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Sample records for 5-year longitudinal follow-up

  1. 5-Year Longitudinal Follow-up after Retropubic and Transobturator Midurethral Slings

    PubMed Central

    Kenton, Kimberly; Stoddard, Anne M.; Zyczynski, Halina; Albo, Michael; Rickey, Leslie; Norton, Peggy; Wai, Clifford; Kraus, Stephen R.; Sirls, Larry T.; Kusek, John W.; Litman, Heather J.; Chang, Robert P.; Richter, Holly E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have characterized longer-term outcomes after retropubic and transobturator midurethral slings. Methods Women completing 2-year participation in a randomized equivalence trial who had not received surgical retreatment for stress urinary incontinence were invited to participate in a 5-year observational cohort. The primary outcome, treatment success, was defined as no retreatment or self-reported stress incontinence symptoms. Secondary outcomes included urinary symptoms and quality of life, satisfaction, sexual function and adverse events. Results 404 of 597 (68%) women from the original trial enrolled. Five-years after surgical treatment, success was 7.9% greater in women assigned to retropubic-sling compared to transobturator-sling (51.3% vs 43.4%, 95% CI −1.4%, 17.2%) not meeting pre-specified criteria for equivalence. Satisfaction decreased over 5-years, but remained high and similar between arms (79%, retropubic-sling vs 85%, transobturator-sling groups, p=0.15). Urinary symptoms and quality of life worsened over time (p<0.001), and women with retropubic-sling reported greater urinary urgency (P=0.001), more negative quality of life impact (p=0.02), and worse sexual function (P=0.001). There was no difference in proportion of women experiencing at least 1 adverse event (p=0.17). Seven new mesh erosions were noted (retropubic-sling-3, transobturator-sling-4). Conclusion Treatment success declined over 5-years for retropubic and transobturator-slings and did not meet pre-specified criteria for equivalence with retropubic demonstrating a slight benefit. However, satisfaction remained high in both arms. Women undergoing transobturator-sling reported more sustained improvement in urinary symptoms and sexual function. New mesh erosions occurred in both arms over time, although at a similarly low rate. PMID:25158274

  2. Asperger Syndrome and Autism: A Comparative Longitudinal Follow-Up Study More than 5 Years after Original Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, I. Carina; Gillberg, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Prospective follow-up study of 70 males with Asperger syndrome (AS), and 70 males with autism more than 5 years after original diagnosis. Instruments used at follow-up included overall clinical assessment, the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders, Wechsler Intelligence Scales, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and Global…

  3. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction: A Longitudinal Study Comparison of 2 Techniques with 2 and 5-Years Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Astur, Diego C; Gouveia, Gustavo B; Borges, José H. de Souza; Astur, Nelson; Arliani, Gustavo G; Kaleka, Camila C; Cohen, Moises

    2015-01-01

    Background : The purpose of this study was to compare the results of two popular surgical techniques for medial patellofemoral ligament MPFL reconstruction with a minimum of two-year follow-up. Methods : Fifty-eight patients with traumatic tear of the medial patellofemoral ligament were included in one of the two surgical groups. Group 1 MPFLs were reconstructed through graft endobutton fixation and Group 2 through graft anchor fixation into the patella. After two to five-year follow-up, patients were asked to answer knee function questionnaires (Fulkerson and Kujala) as well as the SF-36 life quality score. Results : There were no statistical difference among postoperative Kujala, Fulkerson, and SF-36 questionnaires scores between Groups 1 and 2. There were statistical significant differences favorable to patients in Group 1 with a shorter follow-up length (2-5 years) compared to those with a longer period of 5-10 years for both Kujala and Fulkerson scores and no difference for group 2. Conclusion : Both medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction techniques had similar results in a two to ten-year follow-up according to functions and life quality questionnaires. Furthermore, endobutton fixation for the patellar edge of the graft had better results in patients with 2 years of follow-up than those with 5 years. Gender was not significant for surgical results. Moreover, group 1 patients had higher number of complications. PMID:26161157

  4. Longitudinal analysis of citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (anti-CP) during 5 year follow up in early rheumatoid arthritis: anti-CP status predicts worse disease activity and greater radiological progression

    PubMed Central

    Ronnelid, J; Wick, M; Lampa, J; Lindblad, S; Nordmark, B; Klareskog, L; van Vollenhoven, R F

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study serum levels of citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (anti-CP) during up to 5 years' follow up of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to relate serum levels to disease course and to treatments in clinical practice. Methods: 279 patients with early RA were followed up with clinical investigations, radiographs, and measurement of anti-CP at baseline and after 3 months, 1, 2, 3, and 5 years. Results: 160/279 (57.3%) patients were anti-CP positive at the first visit (mean 5 months after first symptoms). During follow up only 11/279 (3.9%) of the patients changed their anti-CP status. Anti-CP levels fell significantly during the first year, and this drop correlated with the extent of sulfasalazine treatment but not with other drugs or clinical indices. Anti-CP positive and negative patients had similar disease activities at baseline, but during follow up the anti-CP positive patients had worse clinical disease and greater radiological progression, despite at least equally intensive antirheumatic treatment. Conclusions: Anti-CP are stable during the first 5 years of RA, suggesting that events before rather than after onset of clinical manifestations of disease determine this phenotype. The presence of anti-CP at diagnosis predicts a less favourable disease course and greater radiological progression despite antirheumatic treatment, but subsequent changes in antibody levels do not reflect changes in disease activity. Taken together, these observations suggest that anti-CP positive RA is a distinct clinical and pathophysiological entity. PMID:15843452

  5. Long-term Follow-up of Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in Osteoporotic Compression Fracture: Minimum of 5 Years Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hwan; Yoo, Si Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Study Design This was designed as a retrospective study. Purpose We assessed the radiographic and clinical outcome of patients who underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) in osteoporotic compression fractures with a minimum of 5 years follow-up. Overview of Literature Percutaneous vertebroplasty is effective surgical method for treating osteoporotic compression fracture. Methods Between January 2000 and August 2005, 159 patients were treated with PVP for osteoporotic compression fracture at our department; 43 patients died during follow-up, and 69 patients (121 vertebras) were available for follow-up for over 5 years. We analyzed the clinical and radiologic outcome including cement feature. Results The mean follow-up period was 5.7 years. Clinical outcome by mean visual analogue scale (VAS) score revealed a decreased 4.9 points perioperatively. A decreased score was maintained over 5 years in 46% of patients. A new adjacent vertebral fracture was documented by 33 vertebral bodies in 22 patients. During the follow-up period, 43 patients (38%) in 112 patients died. Anterior body heig ht in the last follow-up was improved about 0.3 mm compared with the preprocedural value, but was not statistically significant. Also, the focal kyphotic angle was reduced from 12.3° at the preprocedural state to 11.7° at the postprocedural state, but was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions PVP for osteoporotic compression fracture is an efficient procedure for pain relief by long term follow-up. The cement injected vertebrae showed stable radiologic progression without significant changes in vertebral height or kyphotic angle. PMID:22439082

  6. Predictors of ADHD Persistence in Girls at 5-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Byrne, Deirdre; Fried, Ronna; Monuteaux, Michael; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to examine the age-dependent remission from ADHD in girls transitioning through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood. Method: We conducted a 5-year prospective follow-up study of 123 girls with ADHD and 106 non-ADHD control girls aged between 6 and 17 years at ascertainment. ADHD was considered…

  7. The Treatment of Parasomnias with Hypnosis: a 5-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hauri, Peter J.; Silber, Michael H.; Boeve, Bradley F.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study involves a replication and extension of a previous one reported by Hurwitz et al (1991) on the treatment of certain parasomnias with hypnosis. Methods: Thirty-six patients (17 females), mean age 32.7 years (range 6–71). Four were children aged 6 to 16. All had chronic, “functionally autonomous” (self-sustaining) parasomnias. All underwent 1 or 2 hypnotherapy sessions and were then followed by questionnaire for 5 years. Results: Of the 36 patients, 45.4% were symptom-free or at least much improved at the 1-month follow-up, 42.2% at the 18-month follow-up, and 40.5% at the 5-year follow-up. Conclusions: One or 2 sessions of hypnotherapy might be an efficient first-line therapy for patients with certain types of parasomnias. Citation: Hauri PJ; Silber MH; Boeve BF. The treatment of parasomnias with hypnosis: a 5-year follow-up study. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(4):369-373. PMID:17694725

  8. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively. PMID:27608606

  9. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively. PMID:27608606

  10. Stability of Pediatric Migraine Subtype After a 5-year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Cuvellier, Jean-Christophe; Tourte, Mathilde; Lucas, Christian; Vallée, Louis

    2016-08-01

    The study assessed the 5-year follow-up outcome and possible prognostic factors of migraine subtypes with onset in childhood or adolescence. A total of 343 patients meeting the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-II criteria for migraine without aura (MO), migraine with aura (MA), or both MO+MA (ie, 1.1, 1.2) were contacted by phone and underwent structured follow-up headache interviews. Of the original sample patients, 22.7% were headache-free at follow-up, 14.1% had a transformed headache diagnosis (tension-type headache: 8.2%, chronic daily headache: 5.8%), and 63.3% still had migraine fulfilling the criteria for ICHD-II 1.1. or 1.2, but those who were still migraineurs at follow-up were older at baseline (respectively 12.93, 9.99, and 11.02 years for MO, MA and MO+MA, P = .0005). The probability of having the same migraine subtype diagnosis at baseline and at 5-year follow-up was 55.2%, 95.1%, and 31.1% for ICHD-II 1.1, 1.2, and both 1.1 and 1.2, respectively. PMID:27071466

  11. Clinical treatment of a ruptured temporomandibular joint disc: morphological changes at 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, Lucas; Porto, Felipe; Agarwal, Sachin; Grossman, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthrosis is a disease that affects the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). This case report chronicles the diagnosis and treatment of a patient for whom this pathological condition was accompanied by a rupture of the articular disc. The patient presented with loud sounds in the left TMJ and an irregular mandibular occlusal plane due to condylar intrusion in the glenoid fossa on the ipsilateral side. A noninvasive treatment was selected. A 4-month follow-up revealed remission of the articular sounds, and tissue regeneration was noted. These improvements remained visible at 5-year follow-up. PMID:24598507

  12. Clinical Case Report on Treatment of Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis: 5-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai-Fang; Ho, Ya-Ping; Ho, Kun-Yen; Wu, Yi-Min; Wang, Wen-Chen; Chou, Yu-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) is a distinct type of periodontal disease associated with considerably more rapid periodontal tissue destruction than chronic periodontitis. This study presents the 5-year follow-up of a patient with GAgP. A 29-year-old man reported experiencing increasing gingival recession. He was treated using cause-related therapy, provisional splints, and flap surgery combined with allograft grafting and was followed up for 5 years. This case study shows that elimination of infectious microorganisms and meticulous long-term maintenance provide an effective treatment modality for aggressive periodontitis cases. This treatment modality can restore the masticatory function and provide the GAgP patient with improved quality of life. PMID:25909527

  13. Angiomyolipoma of donor kidney: Successful transplantation and 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, N.; Dhanapriya, J.; Sakthirajan, R.; Dineshkumar, T.; Balasubramaniyan, T.; Haris, Md.

    2016-01-01

    Angiomyolipomas (AML) of the kidney are non-encapsulated benign neoplasms with the incidence of 45-80% in patients with tuberous sclerosis and 1-3% in sporadic cases. There are very few case reports in the literature in which kidneys with AML have been used for transplantation. We report here a 27-year-old female patient who received a live related renal transplant from her mother with isolated angiomyolipoma in donor kidney and on follow-up after 5 years, has stable graft function and tumor size. PMID:27051138

  14. Bilateral renal leiomyoma with 5 year follow-up: Case report.

    PubMed

    Goren, Mehmet Resit; Erbay, Gurcan; Ozer, Cevahir; Goren, Vinil; Bal, Nebil

    2015-01-01

    Renal leiomyomas are exceptionally rare benign tumours of the kidney. Although the renal leiomyomas usually do not metastasize, the differential diagnosis between renal leiomyomas and malign lesions (leiomyosarcoma or renal cell carcinoma) cannot be done by radiological examinations, but is possible by histological examination. Surgery is the preferred treatment. After surgery, the prognosis is excellent without recurrence. Although uterine leiomyomas can be multicentric, renal leiomyomas have been single lesions. We report an incidentally detected case of bilateral renal leiomyoma in a 50-year-old woman with a 5-year follow-up. We also review the literature and discuss clinical, radiological and histological features of renal leiomyomas. PMID:26664510

  15. Changes in Exercise Capacity of Cardiac Asymptomatic Hereditary Hemochromatosis Subjects over 5-Year Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Smith, Kevin P.; Tripodi, Dorothy J.; Arena, Ross; Yau, Yu-Ying; Bolan, Charles D.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Leitman, Susan F.; Rosing, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A long-term effect of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) on aerobic exercise capacity (AEC) has not been well described. Design Forty-three HH and 21 volunteer control (VC) subjects who were asymptomatic underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing using the Bruce protocol. AEC was assessed with minute ventilation (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) at baseline (BL) at a 5-year follow up (5Y) assessment. A paired t-test was used for analyses of normality data; otherwise, a Wilcoxon singed rank sum test was used. Results Thirty-three HH subjects and 18 VC subjects returned for a repeat CPX at 5Y (80% overall return rate). At 5Y, AEC was not different between the two groups. As compared with BL measurements, exercise time, peak VO2, and the VE/VCO2 slope did not differ statistically at 5Y between both groups. Iron depletion by phlebotomy for 5 years did not significantly affect AEC in newly diagnosed HH subjects at baseline (n=14) and cardiac arrhythmias during exercise tended to decrease after 5 years of therapy in this group. Conclusions The AEC of asymptomatic HH subjects treated with conventional therapy is not statistically affected by the disease over a 5-year period. PMID:22311055

  16. Meningitis in infancy in England and Wales: follow up at age 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, Helen; de Louvois, John; Halket, Susan; Peckham, Catherine; Hurley, Rosalinde; Harvey, David

    2001-01-01

    Objective To describe important sequelae occurring among a cohort of children aged 5 years who had had meningitis during the first year of life and who had been identified by a prospective national study of meningitis in infancy in England and Wales between 1985 and 1987. Design Follow up questionnaires asking about the children's health and development were sent to general practitioners and parents of the children and to parents of matched controls. The organism that caused the infection and age at infection were also recorded. Setting England and Wales. Participants General practitioners and parents of children who had had meningitis before the age of 1 year and of matched controls. Main outcome measures The prevalence of health and developmental problems and overall disability among children who had had meningitis compared with controls. Results Altogether, 1584 of 1717 (92.2%) children who had had meningitis and 1391 of 1485 (93.6%) controls were successfully followed up. Among children who survived to age 5 years 247 of 1584 (15.6%) had a disability; there was a 10-fold increase in the risk of severe or moderate disability at 5 years of age among children who had had meningitis (relative risk 10.3, 95% confidence interval 6.7 to 16.0, P<0.001). There was considerable variation in the rates of severe or moderate disability in children infected with different organisms. Conclusion The long term consequences of having meningitis during the first year of life are significant: 32 of 1717 (1.8%) children died within five years. Not only did almost a fifth of children with meningitis have a permanent, severe or moderately severe disability, but subtle deficits were also more prevalent. What is already known on this topicMeningitis in infancy is associated with important long term consequencesThere is considerable variation in outcome depending on which organism caused the infectionWhat this study addsThis follow up study of 1717 children who had meningitis in infancy

  17. Ranibizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Cvetkova, Nadezhda P; Hölldobler, Kristina; Prahs, Philipp; Radeck, Viola; Helbig, Horst; Märker, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Our aim was to evaluate an optical coherence tomography (OCT) and visual acuity (VA)-guided, variable-dosing regimen with intravitreal ranibizumab injection for treating patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) from 2007 to 2012. Design This was a retrospective clinical study of 5 years follow-up in a tertiary eye center. Patients and methods In this study, 66 patients with neovascular AMD (mean age of 74 years, SD 8.7 years) were included. We investigated the development of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), the number of intravitreal injections, and the central retinal thickness measured with OCT (OCT Spectralis) over 5 years of intravitreal treatment. Results The mean number of intravitreal ranibizumab injections over 5 years was 8.8. The mean BCVA before therapy was 0.4 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR). After 5 years of therapy, the mean BCVA was 0.6 logMAR. In all, 16% of treated patients had stable VA over 5 years and 10% of study eyes approved their VA. The mean OCT-measured central retinal thickness at the beginning of this study was 295 µm; after 5 years of treatment, the mean central retinal thickness was 315 µm. There was an increase in central retinal thickness in 47.5% of examined eyes. Conclusion Other studies showed VA improvement in OCT-guided variable-dosing regimens. Our study revealed a moderate decrease in VA after a total mean injection number as low as 8.8 injections over 5 years. In OCT, an increase in central retinal thickness over 5 years could be observed. Probably, this is due to deficient treatment when comparing the total injection number to other treatment regimens. Anti-VEGF therapy helps to keep the VA stable for a period of time, but cannot totally stop the progression of the disease completely. Patients with late stages of neovascular AMD can maintain VA even if they are relatively undertreated. PMID:27354758

  18. 5 Years review of periocular basal cell carcinoma and proposed follow-up protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ho, S F; Brown, L; Bamford, M; Sampath, R; Burns, J

    2013-01-01

    Aim (1) To investigate the recurrence of periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) reported as completely excised on histology. (2) To identify risks associated with recurrence. (3) To recommend a rational follow-up protocol. Methods This is a cohort study by case note review of consecutive patients undergoing excision of periocular BCC between 2000 and 2006 at University Hospitals of Leicester. All lesions were excised with 3 mm clinical margin and the defect reconstructed only after the excision margin was declared clear. Results A total of 413 episodes of surgical excision were recorded for 270 patients over the 7-year period of 2000–2006. All of them have 5 years follow-up. Mean age 73.7 (±12.5). In all, 67% were nodular BCC and 45.4% located in the lower eyelid. The main outcome measure was the recurrence rate. None of the patients with primary nodular BCC suffered recurrence. The recurrence rate for primary morphoeaform BCC following complete excision is 3.8%. In total, 8.1% of patients had several lesions simultaneously whereas 7.8% patients had BCC in multiple locations subsequently (metachronous). Three patients who had previously recurrent BCC (rBCC) treated elsewhere or not using this method had orbital/lacrimal drainage system involvement requiring exenteration. Conclusion We recommend that patients with a single, completely excised primary solid or nodular BCC can be discharged after one 6-monthly review, although they should be instructed to monitor for the development of further lesions. The incidence of recurrence for primary morphoeaform BCC is 3.8% and for rBCC is 3.6% over 5 years and these patients should stay under review for this period. PMID:23154501

  19. A 5-year follow-up study of an atypical case of myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Macniven, J A B; Graham, N L; Davies, R R; Wilson, B A

    2005-12-20

    This study presents 5-year follow-up data on NG, a woman with adult onset myotonic dystrophy and progressive cognitive decline who was first described by Wilson et al. The extent of the cognitive impairment is atypical of symptom-onset in adulthood and of paternal inheritance, both of which apply to this case. Together, the present and earlier studies report the results of regular neuropsychological assessments over a 16-year period. Severe impairment in executive functioning, episodic and semantic memory were apparent early in the history, while visuospatial skills and working memory were only mildly impaired after 16 years of follow-up. There was also a progressive dyslexia, initially characterized by the regularization errors typical of surface dyslexia, but subsequently dominated by visual/phonological reading errors. This pattern of impairment is not typical of myotonic dystrophy but resembles semantic dementia. Whilst the deficits may be attributable wholly to myotonic dystrophy pathology, the co-existence of a form of semantic dementia is also possible. It is noted that the aggregation of tau protein is a neuropathological feature common to both diseases. PMID:16286337

  20. Hyperpigmented Torpedo Maculopathy with Pseudo-Lacuna: A 5-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Rohl, Austin; Vance, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to describe a case of globally hyperpigmented torpedo maculopathy that also contained a novel central lesion resembling a ‘pseudo-lacuna’. We compare the morphology of the lesion after 5 years of follow-up. Case Presentation An asymptomatic 10-year-old Caucasian male was referred by his optometrist after having found a hyperpigmented lesion on routine dilated examination in 2010. Color fundus photography OS from October 2015 showed a 1.74 × 0.67 mm hyperpigmented oval-shaped lesion temporal to the macula. Since June 2010, the hyperpigmented torpedo lesion appeared to have assumed a more ovoid shape and increased in size in the vertical axis. Centrally, there was a small pearlescent-colored pseudo-lacuna lesion that seemed to also have significantly increased in size since June 2010. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of this pseudo-lacuna showed retinal pigment epithelium clumping and migration. Fundus autofluorescence revealed reduced autofluorescence of the torpedo lesion and marked hyperautofluorescence of the pseudo-lacuna. Fluorescein angiography shows no neovascular disease or leakage. Conclusion Torpedo maculopathy has been described previously as a hypopigmented, nonprogressive lesion of unknown etiology. The findings of global hyperpigmentation, pseudo-lacuna formation, and morphologic changes over time in this lesion challenge these classically held descriptions, and necessitate long-term follow-up with multimodal imaging. PMID:27462244

  1. An implantable neuroprosthesis for standing and walking in paraplegia: 5-year patient follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiraud, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Koch, Klaus Peter; Divoux, Jean-Louis; Rabischong, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of a 5-year patient follow-up after implantation of an original neuroprosthesis. The system is able to stimulate both epimysial and neural electrodes in such a way that the complete flexor-extensor chain of the lower limb can be activated without using the withdrawal reflex. We demonstrate that standing and assisted walking are possible, and the results have remained stable for 5 years. Nevertheless, some problems were noted, particularly regarding the muscle response on the epimysial channels. Analysis of the electrical behaviour and thresholds indicated that the surgical phase is crucial because of the sensitivity of the functional responses to electrode placement. Neural stimulation proved to be more efficient and more stable over time. This mode requires less energy and provides more selective stimulation. This FES system can be improved to enable balanced standing and less fatiguing gait, but this will require feedback on event detection to trigger transitions between stimulation sequences, as well as feedback to the patient about the state of his lower limbs.

  2. A 5-Year Follow-up Study on the Relationship between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Jau-Jiuan; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Lin, Herng-Ching; Kao, Li-Ting; Chung, Shiu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: Sleep disturbances are among the most common nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson disease. However, no large epidemiological data regarding the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Parkinson disease have been reported. The goal of this study was to investigate the risk for Parkinson disease during a 5-y follow-up period after a diagnosis of OSA using a population-based dataset. Methods: The data for this retrospective longitudinal cohort study were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. We identified 1,532 patients with OSA as the study cohort and randomly selected 7,660 patients as the comparison cohort. Each subject was individually followed up for a 5-y period to identify those in whom Parkinson disease subsequently developed. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed as a means of comparing the 5-y risk of subsequent Parkinson disease between the study cohort and comparison cohort. Results: Of the 9,192 total patients, Parkinson disease developed in 0.73% during the 5-y follow-up period: 1.24% and 0.63% in the OSA and control cohorts, respectively. After censoring patients who died during the follow-up period and adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, the hazard ratio (HR) of Parkinson disease during the 5-y follow-up period for patients with OSA was 2.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32–3.88) compared with comparison patients. In addition, among females, the adjusted HR of Parkinson disease was 3.54 (95% CI = 1.50–8.34) for patients with OSA compared to patients without OSA. However, among males, there was no significantly increased hazard of Parkinson disease for patients with OSA compared to those without OSA. Conclusions: Female patients with OSA were found to be at a significant risk of subsequent Parkinson disease during a 5-y follow-up period. Citation: Sheu JJ, Lee HC, Lin HC, Kao LT, Chung SD. A 5-year follow-up study on the relationship between

  3. Survivorship after Arthroscopic Management of Glenohumeral Osteoarthritis with a Minimum 5 year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Justin; Horan, Marilee P.; Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Menge, Travis; Tahal, Dimitri S.; Millett, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We previously reported clinical improvement and pain relief following arthroscopic management of glenohumeral osteoarthritis (GHOA) at 2 years. The purpose of this study was to determine 5 year survivorship for the comprehensive arthroscopic management (CAM) procedure for the treatment of GHOA. Methods: This study had prior IRB approval. The CAM procedure was performed on a consecutive series of 42 young patients (44 shoulders) with GHOA who otherwise met criteria for shoulder arthroplasty but instead opted for joint preservation. The procedure included glenohumeral chondroplasty, capsular release, and synovectomy, humeral osteoplasty, axillary nerve neurolysis, subacromial decompression, loose body removal, microfracture and biceps tenodesis. Only patients who were a minimum of 5 years out from surgery were included in the study. Patients completed a subjective questionnaire, and further surgical intervention of the index shoulder was noted for survivorship analysis. Failure was defined as progression to TSA. Kaplan Meier survivorship analysis was performed. Results: Forty-two patients (with 44 shoulders) underwent a CAM procedure between 1/2006-12/2009 and were included. All patients were self-described recreational athletes. Seven patients were former collegiate or professional athletes. Mean follow-up was 5.9 years (range, 5 years to 8.1 years). Mean age at surgery was 52 (range 27- 68) years old in 13 women and 29 men. Eleven shoulders (26%) failed and progressed to TSA at a mean of 2.9 years (1.0-5.4 years). Shoulder status (progression to TSA or not) at minimum 5 years (range 5.3 - 9.4 years) was known for 95% (42/44). One patient progressed to another surgery for stiffness at a mean of 5.6 months and another patient underwent a revision CAM procedure at 7.9 years. From this cohort, Kaplan Meier survivorship was 92% at 1 year, 85.7% at 3 years, and 75.3% survivorship at 5 years. Conclusion: The long term durability of arthroscopic management for

  4. Natural course of LGI1 encephalitis: 3-5 years of follow-up without immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Szots, Monika; Marton, Annamaria; Kover, Ferenc; Kiss, Tunde; Berki, Timea; Nagy, Ferenc; Illes, Zsolt

    2014-08-15

    Antibodies against LGI1 (leucin-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein) are associated with limbic encephalitis (LE), which is characterized by a favorable outcome following immunotherapy. Here, we present two cases, where antibodies against LGI1 were detected in the sera 36 and 53 months after acute LE, respectively, and none of the patients received immunotherapy. LE showed characteristics of LGI1 encephalitis in both cases, including low sodium content in the sera; disorientation, hallucination, short-term memory loss; and epileptic seizures. One patient had faciobrachial tonic seizures. MRI indicated bilateral inflammation of the hippocampus in one case. We reviewed longitudinal clinical and MRI data covering 53 and 36 months after LE without immunotherapy, respectively. Both patients became seizure-free and spontaneously recovered with mild/moderate cognitive impairment. No relapses have been observed. Follow-up brain MRI indicated early hippocampal sclerosis and global brain atrophy in one case characterized by more pronounced cognitive deficit. Memory and verbal fluency were affected most during the natural course of LGI1 encephalitis. LGI1 encephalitis had a monophasic course and spontaneously improved, suggesting that a relatively benign natural course may contribute to the favorable outcome observed after immunotherapy. Our data also indicate that LGI1 antibodies can be present in the sera without clinical disease activity. PMID:24928080

  5. QTC TENDENCY IN PACEMAKER DEPENDENT PATIENTS - PROGNOSTIC MEANING OF LONG QTC DURING 5 YEAR FOLLOW UP.

    PubMed

    Tsetskhladze, E; Khintibidze, I

    2016-04-01

    Prolongation of ventricular repolarization, which is represented by QTc prolongation on the standard ECG can be considered as increased risk for fatal arrhythmia. However, in pacemaker dependency (with ventricular pacing from the right apex) Ventricular Pacemaker causes abnormal steps of ventricular activation and therefore widens QRS complex and alters ventricular repolarization. It is still questionable whether QTc prolongation in right ventricular-paced patients is associated with increased risk of fatal arrhythmia or other cardiac complications. The other important question is whether the pacemaker dependent patient with long QTc interval may safely receive medications with known potential to prolong ventricular repolarization. The aim of the study was to determine whether QTc prolongation in VP (ventricular pacemaker) patients is associated with increased risk of fatal arrhythmia or other cardiac complications and whether these patients can safely receive medications with known potential to prolong ventricular repolarization. The study is based on retrospective analysis of the QTc interval prior and after pacemaker insertion; dynamic changes of QTc interval and possible influence of the medications, with known potential to prolong ventricular repolarization. Study population consisted 76 patients with narrow native QRS complexes and QTcF/QTcB <500 ms for both male and female patients. QTc prolongation in VP patients most likely does not represent true repolarization abnormalities and is not associated with risk of fatal arrhythmia. While analysis of group receiving medications with known potency of QTc increase we found no additional tendency of QTc increase. Based on our data receiving the medications with known potency of QTc prolongation in VP patients should be considered as safe approach. Long-term follow up data (5 years) assessed retrospectively shows that in patients with widened QRS after VP are at increased risk of development of HF and HF

  6. Maintenance pharmacotherapy for recurrent major depressive disorder: 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Holma, Irina A K; Holma, K Mikael; Melartin, Tarja K; Isometsä, Erkki T

    2008-08-01

    Practice guidelines endorse maintenance antidepressant treatment for recurrent major depressive disorder. In the Vantaa Depression Study, we followed 218 psychiatric patients with major depressive disorder for up to 5 years with a life-chart. Of these patients, 86 (39.4%) had more than three lifetime episodes and an indication for maintenance pharmacotherapy. However, of these, only 57% received treatment and only for 16% of the time indicated. Good adherence to pharmacotherapy in the acute phase independently predicted maintenance treatment. The tertiary preventive impact of maintenance treatment may remain limited, as many patients with major depressive disorder either do not receive it, or receive it for too short a period. PMID:18670005

  7. Advancing Health and Environmental Disease Tracking: A 5-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Litt, Jill S.; Wismann, Andrea; Resnick, Beth; Dawson, Rebecca Smullin; Hano, Mary; Burke, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. Our goal was to gain an understanding of the extent to which environmental public health tracking (EPHT) has progressed since the release of the 2000 Pew Environmental Health Commission report examining the nation’s EPHT infrastructure. Methods. As a follow-up to the Pew Commission report, we conducted a telephone survey of state practitioners in an effort to assess EPHT trends and changes in state-level capacities and activities over the past several years. Results. We found that new and enhanced federal–state partnerships; improved surveillance, data analysis, and communication capacities; and enhanced support of tracking personnel have provided a foundation for progress in the area of EPHT. Also, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s support of EPHT has strengthened the national environmental public health infrastructure and capacity to track environmental hazards, exposures, and health. Conclusions. Improved funding, data access, and translation of data to prevention activities are critical to sustaining progress in EPHT and developing the evidence base necessary for assessing the longer-term impacts and efficacy of EPHT and related environmental health improvements. PMID:17267714

  8. Bilateral, tumorlike diabetic mastopathy-progression and regression of the disease during 5-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Bayer, U; Horn, L C; Schulz, H G

    1998-02-01

    Diabetic mastopathy is a recently described collection of radiographical and histological features found in dense fibrous masses of the breast in long standing Type I diabetes. We describe the first case of bilateral disease with the alternate progression and regression of the disease over a 5 year period. A 45-year-old woman has been affected of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) for 21 years. She developed palpable mass retromamillar of the right side, indistinguishable radiographically from cancer. The histology showed a diabetic mastopathy (DMP) with B-lymphocytic ductitis and lobulitis, a discrete monocellular vasculitis and a keloid-like fibrosis. After 22 months she developed a suspicious palpable mass contralateral on the left side. The FNAB presented an identical morphology on histology. Additionally 10 months later there were no palpable masses of both mammae. Mammographically no suspect alterations were observed. One year later the clinical and mammographical examination showed similar findings, mentioned before. The pathogenesis is still obscure and includes the hypothesis of extracellular accumulation, secondary to prolonged hyperglycemia in IDDM, production of alternated non-enzymatic glycosylated end products with neoantigen formation, B cell predominant inflammation with autoimmune response against neoantigens and cytokine release secondary to the autoimmune response. PMID:9587750

  9. Treatment of Class II Division 2 Malocclusion Using the Forsus Fatigue Resistance Device and 5-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Atik, Ezgi; Kocadereli, Ilken

    2016-01-01

    This case report presents the treatment of a 14-year-and-8-month-old boy with Class II division 2 mandibular retrusion, severe deep bite, and concave profile. The Forsus fatigue resistance device (FRD) was effective in correcting both skeletal and dental parameters. At 5-year posttreatment follow-up, the teeth were well aligned and the occlusion was stable. FRD application with appropriate treatment time can result with prominent changes in the facial profile and dentition, and the outcomes can be maintained at the long-term follow-up periods. PMID:27034855

  10. Efficacy of three treatment protocols for adolescents with social anxiety disorder: a 5-year follow-up assessment.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin; Olivares, Jose; Beidel, Deborah; Albano, Anne-Marie; Turner, Samuel; Rosa, Ana I

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported long-term follow-up data in adults and even fewer in adolescents. The purpose of this work is to report on the longest follow-up assessment in the literature on treatments for adolescents with social phobia. A 5-year follow-up assessment was conducted with subjects who originally received either Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents (CBGT-A), Social Effectiveness Therapy for Adolescents--Spanish version (SET-Asv), or Intervención en Adolescentes con Fobia Social--Treatment for Adolescents with Social Phobia (IAFS) in a controlled clinical trial. Twenty-three subjects completing the treatment conditions were available for the 5-year follow-up. Results demonstrate that subjects treated either with CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS continued to maintain their gains after treatments were terminated. Either the CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS can provide lasting effects to the majority of adolescents with social anxiety. Issues that may contribute to future research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:16464703

  11. Total Knee Arthroplasty Using a Posterior Cruciate Ligament Sacrificing Medial Pivot Knee: Minimum 5-year Follow-up Results

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Seon-Ho; Cho, Hye-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate minimum 5-year follow-up clinical and radiological results of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using a posterior cruciate ligament sacrificing (PS), non-substituting Advance Medial Pivot Knee. Materials and Methods One hundred and twenty knees in 80 patients who could be followed up for more than 5 years after TKA using the PS Advance Medial Pivot Knee were evaluated retrospectively. The evaluations included the preoperative and postoperative range of motion (ROM), tibiofemoral angle, Knee Society (KS) knee and function scores, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) score. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. Results The ROM increased from a preoperative mean flexion contracture of 7.6° and further flexion of 115.1° to a postoperative mean flexion contracture of 1.5° and further flexion of 120.5°. The tibiofemoral angle was changed from 4.6° varus preoperatively to 5.8° valgus postoperatively. The KS knee and function scores as well as WOMAC score significantly improved after surgery (p<0.05). Complications developed in 4 cases (3.3%): 2 cases of periprosthetic patellar fracture (1.7%) and 2 cases of aseptic loosening (1.7%). The seven-year survival rate was 98.1% in the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Conclusions The minimum 5-year follow-up results of TKA using the PS Medial Pivot Knee were satisfactory. PMID:25229042

  12. Retrospective hospital-based analysis of age-related macular degeneration patterns in India: 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Sudhalkar, Aditya; Sethi, Vaibhav; Gogte, Priyanka; Bondalapati, Sailaja; Khodani, Mitali; Chhablani, Jay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a detailed analysis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with a 5-year follow-up at a Tertiary Eye Care Center in India. Methods: In this retrospective institutional study, 408 eyes of 204 subjects (100 males) with a diagnosis of AMD with minimum 5-year follow-up were included. Data collected included demographics, details of the ocular exam, special investigations performed, treatment offered, complications, and systemic diseases, if any. Results: The median age was 74.24 ± 8.23 years. Median follow-up was 5.77 years. The visual acuity (VA) at baseline and last visit was 0.74 ± 0.12 (Snellen's equivalent 20/100) and 0.54 ± 0.12 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (Snellen's equivalent 20/50; P = 0.032) in patients with choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM). The most common complaint was decreased vision (94.5%). AMD (any stage) was found to be bilateral in 93% of patients at baseline and 197 patients (96.56%) at 5 years. Seventeen eyes had active CNVM (12 of these were occult) at presentation. At baseline, 43 eyes had a disciform scar. Three hundred twenty-one eyes had dry AMD at baseline (geographic atrophy - 12 [3.7%] eyes). Five-year conversion rate into wet AMD and geographic atrophy was 2.87% and 3.12%. Median number of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections administered per patient was 2.8 ± 1.2. CNVM bilaterality was low (7.5%). Conclusion: Patients with AMD in India presented later in the course of the disease. Bilateral advanced AMD and geographic atrophy were uncommon. Five-year conversion rate into wet AMD and geographic atrophy was 2.87% and 3.12%. PMID:26862094

  13. No superiority of cemented metal-on-metal vs metal-on-polyethylene THA at 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Zijlstra, Wierd P; Cheung, John; Sietsma, Maurits S; van Raay, Jos Jam; Deutman, Robert

    2009-07-01

    A randomized controlled trial was performed to compare the cemented Stanmore metal-on-metal (Biomet, Warsaw, Indiana) total hip arthroplasty (THA; 102 hips) to the cemented Stanmore metal-on-polyethylene (Biomet) THA (98 hips). The primary outcome was clinical performance. Radiological performance, serum cobalt analysis, and prosthetic survival were secondary outcome measures. At a mean follow-up of 5.6 years, 5 patients were lost to follow-up, 18 died, and 4 were revised (3 metal-on- metal, 1 metal-on-polyethylene). Harris Hip Scores improved from 48 to 90 in the metal-on-metal patients (P<.001) and from 46 to 87 in the metal-on-polyethylene patients (P<.001). Oxford Hip Scores changed from 40 to 19 in the metal-on-metal group (P<.001) and from 40 to 18 in the metal-on-polyethylene group (P<.001). For both Harris and Oxford Hip Scores, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. Five-year survival with revision for any reason was 97% (95% CI 93%-100%) in the metal-on-metal group and 99% (95% CI 97%-100%) in the metal-on-polyethylene group. All revisions were indicated for aseptic loosening (metal-on-metal: 3 cup revisions; metal-on-polyethylene: 1 total revision). At 5-year follow-up, cemented metal-on-metal THA showed no clinical superiority over metal-on-polyethylene THA. PMID:19634856

  14. Effects of a Randomized Reading Intervention Study Aimed at 9-Year-Olds: A 5-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2016-05-01

    The present paper reports on a 5-year follow-up of a randomized reading intervention in grade 3 in Sweden. An intervention group (n = 57) received daily training for 12 weeks in phoneme/grapheme mapping, reading comprehension and reading speed, whereas a control group (n = 55) participated in ordinary classroom activities. The main aim was to investigate if there were remaining effects of the intervention on reading-related skills. Previous analyses showed that the intervention group performed significantly better than the control group on spelling, reading speed, reading comprehension and phoneme awareness at the immediate post-test with sustained effects 1 year later. Results from the 5-year follow-up show that the only significant difference between the intervention (n = 47) and the control group (n = 37) was on word decoding. There was also a significant interaction effect of group assignment and initial word decoding, in the way that the lowest-performing students benefitted the most from the intervention. Another aim was to examine if the children identified in a screening (n = 2212) as poor readers in grade 2 still performed worse than typical readers. The analyses showed that the typically developing students (n = 66) outperformed the students identified as poor readers in grade 2 on working memory, spelling, reading comprehension and word decoding. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27146373

  15. Percutaneous Nucleoplasty Using Coblation Technique for the Treatment of Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: 5-year Follow-up Results

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Da-Jiang; Liu, Xiu-Mei; Du, Sui-Yong; Sun, Tian-Sheng; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Li, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the efficacy of percutaneous nucleoplasty using coblation technique for the treatment of chronic nonspecific low back pain (LBP), after 5 years of follow-up. Methods: From September 2004 to November 2006, 172 patients underwent percutaneous nucleoplasty for chronic LBP in our department. Forty-one of these patients were followed up for a mean period of 67 months. Nucleoplasty was performed at L3/4 in 1 patient; L4/5 in 25 patients; L5/S1 in 2 patients; L3/4 and L4/5 in 2 patients; L4/5 and L5/S1 in 7 patients; and L3/4, L4/5, and L5/S1 in 4 patients. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at 1 week, 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years postoperatively. Pain was graded using a 10-cm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the percentage reduction in pain score was calculated at each postoperative time point. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was used to assess disability-related to lumbar spine degeneration, and patient satisfaction was assessed using the modified MacNab criteria. Results: There were significant differences among the preoperative, 1-week postoperative, and 3-year postoperative VAS and ODI scores, but not between the 3- and 5-year postoperative scores. There were no significant differences in age, sex, or preoperative symptoms between patients with effective and ineffective treatment, but there were significant differences in the number of levels treated, Pfirrmann grade of intervertebral disc degeneration, and provocative discography findings between these two groups. Excellent or good patient satisfaction was achieved in 87.9% of patients after 1 week, 72.4% after 1 year, 67.7% after 3 years, and 63.4% at the last follow-up. Conclusions: Although previously published short- and medium-term outcomes after percutaneous nucleoplasty appeared to be satisfactory, our long-term follow-up results show a significant decline in patient satisfaction over time. Percutaneous nucleoplasty is a safe and simple technique, with therapeutic

  16. Chicago EARLY Program Follow-Up: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Carole L.; And Others

    Since 1975, the Chicago public schools have been conducting ongoing research and development related to the identification and remediation of prekindergarten children with potential learning problems. The present study describes initial efforts toward the creation of a longitudinal data base aimed at determining (1) prekindergarten-age…

  17. The Longitudinal Study (LAS): Thirteen Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Christopher M.

    This study is the fifth assessment in an 18-year longitudinal study begun in 1986 to follow a group of Montessori students who attended the Franciscan Montessori Earth School in Portland, Oregon. Participating were 45 students with an average age of 18 years, about half of whom were in high school and half in college. Students completed an online…

  18. Continuous cytogenetic follow-up, over 5 years, of three individuals accidentally irradiated by a cobalt-60 source.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Dong; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Du, Jie; Lu, Xue; Wang, Yuan; Tian, Rong; Liu, Qing-Jie; Chen, Ying

    2015-02-01

    A cobalt-60 irradiation accident occurred in Shanxi, China, on April 11, 2008. Five people were exposed to total-body irradiation ranging from 1.7 to 14.5 Gy. Two victims died post-irradiation, due to acute intestinal radiation sickness (at 62 days) and tuberculosis (at 1.5 year). The other three victims received medical follow-ups and were monitored for 5 years with multiple cytogenetic analyses. Unstable chromosome aberrations, including dicentric and centric rings (dic+r) and the micronucleus frequency in binucleated lymphocytes, were monitored. In addition, G-banding karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods were used to analyze translocations, for exploring chromosome stability and for retrospective dosimetry. The results show that unstable chromosome aberrations (dic+r) declined each year, dropping to about 20-40% of initial levels by the 5th year. A similar trend was observed for the micronucleus frequency. Our results show that the translocation frequencies of the three victims, detected by G-banding karyotype, remained stable for the 5 years. Five years after irradiation, the translocation rates of the three victims (G-banding and FISH analyses) were similar. The retrospective estimated doses, reconstructed based on the translocation frequencies, were consistent with the biological doses estimated at the first day post-irradiation using dic+r. The results of this study indicate that chromosome translocation frequencies can be used as a biological dosimeter and are an excellent index for dose reconstruction. PMID:25813720

  19. Aggressive Angiomyxoma of the Vulva with No Recurrence on a 5-year Follow up: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Narayama, Chisa; Ikeda, Masae; Yasaka, Miwa; Sagara, Yusuke; Kan-No, Yasuhira; Hayashi, Io; Narita, Atuya; Asai, Satoshi; Tajima, Toshiki; Shida, Masako; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Mikami, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of vulvar aggressive angiomyxoma (AA) which is a rare, slow growing and benign tumor of mesenchymal origin, but has a high risk of local recurrence. A 49-year-old Japanese female was referred to us with a large mass of the left vulva, measuring 15×9.5×9 centimeters. She underwent surgical excision of the tumor with no evidence of recurrence on a 5-year follow up. In this case, histopathological examination and immunohistochemical staining after excision revealed a diagnosis of vulvar AA with estrogen and progesterone receptors positive. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva needs to be distinguished from benign myxoid tumor with a low risk of local recurrence as well as from malignant neoplasma. The first line treatment of AA is complete surgical excision with tumor free margins, it will reduce the recurrence. PMID:27050895

  20. The antecedents and benefits of achieving abstinence in opioid addicts: a 2.5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Rounsaville, B J; Kosten, T R; Kleber, H D

    1987-01-01

    This report examines long-term and short-term benefits of achieving abstinence from opioids in a sample of opioid addicts who were reevaluated 2.5 years following seeking treatment. Extensive assessment of drug use history and drug-associated problems had been obtained when the subjects applied for treatment. At follow-up evaluations, detailed information was obtained on intervening course of drug use, treatment, legal problems, psychological problems, social functioning, occupational functioning, and medical status. The results were as follows: (1) Achieving abstinence from illicit opioids was associated with concurrent improvement in other aspects of functioning including reduction of criminal activity, improved medical status, improved social functioning, and reduced abuse of other psychoactive substances. However, many of these improvements were reversed immediately if relapse to opioid use occurred. (2) Achieving abstinence was associated with being in drug treatment, especially treatment in a methadone maintenance program. (3) Achievement of abstinence was not successfully predicted by client characteristics measured at entrance into treatment. (4) Long-range benefits of abstinence were detectable in social functioning even for those who had relapsed at the time of follow-up reevaluation. PMID:3687888

  1. In-111 polyclonal HIG identifies patients but not atherosclerotic lesions at risk - a 5 years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Berent, Robert; Auer, Johann; Granegger, Susanne; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong need for non-invasive detection of human atherosclerotic lesions. One of the radioisotopic approaches using Indium-111-HIG has been shown to accumulate in oxidized LDL-rich foam cells and inflammatory vascular lesions. Earlier human studies in 200 patients, 100 with peripheral vascular disease and 100 with carotid artery disease comparing In-111-HIG scintigraphy with sonographic data revealed a high sensitivity (70%-77%) but a very low specificity (33%-41%). At this time we concluded the approach "not promising" for human studies. However, clinical follow-up over 5 years now shows that those patients with positive In-111-HIG scintigraphy exhibited a significantly higher vascular morbidity (P<0,01) and mortality (P<0,01), especially in the immediate follow-up period. Retrospective analysis discovered higher CRP and isoprostane (8-epi-prostaglandin (PG) F2α) levels in HIG-positive patients at the time of scintigraphy. These findings indicate that In-111-HIG reflecting vascular lesions with a high inflammatory component, probably more prone to rupture, may identify a population at high vascular risk rather than a lesion at risk. The clinical impact of this finding should be assessed in prospective studies. PMID:26665225

  2. Valvular Abnormalities Detected by Echocardiography in 5-Year Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Helena J. van der; Caron, Huib N.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Dalen, Elvira C. van

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of valvular abnormalities after radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or treatment with anthracyclines and to identify associated risk factors in a large cohort of 5-year childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of all 626 eligible 5-year CCS diagnosed with childhood cancer in the Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center between 1966 and 1996 and treated with radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or anthracyclines. We determined the presence of valvular abnormalities according to echocardiograms. Physical radiation dose was converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Using multivariable logistic regression analyses, we examined the associations between cancer treatment and valvular abnormalities. Results: We identified 225 mainly mild echocardiographic valvular abnormalities in 169 of 545 CCS (31%) with a cardiac assessment (median follow-up time, 14.9 years [range, 5.1-36.8 years]; median attained age 22.0 years [range, 7.0-49.7 years]). Twenty-four CCS (4.4%) had 31 moderate or higher-graded abnormalities. Most common abnormalities were tricuspid valve disorders (n=119; 21.8%) and mitral valve disorders (n=73; 13.4%). The risk of valvular abnormalities was associated with increasing radiation dose (using EQD{sub 2}) involving the heart region (odds ratio 1.33 per 10 Gy) and the presence of congenital heart disease (odds ratio 3.43). We found no statistically significant evidence that anthracyclines increase the risk. Conclusions: Almost one-third of CCS treated with potentially cardiotoxic therapy had 1 or more asymptomatic, mostly mild valvular abnormalities after a median follow-up of nearly 15 years. The most important risk factors are higher EQD{sub 2} to the heart region and congenital heart disease. Studies with longer follow-up are necessary to investigate the clinical course of asymptomatic valvular abnormalities in

  3. Effects of Le Fort I Osteotomy on Maxillary Anterior Teeth: A 5-Year Follow Up of 42 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mesgarzadeh, Abolhasan; Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar; Akhavan, Hengameh; Tousi, Tara Sarvghad; Mehrvarzfar, Peyman; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the vitality of maxillary anterior teeth following Le Fort I osteotomy. Materials and Methods: A total of 245 maxillary anterior teeth in 42 patients were examined by several pulp vitality tests before surgery and 1 to 5 years postoperatively. Data were recorded in SPSS and were statistically analyzed by using Pearson, χ2, and Fisher exact tests. Results: This study showed a significant number (91%) of the maxillary anterior teeth to be sensitive to cold, 88.8% to electrical pulp test, and 89.4% to heat tests 12 months to 5 years following Le Fort I osteotomy. A total of 8 teeth (3.2%) had undergone root canal therapy (RCT) because they were nonvital and had developed apical lesions. Pain on percussion was observed in 5.7% of the teeth. External resorption was significantly associated with insensitivity (P < .05). Orthodontic therapy adds to this especially if excessive force is applied. Conclusion: A significant number of teeth had sensitivity after Le Fort I osteotomy. Only 3.2% needed RCT. When all vitality tests were negative, we used periapical radiolucency as the main criterion for judging pulp necrosis requiring RCT. It should be stressed that the outcomes of a single test cannot be considered as a reliable indicator for the presence or absence of pulpal or periapical disease or for RCT. Although the complications following Le Fort I osteotomy are few, follow-up is mandatory. PMID:20090842

  4. Replacement of Vertebral Lamina (Laminoplasty) in Surgery for Lumbar Isthmic Spondylolisthesis: 5-Year Follow-Up Results

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Study Design A review of clinical and radiological outcomes of lumbar laminoplasty (LL) for the treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis (ISL). Purpose The single session performance of posterior lumbar interbody fusion with allograft in the anterior column and providing the realignment of the vertebrae was presented as a preliminary report earlier. Overview of Literature Long-term surgical outcome of cervical laminoplasty in patients has been reported. But, outcome of LL in patients is unclear. Methods The long-term (5 years) year follow-up results of the LL technique are reported in this retrospective study. All patients underwent preoperative and postoperative direct X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The patients that did not respond to conservative treatment were operated. Twenty-one (52.5%) female and 19 (47.5%) male patients were included. Results Mean age was 43,5 years (ranges, 22–57 years). The most common symptoms were low back pain (89%), pelvic and leg pain (69%) and reduction in walking distance (65%). A total of 180 pedicle screws were inserted in 40 patients; posterior lumbar interbody fusion and laminoplasty with reduction was performed in 20 patients for L4–L5, 12 patients for L5–S1, 4 patients for L3–L4–L5 and 4 patients for L4–L5-S1. Ten (25%) patients with ILL had accompanying spinal stenosis. The difference between preoperative and postoperative sagittal plane rotation and dislocation degrees and disc space heights were statistically significant in all patients (p<0.05). Solid grade 4 fusion was observed in 38 patients; in only 2 patients grade 2 pseudoarthrosis developed (5%), but these patients were asymptomatic. Visual analog scale, Prolo economical and functional scale was examined with an average follow-up 5.5 years. Conclusions LL technique has the advantages of shorter duration of operation, lack of graft donor site complications, protection of posterior column osseoligamentous structures and

  5. Optic neuritis: a 5-year follow-up study of Chinese patients based on aquaporin-4 antibody status and ages.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huanfen; Zhao, Shuo; Yin, Dongfang; Chen, Xiaofei; Xu, Quangang; Chen, Tingjun; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Junqing; Li, Hongyang; Peng, Chunxia; Lin, Dahe; Wei, Shihui

    2016-07-01

    Little work has been performed on the long-term outcome of optic neuritis (ON) according to the status of aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) and long-term prognosis in older patients in China. This study retrospectively analyzed medical records in a cohort of Chinese patients with 5-year follow-up according to AQP4-Ab status and ages from January 2009 to December 2010. The clinical features, laboratory findings and risk factors for prognosis were analyzed. A total of 128 ON patients were included, 66.4 % of whom were female. The median age at onset was 36.8 years (range 18-73). Serum AQP4-Ab was positive in 45 (35.2 %) patients, with greater frequency in the female, bilateral, and recurrent ON groups (48.2, 42.5 and 53.6 %, respectively). Seropositive AQP4-Ab ON patients had worse visual recovery compared to seronegative patients (p = 0.033). The average and four quadrants of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were significantly thinner in the seropositive group than in the seronegative group (p < 0.05). At 5-year follow-up, the ON recurrence rate was higher in the seropositive AQP4-Ab patients (37/45, 82.3 %) than in the seronegative patients (35/83, 42.2 %, p < 0.001). Among the seropositive patients, 40 % (18/45) developed neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Only 1.2 % (1/83) of the seronegative patients developed NMO and 4.8 % (4/83) developed to MS. Further, the multivariate analysis in seropositive AQP4-Ab patients showed that two risk factors for transverse myelitis (TM) episode were ocular pain and recurrence within 1 year. The older patients had worse visual outcome after the first episode of ON than the younger patients (p = 0.007). However, the two groups did not differ significantly with regard to prevalence of AQP4-Ab, long-term visual recovery and the risk of developing to NMO/MS. PMID:27159992

  6. Clinical, Radiographic, and Histologic Evaluation of Regional Odontodysplasia: a Case Report with 5-year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Jahanimoghadam, Fatemeh; Pishbin, Lida; Rad, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is a developmental anomaly that affects the primary and permanent dentitions. This disorder is generally localized in only one arch and its etiology is still unknown. Clinically, the affected teeth have an abnormal morphology and are typically discolored. Radiographically, these teeth show a ghost-like appearance. This paper reported the results of radiographic, histologic and laboratory findings about the case of a 5-year-old girl presenting this rare anomaly. Her familial history was negative for any genetic anomaly, regional odontodysplasia or other dental anomalies. The patient's general health was good and no congenital or acquired disease was reported. She was kept under follow-up care until she reached the age of 10 years. Panoramic radiograph showed the involvement of permanent teeth on the right maxillary quadrant. The affected edentulous quadrant was rehabilitated with temporary acrylic maxillary partial denture. The presentation of this case would hopefully have valuable information for pediatric dentists to review the clinical and radiographic features of regional odontodysplasia, yet expediting the diagnosis and treatment of patients with this condition. PMID:27284563

  7. Clinical, Radiographic, and Histologic Evaluation of Regional Odontodysplasia: a Case Report with 5-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Jahanimoghadam, Fatemeh; Pishbin, Lida; Rad, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is a developmental anomaly that affects the primary and permanent dentitions. This disorder is generally localized in only one arch and its etiology is still unknown. Clinically, the affected teeth have an abnormal morphology and are typically discolored. Radiographically, these teeth show a ghost-like appearance. This paper reported the results of radiographic, histologic and laboratory findings about the case of a 5-year-old girl presenting this rare anomaly. Her familial history was negative for any genetic anomaly, regional odontodysplasia or other dental anomalies. The patient’s general health was good and no congenital or acquired disease was reported. She was kept under follow-up care until she reached the age of 10 years. Panoramic radiograph showed the involvement of permanent teeth on the right maxillary quadrant. The affected edentulous quadrant was rehabilitated with temporary acrylic maxillary partial denture. The presentation of this case would hopefully have valuable information for pediatric dentists to review the clinical and radiographic features of regional odontodysplasia, yet expediting the diagnosis and treatment of patients with this condition. PMID:27284563

  8. Cutting Balloon Angioplasty of Bilateral Renal Artery Stenosis Due to Takayasu Arteritis in a 5-Year-Old Child with Midterm Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Gumus, Burcak Cevik, Halime; Vuran, Can; Omay, Oguz; Kocyigit, Ozgen Ilgaz; Turkoz, Riza

    2010-04-15

    The aim of this report is to demonstrate the successful endovascular treatment of bilateral renal artery stenosis due to Takayasu arteritis by cutting balloon angioplasty in a 5-year-old child with mid-term follow-up.

  9. Phoning Logistics in a Longitudinal Follow-Up of Batterers and Their Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gondolf, Edward W.; Deemer, Crystal

    2004-01-01

    More needs to be known about the phoning logistics of interviewing subjects for longitudinal follow-up studies in the domestic violence field. Using phoning logs from a 4-year follow-up of batterer intervention, the authors calculated the number, results, and costs of phone calls from a sub sample of 100 men and 138 women. The number of calls is…

  10. Longitudinal Follow-Up of Children with Autism Receiving Targeted Interventions on Joint Attention and Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasari, Connie; Gulsrud, Amanda; Freeman, Stephanny; Paparella, Tanya; Hellemann, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the cognitive and language outcomes of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over a 5-year period after receiving targeted early interventions that focused on joint attention and play skills. Method: Forty children from the original study (n = 58) had complete data at the 5-year follow-up. Results: In all,…

  11. Clinical and immunological evaluation after BCG-id vaccine in leprosy patients in a 5-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Zenha, Erika Muller Ramalho; Wambier, Carlos Gustavo; Novelino, Ana Lúcia; de Andrade, Thiago Antônio Moretti; Ferreira, Maria Aparecida Nunes; Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The use of bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) has long been considered a stimulus for immune reactivity in leprosy household contacts. Probably, the combination of multidrug therapy with BCG could facilitate the clearance of leprosy bacilli in the host, reduce relapse rates, and shorten the duration of skin-smear positivity. Methods To investigate the mechanism of action of BCG, a study involving 19 leprosy patients, eleven multibacillary (MB) and eight paucibacillary, was performed to assess the in vitro production of interleukin (IL)-10, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, and IL-17 in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, before and 30 days after inoculation with BCG intradermally (BCG-id). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated by Ficoll–Hypaque gradient were cultivated with Concanavalin-A (Con-A), lipopolysccharides (LPS), or BCG. The supernatant was collected for ELISA quantification of cytokines. The immunohistochemistry of IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-10, IL-12, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and TNF-α was carried out in biopsies of skin lesions of leprosy patients before and 30 days after inoculation of BCG-id. These patients were followed up for 5 years to assess the therapeutic response to multidrug therapy, the occurrence of leprosy reactions, and the results of bacterial index and anti-PGL-1 serology after the end of treatment. Results The results showed increased production of cytokines after BCG-id administration in MB and paucibacillary leprosy patients. There was statistically higher levels of TNF-α (P = 0.017) in MB patients and of IL-17 (P = 0.008) and IFN-γ (P = 0.037) in paucibacillary patients. Immunohistochemical staining, especially for TNF-α, was more intense in biopsies of MB leprosy patients taken after BCG-id administration, probably for induction of innate human immunity. The clinical evaluation suggests that BCG-id is able to induce a more effective therapeutic response, with

  12. Association of Adiponectin with High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Clinical Outcomes in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A 3.5-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Chun-Wu; Hsu, Yung-Chien; Shih, Ya-Hsueh; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2015-01-01

    all-cause mortality. Conclusions Serum hs-CRP levels were consistently lower in the high ADPN group during 2-year follow-up. We also demonstrated the importance of ADPN and hs-CRP in predicting CV events and all-cause mortality in PD population during 3.5-year follow-up. PMID:26474473

  13. Ipsilateral supracondylar humerus fracture and Monteggia lesion with a 5-year follow-up: a rare injury in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Cobanoglu, Mutlu; Şavk, Şevki Oner; Cullu, Emre; Duygun, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Although elbow injuries and fractures of the forearm are common in children, the combination of these injuries is rare. We present a case of a 5-year-old patient with a concomitant ipsilateral supracondylar humerus fracture and Monteggia lesion. After physical and radiographic examination of the injured extremity in the emergency department, closed reduction and percutaneous pinning were performed under image intensifier under general anaesthesia. A long-arm cast was applied for postoperative immobilisation. Excellent radiological and functional outcomes were obtained at the end of 1-year follow-up and no deformity was observed at 5-year follow-up. PMID:25926578

  14. Automated Telecommunication to Obtain Longitudinal Follow-up in a Multicenter Cross-sectional COPD Study

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jeffrey I.; Moyle, Sarah; Criner, Gerard J.; Wilson, Carla; Tanner, Ron; Bowler, Russell P.; Crapo, James D.; Zeldin, Robert K.; Make, Barry J.; Regan, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background It can be challenging to maintain longitudinal follow-up of subjects in clinical studies. COPDGene is a multicenter, observational study designed to identify genetic factors associated with COPD and to characterize COPD-related phenotypes. To obtain follow-up data on patient's vital status and outcomes, the COPDGene Longitudinal Follow-up (LFU) Program was developed to supplement its parent study. Methods/Results We used a telecommunication system that employed automated telephone contact or web-based questions to obtain longitudinal follow-up data in our subjects. A branching questionnaire asked about exacerbations, new therapies, smoking status, development of co-morbid conditions, and general health status. Study coordinators contacted subjects who did not respond to one of the automated methods. We enrolled 10,383 subjects in the COPDGene study. As of August 29, 2011, 7,959 subjects completed 19,955 surveys. On the first survey, 68.8% of subjects who completed their survey did so by electronic means, while 31.3% required coordinator phone follow-up. On each subsequent survey the number of subjects who completed their survey by electronic means increased, while the number of subjects who required coordinator follow-up decreased. Despite many of the patients in the cohort being chronically ill and elderly, there was broad acceptance of the system with over half the cohort using electronic response methods. Conclusions The COPDGene LFU Study demonstrated that telecommunications was an effective way to obtain longitudinal follow-up of subjects in a large multicenter study. Web-based and automated phone contacts are accepted by research subjects and could serve as a model for LFU in future studies. PMID:22676387

  15. Prognostic Factors of Septic Arthritis of Hip in Infants and Neonates: Minimum 5-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soon Chul; Seo, Sung Wook; Lee, Sung San

    2015-01-01

    Background The authors conducted the present study to identify clinical and radiological prognostic factors in infants and neonates with septic arthritis of the hip. Methods The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 31 patients with septic arthritis of the hip. All of the patients were younger than 18 months old. Follow-up periods ranged from 5 to 17 years. The following potential variables for predicting the prognosis were included in the assessment: gender, age, underlying diseases, duration of symptoms, changes of hip joint in X-ray, concomitant osteomyelitis, elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, sepsis, pus drainage, synovial fluid culture, and infecting organisms. Clinical and radiological prognoses were analyzed at the final follow-up. Results Univariate analysis demonstrated that radiological prognoses were poorer in patients who had underlying diseases, a longer duration of symptoms, and pus drainage. However, on multivariate analysis, only the variable-duration of symptoms-was found to be statistically related with a poor radiological prognosis. Conclusions Although poor prognosis for patients with several underlying diseases and radiological changes has already been established, a favorable outcome might be expected with prompt surgical drainage and appropriate antibiotics. PMID:25729527

  16. Soft tissue stability after segmental distraction of the anterior mandibular alveolar process: a 5.5 year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Joss, C U; Triaca, A; Antonini, M; Kiliaridis, S; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2013-03-01

    Soft tissue changes were analysed retrospectively in 17 patients following distraction osteogenesis (DO) of the mandibular anterior alveolar process. Lateral cephalograms were traced by hand, digitized, superimposed, and evaluated at T1 (17.0 days), after DO at T2 (mean 6.5 days), at T3 (mean 24.4 days), at T4 (mean 2.0 years), and at T5 (mean 5.5 years). Statistical analysis was carried out using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, paired t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and linear backward regression analysis. 5.5 years postoperatively, the net effect for the soft tissue at point B' was 88% of the advancement at point B while the lower lip (labrale inferior) followed the advancement of incision inferior to 24%. Increased preoperative age was correlated (p<0.05) with more horizontal backward movement (T5-T3) for labrale inferior and pogonion'. Higher NL/ML' angles were significantly correlated (p<0.05) to smaller horizontal soft tissue change at labrale inferior (T5-T3). The amount of advancement at point B was significantly correlated with an upward movement (T5-T3) of labrale inferior (p<0.01) and stomion inferior (p<0.05). It can be concluded that further change in soft tissues occurred between 2.0 and 5.5 years postoperatively. The physiological process of ageing and loss of soft tissue elasticity should be considered as possible reasons. PMID:23182400

  17. Cessation of Long-term Naltrexone Administration: Longitudinal Follow-Ups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crews, W. David, Jr.; Rhodes, Robert D.; Bonaventura, Sharon H.; Rowe, Frederick B.; Goering, Aaron M.

    1999-01-01

    Longitudinal follow-ups of the cessation of long-term Naltrexone administration were conducted with a women with profound mental retardation who had previously displayed dramatic decreases in self-injurious behavior (SIB). After two and four years post-Naltrexone therapy, the subject exhibited near-zero rates of SIB despite changes in staff and in…

  18. National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988. First Follow-Up: School Component Data File User's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; And Others

    This manual has been produced to familiarize data users with the procedures followed for data collection and processing of the first follow-up component of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). A corollary objective is to provide the necessary documentation for use of the data file. Use of the data set does not require the…

  19. The Effect of Correctional Education on Postrelease Employment and Recidivism: A 5-Year Follow-Up Study in the State of Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Susan; Nally, John M.; Ho, Taiping; Knutson, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Research has consistently revealed that released offenders, if unemployed and uneducated, would likely become recidivist offenders. This study was a 5-year follow-up study (2005-2009) of 6,561 offenders who were released from the Indiana Department of Correction (IDOC) to five metropolitan counties during the calendar year 2005. It examined the…

  20. Penile vascular evaluation and sexual function before and after radical retropubic prostatectomy: 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dubbelman, Yvette D; Wildhagen, Mark F; Dohle, Gert R

    2008-09-01

    Sexual dysfunction is common after surgery for prostate cancer. The aetiology of changes in sexual potency after radical prostatectomy is probably multifactorial, including neurogenic, vascular and psychosexual factors. A prospective study was designed to investigate haemodynamic and psychosexual changes before and after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) for organ-confined prostate cancer. Penile haemodynamic evaluation and an assessment of sexual excitement were performed preoperatively and 3 months after RRP by colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) with visual erotic stimulation combined with a single intracavernous injection of a mixture of papaverine/phentolamine. Questionnaires on sexual function [International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)], general health and quality of life were sent to the patients preoperative, 3 months and 5 years after operation. Forty-eight men participated in the study. Mean age was 62.6 years (range 55-69). CDU did not show any significant reduction in mean peak systolic flow velocity and mean resistance index. From the men who preoperatively had normal arterial inflow 18% developed arteriogenic insufficiency. Some form of veno-occlusive insufficiency and low resistance indices were already present in the majority of normal potent men preoperatively. Surgical technique did not influence penile arterial blood flow after the operation. Three months and 5 years postoperatively, there was a highly significant reduction in erectile function, intercourse satisfaction, overall satisfaction, orgasmic function and sexual desire. However, with respect to the outcome at 3 months there was a significant improvement of orgasmic function 5 years after operation, especially after a bilateral nerve sparing procedure. Erections sufficient for vaginal penetration (questions 3 and 4 of the IIEF, score >or=8) improved from 2% to 11% 3 months and 5 years after RRP respectively. Total IIEF score was significantly better after a bilateral nerve

  1. Raised Speed Limits, Speed Spillover, Case-Fatality Rates, and Road Deaths in Israel: A 5-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Elihu D.; Barach, Paul; Friedman, Lee; Krikler, Samuel; Israeli, Abraham

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the 5-year, nationwide impact on road deaths of the raise in the speed limit (November 1, 1993) on 3 major interurban highways in Israel from 90 to 100 kph. Methods. We compared before–after trends in deaths as well as case fatality—an outcome independent of exposure (defined as vehicle-kilometers traveled). Results. After the raise, speeds rose by 4.5%–9.1%. Over 5 years, there was a sustained increase in deaths (15%) and case fatality rates (38%) on all interurban roads. Corresponding increases in deaths (13%) and case fatality (24%) on urban roads indicated “speed spillover.” Conclusions. Immediate increases in case fatality predicted and tracked the sustained increase in deaths from increased speeds of impact. Newtonian fourth power models predicted the effects of “small” increases in speed on large rises in case fatality rates. Countermeasures and congestion reduced the impact on deaths and case-fatality rates by more than half. PMID:15054007

  2. Hurler syndrome: a case report of a 5-year follow-up of dental findings after bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wadenya, Rose O; Stout, Angela M; Gupta, Avin; Monge, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Hurler syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of mucopolysaccharide metabolism. It results from a deficiency in lysosomal enzymes responsible for the breakdown of glycosaminoglycans. Affected individuals may show progressive physical and mental deterioration as glycosaminoglycans are deposited in the organs of the body. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is effective in improving some of the clinical manifestations of Hurler syndrome. Death is caused by cardiorespiratory failure and usually occurs before the second decade of life. In this case report, the course of dental development was followed over 5 years, from the primary dentition into the permanent dentition, of a child who was successfully treated with a bone marrow transplant in infancy. The timing of bone marrow therapy has significant and variable effect on the stages of tooth development with implications for the long-term maintenance of the dentition. PMID:20051069

  3. Ultrasonographic diagnosis and medical treatment of human cystic echinococcosis in asymptomatic school age carriers: 5 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Edmundo; Del Carpio, Mario; Salvitti, Juan C; Mercapide, Carlos; Sustersic, Jose; Panomarenko, Hector; Costa, María; Bigatti, Ricardo; Labanchi, Jose; Herrero, Eduardo; Cantoni, Gustavo; Perez, Alicia; Odriozola, Martín

    2004-06-01

    Hydatidosis or cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus is endemic in the Province of Río Negro, Argentina. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the results of a program carried out in endemic areas of the Province of Río Negro, Argentina, in the years 1997-2002. Abdominal ultrasonography was used, classifying the cases detected according to WHO guidelines. A treatment algorithm was defined which included observation, albendazol therapy, PAIR or surgery, according to cyst type and size. A total of 5745 schoolchildren were evaluated, detecting hydatid cyst carriers in 70 (1.2%). Of these; 40 (57.1%) were included in follow-up protocol, 25 (35.7%) in treatment protocol with albendazol, 2 (2.9%) with PAIR and 3 (4.3%) with conventional surgery. After a mean of 44 months, among 25 cases treated with albendazol, in 2 (8%) cysts underwent total involution, in 17 (68%) they presented positive changes, in one (4%) they remained unchanged and in 4 (16%) they progressed to type II, while 1 (4%) displayed negative evolutionary changes. Out of 39 cases under observation alone protocol, in 8 cases (21%) cysts underwent total involution, in 7 (18%) they presented positive changes, in 11 (28%) they remained unchanged, in 2 (5%) they progressed to Type II and in 11 (28%) they presented negative evolutionary changes and had to be included in the other protocol types. In this study, conventional surgery, was applied to 10% of detected cases. The combination of ultrasonographic screening and albendazol treatment showed promising results. PMID:15158684

  4. Clinical outcome of 215 transmucosal implants with a conical connection: a retrospective study after 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M A; Andreasi Bassi, M; Confalone, L; Gaudio, R M; Lombardo, L; Lauritano, D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective clinical study was to evaluate the survival rate (i.e. SVR – fixtures still in place at the end of the observation period) and success rate (i.e. SCR - bone resorption around implant neck) of an implant system characterized by cylindrical and tapered implants, both types of implant being equipped with a conical connection with an internal octagon (COC), both implant types having a 1.8 mm smooth neck, positioned above the bone crest level. A total of 65 subjects received 215 COCs between January 1996 and October 2011. All COCs were placed and restored by three experienced dental surgeons. The mean follow-up was 84±44 months. The patients involved in the study were both male (30) and female (35), of whom 30 were smokers (less than 20 cigarettes/day) and none was diabetic. The implants differed in terms of diameter and length, and were inserted both in the mandible (97) and in the maxilla (118). Sixty-seven implants were single tooth rehabilitations, and 148 prosthetic bridges. Fourteen had guided bone regeneration (GBR), and 10 were placed in post-extractive sites. Forty of the implants were provided with passing-screw abutments and 175 with full-screw abutments. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. None of the implants failed before prosthetic restoration, resulting in an SVR=100% after loading. The radiographic and clinical data revealed well-maintained, hard and soft tissue around the COCs, with an SCR=92.6%. Cox regression analyses did not detect any variables with statistical impact on the clinical outcome. In conclusion, Shiner XT implants are reliable tools for oral rehabilitation. PMID:27469549

  5. Risk factors for Recurrent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Population Study in Ontario, Canada with 5-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    FRCSC, David Wasserstein; Khoshbin, Amir; Dwyer, Tim; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Gandhi, Rajiv; Mahomed, Nizar; Ogilvie-Harris, Darrell

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is routinely performed to treat symptomatic instability. Despite being a common procedure, significant variation persists in technique and graft choice. How patient, provider and surgical factors influence the risk of revision or contralateral primary ACLR has not been investigated using administrative data. The goal of our study was to define the rate and risk factors for ACL re-operation in Ontario. Methods: All primary elective ACLR performed in Ontario, Canada from July 2003 to March 2008 in patients aged 15 to 60 years were identified via billing, diagnosis and procedural databases. The main outcomes were revision and contralateral ACLR, sought until January 2012. Patient factors (age, gender, co-morbidity, income quintile, and length of index hospital admission), provider factors (surgeon volume, academic hospital status) and surgical factors (allograft vs. autograft; fixation: screw, button, staple; concomitant operative procedures) were used as covariates in a Cox Proportional Hazards survivorship model to generate Hazard Ratios (HR) with confidence intervals (alpha 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survivorship curves to revision were generated. Results: A total of 12,967 ACLR with a mean follow-up of 5.2 years were identified. The revision rate was 2.6% [after a median 2.72 years (interquartile range 1.38, 4.11)]. The rate of primary contralateral ACLR was 4.6% [after a median 2.71 years (interquartile range 1.49, 4.22)]. In the Cox model, younger age [15-19 years; HR=2.1 (95% CI: 1.5-2.9), p<0.001], ACLR performed at an academic hospital [HR=1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.1), p<0.001] and the use of allograft [HR=1.7 (95% CI: 1.1-2.6), p=0.02] significantly increased the risk of revision ACLR. The K-M curves to revision ACLR for allograft and autograft demonstrated equivalent survivorship for approximately 3 years, after which allograft ACLR were more commonly revised (Figure 1). Only younger age [15-19 years; HR=2

  6. Lower Health-Related Quality of Life in Polytrauma Patients: Long-Term Follow-Up After Over 5 Years.

    PubMed

    Zwingmann, Jörn; Hagelschuer, Paul; Langenmair, Elia; Bode, Gerrit; Herget, Georg; Südkamp, Norbert P; Hammer, Thorsten

    2016-05-01

    Although trauma-associated mortality has fallen in recent decades, and medical care has continued to improve in many fields, the quality of life after experiencing polytrauma has attracted little attention in the literature. This group of patients suffer from persisting physical disabilities. Moreover, they experience long-term social, emotional, and psychological effects that limit/lower considerably their quality of life.We analyzed retrospective data on 147 polytraumatized patients by administering written questionnaires and conducting face-to-face interviews 6 ± 0.8 years after the trauma in consideration of the following validated scores: Glasgow Outcome Scale, European Quality of Life Score, Short Form-36, Trauma Outcome Profile, and Beck Depressions Inventory II.Our analysis of these results reveals that polytraumatized patients suffer from persistent pain and functional disabilities after >5 years. We also observed changes in their socioeconomic situation, as well as psychological after-effects.The rehabilitation of this particular group of patients should not only address their physical disabilities. The psychological after-effects of trauma must be acknowledged and addressed for an even longer period of time. PMID:27175646

  7. Full-mouth adhesive rehabilitation in a case of amelogenesis imperfecta: a 5-year follow-up case report.

    PubMed

    Gerdolle, David; Mortier, Eric; Richard, Adeline; Vailati, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary disorder caused by mutations of genes primarily involved in the enamel formation. Several different types of AI have been identified, based on the phenotype and on the mode of inheritance. Regardless of the type, the dental treatment tends to be the same, favoring the complete removal of the compromised enamel late in the patient's life. With the new dentistry guidelines that orient clinicians towards minimal invasiveness, it should be mandatory to intercept patients affected by AI earlier, not only to protect the dentition from further degradation but also to help patients improve their self-esteem. This article examines the restorative dentistry performed on a 24-year-old Caucasian female suffering from the hypoplastic type of AI, using only adhesive procedures. Due to the complex needs of the patient, an interdisciplinary approach was followed, involving orthodontics, periodontics, and restorative dentistry. A full-mouth adhesive rehabilitation was achieved by means of direct composite restorations, veneer/onlays and facial/palatal veneers. No elective endodontic therapy was necessary for restorative purposes. The esthetics, mechanics, and biological success were achieved and maintained. The bond to the enamel did not show signs of degradation (eg, discoloration or infiltration) even after 5 years of function. This is encouraging as it shows that adhesive techniques may be a reliable approach even in the presence of a compromised enamel layer. PMID:25625125

  8. Survival and other clinical outcomes of maintenance hemodialysis patients in Taiwan: a 5-year multicenter follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-Sheng; Cheng, Chun-Ting; Hou, Chun-Cheng; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Lim, Paik-Seong

    2014-10-01

    The increasing aging and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in dialysis population make the quality maintenance of dialysis an imperative issue. Recently, an increasing number of dialysis centers were run by private dialysis providers, many of which apply quality assurance programs and performance management systems to dialysis care. We studied patients in dialysis facilities in Taiwan run by a private chain to see clinical outcomes of centers operating under these systemic strategies. Hemodialysis patients from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012 in 25 dialysis facilities in Taiwan, which received the management and consultation from a dialysis service provider, NephroCare (NC), were included. Data pivotal to quality of dialysis were analyzed. During a 5-year interval, 5161 hemodialysis patients were included. For volume control, the proportion of patients with weight gain ≥4.5% decreases from 41.7% to 30.2%. Mean Kt/V is 1.74 ± 0.28. Mean albumin level is 3.92 ± 0.38 g/dL. Patients with phosphate <5.5 mg/dL is up to 71.8%. The mean hemoglobin level is 10.70 ± 1.40 g/dL. More than 80% of patients have adequate iron status. Further, 73% of patients use native arteriovenous fistula. Hospitalization-free survival rate was 56% at the fifth year. Patient survival rate at the fifth year was 66.4%. Overall clinical performances were maintained very stable in NC facilities from this temporal data analysis. The hospitalization and survival rate also compare favorably with those reported internationally. These results warrant further studies to justify the application of this kind of quality assurance programs and performance management systems in dialysis care. PMID:24766262

  9. Differences between C3-4 and other subaxial levels of cervical disc arthroplasty: more heterotopic ossification at the 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Chang, Peng-Yuan; Chang, Hsuan-Kan; Wu, Jau-Ching; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Fay, Li-Yu; Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Wu, Ching-Lan; Cheng, Henrich

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Several large-scale clinical trials demonstrate the efficacy of 1- and 2-level cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) for degenerative disc disease (DDD) in the subaxial cervical spine, while other studies reveal that during physiological neck flexion, the C4-5 and C5-6 discs account for more motion than the C3-4 level, causing more DDD. This study aimed to compare the results of CDA at different levels. METHODS After a review of the medical records, 94 consecutive patients who underwent single-level CDA were divided into the C3-4 and non-C3-4 CDA groups (i.e., those including C4-5, C5-6, and C6-7). Clinical outcomes were measured using the visual analog scale for neck and arm pain and by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores. Postoperative range of motion (ROM) and heterotopic ossification (HO) were determined by radiography and CT, respectively. RESULTS Eighty-eight patients (93.6%; mean age 45.62 ± 10.91 years), including 41 (46.6%) female patients, underwent a mean follow-up of 4.90 ± 1.13 years. There were 11 patients in the C3-4 CDA group and 77 in the non-C3-4 CDA group. Both groups had significantly improved clinical outcomes at each time point after the surgery. The mean preoperative (7.75° vs 7.03°; p = 0.58) and postoperative (8.18° vs 8.45°; p = 0.59) ROMs were similar in both groups. The C3-4 CDA group had significantly greater prevalence (90.9% vs 58.44%; p = 0.02) and higher severity grades (2.27 ± 0.3 vs 0.97 ± 0.99; p = 0.0001) of HO. CONCLUSIONS Although CDA at C3-4 was infrequent, the improved clinical outcomes of CDA were similar at C3-4 to that in the other subaxial levels of the cervical spine at the approximately 5-year follow-ups. In this Asian population, who had a propensity to have ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, there was more HO formation in patients who received CDA at the C3-4 level than in other subaxial levels of the cervical spine. While the type of artificial discs could have confounded the

  10. The impact of breathing on HRV measurements: implications for the longitudinal follow-up of athletes.

    PubMed

    Saboul, Damien; Pialoux, Vincent; Hautier, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to compare daily variations of heart rate variability (HRV) parameters between controlled breathing (CB) and spontaneous breathing (SB) sessions during a longitudinal follow-up of athletes. HRV measurements were performed daily on 10 healthy male runners for 21 consecutive days. The signals were recorded during two successive randomised 5-minutes sessions. One session was performed in CB and the other in SB. The results showed significant differences between the two respiration methods in the temporal, nonlinear and frequency domains. However, significant correlations were observed between CB and SB (higher than 0.70 for RMSSD and SD1), demonstrating that during a longitudinal follow-up, these markers provide the same HRV variations regardless of breathing pattern. By contrast, independent day-to-day variations were observed with HF and LF/HF frequency markers, indicating no significant relationship between SB and CB data over time. Therefore, we consider that SB and CB may be used for HRV longitudinal follow-ups only for temporal and nonlinear markers. Indeed, the same daily increases and decreases were observed whatever the breathing method employed. Conversely, frequency markers did not provide the same variations between SB and CB and we propose that these indicators are not reliable enough to be used for day-to-day HRV monitoring. PMID:24050471

  11. Joint multiple imputation for longitudinal outcomes and clinical events that truncate longitudinal follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Li, Liang; Greene, Tom

    2016-07-30

    Longitudinal cohort studies often collect both repeated measurements of longitudinal outcomes and times to clinical events whose occurrence precludes further longitudinal measurements. Although joint modeling of the clinical events and the longitudinal data can be used to provide valid statistical inference for target estimands in certain contexts, the application of joint models in medical literature is currently rather restricted because of the complexity of the joint models and the intensive computation involved. We propose a multiple imputation approach to jointly impute missing data of both the longitudinal and clinical event outcomes. With complete imputed datasets, analysts are then able to use simple and transparent statistical methods and standard statistical software to perform various analyses without dealing with the complications of missing data and joint modeling. We show that the proposed multiple imputation approach is flexible and easy to implement in practice. Numerical results are also provided to demonstrate its performance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26179943

  12. A 5-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study of Lipid-Rich Adrenal Incidentalomas: No Tumor Growth or Development of Hormonal Hypersecretion

    PubMed Central

    Raade, Merja; Hämäläinen, Esa; Sane, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for follow-up of adrenal incidentalomas are extensive and hampered by lack of follow-up studies. We tested the hypothesis that small lipid-rich adrenal incidentalomas, initially characterized by tumor size <40 mm and <10 Hounsfield units (HUs) on unenhanced computed tomography (CT) may not demonstrate excessive growth/hormonal hypersecretion on follow-up. Methods Sixty-nine incidentalomas in 56 patients were restudied with unenhanced CT and screening for hypercortisolism (dexamethasone suppression test [DST], plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone) and pheochromocytoma (24-hour urinary metanephrines and normetanephrines) 5 years later. Primary hyperaldosteronism was excluded at base-line. Results Tumor (n=69) size was similar before and after 5 years follow-up (19±6 mm vs. 20±7 mm). Mean tumor growth was 1±2 mm. Largest increase in tumor size was 8 mm, this tumor was surgically removed and histopathology confirmed cortical adenoma. DST was normal in 54 patients and two patients (3.6%) were still characterized by subclinical hypercortisolism. Initial tumor size was >20 mm for the patient with largest tumor growth and those with subclinical hypercortisolism. All patients had normal 24-hour urinary metanephrines and normetanephrines. Low attenuation (<10 HU) was demonstrated in 97% of 67 masses re-evaluated with unenhanced CT. Conclusion None of the patients developed clinically relevant tumor growth or new subclinical hypercortisolism. Biochemical screening for pheochromocytoma in incidentalomas demonstrating <10 HU on unenhanced CT is not needed. For such incidentalomas <40 mm, it seems sufficient to perform control CT and screen for hypercortisolism after 5 years. PMID:26354488

  13. Long-term Efficacy of Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease: A 5-year Follow-up Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lu-Lu; Liu, Jin-Long; Fu, Xiao-Li; Xian, Wen-Biao; Gu, Jing; Liu, Yan-Mei; Ye, Jing; Chen, Jie; Qian, Hao; Xu, Shao-Hua; Pei, Zhong; Chen, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) is effective against advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), allowing dramatic improvement of Parkinsonism, in addition to a significant reduction in medication. Here we aimed to investigate the long-term effect of STN DBS in Chinese PD patients, which has not been thoroughly studied in China. Methods: Ten PD patients were assessed before DBS and followed up 1, 3, and 5 years later using Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS III), Parkinson's Disease Questionnatire-39, Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale-Chinese Version, Mini-mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Hamilton Depression Scale. Stimulation parameters and drug dosages were recorded at each follow-up. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA for repeated measures. Results: In the “off” state (off medication), DBS improved UPDRS III scores by 35.87% in 5 years, compared with preoperative baseline (P < 0.001). In the “on” state (on medication), motor scores at 5 years were similar to the results of preoperative levodopa challenge test. The quality of life is improved by 58.18% (P < 0.001) from baseline to 3 years and gradually declined afterward. Sleep, cognition, and emotion were mostly unchanged. Levodopa equivalent daily dose was reduced from 660.4 ± 210.1 mg at baseline to 310.6 ± 158.4 mg at 5 years (by 52.96%, P < 0.001). The average pulse width, frequency and amplitude at 5 years were 75.0 ± 18.21 μs, 138.5 ± 19.34 Hz, and 2.68 ± 0.43 V, respectively. Conclusions: STN DBS is an effective intervention for PD, although associated with a slightly diminished efficacy after 5 years. Compared with other studies, patients in our study required lower voltage and medication for satisfactory symptom control. PMID:26365958

  14. Phoning logistics in a longitudinal follow-up of batterers and their partners.

    PubMed

    Gondolf, Edward W; Deemer, Crystal

    2004-07-01

    More needs to be known about the phoning logistics of interviewing subjects for longitudinal follow-up studies in the domestic violence field. Using phoning logs from a 4-year follow-up of batterer intervention, the authors calculated the number, results, and costs of phone calls from a subsample of 100 men and 138 women. The number of calls is high (5.5 per man and 7.1 per woman), locators play a substantial role (for 25% of the men and women), and mailed questionnaires are a useful supplement (increasing response rate 5% for men and 11% for women). On average, about half of the subjects were interviewed at each interval. The main obstacle is not refusals but no response and not being able to locate a subject. Strategies to address "no response" are considered. PMID:15186534

  15. Persistence Pays Off: Follow-Up Methods for Difficult-to-Track Longitudinal Samples*

    PubMed Central

    Kleschinsky, John H.; Bosworth, Leslie B.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Walsh, Erinn K.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Evolving privacy and confidentiality regulations make achieving high completion rates in longitudinal studies challenging. Periodically reviewing the methods researchers use to retain participants throughout the follow-up period is important. We review the effectiveness of methods to maximize completion rates in a 1-year longitudinal study of repeat driving-under-the-influence (DUI) offenders. Method: During the course of 21 months, we attempted to follow-up with 704 participants of a licensed residential treatment facility for repeat DUI offenders. High rates of lifetime Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, substance-use disorders (97.6%) and nonsubstance- or nongambling-related psychiatric disorders (44.5%) among the sample made tracking participants difficult. To locate participants and complete follow-up interviews, we obtained baseline information, contacted collaterals, sent mailed reminders, searched Internet databases, and gave a monetary incentive for completing study interviews. Results: We located 608 participants with active telephone numbers (87.4%) and completed interviews with 488 (70.1% of the entire eligible sample and 80.3% of those with active telephone numbers), after an average (SD) of 8.6 (9.1) calls (median = 5.0). Increasing the number of calls continued to yield additional completions at 10, 20, and 30 calls; at approximately 40 telephone calls, the potential return for additional calls did not justify the added effort. Conclusions: These results suggest that researchers need to (1) employ more than 10 telephone calls to adequately track difficult-to-follow substance-using populations, and (2) prepare for a subsample of participants who might require more extensive contact. These results highlight the importance of using empirical guidelines to plan estimates for the number of contacts needed to achieve an adequate follow-up completion rate. PMID:19737500

  16. No Acceleration of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration after a Single Injection of Bupivacaine in Young Age Group with Follow-Up of 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Gen; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Nakamura, Junichi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Miyako; Takaso, Masashi; Toyone, Tomoaki; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Prospective study of changes in intervertebral disc degeneration after injection of bupivacaine. Purpose To examine whether injection of bupivacaine into human intervertebral discs accelerates their degeneration. Overview of Literature Bupivacaine is commonly used for therapy and diagnosis of discogenic low back pain. However, several in vitro studies have reported toxic effects of bupivacaine to disc cells. We sought to evaluate whether this finding is clinically relevant. Methods We selected 46 patients with low back pain who showed disc degeneration at only one level (L4-L5 or L5-S1) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (discography group, n=18), discoblock group (injection of bupivacaine, n=18), and a control group, n=10). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics across the 3 groups. The two experimental groups underwent either discography or anesthetic discoblock, respectively. All three groups were followed up 5 years after the examination. Results At 5 years follow-up, there was no significant difference in the rate of disc degeneration among the 3 groups (p>0.1). Moreover, X-ray images showed that there was no significant difference in disc height, range of motion, or translation between flex and extension position (p>0.1). Conclusions In conclusion, radiologic and MRI findings did not show acceleration of intervertebral disc degeneration at 5 years after a single injection of bupivacaine into human discs. PMID:24066217

  17. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer patients with old age or medical comorbidity: a 5-year follow-up of an investigational study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sea-Won; Jang, Hong Seok; Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Sung Hwan; Yoon, Sei Chul

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated 5-year follow-up of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with Cyberknife for prostate cancer patients. Forty-five men with prostate adenocarcinoma who received SBRT using Cyberknife from May 2006 to November 2012 were enrolled in this study. They were prostate cancer patients with old age and medical comorbidities who received a total of 36 Gy to the prostate in 5 fractions with either everyday or every other day schedule. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at initial diagnosis and after radiation were traced. Primary endpoints were biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). The definition of biochemical relapse was a PSA level of nadir+2 ng/mL. Progression was defined as biochemically or clinically detected disease and the start of salvage therapy. After median follow-up of 63 months, the 5-year bRFS for all patients was estimated at 89.7%. The 5-year PFS was estimated at 71%. Four cases of biochemical relapse were observed, including two patients who experienced locoregional failure and one patient who had distant metastasis with biochemical relapse. The 5-year OS was estimated at 94.3%. There were five deaths, all of which were unrelated to prostate cancer. There was no grade 3 or higher acute complication. Grade 3 or higher late urinary toxicity was reported in 2 (4.4%) of 45 patients. The 5-year survival and toxicity outcome of SBRT using Cyberknife on prostate cancer patients with old age or comorbidities were favorable and safe in an investigational study. PMID:25526468

  18. Adequacy of Help Received by Individuals with Severe Mental Disorders After a Major Healthcare Reform in Quebec: Predictors and Changes at 5-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Grenier, Guy; Schmitz, Norbert; Piat, Myra; Tremblay, Jacques

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed predictors and changes in adequacy of help received (AHR), as perceived by 204 individuals with severe mental disorders (SMDs) transferred from a mental health institution to the community following a key healthcare reform. Adjusted perceived AHR remained stable after 2 years (T1), but decreased at 5-year follow-up (T2). Predictors of higher adjusted perceived AHR are age, severity of needs, help received from services and relatives, and number of health professionals consulted. Community mental health services need to address the two major predictors of adjusted perceived AHR: severity of needs among individuals with SMDs and level of help from services. PMID:26499890

  19. Highly Cross-Linked Versus Conventional Polyethylene in Posterior-Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty at a Mean 5-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Meneghini, R Michael; Lovro, Luke R; Smits, Shelly A; Ireland, Philip H

    2015-10-01

    Concerns of highly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) exist regarding fatigue resistance and oxidation, particularly in posterior-stabilized (PS) designs. A prospective cohort study of 114 consecutive PS TKAs utilized conventional polyethylene in 50 knees and second-generation annealed XLPE in 64 TKAs. Clinical (Short-Form 36, Knee Society Scores, and LEAS) and radiographic outcomes were evaluated at a mean of 5 years in 103 TKAs. Mean KSS scores were 12 points higher (P=0.01) and SF-36 physical function subset 14 points higher (P=0.005) in the XLPE group. There was no radiographic osteolysis or mechanical failure related to the tibial polyethylene in either group. At 5-year follow-up, no deleterious effects related to highly cross-linked posterior stabilized tibial polyethylene inserts were observed. PMID:26021902

  20. A Comparison of Anatomic Double- And Single-bundle Techniques for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction, A Prospective Randomized Study with A 5-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Karikis, Ioannis; Desai, Neel; Sernert, Ninni; Rostgard-Christensen, Lars; Kartus, Juri T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the mid-term outcome after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with either the anatomic double-bundle (DB) or anatomic single-bundle (SB) technique using hamstring tendon autografts in an unselected group of patients. Methods: 103 patients (33 women, 70 men; median age, 27 years; range, 18-52 years) were randomized and underwent ACL reconstruction (DB group; n=53 and SB group; n=50). All reconstructions were performed anatomically, identifying the ACL footprints, using the anteromedial portal for the femoral tunnel drilling and utilizing interference screw for tibial and femoral fixation. One blinded observer examined the patients both preoperatively and at follow-up (median, 64 months; range, 55-75 months). Radiographic evaluation of OA was performed using the Ahlbäck, Kellgren-Lawrence and Fairbanks grading systems in the early postoperative period and at follow up. Results: Preoperatively, no differences were found between the study groups apart from the pre-injury Tegner activity level, which was lower in the DB group (p=0.02). Eighty-seven patients (83%) were available for examination at 5-year follow-up. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of the pivot-shift test, KT-1000 arthrometer laxity measurements, manual Lachman test, One-leg-hop test, Square-hop test, range of motion, Lysholm knee scoring scale, Tegner activity scale and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Correspondingly, no differences were found between the groups regarding the presence of OA at follow-up. Both DB and SB groups improved significantly at follow-up compared with the preoperative assessment. Conclusion: At mid-term follow-up of an unselected group of patients, anatomic DB reconstruction was not superior to anatomic SB reconstruction in terms of the pivot-shift test or subjective and objective outcome variables, as seen in this prospective randomized study

  1. Additional follow-up telephone counselling and initial smoking relapse: a longitudinal, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fang; Liu, Qinghui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Changxi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking cessation services can help smokers to quit; however, many smoking relapse cases occur over time. Initial relapse prevention should play an important role in achieving the goal of long-term smoking cessation. Several studies have focused on the effect of extended telephone support in relapse prevention, but the conclusions remain conflicting. Design and setting From October 2008 to August 2013, a longitudinal, controlled study was performed in a large general hospital of Beijing. Participants The smokers who sought treatment at our smoking cessation clinic were non-randomised and divided into 2 groups: face-to-face individual counselling group (FC group), and face-to-face individual counselling plus telephone follow-up counselling group (FCF group). No pharmacotherapy was offered. Outcomes The timing of initial smoking relapse was compared between FC and FCF groups. Predictors of initial relapse were investigated during the first 180 days, using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of 547 eligible male smokers who volunteered to participate, 457 participants (117 in FC group and 340 in FCF group) achieved at least 24 h abstinence. The majority of the lapse episodes occurred during the first 2 weeks after the quit date. Smokers who did not receive the follow-up telephone counselling (FC group) tended to relapse to smoking earlier than those smokers who received the additional follow-up telephone counselling (FCF group), and the log-rank test was statistically significant (p=0.003). A Cox regression model showed that, in the FCF group, being married, and having a lower Fagerström test score, normal body mass index and doctor-diagnosed tobacco-related chronic diseases, were significantly independent protective predictors of smoking relapse. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that additional follow-up telephone counselling might be an effective strategy in preventing relapse. Further research is still

  2. A Longitudinal Follow-up of Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Bruserud, Øyvind; Oftedal, Bergithe E.; Landegren, Nils; Erichsen, Martina M.; Bratland, Eirik; Lima, Kari; Jørgensen, Anders P.; Myhre, Anne G.; Svartberg, Johan; Fougner, Kristian J.; Bakke, Åsne; Nedrebø, Bjørn G.; Mella, Bjarne; Breivik, Lars; Viken, Marte K.; Knappskog, Per M.; Marthinussen, Mihaela C.; Løvås, Kristian; Kämpe, Olle; Wolff, Anette B.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a childhood-onset monogenic disease defined by the presence of two of the three major components: hypoparathyroidism, primary adrenocortical insufficiency, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Information on longitudinal follow-up of APS1 is sparse. Objective: To describe the phenotypes of APS1 and correlate the clinical features with autoantibody profiles and autoimmune regulator (AIRE) mutations during extended follow-up (1996–2016). Patients: All known Norwegian patients with APS1. Results: Fifty-two patients from 34 families were identified. The majority presented with one of the major disease components during childhood. Enamel hypoplasia, hypoparathyroidism, and CMC were the most frequent components. With age, most patients presented three to five disease manifestations, although some had milder phenotypes diagnosed in adulthood. Fifteen of the patients died during follow-up (median age at death, 34 years) or were deceased siblings with a high probability of undisclosed APS1. All except three had interferon-ω) autoantibodies, and all had organ-specific autoantibodies. The most common AIRE mutation was c.967_979del13, found in homozygosity in 15 patients. A mild phenotype was associated with the splice mutation c.879+1G>A. Primary adrenocortical insufficiency and type 1 diabetes were associated with protective human leucocyte antigen genotypes. Conclusions: Multiple presumable autoimmune manifestations, in particular hypoparathyroidism, CMC, and enamel hypoplasia, should prompt further diagnostic workup using autoantibody analyses (eg, interferon-ω) and AIRE sequencing to reveal APS1, even in adults. Treatment is complicated, and mortality is high. Structured follow-up should be performed in a specialized center. PMID:27253668

  3. Prospective, Randomized Comparison of One-level Mobi-C Cervical Total Disc Replacement vs. Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion: Results at 5-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Zigler, Jack E.; Jackson, Robert; Nunley, Pierce D.; Bae, Hyun W.; Kim, Kee D.; Ohnmeiss, Donna D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is increasing interest in the role of cervical total disc replacement (TDR) as an alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Multiple prospective randomized studies with minimum 2 year follow-up have shown TDR to be at least as safe and effective as ACDF in treating symptomatic degenerative disc disease at a single level. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of cervical TDR using the Mobi-C® with ACDF at 5-year follow-up. Methods This prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted as a Food and Drug Administration regulated Investigational Device Exemption trial across 23 centers with 245 patients randomized (2:1) to receive TDR with Mobi-C® Cervical Disc Prosthesis or ACDF with anterior plate and allograft. Outcome assessments included a composite overall success score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), visual analog scales (VAS) assessing neck and arm pain, Short Form-12 (SF-12) health survey, patient satisfaction, major complications, subsequent surgery, segmental range of motion, and adjacent segment degeneration. Results The 60-month follow-up rate was 85.5% for the TDR group and 78.9% for the ACDF group. The composite overall success was 61.9% with TDR vs. 52.2% with ACDF, demonstrating statistical non-inferiority. Improvements in NDI, VAS neck and arm pain, and SF-12 scores were similar between groups and were maintained from earlier follow-up through 60 months. There was no significant difference between TDR and ACDF in adverse events or major complications. Range of motion was maintained with TDR through 60 months. Device-related subsequent surgeries (TDR: 3.0%, ACDF: 11.1%, p<0.02) and adjacent segment degeneration at the superior level (TDR: 37.1%, ACDF: 54.7%, p<0.03) were significantly lower for TDR patients. Conclusions Five-year results demonstrate the safety and efficacy of TDR with the Mobi-C as a viable alternative to ACDF with the potential advantage of lower rates of reoperation and

  4. Segmental correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis by all-screw fixation method in adolescents and young adults. minimum 5 years follow-up with SF-36 questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In our institution, the fixation technique in treating idiopathic scoliosis was shifted from hybrid fixation to the all-screw method beginning in 2000. We conducted this study to assess the intermediate -term outcome of all-screw method in treating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Methods Forty-nine consecutive patients were retrospectively included with minimum of 5-year follow-up (mean, 6.1; range, 5.1-7.3 years). The average age of surgery was 18.5 ± 5.0 years. We assessed radiographic measurements at preoperative (Preop), postoperative (PO) and final follow-up (FFU) period. Curve correction rate, correction loss rate, complications, accuracy of pedicle screws and SF-36 scores were analyzed. Results The average major curve was corrected from 58.0 ± 13.0° Preop to 16.0 ± 9.0° PO(p < 0.0001), and increased to 18.4 ± 8.6°(p = 0.12) FFU. This revealed a 72.7% correction rate and a correction loss of 2.4° (3.92%). The thoracic kyphosis decreased little at FFU (22 ± 12° to 20 ± 6°, (p = 0.25)). Apical vertebral rotation decreased from 2.1 ± 0.8 PreOP to 0.8 ± 0.8 at FFU (Nash-Moe grading, p < 0.01). Among total 831 pedicle screws, 56 (6.7%) were found to be malpositioned. Compared with 2069 age-matched Taiwanese, SF-36 scores showed inferior result in 2 variables: physical function and role physical. Conclusion Follow-up more than 5 years, the authors suggest that all-screw method is an efficient and safe method. PMID:22340624

  5. The cost-effectiveness of short-term and long-term psychotherapy in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders during a 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Maljanen, Timo; Knekt, Paul; Lindfors, Olavi; Virtala, Esa; Tillman, Päivi; Härkänen, Tommi

    2016-01-15

    Both short-term and long-term psychotherapies are used extensively in treating different mental disorders, but there have been practically no attempts to compare their cost-effectiveness. The aim of this study, which is part of the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study, is to assess the cost-effectiveness of two short-term therapies compared to that of a long-term therapy. In this study 326 outpatients suffering from mood or anxiety disorder were randomized to solution-focused therapy (SFT), short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (SPP) or to long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LPP). Psychiatric symptoms and working ability were assessed at baseline and then 4-9 times during a 5-year follow-up using eight widely used measures including e.g. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Symptom Check List, anxiety scale (SCL-90-Anx), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), Symptom Check List, Global Severity Index (SCL-90-GSI), and the Work-subscale (SAS-Work) of the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR). Both direct and indirect costs were measured. During the 5-year follow-up period statistically significant improvements were observed in all health indicators in all therapy groups. At first the recovery was faster in the short-term therapy groups than in the LPP group, but taking the whole follow-up period into account, the effectiveness of the LPP was somewhat greater than that of the short-term therapies. Especially the direct costs were, however, much higher in the LPP group than in the short-term therapy groups. Thus the long-term therapy can hardly be regarded as cost-effective compared to short-term therapies when patients are randomized to the therapy groups. PMID:26540079

  6. Enzyme replacement therapy in an attenuated case of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (Scheie syndrome): a 6.5-year detailed follow-up.

    PubMed

    Jurecka, Agnieszka; Marucha, Jolanta; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta; Różdżyńska-Świątkowska, Agnieszka; Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2012-12-01

    We present the 6.5-year follow-up of a boy with Scheie syndrome whose therapy was initiated at age 2.5 years. Detailed anthropometric features, echocardiography, ophthalmologic and audiologic examinations, psychologic tests, joint range of motion, skeletal radiographs, ultrasound studies of liver and spleen volumes, urinary glycosaminoglycans, and antibodies were documented. After 6.5 years of enzyme replacement therapy, the patient experienced a decline in overall status, and the disease progressed significantly despite treatment. The patient's height at age 9 was equal to that at age 6. The patient developed heart insufficiency and a deterioration of airway flow. The patient's intelligence quotient remained unchanged, i.e., at the average level of 86 on the Terman-Merill Scale. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed cervical spinal canal stenosis and marked spinal cord compression with myelopathy. A worsening of carpal tunnel syndrome was also evident. Ophthalmologic evaluation revealed increased central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure. In audiologic assessment, the patient's results were similar to those after 3 years of treatment. The only benefit involved temporarily improved passive and active shoulder flexion. Overall, the benefit of enzyme replacement therapy with laronidase on Scheie syndrome appeared minimal. PMID:23127271

  7. Severe Agnathia-Otocephaly Complex: Surgical Management and Longitudinal Follow-up From Birth Through Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Golinko, Michael S; Shetye, Pradip; Flores, Roberto L; Staffenberg, David A

    2015-11-01

    Agnathia-otocephaly complex (AOC) is characterized by mandibular hypo- or aplasia, ear abnormalities, microstomia, and microglossia. Though rare and often fatal, this is the first report detailing various reconstructive strategies beyond infancy as well as longitudinal follow-up into adulthood. All patients with AOC treated at our institution over a 30 year period were reviewed. Four patients were identified, one with agnathia, one with micrognathia. Two males with nanognathia (defined as a symphyseal remnant without body nor ramus) were also included. The mean follow-up was 17 years. All four underwent perinatal tracheostomy and gastrostomy-tube placement. Commissuroplasties were typically performed before 3 years of age and repeated as necessary to allow for oral hygiene. Mandibular reconstruction was most successful with rib between ages 3 and 8, after which time, free fibula transfer was utilized. Due to some resoprtion or extrusion, all patients underwent repeated bone grafting procedures. Tissue expansion of the neck was used to restore the lower third of the face, but was most successful in the teenage years. At last follow-up of the eldest patients, one was in college while another was pursuing graduate education. AOC need not be a fatal nor untreatable condition; a reasonable quality of life can be achieved. Although the lower-facial contour may be improved, and a stoma created, the lack of musculature make deglutition virtually impossible with current therapies. Just as transplantation has emerged as a modality for facial restoration following severe trauma, so too may it be a future option for congenital deformities. PMID:26517463

  8. Groningen temporomandibular total joint prosthesis: an 8-year longitudinal follow-up on function and pain.

    PubMed

    Schuurhuis, Jennifer M; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Stegenga, Boudewijn; de Bont, Lambert G M; Spijkervet, Fred K L

    2012-12-01

    Total temporomandibular joint replacement is a surgical procedure for patients with severe temporomandibular joint afflictions affecting quality of life, which have not responded beneficially to previous conventional surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term outcome of the Groningen temporomandibular joint (TMJ) prosthesis in patients with chronic pain and mutilated temporomandibular joints following multiple surgical procedures, with respect to prosthesis failure, the patient's postoperative level of satisfaction and longitudinal changes in maximum mouth opening, functional mandibular impairment and pain. Eight female patients were studied in whom Groningen TMJ prostheses were inserted, two unilaterally and six bilaterally. The Groningen TMJ prosthesis was mechanically successful during 8 years of follow-up in seven out of eight patients with a disc dislocation being seen in one patient (7%). Patients were satisfied, despite the limited improvement of the maximum mouth opening, and pain scores. Although the decline of MFIQ scores during 8 years of follow-up was significant compared to baseline (p=0.027), the effects of the prosthesis on maximum mouth opening, function and pain were limited. This may be due to persistent chronic pain and the adverse effects of multiple previous surgical procedures. PMID:22484125

  9. Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002) Third Follow-up Data File Documentation. NCES 2014-364

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Alexander, Christopher P.; Jewell, Donna M.; Lauff, Erich; Mattox, Tiffany L.; Wilson, David

    2014-01-01

    This report provides guidance and documentation for users of the combined base-year to third follow-up data of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002). ELS:2002 is sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. The base-year and follow-up studies…

  10. Randomized trial on the effectiveness of long- and short-term psychotherapy on psychosocial functioning and quality of life during a 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Knekt, Paul; Heinonen, Erkki; Härkäpää, Kristiina; Järvikoski, Aila; Virtala, Esa; Rissanen, Julius; Lindfors, Olavi; Helsinki Psychotherapy Study Group

    2015-09-30

    Knowledge is incomplete on whether long-term psychotherapy is more effective than short-term therapy in treating mood and anxiety disorder, when measured by improvements in psychosocial functioning and life quality. In the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study, 326 outpatients with mood or anxiety disorder were randomized to solution-focused therapy (SFT), short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (SPP), or long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LPP), and followed up for 5 years from the start of treatment. The outcome measures comprised 4 questionnaires on psychosocial functioning, assessing global social functioning (Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR), sense of coherence (Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC)), perceived competence (Self-Performance Survey), dispositional optimism (Life Orientation Test (LOT)), and 1 questionnaire assessing quality of life (Life Situation Survey (LSS)). Short-term therapies improved psychosocial functioning and quality of life more than LPP during the first year. The only exceptions were LOT and perceived competence, which did not differ between SPP and LPP. Later in the follow-up, SOC and perceived competence showed significantly more improvement in LPP than in the short-term therapy groups. No direct differences between SFT and SPP were noted. Short-term therapy has consistently more short-term effects on psychosocial functioning and quality of life than LPP, whereas LPP has some additional long-term benefits on psychosocial functioning. PMID:26162657

  11. A 5-Year Follow-Up After Cartilage Repair in the Knee Using a Platelet-Rich Plasma-Immersed Polymer-Based Implant

    PubMed Central

    Siclari, Alberto; Mascaro, Gennaro; Kaps, Christian; Boux, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the clinical outcome after repair of cartilage defects of the knee with subchondral drilling and resorbable polymer-based implants immersed with autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Fifty-two patients with focal chondral defects were treated with subchondral drilling, followed by covering with a polyglycolic acid - hyaluronan (PGA-HA) implant (chondrotissue®) immersed with autologous PRP. At 5-year follow-up, patients’ situation was assessed using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and compared to the pre-operative situation. The KOOS showed clinically meaningful and significant (p < 0.05) improvement in all subcategories compared to baseline. Subgroup analysis showed that there were no differences in the clinical outcome regarding defect size and localization as well as degenerative condition of the knee. Cartilage repair was complete in 20 out of 21 patients at 4-year follow-up as shown by magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) scoring. Covering of focal cartilage defects with the PGA-HA implant and PRP after bone marrow stimulation leads to a lasting improvement of the patients’ situation. PMID:25352927

  12. Self-Reported Periodontitis and Incident Type 2 Diabetes among Male Workers from a 5-Year Follow-Up to MY Health Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Atsushi; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Miyoshi, Yuji; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to examine whether periodontitis is associated with incident type 2 diabetes in a Japanese male worker cohort. Methods The study participants were Japanese men, aged 36–55 years, without diabetes. Data were extracted from the MY Health Up study, consisting of self-administered questionnaire surveys at baseline and following annual health examinations for an insurance company in Japan. The oral health status of the participants was classified by two self-reported indicators: (1) gingival hemorrhage and (2) tooth loosening. Type 2 diabetes incidence was determined by self-reporting or blood test data. Modified Poisson regression approach was used to estimate the relative risks and the 95% confidence intervals of incident diabetes with periodontitis. Covariates included age, body mass index, family history of diabetes, hypertension, current smoking habits, alcohol use, dyslipidemia, and exercise habits. Results Of the 2895 candidates identified at baseline in 2004, 2469 men were eligible for follow-up analysis, 133 of whom were diagnosed with diabetes during the 5-year follow-up period. Tooth loosening was associated with incident diabetes [adjusted relative risk = 1.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.14–2.64] after adjusting for other confounding factors. Gingival hemorrhage displayed a similar trend but was not significantly associated with incident diabetes [adjusted relative risk = 1.32, 95% confidence interval = 0.95–1.85]. Conclusions Tooth loosening is an independent predictor of incident type 2 diabetes in Japanese men. PMID:27115749

  13. Results of a Second-generation Constrained Condylar Prosthesis in Complex Primary and Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Mean 5.5-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chen-Yi; Xue, De-Ting; Jiang, Shuai; He, Rong-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The application of second-generation constrained condylar knee (CCK) prostheses has not been widely studied. This retrospective study was carried out to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of a second-generation CCK prosthesis for complex primary or revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: In total, 51 consecutive TKAs (47 patients) were performed between June 2003 and June 2013 using second-generation modular CCK prostheses. The follow-up was conducted at 3rd day, 1st, 6th, and 12th months postoperatively and later annually. Anteroposterior (AP), lateral, skyline, and long-standing AP radiographs of the affected knees were taken. The Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) Knee Score, the Knee Society Knee Score (KSKS), the Knee Society Function Score (KSFS), and range of motion (ROM) were also recorded. Heteroscedastic two-tailed Student's t-tests were used to compare the HSS score and the Knee Society score between primary and revision TKAs. A value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Four knees (two patients) were lost to follow-up, and 47 knees (31 primary TKAs and 16 revision TKAs) had a mean follow-up time of 5.5 years. The mean HSS score improved from 51.1 ± 15.0 preoperatively to 85.3 ± 8.4 points at the final follow-up (P < 0.05). Similar results were observed in terms of the KSKS and KSFS, which improved from 26.0 ± 13.0 to 80.0 ± 12.2 and from 40.0 ± 15.0 to 85.0 ± 9.3 points, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant difference in the HSS, KSKS, KSFS, or ROM was found between primary and revision TKAs (P > 0.05). Two complications were observed in the revision TKA group (one intraoperative distal femur fracture and one recurrence of infection) while one complication (infection) was observed in the primary TKA group. No prosthesis loosening, joint dislocation, patella problems, tibial fracture, or nerve injury were observed. Radiolucent lines were observed in 4% of the knees without progressive

  14. Comparison of anterior instrumentation systems and the results of minimum 5 years follow-up in the treatment of tuberculosis spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Benli, I Teoman; Alanay, Ahmet; Akalin, Serdar; Kiş, Mahmut; Acaroğlu, Emre; Ateş, Bülent; Aydin, Erbil

    2004-01-01

    Anterior debridement, strut grafting and instrumentation have an increasing popularity in the treatment of tuberculosis of spine. Anterior fixation can be done either by a plate or a rod system. This study reports on the surgical results of 59 patients with Pott's disease that had anterior radical debridement and anterior fusion and anterior instrumentation with 5 years follow-up. Average age at the time of operation was 46.3+/-13.5 years. Average follow-up was 84.6+/-11.3 months. Local kyphosis was measured as the angle between the upper and lower end plates of the collapsed vertebrae preoperatively, postoperatively and at the last follow-up visit. Vertebral collapse, destruction, cold abscess, and canal compromise were assessed in MR images. The indication for surgery was either one of the deformity, instability or neurological compromise. Surgical treatment included anterior radical debridement followed by grafting with tricortical auto graft and anterior instrumentation at levels just above and below the diseased segment(s) with either plate (Sofamor-Danek, Z plate, Group A) or rod (Sofamor-Danek, CDH, Group B) systems. There were 23 patients in group A and 36 patients in group B. All patients had similar anti tuberculosis chemotherapy. Patients had similar rehabilitation program after the surgery. The deformity in the sagittal and the coronal plane was measured and presence of significant consolidation, along with the absence of implant failure or correction loss was considered as signs of fusion. The two groups were similar according to age (46.9+/-14.2 vs. 45.8+/-13.1), gender, average number of involved levels (1.8+/-0.5 vs. 1.6+/-0.5), location of involved levels, severity of deformity (21.5 degrees+/-9.9 masculine vs. 24.8 degrees+/-11.9 masculine) and type of autografts (p>0.05 for all parameters). 39.1 % of patients in group A and 41.6 % of patients in group B had neurological compromise with improvement in majority at the end of follow-up. Deformities

  15. Effectiveness of the integrated long-term program of management of patients after first psychotic episode in 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, Yuliya; Gurovich, Isaac Ya; Shmukler, Alexander

    2010-11-01

    The Early Intervention Centre (First episode clinic, FEC) that provides specific service programs to this particular target group of patients with early psychosis opened in November 2000 as a day clinic at the Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry. To date, FEC programs consistent with the developed model have been established in 30 regions across Russia. 5-year follow-up data are available for 114 patients who received such care in the FEC. In more than 30% of cases complete remission was maintained over the 5 years. The number of relapses increased on the 2nd and 3rd years, but later decreased more than by one half. The relapses were mostly treated in day clinic or outpatient settings and did not require hospital admissions. More than 73% of the patients maintained their social achievements with no losses. By the end of the 5th year only 1/5 of the cases were formally recognized as unemployable due to psychiatric disability. Significantly better clinical and psychosocial outcomes have been shown in comparison with a control group of patients, treated in routine psychiatric services. PMID:21057411

  16. Evaluation of 5-Year Trends in Knee Society Scores Stratified by Comorbidities: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Julio J; Issa, Kimona; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Harwin, Steven F; Given, Kristin; Mont, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) are reliable procedures for treating end-stage knee osteoarthritis with excellent long-term outcomes. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally evaluate temporal trends of Knee Society Scores (KSS) after TKA and to identify potential demographic and comorbid factors that affect these outcomes. This prospective study evaluated 281 patients (108 men and 173 women) with a mean age of 66 years (range, 39-80 years) who underwent primary TKA (minimum follow-up 5 years). During each follow-up visit, KS objective, function, and total scores were evaluated. The effects of different demographics and comorbidities on outcomes were further analyzed using multivariate regression analysis. Following TKA, peak mean KSS were observed at 1-year follow-up (mean, 92 points), after which there was no significant difference in scores at 5 years compared with 1-year follow-up (mean, 92 points). KS function scores were observed to be unchanged from preoperative levels (mean, 53 points) and at 6 weeks (mean, 56 points). These were significantly higher at 3 months (mean, 78 points) and reached a maximum mean peak at 1 year (mean, 85 points). KS objective scores increased earlier than function scores. The demographic variables and comorbidities that demonstrated a significantly negative impact in KS function scores were increased age, female gender, higher body mass index, and several medical comorbidities including immunological and neurological disease, and neoplasm. Race was the only variable that significantly decreased the KS objective scores. KSS after TKA follow temporal trends with scores initially unchanged from preoperative levels for the objective component, but the scores increased for the functional component. All components demonstrated higher levels compared with preoperative scores by 3 months and peaked at 1-year follow-up. At 5-year follow-up, all mean KSS were unchanged relative to peak scores seen at 1 year. Various patient

  17. Semen quality improves marginally during young adulthood: a longitudinal follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Perheentupa, Antti; Sadov, Sergey; Rönkä, Riitta; Virtanen, Helena E.; Rodprasert, Wiwat; Vierula, Matti; Jørgensen, Niels; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Toppari, Jorma

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does semen quality improve during early adulthood? SUMMARY ANSWER Semen variables change little during the third decade of life, however some improvement in sperm morphology and motility may occur. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY A suspicion of deteriorating semen quality has been raised in several studies. The longitudinal development of semen quality in early adulthood is insufficiently understood. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A longitudinal follow-up of two cohorts of volunteer young adult Finnish men representing the general population was carried out. Cohorts A (discovery cohort, born 1979–1981, n = 336) and B (validation cohort, born 1983, n = 197) were followed up from the age of 19 years onward for 10 years. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Inclusion criteria included that both the men and their mothers were born in Finland. Semen analysis was performed in cohorts A and B at 2–4 year intervals over a period of 10 years. Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, total motile count and morphology were the variables assessed in the analysis. A physical examination was carried out at each visit to detect any significant andrological abnormalities. The overall participation rate was 13.4%. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE During the follow-up, the percentage of sperm with normal morphology and the percentage of motile sperm increased significantly both in the discovery (A) (P < 0.001 at 19 versus 29 years for both) and validation (B) (P < 0.001 and P = 0.03 at 19 versus 29 years, respectively) cohort. Sperm concentration and total sperm count showed a significant increase with age only in cohort B (P = 0.03 at 21 versus 29 years, P = 0.009 at 19 versus 29 years, respectively). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION A limited number of men participated both in the first round and in the final fourth round (cohort A, n = 111 and cohort B, n = 90 men) and in all four rounds (cohort A, n = 61 and cohort B, n = 52). WIDER

  18. Recovery of Olfactory Function following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: A Longitudinal Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Kathleen; Catroppa, Cathy; Anderson, Vicki

    2016-04-15

    There is increasing evidence that disruption of olfactory function after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common. Olfactory dysfunction (OD) has been linked to significant functional implications in areas of health, safety, and quality of life, but longitudinal research investigating olfactory recovery is limited. This study aimed to investigate recovery trajectories for olfaction following pediatric TBI and explore predictors of early and late olfactory outcomes. The olfactory function of 37 children with TBI ages 8-16 years was assessed on average at 1.5, 8.0, and 18.0 months post-injury using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. A significant improvement in olfactory performance was seen over time in those with acute OD, however, only 16% of those with the most severe OD showed recovery to normal olfactory function, with the remainder demonstrating ongoing olfactory impairment at the 18 month follow-up. Predictors of early (0-3 month) and late (18 month) olfactory outcomes varied with site of impact, a significant predictor of later olfactory performance. In summary, while there was evidence of recovery of OD over time in pediatric TBI, the majority of children with severe OD did not show any recovery. In light of limited recovery of function for more severely affected children, the importance of appropriate education and implementation of rehabilitation management strategies is highlighted. PMID:26413938

  19. Palatal positioned implants in severely atrophic maxillae versus conventional implants to support fixed full-arch prostheses: Controlled retrospective study with 5 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Candel-Marti, Eugenia; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Bagán, Leticia; Peñarrocha-Diago, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate soft tissue conditions and bone loss around palatal positioned implants supporting fixed full-arch prostheses to rehabilitate edentulous maxillae with horizontal atrophy and compare them with conventional well-centered implants placed in non-atrophic maxillae after a minimum follow-up of 5 years. Material and Methods A clinical retrospective study was performed of patients that were rehabilitated with full-arch fixed implant-supported maxillary prostheses and had a minimum follow-up of 5 years after implant loading. Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients with class IV maxilla according to Cawood and Howell and treated with palatal positioned implants (test) and with class III maxilla and treated with implants well-centered in the alveolar ridge and completely surrounded by bone (control). The following variables were assessed: age, sex, frequency of tooth brushing, smoking, type of prosthesis, type of implant, implant success, amount of buccal keratinized mucosa, buccal retraction, probing depth, plaque index, modified bleeding index, presence of mucositis or peri-implantitis and peri-implant bone loss. Statistical analysis was performed applying Chi2 Test and Student’s t-test using alpha set at 0.05. Results A total of 57 patients were included: 32 patients with 161 palatal positioned implants (test) and 25 patients with 132 well centered implants (control). No statistically significant differences were found regarding age, sex and smoking, but test group patients reported a significantly higher frequency of daily tooth brushing. Implant success rates were 96.9% for test group implants and 96.0% for control group implants. Peri-implant mucosa retraction was significantly higher in the control group than in the test group (p=0,017). No significant differences were observed either for all the other assessed clinical parameters or for peri-implant bone loss. Conclusions Despite its limitations the outcomes of the present study suggest

  20. Impact of cardiac involvement on the risk of mortality among patients with systemic sclerosis: a 5-year follow-up of a single-center cohort.

    PubMed

    Költő, Gyöngyvér; Faludi, Réka; Aradi, Dániel; Bartos, Barbara; Kumánovics, Gábor; Minier, Tünde; Czirják, László; Komócsi, András

    2014-02-01

    Cardiac involvement is among the leading causes of mortality in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Previously, we demonstrated in a single-center, cross-sectional study the frequent coexistence of different forms of cardiac involvement in systemic sclerosis including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), coronary artery disease (CAD), and microvascular dysfunction (MVD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic significance of cardiac involvement. One hundred twenty patients with SSc were enrolled. All cases underwent a non-invasive cardiovascular protocol. In 30 patients with suspected cardiac involvement, right heart catheterization and intra-coronary pressure-wire-supplemented coronary angiography were performed. Clinical follow-up was 5 years. Patients with CAD at the baseline showed a trend for higher cardiovascular mortality while in patients with MVD this difference was significant (26.7 % versus 9.5 %, p = 0.077 and 30 % versus 10.1 %, p < 0.05, respectively). Cardiovascular mortality of PAH cases was higher but, however, did not reach statistical significance 21.4 % versus 10.4 %, p = 0.261. Cardiovascular event-free survival was significantly lower among patients with combinations of two or three disorders (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis of organ involvements and comorbidities showed that the diffuse cutaneous subset, the presence of kidney involvement, the velocity of the tricuspid regurgitation, as well as diabetes mellitus were independent predictors of overall mortality. MVD and CAD alone or in combination with PAH significantly affected the 5-year cardiovascular mortality. These findings highlight the prognostic importance of coronary disease in patients with SSc [ www.clinicaltrials.gov (Reg. Nr.: NCT00843102)]. PMID:23942767

  1. A prospective randomised controlled trial of laparoscopic vs open radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: perioperative and oncologic outcomes with 5-year follow-upT Lin et al

    PubMed Central

    Lin, T; Fan, X; Zhang, C; Xu, K; Liu, H; Zhang, J; Jiang, C; Huang, H; Han, J; Yao, Y; Xie, W; Dong, W; Bi, L; Huang, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC) is increasingly being used for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, high levels of clinical evidence comparing laparoscopic vs open radical cystectomy (ORC) are lacking. Methods: A prospective randomised controlled clinical trial comparing LRC vs ORC in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. Thirty-five patients were eligible for final analysis in each group. Results: The median follow-up was 26 months (range, 4–59 months) for laparoscopic vs 32 months (range, 6–60 months) for ORC. Significant differences were noted in operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), blood transfusion rate, analgesic requirement, and time to resumption of oral intake. No significant differences were noted in the length of hospital stay, complication rate, lymph node yield (14.1±6.3 for LRC and 15.2±5.9 for ORC), positive surgical margin rate, postoperative pathology, or recurrence rate (7 for LRC and 8 for ORC). The 5-year recurrence-free survival with laparoscopic vs ORC was 78.5% vs 70.9%, respectively (P=0.773). The overall survival with laparoscopic vs ORC was 73.8% vs 67.4%, respectively (P=0.511). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that LRC is superior to ORC in perioperative outcomes, including EBL, blood transfusion rate, and analgesic requirement. We found no major difference in oncologic outcomes. The number of patients is too small to allow for a final conclusion. PMID:24407192

  2. Long-term effect of xylitol chewing gum in the prevention of dental caries: a follow-up 5 years after termination of a prevention program.

    PubMed

    Isogangas, P; Mäkinen, K K; Tiekso, J; Alanen, P

    1993-01-01

    About 65% of the original 258 children who participated in 1982-1984 in a caries prevention program involving the use of xylitol chewing gum were retrieved in 1989 for a follow-up study. Ninety-five subjects from the original xylitol (X) group and 70 subjects from the original control (no-gum, C) group were available. In 1984, when the children completed the program at the age of 13-14 years, the caries scores were significantly lower in children who had used xylitol gums daily, compared with the C group. In 1989, 5 years after the discontinuation of the gum program, the difference between the X and C groups had continued to increase in favor of the X group. These effects were explained by assuming that the X gum program had facilitated the establishment of a low-virulent bacterial flora on the surfaces of the teeth, and especially on those teeth that erupted during the trial proper. This type of results are possibly helpful when evaluating cost-benefit ratios of caries prevention. PMID:8281565

  3. Cost Utility Analysis of the Cervical Artificial Disc vs Fusion for the Treatment of 2-Level Symptomatic Degenerative Disc Disease: 5-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhuo; Nunley, Pierce; Stone, Marcus B.; Lee, Darrin; Kim, Kee D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cervical total disc replacement (cTDR) was developed to treat cervical degenerative disc disease while preserving motion. OBJECTIVE: Cost-effectiveness of this intervention was established by looking at 2-year follow-up, and this update reevaluates our analysis over 5 years. METHODS: Data were derived from a randomized trial of 330 patients. Data from the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey were transformed into utilities by using the SF-6D algorithm. Costs were calculated by extracting diagnosis-related group codes and then applying 2014 Medicare reimbursement rates. A Markov model evaluated quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for both treatment groups. Univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the stability of the model. The model adopted both societal and health system perspectives and applied a 3% annual discount rate. RESULTS: The cTDR costs $1687 more than anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) over 5 years. In contrast, cTDR had $34 377 less productivity loss compared with ACDF. There was a significant difference in the return-to-work rate (81.6% compared with 65.4% for cTDR and ACDF, respectively; P = .029). From a societal perspective, the incremental cost-effective ratio (ICER) for cTDR was −$165 103 per QALY. From a health system perspective, the ICER for cTDR was $8518 per QALY. In the sensitivity analysis, the ICER for cTDR remained below the US willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000 per QALY in all scenarios (−$225 816 per QALY to $22 071 per QALY). CONCLUSION: This study is the first to report the comparative cost-effectiveness of cTDR vs ACDF for 2-level degenerative disc disease at 5 years. The authors conclude that, because of the negative ICER, cTDR is the dominant modality. ABBREVIATIONS: ACDF, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion AWP, average wholesale price CE, cost-effectiveness CEA, cost-effectiveness analysis CPT, Current Procedural Terminology cTDR, cervical total disc

  4. Risk Factors for Long-Term Mortality after Hospitalization for Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A 5-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Holter, Jan C.; Ueland, Thor; Jenum, Pål A.; Müller, Fredrik; Brunborg, Cathrine; Frøland, Stig S.; Aukrust, Pål; Husebye, Einar; Heggelund, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background Contributors to long-term mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remain unclear, with little attention paid to pneumonia etiology. We examined long-term survival, causes of death, and risk factors for long-term mortality in adult patients who had been hospitalized for CAP, with emphasis on demographic, clinical, laboratory, and microbiological characteristics. Methods Two hundred and sixty-seven consecutive patients admitted in 2008–2011 to a general hospital with CAP were prospectively recruited and followed up. Patients who died during hospital stay were excluded. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected within 48 hours of admission. Extensive microbiological work-up was performed to establish the etiology of CAP in 63% of patients. Mortality data were obtained from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Cox regression models were used to identify independent risk factors for all-cause mortality. Results Of 259 hospital survivors of CAP (median age 66 years), 79 (30.5%) died over a median of 1,804 days (range 1–2,520 days). Cumulative 5-year survival rate was 72.9% (95% CI 67.4–78.4%). Standardized mortality ratio was 2.90 for men and 2.05 for women. The main causes of death were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), vascular diseases, and malignancy. Independent risk factors for death were the following (hazard ratio, 95% CI): age (1.83 per decade, 1.47–2.28), cardiovascular disease (2.63, 1.61–4.32), COPD (2.09, 1.27–3.45), immunocompromization (1.98, 1.17–3.37), and low serum albumin level at admission (0.75 per 5g/L higher, 0.58–0.96), whereas active smoking was protective (0.32, 0.14–0.74); active smokers were younger than non-smokers (P < 0.001). Microbial etiology did not predict mortality. Conclusions Results largely confirm substantial comorbidity-related 5-year mortality after hospitalization for CAP and the impact of several well-known risk factors for death, and extend

  5. Mortality differences between self-employed and paid employees: a 5-year follow-up study of the working population in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Toivanen, Susanna; Griep, Rosane Härter; Mellner, Christin; Vinberg, Stig; Eloranta, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Analyse mortality differences between self-employed and paid employees with a focus on industrial sector, educational level and gender using Swedish register data. Methods A cohort of the total working population (4 776 135 individuals; 7.2% self-employed; 18–100 years of age at baseline 2003) in Sweden with a 5-year follow-up (2004–2008) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality (57 743 deaths). Self-employed individuals were categorised as sole proprietors or limited liability company (LLC) owners according to their enterprise's legal form. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to compare mortality rates between sole proprietors, LLC owners and paid employees, adjusted for sociodemographic confounders. Results Mortality from cardiovascular diseases was 16% lower and from suicide 26% lower among LLC owners than among paid employees, adjusted for confounders. Within the industrial category, all-cause mortality was 13–15% lower among sole proprietors and LLC owners compared with employees in manufacturing and mining (MM) as well as personal and cultural services (PCS), and 11–20% higher in sole proprietors in trade, transport and communication and the welfare industry (W). A significant three-way interaction indicated 17–23% lower all-cause mortality among male LLC owners in MM and female sole proprietors in PCS, and 50% higher mortality in female sole proprietors in W than in employees in the same industries. Conclusions Mortality differences between self-employed individuals and paid employees vary by the legal form of self-employment, across industries, and by gender. Differences in work environment exposures and working conditions, varying market competition across industries and gender segregation in the labour market are potential mechanisms underlying these findings. PMID:27443155

  6. Education Longitudinal Study of 2002: Base-Year to First Follow-Up Data File Documentation. NCES 2006-344

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Rogers, James E.; Siegel, Peter H.; Stutts, Ellen S.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides guidance and documentation for users of the public release for the combined base-year and first follow-up data of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002). It provides extensive documentation of the content of the data files and how to access and manipulate them. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction to ELS:2002. It…

  7. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: First Follow-Up 1996-98 (BPS:96/98) Methodology Report. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer S.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Biber, Melissa; Pratt, Daniel J.

    This report describes the methods and procedures used for the full-scale data collection effort of the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study First Follow-Up 1996-98 (BPS:96/98). These students, who started their postsecondary education during the 1995-96 academic year, were first interviewed during 1996 as part of the National…

  8. Base Year, First, Second, and Third Follow-up. Data File Users Manual. Volume II. National Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinsohn, Jay; And Others

    This Users Manual is the supporting documentation for the Public Use Data File from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS). The data file contains certain merged data from the base year (1972), and first, second, and third follow-up NLS surveys for 22,652 cases. This volume contains only appendices K through Q, as…

  9. The First Year Inventory: A Longitudinal Follow-Up of 12-Month-Old to 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Baranek, Grace T.; Reznick, J Steven; Watson, Linda R.; Crais, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    The First Year Inventory is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. First Year Inventory taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory--regulatory and social--communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of…

  10. The influence of atorvastatin on parameters of inflammation left ventricular function, hospitalizations and mortality in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy – 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We assessed the influence of atorvastatin on selected indicators of an inflammatory condition, left ventricular function, hospitalizations and mortality in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods We included 68 DCM patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤40% treated optimally in a prospective, randomized study. They were observed for 5 years. Patients were divided into two groups: patients who were commenced on atorvastatin 40 mg daily for two months followed by an individually matched dose of 10 or 20 mg/day (group A), and patients who were treated according to current recommendations without statin therapy (group B). Results After 5-year follow-up we assessed 45 patients of mean age 59 ± 11 years - 22 patients in group A (77% male) and 23 patients in group B (82% male). Interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and uric acid concentrations were significantly lower in the statin group than in group B (14.96 ± 4.76 vs. 19.02 ± 3.94 pg/ml, p = 0.012; 19.10 ± 6.39 vs. 27.53 ± 7.39 pg/ml, p = 0.001, and 5.28 ± 0.48 vs. 6.53 ± 0.46 mg/dl, p = 0.001, respectively). In patients on statin therapy a reduction of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide concentration (from 1425.28 ± 1264.48 to 1098.01 ± 1483.86 pg/ml, p = 0.045), decrease in left ventricular diastolic (from 7.15 ± 0.90 to 6.67 ± 0.88 cm, p = 0.001) and systolic diameters (from 5.87 ± 0.92 to 5.17 ± 0.97, p = 0.001) in comparison to initial values were observed. We also showed the significant increase of LVEF in patients after statin therapy (from 32.0 ± 6.4 to 38.8 ± 8.8%, p = 0.016). Based on a comparison of curves using the log-rank test, the probability of survival to 5 years was significantly higher in patients receiving statins (p = 0.005). Conclusions Atorvastatin in a small dose significantly reduce levels of inflammatory cytokines and uric

  11. Rates of cardiovascular events and deaths are associated with advanced stages of HIV-infection: results of the HIV HEART study 7, 5 year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Stefan; Eisele, Lewin; Schwarz, Birte; Schulze, Christina; Holzendorf, Volker; Brockmeyer, Nobert H; Hower, Martin; Kwirant, Friedhelm; Rudolph, Roland; Neumann, Till; Reinsch, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular diseases are increasing in aging HIV-positive patients (HIV+). Impact of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, HIV-specific parameters and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the incidence of cardiovascular events (CVE) and on the mortality rate are investigated in different HIV+ cohorts. Methods The HIV HEART (HIVH) study is an ongoing prospective observational cohort study in the German Ruhr area to assess the frequency and clinical course of cardiac disorders in 1481 HIV+ by standardized non-invasive cardiovascular screening. CVE were defined as diagnosed or documented myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, arterial coronary intervention, stent implantation, bypass operation and stroke. Results 1481 HIV+ subjects (mean age: 49.3±10.7 years (y), female: 15.6%) were included. 130 CVE and 90 deaths were documented until the end of 7, 5 year follow-up of HIVH. Mean duration of the HIV-infection was 12.9±6.8 y. HIV+ were treated with ART on average for 8.6±6.8 y. According to the CDC classification of the HIV-infection, HIV+ were distributed over the clinical categories (A:34.6%; B:31.4% and C:33.9%) while more than the half had an advanced immunodeficiency (I:8.3%; II:41.1%; III:50.7%). Advanced clinical and immunological stages were significantly (p<0.001) associated with higher incidences of deaths (A:16.7%; B:26.7%; C:56.7% and I:6.7%; II:27.7%; III:65.6%) and CVE (A:17.7%; B:33.1%; C:49.2% and I:3.1%; II:32.3%; III:64.6%) but not with the duration of HIV-infection (per y: Hazard ratio (HR): 0.91 [0.88–0.94]) and ART (per y: HR: 0.81 [0.79–0.84]) adjusted for age. The proportion of deceased HIV+ with HIV-RNA ≥50 copies/mL and lower CD4-cell counts at their last visit is significantly higher compared with living HIV+ without CVE (HIV-RNA ≥50 copies/mL: 25.6% vs 14.7%). Median CD4-cells: 286.5 cells/µL (IQR: 168.8–482.8) versus 574 cells/µL (IQR: 406–786). 96.1% of the living HIV+ with CVE had HIV-RNA<50 copies

  12. Long-term Follow-up (Minimum 5 Years) Study of Single-level Posterior Dynamic Stabilization in Lumbar Degenerative Disease; 'Interspinous U' & 'DIAM'

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Joon; Park, Chan Woo; Son, Seong; Kim, Woo Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Recently posterior dynamic stabilizations (PDS) are increased in degenerative lumbar disease. But, some previous studies had doubts its long term prognosis. Long term clinical and radiological results of PDS using interspinous device (Interspinous U, DIAM) were analyzed. Methods We have used the 'interspinous U' and 'DIAM' for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. We included single level lumbar spinal stenosis patients who completed minimum 60 months follow-up evaluation. All patients checked plain lateral and flexion-extension views at immediately after the surgery and each follow-up. The clinical outcome was measured by Odom's criteria. Complications including post operative infection, bony erosion, device fracture, device malformations, and instabilities were surveyed. Results We included 18 for 'Interspinous U' and 7 patients 'DIAM' groups. Mean follow-up durations for 'Interspinous U' and 'DIAM' were 74.6 and 62.6 months, respectively. Satisfactory groups were 50.0% and 42.9 % for 'Interspinous U' and 'DIAM' groups. In 'Interspinous U' group disc height ratio increased transiently in immediate postoperative period (from 0.18 to 0.21) and then, decreased significantly in last follow-up (0.18). In 'DIAM' group, disc height ratio increased transiently in immediate postoperative period (from 0.18 to 0.19), and then decreased significantly in the last follow-up (0.16). Three (16.7%) and two (28.6%) patients undergo on a re-operation due to severe back pain in 'Interspinous U' and 'DIAM' groups. Conclusion Long term follow up 'Interspinous U' and 'DIAM' group showed low patient satisfaction and poor radiological outcomes. To ascertain the benefit of PDS compare with posterior screw fixation, prospective analysis with larger population and multi-center study will be needed. PMID:25983797

  13. Maintaining Superior Follow-Up Rates in a Longitudinal Study: Experiences from the College Life Study

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal studies are often considered to be a gold standard for research, but the operational management of such studies is not often discussed in detail; this paper describes strategies used to track and maintain high levels of participation in a longitudinal study involving annual personal interviews with a cohort of 1,253 undergraduates (first-time, first-year students at time of enrollment) at a large public mid-Atlantic university. PMID:22247739

  14. Incidence of thyroid disorders in mixed cryoglobulinemia: Results from a longitudinal follow-up.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Poupak; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Ruffilli, Ilaria; Elia, Giusy; Giuggioli, Dilia; Colaci, Michele; Ferri, Clodoveo; Antonelli, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    No study has evaluated the incidence of new cases of thyroid autoimmunity (AT) and dysfunction (TD) in hepatitis C-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) patients. We aimed to evaluate the incidence of new cases of AT and TD in a wide group of MC patients vs. age- and gender-matched controls from the same geographic area. After exclusion of MC patients with TD at the initial evaluation, the appearance of new cases of TD was evaluated in 112 MC patients and 112 matched controls, with similar iodine intake (median follow-up 67months in MC vs. 78 in controls). A high incidence (P<0.05) of new cases of hypothyroidism, TD, anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (AbTPO) positivity, appearance of a hypoechoic thyroid pattern, and thyroid autoimmunity in MC patients vs. controls was shown. A logistic regression analysis showed that in MC, the appearance of hypothyroidism was related to female gender, a borderline high initial thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), AbTPO positivity, a hypoechoic, and small thyroid. In conclusion, we show a high incidence of new cases of AT and TD in MC patients. MC patients at high risk (female gender, a borderline high initial TSH, AbTPO positivity, a hypoechoic, and small thyroid) should have periodically thyroid function follow-up. PMID:26970485

  15. The Longitudinal Assessment Study (LAS): Eighteen Year Follow-Up. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Christopher M.

    Premised on the view that students with more years of Montessori education (MEY) would possess to a higher degree those qualities emphasized in the Montessori environment and that Montessori students would be as successful as students more traditionally educated, this report presents the final assessment for the Longitudinal Assessment Study,…

  16. The Effects of Global Severe Privation on Cognitive Competence: Extension and Longitudinal Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Rutter, Michael; Beckett, Celia; Keavency, Lisa; Kreppner, Jana M.

    2000-01-01

    An extended longitudinal study compared cognitive development in children adopted from Romania before 24 months and in United Kingdom adoptees with an additional sample of Romanian children adopted after 24 months. Findings indicated that there was considerable catch-up among late-placed Romanian children but they exhibited lower cognitive scores…

  17. Longitudinal Follow-up of Factors Associated with Food Selectivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Michelle A.; Nelson, Nickola W.; Curtis, Amy B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorders longitudinally. Additionally explored were the stability of the relationship between food selectivity and sensory over-responsivity from time 1 to time 2 and the association between food selectivity and restricted and repetitive behavior at time…

  18. Mood Reactivity Rather than Cognitive Reactivity Is Predictive of Depressive Relapse: A Randomized Study with 5.5-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsbergen, Gerard D.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Burger, Huibert; Spinhoven, Philip; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Hollon, Steven D.; Schene, Aart H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined whether cognitive reactivity, cognitive extremity reactivity, and mood reactivity following mood provocation predicted relapse in depression over 5.5 years. Additionally, this study was the 1st to examine whether changes in cognitive reactivity and mood reactivity following preventive cognitive therapy (PCT)…

  19. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  20. Longitudinal Transient Elastography Measurements Used in Follow-up for Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Van Biervliet, Stephanie; Verdievel, Hugo; Vande Velde, Saskia; De Bruyne, Ruth; De Looze, Danny; Verhelst, Xavier; Geerts, Anja; Robberecht, Eddy; Van Vlierberghe, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis-related liver disease (CFLD) is diagnosed using a combination of criteria. Transient elastography (TE), an ultrasonographic method to evaluate liver stiffness, can differentiate patients with and without liver disease. This retrospective study (2007-2013) aimed to detect developing CFLD using consequent TE measurements. All cystic fibrosis patients with TE measurements between 2007 and 2013 (n = 150, median age 17 (9-24) y) were included, of which 118 had a median of three (range, 2-4) measurements with an interval of 1 (1-2) y. Twenty (14%) had CFLD at the first TE measurement; five (3%) developed CFLD during follow-up. The median TE value in CFLD was 14 kPa (8.7-32.2) compared with 5.3 (4.9-5.7) in cystic fibrosis patients without liver disease (CFnoLD; p = 0.0001). In CFnoLD, TE was correlated with age (p = 0.031). A TE result >6.8 kPa had a sensitivity of 91.5% and a specificity of 91.7% in predicting CFLD, according to the receiver operating characteristics analysis. It also has a positive predictive value of 88.6% and a negative predictive value of 86.9%, increasing to 91.7% and 98%, respectively, in patients at risk (<14 y) for developing CFLD. Patients with developing CFLD had progressively increasing consecutive TE measurements. PMID:26806442

  1. Longitudinal follow up of elevated pulmonary artery pressures in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Pashankar, Farzana D; Carbonella, Judith; Bazzy-Asaad, Alia; Friedman, Alan

    2009-03-01

    Elevated pulmonary artery pressures (PAP) occur in approximately 30% of children with sickle cell disease. In adults, pulmonary hypertension is significantly associated with mortality. There are no data on the long term significance in children. Nineteen children with SS/Sbeta(0) thalassaemia had elevated PAP, defined as tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) > or =2.5 m/s on screening echocardiograms. They were prospectively followed for 23 months (range 19-31 months). Patients with initial TRV > or = 3 or TRV > or = 2.5 m/s on repeat echocardiogram had cardiopulmonary evaluation and were offered treatment with hydroxyurea. Associated conditions like asthma and obstructive sleep apnea were treated. 18/19 patients had follow-up echocardiograms. These showed normalization of TRV in 8 patients. Risk factors associated with persistent elevation were higher TRV on initial echocardiogram (P = 0.01), lower haemoglobin (P = 0.003) and lower oxygen saturation (P = 0.03). Five patients with persistently elevated PAP were treated with hydroxyurea. Mean right ventricular pressure dropped from 40.16 to 29.26 (P = 0.017) after 3-6 months and to 23.6 mmHg (P = 0.002) after 9-12 months on treatment. In conclusion (i) At borderline elevation of TRV there is intrapatient variability and echocardiograms should be repeated for confirmation. (ii) Elevated PAP are reversible in children with early detection and treatment with hydroxyurea. PMID:19055665

  2. Predictors of Suicidal Ideation in Late Childhood and Adolescence: A 5-Year Follow-Up of Two Nationally Representative Cohorts in the Republic of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sunhee

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the trajectory of suicidal ideation in childhood and adolescence and identifies its strong predictors. Secondary data obtained from two nationally representative cohorts of South Korean youth were longitudinally analyzed using frequencies, percentages, and discrete time survival analysis. This study revealed an increase in the…

  3. Neuropsychological functioning and social anhedonia: three-year follow-up data from a longitudinal community high risk study.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alex S; Couture, Shannon M; Blanchard, Jack J

    2012-07-01

    Social anhedonia is a promising vulnerability marker for schizophrenia-spectrum pathology. Prior research has demonstrated that individuals with psychometrically-defined social anhedonia show a range of "schizophrenia-like" neurocognitive abnormalities. However, this research is limited in that it is based largely on the study of college students. The present article reports findings from a longitudinal study of social anhedonia recruited from a community sample. As part of this study, a neurocognitive battery was administered at baseline and at three-year follow-up sessions to participants with (n = 78) versus without (n = 77) social anhedonia. Additional measures of global functioning and schizotypal, schizoid and paranoid schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms were also administered. Across groups, subjects showed significant improvement in neurocognitive functioning over time. Compared to controls, at follow-up, individuals with social anhedonia showed significantly poorer attentional vigilance and simple processing speed, but failed to evidence impairments in immediate or delayed verbal memory, immediate or delayed visual memory, visual or verbal working memory, olfaction or executive abilities. At follow-up, within the social anhedonia group, schizoid (and to a lesser extent, schizotypal) symptom severity was associated with a range of neurocognitive impairments. Neurocognitive impairments were generally not associated with paranoid symptoms or global functioning. Baseline neurocognitive performance was not significantly predictive of follow-up symptom severity or functioning. Collectively, these findings suggest that neurocognitive dysfunctions only characterize a subset of individuals with social anhedonia. PMID:22507637

  4. Using facebook to maximize follow-up response rates in a longitudinal study of adults who use methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Bolanos, Franklin; Herbeck, Diane; Christou, Dayna; Lovinger, Katherine; Pham, Aurora; Raihan, Adnan; Rodriguez, Luz; Sheaff, Patricia; Brecht, Mary-Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the process and effects of using facebook (FB) to locate and re-contact study participants targeted for follow up in a longitudinal study of adult methamphetamine users (N = 649). A follow-up interview was conducted in 2009-11 approximately 8 years after previous study participation. Our paper describes re-contact efforts involving FB, including IRB regulatory issues and the effectiveness of using FB compared to mailings and phone calls. A total of 48 of the 551 surviving non-incarcerated participants who agreed to be contacted for follow up studies were contacted via FB, of whom 11 completed the follow-up interview. Those contacted through FB were more likely to be younger, female, relocated out-of-state, and reported somewhat higher rates of anxiety and cognitive problems compared to those not located on FB. Although participants contacted through FB are likely to differ demographically from those contacted by phone or mail, FB provides a potentially effective means to expand conventional methods of correspondence for contacting hard to reach participants. PMID:22879750

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Brief Motivational Interviewing in Impaired Driving Recidivists: A 5-Year Follow-Up of Traffic Offenses and Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Dongier, Maurice; Di Leo, Ivana; Legault, Lucie; Tremblay, Jacques; Chanut, Florence; Brown, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    Background In a previously published randomized controlled trial (Brown et al. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2010; 34, 292–301), our research team showed that a 30-minute brief motivational interviewing (BMI) session was more effective in reducing percentages of risky drinking days in drunk driving recidivists than a control information–advice intervention at 12-month follow-up. In this sequel to the initial study, 2 main hypotheses were tested: (i) exposure to BMI increases the time to further arrests and crashes compared with exposure to the control intervention (CTL) and (ii) characteristics, such as age, moderate the benefit of BMI. Methods A sample of 180 community-recruited recidivists who had drinking problems participated in the study. Participants gave access to their provincial driving records at baseline and were followed up for a mean of 1,684.5 days (SD = 155.7) after randomization to a 30-minute BMI or CTL session. Measured outcomes were driving arrests followed by convictions including driving while impaired (DWI), speeding, or other moving violations as well as crashes. Age, readiness to change alcohol consumption, alcohol misuse severity, and number of previous DWI convictions were included as potential moderators of the effect of the interventions. Results For arrests, Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed no significant differences between the BMI and the CTL group. When analyses were adjusted to age tertile categories, a significant effect of BMI in the youngest age tertile (<43 years old) emerged. For crashes, no between-group differences were detected. Conclusions BMI was better at delaying DWI and other dangerous traffic violations in at-risk younger drivers compared with a CTL similar to that provided in many remedial programs. BMI may be useful as an opportunistic intervention for DWI recidivism prevention in settings such as DWI courts. Treatment effectiveness studies are needed to ascertain how the present findings generalize to the

  6. Monolithic Lithium Disilicate Full-Contour Crowns Bonded on CAD/CAM Zirconia Complete-Arch Implant Bridges With 3 to 5 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Alessandro; Tallarico, Marco; Barlattani, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    This study was carried on to assess the clinical performance of a novel restorative concept consisting in single monolithic lithium disilicate full-contour crowns bonded on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia complete-arch implant bridges, to overcome the drawbacks related to the chipping of porcelain fused to zirconia restorations. Sixteen patients received 18 implant-supported hybrid screw-cement-retained complete-arch restorations, consisting of single monolithic lithium disilicate full-contour crowns bonded on CAD/CAM zirconia frameworks. The restorations were supported by 4-8 implants. All patients were followed up for at least 3 years on function (range 36 to 60 months, mean 49.3 months). Clinical controls were scheduled every 4 months. The outcomes were implant and prosthetic survival and success rates, any complications, patient satisfaction, and soft tissue parameters. No dropouts occurred. The overall implant and prosthesis survival rates were 100%. One of 18 restorations (1 of 236 dental units) showed a chip-off fracture of the veneering ceramic that was polished intraorally without any additional treatment, scoring a cumulative prosthetic success rate of 100%, according to the California Dental Association index. All patients were functionally and esthetically highly satisfied with their restorations. Successful soft tissue parameters were found around all implants. Single monolithic lithium disilicate full-contour crowns, bonded on CAD/CAM screw-retained complete-arch zirconia frameworks, showed favorable preliminary outcomes with medium-term follow-up. However, randomized controlled studies of this technique are required for further conclusive recommendations. PMID:24188105

  7. Longitudinal Follow-Up of Mirror Movements after Stroke: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Ishii, Daisuke; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Mirror movement (MM), or visible involuntary movements of a relaxed hand during voluntary fine finger movements of an activated opposite hand, can be observed in the hand that is on the unaffected side of patients with stroke. In the present study, we longitudinally examined the relationship between voluntary movement of the affected hand and MM in the unaffected hand in a single case. We report a 73-year-old woman with a right pontine infarct and left moderate hemiparesis. MM was observed as an extension movement of the unaffected right index finger during extension movement of the affected left index finger. The affected right index movement was found to increase, while MM of the unaffected left index finger was observed to decrease with time. These results indicate that the assessment of MM might be useful for studying the process of motor recovery in patients with stroke. PMID:26649211

  8. Revision total knee arthroplasty with a cemented posterior-stabilized or constrained condylar prosthesis: a minimum 3-year and average 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Peters, C L; Hennessey, R; Barden, R M; Galante, J O; Rosenberg, A G

    1997-12-01

    The results of 57 revision total knee arthroplasties performed for aseptic failure between 1984 and 1992 with a cemented posterior-stabilized or constrained condylar prosthesis were reviewed at follow-up examinations at a minimum of 36 and an average of 62 months (range, 36-120 months). The reason for revision was aseptic loosening of 1 or both components in 32 knees (56%), instability in 16 knees (28%), polyethylene wear and osteolysis in 4 knees (7%), supracondylar femur fracture in 2 knees (4%), and a failed allograft, pain, and arthrofibrosis in 1 knee each (5% total). The average age of the patients at the time of the revision was 74 years (range, 38-90), and the original diagnosis for the majority of patients was osteoarthritis (74%). All of the revision prostheses were cemented posterior stabilized or constrained condylar-type implants. Bone deficiencies were grafted with cancellous allograft in contained defects and cortical allograft in noncontained defects. Five knees were reconstructed with allograft-prosthesis composites. The average modified Hospital for Special Surgery knee score improved from 49 to 82 (100 points possible) at final follow-up evaluation (P < 0.001). Seventy-nine percent of knees were graded as good or excellent. Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis predicted 94%+/-6.2% survival at 40 months and 75%+/-25% at 99 months. There were 4 clinical failures, 3 of which were related to residual instability in patients with a posterior-stabilized prosthesis. Complications (3 knees) were exclusively related to the extensor mechanism. Radiographically, overall knee alignment improved from 0.3 degrees varus to 3.0 degrees valgus. Fifty-six percent of tibial components were placed in slight varus alignment. Radiolucent lines occurred in 33% of knees, but there were no complete or progressive radiolucencies. Radiolucent lines were more prevalent adjacent to press-fit intramedullary femoral stems compared with cemented stems (P < .02), but the

  9. Getting better, but not well: A 1.5 year follow-up of cognitive performance and cortisol levels in clinical and non-Clinical burnout.

    PubMed

    Oosterholt, Bart G; Maes, Joseph H R; Van der Linden, Dimitri; Verbraak, Marc J P M; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2016-05-01

    The purpose was to reexamine cognitive performance and cortisol levels of initial clinical burnout patients, non-clinical burnout individuals, and healthy controls. After 1.5-years of the initial measurement, clinical burnout patients showed a reduction of burnout symptoms and general physical and psychological complaints, but these were still elevated compared with controls. Nonetheless, they continued to report cognitive problems and still showed a minor impaired cognitive test performance. However, they no longer reported larger subjective costs associated with cognitive test performance and their cortisol awakening response (CAR) returned to a normal level. Compared with controls, non-clinical burnout individuals still reported the same, elevated, level of burnout symptoms, general physical and psychological complaints, and cognitive problems. Their cognitive test performance and associated subjective costs remained normal. However, they seemed to continue to display a lowered CAR. To conclude, after 1.5-years, clinical burnout patients got better, but not 'well', and non-clinical burnout individuals remained not 'well'. PMID:26930250

  10. Predictors of suicidal ideation in late childhood and adolescence: a 5-year follow-up of two nationally representative cohorts in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhee

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the trajectory of suicidal ideation in childhood and adolescence and identifies its strong predictors. Secondary data obtained from two nationally representative cohorts of South Korean youth were longitudinally analyzed using frequencies, percentages, and discrete time survival analysis. This study revealed an increase in the occurrence of suicidal ideation in adolescence, a higher prevalence of suicidal ideation among females than among males, and differences in predictors of suicide ideation by developmental stages and gender. The results suggest that multifaceted factors specific to developmental stages and gender should be simultaneously considered to diminish the occurrences of suicidal ideation. PMID:23356784

  11. Cementless surface replacement hemiarthroplasty for primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis: results of over 5-year follow-up in patients with or without rotator cuff deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hadithy, Nawfal; Furness, Nicholas; Patel, Ronak; Jonas, Sam; Jobbagy, Attila; Lowdon, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Background Cementless surface replacement hemiarthroplasty (CSRHA) is an established treatment for glenohumeral osteoarthritis; however, studies evaluating its role in arthritis with rotator cuff deficiency are limited. This study reviews the outcomes of CSRHA for glenohumeral osteoarthritis with and without rotator cuff tears. Methods 41 CSRHA (Mark III Copeland prosthesis) were performed for glenohumeral osteoarthritis with intact rotator cuffs (n = 21) and cuff-deficient shoulders (n = 20). Patients were assessed using Oxford and Constant questionnaires, patient satisfaction, range of motion measurements and by radiography. Results Mean age and follow-up were 75 years and 5.1 years, respectively. Functional gains were significantly higher in patients with intact rotator cuffs compared to cuff-deficient shoulders, with Oxford Shoulder Score improving from 18 to 37.5 and 15 to 27 and forward flexion improved from 60° to 126° and 44° to 77° in each group, respectively. Two patients with deficient cuffs had deficient subscapularis tendons; one of which was dislocated anteriorly. Conclusions CSRHA provides significant improvements in pain and function in patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis. In patients with deficient cuffs, functional gains are limited, and should be considered in low-demand patients where pain is the primary problem. Caution should be taken in patients with a deficient subscapularis as a result of the risk of dislocation.

  12. A rare case of regression of brown tumors of tertiary hyperparathyroidism after parathyroidectomy and renal transplant: A 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Noleto, José Wilson; Ramos, Ivana Alencar Svenson; Rocha, Julierme Ferreira; Garcia, Idelmo Rangel; Salvador Roberto, Berthiene M.

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is a rare condition that affects patients with secondary HPT, which develop hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands, thus causing an increase in parathyroid hormone levels. Bone alterations are the main consequences of this condition including the development of osteolytic lesions called brown tumor. This article reports an unusual case of brown tumors located in the maxilla and mandible in a 19-year-old man with chronic renal failure with hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands. The lesions regressed approximately 5 months after the parathyroidectomy. At this same time, the patient underwent renal transplant. The patient was followed for 5 years, showing improvement in overall clinical status. There was also improvement of the results of laboratory tests and the pattern of trabecular bone. The correct diagnosis of oral lesions was of great relevance for the conservative treatment could have been chosen. PMID:27563621

  13. A rare case of regression of brown tumors of tertiary hyperparathyroidism after parathyroidectomy and renal transplant: A 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Noleto, José Wilson; Ramos, Ivana Alencar Svenson; Rocha, Julierme Ferreira; Garcia, Idelmo Rangel; Salvador Roberto, Berthiene M

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is a rare condition that affects patients with secondary HPT, which develop hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands, thus causing an increase in parathyroid hormone levels. Bone alterations are the main consequences of this condition including the development of osteolytic lesions called brown tumor. This article reports an unusual case of brown tumors located in the maxilla and mandible in a 19-year-old man with chronic renal failure with hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands. The lesions regressed approximately 5 months after the parathyroidectomy. At this same time, the patient underwent renal transplant. The patient was followed for 5 years, showing improvement in overall clinical status. There was also improvement of the results of laboratory tests and the pattern of trabecular bone. The correct diagnosis of oral lesions was of great relevance for the conservative treatment could have been chosen. PMID:27563621

  14. Neuropsychological analysis of the visuomotor problems in children born preterm at < or = 32 weeks of gestation: a 5-year prospective follow-up.

    PubMed

    Luoma, L; Herrgård, E; Martikainen, A

    1998-01-01

    Forty-six intellectually normal children born preterm (< or =32 weeks of gestation) without major neurological disabilities and a control group of term children matched for age, sex, and parental educational and occupational status were assessed at the age of 5 years using neuropsychological tests emphasizing perceptual and visuomotor functions. The results show that in terms of cognitive functions these preterm children are a very heterogenous group, but many of them still have problems in visuospatial and sensorimotor functions. The preterm children achieved lower mean scores in tests where coordination and voluntary control of hands in combination with tactile, kinaesthetic, and visuospatial perception were needed. They had most difficulty with drawing directions of lines and in integrating two or more forms. They also had problems with 3-dimensional constructions as well as visual perception of rotated shapes or slopes of lines. PMID:9459213

  15. The relationship of left ventricular trabeculation to ventricular function and structure over 9.5 years follow up: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zemrak, Filip; Ahlman, Mark A.; Captur, Gabriella; Mohiddin, Saidi A; Kawel-Boehm, Nadine; Prince, Martin R.; Moon, James C.; Hundley, William G.; Lima, João A.C.; Bluemke, David A; Petersen, Steffen E

    2015-01-01

    Background Left ventricular (LV) trabeculation is highly variable between individuals, is increased in some diseases (e.g. congenital heart disease or cardiomyopathies), but its significance in population representative individuals is unknown. Objectives To determine if excessive LV trabeculation in population representative subjects is associated with preceding changes in cardiac volumes and function. Methods The extent of trabeculation, expressed as the ratio of non-compacted to compacted (NC/C) myocardium was measured for technical reasons on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) long-axis cine images in 2742 subjects in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (mean age 68.7 years, 52.3% women, 56.4% with hypertension, 16.8% with diabetes) at the exam 5. These were considered in quintiles of trabeculation extent, with quintile 5’s NC/C 2.46 – 5.41. We determined the relationship between maximal NC/C ratio and preceding change (9.5 year between exam 1 and 5) in end-systolic volume indexed to the body surface area (ESVi). Secondary analysis assessed associations between maximal NC/C and preceding changes in end-diastolic volume indexed to the body surface area (EDVi) and ejection fraction (EF). Results Over 9.5 years, ESVi decreased by 1.3 ml/m2, EDVi decreased by 5.1 ml/m2 and EF decreased by 0.6% (p<0.0001). There were no clinically relevant differences in LV volumes and systolic function change between the quintiles of trabeculation extent, even in subjects with the excessive trabeculation. Conclusions Greater extent of and even excessive LV trabeculations measured in end-diastole in asymptomatic population representative individuals appears benign and is not associated with deterioration in left ventricular volumes or function over an almost 10 year period. PMID:25440091

  16. Effect of augmented cup fixation on stability, wear, and osteolysis: a 5-year follow-up of total hip arthroplasty with RSA.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Stephan M; Nivbrant, Bosse; Ström, Håkan; Nilsson, Kjell G

    2004-12-01

    To evaluate different modes of cementless fixation of hemispherical cups, we operated on 87 hips in 81 patients using 4 different means of cup fixation. The hips were randomly assigned to fixation with press-fit technique only (PF), or with augmentation with screws (S), pegs (P), or hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. The patients were evaluated with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) for cup migration and wear, conventional radiography for osteolysis, and Harris Hip Score for clinical outcome over 5 years. The fixation of the cups did not differ between the groups, but HA showed a tendency to decrease proximal migration. HA-coated cups displayed the best interface with hardly any signs of radiolucent lines, indicating a superior sealing effect of the HA coating. Cups with screws or pegs had more radiolucent lines and osteolytic lesions than the other groups. Radiolucent lines were correlated to higher proximal migration, young age, and female gender (r2=.2). The wear rate of the ethylene oxide-sterilized polyethylene liner was high (0.2 mm/y) but did not differ between the groups. Two cups with a perioperative fracture of the acetabular rim showed large initial migration but stabilized thereafter. PMID:15586331

  17. Occurrence of dental decay in children after maternal consumption of xylitol chewing gum, a follow-up from 0 to 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Isokangas, P; Söderling, E; Pienihäkkinen, K; Alanen, P

    2000-11-01

    Studies have shown that prevention of mutans streptococci (MS) colonization in early childhood can lead to prevention of dental decay. In the microbiological part of the present study in Ylivieska, Finland, with 195 mothers with high salivary MS levels, regular maternal use of xylitol chewing gum resulted in a statistically significant reduction in MS colonization in their children's teeth at the age of 2 years compared with teeth in children whose mothers received fluoride or chlorhexidine varnish treatment. The children did not chew gum or receive varnish treatments. For the present study, the children were examined annually for caries occurrence by experienced clinicians who did not know whether the children were colonized with MS. Regardless of the maternal prevention group, the presence of MS colonization in children at the age of 2 years was significantly related to each child's age at the first caries attack in the primary dentition. In children at the age of 5 years, the dentinal caries (dmf) in the xylitol group was reduced by about 70% as compared with that in the fluoride or chlorhexidine group. We conclude that maternal use of xylitol chewing gum can prevent dental caries in their children by prohibiting the transmission of MS from mother to child. PMID:11145360

  18. Skeletal and dental stability of segmental distraction of the anterior mandibular alveolar process. A 5.5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Joss, C U; Triaca, A; Antonini, M; Kiliaridis, S; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2013-03-01

    17 patients (14 female; 3 male) were analysed retrospectively for skeletal and dental relapse before distraction osteogenesis (DO) of the mandibular anterior alveolar process at T1 (17.0 days), after DO at T2 (mean 6.5 days), at T3 (mean 24.4 days), at T4 (mean 2.0 years), and at T5 (mean 5.5 years). Lateral cephalograms were traced by hand, digitized, superimposed, and evaluated. Skeletal correction (T5-T1) was mainly achieved through the distraction of the anterior alveolar segment in a rotational manner where the incisors were more proclined. The horizontal backward relapse (T5-T3) measured -0.3mm or 8.3% at point B (non-significant) and -1.8mm or 29.0% at incision inferior (p<0.01). Age, gender, amount and type (rotational vs. translational) of advancement were not correlated with the amount of relapse. High angle patients (NL/ML'; p<0.01) showed significant smaller relapse rates at point B. Overcorrection of the overjet achieved by the distraction could be a reason for dental relapse. Considering the amount of long-term skeletal relapse the DO could be an alternative to bilateral sagittal split osteotomy for mandibular advancement in selected cases. PMID:23153785

  19. Thin-Section CT Characteristics and Longitudinal CT Follow-up of Chemotherapy Induced Interstitial Pneumonitis: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han Na; Kim, Mi Young; Koo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Sung-Soo; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Lee, Jae Cheol; Song, Jin Woo

    2016-01-01

    To describe the computed tomography (CT) features of chemotherapy-induced interstitial pneumonitis (CIIP) with longitudinal follow-up.The study was approved by the local ethics committee. One hundred consecutive patients with CIIP between May 2005 and March 2015 were retrospectively enrolled. The initial CT was reviewed by 2 independent chest radiologists and categorized into 1 of 4 CT patterns in accordance with the 2013 guidelines for idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), organizing pneumonia (OP), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) mimicking desquamative interstitial pneumonitis, and diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). We assessed semiquantitative analysis on a 5% scale to assess the extent of parenchymal abnormalities (emphysema, reticulation, ground-glass opacity, consolidation, honeycombing cyst) and their distribution on initial (n = 100), subsequent (n = 87), and second follow-up CT (n = 48). Interval changes in extent on follow-up CT were compared using paired t test. The clinic-radiologic factors were compared between Group 1 (NSIP and OP patterns) and Group 2 (HP and DAD patterns) using χ and independent t tests.The most common pattern of CIIP on the initial CT was HP (51%), followed by NSIP (23%), OP (20%), and DAD (6%). Diffuse ground-glass opacity was the most common pulmonary abnormality. The predominant distribution was bilateral (99%) and symmetric (82%), with no craniocaudal (60%) or axial (79%) dominance. Subsequent and second follow-up CTs showed decreased extent of total pulmonary abnormalities (P < 0.001, respectively). In comparison with Group 1 CIIP, Group 2 CIIP was more likely to be caused by molecularly targeted drugs (P = 0.030), appeared earlier (P = 0.034), and underwent more complete resolution (P < 0.001). Use of a CT pattern-recognition approach to CIIP is appropriate and practical in interpreting radiological findings. PMID:26765442

  20. A longitudinal study on the osteoarthritic change of the temporomandibular joint based on 1-year follow-up computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Yun; Kim, Dae-Jung; Lee, Sang-Goo; Chung, Jin-Woo

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to report the results of a 1-year computed tomographic (CT) follow up of 54 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) affected by osteoarthritis (OA) and to provide longitudinal information on changes in OA and its relationship with clinical signs and symptoms. TMJ OA was diagnosed by history, clinical and CT examinations. The second CT examination was done after about 1 year of conservative treatment. Joints were divided into three groups labeled as no change, improved CT, and worsened CT groups depending on the longitudinal bony change of OA observed in the CT. The sex distribution, mean age, joint noise, subjective pain, joint tenderness, masticatory muscle tenderness, and improvement of subjective symptoms were not different between the groups at the first and second examination, while maximum (p < 0.01) and painless mouth opening range (p < 0.001) at the first examination were both smaller in the worsened CT group. Although the clinical signs and symptoms of OA were improved in 40 joints, 74.1%, at 7.2 ± 4.6 months, the amount if improvement did not differ between the groups. The extent of the destructive change of the condyle was highest in the improved CT group at the first (p < 0.001) and in the worsened CT group at the second examination (p < 0.001). These results imply that the prognosis of OA changes may be independent of the clinical signs and symptoms. More specific longitudinal information as regards OA changes of the TMJ based on a larger sample and a longer follow-up period would be likely to provide a better understanding of TMJ OA. PMID:22075324

  1. Do Participants With Different Patterns of Loss to Follow-Up Have Different Characteristics? A Multi-Wave Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Saiepour, Nargess; Ware, Robert; Najman, Jake; Baker, Peter; Clavarino, Alexandra; Williams, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Background To identify patterns of loss to follow-up and baseline predictors of each pattern. Methods The Mater-University Study of Pregnancy collected baseline information for 7718 pregnant women who attended Mater Hospital in Brisbane, Australia, from 1981 through 1983. Follow-up data for 6753 eligible participants were collected at 6 months, 5 years, 14 years, 21 years, and 27 years after giving birth. Participants were partitioned into groups of ‘Always Responders’, ‘Returners’, ‘Leavers’, ‘Intermittents’, and ‘Never Responders’. Multinomial logistic regression was used to simultaneously compare baseline characteristics of the last four groups with ‘Always Responders’. Results Being younger, less educated, having no partner, and living in rented housing were associated with being a ‘Returner’. Not owning housing, receiving welfare benefits, and being younger, less educated, not married, a smoker, an Aboriginal/Islander, and born in a non-English-speaking country were associated with being a ‘Leaver’, an ‘Intermittent’, or a ‘Never-responder’. Having higher mental health score and drinking before pregnancy were associated with being a ‘Leaver’ or an ‘Intermittent’. Being unemployed and not physically active were associated with being a ‘Leaver’ or ‘Never Responder’. The groups ‘Leavers’ and ‘Never Responders’ were the most different from the ‘Always Responders’. The group that was most similar to ‘Always Responders’ was the ‘Returners’. Conclusions Patterns of loss to follow-up should be considered in the application of missing data techniques, where researchers make assumptions about the characteristics of those subjects who do not respond to assess the type of missing data. This information can be used to prevent individuals who are at high risk of dropping out of a study from doing so. PMID:26321060

  2. Does 360° lumbar spinal fusion improve long-term clinical outcomes after failure of conservative treatment in patients with functionally disabling single-level degenerative lumbar disc disease? Results of 5-year follow-up in 75 postoperative patients

    PubMed Central

    Zigler, Jack E.; Delamarter, Rick B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Surgical treatment of patients with mechanical degenerative disc disease has been controversial, but improvements in clinical outcomes have been shown in properly selected patients with disease-specific diagnoses, with fusion arguably now becoming the “gold standard” for surgical management of these patients. No published study thus far has been designed for prospective enrollment of patients with specific inclusion/exclusion criteria in whom at least 6 months of conservative therapy has failed and who are then offered a standardized surgical procedure and are followed up for 5 years. Methods The study group was composed of the patients in the prospective, randomized Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption trial comparing ProDisc-L (Synthes Spine, West Chester, Pennsylvania) with 360° fusion for the treatment of single-level symptomatic disc degeneration. Of 80 patients randomized to 360° fusion after failure of non-operative care, 75 were treated on protocol with single-level fusions. Follow-up of this treatment cohort was 97% at 2 years and 75% at 5 years and serves as the basis for this report. Patients in the trial were required to have failure of at least 6 months of nonoperative care and in fact had failure of an average of 9 months of nonoperative treatment. The mean Oswestry Disability Index score indicated greater than 60% impairment. The mean entry-level pain score on a visual analog scale was greater than 8 of 10. Results After fusion, not only did patients have significant improvements in measurable clinical outcomes such as the Oswestry Disability Index score and pain score on a visual analog scale but there were also substantial improvements in their functional status and quality of life. Specifically, over 80% of patients in this study had improvements in recreational status that was maintained 5 years after index surgery, indicating substantial improvements in life quality that were not afforded by months of

  3. A CAD-CAM-prototyped temporomandibular condyle connected to a bony plate to support a free fibula flap in patients undergoing mandiblectomy: A pilot study with 5 years of follow up.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Leonardo; Tarsitano, Achille; Marchetti, Claudio; Scotti, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Reconstruction of the condyle after an ablative procedure with the aim of cancer elimination remains surgically challenging. This pilot study focused on mandibular condylar replacement using CAD-CAM temporomandibular prostheses connected to customized reconstructive plates to support free fibula flaps in oncological patients. Five patients underwent mandibular disarticulation resection, and two of them completed their 5-year follow ups. The condylar anatomy, the position of the condyle within the glenoid fossa, and glenoid anatomy were measured by superimposing pre- and postoperative CT images (obtained after 6 months and 5 years of follow up). When comparing condyle anatomy, the shift was no more than 0.19 mm; when calculating condyle downward displacement the values were inferior to 2.92 mm; when analyzing glenoid fossa thickness, in case #1, glenoid fossa thickness increased by 0.62 and 0.48 mm at the 6-month and 5-year follow ups, respectively, and in case #2 were 0.50 and -0.11 mm, respectively. The hypothesis that the absence of anatomical change would prevent biodynamic alteration of tissues of the articulation chamber (the glenoid fossa, the synovial liquid, and the disc) was confirmed by the preliminary findings of this study. PMID:27235153

  4. Semiautomatic segmentation and follow-up of multicomponent low-grade tumors in longitudinal brain MRI studies

    SciTech Connect

    Weizman, Lior; Sira, Liat Ben; Joskowicz, Leo; Rubin, Daniel L.; Yeom, Kristen W.; Constantini, Shlomi; Shofty, Ben; Bashat, Dafna Ben

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Tracking the progression of low grade tumors (LGTs) is a challenging task, due to their slow growth rate and associated complex internal tumor components, such as heterogeneous enhancement, hemorrhage, and cysts. In this paper, the authors show a semiautomatic method to reliably track the volume of LGTs and the evolution of their internal components in longitudinal MRI scans. Methods: The authors' method utilizes a spatiotemporal evolution modeling of the tumor and its internal components. Tumor components gray level parameters are estimated from the follow-up scan itself, obviating temporal normalization of gray levels. The tumor delineation procedure effectively incorporates internal classification of the baseline scan in the time-series as prior data to segment and classify a series of follow-up scans. The authors applied their method to 40 MRI scans of ten patients, acquired at two different institutions. Two types of LGTs were included: Optic pathway gliomas and thalamic astrocytomas. For each scan, a “gold standard” was obtained manually by experienced radiologists. The method is evaluated versus the gold standard with three measures: gross total volume error, total surface distance, and reliability of tracking tumor components evolution. Results: Compared to the gold standard the authors' method exhibits a mean Dice similarity volumetric measure of 86.58% and a mean surface distance error of 0.25 mm. In terms of its reliability in tracking the evolution of the internal components, the method exhibits strong positive correlation with the gold standard. Conclusions: The authors' method provides accurate and repeatable delineation of the tumor and its internal components, which is essential for therapy assessment of LGTs. Reliable tracking of internal tumor components over time is novel and potentially will be useful to streamline and improve follow-up of brain tumors, with indolent growth and behavior.

  5. Evidence of functional declining and global comorbidity measured at baseline proved to be the strongest predictors for long-term death in elderly community residents aged 85 years: a 5-year follow-up evaluation, the OCTABAIX study

    PubMed Central

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Padros, Gloria; Montero, Abelardo; Gimenez-Argente, Carme; Corbella, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive value of functional impairment, chronic conditions, and laboratory biomarkers of aging for predicting 5-year mortality in the elderly aged 85 years. Methods Predictive value for mortality of different geriatric assessments carried out during the OCTABAIX study was evaluated after 5 years of follow-up in 328 subjects aged 85 years. Measurements included assessment of functional status comorbidity, along with laboratory tests on vitamin D, cholesterol, CD4/CD8 ratio, hemoglobin, and serum thyrotropin. Results Overall, the mortality rate after 5 years of follow-up was 42.07%. Bivariate analysis showed that patients who survived were predominantly female (P=0.02), and they showed a significantly better baseline functional status for both basic (P<0.001) and instrumental (P<0.001) activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index), better cognitive performance (Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) (P<0.001), lower comorbidity conditions (Charlson) (P<0.001), lower nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment) (P<0.001), lower risk of falls (Tinetti gait scale) (P<0.001), less percentage of heart failure (P=0.03) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=0.03), and took less chronic prescription drugs (P=0.002) than nonsurvivors. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified a decreased score in the Lawton index (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.78–0.91) and higher comorbidity conditions (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.08–1.33) as independent predictors of mortality at 5 years in the studied population. Conclusion The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living and the global comorbidity assessed at baseline were the predictors of death, identified in our 85-year-old community-dwelling subjects after 5 years of follow-up. PMID:27143867

  6. Report on the Data Collection Activities of the First Follow-Up. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Triangle Inst., Durham, NC.

    This is a report on the data collection activities of the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972(NLS). This phase of the operation involved the first follow-up contact with the 22,654 seniors selected for participation in this study. The fieldwork for the first follow-up was scheduled between July 1973 and January 1974; it…

  7. High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) Base Year to First Follow-Up Data File Documentation. Appendixes. NCES 2014-361

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Herget, Deborah R.; Dever, Jill A.; Fritch, Laura Burns; Ottem, Randolph; Rogers, James E.; Kitmitto, Sami; Leinwand, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The manual that accompanies these appendices was produced to familiarize data users with the design, and the procedures followed for data collection and processing, in the base year and first follow-up of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), with emphasis on the first follow-up. It also provides the necessary documentation for use…

  8. High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) Base Year to First Follow-Up Data File Documentation. NCES 2014-361

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Herget, Deborah R.; Dever, Jill A.; Fritch, Laura Burns; Ottem, Randolph; Rogers, James E.; Kitmitto, Sami; Leinwand, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This manual has been produced to familiarize data users with the design, and the procedures followed for data collection and processing, in the base year and first follow-up of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), with emphasis on the first follow-up. It also provides the necessary documentation for use of the public-use data…

  9. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72), Fifth Follow-Up (1986) Data File [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    This machine-readable data file (MDRF) contains information from the fifth follow-up survey of the National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972. The survey was carried out along with the third survey of the High School and Beyond Study. The fifth follow-up data file consists of 12,841 records. The data tape contains information on…

  10. Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002): Base-Year to Second Follow-Up Data File Documentation. NCES 2008-347

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Wilson, David; Burns, Laura J.; Currivan, Douglas; Rogers, James E.; Hubbard-Bednasz, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    The Data File Documentation reports on the procedures and methodologies employed during the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 base year, first, and second follow-ups, with special emphasis on the second follow-up (2006). The document is designed to provide guidance for users of the restricted-use data as released in Electronic Codebook (ECB)…

  11. National Longitudinal Study (NLS) of the High School Class of 1972: Base Year (1972) through Fourth Follow-up (1979) [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Triangle Inst., Durham, NC. Center for Educational Research and Evaluation.

    The "National Longitudinal Study (NLS) of the High School Class of 1972: Base Year (1972) through Fourth Follow-up (1979)" machine-readable data file (MRDF) is a single merged file of student responses to the original interviews or tests in 1972 and the mail follow-up surveys of 1973, 1974, 1976, and 1979. The 1972 data were gathered by the…

  12. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72): Fifth Follow-Up (1986). Sample Design Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Bruce; Sebring, Penny; Campbell, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    This report is the methodology report for the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 follow-up in 1986. The fifth follow-up survey of the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72) took place during spring and summer of 1986. A mail questionnaire was sent to a subsample of 14,489 members of the…

  13. A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of 284 Adults Classified as Learning Disabled When They Were Second Graders. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingey, Carol; Mortensen, Lance

    A follow-up study was undertaken of 284 adults who were diagnosed as learning disabled during second grade in 1968. At the time of follow up, the sample was 26 to 27 years old; 91 of these individuals were located by telephone and 4 were contacted by mail. The follow-up study used a questionnaire to determine participants' current status in five…

  14. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972: Selected Results from the Base-Year and the First Follow-Up Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Samuel S.; And Others

    The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 has completed two phases of data collection: the Base-Year and the First Follow-Up Surveys. This paper summarizes some of the findings from cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of that data. A cross-sectional analysis of the base-year results yielded information on grades, work,…

  15. Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictive behaviors among former alternative high school youth: A longitudinal follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Pokhrel, Pallav; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent work has studied addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. This is the first longitudinal study using a matrix measure. Methods We investigated the use of this approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years at baseline; longitudinal n = 538) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, hard drugs, shopping, gambling, Internet, love, sex, eating, work, and exercise). These were examined at two time-points one year apart. Latent class and latent transition analyses (LCA and LTA) were conducted in Mplus. Results Prevalence rates were stable across the two time-points. As in the cross-sectional baseline analysis, the 2-class model (addiction class, non-addiction class) fit the data better at follow-up than models with more classes. Item-response or conditional probabilities for each addiction type did not differ between time-points. As a result, the LTA model utilized constrained the conditional probabilities to be equal across the two time-points. In the addiction class, larger conditional probabilities (i.e., 0.40−0.49) were found for love, sex, exercise, and work addictions; medium conditional probabilities (i.e., 0.17−0.27) were found for cigarette, alcohol, other drugs, eating, Internet and shopping addiction; and a small conditional probability (0.06) was found for gambling. Discussion and Conclusions Persons in an addiction class tend to remain in this addiction class over a one-year period. PMID:26551909

  16. The First Year Inventory: a longitudinal follow-up of 12-month-old to 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M; Baranek, Grace T; Reznick, J Steven; Watson, Linda R; Crais, Elizabeth R

    2013-09-01

    The First Year Inventory is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. First Year Inventory taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory-regulatory and social-communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of age from a community sample whose parents completed the First Year Inventory when their children were 12 months old. Parents of all 699 children completed the Social Responsiveness Scale-Preschool version and the Developmental Concerns Questionnaire to determine age 3 developmental outcomes. In addition, children deemed at risk for autism spectrum disorder based on liberal cut points on the First Year Inventory, Social Responsiveness Scale-Preschool, and/or Developmental Concerns Questionnaire were invited for in-person diagnostic evaluations. We found 9 children who had a confirmed diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder from the sample of 699. Receiver operating characteristic analyses determined that a two-domain cutoff score yielded optimal classification of children: 31% of those meeting algorithm cutoffs had autism spectrum disorder and 85% had a developmental disability or concern by age 3. These results suggest that the First Year Inventory is a promising tool for identifying 12-month-old infants who are at risk for an eventual diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. PMID:22781058

  17. The First Year Inventory: A longitudinal follow-up of 12-month-olds to 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Brown, L. M.; Baranek, G. T.; Reznick, J. S.; Watson, L. R.; Crais, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    The First Year Inventory (FYI) is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The FYI taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory-regulatory and social-communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of age from a community sample whose parents completed the FYI when their children were 12 months old. Parents of all 699 children completed the Social Responsiveness Scale – Preschool version (SRS-P) and the Developmental Concerns Questionnaire (DCQ) to determine age 3 developmental outcomes. In addition, children deemed at-risk for ASD based on liberal cut points on the FYI, SRS-P, and/or DCQ were invited for in-person diagnostic evaluations. We found 9 children who had a confirmed diagnosis of ASD from the sample of 699. ROC analyses determined that a two-domain cutoff score yielded optimal classification of children: 31% of those meeting algorithm cut-offs had ASD and 85% had a developmental disability or concern by age three. These results suggest that the FYI is a promising tool for identifying 12-month old infants who are at risk for an eventual diagnosis of ASD. PMID:22781058

  18. Evaluation of Decompression and Interlaminar Stabilization Compared with Decompression and Fusion for the Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: 5-year Follow-up of a Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lauryssen, Carl; Davis, Reginald J.; Bae, Hyun W.; Peloza, John H.; Guyer, Richard D.; Zigler, Jack E.; Ohnmeiss, Donna D.; Leary, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Introduction If nonoperative treatment for lumbar stenosis fails, surgery may be considered. This traditionally includes decompression often combined with fusion. Desire for less extensive surgery led to developing new techniques and implants, including an interlaminar device designed with the goal of providing segmental stability without fusion, following decompression. The purpose of this study was to investigate 5-year outcomes associated with an interlaminar device. Methods This prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted at 21 centers. Patients with moderate to severe lumbar stenosis at one or two contiguous levels and up to Grade I spondylolisthesis were randomized (2:1 ratio) to decompression and interlaminar stabilization (D+ILS; n=215) using the coflex® Interlaminar Stabilization® device (Paradigm Spine, LLC) or decompression and fusion with pedicle screws (D+PS; n=107). Clinical evaluations were made preoperatively and at 6 weeks and 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months postoperatively. Overall Food and Drug Administration success criteria required that a patient meet 4 criteria: 1) >15 point improvement in Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score; 2) no reoperation, revision, removal, or supplemental fixation; 3) no major device-related complication; and 4) no epidural steroid injection after surgery. Results At 5 years, 50.3% of D+ILS vs. 44% of D+PS patients (p>0.35) met the composite success criteria. Reoperation/revision rates were similar in the two groups (16.3% vs. 17.8%; p >0.90). Both groups had statistically significant improvement through 60 months in ODI scores with 80.6% of D+ILS patients and 73.2% of D+PS patients demonstrating >15 point improvement (p>0.30). VAS, SF-12, and ZCQ scores followed a similar pattern of maintained significant improvement throughout follow-up. On the SF-12 and ZCQ, D+ILS group scores were statistically significantly better during early follow-up compared to D+PS. In the D+ILS group, foraminal height

  19. Reproducibility and Validity of Dietary Patterns Assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire Used in the 5-Year Follow-Up Survey of the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Akiko; Shimazu, Taichi; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis of dietary pattern is increasingly popular in nutritional epidemiology. However, few studies have examined the validity and reproducibility of dietary patterns. We assessed the reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns identified by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study (JPHC Study). Methods The participants were a subsample (244 men and 254 women) from the JPHC Study. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns from 28- or 14-day dietary records and 2 FFQs. To assess reproducibility and validity, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficients between dietary pattern scores derived from FFQs separated by a 1-year interval, and between dietary pattern scores derived from dietary records and those derived from a FFQ completed after the dietary records, respectively. Results We identified 3 Japanese dietary patterns from the dietary records and 2 FFQs: prudent, westernized, and traditional. Regarding reproducibility, Spearman correlation coefficients between the 2 FFQs ranged from 0.55 for the westernized Japanese pattern in men and the prudent Japanese pattern in women to 0.77 for the traditional Japanese pattern in men. Regarding validity, the corresponding values between dietary records and the FFQ ranged from 0.32 for the westernized Japanese pattern in men to 0.63 for the traditional Japanese pattern in women. Conclusions Acceptable reproducibility and validity was shown by the 3 dietary patterns identified by principal component analysis based on the FFQ used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the JPHC Study. PMID:22343330

  20. High-dose-rate brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy combined with long-term hormonal therapy for high-risk and very high-risk prostate cancer: outcomes after 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Satoh, Takefumi; Kitano, Masashi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Komori, Shouko; Ikeda, Masaomi; Soda, Itaru; Kurosaka, Shinji; Sekiguchi, Akane; Kimura, Masaki; Kawakami, Shogo; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) combined with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria-defined high-risk (HR) and very high-risk (VHR) prostate cancer. Data from 178 HR (n = 96, 54%) and VHR (n = 82, 46%) prostate cancer patients who underwent 192Ir-HDR brachytherapy and hypofractionated EBRT with long-term ADT between 2003 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The mean dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 Gy/fraction of HDR brachytherapy. After five fractions of HDR treatment, EBRT with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administered. All patients initially underwent ≥6 months of neoadjuvant ADT, and adjuvant ADT was continued for 36 months after EBRT. The median follow-up was 61 months (range, 25–94 months) from the start of radiotherapy. The 5-year biochemical non-evidence of disease, freedom from clinical failure and overall survival rates were 90.6% (HR, 97.8%; VHR, 81.9%), 95.2% (HR, 97.7%; VHR, 92.1%), and 96.9% (HR, 100%; VHR, 93.3%), respectively. The highest Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-defined late genitourinary toxicities were Grade 2 in 7.3% of patients and Grade 3 in 9.6%. The highest late gastrointestinal toxicities were Grade 2 in 2.8% of patients and Grade 3 in 0%. Although the 5-year outcome of this tri-modality approach seems favorable, further follow-up is necessary to validate clinical and survival advantages of this intensive approach compared with the standard EBRT approach. PMID:24222312

  1. Migration, urbanisation and mortality: 5-year longitudinal analysis of the PERU MIGRANT study

    PubMed Central

    Pena, Melissa S Burroughs; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Sánchez, Juan F; Quispe, Renato; Pillay, Timesh D; Málaga, Germán; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare all-cause and cause-specific mortality among 3 distinct groups: within-country, rural-to-urban migrants, and rural and urban dwellers in a longitudinal cohort in Peru. Methods The PERU MIGRANT Study, a longitudinal cohort study, used an age-stratified and sex-stratified random sample of urban dwellers in a shanty town community in the capital city of Peru, rural dwellers in the Andes, and migrants from the Andes to the shanty town community. Participants underwent a questionnaire and anthropomorphic measurements at a baseline evaluation in 2007–2008 and at a follow-up visit in 2012–2013. Mortality was determined by death certificate or family interview. Results Of the 989 participants evaluated at baseline, 928 (94%) were evaluated at follow-up (mean age 48 years; 53% female). The mean follow-up time was 5.1 years, totalling 4732.8 person-years. In a multivariable survival model, and relative to urban dwellers, rural participants had lower all-cause mortality (HR=0.27; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98), and both the rural (HR=0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.87) and migrant (HR=0.13; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.81) groups had lower cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions Cardiovascular mortality of migrants remains similar to that of the rural group, suggesting that rural-to-urban migrants do not appear to catch up with urban mortality in spite of having a more urban cardiovascular risk factor profile. PMID:25987723

  2. Long term prognostic utility of coronary CT angiography in patients with no modifiable coronary artery disease risk factors: Results from the 5 year follow-up of the CONFIRM International Multicenter Registry

    PubMed Central

    Cheruvu, Chaitu; Precious, Bruce; Naoum, Christopher; Blanke, Philipp; Ahmadi, Amir; Soon, Jeanette; Arepalli, Chesnaldey; Gransar, Heidi; Achenbach, Stephan; Berman, Daniel S.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Callister, Tracy Q.; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.; Cademartiri, Filippo; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Marquez, Hugo; DeLago, Augustin; Villines, Todd C.; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Shaw, Leslee J.; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Cury, Ricardo C.; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Pontone, Gianluca; Andreini, Daniele; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Min, James K.; Leipsic, Jonathon

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary computed tomography angiography (coronary CTA) can prognosticate outcomes in patients without modifiable risk factors over medium term follow-up. This ability was driven by major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Objective Determine if coronary CTA could discriminate risk of mortality with longer term follow-up. In addition we sought to determine the long-term relationship to MACE. Methods From 12 centers, 1884 patients undergoing coronary CTA without prior coronary artery disease (CAD) or any modifiable CAD risk factors were identified. The presence of CAD was classified as none (0% stenosis), mild (1% to 49% stenosis) and obstructive (≥50% stenosis severity). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality and the secondary endpoint was MACE. MACE was defined as the combination of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and late target vessel revascularization (>90 days). Results Mean age was 55.6 ± 14.5 years. At mean 5.6 ± 1.3 years follow-up, 145(7.7%) deaths occurred. All-cause mortality demonstrated a dose-response relationship to the severity and number of coronary vessels exhibiting CAD. Increased mortality was observed for >1 segment non-obstructive CAD (hazard ratio [HR]:1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07–2.79; p = 0.025), obstructive 1&2 vessel CAD (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.08–2.71; p = 0.023) and 3-vessel or left main CAD (HR: 2.87; 95% CI: 1.57–5.23; p = 0.001). Both obstructive CAD (HR: 6.63; 95% CI: 3.91–11.26; p < 0.001) and non-obstructive CAD (HR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.31–3.67; p = 0.003) predicted MACE with increased hazard associated with increasing CAD severity; 5.60% in no CAD, 13.24% in non-obstructive and 36.28% in obstructive CAD, p < 0.001 for trend. Conclusions In individuals being assessed for CAD with no modifiable risk factors, all-cause mortality in the long term (>5 years) was predicted by the presence of more than 1 segment of non-obstructive plaque, obstructive 1- or 2-vessel CAD and 3

  3. Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002) Base-Year to Second: Follow-up Data File Documentation. NCES 2008-347

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Wilson, David; Burns, Laura J.; Currivan, Douglas; Rogers, James E.; Hubbard-Bednasz, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    This manual has been produced to familiarize data users with the procedures followed for data collection and processing for the base year through second follow-up of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002). It also provides the necessary documentation for use of the data files, as they appear on the ELS:2002 base-year to second…

  4. Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002/12) Third Follow-up Field Test Report. Working Paper Series. NCES 2012-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Jewell, Donna M.; Mattox, Tiffany; Dalton, Ben; Rosen, Jeffrey; Lauff, Erich; Hill, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the methodologies and results of the third follow-up Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002/12) field test which was conducted in the summer of 2011. The field test report is divided into six chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) Field Test Survey Design and Preparation; (3) Data Collection Procedures and Results; (4) Field…

  5. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72), Fifth Follow-Up (1986). Teaching Supplement Data File [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    The National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72) Teaching Supplement Data File (TSDF) is presented. Data for the machine-readable data file (MDRF) were collected via a mail questionnaire that was sent to all respondents (N=1,517) to the fifth follow-up survey who indicated that they had a teaching background or training…

  6. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72) Fifth Follow-Up (1986) Data File User's Manual. Contractor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourangeau, Roger; And Others

    This manual was produced to familiarize data users with the procedures followed in data collection and processing of the fifth follow-up survey of the National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72) and to provide documentation for use of the file. The data file is a computerized data base, which is available on magnetic…

  7. High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) First Follow-Up: A First Look at Fall 2009 Ninth-Graders in 2012. NCES 2014-360

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Dalton, Ben

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a first look at selected findings from the first follow-up of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09). HSLS:09 focuses on understanding students' trajectories from the beginning of high school into higher education and the workforce. The core research questions for the study explore secondary to postsecondary…

  8. Continuity, Comorbidity and Longitudinal Associations between Depression and Antisocial Behaviour in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritakallio, Minna; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both…

  9. 5-year Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Immediate versus Delayed Zoledronic Acid for Prevention of Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer Starting Letrozole after Tamoxifen: N03CC (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner-Johnston, Nina D.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Liu, Heshan; Kearns, Ann E.; Hines, Stephanie L.; Puttabasavaiah, Suneetha; Dakhil, Shaker R.; Lafky, Jacqueline M.; Perez, Edith A.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Postmenopausal women with breast cancer (BC) receiving aromatase inhibitors are at increased risk for bone loss. The current study was undertaken to determine whether upfront versus delayed treatment with zoledronic acid (ZA) impacted bone loss. This report describes the 5-year follow-up results. Methods 551 postmenopausal women with BC completing tamoxifen and undergoing daily letrozole treatment were randomized to upfront (274) or delayed (277) ZA 4 mg IV every 6 months. In the delayed arm, ZA was initiated for post-baseline bone mineral density (BMD) T-score < -2.0 or fracture. Results The incidence of a 5% decrease in total lumbar spine BMD at 5 years was 10.2% in the upfront arm versus 41.2% in the delayed arm, p < 0.0001. 41 patients in the delayed arm were eventually started on ZA. With the exception of increased grade 1/2 elevated creatinine and fever in the upfront arm and cerebrovascular ischemia in the delayed arm, there were no significant differences between arms with respect to the most common adverse events of arthralgia and back pain. Osteoporosis occurred less frequently in the upfront arm (2 versus 8 cumulative cases) though this difference was not statistically significant. Bone fractures occurred in 24 patients in the upfront arm versus 25 patients in the delayed arm. Conclusions Immediate treatment with ZA prevented bone loss compared with delayed treatment in postmenopausal women on letrozole and these differences were maintained at 5 years. The incidence of osteoporosis or fractures was not different between arms. PMID:25930719

  10. Trajectories of Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescents with Spina Bifida: A 6-Year, Four-Wave Longitudinal Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; DeLucia, Christian; Essner, Bonnie; Kelly, Lauren; Zebracki, Kathy; Friedman, Deborah; Jandasek, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at…

  11. Adverse health events and late mortality after pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic SCT-two decades of longitudinal follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmsson, M; Vatanen, A; Borgström, B; Gustafsson, B; Taskinen, M; Saarinen-Pihkala, U M; Winiarski, J; Jahnukainen, K

    2015-06-01

    Treatment-related late toxicities after pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (allo-HSCT) are increasingly important as long-term survival has become an expected outcome for many transplanted children and adolescents. In a retrospective cohort study, we assessed long-term health outcomes in 204 allo-HSCT survivors transplanted in childhood or adolescence (<20 years) between 1978 through 2000 after a median follow-up time of 12 (range 4-28) years. Data on conditioning regimen, adverse health events (AE) and growth and hormonal substitutions (hormone replacement therapies (HRTs)) were obtained from medical records. AEs were graded retrospectively according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Late deaths (⩾48 months after allo-HSCT) were evaluated separately. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that chronic GVHD (P<0.000) and longer follow-up time (P<0.05) correlated with AEs, whereas CY-based conditioning was inversely correlated (P<0.002). TBI and longer follow-up duration predicted more severe AEs (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). HRTs were more frequent after TBI. Diabetes type II, dyslipidemia and hypertension were detected in 9, 7 and 7% of the survivors, respectively. Late deaths (n=22) were most frequently due to pulmonary failure (n=7), followed by secondary malignancy (n=5). The occurrence of AEs after pediatric allo-HSCT is high and likely to increase during extended follow-up, particularly in patients who have received TBI. PMID:25798676

  12. Self-administered food frequency questionnaire used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the JPHC Study: questionnaire structure, computation algorithms, and area-based mean intake.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Minatsu; Ishihara, Junko; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2003-01-01

    In this section we described the structure of the self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the JPHC study, the computation algorithms, and the area-based mean intakes of nutrients and food groups in the subjects of the validation study. The FFQ consists of five sections: 1) semiquantitative frequency questions for rice and miso (fermented soybean paste)-soup, 2) those for alcoholic beverages, 3) those for vitamin supplements, 4) those for foods and beverages, and 5) questions on dietary and cooking behaviors. From the questions, intakes of nutrients and foods by food groups were computed. Although most of them were computed from the frequency and relative portion size indicated in the replies, together with the fixed portion size, a seasonal coefficient was added in the computation of vegetables and fruits. Only frequency of intake and fixed portion size were used for computation of beverages. Sugar and cream added in coffee and tea were computed from the frequency of coffee and tea intake. The intakes of cooking oil, cooking salt (sodium), and salt in noodle-soup were estimated from the questions of relative preference of oil, salt, and noodle-soup. PMID:12701629

  13. Longitudinal follow-up of Zika virus RNA in semen of a traveller returning from Barbados to the Netherlands with Zika virus disease, March 2016.

    PubMed

    Reusken, Chantal; Pas, Suzan; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine; Mögling, Ramona; van Kampen, Jeroen; Langerak, Thomas; Koopmans, Marion; van der Eijk, Annemiek; van Gorp, Eric

    2016-06-01

    We report the longitudinal follow-up of Zika virus (ZIKV) RNA in semen of a traveller who developed ZIKV disease after return to the Netherlands from Barbados, March 2016. Persistence of ZIKV RNA in blood, urine, saliva and semen was followed until the loads reached undetectable levels. RNA levels were higher in semen than in other sample types and declined to undetectable level at day 62 post onset of symptoms. PMID:27313200

  14. Predictors and consequences of childhood depressive symptoms: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Nolen-Hoeksema, S; Girgus, J S; Seligman, M E

    1992-08-01

    A 5-year longitudinal study investigated the interrelationships among children's experiences of depressive symptoms, negative life events, explanatory style, and helplessness behaviors in social and achievement situations. The results revealed that early in childhood, negative events, but not explanatory style, predicted depressive symptoms; later in childhood, a pessimistic explanatory style emerged as a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, alone and in conjunction with negative events. When children suffered periods of depression, their explanatory styles not only deteriorated but remained pessimistic even after their depression subsided, presumably putting them at risk for future episodes of depression. Some children seem repeatedly prone to depressive symptoms over periods of at least 2 years. Depressed children consistently showed helpless behaviors in social and achievement settings. PMID:1500598

  15. A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of Affect in Children and Adults with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Lisa; Moss, Jo; Oliver, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Studies of individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) have described changes in mood and behavior with age, although no empirical or longitudinal studies have been conducted. Caregivers of individuals with CdLS (N = 67), cri du chat syndrome (CdCS; N = 42), and Fragile X syndrome (FXS; N = 142) completed the Mood, Interest and Pleasure…

  16. National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988: Second Follow-up Questionnaire Content Areas and Research Issues. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven; Dowd, Katy

    The National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) provides a wealth of information about factors that influence academic performance and social development of students. The focus of this content overview is the research issues addressed by the NELS:88 second followup in 1992. In 1988, by surveying nearly 25,000 eighth graders, their…

  17. Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study: 2000/01 Follow-Up Field Test Methodology Report. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Melissa R.; Link, Michael W.; Riccobono, John A.; Siegel, Peter H.

    This report describes and evaluates the methods and procedures used for the field test of the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:2000/01). The B&B:2000/01 field test included important changes from previous B&B surveys (conducted in 1994 and 1997) in its sample design and collection of data. The introductory chapter describes the…

  18. Language Proficiency, Home-Language Status, and English Vocabulary Development: A Longitudinal Follow-Up of the Word Generation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Joshua F.; Capotosto, Lauren; Branum-Martin, Lee; White, Claire; Snow, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal quasi-experimental study examines the effects of Word Generation, a middle-school vocabulary intervention, on the learning, maintenance, and consolidation of academic vocabulary for students from English-speaking homes, proficient English speakers from language-minority homes, and limited English-proficiency students. Using…

  19. Longitudinal study of dental caries increment in Malaysian school children: a 5-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Yusof, Norashikin; Hassan, Mohamed I A; Jaafar, Nasaruddin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this 5-year longitudinal cohort study was to assess the prevalence, severity, and trends in caries increment and impact of the School Dental Incremental Care Programme (SDICP). Data were gathered from school dental records as part of the SDICP. A sample of 1830 children were included and checked for caries experience annually using World Health Organization criteria. In total, 95.4% of the children were caries free in 2004, and caries experience declined to 70.5% in 2009 with an average of 4.9% annually. At baseline, the mean DMFT (confidence interval [CI]) was 0.06 (0.05-0.08) and increased to 0.58 (0.53-0.63) in 2009. Children with active caries were 4.4% in 2004, and figures rose to 9.6% in 2009. The FT component increased most rapidly during these 5 years from 0.2% to 25.1%. Overall caries prevalence and increment was low in this study. Proportions of FT component were higher as compared with DT component with low rate of extractions during the latter years of the study. PMID:22218936

  20. Participation in an Intensive Longitudinal Study with Weekly Web Surveys Over 2.5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jennifer; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Schulz, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Technological advances have made it easier for researchers to collect more frequent longitudinal data from survey respondents via personal computers, smartphones, and other mobile devices. Although technology has led to an increase in data-intensive longitudinal studies, little is known about attrition from such studies or the differences between respondents who complete frequently administered surveys in a timely manner, and respondents who do not. Objective We examined respondent characteristics and behaviors associated with continued and on-time participation in a population-based intensive longitudinal study, using weekly web-based survey interviews over an extended period. Methods We analyzed data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life study, an intensive longitudinal study that collected weekly web-based survey interviews for 2.5 years from 1003 18- and 19-year-olds to investigate factors shaping the dynamics of their sexual behavior, contraceptive use, and pregnancies. Results Ordinary least squares and logistic regression analyses showed background respondent characteristics measured at baseline were associated with the number of days respondents remained enrolled in the study, the number of interviews they completed, and the odds that they were late completing interviews. In addition, we found that changes in pregnancy-related behaviors reported in the weekly interviews were associated with late completion of interviews. Specifically, after controlling for sociodemographic, personality, contact information, and prior experience variables, we found that weekly reports such as starting to have sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.17, 95% CI 1.03-1.32, P=.01), getting a new partner (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.53-2.03, P<.001), stopping the use of contraception (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.49, P=.001), and having a new pregnancy (OR 5.57, 95% CI 4.26-7.29, P<.001) were significantly associated with late survey completion. However, young women who reported changes in

  1. Evaluation of e-mail contact to conduct follow-up among adolescent women participating in a longitudinal cohort study of contraceptive use☆

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Sadia; Dodge, Laura E.; Brown, Beth A.; Hacker, Michele R.; Raine, Tina R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether e-mail contact is a viable method for gathering information from adolescent women about contraceptive use. Study design Adolescent women initiating contraception followed in a prospective longitudinal cohort study and who had access to the Internet were randomized to the control or intervention arm and were contacted at 3, 6 and 12 months after enrollment. The control arm completed follow-up surveys in-person or by telephone. The intervention arm received Web-based surveys via e-mail. Results There were 46 women in each group. Women in both groups were approximately 20 years old, were sexually active minority women, and were in school or employed. While participants in the intervention group initially had lower response rates than those in the control group (59% vs. 91%, respectively), with the addition of traditional follow-up methods, the overall response rates were comparable (94% vs. 91%, respectively). Conclusions E-mail follow-up with Web-based surveys was effective amongst adolescent women at risk for unintended pregnancy. This indicates that e-mail contact could be used as a preliminary follow-up strategy to capture a substantial proportion of participants and that standard follow-up can be used as a second-line approach. A two-pronged approach with initial e-mail contact and traditional follow-up for participants who do not respond may be a viable method when evaluating sensitive areas such as contraceptive use. PMID:23290427

  2. Late infantile tetany and secondary hyperparathyroidism in infants fed humanized cow milk formula. Longitudinal follow-up.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, P S; Tsang, R C; Greer, F R; Noguchi, A; Laskarzewski, P; Steichen, J J

    1985-07-01

    Five full-term infants with birth weights appropriate for gestational age presented with hypocalcemic tetany at 5 to 9 days of age. All infants had been fed Similac 20, a cow milk formula. Initial mean serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and magnesium (Mg) levels of the tetanic infants were 6.8, 9.5, and 1.6 mg/dL, respectively. The mean serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was elevated at 79 mu LEq/mL (adult normal values, less than or equal to 57 mu LEq/mL). Following restoration of normocalcemia with Ca supplements, feeding was reinstituted with Similac 20 in two infants and Similac PM 60/40 in three infants. Serum biochemical and hormonal values were compared with those of 18 exclusively breast-fed infants followed up from three weeks to six months and 14 Similac 20-fed full-term infants followed up from one week to six months. In tetanic infants, serum Ca concentrations became elevated (10.4 +/- 0.05 mg/dL; mean +/- SEM) by six weeks (vs 9.2 +/- 0.3 mg/dL in breast-fed infants) (P less than .001) and serum Mg concentrations (2.26 +/- 0.01 mg/dL) by four weeks (vs 1.92 +/- 0.07 mg/dL in breast-fed infants) (P less than .01). Mean serum P concentrations declined progressively. Mean serum PTH concentrations were elevated and ranged from 74 to 143 mu LEq/mL at two to 16 weeks (vs mean 28 to 35 mu LEq/mL in breast-fed infants (P less than .0001). In 14 formula-fed-nontetanic full-term infants, serum PTH concentrations were intermediate between formula-fed-tetanic and breast-fed infants, mean serum Ca concentrations ranged from 10.2 to 10.4 mg/dL, and mean serum P concentrations declined from 8.3 to 7.1 mg/dL. We speculate that acute hypocalcemic tetany in the study infants was induced by the relatively high P load in cow milk formulas (vs human milk); with the continued P load, secondary hyperparathyroidism continued, maintaining P, Ca, and Mg homeostasis. PMID:3874538

  3. Trypanosoma-Cruzi Cross-Reactive Antibodies Longitudinal Follow-Up: A Prospective Observational Study in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Esber S.; Gueyffier, Lucie; Danjoy, Marie-Laure; Vanhems, Philippe; Pozzetto, Bruno; Sobh, Mohamad; Pottel, Hans; Michallet, Mauricette; Zrein, Maan A.

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies named TcCRA “Trypanosoma cruzi Cross Reactive Antibodies” were detected in 47% of blood donors from French population unexposed to the parasite. In order to evaluate the passive or active transmissibility of TcCRA and further characterize its role and etiology, we have conducted a study in a cohort of 47 patients who underwent allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantations (allo-HSCT). Donors and recipients were tested for TcCRA prior to transplantation. Recipients were further tested during follow-up after transplantation. Demographical, clinical and biological data were collected. Our primary end-point was to assess the risk of TcCRA acquisition after transplantation. During this initial analysis, we observed no seroconversion in patients receiving cells from TcCRA negative donors (n = 23) but detected seroconversion in 4 out of 24 patients who received hematopoietic stem cells from positive donors. Here, we are discussing possible scenarios to explain TcCRA-immune status in recipient after transplantation. PMID:26351849

  4. Patterns of shoulder pain during a 14-year follow-up: results from a longitudinal population study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Grotle, Margreth; Natvig, Bård

    2014-01-01

    Background Population studies have reported that shoulder pain is the third most frequently reported musculoskeletal pain. Long duration, pain intensity and high level of disability predict persistent complaints. The present study aimed to describe the prevalence of shoulder pain in a general population and follow this over a long period (1990 to 2004). The objective was also to describe the stability of shoulder pain and patterns of co-occurrence with neck and upper back pain. Methods Data were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire in a population in Ullensaker muncipality, north-east of Oslo. The Standard Nordic Questionnaire was sent in 1990, 1994 and 2004 to inhabitants belonging to six birth cohorts from 1918–20 to 1968–70. Results The 1-year prevalence of shoulder pain was 46.7% (95% CI, 44.9% to 48.6%) in 1990, 48.7% (95% CI, 46.8% to 50.5%) in 1994, and 55.2% (95% CI, 53.5% to 56.9%) in 2004. Approximately three-quarters of the persons with shoulder pain at one given time also reported shoulder pain at the next follow-up. Conclusions Prevalence of shoulder pain during a 14-year period was high and slightly increasing. Shoulder pain was reported most frequently in co-occurrence with neck pain. Classification models should include neck pain as well as other co-occurring pain sites.

  5. A longitudinal study of the prevalence and characteristics of pain in the first 5 years following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Siddall, Philip J; McClelland, Joan M; Rutkowski, Susan B; Cousins, Michael J

    2003-06-01

    A longitudinal cohort study of 100 people with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) was performed to determine the prevalence and severity of different types of pain (musculoskeletal, visceral, neuropathic at-level, neuropathic below-level) at 5 years following SCI. Prospective data on the characteristics of pain up to 6 months following injury had been collected previously and allowed comparisons between the presence of pain at different time points. In addition, we sought to determine the relationship between the presence of pain and physical factors related to the injury such as level of lesion, completeness and clinical SCI syndrome. We also obtained information regarding mood, global self-rated health and the impact of pain on function. Of the 100 subjects in the original cohort, 73 were available for follow up. When all types of pain were included, 59 of the 73 subjects (81%) reported the presence of pain. Musculoskeletal pain was the most common type of pain experienced and was present in 43 subjects (59%), at-level neuropathic pain was present in 30 subjects (41%), below-level neuropathic pain was present in 25 subjects (34%) and visceral pain was present in four subjects (5%). Overall, 58% reported their pain as severe or excruciating and those with visceral pain were most likely to rate their pain in these categories. There was no relationship between the presence of pain overall and level or completeness of lesion, or type of injury. However, tetraplegics were more likely to report below-level neuropathic pain. This study prospectively demonstrates the differing time courses of different types of pain over the first 5 years following SCI. There was a strong correlation between the presence of both types of neuropathic pain at 5 years and earlier time points but both visceral pain and musculoskeletal pain demonstrated a poor correlation between time points. Chronic visceral pain occurs in a small percentage of patients and does not correlate with the

  6. Effects of incentive size and timing on response rates to a follow-up wave of a longitudinal mailed survey.

    PubMed

    Collins, R L; Ellickson, P L; Hays, R D; McCaffrey, D F

    2000-08-01

    Young adults who had previously participated in a longitudinal survey of youth were sent a questionnaire. They were randomly assigned to receive a $20 prepayment, a $20 postpayment, or a $25 postpayment for participation in the latest survey. Those in the large incentive condition were 7 percentage points more likely to return a survey than those in the smaller, postpayment group. Prepayment had a smaller, less reliable effect. Effects of incentive magnitude and timing were consistent at each month of the study period; only better high school grades distinguished early responders from late responders. Nonresponders had characteristics suggestive of low social conformity and were more likely than responders to be African American and male and have low SES. The discussion centers on motivations for participating in research and differences in the incentives likely to promote continued response versus initial study enrollment. PMID:11009863

  7. Contactable Non-responders Show Different Characteristics Compared to Lost to Follow-Up Participants: Insights from an Australian Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shu-Kay; Scott, Rani; Scuffham, Paul A

    2016-07-01

    Objective This research aims to identify predictors of attrition in a longitudinal birth cohort study in Australia and assess differences in baseline characteristics and responses in subsequent follow-up phases between contactable non-responders and uncontactable non-responders deemed "lost to follow-up (LTF)". Methods 3368 women recruited from three public hospitals in Southeast Queensland and Northern New South Wales during antenatal visits in 2006-2011 completed a baseline questionnaire to elicit information on multiple domains of exposures. A follow-up questionnaire was posted to each participant at 1 year after birth to obtain mother's and child's health and development information. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the association between exposures and respondents' status at 1 year. The effect of an inverse-probability-weighting method to adjust for non-response was studied. Results Overall attrition at 1-year was 35.4 %; major types of attrition were "contactable non-response" (27.6 %) and "LTF" (6.7 %). These two attrition types showed different responses at the 3-year follow-up and involved different predictors. Besides shared predictors (first language not English, higher risk of psychological distress, had smoked during pregnancy, higher levels of family conflict), distinguishable predictors of contactable non-responders were younger age, having moved home in the past year and having children under 16 in the household. Attrition rates increased substantially from 20 % in 2006 to 54 % in 2011. Conclusions This observed trend of increased attrition rates raises concern about the use of traditional techniques, such as "paper-based" questionnaires, in longitudinal cohort studies. The supplementary use of electronic communications, such as online survey tools and smart-device applications, could provide a better alternative. PMID:26976281

  8. The course of mental health after miscarriage and induced abortion: a longitudinal, five-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Broen, Anne Nordal; Moum, Torbjørn; Bødtker, Anne Sejersted; Ekeberg, Øivind

    2005-01-01

    . Women who had undergone an abortion exhibited higher scores during the follow-up period for some outcomes. The difference in the courses of responses may partly result from the different characteristics of the two pregnancy termination events. PMID:16343341

  9. A longitudinal follow-up of posttraumatic stress: from 9 months to 20 years after a major road traffic accident

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although road traffic accidents (RTA) are a major cause of injury and a cause of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in the aftermath, little is known about the long-term psychological effects of RTA. Methods This prospective longitudinal study assessed long-term PTS, grief, and general mental health after a bus carrying 23 sixth-grade schoolchildren crashed on a school outing and 12 children died. Directly affected (i.e., children in the crash) and indirectly affected children (i.e., all pupils in the sixth grade who were not in the crash) were surveyed at 9 months (N = 102), 4 years (N = 51), and 20 years (N = 40) after the event. Psychological distress was assessed by single items, including sadness, avoidance, intrusions, and guilt. After 20 years, PTS was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Results Stress reactions were prevalent 9 months after the event, with sadness (69%) and avoidance (59%) being highly represented in both directly and indirectly affected groups, whereas, nightmares (60%) and feelings of guilt (50%) were only frequent in those directly affected. The frequency of sadness and avoidance decreased after 4 years in the indirectly exposed (ps < .05). After 20 years, the directly affected had a higher prevalence of PTS (p = .003), but not decreased general mental health (p = .14), than those indirectly affected. Conclusions The limitations preclude assertive conclusions. Nonetheless, the findings corroborate previous studies reporting traumatic events are associated with long-term PTS, but not with decreased general mental health. PMID:21396118

  10. Renal Blood Oxygenation Level-dependent Imaging in Longitudinal Follow-up of Donated and Remaining Kidneys.

    PubMed

    Seif, Maryam; Eisenberger, Ute; Binser, Tobias; Thoeny, Harriet C; Krauer, Fabienne; Rusch, Aurelia; Boesch, Chris; Vogt, Bruno; Vermathen, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To determine renal oxygenation changes associated with uninephrectomy and transplantation in both native donor kidneys and transplanted kidneys by using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MR imaging. Materials and Methods The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee. Thirteen healthy kidney donors and their corresponding recipients underwent kidney BOLD MR imaging with a 3-T imager. Written informed consent was obtained from each subject. BOLD MR imaging was performed in donors before uninephrectomy and in donors and recipients 8 days, 3 months, and 12 months after transplantation. R2* values, which are inversely related to tissue partial pressure of oxygen, were determined in the cortex and medulla. Longitudinal R2* changes were statistically analyzed by using repeated measures one-way analysis of variance with post hoc pair-wise comparisons. Results R2* values in the remaining kidneys significantly decreased early after uninephrectomy in both the medulla and cortex (P < .003), from 28.9 sec(-1) ± 2.3 to 26.4 sec(-1) ± 2.5 in the medulla and from 18.3 sec(-1) ± 1.5 to 16.3 sec(-1) ± 1.0 in the cortex, indicating increased oxygen content. In donors, R2* remained significantly decreased in both the medulla and cortex at 3 (P < .01) and 12 (P < .01) months. In transplanted kidneys, R2* remained stable during the first year after transplantation, with no significant change. Among donors, cortical R2* was found to be negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (R = -0.47, P < .001). Conclusion The results suggest that BOLD MR imaging may potentially be used to monitor renal functional changes in both remaining and corresponding transplanted kidneys. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:26744926

  11. Effects of reactive oxygen species on metabolism monitored by longitudinal 1H single voxel MRS follow-up in patients with mitochondrial disease or cerebral tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constans, J. M.; Collet, S.; Guillamo, J. S.; Hossu, G.; Lacombe, S.; Gauduel, Y. A.; Houée Levin, C.; Dou, W.; Ruan, S.; Barré, L.; Rioult, F.; Derlon, J. M.; Lechapt-Zalcman, E.; Valable, S.; Chapon, F.; Courtheoux, P.; Fong, V.; Kauffmann, F.

    2011-01-01

    Free radicals, or Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), have an effect on energy and glycolytic metabolism, mitochondrial function, lipid metabolism, necrosis and apoptosis, cell proliferation, and infiltration. These changes could be monitored longitudinally (every 4 months over 6 years) in humans with glial brain tumors (low and high grade) after therapy, using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) and MR perfusion. Some examples of early clinical data from longitudinal follow-up monitoring in humans of energy and glycolytic metabolism, lipid metabolism, necrosis, proliferation, and infiltration measured by conventional MRI, MRS and perfusion, and positron emission tomography (PET) are shown in glial brain tumors after therapy. Despite the difficulty, the variability and unknown factors, these repeated measurements give us a better insight into the nature of the different processes, tumor progression and therapeutic response.

  12. Alcohol Consumption and Longitudinal Trajectories of Physical Functioning in Central and Eastern Europe: A 10-Year Follow-up of HAPIEE Study

    PubMed Central

    Pikhart, Hynek; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Besala, Agnieszka; Bell, Steven; Peasey, Anne; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical functioning (PF) is an essential domain of older persons’ health and quality of life. Health behaviors are the main modifiable determinants of PF. Cross-sectionally, alcohol consumption appears to be linked to better PF, but longitudinal evidence is mixed and very little is known about alcohol consumption and longitudinal PF trajectories. Methods: We conducted longitudinal analyses of 28,783 men and women aged 45–69 years from Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), and seven towns of the Czech Republic. At baseline, alcohol consumption was measured by a graduated frequency questionnaire and problem drinking was evaluated using the CAGE questionnaire. PF was assessed using the Physical Functioning Subscale of the SF-36 instrument at baseline and three subsequent occasions. Growth curve modeling was used to estimate the associations between alcohol consumption and PF trajectories over 10-year follow-up. Results: PF scores declined during follow-up in all three cohorts. Faster decline in PF over time was found in Russian female frequent drinkers, Polish female moderate drinkers, and Polish male regular heavy drinkers, in comparison with regular and/or light-to-moderate drinkers. Nondrinking was associated with a faster decline compared with light drinking only in Russian men. Problem drinking and past drinking were not related to the decline rate of PF. Conclusions: This large longitudinal study in Central and Eastern European populations with relatively high alcohol intake does not strongly support the existence of a protective effect of alcohol on PF trajectories; if anything, it suggests that alcohol consumption is associated with greater deterioration in PF over time. PMID:26748094

  13. 99mTc-MAG3 scintigraphy for the longitudinal follow-up of kidney function in a mouse model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Experimental models are essential tools in the development and evaluation of novel treatment options, but the preclinical model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is limited to the retrieval of (very) early functional data, leaving the pivotal long-term outcome unknown. The present study applies technetium-99m-mercapto-acetyl-tri-glycine [99mTc-MAG3] scintigraphy for the longitudinal follow-up examination of long-term kidney function after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods Unilateral warm ischemia was induced in scid beige mice by vascular clamping of the kidney hilum for 40 min. 99mTc-MAG3 scintigraphy was performed prior to injury, 8 and 14 days post ischemia. The fractional uptake rate [FUR] was calculated from scintigraphy data as a measure of renal clearance. Results FUR demonstrated a significant functional impairment of the ischemic kidney 8 and 14 days after injury (P < 0.05 vs. baseline), while contralateral non-ischemic kidneys showed no significant changes. In histological analysis, ischemic kidneys exhibited tubular dilatation and cytoplasmic degeneration as signs of hypoxia without any evidence for necrosis. Conclusions FUR enables the detection of renal dysfunction and longitudinal long-term follow-up examination in the same individual. Our model may facilitate preclinical therapy evaluation for the identification of effective renoprotective therapies. PMID:22264389

  14. Dynamics of resilience in forced migration: a 1-year follow-up study of longitudinal associations with mental health in a conflict-affected, ethnic Muslim population

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Abas, Melanie; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula; Stewart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective The concept of ‘resilience’ is of increasing interest in studies of mental health in populations facing adversity. However, lack of longitudinal data on the dynamics of resilience and non-usage of resilience-specific measurements have prevented a better understanding of resilience-mental health interactions. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the stability of levels of resilience and its associations with sociodemographic and mental health exposures in a conflict-affected internal-migrant population in Sri Lanka. Design A prospective follow-up study of 1 year. Setting Puttalam district of North Western province in postconflict Sri Lanka (baseline in 2011, follow-up in 2012). Participants An ethnic Muslim population internally displaced 20 years ago (in 1990) from Northern Sri Lanka, aged 18 or above and currently in the process of return migration. Measures It was hypothesised that levels of resilience would be associated with mental health outcomes. Resilience was measured on both occasions using the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14), social support by the Multidimensional Social Support Scale and Lubben Social Network Scale and common mental disorders by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Results Of 450 participants interviewed at baseline in 2011, 338 (75.1%) were re-interviewed in 2012 after a 1-year follow-up. The mean resilience scores measured by RS-14 were 80.2 (95% CI 78.6 to 81.9) at baseline and 84.9 (83.5 to 86.3) at follow-up. At both time points, lower resilience was independently associated with food insecurity, lower social support availability and social isolation. At both time points, there were significant associations with common mental disorders (CMDs) in unadjusted analyses, but they only showed independence at baseline. The CMD prevalence, maintenance and incidence at follow-up was 8.3%, 28.2% and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions In this displaced population facing a potential reduction in adversity

  15. Changes in Weight over the School Year and Summer Vacation: Results of a 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Jennette P.; Johnston, Craig A.; Woehler, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that children gain more weight during the summer months compared with the school year. To examine the impact of the school and summer environment on children's weight further, we conducted a 5-year longitudinal study examining changes in standardized BMI (zBMI) of students entering kindergarten. Methods: Heights…

  16. Changes in weight over the school year and summer vacation: Results of a 5-year longitudinal study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests that children gain more weight during the summer months compared with the school year. In order to further examine the impact of the school and summer environment on children's weight, we conducted a 5-year longitudinal study examining changes in standardized BMI (zBMI) of students...

  17. Changes in weight over the school year and summer vacation: Results of a 5-year longitudinal study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some evidence suggests that children have relatively higher increases in weight during the summer months compared to the school year. In order to further examine the impact of the school and summer environment on children's weight, we conducted a 5-year longitudinal study examining changes in standa...

  18. Evaluation of survival and success rates of dental implants reported in longitudinal studies with a follow-up period of at least 10 years: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moraschini, V; Poubel, L A da C; Ferreira, V F; Barboza, E dos S P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the survival and success rates of osseointegrated implants determined in longitudinal studies that conducted a follow-up of at least 10 years. A broad electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for relevant publications in indexed journals, evaluating the clinical performance of dental implants. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria, two reviewers analyzed titles, abstracts, and complete articles, prioritizing studies of the randomized clinical trial type. A total of 23 articles were included in this review. Ten prospective studies, nine retrospective studies, and four randomized clinical trials, which evaluated 7711 implants, were selected. The mean follow-up time of the studies included was 13.4 years. All of the studies reported survival rates and mean marginal bone resorption values, with cumulative mean values of 94.6% and 1.3mm, respectively. Fourteen studies related success rates. Taking into consideration the disparate outcome measures employed to assess dental implant performance and within the limitations of this systematic review, we may affirm that osseointegrated implants are safe and present high survival rates and minimal marginal bone resorption in the long term. PMID:25467739

  19. Persistent spatial clusters of high body mass index in a Swiss urban population as revealed by the 5-year GeoCoLaus longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Bochud, Murielle; Stringhini, Silvia; Paccaud, Fred; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Chételat, Joël; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Guessous, Idris

    2016-01-01

    Objective Body mass index (BMI) may cluster in space among adults and be spatially dependent. Whether and how BMI clusters evolve over time in a population is currently unknown. We aimed to determine the spatial dependence of BMI and its 5-year evolution in a Swiss general adult urban population, taking into account the neighbourhood-level and individual-level characteristics. Design Cohort study. Setting Swiss general urban population. Participants 6481 georeferenced individuals from the CoLaus cohort at baseline (age range 35–74 years, period=2003–2006) and 4460 at follow-up (period=2009–2012). Outcome measures Body weight and height were measured by trained healthcare professionals with participants standing without shoes in light indoor clothing. BMI was calculated as weight (kg) divided by height squared (m2). Participants were geocoded using their postal address (geographic coordinates of the place of residence). Getis-Ord Gi statistic was used to measure the spatial dependence of BMI values at baseline and its evolution at follow-up. Results BMI was not randomly distributed across the city. At baseline and at follow-up, significant clusters of high versus low BMIs were identified and remained stable during the two periods. These clusters were meaningfully attenuated after adjustment for neighbourhood-level income but not individual-level characteristics. Similar results were observed among participants who showed a significant weight gain. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report longitudinal changes in BMI clusters in adults from a general population. Spatial clusters of high BMI persisted over a 5-year period and were mainly influenced by neighbourhood-level income. PMID:26733572

  20. Perceived Control and Intellectual Functioning in the Elderly: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachman, Margie E.; Leff, Rona

    1989-01-01

    Examined the relation of control beliefs to individual differences in 63 elderly adults in 1981 and 1986. Over the 5 years, generalized control and intellectual performance did not change, but intellectual control beliefs did. (RJC)

  1. Longitudinal Changes in Resting-State Cerebral Activity in Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia: A 1-Year Follow-up Functional MR Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Lui, Su; Yao, Li; Hu, Junmei; Lv, Peilin; Huang, Xiaoqi; Mechelli, Andrea; Sweeney, John A; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To determine whether the brain functional abnormalities of drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia are reduced after 1 year of undergoing antipsychotic treatment and whether pretreatment resting-state functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging parameters are associated with longitudinal changes in clinical symptoms. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the local ethical committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Twenty antipsychotic-naive first-episode patients with schizophrenia and 16 healthy individuals were recruited and underwent resting-state functional MR imaging at baseline and again at 1-year follow-up, by which time significant clinical improvement was seen. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) were analyzed with analysis of covariance. Results The amount of ALFF in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the amount of FC between the bilateral IPLs significantly increased over the follow-up period, and the amount of ALFF in the right occipital gyrus was reduced (P < .050, AlphaSim corrected [ http://afni.nimh.nih.gov/pub/dist/doc/manual/AlphaSim.pdf ]), returning toward normal levels. Furthermore, the degree of alteration in ALFF values in the right OFC (P = .037) and occipital gyrus (P = .002) at baseline was significantly correlated with the magnitude of the normalization in those regions at 1-year follow-up. In contrast, abnormalities of ALFF in the bilateral thalamus, ventral medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and right amygdala and of FC between the right OFC and the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex at baseline did not improve in patients at 1-year follow-up. Conclusion These findings show that some, but not all, neurophysiologic alterations that occur during the acute phase of schizophrenia are normalized in the context of clinical improvement and suggest therapeutic implications for

  2. Agreement between self-reported and measured height, weight and body mass index in old age—a longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Anna K.; Hassing, Linda B.; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: self-reported body mass index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight is a widely used measure of adiposity in epidemiological research. Knowledge about the accuracy of these measures in late life is scarce. Objective: the study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and changes in accuracy of self-reported height, weight and BMI calculated from self-reported height and weight in late life. Design: a longitudinal population-based study with five times of follow-up was conducted. Participants: seven hundred seventy-four community-living men and women, aged 40–88 at baseline (mean age 63.9), included in The Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Methods: participants self-reported their height and weight in a questionnaire, and height and weight were measured by experienced research nurses at an in-person testing five times during a 20-year period. BMI was calculated as weight (kilogramme)/height (metre)2. Results: latent growth curve modelling showed an increase in the mean difference between self-reported and measured values over time for height (0.038 cm/year) and BMI (0.016 kg/m2/year), but not for weight. Conclusions: there is a very small increase in the mean difference between self-reported and measured BMI with ageing, which probably would not affect the results when self-reported BMI is used as a continuous variable in longitudinal studies. PMID:20453247

  3. Early functional, esthetic, and psychological rehabilitation of preschool child with nonsyndromic oligodontia and anodontia in mixed dentition stage through conservative systematic approach: A case report with 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Manu; Malik, Poonam; Dua, Madhuri; Yadav, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Missing teeth are a common developmental abnormality in humans. It may manifest as absence of varying numbers of primary and/or secondary teeth. Early treatment and follow-up are the key to successful rehabilitation of young patients with congenitally missing teeth. It is critical that oral rehabilitation is started early to maintain and correct the oral functions. Mucosa borne removable prostheses are the commonly selected treatment options for the young patients who present with oligodontia or anodontia. This clinical report describes esthetic, functional, and psychological rehabilitation of a young boy with severe oligodontia in maxillary arch and anodontia in mandibular arch. The individualized conservative graded approach in prosthetic rehabilitation with removable acrylic prosthesis helped to achieve esthetics, functionality, and psychological benefits. PMID:27307674

  4. Clinical Results of Auto-Iliac Cancellous Bone Grafts Combined with Implantation of Autologous Bone Marrow Cells for Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head: A Minimum 5-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joon Soon; Moon, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Bom-Soo; Shin, Sang Hyun; Shin, Byung Ki; Ryu, Dong-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There are no reports about bone graft and cell therapy for the osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH). We prospectively evaluated the clinical results of auto-iliac cancellous bone grafts combined with implantation of autologous bone marrow cells for ONFH. Materials and Methods Sixty-one hips in 52 patients with ONFH treated with bone graft and cell therapy were enrolled, and the average follow-up of the patients was 68 (60-88) months. Necrotic lesions were classified according to their size by the Steinberg method and location of necrosis. Results At the last follow-up, the percentage of excellent or good results was 80% (12/15 hips) in the small lesion group, 65% (17/26 hips) in the medium size group, and 28% (6/20 hips) in the large size group. The procedures were a clinical success in 4 of 5 hips (80%) of stage I, 23 of 35 hips (65.7%) of stage II, 7 of 18 hips (38.9%) of stage III, and 1 of 3 hips (33.3%) of stage IV grade, according to the Association Research Circulation Osseous grading system. Among the 20 cases with large sized necrotic lesions, 17 cases were laterally located and this group showed the worst outcomes, with 13 hips (76.5%) having bad or failed clinical results. Conclusion The results of the present study suggested that patients who have a large sized lesion or medium sized laterally located lesion would not be good candidates for the head preserving procedure. However, for medium sized lesions, this procedure generated clinical results comparable to those of other head preserving procedures. PMID:23364989

  5. A 6.5-year follow-up of 14 patients who underwent ProDisc total disc arthroplasty for combined long-standing degenerative lumbar disc disease and recent disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Markwalder, Thomas-Marc; Wenger, Markus; Marbacher, Serge

    2011-12-01

    A highly selected cohort of nine women and five men (mean age±standard error of the mean, 39.6±10.2 years) with discogenic low-back pain (duration: 75.4±97.5 months) and radiculopathy due to disc herniation (duration: 9.4±11.8 months) underwent anterior microdiscectomy and ProDisc-L II arthroplasty (Synthes, Oberdorf, Switzerland) (L5/S1 in 13 patients, L4/5 in one). As reported earlier, initial results were excellent in 11 and good in three patients at 17.8±4.7 months. At an average of 6.5 years after surgery, all were reassessed using the SWISSDISC-questionnaire, which involves the EuroQol-5D and North American Spine Society evaluations (general health, low-back and lower limb status), and a telephone call. Patients reporting an unsatisfactory outcome were re-examined clinically and radiologically. Results were excellent for 10, good for two, satisfactory for one, and poor for one patient. Visual analog scores for back and leg pain at 6.5 years had improved significantly relative to preoperative values (p<0.01), and were only slightly higher than at 1.48 years (p=0.3). This study confirms the initial favorable results. PMID:22099076

  6. Mellansjö school-home. Psychopathic children admitted 1928-1940, their social adaptation over 30 years: a longitudinal prospective follow-up.

    PubMed

    Fried, I

    1995-04-01

    The school-home for "psychopathic" children, Mellansjö, was founded in 1928. The initiator was Alice Hellström, a teacher and physician. She was a child psychiatric pioneer in Sweden. She had no formal education in child and adolescent psychiatry but with support from Professor of Paediatrics Isaac Jundell she received education in pediatrics and from Professor of Psychiatry Bror Gadelius she was trained in psychiatry. Hellström made a study trip to Europe where she visited child psychiatry clinics. She visited Summerhill in England and professors Aichhorn and Lazar in Austria. When Hellström opened the school-home she had been influenced by a number of factors, including the ideas behind the Swedish Child Welfare Law of 1924. She was also influenced by curative education and the psychoanalysis theory. She regretted that she lacked psychoanalytical training, however. Hellström was responsible for Mellansjö during the period 1928-56. Total admissions of 387 boys and 235 girls were recorded. Hellström planned a prospective longitudinal study with support from Jundell. Her intention was to describe the outcome of the children. She collected background and follow-up data from 1928 to 1968. She was unable to complete her project before she died in 1981 at the age of 95. The study has been completed with a consistent examination and follow-up of the 242 children treated between 1928 and 1940. This can help us to understand child psychiatric patients from the 1930s and obtain knowledge about their outcome. Such knowledge is important for understanding how evolution in society can activate child and adolescent psychiatry and how new forms of treatment have something to provide beyond those that already exist. The follow-up showed that 55% of the boys and 89% of the girls had an outcome without criminality and/or alcoholism in spite of difficult adjustment problems during childhood and were considered to be "psychopaths" in the 30s. However, 45% of the boys developed

  7. Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter FDA IDE Study of CHARITÉ Artificial Disc versus Lumbar Fusion: Effect at 5-year Follow-up of Prior Surgery and Prior Discectomy on Clinical Outcomes Following Lumbar Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    McAfee, Paul C.; Banco, Robert J.; Blumenthal, Scott L.; Guyer, Richard D.; Holt, Richard T.; Majd, Mohamed E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Candidates for spinal arthrodesis or arthroplasty often present with a history of prior surgery such as laminectomy, laminotomy or discectomy. In this study, lumbar arthroplasty patients with prior surgery, and in particular patients with prior discectomy, were evaluated for their clinical outcomes at the 5-year time point. Methods Randomized patients from the 5-year CHARITÉ investigational device exemption (IDE) study were divided as follows: 1) fusion prior surgery (excluding prior decompression with fusion) group (FSG); 2) fusion prior discectomy group (FDG); 3) fusion no prior surgery group (FNG); 4) arthroplasty prior surgery group (ASG); 5) arthroplasty prior discectomy group (ADG); and 6) arthroplasty no prior surgery group (ANG). The 5-year clinical outcomes included visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index 2.0 (ODI), patient satisfaction, and work status. Results In the arthroplasty group, all subgroups had statistically significant VAS improvements from baseline (VAS change from baseline: ASG = -36.6 ± 29.6, P < 0.0001; ADG = -40.2 ± 30.9, P = 0.0002; ANG = -36.5 ± 34.6, P < 0.0001). There was no statistical difference between subgroups (P = 0.5587). In the fusion group, VAS changes from baseline were statistically significant for the FNG and FSG subgroups, but not for the FDG patients (FNG = -46.3 ± 28.8, P < 0.0001; FSG = -24.2 ± 36.4, P = 0.0444; FDG = -26.7 ± 38.7, P = 0.2188). A trend of decreased VAS improvements was observed for FSG versus FNG (P = 0.0703) subgroups. Similar findings and trends were observed in ODI scores (Changes in ODI from baseline: ASG = -20.4 ± 23.8, P < 0.0001; ANG = -26.6±21.1, P < 0.0001; ADG= -17.6 ± 28.6, P = 0.0116; FSG = -14.5 ± 21.2, P = 0.0303; FNG= -32.5 ± 22.6, P < 0.0001; FDG = -10.7 ± 9.4, P = 0.0938). The greatest improvement in work status from preoperative to postoperative was seen in the ADG subgroup (28% increase in part- and full-time employment), while the FDG subgroup

  8. Changes of Overweight and Obesity Prevalence Among School Children in North West of Iran After 3 Years Follow-up (2009–2011): A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Nouri Saeidlou, Sakineh; Rezaiegoyjeloo, Fatemeh; Ayremlou, Parvin; Babaie, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity and overweight among children is a major public health problem in developed and developing countries and has important health and economic implications. This longitudinal study aimed to assessing the prevalence trend of overweight and obesity in West Azerbaijan in North West of Iran. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up study and was conducted in school children at 2009–2011 year. The subjects were all school children (12 years of age) that were recruited from rural and urban schools in West Azerbaijan. Overall, 22,820 girls and 28,763 boys were enrolled in 2009 and were followed for 3 years. A body mass index (BMI) 85th–95th percentile was classified as overweight and a BMI >95th percentile was classified as obese. All statistical analyses were performed using the Excel Software. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample in different time periods. The prevalence was calculated as the ratio of number of present cases to a given population number in a given subgroup at a given time. Results: In urban schools, the prevalence of overweight among girls and boys was 118.26 and 103.9 per 1000 persons in 2009 year, respectively, and this trend was increased in both girls (152.90 per 1000 persons) and boys (125.72 per 1000 persons) in 2011. The obesity trend was increased among both girls and boys (22.26 and 26.52 among girls and boys in 2009 to 24.66 and 28.65 per 1000 persons in 2011), respectively. In rural schools, the prevalence of overweight among girls was increased from 84.5 in 2009 to 108.89 per 1000 persons in 2011, but this trend was decreased among boys (from 95.49 in 2009 to 43.9 per 1000 persons in 2011), and the prevalence of obesity among boys was increased at the end of follow-up, but this trend was decreased among girls. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity in children has increased. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the relationship between obesity and overweight and risk factors such as

  9. Subsequent surgery rates after cervical total disc replacement using a Mobi-C Cervical Disc Prosthesis versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: a prospective randomized clinical trial with 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert J; Davis, Reginald J; Hoffman, Gregory A; Bae, Hyun W; Hisey, Michael S; Kim, Kee D; Gaede, Steven E; Nunley, Pierce Dalton

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Cervical total disc replacement (TDR) has been shown in a number of prospective clinical studies to be a viable treatment alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the treatment of symptomatic degenerative disc disease. In addition to preserving motion, evidence suggests that cervical TDR may result in a lower incidence of subsequent surgical intervention than treatment with fusion. The goal of this study was to evaluate subsequent surgery rates up to 5 years in patients treated with TDR or ACDF at 1 or 2 contiguous levels between C-3 and C-7. METHODS This was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, unblinded clinical trial. Patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease were enrolled to receive 1- or 2-level treatment with either TDR as the investigational device or ACDF as the control treatment. There were 260 patients in the 1-level study (179 TDR and 81 ACDF patients) and 339 patients in the 2-level study (234 TDR and 105 ACDF patients). RESULTS At 5 years, the occurrence of subsequent surgical intervention was significantly higher among ACDF patients for 1-level (TDR, 4.5% [8/179]; ACDF, 17.3% [14/81]; p = 0.0012) and 2-level (TDR, 7.3% [17/234]; ACDF, 21.0% [22/105], p = 0.0007) treatment. The TDR group demonstrated significantly fewer index- and adjacent-level subsequent surgeries in both the 1- and 2-level cohorts. CONCLUSIONS Five-year results showed treatment with cervical TDR to result in a significantly lower rate of subsequent surgical intervention than treatment with ACDF for both 1 and 2 levels of treatment. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00389597 ( clinicaltrials.gov ). PMID:26799118

  10. Additive prognostic value of coronary artery calcium score and renal function in patients with acute chest pain without known coronary artery disease: up to 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Chaikriangkrai, Kongkiat; Nabi, Faisal; Mahmarian, John J; Chang, Su Min

    2015-12-01

    Long-term incremental prognostic value of renal function over coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in symptomatic patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine additive prognostic value of renal function over CACS in patients with acute chest pain suspected of CAD. Renal function and CACS were assessed in patients without known CAD who presented to the emergency department with chest pain from 2005 to 2008. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). A total of 949 patients (804 non-CKD and 145 CKD, age 54 ± 13 years) were included. During the follow-up period of up to 5.3 years, major adverse cardiac events (MACE) occurred in 5.7% of patients (19 cardiac deaths, 6 myocardial infarction and 29 late coronary revascularization). Annualized MACE rate was higher in patients in higher CACS categories with and without CKD (p = 0.011 and p < 0.001 respectively). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, CACS categories (CACS 1-100: HR 3.17, p = 0.005; CACS 101-400: HR 7.68, p < 0.001; CACS > 400: HR 8.88, p < 0.001) and CKD (HR 10.18, p < 0.001) were independent predictors for MACE. Both adding renal function and CACS significantly improved the overall predictive performance (p < 0.001 for global Chi square increase) from Framingham risk categories or thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score. Both CACS and renal function were independent predictors for future cardiac events and provided additive prognostic value to each other and over either Framingham risk categories or TIMI risk score. PMID:26243534

  11. IOERT as anticipated tumor bed boost during breast-conserving surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer--results of a case series after 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Fastner, Gerd; Reitsamer, Roland; Ziegler, Ingrid; Zehentmayr, Franz; Fussl, Christoph; Kopp, Peter; Peintinger, Florentia; Greil, Richard; Fischer, Thorsten; Deutschmann, Heinrich; Sedlmayer, Felix

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate retrospectively rates of local (LCR) and locoregional tumor control (LRCR) in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) who were treated with preoperative chemotherapy (primary systemic treatment, PST) followed by breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and either intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons (IOERT) preceding whole-breast irradiation (WBI) (Group 1) or with WBI followed by an external tumor bed boost (electrons or photons) instead of IOERT (Group 2). From 2002 to 2007, 83 patients with clinical Stage II or III breast cancer were enrolled in Group 1 and 26 in Group 2. All patients received PST followed by BCS and axillary lymph node dissection. IOERT boosts were applied by single doses of 9 Gy (90% reference isodose) versus external boosts of 12 Gy (median dose range, 6-16) in 2 Gy/fraction (ICRU). WBI in both groups was performed up to total doses of 51-57 Gy (1.7-1.8 Gy/fraction). The respective median follow-up times for Groups 1 and 2 amount 59 months (range, 3-115) and 67.5 months (range, 13-120). Corresponding 6-year rates for LCR, LRCR, metastasis-free survival, disease-specific survival and overall survival were 98.5, 97.2, 84.7, 89.2 and 86.4% for Group 1 and 88.1, 88.1, 74, 92 and 92% for Group 2, respectively, without any statistical significances. IOERT as boost modality during BCS in LABC after PST shows a trend to be superior in terms of LCR and LRCR in comparison with conventional boosts. PMID:24995409

  12. Could giardiasis be a risk factor for low zinc status in schoolchildren from northwestern Mexico? A cross-sectional study with longitudinal follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Both giardiasis and zinc deficiency are serious health problems worldwide. In Mexico, the prevalence of G. intestinalis was estimated at 32% in 1994. It remains a health problem in northwestern Mexico. Recent surveys (1987, 1995, and 1999) reported zinc deficiency in the Mexican population. The association of giardiasis and malabsorption of micronutrients has been well documented, although the association with zinc remains controversial. This study investigated the association between giardiasis and zinc deficiency in schoolchildren from northwestern Mexico. Methods We combined a cross-sectional design with a longitudinal follow-up six months after parasite treatment. The baseline sample consisted of 114 schoolchildren (mean age 8.8 yr) from seven suburban public schools, grouped as Giardia-free (n = 65, 57%) and Giardia-infected (n = 49, 43%). Three stool analyses per child were done using Faust's method. Children with giardiasis received secnidazole. Serum zinc was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Height and weight were measured. Socioeconomic information was obtained in an oral questionnaire, and daily zinc intake was assessed using 24 hour-recalls. Pearson's correlation and ANCOVA and paired t-test analyses were used to determine the association between giardiasis and zinc status. Results Longitudinal analysis demonstrated a significant increase of the mean serum zinc levels in the Giardia-infected group six months after treatment (13.78 vs. 19.24 μmol/L μmol/L; p = 0.001), although no difference was found between the Giardia-free and the Giardia-infected groups (p = 0.86) in the baseline analysis. Z scores for W/A and H/A were lower in the Giardia-infected than in the Giardia-free group (p < 0.05). No difference was observed in the socioeconomic characteristics and mean daily intakes of zinc between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Giardiasis may be a risk factor for zinc deficiency in schoolchildren from northwestern Mexico

  13. Patient-centred care, health behaviours and cardiovascular risk factor levels in people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes: 5-year follow-up of the ADDITION-Plus trial cohort

    PubMed Central

    Dambha-Miller, Hajira; Cooper, Andrew J M; Simmons, Rebecca K; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Griffin, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between the experience of patient-centred care (PCC), health behaviours and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor levels among people with type 2 diabetes. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Setting 34 general practices in East Anglia, UK, delivering organised diabetes care. Participants 478 patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes aged between 40 and 69 years enrolled in the ADDITION-Plus trial. Main outcome measures Self-reported and objectively measured health behaviours (diet, physical activity, smoking status), CVD risk factor levels (blood pressure, lipid levels, glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, waist circumference) and modelled 10-year CVD risk. Results Better experiences of PCC early in the course of living with diabetes were not associated with meaningful differences in self-reported physical activity levels including total activity energy expenditure (β-coefficient: 0.080 MET h/day (95% CI 0.017 to 0.143; p=0.01)), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (β-coefficient: 5.328 min/day (95% CI 0.796 to 9.859; p=0.01)) and reduced sedentary time (β-coefficient: −1.633 min/day (95% CI −2.897 to −0.368; p=0.01)). PCC was not associated with clinically meaningful differences in levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β-coefficient: 0.002 mmol/L (95% CI 0.001 to 0.004; p=0.03)), systolic blood pressure (β-coefficient: −0.561 mm Hg (95% CI −0.653 to −0.468; p=0.01)) or diastolic blood pressure (β-coefficient: −0.565 mm Hg (95% CI −0.654 to −0.476; p=0.01)). Over an extended follow-up of 5 years, we observed no clear evidence that PCC was associated with self-reported, clinical or biochemical outcomes, except for waist circumference (β-coefficient: 0.085 cm (95% CI 0.015 to 0.155; p=0.02)). Conclusions We found little evidence that experience of PCC early in the course of diabetes was associated with clinically important changes in health

  14. Dose-dense sequential adjuvant chemotherapy followed, as indicated, by trastuzumab for one year in patients with early breast cancer: first report at 5-year median follow-up of a Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group randomized phase III trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dose-dense sequential chemotherapy including anthracyclines and taxanes has been established in the adjuvant setting of high-risk operable breast cancer. However, the preferable taxane and optimal schedule of administration in a dose-dense regimen have not been defined yet. Methods From July 2005 to November 2008, 1001 patients (990 eligible) were randomized to receive, every 2 weeks, 3 cycles of epirubicin 110 mg/m2 followed by 3 cycles of paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 followed by 3 cycles of intensified CMF (Arm A; 333 patients), or 3 cycles of epirubicin followed by 3 cycles of CMF, as in Arm A, followed 3 weeks later by 9 weekly cycles of docetaxel 35 mg/m2 (Arm B; 331), or 9 weekly cycles of paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 (Arm C; 326). Trastuzumab was administered for one year to HER2-positive patients post-radiation. Results At a median follow-up of 60.5 months, the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 86%, 90% and 88%, for Arms A, B and C, respectively, while the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96% in all arms. No differences were found in DFS or OS between the combined B and C Arms versus Arm A (DFS: HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.59-1.11, P = 0.20; OS: HR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.55-1.30, P = 0.43). Among the 255 patients who received trastuzumab, 189 patients (74%) completed 1 year of treatment uneventfully. In all arms, the most frequently reported severe adverse events were neutropenia (30% vs. 27% vs. 26%) and leucopenia (12% vs. 13% vs. 12%), while febrile neutropenia occurred in fifty-one patients (6% vs. 4% vs. 5%). Patients in Arm A experienced more often severe pain (P = 0.002), neurological complications (P = 0.004) and allergic reactions (P = 0.004), while patients in Arm B suffered more often from severe skin reactions (P = 0.020). Conclusions No significant differences in survival between the regimens were found in the present phase III trial. Taxane scheduling influenced the type of severe toxicities. HER2

  15. The importance of the anterior longitudinal ligament in lumbar disc arthroplasty: 36-Month follow-up experience in extreme lateral total disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Luis; Oliveira, Leonardo; Coutinho, Etevaldo; Pimenta, Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Background Current total disc replacement (TDR) for lumbar spine requires an anterior approach for implantation but presents inherent limitations, including risks to the abdominal structures, as well as resection of the anterior longitudinal ligament. By approaching the spine laterally, it is possible to preserve the stabilizing ligaments, which are a natural restraint to excessive rotations and translations, and thereby help to minimize facet stresses. This less invasive approach also offers a biomechanical advantage of placement of the device over the ring apophysis bilaterally; importantly, it also offers a greater opportunity for safer revision surgery, if necessary, by avoiding scarring of the anterior vasculature. We present the clinical and radiologic results of a lateral TDR device from a prospective single-center study. Methods A new metal-on-metal TDR device designed for implantation through a true lateral, retroperitoneal, transpsoatic approach (extreme lateral interbody fusion) was implanted in 36 patients with discography-confirmed 1- or 2-level degenerative disc disease. Clinical (pain and function) and radiographic (range of motion) outcome assessments were prospectively collected preoperatively, postoperatively, and serially up to a minimum of 36 months’ follow-up. Results Between December 2005 and December 2006, 36 surgeries were performed in 16 men and 20 women (mean age, 42.6 years). These included 15 single-level TDR procedures at L3-4 or L4-5, 3 2-level TDR procedures spanning L3-4 and L4-5, and 18 hybrid procedures (anterior lumbar interbody fusion) at L5-S1 and TDR at L4-5 (17) or L3-4 (1). Operative time averaged 130 minutes, with mean blood loss of 60 mL and no intraoperative complications. Postoperative X-rays showed good device placement, with restoration of disc height, foraminal volume, and sagittal balance. All patients were up and walking within 12 hours of surgery, and all but 9 were discharged the next day (7 of those 9 were

  16. Long-Term Effects of the Life Skills Program IPSY on Substance Use: Results of a 4.5-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Weichold, Karina; Blumenthal, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effectiveness of a Life Skills program with regard to use and proneness to legal and illicit drug use across a 4.5-year study interval. The universal school-based Life Skills program IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection) against adolescent substance use was implemented over 3 years (basic program in grade 5 and booster sessions in grades 6 and 7). Over the same time period, it was evaluated based on a longitudinal quasi-experimental design with intervention and control group, including two follow-up assessments after program completion [six measurement points; N (T1) = 1657 German students; M age (T1) = 10.5 years]. Applying an HLM approach, results showed that participation in IPSY had a significant effect on the frequency of smoking, and proneness to illicit drug use, across the entire study period. In addition, shorter-term effects were found for the frequency of alcohol use in that intervention effects were evident until the end of program implementation but diminished 2 years later. Thus, IPSY can be deemed an effective intervention against tobacco use and proneness to and use of illicit drugs during adolescence; however, further booster sessions may be necessary in later adolescence to enhance youths' resistance skills when alcohol use becomes highly normative among peers. PMID:26202801

  17. Parenting Style and Family Meals: Cross-Sectional and 5-year Longitudinal Associations

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Background Research on family meals in the last decade has shown a positive association between family meal frequency and adolescent healthy dietary intake. However, less is known about factors within the home environment, such as parenting style, which may be associated with family meal patterns. Objective The purpose of this study is to test cross-sectional and five-year longitudinal associations between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) and the frequency of family meals among adolescents. Study Design Data were from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study comprised of youth from diverse ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Two cohorts of adolescents (middle school, high school) completed in-class surveys in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean frequency of family meals at Time 1 and Time 2 from adolescent report of parenting style (both mother and father) at Time 1. Cross-sectional analyses included both adolescent cohorts (n = 4,746) and longitudinal analyses included only the younger cohort (n = 806) because family meal frequency was not assessed in the older cohort at Time 2. Results Cross-sectional results for adolescent girls indicated a positive association between maternal and paternal authoritative parenting style and frequency of family meals. For adolescent boys, maternal authoritative parenting style was associated with more frequent family meals. Longitudinal results indicated that authoritative parenting style predicted higher frequency of family meals five years later, but only between opposite sex parent/adolescent dyads. Conclusions Future research should identify additional factors within the home environment that are associated with family meal frequency in order to develop effective interventions that result in increased family meals for youth. Also, future research should investigate the mealtime behaviors

  18. The Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ-28): A parsimonious version validated for longitudinal use from 2 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Elena; Williams, Kate E; Mallan, Kimberley M; Nicholson, Jan M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2016-05-01

    Prospective studies and intervention evaluations that examine change over time assume that measurement tools measure the same construct at each occasion. In the area of parent-child feeding practices, longitudinal measurement properties of the questionnaires used are rarely verified. To ascertain that measured change in feeding practices reflects true change rather than change in the assessment, structure, or conceptualisation of the constructs over time, this study examined longitudinal measurement invariance of the Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) subscales (9 constructs; 40 items) across 3 time points. Mothers participating in the NOURISH trial reported their feeding practices when children were aged 2, 3.7, and 5 years (N = 404). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) within a structural equation modelling framework was used. Comparisons of initial cross-sectional models followed by longitudinal modelling of subscales, resulted in the removal of 12 items, including two redundant or poorly performing subscales. The resulting 28-item FPSQ-28 comprised 7 multi-item subscales: Reward for Behaviour, Reward for Eating, Persuasive Feeding, Overt Restriction, Covert Restriction, Structured Meal Setting and Structured Meal Timing. All subscales showed good fit over 3 time points and each displayed at least partial scalar (thresholds equal) longitudinal measurement invariance. We recommend the use of a separate single item indicator to assess the family meal setting. This is the first study to examine longitudinal measurement invariance in a feeding practices questionnaire. Invariance was established, indicating that the subscales of the shortened FPSQ-28 can be used with mothers to validly assess change in 7 feeding constructs in samples of children aged 2-5 years of age. PMID:26911263

  19. Test-taking behaviors in a neurocognitive assessment: associations with school-age outcomes in a Finnish longitudinal follow-up.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Johanna; Aro, Tuija; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija

    2011-03-01

    Test-taking behaviors (i.e., task focus, maintenance of attention, and cooperation) affect children's cognitive test performance, and, thus, it is critical to take test-taking behavior into account when drawing conclusions and making recommendations. Prior studies have evaluated test-taking behaviors at the end of the assessment; the present study focused on the fluctuation of cooperation and attention during a neuropsychological assessment. We examined the attention and cooperation of 5-year-old children in a test-taking situation; the associations between these aspects of their test-taking behavior and the children's concurrent neurocognitive test performance, IQ, and parent-rated behavior; and the associations with their IQ, behavioral outcomes, and academic achievement at 8 years of age. The data (for 76 boys and 63 girls) were drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia (Lyytinen et al., 2001, 2004). All the children were Caucasian and spoke Finnish as their native language. As a whole, the 5-year-old children showed high cooperation and attention, but a slight decrement in test-taking behavior toward the end of the session was rather common. Three subgroups of children with different levels of cooperation and attention were identified. Children in the subgroup with nonoptimal attention and cooperation showed decreasing neurocognitive test performance toward the end of the assessment session. They also showed more inattentive behavior 3 years later. The findings imply that the examiner's observations of waning attention and cooperation during the assessment session are highly relevant, as these provide stable and clinically meaningful information about the child's behavioral tendencies. PMID:21280960

  20. A 2-year longitudinal nutritional survey of 405 Northumberland children initially aged 11.5 years.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A F; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Appleton, D R; Eastoe, J E; Jenkins, G N

    1984-01-01

    Children (405), initially of average age 11.5 years, recorded all food and drinks consumed for three consecutive days (with an interview on the fourth day) on five separate occasions over a 2-year period. Food tables (Paul & Southgate, 1978) enabled nutrient intakes to be calculated. The data collected were found to be of high reliability (Hackett et al. 1983). The mean energy intakes showed broad agreement with other recent British dietary surveys but were well below those recorded in the prewar study by Widdowson (1947) and the FAO/WHO (1973) recommended levels. They were slightly below the current Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS; 1979) recommended intakes. Over the 2-year period, the energy intake of the boys increased by 13% compared with an increase of only 7% in the girls. The iron and vitamin A intakes of all groups of children were low compared with current recommendations (DHSS, 1979). This seems to be a result of falling energy intake. Mean calcium intakes were also only marginally in excess of the recommended intake, and those of most of the girls would fall below the recommendation if the proposal to end the fortification of flour (DHSS, 1981) is implemented. PMID:6317011

  1. Effects of dopaminergic replacement therapy on motor speech disorders in Parkinson's disease: longitudinal follow-up study on previously untreated patients.

    PubMed

    Rusz, Jan; Tykalová, Tereza; Klempíř, Jiří; Čmejla, Roman; Růžička, Evžen

    2016-04-01

    Although speech disorders represent an early and common manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD), little is known about their progression and relationship to dopaminergic replacement therapy. The aim of the current study was to examine longitudinal motor speech changes after the initiation of pharmacotherapy in PD. Fifteen newly-diagnosed, untreated PD patients and ten healthy controls of comparable age were investigated. PD patients were tested before the introduction of antiparkinsonian therapy and then twice within the following 6 years. Quantitative acoustic analyses of seven key speech dimensions of hypokinetic dysarthria were performed. At baseline, PD patients showed significantly altered speech including imprecise consonants, monopitch, inappropriate silences, decreased quality of voice, slow alternating motion rates, imprecise vowels and monoloudness. At follow-up assessment, preservation or slight improvement of speech performance was objectively observed in two-thirds of PD patients within the first 3-6 years of dopaminergic treatment, primarily associated with the improvement of stop consonant articulation. The extent of speech improvement correlated with L-dopa equivalent dose (r = 0.66, p = 0.008) as well as with reduction in principal motor manifestations based on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (r = -0.61, p = 0.02), particularly reflecting treatment-related changes in bradykinesia but not in rigidity, tremor, or axial motor manifestations. While speech disorders are frequently present in drug-naive PD patients, they tend to improve or remain relatively stable after the initiation of dopaminergic treatment and appear to be related to the dopaminergic responsiveness of bradykinesia. PMID:26843071

  2. The Course of Pain Intensity in Patients Undergoing Herniated Disc Surgery: A 5-Year Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Dorow, Marie; Löbner, Margrit; Stein, Janine; Pabst, Alexander; Konnopka, Alexander; Meisel, Hans J.; Günther, Lutz; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Stengler, Katarina; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study are to answer the following questions (1) How does the pain intensity of lumbar and cervical disc surgery patients change within a postoperative time frame of 5 years? (2) Which sociodemographic, medical, work-related, and psychological factors are associated with postoperative pain in lumbar and cervical disc surgery patients? Methods The baseline survey (T0; n = 534) was conducted 3.6 days (SD 2.48) post-surgery in the form of face-to-face interviews. The follow-up interviews were conducted 3 months (T1; n = 486 patients), 9 months (T2; n = 457), 15 months (T3; n = 438), and 5 years (T4; n = 404) post-surgery. Pain intensity was measured on a numeric rating-scale (NRS 0–100). Estimated changes to and influences on postoperative pain by random effects were accounted by regression models. Results Average pain decreased continuously over time in patients with lumbar herniated disc (Wald Chi² = 25.97, p<0.001). In patients with cervical herniated disc a reduction of pain was observed, albeit not significant (Chi² = 7.02, p = 0.135). Two predictors were associated with postoperative pain in lumbar and cervical disc surgery patients: the subjective prognosis of gainful employment (p<0.001) and depression (p<0.001). Conclusion In the majority of disc surgery patients, a long-term reduction of pain was observed. Cervical surgery patients seemed to benefit less from surgery than the lumbar surgery patients. A negative subjective prognosis of gainful employment and stronger depressive symptoms were associated with postoperative pain. The findings may promote multimodal rehabilitation concepts including psychological and work-related support. PMID:27243810

  3. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Relation between Executive Function and Theory of Mind at 3, 4, and 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Marcovitch, Stuart; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Weaver, Jennifer M.; Levine, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study contributes to the growing literature on the predictive nature of the relation between executive function (EF) and theory of mind (ToM). A latent variable model was fit to the data acquired from 226 socioeconomically and racially diverse children (52% female) at 3, 4, and 5 years of age on a number of age-appropriate tasks designed to assess EF and ToM. After controlling for sex, income-to-needs, and receptive language ability, there was substantial stability within each construct as children aged. In addition, EF at 3 years predicted ToM at 4 years but ToM did not predict EF, replicating earlier results. This pattern also appeared from 4 to 5 years of age, suggesting that the developmental precedence of EF persists later in development. Implications of these findings are discussed in terms of contemporary cognitive development theories, as well as the relation between EF and social reasoning in general. PMID:25642021

  4. Incidence rate of and factors associated with loss-to-follow-up in a longitudinal cohort of anti-retroviral treated HIV-infected persons: an AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials (ALLRT) analysis

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, S; Wu, K; Smurzynski, M; Bosch, RJ; Benson, CA; Collier, AC; Klebert, MK; Feinberg, J; Koletar, SL

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Examine incidence and factors associated with loss to follow-up (LTFU) in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials (ALLRT) cohort. Method ALLRT is a prospective cohort of HIV-infected persons randomized to ARV regimens/strategies in ACTG trials and followed long-term after the trial ends. Person-years were calculated from ALLRT entry until LTFU (defined using off-study reasons or ≥3 consecutive missed visits), death/severe debilitation/site closures, or June 2009 (censored). Poisson regression was used to examine LTFU factors separately among participants who were ARV-naïve or ARV-experienced at trial entry. Results Among 4630 participants (22,524 person-years), 1140 were lost to follow-up, 237 died, 29 were severely debilitated, and 443 were at sites that closed. The LTFU incidence was 5.5 and 4.2 per 100 person-years among previously ARV-naïve and ARV-experienced participants, respectively. In both groups, age≤50, site location, being off-ARVs and viral load ≥400 copies/ml were associated with a higher risk of LTFU. Among ARV-naïves, male sex, education<16 years, IV drug use and cigarette smoking were also associated with LTFU. Conclusion Knowledge of differential LTFU can help researchers identify participants at risk of LTFU in longitudinal HIV cohorts and design retention strategies, thereby limiting study bias. The identified factors should be included in inverse probability of weighting models to account for LTFU. PMID:22044855

  5. Corpus Callosum Function in Verbal Dichotic Listening: Inferences from a Longitudinal Follow-Up of Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadea, Marien; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Arana, Estanislao; Espert, Raul; Salvador, Alicia; Casanova, Bonaventura

    2009-01-01

    This study conducted a follow-up of 13 early-onset slightly disabled Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) patients within an year, evaluating both CC area measurements in a midsagittal Magnetic Resonance (MR) image, and Dichotic Listening (DL) testing with stop consonant vowel (C-V) syllables. Patients showed a significant progressive…

  6. Longitudinal Follow Up of Children with Autism Receiving Targeted Interventions on Joint Attention and Play RH = Targeted Interventions on Joint Attention and Play

    PubMed Central

    Kasari, Connie; Gulsrud, Amanda; Freeman, Stephanny; Paparella, Tanya; Hellemann, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examines the cognitive and language outcomes of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over a five -year period after receiving targeted early interventions that focused on joint attention and play skills. Method Forty children from the original study (n = 58) had complete data at the five year follow up. Results 80% of children had achieved functional use of spoken language with baseline play level predicting spoken language at the five -year follow- up. Of children who were using spoken language at age eight years, several baseline behaviors predicted their later ability, including earlier age of entry into the study, initiating joint attention skill, play level, and assignment to either the joint attention or symbolic play intervention group. Only baseline play diversity predicted cognitive scores at age eight. Conclusions This study represents one of the only long term follow up studies of children who participated in preschool early interventions aimed at targeting core developmental difficulties. The study findings suggest that focusing on joint attention and play skills in comprehensive treatment models is important for long term spoken language outcomes. PMID:22525955

  7. COMPUTERIZED EXPERT SYSTEM FOR EVALUATION OF AUTOMATED VISUAL FIELDS FROM THE ISCHEMIC OPTIC NEUROPATHY DECOMPRESSION TRIAL: METHODS, BASELINE FIELDS, AND SIX-MONTH LONGITUDINAL FOLLOW-UP

    PubMed Central

    Feldon, Steven E

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To validate a computerized expert system evaluating visual fields in a prospective clinical trial, the Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial (IONDT). To identify the pattern and within-pattern severity of field defects for study eyes at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Design Humphrey visual field (HVF) change was used as the outcome measure for a prospective, randomized, multi-center trial to test the null hypothesis that optic nerve sheath decompression was ineffective in treating nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and to ascertain the natural history of the disease. Methods An expert panel established criteria for the type and severity of visual field defects. Using these criteria, a rule-based computerized expert system interpreted HVF from baseline and 6-month visits for patients randomized to surgery or careful follow-up and for patients who were not randomized. Results A computerized expert system was devised and validated. The system was then used to analyze HVFs. The pattern of defects found at baseline for patients randomized to surgery did not differ from that of patients randomized to careful follow-up. The most common pattern of defect was a superior and inferior arcuate with central scotoma for randomized eyes (19.2%) and a superior and inferior arcuate for nonrandomized eyes (30.6%). Field patterns at 6 months and baseline were not different. For randomized study eyes, the superior altitudinal defects improved (P = .03), as did the inferior altitudinal defects (P = .01). For nonrandomized study eyes, only the inferior altitudinal defects improved (P = .02). No treatment effect was noted. Conclusions A novel rule-based expert system successfully interpreted visual field defects at baseline of eyes enrolled in the IONDT. PMID:15747764

  8. Preschool: First Findings from the Preschool Follow-Up of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). First Look. NCES 2008-025

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernoff, Jodi Jacobson; Flanagan, Kristin Denton; McPhee, Cameron; Park, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) is designed to provide detailed information on children's development, health, and early learning experiences in the years leading up to entry into school. The ECLS-B is the first nationally representative study within the United States to directly assess children's early mental and…

  9. The Perinatal Adverse events and Special Trends in Cognitive Trajectory (PLASTICITY) - pre-protocol for a prospective longitudinal follow-up cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hokkanen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Prospective follow-up studies on long term effects of pre- and perinatal adverse conditions in adulthood are rare. We will continue to follow the prospective cohort of initially 1196 subjects with predefined at-delivery risk factors out of 22,359 consecutive deliveries during 1971-74 at a single maternity hospital. The risk cohort and 93 controls have been followed up with a comprehensive clinical program at 5, 9, and 16 years of age and by questionnaire at the age of 30 years. Major medical events known to affect the development and growth of the brain, or cognitive functions and personality have been documented. Here we present a pre-protocol for the project, which we will call PLASTICITY, whose aim is to follow consenting subjects and controls into mid-adulthood and beyond, and to explore how the neonatal risk factors modulate neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes such as learning disabilities, ADHD, aging, early onset mild cognitive impairment and even dementia. Our first focus is on the neurological and cognitive outcomes at age 40 years, using detailed neurological, neuropsychological, neuroimaging, genetic, blood chemistry and registry based methods. Results will be expected to offer information on the risk of neurological, psychiatric, metabolic and other medical consequences as well as the need for health and social services at the brink of middle age, when new degenerative phenomena are known to emerge. The evaluation at age 40 years will serve as a baseline for later aging studies. We welcome all comments and suggestions, which we will apply in finalizing details and inviting collaboration. PMID:24358867

  10. A Longitudinal Study of the Cognitive Development of 3-5 Year Old Rural Children in the State of Nebraska, U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyan-Masih, Violet

    This study is part of a longitudinal research project which investigated the cognitive and social development of rural children (ages 3-5, 6-8, and 9-11 years) in eight states of the U.S.A. This paper, however, reports only the cognitive development of 3- to 5-year-old subjects in rural Nebraska from 1976-1978. The longitudinal sample plus control…

  11. Integrating longitudinal serum IL-17 and IL-23 follow-up, along with autoantibodies variation, contributes to predict bullous pemphigoid outcome.

    PubMed

    Plée, Julie; Le Jan, Sébastien; Giustiniani, Jérôme; Barbe, Coralie; Joly, Pascal; Bedane, Christophe; Vabres, Pierre; Truchetet, François; Aubin, François; Antonicelli, Frank; Bernard, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an inflammatory autoimmune bullous disease involving cytokines and proteases in the process of blister formation. Recently, IL-17 and IL-23 were evidenced in lesional skin and serum of BP patients at time of diagnosis, but their involvement in disease outcome has still not been investigated yet. We then analysed IL-17 and IL-23 serum levels during the first months of follow-up upon treatment. Compared with age- and sex- matched controls, high levels of IL-23 were observed at baseline in BP patients serum (P < 0.01), while IL-17 levels was not. However, some BP patients expressed high IL-17 serum level, independently of disease severity. In these patients, those with ongoing remission reduced IL-17 concentration upon treatment (P < 0.001), whereas IL-17 level remained elevated in patients who relapsed. Meanwhile, IL-23 serum levels increased during the first month of treatment in BP patients who later relapsed (P < 0.01) and MMP-9 serum level was not controlled. Accordingly, we found that both IL-17 and IL-23 increased MMP-9 secretion from leukocytes in-vitro. Then, we showed that elevated IL-17/IL-23 serum concentrations helped to discriminate BP patients who later relapsed. Such uncontrolled inflammatory response raises the question whether these molecules could become biological target for BP patients resistant to steroid treatment. PMID:26656739

  12. Integrating longitudinal serum IL-17 and IL-23 follow-up, along with autoantibodies variation, contributes to predict bullous pemphigoid outcome

    PubMed Central

    Plée, Julie; Le Jan, Sébastien; Giustiniani, Jérôme; Barbe, Coralie; Joly, Pascal; Bedane, Christophe; Vabres, Pierre; Truchetet, François; Aubin, François; Antonicelli, Frank; Bernard, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an inflammatory autoimmune bullous disease involving cytokines and proteases in the process of blister formation. Recently, IL-17 and IL-23 were evidenced in lesional skin and serum of BP patients at time of diagnosis, but their involvement in disease outcome has still not been investigated yet. We then analysed IL-17 and IL-23 serum levels during the first months of follow-up upon treatment. Compared with age- and sex- matched controls, high levels of IL-23 were observed at baseline in BP patients serum (P < 0.01), while IL-17 levels was not. However, some BP patients expressed high IL-17 serum level, independently of disease severity. In these patients, those with ongoing remission reduced IL-17 concentration upon treatment (P < 0.001), whereas IL-17 level remained elevated in patients who relapsed. Meanwhile, IL-23 serum levels increased during the first month of treatment in BP patients who later relapsed (P < 0.01) and MMP-9 serum level was not controlled. Accordingly, we found that both IL-17 and IL-23 increased MMP-9 secretion from leukocytes in-vitro. Then, we showed that elevated IL-17/IL-23 serum concentrations helped to discriminate BP patients who later relapsed. Such uncontrolled inflammatory response raises the question whether these molecules could become biological target for BP patients resistant to steroid treatment. PMID:26656739

  13. The Impact of Admission Diagnosis on Recurrent or Frequent Hospitalizations in 3 Dementia Subtypes: A Hospital-Based Cohort in Taiwan with 4 Years Longitudinal Follow-Ups.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiung-Chih; Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chen, Nai-Ching; Huang, Chi-Wei; Lui, Chun-Chung; Huang, Shu-Hua; Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Lee, Chen-Chang; Lai, Wei-An

    2015-11-01

    Increasing numbers of patients with different types of dementia have resulted in the increasing medical care loads. It is not known whether explanatory factors for recurrent or prolong hospitalization were driven by the subtypes of dementia. We analyzed 203 dementia patients aged >65-year-old with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), or Parkinsonism-related dementia (PRD). With a 4-year follow-up period, logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of dementia diagnosis, cerebrovascular risk factors, chronic systemic diseases, and the etiology for admission for recurrent (>4 times/4 years) or prolonged hospitalization stay (>14 days per hospitalization). There were 48 AD, 96 VaD, and 59 PRD patients that completed the 4-year study. The average length of hospital stay was significant, the shortest in AD and the longest in PRD (P = 0.01), whereas the frequency of hospitalization was not different among 3 dementia subtypes. Although delirium is the most common etiology for admission in the patients, diabetes mellitus (Odds ratio, OR = 2.79, P = 0.02), pneumonia (OR = 11.21, P < 0.001), and fall-related hip fracture (OR = 4.762, P = 0.029) were significantly associated with prolong hospitalization. Patients with coronary artery disease (OR = 9.87, P = 0.02), pneumonia (OR = 84.48, P < 0.001), urinary tract infection (OR = 55.09, P < 0.001), and fall-related fracture (OR = 141.7, P < 0.001) predict recurrent hospitalization. Dementia subtypes did not influence directly on the hospitalization courses. The etiologies for admission carried higher clinical significance, compared with the coexisted systemic diseases. PMID:26579820

  14. Increased Risk of Parkinson's Disease in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Population-Based, Propensity Score-Matched, Longitudinal Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Nai-Cheng; Tien, Kai-Jen; Yang, Chun-Ming; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Weng, Shih-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by repetitive episodes of apnea/hypopnea and hypoxia, is associated with systemic inflammation and induces metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular diseases. Inflammation might have an impact on neurodegenerative diseases. This study investigates the possible association between OSA and Parkinson's disease (PD). Random samples out of 1 million individuals were collected from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database. A total of 16,730 patients with newly diagnosed OSA from 2002 to 2008 were recruited and compared with a cohort of 16,730 patients without OSA matched for age, gender, and comorbidities using propensity scoring. All patients were tracked until a diagnosis of PD, death, or the end of 2011.During the mean 5.6-year follow-up period, the incidence rates of PD were 2.30 per 1000 person-years in the OSA cohort and 1.71per 1000 person-years in the comparison group. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for PD was greater in older patients (≧ 65 years) and male patients with OSA than the controls, respective IRRs being 1.34 and 1.47. After adjustment for the comorbidities, patients with OSA were 1.37 times more likely to have PD than patients without (95% CI = 1.12-1.68, P < 0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that older patients and patients with coronary artery disease, stroke, or chronic kidney disease had a higher risk for PD than their counter parts. Log-rank analysis revealed that patients with OSA had significantly higher cumulative incidence rates of PD than the comparison group (P = 0.0048). Patients with OSA are at an increased risk for subsequent PD, especially elderly male patients. PMID:26765405

  15. The choice of self-rated health measures matter when predicting mortality: evidence from 10 years follow-up of the Australian longitudinal study of ageing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-rated health (SRH) measures with different wording and reference points are often used as equivalent health indicators in public health surveys estimating health outcomes such as healthy life expectancies and mortality for older adults. Whilst the robust relationship between SRH and mortality is well established, it is not known how comparable different SRH items are in their relationship to mortality over time. We used a dynamic evaluation model to investigate the sensitivity of time-varying SRH measures with different reference points to predict mortality in older adults over time. Methods We used seven waves of data from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (1992 to 2004; N = 1733, 52.6% males). Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between three time-varying SRH measures (global, age-comparative and self-comparative reference point) with mortality in older adults (65+ years). Results After accounting for other mortality risk factors, poor global SRH ratings increased mortality risk by 2.83 times compared to excellent ratings. In contrast, the mortality relationship with age-comparative and self-comparative SRH was moderated by age, revealing that these comparative SRH measures did not independently predict mortality for adults over 75 years of age in adjusted models. Conclusions We found that a global measure of SRH not referenced to age or self is the best predictor of mortality, and is the most reliable measure of self-perceived health for longitudinal research and population health estimates of healthy life expectancy in older adults. Findings emphasize that the SRH measures are not equivalent measures of health status. PMID:20403203

  16. Second Language Acquisition at the Early Childhood Level: A 5-Year Longitudinal Case Study of Pre-Kindergarten through First-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billak, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    This 5-year longitudinal study investigated the English language acquisition and development of students in pre-Kindergarten through Grade 1 at a U.S.-accredited international school. Of the 1,509 students tested, the overwhelming majority were nonnative English speakers. The data provide valuable insight into the rate of second language…

  17. Longitudinal relationship between diabetes-specific emotional distress and follow-up HbA1c in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Strandberg, R B; Graue, M; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Peyrot, M; Thordarson, H B; Rokne, B

    2015-01-01

    Aim To examine whether diabetes-specific emotional distress was related to follow-up glycaemic control in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods Adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus completed the Diabetes Distress Scale and reported sociodemographic information when attending a clinical consultation at a university endocrinology unit. Blood samples to determine baseline HbA1c were taken during consultations. All respondents’ HbA1c measurements registered from January 2009 to December 2011 were collected from medical records. The relationship between baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress and HbA1c was examined with linear mixed-effects models in 175 patients with complete data. Results After controlling for confounders, baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress and glycaemic control were significantly associated (fixed-effect coefficient 0.40, P < 0.001) and the regimen-related distress subscale had the strongest association with glycaemic control (fixed-effect coefficient 0.47, P < 0.001). The two-item measure of diabetes-specific distress had a weaker but still significant association with glycaemic control (fixed-effect coefficient 0.31, P < 0.001). None of these relationships was significant after adjusting for the baseline HbA1c. Conclusions People with elevated baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress are at risk of prolonged suboptimum glycaemic control; therefore, elevated diabetes-specific emotional distress, especially regimen-related distress, might be an important marker for prolonged suboptimum glycaemic control, and might indicate a need for special attention regarding patient self-management. What’s new? In adults with Type 1 diabetes, elevated baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress is associated with worse glycaemic control over a 1–3-year period and regimen-related distress had the strongest association with subsequent glycaemic control. Baseline diabetes-specific emotional distress is associated with the

  18. Longitudinal follow-up and characterization of a robust rat model for Parkinson's disease based on overexpression of alpha-synuclein with adeno-associated viral vectors.

    PubMed

    Van der Perren, Anke; Toelen, Jaan; Casteels, Cindy; Macchi, Francesca; Van Rompuy, Anne-Sophie; Sarre, Sophie; Casadei, Nicolas; Nuber, Silke; Himmelreich, Uwe; Osorio Garcia, Maria Isabel; Michotte, Yvette; D'Hooge, Rudi; Bormans, Guy; Van Laere, Koen; Gijsbers, Rik; Van den Haute, Chris; Debyser, Zeger; Baekelandt, Veerle

    2015-03-01

    Testing of new therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease (PD) is currently hampered by the lack of relevant and reproducible animal models. Here, we developed a robust rat model for PD by injection of adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV2/7) encoding α-synuclein into the substantia nigra, resulting in reproducible nigrostriatal pathology and behavioral deficits in a 4-week time period. Progressive dopaminergic dysfunction was corroborated by histopathologic and biochemical analysis, motor behavior testing and in vivo microdialysis. L-DOPA treatment was found to reverse the behavioral phenotype. Non-invasive positron emission tomography imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy allowed longitudinal monitoring of neurodegeneration. In addition, insoluble α-synuclein aggregates were formed in this model. This α-synuclein rat model shows improved face and predictive validity, and therefore offers the possibility to reliably test novel therapeutics. Furthermore, it will be of great value for further research into the molecular pathogenesis of PD and the importance of α-synuclein aggregation in the disease process. PMID:25599874

  19. Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition and Social and School Adjustment in Chinese Children: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin; Chen, Huichang; Li, Dan; Wang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations between early behavioral inhibition and social and school outcomes in Chinese children (N = 200). Data on behavioral inhibition were collected from a sample of 2-year-olds in China. Follow-up data on social behaviors, peer relationships, and school performance were collected from multiple sources at 7 years of age.…

  20. Immunogenicity of a low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis combination vaccine with either inactivated or oral polio vaccine compared to standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis when used as a pre-school booster in UK children: A 5-year follow-up of a randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    John, T; Voysey, M; Yu, L M; McCarthy, N; Baudin, M; Richard, P; Fiquet, A; Kitchin, N; Pollard, A J

    2015-08-26

    This serological follow up study assessed the kinetics of antibody response in children who previously participated in a single centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial of low-dose compared to standard-dose diphtheria booster preschool vaccinations in the United Kingdom (UK). Children had previously been randomised to receive one of three combination vaccines: either a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) (Tdap-IPV, Repevax(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD); a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap, Covaxis(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD) given concomitantly with oral polio vaccine (OPV); or a combined adsorbed standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, 2-component acellular pertussis and IPV (DTap-IPV, Tetravac(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD). Blood samples for the follow-up study were taken at 1, 3 and 5 years after participation in the original trial (median, 5.07 years of age at year 1), and antibody persistence to each vaccine antigen measured against defined serological thresholds of protection. All participants had evidence of immunity to diphtheria with antitoxin concentrations greater than 0.01IU/mL five years after booster vaccination and 75%, 67% and 79% of children who received Tdap-IPV, Tdap+OPV and DTap-IPV, respectively, had protective antitoxin levels greater than 0.1IU/mL. Long lasting protective immune responses to tetanus and polio antigens were also observed in all groups, though polio responses were lower in the sera of those who received OPV. Low-dose diphtheria vaccines provided comparable protection to the standard-dose vaccine and are suitable for use for pre-school booster vaccination. PMID:26165918

  1. Trajectories of Symptoms and Impairment for Pediatric Patients with Functional Abdominal Pain: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvaney, Shelagh; Lambert, E. Warren; Garber, Judy; Walker, Lynn S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This prospective study characterizes trajectories of symptoms and impairment in pediatric patients with abdominal pain not associated with identifiable organic disease. Method: The Children's Somatization Inventory and the Functional Disability Inventory were administered four times over 5 years to 132 patients (6-18 years old) seen in…

  2. Better health-related quality of life (mental component summary), having a higher level of education, and being less than 75 years of age are predictors of hospital admission among cognitively intact nursing home residents: a 5-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Drageset, Jorunn; Eide, Geir Egil; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study whether health-related quality of life (HRQOL), activities of daily living (ADL), and anxiety and depression symptoms affect the risk of hospital admission and potential interactions with having a cancer diagnosis. Methods This study was a prospective observational study with 5-year follow-up and analyzed the follow-up data on hospital admissions until 2010 using baseline data from 227 cognitively intact nursing home (NH) residents (60 of whom had cancer) in 2004–2005. Data on HRQOL were collected by using the Short Form-36 Health Survey, divided into physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS), and symptoms of anxiety and depression were collected by using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). ADL were obtained from registered observation and sociodemographic variables, diagnoses, and hospital admissions from the NH records. Personal identification numbers were linked to the record systems of the hospitals, thereby registering all hospital admissions. We analyzed the time elapsing between inclusion and the first hospital admission. Results Residents with higher HRQOL (MCS) had significantly more hospital admissions after adjustment for age, sex, marital status, education, and comorbidity. HRQOL (PCS), ADL, depression, and anxiety symptoms were not associated with hospital admissions. Cancer increased the risk after adjustment for all other risk factors but did not increase the effects of MCS, PCS, ADL, or depression or anxiety symptoms. Having a higher level of education and being less than 75 years of age were associated with hospitalization. The residents diagnosed with cancer had the most days in hospital related to diseases of the respiratory system and cancer, and diseases of the circulatory and respiratory systems were more frequent among the residents without a cancer diagnosis. Conclusion Better self-reported HRQOL (MCS) was associated with hospital admissions, whereas self-reported HRQOL (PCS), ADL

  3. Growth in Reading Skills of Children from Diverse Linguistic Backgrounds: Findings from a 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Rupp, Andre A.; Siegel, Linda S.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a longitudinal investigation of the reading development of a sample of 824 children (406 girls, 418 boys). The sample included 689 native English-speaking (L1) children and 135 English-language learners (ELLs) representing 33 different native languages. In kindergarten and 4th grade, children's word reading,…

  4. The relationship between state abortion-restrictions and homicide deaths among children under 5 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sen, Bisakha; Wingate, Martha Slay; Kirby, Russell

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether, in the U.S., there are associations between state-level variations in mortality among young children and state abortion restriction policies - such as parental-consent requirements, parental-notification requirements, mandatory delay laws, and restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortion. To investigate this, we used NCHS Multiple Cause of Deaths public-use data files for the period 1983-2002, and compiled data on children ages 0-4 identified as having died as a result of assault/homicide in each state and year. Medicaid funding of abortion, mandatory delay laws, and parental involvement laws for minors seeking abortions were included as the main predictor variables of interest. Multivariate count data models using pooled state-year-age cohort data, with state and time fixed effects and other state-level controls, were estimated. Results indicated that, between 1983 and 2002, the average increase in the number of homicide deaths for children under 5 years of age was 5.70 per state among states that implemented stricter abortion policies over that time, and 2.00 per state for states that did not. In the count data models, parental-consent laws were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths; parental-notification laws were associated with an 8 percent increase in child homicide deaths though the results were less robust to alternate model specifications; mandatory delay requirements were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths. While these data do not allow us to discern precise pathways via which state abortion-restrictions can lead to more child homicide deaths, we speculate that state restrictions on abortion may result in a disproportionate increase in children born into relatively high-risk environments. Additional research is called for to explore the association of state abortion-restrictions with other measures of infant/child health and well-being. PMID:22497846

  5. Company Policies on Working Hours and Night Work in Relation to Older Workers' Work Ability and Work Engagement: Results From a Dutch Longitudinal Study with 2 Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Laudry; Leijten, Fenna R M; Heuvel, Swenneke G; Ybema, Jan F; de Wind, Astrid; Burdorf, Alex; Geuskens, Goedele A

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To longitudinally investigate (1) whether lower work ability and work engagement predict the use of company policies on reduced working hours and exemption from evening/night work among older workers, and (2) whether using such policies subsequently contribute to higher work ability and work engagement. Methods In total 6922 employees (45-64 years) participating in the first three waves of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation were included. Participants yearly filled out an online questionnaires. Regression analyses were applied to study the influence of baseline work ability and work engagement on the incident use of policies during the first year of follow-up, and the incident use of these policies on work ability and work engagement during the second year of follow-up. Results Employees with a higher work ability were less likely to start using the policy 'reduced working hours' [OR 0.91 (95 % CI 0.83-0.98)]. Starting to use this policy was in turn related to lower work ability 1 year later [B -0.28 (95 % CI -0.47 to -0.08)]. Starting to use the policy 'exemption from evening/night work' was related to higher work engagement 1 year later [B 0.23 (95 % CI 0.07-0.39)]. Conclusions Low work ability precedes the use of some company policies aiming to support sustainable employability of older workers. Further research is needed to explore whether company policies result in a (longstanding) improvement, or reduced deterioration, of older workers' employability. PMID:26250870

  6. Longitudinal 2-Year Follow-up on the Effect of a Non-Randomised School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Reducing Overweight and Obesity of Czech Children Aged 10–12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study assessed whether the benefits of a 2-year longitudinal non-randomised school-based physical activity (PA) intervention programme to reduce overweight and obesity were still apparent two years after completion of the controlled intervention. Methods: The study involved 84 girls (G) and 92 boys (B) aged 10–12 years who had participated in the PA intervention in 2006–2008 as 6- to 9-year olds and were included in the intervention (I) (43 G and 45 B) and the control (C) groups (41 G and 47 B). Participants’ overweight/obesity was assessed using the percentile graph of Body Mass Index (BMI) from the World Health Organization for girls and boys aged 5–19. Logistic regression (Enter method) determined the overweight/obesity occurrence in a follow-up measurement (2010) two years after completion of the controlled intervention was used. Results: Two years after the controlled PA intervention had finished, the intervention children were less likely to be overweight/obese than the control children (2.3%GI vs. 17.1%GC, 6.7%BI vs. 23.4%BC, odds ratio: 0.25; 95% confidence interval: 0.12; 0.53; p < 0.001). Conclusions: The current study indicates favourable effects of an everyday school-based PA intervention programme on lower overweight/obesity incidence, which was maintained two years after the end of the direct involvement of the researchers. PMID:23959084

  7. Iodinated Contrast Medium Exposure During Computed Tomography Increase the Risk of Subsequent Development of Thyroid Disorders in Patients Without Known Thyroid Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based, Propensity Score-Matched, Longitudinal Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Shun; Chiu, Chien-Shan; Chen, Wen-Chi; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lin, Meng-Yu; Chang, Shih-Liang; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Hu, Sung-Yuan

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the association between iodinated contrast medium (ICM) exposure during computed tomography (CT) and the subsequent development of thyroid disorders in patients without known thyroid disease in Taiwan, an iodine-sufficient area. We conducted a population-based cohort study by using data from 1996 to 2012 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 33,426 patients who underwent ICM-enhanced CT were included as the study cohort. To avoid selection bias, we used propensity score and matched for the index year (defined as the year of first ICM exposure) to retrieve 33,426 patients as the comparison cohort. No patients in the 2 cohorts had any known thyroid disease before the index year. Patients with a history of amiodarone treatment or coronary angiography and those with <1 year follow-up were excluded. Participants were followed until a new diagnosis of thyroid disorder or December 31, 2011. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards regression. An association was identified between ICM exposure and the subsequent development of thyroid disorders after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07-1.29; P = 0.001). Male patients and patients' ages ≥40 years in the ICM-exposure cohort had a higher adjusted HR for developing thyroid disorders than did those in the non-ICM-exposure cohort. Hypothyroidism had the highest adjusted HR (HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.06-1.78; P < 0.05) among all thyroid disorders and had a higher risk of development or detection during >0.5-year post-ICM exposure compared with that during ≤0.5-year post-ICM exposure (HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.01-1.58; P < 0.05). Repeated ICM exposure increased the risk of thyroid disorders in patients who accepted >1 time of ICM per year on average compared with those who accepted ≤1 time per year on average (adjusted HR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.47-3.73; P < 0

  8. Follow-up imaging after pediatric pyeloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Sanjeet Kumar; Arora, Sohrab; Mittal, Varun; Patidar, Nitesh; Sureka, Sanjoy Kumar; Ansari, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The duration, methods and frequency of radiographic follow-up after pediatric pyeloplasty is not well-defined. We prospectively evaluated a cohort of children undergoing pyeloplasty to determine the method for follow-up. Methods: Between 2000 and 2008, children undergoing pyeloplasty for unilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction were evaluated for this study. All patients were evaluated preoperatively with protocol ultrasound (USG) and diuretic renal scan (RS). On the basis of preoperative split renal function (SRF), these patients were divided into four groups – Group I: SRF > 40%, Group II: SRF 30–39%, Group III: SRF 20–29%, and Group IV: SRF 10–19%. In follow-up, USG and RS were done at 3 months and repeated at 6 months, 1 year, and then yearly after surgery for a minimum period of 5 years. Improvement, stability, or worsening of hydronephrosis was based on the changes in anteroposterior (AP) diameter of pelvis and caliectasis on USG. Absolute increase in split renal function (SRF) >5% was considered significant. Failure was defined as increase in AP diameter of pelvis and decrease in cortical thickness on 3 consecutive USG, t½ >20 min with obstructive drainage on RS and/or symptomatic patient. Results: 145 children were included in the study. Their mean age was 3.26 years and mean follow-up was 7.5 years. Pre- and post-operative SRF remain unchanged within 5% range in 35 of 41 patients (85%) in Group I. While 9 of 20 patients (45%) in Group II, 23 of 50 patients (46%) in Group III, and 14 of 34 patients (41%) in Group IV exhibited changes >5% after surgery. 5 patients failed, 2 in Group III, and 3 in Group IV. None of the patients deteriorated in Group I and II. Conclusion: After pyeloplasty in children with a baseline split GFR >30%, if a diuretic renogram and USG performed 3 months postoperatively shows nonobstructive drainage with t½ <20 min and decreased hydronephrosis, no further follow-up is required. PMID:27555681

  9. Hyper Cold Systems follow up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berges, Jean Claude; Beltrando, Gerard; Cacault, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The follow up of intense precipitation system is a key information for climate studies. Whereas some rainfall measurement series cover more than one century they cannot retrieve these phenomena in their spatial and temporal continuity. The geostationary satellite data offer a good trade-off between the length of data series and the retrieval accuracy. However a difficulty arise from ambiguous interpretation of the lone infrared signal in nephanalysis. Hence the tropopause temperature is used as a proxy to characterize extreme precipitation event. That does not mean that the more intense rain-rate will be always collocated with the coldest temperature but that most of these intense events is produced by systems whose a part is colder than tropopause. Computations have been carried out on 38 months of MSG and Meteosat/IODC. System follow up is achieved by a simple 3D connexity algorithm, the time being considered as the third dimension. This algorithm produce three dimension clusters from where the main system parameters can be easily extracted. Thus the systems can be classified trajectory characteristic (duration, speed ans size variation). A drawback of this simple threshold method relies is some over-segmentation. In most of case the bias is minor as unconnected clusters are small and short-lived. However an aggregating algorithm have been developed to retrieve the most complex system trajectories. To assess the efficiency of this method three regional studies are displayed: the North African Maghreb, the West African Sahel and the Indian Ocean. On Maghreb, the location of system initialization shows a dramatic difference between the eastern and western parts. Whereas in Tunisia a significant part of these systems are generated on sea and most have no clear relation with relief, the Morocco is mainly characterized with land initiated system with a strong orographic effect on system triggering. Another difference relies on the low level wind shear impact which

  10. Normal maxillary and mandibular growth and dentoalveolar development in Macaca mulatta. A longitudinal cephalometric study from 2 to 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, I L; Bravo, L A; Miller, A J

    1989-11-01

    Normal maxillary and mandibular growth and dentoalveolar development were examined in a longitudinal study of 10 male Macaca mulatta monkeys. Metallic implants were placed in the jaws of the monkeys as markers, and head films were taken semiannually from 2 to 5 years of age. The results showed that maxillary and mandibular growth is associated with rotational changes that are mostly in an anterior direction and are about twice as great in the mandible (9.4 degrees) as in the maxilla (4.2 degrees). These rotations are largely masked--about 75% in the maxilla and 90% in the mandible--by modeling within the jaws. Similarly, differential vertical dentoalveolar development almost completely masked the rotation of the occlusal plane that results from the rotation of the jaws, which created the impression that the occlusal plane is stable during growth. Peak growth velocity was reached on average at 3 years of age in the maxilla and mandible, with some individual variation. No major growth changes occurred after 3.5 to 4 years of age. PMID:2816840