.e. behave as a partial agonist in some and as a full agonist in other tissues. Furthermore, the concept of ligand-directed signalling offers great opportunities for future drug development by enlarging the scientific basis for the generation of agonist-specific effects in different cell types, tissues or organs. Selective 5-HT(4) receptor agonists might thus prove to be innovative drugs with an attractive safety profile for better treatment of patients suffering from hypomotility disorders. PMID:18199093

  20. Dorsal Raphe Neurons Signal Reward through 5-HT and Glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhixiang; Zhou, Jingfeng; Li, Yi; Hu, Fei; Lu, Yao; Ma, Ming; Feng, Qiru; Zhang, Ju-en; Wang, Daqing; Zeng, Jiawei; Bao, Junhong; Kim, Ji-Young; Chen, Zhou-Feng; Mestikawy, Salah El; Luo, Minmin

    2015-01-01

    Summary The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the midbrain is a key center for serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) expressing neurons. Serotonergic neurons in the DRN have been theorized to encode punishment by opposing the reward signaling of dopamine neurons. Here, we show that DRN neurons encode reward, but not punishment, through 5-HT and glutamate. Optogenetic stimulation of DRN Pet-1 neurons reinforces mice to explore the stimulation-coupled spatial region, shifts sucrose preference, drives optical self-stimulation, and directs sensory discrimination learning. DRN Pet-1 neurons increase their firing activity during reward tasks and this activation can be used to rapidly change neuronal activity patterns in the cortnassociated with 5-HT, they also release glutamate, and both neurotransmitters contribute to reward signaling. These experiments demonstrate the ability of DRN neurons to organize reward behaviors and might provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of learning facilitation and anhedonia treatment. PMID:24656254

  1. Dorsal raphe neurons signal reward through 5-HT and glutamate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhixiang; Zhou, Jingfeng; Li, Yi; Hu, Fei; Lu, Yao; Ma, Ming; Feng, Qiru; Zhang, Ju-En; Wang, Daqing; Zeng, Jiawei; Bao, Junhong; Kim, Ji-Young; Chen, Zhou-Feng; El Mestikawy, Salah; Luo, Minmin

    2014-03-19

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the midbrain is a key center for serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-expressing neurons. Serotonergic neurons in the DRN have been theorized to encode punishment by opposing the reward signaling of dopamine neurons. Here, we show that DRN neurons encode reward, but not punishment, through 5-HT and glutamate. Optogenetic stimulation of DRN Pet-1 neurons reinforces mice to explore the stimulation-coupled spatial region, shifts sucrose preference, drives optical self-stimulation, and directs sensory discrimination learning. DRN Pet-1 neurons increase their firing activity during reward tasks, and this activation can be used to rapidly change neuronal activity patterns in the cortex. Although DRN Pet-1 neurons are often associated with 5-HT, they also release glutamate, and both neurotransmitters contribute to reward signaling. These experiments demonstrate the ability of DRN neurons to organize reward behaviors and might provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of learning facilitation and anhedonia treatment. PMID:24656254

  2. The 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonist ketanserin inhibits the vasoconstrictor activity of per-operative CSF, from subarachnoid haemorrhage patients, on isolated tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Tagari, P C; Kaye, A H; Teddy, P J; Schachter, M; Adams, C B; Boullin, D J

    1983-01-01

    Peri-aneurysmal CSF was obtained at operation from 13 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonist ketanserin inhibited contractions of isolated human intracranial arteries, elicited by this CSF. The presence of 5-HT in CSF was confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography. The use of ketanserin in the therapy of postoperative cerebral vasospasm is discussed. PMID:6188804

  3. Cinitapride protects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats: role of 5-hydroxytryptamine, prostaglandins and sulfhydryl compounds.

    PubMed

    Alarcn-de-la-Lastra Romero, C; Lpez, A; Martn, M J; la Casa, C; Motilva, V

    1997-04-01

    This study was designed to determine the gastroprotective properties of cinitapride (CNT), a novel prokinetic benzamide derivative agonist of 5-HT4 and 5-HT1 receptors and 5-HT2 antagonist, on mucosal injury produced by 50% (v/v) ethanol. Results were compared with those for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT: 10 mg kg-1). The possible involvements of gastric mucus secretion, endogenous prostaglandins (PGs) and sulfhydryl compounds (SH) in the protection mediated by CNT were also examined. Intraperitoneal administration of CNT (0.50 and 1 mg kg-1), 30 min before ethanol, significantly prevented gastric ulceration and increased the hexosamine content of gastric mucus. CNT (1 mg kg-1) also produced a significant increase in gastric mucosal levels of PGE2, but did not induce any significant changes in SH values. On the contrary, pretreatment with 5-HT worsened ethanol-induced erosions, however, did not affect gastric mucus secretion, glycoprotein content or PGE2 levels, although the non-protein SH fraction was significantly decreased. The present results demonstrate that the gastroprotective effects of CNT could be partly explained by a complex PG dependent mechanism. We suggest that 5-HT dependent mechanisms through 5-HT2 receptor blockade and 5-HT1 receptor activation could be also involved. PMID:9211565

  4. In vitro continuous amperometric monitoring of 5-hydroxytryptamine release from enterochromaffin cells of the guinea pig ileum.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavik Anil; Bian, Xiaochun; Quaiserov-Mocko, Veronika; Galligan, James J; Swain, Greg M

    2007-01-01

    A diamond microelectrode was used to sensitively, reproducibly and stably record overflow of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) from enterochromaffin cells (EC) of the intenstinal mucosal layer. 5-HT is an important neurotransmitter and paracrine signalling molecule in the gastrointestinal tract. The diamond microelectrode was formed by overcoating a sharpened 76 microm diameter Pt wire with a thin layer of conducting diamond. After insulation with polypropylene, the conically-shaped microelectrode had a diameter of about 10 microm at the tip and 80 microm at the cylindrical portion. The exposed length was 100-200 microm. Continuous amperometry with the microelectrode poised at a detection potential of 700 mV vs. Ag|AgCl was used to measure 5-HT overflow as an oxidation current. 5-HT overflow was elicited by both mechanical and electrical stimulation. Some minor electrode fouling, a common problem with the oxidative detection of 5-HT, was seen for diamond but the response stabilized enabling recording in vitro. Both 5-HT and the paracrine hormone, melatonin, were detected in the extracellular solution. The 5-HT oxidation current increased in the presence of the serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitor, fluoxetine (1 microM), providing evidence that the oxidation current was associated with 5-HT. PMID:17180178

  5. Excitation of rat colonic afferent fibres by 5-HT3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Gareth A; Coldwell, Jonathan R; Schindler, Marcus; Bland Ward, Philip A; Jenkins, David; Lynn, Penny A; Humphrey, Patrick P A; Blackshaw, L Ashley

    2002-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract contains most of the body's 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and releases large amounts after meals or exposure to toxins. Increased 5-HT release occurs in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and their peak plasma 5-HT levels correlate with pain episodes. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists reduce symptoms of IBS clinically, but their site of action is unclear and the potential for other therapeutic targets is unexplored. Here we investigated effects of 5-HT on sensory afferents from the colon and the expression of 5-HT3 receptors on their cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Distal colon, inferior mesenteric ganglion and the lumbar splanchnic nerve bundle (LSN) were placed in a specialized organ bath. Eighty-six single fibres were recorded from the LSN. Three classes of primary afferents were found: 70 high-threshold serosal afferents, four low-threshold muscular afferents and 12 mucosal afferents. Afferent cell bodies were retrogradely labelled from the distal colon to the lumbar DRG, where they were processed for 5-HT3 receptor-like immunoreactivity. Fifty-six percent of colonic afferents responded to 5-HT (between 10?6 and 10?3 M) and 30 % responded to the selective 5-HT3 agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT (between 10?6 and 10?2 M). Responses to 2-methyl-5-HT were blocked by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron (2 10?7 M), whereas responses to 5-HT were only partly inhibited. Twenty-six percent of L1 DRG cell bodies retrogradely labelled from the colon displayed 5-HT3 receptor-like immunoreactivity. We conclude that colonic sensory neurones expressing 5-HT3 receptors also functionally express the receptors at their peripheral endings. Our data reveal actions of 5-HT on colonic afferent endings via both 5-HT3 and non-5-HT3 receptors. PMID:12411529

  6. Calcium influx into dendrites of the leech Retzius neuron evoked by 5-hydroxytryptamine.

    PubMed

    Beck, A; Lohr, C; Berthold, H; Deitmer, J W

    2002-03-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a ubiquitous neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that affects neural circuits and behaviours in vertebrates and invertebrates. In the present study, we have investigated 5-HT-induced Ca(2+) transients in subcellular compartments of Retzius neurons in the leech central nervous system using confocal laser scanning microscopy, and studied the effect of 5-HT on the electrical coupling between the Retzius neurons. Bath application of 5-HT (50mM) induced a Ca(2+) transient in axon, dendrites and cell body of the Retzius neuron. This Ca(2+) transient was significantly faster and larger in dendrites than in axon and cell body, and was half-maximal at a 5-HT concentration of 5-12mM. The Ca(2+) transient was suppressed in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) and by methysergide (100mM), a non-specific antagonist of metabotropic 5-HT receptors, and was strongly reduced by bath application of the Ca(2+) channel blocker Co(2+) (2mM). Injection of the non-hydrolysable GTP analogue GTPgammaS increased and prolonged the dendritic 5-HT-induced Ca(2+) transient. The non-selective protein kinase inhibitor H7 (100mM) and the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 (500 mM) did not affect the Ca(2+) transient, and the membrane-permeable cAMP analogue dibutyryl-cAMP (500 mM) did not mimic the effect of 5-HT application. 5-HT reduced the apparent electrical coupling between the two Retzius neurons, whereas suppression of the Ca(2+) influx by removal of external Ca(2+) improved the transmission of action potentials at the electrical synapses which are located between the dendrites of the adjacent Retzius neurons. The results indicate that 5-HT induces a Ca(2+) influx through calcium channels located primarily in the dendrites, and presumably activated by a G protein-coupled 5-HT receptor. The dendritic Ca(2+) increase appears to modulate the excitability of, and the synchronization between, the two Retzius neurons. PMID:12027387

  7. Possible role of valvular serotonin 5-HT(2B) receptors in the cardiopathy associated with fenfluramine.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, L W; Burn, T C; Brown, B S; Patterson, J P; Corjay, M H; Valentine, P A; Sun, J H; Link, J R; Abbaszade, I; Hollis, J M; Largent, B L; Hartig, P R; Hollis, G F; Meunier, P C; Robichaud, A J; Robertson, D W

    2000-01-01

    Dexfenfluramine was approved in the United States for long-term use as an appetite suppressant until it was reported to be associated with valvular heart disease. The valvular changes (myofibroblast proliferation) are histopathologically indistinguishable from those observed in carcinoid disease or after long-term exposure to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2)-preferring ergot drugs (ergotamine, methysergide). 5-HT(2) receptor stimulation is known to cause fibroblast mitogenesis, which could contribute to this lesion. To elucidate the mechanism of "fen-phen"-associated valvular lesions, we examined the interaction of fenfluramine and its metabolite norfenfluramine with 5-HT(2) receptor subtypes and examined the expression of these receptors in human and porcine heart valves. Fenfluramine binds weakly to 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), and 5-HT(2C) receptors. In contrast, norfenfluramine exhibited high affinity for 5-HT(2B) and 5-HT(2C) receptors and more moderate affinity for 5-HT(2A) receptors. In cells expressing recombinant 5-HT(2B) receptors, norfenfluramine potently stimulated the hydrolysis of inositol phosphates, increased intracellular Ca(2+), and activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, the latter of which has been linked to mitogenic actions of the 5-HT(2B) receptor. The level of 5-HT(2B) and 5-HT(2A) receptor transcripts in heart valves was at least 300-fold higher than the levels of 5-HT(2C) receptor transcript, which were barely detectable. We propose that preferential stimulation of valvular 5-HT(2B) receptors by norfenfluramine, ergot drugs, or 5-HT released from carcinoid tumors (with or without accompanying 5-HT(2A) receptor activation) may contribute to valvular fibroplasia in humans. PMID:10617681

  8. Cartography of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A Receptor Subtypes in Prefrontal Cortex and Its Projections.

    PubMed

    Mengod, Guadalupe; Palacios, Jos M; Corts, Roser

    2015-07-15

    Since the development of chemical neuroanatomical tools in the 1960s, a tremendous wealth of information has been generated on the anatomical components of the serotonergic system, at the microscopic level in the brain including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC receives a widespread distribution of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) terminals from the median and dorsal raphe nuclei. 5-HT receptors were first visualized using radioligand autoradiography in the late 1980s and early 1990s and showed, in contrast to 5-HT innervation, a differential distribution of binding sites associated with different 5-HT receptor subtypes. Due to the cloning of the different 5-HT receptor subtype genes in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it was possible, using in situ hybridization histochemistry, to localize cells expressing mRNA for these receptors. Double in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry allowed for the chemical characterization of the phenotype of cells expressing 5-HT receptors. Tract tracing technology allowed a detailed cartography of the neuronal connections of PFC and other brain areas. Based on these data, maps have been constructed that reflect our current understanding of the different circuits where 5-HT receptors can modulate the electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral functions of the PFC. We will review current knowledge regarding the cellular localization of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in mammalian PFC and their possible functions in the neuronal circuits of the PFC. We will discuss data generated in our laboratory as well as in others, focusing on localization in the pyramidal and GABAergic neuronal cell populations in different mammalian species using molecular neuroanatomy and on the connections with other brain regions. PMID:25739427

  9. Loss of 5-hydroxytryptamine from mammalian circulating labelled platelets

    PubMed Central

    Osim, E. E.; Wyllie, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    1. Platelets were obtained from three species of animal: rats, rabbits and dogs. They were labelled with 111In oxine to tag individual platelets and with 14C-labelled 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Doubly labelled platelets from rabbits and dogs were returned to their donors; in the case of rats the platelets were injected intravenously into other, identical rats. At time intervals from 2 to 64 hr, blood samples were drawn and platelets were collected. 111In and 14C were separately counted. In some experiments animals received the 5-HT precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) I.P. (for rats and rabbits) or subcutaneously (for dogs) in a dose of 20 mg/kg daily to accelerate synthesis of 5-HT. 2. 111In disappeared in approximately an exponential fashion in all experiments and the rate of disappearance was not affected by treatment with 5-HTP. The half-life for 111In in four control rats was 18·7 hr and in five rats treated with 5-HTP was 17·8 hr. In rabbits the half-life was 20·4 hr for eight control and 21·2 hr for seven treated with 5-HTP. In the dogs the half-life was 21·0 hr for control and 27·7 hr for experiments with 5-HTP. In control rats, the 14C behaved like the 111In. However, in control rabbits the half-life for 14C was 38·0 hr which is significantly longer than for 111In (P < 0·005). 14C also disappeared more slowly than the 111In in the dogs. 3. In all species treatment with 5-HTP accelerated the disappearance of the 14C approximately three-fold. This was not a reserpine-like effect because the platelets contained more, not less 5-HT than usual. 4. In an attempt to discover the fate of 5-HT disappearing from circulating platelets, experiments were made in which platelets from one rat were doubly labelled, and were then injected into two other rats from the identical strain; one of the recipients received daily I.P. injections of 20 mg/kg of 5-HTP. The other rat in each pair acted as a control. 5. Results from twelve control rats showed that the 14C/111In ratio in several tissues deviated from that found in platelets. Deviations occurred in both directions; in the spleen, liver and kidney the ratio was significantly lower than in the platelets (P < 0·01), whereas in the adrenals, thyroid, bladder and gut the ratio was significantly higher (P < 0·05 for thyroid, < 0·01 for others). In the gut, however, the ratio was significantly raised (P < 0·01) only at 5 hr. 6. Administration of unlabelled 5-HTP to another twelve rats greatly reduced the 14C in platelets. Under these conditions many tissues in addition to those above had a higher ratio of 14C/111In than platelets. These tissues included muscle, skin, salivary gland, kidney, heart, aorta, testis and seminal vesicle. As with platelets, the absolute counts of 14C/g of tissue decreased significantly after 5-HTP administration (platelets by 67%, brain by 56%, pancreas by 49%, lungs by 39%, liver by 37%, kidney by 29%, testis by 23% and seminal vesicle by 22%). On the other hand, there were significant rises of 93% in the skin and 21% in the muscle. Paper chromatography showed that 73-86% of the 14C in tissues still behaved like 5-HT, except in the bladder and adrenals which contained unidentified material. 7. It is concluded that under normal conditions platelets deposit 5-HT in specific tissues, notably gut, adrenals and thyroid. When unlabelled 5-HTP is administered, the labelled 5-HT is deposited in a variety of tissues, and especially in the skin. PMID:6411907

  10. Functional changes in cerebral 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in the mouse induced by anticonvulsant drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, D; Gorrod, J W; Jenner, P; Marsden, C D; Reynolds, E H

    1978-01-01

    1 Acute administration of clonazepam, diazepam, and diphenylhydantoin to mice elevated cerebral 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA); chronic administration had less effect. 2 Acute administration of clonazepam and diazepam but not diphenylhydantoin raised cerebral trytophan levels; chronic administration of clonazepam caused a smaller elevation of cerebral tryptophan but chronic administration of diazepam still caused a large rise in cerebral tryptophan. 3 Neither clonazepam nor diazepam caused induction of drug metabolizing enzymes on chronic administration but diphenylhydantoin had a marked effect. 4 These data suggest that the altered 5-HT metabolism caused by these compounds is unrelated to a common action on tryptophan levels, and that the reduced effect of clonazepam and diazepam on chronic administration cannot be attributed to increased metabolism of these compounds. 5 Clonazepam induced abnormal head movements in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of animals with tranylcypromine increased the intensity of movement, although pargyline was without effect. Similar effects were observed with diazepam and diphenylhydantoin, suggesting that the increase in cerebral 5-HT caused by these compounds is of functional significance in stimulating 5-HT receptors. PMID:620092

  11. Role of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the regulation of brain neuropeptides in normal and diabetic rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolta, Malak G.; Williams, Byron B.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) alteration on brain dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), beta-endorphin (beta-E), and immunoreactive insulin was studied in Sprague-Dawley diabetic and control rats. Diabetes was induced using alloxan (45 mg/kg), 15 days prior to sacrificing. Both control and diabetic animals were treated with either p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg) three days prior to sacrificing or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) twice daily for three days. PCPA treatment significantly decreased brain content of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindolel acetic acid, while it caused significant increase and decrease in brain beta-E and insulin levels, respectively, in both normal and diabetic rat. Meanwhile, the administration of fluoxetine resulted in significant increase in brain content of 5-HT, DA, NE and insulin but significant decline of beta-E in diabetic and saline control rats. The results of this experiment indicate that 5-HT may be regulating both beta-E and insulin regardless of the availability of pancreatic insulin.

  12. 5-HT is a potent relaxant in rat superior mesenteric veins

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Stephanie W; Darios, Emma S; Seitz, Bridget M; Thompson, Janice M

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) reduces blood pressure of the conscious rat when administered chronically (1week). 5-HT does not directly relax isolated arteries, and microsphere experiments in 5-HT-infused rats suggested that 5-HT increased flow to the splanchnic bed. We hypothesized that 5-HT increased splanchnic flow because of direct venous relaxation; our focus was thus on the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) as an important vein in splanchnic circulation. Real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western analyses supported the predominant expression of the 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor in the SMV. The SMV was mounted in tissue baths for measurement of isometric contraction. 5-HT caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1)-contracted vein. The threshold of 5-HT-induced venous relaxation was significantly lower than for 5-HT-induced venous contraction (?2 vs. 700nmol/L, respectively). A series of serotonergic agonists established in their use of receptor characterization was tested, and the following rank order ofpotency found for agonist-induced relaxation (receptor selectivity): 5-CT (5-HT1/5-HT7)>5-HT=LP-44 (5-HT7)>PNU109291 (5-HT1D)=BW723C86 (5-HT2B). 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A/7), CP93129 (5-HT1B), mCPBG (5-HT3/4), AS19 (5-HT7) and TCB-2 (5-HT2A) did not relax the isolated vein. Consistent with these findings, two different 5-HT7 receptor antagonists SB 269970 and LY215840 but not the 5-HT2B receptor antagonist LY272015 nor the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor LNNA abolished 5-CT-induced relaxation of the isolated SMV. 5-CT (1?gkg?1min?1, sc) also reduced blood pressure over 7days. These findings suggest that 5-HT directly relaxes the SMV primarily through activation of the 5-HT7 receptor. PMID:25692021

  13. Peptide YY3–36 and 5-Hydroxytryptamine Mediate Emesis Induction by Trichothecene Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin)

    PubMed Central

    Pestka, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium sp. that frequently occurs in cereal grains, has been associated with human and animal food poisoning. Although a common hallmark of DON-induced toxicity is the rapid onset of emesis, the mechanisms for this adverse effect are not fully understood. Recently, our laboratory has demonstrated that the mink (Neovison vison) is a suitable small animal model for investigating trichothecene-induced emesis. The goal of this study was to use this model to determine the roles of two gut satiety hormones, peptide YY3–36 (PYY3–36) and cholecystokinin (CCK), and the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in DON-induced emesis. Following ip exposure to DON at 0.1 and 0.25mg/kg bw, emesis induction ensued within 15–30min and then persisted up to 120min. Plasma DON measurement revealed that this emesis period correlated with the rapid distribution and clearance of the toxin. Significant elevations in both plasma PYY3–36 (30–60min) and 5-HT (60min) but not CCK were observed during emesis. Pretreatment with the neuropeptide Y2 receptor antagonist JNJ-31020028 attenuated DON- and PYY-induced emesis, whereas the CCK1 receptor antagonist devezapide did not alter DON’s emetic effects. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron completely suppressed induction of vomiting by DON and the 5-HT inducer cisplatin. Granisetron pretreatment also partially blocked PYY3–36-induced emesis, suggesting a potential upstream role for this gut satiety hormone in 5-HT release. Taken together, the results suggest that both PYY3–36 and 5-HT play contributory roles in DON-induced emesis. PMID:23457120

  14. Effects of the antagonists MDL 72222 and ketanserin on responses of cat carotid body chemoreceptors to 5-hydroxytryptamine.

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, G. C.; McQueen, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of intracarotid (i.c.) injections of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; 1-50 micrograms) on carotid chemoreceptor activity recorded from the carotid sinus nerve have been studied in anaesthetized cats. Three separate components in the complex response of the chemoreceptors to injected 5-HT were identified. Firstly, a transient burst of activity was obtained during the injection period in 56% of the recordings. Secondly, in all the recordings a period of chemodepression commenced a few seconds after completing the injection and was usually dose-related. Thirdly, a delayed longer-lasting chemoexcitation occurred in many experiments, concomitant with a fall in systemic blood pressure. The neuronal 5-HT receptor antagonist MDL 72222 (10-100 micrograms kg-1, i.c.) virtually abolished the transient chemoexcitation evoked during 5-HT injections and also significantly increased the mean ID50 for 5-HT-induced chemodepression; in 37% of recordings 5-HT caused a dose-related chemoexcitation after the high dose of MDL 72222. Neither the delayed chemoexcitation nor the hypotension caused by 5-HT were much affected by the antagonist. MDL 72222 itself had a biphasic effect on chemosensory discharge, causing depression followed by a delayed excitation. The 5-HT2-receptor antagonist ketanserin (100 micrograms kg-1, i.c.) had no appreciable effect on the transient chemoexcitation evoked during 5-HT injections and caused a slight but significant increase in the mean ID50 for 5-HT-induced chemodepression. The delayed chemoexcitation and accompanying hypotension associated with 5-HT were both substantially reduced or abolished by the antagonist. Ketanserin itself caused a short-lasting period of chemoexcitation. All the effects of injected 5-HT on chemosensory discharge could be abolished by the combination of MDL 72222 and ketanserin (100 micrograms kg-1, i.c.). Neither MDL 72222 nor ketanserin had any significant effect upon the response of the carotid chemoreceptors to hypoxia. The rate at which discharge increased, and also the steady-state discharge before and during hypoxia, were unaffected by the antagonists, alone or in combination. At least two types of 5-HT receptor appeared to be involved in the response of carotid body chemoreceptors to 5-HT. Transient excitation and chemodepression were mediated via MDL 72222-sensitive (peripheral neuronal) receptors whereas the delayed chemoexcitation and associated hypotension involved a ketanserin-sensitive, presumably 5-HT2-, receptor. It appears unlikely that 5-HT plays a crucial role in chemoreception. PMID:6487893

  15. Distribution of cells responsive to 5-HT? receptor antagonist-induced hypophagia.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Alastair S; Burke, Luke K; Shaw, Jill; Evans, Mark L; Heisler, Lora K

    2014-06-01

    The central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) system is well established as an important regulator of appetite and continues to remain a focus of obesity research. While much emphasis has focussed on the 5-HT(2C) receptor (5-HT(2C)R) in 5-HT's anorectic effect, pharmacological manipulation of the 5-HT? receptor (5-HT?R) also reduces appetite and body weight and may be amenable to obesity treatment. However, the neurological circuits that underlie 5-HT?R-induced hypophagia remain to be identified. Using c-fos immunoreactivity (FOS-IR) as a marker of neuronal activation, here we mapped the neuroanatomical targets activated by an anorectic dose of the 5-HT?R antagonist SB-399885 throughout the brain. Furthermore, we quantified SB-399855 activated cells within brain appetitive nuclei, the hypothalamus, dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Our results reveal that 5-HT?R antagonist-induced hypophagia is associated with significantly increased neuronal activation in two nuclei with an established role in the central control of appetite, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the NTS. In contrast, no changes in FOS-IR were observed between treatment groups within other hypothalamic nuclei or DRN. The data presented here provide a first insight into the neural circuitry underlying 5-HT?R antagonist-induced appetite suppression and highlight the PVH and NTS in the coordination of 5-HT?R hypophagia. PMID:24566060

  16. Long-term Stress with Hyperglucocorticoidemia-induced Hepatic Steatosis with VLDL Overproduction Is Dependent on both 5-HT2 Receptor and 5-HT Synthesis in Liver.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jihua; Ma, Shaoxin; Li, Xin; An, Shanshan; Li, Tao; Guo, Keke; Lin, Min; Qu, Wei; Wang, Shanshan; Dong, Xinyue; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Huang, Xinping; Wang, Tianying; He, Siyu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic triglycerides production and adipose lipolysis are pivotal for long-term stress (LTS) or hyperglucocorticoidemia-induced insulin resistance. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has been demonstrated to induce hepatic lipid metabolic abnormality by activating mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In present study, we explored whether 5-HT is involved in LTS effects in liver using restraint stress-exposed rats and cultured primary rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. LTS with hyperglucocorticoidemia induced hepatic 5-HT synthetic increase with tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) up-regulation, and 5-HT2 receptor (5-HT2R, including 5-HT2A, 2B receptor) up-regulation in liver and visceral adipose, as well as hepatic mTOR activation with triglycerides and VLDL overproduction with steatosis, and visceral adipose lipolytic increase with high blood free fatty acids (FFAs) level. 5-HT exposure exhibited LTS-like effects in both tissues, and both LTS and 5-HT effects could be abolished significantly by blocking 5-HT2R. In HepG2 cells dexamethasone or palmitate-induced mTOR activation with triglycerides and VLDL overproduction were accompanied by up-regulations of 5-HT synthesis and 5-HT2R, which were significantly abolished by gene silencing Tph1 or 5-HT2R and were almost fully abolished by co-silencing of both, especially on VLDL overproduction. Chemical inhibition of Tph1 or/and 5-HT2R in both hepatocytes exhibited similar abolishment with genetic inhibition on dexamethason-induced effects. 5-HT-stimulated effects in both hepatocytes were fully abolished by blocking 5-HT2R, while 5-HT itself also up-regulated 5-HT2R. In conclusion, up-regulated hepatic 5-HT synthesis and 5-HT2R induced by both glucocorticoid and FFAs are crucial for LTS-induced hepatic steatosis with VLDL overproduction, while 5-HT by acting on 5-HT2R mediates mTOR activation in liver. PMID:26884719

  17. Long-term Stress with Hyperglucocorticoidemia-induced Hepatic Steatosis with VLDL Overproduction Is Dependent on both 5-HT2 Receptor and 5-HT Synthesis in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jihua; Ma, Shaoxin; Li, Xin; An, Shanshan; Li, Tao; Guo, Keke; Lin, Min; Qu, Wei; Wang, Shanshan; Dong, Xinyue; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Huang, Xinping; Wang, Tianying; He, Siyu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic triglycerides production and adipose lipolysis are pivotal for long-term stress (LTS) or hyperglucocorticoidemia-induced insulin resistance. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has been demonstrated to induce hepatic lipid metabolic abnormality by activating mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In present study, we explored whether 5-HT is involved in LTS effects in liver using restraint stress-exposed rats and cultured primary rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. LTS with hyperglucocorticoidemia induced hepatic 5-HT synthetic increase with tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) up-regulation, and 5-HT2 receptor (5-HT2R, including 5-HT2A, 2B receptor) up-regulation in liver and visceral adipose, as well as hepatic mTOR activation with triglycerides and VLDL overproduction with steatosis, and visceral adipose lipolytic increase with high blood free fatty acids (FFAs) level. 5-HT exposure exhibited LTS-like effects in both tissues, and both LTS and 5-HT effects could be abolished significantly by blocking 5-HT2R. In HepG2 cells dexamethasone or palmitate-induced mTOR activation with triglycerides and VLDL overproduction were accompanied by up-regulations of 5-HT synthesis and 5-HT2R, which were significantly abolished by gene silencing Tph1 or 5-HT2R and were almost fully abolished by co-silencing of both, especially on VLDL overproduction. Chemical inhibition of Tph1 or/and 5-HT2R in both hepatocytes exhibited similar abolishment with genetic inhibition on dexamethason-induced effects. 5-HT-stimulated effects in both hepatocytes were fully abolished by blocking 5-HT2R, while 5-HT itself also up-regulated 5-HT2R. In conclusion, up-regulated hepatic 5-HT synthesis and 5-HT2R induced by both glucocorticoid and FFAs are crucial for LTS-induced hepatic steatosis with VLDL overproduction, while 5-HT by acting on 5-HT2R mediates mTOR activation in liver. PMID:26884719

  18. Deconstructing 5-HT6 receptor effects on striatal circuit function.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, D; Brodsky, M; Neumaier, J F

    2015-07-23

    Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) constitute 95% of neurons in the dorsal striatum subdivided into direct (striatonigral) and indirect (striatopallidal) pathways. Whereas D1 and D2 receptors and several neuropeptides, including dynorphin and enkephalin, are differentially expressed in these neurons, 5-hydroxytryptamine 6 receptors (5-HT6) are expressed in both pathways. Previous results demonstrate that concurrent 5-HT6 receptor overexpression in MSNs of both pathways in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) interferes with instrumental learning and that 5-HT6 overexpression in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) relieves rats from inflexible habitual behaviors. We hypothesized that 5-HT6 receptor-mediated co-activation of both pathways interferes with the differential activation/inhibition of direct/indirect pathways by dopamine. To test this idea, we cloned novel viral vectors to selectively overexpress 5-HT6 receptors in direct or indirect pathway MSNs to deconstruct their role in modulating instrumental learning and habitual responding. We found that increasing 5-HT6 receptor expression in either direct or indirect pathway MSNs of the posterior DMS selectively enhanced or impaired initial acquisition of a discrete instrumental learning task respectively, though all rats were ultimately able to learn the task. In a separate set of experiments, 5-HT6 receptor overexpression in indirect pathway MSNs of the DLS facilitated behavioral flexibility in rats overtrained on a repetitive pressing task using a variable interval schedule of reinforcement, during an omission contingency training session and subsequent probe testing. Together these findings further the notion that 5-HT6 signaling causes balanced activation of opposing MSN pathways by serotonin in sub-regions of the dorsal striatum allowing for more reflective modalities of behavior. PMID:25934037

  19. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-induced vasodilator responses in the hindquarters of the anaesthetized rat, involve beta2-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Calama, E; García, M; Jarque, M J; Morán, A; Martín, M L; San Román, L

    2003-10-01

    These studies were conducted to examine the role of the vasoactive mediators nitric oxide (NO) and adrenaline (epinephrine) in the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-induced vasodilator response in the hindquarter vascular bed of anaesthetized rats. Intra-arterial administration of doses of 5-HT in the range 0.12-25 ng kg(-1) produced a dose-independent vasodilator effect in the hindquarters. The selective 5-HT(1D/1B) receptor agonist, L-694,247 at intra-arterial doses of 0.0012-1000 ng kg(-1), as well as adrenaline (at doses of 0.05-50 ng kg(-1) i.a.), mimicked the dose-independent vasodilator effect induced by intra-arterial administration of 5-HT. Intravenous pre-treatment with the selective beta2-receptor antagonist ICI 118,551 (0.5 mg kg(-1)) blocked the vasodilator effect of 5-HT, adrenaline and L-694,247. Additionally, the inhibitor of NO synthase NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME) (at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1) i.v.) blocked the vasodilator action of acetylcholine 300-3000 ng kg(-1)) but did not modify 5-HT-induced vasodilatation. The vasodilator effect produced by intra-arterial administration of 5-HT in the hindquarters was significantly inhibited both 30 min after denervation of the lumbar sympathetic chains and 1 h after bilateral adrenalectomy. Our data suggest that in the in-situ autoperfused hindquarters of the rat 5-HT-induced vasodilatation is mediated by a local 5-HT(1D) or 5-HT(1D/1B) activation, which in turn mediates the adrenal release of adrenaline, which then produces beta2-activation and vasodilatation. PMID:14607019

  20. Adenosine receptor-induced cyclic AMP generation and inhibition of 5-hydroxytryptamine release in human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, J A; Hill, S J; Alexander, S P; Rubin, P C; Horn, E H

    1995-01-01

    1. We have assessed the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on collagen-induced 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release and cyclic AMP generation in human platelets. 2. 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) and CGS 21680 elicited accumulations of cyclic AMP with mean EC50 values of 2678 and 980 nM, respectively. The maximal response to CGS 21680 was approximately half that of the response to 10 microM NECA. 3. NECA and CGS 21680 inhibited collagen-induced 5-hydroxytryptamine release with mean EC50 values of 960 and 210 nM, respectively. The maximal response to CGS 21680 was approximately 25% of the response to 10 microM NECA. 4. The A1/A2a-selective adenosine receptor antagonist PD 115,199 was more potent as an inhibitor of NECA-elicited responses than the A1-selective antagonist DPCPX with calculated Ki values of 22-32 nM and > 10 microM, respectively. 5. In the presence of a cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, the effects of CGS 21680 on cyclic AMP accumulation and 5-HT release were enhanced to levels similar to those elicited by 10 microM NECA. In the absence of phosphodiesterase inhibition, CGS 21680 did not antagonise the effects of NECA. Furthermore, endogenous adenosine did not contribute to the effects of CGS 21680 when phosphodiesterase was inhibited. 6. We conclude that an A2a adenosine receptor appears to be involved in the NECA-elicited increases in cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of 5-HT release in human platelets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8527267

  1. Constrictor actions of acetylcholine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and histamine on bovine coronary artery inner and outer muscle

    PubMed Central

    Garland, C. J.; Keatinge, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    1. In bovine coronary arteries, cholinesterase staining showed an extensive cholinergic innervation at the adventitiamedia junction, and some cholinesterase in the outer but not inner smooth muscle. 2. Acetylcholine or methacholine caused large, atropine-sensitive contractions of outer muscle but caused little contraction of inner muscle. 3. Fluorescence microscopy for monoamines and for histamine, supported by chemical assays, showed no adrenergic innervation but showed numerous fluorescent cells in the adventitia and the outer 50% of the media which stained as mast cells and contained large amounts of histamine and noradrenaline and some dopamine, but little 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). 4. 5-hydroxytryptamine (acting by D receptors) and histamine (acting by H1 receptors) in high concentrations caused large contractions, of similar size, in inner and outer muscle. In given submaximal concentrations they generally caused more contraction of outer than inner muscle, particularly in the case of histamine, provided that imipramine or desipramine was present to inhibit uptake of the agents by mast cells which were present in the outer part of the artery wall. 5. Without blockade of uptake, 5-HT applied to the arteries in submaximal concentrations caused less contraction of outer than inner muscle; histamine still caused significantly more contraction of outer than inner muscle. 6. The findings indicate that the cholinergic constrictor nerves of these arteries, unlike adrenergic constrictor nerves of other systemic arteries, act almost solely on outer muscle of the vessel wall; and that mast cells give considerable protection against constriction by 5-HT, but little against histamine, reaching the vessel from its adventitial surface. ImagesPLATE 2PLATE 1 PMID:7120142

  2. Modulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine efflux from rat cortical synaptosomes by opioids and nociceptin

    PubMed Central

    Sbrenna, S; Marti, M; Morari, M; Calo', G; Guerrini, R; Beani, L; Bianchi, C

    2000-01-01

    The modulation of [3H]-5-hydroxytryptamine ([3H]-5-HT) efflux from superfused rat cortical synaptosomes by delta, kappa, mu and ORL1 opioid receptor agonists and antagonists was studied. Spontaneous [3H]-5-HT efflux was reduced (20% inhibition) by either 0.5??M tetrodotoxin or Ca2+-omission. Ten mM K+-evoked [3H]-5-HT overflow was largely Ca2+-dependent (90%) and tetrodotoxin-sensitive (50%). The delta receptor agonist, deltorphin-I, failed to modulate the K+-evoked neurotransmitter efflux up to 0.3??M. The kappa and the mu receptor agonists, U-50,488 and endomorphin-1, inhibited K+-evoked [3H]-5-HT overflow (EC50=112 and 7?nM, respectively; Emax=28 and 29% inhibition, respectively) in a norBinaltorphimine- (0.3??M) and naloxone- (1??M) sensitive manner, respectively. None of these agonists significantly affected spontaneous [3H]-5-HT efflux. The ORL1 receptor agonist nociceptin inhibited both spontaneous (EC50=67?nM) and K+-evoked (EC50=13?nM; Emax=52% inhibition) [3H]-5-HT efflux. The effect of NC was insensitive to naloxone (up to 10??M), but was antagonized by [Nphe1]nociceptin(1-13)NH2 (a novel selective ORL1 receptor antagonist; pA2=6.7) and by naloxone benzoylhydrazone (pA2=6.3). The ORL1 ligand [Phe1?(CH2-NH)Gly2]nociceptin(1-13)NH2 also inhibited K+ stimulated [3H]-5-HT overflow (EC50=64?nM; Emax=31% inhibition), but its effect was partially antagonized by 10??M naloxone. It is concluded that the ORL1 receptor is the most important presynaptic modulator of neocortical 5-HT release within the opioid receptor family. This suggests that the ORL1/nociceptin system may have a powerful role in the control of cerebral 5-HT-mediated biological functions. PMID:10807682

  3. BRL 24924, a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 antagonist, and gastric secretion of acid and pepsin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Johansen, B; Bech, K

    1991-01-01

    BRL 24924, a specific 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, was evaluated for effects on gastric secretion of acid and pepsin and possible influences on the effects of serotonin on gastric secretion. Experiments were carried out in conscious dogs with a gastric fistula during a background stimulation of gastric secretion by continuous infusions of pentagastrin, bethanechol or histamine. During infusion of pentagastrin or histamine, BRL 24924, by itself, influenced gastric secretion with stimulation during a low potent background stimulation and inhibition during a potent background stimulation. A serotonin-counteracting effect of BRL 24924 on gastric secretion was found only during infusion of pentagastrin. The secretory stimulation attained by BRL 24924 could be blocked by atropin suggesting a cholinergic mechanism--5-HT4 receptors? The inhibitory effects on gastric secretion and the serotonin-counteracting effects of BRL 24924 are supposed to be via 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:1916032

  4. Ascorbic acid prevents nonreceptor specific binding of (/sup 3/H)-5-hydroxytryptamine to bovine cerebral cortex membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hamblin, M.W.; Adriaenssens, P.I.; Ariani, K.; Cawthon, R.M.; Stratford, C.A.; Tan, G.L.; Ciaranello, R.D.

    1987-03-01

    (/sup 3/H)-5-Hydroxytryptamine ((/sup 3/H)-5-HT) decomposes rapidly when exposed to air in solution at physiological pH if antioxidants are not present. The decomposition products appear to bind to two saturable sites on brain membranes (apparent Kd values = 1-2 and 100-1000 nM). This binding mimics ''specific'' ligand/receptor binding in that it is inhibited by 10 microM unlabeled 5-HT. This inhibition is not competitive, but rather is due to the prevention of (/sup 3/H)-5-HT breakdown by excess unlabeled 5-HT. Unlike genuine ligand/receptor binding, the binding of (/sup 3/H)-5-HT breakdown products is essentially irreversible and does not display a tissue distribution consistent with binding to authentic 5-HT receptors. (/sup 3/H)-5-HT decomposition can be eliminated by the inclusion of 0.05 to 5 mM ascorbic acid. At these concentrations ascorbic acid is not deleterious to reversible (/sup 3/H)-5-HT binding. When (/sup 3/H) 5-HT exposure to air occurs in the presence of brain membranes, the apparent antioxidant activity of brain membranes themselves affords protection against (/sup 3/H)-5-HT degradation equal to ascorbic acid. This protection is effective below final (/sup 3/H)-5-HT concentrations of 10 nM. Above 10 nM (/sup 3/H)-5-HT, addition of ascorbic acid or other antioxidants is necessary to avoid the occurrence of additional low affinity (apparent Kd = 15-2000 nM) binding sites that are specific but nonetheless irreversible. When care is taken to limit (/sup 3/H)-5-HT oxidation, the only reversible and saturable specific binding sites observed are of the 5-HT1 high affinity (Kd = 1-2 nM) type. Radioligand oxidation artifacts may be involved in previous reports of low affinity (Kd = 15-250 nM) (/sup 3/H)-5-HT binding sites in brain membrane preparations.

  5. Acute and chronic effects of citalopram on postsynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) receptor-mediated feedback: a microdialysis study in the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Bosker, F J; Cremers, T I; Jongsma, M E; Westerink, B H; Wikstrm, H V; den Boer, J A

    2001-03-01

    Microdialysis was used to assess the involvement of postsynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) (5-HT(1A)) receptors in the regulation of extracellular 5-HT in the amygdala. Local infusion of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist flesinoxan (0.3, 1, 3 microM) for 30 min into the amygdala maximally decreased 5-HT to 50% of basal level. Systemic administration of citalopram (10 micromol/kg) increased 5-HT to 175% of basal level. Local infusion of 1 microM of the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY 100.635 into the amygdala augmented the effect of citalopram to more than 500% of basal 5-HT level. 5-HT(1A) receptor responsiveness after chronic citalopram treatment was determined in two ways. First, by local infusion of 1 microM flesinoxan for 30 min into the amygdala, which showed a significant 63% reduction in response (area under the concentration-time curve; AUC) for the citalopram group compared to the saline group. Second, by systemic administration of citalopram (10 micromol/kg), which increased 5-HT to 350% of basal level. The effect was larger than in untreated animals, but more important, local infusion of 1 microM WAY 100.635 into the amygdala now failed to augment the effect of citalopram. Both the flesinoxan and WAY 100.635 data suggest an involvement of postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptor-mediated feedback in the amygdala, which diminishes following chronic citalopram treatment. PMID:11259482

  6. 6-[2-(4-Aryl-1-piperazinyl)ethyl]-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-ones: dual-acting 5-HT1 receptor antagonists and serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bromidge, Steven M; Bertani, Barbara; Borriello, Manuela; Faedo, Stefania; Gordon, Laurie J; Granci, Enrica; Hill, Matthew; Marshall, Howard R; Stasi, Luigi P; Zucchelli, Valeria; Merlo, Giancarlo; Vesentini, Alessia; Watson, Jeannette M; Zonzini, Laura

    2008-10-15

    Investigation of a series 6-[2-(4-aryl-1-piperazinyl)ethyl]-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-ones has led to the discovery of potent 5-HT(1A/1B/1D) receptor antagonists with and without additional SerT affinity. Modulation of the different target activities gave compounds with a range of profiles suitable for further in vivo characterization. PMID:18799312

  7. 8-[2-(4-Aryl-1-piperazinyl)ethyl]-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-ones: dual-acting 5-HT1 receptor antagonists and serotonin reuptake inhibitors--part II.

    PubMed

    Bromidge, Steven M; Bertani, Barbara; Borriello, Manuela; Bozzoli, Andrea; Faedo, Stefania; Gianotti, Massimo; Gordon, Laurie J; Hill, Matthew; Zucchelli, Valeria; Watson, Jeannette M; Zonzini, Laura

    2009-04-15

    8-[2-(4-Aryl-1-piperazinyl)ethyl]-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-ones have been identified as highly potent 5-HT(1A/B/D) receptor antagonists with and without additional SerT activity and a high degree of selectivity over hERG potassium channels. Modulation of the different target activities gave compounds with a range of profiles suitable for further in vivo characterization. PMID:19286377

  8. Translating 5-HT receptor pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Sanger, G J

    2009-12-01

    Since metoclopramide was first described (in 1964) there have been several attempts to develop compounds which retained gastrointestinal prokinetic activity (via 5-HT(4) receptor activation) but without the limiting side effects associated with dopamine D(2) receptor antagonism. Early compounds (mosapride, cisapride, renzapride, tegaserod) were identified before several of the 5-HT receptors were even described (including 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(2B)), whereas prucalopride came later. Several compounds were hampered by non-selectivity, introducing cardiac liability (cisapride: activity at human Ether-a-go-go Related Gene) or potentially, a reduced intestinal prokinetic activity caused by activity at a second 5-HT receptor (renzapride: antagonism at the 5-HT(3) receptor; tegaserod: antagonism at the 5-HT(2B) receptor). Poor intrinsic activity at gastrointestinal 5-HT(4) receptors has also been an issue (mosapride, tegaserod). Perhaps prucalopride has now achieved the profile of good selectivity of action and high intrinsic activity at intestinal 5-HT(4) receptors, without clinically-meaningful actions on 5-HT(4) receptors in the heart. The progress of this compound for treatment of chronic constipation, as well as competitor molecules such as ATI-7505 and TD-5108, will now be followed with interest as each attempts to differentiate themselves from each other. Perhaps at last, 5-HT(4) receptor agonists are being given the chance to show what they can do. PMID:19906028

  9. 5-Carboxamidotryptamine is a selective agonist at 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors mediating vasodilatation and tachycardia in anaesthetized cats.

    PubMed Central

    Connor, H. E.; Feniuk, W.; Humphrey, P. P.; Perren, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    We have attempted to characterize the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors mediating bronchoconstriction, vasodilatation, vasodepression and tachycardia in anaesthetized cats following bilateral vagosympathectomy and beta-adrenoceptor blockade with propranolol. 5-HT (1-100 micrograms/kg-1 i.v.) caused dose-related bronchoconstriction and tachycardia but variable and complex effects on diastolic blood pressure and carotid arterial vascular resistance. In contrast, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT; 0.01-1 micrograms kg-1 i.v.) caused consistent, dose-related decreases in diastolic blood pressure and carotid arterial vascular resistance and increases in heart rate. 5-CT did not cause bronchoconstriction. The 5-HT-induced bronchoconstriction was dose-dependently antagonized by methiothepin, methysergide and ketanserin (10-100 micrograms kg-1 i.v.). The highest doses used of these antagonists did not antagonize bronchoconstriction induced by prostaglandin F2 alpha. The high potency of all three antagonists indicate a 5-HT2-receptor mediated effect. The 5-HT- and 5-CT-induced tachycardia as well as the 5-CT-induced vasodepressor and carotid arterial vasodilator responses were dose-dependently antagonized by low doses of methiothepin (10-100 micrograms kg-1 i.v.) and by high doses of methysergide (100-1000 micrograms kg-1 i.v.) but were little affected by ketanserin in doses up to 1000 micrograms kg-1 i.v. These selective effects of 5-CT appear to be mediated by '5-HT1-like' receptors. PMID:2937503

  10. Potentiation of ADP-induced aggregation in human platelet-rich plasma by 5-hydroxytryptamine and adrenaline.

    PubMed Central

    Vanags, D. M.; Rodgers, S. E.; Duncan, E. M.; Lloyd, J. V.; Bochner, F.

    1992-01-01

    1. We have used dose-response curves to quantitate the potentiation of adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation and thromboxane (TXA2) generation by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and adrenaline in human citrated platelet-rich plasma. We have also quantitated the inhibition of these responses by aspirin, ketanserin and yohimbine, singly and in pairs. 2. Ketanserin (5 microM) inhibited TXA2 production and the second wave of platelet aggregation induced by a range of concentrations of ADP alone. This indicates that endogenous 5-HT, released from the platelet dense granules, contributes significantly to responses induced by ADP. 3. When 5-HT (10 microM) was added before ADP, a lower concentration of ADP was required to cause 50% aggregation and TXA2 generation. The ratio of ADP concentrations (CR) to cause 50% aggregation in the presence and absence of 5-HT was 2.1 when only added 5-HT was considered, and 5.0 when endogenous 5-HT was also taken into account. 4. Potentiation of ADP-induced aggregation by 5-HT also occurred in the presence of aspirin, resulting in a CR of 2.3. As expected, ketanserin inhibited potentiation by 5-HT in the presence and absence of aspirin. Although aspirin caused substantial inhibition of aggregation induced by ADP and 5-HT (CR 3.4), further inhibition occurred when ketanserin was also present (CR 6.5). 5. A subthreshold concentration of adrenaline (0.25 microM) caused substantial potentiation of ADP-induced aggregation in the absence (CR 4.0) and presence (CR 2.0) of aspirin. As expected, yohimbine (9 microM) inhibited this potentiation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1393289

  11. Characterization of U-92016A as a selective, orally active, high intrinsic activity 5-hydroxytryptamine1A agonist.

    PubMed

    McCall, R B; Romero, A G; Bienkowski, M J; Harris, D W; McGuire, J C; Piercey, M F; Shuck, M E; Smith, M W; Svensson, K A; Schreur, P J

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize U-92016A [(+)-R)-2-cyano-N,N-dipropyl-8-amino-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-benz[e] indole] as a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptor agonist and to compare its activity with that of standard 5-HT1A receptor agonists. U-92016A binds with high affinity to human 5-HT1A receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells (Ki = 0.2 nM). Radioligand binding studies also indicate that U-92016A is selective for the 5-HT1A receptor over other biogenic amine receptors. In Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the human 5HT1A receptor, U-92016A decreased the forskolin-induced increase in cyclic AMP synthesis and had an intrinsic activity of 0.82 relative to 5-HT. U-92016A potently decreased rectal temperature in mice. The maximum temperature decrease was significantly greater than that observed for 8-hydroxy-di-n-propyl aminotetralin, buspirone, gepirone, ipsapirone or flesinoxan. U-92016A also elicited the 5-HT-mediated syndrome in rats and resulted in a dose-related decrease in 5-hydroxytryptophan accumulation. The compound also decreased arterial blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats and inhibited sympathetic nerve activity in cats. In these assays U-92016A displayed excellent potency and a long duration of action. U-92016A also inhibited the firing of dorsal raphe 5-HT neurons and was active in two social interaction assays. The p.o. bioavailability of U-92016A was calculated to be 45%. Taken together, these data indicate that U-92016A is a metabolically stable, p.o. active 5-HT1A receptor agonist with an exceptionally high degree of intrinsic activity. PMID:7965808

  12. CD4+ T cell?mediated immunological control of enterochromaffin cell hyperplasia and 5?hydroxytryptamine production in enteric infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huaqing; Steeds, Justin; Motomura, Yasuaki; Deng, Yikang; Verma?Gandhu, Monica; El?Sharkawy, Rami T; McLaughlin, John T; Grencis, Richard K; Khan, Waliul I

    2007-01-01

    Background Enterochromaffin (EC) cells are dispersed throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa and are the main source of 5?hydroxytryptamine (5?HT) in the gut. 5?HT has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several GI disorders, but the mechanisms regulating 5?HT production in the gut are unknown. Aim To investigate the role of CD4+ T cells in the production of 5?HT using a model of enteric parasitic infection. Methods and results Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and their wild?type controls were infected with the nematode Trichuris muris and killed on various days after infection to study colonic EC cells and 5?HT production. The number of EC cells and the amount of 5?HT produced were significantly higher in infected wild?type mice than in non?infected mice. The number of EC cells and the amount of 5?HT after infection were significantly lower in SCID mice after infection than in wild?type mice. The number of EC cells and the amount of 5?HT was significantly increased after reconstitution of SCID mice with CD4+ T cells from infected mice and this was accompanied by an upregulation of colonic CD3 T cells and T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines. Laser capture microdissection?based molecular and immunofluorescence techniques revealed the presence of interleukin 13 receptor ?1?chain on EC cells. Conclusion These results show an important immunoendocrine axis in the gut, where secretory products from CD4+ T cells interact with EC cells to enhance the production of 5?HT in the gut via Th2?based mechanisms. These results show new insights into the mechanisms of gut function, which may ultimately lead to improved therapeutic strategies in functional and inflammatory disorders of the GI tract. PMID:17303597

  13. Assessment of 5-hydroxytryptamine efflux in rat brain during a mild, moderate and severe serotonin-toxicity syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gongliang; Krishnamoorthy, Swapna; Ma, Zhiyuan; Vukovich, Nick P.; Huang, Xupei; Tao, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-toxicity syndrome, an iatrogenic brain disorder induced by excessive efflux of 5-HT, has received much attention because of increasing incidents of serotonergic antidepressants. However, the neural mechanism by which extracellular 5-HT is elevated to a toxic level for the syndrome remains to be determined. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that extracellular 5-HT is composed of two component effluxes responsible for distinct aspects of the syndrome. The first set of experiments was to characterize the syndrome by measuring changes in neuromuscular signs, body-core temperature and mortality rate. Our results indicate that the syndrome severity can be categorized into mild, moderate and severe levels. The second set of experiments was to determine a threshold of extracellular 5-HT for induction of each level of the syndrome. Our results demonstrate that there were an 11-fold increase in the mild syndrome and an over 55-fold increase in the severe syndrome. In the last series of experiments, the excessive increases in 5-HT were pharmacologically separated into primary and secondary component effluxes with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonists cyproheptadine and ketanserin and NMDA receptor antagonist (+)-MK-801. Our results suggest primary component efflux was caused by direct drug effects on 5-HT biosynthetic and metabolic pathways and secondary efflux ascribed to indirect drug effect on a positive feedback circuit involving 5-HT2A and NMDA receptors. In summary, the primary efflux could be an initial cause for the induction of the syndrome while the secondary efflux might involve deterioration of the syndrome. PMID:19464285

  14. Blockade of motion- and cisplatin-induced emesis by a 5-HT2 receptor agonist in Suncus murinus.

    PubMed Central

    Okada, F; Saito, H; Matsuki, N

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOl), a 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT2A/5-HT2C receptor agonist, on motion- and cisplatin-induced emesis were studied in Suncus murinus. Subcutaneous injection of DOl, 30 min prior to the emetic stimuli, dose-dependently blocked the emesis induced by motion sickness and cisplatin (20 mg kg-1, i.p.) with estimated ID50 values of 640 and 780 micrograms kg-1, respectively. 2. alpha-Methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (alpha-Me-5-HT), a peripheral 5-HT2A/5-HT2C receptor agonist, had no effect on motion- and cisplatin-induced emesis. 3. The antiemetic effects of DOl on motion- and cisplatin-induced emesis were attenuated by preadministration of ketanserin, a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. 4. The present results suggest an inhibitory role for central 5-HT2 receptors in the emetic reflex mechanism and that a 5-HT2 receptor agonist may be a useful tool to investigate the involvement of 5-HT receptors in the emetic reflex. PMID:7780647

  15. On the transmitter function of 5-hydroxytryptamine at excitatory and inhibitory monosynaptic junctions

    PubMed Central

    Gerschenfeld, H. M.; Tritsch, Danièle Paupardin

    1974-01-01

    1. Two symmetrical giant neurones located in the cerebral ganglion of Aplysia californica contain 4-6 p-mole 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and are able to synthesize it (Weinreich, McCaman, McCaman & Vaughn, 1973; Eisenstadt, Goldman, Kandel, Koike, Koester & Schwartz, 1973). Stimulation of each of these neurones evokes excitatory and inhibitory potentials in various cells of the ipsilateral buccal ganglion. In nine buccal neurones it evokes excitatory potentials, in other three, `classical' inhibitory potentials and in one neurone an `atypical' inhibitory potential. 2. The connexion between the giant cerebral neurone and the cells receiving either an excitatory or a `classical' inhibitory input from it are monosynaptic. TEA injection into the cerebral giant neurone, which prolongs the presynaptic spike, causes a gradual increase of both the excitatory and the inhibitory potentials. On the other hand, high Ca2+ media, which block polysynaptic pathways, do not suppress these synaptic potentials. 3. The iontophoretic application of 5-HT to the buccal neurones receiving excitatory input from the giant cerebral neurones evokes depolarizations showing the pharmacological properties of both A- and A′-responses to 5-HT (see preceding paper). Antagonists which block only the A-receptors (curare, 7-methyltryptamine, LSD 25) block partially the synaptic depolarizing potentials. Bufotenine, which blocks both the A- and A′-receptors, completely blocks the excitatory potentials. Thus, the post-synaptic membrane of these buccal neurones appears to be endowed with both A- and A′-receptors to 5-HT. 4. The `classical' inhibitory potentials elicited in three buccal neurones are hyperpolarizations which reverse at — 80 mV and are due to an increase in K+-conductance. The iontophoretic application of 5-HT to these post-synaptic neurones evokes hyperpolarizing B-responses which are also generated by an increase in K+-conductance. Antagonists which block the B-responses (bufotenine, methoxygramine) also block the inhibitory potentials. 5. The `atypical' inhibitory potential evoked in one buccal neurone consists in an hyperpolarization which increases in amplitude with cell hyperpolarization. Iontophoretic application of 5-HT to this buccal cell evokes an hyperpolarizing β-response which also increases in amplitude with cell polarization and results from a decrease in both Na+- and K+- conductances. The monosynaptic character of the `atypical' inhibitory potential is not yet fully proven. 6. It can be concluded that the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic effects evoked in the buccal neurones by the stimulation of the 5-HT-containing-giant cerebral neurones are very likely mediated by 5-HT. PMID:4155768

  16. Increase by visual stimuli in turnover of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the superior colliculi of the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, K; Vogt, M

    1976-01-01

    1. Irregular light falshes were played on to one eye of dark adapted rabbits for periods of 20-80 min. The concentration of 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid (5-HIAA) and of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were estimated in left and right superior colliculi, thalami and hippocampi. 2. In rabbits exposed to such visual stimuli for 30-60 min, there was an increase in the 5-HIAA content of the colliculus contralateral to the stimulated retina which aberaged 17% (P = 0-02), but no rise was seen if the exposure was shortened to 20 or prolonged to 80 min. At no time was there a difference in 5-HIAA content between right and left thalamus or right and left hippocampus. 3. Stationary or strictly repetitive visual stimuli produced no difference between the 5-HIAA content of left and right superior colliculus. 4. No difference in 5-HT concentration between the two colliculi was found after any form of visual stimulation, nor did any changes occur in the other parts of the brain which were examined. 5. Irregular, prolonged visual stimualtion thus appears to activate tryptaminergic neurones terminating in the colliculi. The possibility is discussed that the 5-HT released at this site might act as a brake to neuronal activity under conditions when habituation to the stimuli is not yet complete. PMID:1249785

  17. Protein phosphorylation during 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced maturation of Spisula oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Haneji, Tatsuji; Koide, S.S. The Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA )

    1988-07-01

    Maturation was induced in Spisula oocytes with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) creatinine sulfate at a final concentration of 5 {mu}M. After 10 and 30 min of treatment, oocytes were homogenized and the cytosolic and particulate fractions were prepared. The fractions were incubated with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)GTP and ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP. The phosphorylated proteins were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The radioactivity in the gels was determined by autoradiography. With ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)GTP a marked increase in the radiolabeling of proteins with an estimated M{sub r} of 47,000 and 20,000 in the cytosolic and particulate fractions, respectively, was demonstrated with the 5-HT-treated oocytes, whereas no stimulation was demonstrable with the use of ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP. A significant increase in GTP-mediated protein phosphorylation occurred within 10 min after 5-HT treatment before the occurrence of germinal vesicle breakdown, suggesting that this post-translation modification of proteins is an early action of the neurotransmitter in the induction of meiotic reinitiation in oocytes.

  18. The role of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the feline response to intravenous infusion of live E. coli.

    PubMed Central

    Arvidsson, S.; Falk, A.; Haglind, E.; Haglund, U.

    1983-01-01

    A standardized septic shock was induced in cats by intravenous infusion of a live E. coli bacteria strain. The bacterial infusion induced a rapid haemodynamic response characterized mainly by a pulmonary arterial hypertension and a late phase characterized by systemic hypotension and hypodynamic circulation. Systemic arterial, pulmonary arterial, portal venous, left atrial pressures, max inspiratory-expiratory pressure difference in the trachea, aortic and intestinal blood flows were monitored. Arterial blood samples were taken for recording the number of circulating platelets and white blood cells and for determining the acid-base balance. The effect of pretreatment with ketanserin, a specific 5-hydroxytryptamine2 (5-HT2)-receptor blocker on these haemodynamic reactions was studied. In short term experiments on non-bacteriaemic control cats, ketanserin prevented the pulmonary hypertension induced by intravenous 5-HT infusions but not the increase in intestinal blood flow. Ketanserin induced a reduction of total peripheral (including intestinal) vascular resistance to blood flow but had no effect on aortic blood flow. After infusion of bacteria, ketanserin pretreated cats were more hypotensive due to a relative peripheral dilatation of the resistance vessels. Ketanserin pretreatment had no effect on the pulmonary vascular reactions, the tracheal pressure difference or the number of circulating platelets or white blood cells. Thus, except for a more pronounced hypotension early after bacterial infusion, ketanserin pretreatment did not influence the haemodynamic response. It is concluded that 5-HT is not of significant importance in the pathogenesis of the haemodynamic reactions following experimental bacteraemia. PMID:6360276

  19. Functional Status of the Serotonin 5-HT2C Receptor (5-HT2CR) Drives Interlocked Phenotypes that Precipitate Relapse-Like Behaviors in Cocaine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Noelle C; Stutz, Sonja J; Fox, Robert G; Sears, Robert M; Emeson, Ronald B; DiLeone, Ralph J; O'Neil, Richard T; Fink, Latham H; Li, Dingge; Green, Thomas A; Gerard Moeller, F; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Relapse vulnerability in cocaine dependence is rooted in genetic and environmental determinants, and propelled by both impulsivity and the responsivity to cocaine-linked cues (cue reactivity'). The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is uniquely poised to serve as a strategic nexus to mechanistically control these behaviors. The 5-HT2CR functional capacity is regulated by a number of factors including availability of active membrane receptor pools, the composition of the 5-HT2CR macromolecular protein complex, and editing of the 5-HT2CR pre-mRNA. The one-choice serial reaction time (1-CSRT) task was used to identify impulsive action phenotypes in an outbred rat population before cocaine self-administration and assessment of cue reactivity in the form of lever presses reinforced by the cocaine-associated discrete cue complex during forced abstinence. The 1-CSRT task reliably and reproducibly identified high impulsive (HI) and low impulsive (LI) action phenotypes; HI action predicted high cue reactivity. Lower cortical 5-HT2CR membrane protein levels concomitant with higher levels of 5-HT2CR:postsynaptic density 95 complex distinguished HI rats from LI rats. The frequency of edited 5-HT2CR mRNA variants was elevated with the prediction that the protein population in HI rats favors those isoforms linked to reduced signaling capacity. Genetic loss of the mPFC 5-HT2CR induced aggregate impulsive action/cue reactivity, suggesting that depressed cortical 5-HT2CR tone confers vulnerability to these interlocked behaviors. Thus, impulsive action and cue reactivity appear to neuromechanistically overlap in rodents, with the 5-HT2CR functional status acting as a neural rheostat to regulate, in part, the intersection between these vulnerability behaviors. PMID:23939424

  20. Evidence for excitatory 5-HT2-receptors on rat brainstem neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Davie, M.; Wilkinson, L. S.; Roberts, M. H.

    1988-01-01

    1. The technique of microiontophoresis was used to investigate the identity of the receptor mediating the excitatory effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) upon neurones in the midline of the medullary brainstem of the rat in vivo. 2. The 5-HT1-like receptor agonists 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) and 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) failed to excite the majority of neurones excited by 5-HT. The mobilities of 5-CT and 8-OH-DPAT when tested in vitro were found not to differ significantly from that of 5-HT, suggesting that the lack of effect of these agonists was not due to a lower rate of release from the microelectrodes. 3. The excitatory responses to 5-HT were attenuated by the 5-HT 2-receptor antagonists ketanserin and methysergide when applied microiontophoretically or administered intravenously (0.3 and 1 mg kg-1 respectively). Excitatory responses to glutamate and noradrenaline were not reduced. 4. The 5-HT3-receptor antagonist MDL 72222 failed to attenuate selectively the excitatory response to 5-HT when applied either by microiontophoresis or administered intravenously (1 mg kg-1). 5. Microiontophoretic application of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin did not attenuate excitatory responses to either 5-HT or noradrenaline. Intravenously administered prazosin (0.8 mg kg-1) also failed to attenuate excitatory responses to 5-HT, but did block excitatory responses to noradrenaline. 6. These results suggest that 5-HT2-receptors, but not 5-HT1-like receptors, 5-HT3-receptors or alpha 1-adrenoceptors, are involved in the excitatory response of midline medullary neurones to 5-HT. PMID:3395786

  1. Increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression and effects of pharmacologic 5-HT2A receptor inactivation in obese A{sup y} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nonogaki, Katsunori . E-mail: knonogaki-tky@umin.ac.jp; Nozue, Kana; Oka, Yoshitomo

    2006-12-29

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2A receptors contribute to the effects of 5-HT on platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and are reportedly involved in decreases in plasma levels of adiponectin, an adipokine, in diabetic subjects. Here, we report that systemic administration of sarpogrelate, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, suppressed appetite and increased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, corticotropin releasing hormone, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT1B receptor gene expression. A{sup y} mice, which have ectopic expression of the agouti protein, significantly increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in association with obesity compared with wild-type mice matched for age. Systemic administration of sarpogrelate suppressed overfeeding, body weight gain, and hyperglycemia in obese A{sup y} mice, whereas it did not increase plasma adiponectin levels. These results suggest that obesity increases hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression, and pharmacologic inactivation of 5-HT2A receptors inhibits overfeeding and obesity in A{sup y} mice, but did not increase plasma adiponectin levels.

  2. The 5-HT deficiency theory of depression: perspectives from a naturalistic 5-HT deficiency model, the tryptophan hydroxylase 2Arg439His knockin mouse

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Jacob P. R.; Medvedev, Ivan O.; Caron, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    A decreased level of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has been theorized to be a core pathogenic factor in depression for half a century. The theory arose from clinical observations that drugs enhancing extracellular levels of 5-HT (5-HTExt) have antidepressant effects in many patients. However, whether such drugs indeed correct a primary deficit remains unresolved. Still, a number of anomalies in putative biomarkers of central 5-HT function have been repeatedly reported in depression patients over the past 40 years, collectively indicating that 5-HT deficiency could be present in depression, particularly in severely ill and/or suicidal patients. This body of literature on putative 5-HT biomarker anomalies and depression has recently been corroborated by data demonstrating that such anomalies indeed occur consequent to severely reduced 5-HTExt levels in a mouse model of naturalistic 5-HT deficiency, the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 His439 knockin (Tph2KI) mouse. In this review, we will critically assess the evidence for 5-HT deficiency in depression and the possible role of polymorphisms in the Tph2 gene as a causal factor in 5-HT deficiency, the latter investigated from a clinical as well as preclinical angle. PMID:22826344

  3. Differential classification of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell 5-HT receptors by use of tryptamine analogues.

    PubMed Central

    Leff, P.; Martin, G. R.; Morse, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    In ring preparations of the rabbit external jugular vein contracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U-46619, submicromolar concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and chemically related analogues produced relaxations that were dependent on the integrity of the vascular endothelium. The receptor mediating endothelium-dependent relaxations was evidently similar to previously described endothelial 5-HT receptors since relaxation responses to alpha-methyl-5-HT were not blocked by atropine, (+/-)-propranolol, yohimbine, indomethacin, ketanserin or MDL-72222, but were non-competitively antagonized by methysergide, methiothepin and cyproheptadine. The activities of some tryptamine agonists and antagonists at the endothelial 5-HT receptor in rabbit jugular vein were compared with their activities at the smooth muscle 5-HT2-receptor in rabbit aortic rings. Differences in the tryptamines' affinities and relative efficacies showed that the endothelial 5-HT receptor was not of the 5-HT2-type. The high agonist potencies of 5-HT and 5-carboxamidotryptamine, the susceptibility to antagonism by both methiothepin and methysergide and the resistance to blockade by selective 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 ('M') receptor antagonists implies that the endothelial receptor belongs to the '5-HT1-like' class. However, the agonist potency order 5-HT = alpha-methyl-5-HT greater than 5-carboxamidotryptamine suggested that the receptor is not the same as the peripheral '5-HT1-like' receptors reported to mediate directly contraction of the dog saphenous vein or relaxation of vascular and non-vascular smooth muscles. At these receptors, the potency order is 5-carboxamidotryptamine greater than 5-HT greater than alpha-methyl-5-HT. These results constitute preliminary evidence that peripheral '5-HT1-like' receptors, like central 5-HT1 recognition sites, are a heterogeneous population. Further comparative studies with a wider range of receptor probes are necessary to establish whether or not these receptors represent functional counterparts of the ligand binding sites in the brain. Images Figure 1 PMID:3607360

  4. Are all 5-HT3 receptor antagonists the same?

    PubMed

    McNulty, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists have become the cornerstone for preventing and treating chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Four 5-HT3 antagonists are commercially available in the United States, and numerous reports have been published comparing 2 or more agents. The studies ranged from randomized, double-blinded to open-label or retrospective trials; included chemotherapy-nave and -non-nave patients; and covered a range of doses and routes of administration with and without concomitant steroids, for preventing and treating nausea and vomiting after highly and moderately high emetogenic chemotherapy. With few exceptions, the studies uniformly show an equivalent efficacy rate and side effect profile among the various agents at equivalent doses. This article reviews the pharmacology of the class for insight into minor differences among the agents that could possibly influence drug selection for certain patients, and considers data on the absorption, half-life, metabolism, and receptor activity. Clinical trials support the claim of various guidelines that the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are therapeutically similar in safety and efficacy, particularly because the current best practice for preventing nausea and vomiting after highly and moderately high emetogenic chemotherapy is a combination of a 5-HT3 antagonist, steroids, and aprepitant. PMID:17239324

  5. Role of 5-HT2 receptors in diabetes: Swertiamarin seco-iridoid glycoside might be a possible 5-HT2 receptor modulator.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Rakesh Deelip; Deore, Vijaykumar B; Patil, Savita D; Patil, Chandragouda R; Surana, Sanjay J; Goyal, Ramesh K

    2015-05-15

    In the present review, we are focusing on modulators of 5-HT2 receptors, swertiamarin and their role in diabetes. These drugs possess both central and peripheral actions in various animal models of depression, diabetes and obesity. Swertiamarin and 5-HT2 antagonist are reported antidepressant, hypolipidemic and beneficial in peripheral vasculopathy. In contrast to this, 5-HT2C selective agonist decreases hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and insulin secretogogue by action. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are known antidepressant having weight gain as an adverse effect. Swertiamarin has similar pharmacological actions as 5-HT2 antagonist and 5-HT2C selective agonist. This warrants that swertiamarin might modulate 5-HT2 receptors rather than affecting the uptake of serotonin. In the light of present investigation, the mechanism of these drugs can correlate the role of central and peripheral 5-HT2 receptors in diabetes. PMID:25708274

  6. 5-HT2 Receptors Facilitate JC Polyomavirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Assetta, Benedetta; Maginnis, Melissa S.; Gracia Ahufinger, Irene; Haley, Sheila A.; Gee, Gretchen V.; Nelson, Christian D. S.; O'Hara, Bethany A.; Allen Ramdial, Stacy-ann A.

    2013-01-01

    The human JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) causes the rapidly progressing demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The disease occurs most often in individuals with AIDS but also occurs in individuals receiving immunomodulatory therapies for immune-related diseases such as multiple sclerosis. JCPyV infection of host cells requires the pentasaccharide lactoseries tetrasaccharide c (LSTc) and the serotonin receptor 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor 5-HT2AR. While LSTc is involved in the initial attachment of virus to cells via interactions with VP1, the mechanism by which 5-HT2AR contributes to infection is not clear. To further define the roles of serotonin receptors in infection, HEK293A cells, which are poorly permissive to JCPyV, were transfected with 14 different isoforms of serotonin receptor. Only 5-HT2 receptors were found to support infection by JCPyV. None of the other 11 isoforms of serotonin receptor supported JCPyV infection. Expression of 5-HT2 receptors did not increase binding of JCPyV to cells, but this was not unexpected, given that the cells uniformly expressed the major attachment receptor, LSTc. Infection of these cells remained sensitive to inhibition with soluble LSTc, confirming that LSTc recognition is required for JCPyV infection. Virus internalization into HEK293A cells was significantly and specifically enhanced when 5HT2 receptors were expressed. Taken together, these data confirm that the carbohydrate LSTc is the attachment receptor for JCPyV and that the type 2 serotonin receptors contribute to JCPyV infection by facilitating entry. PMID:24089568

  7. Effect of Acanthopanax senticosus on 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in the dorsal raphe of exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Rhim, Yong-Taek; Kim, Hong; Yoon, Sung-Jin; Kim, Sung-Soo; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Taeck-Hyun; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Shin, Min-Chul; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2007-10-01

    Acanthopanax senticosus Harms (AS) is classified into the family of Araliaceae. The plant has been used as an analeptic aid, which improves weakened physical status and strength. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) catalyzes the rate-f the raphe nuclei. These are associated with "central fatigue hypotheses" in the brain. In the present study, the effects of Acanthopanax senticosus on the time to exhaustion by treadmill exercise and on 5-HT synthesis and TPH expression in the dorsal raphe were investigated by immunohistochemistry. In the present results, Acanthopanax senticosus increased the time to exhaustion by treadmill running and it suppressed the exercise-induced increase of 5-HT synthesis and TPH expression. Acanthopanax senticosus was effective as caffeine for increasing the exhaustion time in treadmill running and for reducing the exercise-induced increase of 5-HT synthesis and TPH expression in the dorsal raphe. The present study shows that Acanthopanax senticosus reduces fatigue during exercise by the inhibition of exercise-induced 5-HT synthesis and TPH expression in the dorsal raphe. PMID:17826016

  8. The effect of cooling and of 5-hydroxytryptamine on the peristaltic reflex of the isolated guinea-pig ileum

    PubMed Central

    Beleslin, D.; Varagi?, V.

    1958-01-01

    Cooling the guinea-pig ileum to 19 to 26 abolished the emptying phase of the peristaltic reflex. The effects of cooling to 10 were usually reversible, but cooling to 5 for 3 to 8 hr. produced an irreversible decrease in or abolition of the emptying phase. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) added in low concentrations to the fluid outside the intestine restored slight peristaltic activity after this activity had been abolished by cooling. If the peristalsis had been depressed but not abolished by cooling, 5-HT in the bath sometimes abolished it. 5-HT introduced into the lumen of the cooled gut regularly restored or increased peristaltic activity. This action was prevented by previous injection of 2-bromolysergic acid diethylamide into the lumen. It is suggested that, when introduced into the lumen, 5-HT may sensitize the sensory receptors in the mucosa of the cooled intestine. When applied outside, 5-HT may facilitate transmission at synapses involved in the peristaltic reflex arc, the excitability of which has been depressed by cooling. PMID:13584727

  9. In vivo and in vitro activity of selective 5-hydroxytryptamine2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Conolan, S.; Quinn, M. J.; Taylor, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The abilities of ketanserin, ritanserin, R56413 and LY53857 to inhibit 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenaline-induced vasoconstrictor responses both in vitro and in vivo and to lower blood pressure in the rat, were compared. In the isolated perfused mesenteric artery preparation of the rat all of the compounds tested were found to be potent inhibitors of 5-HT-induced vasoconstrictor responses. Ritanserin was the most potent compound, producing more than 50% inhibition of a near maximal response to 5-HT at a concentration of 10(-11) M. All four compounds were found to be competitive antagonists of noradrenaline; ketanserin being the most potent with a pA2 value of 7.64 +/- 0.06. 5-HT-induced pressor responses in the pithed rat were inhibited by low doses (0.3-10 micrograms kg-1) of the four compounds. Ketanserin, at doses of 0.1-3.0 mg kg-1, resulted in rightward shifts of the control dose-response curve to noradrenaline in the pithed rat. None of the other compounds had any significant effect on the noradrenaline-induced pressor responses. Ketanserin (0.1-1 mg kg-1) produced a dose-dependent decrease in the mean arterial blood pressure of anaesthetized rats. The maximum decrease in blood pressure observed following a dose of 1 mg kg-1 ketanserin was 73.7 +/- 4.7 mmHg. The other compounds at doses of 1.0-3.0 mg kg-1 produced a decrease in blood pressure of a lesser magnitude than that following ketanserin. In addition, this effect did not appear to be dose-dependent. It is suggested that the acute hypotensive effect of ketanserin results predominantly from alpha 1-adrenoceptor blockade.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3801767

  10. Potentiation of neurite outgrowth by brexpiprazole, a novel serotonin-dopamine activity modulator: a role for serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Ishima, Tamaki; Futamura, Takashi; Ohgi, Yuta; Yoshimi, Noriko; Kikuchi, Tetsuro; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    Brexpiprazole, a novel atypical antipsychotic drug, is currently being tested in clinical trials for treatment of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. The drug is known to act through a combination of partial agonistic activity at 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A, and dopamine D2 receptors, and antagonistic activity at 5-HT2A receptors. Accumulating evidence suggests that antipsychotic drugs act by promoting neurite outgrowth. In this study, we examined whether brexpiprazole affected neurite outgrowth in cell culture. We found that brexpiprazole significantly potentiated nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, in a concentration dependent manner. The selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100,635, was able to block the effects of brexpiprazole on neurite outgrowth, unlike the selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, raclopride. Furthermore, the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907, but not DOI (5-HT2A receptor agonist), significantly potentiated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Moreover, xestospongin C and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), both specific inhibitors of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptors, significantly blocked the effects of brexpiprazole. These findings suggest that brexpiprazole-induced neurite outgrowth is mediated through 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, and subsequent Ca(2+) signaling via IP3 receptors. PMID:25687838

  11. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram inhibits GnRH synthesis and spermatogenesis in the male zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Parvathy; Ogawa, Satoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2015-10-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used antidepressants for the treatment of depression. However, SSRIs cause sexual side effects such as anorgasmia, erectile dysfunction, and diminished libido that are thought to be mediated through the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. In vertebrates, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play an important role in the control of reproduction. To elucidate the neuroendocrine mechanisms of SSRI-induced reproductive failure, we examined the neuronal association between 5-HT and GnRH (GnRH2 and GnRH3) systems in the male zebrafish. Double-label immunofluorescence and confocal laser microscopy followed by three-dimensional construction analysis showed close associations between 5-HT fibers with GnRH3 fibers and preoptic-GnRH3 cell bodies, but there was no association with GnRH2 cell bodies and fibers. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that short-term treatment (2 wk) with low to medium doses (4 and 40 μg/L, respectively) of citalopram significantly decreased mRNA levels of gnrh3, gonadotropins (lhb and fshb) and 5-HT-related genes (tph2 and sert) in the male zebrafish. In addition, short-term citalopram treatment significantly decreased the fluorescence density of 5-HT and GnRH3 fibers compared with controls. Short-term treatment with low, medium, and high (100 μg/L) citalopram doses had no effects on the profiles of different stages of spermatogenesis, while long-term (1 mo) citalopram treatment with medium and high doses significantly inhibited the different stages of spermatogenesis. These results show morphological and functional associations between the 5-HT and the hypophysiotropic GnHR3 system, which involve SSRI-induced reproductive failures. PMID:26157069

  12. FGFR1-5-HT1A Heteroreceptor Complexes: Implications for Understanding and Treating Major Depression.

    PubMed

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Tarakanov, Alexander O; Fuxe, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    The serotonin and neurotrophic factor hypotheses of depression are well known. The discovery of brain fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1)-5 hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (5-HT1A) heteroreceptor complexes, and their enhancement of neuroplasticity, offers an integration of these hypotheses at the molecular level. They were first described in the hippocampus and later in midbrain 5-HT neurons, where these heterocomplexes are enriched in 5-HT1A autoreceptors. Combined FGF2 and 5-HT1A agonist treatment increased the formation of these heterocomplexes and the facilitatory allosteric receptor-receptor interactions within them led to the enhancement of FGFR1 signaling and was associated with the development of antidepressant effects. We discuss these findings with regard to a theory of motifs critically involved in these interactions and suggest that these complexes represent novel targets for antidepressants. PMID:26687454

  13. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1A receptors in the dorsomedial hypothalamus connected to dorsal raphe nucleus inputs modulate defensive behaviours and mediate innate fear-induced antinociception.

    PubMed

    Biagioni, Audrey Franceschi; de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo; da Silva, Juliana Almeida; Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon Dos; Roncon, Camila Marroni; Corrado, Alexandre Pinto; Zangrossi, Hlio; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2016-03-01

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is an important brainstem source of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and 5-HT plays a key role in the regulation of panic attacks. The aim of the present study was to determine whether 5-HT1A receptor-containing neurons in the medial hypothalamus (MH) receive neural projections from DRN and to then determine the role of this neural substrate in defensive responses. The neurotracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was iontophoretically microinjected into the DRN, and immunohistochemical approaches were then used to identify 5HT1A receptor-labelled neurons in the MH. Moreover, the effects of pre-treatment of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) with 8-OH-DPAT and WAY-100635, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist and antagonist, respectively, followed by local microinjections of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, were investigated. We found that there are many projections from the DRN to the perifornical lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) but also to DMH and ventromedial (VMH) nuclei, reaching 5HT1A receptor-labelled perikarya. DMH GABAA receptor blockade elicited defensive responses that were followed by antinociception. DMH treatment with 8-OH-DPAT decreased escape responses, which strongly suggests that the 5-HT1A receptor modulates the defensive responses. However, DMH treatment with WAY-100635 failed to alter bicuculline-induced defensive responses, suggesting that 5-HT exerts a phasic influence on 5-HT1A DMH neurons. The activation of the inhibitory 5-HT1A receptor had no effect on antinociception. However, blockade of the 5-HT1A receptor decreased fear-induced antinociception. The present data suggest that the ascending pathways from the DRN to the DMH modulate panic-like defensive behaviours and mediate antinociceptive phenomenon by recruiting 5-HT1A receptor in the MH. PMID:26749090

  14. Changes in Intensity of Serotonin Syndrome Caused by Adverse Interaction between Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors and Serotonin Reuptake Blockers

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Rui; Rudacille, Mary; Zhang, Gongliang; Ma, Zhiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Drug interaction between inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAOIs) and selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) reuptake (SSRIs) induces serotonin syndrome, which is usually mild but occasionally severe in intensity. However, little is known about neural mechanisms responsible for the syndrome induction and intensification. In this study, we hypothesized that the syndrome induction and intensity utilize two different but inter-related mechanisms. Serotonin syndrome is elicited by excessive 5-HT in the brain (presynaptic mechanism), whereas syndrome intensity is attributed to neural circuits involving 5-HT2A and NMDA receptors (postsynaptic mechanism). To test this hypothesis, basal 5-HT efflux and postsynaptic circuits were pharmacologically altered in rats by once daily pretreatment of the MAOI clorgyline for 3, 6, or 13 days. Syndrome intensity was estimated by measuring 5-HT efflux, neuromuscular activity, and body-core temperature in response to challenge injection of clorgyline combined with the SSRI paroxetine. Results showed that the onset of serotonin syndrome is caused by 5-HT efflux exceeding 10-fold above baseline, confirming the presynaptic hypothesis. The neuromuscular and body-core temperature abnormalities, which were otherwise mild in drug-naive rats, were significantly intensified to a severe level in rats pretreated with daily clorgyline for 3 and 6 days but not in rats pretreated for 13 days. The intensified effect was blocked by M100907 and MK-801, suggesting that variation in syndrome intensity was mediated through a 5-HT2A and NMDA receptor-engaged circuit. Therefore, we concluded that pretreatments of MAOI pharmacologically alter the activity of postsynaptic circuits, which is responsible for changes in syndrome intensity. PMID:24577320

  15. Regulation of rat cortical 5-hydroxytryptamine2A-receptor mediated electrophysiological responses by repeated daily treatment with electroconvulsive shock or imipramine

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Gerard J.

    2008-01-01

    Down-regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) receptors has been a consistent effect induced by most antidepressant drugs. In contrast, electroconvulsive shock (ECS) up-regulates the number of 5-HT2A receptor binding sites. However, the effects of antidepressants on 5-HT2A receptor-mediated responses on identified cells of the cerebral cortex has not been examined. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine and ECS on 5-HT2A receptor-mediated electrophysiological responses involving glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and piriform cortex, respectively. The electrophysiological effects of activating 5-HT2A receptors was consistent with 5-HT2A receptor binding regulation for imipramine and ECS except for the mPFC where chronic ECS decreased the potency of 5-HT at a 5-HT2A receptor-mediated response. These findings are consistent with the general hypothesis that chronic antidepressant treatments shift the balance of serotonergic neurotransmission towards inhibitory effects in the cortex. PMID:18294819

  16. Ionic mechanisms and receptor properties underlying the responses of molluscan neurones to 5-hydroxytryptamine

    PubMed Central

    Gerschenfeld, H. M.; Tritsch, Danile Paupardin

    1974-01-01

    1. Molluscan neurones have been found to show six different types of response (three excitatory and three inhibitory) to the iontophoretic application of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). The pharmacological properties of the receptors and the ionic mechanisms associated with these responses have been analysed. 2. Four of the responses to 5-HT (named A, A?, B and C) are consequent upon an increase in membrane conductance whereas the other two (named ? and ?) are caused by a decrease in membrane conductance. 3. The A-response to 5-HT consists of a `fast' depolarization due to an increase mainly in Na+-conductance; the A?-response is a `slow' depolarization also associated with a Na+-conductance increase. Receptors mediating the A- and A?-depolarizations have different pharmacological properties and may exist side by side on the same neurone. 4. Both the B- and C-responses are inhibitory. The B-response is a `slow' hyperpolarization due to an increase in K+-conductance, the C-response is a fast hyperpolarization associated with an increase in Cl--conductance. 5. The ?-response to 5-HT is a depolarization which becomes reduced in amplitude with cell hyperpolarization and reverses at -75 mV; it is caused by a decrease in K+-conductance. The ?-response is an hyperpolarization which increases in amplitude with cell hyperpolarization and reverses at -20/-30 mV. It results from a decrease in conductance to both Na+ and K+ ions. 6. The receptors involved in the 5-HT responses associated with a conductance increase may be recognized by the action of specific antagonists: 7-methyltryptamine blocks only the A-receptors, 5-methoxygramine only the B-receptors and neostigmine only the C-receptors. Curare blocks the A- and C-receptors and bufotenine, the A-, A?- and B-receptors. No specific antagonists have yet been found for the 5-HT responses caused by a conductance decrease. 7. The significance of the multiplicity of receptors is discussed. Their functional significance at synapses is analysed in the following paper. PMID:4155767

  17. Diabetes-induced changes in the 5-hydroxytryptamine inhibitory receptors involved in the pressor effect elicited by sympathetic stimulation in the pithed rat.

    PubMed

    García, Mónica; Morán, Asunción; Calama, Elena; Martín, Maria Luisa; Barthelmebs, Mariette; Román, Luis San

    2005-07-01

    1. We investigated the effect of alloxan-induced diabetes on the inhibitory mechanisms of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the pressor responses induced by stimulation of sympathetic vasopressor outflow in pithed rats, and analysed the type and/or subtype of 5-HT receptors involved. 2. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single s.c. injection of alloxan, then 4 weeks later, they were anaesthetized, pretreated with atropine and pithed. Electrical stimulation of the sympathetic outflow from the spinal cord (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5 Hz) resulted in frequency-dependent increases in blood pressure. 3. Intravenous infusions of 5-HT (1-80 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) reduced the pressor effects obtained by electrical stimulation. The 5-HT(1) receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine, 5-CT (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), caused an inhibition of the pressor response, whereas the selective 5-HT(2) receptor agonist, alpha-methyl-5-HT (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) and the selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, 1-phenylbiguanide (40 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), did not modify the sympathetic pressor responses. 5-HT had no effect on exogenous noradrenaline (NA)-induced pressor responses. 4. The inhibition of electrically induced pressor responses by 5-HT (10 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) was unable to be elicited after i.v. treatment with methiothepin (100 microg kg(-1)) because of the marked inhibition produced by methiothepin alone. The 5-HT-induced inhibition was blocked after i.v. administration of WAY-100,635 (100 microg kg(-1)) and not affected by ritanserin (1 mg kg(-1)), MDL 72222 (2 mg kg(-1)). 5. The selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, 8-hydroxydipropylaminotretalin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) (5-20 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) but neither the rodent 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist, CGS-12066B (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), nor the selective nonrodent 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptor agonist, L-694,247 (5 and 40 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), inhibited the electrically induced pressor response. The selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, WAY-100,635 (100 microg kg(-1)), blocked the inhibition induced by 8-OH-DPAT (10 microg kg(-1) min(-1)). 8-OH-DPAT had no effect on exogenous NA-induced pressor responses. 6. Experimental diabetes produces changes in the inhibitory effect induced by 5-HT on electrically induced sympathetic pressor responses, such that the inhibitory action induced by 5-HT in diabetic pithed rats is mediated by prejunctional 5-HT(1A) receptors. PMID:15852039

  18. Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Interactions with Dopamine Function: Implications for Therapeutics in Cocaine Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine exhibits prominent abuse liability, and chronic abuse can result in cocaine use disorder with significant morbidity. Major advances have been made in delineating neurobiological mechanisms of cocaine abuse; however, effective medications to treat cocaine use disorder remain to be discovered. The present review will focus on the role of serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine) neurotransmission in the neuropharmacology of cocaine and related abused stimulants. Extensive research suggests that the primary contribution of 5-HT to cocaine addiction is a consequence of interactions with dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. The literature on the neurobiological and behavioral effects of cocaine is well developed, so the focus of the review will be on cocaine with inferences made about other monoamine uptake inhibitors and releasers based on mechanistic considerations. 5-HT receptors are widely expressed throughout the brain, and several different 5-HT receptor subtypes have been implicated in mediating the effects of endogenous 5-HT on DA. However, the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in particular have been implicated as likely candidates for mediating the influence of 5-HT in cocaine abuse as well as to traits (e.g., impulsivity) that contribute to the development of cocaine use disorder and relapse in humans. Lastly, new approaches are proposed to guide targeted development of serotonergic ligands for the treatment of cocaine use disorder. PMID:25505168

  19. 5-HT7 receptor signaling: improved therapeutic strategy in gut disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Janice J.; Khan, Waliul I.

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is most commonly known for its role as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the majority of the body’s 5-HT is produced in the gut by enterochromaffin (EC) cells. Alterations in 5-HT signaling have been associated with various gut disorders including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and enteric infections. Recently, our studies have identified a key role for 5-HT in the pathogenesis of experimental colitis. 5-HT7 receptors are expressed in the gut and very recently, we have shown evidence of 5-HT7 receptor expression on intestinal immune cells and demonstrated a key role for 5-HT7 receptors in generation of experimental colitis. This review summarizes the key findings of these studies and provides a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge of the 5-HT7 receptor in terms of its pathophysiological relevance and therapeutic potential in intestinal inflammatory conditions, such as IBD. PMID:25565996

  20. Parallel functional activity profiling reveals valvulopathogens are potent 5-hydroxytryptamine(2B) receptor agonists: implications for drug safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi-Ping; Setola, Vincent; Yadav, Prem N; Allen, John A; Rogan, Sarah C; Hanson, Bonnie J; Revankar, Chetana; Robers, Matt; Doucette, Chris; Roth, Bryan L

    2009-10-01

    Drug-induced valvular heart disease (VHD) is a serious side effect of a few medications, including some that are on the market. Pharmacological studies of VHD-associated medications (e.g., fenfluramine, pergolide, methysergide, and cabergoline) have revealed that they and/or their metabolites are potent 5-hydroxytryptamine(2B) (5-HT(2B)) receptor agonists. We have shown that activation of 5-HT(2B) receptors on human heart valve interstitial cells in vitro induces a proliferative response reminiscent of the fibrosis that typifies VHD. To identify current or future drugs that might induce VHD, we screened approximately 2200 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved or investigational medications to identify 5-HT(2B) receptor agonists, using calcium-based high-throughput screening. Of these 2200 compounds, 27 were 5-HT(2B) receptor agonists (hits); 14 of these had previously been identified as 5-HT(2B) receptor agonists, including seven bona fide valvulopathogens. Six of the hits (guanfacine, quinidine, xylometazoline, oxymetazoline, fenoldopam, and ropinirole) are approved medications. Twenty-three of the hits were then "functionally profiled" (i.e., assayed in parallel for 5-HT(2B) receptor agonism using multiple readouts to test for functional selectivity). In these assays, the known valvulopathogens were efficacious at concentrations as low as 30 nM, whereas the other compounds were less so. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the pEC(50) data revealed that ropinirole (which is not associated with valvulopathy) was clearly segregated from known valvulopathogens. Taken together, our data demonstrate that patterns of 5-HT(2B) receptor functional selectivity might be useful for identifying compounds likely to induce valvular heart disease. PMID:19570945

  1. Parallel Functional Activity Profiling Reveals Valvulopathogens Are Potent 5-Hydroxytryptamine2B Receptor Agonists: Implications for Drug Safety Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xi-Ping; Setola, Vincent; Yadav, Prem N.; Allen, John A.; Rogan, Sarah C.; Hanson, Bonnie J.; Revankar, Chetana; Robers, Matt; Doucette, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced valvular heart disease (VHD) is a serious side effect of a few medications, including some that are on the market. Pharmacological studies of VHD-associated medications (e.g., fenfluramine, pergolide, methysergide, and cabergoline) have revealed that they and/or their metabolites are potent 5-hydroxytryptamine2B (5-HT2B) receptor agonists. We have shown that activation of 5-HT2B receptors on human heart valve interstitial cells in vitro induces a proliferative response reminiscent of the fibrosis that typifies VHD. To identify current or future drugs that might induce VHD, we screened approximately 2200 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved or investigational medications to identify 5-HT2B receptor agonists, using calcium-based high-throughput screening. Of these 2200 compounds, 27 were 5-HT2B receptor agonists (hits); 14 of these had previously been identified as 5-HT2B receptor agonists, including seven bona fide valvulopathogens. Six of the hits (guanfacine, quinidine, xylometazoline, oxymetazoline, fenoldopam, and ropinirole) are approved medications. Twenty-three of the hits were then “functionally profiled” (i.e., assayed in parallel for 5-HT2B receptor agonism using multiple readouts to test for functional selectivity). In these assays, the known valvulopathogens were efficacious at concentrations as low as 30 nM, whereas the other compounds were less so. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the pEC50 data revealed that ropinirole (which is not associated with valvulopathy) was clearly segregated from known valvulopathogens. Taken together, our data demonstrate that patterns of 5-HT2B receptor functional selectivity might be useful for identifying compounds likely to induce valvular heart disease. PMID:19570945

  2. Functional characterization of 5-HT1D autoreceptors on the modulation of 5-HT release in guinea-pig mesencephalic raphe, hippocampus and frontal cortex.

    PubMed Central

    el Mansari, M.; Blier, P.

    1996-01-01

    1. The aims of the present study were (i) to characterize further the pharmacology of 5-HT1D autoreceptors modulating 5-HT release in guinea-pig mesencephalic raphe, hippocampus and frontal cortex; (ii) to determine whether 5-HT1D receptors in the mesencephalic raphe are located on 5-HT neurones; (iii) to determine whether 5-HT1D autoreceptors are coupled to G proteins; and (iv) to assess their sensitivity following long-term 5-HT reuptake blockade and inhibition of type-A monoamine oxidase. 2. In mesencephalic raphe, hippocampus and frontal cortex slices, the 5-HT1D/1B receptor agonist, sumatriptan and the 5-HT1 receptor agonist, 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT) but not the 5-HT1B receptor agonist, CP93129, inhibited electrically the evoked release of [3H]-5-HT in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was antagonized by the 5-HT1D/1B receptor antagonist GR127935 in the three structures, but not by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, (+)-WAY100635 in mesencephalic raphe slices. These results confirm the presence of functional 5-HT1D autoreceptors controlling 5-HT release within the mesencephalic raphe as well as in terminal regions. 3. The inhibitory effect of sumatriptan on K(+)-evoked release of [3H]-5-HT was not reduced by the addition of the Na+ channel blocker, tetrodotoxin to the superfusion medium, suggesting that these 5-HT1D receptors in the mesencephalic raphe are located on 5-HT neurones and may be considered autoreceptors. 4. The in vitro treatment with the alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) was used to determine whether these 5-HT1D autoreceptors are coupled to G proteins. The inhibitory effect of sumatriptan on electrically evoked release of [3H]-5-HT was attenuated in NEM-pretreated slices from mesencephalic raphe, hippocampus and frontal cortex, indicating that the 5-HT1D autoreceptors activated by sumatriptan are coupled to G proteins in these three structures. Taken together with our previous results, this suggests that, in addition to the 5-HT1D autoreceptor activated by sumatriptan, another subtype of 5-HT autoreceptor is activated by 5-MeOT in the hippocampus. 5. Following a 3-week treatment with the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, paroxetine (10 mg kg-1 day-1) and a 48 h washout period, the electrically evoked release of [3H]-5-HT was enhanced in mesencephalic raphe, hippocampus and frontal cortex slices. There was an attenuation of the capacity of sumatriptan to inhibit the evoked release of [3H]-5-HT from mesencephalic raphe slices but not from frontal cortex and hippocampus slices. Only in the latter structure was the suppressant effect of 5-MeOT attenuated. After a 3-week treatment with the reversible type-A monoamine oxidase inhibitor, befloxatone (0.75 mg kg-1 day-1) and 48 h washout period, the effectiveness of sumatriptan and 5-MeOT on the evoked release of [3H]-5-HT was unaltered in the same brain structures. 6. The enhancement of [3H]-5-HT release by long-term paroxetine treatment is possibly due to a desensitization of 5-HT1D autoreceptors activated by sumatriptan in mesencephalic raphe and by terminal 5-HT autoreceptors activated by 5-MeOT in hippocampus. In the case of the frontal cortex, it appears that 5-MeOT and sumatriptan may act on the same 5-HT1D autoreceptor which is not desensitized either after paroxetine or befloxatone treatment, as previously reported. PMID:8762094

  3. Deletion of Munc18-1 in 5-HT Neurons Results in Rapid Degeneration of the 5-HT System and Early Postnatal Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Dudok, Jacobus J.; Groffen, Alexander J. A.; Toonen, Ruud F. T.; Verhage, Matthijs

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) system densely innervates many brain areas and is important for proper brain development. To specifically ablate the 5-HT system we generated mutant mice carrying a floxed Munc18-1 gene and Cre recombinase driven by the 5-HT-specific serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) promoter. The majority of mutant mice died within a few days after birth. Immunohistochemical analysis of brains of these mice showed that initially 5-HT neurons are formed and the cortex is innervated with 5-HT projections. From embryonic day 16 onwards, however, 5-HT neurons started to degenerate and at postnatal day 2 hardly any 5-HT projections were present in the cortex. The 5-HT system of mice heterozygous for the floxed Munc18-1 allele was indistinguishable from control mice. These data show that deletion of Munc18-1 in 5-HT neurons results in rapid degeneration of the 5-HT system and suggests that the 5-HT system is important for postnatal survival. PMID:22140524

  4. Vortioxetine restores reversal learning impaired by 5-HT depletion or chronic intermittent cold stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Ashley; Pehrson, Alan L; Snchez, Connie; Morilak, David A

    2014-10-01

    Current treatments for depression, including serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are only partially effective, with a high incidence of residual symptoms, relapse, and treatment resistance. Loss of cognitive flexibility, a component of depression, is associated with dysregulation of the prefrontal cortex. Reversal learning, a form of cognitive flexibility, is impaired by chronic stress, a risk factor for depression, and the stress-induced impairment in reversal learning is sensitive to chronic SSRI treatment, and is mimicked by serotonin (5-HT) depletion. Vortioxetine, a novel, multimodal-acting antidepressant, is a 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, a 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, and inhibits the 5-HT transporter. Using adult male rats, we first investigated the direct effects of vortioxetine, acting at post-synaptic 5-HT receptors, on reversal learning that was compromised by 5-HT depletion using 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA), effectively eliminating any contribution of 5-HT reuptake blockade. PCPA induced a reversal learning impairment that was alleviated by acute or sub-chronic vortioxetine administration, suggesting that post-synaptic 5-HT receptor activation contributes to the effects of vortioxetine. We then investigated the effects of chronic dietary administration of vortioxetine on reversal learning that had been compromised in intact animals exposed to chronic intermittent cold (CIC) stress, to assess vortioxetine's total pharmacological effect. CIC stress impaired reversal learning, and chronic vortioxetine administration prevented the reversal-learning deficit. Together, these results suggest that the direct effect of vortioxetine at 5-HT receptors may contribute to positive effects on cognitive flexibility deficits, and may enhance the effect of 5-HT reuptake blockade. PMID:24852131

  5. Cross-talk between 5-hydroxytryptamine and substance P in the melanogensis and apoptosis of B16F10 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia; Geng, Kun-Kun; Ping, Feng-Feng; Gao, Yue-Ying; Liu, Lei; Feng, Bai-Nian

    2016-03-15

    Skin pigmentation is a complex process controlled by many different factors. Substance P (SP) regulates many biological functions, including melanogenesis and stress. Our previous study indicated that regulation of SP on melanocyte function was mediated by neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1 receptor). Substantial evidence has accumulated that psychological stress can be associated with skin pigmentation, so that the impact of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), one of the important factors participating in stress process, on melanogenesis has also been concerned. It has been reported that 5-HT induces melanin synthesis via 5-HT2A receptor. Furthermore, 5-HT2A receptor and NK1 receptor are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and both expressed on melanocyte, the present study was designed to investigate whether SP has influence on the adjustment function of 5-HT. Our data demonstrated that, SP inhibited 5-HT2A receptor expression to neutralize the pro-melanogenesis effect of 5-HT on B16F10 cells. The up-regulation of NK1 receptor expression was simultaneous with the down-regulation of 5-HT2A receptor treated by SP. This inhibition of 5-HT2A receptor expression by SP could be reversed by NK1 receptor antagonist Spantide I. Our studies indicated that SP could directly induce B16F10 cells apoptosis in vitro. 5-HT and 5-HT2A receptor agonist could mitigate this apoptotic effect of SP. It is the strong evidence of possible cross-talk between GPCRs and giving enlightenments when screening desirable drugs for target receptors. PMID:26872989

  6. Characterization of prejunctional 5-HT receptors mediating inhibition of sympathetic vasopressor responses in the pithed rat.

    PubMed Central

    Villaln, C. M.; Contreras, J.; Ramrez-San Juan, E.; Castillo, C.; Perusqua, M.; Terrn, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    1. It has recently been shown that continuous infusions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) are able to inhibit, in a dose-dependent manner, the pressor responses induced by preganglionic (T7-T9) sympathetic stimulation in pithed rats pretreated with desipramine (50 micrograms kg-1, i.v.). This inhibitory effect, besides being significantly more pronounced at lower frequencies of stimulation (0.03-I Hz) and devoid of tachyphylaxis, is reversible after interrupting the infusions of 5-HT (up to 5.6 micrograms kg-1 min-1). In the present study we have characterized the pharmacological profile of the receptors mediating the above inhibitory effect of 5-HT. 2. The inhibition induced by 5.6 micrograms kg-1 min-1 of 5-HT on sympathetically-induced pressor responses was not blocked after i.v. treatment with physiological saline (1 ml kg-1), ritanserin (0.1 mg kg-1), MDL 72222 (0.15 mg kg-1) or tropisetron (3 mg kg-1), which did not modify the sympathetically-induced pressor responses per se, but was significantly antagonized by the 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, methysergide (0.3 mg kg-1), which also produced a slight attenuation of the pressor responses to 0.03 and 0.1 Hz per se. 3. Unexpectedly and contrasting with methysergide, the 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, methiothepin (0.01, 0.03 and 0.1 mg kg-1) and metergoline (1 and 3 mg kg-1), apparently failed to block the above 5-HT-induced inhibition. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that these antagonists also blocked the electrically-induced pressor responses per se, presumably by blockade of vascular alpha 1-adrenoceptors and, indeed, this property might have masked their potential antagonism at the inhibitory 5-HT1-like receptors. 4. Consistent with the above findings, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, a potent 5-HT1-like receptor agonist), metergoline and methysergide mimicked the inhibitory action of 5-HT with the following rank order of agonist potency: 5CT > > 5-HT > metergoline > or = methysergide. 5. Taken together, the above results suggest that the inhibitory action of 5-HT on the electrically-induced pressor responses is primarily mediated by an action on inhibitory prejunctional 5-HT1-like receptors leading to a decrease in the sympathetic nerve discharge. Interestingly, 5-HT-induced excitatory mechanisms could be made manifest once the inhibitory action of 5-HT had been antagonized. PMID:8719815

  7. Pharmacological characterization of the 5-HT receptor-mediated contraction in the mouse isolated ileum.

    PubMed

    Tuladhar, B R; Womack, M D; Naylor, R J

    2000-12-01

    The pharmacological characterization of a 5-HT receptor-mediated contractile response in the mouse isolated ileum is described. In the presence of methysergide (1 microM), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, 0.3 - 100 microM) produced phasic concentration-dependent contractions of segments of the mouse isolated ileum with a pEC(50) value of 5.47+/-0.09. The 5-HT(3) receptor selective agonists m-chlorophenylbiguanide (0.3 - 100 microM, pEC(50) 5.81+/-0.04), 1-phenylbiguanide (3 - 100 microM, pEC(50) 5.05+/-0.06) and 2-methyl-5-HT (3 - 100 microM, pEC(50) 5.00+/-0.07) acted as full agonists to induce contractile responses. 5-methoxytryptamine (0.1 - 100 microM), RS 67506 (0.1 - 100 microM) and alpha-methyl-5-HT (0.1 - 100 microM) failed to mimic the 5-HT responses. The contractile response to 5-HT was not antagonized by either 5-HT(2) receptor antagonists ritanserin (0.1 microM) or ketanserin (1 microM) nor the 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist SB 204070 (0.1 microM). The 5-HT(3) receptor selective antagonists granisetron (0.3 - 1 nM), tropisetron (1 - 10 nM), ondansetron (10 nM - 1 microM) and MDL 72222 (10 nM - 1 microM) caused rightward displacement of the concentration-response curves to 5-HT. The lower concentrations of the antagonists caused approximate parallel rightward shifts of the concentration-response curves to 5-HT with apparent pK(B) values for granisetron (9.70+/-0. 39), tropisetron (9.18+/-0.20), ondansetron (8.84+/-0.24) and MDL 72222 (8.65+/-0.35). But higher concentrations of antagonists resulted in a progressive reduction in the maximum responses. The contractile response to 5-HT was abolished by tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM); atropine (0.1 and 1 microM) decreased the maximum response of the 5-HT concentration-response curve by approximately 65%. It is concluded that a neuronally located 5-HT(3) receptor mediates a contractile response to 5-HT in the mouse ileum. The 5-HT(3) receptor in the mouse ileum has a different pharmacological profile to that reported for the guinea-pig ileum. PMID:11139451

  8. Role of central vagal 5-HT3 receptors in gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Browning, Kirsteen N

    2015-01-01

    Vagal neurocircuits are vitally important in the co-ordination and modulation of GI reflexes and homeostatic functions. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) is critically important in the regulation of several of these autonomic gastrointestinal (GI) functions including motility, secretion and visceral sensitivity. While several 5-HT receptors are involved in these physiological responses, the ligand-gated 5-HT3 receptor appears intimately involved in gut-brain signaling, particularly via the afferent (sensory) vagus nerve. 5-HT is released from enterochromaffin cells in response to mechanical or chemical stimulation of the GI tract which leads to activation of 5-HT3 receptors on the terminals of vagal afferents. 5-HT3 receptors are also present on the soma of vagal afferent neurons, including GI vagal afferent neurons, where they can be activated by circulating 5-HT. The central terminals of vagal afferents also exhibit 5-HT3 receptors that function to increase glutamatergic synaptic transmission to second order neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius within the brainstem. While activation of central brainstem 5-HT3 receptors modulates visceral functions, it is still unclear whether central vagal neurons, i.e., nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurons themselves also display functional 5-HT3 receptors. Thus, activation of 5-HT3 receptors may modulate the excitability and activity of gastrointestinal vagal afferents at multiple sites and may be involved in several physiological and pathophysiological conditions, including distention- and chemical-evoked vagal reflexes, nausea, and vomiting, as well as visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:26578870

  9. Quipazine reduces food intake in the rat by activation of 5-HT2-receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hewson, G.; Leighton, G. E.; Hill, R. G.; Hughes, J.

    1988-01-01

    1. To determine which subtype(s) of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor are involved in the anorectic action of quipazine, the ability of selective antagonists at 5-HT2- and 5-HT3-receptors, and an antagonist at 5-HT1-like receptors, to block this response were investigated in non-deprived rats, trained to eat a palatable diet. 2. Quipazine (0.5-8 mg kg-1, i.p.) produced a dose-related reduction in the intake of palatable diet. 3. The anorectic effect of 4 mg kg-1 quipazine was antagonized by the nonselective 5-HT-receptor antagonist methysergide (5 mg kg-1, i.p.) and by the selective 5-HT2-receptor antagonists ketanserin (1 mg kg-1 and 2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) and ritanserin (0.5 mg kg-1 and 1 mg kg-1, i.p.). The selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonist GR38032F (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) and (-)-pindolol (4 mg kg-1, i.p.), which blocks some of the effects mediated at 5-HT1-like receptors, did not block the reduction in food intake produced by this dose of quipazine. 4. None of the 5-HT-receptor antagonists had any effect on food intake when they were administered alone, suggesting that endogenous 5-HT is not involved in the tonic control of food intake under the conditions of these experiments. 5. It is concluded that the anorectic action of quipazine is mediated, at least in part, by activation of 5-HT2-receptors. PMID:2906561

  10. Role of central vagal 5-HT3 receptors in gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Kirsteen N.

    2015-01-01

    Vagal neurocircuits are vitally important in the co-ordination and modulation of GI reflexes and homeostatic functions. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) is critically important in the regulation of several of these autonomic gastrointestinal (GI) functions including motility, secretion and visceral sensitivity. While several 5-HT receptors are involved in these physiological responses, the ligand-gated 5-HT3 receptor appears intimately involved in gut-brain signaling, particularly via the afferent (sensory) vagus nerve. 5-HT is released from enterochromaffin cells in response to mechanical or chemical stimulation of the GI tract which leads to activation of 5-HT3 receptors on the terminals of vagal afferents. 5-HT3 receptors are also present on the soma of vagal afferent neurons, including GI vagal afferent neurons, where they can be activated by circulating 5-HT. The central terminals of vagal afferents also exhibit 5-HT3 receptors that function to increase glutamatergic synaptic transmission to second order neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius within the brainstem. While activation of central brainstem 5-HT3 receptors modulates visceral functions, it is still unclear whether central vagal neurons, i.e., nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurons themselves also display functional 5-HT3 receptors. Thus, activation of 5-HT3 receptors may modulate the excitability and activity of gastrointestinal vagal afferents at multiple sites and may be involved in several physiological and pathophysiological conditions, including distention- and chemical-evoked vagal reflexes, nausea, and vomiting, as well as visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:26578870

  11. Platelet met-enkephalin immunoreactivity and 5-hydroxytryptamine concentrations in migraine patients: effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan, amitriptyline and chlorimipramine treatment.

    PubMed

    Boiardi, A; Picotti, G B; Di Giulio, A M; Bussone, G; Galva, M D; La Mantia, L; Mantegazza, P

    1984-06-01

    In thirty patients with common migraine the platelet concentrations of met-enkephalin immunoreactivity (ME) (76 +/- 9 pg/mg protein) were similar to those in 23 healthy volunteers (77 +/- 5), suggesting that there is no alteration in the ME pool in this biochemical compartment in migraine. Chronic treatment (4 weeks) with drugs that interfere with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) synthesis or uptake induced the expected changes in platelet 5-HT levels, i.e. a rise following administration of the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (daily dose: 300-500 mg, n = 9) and a decrease after amine uptake inhibition by amitryptyline (30-75 mg, n = 7) and even more by chlorimipramine (30-50 mg, n = 9). Platelet ME concentrations rose by up to approximately 90% over the basal values after either 5-hydroxytryptophan (significantly from week 2) or amitriptyline (at week 2) and were unchanged after chlorimipramine, indicating that 5-HT and ME concentrations in platelets can vary independently. The high platelet ME levels following 5-hydroxytryptophan and amitriptyline cannot be explained at present. They might be due either to increased ME synthesis, possibly in the megakaryocyte, or to decreased utilization by platelets or both. PMID:6610476

  12. Alterations of Ca(v)1.2 and 5-hydroxytryptamine in rat hearts after positional asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Li, X-F; Huang, Q-Y

    2015-01-01

    We investigated alterations of cardiac Ca(v)1.2 and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) associated with positional asphyxia. Male rats were divided into five groups: a control group with no restraint, group 1 restrained for 1 h, group 2 restrained for 2 h, group 3 restrained for 4 h, and group 4 restrained for 8 h. The rats that were restrained for 8 h ultimately suffered fatal asphyxia. After the restraint periods, the rats were sacrificed and immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the expressions of Ca(v)1.2 and 5-HT in the heart. Sections were analyzed by digital image analysis. Cardiac expression of Ca(v)1.2 and 5-HT proteins were significantly decreased by positional asphyxia in the rat, shown by integrated optical density (IOD) compared to controls. Our findings indicate that Ca(v)1.2 and 5-HT alterations could cause abnormal cardiac function, and the proteins investigated here may be useful for investigating the mechanisms underlying positional asphyxia. PMID:26471941

  13. Effects of 5-HT and 5-HT1A receptor agonists and antagonists on dorsal vagal preganglionic neurones in anaesthetized rats: an ionophoretic study.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Jones, J. F.; Ramage, A. G.; Jordan, D.

    1995-01-01

    1. Effects of ionophoretic administration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and selective 5-HT1A receptor agonists and antagonists on identified dorsal vagal preganglionic and dorsal raphe neurones were studied in pentobarbitone sodium or chloral hydrate-anaesthetized rats, respectively. 2. Extracellular recordings were made from 176 preganglionic neurones in the dorsal vagal nucleus (DVN). Application of 5-HT at low currents (< or = 10 nA) increased the activity of these neurones. However, at increased currents (10-60 nA), it had a predominantly depressant effect. Application of selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonists, (+/-)-pindolol or WAY-100635, attenuated the excitatory responses evoked by 5-HT. 3. Ionophoresis of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (5-30 nA) increased the firing rate of 19 and decreased that of 67 of the 104 vagal neurones tested. Other 5-HT1A receptor agonists, flesinoxan and N,N-di-n-propyl-5-carboxamidotryptamine (DP-5-CT) also had predominantly depressant effects. 4. (+/-)-Pindolol attenuated excitations but not inhibitions evoked by 8-OH-DPAT. Surprisingly, WAY-100635 and 8-OH-DPAT produced the same effect on these neurones and when applied together, WAY-100635 failed to attenuate the 8-OH-DPAT responses. 5. Dorsal raphe neurones were identified by their low, regular firing rate and their subsequent histological localization. 8-OH-DPAT reversibly reduced the activity in all 7 neurones tested and this was antagonized by WAY-100635 in all 3 neurones tested. 6. In conclusion, 5-HT applied to vagal preganglionic neurones evokes excitatory and inhibitory responses. The excitatory, but not the inhibitory responses may be mediated, at least in part, by activation of 5-HT1A receptors. PMID:8564262

  14. Effects of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine on an identified 5-hydroxytryptamine-containing neurone in the central nervous sytem of the snail Helix pomatia.

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, N N; Pentreath, V W

    1976-01-01

    1. The effect of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) on an identified 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-containing neurone in the CNS of the snail was studied by histochemical, biochemical and electrophysiological methods. 2. Low concentrations of 5,7-DHT decreased the endogenous 5-HT content of the neurone without affecting the amino acids, while relatively large amounts of the drug proportionately lowered 5-HT and in addition slightly decreased the tryptophan and methionine content of the cell. 3. 5,7-DHT blocked the uptake of [3H]-5-HT into the neurone; the close analogue 5,6-DHT was more potent. 4. As well as slightly influencing the accumulation of [3H]-tryptophan by the neurone 5,7-DHT inhibited the metabolism of this amino acid to form 5-HT, probably by affecting the enzyme tryptophan-hydroxylase. 5. 5,7-DHT produced a postsynaptic blockade of transmission from the neurone by blocking the 5-HT receptors of the follower neurones. This effect appeared to be specific for 5-HT receptors. 6. The data support the idea that 5,7-DHT is neurotoxic for indoleamine-containing neurones. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:1252663

  15. Pharmacological and genetic interventions in serotonin (5-HT)(2C) receptors to alter drug abuse and dependence processes.

    PubMed

    Filip, Ma?gorzata; Spampinato, Umberto; McCreary, Andrew C; Przegali?ski, Edmund

    2012-10-01

    The present review provides an overview on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)(2C) receptors and their relationship to drug dependence. We have focused our discussion on the impact of 5-HT(2C) receptors on the effects of different classes of addictive drugs, illustrated by reference to data using pharmacological and genetic tools. The neurochemical mechanism of the interaction between 5-HT(2C) receptors, with focus on the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system, and drugs of abuse (using cocaine as an example) is discussed. Finally, we integrate recent nonclinical and clinical research and information with marketed products possessing 5-HT(2C) receptor binding affinities. Accordingly, available nonclinical data and some clinical observations targeting 5-HT(2C) receptors may offer innovative translational strategies for combating drug dependence.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Brain Integration. PMID:22494568

  16. Treadmill exercise alleviates stress-induced impairment of social interaction through 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor activation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woon; Lim, Baek-Vin; Kim, Kijeong; Seo, Jin-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptors tyrosine kinase B (trkB), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) have been suggested as the neurobiological risk factors causing depressive disorder. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. We in-vestigated the effect of treadmill exercise on social interaction in relation with BDNF and 5-HT expressions following stress in rats. Stress was induced by applying inescapable 0.2 mA electric foot shock to the rats for 7 days. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 4 weeks. Social interaction test and western blot for BDNF, TrkB, pCREB, and 5-HT1A in the hippocampus were performed. The results indicate that the spend time with unfamiliar partner was decreased by stress, in contrast, treadmill exercise increased the spending time in the stress-induced rats. Expressions of BDNF, TrkB, and pCREB were decreased by stress, in contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced expressions of BDNF, TrkB, and pCREB in the stress-induced rats. In addition, 5-HT1A receptor expression was de-creased by stress, in contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced 5-HT1A expression in the stress-induced rats. In the present study, treadmill exercise alleviated stress-induced social interaction impairment through enhancing hippocampal plasticity and serotonergic function in the hippocampus. These effects of treadmill exercise are achieved through 5-HT1A receptor activation. PMID:26331133

  17. Treadmill exercise alleviates stress-induced impairment of social interaction through 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Woon; Lim, Baek-Vin; Kim, Kijeong; Seo, Jin-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptors tyrosine kinase B (trkB), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) have been suggested as the neurobiological risk factors causing depressive disorder. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. We in-vestigated the effect of treadmill exercise on social interaction in relation with BDNF and 5-HT expressions following stress in rats. Stress was induced by applying inescapable 0.2 mA electric foot shock to the rats for 7 days. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 4 weeks. Social interaction test and western blot for BDNF, TrkB, pCREB, and 5-HT1A in the hippocampus were performed. The results indicate that the spend time with unfamiliar partner was decreased by stress, in contrast, treadmill exercise increased the spending time in the stress-induced rats. Expressions of BDNF, TrkB, and pCREB were decreased by stress, in contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced expressions of BDNF, TrkB, and pCREB in the stress-induced rats. In addition, 5-HT1A receptor expression was de-creased by stress, in contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced 5-HT1A expression in the stress-induced rats. In the present study, treadmill exercise alleviated stress-induced social interaction impairment through enhancing hippocampal plasticity and serotonergic function in the hippocampus. These effects of treadmill exercise are achieved through 5-HT1A receptor activation. PMID:26331133

  18. Antidepressant-like behavioral effects mediated by 5-Hydroxytryptamine(2C) receptors.

    PubMed

    Cryan, J F; Lucki, I

    2000-12-01

    The role of the 5-HT(2C) receptor in mediating active behaviors in the modified rat forced swim test was examined. Three novel selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists, WAY 161503 (0.1-3.0 mg/kg), RO 60-0175 (2-20 mg/kg), and RO 60-0332 (20 mg/kg), all decreased immobility and increased swimming, a pattern of behavior similar to that which occurs with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (5-20 mg/kg). However, the prototypical but nonselective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine (1-10 mg/kg) increased immobility scores in the forced swim test. The selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB 206533 was inactive when given alone (1-20 mg/kg). However, SB 206533 (20 mg/kg) blocked the antidepressant-like effects of both WAY 161503 (1 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg). The atypical antidepressant (noradrenergic alpha(2) and 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist) mianserin reduced immobility and increased climbing at 30 mg/kg. At a behaviorally subactive dose (10 mg/kg), mianserin abolished the effects of WAY 161503 (1 mg/kg) on both swimming and immobility scores. Mianserin blocked the effects of fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) on swimming only; mianserin plus fluoxetine reduced immobility and induced a switch to climbing behavior, suggesting activation of noradrenergic transmission. These data exemplify the benefits of using the modified rat forced swim test, which was sensitive to serotonergic compounds and distinguished behavioral changes associated with serotonergic and noradrenergic effects. Taken together, the results strongly implicate a role for 5-HT(2C) receptors in the behavioral effects of antidepressant drugs. PMID:11082448

  19. The effects of 5-HT and m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) on the efflux of [3H]-5-HT from human perfused platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Carver, J G; Grahame-Smith, D G; Johnson, E S; Madgwick, Z

    1993-01-01

    1. m-Chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), a 5-HT1c-receptor agonist, induces migraine-like headaches when taken orally by migraine sufferers. The present study was undertaken to see what effects m-CPP had on 5-HT function in platelets. 2. Platelets from healthy male volunteers were loaded with [3H]-5-HT and continuously perfused in vitro with carboxygenated Krebs solution at 37 degrees C. After 30 min washout the effects of m-CPP, thrombin, 5-HT and ADP on the efflux of [3H]-5-HT were recorded. 3. m-CPP (0.5-500 microM) did not evoke an increase in the efflux of [3H]-5-HT over that occurring spontaneously whereas thrombin, unlabelled 5-HT and ADP did. The effects of 5-HT were potentiated by ADP. The results were identical whether or not the 5-HT reuptake blocker paroxetine (1 microM) was present. 4. m-CPP inhibited the increase in the efflux of [3H]-5-HT evoked by different concentrations of unlabelled 5-HT in the presence of ADP (2.5 microM) and displaced the 5-HT log concentration response curve to the right. A similar result was obtained with the 5-HT2-receptor antagonist ketanserin. 5. We conclude that m-CPP is a 5-HT2-receptor antagonist on human platelets, which is unlikely to account for its headache-inducing property, as many drugs effective in migraine prophylaxis have this action. PMID:8512759

  20. SNX14 is a bifunctional negative regulator for neuronal 5-HT6 receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Ha, Chang Man; Park, Daehun; Kim, Yoonju; Na, Myeongsu; Panda, Surabhi; Won, Sehoon; Kim, Hyun; Ryu, Hoon; Park, Zee Yong; Rasenick, Mark M; Chang, Sunghoe

    2015-05-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, also known as serotonin) subtype 6 receptor (5-HT6R, also known as HTR6) plays roles in cognition, anxiety and learning and memory disorders, yet new details concerning its regulation remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that 5-HT6R directly interacted with SNX14 and that this interaction dramatically increased internalization and degradation of 5-HT6R. Knockdown of endogenous SNX14 had the opposite effect. SNX14 is highly expressed in the brain and contains a putative regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domain. Although its RGS domain was found to be non-functional as a GTPase activator for G?s, we found that it specifically bound to and sequestered G?s, thus inhibiting downstream cAMP production. We further found that protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of SNX14 inhibited its binding to G?s and diverted SNX14 from G?s binding to 5-HT6R binding, thus facilitating the endocytic degradation of the receptor. Therefore, our results suggest that SNX14 is a dual endogenous negative regulator in 5-HT6R-mediated signaling pathway, modulating both signaling and trafficking of 5-HT6R. PMID:25795301

  1. 5-HT1A Receptor Function in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Savitz, Jonathan; Lucki, Irwin; Drevets, Wayne C

    2009-01-01

    Dysfunction of the serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A) may play a role in the genesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Here we review the pharmacological, post-mortem, positron-emission tomography (PET), and genetic evidence in support of this statement. We also touch briefly on two MDD-associated phenotypes, cognitive impairment and somatic pain. The results of pharmacological challenge studies with 5-HT1A receptor agonists are indicative of blunted endocrine responses in depressed patients. Lithium, valproate, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and other treatment, such as electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT), all increase post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptor signaling through either direct or indirect effects. Reduced somatodendritic and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor numbers or affinity have been reported in some post-mortem studies of suicide victims, a result consistent with well-replicated PET analyses demonstrating reduced 5-HT1A receptor binding potential in diverse regions such as the dorsal raphe, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala and hippocampus. 5-HT1A receptor knockout (KO) mice display increased anxiety-related behavior, which, unlike in their wild-type counterparts, cannot be rescued with AD treatment. In humans, the G allele of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 5-HT1A receptor gene (HTR1A; rs6295), which abrogates a transcription factor binding site for Deaf-1 and Hes5, has been reported to be over-represented in MDD cases. Conversely, the C allele has been associated with better response to AD drugs. We raise the possibility that 5-HT1A receptor dysfunction represents one potential mechanism underpinning MDD and other stress-related disorders. PMID:19428959

  2. Increased responsiveness of rat colonic splanchnic afferents to 5-HT after inflammation and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Coldwell, Jonathan R; Phillis, Benjamin D; Sutherland, Kate; Howarth, Gordon S; Blackshaw, L Ashley

    2007-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activates colonic splanchnic afferents, a mechanism by which it has been implicated in generating symptoms in postinfectious and postinflammatory states in humans. Here we compared mechanisms of colonic afferent activation by 5-HT and mechanical stimuli in normal and inflamed rat colon, and after recovery from inflammation. Colonic inflammation was induced in rats by dextran sulphate sodium. Single-fibre recordings of colonic lumbar splanchnic afferents revealed that 58% of endings responded to 5-HT (10?4m) in controls, 88% in acute inflammation (P < 0.05) and 75% after 21 days recovery (P < 0.05 versus control). Maximal responses to 5-HT were also larger, and the estimated EC50 was reduced from 3.2 10?6 to 8 10?7m in acute inflammation and recovered to 2 10?6m after recovery. Responsiveness to mechanical stimulation was unaffected. 5-HT3 receptor antagonism with alosetron reduced responses to 5-HT in controls but not during inflammation. Responses to the mast cell degranulator 48/80 mimicked those to 5-HT in inflamed tissue but not in controls, and more 5-HT-containing mast cells were seen close to calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing fibres in inflamed serosa. We conclude that colonic serosal and mesenteric endings exhibit increased sensitivity to 5-HT in inflammation, with both an increase in proportion of responders and an increase in sensitivity, which is maintained after healing of inflammation. This is associated with alterations in the roles of 5-HT3 receptors and mast cells. PMID:17138606

  3. Pharmacological profile of the receptors that mediate external carotid vasoconstriction by 5-HT in vagosympathectomized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Villaln, C. M.; Ramrez-San Juan, E.; Castillo, C.; Castillo, E.; Lpez-Muoz, F. J.; Terrn, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) can produce vasodilatation or vasoconstriction of the canine external carotid bed depending upon the degree of carotid sympathetic tone. Hence, external carotid vasodilatation to 5-HT in dogs with intact sympathetic tone is primarily mediated by prejunctional 5-HT1-like receptors similar to the 5-HT1D subtype, which inhibit the carotid sympathetic outflow. The present investigation is devoted to the pharmacological analysis of the receptors mediating external carotid vasoconstriction by 5-HT in vagosympathectomized dogs. 2. Intracarotid (i.c.) infusions for 1 min of 5-HT (0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30 and 100 micrograms) resulted in dose-dependent decreases in both external carotid blood flow and the corresponding conductance; both mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate remained unchanged during the infusions of 5-HT. These responses to 5-HT were resistant to blockade by antagonists at 5-HT2 (ritanserin) and 5-HT3/5-HT4 (tropisetron) receptors, but were partly blocked by the 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, methiothepin (0.3 mg kg-1); higher doses of methiothepin (1 and 3 mg kg-1) caused little, if any, further blockade. These methiothepin (3 mg kg-1)-resistant responses to 5-HT were not significantly antagonized by MDL 72222 (0.3 mg kg-1) or tropisetron (3 mg kg-1). 3. The external carotid vasoconstrictor effects of 5-HT were mimicked by the selective 5-HT1-like receptor agonist, sumatriptan (3, 10, 30 and 100 micrograms during 1 min, i.c.), which produced dose-dependent decreases in external carotid blood flow and the corresponding conductance; these effects of sumatriptan were dose-dependently antagonized by methiothepin (0.3, 1 and 3 mg kg-1), but not by 5-HT1D-like receptor blocking doses of metergoline (0.1 mg kg-1). 4. The above vasoconstrictor effects of 5-HT remained unaltered after administration of phentolamine, propranolol, atropine, hexamethonium, brompheniramine, cimetidine and haloperidol, thus excluding the involvement of alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors, muscarinic, nicotinic, histamine and dopamine receptors. Likewise, inhibition of either 5-HT-uptake (with fluoxetine) or cyclo-oxygenase (with indomethacin), depletion of biogenic amines (with reserpine) or blockade of calcium channels (with verapamil) did not modify the effects of 5-HT. 5. Taken together, the above results support our contention that the external carotid vasoconstrictor responses to 5-HT in vagosympathectomized dogs are mainly mediated by activation of sumatriptan-sensitive 5-HT1-like receptors. It must be emphasized, notwithstanding, that other mechanisms of 5-HT, including an interaction with a novel 5-HT receptor (sub)type and/or an indirect action that may lead to the release of a known (or even unknown) neurotransmitter substance cannot be categorically excluded. PMID:8591004

  4. Prophylaxis of Radiation-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Using 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 Serotonin Receptor Antagonists: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Salvo, Nadia; Doble, Brett; Khan, Luluel; Amirthevasar, Gayathri; Dennis, Kristopher; Pasetka, Mark; DeAngelis, Carlo; Tsao, May; Chow, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the effectiveness and safety of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs) compared with other antiemetic medication or placebo for prophylaxis of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting. Methods and Materials: We searched the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, and Web of Science. We also hand-searched reference lists of included studies. Randomized, controlled trials that compared a 5-HT3 RA with another antiemetic medication or placebo for preventing radiation-induced nausea and vomiting were included. We excluded studies recruiting patients receiving concomitant chemotherapy. When appropriate, meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager (v5) software. Relative risks were calculated using inverse variance as the statistical method under a random-effects model. We assessed the quality of evidence by outcome using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Results: Eligibility screening of 47 articles resulted in 9 included in the review. The overall methodologic quality was moderate. Meta-analysis of 5-HT3 RAs vs. placebo showed significant benefit for 5-HT3 RAs (relative risk [RR] 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-0.86 for emesis; RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96 for nausea). Meta-analysis comparing 5-HT3 RAs vs. metoclopramide showed a significant benefit of the 5-HT3 RAs for emetic control (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.15-0.47). Conclusion: 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 RAs are superior to placebo and other antiemetics for prevention of emesis, but little benefit was identified for nausea prevention. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 RAs are suggested for prevention of emesis. Limited evidence was found regarding delayed emesis, adverse events, quality of life, or need for rescue medication. Future randomized, controlled trials should evaluate different 5-HT3 antiemetics and new agents with novel mechanisms of action such at the NK{sub 1} receptor antagonists to determine the most effective drug. Delayed nausea and vomiting should be a focus of future study, perhaps concentrating on the palliative cancer population.

  5. Gaddum and LSD: the birth and growth of experimental and clinical neuropharmacology research on 5-HT in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Green, A R

    2008-01-01

    The vasoconstrictor substance named serotonin was identified as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) by Maurice Rapport in 1949. In 1951, Rapport gave Gaddum samples of 5-HT substance allowing him to develop a bioassay to both detect and measure the amine. Gaddum and colleagues rapidly identified 5-HT in brain and showed that lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) antagonized its action in peripheral tissues. Gaddum accordingly postulated that 5-HT might have a role in mood regulation. This review examines the role of UK scientists in the first 20 years following these major discoveries, discussing their role in developing assays for 5-HT in the CNS, identifying the enzymes involved in the synthesis and metabolism of 5-HT and investigating the effect of drugs on brain 5-HT. It reviews studies on the effects of LSD in humans, including Gaddum's self-administration experiments. It outlines investigations on the role of 5-HT in psychiatric disorders, including studies on the effect of antidepressant drugs on the 5-HT concentration in rodent and human brain, and the attempts to examine 5-HT biochemistry in the brains of patients with depressive illness. It is clear that a rather small group of both preclinical scientists and psychiatrists in the UK made major advances in our understanding of the role of 5-HT in the brain, paving the way for much of the knowledge now taken for granted when discussing ways that 5-HT might be involved in the control of mood and the idea that therapeutic drugs used to alleviate psychiatric illness might alter the function of cerebral 5-HT. PMID:18516072

  6. 5-HT4 receptors located on cholinergic nerves in human colon circular muscle.

    PubMed

    Leclere, P G; Prins, N H; Schuurkes, J A J; Lefebvre, R A

    2005-06-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine 4 (5-HT4) receptor agonists promote colonic propulsion. The alteration of circular muscle (CM) motility underlying this involves inhibition of contractility via smooth muscle 5-HT4 receptors and proximal colonic motility stimulation, the mechanism of the latter not having been characterized. Our aim was to identify and characterize a 5-HT4 receptor-mediated stimulation of human colon CM contractile activity. 5-HT4 receptor ligands were tested on electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions of human colonic muscle strips cut in the circular direction (called 'whole tissue' strips). Additionally, after incubation of tissues with [3H]-choline these compounds were tested on EFS-induced release of tritium in whole tissue strips and in 'isolated' CM strips, obtained by superficial cutting in the CM layer. Tetrodotoxin and atropine blocked EFS-induced contractions of whole tissue CM strips. Prucalopride (0.3 micromol L-1) evoked a heterogenous response on EFS-induced contraction, ranging from inhibition (most frequently observed) to enhancement. In the release experiments, EFS-induced tritium efflux was blocked by tetrodotoxin. Prucalopride increased EFS-induced tritium and [3H]-acetylcholine efflux in whole tissue and in isolated CM strips. All effects of prucalopride were antagonized by the selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist GR113808. The results obtained indicate the presence of excitatory 5-HT4 receptors on cholinergic nerves within the CM of human colon. PMID:15916624

  7. Role of prucalopride, a serotonin (5-HT(4)) receptor agonist, for the treatment of chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Banny S; Manabe, Noriaki; Camilleri, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Constipation affects up to a quarter of the population in developed countries and is associated with poor quality of life and significant economic burden. Many patients with chronic constipation are dissatisfied with current therapy due to lack of long-term efficacy or side effects. Previous nonselective 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 (5-HT(4)) agonists have been associated with significant interactions with other receptors (5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D), and 5-HT(2B) for tegaserod; hERG for cisapride), leading to adverse cardiovascular events resulting in withdrawal of these drugs from the market. Prucalopride is a novel gastrointestinal prokinetic agent. It acts as a high affinity, highly-selective 5-HT(4) agonist. Its efficacy in patients with chronic constipation has been demonstrated in several phase II and phase III clinical trials showing significant improvements in bowel transit, bowel function, gastrointestinal symptoms, and quality of life, with benefit maintained for up to 24 months in open label, multicenter, follow-up studies. Prucalopride's high selectivity for the 5-HT(4) receptor may explain its favorable safety and tolerability profiles, even in elderly subjects with stable cardiovascular disease. Prucalopride is a well tolerated and efficacious prokinetic medication that should enhance the treatment of chronic constipation unresponsive to first-line treatments. PMID:21694846

  8. Peripheral 5-HT2-like receptors. Can they be classified with the available antagonists?

    PubMed Central

    Leff, P.; Martin, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Interactions between 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and the so-called 5-HT2 receptor antagonists ketanserin, spiperone, trazodone and methysergide were studied in isolated preparations of the rabbit aorta, rat jugular vein, and rat caudal artery. Trazodone and spiperone were apparently simple competitive antagonists since they produced antagonism that was surmountable over the concentration range studied and, in each tissue, their apparent affinity appeared to be independent of the antagonist concentration. Furthermore, concentration-ratios obtained with the two antagonists in combination suggested that antagonism was additive, implying mutual competition with a single population of 5-HT receptors. Ketanserin was a non-surmountable antagonist of 5-HT in the rat caudal artery and methysergide demonstrated surmountable, competitive antagonism only in the rabbit aorta. Antagonist dissociation constants estimated for apparently competitive interactions showed that ketanserin, spiperone and trazodone expressed affinities which differed according to the tissue used. In the case of trazodone, affinity estimates differed by as much as 12 fold. These discrepancies were independent of the 5-HT receptor agonist used and could not be attributed to an inadequate equilibration of the antagonist. These results can be interpreted in two ways: either the receptors in the different tissues are heterogeneous or the antagonists used here must be considered as unreliable probes for the classification of 5-HT2-like receptors. PMID:2943354

  9. Agonism of the 5-hydroxytryptamine 1F receptor promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and recovery from acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Sara M; Whitaker, Ryan M; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2014-08-01

    Many acute and chronic conditions, such as acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, heart failure, and liver disease, involve mitochondrial dysfunction. Although we have provided evidence that drug-induced stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) accelerates mitochondrial and cellular repair, leading to recovery of organ function, only a limited number of chemicals have been identified that induce MB. The goal of this study was to assess the role of the 5-hydroxytryptamine 1F (5-HT1F) receptor in MB. Immunoblot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed 5-HT1F receptor expression in renal proximal tubule cells (RPTC). A MB screening assay demonstrated that two selective 5-HT1F receptor agonists, LY334370 (4-fluoro-N-[3-(1-methyl-4-piperidinyl)-1H-indol-5-yl]benzamide) and LY344864 (N-[(3R)-3-(dimethylamino)-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazol-6-yl]-4-fluorobenzamide; 1-100 nM) increased carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone-uncoupled oxygen consumption in RPTC, and validation studies confirmed both agonists increased mitochondrial proteins [e.g., ATP synthase ?, cytochrome c oxidase 1 (Cox1), and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1? subcomplex subunit 8 (NDUFB8)] in vitro. Small interfering RNA knockdown of the 5-HT1F receptor blocked agonist-induced MB. Furthermore, LY344864 increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1-?, Cox1, and NDUFB8 transcript levels and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in murine renal cortex, heart, and liver. Finally, LY344864 accelerated recovery of renal function, as indicated by decreased blood urea nitrogen and kidney injury molecule 1 and increased mtDNA copy number following ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). In summary, these studies reveal that the 5-HT1F receptor is linked to MB, 5-HT1F receptor agonism promotes MB in vitro and in vivo, and 5-HT1F receptor agonism promotes recovery from AKI injury. Induction of MB through 5-HT1F receptor agonism represents a new target and approach to treat mitochondrial organ dysfunction. PMID:24849926

  10. Agonism of the 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1F Receptor Promotes Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Recovery from Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Sara M.; Whitaker, Ryan M.; Beeson, Craig C.

    2014-01-01

    Many acute and chronic conditions, such as acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, heart failure, and liver disease, involve mitochondrial dysfunction. Although we have provided evidence that drug-induced stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) accelerates mitochondrial and cellular repair, leading to recovery of organ function, only a limited number of chemicals have been identified that induce MB. The goal of this study was to assess the role of the 5-hydroxytryptamine 1F (5-HT1F) receptor in MB. Immunoblot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed 5-HT1F receptor expression in renal proximal tubule cells (RPTC). A MB screening assay demonstrated that two selective 5-HT1F receptor agonists, LY334370 (4-fluoro-N-[3-(1-methyl-4-piperidinyl)-1H-indol-5-yl]benzamide) and LY344864 (N-[(3R)-3-(dimethylamino)-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazol-6-yl]-4-fluorobenzamide; 1100 nM) increased carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazoneuncoupled oxygen consumption in RPTC, and validation studies confirmed both agonists increased mitochondrial proteins [e.g., ATP synthase ?, cytochrome c oxidase 1 (Cox1), and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1? subcomplex subunit 8 (NDUFB8)] in vitro. Small interfering RNA knockdown of the 5-HT1F receptor blocked agonist-induced MB. Furthermore, LY344864 increased peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor coactivator 1-?, Cox1, and NDUFB8 transcript levels and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in murine renal cortex, heart, and liver. Finally, LY344864 accelerated recovery of renal function, as indicated by decreased blood urea nitrogen and kidney injury molecule 1 and increased mtDNA copy number following ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). In summary, these studies reveal that the 5-HT1F receptor is linked to MB, 5-HT1F receptor agonism promotes MB in vitro and in vivo, and 5-HT1F receptor agonism promotes recovery from AKI injury. Induction of MB through 5-HT1F receptor agonism represents a new target and approach to treat mitochondrial organ dysfunction. PMID:24849926

  11. Therapeutic Potential of 5-HT2C Receptor Agonists for Addictive Disorders.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Guy A; Fletcher, Paul J

    2015-07-15

    The neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) has long been associated with the control of a variety of motivated behaviors, including feeding. Much of the evidence linking 5-HT and feeding behavior was obtained from studies of the effects of the 5-HT releaser (dex)fenfluramine in laboratory animals and humans. Recently, the selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin received FDA approval for the treatment of obesity. This review examines evidence to support the use of selective 5-HT2C receptor agonists as treatments for conditions beyond obesity, including substance abuse (particularly nicotine, psychostimulant, and alcohol dependence), obsessive compulsive, and excessive gambling disorder. Following a brief survey of the early literature supporting a role for 5-HT in modulating food and drug reinforcement, we propose that intrinsic differences between SSRI and serotonin releasers may have underestimated the value of serotonin-based pharmacotherapeutics to treat clinical forms of addictive behavior beyond obesity. We then highlight the critical involvement of the 5-HT2C receptor in mediating the effect of (dex)fenfluramine on feeding and body weight gain and the evidence that 5-HT2C receptor agonists reduce measures of drug reward and impulsivity. A recent report of lorcaserin efficacy in a smoking cessation trial further strengthens the idea that 5-HT2C receptor agonists may have potential as a treatment for addiction. This review was prepared as a contribution to the proceedings of the 11th International Society for Serotonin Research Meeting held in Hermanus, South Africa, July 9-12, 2014. PMID:25870913

  12. Effects of intracerebroventricular injections of 5-HT on systemic vascular resistances of conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Davisson, Robin L; Bates, James N; Johnson, Alan Kim; Lewis, Stephen J

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine (i) the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, 10?g) on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and mesenteric (MR), renal (RR) and hindquarter (HQR) vascular resistances of conscious rats, (ii) the central 5-HT receptor subtype which mediates these effects, and (iii) the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the expression of these responses. The i.c.v. injection of 5-HT had minor effects on MAP but produced a decrease in HR (-184%), which lasted for 20min. The i.c.v. injection of 5-HT elicited marked increases in MR (+507%) and reductions in HQR (-313%). These responses occurred promptly and lasted for 25-35min. 5-HT also produced a transient decrease in RR (-268% at 10min). All of these responses were prevented by the prior i.c.v. injection of the 5-HT1/5-HT2-receptor antagonist, methysergide (10?g). The intravenous injection of the NO synthesis inhibitor, L-NAME (25?mol/kg), produced a sustained pressor response, bradycardia and increases in MR, RR and HQR. Subsequent i.c.v. injection of 5-HT produced a minor pressor response (+72%), bradycardia (-183%), an increase in MR (+528%) but no decreases in RR or HQR. This study demonstrates that i.c.v. 5-HT differentially affects peripheral vascular resistances by activation of central 5-HT1/5-HT2-receptors. It appears that L-NAME did not interfere with the central actions of 5-HT as it did not prevent the 5-HT-induced bradycardia or mesenteric vasoconstriction. Since the 5-HT-induced falls in RR and HQR were abolished by L-NAME, it is possible that these responses are mediated by an active neurogenic process involving the release of NO within the vasculature. PMID:25128748

  13. Limonene inhibits methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity via regulation of 5-HT neuronal function and dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jaesuk

    2014-05-15

    Methamphetamine is a psychomotor stimulant that produces hyperlocomotion in rodents. Limonene (a cyclic terpene from citrus essential oils) has been reported to induce sedative effects. In this study, we demonstrated that limonene administration significantly inhibited serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)-induced head twitch response in mice. In rats, pretreatment with limonene decreased hyperlocomotion induced by methamphetamine injection. In addition, limonene reversed the increase in dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens of rats given methamphetamine. These results suggest that limonene may inhibit stimulant-induced behavioral changes via regulating dopamine levels and 5-HT receptor function. PMID:24462212

  14. Targeting the Serotonin 5-HT7 Receptor in the Search for Treatments for CNS Disorders: Rationale and Progress to Date.

    PubMed

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka

    2015-04-01

    The 5-HT7 (5-hydroxytryptamine 7, serotonin 7) receptor is one of the most recently identified members of the serotonin receptor family. Pharmacological tools, including selective antagonists and, more recently, agonists, along with 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) knock-out mice have revealed the involvement of this receptor in central nervous system processes. Its well-established role in controlling body temperature and regulating sleep and circadian rhythms has implicated this receptor in mood disorders. Thus, the 5-HT7R has gained much attention as a possible target for the treatment of depression. Although preclinical data support the antidepressant-like actions of 5-HT7R antagonists, their clinical efficacy has not been yet established. Other evidence has implicated the 5-HT7R in learning and memory. Preclinical findings suggest that blockade of this receptor may be beneficial against schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits. Other possible indications include nociception, epilepsy, migraine, autism spectrum disorders, and Rett Syndrome. However, the question is whether the beneficial effects may be achieved by activation or blockade of 5-HT7Rs. Hence, this review briefly summarises the recent findings on the role of 5-HT7Rs and their ligands in CNS disorders. PMID:25721336

  15. Functional evidence for the rapid desensitization of 5-HT(3) receptors on vagal afferents mediating the Bezold-Jarisch reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(3) receptors on cardiopulmonary afferents mediating the Bezold-Jarisch reflex (BJR) desensitize upon repeated exposure to selective agonists. BJR-mediated falls in heart rate, diastolic arterial blood pressure and cardiac output elicited by the 5-HT(3)-receptor agonists, phenylbiguanide (100 microg/kg, i.v.) or 2-methyl-5-HT (100 microg/kg, i.v.), progressively diminished upon repeated injection in conscious rats. The BJR responses elicited by 5-HT (40 microg/kg, i.v.) were markedly reduced in rats which had received the above injections of phenylbiguanide or 2-methyl-5-HT whereas the BJR responses elicited by L-S-nitrosocysteine (10 micromol/kg, i.v.) were similar before and after the injections of the 5-HT(3) receptor agonists. These findings suggest that tachyphylaxis to 5-HT(3) receptor agonists may be due to the desensitization of 5-HT(3) receptors on cardiopulmonary afferents rather than the impairment of the central or peripheral processing of the BJR.

  16. Molecular characterization and analysis of a putative 5-HT receptor involved in reproduction process of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; He, Maoxian

    2014-08-01

    5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine; serotonin) has been linked to a variety of biological roles including gonad maturation and sequential spawning in bivalve molluscs. To gain a better understanding of the effects of 5-HT on developmental regulation in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, the isolation, cloning, and expression of the 5-HT receptor was investigated in this study. A full-length cDNA (2541 bp) encoding a putative 5-HT receptor (5-HTpf) of 471 amino acids was isolated from the ovary of the pearl oyster. It shared 71% and 51% homology, respectively, with the Crassostrea gigas 5-HT receptor and the Aplysia californica 5-HT1ap. The 5-HTpf sequence possessed the typical characteristics of seven transmembrane domains and a long third inner loop. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated that 5-HTpf was classified into the 5-HT1 subtype together with other invertebrate 5-HT1 receptors. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that 5-HTpf is widely expressed in all tissues tested, is involved in the gametogenesis cycle, embryonic and larval development stages, and expression is induced by E2 in ovarian tissues. These results suggest that 5-HTpf is involved in the reproductive process, specifically in the induction of oocyte maturation and spawning of P. fucata. PMID:24852353

  17. Serotonin controls the maturation of the GABA phenotype in the ventral spinal cord via 5-HT1b receptors.

    PubMed

    Allain, Anne-Emilie; Sgu, Louis; Meyrand, Pierre; Branchereau, Pascal

    2010-06-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) is a pleiotropic neurotransmitter known to play a crucial modulating role during the construction of brain circuits. Descending bulbo-spinal 5-HT fibers, coming from the caudal medullary cell groups of the raphe nuclei, progressively invade the mouse spinal cord and arrive at lumbar segments at E15.5 when the number of ventral GABA immunoreactive (GABA-ir) interneurons reaches its maximum. We thus raised the question of a possible interaction between these two neurotransmitter systems and investigated the effect of 5-HT descending inputs on the maturation of the GABA phenotype in ventral spinal interneurons. Using a quantitative anatomical study performed on acute and cultured embryonic mouse spinal cord, we found that the GABAergic neuronal population matured according to a similar rostro-caudal gradient both in utero and in organotypic culture. We showed that 5-HT delayed the maturation of the GABA phenotype in lumbar but not brachial interneurons. Using pharmacological treatments and mice lacking 5-HT(1B) or 5-HT(1A), we demonstrated that the 5-HT repressing effect on the GABAergic phenotype was specifically attributed to 5-HT(1B) receptors. PMID:20536936

  18. Selective recognition of 5-hydroxytryptamine and dopamine on a multi-walled carbon nanotube-chitosan hybrid film-modi?ed microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huiren; Wang, Li; Luo, Jinping; Song, Yilin; Liu, Juntao; Zhang, Song; Cai, Xinxia

    2015-01-01

    It is dif?cult to determine dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) accurately because of the interference of ascorbic acid (AA) in vitro, which has a high concentration and can be oxidized at a potential close to DA and 5-HT at a conventional electrode, combined with the overlapping voltammetric signal of DA and 5-HT at a bare electrode. Herein, chitosan (CS) was used as a stabilizing matrix by electrochemical reaction, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified onto the microelectrode array (MEA). The CS-MWCNT hybrid film-modified MEA was quite effective at simultaneously recognizing these species in a mixture and resolved the overlapping anodic peaks of AA, DA and 5-HT into three well-de?ned oxidation peaks in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at -80 mV, 105 mV and 300 mV (versus Ag|AgCl), respectively. The linear responses were obtained in the range of 5 10(-6) M to 2 10(-4) M for DA (r = 0.996) and in the range of 1 10(-5) M to 3 10(-4) M for 5-HT (r = 0.999) using the DPV under the presence of a single substance. While DA coexisted with 5-HT in the interference of 3 10(-4) M AA, the linear responses were obtained in the range of 1 10(-5) M to 3 10(-4) M for selective molecular recognition of DA (r = 0.997) and 5-HT (r = 0.997) using the DPV. Therefore, this proposed MEA was successfully used for selective molecular recognition and determination of DA and 5-HT using the DPV, which has a potential application for real-time determination in vitro experiments. PMID:25580900

  19. Selective Recognition of 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Dopamine on a Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Chitosan Hybrid Film-Modified Microelectrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huiren; Wang, Li; Luo, Jinping; Song, Yilin; Liu, Juntao; Zhang, Song; Cai, Xinxia

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to determine dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) accurately because of the interference of ascorbic acid (AA) in vitro, which has a high concentration and can be oxidized at a potential close to DA and 5-HT at a conventional electrode, combined with the overlapping voltammetric signal of DA and 5-HT at a bare electrode. Herein, chitosan (CS) was used as a stabilizing matrix by electrochemical reaction, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified onto the microelectrode array (MEA). The CS-MWCNT hybrid film-modified MEA was quite effective at simultaneously recognizing these species in a mixture and resolved the overlapping anodic peaks of AA, DA and 5-HT into three well-defined oxidation peaks in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at ?80 mV, 105 mV and 300 mV (versus Ag|AgCl), respectively. The linear responses were obtained in the range of 5 10?6 M to 2 10?4 M for DA (r = 0.996) and in the range of 1 10?5 M to 3 10?4 M for 5-HT (r = 0.999) using the DPV under the presence of a single substance. While DA coexisted with 5-HT in the interference of 3 10?4 M AA, the linear responses were obtained in the range of 1 10?5 M to 3 10?4 M for selective molecular recognition of DA (r = 0.997) and 5-HT (r = 0.997) using the DPV. Therefore, this proposed MEA was successfully used for selective molecular recognition and determination of DA and 5-HT using the DPV, which has a potential application for real-time determination in vitro experiments. PMID:25580900

  20. Compensatory airway dilation and additive ventilatory augmentation mediated by dorsomedial medullary 5-hydroxytryptamine 2 receptor activity and hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Kanamaru, Mitsuko; Homma, Ikuo

    2007-08-01

    5-HT2 receptor activity in the hypoglossal nucleus and hypercapnia is associated with airway dilation. 5-HT neurons in the medullary raphe and hypercapnia are responsible for tidal volume change. In this study, the effects of 5-HT2 receptors in the dorsomedial medulla oblongata (DMM), which receives projections from the medullary raphe, and hypercapnia on airway resistance and respiratory variables were studied in mice while monitoring 5-HT release in the DMM. A microdialysis probe was inserted into the DMM of anesthetized adult mice. Each mouse was placed in a double-chamber plethysmograph. After recovery from anesthesia, the mice were exposed to stepwise increases in CO(2) inhalation (5%, 7%, and 9% CO(2) in O(2)) at 8-min intervals with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, or fluoxetine plus a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, LY-53857 in the DMM. In response to fluoxetine plus LY-53857 coperfusion, specific airway resistance was increased, and tidal volume and minute ventilation were decreased. CO(2) inhalation with fluoxetine plus LY-53857 coperfusion in the DMM largely decreased airway resistance and additively increased minute ventilation. Thus, 5-HT2 receptor activity in the DMM increases basal levels of airway dilation and ventilatory volume, dependent on central inspiratory activity and the volume threshold of the inspiratory off-switch mechanism. Hypercapnia with low 5-HT2 receptor activity in the DMM largely recovers airway dilation and additively increases ventilatory volume. Interaction between 5-HT2 receptor activity in the DMM and CO(2) drive may elicit a cycle of hyperventilation with airway dilation and hypoventilation with airway narrowing. PMID:17537836

  1. 5-HT3 receptors as important mediators of nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2015-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, and patient risk factors significantly influence CINV. The use of a combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and a neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist has significantly improved the control of acute and delayed emesis in single-day chemotherapy. The first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have been very effective in the control of chemotherapy induced emesis in the first 24 h postchemotherapy (acute emesis), but have not been as effective against delayed emesis (24-120 h postchemotherapy). Palonosetron, a second generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a different half-life, a different binding capacity, and a different mechanism of action than the first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists appears to be the most effective agent in its class. Despite the control of emesis, nausea has not been well controlled by current agents. Olanzapine, a FDA approved antipsychotic that blocks multiple neurotransmitters: dopamine at D1, D2, D3, D4 brain receptors, serotonin at 5-HT2a, 5-HT2c, 5-HT3, 5-HT6 receptors, catecholamines at alpha1 adrenergic receptors, acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, and histamine at H1 receptors, has emerged in recent trials as an effective preventative agent for chemotherapy-induced emesis and nausea, as well as a very effective agent for the treatment of breakthrough emesis and nausea. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. PMID:25838122

  2. In vivo labeling of 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake sites in mouse brain with ( sup 3 H)-6-nitroquipazine

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, K.; Goromaru, T. )

    1990-10-01

    6-Nitroquipazine (DU 24565; 6-nitro 2-piperazinylquinoline) is a very potent 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) uptake inhibitor. It has been demonstrated very recently that (3H)-6-nitroquipazine is a suitable radioligand for studying 5-HT uptake sites. The present study evaluates (3H)6-nitroquipazine as a radioligand for in vivo labeling of 5-HT uptake sites in mouse brain. Very high uptake of radioactivity in the brain after i.v. administration of (3H)-6-nitroquipazine was shown. Regional distribution of the radioactivity in mouse brain 3 hr after injection of (3H)-6-nitroquipazine was in the order (highest to lowest) hypothalamus greater than midbrain greater than striatum greater than hippocampus greater than cerebral cortex greater than medulla oblongata greater than cerebellum. The regional distribution of in vivo (3H)-6-nitroquipazine binding in mouse brain was highly correlated with that in rat brain obtained from previous in vitro binding studies. Coadministration of carrier 6-nitroquipazine (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased the radioactivity in the hypothalamus, whereas that in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex was increased. Because the cerebellum has very low density of (3H)-6-nitroquipazine binding sites, the radioactivity in the cerebellum could, therefore, reflect the amount on nonspecific binding and free ligand. Kinetic studies showed highest in vivo specific binding 1 hr after injection of (3H)-6-nitroquipazine and slow clearance of specific binding. Specific binding in the hypothalamus was inhibited in a stereoselective manner by the stereoisomers of norzimelidine. Furthermore, specific binding in the hypothalamus was reduced by several 5-HT uptake inhibitors, in a dose-dependent manner.

  3. Observations concerning the action of 5-hydroxytryptamine on the peristaltic reflex

    PubMed Central

    Blbring, Edith; Crema, A.

    1958-01-01

    In isolated guinea-pig intestine 5-hydroxytryptamine increased the longitudinal muscle contractions in response to acetylcholine while the ganglionic action of nicotine was first facilitated and then blocked. Phenyldiguanide, veratrine, veratridine and protoveratrine, like 5-hydroxytryptamine, depressed the response to nicotine, leaving that to acetylcholine unaffected. The sensory stimulants, like 5-hydroxytryptamine, facilitated the peristaltic reflex when applied to the mucosa, and abolished it when applied to the serosa. Preceding the block, the initial effect of low concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine applied to the serosa was a short stimulation of peristalsis. Concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine which had an approximately equal stimulant action (mucosal 1 to 4 10-6, serosal 2 to 8 10-8) were tested when various parts of the reflex arc were blocked. During block by procaine introduced into the lumen, mucosal application of 5-hydroxytryptamine re-established peristalsis, but serosal application of 5-hydroxytryptamine had no effect. During block by hexamethonium or atropine present in the bath, 5-hydroxytryptamine restored peristalsis more effectively by serosal application than by mucosal application. During block by serosal application of 5-hydroxytryptamine, morphine, phenoxybenzamine or dihydroergotamine, mucosal application of 5-hydroxytryptamine restored the peristaltic reflex while serosal application had no effect. During block by 2-bromo-lysergic acid diethylamide or lysergic acid diethylamide acting from the serosal surface, 5-hydroxytryptamine had no effect whether acting on the mucosal or on the serosal surface. It is concluded that 5-hydroxytryptamine facilitates the peristaltic reflex at two sites: when introduced into the lumen it stimulates mucosal sensory receptors; when acting from the serosal surface it sensitizes the muscle to the transmitter acetylcholine. There is also a transient stimulant action on the ganglia which is soon followed by inhibition; this indicates that 5-hydroxytryptamine applied to the serosa abolishes peristalsis by ganglion block. PMID:13618550

  4. Application of Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship Models of 5-HT1A Receptor Binding to Virtual Screening Identifies Novel and Potent 5-HT1A Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A) serotonin receptor has been an attractive target for treating mood and anxiety disorders such as schizophrenia. We have developed binary classification quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models of 5-HT1A receptor binding activity using data retrieved from the PDSP Ki database. The prediction accuracy of these models was estimated by external 5-fold cross-validation as well as using an additional validation set comprising 66 structurally distinct compounds from the World of Molecular Bioactivity database. These validated models were then used to mine three major types of chemical screening libraries, i.e., drug-like libraries, GPCR targeted libraries, and diversity libraries, to identify novel computational hits. The five best hits from each class of libraries were chosen for further experimental testing in radioligand binding assays, and nine of the 15 hits were confirmed to be active experimentally with binding affinity better than 10 μM. The most active compound, Lysergol, from the diversity library showed very high binding affinity (Ki) of 2.3 nM against 5-HT1A receptor. The novel 5-HT1A actives identified with the QSAR-based virtual screening approach could be potentially developed as novel anxiolytics or potential antischizophrenic drugs. PMID:24410373

  5. Stimulating healthy tissue regeneration by targeting the 5-HT2B receptor in chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Oakley, Fiona; Murphy, Lindsay B; Mann, Jelena; Moles, Anna; Perugorria, Maria J; Ellis, Elizabeth; Lakey, Anne F; Burt, Alastair D; Douglass, Angela; Wright, Matthew C; White, Steven A; Jaffré, Fabrice; Maroteaux, Luc; Mann, Derek A

    2012-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires an effective, limited wound-healing response to injury. In chronic disease, failure to regenerate parenchymal tissue leads to the replacement of lost cellular mass with a fibrotic matrix. The mechanisms that dictate the balance of cell regeneration and fibrogenesis are not well understood1. Here we report that fibrogenic hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in the liver are negative regulators of hepatocyte regeneration. This negative regulatory function requires stimulation of the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2B receptor (5-HT2B) on HSCs by serotonin, which activates expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), a powerful suppressor of hepatocyte proliferation, through signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (ERK) and the transcription factor JunD. Selective antagonism of 5-HT2B enhanced hepatocyte growth in models of acute and chronic liver injury. We also observed similar effects in mice lacking 5-HT2B or JunD or upon selective depletion of HSCs in wild-type mice. Antagonism of 5-HT2B attenuated fibrogenesis and improved liver function in disease models in which fibrosis was pre-established and progressive. Pharmacological targeting of 5-HT2B is clinically safe in humans and may be therapeutic in chronic liver disease. PMID:22120177

  6. Prefrontal/Amygdalar System Determines Stress Coping Behavior Through 5-HT/GABA Connection

    PubMed Central

    Andolina, Diego; Maran, Dario; Valzania, Alessandro; Conversi, David; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Coping is defined as the behavioral and physiological effort made to master stressful situations. The ability to cope with stress leads either to healthy or to pathogenic outcomes. The medial prefrontal cortex (mpFC) and amygdala are acknowledged as having a major role in stress-related behaviors, and mpFC has a critical role in the regulation of amygdala-mediated arousal in response to emotionally salient stimuli. Prefrontal cortical serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) is involved in corticolimbic circuitry, and GABA has a major role in amygdala functioning. Here, using mice, it was assessed whether amygdalar GABA regulation by prefrontal 5-HT is involved in processing stressful experiences and in determining coping outcomes. First (experiment 1), bilateral selective 5-HT depletion in mpFC of mice reduced GABA release induced by stress in basolateral amygdala (BLA) and passive coping in the Forced Swimming Test (FST) (experiment 2). Moreover, prefrontal-amygdala disconnection procedure that combined a selective unilateral 5-HT depletion of mpFC and infusion of an inhibitor of GABA synthesis into the contralateral BLA, thereby to disrupt prefrontal-amygdalar serial connectivity bilaterally, showed that disconnection selectively decreases immobility in the FST. These results point to prefrontal/amygdala connectivity mediated by 5-HT and GABA transmission as a critical neural mechanism in stress-induced behavior. PMID:23636466

  7. 5-HT Radioligands for Human Brain Imaging With PET and SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Louise M.; Kornum, Birgitte R.; Nutt, David J.; Pike, Victor W.; Knudsen, Gitte M.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonergic system plays a key modulatory role in the brain and is the target for many drug treatments for brain disorders either through reuptake blockade or via interactions at the 14 subtypes of 5-HT receptors. This review provides the history and current status of radioligands used for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging of human brain serotonin (5-HT) receptors, the 5-HT transporter (SERT), and 5-HT synthesis rate. Currently available radioligands for in vivo brain imaging of the 5-HT system in humans include antagonists for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4 receptors, and for SERT. Here we describe the evolution of these radioligands, along with the attempts made to develop radioligands for additional serotonergic targets. We describe the properties needed for a radioligand to become successful and the main caveats. The success of a PET or SPECT radioligand can ultimately be assessed by its frequency of use, its utility in humans, and the number of research sites using it relative to its invention date, and so these aspects are also covered. In conclusion, the development of PET and SPECT radioligands to image serotonergic targets is of high interest, and successful evaluation in humans is leading to invaluable insight into normal and abnormal brain function, emphasizing the need for continued development of both SPECT and PET radioligands for human brain imaging. PMID:21674551

  8. Actions of general anaesthetics on 5-HT3 receptors in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, A.; Franks, N. P.; Lieb, W. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. NIE-115 mouse neuroblastoma cells were studied under voltage clamp in the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration. Peak currents induced by bath application of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were inwardly rectifying, reversed at 0.4 +/- 0.2 mV (mean +/- s.e.mean), and were approximately half-inhibited (at 1 microM 5-HT) by 2 nM of the 5-HT3 selective antagonist MDL-72222 (3-tropanyl-3,5-dichlorobenzoate). 2. Peak inward currents activated by a low concentration of 5-HT at a holding potential of -50 mV were potentiated by volatile general anaesthetics. At their human minimum alveolar concentrations (MACs), the degree of potentiation increased in the order isoflurane < halothane < enflurane < methoxyflurane. Potentiation by methoxyflurane was independent of membrane potential in the range -70 mV to +40 mV. The reversal potential was the same in the presence and absence of methoxyflurane. 3. Methoxyflurane shifted the 5-HT dose-response curve to lower 5-HT concentrations, without significantly changing the Hill coefficient or maximum response. The EC50 concentration for 5-HT decreased from 1.86 +/- 0.02 microM to 1.07 +/- 0.11 microM (means +/- s.e.mean) due to the presence of 1 MAC (270 microM) methoxyflurane. 4. In contrast to the volatile anaesthetics, the barbiturate anaesthetic, thiopentone, inhibited the 5-HT3 receptor. Hill analysis of thiopentone dose-response data gave an average IC50 = 117 +/- 8 microM thiopentone and Hill coefficient = 1.6 +/- 0.2 (means +/- s.e.mean). These parameters were not significantly different for data obtained at 5-HT concentrations above and below the control EC50 concentration for 5-HT, consistent with non-competitive inhibition. 5. The n-alcohols occupied an intermediate position between the volatile and barbiturate anaesthetics. The lower alcohols (butanol and hexanol) potentiated 5-HT responses at low alcohol concentrations but inhibited them at high concentrations. In contrast, the higher alcohols (octanol, decanol, dodecanol, tridecanol, tetradecanol and pentadecanol) produced no potentiation, but only inhibition, at all alcohol concentrations. 6. Inhibition of the 5-HT3 receptor by the n-alcohols exhibited a cutoff in potency similar to those previously found for tadpoles, luciferase enzymes and a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel. PMID:8730747

  9. Serotonin contracts the rat mesenteric artery by inhibiting 4-aminopyridine-sensitive Kv channels via the 5-HT2A receptor and Src tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Sung, Dong Jun; Noh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jae Gon; Park, Sang Woong; Kim, Bokyung; Cho, Hana; Bae, Young Min

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) is a neurotransmitter that regulates a variety of functions in the nervous, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Despite such importance, 5-HT signaling pathways are not entirely clear. We demonstrated previously that 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-sensitive voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels determine the resting membrane potential of arterial smooth muscle cells and that the Kv channels are inhibited by 5-HT, which depolarizes the membranes. Therefore, we hypothesized that 5-HT contracts arteries by inhibiting Kv channels. Here we studied 5-HT signaling and the detailed role of Kv currents in rat mesenteric arteries using patch-clamp and isometric tension measurements. Our data showed that inhibiting 4-AP-sensitive Kv channels contracted arterial rings, whereas inhibiting Ca(2+)-activated K(+), inward rectifier K(+) and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels had little effect on arterial contraction, indicating a central role of Kv channels in the regulation of resting arterial tone. 5-HT-induced arterial contraction decreased significantly in the presence of high KCl or the voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (VGCC) inhibitor nifedipine, indicating that membrane depolarization and the consequent activation of VGCCs mediate the 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction. The effects of 5-HT on Kv currents and arterial contraction were markedly prevented by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonists ketanserin and spiperone. Consistently, ?-methyl 5-HT, a 5-HT2 receptor agonist, mimicked the 5-HT action on Kv channels. Pretreatment with a Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor, 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, prevented both the 5-HT-mediated vasoconstriction and Kv current inhibition. Our data suggest that 4-AP-sensitive Kv channels are the primary regulator of the resting tone in rat mesenteric arteries. 5-HT constricts the arteries by inhibiting Kv channels via the 5-HT2A receptor and Src tyrosine kinase pathway. PMID:24336234

  10. Monocrotaline pyrrole-induced pulmonary hypertension in fawn-hooded rats with platelet storage pool deficiency: 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake by isolated, perfused lungs.

    PubMed

    Hilliker, K S; Bell, T G; Roth, R A

    1983-12-30

    Platelets are believed to be involved in the development of monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP)-induced pulmonary hypertension. To help identify the role of the platelet, the cardiopulmonary toxicity of MCTP was examined in fawn-hooded (FH) rats, a strain with a platelet function defect. Both Sprague-Dawley (SD) and FH rats developed right ventricular hypertrophy and increased lung weights and exhibited decreased biogenic amine removal by isolated, perfused lung preparations after MCTP treatment. The responses of the FH rats were not significantly different from those of the SD rats, suggesting that platelet uptake and release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) are not the platelet functions involved in MCTP-induced pulmonary hypertension. The FH rats had an interesting strain-related difference from SD rats; isolated lungs from FH rats removed and metabolized a greater proportion of perfused 5HT than the SD rats. PMID:6665765

  11. The effects of the 5-HT2C agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine on elite athletes with unexplained underperformance syndrome (overtraining).

    PubMed

    Budgett, R; Hiscock, N; Arida, R M; Arida, R; Castell, L M

    2010-03-01

    A possible link between the neurotransmitter, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), plasma tryptophan, and branched chain amino acids concentration and exercise-induced fatigue is described by the central fatigue hypothesis. 5-HT receptors and neuroendocrine "challenge" tests, using prolactin release as an indirect measure of 5-HT activity were studied by recent investigations. In the present study, the original hypothesis about the role of amino acids in increasing brain 5-HT with a neuroendocrine challenge test on elite athletes diagnosed with unexplained, underperformance syndrome (UUPS) was combined. There was an apparent increased sensitivity of 5-HT receptors in athletes with UUPS compared with fit, well-trained controls, as measured via increased prolactin release following a bolus dose of m-chlorophenylpiperazine , a 5-HT agonist. No changes were observed in plasma amino acid concentrations in either group. There is evidence that well-trained athletes have a reduced sensitivity of 5-HT receptors. The present study suggests that this adaptation may be lost in athletes with UUPS: this might explain some of their observed symptoms. PMID:18487257

  12. Role of Central Serotonin in Anticipation of Rewarding and Punishing Outcomes: Effects of Selective Amygdala or Orbitofrontal 5-HT Depletion.

    PubMed

    Rygula, Rafal; Clarke, Hannah F; Cardinal, Rudolf N; Cockcroft, Gemma J; Xia, Jing; Dalley, Jeff W; Robbins, Trevor W; Roberts, Angela C

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the role of serotonin (or 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in aversive processing has been hampered by the contradictory findings, across studies, of increased sensitivity to punishment in terms of subsequent response choice but decreased sensitivity to punishment-induced response suppression following gross depletion of central 5-HT. To address this apparent discrepancy, the present study determined whether both effects could be found in the same animals by performing localized 5-HT depletions in the amygdala or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of a New World monkey, the common marmoset. 5-HT depletion in the amygdala impaired response choice on a probabilistic visual discrimination task by increasing the effectiveness of misleading, or false, punishment and reward, and decreased response suppression in a variable interval test of punishment sensitivity that employed the same reward and punisher. 5-HT depletion in the OFC also disrupted probabilistic discrimination learning and decreased response suppression. Computational modeling of behavior on the discrimination task showed that the lesions reduced reinforcement sensitivity. A novel, unitary account of the findings in terms of the causal role of 5-HT in the anticipation of both negative and positive motivational outcomes is proposed and discussed in relation to current theories of 5-HT function and our understanding of mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:24879752

  13. Role of Central Serotonin in Anticipation of Rewarding and Punishing Outcomes: Effects of Selective Amygdala or Orbitofrontal 5-HT Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Rygula, Rafal; Clarke, Hannah F.; Cardinal, Rudolf N.; Cockcroft, Gemma J.; Xia, Jing; Dalley, Jeff W.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Roberts, Angela C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of serotonin (or 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in aversive processing has been hampered by the contradictory findings, across studies, of increased sensitivity to punishment in terms of subsequent response choice but decreased sensitivity to punishment-induced response suppression following gross depletion of central 5-HT. To address this apparent discrepancy, the present study determined whether both effects could be found in the same animals by performing localized 5-HT depletions in the amygdala or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of a New World monkey, the common marmoset. 5-HT depletion in the amygdala impaired response choice on a probabilistic visual discrimination task by increasing the effectiveness of misleading, or false, punishment and reward, and decreased response suppression in a variable interval test of punishment sensitivity that employed the same reward and punisher. 5-HT depletion in the OFC also disrupted probabilistic discrimination learning and decreased response suppression. Computational modeling of behavior on the discrimination task showed that the lesions reduced reinforcement sensitivity. A novel, unitary account of the findings in terms of the causal role of 5-HT in the anticipation of both negative and positive motivational outcomes is proposed and discussed in relation to current theories of 5-HT function and our understanding of mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:24879752

  14. Distribution of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 Receptors Along the Human Colon

    PubMed Central

    Yaakob, Nor S; Chinkwo, Kenneth A; Chetty, Navinisha; Coupar, Ian M; Irving, Helen R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Several disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are associated with abnormal serotonin (5-HT) signaling or metabolism where the 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors are clinically relevant. The aim was to examine the distribution of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors in the normal human colon and how this is associated with receptor interacting chaperone 3, G protein coupled receptor kinases, and protein LIN-7 homologs to extend previous observations limited to the sigmoid colon or the upper intestine. Methods Samples from ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid human colon were dissected into 3 separate layers (mucosa, longitudinal, and circular muscles) and ileum samples were dissected into mucosa and muscle layers (n = 20). Complementary DNA was synthesized by reverse transcription from extracted RNA and expression was determined by quantitative or end point polymerase chain reaction. Results The 5-HT3 receptor subunits were found in all tissues throughout the colon and ileum. The A subunit was detected in all samples and the C subunit was expressed at similar levels while the B subunit was expressed at lower levels and less frequently. The 5-HT3 receptor E subunit was mainly found in the mucosa layers. All splice variants of the 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptors were expressed throughout the colon although the 5-HT4 receptor d, g, and i variants were expressed less often. Conclusions The major differences in 5-HT receptor distribution within the human colon are in relation to the mucosa and muscular tissue layers where the 5-HT3 receptor E subunit is predominantly found in the mucosal layer which may be of therapeutic relevance. PMID:26130632

  15. The antimalarial drug proguanil is an antagonist at 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Martin; Thompson, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    Proguanil is an antimalarial prodrug that is metabolized to 4-chlorophenyl-1-biguanide (CPB) and the active metabolite cycloguanil (CG). These compounds are structurally related to meta-chlorophenyl biguanide (mCPBG), a 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor agonist. Here we examine the effects of proguanil and its metabolites on the electrophysiology and ligand-binding properties of human 5-HT3A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney 293 cells, respectively. 5-HT3 receptor responses were reversibly inhibited by proguanil, with an IC50 of 1.81 μM. Competitive antagonism was shown by a lack of voltage-dependence, Schild plot (Kb = 1.70 μM), and radioligand competition (Ki = 2.61 μM) with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist [(3)H]granisetron. Kinetic measurements (kon = 4.0 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) ; koff = 0.23 s(-1)) were consistent with a simple bimolecular reaction scheme with a Kb of 4.35 μM. The metabolites CG and CPB similarly inhibited 5-HT3 receptors as assessed by IC50 (1.48 and 4.36 μM, respectively), Schild plot (Kb = 2.97 and 11.4 μM), and radioligand competition (Ki = 4.89 and 0.41 μM). At higher concentrations, CPB was a partial agonist (EC50 = 14.1 μM; I/Imax = 0.013). These results demonstrate that proguanil competitively inhibits 5-HT3 receptors, with an IC50 that exceeds whole-blood concentrations following its oral administration. They may therefore be responsible for the occasional gastrointestinal side effects, nausea, and vomiting reported following its use. Clinical development of related compounds should therefore consider effects at 5-HT3 receptors as an early indication of possible unwanted gastrointestinal side effects. PMID:25277140

  16. Temperature changes produced by the injection of catecholamines and 5-hydroxytryptamine into the cerebral ventricles of the conscious mouse

    PubMed Central

    Brittain, R. T.; Handley, S. L.

    1967-01-01

    1. Changes in temperature were determined following injection of noradrenaline, adrenaline, isoprenaline, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) into the cerebral ventricles of the conscious mouse. 2. Noradrenaline (1-20 μg) and dopamine (10-160 μg) caused falls in body temperature. Adrenaline (1-20 μg) caused a slight and transient rise in body temperature followed by a fall. Isoprenaline (5-20 μg) caused a rise in body temperature, hypothermia only occurring after very high doses (200 μg) of this catecholamine. 3. α- and β-adrenergic blocking agents, phentolamine (> 2 μg) and propranolol (> 5 μg) respectively, caused falls in body temperature when injected into the cerebral ventricles of the mouse. 4. Specific drug antagonism studies were limited owing to the intrinsic effects of the α- and β-adrenergic blocking agents. However, some evidence was obtained to indicate that noradrenaline mediated its effects through a central α-type adrenergic receptor. 5. 5-HT (10-160 μg) caused a fall in body temperature. The action of this indoleamine and the catecholamines in regard to thermoregulatory function is discussed. PMID:6059003

  17. Diabetes-induced changes in the 5-hydroxytryptamine inhibitory receptors involved in the pressor effect elicited by sympathetic stimulation in the pithed rat

    PubMed Central

    García, Mónica; Morán, Asunción; Calama, Elena; Martín, Maria Luisa; Barthelmebs, Mariette; Román, Luis San

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effect of alloxan-induced diabetes on the inhibitory mechanisms of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the pressor responses induced by stimulation of sympathetic vasopressor outflow in pithed rats, and analysed the type and/or subtype of 5-HT receptors involved. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single s.c. injection of alloxan, then 4 weeks later, they were anaesthetized, pretreated with atropine and pithed. Electrical stimulation of the sympathetic outflow from the spinal cord (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5 Hz) resulted in frequency-dependent increases in blood pressure. Intravenous infusions of 5-HT (1–80 μg kg−1 min−1) reduced the pressor effects obtained by electrical stimulation. The 5-HT1 receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine, 5-CT (5 μg kg−1 min−1), caused an inhibition of the pressor response, whereas the selective 5-HT2 receptor agonist, α-methyl-5-HT (5 μg kg−1 min−1) and the selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist, 1-phenylbiguanide (40 μg kg−1 min−1), did not modify the sympathetic pressor responses. 5-HT had no effect on exogenous noradrenaline (NA)-induced pressor responses. The inhibition of electrically induced pressor responses by 5-HT (10 μg kg−1 min−1) was unable to be elicited after i.v. treatment with methiothepin (100 μg kg−1) because of the marked inhibition produced by methiothepin alone. The 5-HT-induced inhibition was blocked after i.v. administration of WAY-100,635 (100 μg kg−1) and not affected by ritanserin (1 mg kg−1), MDL 72222 (2 mg kg−1). The selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-hydroxydipropylaminotretalin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) (5–20 μg kg−1 min−1) but neither the rodent 5-HT1B receptor agonist, CGS-12066B (5 μg kg−1 min−1), nor the selective nonrodent 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptor agonist, L-694,247 (5 and 40 μg kg−1 min−1), inhibited the electrically induced pressor response. The selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100,635 (100 μg kg−1), blocked the inhibition induced by 8-OH-DPAT (10 μg kg−1 min−1). 8-OH-DPAT had no effect on exogenous NA-induced pressor responses. Experimental diabetes produces changes in the inhibitory effect induced by 5-HT on electrically induced sympathetic pressor responses, such that the inhibitory action induced by 5-HT in diabetic pithed rats is mediated by prejunctional 5-HT1A receptors. PMID:15852039

  18. Functional expression of the serotonin 5-HT7 receptor in human glioblastoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Ccile; Bernhard, Michel; Bobirnac, Ionel; Keser, Corinna; Loetscher, Erika; Feuerbach, Dominik; Dev, Kumlesh K; Schoeffter, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    Serotonin 5-HT7 receptors are present in astrocytes. Understanding their role in this type of cell would greatly benefit from the identification of astroglial cell lines expressing this receptor type. The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of native 5-HT7 receptors and 5-HT7 receptor mRNA in a number of human glioblastoma cell lines, by means of cAMP measurements, Western blot analysis and reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) analysis. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT) and 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) induced concentration-dependent stimulations of cAMP accumulation in the human glioblastoma cell lines, U-373 MG, U-138 MG, U-87 MG, DBTRG-05MG, T98G, H4, CCF-STTG1 and Hs 683. The rank order of potency was 5-CT>5-HT=5-MeOT?8-OH-DPAT. The effect of 5-CT was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970 in all human glioblastoma cells. Schild analyses yielded slope factors close to unity (0.891.13) and pA2 values of 8.699.05. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of immunoreactive bands corresponding to the human 5-HT7 receptor in extracts of all human glioblastoma cell lines. The presence of the three splice variants of the 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7(a/b/d)) was visualized by RTPCR analysis with specific primers in all human glioblastoma cell lines. In conclusion, human glioblastoma cell lines express functional 5-HT7 receptors and the three splice variants of the corresponding mRNA. These cell lines could serve as model systems of native 5-HT7 receptors in glial cells to investigate their putative role in processes like release of neurotrophic factors or inflammatory cytokines. PMID:15339860

  19. Anorexia induced by activation of serotonin 5-HT4 receptors is mediated by increases in CART in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Alexandra; Conductier, Grgory; Manrique, Christine; Bouras, Constantin; Berta, Philippe; Hen, Ren; Charnay, Yves; Bockaert, Jol; Compan, Valrie

    2007-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a growing concern in mental health, often inducing death. The potential neuronal deficits that may underlie abnormal inhibitions of food intake, however, remain largely unexplored. We hypothesized that anorexia may involve altered signaling events within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain structure involved in reward. We show here that direct stimulation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 4 receptors (5-HT4R) in the NAc reduces the physiological drive to eat and increases CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) mRNA levels in fed and food-deprived mice. It further shows that injecting 5-HT4R antagonist or siRNA-mediated 5-HT4R knockdown into the NAc induced hyperphagia only in fed mice. This hyperphagia was not associated with changes in CART mRNA expression in the NAc in fed and food-deprived mice. Results include that 5-HT4R control CART mRNA expression into the NAc via a cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Considering that CART may interfere with food- and drug-related rewards, we tested whether the appetite suppressant properties of 3,4-N-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) involve the 5-HT4R. Using 5-HT4R knockout mice, we demonstrate that 5-HT4R are required for the anorectic effect of MDMA as well as for the MDMA-induced enhancement of CART mRNA expression in the NAc. Directly injecting CART peptide or CART siRNA into the NAc reduces or increases food consumption, respectively. Finally, stimulating 5-HT4R- and MDMA-induced anorexia were both reduced by injecting CART siRNA into the NAc. Collectively, these results demonstrate that 5-HT4R-mediated up-regulation of CART in the NAc triggers the appetite-suppressant effects of ecstasy. PMID:17913892

  20. Comparative recovery kinetics of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A, 1B, and 2A receptor subtypes in rat cortex after receptor inactivation: evidence for differences in receptor production and degradation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, W; Battaglia, G

    1994-12-01

    The present study investigates the comparative repopulation kinetics of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT2A receptors in rat cortex homogenates after irreversible receptor inactivation by N-ethoxycarbonyl-1,2-ethoxydihydroquinoline. Adult male rats were administered a single subcutaneous dose of vehicle (1:1 ethanol/water) or N-ethoxycarbonyl-1,2-ethoxydihydroquinoline (10 mg/kg), and the recovery of 5-HT receptor subtypes was measured at various times after injection (4-336 hr). Despite comparable control Bmax values for 5-HT1A (84 +/- 2 fmol/mg of protein) and 5-HT1B (94 +/- 4 fmol/mg) subtypes, marked differences were noted in their 1) receptor production rates (r = 0.349 versus 0.235 fmol/mg of protein/hr), 2) receptor degradation rate constants (k = 0.0056 versus 0.0033 hr-1), and 3) half-lives of receptor recovery (124.1 versus 212.5 hr). For 5-HT2A receptors, both r and k for agonist [(+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-[125I]iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane]- or antagonist ([3H]ketanserin)-labeled sites were markedly greater than the respective values for the 5-HT1 subtypes. In addition, the significantly different Bmax values for agonist- versus antagonist-labeled 5-HT2A receptors (79 +/- 4 versus 206 +/- 10 fmol/mg) were reflected exclusively as a 2.6-fold difference in receptor production rates, because degradation rate constants (k) were identical. Moreover, the stoichiometry of agonist-labeled to antagonist-labeled 5-HT2A receptors was not altered at any time point during recovery. These data indicate that 1) comparable receptor steady state Bmax values for 5-HT receptor subtypes may be due to markedly different receptor kinetic parameters (r and k), 2) differences in r and k are greater between 5-HT receptor families (i.e., 5-HT1 versus 5-HT2) than among subtypes within a family (i.e., 5-HT1A versus 5-HT1B), and, 3) despite marked changes in 5-HT2A receptor density, the percentage of receptors in the agonist-labeled, high affinity state is maintained. PMID:7808431

  1. 5-HT2C Receptor Desensitization Moderates Anxiety in 5-HTT Deficient Mice: From Behavioral to Cellular Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Cdric BP; Martin, Vincent S.; Trigo, Jos M.; Chevarin, Caroline; Maldonado, Rafael; Fink, Latham H.; Cunningham, Kathryn A.; Hamon, Michel; Lanfumey, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Background: Desensitization and blockade of 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2CR) have long been thought to be central in the therapeutic action of antidepressant drugs. However, besides behavioral pharmacology studies, there is little in vivo data documenting antidepressant-induced 5-HT2CR desensitization in specific brain areas. Methods: Mice lacking the 5-HT reuptake carrier (5-HTT-/-) were used to model the consequences of chronic 5-HT reuptake inhibition with antidepressant drugs. The effect of this mutation on 5-HT2CR was evaluated at the behavioral (social interaction, novelty-suppressed feeding, and 5-HT2CRinduced hypolocomotion tests), the neurochemical, and the cellular (RT-qPCR, mRNA editing, and c-fosinduced expression) levels. Results: Although 5-HTT-/- mice had an anxiogenic profile in the novelty-suppressed feeding test, they displayed less 5-HT2CRmediated anxiety in response to the agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine in the social interaction test. In addition, 5-HT2CRmediated inhibition of a stress-induced increase in 5-HT turnover, measured in various brain areas, was markedly reduced in 5-HTT-/- mutants. These indices of tolerance to 5-HT2CR stimulation were associated neither with altered levels of 5-HT2CR protein and mRNA nor with changes in pre-mRNA editing in the frontal cortex. However, basal c-fos mRNA production in cells expressing 5-HT2CR was higher in 5-HTT-/- mutants, suggesting an altered basal activity of these cells following sustained 5-HT reuptake carrier inactivation. Furthermore, the increased c-fos mRNA expression in 5-HT2CRlike immune-positive cortical cells observed in wild-type mice treated acutely with the 5-HT2CR agonist RO-60,0175 was absent in 5-HTT-/- mutants. Conclusions: Such blunted responsiveness of the 5-HT2CR system, observed at the cell signaling level, probably contributes to the moderation of the anxiety phenotype in 5-HTT-/- mice. PMID:25522398

  2. Involvement of 5-HT? receptors in vortioxetine's modulation of circadian rhythms and episodic memory in rodents.

    PubMed

    Westrich, Ligia; Haddjeri, Nasser; Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria; Snchez, Connie

    2015-02-01

    Since poor circadian synchrony and cognitive dysfunction have been linked to affective disorders, antidepressants that target key 5-HT (serotonin) receptor subtypes involved in circadian rhythm and cognitive regulation may have therapeutic utility. Vortioxetine is a multimodal antidepressant that inhibits 5-HT1D, 5-HT3, 5-HT7 receptor activity, 5-HT reuptake, and enhances the activity of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors. In this study, we investigated the effects of vortioxetine on the period length of PER2::LUC expression, circadian behavior, and episodic memory, using tissue explants from genetically modified PER2::LUC mice, locomotor activity rhythm monitoring, and the object recognition test, respectively. Incubation of tissue explants from the suprachiasmatic nucleus of PER2::LUC mice with 0.1 ?M vortioxetine increased the period length of PER2 bioluminescence. Monitoring of daily wheel-running activity of Sprague-Dawley rats treated with vortioxetine (10 mg/kg, s.c.), alone or in combination with the 5-HT1A receptor agonist flesinoxan (2.5 mg/kg, s.c.) or the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB269970 (30 mg/kg, s.c.), just prior to activity onset revealed significant delays in wheel-running behavior. The increase in circadian period length and the phase delay produced by vortioxetine were abolished in the presence of the 5-HT7 receptor partial agonist AS19. Finally, in the object recognition test, vortioxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the time spent exploring the novel object during the retention test and this effect was prevented by AS19 (5 mg/kg, i.p.). In conclusion, the present study shows that vortioxetine, partly via its 5-HT7 receptor antagonism, induced a significant effect on circadian rhythm and presented promnesic properties in rodents. PMID:25446573

  3. Tong Xie Yao Fang relieves irritable bowel syndrome in rats via mechanisms involving regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine and substance P

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yue; Zhong, Lei; Wang, Jian-Wei; Zhao, Xue-Ying; Zhao, Wen-Jing; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the Chinese medicine Tong Xie Yao Fang (TXYF) improves dysfunction in an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) rat model. METHODS: Thirty baby rats for IBS modeling were separated from mother rats (1 h per day) from days 8 to 21, and the rectum was expanded by angioplasty from days 8 to 12. Ten normal rats were used as normal controls. We examined the effects of TXYF on defection frequency, colonic transit function and smooth muscle contraction, and the expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and substance P (SP) in colonic and hypothalamus tissues by Western blot and RT-PCT techniques in both normal rats and IBS model rats with characterized visceral hypersensitivity. RESULTS: Defecation frequency was 1.8 ± 1.03 in normal rats and 4.5 ± 1.58 in IBS model rats (P < 0.001). However, the defecation frequency was significantly decreased (3.0 ± 1.25 vs 4.5 ± 1.58, P < 0.05), while the time (in seconds) of colon transit function was significantly increased (256.88 ± 20.32 vs 93.36 ± 17.28, P < 0.001) in IBS + TXYF group rats than in IBS group rats. Increased colonic smooth muscle tension and contract frequency in IBS model rats were significantly decreased by administration of TXYF. Exogenous agonist stimulants increased spontaneous activity and elicited contractions of colon smooth muscle in IBS model rats, and all of these actions were significantly reduced by TXYF involving 5-HT and SP down-regulation. CONCLUSION: TXYF can modulate the activity of the enteric nervous system and alter 5-HT and SP activities, which may contribute to the symptoms of IBS. PMID:25914462

  4. Structure-Based Discovery of Novel and Selective 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2B Receptor Antagonists for the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Ma, Jing; Lin, Xingyu; Huang, Xi-Ping; Wu, Kaichun; Huang, Niu

    2016-01-28

    Here we employed structure-based ligand discovery techniques to explore a recently determined crystal structure of the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2B (5-HT2B) receptor. Ten compounds containing a novel chemical scaffold were identified; among them, seven molecules were active in cellular function assays with the most potent one exhibiting an IC50 value of 27.3 nM. We then systematically probed the binding characteristics of this scaffold by designing, synthesizing, and testing a series of structural modifications. The structure-activity relationship studies strongly support our predicted binding model. The binding profiling across a panel of 11 5-HT receptors indicated that these compounds are highly selective for the 5-HT2B receptor. Oral administration of compound 15 (30 mg/kg) produced significant attenuation of visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We expect this novel scaffold will serve as the foundation for the development of 5-HT2B antagonists for the treatment of IBS. PMID:26700945

  5. A Chemocentric Informatics Approach to Drug Discovery: Identification and Experimental Validation of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators as ligands of 5-Hydroxytryptamine-6 Receptors and as Potential Cognition Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Hajjo, Rima; Setola, Vincent; Roth, Bryan L.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We have devised a chemocentric informatics methodology for drug discovery integrating independent approaches to mining biomolecular databases. As a proof of concept, we have searched for novel putative cognition enhancers. First, we generated Quantitative Structure- Activity Relationship (QSAR) models of compounds binding to 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 receptor (5HT6R), a known target for cognition enhancers, and employed these models for virtual screening to identify putative 5-HT6R actives. Second, we queried chemogenomics data from the Connectivity Map (http://www.broad.mit.edu/cmap/) with the gene expression profile signatures of Alzheimers disease patients to identify compounds putatively linked to the disease. Thirteen common hits were tested in 5-HT6R radioligand binding assays and ten were confirmed as actives. Four of them were known selective estrogen receptor modulators that were never reported as 5-HT6R ligands. Furthermore, nine of the confirmed actives were reported elsewhere to have memory-enhancing effects. The approaches discussed herein can be used broadly to identify novel drug-target-disease associations. PMID:22537153

  6. The aggression and behavioral abnormalities associated with monoamine oxidase A deficiency are rescued by acute inhibition of serotonin reuptake

    PubMed Central

    Godar, Sean C.; Bortolato, Marco; Castelli, M. Paola; Casti, Alberto; Casu, Angelo; Chen, Kevin; Ennas, M. Grazia; Tambaro, Simone; Shih, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    The termination of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neurotransmission is regulated by its uptake by the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), as well as its degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A. MAO-A deficiency results in a wide set of behavioral alterations, including perseverative behaviors and social deficits. These anomalies are likely related to 5-HTergic homeostatic imbalances; however, the role of 5-HTT in these abnormalities remains unclear. To ascertain the role of 5-HTT in the behavioral anomalies associated to MAO-A deficiency, we tested the behavioral effects of its blocker fluoxetine on perseverative, social and aggressive behaviors in transgenic animals with hypomorphic or null-allele MAO-A mutations. Acute treatment with 5-HTT blocker fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced aggressive behavior in MAO-A knockout (KO) mice and social deficits in hypomorphic MAO-ANeo mice. Furthermore, this treatment also reduced perseverative responses (including marble burying and water mist-induced grooming) in both MAO-A mutant genotypes. Both MAO-A mutant lines displayed significant reductions in 5-HTT expression across the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and striatum, as quantified by immunohistochemical detection; however, the down-regulation of 5-HTT in MAO-ANeo mice was more pervasive and widespread than in their KO counterparts, possibly indicating a greater ability of the hypomorphic line to enact compensatory mechanisms with respect to 5-HT homeostasis. Collectively, these findings suggest that the behavioral deficits associated with low MAO-A activity may reflect developmental alterations of 5-HTT within 5-HTergic neurons. Furthermore, the translational implications of our results highlight 5-HT reuptake inhibition as an interesting approach for the control of aggressive outbursts in MAO-A deficient individuals. PMID:24882701

  7. Observations on the significance of 5-hydroxytryptamine in relation to the peristaltic reflex of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Boullin, D. J.

    1964-01-01

    Peristalsis of normal rats, and of rats fed either on a control diet or on a tryptophan-free diet (5-hydroxytryptamine-depleted rats), was studied in vitro and in situ to test the hypothesis that 5-hydroxytryptamine functions as a local hormone in the intestine and may be essential for initiation of the peristaltic reflex. A tryptophan-free diet depleted intestinal 5-hydroxytryptamine by a mean value of 90%; in some rats, the depletion appeared to be complete. Peristaltic responses, even of rats with complete depletion, were qualitatively similar to, and quantitatively not statistically different from those of normal or of pair-fed control animals whose intestinal mucosa contained high concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine. Intraluminal and serosal 5-hydroxytryptamine produced effects in 5-hydroxytryptamine-depleted rats similar to those in the normal and in the control animals. Furthermore, the maximal stimulatory effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine on peristaltic performance were not greater than spontaneous variations in performance in any group of animals, except with tryptophan-fed control rats, when the effects of the amine on peristalsis in situ were greater than spontaneous variation. It was therefore concluded that 5-hydroxytryptamine is not essential for peristalsis in the rat. PMID:14206265

  8. Serotonin 5-HT2 receptor activation prevents allergic asthma in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Nau, Felix; Miller, Justin; Saravia, Jordy; Ahlert, Terry; Yu, Bangning; Happel, Kyle I.; Cormier, Stephania A.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lung characterized by airways hyper-responsiveness (AHR), inflammation, and mucus hyperproduction. Current mainstream therapies include bronchodilators that relieve bronchoconstriction and inhaled glucocorticoids to reduce inflammation. The small molecule hormone and neurotransmitter serotonin has long been known to be involved in inflammatory processes; however, its precise role in asthma is unknown. We have previously established that activation of serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A receptors has potent anti-inflammatory activity in primary cultures of vascular tissues and in the whole animal in vasculature and gut tissues. The 5-HT2A receptor agonist, (R)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine [(R)-DOI] is especially potent. In this work, we have examined the effect of (R)-DOI in an established mouse model of allergic asthma. In the ovalbumin mouse model of allergic inflammation, we demonstrate that inhalation of (R)-DOI prevents the development of many key features of allergic asthma, including AHR, mucus hyperproduction, airways inflammation, and pulmonary eosinophil recruitment. Our results highlight a likely role of the 5-HT2 receptors in allergic airways disease and suggest that 5-HT2 receptor agonists may represent an effective and novel small molecule-based therapy for asthma. PMID:25416380

  9. 3D QSAR based design of novel oxindole derivative as 5HT7 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chitta, Aparna; Sivan, Sree Kanth; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2014-06-01

    To understand the structural requirements of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT7) receptor inhibitors and to design new ligands against 5HT7 receptor with enhanced inhibitory potency, a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study with comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) for a data set of 56 molecules consisting of oxindole, tetrahydronaphthalene, aryl ketone substituted arylpiperazinealkylamide derivatives was performed. Derived model showed good statistical reliability in terms of predicting 5HT7 inhibitory activity of the molecules, based on molecular property fields like steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor and hydrogen bond acceptor fields. This is evident from statistical parameters like conventional r2 and a cross validated (q2) values of 0.985, 0.743 for CoMFA and 0.970, 0.608 for CoMSIA, respectively. Predictive ability of the models to determine 5HT7 antagonistic activity is validated using a test set of 16 molecules that were not included in the training set. Predictive r2 obtained for the test set was 0.560 and 0.619 for CoMFA and CoMSIA, respectively. Steric, electrostatic fields majorly contributed toward activity which forms the basis for design of new molecules. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) calculation using QikProp 2.5 (Schrodinger 2010, Portland, OR) reveals that the molecules confer to Lipinski's rule of five in majority of the cases. PMID:24456291

  10. Expression of the 5-HT receptors in rat brain during memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Manuel-Apolinar, L; Rocha, L; Castillo, E; Castillo, C

    2004-07-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system displays more than 14 receptors subtypes on brain areas involved in learning and memory processes, and pharmacological manipulation of specific receptors selectively affects memory formation. In order to begin the search of 5-HT receptors expression during memory formation, in this work, we aimed to determine, by autoradiography (using 3H 5-HT as ligand, 2 nM, specific activity 123 Ci/mmol), 5-HT receptors (5-HTR) expression in passive (untrained) and autoshaping trained (3 sessions) adult (3 months) and old (9 months) male rats. Thus, trained adult rats had better retention than old animals. Raphe nuclei of adult and old trained rats expressed less receptors on medial and dorsal, respectively. Hippocampal CA1 area and dentate gyrus of adult trained rats expressed less 5-HTR, while dentate gyrus of old increased them. Basomedial amygdaloid nucleus in old trained rats expressed more 5-HTR; while in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus they were augmented in both groups. Training decreased or did not change 5-HTR in caudate-putamen of adult or old animals. The above profile of 5-HTR expression is consistent with previous reports, and suggests that memory formation and aging modulates 5-HTR expression in brain areas relevant to memory systems. PMID:15196811

  11. Differential effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine4 receptor agonists at gastric versus cardiac receptors: an operational framework to explain and quantify organ-specific behavior.

    PubMed

    De Maeyer, Joris H; Prins, Nicolaas H; Schuurkes, Jan A J; Lefebvre, Romain A

    2006-06-01

    Quantification of different levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine4 (5-HT4) receptor agonism expression across animal species as well as across organs within the same animal species offers substantial potential for the separation of desired gastrointestinal versus undesired cardiac pharmacological activity of compounds in development. Since a detailed investigation of such properties is lacking to date, we set out to quantify gastric and cardiac effects of 5-HT4 receptor ligands in the pig, a model considered to be representative for the human situation. An in vitro test was developed to study the potentiating effect of 5-HT, prucalopride, tegaserod, R149402 (4-amino-5-chloro-2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-benzofuran-7-carboxylic acid [3-hydroxy-1-(3-methoxy-propyl)-piperidin-4ylmethyl]-amide), and R199715 (4-amino-5-chloro-2,3-dihydro-benzofuran-7-carboxylic acid [3-hydroxy-1-(3-methoxy-propyl)-piperidin-4ylmethyl]-amide) on electrically induced cholinergic contractions in longitudinal muscle strips of the proximal stomach. The results were compared with inotropic and chronotropic effects of these compounds in the electrically paced left atrium and spontaneously beating right atrium, respectively. To quantify the observed tissue-dependent responses, a nonlinear mixed-effects model based on the operational model of agonism was developed and successfully fitted to the data. The model quantified the tissue-dependent partial agonism of the selective 5-HT4 receptor agonists prucalopride, R149402, and R199715, whereas tegaserod and 5-HT were equiefficacious. The model was further extended to incorporate the responses to prucalopride in the presence of the 5-HT4 receptor antagonist GR113808 ([1-[2-[(methylsulphonyl)amino]ethyl]-4-piperidinyl-]methyl 1-methyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate). The results indicate that these interactions do not follow a simple competitive pattern and that they differ between stomach and left atrium. PMID:16501067

  12. The 5-hydroxytryptamine4 receptor agonists prucalopride and PRX-03140 increase acetylcholine and histamine levels in the rat prefrontal cortex and the power of stimulated hippocampal θ oscillations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David E; Drummond, Elena; Grimwood, Sarah; Sawant-Basak, Aarti; Miller, Emily; Tseng, Elaine; McDowell, Laura L; Vanase-Frawley, Michelle A; Fisher, Katherine E; Rubitski, David M; Stutzman-Engwall, Kim J; Nelson, Robin T; Horner, Weldon E; Gorczyca, Roxanne R; Hajos, Mihaly; Siok, Chester J

    2012-06-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(4) receptor agonists reportedly stimulate brain acetylcholine (ACh) release, a property that might provide a new pharmacological approach for treating cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the binding affinities, functional activities, and effects on neuropharmacological responses associated with cognition of two highly selective 5-HT(4) receptor agonists, prucalopride and 6,7-dihydro-4-hydroxy-7-isopropyl-6-oxo-N-[3-(piperidin-1-yl)propyl]thieno[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carboxamide (PRX-03140). In vitro, prucalopride and PRX-03140 bound to native rat brain 5-HT(4) receptors with K(i) values of 30 nM and 110 nM, respectively, and increased cAMP production in human embryonic kidney-293 cells expressing recombinant rat 5-HT(4) receptors. In vivo receptor occupancy studies established that prucalopride and PRX-03140 were able to penetrate the brain and bound to 5-HT(4) receptors in rat brain, achieving 50% receptor occupancy at free brain exposures of 330 nM and 130 nM, respectively. Rat microdialysis studies revealed that prucalopride maximally increased ACh and histamine levels in the prefrontal cortex at 5 and 10 mg/kg, whereas PRX-03140 significantly increased cortical histamine levels at 50 mg/kg, failing to affect ACh release at doses lower than 150 mg/kg. In combination studies, donepezil-induced increases in cortical ACh levels were potentiated by prucalopride and PRX-03140. Electrophysiological studies in rats demonstrated that both compounds increased the power of brainstem-stimulated hippocampal θ oscillations at 5.6 mg/kg. These findings show for the first time that the 5-HT(4) receptor agonists prucalopride and PRX-03140 can increase cortical ACh and histamine levels, augment donepezil-induced ACh increases, and increase stimulated-hippocampal θ power, all neuropharmacological parameters consistent with potential positive effects on cognitive processes. PMID:22408061

  13. Structure and function of the third intracellular loop of the 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor: the third intracellular loop is alpha-helical and binds purified arrestins.

    PubMed

    Gelber, E I; Kroeze, W K; Willins, D L; Gray, J A; Sinar, C A; Hyde, E G; Gurevich, V; Benovic, J; Roth, B L

    1999-05-01

    Understanding the precise structure and function of the intracellular domains of G protein-coupled receptors is essential for understanding how receptors are regulated, and how they transduce their signals from the extracellular milieu to intracellular sites. To understand better the structure and function of the intracellular domain of the 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) receptor, a model G(alpha)q-coupled receptor, we overexpressed and purified to homogeneity the entire third intracellular loop (i3) of the 5-HT2A receptor, a region previously implicated in G-protein coupling. Circular dichroism spectroscopy of the purified i3 protein was consistent with alpha-helical and beta-loop, -turn, and -sheet structure. Using random peptide phage libraries, we identified several arrestin-like sequences as i3-interacting peptides. We subsequently found that all three known arrestins (beta-arrestin, arrestin-3, and visual arrestin) bound specifically to fusion proteins encoding the i3 loop of the 5-HT(2A) receptor. Competition binding studies with synthetic and recombinant peptides showed that the middle portion of the i3 loop, and not the extreme N and C termini, was likely to be involved in i3-arrestin interactions. Dual-label immunofluorescence confocal microscopic studies of rat cortex indicated that many cortical pyramidal neurons coexpressed arrestins (beta-arrestin or arrestin-3) and 5-HT2A receptors, particularly in intracellular vesicles. Our results demonstrate (a) that the i3 loop of the 5-HT2A receptor represents a structurally ordered domain composed of alpha-helical and beta-loop, -turn, and -sheet regions, (b) that this loop interacts with arrestins in vitro, and is hence active, and (c) that arrestins are colocalized with 5-HT2A receptors in vivo. PMID:10217304

  14. Comparison of contractile responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine and sumatriptan in human isolated coronary artery: synergy with the thromboxane A2-receptor agonist, U46619.

    PubMed Central

    Cocks, T. M.; Kemp, B. K.; Pruneau, D.; Angus, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    1. The interaction between the thromboxane A2 receptor agonist, U46619 and two 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor agonists, the non-selective, naturally occurring agonist, 5-HT and the selective 5-HT1-like agonist, sumatriptan were studied in human epicardial coronary arteries in vitro. 2. Coronary artery rings (2-4 mm in diameter) were prepared from epicardial arteries from explant hearts of patients undergoing heart transplant (cardiomyopathy, n = 13; ischaemic heart disease, n = 10) and unused donor hearts (n = 5). Each ring of artery was set at optimal resting conditions to record changes in isometric force. 3. The majority of artery rings developed phasic, rhythmic contractions either spontaneously or in response to all vasoconstrictor agonists tested. Both the spontaneous and agonist-induced phasic contractions were abolished by nifedipine (0.1 microM). 4. Concentration-contraction curves to 5-HT-receptor agonists and noradrenaline (NA), were first constructed in artery rings that did not develop phasic activity. 5-HT and ergometrine were the most potent agonists with EC50 values of 6.8 +/- 0.2 and 7.7 +/- 0.2 (-log M) respectively. Potencies (EC50's) to sumatriptan, methysergide and noradrenaline could not be determined due to their poor ability to contract the coronary artery. Maximum contractions (Emax; normalized as a percentage of the contraction to a maximum-depolarizing concentration of K+ in physiological salt solution (KPSS)) for 5-HT, ergometrine, sumatriptan, methysergide and noradrenaline were 40 +/- 10, 9 +/- 3, < 5, < 5 and < 5% respectively. 5. In arteries without phasic activity, U46619 (1 nM) caused an increase in force of 3.8 +/- 1% KPSS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8220898

  15. Involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 antagonists in mouse forced swimming test and tail suspension test.

    PubMed

    Kordjazy, Nastaran; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Amiri, Shayan; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) antagonists such as ondansetron and tropisetron exert positive behavioral effects in animal models of depression. Due to the ionotropic nature of 5-HT3 and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, plus their contribution to the pathophysiology of depression, we investigated the possible role of NMDA receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in male mice. In order to evaluate the animals' behavior in response to different treatments, we performed open-field test (OFT), forced swimming test (FST), and tail-suspension test (TST), which are considered as valid tasks for measuring locomotor activity and depressive-like behaviors in mice. Our data revealed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of tropisetron (5, 10, and 30mg/kg) and ondansetron (0.01, and 0.1μg/kg) significantly decreased the immobility time in FST and TST. Also, co-administration of subeffective doses of tropisetron (1mg/kg, i.p.) or ondansetron (0.001μg/kg, i.p.) with subeffective doses of NMDA receptor antagonists, ketamine (1mg/kg, i.p.), MK-801 (0.05mg/kg, i.p.) and magnesium sulfate (10mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in a reduced immobility time both in FST and TST. The subeffective dose of NMDA (NMDA receptor agonist, 75mg/kg, i.p.) abolished the effects of 5-HT3 antagonists in FST and TST, further supporting the presumed interaction between 5-HT3 and NMDA receptors. These treatments did not affect the locomotor behavior of animals in OFT. Finally, the results of our study suggest that the positive effects of 5-HT3 antagonists on the coping behavior of mice in FST and TST are at least partly mediated through NMDA receptors participation. PMID:26604075

  16. Effects of divalent cations on responses of a sympathetic ganglion to 5-hydroxytryptamine and 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl piperazinium

    PubMed Central

    Nash, H.L.; Wallis, D.I.

    1981-01-01

    1 The effects of raising or lowering [Ca2+]o or [Mg2+]o on potential changes evoked by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and by the nicotinic agonist, 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl piperazinium (DMPP) have been investigated. 2 Changes in membrane potential were measured at the ganglion or in postganglionic axons by the sucrose-gap technique. The ganglionic response to both 5-HT and DMPP was a depolarization followed by an after-hyperpolarization (AH). AH decayed exponentially over most of its time course; the time constant of decay for 5-HT responses was 4.4 0.3 min (mean s.e.mean, rate constant 0.23 min-1) and that for DMPP responses was not significantly different, being 3.9 0.3 min (rate constant 0.26 min-1). 3 Increasing [Ca2+]o to 5.1 or 7.6 mM caused some hyperpolarization of the ganglion, reduced the amplitude of depolarizations evoked by 5-HT by 29% and usually potentiated responses to DMPP (average 12%). Ca-free solutions caused a depolarization of the ganglion, increased the amplitude of depolarizations evoked by 5-HT by 23% and reduced that of depolarizations to DMPP by 32%. [Mg2+]o 12.7 and 25.4 mM caused depolarizations of the ganglion and reduced the amplitude of depolarizations evoked by 5-HT by 34 and 84%, respectively, and those to DMPP by 10 and 75%, respectively. Mg-free solutions or low [Mg2+]o caused a slow depolarization of the ganglion and reduced the amplitude of depolarizations to both 5-HT and DMPP by approx. 20%. Ca/Mg-free solutions produced a slow depolarization of the ganglion, increased the amplitude of depolarizations evoked by 5-HT by 78% and reduced those to DMPP by 58%. 4 Increasing [Ca2+]o reduced the amplitude of AH evoked by 5-HT by 50% and increased that to DMPP by 73%, while prolonging AH duration and increasing the time constant of decay. Ca-free solutions had complex effects on AH evoked by 5-HT, which were increased on average by 116%, and depressed AH evoked by DMPP; in both cases there was a decrease in the time constant of decay. [Mg2+]o 12.7 mM reduced the amplitude of AH evoked by 5-HT more than that evoked by DMPP, and increased the rate of decline of the exponential phase. Low Mg solutions reduced in amplitude the AH evoked by 5-HT by 56% and the AH evoked by DMPP by 38%. The time constant of decay was increased. Ca/Mg-free solutions reduced AH amplitude in both 5-HT and DMPP responses. The effects on time constant are consistent with the generation of AH by an electrogenic sodium pump, the ATP-ase of which is Mg2+-dependent and inhibited by Ca2+. 5 Responses to 5-HT could be recorded from postganglionic axons and consisted of a rapid depolarization, sometimes followed by an AH whose time constant of decay was smaller than that of ganglionic responses. Full dose-response curves in control and test media could be obtained. In Ca/Mg-free solutions, 5-HT depolarizations were potentiated but no significant shift in the curve was observed. 6 It is suggested that divalent cations modulate the coupling between 5-HT receptor and ion channel, an increase in [Ca2+]o reducing the coupling or stabilizing the ion channel in the closed conformation. Ca2+ and Mg2+ may compete for the same binding site. This mechanism does not appear to be involved at nicotinic receptors and their related ion channels. PMID:6265020

  17. Synergy between 5-HT4 receptor activation and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in human colon and rat forestomach.

    PubMed

    Cellek, S; Thangiah, R; Jarvie, E M; Vivekanandan, S; Lalude, O; Sanger, G J

    2008-05-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT4) receptor agonists increase gastrointestinal (GI) motility by enhancing enteric acetylcholine release which is then metabolized by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to inactive metabolites. As both AChE inhibitors and, more usually, 5-HT4 receptor agonists are used to increase GI motility, an understanding of how these two different types of drugs might interact becomes of great importance. Our aim was to investigate the hypothesis that the effect of AChE inhibition will synergise with the ability of 5-HT4 receptor agonism to increase cholinergic activity, leading to an effect greater than that evoked by each action alone. We tested the activity of the 5-HT4 receptor agonist, prucalopride (10 nmol L(-1)-30 micromol L(-1)) and an AChE inhibitor, neostigmine (1 nmol L(-1)-10 micromol L(-1)) on cholinergically mediated contractions elicited by electrical field stimulation of human isolated colon circular muscle and rat isolated forestomach longitudinal strips. The experiments with human colon were performed in the presence of an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, 300 micromol L(-1)). Prucalopride and neostigmine both enhanced cholinergic contractions in both tissues. The effect of prucalopride was inhibited in both tissues by SB-204070, a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist. In the presence of a minimum effective concentration of neostigmine (30 nmol L(-1)) and a submaximum concentration of prucalopride (3 micromol L(-1)) the enhancement of contractions was greater than either compound alone in both tissues. These data demonstrate that the combination of prucalopride and neostigmine potentiate cholinergic contractions more than their arithmetic sum of their individual values. The results suggest that a synergy between 5-HT4 receptor agonism and AChE inhibition could be established pharmacologically which could be utilized as a novel prokinetic approach to functional GI disorders. PMID:18194150

  18. Role of 5-HT3 Receptor on Food Intake in Fed and Fasted Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bingjin; Shao, Dongyuan; Luo, Yungang; Wang, Pu; Liu, Changhong; Zhang, Xingyi; Cui, Ranji

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. However, the relative contribution of 5-HT3 receptor remains unclear. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of 5-HT3 receptor in control of feeding behavior in fed and fasted mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Food intake and expression of c-Fos, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and 5-HT in the brain were examined after acute treatment with 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR-57227 alone or in combination with 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron. Food intake was significantly inhibited within 3 h after acute treatment with SR 57227 in fasted mice but not fed mice, and this inhibition was blocked by ondansetron. Immunohistochemical study revealed that fasting-induced c-Fos expression was further enhanced by SR 57227 in the brainstem and the hypothalamus, and this enhancement was also blocked by ondansetron. Furthermore, the fasting-induced downregulation of POMC expression in the hypothalamus and the TH expression in the brain stem was blocked by SR 57227 in the fasted mice, and this effect of SR 57227 was also antagonized by ondansetron. Conclusion/Significance Taken together, our findings suggest that the effect of SR 57227 on the control of feeding behavior in fasted mice may be, at least partially, related to the c-Fos expression in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as POMC system in the hypothalamus and the TH system in the brain stem. PMID:25789930

  19. 5-HT1A receptor-dependent control of nigrostriatal dopamine neurotransmission in the pharmacotherapy of Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2015-02-01

    Dysfunctions of the basal ganglia are associated with a number of neurological and psychiatric conditions including Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Current treatments of these disorders are mostly symptomatic and inadequate, and are often associated with a number of unwanted side-effects. The striatum, the terminal region of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway, is the main input nucleus of the basal ganglia, and dopamine neurotransmission through the nigrostriatal pathway plays a crucial role in the modulation of basal ganglia output and mediated behaviors. Evidence suggests a role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin)-1A receptors in the modulation of dopamine neurotransmission and in improving pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. This review concerns the role of 5-HT1A receptors in the modulation of nigrostriatal dopamine neurotransmission, with the aim of providing guidelines for future research to improve pharmacotherapy. The current state of knowledge suggests that drugs simultaneously targeting dopamine D2 and 5-HT1A receptors may improve pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Activation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus has an important role in the alleviation of extrapyramidal symptoms and levodopa-induced dyskinesia induced by antipsychotic treatment. Drugs acting exclusively through dopamine D2 and 5-HT1A receptors are highly needed to validate the potential role of 5-HT1A receptors in improving therapeutics for Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:25503261

  20. AHR-16303B, a novel antagonist of 5-HT2 receptors and voltage-sensitive calcium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, R.J.; Appell, K.C.; Kilpatrick, B.F.; Proakis, A.G.; Nolan, J.C.; Walsh, D.A. )

    1991-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro methods were used to characterize AHR-16303B, a novel compound with antagonistic action at 5-HT2 receptors and voltage-sensitive calcium channels. The 5-HT2 receptor-antagonistic properties of AHR-16303B were demonstrated by inhibition of (a) (3H)ketanserin binding to rat cerebral cortical membranes (IC50 = 165 nM); (b) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced foot edema in rats (minimum effective dose, (MED) = 0.32 mg/kg orally, p.o.); (c) 5-HT-induced vasopressor responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (ID50 = 0.18 mg/kg intravenously (i.v.), 1.8 mg/kg p.o.), (d) 5-HT-induced antidiuresis in rats (MED = 1 mg/kg p.o.), and (e) platelet aggregation induced by 5-HT + ADP (IC50 = 1.5 mM). The calcium antagonist properties of AHR-16303B were demonstrated by inhibition of (a) (3H)nimodipine binding to voltage-sensitive calcium channels on rabbit skeletal muscle membranes (IC50 = 15 nM), (b) KCl-stimulated calcium flux into cultured PC12 cells (IC50 = 81 nM), and (c) CaCl2-induced contractions of rabbit thoracic aortic strips (pA2 = 8.84). AHR-16303B had little or no effect on binding of radioligands to dopamine2 (DA2) alpha 1, alpha 2, H1, 5-HT1 alpha, beta 2, muscarinic M1, or sigma opioid receptors; had no effect on 5-HT3 receptor-mediated vagal bradycardia; and had only minor negative inotropic, chronotropic, and dromotropic effects on isolated guinea pig atria. In conscious SHR, 30 mg/kg p.o. AHR-16303B completely prevented the vasopressor responses to i.v. 5-HT, and decreased blood pressure (BP) by 24% 3 h after dosing.

  1. Acidic biphenyl derivatives: synthesis and biological activity of a new series of potent 5-HT(4) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Brudeli, Bjarne; Andressen, Kjetil Wessel; Moltzau, Lise Román; Nilsen, Nils Olav; Levy, Finn Olav; Klaveness, Jo

    2013-11-15

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important signaling molecule in the central nervous system (CNS) and in non-neuronal tissues and organs. Serotonin mediates a positive chronotropic and inotropic response through 5-HT4 receptors in the atrium and ventricle of the heart. Recent investigations have revealed increased expression of the 5-HT4(b) isoform in cardiomyocytes of chronic arrhythmic and failing hearts, and that the use of 5-HT4 receptor antagonists may be beneficial for treating these conditions. The 5-HT4 receptor possesses a transmembrane (TM) binding site important for ligand affinity and recognition, as well as a capacity to accommodate bulky ligands. A new series of peripherally-acting 5-HT4 receptor antagonists were prepared by combining the acidic biphenyl group from the class of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) with the SB207266 (piboserod) scaffold. The new compounds were pharmacologically evaluated and carboxylic acid 21 was identified as a potent and promising 5-HT4 receptor antagonist with moderate affinity for the AT1 receptor. The permeability of carboxylic acid 21 in a Caco-2 assay was low and the corresponding prodrug esters 23a-f were therefore prepared. The pharmacokinetics of methyl ester 20 and n-butyl ester 23c were evaluated in a rat model, revealing incomplete metabolism to carboxylic acid 21. However, methyl ester 20 is a potent 5-HT4 receptor antagonist with binding affinities in the low picomolar range. Methyl ester 20 has promising oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics and may target 5-HT4 receptors in both CNS and peripheral organs. PMID:24113240

  2. Calcineurin-dependent cofilin activation and increased retrograde actin flow drive 5-HTdependent neurite outgrowth in Aplysia bag cell neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Hyland, Callen; Van Goor, David; Forscher, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Neurite outgrowth in response to soluble growth factors often involves changes in intracellular Ca2+; however, mechanistic roles for Ca2+ in controlling the underlying dynamic cytoskeletal processes have remained enigmatic. Bag cell neurons exposed to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) respond with a threefold increase in neurite outgrowth rates. Outgrowth depends on phospholipase C (PLC) ? inositol trisphosphate ? Ca2+ ? calcineurin signaling and is accompanied by increased rates of retrograde actin network flow in the growth cone P domain. Calcineurin inhibitors had no effect on Ca2+ release or basal levels of retrograde actin flow; however, they completely suppressed 5-HTdependent outgrowth and F-actin flow acceleration. 5-HT treatments were accompanied by calcineurin-dependent increases in cofilin activity in the growth cone P domain. 5-HT effects were mimicked by direct activation of PLC, suggesting that increased actin network treadmilling may be a widespread mechanism for promoting neurite outgrowth in response to neurotrophic factors. PMID:23097492

  3. 5-HT2A and mGlu2/3 receptor interactions: on their relevance to cognitive function and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Wischhof, Lena; Koch, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] and glutamate have both been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders but also in the mechanism of antipsychotic and hallucinogenic drug actions. Furthermore, close antagonistic interactions between 5-HT2A and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu)2/3 receptors have been established over the last decades on the basis of numerous electrophysiological, biochemical, and behavioral studies. Besides synaptic mechanisms, more recent findings suggested that heterodimeric 5-HT2A-mGlu2 receptor complexes in the prefrontal cortex may account for the functional crosstalk between these two receptor subtypes. In this review, we focus on in-vitro and in-vivo studies documenting the important relationship between 5-HT2A and mGlu2/3 receptors, with relevance to both normal behavioral function and psychosis. PMID:26292187

  4. Analysis of the 5-HT receptors mediating contractions in the rabbit isolated renal artery.

    PubMed Central

    Tadipatri, S.; van Heuven-Nolsen, D.; Feniuk, W.; Saxena, P. R.

    1991-01-01

    1. Using a number of agonist and antagonist compounds, we have attempted to characterize the responses and receptors involved in the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the rabbit isolated renal artery. 2. In vessel segments precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic agent, U46619 (100 nM), neither 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-4) M) nor 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT; 10(-8) to 3 x 10(-4) M) caused relaxations like those observed with methacholine. Both 5-HT and 5-CT further increased the tone of the vessels, with pD2 values of 7.1 and 7.9, respectively. 3. In the absence of U46619, both 5-HT (10(-7) to 3 x 10(-3) M) and 5-CT (10(-7) to 10(-3) M) contracted the rabbit renal artery, but with reduced potencies. The contractions to 5-HT were reproducible and the rank order of potency (pD2) of the agonists was: alpha-methyl-5-HT (5.7), sumatriptan (5.3), 5-HT (5.1), 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (5.0), 5-CT (4.7) and 5-methoxytryptamine (4.3). 1-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane, flesinoxan and RU 24969 elicited either only small contractions or none at all. 4. The contractile effect of 5-HT was unaffected by MDL 72222 (10(-6) M) and metergoline (10(-8) and 10(-7) M), was weakly antagonized by ketanserin and phentolamine (pKB: 6.6 and 6.8, respectively), but was effectively antagonized by methiothepin (pKB: 8.6). Responses to 5-CT and sumatriptan were affected by ketanserin, phentolamine and methiothepin similarly to 5-HT-induced responses. 5. Ketanserin was ineffective against noradrenaline-induced contractions, which were antagonized by phentolamine with a pKB of 7.3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1667289

  5. The Traditional Japanese Medicine Rikkunshito Promotes Gastric Emptying via the Antagonistic Action of the 5-HT3 Receptor Pathway in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, K.; Kido, T.; Ochi, M.; Sadakane, C.; Mase, A.; Okazaki, H.; Yamagami, H.; Tanigawa, T.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, T.; Fujiwara, Y.; Oshitani, N.; Arakawa, T.

    2011-01-01

    The traditional Japanese medicine rikkunshito ameliorates the nitric oxide-associated delay in gastric emptying. Whether rikkunshito affects gastric motility associated with 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin: 5-HT) receptors or dopamine receptors is unknown. We examined the effects of rikkunshito on the delay in gastric emptying induced by 5-HT or dopamine using the phenol red method in male Wistar rats. 5-HT (0.011.0?mg?kg?1, i.p.) dose dependently delayed gastric emptying, similar to the effect of the 5-HT3 receptor agonist 1-(3-chlorophenyl) biguanide (0.011.0?mg?kg?1, i.p.). Dopamine also dose dependently delayed gastric emptying. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (0.044.0?mg?kg?1) and rikkunshito (125500?mg?kg?1) significantly suppressed the delay in gastric emptying caused by 5-HT or 1-(3-chlorophenyl) biguanide. Hesperidin (the most active ingredient in rikkunshito) suppressed the 5-HT-induced delayed gastric emptying in a dose-dependent manner, the maximum effect of which was similar to that of ondansetron (0.4?mg?kg?1). The improvement obtained by rikkunshito or ondansetron in delaying gastric emptying was completely blocked by pretreatment with atropine. Rikkunshito appears to improve delay in gastric emptying via the antagonistic action of the 5-HT3 receptor pathway. PMID:19861508

  6. Human 5HT4 and 5HT7 Receptor Splice Variants: Are they Important?

    PubMed Central

    Coupar, Ian M; Desmond, Paul V; Irving, Helen R

    2007-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are encoded by >300 genes in the human genome, are by far the largest class of targets for modern drugs. These macromolecules display inherent adaptability of function, which is partly due to the production of different forms of the receptor protein. These are commonly called isoforms or splice variants denoting the molecular process of their production/assembly. Not all GPCRs are expressed as splice variants, but certain subclasses of 5HT receptors are for example, the 5HT4 and 5HT7 receptors. There are at least 11 human 5HT4 and three h5HT7 receptor splice variants. This review describestheir discoveries, nomenclature and structures. The discovery that particular splice variants are tissue specific (or prominent) has highlighted their potential as future drug targets. In particular, this review examines the functional relevance of different 5HT4 and 5HT7 receptor splice variants. Examples are given to illustrate that splice variants have differential modulatory influences on signalling processes. Differences in agonist potency and efficacies and also differences in desensitisation rates to 5HT occur with both 5HT4 and 5HT7 receptor splice variants. The known and candidate signalling systems that allow for splice variant specific responses include GPCR interacting proteins (GIPs) and GPCR receptor kinases (GRKs) which are examined.Finally, the relevance of 5HT receptor splice variants to clinical medicine and to the pharmaceutical industry is discussed. PMID:19305739

  7. Early detection of oxygen-induced lung injury in conscious rabbits. Reduced in vivo activity of angiotensin converting enzyme and removal of 5-hydroxytryptamine

    SciTech Connect

    Dobuler, K.J.; Catravas, J.D.; Gillis, C.N.

    1982-09-01

    Changes in lung endothelial metabolic function, determined in vitro, have been proposed as sensitive indexes of hyperoxic lung damage. However, it is unclear whether these changes are also seen in vivo. We studied the possibility, using conscious rabbits in which jugular and carotid catheters had previously been placed under halothane anesthesia. Approximately 24 h later, test animals were exposed to normobaric hyperoxia (96 +/- 2%), while a second group was maintained in room air. Multiple indicator dilution methods were used to study (1) metabolism of /sup 3/H-benzoyl-phe-ala-pro (BPAP), a synthetic substrate for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), and (2) removal of /sup 14/C-5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) during a single transpulmonary passage in conscious animals. Lungs of air-exposed animals hydrolyzed 81 +/- 2% of injected BPAP (0.1 to 0.15 nmoles) during a single passage. Percent metabolism was unaltered during the next 72 h. However, in test animals, ACE activity, as reflected by BPAP metabolism, was significantly reduced after 16 h of exposure to oxygen (77 +/- 2%, p less than 0.01) and continued to decrease to a nadir of 66 +/- 3% at 40 h. Single-pass lung uptake of /sup 14/C-5-HT (77 +/- 2%) was unchanged throughout the 72-h period in air-exposed rabbits. In test animals, /sup 14/C-5-HT removal decreased to 65 +/- 4% (p less than 0.01) after 24 h of oxygen exposure; 5-HT removal remained depressed compared with the 0 h control determination for the oxygen group at all subsequent measurement intervals. Light and electron microscopy of lungs from oxygen-exposed rabbits demonstrating reduced 5-HT removal and ACE activity at 24 h revealed normal endothelial and type I cell morphologic features.

  8. 5-{2-[4-(2-methyl-5-quinolinyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl}-2(1H)-quinolinones and 3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinones: dual-acting 5-HT1 receptor antagonists and serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Part 3.

    PubMed

    Bromidge, Steven M; Arban, Roberto; Bertani, Barbara; Borriello, Manuela; Capelli, Anna-Maria; Di-Fabio, Romano; Faedo, Stefania; Gianotti, Massimo; Gordon, Laurie J; Granci, Enrica; Pasquarello, Alessandra; Spada, Simone K; Worby, Angela; Zonzini, Laura; Zucchelli, Valeria

    2010-12-01

    5-{2-[4-(2-Methyl-5-quinolinyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl}-2(1H)-quinolinones and 3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinones have been identified with different combinations of 5-HT(1) autoreceptor antagonist and hSerT potencies and excellent rat PK profiles. The availability of tool compounds with a range of profiles at targets known to play a key role in the control of synaptic 5-HT levels will allow exploration of different pharmacological profiles in a range of animal behavioral and disease models. PMID:20951584

  9. The serotonin receptor SER-1 (5HT2ce) contributes to the regulation of locomotion in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Dernovici, Serge; Starc, Tanja; Dent, Joseph A; Ribeiro, Paula

    2007-02-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5HT) is an important neuroactive substance in the model roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans. Aside from having effects in feeding and egg-laying, 5HT inhibits motility and also modulates several locomotory behaviors, notably food-induced slowing and foraging. Recent evidence showed that a serotonergic 5HT2-like receptor named SER-1 (also known as 5HT2ce) was responsible for the effect of 5HT on egg-laying. Here we confirm this observation and show that SER-1 also plays an important role in locomotion. A mutant lacking SER-1 was found to be highly resistant to exogenous 5HT in the absence of food and this resistant phenotype was rescued by reintroducing the SER-1 gene in a mutant background. Pharmacological studies showed that the same antagonists that blocked the activity of recombinant SER-1 in vitro also inhibited the effect of 5HT on motility, suggesting the same receptor was responsible for both effects. When tested for locomotory behaviors, the SER-1 mutant was found to be moderately defective in food-induced slowing. In addition, the mutant changed direction more frequently than the wildtype when searching for food, suggesting that SER-1 may play a role in navigational control during foraging. Both these effects required the presence of MOD-1, a 5HT gated chloride channel, and the results indicate that SER-1 and MOD-1 modulate these behaviors through a common pathway. On the basis of expression analysis of a ser-1::GFP translational fusion, SER-1 is prominently located in central, integrating neurons of the head ganglia (RIA and RIC) but not the body wall musculature. The evidence suggests that SER-1 controls locomotion through indirect modulation of neuromuscular circuits and has effects both on speed and direction of movement. PMID:17443782

  10. Spinal 5-HT3AR contributes to BmK I-induced inflammatory pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jin; Jiao, Yun-Lu; Li, Zheng-Wei; Ji, Yong-Hua

    2015-06-25

    Subcutaneous injection of BmK I could be adopted to well establish a novel pain model. Moreover, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) receptor is involved in regulating animal pain-related behaviors. However, the underlying mechanism of 5-HT3R on BmK I-induced pain remains unclear. Animal behavioral testing, RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to yield the following results: first, intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of BmK I (10 ?g) induced elevated mRNA and protein levels of 5-HT3AR in bilateral L4-L5 spinal cord; Second, intrathecal (i.t.) injection of ondansetron (a specific antagonist of 5-HT3AR) reduced spontaneous pain responses, attenuated unilateral thermal and bilateral mechanical hypersensitivity elicited by BmK I; Microglia could be activated by BmK I (i.pl.) in both sides of L4-L5 spinal cord, and this effect was reversed by intrathecal pre-treatment with 5-HT3AR antagonist. Meanwhile, the 5-HT3AR in L4-L5 spinal cord was almost co-localized with NeuN (a marker of nerve cell), but not co-expressed with Iba-1 (a marker of microglia). Finally, the expression level of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 was reduced by intrathecal pre-treatment with ondansetron. Our results indicate that both 5-HT3AR signaling pathway and microglia are activated in the process of induction and maintenance of BmK I-induced pain nociception. Meanwhile, our results suggest that the neuronal 5-HT3AR may communicate with microglia indirectly via CX3CL1 which is involved in regulating the BmK I-induced hyperalgesia and sensitization. PMID:26109301

  11. Inhibitory action of niflumic acid on noradrenaline- and 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced pressor responses in the isolated mesenteric vascular bed of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Criddle, D N; Soares de Moura, R; Greenwood, I A; Large, W A

    1997-01-01

    The effects of niflumic acid, an inhibitor of calcium-activated chloride currents, were compared with the actions of the calcium channel blocker nifedipine on noradrenaline- and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced pressor responses of the rat perfused isolated mesenteric vascular bed.Bolus injections of noradrenaline (1 and 10?nmol) increased the perfusion pressure in a dose-dependent manner. Nifedipine (1??M) inhibited the increase in pressure produced by 1?nmol noradrenaline by 315%. Niflumic acid (10 and 30??M) also inhibited the noradrenaline-induced increase in perfusion pressure and 30??M niflumic acid reduced the pressor response to 1?nmol noradrenaline by 346%.The increases in perfusion elicited by 5-HT (0.3 and 3?nmol) were reduced by niflumic acid (10 and 30??M) in a concentration-dependent manner and 30??M niflumic acid inhibited responses to 0.3 and 3?nmol 5-HT by, respectively, 498% and 507%. Nifedipine (1??M) decreased the pressor response to 3?nmol 5-HT by 449%.In the presence of a combination of 30??M niflumic acid and 1??M nifedipine the inhibition of the pressor effects of noradrenaline (10?nmol) and 5-HT (3?nmol) was not significantly greater than with niflumic acid (30??M) alone. Thus the effects of niflumic acid and nifedipine were not additive.In Ca-free conditions the transient contractions induced by 5-HT (3?nmol) were not reduced by 30??M niflumic acid, suggesting that this agent does not inhibit calcium release from the intracellular store or the binding of 5-HT to its receptor.Niflumic acid 30??M did not inhibit the pressor responses induced by KCl (20 and 60??mol) which were markedly reduced by 1??M nifedipine. In addition, 1??M levcromakalim decreased pressor responses produced by 20??mol KCl. These data suggest that niflumic acid does not block directly calcium channels or activate potassium channels.It is concluded that niflumic acid selectively reduces a component of noradrenaline- and 5-HT-induced pressor responses by inhibiting a mechanism which leads to the opening of voltage-gated calcium channels. Our data suggest that the Ca2+-activated chloride conductance may play a pivotal role in the activation of voltage-gated calcium channels in agonist-induced constriction of resistance blood vessels. PMID:9138686

  12. Selective activation of 5HT1A receptors induces lower lip retraction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, H H; Jenck, F; Broekkamp, C L

    1989-08-01

    The induction of lower lip retraction (LLR) by serotonergic (5HT) compounds and antagonism of LLR by compounds acting via a variety of receptor systems was investigated. LLR could be induced by subcutaneous injection of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), buspirone, ipsapirone or RU 24969. Inactive were the putative 5HT1B,1C agonist 1-(3'chlorophenyl)-piperazine (mCCP), the 5HT2,1C agonist (dl)-1-(2,5 dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), the 5HT reuptake inhibitors citalopram and paroxetine and the 5HT-releasing compounds parachloroamphetamine (PCA) and fenfluramine. 5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT) induced lower lip retraction after pretreatment with metergoline, cyproheptadine or ritanserin but not by itself. 8-OH-DPAT-induced LLR could be antagonised by the direct and indirect 5HT agonists mCPP, DOI, 5-MeODMT, PCA, fenfluramine and high doses of paroxetine, but not by the 5HT antagonists metergoline, methysergide, mesulergine, GR38032F, xylamidine or pirenperone. The dopamine agonists apomorphine and pergolide antagonised 8-OH-DPAT-induced LLR, whereas SKF 38393 was weakly active. No significant antagonism was found with the dopamine antagonists haloperidol and spiperone, the alpha 2 agonist clonidine and the alpha 1 antagonist prazosin and the alpha 2 antagonist idazoxan. Also inactive were the antihistaminic mepyramine, the anticholinergic atropine, the opiate antagonist naloxone and the anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide. The results suggest that, in vivo, functional interactions take place between the various 5HT receptors. The hypothesis that lower lip retraction is induced by compounds directly and selectively stimulating 5HT1A receptors is discussed. PMID:2533357

  13. Synergistic effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 and neurokinin 1 receptor antagonism in rodent models of somatic and visceral pain.

    PubMed

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Mohammadi, Ehsan; Tyler, Karl; Pietra, Claudio; Bee, Lucy A; Dickenson, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    Synergistic activity has been observed between serotonergic 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) and tachykinergic neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor-mediated responses. This study investigated the efficacy of a 5-HT3 antagonist, palonosetron, and a NK1 antagonist, netupitant, alone or in combination in rodent models of somatic and visceral colonic hypersensitivity. In a rat model of experimental neuropathic pain, somatic hypersensitivity was quantified by the number of ipsilateral paw withdrawals to a von Frey filament (6g). Electrophysiologic responses were recorded in the dorsal horn neurons after mechanical or thermal stimuli. Acute colonic hypersensitivity was induced experimentally in rats by infusing dilute acetic acid (0.6%) directly into the colon. Colonic sensitivity was assessed by a visceromotor behavioral response quantified as the number of abdominal contractions in response to graded isobaric pressures (0-60 mm Hg) of colorectal distension. Palonosetron or netupitant was administered alone or in combination via oral gavage. When dosed alone, both significantly reduced somatic sensitivity, decreased the evoked response of spinal dorsal horn neurons to mechanical or thermal stimulation, and caused significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of colonic hypersensitivity in a dose-dependent manner. The combined administration of palonosetron and netupitant at doses that were ineffective alone significantly reduced both somatic and visceral sensitivity and decreased the evoked response of spinal dorsal horn neurons to mechanical or thermal stimulation. In summary, the combination of palonosetron with a NK1 receptor antagonist showed synergistic analgesic activity in rodent models of somatic and visceral hypersensitivity, and may prove to be a useful therapeutic approach to treat pain associated with irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:25077526

  14. Effects of the selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB-269970 in animal models of psychosis and cognition.

    PubMed

    Waters, Kerry A; Stean, Tania O; Hammond, Beverley; Virley, David J; Upton, Neil; Kew, James N C; Hussain, Ishrut

    2012-03-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine7 (5-HT7) receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor for serotonin that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric and neurological disorders including anxiety, depression and schizophrenia. A number of studies have attempted to evaluate the potential role of the 5-HT7 receptor in schizophrenia by utilising genetic or pharmacological tools but to date these have provided conflicting results. Here we investigate the effect of a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB-269970, in in vivo psychosis and cognition models and relate efficacy to brain exposures of the compound. SB-269970 significantly attenuated amphetamine-induced rearing and circling in rats. A similar effect was observed in an N-methyl d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist driven psychosis model, where SB-269970 significantly reversed phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion, rearing and circling; although the effect was not as robust as with the 5-HT2a receptor antagonist positive control, MDL100,907. SB-269970 also attenuated a temporal deficit in novel object recognition (NOR), indicative of an improvement in recognition memory. Pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma and brain samples taken after behavioural testing confirmed that efficacy was achieved at doses and pre-treatment times where receptor occupancy was substantial. These findings highlight the anti-psychotic and pro-cognitive potential of 5-HT7 receptor antagonists and warrant further studies to explore their therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. PMID:22189656

  15. The role of residues in binding loop A in desflurane and propofol modulation of recombinant 5-HT3A receptor.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bon Nyeo; Kim, Mi Kyeong; Yang, Jay; Min, Kyeong Tae

    2009-11-13

    5-Hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT(3)) receptor is modulated by general anesthetics and regarded as a possible site of anesthetic adverse action. Although two amino acids located in transmembrane (TM) 2 and TM3 of LGICs were reported as critical for allosteric modulation by anesthetics and alcohols, other residues could regulate anesthetic modulation. Earlier studies identified the role of glutamate 129 and phenylalanine 130 in the non-TM extracellular region in the agonist binding and coupling in the 5-HT(3A) receptor. We investigated whether these non-TM amino acids are involved in desflurane and propofol modulation of the 5-HT(3A) receptor in mutant 5-HT(3A) receptors (mutants) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. E129D and F130Y mutants were functionally expressed but E129Y and F130S mutants were not gated by serotonin. The wild type and F130Y mutants demonstrated positive modulation by desflurane at 6 and 12vol.%. In contrast, E129D mutants were inhibited by desflurane in a concentration dependent manner. Propofol (1-100 microM) demonstrated depression of the currents in all receptors examined. These findings suggest the role of non-TM residues in the extracellular domain in the anesthetic modulation of the 5-HT(3A) receptor. PMID:19765401

  16. Postnatal Day 2 to 11 Constitutes a 5-HT-Sensitive Period Impacting Adult mPFC Function

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Tahilia J.; Yu, Qinghui; Goodfellow, Nathalie M.; Caffrey Cagliostro, Martha K.; Teissier, Anne; Morelli, Emanuela; Demireva, Elena Y.; Chemiakine, Alexei; Rosoklija, Gorazd B.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Lambe, Evelyn K.; Ansorge, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Early-life serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] signaling modulates brain development, which impacts adult behavior, but 5-HT-sensitive periods, neural substrates, and behavioral consequences remain poorly understood. Here we identify the period ranging from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P11 as 5-HT sensitive, with 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade increasing anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and impairing fear extinction learning and memory in adult mice. Concomitantly, P2–P11 5-HTT blockade causes dendritic hypotrophy and reduced excitability of infralimbic (IL) cortex pyramidal neurons that normally promote fear extinction. By contrast, the neighboring prelimbic (PL) pyramidal neurons, which normally inhibit fear extinction, become more excitable. Excitotoxic IL but not PL lesions in adult control mice reproduce the anxiety-related phenotypes. These findings suggest that increased 5-HT signaling during P2–P11 alters adult mPFC function to increase anxiety and impair fear extinction, and imply a differential role for IL and PL neurons in regulating affective behaviors. Together, our results support a developmental mechanism for the etiology and pathophysiology of affective disorders and fear-related behaviors. PMID:25209278

  17. Molecular regulation of sexual preference revealed by genetic studies of 5-HT in the brains of male mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Jiang, Yun'ai; Si, Yunxia; Kim, Ji-Young; Chen, Zhou-Feng; Rao, Yi

    2011-04-01

    Although the question of to whom a male directs his mating attempts is a critical one in social interactions, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling mammalian sexual preference. Here we report that the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is required for male sexual preference. Wild-type male mice preferred females over males, but males lacking central serotonergic neurons lost sexual preference although they were not generally defective in olfaction or in pheromone sensing. A role for 5-HT was demonstrated by the phenotype of mice lacking tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2), which is required for the first step of 5-HT synthesis in the brain. Thirty-five minutes after the injection of the intermediate 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), which circumvented Tph2 to restore 5-HT to the wild-type level, adult Tph2 knockout mice also preferred females over males. These results indicate that 5-HT and serotonergic neurons in the adult brain regulate mammalian sexual preference. PMID:21441904

  18. Low-dose prazosin in combination with 5-HT6 antagonist PRX-07034 has antipsychotic effects.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Renny; Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Shinde, Anil; Irupannanavar, Shantaveer

    2015-01-01

    An extensive amount of research has focused on the development of new pharmacological agents to treat schizophrenia. Varying from person to person, schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disease with symptoms of positive, negative, and cognitive deficits. PRX-07034, a 5-hydroxytryptamine6 (5-HT6) receptor antagonist has been evaluated for its potential in treating obesity and cognitive deficits. This study evaluated PRX-07034 (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg body mass, by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection), in combination with a low dose of prazosin (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), for its antipsychotic potential. The research utilized a stereotypy assay, an open field test, an object recognition task, and prepulse inhibition. Dizocilpine, a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, was also administered in the above-mentioned assays as a psychomimetic. The combination of PRX-07034 and prazosin alleviated stereotypy and hyperlocomotor activity while enhancing memory in an object recognition task, and reversed sensory-gating deficits induced by dizocilpine. Examination of the medial prefrontal cortex revealed that a combination of PRX-07034 and prazosin reduced the dizocilpine-mediated increase of 5-HT. These results suggest that the combination of a 5-HT6 antagonist with low doses of prazosin could have therapeutic potential in the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:25429515

  19. Reward processing by the dorsal raphe nucleus: 5-HT and beyond.

    PubMed

    Luo, Minmin; Zhou, Jingfeng; Liu, Zhixiang

    2015-09-01

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) represents one of the most sensitive reward sites in the brain. However, the exact relationship between DRN neuronal activity and reward signaling has been elusive. In this review, we will summarize anatomical, pharmacological, optogenetics, and electrophysiological studies on the functions and circuit mechanisms of DRN neurons in reward processing. The DRN is commonly associated with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), but this nucleus also contains neurons of the neurotransmitter phenotypes of glutamate, GABA and dopamine. Pharmacological studies indicate that 5-HT might be involved in modulating reward- or punishment-related behaviors. Recent optogenetic stimulations demonstrate that transient activation of DRN neurons produces strong reinforcement signals that are carried out primarily by glutamate. Moreover, activation of DRN 5-HT neurons enhances reward waiting. Electrophysiological recordings reveal that the activity of DRN neurons exhibits diverse behavioral correlates in reward-related tasks. Studies so far thus demonstrate the strong power of DRN neurons in reward signaling and at the same time invite additional efforts to dissect the roles and mechanisms of different DRN neuron types in various processes of reward-related behaviors. PMID:26286655

  20. Mechanisms intrinsic to 5-HT2B receptor-induced potentiation of NMDA receptor responses in frog motoneurones.

    PubMed

    Holohean, Alice M; Hackman, John C

    2004-10-01

    In the presence of NMDA receptor open-channel blockers [Mg(2+); (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801); 1-amino-3,5-dimethyladamantane (memantine)] and TTX, high concentrations (30-100 microm) of either 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (alpha-Me-5-HT) significantly potentiated NMDA-induced depolarizations of frog spinal cord motoneurones. Potentiation was blocked by LY-53,857 (10-30 microm), SB 206553 (10 microm), and SB 204741 (30 microm), but not by spiroxatrine (10 microm), WAY 100,635 (1-30 microm), ketanserin (10 microm), RS 102221 (10 microm), or RS 39604 (10-20 microm). Therefore, alpha-Me-5-HT's facilitatory effects appear to involve 5-HT(2B) receptors. These effects were G-protein dependent as they were prevented by prior treatment with guanylyl-5'-imidodiphosphate (GMP-PNP, 100 microm) and H-Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-D-Trp-Phe-D-Trp-D-Trp-Met-NH(2) (GP antagonist 2A, 3-6 microm), but not by pertussis toxin (PTX, 3-6 ng ml(-1), 48 h preincubation). This potentiation was not reduced by protein kinase C inhibition with staurosporine (2.0 microm), U73122 (10 microm) or N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide HCl (H9) (77 microm) or by intracellular Ca(2+) depletion with thapsigargin (0.1 microm) (which inhibits Ca(2+)/ATPase). Exposure of the spinal cord to the L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers nifedipine (10 microm), KN-62 (5 microm) or gallopamil (100 microm) eliminated alpha-Me-5-HT's effects. The calmodulin antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalenesulfonamide (W7) (100 microm) diminished the potentiation. However, the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM Kinase II) blocker KN-93 (10 microm) did not block the 5-HT enhancement of the NMDA responses. In summary, activation of 5-HT(2B) receptors by alpha-Me-5-HT facilitates NMDA-depolarizations of frog motoneurones via a G-protein, a rise in [Ca(2+)](i) from the entry of extracellular Ca(2+) through L-type Ca(2+) channels, the binding of Ca(2+) to calmodulin and a lessening of the Mg(2+) -produced open-channel block of the NMDA receptor. PMID:15339859

  1. Mechanisms intrinsic to 5-HT2B receptor-induced potentiation of NMDA receptor responses in frog motoneurones

    PubMed Central

    Holohean, Alice M; Hackman, John C

    2004-01-01

    In the presence of NMDA receptor open-channel blockers [Mg2+; (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801); 1-amino-3,5-dimethyladamantane (memantine)] and TTX, high concentrations (30100 ?M) of either 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or ?-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (?-Me-5-HT) significantly potentiated NMDA-induced depolarizations of frog spinal cord motoneurones. Potentiation was blocked by LY-53,857 (1030 ?M), SB 206553 (10 ?M), and SB 204741 (30 ?M), but not by spiroxatrine (10 ?M), WAY 100,635 (130 ?M), ketanserin (10 ?M), RS 102221 (10 ?M), or RS 39604 (1020 ?M). Therefore, ?-Me-5-HT's facilitatory effects appear to involve 5-HT2B receptors. These effects were G-protein dependent as they were prevented by prior treatment with guanylyl-5?-imidodiphosphate (GMP-PNP, 100 ?M) and H-Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-D-Trp-Phe-D-Trp-D-Trp-Met-NH2 (GP antagonist 2A, 36 ?M), but not by pertussis toxin (PTX, 36 ng ml?1, 48 h preincubation). This potentiation was not reduced by protein kinase C inhibition with staurosporine (2.0 ?M), U73122 (10 ?M) or N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide HCl (H9) (77 ?M) or by intracellular Ca2+ depletion with thapsigargin (0.1 ?M) (which inhibits Ca2+/ATPase). Exposure of the spinal cord to the L-type Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine (10 ?M), KN-62 (5 ?M) or gallopamil (100 ?M) eliminated ?-Me-5-HT's effects. The calmodulin antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalenesulfonamide (W7) (100 ?M) diminished the potentiation. However, the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM Kinase II) blocker KN-93 (10 ?M) did not block the 5-HT enhancement of the NMDA responses. In summary, activation of 5-HT2B receptors by ?-Me-5-HT facilitates NMDA-depolarizations of frog motoneurones via a G-protein, a rise in [Ca2+]i from the entry of extracellular Ca2+ through L-type Ca2+ channels, the binding of Ca2+ to calmodulin and a lessening of the Mg2+ -produced open-channel block of the NMDA receptor. PMID:15339859

  2. Pharmacological characterization of 8-OH-DPAT-induced inhibition of rat hippocampal 5-HT release in vivo as measured by microdialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, T.; Bramwell, S. R.; Hjorth, S.; Grahame-Smith, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    1. We have previously found that the putative 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) decreases hippocampal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release in the anaesthetized rat, as measured by brain microdialysis. The present study attempted to characterize the receptor involved in this response using a range of monoamine receptor antagonists. 2. The classical 5-HT receptor antagonists, metergoline (5 mg kg-1 s.c.), methysergide (10 mg kg-1 s.c.) and methiothepin (10 mg kg-1 s.c.) each reduced dialysate levels of 5-HT which complicated their use as antagonists in these experiments. Nevertheless, pretreatment with metergoline but not methiothepin and methysergide partially reduced the 5-HT response to a maximally effective dose of 8-OH-DPAT (0.25 mg kg-1 s.c.). 3. The mixed 5-HT 1/beta-adrenoceptor antagonist pindolol (8 mg kg-1 s.c.) was without effect on spontaneous 5-HT output but attenuated the effect of both maximally (0.25 mg kg-1 s.c.) and submaximally (0.05 mg kg-1 s.c.) effective dose of 8-OH-DPAT. In comparison, propranolol (10 mg kg-1 s.c.) did not affect 5-HT output when injected alone and did not alter the response to 8-OH-DPAT (0.25 mg kg-1 s.c.). 4. The 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ritanserin (0.2 mg kg-1 s.c.) and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist BRL 43694 (0.5 mg kg-1 s.c.) neither altered 5-HT output alone nor significantly changed the response to 8-OH-DPAT (0.25 mg kg-1 s.c.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2574066

  3. Signal Transduction Mechanism for Serotonin 5-HT2B Receptor-Mediated DNA Synthesis and Proliferation in Primary Cultures of Adult Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Naito, Kota; Tanaka, Chizuru; Mitsuhashi, Manami; Moteki, Hajime; Kimura, Mitsutoshi; Natsume, Hideshi; Ogihara, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and the 5-HT2 receptor subtypes in the induction of DNA synthesis and proliferation was investigated in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes to elucidate the intracellular signal transduction mechanisms. Hepatocyte parenchymal cells maintained in a serum-free, defined medium, synthesized DNA and proliferated in the presence of 5-HT or a selective 5-HT2B receptor agonist, BW723C86, but not in the presence of 5-HT2A, or 5-HT2C receptor agonists (TCB-2 and CP809101, respectively), in a time- and dose-dependent manner. A selective 5-HT2B receptor antagonist, LY272015 (10(-7)?M), and a specific phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, U-73122 (10(-6)?M), as well as specific inhibitors of growth-related signal transducers-including AG1478, LY294002, PD98059, and rapamycin-completely inhibited 5-HT (10(-6)?M)- or BW723C86 (10(-6)?M)-induced hepatocyte DNA synthesis and proliferation. Both 5-HT and BW723C86 were shown to significantly stimulate the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF)/transforming growth factor (TGF)-? receptor tyrosine kinase (p175 kDa) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 2 on Western blot analysis. These results suggest that the proliferative mechanism of activating 5-HT is mediated mainly through 5-HT2B receptor-stimulated Gq/PLC and EGF/TGF-?-receptor/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/ERK2/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in primary cultured hepatocytes. PMID:26567725

  4. Serotonin decreases aggression via 5-HT1A receptors in the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; O'Hare, Erin P; McNitt, Meredith M; Carpenter, Russ E; Summers, Cliff H

    2007-01-01

    The role of the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the modulation of conspecific aggression in the fighting fish (Betta splendens) was investigated using pharmacological manipulations. We used a fish's response to its mirror image as our index of aggressive behavior. We also investigated the effects of some manipulations on monoamine levels in the B. splendens brain. Acute treatment with 5-HT and with the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT both decreased aggressive behavior; however, treatment with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 did not increase aggression. Chronic treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine caused no significant changes in aggressive behavior and a significant decline in 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations. Treatment with the serotonin synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine resulted in no change in aggression, yet serotonergic activity decreased significantly. Finally, a diet supplemented with L-tryptophan (Trp), the precursor to 5-HT, showed no consistent effects on aggressive behavior or brain monoamine concentrations. These results suggest a complex role for serotonin in the expression of aggression in teleost fishes, and that B. splendens may be a useful model organism in pharmacological and toxicological studies. PMID:17553555

  5. Blockade of 5-hydroxytryptamine(3) receptors prevents cisplatin-induced but not motion- or xylazine-induced emesis in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of the 5-hydroxytryptamine(3) (5-HT-3) antagonists ICS 205-930 and MDL 72222 on the emesis induced by motion or by emetic doses of xylazine (0.66 mg/kg administered SC) or cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg infused over a period of 4-5 min) were investigated in cats. It was found that neither the low (0.1 mg/kg) or the high (1.0 mg.kg) doses of ICS 205-930 or MDL 72222 prevented emesis elicited by screening motion challenges or xylazine. On the other hand, treatment cats by 1.0 mg/kg of ICS 205-930 was effective against cisplatin-induced motion sickness, in agreement with earlier results obtained on other mammals.

  6. The antidepressant-like pharmacological profile of Yuanzhi-1, a novel serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zeng-liang; Gao, Nana; Li, Xiao-rong; Tang, Yu; Xiong, Jie; Chen, Hong-xia; Xue, Rui; Li, Yun-Feng

    2015-04-01

    Triple reuptake inhibitors that block dopamine transporters (DATs), norepinephrine transporters (NETs), and serotonin transporters (SERTs) are being developed as a new class of antidepressants that might have better efficacy and fewer side effects than traditional antidepressants. In this study, we performed in vitro binding and uptake assays as well as in vivo behavioural tests to assess the pharmacological properties and antidepressant-like efficacy of Yuanzhi-1. In vitro, Yuanzhi-1 had a high affinity for SERTs, NETs, and DATs prepared from rat brain tissue (Ki=3.95, 4.52 and 0.87nM, respectively) and recombinant cells (Ki=2.87, 6.86 and 1.03nM, respectively). Moreover, Yuanzhi-1 potently inhibited the uptake of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) into rat brain synaptosomes (Ki=2.12, 4.85 and 1.08nM, respectively) and recombinant cells (Ki=1.65, 5.32 and 0.68nM, respectively). In vivo, Yuanzhi-1 decreased immobility in a dose-dependent manner, which was shown among rats via the forced-swim test (FST) and mice via the tail-suspension test (TST). The results observed in the behavioural tests did not appear to result from the stimulation of locomotor activity. Repeated Yuanzhi-1 treatment (2.5, 5 or 10mg/kg) significantly reversed depression-like behaviours in chronically stressed rats, including reduced sucrose preference, decreased locomotor activity, and prolonged time to begin eating. Furthermore, in vivo microdialysis studies showed that 5- and 10-mg/kg administrations of Yuanzhi-1 significantly increased the extracellular concentrations of 5-HT, NE and DA in the frontal cortices of freely moving rats. Therefore, Yuanzhi-1 might represent a novel triple reuptake inhibitor and possess antidepressant-like activity. PMID:25638027

  7. On a possible dual role for the lateral septal area 5-HT(1A) receptor system in the regulation of water intake and urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    de Arruda Camargo, Gabriela Maria Pavan; de Arruda Camargo, Luiz Antnio; Saad, Wilson Abro

    2010-12-20

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(1A) receptor system plays a prominent role in a variety of physiological functions and behavior and regulation of this responsiveness of the receptor system has been implicated in the central regulation of water intake and urinary excretion. The lateral septal area (LSA) exhibits a high density of 5-HT(1A) receptors, as well as a subpopulation of oxytocin (OT) receptors. Here we report the effects of pMPPF (a selective 5-HT(1A) antagonist), d(CH(2))(5)[Tyr(Me)(2)Thr(4), Orn(5), Tyr(NH(2))(9)]-vasotocin (an OT antagonist), and that 5-HT(1A) receptor system is regulated as a consequence of activation of the Na(+) channel by veratridine. Cannulae were implanted into the LSA of rats to enable the introduction of the drugs. Injections of 8-OH-DPAT (a 5-HT(1A) agonist) blocked water intake and increased urinary excretion, while pMPPF or the OT antagonist injected bilaterally before 8-OH-DPAT blocked its inhibitory effect on water intake and its diuretic effect. In contrast, increases in extracellular sodium levels induced by the sodium channel modulator, veratridine, enhanced 5-HT(1A) responsiveness for water intake and reduced the diuretic effects induced by 8-OH-DPAT. These trials demonstrated that the responsiveness of the 5-HT(1A) receptor system in the LSA can be enhanced or depressed as a consequence of an induced rise in extracellular sodium. PMID:20638418

  8. 5-hydroxytryptamine1C receptor density and mRNA levels in choroid plexus epithelial cells after treatment with mianserin and (-)-1-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane.

    PubMed

    Barker, E L; Sanders-Bush, E

    1993-10-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5HT)1C and 5HT2 receptors display paradoxical down-regulation when exposed to receptor antagonists in vivo, a property that is unique to these two subtypes of serotonin (5HT) receptors. Because of the absence of cell culture model systems, the mechanisms involved in this paradoxical down-regulation have been difficult to explore. The present study focuses on the regulation of 5HT1C receptors in primary cultures of rat choroid plexus epithelial cells. Exposure of the epithelial cell cultures to 100 nM mianserin, a receptor antagonist, or (-)-1-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane, an agonist, for 72 hr caused a loss of 5HT1C receptor binding sites, as determined by [3H]mesulergine binding to crude membrane preparations. No significant changes in Kd values were observed. Neither the agonist nor antagonist caused a significant change in binding sites after 24 hr. A solution hybridization assay was used to determine whether the down-regulation by mianserin or (-)-1-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane was accompanied by a decrease in the steady state level of 5HT1C receptor mRNA. These studies showed that neither treatment caused an alteration in the levels of 5HT1C receptor mRNA. Thus, it is possible to reproduce the in vivo regulatory effects of drugs on 5HT1C receptors in choroid plexus epithelial cells in culture, including the atypical down-regulation by receptor antagonists. Using this cell culture model system, indirect transynaptic effects and decreases in receptor mRNA levels have been ruled out as mechanisms accounting for the down-regulation. PMID:8232222

  9. The Pharmacology of TD-8954, a Potent and Selective 5-HT4 Receptor Agonist with Gastrointestinal Prokinetic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, David T.; Armstrong, Scott R.; Vickery, Ross G.; Tsuruda, Pamela R.; Campbell, Christina B.; Richardson, Carrie; McCullough, Julia L.; Daniels, Oranee; Kersey, Kathryn; Li, Yu-Ping; Kim, Karl H. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of TD-8954, a potent and selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist. TD-8954 had high affinity (pKi = 9.4) for human recombinant 5-HT4(c) (h5-HT4(c)) receptors, and selectivity (>2,000-fold) over all other 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors and non-5-HT receptors, ion channels, enzymes and transporters tested (n = 78). TD-8954 produced an elevation of cAMP in HEK-293 cells expressing the h5-HT4(c) receptor (pEC50 = 9.3), and contracted the guinea pig colonic longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus preparation (pEC50 = 8.6). TD-8954 had moderate intrinsic activity in the in vitro assays. In conscious guinea pigs, subcutaneous administration of TD-8954 (0.03–3 mg/kg) increased the colonic transit of carmine red dye, reducing the time taken for its excretion. Following intraduodenal dosing to anesthetized rats, TD-8954 (0.03–10 mg/kg) evoked a dose-dependent relaxation of the esophagus. Following oral administration to conscious dogs, TD-8954 (10 and 30 μg/kg) produced an increase in contractility of the antrum, duodenum, and jejunum. In a single ascending oral dose study in healthy human subjects, TD-8954 (0.1–20 mg) increased bowel movement frequency and reduced the time to first stool. It is concluded that TD-8954 is a potent and selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist in vitro, with robust in vivo stimulatory activity in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of guinea pigs, rats, dogs, and humans. TD-8954 may have clinical utility in patients with disorders of reduced GI motility. PMID:21687517

  10. The impact of 5-hydroxytryptamine-receptor antagonists on chemotherapy treatment adherence, treatment delay, and nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Palli, Swetha Rao; Grabner, Michael; Quimbo, Ralph A; Rugo, Hope S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the incidence of chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting (CINV) and chemotherapy treatment delay and adherence among patients receiving palonosetron versus other 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist (5-HT3 RA) antiemetics. Materials and methods This retrospective claims analysis included adults with primary malignancies who initiated treatment consisting of single-day intravenous highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) or moderately EC (MEC) regimens. Treatment delay was defined as a gap in treatment at least twice the National Comprehensive Cancer Network-specified cycle length, specific to each chemotherapy regimen. Treatment adherence was determined by the percentage of patients who received the regimen-specific recommended number of chemotherapy cycles within the recommended time frame. Results We identified 1,832 palonosetron and 2,387 other 5-HT3 RA (other) patients who initiated HEC therapy, and 1,350 palonosetron users and 1,379 patients on other antiemetics who initiated MEC therapy. Fewer patients receiving palonosetron experienced CINV versus other (HEC, 27.5% versus 32.2%, P=0.0011; MEC, 36.1% versus 41.7%, P=0.0026), and fewer treatment delays occurred among patients receiving palonosetron versus other (HEC, 3.2% versus 6.0%, P<0.0001; MEC, 17.0% versus 26.8%, P<0.0001). Compared with the other cohort, patients receiving palonosetron were significantly more adherent to the index chemotherapy regimen with respect to the recommended time frame (HEC, 74.7% versus 69.7%, P=0.0004; MEC, 43.1% versus 37.3%, P=0.0019) and dosage (HEC, 27.3% versus 25.8%, P=0.0004; MEC, 15.0% versus 12.6%, P=0.0019). Conclusion Palonosetron more effectively reduced occurrence of CINV in patients receiving HEC or MEC compared with other agents in this real-world setting. Additionally, patients receiving palonosetron had better adherence and fewer treatment delays than patients receiving other 5-HT3 RAs. PMID:26124681

  11. Anxiolytic-like effect of a serotonergic ligand with high affinity for 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Mercedes; Caicoya, Anne G; Greciano, Virginia; Benham, Bellinda; Lpez-Rodrguez, Mara Luz; Fernndez-Alfonso, Mara Soledad; Pozo, Miguel A; Manzanares, Jorge; Fuentes, Jos A

    2005-03-21

    S-(-)-2-[[4-(napht-1-yl)piperazin-1-yl]methyl]-1,4-dioxoperhydropyrrolo[1,2-alpha]-pyrazine (CSP-2503) is a serotonin (5-HT) receptor ligand with selectivity and high affinity for 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors. CSP-2503 reduced rectal temperature and 5-HT neuronal hypothalamic activity in mice, decreased electrical activity of raphe nuclei cells in rats and blocked the enhancement of adenylate cyclase activity induced by forskolin in HeLa cells transfected with the human 5-HT1A receptor. This compound also blocked head-twitches induced by the 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI). Contractions of guinea pig ileum induced by the 5-HT3 receptor agonist 2-methyl-5-HT were prevented by CSP-2503. Moreover, it reduced the bradycardia reflex induced by 2-methyl-5-HT in anaesthetized rats. In the light/dark box and social interaction tests, CSP-2503 presented anxiolytic activity, an action shared by 5-HT1 agonists and 5-HT3 antagonists. Taken together, these results suggest that CSP-2503 is a new 5-HT1 receptor agonist with 5-HT2A and 5-HT3)receptor antagonist activities that might be useful in a number of conditions associated with anxiety. PMID:15777774

  12. Pharmacometric Analyses to Support Early Development Decisions for LY2878735: A Novel Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Raddad, E; Melhem, M R; Sloan-Lancaster, J S; Miller, J W; Van Wart, S A; Rubino, C M

    2013-01-01

    LY2878735 is a novel dual serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) and norepinephrine (NE) reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) in development for chronic pain indications. In vitro profile suggests a more balanced profile as compared with other SNRI's, which is expected to confer superior clinical efficacy. LY2878735 is metabolized partly by the genetically polymorphic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 pathway, raising pharmacokinetic (PK) variability concerns. Phase 1 PK and biomarker data were analyzed by pharmacometric methods to characterize the balance between dual-target engagement and adverse effects on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). A narrow range of plasma LY2878735 levels was associated with an acceptable balance. As compared with poor metabolizers (PM), CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers (EM) have 21- and threefold higher clearance and distribution volume, respectively. Even with a CYP2D6-based dosing paradigm, a superior therapeutic index comparable to duloxetine, a widely used SNRI, was not achievable and LY2878735 development was thus terminated. Model-based approach effectively synthesizes PK-pharmacodynamic (PD) relationships, enabling efficient early development decisions. PMID:23965782

  13. Serotonin receptor diversity in the human colon: Expression of serotonin type 3 receptor subunits 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E.

    PubMed

    Kapeller, Johannes; Mller, Dorothee; Lasitschka, Felix; Autschbach, Frank; Hovius, Ruud; Rappold, Gudrun; Brss, Michael; Gershon, Michael D; Niesler, Beate

    2011-02-15

    Since the first description of 5-HT? receptors more than 50 years ago, there has been speculation about the molecular basis of their receptor heterogeneity. We have cloned the genes encoding novel 5-HT3 subunits 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E and have shown that these subunits are able to form functional heteromeric receptors when coexpressed with the 5-HT3A subunit. However, whether these subunits are actually expressed in human tissue remained to be confirmed. In the current study, we performed immunocytochemistry to locate the 5-HT3A as well as the 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E subunits within the human colon. Western blot analysis was used to confirm subunit expression, and RT-PCR was employed to detect transcripts encoding 5-HT? receptor subunits in microdissected tissue samples. This investigation revealed, for the first time, that 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E subunits are coexpressed with 5-HT3A in cell bodies of myenteric neurons. Furthermore, 5-HT3A and 5-HT3D were found to be expressed in submucosal plexus of the human large intestine. These data provide a strong basis for future studies of the roles that specific 5-HT? receptor subtypes play in the function of the enteric and central nervous systems and the contribution that specific 5-HT? receptors make to the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and dyspepsia. PMID:21192076

  14. Serotonin receptor diversity in the human colon: Expression of serotonin type 3 receptor subunits 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E

    PubMed Central

    Kapeller, Johannes; Möller, Dorothee; Lasitschka, Felix; Autschbach, Frank; Hovius, Ruud; Rappold, Gudrun; Brüss, Michael; Gershon, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Since the first description of 5-HT3 receptors more than 50 years ago, there has been speculation about the molecular basis of their receptor heterogeneity. We have cloned the genes encoding novel 5-HT3 subunits 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E and have shown that these subunits are able to form functional heteromeric receptors when coexpressed with the 5-HT3A subunit. However, whether these subunits are actually expressed in human tissue remained to be confirmed. In the current study, we performed immunocytochemistry to locate the 5-HT3A as well as the 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E subunits within the human colon. Western blot analysis was used to confirm subunit expression, and RT-PCR was employed to detect transcripts encoding 5-HT3 receptor subunits in microdissected tissue samples. This investigation revealed, for the first time, that 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E subunits are coexpressed with 5-HT3A in cell bodies of myenteric neurons. Furthermore, 5-HT3A and 5-HT3D were found to be expressed in submucosal plexus of the human large intestine. These data provide a strong basis for future studies of the roles that specific 5-HT3 receptor subtypes play in the function of the enteric and central nervous systems and the contribution that specific 5-HT3 receptors make to the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and dyspepsia. PMID:21192076

  15. Prevention of 5-hydroxytryptamine2C receptor RNA editing and alternate splicing in C57BL/6 mice activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and alters mood

    PubMed Central

    Bombail, Vincent; Qing, Wei; Chapman, Karen E; Holmes, Megan C

    2014-01-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine2C (5-HT)2C receptor is widely implicated in the aetiology of affective and eating disorders as well as regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Signalling through this receptor is regulated by A-to-I RNA editing, affecting three amino acids in the protein sequence, with unedited transcripts encoding a receptor (INI) that, in vitro, is hyperactive compared with edited isoforms. Targeted alteration (knock-in) of the Htr2c gene to generate ‘INI’ mice with no alternate splicing, solely expressing the full-length unedited isoform, did not produce an overt metabolic phenotype or altered anxiety behaviour, but did display reduced depressive-like and fear-associated behaviours. INI mice exhibited a hyperactive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, with increased nadir plasma corticosterone and corticotrophin-releasing hormone expression in the hypothalamus but responded normally to chronic stress and showed normal circadian activity and activity in a novel environment. The circadian patterns of 5-HT2C receptor mRNA and mbii52, a snoRNA known to regulate RNA editing and RNA splicing of 5-HT2C receptor pre-mRNA, were altered in INI mice compared with wild-type control mice. Moreover, levels of 5-HT1A receptor mRNA were increased in the hippocampus of INI mice. These gene expression changes may underpin the neuroendocrine and behavioural changes observed in INI mice. However, the phenotype of INI mice was not consistent with a globally hyperactive INI receptor encoded by the unedited transcript in the absence of alternate splicing. Hence, the in vivo outcome of RNA editing may be neuronal cell type specific. PMID:25257581

  16. The profiles of interaction of yohimbine with anxiolytic and putative anxiolytic agents to modify 5-HT release in the frontal cortex of freely-moving rats.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, C. H.; Costall, B.; Ge, J.; Naylor, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    1. The interaction of yohimbine with anxiolytic and putative anxiolytic agents to modify 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release in the frontal cortex of the freely-moving rat was assessed using the microdialysis technique. 2. The alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine (5.0 mg kg-1, i.p.) increased maximally the extracellular levels of 5-HT in the rat frontal cortex by approximately 230% of the basal levels. 3. The alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine (30-100 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) decreased dose-dependently the extracellular levels of 5-HT in the rat frontal cortex by approximately 0-60% of the basal levels. A 5 min pretreatment with clonidine (50 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) prevented the yohimbine-induced increase in the extracellular 5-HT levels. 4. The benzodiazepine receptor agonist, diazepam (2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron (100 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) (5 min pretreatment) completely prevented the yohimbine (5.0 mg kg-1, i.p.)-induced increases in the extracellular levels of 5-HT. The 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (0.32 mg kg-1, s.c.) partially antagonized the yohimbine response. 5. A 5 min pretreatment with the 5-HT3/5-HT4 receptor ligand R(+)-zacopride (10 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) reversed the yohimbine (5.0 mg kg-1, i.p.)-induced increase in the extracellular levels of 5-HT to approximately 30% below the basal levels. A 5 min pretreatment with S(-)-zacopride (100 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) failed to modify the response to yohimbine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7507776

  17. The guinea-pig distal colon--a sensitive preparation for the investigation of 5-HT4 receptor-mediated contractions.

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, K. A.; Sanger, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    1. Experiments were designed to characterize pharmacologically the contractile responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the guinea-pig isolated distal colon longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparation (LMMP). 2. In the presence of methiothepin (100 nM) and granisetron (1 microM), 5-HT (10 pM-10 nM) produced concentration-dependent contractile responses of the guinea-pig distal colon LMMP, with a pEC50 of 9.2 +/- 0.08. 3. Responses to 5-HT were mimicked by a series of tryptamine analogues, with the following rank order of potency; 5-HT > 5-MeOT >> 5-CT > tryptamine > 2-Me-5-HT. All were found to be full agonists. 4. Responses to 5-HT were also mimicked by a series of substituted benzamide analogues. Their rank order of potency was 5-HT > renzapride > cisapride > (S)-zacopride > (R)-zacopride > metoclopramide. All were full agonists relative to 5-HT. 5. The benzimidazolone derivatives, BIMU 1 and BIMU 8 were approximately equipotent partial agonists (intrinsic activities of 0.8 +/- 0.07 and 0.5 +/- 0.08 respectively) in the guinea-pig distal colon. 6. Tropisetron produced a rightward displacement of the 5-HT concentration-effect curve, yielding an apparent pA2 of 6.4 +/- 0.1. The slope of the Schild plot (1.3 +/- 0.1) was significantly greater than unity. 7. SDZ 205,557 produced a concentration-dependent shift to the right of the 5-HT concentration-response curve, yielding an estimated pA2 of 7.8 +/- 0.1 and a slope which did not significantly deviate from unity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8306106

  18. Short communication: Circulating serotonin (5-HT) concentrations on day 1 of lactation as a potential predictor of transition-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Laporta, J; Moore, S A E; Peters, M W; Peters, T L; Hernandez, L L

    2013-08-01

    The monoamine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) has been described as a homeostatic regulator of lactation. Recently, our laboratory determined that 5-HT is involved in the regulation of calcium and glucose homeostasis during the transition period in rodents. More specifically, we demonstrate that 5-HT is responsible for calcium mobilization from bone and upregulation of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes and mammary gland glucose transporters. Our objective was to investigate the correlation between circulating 5-HT concentrations and circulating ionized calcium, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), and glucose concentrations on d 1 postpartum. We also investigated the correlation between circulating 5-HT and milk fever and ketosis incidence and severity in multiparous Holstein cows at the onset of lactation. Blood samples were collected from 42 multiparous cows on d 1 of lactation and analyzed for 5-HT, calcium, glucose, and PTHrP. Milk fever (determined subjectively for each cow on d 1 postpartum) and ketosis incidence and severity (scale 1 to 4, determined objectively for each cow during the first 10 d postpartum) were recorded for all animals. Serum 5-HT was positively correlated with serum calcium and with plasma PTHrP (r>0.37). Serum 5-HT was negatively correlated with milk fever incidence and with ketosis severity (most severe ketosis incidence recorded during the first 10 d postpartum; r<-0.33). Serum calcium and plasma glucose concentrations were negatively correlated with milk fever and ketosis severity, respectively (r<-0.39). These data indicate that 5-HT potentially plays a role in the regulation of calcium and glucose homeostasis during the transition period in cattle, which we previously demonstrated in rodents. Increased circulating concentrations of 5-HT might decrease milk fever at the onset of lactation and ketosis severity during the first 10 d postpartum in dairy cows. Understanding this physiological axis could help describe the underlying mechanisms associated with these periparturient metabolic disorders in dairy cows. PMID:23746592

  19. Effect of acute brain tyrosine depletion on MDMA-induced changes in brain 5-HT.

    PubMed

    Rodsiri, R; Green, A R; Marsden, C A; Fone, K C F

    2010-02-01

    The mechanism by which 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produces 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) neurotoxicity has been suggested to involve an acute release of tyrosine and its non-enzymatic conversion to dopamine. To determine whether brain tyrosine availability is important in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity, brain tyrosine was acutely depleted with a tyrosine-free amino acid mixture (1 g/kg intraperitoneal; twice 1 h apart) which was administered prior to an injection of MDMA (12.5 mg/kg intraperitoneal). A small increase in both the hippocampal and striatal tyrosine concentration occurred in control rats treated with MDMA. The tyrosine-free amino acid mixture significantly decreased tyrosine levels by more than 50% in both brain regions 2 h after injection of either MDMA or saline. MDMA significantly reduced brain 5-HT content 2 h later, but this was of a similar magnitude in control and tyrosine-depleted groups. The long-term neurotoxic 5-HT loss in the hippocampus induced two weeks after MDMA administration was unaltered by the tyrosine-free amino acid mixture. Striatal dopamine content was unaffected by acute MDMA in all groups, while the tyrosine-free amino acid mixture given with MDMA significantly decreased striatal dopamine content 2 weeks later. The tyrosine-free amino acid mixture given alone had no affect on rectal body temperature but attenuated the duration of MDMA-induced hyperthermia. The results confirmed the ability of systemic MDMA to acutely increase brain tyrosine content, but also indicated that a marked acute reduction of brain tyrosine does not directly affect either immediate 5-HT release (as measured by tissue depletion) or long-term hippocampal serotonergic neurotoxicity produced by MDMA. PMID:19965941

  20. Prevention by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, of morphine-dependence and tolerance in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Hui, S. C.; Sevilla, E. L.; Ogle, C. W.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effect of ondansetron, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, was studied in morphine-addicted rats. Morphine-dependence and tolerance, induced by drinking increasing concentrations of morphine sulphate in 5% sucrose solution for 3 weeks, were demonstrated by the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome and tail flick response to a thermal noxious stimulus (water at 50 degrees C), respectively. 2. Morphine-dependence, assessed by naloxone precipitated withdrawal, was undetectable by the 6th day, when the animals drank only tap water for 7 days after the 3-week induction period. 3. When detoxified rats were offered sucrose and morphine solutions for 10 days, the recurrence of opiate solution preference with relapse to dependence and tolerance was observed. 4. Giving ondansetron (0.1 or 1 microgram kg-1; i.p.; twice daily) on the 14th day of, or 7 days prior to, the 3-week induction period reduced dependence and tolerance seen during the 3-week morphine induction and the 10-day drinking preference periods. 5. 5-Hydroxytryptamine2 (5-HT2) receptor antagonism by cyproheptadine (100 or 250 micrograms kg-1; i.p.; twice daily) did not influence morphine-dependence and tolerance. 6. These findings suggest that ondansetron may be useful for treating opiate addiction and lowering the recidivism rate. PMID:8799580

  1. Serotonin (5-HT) release and uptake measured by real-time electrochemical techniques in the rat ileum.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Paul P; Hu, Xiaoya; Mach, John; Bertrand, Rebecca L

    2008-12-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is released from the enterochromaffin cells and plays an important role in regulating intestinal function. Although the release of 5-HT is well documented, the contribution of the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) to the levels and actions of 5-HT in the intestine is unclear. This study aimed to demonstrate real-time SERT activity in ileal mucosa and to assess the effects of SERT inhibition using fluoxetine. Electrochemical recordings were made from the mucosa in full-thickness preparations of rat ileum using a carbon fiber electrode to measure 5-HT oxidation current and a force transducer to record circular muscle (CM) tension. Compression of the mucosa stimulated a peak 5-HT release of 12 +/- 6 microM, which decayed to 7 +/- 4 microM. Blockade of SERT with fluoxetine (1 microM) increased the peak compression-evoked release to 19 +/- 9 microM, and the background levels of 5-HT increased to 11 +/- 7 microM (P < 0.05, n = 7). When 5-HT was exogenously applied to the mucosa, fluoxetine caused a significant increase in the time to 50% and 80% decay of the oxidation current. Fluoxetine also increased the spontaneous CM motility (P < 0.05; n = 7) but did not increase the CM contraction-evoked 5-HT release (P > 0.05, n = 5). In conclusion, this is the first characterization of the real-time uptake of 5-HT into the rat intestine. These data suggest that SERT plays an important role in the modulation of 5-HT concentrations that reach intestinal 5-HT receptors. PMID:18927211

  2. 5-HT4 receptor agonists enhance both cholinergic and nitrergic activities in human isolated colon circular muscle.

    PubMed

    Cellek, S; John, A K; Thangiah, R; Dass, N B; Bassil, A K; Jarvie, E M; Lalude, O; Vivekanandan, S; Sanger, G J

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated mixed inhibitory and facilitatory effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 (5-HT(4)) receptor agonists on electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced responses in human isolated colon. Here we report three types of responses to EFS in human isolated colon circular muscle: monophasic cholinergic contraction during EFS, biphasic response (nitrergic relaxation during EFS followed by cholinergic contraction after termination of EFS) and triphasic response (cholinergic contraction followed by nitrergic relaxation during EFS and a tachykininergic contraction after EFS). The effects of two 5-HT(4) receptor agonists, prucalopride and tegaserod were then investigated on monophasic responses only. Each compound inhibited contractions during EFS in a concentration-dependent manner. In the presence of N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) however, prucalopride and tegaserod enhanced the contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. In strips where the tone was elevated with substance-P and treated with scopolamine, EFS-induced relaxations were enhanced by the two agonists. The above observed effects by the two agonists were abolished by 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist SB-204070. The two agonists did not alter the tone raised by substance-P in the presence of scopolamine and l-NAME and did not affect carbachol-induced contractions in the presence of tetrodotoxin. These results suggest that in the circular muscle of human colon, 5-HT(4) receptor agonists simultaneously facilitate the activity of neurones which release the inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters, nitric oxide and acetylcholine respectively. PMID:16918765

  3. Transcriptome of pancreas-specific Bmpr1a-deleted islets links to TPH15-HT axis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang-Xu; Mishina, Yuji; Baten, Akma; Morahan, Grant; Harrison, Leonard C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is crucial for the development and function of numerous organs, but its role on the function of pancreatic islets is not completely clear. To explore this question, we applied the high throughput transcriptomic analyses on the islets isolated from mice with a pancreas-specific deletion of the gene, Bmpr1a, encoding the type 1a BMP receptor. Consistently, these pBmpr1aKO mice had impaired glucose homeostasis at 3?months, and were more severely affected at 12?months of age. These had lower fasting blood insulin concentrations, with reduced expression of several key regulators of ?-cell function. Importantly, transcriptomic profiling of 3-month pBmpr1aKO islets and bioinformatic analyses revealed abnormal expression of 203 metabolic genes. Critically among these, the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 gene (Tph1), encoding the rate-limiting enzyme for the production of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was the highest over-expressed one. 5-HT is an important regulator of insulin secretion from ? cells. Treatment with excess 5-HT inhibited this secretion. Thus our transcriptomic analysis links two highly conserved molecular pathways the BMP signaling and the TPH15-HT axis on glucose homeostasis. PMID:26187948

  4. Discovery and Structure-Based Optimization of 6-Bromotryptamine Derivatives as Potential 5-HT2A Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lijian; He, Shan; Wu, Wei; Jin, Haixiao; Zhu, Peng; Zhang, Jinrong; Wang, Tingting; Yuan, Ye; Yan, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine type 2A (5-HT2A) receptor is an important target for developing innovative antipsychotic agents in neuropsychiatric disorder therapies. To search for 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, a new indole alkaloid termed 6-bromo-N-propionyltryptamine (1), together with one known homologue 6-bromo-N-acetyltryptamine (2) were isolated and identified from a marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas rubra QD1-2. Compound 1 with an N-propionyl side chain exhibited stronger 5-HT2A receptor antagonist activity than that of N-acetyl derivative (2), indicating that 6-bromotryptamine analogues with a longer chain acyl group perhaps displayed a more potent capacity to the target. Therefore, a series of new 6-bromotryptamine analogues (3-7) with different chain length of the acyl group (C4-C8) were prepared and evaluated activity against 5-HT2A receptor. Remarkably, 6-bromo-N-hexanoyltryptamine (5) displayed the most effective inhibitory activity, which was 5-fold stronger than that of the parent compound 1 and showed 70% efficacy of the positive control (ketanserin tartrate). PMID:26404234

  5. Evidence that mCPP may have behavioural effects mediated by central 5-HT1C receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Kennett, G. A.; Curzon, G.

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) and 1-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] piperazine (TFMPP) on activity of rats in a novel cage, and on the rotorod and elevated bar co-ordination tests was examined. 2. Peripherally administered mCPP and TFMPP dose-dependently reduced locomotion, rearing, and feeding scores but not grooming of freely fed rats placed in a novel observation cage. Yawning behaviour was increased. Similar effects were also observed after injection of mCPP into the 3rd ventricle. 3. Co-ordination on a rotating drum of both untrained and trained rats was impaired following mCPP but co-ordination on an elevated bar was not. 4. The hypoactivity induced by mCPP was opposed by three antagonists with high affinity for the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1C) site; metergoline, mianserin, cyproheptadine and possibly also by a fourth antagonist mesulergine. Metergoline, mianserin and cyproheptadine also opposed the reduction in feeding scores. However, neither effect of mCPP was antagonized by the 5-HT2-receptor antagonists ketanserin or ritanserin, the 5-HT3-receptor antagonist ICS 205-930, the 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B-receptor antagonists (-)-pindolol, (-)-propranolol and (+/-)-cyanopindolol or the 5-HT1A-, 5-HT2- and dopamine receptor antagonist spiperone. The specific alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan was also without effect. 5. Hypoactivity induced by TFMPP was similarly antagonized by mianserin but unaffected by (+/-)-cyanopindolol. 6. These results suggest that the hypoactivity is mediated by central 5-HT1C-receptors and that mCPP and possibly TFMPP may be 5-HT1C-receptor agonists. 7. As mianserin, cyproheptadine and mesulergine in the absence of mCPP did not increase locomotion but increased the number of feeding scores, the activation of 5-HT1C-receptors may be of physiological importance in the control of appetite. The possible relevance of these results to the therapeutic and side-effects of clinically used antidepressants (particularly trazodone and mianserin) and anorexigenic drugs is discussed. PMID:3401632

  6. Impact of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background 1st generation 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs), and palonosetron, a 2nd generation 5-HT3 RA, are indicated for the prevention of chemotherapy (CT)-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) associated with moderately (MEC) and highly emetogenic CT agents (HEC). This study explores the impact of step therapy policies requiring use of an older 5-HT3 RA before palonosetron on risk of CINV associated with hospital or emergency department (ED) admissions. Methods Patients who received cyclophosphamide post breast cancer (BC) surgery or who were diagnosed with lung cancer on carboplatin (LC-carboplatin) or cisplatin (LC-cisplatin) were selected from PharMetrics’ (IMS LifeLink) claims dataset (2005-2008). Patients were followed for 6 months from initial CT administration for CINV events identified through ICD-9-CM codes. Patients were grouped into those initiated with older, generic 5-HT3 RAs (ondansetron, granisetron, and dolasetron) and those initiated and maintained on palonosetron throughout study follow-up. CINV events and CINV days were analyzed using multivariate regressions controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Results Eligible patients numbered 3,606 in BC, 4,497 in LC-carboplatin and 1,154 in LC-cisplatin cohorts, with 52%, 40%, and 34% in the palonosetron group, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two 5-HT3 RA groups in age or Charlson Comorbidity Index among the two MEC cohorts (BC and LC-carboplatin). Among the LC-cisplatin cohort, palonosetron users were older with more males than the older 5-HT3 RA group (age: 60.1 vs. 61.3; males, 66.9% vs. 56.9%). Compared to the older 5-HT3 RAs, the palonosetron groups incurred 22%-51% fewer 5-HT3 RA pharmacy claims, had fewer patients with CINV events (3.5% vs. 5.5% in BC, 9.5% vs. 12.8% in LC-carboplatin, 16.4% vs. 21.7% in LC-cisplatin), and had lower risk for CINV events (odds ratios 0.62, 0.71, or 0.71, respectively; p < 0.05). The BC and LC-carboplatin palonosetron groups experienced 50% and 30% fewer CINV days than the generic 5-HT3 RA group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Patients with breast or lung cancer initiated and maintained on palonosetron were at significantly lower risk for potentially costly CINV versus those on older 5-HT3 RAs. Further studies on impact of step therapy policy are warranted in order to minimize the clinical and economic burden of CINV. PMID:22823909

  7. Characterization of electroencephalographic and biochemical responses at 5-HT promoting drug-induced onset of serotonin syndrome in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhiyuan; Rudacille, Mary; Prentice, Howard M.; Tao, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Many psychotropic substances used either for medications or illicit recreational purposes are able to produce an increase in extracellular serotonin (5HT) in the CNS. 5HT is well known to improve mood, however, only when the levels of its release are in an appropriate range. Excessive 5HT is harmful, and will generally result in serotonin syndrome. To date, clinical diagnosis of serotonin syndrome relies exclusively on observation of symptoms because of a lack of available laboratory tests. The goal of the present study was to characterize the onset of the syndrome using laboratory settings to determine excessive 5HT-evoked neurological abnormalities. Experiments were carried out in rats with the syndrome being elicited by three groups of 5HT-promoting drugs: 1) ()-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); 2) a combination of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor clorgyline with the 5HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan; 3) clorgyline combined with the serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor paroxetine. The onset of the syndrome was characterized by electroencephalography (EEG), tremor and brain/plasma 5HT tests. We found that a mild syndrome was associated with reduced EEG amplitudes while a severe syndrome strongly with seizure-like EEG activity and increased tremor activity. The occurrence of the syndrome was confirmed with microdialysis, showing excessive 5HT efflux in brain dialysate and the increased concentration of unbound 5HT in the plasma. Our findings suggest that the syndrome onset can be revealed with EEG recording, measurements of tremor activity and changes of unbound 5HT concentration in the plasma. PMID:23286698

  8. Vasomotor Effects of Acetylcholine, Bradykinin, Noradrenaline, 5-Hydroxytryptamine, Histamine and Angiotensin II on the Mouse Basilar Artery

    PubMed Central

    ISLAM, Md. Zahorul; WATANABE, Yutaka; NGUYEN, Ha Thi Thanh; YAMAZAKI-HIMENO, Emi; OBI, Takeshi; SHIRAISHI, Mitsuya; MIYAMOTO, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated the responsiveness of the mouse basilar artery to acetylcholine (ACh), bradykinin (BK), noradrenaline (NA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), histamine (His) and angiotensin (Ang) II in order to characterize the related receptor subtypes in vitro. ACh and BK induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of precontracted arteries with U-46619 (a thromboxane A2 analogue). Atropine (a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist) and Nω-nitro-L-arginine (a NO synthase inhibitor, L-NNA) shifted the concentration-response curve for ACh to the right, whereas pirenzepine, methoctramine and pFHHSiD (muscarinic M1, M2 and M3 antagonists, respectively) had no significant effect. L-NNA and HOE140 (a B2 antagonist) shifted the concentration-response curve for BK to the right, whereas des-Arg9-[Leu8]-BK (a B1 antagonist) and indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor) had no significant effect. NA failed to produce any vasomotor action. His and Ang II induced concentration-dependent contraction. Diphenhydramine (a H1 antagonist) shifted the concentration-response curve for His to the right, whereas cimetidine (a H2 antagonist) had no significant effect. Losartan (an AT1 antagonist) shifted the concentration-response curve for Ang II to the right, whereas PD123319 (an AT2 antagonist) had no significant effect. These results suggest that the H1 and AT1 receptor subtypes might play an important role in arterial contraction, whereas muscarinic receptor subtypes apart from M1, M2 and M3, and B2 receptors on the endothelium, might modify these contractions to relaxations. PMID:24942113

  9. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine on the dorsal muscle of the leech (hirudo medicinalis)

    PubMed Central

    Schain, R. J.

    1961-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine has an inhibiting effect on the leech muscle. It reduces the contractions produced by acetylcholine or nicotine and accelerates the relaxation of the muscle when these substances are washed out. This acceleration of relaxation allows a more rapid assay of acetylcholine in this preparation. PMID:13747232

  10. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine on the dorsal muscle of the leech (Hirudo medicinalis).

    PubMed

    SCHAIN, R J

    1961-06-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine has an inhibiting effect on the leech muscle. It reduces the contractions produced by acetylcholine or nicotine and accelerates the relaxation of the muscle when these substances are washed out. This acceleration of relaxation allows a more rapid assay of acetylcholine in this preparation. PMID:13747232

  11. Characterization of mechanisms involved in presynaptic inhibition of sympathetic pressor effects induced by some 5-HT1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M M; Calama, E; Morán, A; Martín, M L; San Román, L

    2000-01-01

    1. In a previous study, we showed that the presynaptic inhibitory action of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonists on sympathetic pressor effects obtained in the pithed rats were mainly mediated by activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1D receptor subtypes. At the time, we observed that some 5-HT1 receptors antagonists - WAY 100,635 and NAN-190 (both 5-HT1A receptor antagonists), methiothepin (a 5-HT1,2,5,6,7 receptor antagonist) and spiperone (a 5-HT1,2 receptor antagonist) - reduced per se the pressor effects obtained by electrical stimulation. The aim of the present work was to investigate the mechanism participating in this inhibitory effect. 2. The inhibition induced by WAY 100,635 (1000 microg kg-1, i.v.) was blocked after i.v. treatment with idazoxan, an alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist (300 and 1000 microg kg-1) and was not modified after i.v. treatment with propranolol, a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist (1000 microg kg-1) and sulpiride, a D2 receptor antagonist (1000 microg kg-1). The inhibition induced by spiperone (500 microg kg-1 i.v.) was significantly blocked by sulpiride (1000 microg kg-1) and was not modified by idazoxan or propranolol. 3. Sulpiride (1000 microg kg-1) partially blocked the inhibition induced by methiothepin (50 microg kg-1 i.v.). Only pretreatment with idazoxan (300 microg kg-1) modified the inhibition induced by NAN-190 (100 microg kg-1 i.v.), such inhibition increasing after intravenous administration of idazoxan. 4. All the antagonists used in our experiments failed to inhibit the pressor responses elicited by i.v. noradrenaline administration. 5. The above results suggest that the inhibitory effects of these 5-HT1 receptor antagonists are presynaptic in nature, but not related to the blockade of 5-HT1 receptors subtypes. The simultaneous activation or inhibition of other receptor systems could explain the inhibition produced by each 5-HT1 receptor antagonist studied. PMID:11350497

  12. Emetic responses to T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin and emetine correspond to plasma elevations of peptide YY3-36 and 5-hydroxytryptamine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenda; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Bursian, Steven J; Link, Jane E; Pestka, James J

    2016-04-01

    Trichothecene mycotoxins are a family of potent translational inhibitors that are associated with foodborne outbreaks of human and animal gastroenteritis in which vomiting is a clinical hallmark. Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) and other Type B trichothecenes have been previously demonstrated to cause emesis in the mink (Neovison vison), and this response has been directly linked to secretion of both the satiety hormone peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Here, we characterized the emetic responses in the mink to T-2 toxin (T-2) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2), two highly toxic Type A trichothecenes that contaminate cereals, and further compared these effects to those of emetine, a natural alkaloid that is used medicinally and also well known to block translation and cause vomiting. Following intraperitoneal (IP) and oral exposure, all three agents caused vomiting with evident dose-dependent increases in both duration and number of emetic events as well as decreases in latency to emesis. T-2 and HT-2 doses causing emesis in 50 % of treated animals (ED50s) were 0.05 and 0.02 mg/kg BW following IP and oral administration, respectively, whereas the ED50s for emetine were 2.0 and 1.0 mg/kg BW for IP and oral exposure, respectively. Importantly, oral administration of all three toxins elicited marked elevations in plasma concentrations of PYY3-36 and 5-HT that corresponded to emesis. Taken together, the results suggest that T-2 and HT-2 were much more potent than emetine and that emesis induction by all three translational inhibitors co-occurred with increases in circulating levels of PYY3-36 and 5-HT. PMID:25855062

  13. Activated platelets contribute to stimulation of cardiac afferents during ischaemia in cats: role of 5-HT3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Liang-Wu; Longhurst, John C

    2002-01-01

    Myocardial ischaemia activates blood platelets and cardiac sympathetic afferents, which mediate chest pain and cardiovascular reflex responses. We have demonstrated that activated platelets stimulate ischaemically sensitive cardiac sympathetic afferents. Platelets absorb and release 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) when they are activated. In the present study we hypothesized that, by releasing 5-HT, activated platelets stimulate cardiac afferents during ischaemia through a 5-HT3 receptor mechanism. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were obtained from cats. Activation of platelets in PRP was induced by thrombin (5 units ml?1) or collagen (2 mg kg?1). Using high-performance liquid chromatography, we observed that the concentration of 5-HT was increased significantly in suspensions of platelets activated with thrombin (PRP+thrombin, 28 1.7 ?m) or collagen (PRP+collagen, 27 2.5 ?m) compared with suspensions of unactivated platelets (PRP+saline, 2.3 0.8 ?m) and PPP. During myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion, tirofiban, a specific inhibitor of platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa receptors (100 ?g kg?1, I.V., followed by 5 ?g kg?1 min?1), significantly reduced the increase in the concentration of 5-HT in cardiac venous plasma from ischaemic region. Nerve activity of single-unit cardiac afferents was recorded from the left sympathetic chain (T2-T5) in anaesthetized cats. Eighty ischaemically sensitive and seven ischaemically insensitive cardiac afferents were identified. Tirofiban reduced the ischaemia-related increase in activity of seven cardiac sympathetic afferents by 50 %. Injection of 1.5 ml of PRP+collagen or PRP+thrombin into the left atrium (LA) increased activity of 16 cardiac afferents. Tropisetron (300 ?g kg?1, I.V.), a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, eliminated the afferent's responses to platelets activated with collagen or thrombin. Moreover, LA injection of 5-HT (20-40 ?g kg?1) and PBG (100 ?g kg?1), a 5-HT3 receptor agonist, stimulated nine ischaemically sensitive cardiac sympathetic afferents, significantly increasing the activity of these afferents. However, injection of ?-M-5-HT (100 ?g kg?1, LA), a 5-HT2 receptor agonist, stimulated only two of the nine ischaemically sensitive cardiac afferents, and thus did not significantly alter impulse activity of this group of afferents. Both the 5-HT1 (5-CT, 100 ?g kg?1, LA) and 5-HT4 receptor agonists (SC53116, 100 ?g kg?1, LA) did not stimulate any of the nine afferents tested. Tropisetron (300 ?g kg?1, I.V.) also eliminated the response of seven ischaemically sensitive cardiac afferents to exogenous 5-HT and attenuated the ischaemia-related increase in activity of nine cardiac sympathetic afferents by 41 %. Conversely, LA injection of 5-HT (40 ?g kg?1) did not stimulate any of seven ischaemically insensitive cardiac afferents, although this group of afferents consistently responded to bradykinin (3 ?g, LA). These data indicate that during myocardial ischaemia the activated platelets stimulate cardiac sympathetic afferents, at least in part, through a 5-HT3 receptor mechanism. PMID:12411532

  14. Importance of inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate, intracellular Ca2+ release and myofilament Ca2+ sensitization in 5-hydroxytryptamine-evoked contraction of rabbit mesenteric artery.

    PubMed Central

    Seager, J. M.; Murphy, T. V.; Garland, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    1. Small strips from third-order branches of rabbit mesenteric artery (approximately 150-200 microM wide) contracted in response to noradrenaline (10 microM) or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; 10 microM) in oxygenated Krebs solution containing 2.5 mM Ca2+. In a Ca(2+)-free mock intracellular solution (0 Ca2+ plus 0.2 mM EGTA), noradrenaline (10 microM) and caffeine (10 mM) induced only a single, transient contraction in artery strips, while 5-HT (10 microM) failed to induce any response. 2. In strips of mesenteric artery which had been permeabilized with Staphylococcus alpha-toxin and bathed in Ca(2+)-free mock intracellular solution, noradrenaline (10 microM), caffeine (10 mM) and D-myo-inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate (IP3, 100 microM), but not 5-HT (10 or 100 microM) induced a transient contraction. In contrast to the non-permeabilized strips, contractions to noradrenaline, caffeine and IP3 were restored by prior incubation (10 min) in solution containing 0.08 microM Ca2+. The contractions to noradrenaline and IP3 in permeabilized muscle strips required the presence of 100 microM guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), although in the absence of Ca2+. GTP alone did not induce contraction. 3. Exposure of permeabilized mesenteric artery strips to IP3 significantly reduced the subsequent contractile responses to caffeine. Contractile responses to caffeine and IP3 were abolished by the Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor, thapsigargin (1 microM). 4. Ca2+ (0.1-10 microM) induced concentration-dependent contraction in permeabilized artery strips. In strips which were submaximally contracted with 0.5 microM Ca2+/100 microM GTP, the subsequent addition of 5-HT (10 microM) stimulated further contraction. The protein kinase C inhibitor, H-7 (1 microM) abolished the 5-HT/GTP-induced contraction, but did not alter the contraction to Ca2+.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8004397

  15. Inhibition of excitatory non-adrenergic non-cholinergic bronchoconstriction in guinea-pig airways in vitro by activation of an atypical 5-HT receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J. K.; Fox, A. J.; Barnes, P. J.; Belvisi, M. G.

    1994-01-01

    1. The effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was studied on excitatory neurally mediated non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS) in guinea-pig isolated bronchi. 2. 5-HT (0.1-100 microM) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the excitatory NANC response with 50.9 +/- 5.0% (n = 5, P < 0.01) inhibition at 100 microM. This inhibition was not significantly affected by the 5-HT2 antagonist, ketanserin (1 microM) when inhibitions (+/- ketanserin) at each concentration of 5-HT were compared by unpaired t tests; however, this concentration appeared to produce a leftward shift (approximately 10 fold) of the 5-HT concentration-inhibition curve. Ketanserin (1 microM) was effective in blocking bronchoconstriction evoked by activation of 5-HT2A receptors on airway smooth muscle. In the presence of ketanserin (1 microM) 5-HT (100 microM) evoked an inhibition of 57.4 +/- 5.9% (n = 5, P < 0.01) with an EC50 of 0.57 microM. 3. Inhibition evoked by 5-HT (0.1-100 microM) was unaffected by the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (1 microM), the beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, ICI 118551 (0.1 microM), the 5-HT1A/B antagonist, cyanopindolol (1 microM) or the 5-HT3/4 antagonist, ICS 205-930 (1 microM). 4. Methiothepin (0.1 microM) produced an insurmountable inhibition of the effect of 5-HT (0.1-100 microM), reducing the maximum inhibition produced by 5-HT (100 microM) to 30.2 +/- 5.0% (n = 5, P < 0.001) and suggesting a non-competitive antagonism. Methiothepin inhibited the effect of 5-HT (10 microM) in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 81 nM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7518294

  16. The 5-HT(1) receptors inhibiting the rat vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow: further involvement of 5-HT(1F), but not 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(1D), subtypes.

    PubMed

    González-Hernández, Abimael; Manrique-Maldonado, Guadalupe; Lozano-Cuenca, Jair; Muñoz-Islas, Enriqueta; Centurión, David; Maassen VanDenBrink, Antoinette; Villalón, Carlos M

    2011-06-01

    We have previously shown that 5-HT(1B) receptors inhibit prejunctionally the rat vasodepressor CGRPergic sensory outflow. Since 5-HT(1) receptors comprise 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D) and 5-HT(1F) functional subtypes, this study has further investigated the role of 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1D) and 5-HT(1F) receptor subtypes in the inhibition of the above vasodepressor sensory outflow. Pithed rats were pretreated with i.v. continuous infusions of hexamethonium and methoxamine, followed by 5-HT(1) receptor agonists. Then electrical spinal stimulation (T(9)-T(12)) or i.v. bolus injections of exogenous α-CGRP produced frequency-dependent or dose-dependent vasodepressor responses. The electrically-induced vasodepressor responses remained unchanged during infusions of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists 8-OH-DPAT and NN-DP-5-CT. In contrast, these responses were inhibited by the agonists sumatriptan (5-HT(1A/1B/1D/1F)), indorenate (5-HT(1A)), PNU-142633 (5-HT(1D)) or LY344864 (5-HT(1F)), which did not affect the vasodepressor responses to exogenous CGRP (implying a prejunctional sensory-inhibition). When analysing the effects of antagonists: (i) 310 μg/kg (but not 100 μg/kg) GR127935 (5-HT(1A/1B/1D/1F)) abolished the inhibition to sumatriptan, indorenate, PNU-142633 or LY344864; (ii) 310 μg/kg SB224289 (5-HT(1B)) or BRL15572 (5-HT(1D)) failed to block the inhibition to sumatriptan or PNU-142633, whereas SB224289+BRL15572 partly blocked the inhibition to sumatriptan; and (iii) 10 μg/kg WAY100635 (5-HT(1A)) failed to block the inhibition to indorenate. These results suggest that 5-HT(1F), but not 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(1D), receptor subtypes inhibit the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow although, admittedly, no selective 5-HT(1F) receptor agonist is available yet. The pharmacological profile of these receptors resembles that shown in rat dorsal root ganglia by molecular biology techniques. PMID:21473863

  17. GPR30 is necessary for estradiol-induced desensitization of 5-HT1A receptor signaling in the paraventricular nucleus of the rat hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, C.E.; Creech, R.; Kimball, P.; Muma, N.; Li, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen therapy used in combination with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment improves SSRI efficacy for the treatment of mood disorders. Desensitization of serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptors, which takes one to two weeks to develop in animals, is necessary for SSRI therapeutic efficacy. Estradiol modifies 5-HT1A receptor signaling and induces a partial desensitization in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the rat within two days, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify the estrogen receptor necessary for estradiol-induced 5-HT1A receptor desensitization. We previously showed that estrogen receptor ? is not necessary for 5-HT1A receptor desensitization and that selective activation of estrogen receptor GPR30 mimics the effects of estradiol in rat PVN. Here, we used a recombinant adenovirus containing GPR30 siRNAs to decrease GPR30 expression in the PVN. Reduction of GPR30 prevented estradiol-induced desensitization of 5-HT1A receptor as measured by hormonal responses to the selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist, (+)8-OH-DPAT. To determine the possible mechanisms underlying these effects, we investigated protein and mRNA levels of 5-HT1A receptor signaling components including 5-HT1A receptor, G?z, and RGSz1. We found that two days of estradiol increased protein and mRNA expression of RGSz1, and decreased 5-HT1A receptor protein but increased 5-HT1A mRNA; GPR30 knockdown prevented the estradiol-induced changes in 5-HT1A receptor protein in the PVN. Taken together, these data demonstrate that GPR30 is necessary for estradiol-induced changes in the 5-HT1A receptor signaling pathway and desensitization of 5-HT1A receptor signaling. PMID:22265196

  18. Association of 5-HT3B Receptor Gene Polymorphisms with the Efficacy of Ondansetron for Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Rim; Choi, Eun-Mi; Kim, Eun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common problem after general anesthesia. Although 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists have significantly reduced PONV, over 35% of patients treated with ondansetron can experience PONV. In this study, we investigated whether the Y129S and -100_-102AAG deletion polymorphisms of the 5-HT3B receptor gene affect the efficacy of ondansetron in preventing PONV. Materials and Methods Two hundred and forty-five adult patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled. Ondansetron 0.1 mg/kg was intravenously administered 30 minutes before the end of surgery. Genomic DNA was prepared from blood samples using a nucleic acid isolation device. Both the Y129S variant and the -100_-102AAG deletion variant were screened for using a single base primer extension assay and a DNA direct sequencing method, respectively. The relationship between genetic polymorphisms and clinical outcomes of ondansetron treatment was investigated. Results Among the 5-HT3B AAG deletion genotypes, the incidence of PONV was higher in patients with the homomutant than with other genotypes during the first 2 hours after surgery (p=0.02). There were no significant differences in the incidence of PONV among genotypes at 2-24 hours after surgery. In the Y129S variants of the 5-HT3B receptor gene, there were no significant differences in the incidence of PONV among genotypes during the first 2 hours and at 2-24 hours after surgery. Conclusion The response to ondansetron for PONV was significantly influenced by the -100_-102AAG deletion polymorphisms of the 5-HT3B gene. Thus, the -100_-102AAG deletion variants may be a pharmacogenetic predictor for responsiveness to ondansetron for PONV. PMID:26256989

  19. Rotavirus Stimulates Release of Serotonin (5-HT) from Human Enterochromaffin Cells and Activates Brain Structures Involved in Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Engblom, David; Karlsson, Thommie; Rodriguez-Diaz, Jesus; Buesa, Javier; Taylor, John A.; Loitto, Vesa-Matti; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Ahlman, Hkan; Lundgren, Ove; Svensson, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children. A virus-encoded enterotoxin, NSP4 is proposed to play a major role in causing RV diarrhoea but how RV can induce emesis, a hallmark of the illness, remains unresolved. In this study we have addressed the hypothesis that RV-induced secretion of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) by enterochromaffin (EC) cells plays a key role in the emetic reflex during RV infection resulting in activation of vagal afferent nerves connected to nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and area postrema in the brain stem, structures associated with nausea and vomiting. Our experiments revealed that RV can infect and replicate in human EC tumor cells ex vivo and in vitro and are localized to both EC cells and infected enterocytes in the close vicinity of EC cells in the jejunum of infected mice. Purified NSP4, but not purified virus particles, evoked release of 5-HT within 60 minutes and increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in a human midgut carcinoid EC cell line (GOT1) and ex vivo in human primary carcinoid EC cells concomitant with the release of 5-HT. Furthermore, NSP4 stimulated a modest production of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3), but not of cAMP. RV infection in mice induced Fos expression in the NTS, as seen in animals which vomit after administration of chemotherapeutic drugs. The demonstration that RV can stimulate EC cells leads us to propose that RV disease includes participation of 5-HT, EC cells, the enteric nervous system and activation of vagal afferent nerves to brain structures associated with nausea and vomiting. This hypothesis is supported by treating vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. PMID:21779163

  20. Antiallodynic effect of tianeptine via modulation of the 5-HT7 receptor of GABAergic interneurons in the spinal cord of neuropathic rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai; Heo, Bong Ha; Kim, Woong Mo; Kim, Yong Chul; Yoon, Myung Ha

    2015-06-26

    Although tianeptine, an atypical antidepressant has been reported to have antinociceptive effects, the mode of action is different from that of tricyclic antidepressants despite structural similarities. We examined the antiallodynic effect of intrathecal tianeptine in neuropathic pain rats and determined the involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 7 (5-HT7) receptor of the GABAergic interneurons in the spinal cord. Neuropathic pain was induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL). After observation of the effect from intrathecal tianeptine, a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (SB-269970) was administered intrathecally 10 min before delivery of tianeptine, to determine the contribution of spinal 5-HT7 receptor on the activity of tianeptine. GAD expression and GABA concentrations were assessed. Intrathecal tianeptine dose-dependently attenuated mechanical allodynia in SNL rats. Pre-treatment with intrathecal SB-269970 reversed the antiallodynic effect of tianeptine. Both GAD65 expression and the GABA concentration in the spinal cord were decreased in neuropathic rats but were increased by tianeptine. Additionally, 5-HT7 receptor and GAD65 were co-localized in the spinal cord. Intrathecal tianeptine reduces neuropathic pain. 5-HT7 receptor of the GABAergic interneurons together with GAD65 plays a role in the activity of tianeptine at the spinal cord level. PMID:25982324

  1. Discovery of Natural Product-Derived 5-HT1A Receptor Binders by Cheminfomatics Modeling of Known Binders, High Throughput Screening and Experimental Validation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Man; Reid, Terry-Elinor; Wang, Xiang Simon

    2015-01-01

    The human 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor subtype 1A (5-HT1A) is highly expressed in the raphe nuclei region and limbic structures; for that reason 5-HT1A has served as a promising target for treating human mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. We have developed binary quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for 5- HT1A binding using data retrieved from the WOMBAT database and the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) machine learning method. A rigorous QSAR modeling and screening workflow had been followed, with extensive internal and external validation processes. The models' classification accuracies to discriminate 5-HT1A binders from the non-binders are as high as 96% for the external validation. These models were employed further to mine two major natural products screening libraries, i.e. TimTec Natural Product Library (NPL) and Natural Derivatives Library (NDL). In the end five screening hits were tested by radioligand binding assays with a success rate of 40%, and two Library compounds were confirmed to be binders at the μM concentration against the human 5-HT1A receptor. The combined application of rigorous QSAR modeling and model-based virtual screening presents a powerful means for profiling natural products compounds with important biomedical activities. PMID:26138565

  2. Kinetic modeling of the serotonin 5-HT1B receptor radioligand [11C]P943 in humans

    PubMed Central

    Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Neumeister, Alexander; Planeta-Wilson, Beata; Williams, Wendol A; Singhal, Tarun; Kim, Sunhee; Maguire, R Paul; McCarthy, Timothy; Frost, J James; Huang, Yiyun; Ding, Yu-Shin; Carson, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    [11C]P943 is a new radioligand recently developed to image and quantify serotonin 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1B) receptors with positron emission tomography (PET). The purpose of this study was to evaluate [11C]P943 for this application in humans, and to determine the most suitable quantification method. Positron emission tomography data and arterial input function measurements were acquired in a cohort of 32 human subjects. Using arterial input functions, compartmental modeling, the Logan graphical analysis, and the multilinear method MA1 were tested. Both the two tissue-compartment model and MA1 provided good fits of the PET data and reliable distribution volume estimates. Using the cerebellum as a reference region, BPND binding potential estimates were computed. [11C]P943 BPND estimates were significantly correlated with in vitro measurements of the density of 5-HT1B receptors, with highest values in the occipital cortex and pallidum. To evaluate noninvasive methods, two- and three-parameter graphical analyses, Simplified Reference Tissue Models (SRTM and SRTM2), and Multilinear Reference Tissue Models (MRTM and MRTM2) were tested. The MRTM2 model provided the best correlation with MA1 binding-potential estimates. Parametric images of the volume of distribution or binding potential of [11C]P943 could be computed using both MA1 and MRTM2. The results show that [11C]P943 provides quantitative measurements of 5-HT1B binding potential. PMID:19773803

  3. Central serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptor dysfunction in depression and epilepsy: the missing link?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A receptors (5-HT2A-Rs) are G-protein coupled receptors. In agreement with their location in the brain, they have been implicated not only in various central physiological functions including memory, sleep, nociception, eating and reward behaviors, but also in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Interestingly, a bidirectional link between depression and epilepsy is suspected since patients with depression and especially suicide attempters have an increased seizure risk, while a significant percentage of epileptic patients suffer from depression. Such epidemiological data led us to hypothesize that both pathologies may share common anatomical and neurobiological alteration of the 5-HT2A signaling. After a brief presentation of the pharmacological properties of the 5-HT2A-Rs, this review illustrates how these receptors may directly or indirectly control neuronal excitability in most networks involved in depression and epilepsy through interactions with the monoaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmissions. It also synthetizes the preclinical and clinical evidence demonstrating the role of these receptors in antidepressant and antiepileptic responses. PMID:25852551

  4. Kinetic modeling of the serotonin 5-HT(1B) receptor radioligand [(11)C]P943 in humans.

    PubMed

    Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Neumeister, Alexander; Planeta-Wilson, Beata; Williams, Wendol A; Singhal, Tarun; Kim, Sunhee; Maguire, R Paul; McCarthy, Timothy; Frost, J James; Huang, Yiyun; Ding, Yu-Shin; Carson, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    [(11)C]P943 is a new radioligand recently developed to image and quantify serotonin 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT(1B)) receptors with positron emission tomography (PET). The purpose of this study was to evaluate [(11)C]P943 for this application in humans, and to determine the most suitable quantification method. Positron emission tomography data and arterial input function measurements were acquired in a cohort of 32 human subjects. Using arterial input functions, compartmental modeling, the Logan graphical analysis, and the multilinear method MA1 were tested. Both the two tissue-compartment model and MA1 provided good fits of the PET data and reliable distribution volume estimates. Using the cerebellum as a reference region, BP(ND) binding potential estimates were computed. [(11)C]P943 BP(ND) estimates were significantly correlated with in vitro measurements of the density of 5-HT(1B) receptors, with highest values in the occipital cortex and pallidum. To evaluate noninvasive methods, two- and three-parameter graphical analyses, Simplified Reference Tissue Models (SRTM and SRTM2), and Multilinear Reference Tissue Models (MRTM and MRTM2) were tested. The MRTM2 model provided the best correlation with MA1 binding-potential estimates. Parametric images of the volume of distribution or binding potential of [(11)C]P943 could be computed using both MA1 and MRTM2. The results show that [(11)C]P943 provides quantitative measurements of 5-HT(1B) binding potential. PMID:19773803

  5. Small molecule drug screening in Drosophila identifies the 5HT2A receptor as a feeding modulation target

    PubMed Central

    Gasque, Gabriel; Conway, Stephen; Huang, Juan; Rao, Yi; Vosshall, Leslie B.

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of eating behavior can lead to obesity, which affects 10% of the adult population worldwide and accounts for nearly 3 million deaths every year. Despite this burden on society, we currently lack effective pharmacological treatment options to regulate appetite. We used Drosophila melanogaster larvae to develop a high-throughput whole organism screen for drugs that modulate food intake. In a screen of 3630 small molecules, we identified the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) receptor antagonist metitepine as a potent anorectic drug. Using cell-based assays we show that metitepine is an antagonist of all five Drosophila 5-HT receptors. We screened fly mutants for each of these receptors and found that serotonin receptor 5-HT2A is the sole molecular target for feeding inhibition by metitepine. These results highlight the conservation of molecular mechanisms controlling appetite and provide a method for unbiased whole-organism drug screens to identify novel drugs and molecular pathways modulating food intake. PMID:23817146

  6. Heterogeneity amongst 5-HT? receptor subunits: is this significant?

    PubMed

    Yaakob, N; Malone, D T; Exintaris, B; Irving, H R

    2011-02-01

    The serotonin 3 (5-HT?) receptor is a ligand gated ion channel unlike the other 5-HT receptors which are G protein coupled receptors. The functional 5-HT? receptor forms a pentamer of five symmetrically arranged subunits surrounding a central pore. The 5-HT(3A) subunit was first identified at a molecular level and can form functional homomers or heteromers with the 5-HT(3B) subunit. Recently, three new 5-HT? subunits have been discovered and these can also form functional heteromers with the 5-HT(3A) subunit. In addition, splice variants of the 5-HT? subunits have also been reported. These findings have markedly increased the complexity of the 5-HT? receptor and may form part of the explanation of unresolved differences between studies investigating 5-HT? receptor function in cell lines compared with native tissues. In this review we discuss the properties of the different subunits and their distribution to determine if they contribute to functional changes in the 5-HT? receptor. Several recent pharmacogenomic studies have revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other variations in the different 5-HT? receptor subunits that are associated with various clinical conditions. We discuss the implications of these findings with respect to drug design and tailored pharmacogenomic therapies. PMID:21189117

  7. Effects of monocrotaline pretreatment of rats on removal of 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline by perfused lung.

    PubMed

    Gillis, C N; Huxtable, R J; Roth, R A

    1978-07-01

    1 The alkaloid, monocrotaline, causes significant pulmonary damage in many species, including the rat. We, therefore, determined whether the inactivation of biogenic amines by perfused lungs of rats was modified by prior treatment of the animals with monocrotaline.2 Young rats (45 to 50 g) treated for 21 days with monocrotaline (22 mug/ml) in their drinking water developed right ventricular hypertrophy. Treated animals gained weight more slowly and consumed less food and water than control rats that drank tap water. Lungs from monocrotaline-treated animals were heavier and had a higher protein content than control lungs.3 Isolated lungs from treated animals removed and metabolized 50% less perfused 5-hydroxytryptamine than did controls.4 The diminished 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism was probably due to impaired delivery of substrate to intrapulmonary monoamine oxidase (MAO) since MAO activity in 600 g supernatant fractions of homogenates of lungs from monocrotaline-treated rats was not different from control values.5 Pulmonary removal of perfused noradrenaline was decreased about 60% by the 21-day treatment, suggesting that the effects of monocrotaline were somewhat nonspecific.6 These effects were not caused by monocrotaline directly, since perfusion of lungs from untreated animals with this drug did not alter removal of co-perfused 5-hydroxytryptamine.7 Reduced pulmonary removal of circulating biogenic amines following pretreatment with monocrotaline may reflect damage to capillary endothelium, which could also affect other metabolic functions of lung. PMID:667487

  8. Chronic activation of 5-HT4 receptors or blockade of 5-HT6 receptors improve memory performances.

    PubMed

    Quiedeville, Anne; Boulouard, Michel; Hamidouche, Katia; Da Silva Costa-Aze, Virginie; Nee, Gerald; Rochais, Christophe; Dallemagne, Patrick; Fabis, Frédéric; Freret, Thomas; Bouet, Valentine

    2015-10-15

    5-HT4 and 5-HT6 serotonergic receptors are located in brain structures involved in memory processes. Neurochemical and behavioural studies have demonstrated that acute activation of 5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4R) or blockade of 5-HT6 receptors (5-HT6R) improves memory. To evaluate the potential of these two receptors as targets in the treatment of memory disorders encountered in several situations (ageing, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, etc.), it is necessary to assess whether their beneficial effects occur after chronic administration, and if such treatment induces adverse effects. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of chronic 5-HT4R or 5-HT6R modulation on recognition memory, and to observe the possible manifestation of side effects (modification of weight gain, locomotor activity or exploratory behaviour, etc.). Mice were treated for 14 days with a 5-HT4R partial agonist (RS-67333) or a 5-HT6R antagonist (SB-271046) at increasing doses. Memory performances, locomotor activity, and exploration were assessed. Both chronic 5-HT4R activation and 5-HT6R blockade extended memory traces in an object recognition test, and were not associated with any adverse effects in the parameters assessed. Chronic modulation of one or both of these receptors thus seems promising as a potential strategy for the treatment memory deficits. PMID:26187692

  9. Piroxicam-mediated modulatory action of 5-hydroxytryptamine serves as a brake on neuronal excitability in ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Pallab; Pandey, Anand Kumar; Paul, Sudip; Patnaik, Ranjana

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies indicated an increase in extracellular ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rodent's ischemic brain after Piroxicam administration, leading to alleviation of glutamate mediated excitotoxicity through activation of type A GABA receptor (GABAA). This study was to investigate if GABAA activation by Piroxicam affects extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine or not. High performance liquid chromatography revealed that there was a significant decrease in extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine release in ischemic cerebral cortex and striatum in Piroxicam pre-treated rat brains. This suggests a probable role of Piroxicam in reducing extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine release in ischemic cerebral cortex and striatum possibly due to the GABAA activation by Piroxicam. PMID:26604901

  10. Piroxicam-mediated modulatory action of 5-hydroxytryptamine serves as a "brake" on neuronal excitability in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Pallab; Pandey, Anand Kumar; Paul, Sudip; Patnaik, Ranjana

    2015-09-01

    Our previous studies indicated an increase in extracellular ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rodent's ischemic brain after Piroxicam administration, leading to alleviation of glutamate mediated excitotoxicity through activation of type A GABA receptor (GABAA). This study was to investigate if GABAA activation by Piroxicam affects extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine or not. High performance liquid chromatography revealed that there was a significant decrease in extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine release in ischemic cerebral cortex and striatum in Piroxicam pre-treated rat brains. This suggests a probable role of Piroxicam in reducing extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine release in ischemic cerebral cortex and striatum possibly due to the GABAA activation by Piroxicam. PMID:26604901

  11. Suppression of inflammatory events associated to intestinal ischemia-reperfusion by 5-HT1A blockade in mice.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Simona; Arcaro, Valentina; Vivo, Valentina; Rapalli, Alberto; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Cantoni, Anna Maria; Saccani, Francesca; Flammini, Lisa; Domenichini, Giuseppe; Ballabeni, Vigilio; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2014-03-01

    Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is a potentially life-threatening disease, ensuing from various clinical conditions. Experimentally, either protective or detrimental roles have been attributed to 5-HT in the functional and morphological injury caused by mesenteric I/R. Recently, we proved the involvement of 5-HT2A receptors in the intestinal dysmotility and leukocyte recruitment induced by 45min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) followed by 24h reperfusion in mice. Starting from these premises, the aim of our present work was to investigate the role played by endogenous 5-HT in the same experimental model where 45min SMA clamping was followed by 5h reflow. To this end, we first observed that ischemic preconditioning before I/R injury (IPC+I/R) reverted the increase in 5-HT tissue content and in inflammatory parameters induced by I/R in mice. Second, the effects produced by intravenous administration of 5-HT1A ligands (partial agonist buspirone 10mgkg(-1), antagonist WAY100135 0.5-5mgkg(-1)), 5-HT2A antagonist sarpogrelate (10mgkg(-1)), 5-HT3 antagonist alosetron (0.1mgkg(-1)), 5-HT4 antagonist GR125487 (5mgkg(-1)) and 5-HT re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine (10mgkg(-1)) on I/R-induced inflammatory response were investigated in I/R mice and compared to those obtained in sham-operated animals (S). Our results confirmed the significant role played by 5-HT2A receptors not only in the late but also in the early I/R-induced microcirculatory dysfunction and showed that blockade of 5-HT1A receptors protected against the intestinal leukocyte recruitment, plasma extravasation and reactive oxygen species formation triggered by SMA occlusion and reflow. The ability of ?7 nicotinic receptor (?7nAchR) antagonist methyllycaconitine (5mgkg(-1)) to counteract the beneficial action provided by buspirone on I/R-induced neutrophil infiltration suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect produced by 5-HT1A receptor antagonism could be partly ascribed to the indirect activation of ?7nAch receptors. PMID:24548822

  12. In Vivo Quantification of 5-HT2A Brain Receptors in Mdr1a KO Rats with 123I-R91150 Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Dumas, No; Moulin-Sallanon, Marcelle; Fender, Pascal; Tournier, Benjamin B; Ginovart, Nathalie; Charnay, Yves; Millet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Our goal was to identify suitable image quantification methods to image 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) receptors in vivo in Mdr1a knockout (KO) rats (i.e., P-glycoprotein KO) using 123I-R91150 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The 123I-R91150 binding parameters estimated with different reference tissue models (simplified reference tissue model [SRTM], Logan reference tissue model, and tissue ratio [TR] method) were compared to the estimates obtained with a comprehensive three-tissue/seven-parameter (3T/7k)-based model. The SRTM and Logan reference tissue model estimates of 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND) correlated well with the absolute receptor density measured with the 3T/7k gold standard (r > .89). Quantification of 5-HT2AR using the Logan reference tissue model required at least 90 minutes of scanning, whereas the SRTM required at least 110 minutes. The TR method estimates were also highly correlated to the 5-HT2AR density (r > .91) and only required a single 20-minute scan between 100 and 120 minutes postinjection. However, a systematic overestimation of the BPND values was observed. The Logan reference tissue method is more convenient than the SRTM for the quantification of 5-HT2AR in Mdr1a KO rats using 123I-R91150 SPECT. The TR method is an interesting and simple alternative, despite its bias, as it still provides a valid index of 5-HT2AR density. PMID:26105563

  13. Maternal lipopolysaccharide treatment differentially affects 5-HT(2A) and mGlu2/3 receptor function in the adult male and female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Wischhof, Lena; Irrsack, Ellen; Dietz, Frank; Koch, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for the offspring to develop schizophrenia. However, it is still not fully understood which biochemical mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of neuropsychiatric symptoms following prenatal immune activation. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and glutamate system have prominently been associated with the schizophrenia pathophysiology but also with the mechanism of antipsychotic drug actions. Here, we investigated the behavioral and cellular response to 5-HT2A and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu)2/3 receptor stimulation in male and female offspring born to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mothers. Additionally, we assessed protein expression levels of prefrontal 5-HT2A and mGlu2 receptors. Prenatally LPS-exposed male and female offspring showed locomotor hyperactivity and increased head-twitch behavior in response to the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI. In LPS-exposed male offspring, the mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY379268 failed to reduce DOI-induced prepulse inhibition deficits. In LPS-males, the behavioral changes were further accompanied by enhanced DOI-induced c-Fos protein expression and an up-regulation of prefrontal 5-HT2A receptors. No changes in either 5-HT2A or mGlu2 receptor protein levels were found in female offspring. Our data support the hypothesis of an involvement of maternal infection during pregnancy contributing, at least partially, to the pathology of schizophrenia. Identifying biochemical alterations that parallel the behavioral deficits may help to improve therapeutic strategies in the treatment of this mental illness. Since most studies in rodents almost exclusively include male subjects, our data further contribute to elucidating possible gender differences in the effects of prenatal infection on 5-HT2A and mGlu2/3 receptor function. PMID:26051401

  14. Effects of U46619 on contractions to 5-HT, sumatriptan and methysergide in canine coronary artery and saphenous vein in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, B. K.; Cocks, T. M.

    1995-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of enhanced reactivity to 5'-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and sumatriptan previously observed in human isolated coronary arteries when active force was raised with the thromboxane A2-mimetic, U46619. 2. Ring segments of dog isolated coronary artery and saphenous vein were suspended in organ baths and cumulative concentration-contraction curves to 5-HT, sumatriptan and methysergide were constructed in the absence and presence of low concentrations of U46619. 3. In both endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded rings of coronary artery, precontraction with U46619 to low (< 10% Fmax; the contraction to a maximum depolarizing 125 mM KCl Krebs solution; KPSS) levels of active force had no effect on either the maximum contraction or sensitivity (pEC50) to 5-HT, sumatriptan and methysergide. 4. Ketanserin (1 microM) had no effect on contractions to sumatriptan and methysergide in endothelium-denuded coronary artery rings, but reduced the maximum contraction to 5-HT by approximately 90% to a value (5% Fmax) similar to that for sumatriptan and methylsergide. Under these conditions, U46619 precontraction had no effect on either pEC50 or maximum for 5-HT, sumatriptan or methysergide. 5. In rings of saphenous vein with endothelium and treated with ketanserin (1 microM), 5-HT and sumatriptan caused equal maximum responses of 65% Fmax which were approximately double that of methysergide (32% Fmax). The maximum responses and sensitivity to 5-HT, sumatriptan, methysergide and noradrenaline were unaffected by precontraction with U46619.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8564247

  15. Nelumbinis Semen reverses a decrease in 5-HT1A receptor binding induced by chronic mild stress, a depression-like symptom.

    PubMed

    Jang, Choon-Gon; Kang, Moonkyu; Cho, Jae-Han; Lee, Sun-Bok; Kim, Hyuntaek; Park, Soonkwon; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Seong-Kyu; Hong, Moochang; Shin, Min Kyu; Shim, In-Sup; Bae, Hyunsu

    2004-10-01

    Depression is associated with a dysfunctional serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system. More recently, several lines of evidence suggest that an important factor in the development of depression may be a deficit in the function and expression of 5-HT1A receptors. The present study assessed if Nelumbinis Semen (N.s.) had an anti-depression effect through reversing a decrease in 5-HT1A receptor binding in rats with depression-like symptoms induced by chronic mild stress. Using a 5-HT1A receptor binding assay, with a specific 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin), the mechanism of the anti-depression effect of N.s. on rats was investigated, and the effects compared with two well-known antidepressants, Hyperium Perforatum (St. Johns Wort) and fluoxetine (Prozac). Animals were divided into five groups: the normal (N) group without chronic mild stress (CMS), the control (C) group under CMS for 8 weeks, the Nelumbinis Semen (N.s.) treatment group under CMS for 8 weeks, the Hyperium Perforatum (H.p.) treatment group under CMS for 8 weeks and finally, the fluoxetine (F) treatment group under CMS for 8 weeks. Each treatment was administered to rats during the last 4 weeks of the 8-week CMS. A sucrose intake test was performed to test the anti-depression effect of N.s. The N.s. treatment significantly reversed the decreased sucrose intake under CMS (P < 0.05 compared to control group under CMS). In the CA2 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus, both N.s. and H.p. reversed the CMS-induced decrease in 5-HT1A receptor binding. In the I to II regions of the frontal cortex, N.s. and H.p. also reversed the CMS-induced decrease in 5-HT1A receptor binding, and even showed a significant increase in 5-HT1A receptor binding compared to the F treatment group (N.s. vs. P, p < 0.05, H.p. vs. P, p < 0.05). However, in the hypothalamus, all treatments reversed the CMS-induced decrease in 5-HT1A receptor binding. This reversal effect of N.s. on the decrease in 5-HT1A receptor binding in the frontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus of rat brains was very similar to that of H.p, but different from that of F. It is concluded that N.s. presents an anti-depression effect through enhancing 5-HT1A receptor binding. PMID:15554266

  16. The release of 5-hydroxytryptamine from the rat stomach in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, A.; Bucknell, Anne; Dean, A. C. B.

    1966-01-01

    1. 5-HT was released into the lumen of the intact isolated rat stomach and into the bath fluid surrounding a preparation of the body and antrum stretched mechanically. 2. Release of 5-HT increased when the pressure inside the intact stomach was raised or when the body/antrum preparation was stretched. 3. This increased release was not prevented by hexamethonium, atropine, hyoscine or procaine, and was probably due to distortion of cells containing 5-HT. 4. During periods of peristalsis induced by transmural stimulation the pharmacological activity of the fluid in the stomach was usually increased owing to a greater release of 5-HT and also to the release of an unidentified substance. 5. In reserpine-treated rats, 5-HT was released into the stomach but transmural stimulation did not produce true peristalsis and only rhythmic contractions occurred. 6. Peristalsis was seldom reduced by methysergide, and it is concluded that 5-HT is not essential for gastric peristalsis in the rat. PMID:5937416

  17. 5-HT2C receptors in psychiatric disorders: A review.

    PubMed

    Chagraoui, A; Thibaut, F; Skiba, M; Thuillez, C; Bourin, M

    2016-04-01

    5-HT2Rs have a different genomic organization from other 5-HT2Rs. 5HT2CR undergoes post-transcriptional pre-mRNA editing generating diversity among RNA transcripts. Selective post-transcriptional editing could be involved in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders through impairment in G-protein interactions. Moreover, it may influence the therapeutic response to agents such as atypical antipsychotic drugs. Additionally, 5-HT2CR exhibits alternative splicing. Central serotonergic and dopaminergic systems interact to modulate normal and abnormal behaviors. Thus, 5HT2CR plays a crucial role in psychiatric disorders. 5HT2CR could be a relevant pharmacological target in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. The development of drugs that specifically target 5-HT2C receptors will allow for better understanding of their involvement in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, anxiety, and depression. Among therapeutic means currently available, most drugs used to treat highly morbid psychiatric diseases interact at least partly with 5-HT2CRs. Pharmacologically, 5HT2CRs, have the ability to generate differentially distinct response signal transduction pathways depending on the type of 5HT2CR agonist. Although this receptor property has been clearly demonstrated, in vitro, the eventual beneficial impact of this property opens new perspectives in the development of agonists that could activate signal transduction pathways leading to better therapeutic efficiency with fewer adverse effects. PMID:26739950

  18. The role of 5-HT1A receptors in mediating acute negative effects of antidepressants: implications in pediatric depression.

    PubMed

    Rahn, K A; Cao, Y-J; Hendrix, C W; Kaplin, A I

    2015-01-01

    Acute antidepressant exposure elevates the frequency of impulsive behavior and suicidal thoughts in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Long-term antidepressant treatment, however, is beneficial for pediatric MDD, so it is necessary to explore novel treatments that prevent the potentially dangerous consequences of acute antidepressant initiation. In the present study, a treatment strategy designed to reverse the acute negative behavioral effects of antidepressants was tested in rodents. Co-administration of the 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR) antagonist WAY-100635 reversed the negative effects of acute fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, but not reboxetine, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, supporting the involvement of 5-HT1AR in mediating the negative consequences of acute selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. No 5-HT1AR antagonists are currently approved for use in pediatric populations, so alternative strategies should be explored. One such strategy was suggested based on the hypothesis that the rate of 5-HT1AR activation and the subsequent inhibition of serotonergic neuron activity caused by acute SSRI administration is proportional to the loading rate of an antidepressant. Existing pharmacological data were examined, and significant correlations were observed between the half-life of antidepressants and the rate of suicide-related events (SREs). Specifically, antidepressants with longer half-lives have lower rates of SREs. On the basis of these data, novel dosing strategies were developed for five antidepressants to mimic the pharmacological profile of the antidepressant with the longest half-life, fluoxetine. These dosing strategies could be used to decrease the rate of SREs associated with acute antidepressant treatment in pediatric MDD until an improved pharmacological treatment is developed. PMID:25942044

  19. The role of 5-HT1A receptors in mediating acute negative effects of antidepressants: implications in pediatric depression

    PubMed Central

    Rahn, K A; Cao, Y-J; Hendrix, C W; Kaplin, A I

    2015-01-01

    Acute antidepressant exposure elevates the frequency of impulsive behavior and suicidal thoughts in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Long-term antidepressant treatment, however, is beneficial for pediatric MDD, so it is necessary to explore novel treatments that prevent the potentially dangerous consequences of acute antidepressant initiation. In the present study, a treatment strategy designed to reverse the acute negative behavioral effects of antidepressants was tested in rodents. Co-administration of the 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR) antagonist WAY-100635 reversed the negative effects of acute fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, but not reboxetine, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, supporting the involvement of 5-HT1AR in mediating the negative consequences of acute selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. No 5-HT1AR antagonists are currently approved for use in pediatric populations, so alternative strategies should be explored. One such strategy was suggested based on the hypothesis that the rate of 5-HT1AR activation and the subsequent inhibition of serotonergic neuron activity caused by acute SSRI administration is proportional to the loading rate of an antidepressant. Existing pharmacological data were examined, and significant correlations were observed between the half-life of antidepressants and the rate of suicide-related events (SREs). Specifically, antidepressants with longer half-lives have lower rates of SREs. On the basis of these data, novel dosing strategies were developed for five antidepressants to mimic the pharmacological profile of the antidepressant with the longest half-life, fluoxetine. These dosing strategies could be used to decrease the rate of SREs associated with acute antidepressant treatment in pediatric MDD until an improved pharmacological treatment is developed. PMID:25942044

  20. 5HT1A Serotonin Receptor Agonists Inhibit Plasmodium falciparum by Blocking a Membrane Channel

    PubMed Central

    Locher, Christopher P.; Ruben, Peter C.; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip J.

    2003-01-01

    Toidentify new leads for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, we screened a panel of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5HT]) receptor agonists and antagonists and determined their effects on parasite growth. The 5HT1A receptor agonists 8-hydroxy-N-(di-n-propyl)-aminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine, and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenylethylamine inhibited the growth of P. falciparum in vitro (50% inhibitory concentrations, 0.4, 0.7, and 1.5 ?M, respectively). In further characterizing the antiparasitic effects of 8-OH-DPAT, we found that this serotonin receptor agonist did not affect the growth of Leishmania infantum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, or Trichostrongylus colubriformis in vitro and did not demonstrate cytotoxicity against the human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5. 8-OH-DPAT had similar levels of growth inhibition against several different P. falciparum isolates having distinct chemotherapeutic resistance phenotypes, and its antimalarial effect was additive when it was used in combination with chloroquine against a chloroquine-resistant isolate. In a patch clamp assay, 8-OH-DPAT blocked a P. falciparum surface membrane channel, suggesting that serotonin receptor agonists are a novel class of antimalarials that target a nutrient transport pathway. Since there may be neurological involvement with the use of 8-OH-DPAT and other serotonin receptor agonists in the treatment of falciparum malaria, new lead compounds derived from 8-OH-DPAT will need to be modified to prevent potential neurological side effects. Nevertheless, these results suggest that 8-OH-DPAT is a new lead compound with which to derive novel antimalarial agents and is a useful tool with which to characterize P. falciparum membrane channels. PMID:14638487

  1. 5HT1A serotonin receptor agonists inhibit Plasmodium falciparum by blocking a membrane channel.

    PubMed

    Locher, Christopher P; Ruben, Peter C; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip J

    2003-12-01

    To identify new leads for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, we screened a panel of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5HT]) receptor agonists and antagonists and determined their effects on parasite growth. The 5HT1A receptor agonists 8-hydroxy-N-(di-n-propyl)-aminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine, and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenylethylamine inhibited the growth of P. falciparum in vitro (50% inhibitory concentrations, 0.4, 0.7, and 1.5 microM, respectively). In further characterizing the antiparasitic effects of 8-OH-DPAT, we found that this serotonin receptor agonist did not affect the growth of Leishmania infantum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, or Trichostrongylus colubriformis in vitro and did not demonstrate cytotoxicity against the human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5. 8-OH-DPAT had similar levels of growth inhibition against several different P. falciparum isolates having distinct chemotherapeutic resistance phenotypes, and its antimalarial effect was additive when it was used in combination with chloroquine against a chloroquine-resistant isolate. In a patch clamp assay, 8-OH-DPAT blocked a P. falciparum surface membrane channel, suggesting that serotonin receptor agonists are a novel class of antimalarials that target a nutrient transport pathway. Since there may be neurological involvement with the use of 8-OH-DPAT and other serotonin receptor agonists in the treatment of falciparum malaria, new lead compounds derived from 8-OH-DPAT will need to be modified to prevent potential neurological side effects. Nevertheless, these results suggest that 8-OH-DPAT is a new lead compound with which to derive novel antimalarial agents and is a useful tool with which to characterize P. falciparum membrane channels. PMID:14638487

  2. Convergence of melatonin and serotonin (5-HT) signaling at MT2/5-HT2C receptor heteromers.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Maud; Gbahou, Florence; Guillaume, Jean-Luc; Daulat, Avais M; Benleulmi-Chaachoua, Abla; Luka, Marine; Chen, Patty; Kalbasi Anaraki, Dina; Baroncini, Marc; Mannoury la Cour, Clotilde; Millan, Mark J; Prevot, Vincent; Delagrange, Philippe; Jockers, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    Inasmuch as the neurohormone melatonin is synthetically derived from serotonin (5-HT), a close interrelationship between both has long been suspected. The present study reveals a hitherto unrecognized cross-talk mediated via physical association of melatonin MT2 and 5-HT2C receptors into functional heteromers. This is of particular interest in light of the "synergistic" melatonin agonist/5-HT2C antagonist profile of the novel antidepressant agomelatine. A suite of co-immunoprecipitation, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, and pharmacological techniques was exploited to demonstrate formation of functional MT2 and 5-HT2C receptor heteromers both in transfected cells and in human cortex and hippocampus. MT2/5-HT2C heteromers amplified the 5-HT-mediated Gq/phospholipase C response and triggered melatonin-induced unidirectional transactivation of the 5-HT2C protomer of MT2/5-HT2C heteromers. Pharmacological studies revealed distinct functional properties for agomelatine, which shows "biased signaling." These observations demonstrate the existence of functionally unique MT2/5-HT2C heteromers and suggest that the antidepressant agomelatine has a distinctive profile at these sites potentially involved in its therapeutic effects on major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Finally, MT2/5-HT2C heteromers provide a new strategy for the discovery of novel agents for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:25770211

  3. Blockade of voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels by the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT: possible significance for neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Melena, J; Chidlow, G; Osborne, N N

    2000-10-20

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) (5-HT(1A)) receptor agonists interact with voltage-sensitive Na(+) or N- and P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels to reduce the influx of Na(+) and/or Ca(2+). The 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) inhibited both [3H]batrachotoxinin binding to neurotoxin site 2 of the Na(+) channel in rat cortical membranes (IC(50)=5.1 microM) and veratridine-stimulated Na(+) influx into rat synaptosomes (EC(50)=20. 8 microM). The 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist flesinoxan and the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist N-(2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl)ethyl)-N-(2-pyridinyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY-100635) also displaced [3H]batrachotoxinin binding with similar affinities to 8-OH-DPAT, but were much less effective in reducing veratridine-stimulated Na(+) influx. All three serotonergic agents also increased [3H]saxitoxin binding to neurotoxin site 1 of the Na(+) channel. In contrast, none of these agents interacted with radioligand binding to N- or P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels. These data show that 8-OH-DPAT directly interacts with voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels to reduce Na(+) influx so providing an additional mechanism to explain how it functions as a neuroprotectant. PMID:11040337

  4. RU 24969-induced emesis in the cat - 5-HT1 sites other than 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B or 5-HT1C implicated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.

    1990-01-01

    RU 24969 was administered s.c. to cats and found to elicit emesis with a maximally effective dose of 1.0 mg/kg 5-Methoxytryptamine was found to have lower efficacy and to produce a higher incidence of nonspecific effects while trifluoromethylphenylpiperizine (TFMPP) was devoid of emetic effects. The emesis elicited by 1.0 mg/kg of RU 24969 was not altered by pretreatment with phentolamine, haloperidol, yohimbine or (-)-propranolol, indicating that catecholamines played no role in this response. The emesis was prevented by metergoline and methysergide but not by ketanserin, cyproheptadine, mesulergine, ICS 205 930, methiothepin, trimethobenzamide or BMY 7378. An indirect argument is presented that implicates a role for 5-HT1D sites. This conclusion must remain tentative until drugs selective for this site are synthesized and tested. The emesis was also prevented by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamine)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), confirming that this drug has a general antiemetic effect in cats.

  5. Serotonin(7) receptors (5-HT(7)Rs) and their ligands.

    PubMed

    Leopoldo, M

    2004-03-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is involved in various physiological and pathological processes by interaction with 14 distinct receptor subtypes, grouped in seven classes of receptors (5-HT(1-7)) on the basis of amino acid sequence, pharmacology, and signal transduction pathways. The 5-HT(7)R is a G-protein coupled receptor with seven transmembrane domains. It was found by the application of molecular cloning and has been identified in rat, mouse, human, pig, and guinea pig. Although the biological functions of the 5-HT(7)Rs are poorly understood, preliminary evidence suggests that it may be involved in depression, control of circadian rhythms, and relaxation of vascular smooth muscles. For these reasons, the 5-HT(7)R has become a target for the development of novel drugs. This review will give a brief introduction of the pharmacology of 5-HT(7)R (molecular structure, distribution of 5-HT(7)R mRNA, localization of the 5-HT(7)R protein, functional correlates, and therapeutic potential) and a detailed survey of the 5-HT(7)R ligands, which have appeared in the literature in both papers and patents. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) of these ligands will also be described. PMID:15032609

  6. Aging and chronic administration of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor citalopram upregulate Sirt4 gene expression in the preoptic area of male mice

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Dutt Way; Soga, Tomoko; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction and cognitive deficits are markers of the aging process. Mammalian sirtuins (SIRT), encoded by sirt 1-7 genes, are known as aging molecules which are sensitive to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). Whether the 5-HT system regulates SIRT in the preoptic area (POA), which could affect reproduction and cognition has not been examined. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effects of citalopram (CIT, 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks), a potent selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor and aging on SIRT expression in the POA of male mice using real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Age-related increases of sirt1, sirt4, sirt5, and sirt7 mRNA levels were observed in the POA of 52 weeks old mice. Furthermore, 4 weeks of chronic CIT treatment started at 8 weeks of age also increased sirt2 and sirt4 mRNA expression in the POA. Moreover, the number of SIRT4 immuno-reactive neurons increased with aging in the medial septum area (12 weeks = 1.00 ± 0.15 vs. 36 weeks = 1.68 ± 0.14 vs. 52 weeks = 1.54 ± 0.11, p < 0.05). In contrast, the number of sirt4-immunopositive cells did not show a statistically significant change with CIT treatment, suggesting that the increase in sirt4 mRNA levels may occur in cells in which sirt4 is already being expressed. Taken together, these studies suggest that CIT treatment and the process of aging utilize the serotonergic system to up-regulate SIRT4 in the POA as a common pathway to deregulate social cognitive and reproductive functions. PMID:26442099

  7. Effects of repeated oral doses of dexnorfenfluramine on 5-HT levels and 5-HT uptake sites in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, M; Bergami, A; Caltavuturo, C; Valle, F D; Mennini, T; Caccia, S

    1996-11-15

    The effects of oral dexnorfenfluramine (DNF; 1-4 mg/kg, twice daily for 4 days), the active metabolite of dexfenfluramine, were examined on rat regional brain indole contents and [3H]citalopram binding. Two hours after the last dose, serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were dose-dependently lowered at doses above 1.5 mg/kg, with slight regional differences. Cortical 5-HT uptake sites were reduced only at the highest dose. Above 2 mg/kg DNF also caused a more lasting reduction (4 weeks) of regional indoles and cortical 5-HT uptake sites. At this longer time while the decrease in hippocampal 5-HT levels and cortical 5-HT uptake sites remained essentially constant, cortical and striatal 5-HT levels were lowered less than at 2 h, suggesting a return toward control values. PMID:8961290

  8. 5-HT1A receptors on mature dentate gyrus granule cells are critical for the antidepressant response.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Benjamin Adam; Anacker, Christoph; Hu, Alice; Levinstein, Marjorie R; Pickenhagen, Anouchka; Tsetsenis, Theodore; Madroal, Noelia; Donaldson, Zoe R; Drew, Liam John; Dranovsky, Alex; Gross, Cornelius T; Tanaka, Kenji F; Hen, Ren

    2015-11-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used antidepressants, but the mechanisms by which they influence behavior are only partially resolved. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is necessary for some of the responses to SSRIs, but it is not known whether mature dentate gyrus granule cells (DG GCs) also contribute. We deleted the serotonin 1A receptor (5HT1AR, a receptor required for the SSRI response) specifically from DG GCs and found that the effects of the SSRI fluoxetine on behavior and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were abolished. By contrast, mice lacking 5HT1ARs only in young adult-born GCs (abGCs) showed normal fluoxetine responses. Notably, 5HT1AR-deficient mice engineered to express functional 5HT1ARs only in DG GCs responded to fluoxetine, indicating that 5HT1ARs in DG GCs are sufficient to mediate an antidepressant response. Taken together, these data indicate that both mature DG GCs and young abGCs must be engaged for an antidepressant response. PMID:26389840

  9. The effects of benzofury (5-APB) on the dopamine transporter and 5-HT2-dependent vasoconstriction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Patrick; Opacka-Juffry, Jolanta; Moffatt, James D; Daniju, Yusuf; Dutta, Neelakshi; Ramsey, John; Davidson, Colin

    2014-01-01

    5-APB, commonly marketed as 'benzofury' is a new psychoactive substance and erstwhile 'legal high' which has been implicated in 10 recent drug-related deaths in the UK. This drug was available on the internet and in 'head shops' and was one of the most commonly sold legal highs up until its recent UK temporary ban (UK Home Office). Despite its prominence, very little is known about its pharmacology. This study was undertaken to examine the pharmacology of 5-APB in vitro. We hypothesised that 5-APB would activate the dopamine and 5-HT systems which may underlie its putative stimulant and hallucinogenic effects. Autoradiographic studies showed that 5-APB displaced both [(125)I] RTI-121 and [(3)H] ketanserin from rat brain tissue suggesting affinity at the dopamine transporter and 5-HT2 receptor sites respectively. Voltammetric studies in rat accumbens brain slices revealed that 5-APB slowed dopamine reuptake, and at high concentrations caused reverse transport of dopamine. 5-APB also caused vasoconstriction of rat aorta, an effect antagonised by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin, and caused contraction of rat stomach fundus, which was reversed by the 5-HT2B receptor antagonist RS-127445. These data show that 5-APB interacts with the dopamine transporter and is an agonist at the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors in the rat. Thus 5-APB's pharmacology is consistent with it having both stimulant and hallucinogenic properties. In addition, 5-APB's activity at the 5-HT2B receptor may cause cardiotoxicity. PMID:24012617

  10. Antagonism by neuroleptics of serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors of normal human brain in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wander, T J; Nelson, A; Okazaki, H; Richelson, E

    1987-11-10

    Using radioligand binding techniques and human frontal cortex, we determined the equilibrium dissociation constants (KDs) of 17 neuroleptics at the serotonin 5-HT1A and serotonin 5-HT2 receptors with [3H]WB4101 and [3H]ketanserin, respectively. At the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor, the most and least potent neuroleptics were chlorprothixene (KD = 230 nM) and fluphenazine (KD = 40 microM), respectively. At the serotonin 5-HT2 receptor, the most and least potent neuroleptics were spiperone (KD = 0.38 nM) and molindone, (KD = 5 microM), respectively. PMID:2891550

  11. Role of 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1A Receptors in 6-Hydroxydopmaine-induced Catalepsy-like Immobilization in Rats: a Therapeutic Approach for Treating Catalepsy of Parkinsons Disease

    PubMed Central

    eyhani-rad, Siamak; Mohajjel Nayebi, Alireza; Mahmoudi, Javad; Samini, Morteza; Babapour, Vahab

    2012-01-01

    We have shown that buspirone, a partial agonist of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A) receptors, improves motor dysfunctions induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and haloperidol in rats. The present work extends these findings by investigating the role of 5-HT1A receptors on catalepsy-like immobilization in rats, a model of Parkinsons disease. Catalepsy was induced by unilateral infusion of 6-OH-dopamine (8 ?g/2?L/rat) into the central region of the substantia nigra, compact part (SNc) and assayed by bar-test method 5, 60, 120 and 180 min after the drugs administration. The involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in 6-OHDA-induced catalepsy was studied through intraperitoneal (0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/Kg IP) and intrasubstantia nigra, compact part (10 ?g/rat, intra-SNc) injection of 8-hydroxy-2-[di-n-propylamino] tetralin (8-OHDPAT) as well as administration of 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-[4-(2-pthalimmido) butyl] piperazine hydrobromide (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/Kg, NAN-190, IP). NAN-190 (1 mg/Kg, IP) and 8-OHDPAT (1 mg/Kg, IP and 10 ?g/rat, intra-SNc) increased and decreased 6-OHDA-induced catalepsy respectively. In normal (non 6-OHDA-lesioned) rats, NAN-190 (1 mg/Kg, IP) increased the elapsed time in bar-test while 8-OHDPAT did not produce any significant effect. The anticataleptic effect of 8-OHDPAT (1 mg/Kg, IP) was reversed markedly by co-injection with NAN-190 (1 mg/Kg, IP). These findings suggest that 5-HT1A receptors are involved in 6-OHDA-induced catalepsy-like immobilization. PMID:24250551

  12. Acute and subchronic toxicities of QX100626, a 5-HT4 receptor agonist, in rodents and Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofang; Yuan, Bojun; Mao, Yu; Dai, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lu, Guocai

    2014-10-01

    Serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 4(5-HT4) receptor agonists have been widely prescribed as a prokinetics drug for patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease and functional dyspepsia. QX100626, one of the 5-HT4 receptor agonists, has been studied as a promising agent for this clinical use. The objective of the present study was to identify possible target organs of toxicity and propose a non-toxic dose of QX100626 for clinical usage. After single lethal dose oral and intravenous testing in rodents, some signs indicative of adverse CNS effects were observed. The minimum toxic dose of QX100626 for a single oral administration for dogs was 90.0mg/kgb.w., and the severe toxic dose was more than 300mg/kgb.w. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of QX100626 by daily oral administration for rats and dogs was 20mg/kg and 10mg/kg, respectively, whereas the minimum toxic dosages were 67 and 30mg/kg, respectively. All of the adverse effects suggested that kidney, digestive tract, as well as nervous, hematological, and respiratory systems might be the target organs of toxicity for humans induced by QX100626. The compound could be a safe alternative to other existing prokinetic agents for the treatment of functional bowel disorders. PMID:25108057

  13. ECT AND PLATELET 5HT UPTAKE IN MAJOR DEPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, P.K.; Lal, Narottam; Trivedi, J.K.; Seth, P.K.; Agarwal, A.K.; Khalid, Abdul

    1997-01-01

    Several studies have reported decreased platelet 5-HT uptake in patients of major depression. The mechanism of antidepressant action of ECT is not clear. The present work was undertaken with the aim to study the active platelet 5-HT uptake and the effect of ECT on it in patients of major depression. 15 patients of major depression (DSM-lll-R) and equal number of age and sex-matched controls were included in the study. Active platelet 5-HT uptake was determined before ECT, after a course of ECT and 7 days after last ECT. Platelet 5-HT uptake was. significantly lower in der essives than normal controls. After ECT treatment there was significant increase in 5-HT uptake which came down to pretreatment level after 1 week of last ECT. The effect of ECT on serotonergic system is discussed. PMID:21584091

  14. Fluoxetine and all other SSRIs are 5-HT2B Agonists - Importance for their Therapeutic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Liang; Gu, Li; Li, Baoman; Hertz, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Fluoxetine and other serotonin-specific re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are generally thought to owe their therapeutic potency to inhibition of the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, research in our laboratory showed that it affects, with relatively high affinity the 5-HT2B receptor in cultured astrocytes; this finding was confirmed by independent observations showing that fluoxetine loses its ability to elicit SSRI-like responses in behavioral assays in mice in which the 5-HT2B receptor was knocked-out genetically or inhibited pharmacologically. All clinically used SSRIs are approximately equipotent towards 5-HT2B receptors and exert their effect on cultured astrocytes at concentrations similar to those used clinically, a substantial difference from their effect on SERT. We have demonstrated up-regulation and editing of astrocytic genes for ADAR2, the kainate receptor GluK2, cPLA2 and the 5-HT2B receptor itself after chronic treatment of cultures, which do not express SERT and after treatment of mice (expressing SERT) for 2 weeks with fluoxetine, followed by isolation of astrocytic and neuronal cell fractionation. Affected genes were identical in both experimental paradigms. Fluoxetine treatment also altered Ca2+ homeostatic cascades, in a specific way that differs from that seen after treatment with the anti-bipolar drugs carbamazepine, lithium,orvalproic acid. All changes occurred after a lag period similar to what is seen for fluoxetines clinical effects, and some of the genes were altered in the opposite direction by mild chronic inescapable stress, known to cause anhedonia, a component of major depression. In the anhedonic mice these changes were reversed by treatment with SSRIs. PMID:25342944

  15. Phospholipase A2 and protein kinase C contribute to myofilament sensitization to 5-HT in the rabbit mesenteric artery.

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, S J; Sumner, M J; Garland, C J

    1996-01-01

    1. Calcium (Ca2+, 0.1-100 microM) stimulated concentration-dependent contractions in small strips from the rabbit mesenteric artery in which the smooth muscle cells had been permeabilized with Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin. 2. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and phenylephrine, each in the presence of 10 microM guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), concentration-dependently stimulated additional contractions in strips sub-maximally contracted by the presence of a buffered concentration of calcium (0.3 microM). All the additional contraction was abolished with the selective inhibitor of protein kinase C, Ro 31-8220 (10 microM). 3. Quinacrine (10-50 microM), an inhibitor of phospholipase A2, selectively inhibited the sensitization to 5-HT, but did not alter the sensitization to either phenylephrine or GTP. 4. Myofilament sensitization to calcium was mimicked by exogenous arachidonic acid (300 microM, in the presence of indomethacin, miconazole and BW755c) and the stable analogue of arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetrayonic acid (ETYA, 100 microM), and in both cases did not require the additional presence of GTP. Ro 31-8220, but not quinacrine, reduced the sensitization to arachidonic acid by around 30%. 5. These results indicate that G protein-linked myofilament sensitization to calcium in the mesenteric artery that follows the activation of 5-HT receptors, but not alpha 1-receptors, involves phospholipase A2. The sensitization stimulated by each of these different receptors, and a component of the response to arachidonic acid, also appears to involve the activation of protein kinase C. PMID:8866867

  16. Rapid Anxiolytic Effects of a 5-HT4 Receptor Agonist Are Mediated by a Neurogenesis-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Mendez-David, Indira; David, Denis J; Darcet, Flavie; Wu, Melody V; Kerdine-Rmer, Saadia; Gardier, Alain M; Hen, Ren

    2014-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) display a delayed onset of action of several weeks. Past work in naive rats showed that 5-HT4 receptor agonists had rapid effects on depression-related behaviors and on hippocampal neurogenesis. We decided to investigate whether 5-HT4 receptor stimulation was necessary for the effects of SSRIs in a mouse model of anxiety/depression, and whether hippocampal neurogenesis contributed to these effects. Using the mouse corticosterone model of anxiety/depression, we assessed whether chronic treatment with a 5-HT4 receptor agonist (RS67333, 1.5?mg/kg/day) had effects on anxiety- and depression-related behaviors, as well as on hippocampal neurogenesis in comparison with chronic fluoxetine treatment (18?mg/kg/day). Then, using our anxiety/depression model combined with ablation of hippocampal neurogenesis, we investigated whether neurogenesis was necessary for the behavioral effects of subchronic (7 days) or chronic (28 days) RS67333 treatment. We also assessed whether a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist (GR125487, 1?mg/kg/day) could prevent the behavioral and neurogenic effects of fluoxetine. Chronic treatment with RS67333, similar to fluoxetine, induced anxiolytic/antidepressant-like activity and stimulated adult hippocampal neurogenesis, specifically facilitating maturation of newborn neurons. However, unlike fluoxetine, anxiolytic effects of RS67333 were already present after 7 days and did not require hippocampal neurogenesis. Chronic treatment with GR125487 prevented both anxiolytic/antidepressant-like and neurogenic effects of fluoxetine, indicating that 5-HT4 receptor activation is necessary for these effects of SSRIs. 5-HT4 receptor stimulation could represent an innovative and rapid onset therapeutic approach to treat depression with comorbid anxiety. PMID:24287720

  17. Contextual fear conditioning modulates hippocampal AMPA-, GluN1- and serotonin receptor 5-HT1A-containing receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Sase, Sunetra; Stork, Oliver; Lubec, Gert; Li, Lin

    2015-02-01

    Although the roles of AMPAR (?-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor), NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) and 5HT1AR (5-hydroxytryptamine sub type 1A) in contextual fear conditioning (cFC) have been studied, information about receptor-containing complexes (RC) is not available. Moreover, there are no data on membrane or endosomal NMDA-, 5HT1A- or AMPA-RC levels, which would likely be indicative of the trafficking of these receptors. cFC was carried out in C57BL/6j mice and animals were sacrificed in the individual phases and hippocampi were taken for the determination of receptor complex and subunit levels using BN- and SDS-PAGE with subsequent Western blotting. GluA1-4, GluN1 (NMDAR subunit NR1)- and 5HT1A-RC were differentially regulated during the individual phases and differentially regulated in the membrane and endosomal fractions. GluA1-RC levels in the membrane were increased in acquisition, consolidation and retrieval phases; GluA2-RC and GluA3-RC membrane levels were reduced and modulated in early endosomes during these phases. GluA4-RC and GluN1-RC levels as well as their subunits showed the same pattern in the membrane during consolidation while 5HT1A-RC membrane and endosome levels were mainly increased during consolidation and retrieval. Taken together, the results suggest that levels of 5-HT1A-RC, NMDA-RC and AMPA-RC and subunits in membrane and endosomal preparations are paralleling individual phases of cFC. The findings from the current study suggest phase-specific receptor complex and subunit formation and propose that receptor complexes should be examined in parallel with receptor subunits to aid the interpretation of previous work and to design future work on neurotransmitter receptors in memory paradigms. PMID:25264576

  18. The 5-HT2C receptor gene Cys23Ser polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Paddy Kc; Schaik, Ron van; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that the persistent short intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)2C receptor functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism and the duration of IELT in men with LPE. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted in 64 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. All men were genotyped for Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of Cys and Ser variants of 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism were determined. Association between Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotypes and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE were investigated. As a result, the geometric mean, median and natural mean IELT were 25.2, 27.0, 33.9 s, respectively. Of all men, 20.0%, 10.8%, 23.1% and 41.5% ejaculated within 10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-60 s after vaginal penetration. Of the 64 men, the Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotype frequency for the Cys23Ser polymorphism of the 5-HT2C receptor gene was 81% and 19%, respectively. The geometric mean IELT of the wildtypes (Cys/Cys) is significantly lower (22.6 s; 95% CI 18.3-27.8 s) than in male homozygous mutants (Ser/Ser) (40.4 s; 95% CI 20.3-80.4 s) (P = 0.03). It is concluded that Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism is associated with the IELT in men with LPE. Men with Cys/Cys genotype have shorter IELTs than men with Ser/Ser genotypes. PMID:24799636

  19. The 5-HT2C receptor gene Cys23Ser polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Paddy KC; van Schaik, Ron; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that the persistent short intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)2C receptor functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism and the duration of IELT in men with LPE. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted in 64 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. All men were genotyped for Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of Cys and Ser variants of 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism were determined. Association between Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotypes and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE were investigated. As a result, the geometric mean, median and natural mean IELT were 25.2, 27.0, 33.9 s, respectively. Of all men, 20.0%, 10.8%, 23.1% and 41.5% ejaculated within 10, 1020, 2030 and 3060 s after vaginal penetration. Of the 64 men, the Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotype frequency for the Cys23Ser polymorphism of the 5-HT2C receptor gene was 81% and 19%, respectively. The geometric mean IELT of the wildtypes (Cys/Cys) is significantly lower (22.6 s; 95% CI 18.327.8 s) than in male homozygous mutants (Ser/Ser) (40.4 s; 95% CI 20.380.4 s) (P = 0.03). It is concluded that Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism is associated with the IELT in men with LPE. Men with Cys/Cys genotype have shorter IELTs than men with Ser/Ser genotypes. PMID:24799636

  20. Prebiotic administration normalizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety and cortical 5-HT2A receptor and IL1-? levels in male mice.

    PubMed

    Savignac, Helene M; Couch, Yvonne; Stratford, Michael; Bannerman, David M; Tzortzis, George; Anthony, Daniel C; Burnet, Philip W J

    2016-02-01

    The manipulation of the enteric microbiota with specific prebiotics and probiotics, has been shown to reduce the host's inflammatory response, alter brain chemistry, and modulate anxiety behaviour in both rodents and humans. However, the neuro-immune and behavioural effects of prebiotics on sickness behaviour have not been explored. Here, adult male CD1 mice were fed with a specific mix of non-digestible galacto-oligosaccharides (Bimuno, BGOS) for 3weeks, before receiving a single injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which induces sickness behaviour and anxiety. Locomotor and marble burying activities were assessed 4h after LPS injection, and after 24h, anxiety in the light-dark box was assessed. Cytokine expression, and key components of the serotonergic (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and glutamatergic system were evaluated in the frontal cortex to determine the impact of BGOS administration at a molecular level. BGOS-fed mice were less anxious in the light-dark box compared to controls 24h after the LPS injection. Elevated cortical IL-1? concentrations in control mice 28h after LPS were not observed in BGOS-fed animals. This significant BGOSLPS interaction was also observed for 5HT2A receptors, but not for 5HT1A receptors, 5HT, 5HIAA, NMDA receptor subunits, or other cytokines. The intake of BGOS did not influence LPS-mediated reductions in marble burying behaviour, and its effect on locomotor activity was equivocal. Together, our data show that the prebiotic BGOS has an anxiolytic effect, which may be related to the modulation of cortical IL-1? and 5-HT2A receptor expression. Our data suggest a potential role for prebiotics in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders where anxiety and neuroinflammation are prominent clinical features. PMID:26476141

  1. Molecular cloning of a serotonin receptor from human brain (5HT1E): a fifth 5HT1-like subtype.

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, G; Charlesworth, A; Snodin, C; Beer, M S; Noble, A J; Middlemiss, D N; Iversen, L L; Whiting, P

    1992-01-01

    Degenerate primers, suitable for polymerase chain reaction studies and based on the conserved structure of G protein-coupled receptors, were used to isolate cDNA clones encoding putative G protein-coupled receptors from a human hippocampal cDNA library. One clone isolated by this approach (AC1) encoded a putative receptor with 39% amino acid sequence identity to the serotonin 5HT1A receptor and 47% identity to the 5HT1D receptor. When expressed transiently in the human embryonic kidney cell line 293, AC1 cDNA-encoded receptor displayed high affinity (Kd = 15 nM) and saturability for [3H]serotonin, suggesting that AC1 encodes a 5HT1-like receptor. However, 5-carboxamidotryptamine demonstrated low affinity (pKi = 5.15) compared with serotonin (pKi = 8.14), consistent with the observed binding of the putative 5HT1E receptor. The excellent correlation observed between the pharmacology of the expressed receptor encoded by AC1 and the human brain 5HT1E binding site confirms that AC1 encodes a 5HT1E receptor and establishes a fifth 5HT1-like receptor subtype. Images PMID:1608964

  2. Ion permeation and conduction in a human recombinant 5-HT3 receptor subunit (h5-HT3A)

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A M; Hope, A G; Lambert, J J; Peters, J A

    1998-01-01

    A human recombinant homo-oligomeric 5-HT3 receptor (h5-HT3A) expressed in a human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK 293) was characterized using the whole-cell recording configuration of the patch clamp technique. 5-HT evoked transient inward currents (EC50 = 3.4 μm; Hill coefficient = 1.8) that were blocked by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (IC50 = 103 pm) and by the non-selective agents metoclopramide (IC50 = 69 nm), cocaine (IC50 = 459 nm) and (+)-tubocurarine (IC50 = 2.8 μm). 5-HT-induced currents rectified inwardly and reversed in sign (E5-HT) at a potential of −2.2 mV. N-Methyl-d-glucamine was finitely permeant. Permeability ratios PNa/PCs and PNMDG/PCs were 0.90 and 0.083, respectively. Permeability towards divalent cations was assessed from measurements of E5-HT in media where Ca2+ and Mg2+ replaced Na+. PCa/PCs and PMg/PCs were calculated to be 1.00 and 0.61, respectively. Single channel chord conductance (γ) estimated from fluctuation analysis of macroscopic currents increased with membrane hyperpolarization from 243 fS at −40 mV to 742 fS at −100 mV. Reducing [Ca2+]o from 2 to 0.1 mm caused an increase in the whole-cell current evoked by 5-HT. A concomitant reduction in [Mg2+]o produced further potentiation. Fluctuation analysis indicates that a voltage-independent augmentation of γ contributes to this phenomenon. The data indicate that homo-oligomeric receptors composed of h5-HT3A subunits form inwardly rectifying cation-selective ion channels of low conductance that are permeable to Ca2+ and Mg2+. PMID:9508827

  3. Mediation of the antidepressant-like effect of 8-OH-DPAT in mice by postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Luscombe, G. P.; Martin, K. F.; Hutchins, L. J.; Gosden, J.; Heal, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    1. The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) has been evaluated in a mouse model for detecting potential antidepressants (Porsolt test). The effects of various receptor antagonists, lesions of brain monoaminergic neurones and chronic drug treatments on this 8-OH-DPAT-induced response have also been determined. 2. 8-OH-DPAT (0.3-10.0 mg kg-1, s.c.) dose-dependently increased the mobility of mice in the Porsolt test. Other selective 5-HT1A receptor ligands (0.3-30 mg kg-1, s.c.) either mimicked the 8-OH-DPAT response (ipsapirone, at 10 and 30 mg kg-1, s.c.) or were inactive (buspirone and gepirone). However, each of these compounds (< or = 100 mg kg-1, p.o.) inhibited the response to 8-OH-DPAT (3 mg kg-1, s.c.) when given concurrently. 3. The putative 5-HT1A antagonists, spiroxatrine (1-30 mg kg-1, p.o.), (+/-)-pindolol (30 mg kg-1, p.o.) and methiothepin (3-10 mg kg-1, p.o.), each attenuated the 8-OH-DPAT (3 mg kg-1, s.c.)-induced increase in mobility. 4. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH 23390 (3-10 mg kg-1, p.o.), weakly reversed the 8-OH-DPAT response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8467355

  4. A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of the 5-Hydroxytryptamine Transporter Gene-Linked Promoter Region Polymorphism on Susceptibility to Lifelong Premature Ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sheng; Shao, Hongbao; Dai, Feng; Peng, Tao; Qin, Feng; Feng, Ninghan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Premature ejaculation (PE) has been reported as the most common male sexual dysfunction with global prevalence rates estimated at approximately 30%. The neurobiogenesis of ejaculation is very complex and involves the serotoninergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. Recently, genetic polymorphisms located on SLC6A4 gene codifying for 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), the major regulator of serotonic neurotransmission, have been linked with the pathogenesis and risk of PE. Apparently studies of this type of polymorphism in PE have show conflicting results. Methods A meta-analysis was performed that are available in relation with 5-HTT gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism and the risk of lifelong PE (LPE) in men to clarify this relationship. We searched Pubmed and Embase (last search updated on Aug 2012) using premature ejaculation, polymorphism or variant, genotype, ejaculatory function, and rapid ejaculation as keywords and reference lists of studies corresponded to the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. These studies involved the total number of 481 LPE men and 466 health control men subjects. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate this relationship. Results In the overall analysis, significant associations between LPE risk and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were found (L-allele vs. S-allele OR?=?0.86, 95% CI?=?0.790.95, P?=?0.002; LL vs. SS: OR?=?0.80, 95% CI?=?0.680.95, P?=?0.009; LS vs. SS: OR?=?0.85, 95% CI?=?0.760.97, P?=?0.012 and LL+LS vs. SS: OR?=?0.88, 95% CI?=?0.810.95, P?=?0.002). Moreover, in subgroup analysis based on ethnicity, similar significant associations were detected. The Eggers test did not reveal presence of a publication bias. Conclusions Our investigations demonstrate that 5-HTTLPR (L>S) polymorphism might protect men against LPE risk. Further studies based on larger sample size and gene-environment interactions should be conducted the role of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and LPE risk. PMID:23383022

  5. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1A Receptors Inhibit Cold-Induced Sympathetically Mediated Cutaneous Vasoconstriction in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ootsuka, Y; Blessing, W W

    2003-01-01

    5-HT1A receptor agonists lower body temperature. We have investigated whether activation of 5-HT1A receptors inhibits cutaneous sympathetic discharge so that dilatation of the cutaneous vascular bed lowers body temperature by increasing heat transfer to the environment. We measured ear pinna blood flow in conscious rabbits (with chronically implanted Doppler ultrasound flow probes), and postganglionic sympathetic vasomotor nerve activity in anaesthetized rabbits. Recordings from conscious rabbits were made in a cage at 26 C and the rabbit was then transferred to a cage at 10 C. The ear pinna Doppler signal fell from 56 4 cm s?1 in the 26 C cage to 4 1 cm s?1 (P < 0.0001, n = 24) after 30 min in the 10 C cage, and body temperature increased from 38.8 0.2 to 39.0 0.2 C (P < 0.01, n = 24). The 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT; 0.1 mg kg?1 I.V.) reversed the cold-induced fall in ear pinna blood flow (Doppler signal increased from 5 1 to 55 8 cm s?1, P < 0.001, n = 7) within 5 min when administered 30 min after transfer to the 10 C cage, and prevented the fall in ear pinna blood flow when administered before the rabbit was transferred to the 10 C cage. Body temperature decreased after administration of 8-OH-DPAT. These changes were abolished by the specific 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100635 (0.1 mg kg?1 I.V.). In anaesthetized rabbits, 8-OH-DPAT (0.1 mg kg?1 I.V.) reduced resting postganglionic cutaneous sympathetic vasomotor discharge, and prevented the increase normally elicited by cooling the trunk. Our experiments constitute the first demonstration that activation of 5-HT1A receptors powerfully inhibits cold-induced increases in cutaneous sympathetic vasomotor discharge, thereby dilating the cutaneous vascular bed and increasing transfer of heat to the environment. PMID:12909675

  6. Effects of different doses of venlafaxine on serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Blier, Pierre; Saint-Andr, Elise; Hbert, Chantal; de Montigny, Claude; Lavoie, Normand; Debonnel, Guy

    2007-02-01

    Venlafaxine is generally considered to be a dual 5-HT and NE reuptake inhibitor when it is used at doses above 75 mg/d in humans. While its 5-HT reuptake-inhibiting property has been demonstrated, some controversy still exists regarding the doses of venlafaxine required to inhibit NE reuptake. Healthy male volunteers received, on a double-blind basis, paroxetine (20 mg/d), desipramine (100 mg/d), nefazodone (300 mg/d), or venlafaxine (150 or 300 mg/d) in the last 5 d of a 7-d period of administration. Inhibition of 5-HT reuptake was estimated by determining the degree of depletion of whole-blood 5-HT, while that of NE was assessed by measuring the attenuation of the systolic blood pressure increases produced by intravenous injections of tyramine. Paroxetine, both regimens of venlafaxine, and to a lesser extent desipramine significantly decreased whole-blood 5-HT content. Nefazodone failed to produce any significant change. Desipramine abolished the tyramine pressor response, whereas all other drug regimens left this parameter unaltered. Venlafaxine and paroxetine acted as potent 5-HT reuptake inhibitors in the present study. In contrast, neither the moderate nor the high dose of venlafaxine displayed any significant inhibiting activity in this model assessing NE reuptake in peripheral NE terminals. The validity of the model was confirmed by the potent inhibitory action of desipramine on NE reuptake. While the reasons for this unexpected lack of action remain unclear, venlafaxine appeared to be an effective NE reuptake agent in depressed patients using the same approach. PMID:16690005

  7. (1R, 3S)-(?)-Trans-PAT: A novel full-efficacy serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist with 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor inverse agonist/antagonist activity

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Raymond G.; Fang, Lijuan; Huang, Yingsu; Wilczynski, Andrzej; Sivendran, Sashikala

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptors signal primarily through G?q to activate phospholipase C (PLC) and formation of inositol phosphates (IP) and diacylglycerol. The human 5-HT2C receptor, expressed exclusively in the central nervous system, is involved in several physiological and psychological processes. Development of 5-HT2C agonists that do not also activate 5-HT2A or 5-HT2B receptors is challenging because transmembrane domain identity is about 75% among 5-HT2 subtypes. This paper reports 5-HT2 receptor affinity and function of (1R,3S)-(?)-trans-1-phenyl-3-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (PAT), a small molecule that produces anorexia and weight-loss after peripheral administration to mice. (?)-Trans-PAT is a stereoselective full-efficacy agonist at human 5-HT2C receptors, plus, it is a 5-HT2A/5-HT2B inverse agonist and competitive antagonist. The Ki of (?)-trans-PAT at 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors is 410, 1200, and 37 nM, respectively. Functional studies measured activation of PLC/[3H]-IP formation in clonal cells expressing human 5-HT2 receptors. At 5-HT2C receptors, (?)-trans-PAT is an agonist (EC50 = 20 nM) comparable to serotonin in potency and efficacy. At 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors, (?)-trans-PAT is an inverse agonist (IC50 = 490 and 1,000 nM, respectively) and competitive antagonist (KB = 460 and 1400 nM, respectively) of serotonin. Experimental results are interpreted in light of molecular modeling studies indicating the (?)-trans-PAT protonated amine can form an ionic bond with D3.32 of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors, but, not with 5-HT2B receptors. In addition to probing 5-HT2 receptor structure and function, (?)-trans-PAT is a novel lead regarding 5-HT2C agonist/5-HT2A inverse agonist drug development for obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19397907

  8. Differential regulation of rat peripheral 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptor systems: influence of drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Enguix, M J; Snchez, L; Villazn, M; Brea, J; Tristn, H; Caruncho, H J; Cadavid, M I; Loza, M I

    2003-08-01

    Most studies of 5-HT(2) receptor regulation have been carried out on the central nervous system (CNS) (which expresses 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors); very few in vitro studies have addressed the peripheral receptors 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B). The aim of this investigation was to compare the possible short- and long-term processes regulating these peripheral receptors in the rat. The in vitro contractile response elicited by serotonin (5-HT, 10 micro M) in the rat gastric fundus (5-HT(2B) receptor system) was rapid and followed by a partial fade to a steady state, in contrast with the rat thoracic aorta response (5-HT(2A) receptor system), which was more stable, slower and sustained. To characterize drug-receptor interactions, cumulative concentration/response curves (CCRCs) for 5-HT were constructed ex vivo for rat tissues treated with drugs acting at these receptors. Rats were examined 4 or 24 h after a single, i.p. administration of (+/-)1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane [(+/-)DOI, 1 or 2.5 mg/kg], clozapine, cyproheptadine or rauwolscine (10 mg/kg), 48 h after a single i.p. administration of (+/-)DOI (2.5 mg/kg), clozapine or cyproheptadine (10 mg/kg) or 24 h after the last of with 15 daily i.p. administrations of (+/-)DOI (1 or 2.5 mg/kg), clozapine, cyproheptadine or rauwolscine (10 mg/kg). In the aorta, E(max) (the maximum response elicited by 5-HT) was unchanged 4 h after a single dose of any of the drugs tested. However, 24 h after a single dose, E(max) was lower in animals treated with (+/-)DOI (2.5 mg/kg), clozapine or cyproheptadine than in controls, whilst 48 h after a single dose of (+/-)DOI (2.5 mg/kg), clozapine or cyproheptadine there was no difference in E(max) between experimental and control animals. After chronic treatment with (+/-)DOI (2.5 mg/kg), clozapine and cyproheptadine, E(max) was lower than in controls. In the gastric fundus, E(max) 4 h after a single dose of each drug was lower than in controls, and the response recovered by 24 or 48 h. Following chronic treatment, E(max) was significantly lower than in controls for each drug used. These findings suggest first, that regulation of peripheral 5-HT(2) receptors (5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B)) is a functionally significant phenomenon in vivo, and occurs after administration of both agonists and antagonists. Second, the kinetics of peripheral 5-HT(2) receptor regulation were similar in both in vivo and ex vivo experiments. The 5-HT(2B) receptors in rat gastric fundus are more sensitive to drug-induced