Science.gov

Sample records for 50-130 mev range

  1. Ultrabroadband 50-130 THz pulses generated via phase-matcheddifference frequency mixing in LiIO3

    SciTech Connect

    Zentgraf, Thomas; Huber, Rupert; Nielsen, Nils C.; Chemla, DanielS.; Kaindl, Robert A.

    2006-10-10

    We report the generation of ultrabroadband pulses spanningthe 50-130 THz frequency range via phase-matched difference frequencymixing within the broad spectrum of sub-10 fs pulses in LiIO_3. Modelcalculations reproduce the octave-spanning spectra and predict few-cycleTHz pulse durations less than 20~;fs. The applicability of this scheme isdemonstrated with 9-fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire oscillator and with 7-fsamplified pulses from a hollow fiber compressor as pumpsources.

  2. GRB spectra in the MeV range: hints from INTEGRAL

    SciTech Connect

    Bulik, Tomasz; Denis, Miroslaw; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw; Goldoni, Paolo; Laurent, Philip; Osuch, Lukasz

    2007-07-12

    INTEGRAL detects a large number of gamma-ray bursts outside of its field of view with the SPI ACS. Several of these bursts are also detected by IBIS. We present the results of the spectral analysis using the ISRGI, PICSIT and Compton mode data of several bursts. These bursts show very hard spectra with the high energy index reaching -2 above 1 MeV We show that there is a group of bursts with the peak energy Epeak in the MeV range. We discuss the implications of these findings for GLAST.

  3. Implants of aluminum in the 50-120 MeV energy range into silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Ferla, A.; Torrisi, L.; Galvagno, G.; Rimini, E.; Ciavola, G.; Carnera, A.; Gasparotto, A.

    1993-01-01

    Al ions in the 50-120 MeV energy range were implanted in Si substrates for fluences varying between 1 × 10 14 and 3.5 × 10 15/cm 2. The electrical and chemical Al distributions were obtained by spreading resistance profilometry and secondary ion mass spectroscopy and the two principal moments, Rp and ΔRp, were measured. On low resistivity samples, τ = 0.01 Ω cm, the disorder profile induced by the 100 MeV Al implant was determined from the electrical measurement of the inactivated bulk dopant (boron) distribution. The diffusion coefficient of Al implanted into floating-zone silicon was extracted from the electrical profiles after thermal treatments in the 1000-1290°C temperature range with the result D = 7.4 exp[ {-3.42( eV) }/{kT}] {( cm2}/{s) }.

  4. Charge-exchange neutral particle measurement in MeV energy range on JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusama, Y.; Nemoto, M.; Satoh, M.; Tsukahara, Y.; Tobita, K.; Takeuchi, H.; Petrov, S.; Afanassiev, V.; Kozlovskij, S.; Kislyakov, A.; Petrov, M.

    1995-01-01

    A charge-exchange neutral particle analyzer for the measurement of the MeV energy range ions produced by nuclear fusion or radio frequency heating has been developed and installed in JT-60U. Neutral particles entering the analyzer are ionized with a carbon foil of thickness 400 Å. The energy and mass of the stripped ions are resolved by magnetic and electrostatic fields (E∥B type). The analyzer has eight CsI(Tl) scintillator detectors. The energy range is 0.5-4 MeV for 4He0, the dynamic range is 4.08 and the energy resolution is 6%-11%. The detection efficiency for 4He0 with energy above 1 MeV is 30%-40%. A pulse height analysis (PHA) with 16 channels was adopted to distinguish particle signals from noise arising from neutrons, γ rays and optical lights emitted by JT-60U plasmas. The validity of the PHA was confirmed in a calibration experiment using a neutron source and in a high power heating experiment in JT-60U.

  5. The Crab nebula and pulsar in the MeV energy range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Much, R.; Bennett, K.; Buccheri, R.; Busetta, M.; Diehl, R.; Forrest, D.; Hermsen, W.; Kuiper, L.; Lichti, G. G.; Mcconnell, M.

    1995-01-01

    The imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL) is sensitive in the energy range of 0.75 to 30 MeV. COMPTEL observed the Crab several times during the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) sky survey and CGRO Phase II. Both the Crab pulsar and nebula are detected over the entire COMPTEL energy range. The phase-averaged energy spectra of the Crab Pulsar and Nebula are presented. The combined observations provide sufficient statistics for a phase-resolved analysis of the Crab pulsar spectrum.

  6. The Origin of the Cosmic Gamma-ray Background in the MeV Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; The, Lih-Sin; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Ajello, Marco; Canal, Ramon; Röpke, Friedrich K.; Ohlmann, Sebastian T.; Hillebrandt, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    There has been much debate about the origin of the diffuse γ-ray background in the MeV range. At lower energies, AGNs and Seyfert galaxies can explain the background, but not above ≃0.3 MeV. Beyond ˜10 MeV blazars appear to account for the flux observed. That leaves an unexplained gap for which different candidates have been proposed, including annihilations of WIMPS. One candidate is Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Early studies concluded that they were able to account for the γ-ray background in the gap, while later work attributed a significantly lower contribution to them. All those estimates were based on SN Ia explosion models that did not reflect the full 3D hydrodynamics of SN Ia explosions. In addition, new measurements obtained since 2010 have provided new, direct estimates of high-z SN Ia rates beyond z ˜ 2. We take into account these new advances to see the predicted contribution to the gamma-ray background. We use here a wide variety of explosion models and a plethora of new measurements of SN Ia rates. SNe Ia still fall short of the observed background. Only for a fit, which would imply ˜150% systematic error in detecting SN Ia events, do the theoretical predictions approach the observed fluxes. This fit is, however, at odds at the highest redshifts with recent SN Ia rate estimates. Other astrophysical sources such as flat-spectrum radio quasars do match the observed flux levels in the MeV regime, while SNe Ia make up to 30%-50% of the observed flux.

  7. An improved time of flight gamma-ray telescope to monitor diffuse gamma-ray in the energy range 5 MeV - 50 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui-Van, A.; Sabaud, C.; Vedrenne, G.; Agrinier, B.; Gouiffes, C.; Dacostafereiraneri, A.; Lavigne, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A time of flight measuring device is the basic triggering system of most of medium and high energy gamma-ray telescopes. A simple gamma-ray telescope has been built in order to check in flight conditions the functioning of an advanced time of flight system. The technical ratings of the system are described. This telescope has been flown twice with stratospheric balloons, its axis being oriented at various Zenital directions. Flight results are presented for diffuse gamma-rays, atmospheric secondaries, and various causes of noise in the 5 MeV-50 MeV energy range.

  8. Systematics of Fission Cross Sections in the MeV Range

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Wright, Richard Q

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-nine years ago J. W. Behrens published a paper on the systematics of fission cross sections (3 5 MeV average). His study included 57 isotopes of elements ranging from radium through einsteinium (Z = 88 to 99). A systematic trend was seen for the element range from protactinium through curium. For a given element, the fission cross section decreased as the A-number increased. Fission cross sections are considerably more accurate now than those available in 1980. The current study represents an update of the Behrens study. Data for 11 elements and 53 nuclides were used. Trends for both the (Z,A) variation and the (2Z N) correlation are demonstrated. The current study clearly shows that the trends are quite well represented by straight lines. The trend for the fission cross sections of a given element to decrease with increasing A-number is observed for values of A < 248. For A > 248 there is a trend for the fission cross section to increase with increasing A-number.

  9. Personal dose equivalent conversion coefficients for neutron fluence over the energy range of 20 to 250 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Mclean, Thomas D; Justus, Alan L; Gadd, S Milan; Olsher, Richard H; Devine, Robert T

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed to extend existing neutron personal dose equivalent fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients to an energy of 250 MeV. Presently, conversion coefficients, H(p,slab)(10,alpha)/Phi, are given by ICRP-74 and ICRU-57 for a range of angles of radiation incidence (alpha = 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 degrees ) in the energy range from thermal to 20 MeV. Standard practice has been to base operational dose quantity calculations <20 MeV on the kerma approximation, which assumes that charged particle secondaries are locally deposited, or at least that charged particle equilibrium exists within the tally cell volume. However, with increasing neutron energy the kerma approximation may no longer be valid for some energetic secondaries such as protons. The Los Alamos Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX was used for all absorbed dose calculations. Transport models and collision-based energy deposition tallies were used for neutron energies >20 MeV. Both light and heavy ions (HIs) (carbon, nitrogen and oxygen recoil nuclei) were transported down to a lower energy limit (1 keV for light ions and 5 MeV for HIs). Track energy below the limit was assumed to be locally deposited. For neutron tracks <20 MeV, kerma factors were used to obtain absorbed dose. Results are presented for a discrete set of angles of incidence on an ICRU tissue slab phantom.

  10. Personal dose equivalent conversion coefficients for neutron fluence over the energy range of 20-250 MeV.

    PubMed

    Olsher, R H; McLean, T D; Justus, A L; Devine, R T; Gadd, M S

    2010-03-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed to extend existing neutron personal dose equivalent fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients to an energy of 250 MeV. Presently, conversion coefficients, H(p,slab)(10,alpha)/Phi, are given by ICRP-74 and ICRU-57 for a range of angles of radiation incidence (alpha = 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 degrees ) in the energy range from thermal to 20 MeV. Standard practice has been to base operational dose quantity calculations <20 MeV on the kerma approximation, which assumes that charged particle secondaries are locally deposited, or at least that charged particle equilibrium exists within the tally cell volume. However, with increasing neutron energy the kerma approximation may no longer be valid for some energetic secondaries such as protons. The Los Alamos Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX was used for all absorbed dose calculations. Transport models and collision-based energy deposition tallies were used for neutron energies >20 MeV. Both light and heavy ions (HIs) (carbon, nitrogen and oxygen recoil nuclei) were transported down to a lower energy limit (1 keV for light ions and 5 MeV for HIs). Track energy below the limit was assumed to be locally deposited. For neutron tracks <20 MeV, kerma factors were used to obtain absorbed dose. Results are presented for a discrete set of angles of incidence on an ICRU tissue slab phantom. PMID:19887515

  11. Measurements of galactic plane gamma ray emission in the energy range from 10 - 80 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsch, D. L.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    A spark chamber gamma ray telescope was developed and flown to observe diffuse gamma ray emission from the central region of the galaxy. The extension of observations down to 10 MeV provides important new data indicating that the galactic diffuse gamma ray spectrum continues as a power law down to about 10 MeV, an observation in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Data from other experiments in the range from 100 keV to 10 MeV show a significant departure from the extension of the power-law fit to the medium energy observations reported here, possibly indicating that a different mechanism may be responsible for the emissions below and above a few MeV. The intensity of the spectrum above 10 MeV implies a galactic electron spectrum which is also very intense down to about 10 MeV. Electrons in this energy range cannot be observed in the solar cavity because of solar modulation effects. The galactic gamma ray data are compared with recent theoretical predictions.

  12. Discovery of a transient MeV range gamma-ray source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, M. S.; Gruber, D. E.; Matteson, J. L.; Peterson, L. E.

    1995-01-01

    The University of California, San Diego (UCSD)/MIT hard X-ray and gamma-ray instrument on the HEAO 1 surveyed the region near the Galactic center 3 times during its lifetime in 1977-1979. During the 1977 September-October scan, a gamma-ray source was detected south of the Galactic center. The source was below the threshold sensitivity in the spring and fall of 1978. The source was detected with the medium energy phoswich scintillation counters which operated over the 80 keV-2 MeV range, had an area of 42 sq cm each, and a 17 deg FWHM aperture. The error box for the source is centered on l = 2.4 deg, b = -12.2 deg, with a 90% confidence error circle of approximately 3.5 deg radius. The flux in the 333-635 keV range was (1.89 +/- 0.29) x 10(exp -5) photons/(sq cm s keV) and was constant within statistics during the 1 month period the source was in the field of view. The spectrum can be characterized as a Gaussian in the range 300 less than or = E less than or = 650 keV, with a FWHM of 249 +/- 51 keV centered on 461 +/- 22 keV. The flux of this broad Gaussian is (6.6 +/- 1.1) x 10(exp -3) photons/(sq cm s). The source is tentatively identified with the 5.57 hr period low-mass X-ray-emitting binary system 1H 1822-371. Assuming this is correct, the ratio of gamma-ray to X-ray luminosity during the outburst was about 5; at a distance of 8 kpc, the gamma ray luminosity is 4 x 10(exp 37) ergs. The emission may be interpreted as a positron-pair plasma ejected from a compact object, possibly a black hole, and annihilating in a thick accretion disk surrounding the object.

  13. The galactic gamma-ray flux in the 0.06 to 5 MeV range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilman, D. A.; Metzger, A. E.; Parker, R. H.; Trombka, J. I.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma ray emission from the longitude range -50 deg less than or equal to lambda less than or equal to 22 deg recorded by the Apollo gamma-ray spectrometer and by individual observers is discussed. Agreement of the galactic emission spectra near 1 MeV with hard X-ray observations of the galactic central regions suggests that an ensemble of point sources is responsible for the emissions. Apollo 16 upper limits to the cosmic 4.4 MeV line flux imply that the ratio of line strength to continuum emission for the region observed by Haymes et al is higher than the galactic average.

  14. The background model in the energy range from 0.1 MeV up to several MeV for low altitude and high inclination satellites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    The gamma-ray background physical origin for low altitude orbits defined by: diffuse cosmic gamma-emission, atmospheric gamma-rays, gamma-emission formed in interactions of charged particles (both prompt and activation) and transient events such as electrons precipitations and solar flares. The background conditions in the energy range from 0.1 MeV up to several MeV for low altitude orbits differ due to frequency of Earth Radiation Belts - ERBs (included South Atlantic Anomaly - SAA) passes and cosmic rays rigidity. The detectors and satellite constructive elements are activated by trapped in ERBs and moving along magnetic lines charged particles. In this case we propose simplified polynomial model separately for polar and equatorial orbits parts: background count rate temporal profile approximation by 4-5 order polynomials in equatorial regions, and linear approximations, parabolas or constants in polar caps. The polynomials’ coefficients supposed to be similar for identical spectral channels for each analyzed equatorial part taken into account normalization coefficients defined due to Kp-indexes study within period corresponding to calibration coefficients being approximately constants. The described model was successfully applied for the solar flares hard X-ray and gamma-ray emission characteristic studies by AVS-F apparatus data onboard CORONAS-F satellite.

  15. Compton scattering from C12 using tagged photons in the energy range 65-115 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, L. S.; Shoniyozov, K.; Preston, M. F.; Anderson, M. D.; Annand, J. R. M.; Boselli, M.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brudvik, J.; Capone, J. I.; Feldman, G.; Fissum, K. G.; Hansen, K.; Henshaw, S. S.; Isaksson, L.; Jebali, R.; Kovash, M. A.; Lewis, K.; Lundin, M.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Middleton, D. G.; Mittelberger, D. E.; Murray, M.; Nathan, A. M.; Nutbeam, S.; O'Rielly, G. V.; Schröder, B.; Seitz, B.; Stave, S. C.; Weller, H. R.; Compton@Max-Lab Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Elastic scattering of photons from C12 has been investigated using quasimonoenergetic tagged photons with energies in the range 65-115 MeV at laboratory angles of 60∘, 120∘, and 150∘ at the Tagged-Photon Facility at the MAX IV Laboratory in Lund, Sweden. A phenomenological model was employed to provide an estimate of the sensitivity of the 12C(γ ,γ)12C cross section to the bound-nucleon polarizabilities.

  16. The galactic gamma-ray flux in the 0.06-5 MeV range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilman, D.; Metzger, A. E.; Parker, R. H.; Trombka, J. I.

    1979-01-01

    The observed variation of the 72-200-keV count rate in the Apollo gamma-ray spectrometer on Apollo 16 are interpreted as being due to cosmic gamma rays associated with the Crab Nebula, Cyg X-1, and the galactic-center source. A low-resolution map is presented which shows a great enhancement in the galactic-center region; a spectrum for this region is obtained. The shape of the spectrum suggests that the emission originates from an ensemble of discrete sources. It is concluded that the gamma-ray line at 4.4 MeV is not emitted as a constant fraction of the continuum in the whole region of the galactic plane between longitudes of -50 and +22 deg.

  17. Dual sightline measurements of MeV range deuterons with neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy at JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, J.; Nocente, M.; Binda, F.; Cazzaniga, C.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Giacomelli, L.; Gorini, G.; Hellesen, C.; Hellsten, T.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Johnson, T.; Kiptily, V.; Koskela, T.; Mantsinen, M.; Salewski, M.; Schneider, M.; Sharapov, S.; Skiba, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Weiszflog, M.; Contributors, JET

    2015-11-01

    Observations made in a JET experiment aimed at accelerating deuterons to the MeV range by third harmonic radio-frequency (RF) heating coupled into a deuterium beam are reported. Measurements are based on a set of advanced neutron and gamma-ray spectrometers that, for the first time, observe the plasma simultaneously along vertical and oblique lines of sight. Parameters of the fast ion energy distribution, such as the high energy cut-off of the deuteron distribution function and the RF coupling constant, are determined from data within a uniform analysis framework for neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy based on a one-dimensional model and by a consistency check among the individual measurement techniques. A systematic difference is seen between the two lines of sight and is interpreted to originate from the sensitivity of the oblique detectors to the pitch-angle structure of the distribution around the resonance, which is not correctly portrayed within the adopted one dimensional model. A framework to calculate neutron and gamma-ray emission from a spatially resolved, two-dimensional deuteron distribution specified by energy/pitch is thus developed and used for a first comparison with predictions from ab initio models of RF heating at multiple harmonics. The results presented in this paper are of relevance for the development of advanced diagnostic techniques for MeV range ions in high performance fusion plasmas, with applications to the experimental validation of RF heating codes and, more generally, to studies of the energy distribution of ions in the MeV range in high performance deuterium and deuterium-tritium plasmas.

  18. Research and development of a gamma-ray imaging spectrometer in the MeV range in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, José-Manuel; Galvez, José-Luis; Hernanz, Margarita; Isern, Jordi; Lozano, Manuel; Pellegrini, Giulio; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Cabruja, Enric; Ullán, Miguel

    2010-07-01

    Gamma-ray astrophysics in the MeV energy range plays an important role for the understanding of cosmic explosions and acceleration mechanisms in a variety of galactic and extragalactic sources, e.g., Supernovae, Classical Novae, Supernova Remnants (SNRs), Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), Pulsars, Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Through the development of focusing telescopes in the MeV energy range, it will be possible to reach unprecedented sensitivities, compared with those of the currently operating gamma ray telescopes. In order to achieve the needed performance, a detector with mm spatial resolution and very high peak efficiency is required. It will be also desirable that the detector could detect polarization of the source. Our research and development activities in Barcelona aim to study a gamma-ray imaging spectrometer in the MeV range suited for the focal plane of a gamma-ray telescope mission, based on CdTe pixel detectors arranged in multiple layers with increasing thicknesses, to enhance gamma-ray absorption in the Compton regime. We have developed an initial prototype based on several CdTe module detectors, with 11x11 pixels, a pixel pitch of 1mm and a thickness of 2mm. Each pixel is stud-bump bonded to a fanout board and routed to a readout ASIC to measure pixel position, pulse height and rise time information for each incident gamma-ray photon. We will report on the results of an optimization study based on simulations, to select the optimal thickness of each CdTe detector within the module to get the best energy resolution of the spectrometer.

  19. Absolute photofission cross sections for /sup 235,238/U in the energy range 11. 5--30 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Ries, H.; Mank, G.; Drexler, J.; Heil, R.; Huber, K.; Kneissl, U.; Ratzek, R.; Stroeher, H.; Weber, T.; Wilke, W.

    1984-06-01

    Absolute photofission cross sections of /sup 235/U and /sup 238/U have been measured with quasimonoenergetic photons from e/sup +/ annihilation and direct fragment detection between 11.5 and 30 MeV. The results obtained in the energy range of the giant dipole resonance (up to 18 MeV) are compared with those from previous experiments.

  20. Nuclear physics in the 10--300 MeV energy range using a pulsed white neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.D.; Wender, S.A.; Auchampaugh, G.F.

    1985-01-20

    A new pulsed white neutron source is under construction at the Los Alamos WNR facility. The neutrons are produced by LAMPF proton micropulses striking thick targets of various materials. Beam parameters include energy of 800 MeV, pulse rate of approximately 50,000 Hz, 0.4 nsec pulse width, average current as high as 6..mu..a, and a useful neutron energy range from 3 to 300 MeV. The facility will receive beam approximately 80% of the time LAMPF is operational; it increases by a factor of 1000 the experimental capability over the present system at the WNR when beam intensity, angular distribution, and availability are taken into account. In addition to established white source techniques, the facility is also highly competitive with monoenergetic sources for a wide class of experiments such as neutron capture ..gamma.. ray spectroscopy and neutron-induced charged particle reactions. The facility should be operational in about nine months. Arrangements are underway to make the facility readily accessible to visiting experiments.

  1. Nuclear physics in the 10 to 300 MeV energy range using a pulsed white neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.D.; Wender, S.A.; Auchampaugh, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    A new pulsed white neutron source is under construction at the Los Alamos WNR facility. The neutrons are produced by LAMPF proton micropulses striking thick targets of various materials. Beam parameters include energy of 800 MeV, pulse rate of approximately 50,000 Hz, 0.4 nsec pulse width, average current as high as 6..mu..a, and a useful neutron energy range from 3 to 300 MeV. The facility will receive beam approximately 80% of the time LAMPF is operational; it increased by a factor of 1000 the experimental capability over the present system at the WNR when beam intensity, angular distribution, and availability are taken into account. In addition to established white source techniques, the facility is also highly competitive with monoenergetic sources for a wide class of experiments such as neutron capture ..gamma.. ray spectroscopy and neutron-induced charged particle reactions. The facility should be operational in about nine months. Arrangements are underway to make the facility readily accessible to visiting experimenters.

  2. Nuclear physics in the 10-300 MeV energy range using a pulsed white neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, C. D.; Wender, S. A.; Auchampaugh, G. F.

    1985-01-01

    A new pulsed white neutron source is under construction at the Los Alamos WNR facility. The neutrons are produced by LAMPF proton micropulses striking thick targets of various materials. Beam parameters include energy of 800 MeV, pulse rate of approximately 50,000 Hz, 0.4 nsec pulse width, average current as high as 6μa, and a useful neutron energy range from 3 to 300 MeV. The facility will receive beam approximately 80% of the time LAMPF is operational; it increases by a factor of 1000 the experimental capability over the present system at the WNR when beam intensity, angular distribution, and availability are taken into account. In addition to established white source techniques, the facility is also highly competitive with monoenergetic sources for a wide class of experiments such as neutron capture γ ray spectroscopy and neutron-induced charged particle reactions. The facility should be operational in about nine months. Arrangements are underway to make the facility readily accessible to visiting experiments.

  3. Nuclear physics in the 10 to 300 MeV energy range using a pulsed white neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, C. D.; Wender, S. A.; Auchampaugh, G. F.

    A new pulsed white neutron source is under construction at the Los Alamos WNR facility. The neutrons are produced by LAMPF proton micropulses striking thick targets of various materials. Beam parameters include energy of 800 MeV, pulse rate of approximately 50,000 Hz, 0.4 nsec pulse width, average current as high as 6(MU)a, and a useful neutron energy range from 3 to 300 MeV. The facility will receive beam approximately 80% of the time LAMPF is operational; it increased by a factor of 1000 the experimental capability over the present system at the WNR when beam intensity, angular distribution, and availability are taken into account. In addition to established white source techniques, the facility is also highly competitive with monoenergetic sources for a wide class of experiments such as neutron capture (GAMMA) ray spectroscopy and neutron-induced charged particle reactions. The facility should be operational in about nine months. Arrangements are underway to make the facility readily accessible to visiting experimenters.

  4. Stopping power of palladium for protons in the energy range 0.300-3.100 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, P. A.; Sepúlveda, A.; Morales, J. R.; Rodriguez, T.; Burgos, E.; Fernández, H.

    2014-01-01

    The stopping power of palladium for protons has been measured using the transmission method with an overall uncertainty of around 5% over the energy range Ep=(0.300-3.100) MeV. These stopping power data are then compared to stopping power values calculated by the SRIM-2010 code and to those derived from a model based on the dielectric formalism. Subsequently, and within the framework of the modified Bethe-Bloch theory, this stopping power data were used for extracting Pd target mean excitation and ionization potential, (I = 468 ± 5 eV), and Barkas effect parameter, (b = 1.51 ± 0.06). A good agreement is found between the obtained results and values reported in literature.

  5. Photofission of sup 238 U with monochromatic gamma rays in the energy range 11--16 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, W.; Kneissl, U.; Weber, T. ); Stroeher, H. ); Cardman, L.S.; Debevec, P.T.; Hoblit, S.D.; Jones, R.T.; Nathan, A.M. Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL )

    1990-11-01

    We have measured the angular and mass distributions of the fragments from photofission of {sup 238}U using tagged photons with energies between 11 and 16 MeV. The fission fragments were detected by a 4{pi} arrangement of position-sensitive parallel-plate avalanche counters. Anisotropic angular distributions have been observed for the first time in the energy range where second-chance fission becomes energetically possible. A consistent assignment of {ital J}{sup {pi}} and {ital K} for the fission channels in {sup 237}U has been deduced from a combined analysis of ({gamma},{ital nf}) and ({ital e},{ital e}{prime}{ital f}) data. A clear relationship between the anisotropies and the fragment mass asymmetry has also been established. This correlation, together with the energy dependence of the angular distribution parameters, points to a possible interpretation of the results in terms of a recent theoretical model incorporating multiple exit channels in fission.

  6. Activation cross-sections of proton induced reactions on vanadium in the 37-65 MeV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditrói, F.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Hermanne, A.

    2016-08-01

    Experimental excitation functions for proton induced reactions on natural vanadium in the 37-65 MeV energy range were measured with the activation method using a stacked foil irradiation technique. By using high resolution gamma spectrometry cross-section data for the production of 51,48Cr, 48V, 48,47,46,44m,44g,43Sc and 43,42K were determined. Comparisons with the earlier published data are presented and results predicted by different theoretical codes (EMPIRE and TALYS) are included. Thick target yields were calculated from a fit to our experimental excitation curves and compared with the earlier experimental yield data. Depth distribution curves to be used for thin layer activation (TLA) are also presented.

  7. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy 800 MeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sjue, Sky K. L.; Morris, Christopher L.; Merrill, Frank Edward; Mariam, Fesseha Gebre; Saunders, Alexander

    2016-01-14

    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the protonimaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane.more » Furthermore, comparison with a series of static calibrationimages demonstrates the model’s accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets.« less

  8. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy of 800 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjue, S. K. L.; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Saunders, A.

    2016-01-01

    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the proton imaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane. Comparison with a series of static calibration images demonstrates the model's accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets.

  9. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy of 800 MeV.

    PubMed

    Sjue, S K L; Mariam, F G; Merrill, F E; Morris, C L; Saunders, A

    2016-01-01

    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the proton imaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane. Comparison with a series of static calibration images demonstrates the model's accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets. PMID:26827356

  10. Activation cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on niobium in the 30-50 MeV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditrói, F.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Hermanne, A.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    Activation cross-sections of deuterons induced reactions on Nb targets were determined with the aim of different applications and comparison with theoretical models. We present the experimental excitation functions of 93Nb(d,x)93m,90Mo, 92m,91m,90Nb, 89,88Zr and 88,87m,87gY in the energy range of 30-50 MeV. The results were compared with earlier measurements and with the cross-sections calculated by means of the theoretical model codes ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D and TALYS (on-line TENDL-2014 and TENDL-2015 libraries). Possible applications of the radioisotopes are discussed in detail.

  11. The energy dependence of the cosmic-ray neutron leakage flux in the range 0.01-10 MeV.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, R. W.; Ifedili, S. O.; Lockwood, J. A.; Razdan, H.

    1971-01-01

    Measurement of the cosmic-ray neutron leakage flux and energy spectrum in the range 1 to 10 MeV by a neutron detector on the Ogo 6 satellite from June 7 to Sept. 30, 1969. The same detector simultaneously measured the total leakage flux, having 75% of its response to the leakage flux in the interval from 1 keV to 1 MeV. For a neutron energy spectrum of the form AE to the minus gamma in the range from 1 to 10 MeV, the upper limit to gamma for polar regions was found to be 1.0 and for the equatorial regions was 1.2. For the polar regions, the lower limit to gamma was found to be 0.8. This energy spectrum at 1 to 10 MeV is slightly flatter than Newkirk (1963) predicted.

  12. NUCLEAR CROSS-SECTION CALCULATIONS IN THE 1 MEV TO 5 GEV RANGE WITH COMBINED SEMI-CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICAL MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes, F.B.

    2002-03-07

    In this work we describe neutron and proton induced reaction cross-sections for iron produced by the codes TNG and CEM95 in the 5 to 300 MeV energy range. TNG calculations cover the 5-90 MeV range, while CEM95 covers the 50-300 MeV high energy range. The two codes show some disagreements in the overlap energy range, both among themselves and with the experimental data, which are presently being addressed. The experimental data used are from NNDC and/or from LA150 NSE references. We also describe some developments for combining TNG and CEM95 into a new code called CETNG (Cascade Exciton TNG).

  13. Elastic Scattering of 7Li+27Al at Backward Angles in the 7-11 MeV Energy Range for Application in RBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Abriola, D.; Arazi, A.; Capurro, O. A.; Cardona, M. A.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Figueira, J. M.; Fimiani, L.; Grinberg, P.; Hojman, D.; Martí, G. V.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J.

    2010-08-01

    We have measured elastic excitation functions for the 7Li+27Al system, in an energy range close to its Coulomb barrier (Elab = 8.4 MeV) in steps of 0.25 MeV. For this purpose, an array of eight surface-barrier detectors was used. To get an insight on the background composition (mainly α particles), a telescope-detector was used for atomic-number identification. Identical measurements for the 6Li+27Al system are planned for the near future.

  14. Elastic Scattering of {sup 7}Li+{sup 27}Al at Backward Angles in the 7-11 MeV Energy Range for Application in RBS

    SciTech Connect

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Arazi, A.; Cardona, M. A.; Figueira, J. M.; Hojman, D.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J.; Abriola, D.; Capurro, O. A.; Fimiani, L.; Grinberg, P.; Marti, G. V.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.

    2010-08-04

    We have measured elastic excitation functions for the {sup 7}Li+{sup 27}Al system, in an energy range close to its Coulomb barrier (E{sub lab} = 8.4 MeV) in steps of 0.25 MeV. For this purpose, an array of eight surface-barrier detectors was used. To get an insight on the background composition (mainly {alpha} particles), a telescope-detector was used for atomic-number identification. Identical measurements for the {sup 6}Li+{sup 27}Al system are planned for the near future.

  15. Andromede project: Surface analysis and modification with probes from hydrogen to nano-particles in the MeV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, Michael J.; Cottereau, Evelyne; Rasser, Bernard; Verzeroli, Elodie; Agnus, Benoit; Gaubert, Gabriel; Donzel, Xavier; Delobbe, Anne; Della-Negra, Serge

    2015-12-01

    The Andromede project is the center of a multi-disciplinary team which will build a new instrument for surface modification and analysis using the impact of probes from hydrogen to nano-particles (Au400+4) in the MeV range. For this new instrument a series of atomic, polyatomic, molecular and nano-particle ion beams will be delivered using two ion sources in tandem, a liquid metal ion source and an electron cyclotron resonance source. The delivered ion beams will be accelerated to high energy with a 4 MeV van de Graaff type accelerator. By using a suite of probes in the MeV energy range, ion beam analysis techniques, MeV atomic and cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry can all be performed in one location. A key feature of the instrument is its ability to produce an intense beam for injection into the accelerator. The commissioning of the two sources shows that intense beams from atomic ions to nano-particles can be delivered for subsequent acceleration. The calculations and measurements for the two sources are presented.

  16. The sup 252 Cf(sf) neutron spectrum in the 5- to 20-MeV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, H.; Richter, D.; Seeliger, D. ); Fromm, W.D. ); Bottger, R.; Klein, H. )

    1990-11-01

    This paper reports on the {sup 252}Cf neutron spectrum measured at high energies with a miniature ionization chamber and two different NE-213 neutron detectors. The gamma-ray background and the main cosmic background caused by muons were suppressed by applying efficient pulse-shape discrimination. On the basis of two-dimensional spectroscopy of the neutron time-of-flight and scintillation pulse height, the sliding bias method is used to minimize experimental uncertainties. The experimental data, corrected for several systematic influences, confirm earlier results that show negative deviations from a reference Maxwellian distribution with a 1.42-MeV spectrum temperature for neutron energies above 6 MeV. Experimental results of this work are compared with various statistical model approaches to the {sup 252}Cf(sf) neutron spectrum.

  17. Au, Bi, Co and Nb cross-section measured by quasimonoenergetic neutrons from p + 7Li reaction in the energy range of 18-36 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majerle, M.; Bém, P.; Novák, J.; Šimečková, E.; Štefánik, M.

    2016-09-01

    Au, Bi, Co and Nb samples were irradiated several times with quasi-monoenergetic neutrons from p + 7Li reaction in the energy range of 18-36 MeV. The activities of the samples were measured with the HPGe detector and the reaction rates were calculated. The cross-sections were extracted using the SAND-II method with the reference cross-sections from the EAF-2010 database. The uncertainties of the final results are discussed.

  18. Calculation of SF6-/SF6 and Cl-/CFCl3 electron attachment cross sections in the energy range 0-100 meV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.

    1982-01-01

    Electron attachment cross sections for the processes SF6-/SF6 and Cl-/CFCl3 are calculated in a local theory using a model in which diatomic-like potential energy curves for the normal modes are constructed from available spectroscopic data. Thermally populated vibrational and rotational levels are included. Good agreement is found with experimental cross sections in the energy range 5-100 meV for a particular choice of potential energy curve parameters.

  19. A Multigroup Library of Neutron and Gamma Cross Sections and Response Functions in the Energy Range up to 800 MeV.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1987-05-20

    Version 00 The energy range of the library, from thermal to 800 MeV is relevant to the solution of shielding, nuclear heating, and other radiation protection problems connected with the accelerator neutron sources e.g. spallation target. The data contains 10 elements of shielding and biological importance. They can be easily implemented to the neutron transport codes like ANISN and DOT by using the activity option.

  20. Extension of the energy range of experimental activation cross-sections data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium up to 50MeV.

    PubMed

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-11-01

    The energy range of our earlier measured activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium were extended from 40MeV up to 50MeV. The traditional stacked foil irradiation technique and non-destructive gamma spectrometry were used. No experimental data were found in literature for this higher energy range. Experimental cross-sections for the formation of the radionuclides (113,110)Sn, (116m,115m,114m,113m,111,110g,109)In and (115)Cd are reported in the 37-50MeV energy range, for production of (110)Sn and (110g,109)In these are the first measurements ever. The experimental data were compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS 1.6 nuclear model code as listed in the on-line library TENDL-2014. PMID:26226220

  1. Neutron Radiative Capture Cross Section of {sup 232}Th in the Energy Range from 0.06 to 2 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Karamanis, D.; Petit, M.; Andriamonje, S.; Barreau, G.; Bercion, M.; Billebaud, A.; Blank, B.; Czajkowski, S.; Moral, R. del; Giovinazzo, J.; Lacoste, V.; Marchand, C.; Perrot, L.; Pravikoff, M.; Thomas, J.C.

    2001-11-15

    The neutron capture cross section of {sup 232}Th has been measured relative to {sigma}(n, {gamma}) for {sup 197}Au and {sigma}(n,f) for {sup 235}U in the energy range from 60 keV to 2 MeV. Neutrons were produced by the {sup 7}Li(p,n) and T(p,n) reactions at the 4-MV Van de Graaff Accelerator of CEN Bordeaux-Gradignan. The activation technique was used, and the cross section was measured relative to the {sup 197}Au(n,{gamma}) standard cross section up to 1 MeV. The characteristic gamma lines of the product nuclei {sup 233}Pa and {sup 198}Au were measured with a 40% high-purity germanium detector. Above this energy, the reaction {sup 235}U(n,f) was also used as a second standard, and the fission fragments were detected with a photovoltaic cell. The results, after applying the appropriate corrections, indicate that the cross sections are close to the JENDL-3 database values up to 800 keV and over 1.4 MeV. For energies in the intermediate range, our values are slightly lower than those from all the libraries.

  2. Neutron-induced fission cross section of Np237 in the keV to MeV range at the CERN n_TOF facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Diakaki, M.; Karadimos, D.; Vlastou, R.; Kokkoris, M.; Demetriou, P.; Skordis, E.; Tsinganis, A.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez, H.; et al

    2016-03-17

    We experimentally determined the neutron-induced fission cross section of Np-237 at the high-resolution and high-intensity facility n_TOF, at CERN, in the energy range 100 keV to 9 MeV, using the U-235(n, f) and U-238(n, f) cross section standards below and above 2 MeV, respectively. Moreover, a fast ionization chamber was used in order to detect the fission fragments from the reactions and the targets were characterized as far as their mass and homogeneity are concerned by means of a spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy respectively. Finally, theoretical calculations within the Hauser-Feshbach formalism have been performed, employing the EMPIRE code, andmore » the model parameters were tuned in order to successfully reproduce the experimental fission cross-sectional data and simultaneously all the competing reaction channels.« less

  3. Neutron-induced fission cross section of 237Np in the keV to MeV range at the CERN n_TOF facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diakaki, M.; Karadimos, D.; Vlastou, R.; Kokkoris, M.; Demetriou, P.; Skordis, E.; Tsinganis, A.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrillo de Albornoz, A.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; David, S.; Dolfini, R.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dorochenko, A.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, Ch.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fuji, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; Gallino, R.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Ioannidis, K.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Koehler, P.; Kolokolov, D.; Konovalov, V.; Krtička, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marques, L.; Marrone, S.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Oshima, M.; Pancin, J.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Sedysheva, M.; Stamoulis, K.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Voss, F.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.; n TOF Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of 237Np was experimentally determined at the high-resolution and high-intensity facility n_TOF, at CERN, in the energy range 100 keV to 9 MeV, using the 235U(n ,f ) and 238U(n ,f ) cross section standards below and above 2 MeV, respectively. A fast ionization chamber was used in order to detect the fission fragments from the reactions and the targets were characterized as far as their mass and homogeneity are concerned by means of α spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy respectively. Theoretical calculations within the Hauser-Feshbach formalism have been performed, employing the empire code, and the model parameters were tuned in order to successfully reproduce the experimental fission cross-sectional data and simultaneously all the competing reaction channels.

  4. Response functions of Fuji imaging plates to monoenergetic protons in the energy range 0.6-3.2 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, T.; Denis-Petit, D.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Aleonard, M. M.

    2013-01-15

    We have measured the responses of Fuji MS, SR, and TR imaging plates (IPs) to protons with energies ranging from 0.6 to 3.2 MeV. Monoenergetic protons were produced with the 3.5 MV AIFIRA (Applications Interdisciplinaires de Faisceaux d'Ions en Region Aquitaine) accelerator at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan (CENBG). The IPs were irradiated with protons backscattered off a tantalum target. We present the photo-stimulated luminescence response of the IPs together with the fading measurements for these IPs. A method is applied to allow correction of fading effects for variable proton irradiation duration. Using the IP fading corrections, a model of the IP response function to protons was developed. The model enables extrapolation of the IP response to protons up to proton energies of 10 MeV. Our work is finally compared to previous works conducted on Fuji TR IP response to protons.

  5. The (3He,tf) as a surrogate reaction to determine (n,f) cross sections in the 10 to 20 MeV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Basunia, M. S.; Clark, R. M.; Goldblum, B. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Phair, L.; Burke, J. T.; Beausang, C. W.; Bleuel, D. L.; Darakchieva, B.; Dietrich, F. S.; Evtimova, M.; Fallon, P.; Gibelin, J.; Hatarik, R.; Jewett, C. C.; Lesher, S. R.; McMahan, M. A.; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E.; Wiedeking, M.

    2009-02-25

    The surrogate reaction 238U(3He,tf) is used to determine the 237Np(n,f) cross section indirectly over an equivalent neutron energy range from 10 to 20 MeV. A self-supporting ~;;761 mu g/cm2 metallic 238U foil was bombarded with a 42 MeV 3He2+ beam from the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Outgoing charged particles and fission fragments were identified using the Silicon Telescope Array for Reaction Studies (STARS), consists of two 140 mu m and one 1000 mu m Micron S2 type silicon detectors. The 237Np(n,f) cross sections, determined indirectly, were compared with the 237Np(n,f) cross section data from direct measurements, the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B-VII.0), and the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL 3.3) and found to closely follow those datasets. Use of the (3He,tf) reaction as a surrogate to extract (n,f) cross section in the 10 to 20 MeV equivalent neutron energy is found to be suitable.

  6. Reference neutron fields of the KIGAM for the neutron energy range between 144 keV and 2.5 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G. D.; Woo, H. J.; Choi, H. W.; Park, J. W.; Trinh, T. A.

    2012-08-01

    The Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) is constructing a reference neutron field facility as a national project. Neutron fields consist of mono-energetic sources of 144 keV, 250 keV, 565 keV, and 2.5 MeV have a fluence range from 102 neutrons/cm2/sec to 103 neutrons/cm2/sec. The systems for the reference neutron fields, such as a duo-plasmatron ion source, a 4-MHz beam bunching system, a neutron chamber, an irradiation room, a neutron time-of-flight (n-TOF) system, a long-counter, and a sample moving system, were designed and fabricated. The neutron energies of the reference neutron fields and their spreads were observed by using the n-TOF system. The neutron fluence was measured by using a long-counter for energies below 1 MeV and a proton-recoil counter for 2.5 MeV. The long-counter efficiency was calibrated by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) which had a traceability of mono-energetic neutron sources to both Japanese and international standards. The efficiency of the proton-recoil counter was obtained by using a calculation with detailed construction information.

  7. Secondary neutron spectrum from 250-MeV passively scattered proton therapy: Measurement with an extended-range Bonner sphere system

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Rebecca M.; Burgett, E. A.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Secondary neutrons are an unavoidable consequence of proton therapy. While the neutron dose is low compared to the primary proton dose, its presence and contribution to the patient dose is nonetheless important. The most detailed information on neutrons includes an evaluation of the neutron spectrum. However, the vast majority of the literature that has reported secondary neutron spectra in proton therapy is based on computational methods rather than measurements. This is largely due to the inherent limitations in the majority of neutron detectors, which are either not suitable for spectral measurements or have limited response at energies greater than 20 MeV. Therefore, the primary objective of the present study was to measure a secondary neutron spectrum from a proton therapy beam using a spectrometer that is sensitive to neutron energies over the entire neutron energy spectrum. Methods: The authors measured the secondary neutron spectrum from a 250-MeV passively scattered proton beam in air at a distance of 100 cm laterally from isocenter using an extended-range Bonner sphere (ERBS) measurement system. Ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was calculated using measured fluence and fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. Results: The neutron fluence spectrum had a high-energy direct neutron peak, an evaporation peak, a thermal peak, and an intermediate energy continuum between the thermal and evaporation peaks. The H*(10) was dominated by the neutrons in the evaporation peak because of both their high abundance and the large quality conversion coefficients in that energy interval. The H*(10) 100 cm laterally from isocenter was 1.6 mSv per proton Gy (to isocenter). Approximately 35% of the dose equivalent was from neutrons with energies ≥20 MeV. Conclusions: The authors measured a neutron spectrum for external neutrons generated by a 250-MeV proton beam using an ERBS measurement system that was sensitive to neutrons over the entire

  8. Microscopic description of {sup 4}He + {sup 4}He elastic scattering over the energy range E=100-280 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    El-Azab Farid, M.

    2006-12-15

    Analysis of the differential cross sections for {sup 4}He +{sup 4}He elastic scattering is performed within the framework of the double-folding optical model. Two appropriate effective nucleon-nucleon interactions are employed to generate the {alpha}-{alpha} folded real potentials. The obtained potentials in conjunction with phenomenological Woods-Saxon (WS) derivative imaginary potentials are used to investigate six sets of the elastic scattering data through the energy range 100-280 MeV. Successful reproduction of the data is obtained by both considered interactions. In addition, real phenomenological potentials expressed in a squared WS form are successfully used to reproduce these data.

  9. Activation cross-sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on thulium in the 20-45 MeV energy range.

    PubMed

    Tárkányi, F; Hermanne, A; Takács, S; Ditrói, F; Spahn, I; Ignatyuk, A V

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on (169)Tm were measured in the 20-45MeV energy range using the standard stacked-foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Experimental cross-sections and derived integral yields are reported for the production of (169,167,166)Yb and (168,167,166)Tm radioisotopes. The experimental data are analysed and compared to results of the earlier measurements and the theoretical model codes ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE and TALYS. Application of the new cross-sections to the production of the (167)Tm medical radioisotope is discussed. PMID:21920768

  10. Experimental SF6/-//SF6 and Cl/-//CFC13 electron-attachment cross sections in the energy range 0-200 meV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental cross sections for the electron-attachment processes for SF6(-)/SF6 and Cl(-)/CFl3 are reported in the energy range 0-200 meV by normalizing each attachment line shape to measurement of a thermal rate coefficient. When the same ion states are detected, good agreement is found between present values, for which a monoenergetic electron source is used, and swarm-unfolded results. The present data constitute a new limit for cross sections reported at high resolution at the lowest electron energy.

  11. Elastic recoil cross section determination of deuterium by helium-4 ions at 30° with the energy range of 2.6-7.4 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhibin; Hao, Wanli; Wang, Chunjie; Shi, Liqun

    2016-05-01

    The elastic recoil cross section for D(4He, D) 4He was determined at a recoil angle of 30° over an incident helium energy range from 2.6 to 7.4 MeV. A thin solid target Ta/TiDx/Si used for cross section measurement was prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering, and it was so stable to ion beam bombardment that nearly no deuterium loss (less than 0.2%) exists over the whole experiment. A relative determination method is adopted in this measurement. It can avoid the error from the beam dose and the solid angle of the detectors and it is also free to direct measurement of D content in the film. The total uncertainty in the cross section determination is less than 5%.

  12. Response of a lead collimator for a gamma-ray telescope to gamma radiation in the energy range 1-100 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azcarate, I. N.

    2003-03-01

    The Monte Carlo method is applied to study the response of a lead collimator 3 cm thick to gamma radiation in the energy range 1-100 MeV, which was part of a gamma-ray telescope. The computation gives the continuum spectrum and the 511 keV line intensity emerging from the inner face of the collimator as a result of the electromagnetic interactions occurring inside it. It is also discussed the resulting background from the decay of the radioactive nuclei generated by the nuclear interactions ( spallation ) of cosmic rays. and neutron capture in lead. The overall results show that the induced instrumental background does not significantly reduce the detector sensitivity as compared to that expected of an ideally ``clean" collimator. This research was partially supported by Grant PIP 0430/98, from CONICET, Argentina.

  13. Measurement of the total photoabsorption cross section on a proton in the energy range 600-1500 MeV at the GRAAL

    SciTech Connect

    Bartalini, O.; Bellini, V.; Bocquet, J. P.; Calvat, P.; D'Angelo, A.; Didelez, J.-P.; Di Salvo, R.; Fantini, A.; Ghio, F.; Girolami, B.; Guidal, M.; Giusa, A.; Hourany, E.; Ignatov, A. S.; Kunne, R.; Lapik, A. M.; Sandri, P. Levi; Lleres, A.; Moricciani, D.; Mushkarenkov, A. N.; and others

    2008-01-15

    The total photoabsorption cross section on a free proton was measured at the GRAAL facility in the energy range E{sub {gamma}} = 600-1500 MeV. The large-aperture LAGRAN{gamma}E detector and a liquid hydrogen target were used in the experiment performed with a back-scattered Compton gamma beam. To improve the accuracy, two alternative methods were employed. First, a subtraction method of using empty-target measurements allowed the cross section {sigma}{sub tot} to be evaluated directly because of a low level of the electromagnetic background. Second, an algorithm for evaluating {sigma}{sub tot} on the basis of summing the dominating partial cross sections was developed. Experimental results obtained for {sigma}{sub tot} by the two methods are compared with existing data.

  14. Response function of a superheated drop neutron monitor with lead shell in the thermal to 400-MeV energy range.

    PubMed

    Itoga, Toshiro; Asano, Yoshihiro; Tanimura, Yoshihiko

    2011-07-01

    Superheated drop detectors are currently used for personal and environmental dosimetry and their characteristics such as response to neutrons and temperature dependency are well known. A new bubble counter based on the superheated drop technology has been developed by Framework Scientific. However, the response of this detector with the lead shell is not clear especially above several tens of MeV. In this study, the response has been measured with quasi-monoenergetic and monoenergetic neutron sources with and without a lead shell. The experimental results were compared with the results of the Monte Carlo calculations using the 'Event Generator Mode' in the PHITS code with the JENDL-HE/2007 data library to clarify the response of this detector with a lead shell in the entire energy range. PMID:21493607

  15. Calculation of induced reactions of 3He-particles on natSb in 10-34MeV energy range.

    PubMed

    Gul, K

    2009-01-01

    Calculations for the excitation functions of the (121)Sb((3)He, xn) (121,122,123)I, and (123)Sb((3)He xn) (122,123,124,125)I reactions have been carried out using statistical and pre-equilibrium nuclear reaction models in 10-34MeV energy range. These excitation functions have been used to derive the excitation functions of the (nat)Sb((3)He, xn)(121,123,124)I reactions and compared with reported measurements. For studying the improvement with measurements two values of the diffuseness parameter a(w) equal to 0.9 and 0.7fm have been used in the calculations. The dependence of pre-equilibrium calculations on the initial exciton numbers has also been considered. PMID:18951811

  16. Measurement of the neutron fields produced by a 62 MeV proton beam on a PMMA phantom using extended range Bonner sphere spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amgarou, K.; Bedogni, R.; Domingo, C.; Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Carinci, G.; Russo, S.

    2011-10-01

    The experimental characterization of the neutron fields produced as parasitic effect in medical accelerators is assuming an increased importance for either the patient protection or the facility design aspects. Medical accelerators are diverse in terms of particle type (electrons or hadrons) and energy, but the radiation fields around them have in common (provided that a given threshold energy is reached) the presence of neutrons with energy span over several orders of magnitude. Due to the large variability of neutron energy, field or dosimetry measurements in these workplaces are very complex, and in general, cannot be performed with ready-to-use commercial instruments. In spite of its poor energy resolution, the Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS) is the only instrument able to simultaneously determine all spectral components in such workplaces. The energy range of this instrument is limited to E<20 MeV if only polyethylene spheres are used, but can be extended to hundreds of MeV by including metal-loaded spheres (extended range BSS, indicated with ERBSS). With the aim of providing useful data to the scientific community involved in neutron measurements at hadron therapy facilities, an ERBSS experiment was carried out at the Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate (CATANA) of INFN—LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud), where a proton beam routinely used for ophthalmic cancer treatments is available. The 62 MeV beam was directed towards a PMMA phantom, simulating the patient, and two neutron measurement points were established at 0° and 90° with respect to the beam-line. Here the ERBSS of UAB (Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona— Grup de Física de les Radiacions) and INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati) were exposed to characterize the "forward" and "sideward" proton-induced neutron fields. The use of two ERBSS characterized by different set of spheres, central detectors, and independently established and

  17. Analysis of gamma-ray spectra from foils activated in a range-thick lead target by 800-MeV protons. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Laird, C.E.; Mullins, D.H.

    1995-06-12

    Approximately 400 gamma-ray spectra have been analyzed to obtain the types and quantities of radioisotopes produced when 800-MeV protons interact with a range-thick lead target. These spectra were obtained from the radioactive decay of product isotopes in lead disks placed at various depths and radial positions within the target. These spectra were analyzed with the computer code HYPERMET and the photopeak areas were reduced to nuclei produced per incident proton per cubic centimeter of material. Product nuclei ranged from atomic mass 160 to mass 206 and over a range of half lives from a few minutes to several weeks. The results of this analysis have been outlined in this report and transmitted on computer disk to Los Alamos National Laboratory. The consistency of these analyses have been confirmed by a comparison of photopeak areas obtained at LANL with the computer code GAMANAL with those from HYPERMET for two gamma-ray spectra. Also, the nuclear production per proton per cm{sub 3} obtained from these two spectra analyzed both at LANL and at EKU have been found to agree to within the statistical accuracy of the peak-fitting programs. This analysis of these 400 gamma-ray spectra has determined the nuclear production per incident proton per cm{sub 3} at five regularly-spaced radial positions and depths up to 40 cm into a range-thick lead target.

  18. K-shell-ionization cross sections for low-Z elements (11<=Z<=22) by protons in the energy range 0.5-2.5 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribedi, L. C.; Tandon, P. N.

    1992-06-01

    K-shell-ionization cross sections for Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, and Ti by protons in the energy range 0.5-2.5 MeV have been measured using thin targets. Measurements have also been performed for thin targets of Fe, Ni, and Cu at a few energies. The energy range of protons for these targets corresponds to the reduced velocity (v1/v2K) range 0.2-1.1, in which the cross sections are very sensitive to the increased binding energy and the Coulomb-deflection effects. The measured ionization cross sections are compared with the predictions of the theory based on the perturbed-stationary-state approach including the Coulomb-deflection, energy-loss, and relativistic corrections. The data have been scaled according to various scaling laws to test the validity of the universal nature of the various Coulomb ionization theories based on the plane-wave Born approximation, the binary-encounter approximation, and the simplified semiclassical approximation model as given by Lægsgaard, Andersen, and Lund [in Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions, edited by G. Watel (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978), p. 353]. The measured data have also been compared with the calculations of Montenegro and Siguad [J. Phys. B 18, 299 (1985)] based on the theory of 1sσ molecular-orbital ionization.

  19. Design and Construction of a Faraday Cup for Electron Fluence Measurements in the Energy Range from 1 to 5 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korwin, D. M.; Vargas-Aburto, C.; Uribe, R. M.; Hudson, K. J.

    2003-03-01

    Electron beams are used in research and industry in order to develop new materials or change the physical properties of materials of technological interest (e.g. polymeric materials or semiconductors). Usually the physical or chemical effect produced by the electron beam is a function of the dose absorbed by the material and ultimately of the fluence of the incoming radiation. In many of these applications, such as the study of radiation damage in solar cells, the electron fluence is one of the parameters used to characterize the effect of the radiation on the semiconductor material. In this paper a description is presented of the design and construction of a Faraday Cup to measure electron beam fluence values in a 1 to 5 MeV, 150 kW electron accelerator used for radiation processing. At such high powers, the electron beam is continuously scanned back and forth in one direction in order to prevent the burning of the sample, so the design of the Faraday Cup took into consideration the fact that the electron beam is absorbed both in the fluence sensing element as well as in the outer jacket. A virtual instrument was developed using National Instruments development software to control the data acquisition process with the Faraday Cup and associated NIM electronics. Fluence measurements have been carried out in the energy range from 1 to 5 MeV. Examples of fluence measurements on semiconductor devices will be presented. Work partially supported through NASA grant NCC3-721 and KSU's Research Council.

  20. Design and construction of a large area detector system and neutron total cross section measurements in the energy range 0.4 to 20 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Michael James

    In an effort to extend the measurement capabilities of the Gaerttner LINAC Laboratory at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) into the MeV region, a new detector system and analysis methods were developed. A large volume modular proton recoil detector was constructed and placed in a collimated neutron beam at an effective distance of 99.95 meters from the neutron source. Transmission measurements were done on natural carbon (graphite), beryllium, molybdenum, zirconium, titanium and tantalum using the time-of-flight method. Combining the long flight path, fast detector response and electronics, and a narrow neutron pulse width, provided good energy resolution, enabling some of the measurements to resolve structure in neutron total cross section never before seen. In order to obtain accurate transmission calculations, a method was developed to determine the time-dependent background component associated with the measurement, using a combination of experimental data and Monte Carlo methods. This background, combined with the high neutron flux provided by the RPI LINAC, generated high signal-to-background ratios. This signal-to-background and low counting statistics error resulted in low uncertainties and highly accurate data, with uncertainties of less than one percent seen through much of the measured energy range. The carbon measurement, which has a well measured and agreed upon neutron total cross section in the energy range 0.4 to 20 MeV, provided verification of the accuracy in the measurement and analytical methods used, with an average difference of less than one percent seen between the experimental and evaluated data. The measurements of beryllium, molybdenum, zirconium, titanium and tantalum, also resulted in accurate measurements of neutron total cross section. These high-resolution, high-accuracy results showed that improvements can be made in the current neutron total cross section evaluations, some of which show differences up to 10 %. The experimental

  1. High-resolution integrated germanium Compton polarimeter for the γ-ray energy range 80 keV-1 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sareen, R. A.; Urban, W.; Barnett, A. R.; Varley, B. J.

    1995-06-01

    Parameters which govern the choice of a detection system to measure the linear polarization of γ rays at low energies are discussed. An integrated polarimeter is described which is constructed from a single crystal of germanium. It is a compact planar device with the sectors defined electrically, and which gives an energy resolution in the add-back mode of 1 keV at 300 keV. Its performance is demonstrated in a series of calibration measurements using both unpolarized radiation from radioactive sources and polarized γ rays from the 168Er(α,2n)170Yb reaction at Eα=25 MeV. Polarization measurements at energies as low as 84 keV have been achieved, where the sensitivity was 0.32±0.09. The sensitivity, efficiency, and energy resolution are reported. Our results indicate that energy resolution should be included in the definition of the figure of merit and we relate the new definition to earlier work. The comparisons show the advantages of the present design in the energy range below 300 keV and its competitiveness up to 1500 keV.

  2. Measurements of Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Sections of 205Tl, 204, 206, 207, 208Pb, and 209Bi using Quasi-Monoenergetic Neutrons in the Energy Range 35 - 174 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutin, Gennady A.; Ryzhov, Igor V.; Eismont, Vilen P.; Mitryukhin, Andrey G.; Oplavin, Valery S.; Soloviev, Sergey M.; Blomgren, Jan; Condè, Henri; Olsson, Nils; Renberg, Per-Ulf

    2005-05-01

    Cross sections for neutron-induced fission of 205Tl, 204, 206, 207, 208Pb, and 209Bi were measured in the energy range from 35 MeV to 174 MeV. The experiments were done at the neutron beam facility of The Svedberg Laboratory, using a multi-section Frisch-gridded ionization chamber for detection of the fission fragments. The neutron-induced fission cross section of 238U was employed as a reference. The results of the measurements are compared with existing experimental data.

  3. Vacancy-related defects in n-type Si implanted with a rarefied microbeam of accelerated heavy ions in the MeV range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capan, I.; Pastuović, Ž.; Siegele, R.; Jaćimović, R.

    2016-04-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has been used to study vacancy-related defects formed in bulk n-type Czochralski-grown silicon after implantation of accelerated heavy ions: 6.5 MeV O, 10.5 MeV Si, 10.5 MeV Ge, and 11 MeV Er in the single ion regime with fluences from 109 cm-2 to 1010 cm-2 and a direct comparison made with defects formed in the same material irradiated with 0.7 MeV fast neutron fluences up to 1012 cm-2. A scanning ion microprobe was used as the ion implantation tool of n-Cz:Si samples prepared as Schottky diodes, while the ion beam induced current (IBIC) technique was utilized for direct ion counting. The single acceptor state of the divacancy V2(-/0) is the most prominent defect state observed in DLTS spectra of n-CZ:Si samples implanted by selected ions and the sample irradiated by neutrons. The complete suppression of the DLTS signal related to the double acceptor state of divacancy, V2(=/-) has been observed in all samples irradiated by ions and neutrons. Moreover, the DLTS peak associated with formation of the vacancy-oxygen complex VO in the neutron irradiated sample was also completely suppressed in DLTS spectra of samples implanted with the raster scanned ion microbeam. The reason for such behaviour is twofold, (i) the local depletion of the carrier concentration in the highly disordered regions, and (ii) the effect of the microprobe-assisted single ion implantation. The activation energy for electron emission for states assigned to the V2(-/0) defect formed in samples implanted by single ions follows the Meyer-Neldel rule. An increase of the activation energy is strongly correlated with increasing ion mass.

  4. Complete and incomplete fusion in the reaction {sup 35}Cl+{sup 12}C at the energy range 70{endash}154 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Pirrone, S.; Aiello, S.; Arena, N.; Cavallaro, S.; Femino, S.; Lanzalone, G.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Romano, S.; Sambataro, S.

    1997-05-01

    Velocity spectra of evaporation residues produced in the {sup 35}Cl+{sup 12}C reaction have been measured at bombarding energies of 125, 140, and 154 MeV using time-of-flight techniques. These distributions were used to identify evaporation residues and to separate complete fusion and incomplete fusion components. The results show the presence of small contributions of incomplete fusion components which appear to be due to a cluster transfer reaction mechanism. Angular distributions and total and complete fusion evaporation residue cross sections were extracted at 70, 90, 110, 125, 140, and 154 MeV. The complete fusion cross sections and the deduced critical angular momenta are compared with other experimental data and the predictions of existing models. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Calculation of proton total reaction cross sections for some target nuclei in incident energy range of 10-600 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Bueyuekuslu, H.; Kaplan, A.; Aydin, A.; Tel, E.; Yildirim, G.

    2010-10-15

    In this study, proton total reaction cross sections have been investigated for some isotopes such as {sup 12}C, {sup 27}Al, {sup 9}Be, {sup 16}O, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 197}Au, {sup 6}Li, and {sup 14}N by a proton beam up to 600 MeV. Calculation of the proton total cross sections has been carried out by the analytic expression formulated by M.A. Alvi by using Coulomb-modified Glauber theory with the Helm model nuclear form factor. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data and found to be in agreement with each other.

  6. Effective atomic number and electron density of amino acids within the energy range of 0.122-1.330 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Chaitali V.; Lokhande, Rajkumar M.; Pawar, Pravina P.

    2016-08-01

    Photon attenuation coefficient calculation methods have been widely used to accurately study the properties of amino acids such as n-acetyl-L-tryptophan, n-acetyl-L-tyrosine, D-tryptophan, n-acetyl-L-glutamic acid, D-phenylalanine, and D-threonine. In this study, mass attenuation coefficients (μm) of these amino acids for 0.122-, 0.356-, 0.511-, 0.662-, 0.884-, 1.170, 1.275-, 1.330-MeV photons are determined using the radio-nuclides Co57, Ba133, Cs137, Na22, Mn54, and Co60. NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system was used to detect gamma rays with a resolution of 8.2% at 0.662 MeV. The calculated attenuation coefficient values were then used to determine total atomic cross sections (σt), molar extinction coefficients (ε), electronic cross sections (σe), effective atomic numbers (Zeff), and effective electron densities (Neff) of the amino acids. Theoretical values were calculated based on the XCOM data. Theoretical and experimental values are found to be in a good agreement (error<5%). The variations of μm, σt, ε, σe, Zeff, and Neff with energy are shown graphically. The values of μm, σt, ε, σe are higher at lower energies, and they decrease sharply as energy increases; by contrast, Zeff and Neff were found to be almost constant.

  7. OBSERVATIONS OF THE 2006 DECEMBER 13 AND 14 SOLAR PARTICLE EVENTS IN THE 80 MeV n{sup -1}-3 GeV n{sup -1} RANGE FROM SPACE WITH THE PAMELA DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Adriani, O.; Bonechi, L.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Bruno, A.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bottai, S.; Borisov, S.; Casolino, M.; De Pascale, M. P.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carbone, R.; Consiglio, L.; Carlson, P.; Castellini, G.; and others

    2011-12-01

    We present the space spectrometer PAMELA observations of proton and helium fluxes during the 2006 December 13 and 14 solar particle events. This is the first direct measurement of the solar energetic particles in space with a single instrument in the energy range from {approx}80 MeV n{sup -1} up to {approx}3 GeV n{sup -1}. For the December 13 event, measured energy spectra of solar protons and helium are compared with results obtained by neutron monitors and other detectors. Our measurements show a spectral behavior different from those derived from the neutron monitor network. No satisfactory analytical fitting was found for the energy spectra. During the first hours of the December 13 event, solar energetic particles spectra were close to the exponential form, demonstrating rather significant temporal evolution. Solar He with energy up to 1 GeV n{sup -1} was recorded on December 13. For the December 14 event, energy of solar protons reached 600 MeV, whereas the maximum energy of He was below 100 MeV n{sup -1}. The spectra were slightly bent in the lower energy range and preserved their form during the second event. Differences in the particle flux appearance and temporal evolution of these two events may argue for special conditions leading to the acceleration of solar particles up to relativistic energies.

  8. Extension of the energy range of the experimental activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 65MeV.

    PubMed

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-04-01

    Activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium were extended up to 65MeV by using stacked foil irradiation and gamma spectrometry experimental methods. Experimental cross-sections data for the formation of the radionuclides (159)Dy, (157)Dy, (155)Dy, (161)Tb, (160)Tb, (156)Tb, (155)Tb, (154m2)Tb, (154m1)Tb, (154g)Tb, (153)Tb, (152)Tb and (151)Tb are reported in the 36-65MeV energy range, and compared with an old dataset from 1964. The experimental data were also compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS nuclear reaction model code as listed in the latest on-line libraries TENDL 2013. PMID:25644082

  9. Studies on effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption and electron density of some narcotic drugs in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gounhalli, Shivraj G.; Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2013-04-01

    Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption ZPEA,eff, photon interaction ZPI,eff and for electron density Nel, have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for narcotic drugs, such as Heroin (H), Cocaine (CO), Caffeine (CA), Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabinol (CBD), Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). The ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel values have been found to change with energy and composition of the narcotic drugs. The energy dependence ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel is shown graphically. The maximum difference between the values of ZPEA,eff, and ZPI,eff occurs at 30 keV and the significant difference of 2 to 33% for the energy region 5-100 keV for all drugs. The reason for these differences is discussed.

  10. Measurement of Recoil Losses and Ranges for Spallation Products Produced in Proton Interactions with Al, Si, Mg at 200 and 500 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisterson, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Cosmic rays interact with extraterrestrial materials to produce a variety of spallation products. If these cosmogenic nuclides are produced within an inclusion in such material, then an important consideration is the loss of the product nuclei, which recoil out of the inclusion. Of course, at the same time, some atoms of the product nuclei under study may be knocked into the inclusion from the surrounding material, which is likely to have a different composition to that of the inclusion [1]. For example, Ne-21 would be produced in presolar grains, such as SiC, when irradiated in interstellar space. However, to calculate a presolar age, one needs to know how much 21Ne is retained in the grain. For small grains, the recoil losses might be large [2, 3] To study this effect under laboratory conditions, recoil measurements were made using protons with energies from 66 - 1600 MeV on Si, Al and Ba targets [3, 4, 5].

  11. Elastic Neutron Scattering at 96 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, A.; Blomgren, J.; Atac, A.; Bergenwall, B.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Mermod, P.; Nilsson, L.; Pomp, S.; Esterlund, M.; Dangtip, S.; Tippawan, U.; Phansuke, P.; Jonsson, O.; Renberg, P.-U.; Prokofiev, A.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Elmgren, K.; Olsson, N.; Blideanu, V.

    2005-05-24

    A facility for detection of scattered neutrons in the energy interval 50-130 MeV, SCANDAL (SCAttered Nucleon Detection AssembLy), has recently been installed at the 20 - 180-MeV neutron beam line of The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala. Elastic neutron scattering from 12C, 16O, 56Fe, 89Y, and 208Pb has been studied at 96 MeV in the 10-70 deg. interval. The results from 12C and 208Pb have recently been published,6 while the data from 16O, 56Fe, and 89Y are under analysis. The achieved energy resolution, 3.7 MeV, is about an order of magnitude better than for any previous experiment above 65 MeV incident energy. The present experiment represents the highest neutron energy where the ground state has been resolved from the first excited state in neutron scattering. A novel method for normalization of the absolute scale of the cross section has been used. The estimated normalization uncertainty, 3%, is unprecedented for a neutron-induced differential cross section measurement on a nuclear target. The results are compared with modern optical model predictions, based on phenomenology or microscopic theory. Applications for these measurements are nuclear-waste incineration, single-event upsets in electronics, and fast-neutron therapy.

  12. K -shell ionization cross sections of Al, Si, S, Ca, and Zn for oxygen ions in the energy range 1. 1--8 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Geretschlaeger, M. ); Smit, Z. ); Steinbauer, E. )

    1992-03-01

    {ital K}-shell ionization cross sections induced by 1.1--8-MeV oxygen ions in Al, Si, S, Ca, and Zn were measured using different target thicknesses. The cross sections for vanishingly thin and for charge-equilibrium targets were obtained by extrapolation. The experimental results are compared to the perturbed stationary-state approximation with energy-loss, Coulomb, and relativistic corrections (ECPSSR) cross sections (Brandt and Lapicki, Phys. Rev. A 23, 1717 (1981)), to the modification of the ECPSSR theory (MECPSSR) (Benka, Geretschlaeger, and Paul, J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. Suppl. 12, C9-251 (1987)), to the theory for direct Coulomb ionization of the 1{ital s}{sigma} molecular orbital (Montenegro and Sigaud, J. Phys. B 18, 299 (1985)), and to several semiclassical approximation codes using either the united atom binding procedure or the variational approach of Andersen {ital et} {ital al}. (Nucl. Instrum. Methods 192, 79 (1982)). The cross sections were also compared to the statistical molecular-orbital theory of inner-shell ionization for (nearly) symmetric atomic collisions (Mittelman and Wilets, Phys. Rev. 154, 12 (1967)). For fast collisions ({xi}{similar to}1), the ionization cross sections are well reproduced by theories for direct Coulomb ionization. For slower collisions ({xi}{lt}1), the experimental cross sections are systematically higher than the direct-ionization values, but they agree satisfactorily with the summed cross sections for direct Coulomb ionization and for molecular-orbital ionization. Best agreement (within a factor of 2) was found for the sums of MECPSSR and statistical cross sections.

  13. Lateral distributions of EAS muons (Eμ > 800 MeV) measured with the KASCADE-Grande Muon Tracking Detector in the primary energy range 1016 -1017 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, W. D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Fuchs, B.; Fuhrmann, D.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Klages, H. O.; Link, K.; Łuczak, P.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Palmieri, N.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schoo, S.; Schröder, F. G.; Sima, O.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Ulrich, H.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.

    2015-05-01

    The KASCADE-Grande large area (128 m2) Muon Tracking Detector has been built with the aim to identify muons ( Eμthr = 800 MeV) in Extensive Air Showers by track measurements under 18 r.l. shielding. This detector provides high-accuracy angular information (approx. 0.3 °) for muons up to 700 m distance from the shower core. In this work we present the lateral density distributions of muons in EAS measured with the Muon Tracking Detector of the KASCADE-Grande experiment. The density is calculated by counting muon tracks in a muon-to-shower-axis distance range from 100 m to 610 m from showers with reconstructed energy of 1016 -1017 eV and zenith angle θ < 18 ° . In the distance range covered by the experiment, these distributions are well described by functions phenomenologically determined already in the fifties (of the last century) by Greisen. They are compared also with the distributions obtained with the KASCADE scintillator array (Eμthr = 230 MeV) and with distributions obtained using simulated showers.

  14. K-italic-shell ionization cross sections for Al, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ag by protons and oxygen ions in the energy range 0. 3--6. 4 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Geretschlaeger, M.; Benka, O.

    1986-08-01

    Absolute K-italic-shell ionization cross sections have been measured for thin targets of Al, Ti, and Cu for protons in the energy range 0.3--2.0 MeV and for thin targets of Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ag for oxygen ions in the energy range 1.36--6.4 Mev. The experimental results are compared to the perturbed-stationary-state (PSS) approximation with energy-loss (E), Coulomb (C), and relativistic (R) corrections, i.e., the ECPSSR approximation (Brandt and Lapicki), to the semiclassical approximation (Laegsgaard, Andersen, and Lund), and to a theory for direct Coulomb ionization of the 1s-italicsigma molecular orbital (Montenegro and Sigaud (MS)). The proton results agree within 3% with empirical reference cross sections. Also, the ECPSSR provides best overall agreement for protons. For oxygen ions, ECPSSR and MS predict experimental results satisfactorily for scaled velocities xi> or =0.4. For lower scaled velocities, the experimental cross sections become considerably higher than theoretical predictions for Coulomb ionization. This deviation increases with increasing Z-italic/sub 1//Z/sub 2/; it cannot be explained by electron transfer to the projectile or by ionization due to target recoil atoms.

  15. Determination of integral cross sections of 3H in Al foils monitors irradiated by protons with energies ranging from 40 to 2600 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Chauzova, M. V.; Chauzova, M. V.; Kashirin, I. A.; Malinovskiy, S. V.; Pavlov, K. V.; Rogov, V. I.; Titarenko, A. Yu.; Zhivun, V. M.; Mashnik, S. G.; Stankovskiy, A. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    The results of 3H production in Al foil monitors (˜ 59 mg/cm2 thickness) are presented. These foils have been irradiated in 15×15 mm polyethylene bags of ˜ 14 mg/cm2 thickness together with foils of Cr (˜ 395 mg/cm2 thickness) and 56Fe (˜ 332 mg/cm2 thickness) by protons of different energies in a range of 0.04 - 2.6 GeV. The diameters of all the foils were 10.5 mm. The irradiations were carried out at the ITEP accelerator U-10 under the ISTC Project # 3266 in 2006-2009. 3H has been extracted from Al foils using an A307 Sample Oxidizer. An ultra low level liquid scintillation spectrometer Quantulus1220 was used to measure the 3H β-spectra and the SpectraDec software package was applied for spectra processing, deconvolution and 3H activity determination. The values of the Al (p, x)3H reaction cross sections obtained in these experiments are compared with data measured at other labs and with results of simulations by the MCNP6 radiation transport code using the CEM03.03 event generator.

  16. Study of the process e+e- → KS0 KL0 in the center-of-mass energy range 1004-1060 MeV with the CMD-3 detector at the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, E. A.; Solodov, E. P.; Amirkhanov, A. N.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Banzarov, V. S.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Berkaev, D. E.; Bondar, A. E.; Bragin, A. V.; Eidelman, S. I.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Erofeev, A. L.; Fedotovich, G. V.; Gayazov, S. E.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Gribanov, S. S.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Ignatov, F. V.; Ivanov, V. L.; Karpov, S. V.; Kasaev, A. S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kirpotin, A. N.; Korobov, A. A.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Koop, I. A.; Krokovny, P. P.; Kuzmenko, A. E.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Lukin, P. A.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Okhapkin, V. S.; Otboev, A. V.; Pestov, Yu. N.; Popov, A. S.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Ryskulov, N. M.; Ryzhenenkov, A. E.; Senchenko, A. I.; Shebalin, V. E.; Shemyakin, D. N.; Shwartz, B. A.; Shwartz, D. B.; Sibidanov, A. L.; Shatunov, P. Yu.; Shatunov, Yu. M.; Titov, V. M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Vorobiov, A. I.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2016-09-01

    The e+e- → KS0 KL0 cross section has been measured in the center-of-mass energy range 1004-1060 MeV at 25 energy points using 6.1 ×105 events with KS0 →π+π- decay. The analysis is based on 5.9 pb-1 of an integrated luminosity collected with the CMD-3 detector at the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider. To obtain ϕ (1020) meson parameters the measured cross section is approximated according to the Vector Meson Dominance model as a sum of the ρ , ω , ϕ-like amplitudes and their excitations. This is the most precise measurement of the e+e- → KS0 KL0 cross section with a 1.8% systematic uncertainty.

  17. Study of the process e+e- → KS0 KL0 in the center-of-mass energy range 1004-1060 MeV with the CMD-3 detector at the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, E. A.; Solodov, E. P.; Amirkhanov, A. N.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Banzarov, V. S.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Berkaev, D. E.; Bondar, A. E.; Bragin, A. V.; Eidelman, S. I.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Erofeev, A. L.; Fedotovich, G. V.; Gayazov, S. E.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Gribanov, S. S.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Ignatov, F. V.; Ivanov, V. L.; Karpov, S. V.; Kasaev, A. S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kirpotin, A. N.; Korobov, A. A.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Koop, I. A.; Krokovny, P. P.; Kuzmenko, A. E.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Lukin, P. A.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Okhapkin, V. S.; Otboev, A. V.; Pestov, Yu. N.; Popov, A. S.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Ryskulov, N. M.; Ryzhenenkov, A. E.; Senchenko, A. I.; Shebalin, V. E.; Shemyakin, D. N.; Shwartz, B. A.; Shwartz, D. B.; Sibidanov, A. L.; Shatunov, P. Yu.; Shatunov, Yu. M.; Titov, V. M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Vorobiov, A. I.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2016-09-01

    The e+e- → KS0 KL0 cross section has been measured in the center-of-mass energy range 1004-1060 MeV at 25 energy points using 6.1 ×105 events with KS0 →π+π- decay. The analysis is based on 5.9 pb-1 of an integrated luminosity collected with the CMD-3 detector at the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider. To obtain ϕ (1020) meson parameters the measured cross section is approximated according to the Vector Meson Dominance model as a sum of the ρ, ω, ϕ-like amplitudes and their excitations. This is the most precise measurement of the e+e- → KS0 KL0 cross section with a 1.8% systematic uncertainty.

  18. Proton induced K X-ray production cross sections of the elements Al, Si, Ti, Fe, and Ni in the 0.7-2.0 MeV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertol, Ana Paula Lamberti; Hinrichs, Ruth; Vasconcellos, Marcos A. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Proton induced K-shell ionization cross sections were obtained for the elements Al, Si, Ti, Fe, and Ni in the 0.7-2.0 MeV energy range. The accuracy of these fundamental parameters is essential for PIXE analysis and the data in the literature present a considerable spread, mainly for Al and Si. The values obtained for Ti, Fe and Ni are compatible with the current theories and the experimental results reported in the literature. However, Al and Si cross sections present important differences from theoretical and experimental data. We propose values for the fluorescent yields of Al and Si that are compatible with recent results and can be incorporated in the computations of K X-ray production cross sections.

  19. Measurement of the total cross section of heavy water in the 0.1 meV-1 eV energy range at 20 and 50 ° C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez Damián, J. I.; Granada, J. R.; Baxter, D. V.; Parnell, S. R.; Evans, D. C.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the importance of heavy water as a neutron moderator, there are few measurements of its total neutron cross section for cold and thermal energies, and none of them covers the range of temperature (40-70 ° C) used in moderator and reflector tanks in research reactors, and in CANDU nuclear power plants. To cover this deficit, we measured the total cross section of liquid heavy water at 20 ° C and 50 ° C using the SANS beamline at the LENS facility at Indiana University. The time-of-flight technique was used, in a sample-in/sample-out measurement. The use of the solid methane cold neutron source at LENS allowed measuring in a broad range in energy, from 0.1meV to 1eV. In this paper we present details of the measurement and processing of the data, and comparison with previous experimental measurements and calculation models. This work is included in the Action Plan of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project "Advanced Moderators for Intense Cold Neutron Beams in Materials Research".

  20. Cosmic-ray isotopic composition of C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si nuclei in the energy range 50-200 MeV per nucleon measured by the Voyager spacecraft during the solar minimum period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukasiak, A.; Ferrando, P.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Webber, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    The isotopic composition of C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si cosmic ray nuclei has been measured in the energy range 50-200 MeV per nucleon using data collected by the High-Energy Telescope of the cosmic-ray subsystem experiment on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. These data were collected during the period of minimum solar activity in 1986-1988 at an average distance of 27 AU with an effective solar modulation that was much less than at the Earth. The isotope analysis, based on the energy loss - total energy method, has a mass resolution of 0.2 amu for carbon and 0.4 amu at silicon. We find a (C-13)/(C-12) ratio slightly lower and a (O-18)/(O-16) ratio slightly enhanced over their solar system value. We also observe the previously reported enhancement of the (Ne-22)/(Ne-20) ratio relative to solar at the cosmic-ray source but only a weak, if any, enhancement of the (Mg-25)/(Mg-24), (Mg-26)/(Mg 24), and (Si-30)/(Si-28) ratios.

  1. Measurements of 67Ga production cross section induced by protons on natZn in the low energy range from 1.678 to 2.444 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachter, J. A.; Miranda, P. A.; Morales, J. R.; Cancino, S. A.; Correa, R.

    2015-02-01

    The experimental production cross section for the reaction natZn(p,x)67Ga has been measured in the energy range from 1.678 to 2.444 MeV. The methodology used in this work is based on characteristic X-ray emitted after irradiation by the daughter nuclei that decays by electron capture (EC) and the use of a complementary PIXE experiment. By doing so, expressions needed to determine cross section values are simplified since experimental factors such as geometric setup and an detector efficiency are avoided. 67Ga is a radionuclide particularly suited for this method since it decays by electron capture in 100% and the subsequent characteristic X-ray emission is easily detected. Natural zinc targets were fabricated by PVD technique and afterwards their thicknesses were determined by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. Cross sections measurements were carried out by using the Van de Graaff accelerator located at Faculty of Sciences, University of Chile. It was found that our data for the natZn(p,x)67Ga reaction are, in general, in good agreement when compared to existing experimental data and to those calculated ALICE/ASH nuclear code. On the other hand, values predicted by Talys-1.6 are showing systematically lower magnitudes than our measured data.

  2. Differential cross section measurements of 27Al(p,p/γ)27Al and 27Al(p,αγ)24Mg reactions in the energy range of 1.6-3.0 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokar, A.; Kakuee, O.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Sharifzadeh, N.; Fathollahi, V.

    2015-11-01

    In this work measurement of differential cross sections of 27Al(p,p/γ)27Al (Eγ = 844, 1014 keV) and 27Al(p,αγ)24Mg (Eγ = 1369 keV) nuclear reactions in the proton energy range of 1.6-3.0 MeV are described and the measured values are presented. Thin Al target was prepared by evaporating a 26 μg/cm2 Al onto a 129 μg/cm2 self-supporting Ag film. The gamma-rays and backscattered protons were detected simultaneously. The gamma-rays and protons were collected by an HPGe detector placed at an angle of 90° with respect to beam direction and an ion implanted Si detector placed at a scattering angle of 165°, respectively. In this experimental setup the great advantage is that differential cross sections could be independent on absolute values of the collected beam charge. The overall systematic uncertainty of cross sections was estimated to be ±9% while statistical errors were less than ±5%.

  3. Time features of delayed neutrons and partial emissive-fission cross sections for the neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th nuclei in the energy range 3.2-17.9 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Roshchenko, V. A. Piksaikin, V. M. Korolev, G. G.; Egorov, A. S.

    2010-06-15

    The energy dependence of the relative abundances of delayed neutrons and the energy dependence of the half-lives of their precursors in the neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th nuclei in the energy range 3.2-17.9 MeV were measured for the first time. A systematics of the time features of delayed neutrons is developed. This systematics makes it possible to estimate the half-life of delayed-neutron precursors as a function of the nucleonic composition of fissile nuclei by using a single parameter set for all nuclides. The energy dependence of the partial cross sections for emissive fission in the reaction {sup 232}Th(n, f) was analyzed on the basis of data obtained for the relative abundances of delayed neutrons and the aforementioned half-lives and on the basis of the created systematics of the time features of delayed neutrons. It was shown experimentally for the first time that the decrease in the cross section after the reaction threshold in the fission of {sup 232}Th nuclei (it has a pronounced first-chance plateau) is not an exclusion among the already studied uranium, plutonium, and curium isotopes and complies with theoretical predictions obtained for the respective nuclei with allowance for shell, superfluid, and collective effects in the nuclear-level density and with allowance for preequilibrium neutron emission

  4. Measurements of the cross section for the (182)W(n,p)(182(m+g))Ta and (184)(n,p)(184)Ta reactions in the 14MeV energy range using the activation technique.

    PubMed

    Song, Yueli; Zhou, Fengqun; Tian, Mingli; Li, Yong; Yuan, Shuqing; Lan, Changlin

    2015-04-01

    The cross section for the (182)W(n,p)(182(m+g))Ta and (184)W(n,p)(184)Ta reactions has been measured in the neutron energy range of 13.5-14.7MeV using the activation technique and a coaxial HPGe γ-ray detector. In our experiment, the fast neutrons were produced by the T(d,n)(4)He reaction at the ZF-300-II Intense Neutron Generator at Lanzhou University. Natural wolfram foils of 99.9% purity were used as target materials. The neutron flux was determined using the monitor reaction (93)Nb(n,2n)(92m)Nb and the neutron energies were determined using the method of cross-section ratio measurements employing the (90)Zr(n,2n)(89)Zr to (93)Nb(n,2n)(92m)Nb reactions. The results of this work are compared with experimental data found in the literature and the estimates obtained from a published empirical formula based on the statistical model with Q-value dependence and odd-even effects taken into consideration. PMID:25617709

  5. Elastic neutron scattering at 96 MeV from {sup 12}C and {sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Klug, J.; Blomgren, J.; Atac, A.; Bergenwall, B.; Hildebrand, A.; Johansson, C.; Mermod, P.; Pomp, S.; Tippawan, U.; Nilsson, L.; Elmgren, K.; Olsson, N.; Jonsson, O.; Prokofiev, A.V.; Renberg, P.-U.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Dangtip, S.; Phansuke, P.; Oesterlund, M.; Le Brun, C.

    2003-12-01

    A facility for detection of scattered neutrons in the energy interval 50-130 MeV, SCANDAL, has recently been installed at the 20-180 MeV neutron beam line of the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala. Elastic neutron scattering from {sup 12}C and {sup 208}Pb has been studied at 96 MeV in the 10 deg. -70 deg. interval. The achieved energy resolution, 3.7 MeV, is about an order of magnitude better than for any previous experiment above 65 MeV incident energy. The present experiment represents the highest neutron energy where the ground state has been resolved from the first excited state in neutron scattering. A novel method for normalization of the absolute scale of the cross section has been used. The estimated normalization uncertainty, 3%, is unprecedented for a neutron-induced differential cross section measurement on a nuclear target. The results are compared with modern optical model predictions based on phenomenology or microscopic nuclear theory.

  6. Spin-flip (p,n) reactions on /sup 26/Mg, /sup 54/Fe, and /sup 56/Fe at selected proton bombarding energies in the range of 17 to 25 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Aron, D.L.

    1985-06-01

    New data are presented for the /sup 26/Mg(p,n)/sup 26/Al reaction at E/sub p/ = 19.12 and 24.97 MeV, for the /sup 54/Fe(p,n)/sup 54/Co reaction at E/sub p/ = 17.20, 18.60, and 24.60 MeV, and for the /sup 56/Fe(p,n)/sup 56/Co reaction at E/sub p/ = 19.12 and 24.59 MeV. Data were taken with the LLNL Cyclograaff at 16 angles from 3.5/sup 0/ to 159.0/sup 0/. A large detector at 23.8/sup 0/ with a long neutron flight path collected high resolution spectra. This large detector also collected separate 0/sup 0/ high resolution data on the /sup 26/Mg and /sup 56/Fe(p,n) reactions at E/sub p/ = 19 MeV. Absolute differential (p,n) cross sections were extracted for 1/sup +/ states in /sup 26/Al, /sup 54/Co, and /sup 56/Co, for the 0/sup +/ isobaric analong state (IAS) in /sup 54/Co and /sup 56/Co, for a 2/sup +/ state in each residual nucleus, and for the 0.199 MeV 7/sup +/ state of /sup 54/Co. No new experimental states were identified. Only relative cross sections were extracted at 0/sup 0/. Experimental angle-integrated cross sections were obtained for all but one state. DWBA79 was used, with the G-matrix effective nucleon-nucleon interaction of Bertsch et al. (with the central triplet-odd component V/sub to/ = O) and the Livermore shell model wave functions to calculate differential (p,n) cross sections to 1/sup +/ states and to the /sup 54/Co and /sup 56/Co IAS. Normalization of the DWBA angle-integrated cross sections to measurements for the /sup 54/Co and /sup 56/Co IAS (at E/sub p/ = 24.6 MeV) yielded the renormalized V/sub tau/ = 21.4 +- 2.1 MeV. Normalization of the DWBA angle-integrated cross sections to measurements for the 24.6 MeV /sup 54/Co and /sup 56/Co 1/sup +/ states, coupled with the normalization of the wave functions to previously experimentally determined GT strength, yield the renormalized V/sub sigmatau/ = 12.3 +- 1.2 MeV. The experimental Gamow-Teller strength B(GT)/sub exp./ of the T = 1 /sup 26/Al state at 9.44 MeV was found to be 0.69; B

  7. Measurements of the {sup 71}Ga(n,2n){sup 70}Ga cross section in the neutron energy range of 13.5-14.7 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jishan; Wang Xuezhi; Su Tongling

    2005-09-01

    Cross sections for {sup 71}Ga(n, 2n){sup 70}Ga reaction have been measured in the neutron energies of 13.5-14.7 MeV using the activation technique, with the gallium sample irradiated under low neutron fluxes and short irradiation time. The data for {sup 71}Ga(n, 2n){sup 70}Ga reaction cross sections are reported to be 782 {+-} 80, 896 {+-} 91, and 1169 {+-} 120 mb at 13.5 {+-} 0.2, 14.1 {+-} 0.1, and 14.7 {+-} 0.2 MeV incident neutron energies, respectively. The results are discussed and compared with the literature. From the comparison we see that the values show well agreement with the theoretical results calculated from the code STAPRE.

  8. Energy dependent response of the Fricke gel dosimeter prepared with 270 Bloom gelatine for photons in the energy range 13.93 keV-6 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavinato, C. C.; Campos, L. L.

    2010-07-01

    The spectrophotometric energy dependent response to photons with effective energies between 13.93 keV and 6 MeV of the Fricke xylenol gel (FXG) dosimeter developed at IPEN, prepared using 270 Bloom gelatine, was evaluated in order to verify the possible dosimeter application in other medicine areas in addition to radiosurgery, for example, breast radiotherapy and blood bags radiosterilization. Other dosimetric characteristics were also evaluated. The obtained results indicate that the FXG dosimeter can contribute to dosimetry in different medical application areas including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation technique that permits three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution evaluation.

  9. K -shell ionization cross sections for Si, P, K, Ca, Zn, and Ga by protons and carbon ions in the energy range 1--6. 4 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Geretschlaeger, M. ); Smit, Z. ); Benka, O. )

    1990-01-01

    Absolute {ital K}-shell ionization cross sections have been measured for thin targets of Si, P, S, K, Ca, Zn, and Ga using carbon ions between 1.0 and 6.4 MeV and protons of 1 and 2 MeV. The dependence of x-ray production cross sections on target thickness was determined. The experimental results are compared to the semiclassical approximation (Laegsgaard, Andersen, and Lund in 3 Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on the Physics of Electron and Atomic Collisions, Paris, 1977, edited by G. Watel (North-Holland, Amsterdam 1977)), to the theory for direct Coulomb ionization of the 1{ital s}{sigma} molecular orbital (Montenegro and Sigaud, J. Phys. B. 18, 299 (1985)), to the perturbed stationary-state approximation with energy-loss, Coulomb, and relativistic corrections (ECPSSR) (Brandt and Lapicki, Phys. Rev. A 23, 1717 (1981)), and to the modification of the ECPSSR approximation (MECPSSR) (Benka, Geretschlaeger, and Paul, J. Phys. (Paris) Suppl. 12, C9-251 (1987)). The results for carbon ions are also compared to the statistical molecular orbital theory of inner-shell ionization for symmetric or nearly symmetric atomic collisions (Mittelman and Wilets, Phys. Rev. 154, 12 (1967)).

  10. Cross sections for (n, 2n), (n, p) and (n, ) reactions on osmium isotopes in the neutron energy range of 13.5-14.8 MeV.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liangyong; Yuan, Jilong; Tuo, Fei; Zhang, Yanbin; Kong, Xiangzhong; Liu, Rong; Jiang, Li

    2008-10-01

    Cross sections for (n, 2n), (n, p) and (n, alpha) reactions on the osmium isotopes were measured in the neutron energies 13.5-14.8 MeV by the activation technique with the monitor reaction (93)Nb(n, 2n)(92 m)Nb. Our measurements were carried out by gamma-detection using a coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Natural high-purity osmium powder (99.9%) was fabricated as the samples. The neutron energies were determined by the cross-section ratios for (93)Nb(n, 2n)(92 m)Nb and (90)Zr(n, 2n)(89 m+g)Zr reactions. The fast neutrons were produced by the T(d, n)(4)He reaction. The results obtained were compared with previous data. PMID:18468910

  11. Technical Note: Influence of the phantom material on the absorbed-dose energy dependence of the EBT3 radiochromic film for photons in the energy range 3 keV–18 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Hermida-López, M.; Lüdemann, L.; Flühs, A.; Brualla, L.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Water is the reference medium for radiation therapy dosimetry, but for film dosimetry it is more practical to use a solid phantom. As the composition of solid phantoms differs from that of water, the energy dependence of film exposed within solid phantoms may also differ. The energy dependence of a radiochromic film for a given beam quality Q (energy for monoenergetic beams) has two components: the intrinsic energy dependence and the absorbed-dose energy dependence f(Q), the latter of which can be calculated through a Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport. The authors used Monte Carlo simulations to study the influence of the phantom material on the f(Q) of the EBT3 radiochromic film (Ashland Specialty Ingredients, Wayne, NJ) for photon beams with energies between 3 keV and 18 MeV. Methods: All simulations were carried out with the general-purpose Monte Carlo code PENELOPE 2011. The geometrical model consisted of a cylindrical phantom, with the film positioned at different depths depending on the initial photon energy. The authors simulated monoenergetic parallel photon beams and x-ray beams from a superficial therapy system. To validate their choice of simulation parameters, they also calculated f(Q) for older film models, EBT and EBT2, comparing with published results. In addition to water, they calculated f(Q) of the EBT3 film for solid phantom materials commonly used for film dosimetry: RW1 and RW3 (PTW-Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany), Solid Water (Gammex-RMI, Madison, WI), and PMMA. Finally, they combined their calculated f(Q) with published overall energy response data to obtain the intrinsic energy dependence of the EBT3 film in water. Results: The calculated f(Q) for EBT and EBT2 films was statistically compatible with previously published data. Between 10 keV and 18 MeV, the variation found in f(Q) of the EBT3 film for water was within 2.3%, with a standard statistical uncertainty less than 1%. If the quantity dose-to-water in the phantom is

  12. Characterization of 2 MeV, 4 MeV, 6 MeV and 18 MeV buildup caps for use with a 0.6 cubic centimeter thimble ionization chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Salyer, R.L.; VanDenburg, J.W.; Prinja, A.K.; Kirby, T.; Busch, R.; Hong-Nian Jow

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to characterize existing 2 MeV, 4 MeV and 6 MeV buildup caps, and to determine if a buildup cap can be made for the 0.6 cm{sup 3} thimble ionization chamber that will accurately measure exposures in a high-energy photon radiation field. Two different radiation transport codes were used to computationally characterize existing 2 MeV, 4 MeV, and 6 MeV buildup caps for a 0.6 cm{sup 3} active volume thimble ionization chamber: ITS, The Integrated TIGER Series of Coupled Electron-Photon Monte Carlo Transport Codes; and CEPXS/ONEDANT, A One-Dimensional Coupled Electron-Photon Discrete Ordinates Code Package. These codes were also used to determine the design characteristics of a buildup cap for use in the 18 MeV photon beam produced by the 14 TW pulsed power HERMES-III electron accelerator. The maximum range of the secondary electron, the depth at which maximum dose occurs, and the point where dose and collision kerma are equal have been determined to establish the validity of electronic equilibrium. The ionization chamber with the appropriate buildup cap was then subjected to a 4 MeV and a 6 MeV bremmstrahlung radiation spectrum to determine the detector response.

  13. Measurements of the 24Mg(d,p0,1,2,3,4) and natMg(d,d0) reactions cross sections in the energy range of 1.2-2 MeV for NRA and EBS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafi-kheiri, H.; Kakuee, O.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.

    2016-04-01

    Differential cross sections of the 24Mg(d,p0,1,2,3,4) reactions were obtained in the range Ed,lab = 1.2-2 MeV and at the scattering angles of 90°, 135°, 150° and 165° using a thin Mg target having thickness of 76.7 ± 3.1 μg/cm2. The cross section values were determined with an average energy step of ∼25 keV while the detailed measurements were carried out with an energy step of ∼5 keV around the resonance peaks. Elastic scattering data for three steep backward angles (135°, 150° and 165°) were also studied for the same incident deuteron energy range and steps. The results were compared with those of the previous studies. Moreover, the validity of the measured data has been benchmarked using a thick Mg target at two deuteron beam energies of 1.7 and 2 MeV.

  14. Determination of 9Be(p,p0)9Be, 9Be(p,d0)8Be and 9Be(p,α0)6Li cross sections at 150° in the energy range 0.5-2.35 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catarino, N.; Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E.

    2016-03-01

    Beryllium and Tungsten have been chosen as the new "plasma facing materials" for fusion reactors. Understanding plasma wall interactions and their effects such as erosion and redeposition leading to the formation of alloys from the different materials present in the reactor chamber, is critical to model the retention of hydrogen isotopes by the wall materials. Determining the amount and the depth profile of Be and other elements deposited in the walls is a mandatory requirement in fusion reactors, making the knowledge of the relevant cross sections essential for IBA analysis. In this work we measured the 9Be(p,p0)9Be, 9Be(p,d0)8Be and 9Be(p,α0)6Li cross sections in the energy range 0.5-2.35 MeV, at an angle of 150°.

  15. Proton-Proton Scattering at 105 Mev and 75 Mev

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Birge, R. W.; Kruse, U. E.; Ramsey, N. F.

    1951-01-31

    The scattering of protons by protons provides an important method for studying the nature of nuclear forces. Recent proton-proton scattering experiments at energies as high as thirty Mev{sup 1} have failed to show any appreciable contribution to the cross section from higher angular momentum states, but it is necessary to bring in tensor forces to explain the magnitude of the observed cross section.

  16. Crab Nebula observations - 0.2-10 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Observations of the total emission from the Crab Nebula and also of the pulsed component were made over the 0.2 to 10-MeV range during three balloon flights in 1971 with an actively-collimated NaI scintillator. The total emission flux was positively observed over the entire interval. The observed spectrum to 1 MeV agrees with an extrapolation of the E to the -2.2 power law, which fits lower-energy data. The observations above 1 MeV are factors of 3 and 20 above this law and are better fit with a spectral index of 0.8. Confidence levels are 3 sigma or better for each half-decade band. The three observations are consistent with a constant flux level. The NP 0532 flux, detected during one flight only (August 8) between 0.2 and 0.38 MeV, agrees with the exponential power law spectrum already determined from other observations. The possibility of a rapidly rising pulsed emission fraction over the 0.1- to 1-MeV interval is excluded by this observation.

  17. Abundance of low energy (50-150 MeV) antiprotons in cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, S.; Stephens, S. A.; Apparao, K. M. V.; Durgaprasad, N.

    1985-01-01

    The progress is presented of the nuclear emulsion experiment to determine abundance of low energy antiprotons in cosmic rays. No antiprotons have been detected so far at upper limit of p/p less than or similar to 4 x .0001 in the energy range 50 MeV to 15 MeV.

  18. Level Density of COBALT-57 in the Energy Region 1 Mev to 14 Mev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Vivek

    The level density of ^{57 }Co is studied in the energy region of 1-14 MeV using three experimental techniques. Levels are counted in the resolved region, evaporation spectra are measured in the resolved to continuum region, and the coherence width is measured in the region of level overlap. Use of Hauser-Feshbach fits to the evaporation cross sections requires level densities of the residual nucleus. A two -parameter based Fermi gas form is used for the calculation of level density as a function of the nuclear excitation energy. This procedure enables level density calculation beyond the energy region in which the two fixed parameters provide the best fits to the data. A comparison is made between the level density obtained from the above described methods and the predictions of the microscopic model in an energy range of 1-20 MeV. This model utilizes a BCS pairing Hamiltonian and specific sets of single particle states and calculates numerical values of the level density. Comparisons are also made with level density of ^{57 }Co obtained in various other studies. Both the resolved level studies and the fits to the evaporation spectra were conducted using the ^{56}Fe(d,n)^{57 }Co and ^{57}Fe(p,n) ^{57}Co reactions. Standard neutron time-of-flight techniques including pulse shape discrimination for elimination of gamma -rays were employed. An energy resolution as good as 6 keV at 1-1.5 MeV neutron energy was obtained for high resolution measurements. For Ericson fluctuation measurements, the excitation functions corresponding to the ground state and the first two excited states of the residual nucleus in the ^{56}Fe(p,n) ^{56}Co reaction were obtained for lab angles between 0^circ and 150^circ. The ^{56}Fe(d,n) ^{57}Co reaction proves to be very selective in populating resolved states and includes substantial contributions from mechanisms other than the compound nuclear. The ^{57 }Fe(p,n)^{57}Co reaction populated 14 previously unknown levels. The fits to the

  19. Valine radiolysis by MeV ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silveira, Enio

    2016-07-01

    Valine, (CH3)2 CHCH (NH2) COOH, is a protein amino acid that has been identified in extraterrestrial environments and in the Murchison meteorite [1]. The knowledge of half-lives of small organic molecules under ionizing radiation is important for the setup of models describing the spread out of prebiotics across the Solar System or the Galaxy. We have investigated typical effects of MeV cosmic ray ions on prebiotic molecules in laboratory by impinging ions produced by the PUC-Rio Van de Graaff accelerator. Pure valine films, deposited by evaporation on KBr substrates, were irradiated by H ^{+}, He ^{+} and N ^{+} ion beams, from 0.5 to 1.5 MeV and up to a fluence of 10 ^{15} projectiles/cm ^{2}. The sample temperature was varied from 10 K to 300 K. The irradiation was interrupted several times for Mid-FTIR analysis of the sample. The main findings are: 1- The column density of the valine decreases exponentially with fluence. 2- In some cases, a second exponential appears in the beginning of irradiation; this feature has been attributed to sample compaction by the ion beam [2]. 3- Destruction cross sections of valine are in the 10 ^{-15} cm ^{2} range, while compaction cross sections are in the 10 ^{-14} cm ^{2} range. 4- Destruction cross section increases with the stopping power of the beam and also with the sample temperature. 5- Surprisingly, during the radiolysis of valine, just CO _{2} is seen by as a daughter molecule formed in the bulk. 6- After long beam fluence, also a CO peak appears in the infrared spectrum; this species is however interpreted as a fragment of the formed CO2 molecules. 7- Considering the flux ratio between laboratory experiments and actual galactic cosmic rays, half-life of valine is predicted for ISM conditions [3]. This work on pure valine is the first measurement of a series. New experiments are planned for determining cross sections of valine dissolved in H _{2}O or CO _{2}, inspired by the study performed for glycine [4]. [1] P

  20. MeV neutrinos in double {beta} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Zuber, K.

    1997-08-01

    The effect of Majorana neutrinos in the MeV mass range on the double {beta} decay of various isotopes is studied on pure phenomenological arguments. By using only experimental half-life data, limits on the mixing parameter U{sub eh}{sup 2} of the order 10{sup {minus}7} can be derived. Also the possible achievements of upcoming experiments and some consequences are outlined. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Search for narrow structure in proton-antiproton annihilation cross sections from 1900 to 1960 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, D.I.; Pealsee, D.C.; Miller, R.J.; Lewis, R.A.; Oh, B.Y.; Smith, G.A.; Whitmore, J.; Brando, T.; Daftari, I.; deGuzman, A.

    1985-01-01

    The anti pp annihilation cross section has been measured with good resolution (approx.2 MeV rms) in the mass range 1900-1960 MeV. No narrow structures are seen, the 90% confidence level upper limit being 8-12 mb-MeV for the integrated area of a resonance in this mass range. However, we do not rule out a very narrow bump-dip structure seen in an earlier experiment in the 1935-1941 MeV mass interval. The data also do not support the existence of a broad structure previously reported at 1937 MeV.

  2. Production of the {omega} meson in the pd{yields}{sup 3}He{omega} reaction at 1450 MeV and 1360 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenning, K.; Calen, H.; Fransson, K.; Gustafsson, L.; Hoeistad, B.; Jacewicz, M.; Johansson, T.; Keleta, S.; Kullander, S.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Petren, H.; Ruber, R. J. M. Y.; Engblom, P. Thoerngren; Zlomanczuk, J.; Bargholtz, Chr.; Geren, L.; Lindberg, K.; Tegner, P.-E.; Zartova, I.

    2009-04-15

    The production of {omega} mesons in the pd{yields}{sup 3}He{omega} reaction has been studied at two energies near the kinematic threshold, T{sub p}=1450 MeV and T{sub p}=1360 MeV. The differential cross section was measured as a function of the {omega} c.m. angle at both energies over the whole angular range. Whereas the results at 1360 MeV are consistent with isotropy, strong rises are observed near both the forward and backward directions at 1450 MeV. Calculations made using a two-step model with an intermediate pion fail to reproduce the shapes of the measured angular distributions and also underestimate the total cross sections.

  3. XRD study of yttria stabilized zirconia irradiated with 7.3 MeV Fe, 10 MeV I, 16 MeV Au, 200 MeV Xe and 2.2 GeV Au ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, K.; Yoshizaki, H.; Saitoh, Y.; Ishikawa, N.; Iwase, A.

    2016-03-01

    To simulate energetic neutron irradiation effects, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) which is one of the major materials for electrical corrosion potential sensors (ECP sensors) was irradiated with heavy ions at energies ranging from 7.3 MeV to 2.2 GeV. Ion irradiation effects on the lattice structure were analyzed using the X-ray diffraction (XRD). The increase in lattice constant was induced by the ion irradiation. It was dominated by the elastic collision process and not by the electronic excitation process. The lattice disordering which was observed as a broadening of XRD peaks was also induced by the irradiation especially for 200 MeV Xe ion irradiation. The present result suggests that the expansion and/or the disordering of YSZ lattice induced by energetic neutrons may affect the durability of a joint interface between a metal housing and YSZ membrane for the usage of ECP sensors in nuclear power reactors.

  4. Coupled-channel analysis of neutron scattering from /sup 12/C between 9 and 15 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.F.; Meigooni, A.S.

    1986-07-01

    A deformed and energy dependent phenomenological optical model potential and coupled-channel formalism for deformed nuclei have been used in the analysis of elastic and inelastic (Q = 4.439 MeV) scattering, and analyzing power for neutrons scattered from /sup 12/C in the energy range of 9 to 15 MeV. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Observations of gamma radiation between 0.4 MeV and 7 MeV at balloon altitudes using a Compton telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, J. A.; Webber, W. R.; Friling, L. A.; Macri, J.; Hsieh, L.

    1981-09-01

    Balloon-borne measurements of the atmospheric and diffuse gamma-ray flux in the energy range 0.4-7.0 MeV with a Compton telescope, which included pulse-shape discrimination of the first scattering detector and a time-of-flight system between the first and second detector elements, are reported. Comparison of the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux to the atmospheric gamma rays indicates that 0.2-5.0 MeV is the optimum energy range for measurements made at the top of the earth's atmosphere. The measured total atmospheric gamma-ray flux between zero and 40 deg has an energy spectrum that agrees with the calculations of Ling (1975). Observations indicate that the ratio of the diffuse to atmospheric gamma ray fluxes at 3.5 g/sq cm is a maximum, about 1.0, between 0.7 and 3.0 MeV.

  6. Depth profiles of MeV heavy ions implanted into Si and lithium triborate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke-Ming; Shi, Bo-Rong; Cue, Nelson; Shen, Ding-Yu; Chen, Feng; Wang, Xue-Lin; Lu, Fei

    2004-10-01

    MeV Cu + and Ni + ions were implanted into Si crystal and lithium triborate. The depth profiles of implanted Cu + and Ni + ions into Si and lithium triborate were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Mean projected range and range straggling extracted are compared with calculated values based on different versions of transport of ions in matter: TRIM'90, TRIM'98 and SRIM 2003. The results show that TRIM'90 has predicted well the experimental data of mean projected range and range straggling for MeV Cu + ions implanted into Si, the maximum differences between measured and calculated values are within 4%, but for the case of 2.0 MeV Ni + ions implanted into lithium triborate, the experimental value is significantly different from the calculated one based on TRIM'90.

  7. Determination of Neutron Spectrum by the Dosimetry Foil Method up to 37 Mev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakov, S. P.; Bém, P.; Burjan, V.; Fischer, U.; Forrest, R. A.; Götz, M.; Honusek, M.; Kroha, V.; Novàk, J.; Šimečková, E.

    2009-08-01

    The dosimetry activation foil technique was used for the determination of a white neutron spectrum at the U120M cyclotron facility of NPI/Řež. The neutrons were produced by 37 MeV protons slowing down in the thick heavy water target and have an energy distribution extending up to 37 MeV. To cover the whole energy range a set of 10 foils Al, Ti, Fe, Co, Ni, Y, Nb, In, Lu, and Au was used. The γ-rays from the decaying nuclei produced in 26 activation reactions were detected. The cross sections for these reaction were chosen from European Activation File EAF-2007 (up to 55 MeV) after intercomparison with the dosimetry cross section library IRDF-2002 which represents the cross section only up to 20 MeV and other high energy libraries. For the spectrum determination the SAND-II code was used after it had been modified to input dosimetry cross sections above 20 MeV in an arbitrary group structure. The guessed neutron spectrum which is needed to start an adjustment procedure was combined from those measured and calculated by the MCNPX code. The uncertainty of the adjusted neutron spectrum was estimated using the uncertainties of measured specific γ-activities induced in nuclides and dosimetry cross sections. It is less than 10% in the energy range below 25 MeV, the sensitivity domain of the most dosimetry reactions, but increases above this energy.

  8. Measured and calculated differential and total yield cross-section data of {sup 58}Ni(n,x{alpha}) and {sup 63}Cu(n,xp) in the neutron energy range from 2.0 to 15.6 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Tsabaris, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Wattecamps, E.; Rollin, G.

    1998-01-01

    Double-differential (n,xp) and (n,x{alpha}) cross-section ratio measurements are performed at the 7-MV Van de Graaff accelerator laboratory for neutron energies between 2.0 and 15.6 MeV. The following reaction rate ratios are measured: {sup 58}Ni(n,x{alpha}) to {sup 27}(n,{alpha}), {sup 58}Ni(n,x{alpha}) to {sup 58}Ni(n,p), {sup 63}Cu(n,xp) to {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}), and {sup 63}Cu(n,xp) to {sup 58}Ni(n,p). Protons or alphas are detected by {Delta}E-{Delta}E-E telescopes under 14, 51, 79, 109, and 141 degrees. The energy spectrum of the emitted particles and the angular yield distribution are measured. First, the measurements provide double-differential cross-section data for {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}) and {sup 58}Ni(n,p) by normalization to the known total yield reference cross-section values. Subsequently, the reaction rate ratios of {sup 58}Ni(n,x{alpha}) and {sup 63}Cu(n,xp) to {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}) or {sup 58}Ni(n,p) provide double-differential cross sections of {sup 58}Ni(n,x{alpha}) and {sup 63}Cu(n,xp) in b/(MeV {center_dot} sr). The measured double-differential cross section data, the particle energy spectra, the angular distributions, and the total yield cross-section data are compared with measured data from literature and with nuclear reaction model calculations performed at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements with the computer codes STAPRE-H and EXIFON.

  9. MeV Dark Matter and Small Scale Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Strigari, Louis E.; Zurek, Kathryn M.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2007-04-01

    WIMPs with electroweak scale masses (neutralinos, etc.) remain in kinetic equilibrium with other particle species until temperatures approximately in the range of 10 MeV to 1 GeV, leading to the formation of dark matter substructure with masses as small as 10{sup -4} M{sub {circle_dot}} to 10{sup -12} M{sub {circle_dot}}. However, if dark matter consists of particles with MeV scale masses, as motivated by the observation of 511 keV emission from the Galactic Bulge, such particles are naturally expected to remain in kinetic equilibrium with the cosmic neutrino background until considerably later times. This would lead to a strong suppression of small scale structure with masses below about 10{sup 7}M{sub {circle_dot}} to 10{sup 4} M{sub {circle_dot}}. This cutoff scale has important implications for present and future searches for faint Local Group satellite galaxies and for the missing satellites problem.

  10. X-ray FEL with a meV bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldin, E. L.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Shvyd'ko, Yu. V.; Yurkov, M. V.

    2001-12-01

    A new design for a single pass X-ray Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) FEL was proposed by Feldhaus et al. (Opt. Commun. 140 (1997) 341) and named "two-stage SASE FEL". The scheme consists of two undulators and an X-ray monochromator located between them. For the Angström wavelength range the monochromator can be realized using Bragg reflections from crystals. We propose a scheme of monochromator with a bandwidth of 20 meV for the 14.4 keV X-ray SASE FEL being developed in the framework of the TESLA linear collider project. The spectral bandwidth of the radiation from the two-stage SASE FEL (20 meV) is determined by the finite duration of the electron pulse. The shot-to-shot fluctuations of energy spectral density are dramatically reduced in comparison with the 100% fluctuations in a SASE FEL. The peak and average brilliance are three orders of magnitude higher than the values which could be reached by a conventional X-ray SASE FEL.

  11. Pohang Neutron Facility Based on 100 Mev Electron Linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G. N.; Ahmed, H.; Machrafi, R.; Son, D.; Lee, Y. S.; Skoy, V.; Kang, H. S.; Cho, M. H.; Ko, I. S.; Namkung, W.

    2003-06-01

    Pohang Neutron Facility (PNF) is a pulsed neutron facility based on the 100-MeV electron linear accelerator. It was constructed for nuclear data production in Korea, and it consists of an electron linear accelerator, a water-cooled Ta target with a water moderator and a time-of-flight path with an 11 m length. The 100-MeV electron linac uses a thermionic RF-gun, an alpha magnet, four quadrupole magnets, two SLAC-type accelerating sections, a quadrupole triplet, and a beam-analyzing magnet. It has been equipped with a new four-position sample changer controlled remotely by a CAMAC data acquisition system, which allows the simultaneous accumulation of the neutron time-of-flight spectra from 4 different samples. The neutron total cross sections of natural In and Cu have been measured in the neutron energy range from 0.1 eV to 100 eV by the neutron time-of-flight method.

  12. Upper limit on the inner radiation belt MeV electron intensity

    PubMed Central

    Li, X; Selesnick, RS; Baker, DN; Jaynes, AN; Kanekal, SG; Schiller, Q; Blum, L; Fennell, J; Blake, JB

    2015-01-01

    No instruments in the inner radiation belt are immune from the unforgiving penetration of the highly energetic protons (tens of MeV to GeV). The inner belt proton flux level, however, is relatively stable; thus, for any given instrument, the proton contamination often leads to a certain background noise. Measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment on board Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment CubeSat, in a low Earth orbit, clearly demonstrate that there exist sub-MeV electrons in the inner belt because their flux level is orders of magnitude higher than the background, while higher-energy electron (>1.6 MeV) measurements cannot be distinguished from the background. Detailed analysis of high-quality measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope on board Van Allen Probes, in a geo-transfer-like orbit, provides, for the first time, quantified upper limits on MeV electron fluxes in various energy ranges in the inner belt. These upper limits are rather different from flux levels in the AE8 and AE9 models, which were developed based on older data sources. For 1.7, 2.5, and 3.3 MeV electrons, the upper limits are about 1 order of magnitude lower than predicted model fluxes. The implication of this difference is profound in that unless there are extreme solar wind conditions, which have not happened yet since the launch of Van Allen Probes, significant enhancements of MeV electrons do not occur in the inner belt even though such enhancements are commonly seen in the outer belt. Key Points Quantified upper limit of MeV electrons in the inner belt Actual MeV electron intensity likely much lower than the upper limit More detailed understanding of relativistic electrons in the magnetosphere PMID:26167446

  13. Effects of 3 MeV proton irradiation on the mechanical properties of polyimide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, David J. T.; Hopewell, Jefferson L.

    1996-11-01

    The effects of 3 MeV proton irradiation on the elongation to break, fracture energy and Young's Modulus have been investigated for films of Kapton and Ultem over the dose range 0-75 MGy at ambient temperature. The results have been compared with those reported by other workers for irradiation by 60Co gamma rays and 2 MeV electron beams under similar conditions, and little difference was found between the damage to the mechanical properties of the films induced by these three beam types.

  14. New techniques in neutron data measurements above 30 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, P.W.; Haight, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments in experimental facilities have enabled new techniques for measurements of neutron interactions above 30 MeV. Foremost is the development of both monoenergetic and continuous neutron sources using accelerators in the medium energy region between 100 and 800 MeV. Measurements of the reaction products have been advanced by the continuous improvement in detector systems, electronics and computers. Corresponding developments in particle transport codes and in the theory of nuclear reactions at these energies have allowed more precise design of neutron sources, experimental shielding and detector response. As a result of these improvements, many new measurements are possible and the data base in this energy range is expanding quickly.

  15. Absolute polarimeter for the proton-beam energy of 200 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenski, A. N.; Atoian, G.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Nurushev, S. B.; Pylaev, F. S.; Raparia, D.; Runtso, M. F.; Stephenson, E.

    2013-12-15

    A polarimeter is upgraded and tested in a 200-MeV polarized-proton beam at the accelerator-collider facility of the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The polarimeter is based on the elastic polarizedproton scattering on a carbon target at an angle of 16.2°, in which case the analyzing power is close to unity and was measured to a very high degree of precision. It is shown that, in the energy range of 190–205 MeV, the absolute polarization can be measured to a precision better than ±0.5%.

  16. Neutron total cross section measurements in the energy region from 47 keV to 20 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Poenitz, W.P.; Whalen, J.F.

    1983-05-01

    Neutron total cross sections were measured for 26 elements. Data were obtained in the energy range from 47 keV to 20 MeV for 11 elements in the range of light-mass fission products. Previously reported measurements for eight heavy and actinide isotopes were extended to 20 MeV. Data were also obtained for Cu (47 keV to 1.4 MeV) and for Sc, Zn, Nd, Hf, and Pt (1.8 to 20 MeV). The present work is part of a continuing effort to provide accurate neutron total cross sections for evaluations and for optical-model parameteriztions. The latter are required for the derivation of other nuclear-data information of importance to applied programs. 37 references.

  17. ETAII 6 MEV PEPPERPOT EMITTANCE MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, A C; Richardson, R; Weir, J

    2004-10-18

    We measured the beam emittance at the ETAII accelerator using a pepper-pot diagnostic at nominal parameters of 6 MeV and 2000 Amperes. During the coarse of these experiments, a ''new tune'' was introduced which significantly improved the beam quality. The source of a background pedestal was investigated and eliminated. The measured ''new tune'' emittance is {var_epsilon}= 8.05 {plus_minus} 0. 53 cm - mr or a normalized emittance of {var_epsilon}{sub n} = 943 {plus_minus} 63 mm - mr In 1990 the ETAII programmatic emphasis was on free electron lasers and the paramount parameter was whole beam brightness. The published brightness for ETAII after its first major rebuild was J = 1 - 3 x 10{sup 8} A/(m - rad){sup 2} at a current and energy of 1000-1400 Amperes and 2.5 MeV. The average normalized emittance derived from table 2 of that report is 864 mm-mr corresponding to a real emittance of 14.8 cm-mr.

  18. Proton Polarimeter Calibration between 82 and 217 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Glister, J; Lee, B; Beck, A; Brash, E; Camsonne, A; Choi, S; Dumas, J; Feuerbach, R; Gilman, R; Higinbotham, D W; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; May-Tal Beck, S; McCullough, E; Paolone, M; Piasetzky, E; Roche, J; Rousseau, Y; Sarty, A J; Sawatzky, B; Strauch, S

    2009-07-01

    The proton analyzing power in carbon has been measured for energies of 82 to 217 MeV and proton scattering angles of 5 to 41 degrees. The measurements were carried out using polarized protons from the elastic scattering H(pol. e, pol. p) reaction and the Focal Plane Polarimeter (FPP) in Hall A of Jefferson Lab. A new parameterization of the FPP p-C analyzing power was fit to the data, which is in good agreement with previous parameterizations and provides an extension to lower energies and larger angles. The main conclusions are that all polarimeters to date give consistent measurements of the carbon analyzing power, independently of the details of their construction and that measuring on a larger angular range significantly improves the polarimeter figure of merit at low energies.

  19. Neutron Induced Reactions with the 17 Mev Facility at the Athens Tandem Accelerator NCSR 'Demokritos'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlastou, R.; Kalamara, A.; Serris, M.; Diakaki, M.; Kokkoris, M.; Paneta, V.; Axiotis, M.; Lagoyannis, A.

    In the 5.5 MV tandem T11/25 Accelerator Laboratory of NCSR "Demokritos" monoenergetic neutron beams have been produced in the energy range∼ 15-20 MeV using anew Ti-tritiated target of 373 GBq activity, by means of the 3H(d,n)4He reaction. The corresponding deuteron beam energies obtained from the accelerator, were in the 1.5-4.5MeV range.The maximum flux has been determined to be of the order of 106 n/cm2 s, implementing reference reactions. The 17.1MeV neutron beam has been used for the measurement of 197Au(n,2n) reaction cross section. Theoretical calculations have been performed via the statistical model code EMPIRE and compared to the experimental data of the present work and data from literature.

  20. The 500-MeV, 2 1/2% duty factor linear electron accelerator (MEA)

    SciTech Connect

    Bruinsma, P.J.T.; Kroes, F.B.; Kuijer, L.H.; Noomen, J.G.; Spelt, J.B.; Vogel, A.G.C.

    1983-08-01

    Although the intermediate energy electron accelerator in Amsterdam has not reached completely its design specifications, since early 1981 a fully grown scientific program has developed using beams with an energy ranging from 20 to 120 MeV in the 140 MeV substation (for radio-chemistry and low-energy electron scattering over 180/sup 0/) and from 70 to 400 MeV in the high energy stations for electron scattering and physics with pion and muon beams. A brief description of the MIT-type accelerator and its performance will be given with emphasis on typical features of the machine. Some examples will be given of recently obtained scientific data from which can be derived that the quality of the beam is in full accordance with the high performance level of the scientific equipment, involving a complex beam transport system and a pair of spectrometers for high resolution (1x10/sup -4/) work.

  1. Performance of the compact 300 MeV electron ring JSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokomizo, H.; Yanagida, K.; Harada, S.; Mashiko, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Hashimoto, H.; Nakayama, K.; Kabasawa, M.; Harami, T.; Suzuki, Y.

    1990-05-01

    A compact ring, JSR, has been constructed in a short period of 15 months. The magnets, vacuum chamber and rf system are well manufactured, coming up to the design expectation. The good-field region {ΔB}/{B} < 2 × 10 -4 extends over ±45 mm in the dipole magnets. The base pressure has reached 3 × 10 -10 Torr at the pump head. An electron beam was successfully injected from a linac at an energy of ˜ 150 MeV, and electrons were smoothly accelerated and stored in JSR at a maximum energy of 300 MeV. The lifetime of the stored electrons is ˜ 30 min, which is mainly determined by collisions with the residual gas in the vacuum chamber. JSR has proved to work correctly in the storage and acceleration of electrons within an energy range from 150 to 300 MeV.

  2. MeV ion-beam analysis of optical data storage films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, J. A.; Mcintyre, L. C., Jr.; Lin, Z.

    1993-01-01

    Our objectives are threefold: (1) to accurately characterize optical data storage films by MeV ion-beam analysis (IBA) for ODSC collaborators; (2) to develop new and/or improved analysis techniques; and (3) to expand the capabilities of the IBA facility itself. Using H-1(+), He-4(+), and N-15(++) ion beams in the 1.5 MeV to 10 MeV energy range from a 5.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, film thickness (in atoms/sq cm), stoichiometry, impurity concentration profiles, and crystalline structure were determined by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), high-energy backscattering, channeling, nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Most of these techniques are discussed in detail in the ODSC Annual Report (February 17, 1987), p. 74. The PIXE technique is briefly discussed in the ODSC Annual Report (March 15, 1991), p. 23.

  3. Measured neutron carbon kerma factors from 14. 1 MeV to 18 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Deluca, P.M. Jr.; Barschall, H.H.; Haight, R.C.; McDonald, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    For A-150 tissue-equivalent plastic, the total neutron kerma is dominated by the hydrogen kerma. Tissue kerma is inferred with reasonable accuracy by normalization to the kerma factor ratio between tissue and A-150 plastic. Because of the close match in the hydrogen abundance in these materials, the principal uncertainty is due to the kerma factors of carbon and oxygen. We have measured carbon kerma factor values of 0.183 +- 0.015 10/sup -8/ cGy cm/sup 2/ and 0.210 +- 0.16 10/sup -8/ cGy cm/sup 2/ at 14.1-MeV and 15-MeV neutron energy, respectively. A preliminary value of 0.297 +- 0.03 10/sup -8/ cGy cm/sup 2/ has been determined at 17.9 MeV. A recent microscopic cross section measurement of the (n,n'3..cap alpha..) reaction in carbon at 14.1-MeV energy gives a kerma factor of 0.184 +- 0.019 10/sup 8/ cGy cm/sup 2/ in agreement with the present result. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Measurement of the {sup 241}Am(n,2n) reaction cross section from 7.6 MeV to 14.5 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Tonchev, A. P.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B.; Howell, C. R.; Hutcheson, A.; Tornow, W.; Angell, C. T.; Boswell, M.; Hammond, S.; Karwowski, H. J.; Kelley, J. H.; Pedroni, R. S.; Becker, J. A.; Dashdorj, D.; Kenneally, J.; Macri, R. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Bond, E.; Chadwick, M. B.

    2008-05-15

    The (n,2n) cross section of the radioactive isotope {sup 241}Am (T{sub 1/2}=432.6 y) has been measured in the incident neutron energy range from 7.6 to 14.5 MeV in steps of a few MeV using the activation technique. Monoenergetic neutron beams were produced via the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reaction by bombarding a pressurized deuterium gas cell with an energetic deuteron beam at the TUNL 10-MV Van de Graaff accelerator facility. The induced {gamma}-ray activity of {sup 240}Am was measured with high-resolution HPGe detectors. The cross section was determined relative to Al, Ni, and Au neutron activation monitor foils, measured in the same geometry. Good agreement is obtained with previous measurements at around 9 and 14 MeV, whereas for a large discrepancy is observed when our data are compared to those reported by Perdikakis et al. near 11 MeV. Very good agreement is found with the END-B/VII evaluation, whereas the JENDL-3.3 evaluation is in fair agreement with our data.

  5. Cross sections of the (n ,p ) reaction on the 78Se and 80Se isotopes measured for 13.73 MeV to 14.77 MeV and estimated for 10 MeV to 20 MeV neutron energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attar, F. M. D.; Dhole, S. D.; Bhoraskar, V. N.

    2014-12-01

    The cross sections of 78Se(n ,p ) 78As and 80Se(n ,p ) 80As reactions were measured at five neutron energies over the range 13.73 MeV to 14.77 MeV using 56Fe and 19F as monitor elements, respectively. The cross sections were also theoretically estimated using EMPIRE-II and TALYS codes over 10 MeV to 20 MeV neutrons and matched with the experimental cross sections by making proper choice of the model parameters. The theoretical and experimental cross sections of 80Se(n ,p ) 80As reaction are smaller as compared to the 78Se(n ,p ) 78As reaction at each neutron energy. This difference is attributed to the competing 80Se(n ,2 n )79Se and 80Se( n ,α )Ge77m reactions, which effectively decrease the cross sections of 80Se(n ,p ) 80As reaction as compared to that of the 78Se(n ,p ) 78As reaction over the neutron energy range used in the present work. The cross sections of 78Se(n ,p ) 78As and 80Se(n ,p ) 80As reactions estimated by the EMPIRE-II code initially increase but later on decrease with neutron energy, respectively, above 16 MeV and 19 MeV, whereas those estimated by the TALYS code continuously increase with neutron energy. The present results indicate that the trends in the variation of cross section with neutron energy depend on the model used in the calculations. The cross sections of the 80Se(n ,p ) 80As reaction at different neutron energies reported in the present work can be added as a new data in the nuclear data library.

  6. Determination of partial-wave inelasticities for elastic pion-nucleon scattering with the aid of experimental data on π N → ππ N processes in the beam-momentum range 300 < P beam < 500 MeV/ c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikov, V. A.; Sherman, S. G.

    2008-11-01

    The partial-wave inelasticity parameters of the amplitude for elastic pion-nucleon scattering are determined with the aid of the phenomenological amplitude for inelastic π N → ππ N processes in the energy range extending to the threshold for the production of two pions. The resulting inelasticity parameters are compared with their counterparts derived from modern partial-wave analyses. The largest inelastic-scattering cross section in the P11 wave is in excellent agreement with the analogous value from the analysis performed at the George Washington University in 2006. For other waves, however, the present results differ in the majority of cases from respective values given by partial-wave analyses (the distinctions are especially large for the isospin-3/2 amplitudes).

  7. Isotopic production cross sections in proton-nucleus collisions at 200 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Machner, H.; Aschman, D.G.; Steyn, D.; Baruth-Ram, K.; Carter, J.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Cowley, A.A.; Goldenbaum, F.; Nangu, B.M.; Spoelstra, B.; Pilcher, J.V.; Smit, F.D.

    2006-04-15

    Intermediate-mass fragments from the interaction of {sup 27}Al, {sup 59}Co, and {sup 197}Au with 200-MeV protons were measured in an angular range from 20 deg. to 120 deg. in the laboratory system. The fragments, ranging from isotopes of helium up to isotopes of carbon, were isotopically resolved. Double-differential cross sections, energy-differential cross sections, and total cross sections were extracted.

  8. Shielding measurements for 230-Mev protons

    SciTech Connect

    Siebers, J.V.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W. . Dept. of Medical Physics); Coutrakon, G. . Medical Center)

    1993-09-01

    Energetic neutrons, produced as protons interact with matter, dominate the radiation shielding environment for proton accelerators. Because of the scarcity of data describing the shielding required to protect personnel from these neutrons, absorbed dose and dose-equivalent values are measured as a function of depth in a thick concrete shield at neutron emission angles of 0, 22, 45, and 90 deg for 230-MeV protons incident upon stopping-length aluminum, iron, and lead targets. Neutron attenuation lengths vary sharply with angle but are independent of the target material. Comparing results with prior shielding calculations, the High-Energy Transport Code overestimates neutron production and attenuation lengths in the forward direction. Analytical methods compare favorably in the forward direction but overestimate the production and attenuation lengths at large angles. The results presented are useful for determining the shielding requirements for proton radiotherapy facilities and as a benchmark for future calculations.

  9. {sup {bold 6}}Li(vector)+{sup {bold 12}}C inelastic scattering at 30 and 50 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, P.L.; Kemper, K.W.; Green, P.V.; Mohajeri, K.; Myers, E.G.; Schmidt, B.G.; Hnizdo, V.

    1996-09-01

    A complete set of analyzing powers (AP`s), {ital iT}{sub 11}, {ital T}{sub 20}, {ital T}{sub 21}, and {ital T}{sub 22}, for 50 MeV {sup 12}C({sup 6}Li(vector),{sup 6}Li) elastic scattering and inelastic scattering to the {sup 12}C(2{sup +}, 4.44 MeV), {sup 12}C(0{sup +}, 7.65 MeV), and {sup 12}C(3{sup {minus}}, 9.64 MeV) states over the center-of-mass (c.m.) angular range 10{degree}{endash}115{degree} is reported. In addition, cross sections for the excited states 3{sup +}(2.18 MeV), 2{sup +}(4.31 MeV), and 1{sup +}(5.65 MeV) of {sup 6}Li were measured by using the inverse-kinematics reaction {sup 6}Li({sup 12}C,{sup 12}C) at 100 MeV. A combined analysis of the new 50 MeV data and previous 30 MeV data has been carried out using the coupled-channels (CC) code FRESCO. The CC calculations use an optical potential with double-folded (DF) real central, Woods-Saxon imaginary central, and Thomas real spin-orbit (SO) potentials. Calculations include reorientation terms and coupling to the first three excited states of {sup 6}Li and the first two nonzerospin states of {sup 12}C. The {sup 6}Li coupling strengths were fixed by the measured {sup 6}Li excited-state cross sections. The elastic-scattering cross sections and A.P.`s are described well. The need for an explicit SO potential is apparent in the elastic and inelastic-scattering AP`s {ital iT}{sub 11}, more so at 30 MeV than at 50 MeV. The rank-2 AP`s up to 50{degree} c.m. arise mainly from ground-state reorientation effects. The DF potential normalization constant {ital N} approaches unity for the 50 MeV data. At both energies, the {sup 12}C(2{sup +}) cross sections are underestimated at large angles, and the description of the {sup 12}C(3{sup {minus}}) cross sections is poor in detail. The {sup 12}C(3{sup {minus}}) AP`s and the {sup 12}C(2{sup +}) {ital iT}{sub 11} are not reproduced at either energy. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Evidence for alpha-cluster condensation in the 0{sub 2}{sup +} state at E{sub x} = 7.654 MeV in {sup 12}C via the (p,p') reaction at 300 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, A.; Yamagata, T.; Akimune, H.; Hara, K. Y.; Kinoshita, M.; Utsunomiya, H.; Warashina, N.; Fujiwara, M.; Fushimi, K.; Hayami, R.; Nakayama, S.; Greenfield, M. B.; Hara, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kawase, K.; Nakanishi, N.; Yosoi, M.; Hirabayashi, H.; Tanaka, M.

    2010-06-01

    We measured the differential cross sections for the 0{sub 2}{sup +} state at E{sub x} = 7.654 MeV in {sup 12}C via the (p,p') reaction at an incident energy of 300 MeV, and in an angular range from 2.7 deg. to 40 deg. We analyzed the data with the distorted-wave Born-approximation (DWBA) employing transition densities obtained in a macroscopic collective model, a microscopic alpha-cluster model, and a microscopic alpha-cluster condensation model. It is concluded that the present results for the {sup 12}C(p,p') reaction at 300 MeV is quite consistent with the assumption that the 0{sub 2}{sup +} state at E{sub x} = 7.654 MeV has the wave function with the alpha-cluster condensation.

  11. Scattering of 14.1 Mev Neutrons in Aluminum, Copper and Molybdenum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagiran, Husin Bin

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The time of flight spectrometer based on the associated particle time of flight technique has been constructed in the present work to measure the elastic and non-elastic differential cross-sections of 14.1 MeV neutrons scattered from D-T fusion reactor blanket materials, Al, Cu and Mo. The 14.1 MeV neutrons were produced from T(d,n)He^4 reaction by accelerating the deuteron beam up to 140 keV using S.A.M.E.S. type J electrostatic accelerator. The time origin of the neutron was determined by detecting the associated alpha-particles using Ne102A thin plastic scintillator which provide 100% detection efficiency. A plastic scintillator NE102A mounted on a fast focused photomultiplier tube Philip 56 AVP was used in the neutron channel which provide 2.2 +/- 0.2 ns time resolution at FWHM. The angular distributions of 14.1 MeV neutrons scattered from the thin Al, Cu and Mo samples were measured in the angular range between 0^circ to 90^circ. The data are presented for elastic scattering and non-elastic neutrons scattering in the energy ranges (5-14) MeV in 3 MeV intervals. The differential inelastic cross-sections in Al to the sum of 0.84 and 1.04 MeV states are also presented. The differential elastic scattering cross-sections are compared to the results from ENDF-BIV and other published data. Legendre polynomial fits were produced and the integrated elastic cross-sections obtained from the fits were compared with the data of ENDF -BIV and others. The results of the differential elastic scattering cross-sections are compared to the prediction of earlier global optical models using optical model programme SCAT-2. The differential cross-sections of 14.1 MeV neutrons scattered from thick sample of Al and Cu were measured at various thicknesses over the angular range between 0 ^circ to 90^ circ. No similar measurements have been found to compare with the present work. The variation of measured cross-sections with

  12. Photonuclear reaction based high-energy x-ray spectrometer to cover from 2 MeV to 20 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, S. Arikawa, Y.; Kojima, S.; Ikenouchi, T.; Nagai, T.; Abe, Y.; Inoue, H.; Morace, A.; Utsugi, M.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, M.; Shiraga, H.; Fujioka, S.; Azechi, H.; Kato, R.

    2014-11-15

    A photonuclear-reaction-based hard x-ray spectrometer is developed to measure the number and energy spectrum of fast electrons generated by interactions between plasma and intense laser light. In this spectrometer, x-rays are converted to neutrons through photonuclear reactions, and the neutrons are counted with a bubble detector that is insensitive to x-rays. The spectrometer consists of a bundle of hard x-ray detectors that respond to different photon-energy ranges. Proof-of-principle experiment was performed on a linear accelerator facility. A quasi-monoenergetic electron bunch (N{sub e} = 1.0 × 10{sup −6} C, E{sub e} = 16 ± 0.32 MeV) was injected into a 5-mm-thick lead plate. Bremsstrahlung x-rays, which emanate from the lead plate, were measured with the spectrometer. The measured spectral shape and intensity agree fairly well with those computed with a Monte Carlo simulation code. The result shows that high-energy x-rays can be measured absolutely with a photon-counting accuracy of 50%–70% in the energy range from 2 MeV to 20 MeV with a spectral resolution (Δhν/hν) of about 15%. Quantum efficiency of this spectrometer was designed to be 10{sup −7}, 10{sup −4}, 10{sup −5}, respectively, for 2–10, 11–15, and 15–25 MeV of photon energy ranges.

  13. Shielding measurements for a 230 MeV proton beam

    SciTech Connect

    Siebers, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    Energetic secondary neutrons produced as protons interact with accelerator components and patients dominate the radiation shielding environment for proton radiotherapy facilities. Due to the scarcity of data describing neutron production, attenuation, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent values, these parameters were measured for 230 MeV proton bombardment of stopping length Al, Fe, and Pb targets at emission angles of 0{degree}, 22{degree}, 45{degree}, and 90{degree} in a thick concrete shield. Low pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counters with volumes ranging from 1 cm{sup 3} to 1000 cm{sup 3} were used to obtain microdosimetric spectra from which absorbed dose and radiation quality are deduced. Does equivalent values and attenuation lengths determined at depth in the shield were found to vary sharply with angle, but were found to be independent of target material. Neutron dose and radiation length values are compared with Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations performed using the Los Alamos High Energy Transport Code (LAHET). Calculations used 230 MeV protons incident upon an Fe target in a shielding geometry similar to that used in the experiment. LAHET calculations overestimated measured attenuation values at 0{degree}, 22{degree}, and 45{degree}, yet correctly predicted the attenuation length at 90{degree}. Comparison of the mean radiation quality estimated with the Monte Carlo calculations with measurements suggest that neutron quality factors should be increased by a factor of 1.4. These results are useful for the shielding design of new facilities as well as for testing neutron production and transport calculations.

  14. Range Ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After more than two hundred years, grazing remains California’s most extensive land use. The ‘Range Ecosystems’ chapter in the ‘Ecosystems of California’ sourcebook provides an integrated picture of the biophysical, social, and economic aspects of lands grazed by livestock in the state. Grazing mana...

  15. Cross Sections and Analyzing Powers of Nitrogen -15(PROTON, NEUTRON)OXYGEN-15 at 200 Mev and 494 Mev.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciskowski, Douglas Edward

    Differential cross sections and analyzing powers have been measured for the ^{15} N(p,n)^{15}O(g.s.) reaction at bombarding energies of 200 MeV and 494 MeV. The 494 MeV data were obtained at the LAMPF Neutron Time-Of -Flight Facility on an 82 m flight path with a resolution of about 2.7 MeV. The 200 MeV data were obtained at IUCF on a 76 m flight path with a resolution of about 1.1 MeV. At both energies, the measured analyzing power is small, the magnitude is less than.2 for momentum transfers of less than 1 fm^{-1}. In contrast, both Relativistic and standard DWIA calculations predict a maximum of A = -.7 near q = 0.7 fm ^{-1}.

  16. Energy monitoring device for 1.5-2.4 MeV electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuochi, P. G.; Lavalle, M.; Martelli, A.; Kovács, A.; Mehta, K.; Kuntz, F.; Plumeri, S.

    2010-03-01

    An easy-to-use and robust energy monitoring device has been developed for reliable detection of day-to-day small variations in the electron beam energy, a critical parameter for quality control and quality assurance in industrial radiation processing. It has potential for using on-line, thus providing real-time information. Its working principle is based on the measurement of currents, or charges, collected by two aluminium absorbers of specific thicknesses (dependent on the beam energy), insulated from each other and positioned within a faraday cup-style aluminium cage connected to the ground. The device has been extensively tested in the energy range of 4-12 MeV under standard laboratory conditions at Institute of Isotopes and CNR-ISOF using different types of electron accelerators; namely, a TESLA LPR-4 LINAC (3-6 MeV) and a L-band Vickers LINAC (7-12 MeV), respectively. This device has been also tested in high power electron beam radiation processing facilities, one equipped with a 7-MeV LUE-8 linear accelerator used for crosslinking of cables and medical device sterilization, and the other equipped with a 10 MeV Rhodotron TT100 recirculating accelerator used for in-house sterilization of medical devices. In the present work, we have extended the application of this method to still lower energy region, i.e. from 1.5 to 2.4 MeV. Also, we show that such a device is capable of detecting deviation in the beam energy as small as 40 keV.

  17. MERLIN - A meV Resolution Beamline at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Reininger, Ruben; Bozek, John; Chuang, Y.-D.; Howells, Malcolm; Kelez, Nicholas; Prestemon, Soren; Marks, Steve; Warwick, Tony; Hussain, Zahid; Jozwiak, Chris; Lanzara, Alessandra; Hasan, M. Zahid

    2007-01-19

    An ultra-high resolution beamline is being constructed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) for the study of low energy excitations in strongly correlated systems with the use of high-resolution inelastic scattering and angle-resolved photoemission. This new beamline, given the acronym Merlin (for meV resolution line), will cover the energy range 10-150 eV. The monochromator has fixed entrance and exit slits and a plane mirror that can illuminate a spherical grating at the required angle of incidence (as in the SX-700 mechanism). The monochromator can be operated in two different modes. In the highest resolution mode, the energy scanning requires translating the monochromator chamber (total travel 1.1 m) as well as rotating the grating and the plane mirror in front of the grating. The resolution in this mode is practically determined by the slits width. In the second mode, the scanning requires rotating the grating and the plane mirror. This mode can be used to scan a few eV without a significant resolution loss. The source for the beamline is a 1.9 m long, 90 mm period quasi periodic EPU. The expected flux at the sample is higher than 1011 photons/s at a resolving power of 5 x 104 in the energy range 16-130 eV. A second set of gratings can be used to obtain higher flux at the expense of resolution.

  18. Two nucleon systems at mπ~450MeV from lattice QCD

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Orginos, Kostas; Parreño, Assumpta; Savage, Martin J.; Beane, Silas R.; Chang, Emmanuel; Detmold, William

    2015-12-23

    Nucleon-nucleon systems are studied with lattice quantum chromodynamics at a pion mass ofmore » $$m_\\pi\\sim 450~{\\rm MeV}$$ in three spatial volumes using $n_f=2+1$ flavors of light quarks. At the quark masses employed in this work, the deuteron binding energy is calculated to be $$B_d = 14.4^{+3.2}_{-2.6} ~{\\rm MeV}$$, while the dineutron is bound by $$B_{nn} = 12.5^{+3.0}_{-5.0}~{\\rm MeV}$$. Over the range of energies that are studied, the S-wave scattering phase shifts calculated in the 1S0 and 3S1-3D1 channels are found to be similar to those in nature, and indicate repulsive short-range components of the interactions, consistent with phenomenological nucleon-nucleon interactions. In both channels, the phase shifts are determined at three energies that lie within the radius of convergence of the effective range expansion, allowing for constraints to be placed on the inverse scattering lengths and effective ranges. Thus, the extracted phase shifts allow for matching to nuclear effective field theories, from which low energy counterterms are extracted and issues of convergence are investigated. As part of the analysis, a detailed investigation of the single hadron sector is performed, enabling a precise determination of the violation of the Gell-Mann–Okubo mass relation.« less

  19. Gamma-ray astronomy in the medium energy (10-50 MeV) range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kniffen, D. A.; Bertsch, D. L.; Morris, D. J.; Palmeira, R. A. R.; Rao, K. R.

    1977-01-01

    To observe the medium energy component of the intense galactic center gamma-ray emission, two balloon flights of a medium energy gamma-ray spark chamber telescope were flown in Brazil in 1975. The results indicate the emission is higher than previously thought and above the predictions of a theoretical model proposed.

  20. Breakup of 87 MeV [sup 11]B

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfs, F.L.H.; White, C.A.; Bryan, D.C.; Freeman, C.G.; Herrick, D.M.; Kurz, K.L.; Mathews, D.H.; Perera, P.A.A.; Zanni, M.T. )

    1994-05-01

    A segmented focal plane detector has been used to study the breakup of 87 MeV [sup 11]B ions incident on a [sup 12]C target into [sup 4]He and [sup 7]Li fragments at relative energies between 0 and 4 MeV. The relative energy spectra are dominated by sequential breakup of the 9.28 MeV, 10.26+10.33 MeV, and 10.60 MeV excited states in [sup 11]B. The measured breakup yields decrease with increasing center-of-mass scattering angle, consistent with predictions made using single-step inelastic distorted wave Born approximation calculations. Applications of this technique to study the breakup of [sup 16]O at low relative energies will be discussed.

  1. ORELA measurements to meet fusion energy neutron cross section needs. [2 to 80 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D C

    1980-01-01

    Major neutron cross section measurements made at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) that are useful to the fusion energy program are reviewed. Cross sections for production of gamma rays with energies 0.3 < E/sub ..gamma../ < 10.5 MeV were measured as a function of neutron energy over the range 0.1 < E/sub n/ < 20.0 MeV for Li, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Nb, Mo, Ag, Sn, Ta, W, Au, Pb, and Th. Neutron emission cross sections have been measured for /sup 7/Li, Al, Ti, Cu, and Nb for 1 < E/sub n/ < 20 MeV. Some results of recent neutron total cross section measurements from 2 to 80 MeV for eleven materials (C, O, Al, Si, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Au, and Pb) of interest to the FMIT project are presented. Finally, future directions of the ORELA program are outlined. 4 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Photofissility of [sup 232]Th measured with tagged photons from 250 to 1200 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, N.; Deppman, A.; De Sanctis, E.; Fantoni, A.; Levi Sandri, P.; Lucherini, V.; Muccifora, V.; Polli, E.; Reolon, A.R.; Rossi, P.; Iljinov, A.S.; Mebel, M.V.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T. ); Anghinolfi, M.; Corvisiero, P.; Gervino, G.; Mazzaschi, L.; Mokeev, V.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Sanzone, M.; Taiuti, M.; Zucchiatti, A. ); Bergere, R.; Carlos, P.; Garganne, P.; Lepretre, A. )

    1993-10-01

    The photofission cross section of [sup 232]Th was measured in the energy range 250--1200 MeV using a monochromatic tagged photon beam and a parallel-plate avalanche detector. The [sup 232]Th nuclear photofissility was obtained by measuring simultaneously and in the same energy range the photofission cross section of [sup 238]U and assuming a photofissility equal to one for [sup 238]U. It was found that, contrary to the case for heavier actinides, the [sup 232]Th photofissility value does not saturate up to 1200 MeV. Rather, it lies between 0.6 and 0.8, and shows a weak energy dependence: it increases by about 15% over an interval of 1 GeV. A comparison of these experimental findings with the predictions of an intranuclear-cascade Monte Carlo calculation is given.

  3. Deuteron scattering on {sup 6}Li at an energy of 25 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Burtebayev, N.; Artemov, S. V.; Duisebayev, B. A.; Kerimkulov, Zh. K.; Kuranov, S. B.; Sakuta, S. B.

    2010-05-15

    At an energy of 25 MeV and in the angular range 7{sup o}-175{sup o} in the laboratory frame, angular distributions were measured for elastic deuteron scattering on {sup 6}Li nuclei and for the respective inelastic-scattering processes accompanied by the transitions to the ground state (1+) of the {sup 6}Li nucleus and to its excited state at E{sub x} = 2.186 MeV (J{sup {pi}} = 3{sup +}). The resulting data were analyzed on the basis of the optical model of the nucleus and the coupled-reaction-channel method with allowance for the mechanism of alpha-particle-cluster exchange. It is shown that only upon including, in the analysis, channel coupling and the exchange mechanism can the experimental cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering be reproduced over the entire range of angles.

  4. Neutron total and scattering cross sections of /sup 6/Li in the few MeV region

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.; Guenther, P.; Whalen, J.

    1980-02-01

    Neutron total cross sections of /sup 6/Li are measured from approx. 0.5 to approx. 4.8 MeV at intervals of approx.< 10 keV. Neutron differential elastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at approx.> 10 scattering angles and at incident-neutron intervals of approx.< 100 keV. Neutron differential inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured in the incident-energy range 3.5 to 4.0 MeV. The experimental results are extended to lower energies using measured neutron total cross sections recently reported elsewhere by the authors. The composite experimental data (total cross sections from 0.1 to 4.8 MeV and scattering cross sections from 0.22 to 4.0 MeV) are interpreted in terms of a simple two-level R-matrix model which describes the observed cross sections and implies the reaction cross section in unobserved channels; notably the (n;..cap alpha..)t reaction (Q = 4.783 MeV). The experimental and calculational results are compared with previously reported results as summarized in the ENDF/B-V evaluated nuclear data file.

  5. Neutron-induced fission cross sections of 242Pu from 0.3 MeV to 3 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Bryś, T.; Eykens, R.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Göök, A.; Moens, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Sibbens, G.; Vanleeuw, D.; Vidali, M.; Pretel, C.

    2015-10-01

    The majority of the next generation of nuclear power plants (GEN-IV) will work in the fast-neutron-energy region, as opposed to present day thermal reactors. This leads to new and more accurate nuclear-data needs for some minor actinides and structural materials. Following those upcoming demands, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency performed a sensitivity study. Based on the latter, an improvement in accuracy from the present 20% to 5% is required for the 242Pu(n ,f ) cross section. Within the same project both the 240Pu(n ,f ) cross section and the 242Pu(n ,f ) cross section were measured at the Van de Graaff accelerator of the Joint Research Centre at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, where quasimonoenergetic neutrons were produced in an energy range from 0.3 MeV up to 3 MeV. A twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber has been used in a back-to-back configuration as fission-fragment detector. The 242Pu(n ,f ) cross section has been normalized to three different isotopes: 237Np(n ,f ) , 235U(n ,f ) , and 238U(n ,f ) . A comprehensive study of the corrections applied to the data and the uncertainties associated is given. The results obtained are in agreement with previous experimental data at the threshold region up to 0.8 MeV. The resonance-like structure at 0.8 to 1.1 MeV, visible in the evaluations and in most previous experimental values, was not reproduced with the same intensity in this experiment. For neutron energies higher than 1.1 MeV, the results of this experiment are slightly lower than the Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B-VII.1 evaluation but in agreement with the experiment of Tovesson et al. (2009) as well as Staples and Morley (1998). Finally, for energies above 1.5 MeV, the results show consistency with the present evaluations.

  6. Measurement of the Detection Efficiency of the Kloe Calorimeter for Neutrons Between 20 and 174 Mev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauzzi, P.; Anelli, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Branchini, P.; Curceanu, C.; de Zorzi, G.; di Domenico, A.; di Micco, B.; Ferrari, A.; Fiore, S.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Happacher, F.; Iliescu, M.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Nguyen, F.; Passeri, A.; Prokofiev, A.; Sala, P.; Sciascia, B.; Sirghi, F.

    2008-06-01

    The detection efficiency of a KLOE calorimeter prototype to neutrons of kinetic energy of 21, 46 and 174 MeV has been measured by exposing it to the neutron beam of the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala. The measurement of the neutron detection efficiency of a NE110 scintillator provided a reference calibration. At the lowest trigger threshold, the ratio between the calorimeter and scintillator efficiency ranges from 2.5 to 3.2.

  7. rvec p + sup 13 rvec C elastic scattering at 500 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, N.

    1990-01-01

    For the first time, an elastic scattering experiment was performed at LAMPF using polarized protons and a polarized target nucleus ({rvec p} + {sup 13}{rvec C}). The analyzing powers (A{sub ooon}({Theta})) and (A{sub oonn}({Theta})) were measured using an incident beam energy of 500 MeV over the laboratory angular range of 10{degree}--30{degree}. Motivation for the experiment and some preliminary results and conclusions are presented. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Range and range rate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Olin L. (Inventor); Russell, Jim K. (Inventor); Epperly, Walter L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A video controlled solid state range finding system which requires no radar, high power laser, or sophisticated laser target is disclosed. The effective range of the system is from 1 to about 200 ft. The system includes an opto-electric camera such as a lens CCD array device. A helium neon laser produces a source beam of coherent light which is applied to a beam splitter. The beam splitter applies a reference beam to the camera and produces an outgoing beam applied to a first angularly variable reflector which directs the outgoing beam to the distant object. An incoming beam is reflected from the object to a second angularly variable reflector which reflects the incoming beam to the opto-electric camera via the beam splitter. The first reflector and the second reflector are configured so that the distance travelled by the outgoing beam from the beam splitter and the first reflector is the same as the distance travelled by the incoming beam from the second reflector to the beam splitter. The reference beam produces a reference signal in the geometric center of the camera. The incoming beam produces an object signal at the camera.

  9. Two nucleon systems at mπ˜450 MeV from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orginos, Kostas; Parreño, Assumpta; Savage, Martin J.; Beane, Silas R.; Chang, Emmanuel; Detmold, William; Nplqcd Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    Nucleon-nucleon systems are studied with lattice quantum chromodynamics at a pion mass of mπ˜450 MeV in three spatial volumes using nf=2 +1 flavors of light quarks. At the quark masses employed in this work, the deuteron binding energy is calculated to be Bd=14. 4-2.6+3.2 MeV , while the dineutron is bound by Bn n=12. 5-5.0+3.0 MeV . Over the range of energies that are studied, the S-wave scattering phase shifts calculated in the 1S0 and 3S1-3D1 channels are found to be similar to those in nature, and indicate repulsive short-range components of the interactions, consistent with phenomenological nucleon-nucleon interactions. In both channels, the phase shifts are determined at three energies that lie within the radius of convergence of the expansion, allowing for constraints to be placed on the inverse scattering lengths and effective ranges. The extracted phase shifts allow for matching to nuclear effective field theories, from which low-energy counterterms are extracted and issues of convergence are investigated. As part of the analysis, a detailed investigation of the single hadron sector is performed, enabling a precise determination of the violation of the Gell-Mann-Okubo mass relation.

  10. X-ray FEL with a meV bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldin, E. L.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Shvyd'ko, Yu. V.; Yurkov, M. V.

    2001-08-01

    A new design for a single pass X-ray Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) FEL was proposed in [1] and named two-stage SASE FEL. The scheme consists of two undulators and an X-ray monochromator located between them. For the Angström wavelength range the monochromator could be realized using Bragg reflections from crystals. Proposed scheme of monochromator is illustrated for the 14.4 keV X-ray SASE FEL being developed in the framework of the TESLA linear collider project. The spectral bandwidth of the radiation from the two-stage SASE FEL (20 meV) is defined by the finite duration of the electron pulse. The shot-to-shot fluctuations of energy spectral density are dramatically reduced in comparison with the 100% fluctuations in a SASE FEL. The peak and average brilliance are by three orders of magnitude higher than the values which could be reached by a conventional X-ray SASE FEL.

  11. Scintillator efficiency study with MeV x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Stuart; Brown, Kristina; Curtis, Alden; Lutz, Stephen S.; Howe, Russell; Malone, Robert; Mitchell, Stephen; Danielson, Jeremy; Haines, Todd; Kwiatkowski, Kris

    2014-09-01

    We have investigated scintillator efficiency for MeV radiographic imaging. This paper discusses the modeled detection efficiency and measured brightness of a number of scintillator materials. An optical imaging camera records images of scintillator emission excited by a pulsed x-ray machine. The efficiency of various thicknesses of monolithic LYSO:Ce (cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate) are being studied to understand brightness and resolution trade-offs compared with a range of micro-columnar CsI:Tl (thallium-doped cesium iodide) scintillator screens. The micro-columnar scintillator structure apparently provides an optical gain mechanism that results in brighter signals from thinner samples. The trade-offs for brightness versus resolution in monolithic scintillators is straightforward. For higher-energy x-rays, thicker materials generally produce brighter signal due to x-ray absorption and the optical emission properties of the material. However, as scintillator thickness is increased, detector blur begins to dominate imaging system resolution due to the volume image generated in the scintillator thickness and the depth of field of the imaging system. We employ a telecentric optical relay lens to image the scintillator onto a recording CCD camera. The telecentric lens helps provide sharp focus through thicker-volume emitting scintillators. Stray light from scintillator emission can also affect the image scene contrast. We have applied an optical light scatter model to the imaging system to minimize scatter sources and maximize scene contrasts.

  12. Probing the Cosmic X-Ray and MeV Gamma-Ray Background Radiation through the Anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Murase, Kohta; Madejski, Grzegorz M.; Uchiyama, Yasunobu

    2013-09-24

    While the cosmic soft X-ray background is very likely to originate from individual Seyfert galaxies, the origin of the cosmic hard X-ray and MeV gamma-ray background is not fully understood. It is expected that Seyferts including Compton thick population may explain the cosmic hard X-ray background. At MeV energy range, Seyferts having non-thermal electrons in coronae above accretion disks or MeV blazars may explain the background radiation. We propose that future measurements of the angular power spectra of anisotropy of the cosmic X-ray and MeV gamma-ray backgrounds will be key to deciphering these backgrounds and the evolution of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). As AGNs trace the cosmic large-scale structure, spatial clustering of AGNs exists. We show that e-ROSITA will clearly detect the correlation signal of unresolved Seyferts at 0.5-2 keV and 2-10 keV bands and will be able to measure the bias parameter of AGNs at both bands. Once the future hard X-ray all sky satellites achieve the sensitivity better than 10-12 erg/cm2/s-1 at 10-30 keV or 30-50 keV - although this is beyond the sensitivities of current hard X-ray all sky monitors - angular power spectra will allow us to independently investigate the fraction of Compton-thick AGNs in all Seyferts. We also find that the expected angular power spectra of Seyferts and blazars in the MeV range are different by about an order of magnitude, where the Poisson term, so-called shot noise, is dominant. Current and future MeV instruments will clearly disentangle the origin of the MeV gamma-ray background through the angular power spectrum.

  13. The Proposed 2 MeV Electron Cooler for COSY

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, Juergen; Parkhomchuk, Vasily V.; Reva, Vladimir B.; Vedenev, Maxim A.

    2006-03-20

    The design, construction and installation of a 2 MeV electron cooling system for COSY is proposed to further boost the luminosity even with strong heating effects of high-density internal targets. In addition the design of the 2 MeV electron cooler for COSY is intended to test some new features of the high energy electron cooler for HESR at GSI. The design of the 2 MeV electron cooler will be accomplished in cooperation with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk, Russia. Starting with the boundary conditions of the existing electron cooler at COSY the requirements and a first general scheme of the 2 MeV electron cooler are described.

  14. Production of 14 MeV neutrons by heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Brugger, Robert M.; Miller, Lowell G.; Young, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a neutron generator and a method for the production of 14 MeV neutrons. Heavy ions are accelerated to impinge upon a target mixture of deuterium and tritium to produce recoil atoms of deuterium and tritium. These recoil atoms have a sufficient energy such that they interact with other atoms of tritium or deuterium in the target mixture to produce approximately 14 MeV neutrons.

  15. COMPTEL neutron response at 17 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, Terrence J.; Ait-Ouamer, Farid; Morris, Joann; Tumer, O. Tumay; White, R. Stephen; Zych, Allen D.

    1992-01-01

    The Compton imaging telescope (COMPTEL) instrument of the Gamma Ray Observatory was exposed to 17 MeV d,t neutrons prior to launch. These data were analyzed and compared with Monte Carlo calculations using the MCNP(LANL) code. Energy and angular resolutions are compared and absolute efficiencies are calculated at 0 and 30 degrees incident angle. The COMPTEL neutron responses at 17 MeV and higher energies are needed to understand solar flare neutron data.

  16. Diagnostics for the 400 MeV FNAL Linac

    SciTech Connect

    McCrory, E.S.; Lee, G.

    1991-02-01

    The last four 201 MHz alvarez tanks of the twenty-year-old, 200 MeV Fermilab Linac are being replaced by seven high-gradient (7 KV/m), high-frequency (805 MHz) side-coupled-cavity structures to produce a 400 MeV beam for injection into the Booster. Good, reliable beam diagnostics are an important factor in the success of this project. This paper discusses the diagnostic systems.

  17. Celestial diffuse gamma radiation above 30 MeV observed by SAS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Hartman, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    The Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS)-2, launched on November 15, 1972, carried into orbit a 32-deck magnetic-core digitized spark chamber gamma ray telescope to study celestial gamma radiation in the energy range above 30 MeV. In the study of several regions with b sub 2 15 deg, a finite, diffuse flux of gamma rays with a steep energy spectrum in the energy region from 35 to 200 MeV is observed. Representing the energy spectrum by a power law of the form dJ/dE = AE to - alpha power over this energy range, alpha is found along with the integral flux above 100 MeV. Combining this result with existing low energy gamma ray data yields an energy spectrum which is not a simple power law in energy, as in the X-ray region, but which demonstrates first an increase and then a decrease in slope, consistent within uncertainties with that predicted by cosmological theories, including the continuous production of high energy gamma rays primarily from neutral pi mesons throughout the history of the universe.

  18. A novel source of MeV positron bunches driven by energetic protons for PAS application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zongquan; Xu, Wenzhen; Liu, Yanfen; Xiao, Ran; Kong, Wei; Ye, Bangjiao

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel methodology of MeV positrons generation for PAS application. Feasibility of this proposal analyzed by G4Beamline and Transport have shown reasonable success. Using 2 Hz, 1.6 GeV, 100 ns and 1.5 μC/bunch proton bunches for bombarding a graphite target, about 100 ns e+ bunches are generated. Quasi-monochromatic positrons in the range of 1-10 MeV included in these bunches have a flux of >107/s, peak brightness of 1014/s. A magnetic-confinement beamline is utilized to transport the positrons and a "Fast Beam Chopper" is unprecedentedly extended to chop those relativistic bunches. The positron beam can be finally characterized by the energy range of 1-10 MeV and bunch width from one hundred ps up to 1 ns. Such ultrashort bunches can be useful in tomography-type positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) as well as other applications.

  19. The {sup 59}Co(n,{alpha}) reaction from threshold to 30 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.M.; Sterbenz, S.M.; Bateman, F.B.

    1994-06-01

    Neutron-induced reactions that result in alpha-particle emission have been investigated for the target nucleus {sup 59}Co over the neutron energy range from threshold to 30 MeV with the spallation neutron source at WNR/LAMPF. Double-differential cross sections were measured at alpha-particle emission angles of 30, 60, 90 and 135{degree}. Integrated cross sections agree well with activation data below 14 MeV where only the {sup 59}Co(n,{alpha}){sup 56}Mn reaction contributes to alpha-particle emission. At higher energies, the integrated alpha-particle emission cross section exceeds the activation data. The results will be interpreted in terms of statistical and pre-compound reaction mechanisms. The sensitivity to nuclear level density parameters will be discussed.

  20. The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector to 1-9 MeV protons

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sinenian, N.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Manuel, M.; McDuffee, S. C.; Casey, D. T.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; et al

    2011-10-28

    The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector (TasTrak®) to protons in the energy range of 0.92-9.28 MeV has been studied. Previous studies of the CR-39 response to protons have been extended by examining the piece-to-piece variability in addition to the effects of etch time and etchant temperature; it is shown that the shape of the CR-39 response curve to protons can vary from piece-to-piece. The effects due to the age of CR-39 have also been studied using 5.5 MeV alpha particles over a 5-year period. Track diameters were found to degrade with the age of the CR-39 itself rather thanmore » the age of the tracks, consistent with previous studies utilizing different CR-39 over shorter time periods.« less

  1. The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector to 1-9 MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Sinenian, N.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Manuel, M.; McDuffee, S. C.; Casey, D. T.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2011-10-28

    The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector (TasTrak®) to protons in the energy range of 0.92-9.28 MeV has been studied. Previous studies of the CR-39 response to protons have been extended by examining the piece-to-piece variability in addition to the effects of etch time and etchant temperature; it is shown that the shape of the CR-39 response curve to protons can vary from piece-to-piece. The effects due to the age of CR-39 have also been studied using 5.5 MeV alpha particles over a 5-year period. Track diameters were found to degrade with the age of the CR-39 itself rather than the age of the tracks, consistent with previous studies utilizing different CR-39 over shorter time periods.

  2. Calculations of neutron shielding data for 10-100 MeV proton accelerators.

    PubMed

    Chen, C C; Sheu, R J; Jian, S H

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of neutron sources and their attenuation in concrete were investigated in detail for protons with energies ranging from 10 to 100 MeV striking on target materials of C, N, Al, Fe, Cu and W. A two-step approach was adopted: thick-target double-differential neutron yields were first calculated from the (p, xn) cross sections recommended in the ICRU Report 63; further, transport simulations of those neutrons in concrete were performed by using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The purpose of this study is to provide reasonably accurate parameters for shielding design for 10-100 MeV proton accelerators. Source terms and the corresponding attenuation lengths in concrete for several target materials are given as a function of proton energies and neutron emission angles. PMID:16604637

  3. A comparison of radiation damage in transistors from cobalt-60 gamma rays and 2.2 MeV electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Gauthier, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    The total ionizing dose response of ten bipolar transistor types has been measured using Co-60 gamma rays and 2.2 MeV electrons from exposure levels of 750, 1500, and 3000 Gy(Si). Gain measurements were made for a range of collector-emitter voltages and collector currents.

  4. (19)F(α,n) thick target yield from 3.5 to 10.0 MeV.

    PubMed

    Norman, E B; Chupp, T E; Lesko, K T; Grant, P J; Woodruff, G L

    2015-09-01

    Using a target of PbF2, the thick-target yield from the (19)F(α,n) reaction was measured from E(α)=3.5-10 MeV. From these results, we infer the thick-target neutron yields from targets of F2 and UF6 over this same alpha-particle energy range. PMID:26115205

  5. Thermal-neutron-capture prompt-gamma emission spectra of representative coals. [1. 5 to 11 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, C L; Olson, I K

    1981-12-01

    Prompt gamma ray emission spectra have been calculated from 1.5 to 11 MeV for a wide range of coal compositions exposed to a thermal neutron flux. These include contributions to the spectra from all of the major and minor elements present in the coals. Characteristics of the spectra are discussed and correlated with the coal compositions.

  6. Dopant, defects and oxygen interaction in MeV implanted Czochralski silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Ferla, A.; Galvagno, G.; Raineri, V.; Priolo, F.; Carnera, A.; Gasparotto, A.; Rimini, E.

    1995-03-01

    An oxygen precipitation phenomenon was evidenced on high energy implanted Czochralski silicon samples. Al, Si, P, O and C ions with nergies in the 1-6.8 MeV range and doses in the 4 × 10 14-1 × 10 15 / cm 2 range were single or double implanted in CZSi. A strong interaction was evidenced between the implanted species, the damage and the oxygen present in the substrates after annealing at 1100 or 1200°C for 30 min. The oxygen precipitation is greatly enhanced by the presence of Al that interacting with O results almost completely electrically inactive.

  7. Energy spectrum and flux of 3- to 20-Mev neutrons and 1- to 10-Mev gamma rays in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Lockwood, J. A.; Saint Onge, R. N.; Friling, L. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experiment is described which was designed to measure the neutron and gamma ray energy spectrums and fluxes in the energy intervals 3 to 20 MeV and 1 to 10 MeV, respectively. In addition, from the 3 to 20-MeV proton recoil spectrums it is possible to infer the shape of the neutron energy spectrum from 20 to 50 MeV. The detecting system utilized a separate charged particle rejection scheme and a two-parameter display system for the output from the pulse shape discrimination which separated gamma rays from neutrons (n). Two long-duration flights were made with this detector in 1970 at Palestine, Tex. (P sub c = 4.6 Gv) and at Ft. Churchill, Canada (P sub c = 0.3 Gv).

  8. Time-dependent 2.2 MeV and 0.5 MeV lines from solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H. T.; Ramaty, R.

    1975-01-01

    The time dependences of the 2.2 MeV and 0.51 MeV gamma ray lines from solar flares are calculated and the results are compared with observations of the 1972, August 4 and 7 flares. Time lag between the nuclear reactions and the formation of these two lines are caused, respectively, by capture of the neutrons, and by deceleration of the positrons and decay of the radioactive nuclei. Results show that the calculation is consistent with the observed rise of the 2.2 MeV line on August 4, and it does not require different time dependences for the accelerated protons and electrons in the flare region. The above lags can explain the delayed gamma ray emission observed on August 7. Positrons of energies greater than about 10 MeV could be detected in interplanetary space following large solar flares.

  9. Proton-induced cross sections relevant to production of 225Ac and 223Ra in natural thorium targets below 200 MeV.

    PubMed

    Weidner, J W; Mashnik, S G; John, K D; Hemez, F; Ballard, B; Bach, H; Birnbaum, E R; Bitteker, L J; Couture, A; Dry, D; Fassbender, M E; Gulley, M S; Jackman, K R; Ullmann, J L; Wolfsberg, L E; Nortier, F M

    2012-11-01

    Cross sections for (223,)(225)Ra, (225)Ac and (227)Th production by the proton bombardment of natural thorium targets were measured at proton energies below 200 MeV. Our measurements are in good agreement with previously published data and offer a complete excitation function for (223,)(225)Ra in the energy range above 90 MeV. Comparison of theoretical predictions with the experimental data shows reasonable-to-good agreement. Results indicate that accelerator-based production of (225)Ac and (223)Ra below 200 MeV is a viable production method. PMID:22940414

  10. COPPER-64 Production Studies with Natural Zinc Targets at Deuteron Energy up to 19 Mev and Proton Energy from 141 Down to 31 Mev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonardi, Mauro L.; Birattari, Claudio; Groppi, Flavia; Song Mainard, Hae; Zhuikov, Boris L.; Kokhanyuk, Vladimir M.; Lapshina, Elena V.; Mebel, Michail V.; Menapace, Enzo

    2004-07-01

    High specific activity no-carrier-added 64Cu is a β-/β+ emitting radionuclide of increasing interest for PET imaging, as well as systemic and targeted radioimmunotherapy of tumors. Its peculiarity of intense Auger emitter is still under investigation. The cross-sections for production of 64Cu from Zn target of natural isotopic composition were measured in the deuteron energy range from threshold up to 19 MeV and proton energy range from 141 down to 31 MeV. The stacked-foil technique was used at both K=38 cyclotron of JRC-Ispra of CEC, Italy and 160 MeV intersection point of INR proton-LINAC in Troitsk, Russia. Several Ga, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, V, Fe and Mn radionuclides were detected in Zn targets at the EOB. Optimized irradiation conditions are reported as a function of deuteron energy and energy loss into the Zn target, as well as target irradiation time and cooling time after radiochemistry. The activity of n.c.a. 64Cu was measured through its only γ emission of 1346 keV (i.e. 0.473 % intensity) both by instrumental and radiochemical methods, due to the non-specificity of annihilation radiation at 511 keV. To this last purpose, it was necessary to carry out a selective radiochemical separation of GaIII radionuclides by liquid/liquid extraction from the bulk of irradiated Zn targets and other spallation products, which remained in the 7 M HCl aqueous phase. Anion exchange chromatography tests had been carried out to separate the 64Cu from all others radionuclides in n.c.a. form. Theoretical calculations of cross-sections were performed with codes EMPIRE II and PENELOPE for deuteron reactions and CEF model and HMS-ALICE hybrid model for proton reactions. The theoretical results are presented and compared with the experimental values.

  11. Gamma rays from the de-excitation of C-12 resonance 15.11 MeV and C-12 resonance 4.44 MeV as probes of energetic particle spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, C. J.; Crannell, H.; Ramaty, R.

    1977-01-01

    The flux of 15.11 MeV gamma rays relative to the flux 4.44 MeV gamma rays was calculated from measured cross sections for excitation of the corresponding states of C-12 and from experimental determinations of the branching ratios for direct de-excitation of these states to the ground state. Because of the difference in threshold energies for excitation of these two levels, the relative intensities in the two lines are particularly sensitive to the spectral distribution of energetic particles which excite the corresponding nuclear levels. For both solar and cosmic emission, the observability of the 15.11 MeV line is expected to be enhances by low source-background continuum in this energy range.

  12. Use of the nuclear model code GNASH to calculate cross section data at energies up to 100 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.G.; Chadwick, M.B.; Bosoian, M.

    1992-12-01

    The nuclear theory code GNASH has been used to calculate nuclear data for incident neutrons, protons, and deuterons at energies up to 100 MeV. Several nuclear models and theories are important in the 10--100 MeV energy range, including Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory, spherical and deformed optical model, preequilibrium theory, nuclear level densities, fission theory, and direct reaction theory. In this paper we summarize general features of the models in GNASH and describe the methodology utilized to determine relevant model parameters. We illustrate the significance of several of the models and include comparisons with experimental data for certain target materials that are important in applications.

  13. Use of the nuclear model code GNASH to calculate cross section data at energies up to 100 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.G.; Chadwick, M.B.; Bosoian, M.

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear theory code GNASH has been used to calculate nuclear data for incident neutrons, protons, and deuterons at energies up to 100 MeV. Several nuclear models and theories are important in the 10--100 MeV energy range, including Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory, spherical and deformed optical model, preequilibrium theory, nuclear level densities, fission theory, and direct reaction theory. In this paper we summarize general features of the models in GNASH and describe the methodology utilized to determine relevant model parameters. We illustrate the significance of several of the models and include comparisons with experimental data for certain target materials that are important in applications.

  14. Relative biological effectiveness and microdosimetry of a mixed energy field of protons up to 200 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, J. B.; Eaddy, J. M.; Archambeau, J. O.; Coutrakon, G. B.; Miller, D. W.; Moyers, M. F.; Siebers, J. V.; Slater, J. M.; Dicello, J. F.

    1994-10-01

    We have studied radiation effects utilizing the new 250 MeV Synchrotron at Loma Linda University Medical Center. In this paper we present the data collected for the survival of Chinese hamster lung (V79) cells, that were irradiated with a beam of mixed energy protons up to 200 MeV. The RBE for protons, when compared to 60Co gamma rays, ranged from a low of 1.2 at the high energy portion of the field to 1.3+ at the low energy portion of the field. These results are consistent with the measured lineal energy (microdosimetric) spectra.

  15. Relative biological effectiveness and microdosimetry of a mixed energy field of protons up to 200 MeV.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J B; Eaddy, J M; Archambeau, J O; Coutrakon, G B; Miller, D W; Moyers, M F; Siebers, J V; Slater, J M; Dicello, J F

    1994-10-01

    We have studied radiation effects utilizing the new 250 MeV Synchrotron at Loma Linda University Medical Center. In this paper we present the data collected for the survival of Chinese hamster lung (V79) cells, that were irradiated with a beam of mixed energy protons up to 200 MeV. The RBE for protons, when compared to 60Co gamma rays, ranged from a low of 1.2 at the high energy portion of the field to 1.3+ at the low energy portion of the field. These results are consistent with the measured lineal energy (microdosimetric) spectra. PMID:11539961

  16. Measurement of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn Integrand for 2H from 200 to 800 MeV.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, J; Altieri, S; Annand, J R M; Arends, H-J; Beck, R; Bradtke, C; Braghieri, A; d'Hose, N; Dutz, H; Goertz, S; Grabmayr, P; Hasegawa, S; Heid, E; Holvoet, H; Van Hoorebeke, L; Horikawa, N; Iwata, T; Jahn, O; Jennewein, P; Klein, F; Kondratiev, R; Lang, M; Lannoy, B; Lisin, V; Martinez-Fabregate, M; McGeorge, J C; Meyer, W; Panzeri, A; Pedroni, P; Pinelli, T; Preobrajenski, I; Reicherz, G; Rohlof, Ch; Rosner, G; Rost, M; Rostomyan, T; Ryckbosch, D; Schumacher, M; Seitz, B; Tamas, G; Thomas, A; Van de Vyver, R; Zapadtka, F

    2006-11-17

    A measurement of the helicity dependence of the total inclusive photoabsorption cross section on the deuteron was carried out at MAMI (Mainz) in the energy range 200MeV. The experiment used a 4pi detection system, a circularly polarized tagged photon beam and a frozen-spin target which provided longitudinally polarized deuterons. The contribution to the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule for the deuteron determined from the data is 407+/-20(stat)+/-24(syst) mu b for 200MeV. PMID:17155680

  17. Characteristics of high-energy neutrons estimated using the radioactive spallation products of Au at the 500-MeV neutron irradiation facility of KENS.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hiroshi; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi; Nakao, Noriaki; Wang, Qingbin; Toyoda, Akihiro; Kawai, Masayoshi; Aze, Takahiro; Fujimura, Masatsugu

    2005-01-01

    We carried out a shielding experiment of high-energy neutrons, generated from a tungsten target bombarded with primary 500-MeV protons at KENS, which penetrated through a concrete shield in the zero-degree direction. We propose a new method to evaluate the spectra of high-energy neutrons ranging from 8 to 500 MeV. Au foils were set in a concrete shield, and the reaction rates for 13 radionuclides produced by the spallation reactions on the Au targets were measured by radiochemical techniques. The experimental results were compared with those obtained by the MARS14 Monte-Carlo code. A good agreement (between them) was found for energies beyond 100 MeV. The profile of the neutron spectrum, ranging from 8 to 500 MeV, does not depend on the thickness of the concrete shield. PMID:16604584

  18. A measurement of cosmic-ray beryllium isotopes from 200 to 1500 MeV per nucleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, A.; Orth, C. D.; Mast, T. S.

    1978-01-01

    A balloon-borne superconducting magnetic spectrometer was used in the measurement of cosmic-ray isotopic abundances from lithium through oxygen in the energy range 200-1500 MeV per nucleon. Except for Be-7 all isotopic composition is essentially energy-independent. Be-10 is nearly absent, indicating a mean cosmic-ray age of 6(-3, +10) x 10 to the 6th years. Above about 500 MeV per nucleon, Be-7 drops dramatically in abundance relative to Be-9 and C. By 1500 MeV per nucleon, the relative abundance of Be-7 has become one-half of its lower-energy value. Since Be-7 is the only isotope measured which decays by electron capture, this result is interpreted as indicating that higher-energy Be-7 had an appreciable probability of not being stripped of all its electrons before entering interstellar space where electron pickup is negligible.

  19. Neutron propagation and 2.2 MeV gamma-ray line production in the solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H. T.; Ramaty, R.

    1974-01-01

    The 2.2 MeV gamma ray line intensity from the sun was calculated using a Monte Carlo method for neutron propagation in the solar atmosphere. Detailed results are provided on the total gamma ray yield per neutron and on the time profile of the 2.2 MeV line from an instantaneous and monoenergetic neutron source. The parameters which have the most significant effects on the line intensity are the energies of the neutrons, the position of the neutron source on the sun, and the abundance of He-3 in the photosphere. For an isotropic neutron source which is not too close to the limb of the sun, the gamma ray yield is between about 0.02 to 0.2 photons per neutron, provided that the neutron energies are in the range 1 to 100 MeV and the ratio He-3/H is less than about .00005.

  20. FTIR analysis of polyethylene terephthalate irradiated by MeV He+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djebara, M.; Stoquert, J. P.; Abdesselam, M.; Muller, D.; Chami, A. C.

    2012-03-01

    The degradation induced by MeV He+ ions onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is investigated as a function of fluence and electronic stopping power (dE/dx)e. Stack samples of four 3.6 μm PET films are irradiated by 3.5 MeV He+ under vacuum and room temperature at fluence ranging from 1013 to 1.5 × 1015 He+ cm-2. The entrance energies range from 3.5 MeV for the front film to 0.573 MeV for the rear one at the beginning of the irradiation and the corresponding mean (dE/dx)e lie for pristine PET between 158 and 264 keV/μm. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis is undertaken. The different stack films present similar damages with magnitude increase as the fluence goes up. Moreover, higher is the electronic stopping power (dE/dx)e more important is the damage. The evolution of the normalized integrated absorbance A(ϕ)/A0 of the internal reference 1410 cm-1 band as a function of the fluence ϕ presents a complex behavior characterized by a two-exponential decay associated to low and high fluence range. The analysis reveals clearly that the A(ϕ)/A0 of the characteristic benzene ring 1577 cm-1 band remains steady till fluence around 3 × 1014 He+ cm-2 and then decreases smoothly as fluence increases. The band appearing at 1610 cm-1, assigned to mono substituted benzene, presents an integrated absorbance A(ϕ) which rises progressively and levels off beyond a critical fluence around 4 × 1014 He+ cm-2. The cross section of the creation of the monosubstituted benzene lies between 3 × 10-15 and 6 × 10-15 cm2 for (dE/dx)e = 158 and 264 keV/μm, respectively. Drastic loss of crystallinity is induced by the MeV He+ ion irradiation in the polymer. The amorphization is monitored by the evolution of the specific bands of the trans and gauche ethylene glycol residue conformations. A sudden drop in the integrated absorbance of the 1340 cm-1 band which characterizes the trans conformation is observed at fluence around 2 × 1014 He+ cm-2. On the other hand, a

  1. Observational Search for >10 MeV Electrons in the Inner Magnetosphere Using the Van Allen Probes Relativistic Proton Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, J. E.; Looper, M. D.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Blake, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Any detection of ultra-relativistic electrons (>10 MeV) trapped in the inner magnetosphere is potentially a sensitive indicator of a unique particle acceleration process or of a unique particle source. The 24 March 1991 shock injection of >15 MeV electrons is a classic example of the former, while the latter includes measurements in low Earth orbit of >100 MeV electrons and positrons from cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. In this paper we use new instrumentation on the Van Allen Probes to survey the inner magnetosphere for signatures of ultra-relativistic electrons. The Relativistic Proton Spectrometer, designed primarily for spectroscopy of 60 to 2000 MeV protons in the inner belt, nonetheless is capable of detecting minimum-ionizing electrons in a silicon detector stack. More critical to this survey is the instrument's Cherenkov radiator subsystem whose response to incident electrons ranges from a threshold near 10 MeV and reaches light saturation above 50 MeV. Together with the silicon detector system we are able to explore an energy range that has not been routinely studied in the context of the Earth's magnetosphere. We will report on quiet-time and storm-time signatures in regions of the inner magnetosphere that heretofore have not been explored with an orbit like that of Van Allen Probes. We will also quantitatively compare our electron energy spectra, or flux limits, with other measurements from Van Allen Probes and prior glimpses of high-energy electrons from low Earth orbit.

  2. Kinematically incomplete breakup reaction /sup 1/H(vector d,p)pn at 16 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlsen, G.G.; Correll, F.D.; Brown, R.E.; Jarmie, N.; Hardekopf, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    Angular distributions of the differential cross section sigma(E*,theta/sub 1//sup l/) and of the vector and tensor analyzing powers A/sub y/(E*,theta/sub 1//sup l/), A/sub xz/(E*,theta/sub 1//sup l/), A/sub xx/(E*,theta/sub 1//sup l/), A/sub yy/(E*,theta/sub 1//sup l/) for the 3-nucleon breakup reaction /sup 1/H(vector d,p)pn were measured for a deuteron bombarding energy of 16.0 MeV. The data are reported as functions of the excitation energy E* in the pn system and of the laboratory angle theta/sub 1//sup l/. Laboratory angles between 15 and 42.5/sup 0/ were studied. The excitation energy range varies from 0 to 2.6 MeV at 15/sup 0/ to 0 to 0.2 MeV at 42.5/sup 0/. An excitation energy range (bin) of 0.2 MeV, which corresponds to laboratory energy bins from 0.3 to 0.4 MeV, was used to partition the proton continua. The experimental laboratory energy resolution is about 0.15 MeV. Large effects are seen in the tensor analyzing powers, particularly in A/sub xz/, at the lowest excitation energies. Except for A/sub yy/, there is no similarity of the observed analyzing powers to the corresponding elastic-scattering analyzing powers. Some data for A/sub xz/(E*,theta/sub 1//sup l/) at other energies are also presented. 11 figures, 6 tables.

  3. Development of a Quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV Gamma Facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowicki, Suzanne F.; Hunter, Stanley D.; Parsons, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    The 6 MeV Gamma Facility has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to allow in-house characterization and testing of a wide range of gamma-ray instruments such as pixelated CdZnTe detectors for planetary science and Compton and pair-production imaging telescopes for astrophysics. The 6 MeV Gamma Facility utilizes a circulating flow of water irradiated by 14 MeV neutrons to produce gamma rays via neutron capture on oxygen (O-16(n,p)N-16 yields O-16* yields O-16 + gamma). The facility provides a low cost, in-house source of 2.742, 6.129 and 7.117 MeV gamma rays, near the lower energy range of most accelerators and well above the 2.614 MeV line from the Th-228 decay chain, the highest energy gamma ray available from a natural radionuclide. The 7.13 s half-life of the N-16 decay allows the water to be irradiated on one side of a large granite block and pumped to the opposite side to decay. Separating the irradiation and decay regions allows for shielding material, the granite block, to be placed between them, thus reducing the low-energy gamma-ray continuum. Comparison between high purity germanium (HPGe) spectra from the facility and a manufactured source, Pu-238/C-13, shows that the low-energy continuum from the facility is reduced by a factor approx. 30 and the gamma-ray rate is approx.100 times higher at 6.129 MeV.

  4. Solar Gamma Rays Above 8 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, C. J.; Crannell, H.; Ramaty, R.

    1978-01-01

    Processes which lead to the production of gamma rays with energy greater than 8 MeV in solar flares are reviewed and evaluated. Excited states produced by inelastic scattering, charge exchange, and spallation reactions in the abundant nuclear species are considered in order to identify nuclear lines which may contribute to the Gamma ray spectrum of solar flares. The flux of 15.11 MeV Gamma rays relative to the flux of 4.44 MeV Gamma rays from the de-excitation of the corresponding states in C12 is calculated for a number of assumed distributions of exciting particles. This flux ratio is a sensitive diagnostic of accelerated particle spectra. Other high energy nuclear levels are not so isolated as the 15.11 MeV state and are not expected to be so strong. The spectrum of Gamma rays from the decay of Pi dey is sensitive to the energy distribution of particles accelerated to energies greater than 100 MeV.

  5. Temporal Structure of MeV Electron Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan, R. M.; Lorentzen, K. R.; Lin, R. P.; Smith, D. M.

    2001-12-01

    On January 12, 2000, the MAXIS (MeV Auroral X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy) long duration balloon experiment was launched from McMurdo, Antarctica carrying x-ray instrumentation designed to search for MeV electron precipitation similar to the event observed in 1996 over Kiruna, Sweden (L=5.8). MAXIS detected seven x-ray bursts with significant flux extending above 0.8 MeV during the 18 day flight in addition to extended periods of softer X-ray activity. These seven events are characterized by an extremely flat spectrum ( ~E-1.7) indicating that the bulk of precipitating electrons producing the x-rays is at relativistic energies. The bursts were detected between magnetic latitudes 58o-67o (corresponding to L-values between 3.8-6.7) with durations varying from several minutes to several hours. The MeV bursts were found to occur preferentially in the late afternoon/dusk sectors (14:30-00:00 MLT) while softer precipitation was detected at all magnetic local times. Two of the strongest MeV events detected by MAXIS show strong modulation of the x-ray count rate at ULF timescales ( ~150 s) similar to modulations observed during the Kiruna event at 100-200 s. We present results from temporal analysis of the MAXIS germanium spectrometer data and examine ground-based and spacecraft observations for evidence of coincident ULF wave activity.

  6. New COMPTEL results on pulsar studies at MeV energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermsen, W.; Kuiper, L.; Schoenfelder, V.; Strong, A. W.; Bennett, K.; Much, R.; McConnell, M.; Ryan, J.; Carraminana, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Compton telescope (COMPTEL) onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) detected the pulsar PSR B1951-32 at MeV energies, and found indications of a signal from PSR B0656+14. In the combined spectra from COMPTEL and the energetic gamma ray experiment telescope (EGRET) onboard CGRO, it can be seen that the maximum luminosities of these objects are reached in the COMPTEL energy range. These spectra can be compared with those from four other pulsars observed in MeV energies with COMPTEL. The spectral properties of five of the six pulsars, Vela, PSR B1509-58, PSR B1951-32 and PSR B0656+14, require breaks and bends at MeV energies. The sixth pulsar, the Crab pulsar, approximately follows a power law flux relation from keV to GeV energies. It is concluded that this spectral behavior may play a role in the discrimination between current gamma ray emission models.

  7. 1 MeV, 10 kW DC electron accelerator for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, B.; Acharya, S.; Bhattacharjee, D.; Bakhtsingh, R. I.; Rajan, R.; Sharma, D. K.; Dewangan, S.; Sharma, V.; Patel, R.; Tiwari, R.; Benarjee, S.; Srivastava, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    Several modern applications of radiation processing like medical sterilization, rubber vulcanization, polymerization, cross-linking and pollution control from thermal power stations etc. require D.C. electron accelerators of energy ranging from a few hundred keVs to few MeVs and power from a few kilowatts to hundreds of kilowatts. To match these requirements, a 3 MeV, 30 kW DC electron linac has been developed at BARC, Mumbai and current operational experience of 1 MeV, 10 kW beam power will be described in this paper. The LINAC composed mainly of Electron Gun, Accelerating Tubes, Magnets, High Voltage source and provides 10 kW beam power at the Ti beam window stably after the scanning section. The control of the LINAC is fully automated. Here Beam Optics study is carried out to reach the preferential parameters of Accelerating as well as optical elements. Beam trials have been conducted to find out the suitable operation parameters of the system.

  8. Design study of a 9 MeV compact cyclotron system for PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeong-No; Shin, Seung-Wook; Song, Hoseung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Chai, Jong-Seo

    2013-06-01

    A cyclotron is an accelerator which can be applied to both cancer diagnosis and treatment. Among commercially sold cyclotrons, the major energy is used for positron emission tomography (PET) ranges from 10 to 20 MeV. In this research, 9 MeV compact cyclotron for PET was designed. The research was conducted on the response cross section and the yield for the energy distribution to decide the design features. Also, it was determined the specifications on the basis of the fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) maximum dose. The machine, which has a 20 uA beam current, is designed to be installed in small-to-medium-sized hospitals in local cities because of its relatively light weight (6 tons). This compact cyclotron, which provides 9-MeV proton beams, is composed of a azimuthally varying field (AVF) electromagnet, 83-MHz RF systems with a 20 kW amplifier, a panning ion gauge (PIG) type ion-source for negative hydrogen, and a double-stage high-vacuum system. The basic model design was done by using 3-D CAD program, CATIA and all the field calculations were performed using commercial electromagnetic field analysis code, OPERA-3D TOSCA. From this research, we expect a time reduction for FDG production, a decrease of radioactive exposure for workers, and an equipment cost reduction.

  9. The 2-MEV model: Constancy of adolescent environmental values within an 8-year time frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, F. X.; Johnson, B.; Buxner, S.; Felix, L.

    2015-08-01

    The 2-MEV model is a widely used tool to monitor children's environmental perception by scoring individual values. Although the scale's validity has been confirmed repeatedly and independently as well as the scale is in usage within more than two dozen language units all over the world, longitudinal properties still need clarification. The purpose of the present study therefore was to validate the 2-MEV scale based on a large data basis of 10,676 children collected over an eight-year period. Cohorts of three different US states contributed to the sample by responding to a paper-and-pencil questionnaire within their pre-test initiatives in the context of field center programs. Since we used only the pre-program 2-MEV scale results (which is before participation in education programs), the data were clearly unspoiled by any follow-up interventions. The purpose of analysis was fourfold: First, to test and confirm the hypothesized factorized structure for the large data set and for the subsample of each of the three states. Second, to analyze the scoring pattern across the eight years' time range for both preservation and utilitarian preferences. Third, to investigate any age effects in the extracted factors. Finally, to extract suitable recommendations for educational implementation efforts.

  10. Reaction cross sections on carbon for neutron energies from 11. 5 to 19 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Antolkovic, B. ); Dietze, G.; Klein, H. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on neutron-induced reaction cross sections for carbon measured in the 11.5- to 19-MeV energy range. The response of an NE-213 scintillation detector is measured in steps of at least 0.5 MeV for monoenergetic neutrons, applying suitable time-of-flight techniques, and compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The total cross sections of all reactions with charged particles (except carbon recoil protons) in the exit channel are determined with respect to the n-p scattering cross section. In addition, the {sup 12}C(n,n{prime}3{alpha}) reaction is investigated for neutron energies of 11.9, 12.9, 14.0, 14.8, 17.0, and 19.0 MeV using the nuclear emulsion technique. As it is kinematically complete, this measurement yields the total and partial cross sections for the various channels of the {sup 12}C(n,n{prime}3{alpha}) reaction. The experimental data show deviations of up to {plus minus}25% from those recommended in ENDF/B-V, while a recent evaluation by Axton is partially confirmed. Reasonable agreement is found with most of the recent scattering experiments; thus, this data set represents a valuable constraint for further evaluations. The analysis performed, however, has shown that additional data from some partial reaction cross sections are needed.

  11. Online calibration of neutrino liquid scintillator detectors above 10 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepurnov, A. S.; Gromov, M. B.; Shamarin, A. F.

    2016-02-01

    Online calibration of neutrino liquid scintillator detector at energies above 10 MeV is very important for study of such rare process as supernova and for correct calculation of backgrounds if spectral properties is the focus of researches. The traditional procedure implies the usage of radioactive sources with well-known spectral properties but such approach is limited by available radioactive sources, upper possible energies (∼10-11 MeV) and dangerous for ultra low background environment of modern detectors. The approach we propose is based on simulation of events with controllable UV double LED pulser. The LED's main wavelength fits the scintillator excitation wavelength. This technique allows to simulate physical events within the detector in very wide energy range from a few hundred keV to about 50 MeV. Additional studies like pile-up analysis can be performed due to double-LEDs scheme which generates two delayed signals with different adjustable amplitudes. The delay time is also adjustable parameter.

  12. Ambiguities in the elastic scattering of 8 MeV neutrons from adjacent nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, R. D.; Guenther, P. T.; Smith, A. B.

    1990-12-01

    Ratios of the cross sections for the elastic scattering of 8 MeV neutrons from adjacent nuclei are measured over the angular range ~ 20°-160° for the target pairs 51V/Cr, 59Co/ 58Ni, Cu/Zn, 89Y/ 93Nb, 89Y/Zr, 93Nb/Zr, In/Cd and 209Bi/Pb. The observed ratios vary from unity by as much as a factor of ~2 at some angles for the lighter target pairs. The ratios are generally consistent with a model based upon a real Woods-Saxon potential whose geometry is essentially constant between pairs, and whose strength has an ( N- Z)/ A (symmetry) component with a magnitude of ~ 16 MeV. For pairs with A > 100, a constant-geometry derivative Woods-Saxon imaginary potential, with a symmetry strength of ~15 MeV, explains the ratios. However, for the lighter nuclei, the difffuseness of the imaginary potential varies rapidly near the N = 28 and N = 50 shell closures, and for the 59Co- 58Ni and Cu-Zn pairs, the imaginary symmetry-potential strength is about twice the 15 MeV global value. A method for approximating the spin-spin potential is given, and it is shown that this interaction makes a negligible contribution to the calculated ratios. However, channel coupling can lead to large reorientation effects which can substantially change the calculated ratios. Differences in the spin-orbit interaction between neighboring pairs can significantly affect the calculated ratios.

  13. MeV H+ ion irradiation effect on the stoichiometry of polyethylene terephthalate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdesselam, M.; Muller, D.; Djebara, M.; Ouichaoui, S.; Chami, A. C.

    2013-07-01

    Appropriate experimental conditions have been chosen to investigate the influence of main H+ ion irradiation parameters on stoichiometry changes induced in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) thin films. Stacks of six self-supporting identical films were irradiated perpendicularly to the target surface. Thus, the irradiations were realized simultaneously at different values of the target electronic stopping power, ɛ+. Indeed, the initial H+ ion energy of 1.1 MeV incident on the front polymer film was degraded down to 0.48 MeV at the entrance of the rear stacked film, which corresponds to an increase of ɛ+ from ˜0.22 up to ˜0.41 MeV cm2 mg-1. Ion fluences in the range (0.05-4) × 1015 cm-2 corresponding to an ion dose interval 1.80-263 MGy were used. The (H, O, C) atomic surface densities of the PET polymeric films were quantitatively determined by IBA techniques using a 1.62 MeV deuteron beam leading to the following main results: for each target film stacked at a given position thus fixed ɛ+, the oxygen atomic density decreases linearly versus ion fluence, ϕ; for the different ɛ+, the hydrogen impoverishment of the PET target is insignificant below critical fluence ϕc ˜ 1.5 × 1015 cm-2 and becomes substantial above ϕc; for fixed ϕ, the hydrogen and oxygen atomic densities exhibit linear decreases versus ɛ+; all measured such data versus ϕ and ɛ+ merge together into a unique decreasing curve for each (H, O, C) polymer content element when represented in function of the H+ ion dose, D, tightly correlating the latter two parameters; the O content element release from the PET target appears to be the most important, followed by the H content depletion, while the target C content is least affected under H+ ion irradiation.

  14. MeV electrons in Saturn's high-latitude, cusp region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Paranicas, C.

    2013-09-01

    Saturn's electron radiation belts extend on average up to a dipole L-shell of 7. Their structure, however, is highly variable. The outer boundary of these belts has occasionally been observed to drop at L=4 (second half of 2011) or expand up to L=14 (early 2006). Electrons in these belts have considerable fluxes only up to few hundred keV. Energetic electrons above the MeV range are found at low L-shells, in the stable trapping region, as expected. Beyond the belt's outer boundary, energetic electron spectra may reach up to about 300 keV during crossings Saturn's plasma sheet or at the high-latitude magnetosphere, especially when Cassini's MIMI/LEMMS detector is oriented along the magnetic field. MeV electron channels of LEMMS are typically at background levels. However, during several high-latitude crossings of Saturn's magnetosphere (mostly in 2008), LEMMS data show evidence of MeV electrons. Fluxes of these electrons are so high that even cause a considerable penetrating radiation signal in various LEMMS channels. Duration of these events lasts from several minutes up to about an hour. Data on the angular distribution is limited, but it appears that these electrons are not concentrated only along the field-aligned direction, meaning that part of the electrons may remain trapped in the quadrapole configuration of Saturn's cusp. The episodic and transient character of these events indicates that these electrons are accelerated to MeV energies locally, similar to what has been observed at Earth. Apart from presenting these unique LEMMS observations, we will also discuss the implications about the cusp as a universal source of radiation belt electrons in planetary magnetospheres, These observations may also be relevant for the upcoming Juno/JEDI observations at Jupiter.

  15. An RFQ accelerator system for MeV ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirakimoto, Akira; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Konishi, Ikuo; Nagamachi, Shinji; Nakahara, Hiroshi; Asari, Masatoshi

    1989-02-01

    A 4-vane-type Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator system for MeV ion implantation has been constructed and ion beams of boron and nitrogen have been accelerated successfully up to an energy of 1.01 and 1.22 MeV, respectively. The acceleration of phosphorus is now ongoing. The design was performed with two computer codes called SUPERFISH and PARMTEQ. The energy of the accelerated ions was measured by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The obtained values agreed well with the designed ones. Thus we have confirmed the validity of our design and have found the possibility that the present RFQ will break through the production-use difficulty of MeV ion implantation.

  16. Industrial applications using 14 MeV neutrons at KFUPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, A.; Khiari, F. Z.; Al-Haddad, M. N.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a database for the technical capability of the KFUPM 14 MeV Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility for applications to various local industries in the Kingdom. Since the 14 MeV NAA is a well-established non-destructive, rapid and sensitive technique for elemental bulk analysis, the applications of the technique are spread over wide areas such as oil, petrochemicals, metal and mining, medicine, agriculture and environment. The applications are mostly done for determination of light elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, silicon and phosphorus, which are relatively difficult to determine by other methods. The results of the analysis are mainly used for quality and process control. The progress made in developing the KFUPM 14 MeV NAA Facility for industrial applications will be summarized. Preliminary results of the analysis of the data collected using the facility will be presented and discussed.

  17. Gamma-ray burst variability above 4 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, R. A.; Ling, J. C.; Wheaton, W. A.; Jacobson, A. S.; Mahoney, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between the hard X-ray and gamma ray emissions during four bursts using the anti-coincidence shields of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory 3 (HEAO 3) Gamma Ray Spectrometer is explored. Recent observations of gamma ray bursts by the Solar Maximum Mission Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) have shown that high energy emission above 1 MeV is a common and energetically important feature (Matz et al. 1985). Time histories of four gamma ray bursts in 3 energy bands ( keV, around 511 keV, and 4 MeV) with 10.24 a resolution show that the 4 MeV flux is only weakly coupled to the spectrum below approximately 600 keV.

  18. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence from Uranium above 2 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, E.; Howell, C. R.; Raut, R.; Rusev, G.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Adekola, A.; Hammond, S. L.; Karwowski, H. J.; Tompkins, J. R.; Huibregtse, C.; Kelley, J. H.; Johnson, B.

    2009-10-01

    The detection of special nuclear materials is critical to the nation's efforts to counter serious threat from nuclear terrorist attacks. A research program has been initiated at TUNL to address the need for new nuclear data on the actinides using the High-Intensity Gamma-Ray Source (HIγS). The high-intensity nearly monoenergic and 100% polarized γ-ray beams from HγS were utilized to search for dipole states in ^235U and ^238U above 2 MeV. This information is necessary for developing technologies using Nuclear-Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) to nonintrusively scan cargo for specific nuclei. The existence of strong nuclear dipole transitions in the actinides above 2 MeV is important for nuclear forensics, because interrogation photons using NRF are the most penetrating at these energies. Results from our experiments at Eγ> 2.0 MeV on uranium will be presented.

  19. 10MeV 25KW industrial electron LINAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamino, Y.

    1998-06-01

    A 10MeV 25KW plus class electron LINAC was developed for sterilisation of medical devices. The LINAC composed of a standing wave type single cavity prebuncher and a 2m electro-plated travelling wave guide uses a 5MW 2856MHz pulse klystron as an RF source and provides 25KW beam power at the Ti alloy beam window stably after the energy analysing magnet with 10MeV plus-minus 1 MeV energy slit. The practical maximum beam power reached 29 KW and this demonstrated the LINAC as one of the most powerful S-band electron LINACs in the world. The control of the LINAC is fully automated and the "One-Button Operation" is realised, which is valuable for easy operation as a plant system. 2 systems have been delivered and are being operated stably.

  20. Neutron-induced fission cross section of 240Pu from 0.5 MeV to 3 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Bryś, T.; Eykens, R.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Göök, A.; Moens, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Sibbens, G.; Vanleeuw, D.; Vidali, M.; Pretel, C.

    2015-07-01

    240Pu has recently been pointed out by a sensitivity study of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) to be one of the isotopes whose fission cross section lacks accuracy to meet the upcoming needs for the future generation of nuclear power plants (GEN-IV). In the High Priority Request List (HPRL) of the OECD, it is suggested that the knowledge of the 240Pu(n ,f ) cross section should be improved to an accuracy within 1-3 %, compared to the present 5%. A measurement of the 240Pu cross section has been performed at the Van de Graaff accelerator of the Joint Research Center (JRC) Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) using quasi-monoenergetic neutrons in the energy range from 0.5 MeV to 3 MeV. A twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber (TFGIC) has been used in a back-to-back configuration as fission fragment detector. The 240Pu(n ,f ) cross section has been normalized to three different isotopes: 237Np(n ,f ) , 235U (n ,f ) , and 238U (n ,f ) . Additionally, the secondary standard reactions were benchmarked through measurements against the primary standard reaction 235U (n ,f ) in the same geometry. A comprehensive study of the corrections applied to the data and the associated uncertainties is given. The results obtained are in agreement with previous experimental data at the threshold region. For neutron energies higher than 1 MeV, the results of this experiment are slightly lower than the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation, but in agreement with the experiments of Laptev et al. (2004) as well as Staples and Morley (1998).

  1. Large momentum transfer neutron pickup with the (. pi. /sup +/,p) and (p,d) reactions. [90 and 180 MeV, 800 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    The (p,d) reaction was studied for the first time at 800 MeV on seven targets ranging from /sup 7/Li to /sup 40/Ca. The experimental resolution (approx. 400 keV) attained was sufficient to observe many discrete levels in each of the residual nuclei. A modified version of the one-nucleon model successfully describes the magnitude and angular dependence of almost all of the transitions observed. A specific counter example to the two-nucleon model of the reaction mechanism is suggested. The calculations are also sensitive to the neutron single-particle wave function, in accordance with the expectation that the high-momentum components of this wave function are probed at higher bombarding energies. States that have never been seen before were strongly populated in the high excitation region (up to 25 MeV) of some of the residual nuclei. The relative intensities of the other levels observed suggest that coupled-channels mechanisms play an important role for some of these states. Explicit calculations were performed to confirm this for several examples. The first high-resolution measurements of the (..pi../sup +/,p) reaction were also performed on /sup 6/Li, /sup 7/Li, /sup 12/C, and /sup 13/C at pion bombarding energies on and off the pion-nucleon resonance. Calculations employing a one-nucleon model of the reaction mechanism similar to the model successfully used for the (p,d) reaction are unable to account for transitions in the (..pi../sup +/,p) reaction. It is, however, unclear whether this failure is due to a fundamental inadequacy of the model or improper treatment of details in the calculations. A striking similarity was observed in the spectra of the (..pi../sup +/,p) and 800-MeV (p,d) reactions on the same target; this result implies a similar mechanism for the two reactions. 120 references, 97 figures, 15 tables.

  2. A statistical survey of 5-MeV proton events at transient interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallenrode, May-Britt

    1996-11-01

    Between 1974 and 1985 the two Helios spacecraft observed 351 transient interplanetary shocks. For 5-MeV protons the particle events associated with these shocks can be divided into three groups: (1) events without intensity increase above quiet time or increased background (47%), (2) solar and interplanetary particle (SIP) events consisting of particles accelerated on or close to the Sun (solar or near-Sun component) as well as at the interplanetary shock (24%), and (3) pure interplanetary particle (PIP) events (29%) which consist of particles accelerated at the shock in interplanetary space but do not show evidence for significant or even excess particle acceleration on the Sun. This classification shows that (1) only about half of the shocks accelerate MeV protons in interplanetary space and (2) MeV protons accelerated on the Sun are neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the acceleration of MeV protons in interplanetary space. Shock parameters such as speed or shock strength alone do not give an indication for the class of the associated particle event, because in the parameter range which covers most of the shocks, all three classes are distributed rather evenly. However, the shocks strongest in these parameters tend to accelerate particles. The intensity at the time of shock-passage, which can be used as a crude measure for the local acceleration efficiency, is correlated with the local shock speed and the magnetic compression. The correlation coefficients are small but statistically significant, indicating that (1) the correlations are real and (2) the intensity is influenced by additional parameters, which are not necessarily shock inherent. As an example I will show that the local acceleration at the shock decreases roughly symmetrically with increasing distance from the nose of the shock with a median e-folding angle of 10°. Occasionally, larger e-folding angles are observed close to the nose of the shock. The question of how the shock

  3. Earth albedo neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preszler, A. M.; Simnett, G. M.; White, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    We report the measurement of the energy and angular distributions of earth albedo neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV at 40 deg N geomagnetic latitude from a balloon at 120,000 ft, below 4.65 g/sq cm. The albedo-neutron omnidirectional energy distribution is flat to 50 MeV, then decreases with energy. The absolute neutron energy distribution is of the correct strength and shape for the albedo neutrons to be the source of the protons trapped in earth's inner radiation belt.

  4. Photon detector for MEGA. [53 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, C.A.; Tribble, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    The MEGA photon detector is designed to observe the 52.83-MeV photon produced in a [mu] [yields] e[gamma] decay with an energy resolution of 1.25 MeV, a position resolution of 2 [times] 5 mm[sup 2], a directional resolution of 10[degree], a time resolution of 500 ps, and an efficiency of about 5.4%. It will consist of three independent concentric cylindrical pair spectrometers mounted within a 1.5 T magnetic field produced by a superconducting solenoid magnet. Each pair spectrometer includes two thin Pb foils to convert photons into e[sup +]e[sup [minus

  5. A P + DEUTERON PROTON POLARIMETER AT 200 MEV.

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG,H.; ROSER,T.; ZELENSKI,A.; KURITA,K.; STEPHENSON,E.; TOOLE,R.

    2002-06-02

    There has been concern about the analyzing power of the p-Carbon polarimeter at the end of 200 MeV LINAC of BNL. A new polarimeter based on proton-deuteron scattering was installed and we have repeated the calibration of proton-Carbon scattering at 12 degrees and 200 MeV against proton-deuteron scattering. The result is consistent with the value of A=0.62 now used to measure the beam polarization at the end of the LINAC.

  6. Resolution considerations in MeV ion microscopy and lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norarat, Rattanaporn; Whitlow, Harry J.

    2015-04-01

    There a disparity between the way the resolution is specified in microscopy and lithography using light compared to MeV ion microscopy and lithography. In this work we explore the implications of the way the resolution is defined with a view to answering the questions; how are the resolving powers in MeV ion microscopy and lithography relate to their optical counterparts? and how do different forms of point spread function affect the modulation transfer function and the sharpness of the edge profile?

  7. Time-dependent 2.2-MeV and 0.5-MeV lines from solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H. T.; Ramaty, R.

    1975-01-01

    The time dependences of the 2.2- and 0.51-MeV gamma-ray lines from solar flares are calculated, and the results are compared with observations of the 1972 August 4 and 7 flares. The time lag between the nuclear reactions and the formation of these two lines is caused by capture of the neutrons and subsequent deceleration of the positrons and decay of the radioactive nuclei. Our main results are that the calculation is consistent with the observed rise of the 2.2-MeV line on August 4, and it does not require different time dependences for the accelerated protons and high-energy electrons in the flare region. The above lags can explain the delayed gamma-ray emission observed on August 7. Positrons of energies greater than about 10 MeV could be detected in interplanetary space following large solar flares.

  8. 207,208Pb(n,xnγ) reactions for neutron energies from 3 to 200 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonach, H.; Pavlik, A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Haight, R. C.; Nelson, R. O.; Wender, S. A.; Young, P. G.

    1994-10-01

    High-resolution γ-ray spectra from the interaction of neutrons in the energy range from 3 to 200 MeV with 207,208Pb were measured with the white neutron source at the weapons neutron research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. From these data, excitation functions for prominent γ transitions in 200,202,204,206,207,208Pb were derived from threshold to 200 MeV incident neutron energy. These γ-production cross sections reflect the excitation cross sections for the respective residual nuclei. The results are compared with the predictions of nuclear reaction calculations based on the exciton model for precompound emission, the Hauser-Feshbach theory for compound nucleus decay, and coupled channels calculations to account for direct excitation of collective levels. Good agreement was obtained over the entire energy range covered in the experiment with reasonable model parameters. The results of this work clearly demonstrate that multiple preequilibrium emission has to be taken into account above about 40 MeV, and that the level density model of Ignatyuk, which accounts for the gradual disappearance of shell effects with increasing excitation energy, should be used instead of the Gilbert-Cameron and backshifted Fermi-gas models if excitation energies exceed about 30 MeV. No indication for a reduction of the nuclear moment of inertia below the rigid body value was found.

  9. Development of mass spectrometry by high energy focused heavy ion beam: MeV SIMS with 8 MeV Cl7+ beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeromel, Luka; Siketić, Zdravko; Ogrinc Potočnik, Nina; Vavpetič, Primož; Rupnik, Zdravko; Bučar, Klemen; Pelicon, Primož

    2014-08-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) at microprobe of Jožef Stefan Institute is used to measure two-dimensional quantitative elemental maps of biological tissue. To improve chemical and biological understanding of the processes in vivo, supplementary information about chemical bonding and/or molecular distributions could be obtained by heavy-ion induced molecular desorption and a corresponding mass spectroscopy with Time-Of-Flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. As the method combines the use of heavy focused ions in MeV energy range and TOF Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, it is denoted as MeV SIMS. At Jožef Stefan Institute, we constructed a linear TOF spectrometer and mount it to our multipurpose nuclear microprobe. A beam of 8 MeV 35Cl7+ could be focused to a diameter of better than 3 μm × 3 μm and pulsed by electrostatic deflection at the high-energy side of accelerator. TOF mass spectrometer incorporates an 1 m long drift tube and a double stack microchannel plate (MCP) as a stop detector positioned at the end of the drift path. Secondary ions are focused at MCP using electrostatic cylindrical einzel lens. Time of flight spectra are currently acquired with a single-hit time-to-digital converter. Pulsed ion beam produces a shower of secondary ions that are ejected from positively biased target and accelerated towards MCP. We start our time measurement simultaneously with the start of the beam pulse. Signal of the first ion hitting MCP is used to stop the time measurement. Standard pulses proportional to the time of flight are produced with time to analog converter (TAC) and fed into analog-to-digital converter to obtain a time histogram. To enable efficient detection of desorbed fragments with higher molecular masses, which are of particular interest, we recently implemented a state-of art Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based multi-hit TOF acquisition. To test the system we used focused 8 MeV 35Cl7+ ion beam with pulse length of 180 ns. Mass resolution

  10. Neutron-proton spin-correlation parameter A sub z z at 68 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Hammans, M.; Brogli-Gysin, C.; Burzynski, S.; Campbell, J.; Haffter, P.; Henneck, R.; Lorenzon, W.; Pickar, M.A.; Sick, I. ); Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.; van den Brandt, B. )

    1991-05-06

    We report a first measurement of the spin-correlation parameter {ital A}{sub {ital z}{ital z}} in neutron-proton scattering at 67.5 MeV. The results, obtained in the angular range 105{degree}{le}{theta}{sub c.m.}{le}170{degree} with typical accuracies of 0.008, are highly sensitive to the {sup 3}{ital S}{sub 1}-{sup 3}{ital D}{sub 1} mixing parameter {epsilon}{sub 1}. A phase-shift analysis based on the current world data yields a value of {epsilon}{sub 1} significantly higher than predicted by modern potential models.

  11. Regrowth-related defect formation and evolution in 1 MeV amorphized (001) Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, D. P.; Bryan, Z. L.; Jones, K. S.; Elliman, R. G.; Haller, E. E.

    2007-03-26

    Ge implanted with 1 MeV Si{sup +} at a dose of 1x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} creates a buried amorphous layer that, upon regrowth, exhibits several forms of defects-end-of-range (EOR), regrowth-related, and clamshell defects. Unlike Si, no planar (311) defects are observed. The minimal EOR defects are small dotlike defects and are very unstable, dissolving between 450 and 550 deg. C. This is in contrast to Si, where the EOR defects are very stable. The amorphous layer results in both regrowth-related defects and clamshell defects, which were more stable than the EOR damage.

  12. The ^58,60Ni(n,α) Reactions from Threshold to 50 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haight, R. C.; Bateman, F. B.; Sterbenz, S. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Young, P. G.; Grimes, S. M.; Wasson, O. A.; Vonach, H.; Maier-Komor, P.

    1996-10-01

    Information on nuclear level densities over a wide range of excitation energies can be obtained from data on (n,α) reactions.(M. B. Chadwick et al., this meeting) We have measured α-particle emission cross sections, angular distributions and emission spectra for neutrons up to 50 MeV on targets of ^58Ni and ^60Ni using the pulsed spallation source of fast neutrons at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The results will be compared with our previous measurements on ^59Co.(S. M. Grimes et al., Nuclear Science and Engineering in press) The possibilities of extending this method to much heavier nuclides will be discussed.

  13. 14 MeV neutron work at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.F.

    1985-07-01

    The 14 MeV neutron work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) covers two main areas of interest to this Symposium: (1) measurements and calculations of differential cross sections; and (2) integral measurements of the neutron and gamma emission spectra. In both areas a large number of materials have been studied, spanning a wide mass range (6 < A < 239), of interest to fusion and hybrid reactors. In this presentation a brief description of the experimental techniques and calculational analysis is given for each of the above areas and the measured and calculated cross sections are discussed. 28 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Lithium Blanket Module dosimetry measurements at the LOTUS 14-MeV neutron source facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, F.Y.; Leo, W.R.; Sahraoui, C.; Wuthrich, S.; Harker, Y.D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the measurements and results of the dosimeter material reaction rates inside the Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) after irradiation by the LOTUS 14-MeV neutron source at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne. The measurement program has been designed to utilize sets of passive dosimeter materials in the form of foils and wires. The dosimetry materials reaction thresholds and interaction response ranges chosen for this series of measurements encompass the entire neutron spectra along the full length of the LBM fuel rods.

  15. "Cabinet-Safe" Study of 1-8 MeV Electron Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Douglas P; Jones, James Litton; Yoon, Woo Yong; Harmon, Frank Gamble

    2001-05-01

    The development of "cabinet-safe" accelerator technology for ˜1–8 MeV electron LINACs would remove the only major barrier to large-scale "field" applications of these accelerators. These applications range from non-destructive evaluation and assay to radiolytic degradation of hazardous waste. All field applications require large forward dose and very little lateral dose. We investigated the origin, energy, and angular distribution of unwanted lateral radiation dose from two different electron LINACS at three energies. We report on the contributions of various beam parameters to unwanted radiation dose and propose methods to control key beam parameters that significantly contribute to these doses.

  16. ``Cabinet-safe'' study of 1-8MeV electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, D. P.; Jones, J. L.; Yoon, W. Y.; Harmon, F.

    2001-05-01

    The development of "cabinet-safe" accelerator technology for ≈1-8 MeV electron LINACs would remove the only major barrier to large-scale "field" applications of these accelerators. These applications range from non-destructive evaluation and assay to radiolytic degradation of hazardous waste. All field applications require large forward dose and very little lateral dose. We investigated the origin, energy, and angular distribution of unwanted lateral radiation dose from two different electron LINACS at three energies. We report on the contributions of various beam parameters to unwanted radiation dose and propose methods to control key beam parameters that significantly contribute to these doses.

  17. Charged pions from the isotopes sup 58,64 Ni by 201 MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Palmeri, A.; Aiello, S.; Badala, A.; Barbera, R.; Pappalardo, G.S. ); Bimbot, L. ); Reide, F. ); Willis, N.; Oeschler, H.

    1989-08-01

    Charged pion production induced by 201 MeV protons on {sup 58}Ni and {sup 64}Ni has been studied. The double differential cross sections have been measured over a wide angular range. Different behavior of the angular distribution is observed for low and high energy pions. The yield of positive pions shows a pronounced forward peaked component. The deduced total production yields are about the same for ({ital p},{pi}{sup +}) on both isotopes whereas that for {sup 64}Ni({ital p},{pi}{sup {minus}}) is twice as large as for {sup 58}Ni({ital p},{pi}{sup {minus}}).

  18. M-shell electron capture and direct ionization of gold by 25-MeV carbon and 32-MeV oxygen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, M. C.; McDaniel, F. D.; Duggan, J. L.; Miller, P. D.; Pepmiller, P. L.; Krause, H. F.; Rosseel, T. M.; Rayburn, L. A.; Mehta, R.; Lapicki, G.

    1985-05-01

    M-shell X-ray production cross sections have been measured for thin solid targets of Au for 25 MeV 126C q+ ( q = 4, 5, 6) and for 32 MeV 168O q+ ( q = 5, 7, 8). The microscopic cross sections were determined from measurements made with targets ranging in thickness from 0.5 to 100 μg/cm 2. For projectiles with one or two K-shell vacancies, the target M-shell X-ray production cross sections are found to be enhanced over those by projectiles without a K-shell vacancy. The sum of direct ionization to the continuum (DI) and electron capture (EC) to the L, M, N.. shells and EC to the K-shell of the projectile have been extracted from the data. The results are compared with the predictions of first Born theories, i.e. PWBA for DI and OBK of Nikolaev for EC and the ECPSSR approach that accounts for energy loss. Coulomb deflection and relativistic effects in the perturbed stationary state theory.

  19. Compton-Pair Production Space Telescope: Extending Fermi-LAT Discoveries into MeV Gamma-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, Regina; ComPair Team

    2016-01-01

    The gamma-ray energy range from several hundred keV to a hundred MeV has remained largely unexplored, since the observations by instruments on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991- 2000) and on INTEGRAL (since 2002). Accurate measurements in this energy range are critical for answering a broad range of astrophysical questions, but they are particularly challenging because this range encompasses the Compton scattering/pairproduction transition zone (~10 MeV) where the interaction cross section is minimized. These interaction processes require different optimizations in both detection and event reconstruction. We are developing a MIDEX-scale wide-aperture discovery mission, Compton-Pair Production Space Telescope (ComPair), to investigate the energy range from 200 keV to >500 MeV with high energy and angular resolution and with sensitivity approaching a factor of 20-50 better than COMPTEL. This instrument will be capable of measuring both Compton-scattering events at lower energy and pair-production events at higher energy. ComPair will build on the heritage of successful space missions including Fermi-LAT, CGRO, INTEGRAL, AGILE, AMS and PAMELA, and will utilize well-developed space-qualified detector technologies including Si-strip and CdZnTe-strip detectors, heavy inorganic scintillators, and plastic scintillators.

  20. Analysis of 33 MeV Nitrogen irradiated UHMWPE

    SciTech Connect

    Grosso, Mariela del; Chappa, Veronica; Garcia Bermudez, Gerardo

    2007-10-26

    In this work, we irradiated UHMWPE with 33 MeV Nitrogen ions, at several fluences, to generate surface modifications without affecting the bulk properties. These modifications were quantified by means of wear resistance tests and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. Experimental results show an optimum ion fluence value that maximizes UHMWPE wear resistance.

  1. The 400 MeV Linac Upgrade at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, R.J.

    1992-12-01

    The Fermilab Linac Upgrade in planned to increase the energy of the H{sup {minus}} linac from 200 to 400 MeV. This is intended to reduce the incoherent space-charge tuneshift at injection into the 8 GeV Booster which limit either the brightness or the total intensity of the beam. The Linac Upgrade will be achieved by replacing the last four 201.25 MHs drift-tube linac (DTL) tanks which accelerate the beam from 116 to 200 MeV, with seven 805 MRs side-coupled cavity modules operating at an average axial field of about 7.5 MV/meter. This will allow acceleration to 400 MeV in the existing Linac enclosure. Each accelerator module will be driven with a 12 MW klystron-based rf power supply. Three of seven accelerator modules have been fabricated, power tested and installed in their temporary location adjacent to the existing DTL. All seven RF Modulators have been completed and klystron installation has begun. Waveguide runs have completed from the power supply gallery to the accelerator modules. The new linac will be powered in the temporary position without beam in order to verify overall system reliability until the laboratory operating schedule permits final conversion to 400 MeV operation.

  2. History of the ZGS 500 MeV booster.

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.; Martin; R.; Kustom, R.

    2006-05-09

    The history of the design and construction of the Argonne 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron from 1969 to 1982 is described. This accelerator has since been in steady use for the past 25 years to power the Argonne Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS).

  3. Design study for a superconducting proton linac from 20 to 100 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Garnett, R.; Krawczyk, F.; Billen, J.; Bultman, N.; Christensen, K.; Fox, W.; Wood, R.

    1993-07-01

    Advances in superconducting radiofrequency technology during the past 15 years have made possible the large-scale application of superconducting niobium accelerators. So far this development has been restricted to rather low-current electron and heavy-ion accelerators. In addition to the power savings, the improved capability of superconducting cavities to provide acceleration of high currents with low beam losses, which follows from the ability to use larger beam apertures without a large economic penalty from increased rf losses, could make superconducting proton linacs very attractive for high-intensity applications, where activation of the accelerator is a major concern. During the past year, at Los Alamos, the authors have been looking at a possible upgrade to the 800-MeV LAMPF proton accelerator, to provide higher intensity injection into a new storage ring for a new high-intensity pulsed neutron source. As part of this upgrade to the LAMPF accelerator, the entire linac below 100 MeV would be rebuilt to provide improved beam quality, improved reliability, and to include funneling at 20 MeV for higher beam currents. Both a room-temperature and a superconducting option are being considered for the section from 20 to 100 MeV. At present, this section is a 201.25 MHz room-temperature copper drift-tube linac (DTL). For this new upgrade scenario the frequency from 20 to 100 MeV was fixed at 805 MHz. The new duty factor is assumed to be 7.2%, and the authors show some results at two currents, 30 mA and 150 mA, that span the range of interest. Their superconducting linac concept consists of individual multicell cavities, each driven by a klystrode. Focusing would be provided by superconducting quadrupole lenses between cavities. In the remainder of the paper they describe their study to evaluate the potential of a superconducting proton linac section for this application, and address some of the many design choices.

  4. The Spectrum of Isotropic Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission Between 100 Mev and 820 Gev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Brandt, T. J.; Hays, E.; Perkins, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The gamma-ray sky can be decomposed into individually detected sources, diffuse emission attributed to the interactions of Galactic cosmic rays with gas and radiation fields, and a residual all-sky emission component commonly called the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB comprises all extragalactic emissions too faint or too diffuse to be resolved in a given survey, as well as any residual Galactic foregrounds that are approximately isotropic. The first IGRB measurement with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) used 10 months of sky-survey data and considered an energy range between 200 MeV and 100 GeV. Improvements in event selection and characterization of cosmic-ray backgrounds, better understanding of the diffuse Galactic emission, and a longer data accumulation of 50 months, allow for a refinement and extension of the IGRB measurement with the LAT, now covering the energy range from 100 MeV to 820 GeV. The IGRB spectrum shows a significant high-energy cutoff feature, and can be well described over nearly four decades in energy by a power law with exponential cutoff having a spectral index of 2.32 plus or minus 0.02 and a break energy of (279 plus or minus 52) GeV using our baseline diffuse Galactic emission model. The total intensity attributed to the IGRB is (7.2 plus or minus 0.6) x 10(exp -6) cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) sr(exp -1) above 100 MeV, with an additional +15%/-30% systematic uncertainty due to the Galactic diffuse foregrounds.

  5. X-ray observations of MeV electron precipitation with a balloon-borne germanium spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan, Robyn Margaret

    The MAXIS (MeV Auroral X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy) balloon payload was launched on a long duration balloon from McMurdo, Antarctica on Jan. 12, 2000. The high spectral resolution germanium spectrometer aboard MAXIS detected nine X-ray bursts with significant flux extending above 0.5 MeV during the 18 day flight. The X-rays are bremsstrahlung produced by precipitating electrons and the events are characterized by an extremely flat X-ray spectrum (˜E-2) similar to the first MeV event discovered in 1996, indicating relativistic parent electrons. The bursts were detected between magnetic latitudes 58°--68° (IGRF L-values of 3.8--6.7) with durations varying from several minutes to several hours and occurred only in the late afternoon/dusk sectors (14:30--00:00 MLT) while softer precipitation was detected at all magnetic local times. In addition, the MeV events were associated with substorm activity and several events showed Ultra Low Frequency (mHz) modulation of the X-ray count rate. Spacecraft and ground-based observations indicate the presence of ULF wave activity near the time and location of the events which may be causing the modulation by some mechanism that is not understood. The MeV events are well modeled by a very flat exponential precipitating electron distribution and the average flux of precipitating electrons with E ≥ 0.5 MeV is estimated to be ˜360 cm-2 s-1. This corresponds to about 5 x 1025 precipitated electrons in this latitude range during the eight day observing interval compared to ˜2 x 10 25 trapped 0.5--3.6 MeV electrons estimated using GPS electron measurements. The MAXIS observations indicate that these electron precipitation events are common and may be the primary loss mechanism for outer zone relativistic electrons. Individual events were also compared with measurements of the trapped electrons from which it is estimated that only a few percent of the loss cone is being filled by the mechanism acting to precipitate the particles

  6. The prediction of Neutron Elastic Scattering from Tritium for E(n) = 6-14 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J D; Dietrich, F S; Luu, T; McNabb, D P; Navratil, P; Quaglioni, S

    2010-06-14

    In a recent report Navratil et al. evaluated the angle-integrated cross section and the angular distribution for 14-MeV n+T elastic scattering by inferring these cross sections from accurately measured p+3He angular distributions. This evaluation used a combination of two theoretical treatments, based on the no-core shell model and resonating-group method (NCSM/RGM) and on the R-matrix formalism, to connect the two charge-symmetric reactions n+T and p+{sup 3}He. In this report we extend this treatment to cover the neutron incident energy range 6-14 MeV. To do this, we evaluate angle-dependent correction factors for the NCSM/RGM calculations so that they agree with the p+{sup 3}He data near 6 MeV, and using the results found earlier near 14 MeV we interpolate these correction factors to obtain correction factors throughout the 6-14 MeV energy range. The agreement between the corrected NCSM/RGM and R-Matrix values for the integral elastic cross sections is excellent ({+-}1%), and these are in very good agreement with total cross section experiments. This result can be attributed to the nearly constant correction factors at forward angles, and to the evidently satisfactory physics content of the two calculations. The difference in angular shape, obtained by comparing values of the scattering probability distribution P({mu}) vs. {mu}(the cosine of the c.m. scattering angle), is about {+-}4% and appears to be related to differences in the two theoretical calculations. Averaging the calculations yields P({mu}) values with errors of {+-}2 1/2 % or less. These averaged values, along with the corresponding quantities for the differential cross sections, will form the basis of a new evaluation of n+T elastic scattering. Computer files of the results discussed in this report will be supplied upon request.

  7. Lipowitz metal shielding thickness for dose reduction of 6-20 MeV electrons.

    PubMed

    Purdy, J A; Choi, M C; Feldman, A

    1980-01-01

    The relative dose reduction by Lipowitz metal of 6 to 20 MeV electrons from a Varian Associates Clinac-20 linear accelerator has been measured using a parallel plate thin wall ionization chamber. Metal thickness required for a 5% attenuation level for a 10 X 10 cm2 field are as follows: 6 MeV-2.3 mm, 9 MeV-4.4 mm, 12 MeV-8.5 mm, 16 MeV--18.0 mm, 20 MeV-25.0 mm. PMID:7393151

  8. Measurement and Analysis of Gamma-Rays Emitted From Spent Nuclear Fuel Above 3 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Douglas C.; Anderson, Elaina R.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Campbell, Luke W.; Fast, James E.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Orton, Christopher R.; Runkle, Robert C.; Stave, Sean C.

    2013-12-01

    The gamma-ray spectrum of spent nuclear fuel in the 3- to 6-MeV energy range is important for active interrogation since emitted gamma rays emitted from nuclear decay are not expected to interfere with measurements in this energy region. There is, unfortunately, a dearth of empirical measurements from spent nuclear fuel in this region. This work is an initial attempt to partially ll this gap by presenting an analysis of gamma-ray spectra collected from a set of spent nuclear fuel sources using a high-purity germanium detector array. This multi-crystal array possesses a large collection volume, providing high energy resolution up to 16 MeV. The results of these measurements establish the continuum count-rate in the energy region between 3- and 6-MeV. Also assessed is the potential for peaks from passive emissions to interfere with peak measurements resulting from active interrogation delayed emissions. As one of the first documented empirical measurements of passive emissions from spent fuel for energies above 3 MeV, this work provides a foundation for active interrogation model validation and detector development.

  9. Measurement and analysis of gamma-rays emitted from spent nuclear fuel above 3 MeV.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Douglas C; Anderson, Elaina; Anderson, Kevin K; Campbell, Luke W; Fast, James E; Jarman, Kenneth; Kulisek, Jonathan; Orton, Christopher R; Runkle, Robert C; Stave, Sean

    2013-12-01

    The gamma-ray spectrum of spent nuclear fuel in the 3-6 MeV energy range is important for active interrogation since gamma rays emitted from nuclear decay are not expected to interfere with measurements in this energy region. There is, unfortunately, a dearth of empirical measurements from spent nuclear fuel in this region. This work is an initial attempt to partially fill this gap by presenting an analysis of gamma-ray spectra collected from a set of spent nuclear fuel sources using a high-purity germanium detector array. This multi-crystal array possesses a large collection volume, providing high energy resolution up to 16 MeV. The results of these measurements establish the continuum count-rate in the energy region between 3 and 6 MeV. Also assessed is the potential for peaks from passive emissions to interfere with peak measurements resulting from active interrogation delayed emissions. As one of the first documented empirical measurements of passive emissions from spent fuel for energies above 3 MeV, this work provides a foundation for active interrogation model validation and detector development. PMID:24035928

  10. A novel way of constraining WIMPs annihilations in the Sun: MeV neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, Nicolás; Martín-Albo, Justo; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio E-mail: justo.martin-albo@ific.uv.es

    2013-08-01

    Annihilation of dark matter particles accumulated in the Sun would produce a flux of high-energy neutrinos whose prospects of detection in neutrino telescopes and detectors have been extensively discussed in the literature. However, for annihilations into Standard Model particles, there would also be a flux of neutrinos in the MeV range from the decays at rest of muons and positively charged pions. These low-energy neutrinos have never been considered before and they open the possibility to also constrain dark matter annihilation in the Sun into e{sup +}e{sup −}, μ{sup +}μ{sup −} or light quarks. Here we perform a detailed analysis using the recent Super-Kamiokande data in the few tens of MeV range to set limits on the WIMP-nucleon scattering cross section for different annihilation channels and computing the evaporation rate of WIMPs from the Sun for all values of the scattering cross section in a consistent way.

  11. Anisotropies in the interplanetary intensity of solar protons with energies greater than 0.3 MeV.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Innanen, W. G.; Van Allen, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    By using Explorer 35 interplanetary observations of solar protons with energies greater than 0.3 MeV during ten selected solar events (1967-1970) the tine dependence of intensity and of the angular distribution of intensity has been studied for the first time in the sub-MeV range of energy. The respective contributions of diffusive and convective transport are resolved. Results are qualitatively similar to those of McCracken et al. (1968, 1971) in the energy range from 7.5to 45 MeV; but, as was expected, convective transport is found to be relatively more important at the lower energies. The convective component of the anisotropy vector yields values of the solar wind velocity in good agreement with directly measured values.

  12. Stopping powers of havar for 0.63 5.9 MeV protons and 2.6 24 MeV alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, L. E.; Trzaska, W. H.; Räisänen, J.; Lyapin, V.

    2004-11-01

    A transmission experiment utilizing thin foil targets has been conducted in order to establish the stopping powers of the cobalt-base alloy, havar, for 0.6-5.9 MeV protons and 2.6-24 MeV alpha particles. The basic technique of the novel experimental method used was to record both the projectile energy and the time of flight while alternating measurements with and without the target in place. The uncertainties of the proton and alpha particle data sets ranged from 1.4 to 2.3% and 1.1 to 1.5%, respectively. Modified Bethe-Bloch theory was applied to the measurements in order to ascertain values of the target mean excitation energy (I) and Barkas-effect parameter (b) for each projectile. The extracted values were I = 304.3 ± 2.4 eV and b = 1.37 ± 0.04 for the case of protons, and I = 306.3 ± 2.3 eV and b = 1.47 ± 0.03 for the case of alpha particles. The I-values are somewhat higher than the additivity-based expectation of 295.7 eV, whereas the b-values are clearly consistent with the expected range of 1.4 ± 0.1. The parameter values extracted from the measurements are appraised for compatibility with recently observed trends in values of I and of b with increasing projectile atomic number.

  13. High brightness sources for MeV microprobe applications

    SciTech Connect

    Read, P.M.; Alton, G.D.; Maskrey, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    State of the art MeV ion microprobe facilities are now approaching current density limitations on targets imposed by the fundamental nature of conventional gaseous ion sources. With a view to addressing this problem efforts are under way which have the ultimate objective of developing high brightness Li liquid metal ion sources suitable for MeV ion microprobe applications. Prototype Li/sup +/ and Ga/sup +/ liquid metal ion sources have been designed, fabricated and are undergoing preliminary testing. This paper describes the first total emittance and brightness measurements of a Ga liquid metal ion source. The effect of the geometry of the ion extraction system is investigated and the brightness data are compared to those of a radio frequency ion source.

  14. Magnifying lens for 800 MeV proton radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, F. E.; Campos, E.; Espinoza, C.; Hogan, G.; Hollander, B.; Lopez, J.; Mariam, F. G.; Morley, D.; Morris, C. L.; Murray, M.; Saunders, A.; Schwartz, C.; Thompson, T. N.

    2011-10-15

    This article describes the design and performance of a magnifying magnetic-lens system designed, built, and commissioned at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for 800 MeV flash proton radiography. The technique of flash proton radiography has been developed at LANL to study material properties under dynamic loading conditions through the analysis of time sequences of proton radiographs. The requirements of this growing experimental program have resulted in the need for improvements in spatial radiographic resolution. To meet these needs, a new magnetic lens system, consisting of four permanent magnet quadrupoles, has been developed. This new lens system was designed to reduce the second order chromatic aberrations, the dominant source of image blur in 800 MeV proton radiography, as well as magnifying the image to reduce the blur contribution from the detector and camera systems. The recently commissioned lens system performed as designed, providing nearly a factor of three improvement in radiographic resolution.

  15. Detector blur associated with MeV radiographic imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Stuart A.; Lutz, Stephen S.; Smalley, Duane D.; Brown, Kristina K.; Danielson, Jeremy; Haines, Todd J.; Howe, Russell A.; Mitchell, Stephen E.; Morgan, Dane; Schultz, Larry J.

    2015-08-01

    We are investigating scintillator performance in radiographic imaging systems at x-ray endpoint energies of 0.4 and 2.3 MeV in single-pulse x-ray machines. The effect of scene magnification and geometric setup will be examined along with differences between the detector response of radiation and optical scatter. Previous discussion has reviewed energy absorption and efficiency of various imaging scintillators with a 2.3 MeV x-ray source. The focal point of our study is to characterize scintillator blur to refine system models. Typical detector geometries utilize thin tiled LYSO:Ce (cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate) assembled in a composite mosaic. Properties of individual tiles are being studied to understand system resolution effects present in the experimental setup. Comparison of two different experiments with different geometric configurations is examined. Results are then compared to different scene magnifications generated in a Monte-Carlo simulation.

  16. Evolution of the 400 MeV linac design

    SciTech Connect

    MacLachlan, J.A.

    1987-11-09

    The basic premises of the conceptual design for the linac upgrade are pursued to establish lengths, gradients, power dissipation, etc., for the 400 MeV linac and matching section. The discussion is limited to accelerating and focusing components. Wherever values depend on the choice of the accelerating structure, the disk-and-washer structure is emphasized; the results are generally relevant to the side coupled cavity choice also.

  17. 5 MeV Mott Polarimeter Development at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J. S.; Sinclair, C. K.; Cardman, L. S.; Haanskneccht, J.; Mack, D. J.; Piot, P.; Assamagan, K. A.; Grames, J.

    1997-01-01

    Low energy (E{sub k}=100 keV) Mott scattering polarimeters are ill- suited to support operations foreseen for the polarized electron injector at Jefferson Lab. One solution is to measure the polarization at 5 MeV where multiple and plural scattering are unimportant and precision beam monitoring is straightforward. The higher injector beam current offsets the lower cross-sections. Recent improvements in the CEBAF injector polarimeter scattering chamber have improved signal to noise.

  18. Femtosecond time-resolved MeV electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Pengfei; Zhu, Y.; Hidaka, Y.; Wu, L.; Cao, J.; Berger, H.; Geck, J.; Kraus, R.; Pjerov, S.; Shen, Y.; Tobey, R. I.; Hill, J. P.; Wang, X. J.

    2015-06-02

    We report the experimental demonstration of femtosecond electron diffraction using high-brightness MeV electron beams. High-quality, single-shot electron diffraction patterns for both polycrystalline aluminum and single-crystal 1T-TaS2 are obtained utilizing a 5 fC (~3 × 104 electrons) pulse of electrons at 2.8 MeV. The high quality of the electron diffraction patterns confirms that electron beam has a normalized emittance of ~50 nm rad. The transverse and longitudinal coherence length is ~11 and ~2.5 nm, respectively. The timing jitter between the pump laser and probe electron beam was found to be ~100 fs (rms). The temporal resolution is demonstrated by observing the evolution of Bragg and superlattice peaks of 1T-TaS2 following an 800 nm optical pump and was found to be 130 fs. Lastly, our results demonstrate the advantages of MeV electrons, including large elastic differential scattering cross-section and access to high-order reflections, and the feasibility of ultimately realizing below 10 fs time-resolved electron diffraction.

  19. Femtosecond time-resolved MeV electron diffraction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhu, Pengfei; Zhu, Y.; Hidaka, Y.; Wu, L.; Cao, J.; Berger, H.; Geck, J.; Kraus, R.; Pjerov, S.; Shen, Y.; et al

    2015-06-02

    We report the experimental demonstration of femtosecond electron diffraction using high-brightness MeV electron beams. High-quality, single-shot electron diffraction patterns for both polycrystalline aluminum and single-crystal 1T-TaS2 are obtained utilizing a 5 fC (~3 × 104 electrons) pulse of electrons at 2.8 MeV. The high quality of the electron diffraction patterns confirms that electron beam has a normalized emittance of ~50 nm rad. The transverse and longitudinal coherence length is ~11 and ~2.5 nm, respectively. The timing jitter between the pump laser and probe electron beam was found to be ~100 fs (rms). The temporal resolution is demonstrated by observing themore » evolution of Bragg and superlattice peaks of 1T-TaS2 following an 800 nm optical pump and was found to be 130 fs. Lastly, our results demonstrate the advantages of MeV electrons, including large elastic differential scattering cross-section and access to high-order reflections, and the feasibility of ultimately realizing below 10 fs time-resolved electron diffraction.« less

  20. Identification of human in vitro cell lines with greater intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity to 62. 5 MeV (p [yields] Be[sup +]) neutrons than 4 MeV photons

    SciTech Connect

    Warenius, H.M.; Browning, P.G.; Morton, I.E. ); Britten, R.A. ); Peacock, J.H. )

    1994-03-01

    The purpose was to identify human in vitro cell lines with a high relative cellular sensitivity to fast neutrons as compared to photons and to examine their relationship to intrinsic photon radiosensitivity and cellular proliferation kinetics. The clonogenic cell survival following exposure to low LET, 4 MeV photons or, high LET, 62.5 MeV (p [yields] Be[sup +]) fast neutrons and the cell survival following exposure to low LET, 4 MeV photons or, high LET, 62.5 MeV (p [yields] Be[sup +]) fast neutrons and the cell kinetic parameters of 30 human in vitro cell lines, covering a wide range of histologies, were analyzed alone and with previously published data of Fertil and Malaise. The relative survival at 1.6 Gy of neutrons (SF[sub 1.6]) compared to 2 Gy of photons (SF[sub 2]) and the cell kinetic parameters of the 30 cell lines were also compared. The relative lethality of 62.5 MeV fast neutrons was assessed by comparing the ratio [alpha] neutrons/[alpha] photons or SF[sub 1.6] neutrons/SF[sub 2] photons to SF[sub 2] photons. Cellular proliferation kinetics were measured by flow cytometry following BrdU incorporation and the relationship of cellular proliferation to relative neutron lethality was measured by comparing the [alpha] neutron/[alpha] photon ratio to the labelling index (LI), potential doubling (T[sub pot]) and ploidy. The majority of cell survival curves obtained following exposure to 62.5 MeV fast neutrons were curvilinear with beta values of similar order to those obtained with low LET 4 MeV photons. Comparison of alpha values for neutrons and photons revealed a relatively neutron sensitive subset of 9 out of 30 in vitro cell lines. This subset was not, however, distinguishable when 1.6 Gy of neutrons was compared to 2 Gy of photons. There was no correlation between cell survival with neutrons or photons and the cell kinetic parameters T[sub pot] or LI or with DNA ploidy. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Non-spin-flip ( 3He, t) charge-exchange and isobaric analog states of actinide nuclei studied at θ = 0°, E( 3He) = 76 MeV and 200 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jänecke, J.; Becchetti, F. D.; van den Berg, A. M.; Berg, G. P. A.; Brouwer, G.; Greenfield, M. B.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hofstee, M. A.; Nadasen, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Sawafta, R.; Schippers, J. M.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stewart, D. P.; van der Werf, S. Y.

    1991-04-01

    The ( 3He, t) charge-exchange reaction has been studied at θ = 0° and bombarding energies of E( 3He) = 76.5 MeV and 200 MeV. Spectra were measured using magnetic analysis for target nuclei of 12, 13C, 16O, 19F, 28, 29, 30Si, 90Zr, 117, 120Sn, natTa, natW, 197Au, 208Pb, 230, 232Th, 234, 236, 238U and 244Pu. The measurements at 76.5 MeV concentrated on the isobaric analog states of several actinide nuclei, particularly on their widths and the branching ratios for proton decay. Cross sections, Q-values and total widths were determined for the transitions to the isobaric analog states. Coulomb displacement energies derived from the measured Q-values display the influence of deformed nuclear shapes. Escape widths Γ ↑ and spreading widths Γ ↓ of the isobaric analog states in five actinide nuclei were deduced from the measured proton-decay branching ratios. They were found to be in agreement with predictions which postulate isospin mixing via the Coulomb force with the ( T0-1)-component of the isovector giant monopole resonance. The measurements at 200 MeV were concerned with transitions to isobaric analog states in both light and heavy nuclei, including several actinide nuclei, but Gamow-Teller resonances and transitions to numerous other states were also observed. The measured cross sections for several transitions to isobaric analog states from 30Si to 208Pb were used to extract the effective interaction Vτ for non-spin-flip ( 3He, t) charge exchange at E( 3He) ≈ 200 MeV. The interaction strength Vτ decreases by a factor 0.6 when compared to previously measured values for the energy range E( 3He) = 65 to 90 MeV. An angular distribution from θτ = 0° to 16° for the transition to the isobaric analog state in 120Sb measured at E( 3He) = 200 MeV was found to be in very good agreement with microscopic calculations.

  2. Study of imaging plate detector sensitivity to 5-18 MeV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Boutoux, G. Rabhi, N.; Batani, D.; Ducret, J.-E.; Binet, A.; Nègre, J.-P.; Reverdin, C.; Thfoin, I.; Jakubowska, K.

    2015-11-15

    Imaging plates (IPs) are commonly used as passive detectors in laser-plasma experiments. We calibrated at the ELSA electron beam facility (CEA DIF) the five different available types of IPs (namely, MS-SR-TR-MP-ND) to electrons from 5 to 18 MeV. In the context of diagnostic development for the PETawatt Aquitaine Laser (PETAL), we investigated the use of stacks of IP in order to increase the detection efficiency and get detection response independent from the neighboring materials such as X-ray shielding and detector supports. We also measured fading functions in the time range from a few minutes up to a few days. Finally, our results are systematically compared to GEANT4 simulations in order to provide a complete study of the IP response to electrons over the energy range relevant for PETAL experiments.

  3. Forward-angle neutron-proton scattering at 96 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, C.; Blomgren, J.; Atac, A.; Bergenwall, B.; Hildebrand, A.; Klug, J.; Mermod, P.; Pomp, S.; Oesterlund, M.; Dangtip, S.; Tippawan, U.; Elmgren, K.; Jonsson, O.; Prokofiev, A.V.; Renberg, P.-U.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nilsson, L.; Olsson, N.

    2005-02-01

    The differential np scattering cross section has been measured at 96 MeV in the angular range {theta}{sub c.m.}=20 deg. -76 deg. Together with an earlier data set at the same energy, covering the angles {theta}{sub c.m.}=74 deg. -180 deg., a new data set has been formed in the angular range {theta}{sub c.m.}=20 deg. - 180 deg. This extended data set has been normalized to the experimental total np cross section, resulting in a renormalization of the earlier data of 0.7%, which is well within the reported normalization uncertainty for that experiment. A novel normalization technique has been investigated. The results on forward np scattering are in reasonable agreement with theory models and partial wave analyses and have been compared with data from the literature.

  4. Dose and doping dependence of damage annealing in Fe MeV implanted InP

    SciTech Connect

    Carnera, A.; Fraboni, B.; Gasparotto, A. |; Priolo, F. |; Camporese, A.; Rossetto, G.; Frigeri, C.; Cassa, A.

    1996-12-31

    High energy (2 MeV) ion implantation of Fe in InP has been investigated by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ions mass spectrometry (SIMS). The implanted doses ranged between 5 {times} 10{sup 13} and 5 {times} 10{sup 14} at/cm{sup 2}. Annealing in the 650--800 C range was performed and the primary as well as secondary damage evolution has been studied. The correlations between defect structure and Fe redistribution properties have been carefully analyzed. The results show the role of the primary defect structure in determining the annealing properties, both for damage recovery and Fe redistribution. The latter is also influenced by the doping of the substrate.

  5. Exciton Model Calculations up to 200 MeV: The Optical Model Points the Way

    SciTech Connect

    Duijvestijn, M.C.; Koning, A.J.

    2005-05-24

    We present a preequilibrium model for nucleons with incident energies from 7 to 200 MeV, for nuclides in the mass range A {>=} 24. This is accomplished by a new global approach for the two-component exciton model which, together with the complementary compound and direct reaction mechanisms, enables a description of continuum energy spectra over the whole outgoing energy range. We develop new forms for the internal transition rates with collision probabilities based on a recent optical-model potential. To connect with conventional semi-classical analyses, we derive from this approach a new energy-dependent form for the average square matrix element M2. We include surface effects and multiple preequilibrium emission up to any order. To assess the predictive power of our model, we have tested it against a complete experimental database of (n,xn) (n,xp) (p,xn), and (p,xp) spectra. In this paper we will show some examples.

  6. Low-energy theorems for nucleon-nucleon scattering at Mπ=450 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, V.; Epelbaum, E.; Filin, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    We apply the low-energy theorems to analyze the recent lattice QCD results for the two-nucleon system at a pion mass of Mπ≃450 MeV obtained by the NPLQCD Collaboration. We find that the binding energies of the deuteron and dineutron are inconsistent with the low-energy behavior of the corresponding phase shifts within the quoted uncertainties and vice versa. Using the binding energies of the deuteron and dineutron as input, we employ the low-energy theorems to predict the phase shifts and extract the scattering length and the effective range in the S31 and S10 channels. Our results for these quantities are consistent with those obtained by the NPLQCD Collaboration from effective field theory analyses but are in conflict with their determination based on the effective-range approximation.

  7. Study of imaging plate detector sensitivity to 5-18 MeV electrons.

    PubMed

    Boutoux, G; Rabhi, N; Batani, D; Binet, A; Ducret, J-E; Jakubowska, K; Nègre, J-P; Reverdin, C; Thfoin, I

    2015-11-01

    Imaging plates (IPs) are commonly used as passive detectors in laser-plasma experiments. We calibrated at the ELSA electron beam facility (CEA DIF) the five different available types of IPs (namely, MS-SR-TR-MP-ND) to electrons from 5 to 18 MeV. In the context of diagnostic development for the PETawatt Aquitaine Laser (PETAL), we investigated the use of stacks of IP in order to increase the detection efficiency and get detection response independent from the neighboring materials such as X-ray shielding and detector supports. We also measured fading functions in the time range from a few minutes up to a few days. Finally, our results are systematically compared to GEANT4 simulations in order to provide a complete study of the IP response to electrons over the energy range relevant for PETAL experiments. PMID:26628126

  8. Capacitance and conductance studies on silicon solar cells subjected to 8 MeV electron irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyanarayana Bhat, P.; Rao, Asha; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Usha, G.; Priya, G. Krishna; Sankaran, M.; Puthanveettil, Suresh E.

    2015-06-01

    The space grade silicon solar cells were irradiated with 8 MeV electrons with doses ranging from 5-100 k Gy. Capacitance and conductance measurements were carried out in order to investigate the anomalous degradation of the cells in the radiation harsh environments and the results are presented in this paper. Detailed and systematic analysis of the frequency-dependent capacitance and conductance measurements were performed to extract the information about the interface trap states. The small increase in density of interface states was observed from the conductance-frequency measurements. The reduction in carrier concentration upon electron irradiation is due to the trapping of charge carriers by the radiation induced trap centres. The Drive Level Capacitance Profiling (DLCP) technique has been applied to study the properties of defects in silicon solar cells. A small variation in responding state densities with measuring frequency was observed and the defect densities are in the range 1015 -1016 cm-3.

  9. Neutron-neutron quasifree scattering in nd breakup at 10 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, R. C.; Crowe, B.; Crowell, A. S.; Cumberbatch, L. C.; Esterline, J. H.; Fallin, B. A.; Friesen, F. Q. L.; Han, Z.; Howell, C. R.; Markoff, D.; Ticehurst, D.; Tornow, W.; Witała, H.

    2016-03-01

    The neutron-deuteron (nd) breakup reaction provides a rich environment for testing theoretical models of the neutron-neutron (nn) interaction. Current theoretical predictions based on rigorous ab-initio calculations agree well with most experimental data for this system, but there remain a few notable discrepancies. The cross section for nn quasifree (QFS) scattering is one such anomaly. Two recent experiments reported cross sections for this particular nd breakup configuration that exceed theoretical calculations by almost 20% at incident neutron energies of 26 and 25 MeV [1, 2]. The theoretical values can be brought into agreement with these results by increasing the strength of the 1S0 nn potential matrix element by roughly 10%. However, this modification of the nn effective range parameter and/or the 1S0 scattering length causes substantial charge-symmetry breaking in the nucleon-nucleon force and suggests the possibility of a weakly bound di-neutron state [3]. We are conducting new measurements of the cross section for nn QFS in nd breakup. The measurements are performed at incident neutron beam energies below 20 MeV. The neutron beam is produced via the 2H(d, n)3He reaction. The target is a deuterated plastic cylinder. Our measurements utilize time-of-flight techniques with a pulsed neutron beam and detection of the two emitted neutrons in coincidence. A description of our initial measurements at 10 MeV for a single scattering angle will be presented along with preliminary results. Also, plans for measurements at other energies with broad angular coverage will be discussed.

  10. Large scale silver nanowires network fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H+) ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honey, S.; Naseem, S.; Ishaq, A.; Maaza, M.; Bhatti, M. T.; Wan, D.

    2016-04-01

    A random two-dimensional large scale nano-network of silver nanowires (Ag-NWs) is fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H+) ion beam irradiation. Ag-NWs are irradiated under H+ ion beam at different ion fluences at room temperature. The Ag-NW network is fabricated by H+ ion beam-induced welding of Ag-NWs at intersecting positions. H+ ion beam induced welding is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the structure of Ag NWs remains stable under H+ ion beam, and networks are optically transparent. Morphology also remains stable under H+ ion beam irradiation. No slicings or cuttings of Ag-NWs are observed under MeV H+ ion beam irradiation. The results exhibit that the formation of Ag-NW network proceeds through three steps: ion beam induced thermal spikes lead to the local heating of Ag-NWs, the formation of simple junctions on small scale, and the formation of a large scale network. This observation is useful for using Ag-NWs based devices in upper space where protons are abandoned in an energy range from MeV to GeV. This high-quality Ag-NW network can also be used as a transparent electrode for optoelectronics devices. Project supported by the National Research Foundation of South Africa (NRF), the French Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique, iThemba-LABS, the UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences & Nanotechnology, the Third World Academy of Science (TWAS), Organization of Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSDW), the Abdus Salam ICTP via the Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), and the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan.

  11. Optimization of intensity-modulated very high energy (50-250 MeV) electron therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeboah, C.; Sandison, G. A.; Moskvin, V.

    2002-04-01

    This work evaluates the potential of very high energy (50-250 MeV) electron beams for dose conformation and identifies those variables that influence optimized dose distributions for this modality. Intensity-modulated plans for a prostate cancer model were optimized as a function of the importance factors, beam energy and number of energy bins, number of beams, and the beam orientations. A trial-and-error-derived constellation of importance factors for target and sensitive structures to achieve good conformal dose distributions was 500, 50, 10 and 1 for the target, rectum, bladder and normal tissues respectively. Electron energies greater than 100 MeV were found to be desirable for intensity-modulated very high energy electron therapy (VHEET) of prostate cancer. Plans generated for lower energy beams had relatively poor conformal dose distributions about the target region and delivered high doses to sensitive structures. Fixed angle beam treatments utilizing a large number of fields in the range 9-21 provided acceptable plans. Using more than 21 beams at fixed gantry angles had an insignificant effect on target coverage, but resulted in an increased dose to sensitive structures and an increased normal tissue integral dose. Minor improvements in VHEET plans utilizing a `small' number (=<9) of beams may be achieved if, in addition to intensity modulation, energy modulation is implemented using a small number (=<3) of beam energies separated by 50 to 100 MeV. Rotation therapy provided better target dose homogeneity but unfortunately resulted in increased rectal dose, bladder dose and normal tissue integral dose relative to the 21-field fixed angle treatment plan. Modulation of the beam energy for rotation therapy had no beneficial consequences on the optimized dose distributions. Lastly, selection of beam orientations influenced the optimized treatment plan even when a large number of beams (approximately 15) were employed.

  12. Interaction of Superconducting YBa2Cu(sub 3-x)Zn(sub x)O(sub 7-y) with MeV Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. A.; Robertson, G. A.

    2005-01-01

    When the high Tc superconductor Y-Ba-Cu-O is cooled with liquid nitrogen, the conduction holes form a macroscopic collective or entangled state. While collective effects have been observed with radiation energies up to 5 eV, no high-sensitivity experiments have previously been carried out to search for comparable effects with MeV radiation. Here an experiment using a pair of scintillation counters arranged to search for changes in the natural background of high energy radiation adjacent to a warm and cold Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor is described. The experiment showed a shift toward higher pulse heights when the SC was cooled, with a 4 standard deviation excess of 9.12+/-2.28 events/ksec over the range of 0 to 18 MeV. The net difference spectrum shows a 5.5 standard deviation excess signal for the range of 3 to 6 MeV.

  13. 12C(16O, α)24Mg* reaction in the energy region Ec.m.=26.6 to 42.9 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechara, M. J.; Lazzarini, A. J.; Ledoux, R. J.; Cosman, E. R.

    1983-04-01

    The 12C+16O resonance structure in the 28Si nucleus is examined by means of the 12C(16O, α)24Mg reaction excitation functions in the energy range Ec.m.=26.6 to 42.9 MeV in 430 keV steps at θlab=7.5°. We could identify 64 discrete states in 24Mg up to 31.7 MeV of excitation energy. The excitation functions show abundant structure over the entire energy range. The summed excitation functions, which tend to average out statistical fluctuations, show pronounced intermediate structure enhancement in the cross section at Ec.m.~=29.5, 32.2, and 35 MeV and indicate the presence of a smaller peak at 37.3 MeV. The widths of these structures are about 1 MeV, which is intermediate between the value expected from ion-ion potential resonances and statistical fluctuations. The nonstatistical character of these structures is reinforced by some statistical tests and by the correlations in energy and width found in several exit channels. Our data also suggest a possible structural relationship between the 28Si resonances and certain 24Mg final states. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 12C(16O, α)24Mg* measured σ(E) to states up to 31.7 MeV of excitation energy for Ec.m.=26.6 to 42.9 MeV in 430 keV steps, θlab=7.5°. Nonstatistical structure observed.

  14. Cross sections and analyzing powers of sup 15 N(p,n) sup 15 O at 200 MeV and 494 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Ciskowski, D.E. )

    1989-11-01

    Differential cross sections and analyzing powers have been measured for the {sup 15}N(p,n){sup 15} O(g.s.) reaction at bombarding energies of 200 MeV and 494 MeV. The 494 MeV data were obtained at the LAMPF Neutron Time-Of-Flight Facility on an 82 m flight path with a resolution of about 2.7 MeV. The 200 MeV data were obtained at IUCF on a 76m flight path with a resolution of about 1.1 MeV. At both energies, the measured analyzing power is small, the magnitude is less than .2 for momentum transfers of less than 1 fm{sup {minus}1}. In contrast, both Relativistic and standard DWIA calculations predict a maximum of A={minus}.7 near q=0.7 fm{sup {minus}1}. 53 refs., 44 figs.

  15. Extending the energy range of materials activation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, R. A.

    2004-08-01

    Activation calculations are an essential contribution to understanding the interactions of fusion materials with neutrons. The existing state-of-the-art tools such as EASY-2003 enable calculations to be carried out with neutrons up to 20 MeV. Plans to expose fusion components to high neutron fluxes include the IFMIF materials testing facility. This accelerator-based device will produce neutrons with a high-energy tail up to about 55 MeV. In order to carry out activation calculations on materials exposed to such neutrons it is necessary to extend the energy range of the data libraries. An extension of the European Activation System (EASY) to a new version, EASY-2004, for testing has been completed. The existing reactions have been extended up to 60 MeV and new classes of reactions added using calculated cross sections. Results of preliminary calculations in an IFMIF relevant neutron field are given.

  16. 17O(n,α)14C cross section from 25 meV to approximately 1 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, P. E.; Graff, S. M.

    1991-12-01

    We have measured the 17O(n,α)14C cross section from thermal energy to approximately 1 MeV. A bump in the data near 3 keV could be fitted by a state whose properties are consistent with a known subthreshold J π=1- level at Ex=8.039 MeV. The cause of the 1/v cross section near thermal energy could not be determined although the known 2+ state at 8.213 MeV was found to be too narrow to contribute much to the thermal cross section. Our data are compared to measurements made via the inverse reaction. There are many differences between the two sets of data. The astrophysical reaction rate was calculated from the measured cross section. This reaction plays a role in the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in nonstandard big-bang models. At big-bang temperatures, the experimental rate was found to be in fair agreement with the rate estimated from the previously known properties of states of 18O in this region. Furthermore, using the available information from experiments, it was estimated that the 17O(n,α)14C rate is approximately a factor of 103-104 times larger than the 17O(n,γ)18O rate at big-bang temperatures. As a result, there may be significant cycling between 14C and 17O resulting in a reduction of heavy-element nucleosynthesis.

  17. Stopping powers of polycarbonate for 0.36-5.94-MeV protons and 1.0-24.0-MeV α particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räisänen, J.; Trzaska, W. H.; Alanko, T.; Lyapin, V.; Porter, L. E.

    2003-08-01

    The stopping powers of polycarbonate for protons of energy 0.6-5.9 MeV and α particles of energy 2.0-24.0 MeV have been measured in a transmission experiment employing thin-foil targets. The essence of the novel experimental method employed in the present measurements is to record both projectile energy and time of flight while constantly alternating measurements with and without the target foil in place. The accuracies of the proton data and α-particle data range from 2.0% to 3.0% and 2.2% to 2.7%, respectively. All of the resulting measurements were analyzed in terms of modified Bethe-Bloch theory in order to extract values of the target mean excitation energy (I) and Barkas-effect parameter (b). The composite results for the two projectiles are that I=71.52 eV and b=1.13, the former value lying about one standard deviation below the additivity value and the latter value lying about one standard deviation below the expected value of 1.4±0.1. Previous measurements of the stopping power of polycarbonate for 7Li ions were analyzed by the same method, but with the inclusion of an effective charge parameter (λ). The proton and α-particle data, with a few lower-energy points included, were analyzed for a three-parameter fit, also. Results for the three projectiles studied indicate both internal consistency and agreement with expectations based on modified Bethe-Bloch theory.

  18. The solar gamma ray spectrum between 4 and 8 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Suri, A. N.

    1976-01-01

    The properties of nuclear gamma ray emission in the 4 to 8 MeV range were evaluated. This emission consists of broad and narrow lines resulting from nuclear reactions of energetic H, He, C and O nuclei with ambient matter. Calculations were compared with observations of the 1972, August 4 flare and show that: (1) essentially all the observed radiation in the 4 to 8 MeV region is to the superposition of broad and narrow lines of nuclear origin with almost no contribution from other mechanisms; (2) the accelerated particles in the energy region from about 10 to 100 MeV/amu have a relatively flat Energy spectrum; (3) the calculated gamma ray spectrum, obtained from an isotropic distribution of accelerated particles, fits the observed spectrum better than the spectrum derived from an anisotropic distribution for which the particles' velocity vectors point towards the photosphere; and (4) it is possible to set a stringent upper limit on the ratio of relativistic electrons to protons in flares, consistent with the small, but finite, electron-to-proton ratio in galactic cosmic rays.

  19. Measurement of α particle energy loss in biological tissue below 2 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Bruschi, P.; Portella, C.; Altieri, S.

    2009-09-01

    The energy loss of α particles crossing biological tissue at energies between 0.8 and 2.2 MeV has been measured. This energy range is very important for boron neutron capture therapy, based on the 10B( n, α) 7Li reaction, which emits α particles with energies of 1.78 and 1.47 MeV. One of the methods used for the measurement of the boron concentration in tissue is based on the deconvolution of the α spectra obtained from neutron irradiation of thin (70 μm) tissue samples. For this technique, a knowledge of the behaviour of the energy loss of the particles in the irradiated tissue is of critical importance. In particular, the curve of the residual energy as a function of the distance travelled in the tissue must be known. In this paper, the results of an experiment carried out with an 241Am source and a series of cryostatic sections of rat-lung tissue are presented. The experimental measurements are compared with the results of Monte Carlo calculations performed with the MCNPX code.

  20. LET spectrometry of 14 MeV (D-T) neutrons using CR-39 track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, G. S.; Tripathy, S. P.; Sunil, C.; Sarkar, P. K.

    2013-04-01

    Linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum in water in the range of 12 keV/μm to 382 keV/μm due to 14 MeV (D-T) neutrons is estimated using the track size parameters in two different types of CR-39 track detectors, viz. Intercast (1.5 mm) and Pershore (0.5 mm). Another set of CR-39s (Intercast) combined with 1 mm polyethylene (PE) radiators is exposed to study the effect of enhanced recoils on the LET spectrum. The detection efficiencies for all these cases and the enhancement ratio due to PE radiator are determined. Using this LET spectrum, the microdosimetric spectra of absorbed doses and dose equivalents are estimated based on the Q-L conversion factors as given in ICRP 60. The shape of the LET spectra are found to be similar in all the cases, however, the dose equivalents obtained with the CR-39+PE radiator is about 20% more than the other detectors without PE. The ratios of dose equivalents obtained from LET spectra (HLET) and the ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) obtained from fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors (ICRP 74) for 14 MeV neutrons are used to estimate the dose response of the detectors. H*(10) is also measured using a neutron rem meter, the response of which is found to be about 23% less than the actual dose.

  1. Occurrence of brain tumors in rhesus monkeys exposed to 55-MeV protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, D. H.; Yochmowitz, M. G.; Hardy, K. A.; Salmon, Y. L.

    Twenty-year observation of monkeys exposed to single doses of high energy protons simulating solar particles revealed that the most prevalent fatal cancers were brain tumors in the group of animals exposed to 55-MeV protons. Of 72 animals (50 males and 22 females) receiving 0.25 to 8.0 Gy total body surface dose, nine developed fatal tumors classified as grade IV astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme. The latent period for tumor development ranged from 14 months to 20 years, with a median of 5 years. Doses associated with the tumors were 4.0 to 8.0 Gy. Eight males and one female were affected. Depth-dose determinations suggest that the high incidence of cerebral neoplasia is associated with the Bragg Peak energy distribution of the 55-MeV protons. Comparison of the tumor incidence with that in humans with brain exposures incidental to radiotherapy indicates a high biological effectiveness compared with gamma radiation. Studies are in progress to attempt to replicate the results in rodents and establish a dose-response curve for proton-induced brain tumors.

  2. Diffuse cosmic gamma rays at 1-20 MeV: a trace of the dark matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Kyle; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R E-mail: arz@phas.ubc.ca

    2008-01-15

    Several independent observations of the galactic core suggest hitherto unexplained sources of energy. The most well known case is the 511 keV line which has proven very difficult to explain with conventional astrophysical positron sources. A similar, but less well known mystery is the excess of gamma ray photons detected by COMPTEL across a broad energy range {approx}1-20 MeV. Such photons are found to be very difficult to produce via known astrophysical sources. We show in this work that dark matter in the form of dense antimatter droplets provides a natural explanation for the observed flux of gamma rays in the {approx}1-20 MeV range. We argue that such photons must always accompany the 511 keV line as they are produced by the same mechanism within our framework. We calculate the spectrum and intensity of the {approx}1-20 MeV gamma rays, and find it to be consistent with the COMPTEL data.

  3. Laser Wakefield Acceleration of High-Quality Electron Beams to 300 MeV and Efficient Initiation of Photonuclear Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S. A.; Naumova, N.; Vane, C Randy; Beene, James R; Bulanov, S. S.; Chvykov, V.; Hou, B.; Kalintchenko, G.; Matsuoka, T.; Rousseau, P.; Schultz, David Robert; Stracener, Daniel W; Yanovsky, V.; Maksimchuk, A.

    2006-11-01

    By focusing 40-TW, 30-fs laser pulses to the intensity of 1019 W/cm2 onto a supersonic He gas jet, we generated quasi-monoenergetic electron beams for plasma density in the narrow range of 1.5<= ne <=3 1019 cm3. We show that the energy, charge, divergence and pointing stability of the beam vary sensitively with ne within this range. The observed variations can be explained physically by the interplay among pump depletion and dephasing between accelerated electrons and plasma wave. An optimized quasi-monoenergetic beam of over 300 MeV and 10 mrad angular divergence is demonstrated at a plasma density of ne~1.5 1019 cm3. The quasi-monoenergeic electron beams with energy of 100-150 MeV and charge of 0.5 nC have been used to perform gamma-nuclear photofission of natural uranium targets. Through bremsstrahlung emission, such electron beams are well suited for the efficient generation of high energy (tens of MeV) gamma-rays necessary to induce photofission reactions. Quantitative gamma-ray spectroscopy of the irradiated U sample shows that more than ~105 photonuclear reactions have been produced per Joule of laser energy, which is 10 to 50 times higher than in a previously reported experiments

  4. Laser Wakefield Acceleration of High-Quality Electron Beams to 300 MeV and Efficient Initiation of Photonuclear Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S. A.; Naumova, N.; Bulanov, S. S.; Chvykov, V.; Hou, B.; Kalintchenko, G.; Matsuoka, T.; Rousseau, P.; Yanovsky, V.; Maksimchuk, A.; Vane, C. R.; Beene, J. R.; Schultz, D. R.; Stracener, D. W.

    2006-11-27

    By focusing 40-TW, 30-fs laser pulses to the intensity of 1019 W/cm2 onto a supersonic He gas jet, we generated quasi-monoenergetic electron beams for plasma density in the narrow range of 1.5{<=} ne {<=}3x1019 cm3. We show that the energy, charge, divergence and pointing stability of the beam vary sensitively with ne within this range. The observed variations can be explained physically by the interplay among pump depletion and dephasing between accelerated electrons and plasma wave. An optimized quasi-monoenergetic beam of over 300 MeV and 10 mrad angular divergence is demonstrated at a plasma density of ne{approx}1.5x1019 cm3. The quasi-monoenergeic electron beams with energy of 100-150 MeV and charge of 0.5 nC have been used to perform {gamma}-nuclear photofission of natural uranium targets. Through bremsstrahlung emission, such electron beams are well suited for the efficient generation of high energy (tens of MeV) {gamma}-rays necessary to induce photofission reactions. Quantitative {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of the irradiated U sample shows that more than {approx}105 photonuclear reactions have been produced per Joule of laser energy, which is 10 to 50 times higher than in a previously reported experiments.

  5. Supersymmetric inversion of effective-range expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midya, Bikashkali; Evrard, Jérémie; Abramowicz, Sylvain; Ramírez Suárez, O. L.; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc

    2015-05-01

    A complete and consistent inversion technique is proposed to derive an accurate interaction potential from an effective-range function for a given partial wave in the neutral case. First, the effective-range function is Taylor or Padé expanded, which allows high precision fitting of the experimental scattering phase shifts with a minimal number of parameters on a large energy range. Second, the corresponding poles of the scattering matrix are extracted in the complex wave-number plane. Third, the interaction potential is constructed with supersymmetric transformations of the radial Schrödinger equation. As an illustration, the method is applied to the experimental phase shifts of the neutron-proton elastic scattering in the 1S0 and 1D2 channels on the [0 -350 ] MeV laboratory energy interval.

  6. MeV proton flux predictions near Saturn's D ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmann, P.; Roussos, E.; Kotova, A.; Cooper, J. F.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krupp, N.; Paranicas, C.

    2015-10-01

    Radiation belts of MeV protons have been observed just outward of Saturn's main rings. During the final stages of the mission, the Cassini spacecraft will pass through the gap between the main rings and the planet. Based on how the known radiation belts of Saturn are formed, it is expected that MeV protons will be present in this gap and also bounce through the tenuous D ring right outside the gap. At least one model has suggested that the intensity of MeV protons near the planet could be much larger than in the known belts. We model this inner radiation belt using a technique developed earlier to understand Saturn's known radiation belts. We find that the inner belt is very different from the outer belts in the sense that its intensity is limited by the densities of the D ring and Saturn's upper atmosphere, not by radial diffusion and satellite absorption. The atmospheric density is relatively well constrained by EUV occultations. Based on that we predict an intensity in the gap region that is well below that of the known belts. It is more difficult to do the same for the region magnetically connected to the D ring since its density is poorly constrained. We find that the intensity in this region can be comparable to the known belts. Such intensities pose no hazard to the mission since Cassini would only experience these fluxes on timescales of minutes but might affect scientific measurements by decreasing the signal-to-contamination ratio of instruments.

  7. The energy spectrum of 0.16 to 2 MeV electrons during solar quiet times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurford, G. J.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    New observations of the quiet-time energy spectrum of 0.16 to 2 MeV electrons were made with the Caltech Electron/Isotope Spectrometer which was launched on IMP-7 in September 1972. Earlier measurements of quiet-time electrons in this energy range by other groups have resulted in spectra differing by more than an order of magnitude in intensity. A minimum quiet-time flux somewhat lower than the lowest previously reported spectra and consistent with an extrapolation of the spectrum measured at higher energies was found. A galactic secondary source of knock-on electrons is consistent with the results and with independent studies of the interstellar spectra of cosmic ray nuclei provided that solar modulation does not suppress the 0.162 MeV electron flux by more than a factor of approximately 3. Although not required, other recently suggested sources may also contribute to the observed fluxes.

  8. Low energy spread 100 MeV-1 GeV electron bunches from laserwakefiel d acceleration at LOASIS

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Esarey, E.; Michel, P.; Nagler, B.; Nakamura, K.; Plateau, G.R.; Schroeder, C.B.; Shadwick, B.A.; Toth, Cs.; Van Tilborg,J.; Leemans, W.P.; Hooker, S.M.; Gonsalves, A.J.; Michel, E.; Cary, J.R.; and Bruhwiler, D.

    2006-08-01

    Experiments at the LOASIS laboratory of LBNL recentlydemonstrated production of 100 MeV electron beams with low energy spreadand low divergence from laser wakefield acceleration. The radiationpressure of a 10 TW laser pulse guided over 10 diffraction ranges by aplasma density channel was used to drive an intense plasma wave(wakefield), producing acceleration gradients on the order of 100 GV/m ina mm-scale channel. Beam energy has now been increased from 100 to 1000MeV by using a cm-scale guiding channel at lower density, driven by a 40TW laser, demonstrating the anticipated scaling to higher beam energies.Particle simulations indicate that the low energy spread beams wereproduced from self trapped electrons through the interplay of trapping,loading, and dephasing. Other experiments and simulations are alsounderway to control injection of particles into the wake, and henceimprove beam quality and stability further.

  9. The energy spectrum of 20 keV-20 MeV electrons accelerated in large solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Van Hollebeke, M. A. I.

    1982-01-01

    IMP 6, 7, and 8 measurements of the energy spectrum of 20 keV to 20 MeV electrons observed from large solar flares are presented. To minimize propagation effects, only events from flares at W30 deg to W90 deg solar longitude are considered. The energy spectra are constructed using the maximum flux observed at each energy. It is shown that these spectra are representative of the spectra of the electrons escaping from the sun over this range of energies. It is found that every event shows the same spectral shape: a double power law with a smooth transition around 100-200 keV and power law exponents of 0.6-2.0 below and 2.4-4.3 above. The more intense the event, the harder the observed spectrum; in certain cases, the spectra are observed to steepen above 3 MeV.

  10. High resolution inelastic gamma-ray measurements with a white neutron source from 1 to 200 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.O.; Laymon, C.M.; Wender, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of prompt gamma rays following neutron-induced reactions have recently been made at the spallation neutron source at the WNR target area of LAMPF using germanium detectors. These experiments provide extensive excitation function data for inelastic neutron scattering as well as for other reactions such as (n,{alpha}), (n,n{alpha}), (n,p), (n,np), (n,nnp) and (n,xn) for 1 {le} {times} {le} 11. The continuous energy coverage available from 1 MeV to over 200 MeV is ideal for excitation function measurements and greatly extends the energy range for such data. The results of these measurements will provide a database for interpretation of gamma-ray spectra from the planned Mars Observer mission, aid in radiation transport calculations, allow verification of nuclear reaction models, and improve the evaluated neutron reaction data base.

  11. Evidence for detection of 1-10 MeV emission from the Taurus region in 1971 August

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, D. E.; Ling, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported for three observations of the Crab Nebula with a balloon-borne actively collimated NaI detector over the energy range from 0.2 to 10 MeV. Possible changes in instrument performance and environmental background levels during the balloon flights are investigated, and fits for source strength are made over four broad energy channels. X-ray power-law spectra and pulsed-flux fractions are determined for both the Crab Nebula and its pulsar, NP 0532. A statistically significant flux greatly in excess of the power law was detected above 1 MeV during one flight; this flux, which has declined by at least a factor of 4 or 5 at the times of more recent observations, is assumed to be real and is attributed to the nebula.

  12. On the Search for Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Signatures of 235U and 238U above 3 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Bertozzi, William; Korbly, Steve; Ledoux, Robert; Park, William H.

    2010-02-01

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence is a physical process that provides an isotope-specific signature that could be used for the identification and characterization of materials. The technique involves the detection of prompt discrete-energy photons emitted from a sample that is exposed to MeV-energy photons. Potential applications of the technique range from detection of high explosives to characterization of special nuclear materials such as 235U. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Passport Systems have collaborated to conduct a pair of measurements to search for a nuclear resonance fluorescence response of 235U above 3 MeV and of 238U above 5 MeV using an 8 g sample of highly enriched uranium and a 90 g sample of depleted uranium. No new signatures were observed. The minimum detectable integrated cross section for 235U is presented.

  13. Neutron scattering differential cross sections for 23Na from 1.5 to 4.5 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhoy, J. R.; Hicks, S. F.; Chakraborty, A.; Champine, B. R.; Combs, B. M.; Crider, B. P.; Kersting, L. J.; Kumar, A.; Lueck, C. J.; Liu, S. H.; McDonough, P. J.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Sidwell, L. C.; Sigillito, A. J.; Watts, D. W.; Yates, S. W.

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of neutron elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections from 23Na have been performed for sixteen incident neutron energies between 1.5 and 4.5 MeV. These measurements were complemented by γ-ray excitation functions using the (n ,n‧ γ) reaction to include excited levels not resolved in the neutron detection measurements. The time-of-flight (TOF) technique was employed for background reduction in both neutron and γ-ray measurements and for energy determination in neutron detection measurements. Previous reaction model evaluations relied primarily on neutron total cross sections and four (n, n0) and (n, n1) angular distributions in the 5 to 9 MeV range. The inclusion of more inelastic channels and measurements at lower incident neutron energies provide additional information on direct couplings between elastic and inelastic scattering as a function of angular momentum transfer. Reaction model calculations examining collective direct-coupling and compound absorption components were performed.

  14. Nucleon-induced reactions at intermediate energies: New data at 96 MeV and theoretical status

    SciTech Connect

    Blideanu, V.; Lecolley, F.R.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefort, T.; Marie, N.; Ban, G.; Louvel, M.; Dangtip, S.; Tippawan, U.; Elmgren, K.; Eudes, Ph.; Guertin, A.

    2004-07-01

    Double-differential cross sections for light charged particle production (up to A=4) were measured in 96 MeV neutron-induced reactions, at the TSL Laboratory Cyclotron in Uppsala (Sweden). Measurements for three targets, Fe, Pb, and U, were performed using two independent devices, SCANDAL and MEDLEY. The data were recorded with low-energy thresholds and for a wide angular range (20 deg. -160 deg. ). The normalization procedure used to extract the cross sections is based on the np elastic scattering reaction that we measured and for which we present experimental results. A good control of the systematic uncertainties affecting the results is achieved. Calculations using the exciton model are reported. Two different theoretical approaches proposed to improve its predictive power regarding the complex particle emission are tested. The capabilities of each approach is illustrated by comparison with the 96 MeV data that we measured, and with other experimental results available in the literature.

  15. Dosimetric Characteristics of Circular 6-MeV X-Ray Beams for Stereotactic Radiotherapy with a Linear Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysocka, A.; Rostkowska, J.; Kania, M.; Bulski, W.; Fijuth, J.

    2000-01-01

    Dosimetric characteristics of 6 MeV circular X-ray beams of diameters ranging from 7.5 to 35.0 mm are reported. The 6-MeV X-ray beam from Clinac 2300CD was formed using additional cylindrical BrainLAB's collimators. The mechanical stability of the entire system was verified. Specific quantities measured include tissue maximum ratios (TMR), beam profiles (off-axis ratios OAR) and relative output factors. Measurements of these parameters were performed in a water phantom using small cylindrical ionization chambers and a diamond detector. Comparison of TMR values measured with the ionization chamber and the diamond detector showed no significant differences. It was shown that the latter yields more accurate results for beam profiles than ionization chambers. The mechanical and dosimetric characteristics of this radiotherapy unit are found to be suitable for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy.

  16. Polarization observables in deuteron photodisintegration below 360 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Glister, J.; Ron, G.; Lee, B. W.; Gilman, R.; Sarty, A. J.; Strauch, S.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Piasetzky, E.; Allada, K.; Armstrong, W.; Arrington, J.; Arenhövel, H.; Beck, A.; Benmokhtar, F.; Berman, B. L.; Boeglin, W.; Brash, E.; Camsonne, A.; Calarco, J.; Chen, J. P.; Choi, S.; Chudakov, E.; Coman, L.; Craver, B.; Cusanno, F.; Dumas, J.; Dutta, C.; Feuerbach, R.; Freyberger, A.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Hansen, J. -O.; Holmstrom, T.; Hyde, C. E.; Ibrahim, H.; Ilieva, Y.; de Jager, C. W.; Jiang, X.; Jones, M. K.; Kang, Hyekoo; Kelleher, A.; Khrosinkova, E.; Kuchina, E.; Kumbartzki, G.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Markowitz, P.; May-Tal Beck, S.; McCullough, E.; Meekins, D.; Meziane, M.; Meziani, Z. -E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Norum, B. E.; Oh, Y.; Olson, M.; Paolone, M.; Paschke, K.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Potokar, M.; Pomatsalyuk, R.; Pomerantz, I.; Puckett, A.; Punjabi, V.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Ransome, R. D.; Reyhan, M.; Roche, J.; Rousseau, Y.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Schulte, E.; Schwamb, M.; Shabestari, M.; Shahinyan, A.; Shneor, R.; Širca, S.; Slifer, K.; Solvignon, P.; Song, J.; Sparks, R.; Subedi, R.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Wang, K.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Zhan, X.; Zhu, X.

    2011-02-03

    We performed high precision measurements of induced and transferred recoil proton polarization in d($\\vec{γ}$, $\\vec{p}$)n for photon energies of 277--357 MeV and θcm = 20 ° -- 120 °. The measurements were motivated by a longstanding discrepancy between meson-baryon model calculations and data at higher energies. Moreover, at the low energies of this experiment, theory continues to fail to reproduce the data, indicating that either something is missing in the calculations and/or there is a problem with the accuracy of the nucleon-nucleon potential being used.

  17. The 14 MeV Frascati neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martone, M.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.

    1994-09-01

    The 14-MeV Frascati neutron generator (FNG) uses the T(d, n)α fusion reaction to produce 5.0 × 10 11 n/s. In FNG a beam of deuterons is accelerated up to 300 keV by means of a linear electrostatic tube and directed onto a tritiated-titanium target containing 37 × 10 10 Bq of tritium. This paper describes the FNG facility and its auxiliary apparatus as well as the neutron source calibration performed using the associated α-particle method.

  18. A 600 MeV cyclotron for radioactive beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.J.

    1993-05-17

    The magnetic field design for a 600 MeV proton cyclotron is described. The cyclotron has a single stage, a normal conducting magnet coil and a 9.8 m outside yoke diameter. It has 8 sectors, with a transition to 4 sectors in the center region. The magnetic field design was done using 1958 Harwell rectangular ridge system measurements and was compared with recent 3-dimensional field calculations with the program TOSCA at NSCL. The center region 4--8 sector transition focussing was also checked with TOSCA.

  19. Polarization observables in deuteron photodisintegration below 360 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Glister, Jacqueline; Lee, Byungwuek; Gilman, R; Sarty, Adam; Strauch, Steffen; Higinbotham, Douglas; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Allada, Kalyan; Armstrong, Whitney; Arrington, John; Beck, Arie; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Berman, Barry; Boeglin, Werner; Brash, Edward; Camsonne, Alexandre; Calarco, John; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Coman, Luminita; Craver, Brandon; Cusanno, Francesco; Dumas, Jonathan; Dutta, Chiranjib; Feuerbach, Robert; Freyberger, Arne; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Holmstrom, Timothy; Hyde, Charles; Ibrahim, Hassan; Ilieva, Yordanka; De Jager, Cornelis; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jones, Mark; Kang, Hoyoung; Kelleher, Aidan; Khrosinkova, Elena; Kuchina, Elena; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Markowitz, Pete; Beck, S. May-Tal; McCullough, Emily; Meekins, David; Meziane, Mehdi; Meziane, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Norum, Blaine; Oh, Yongseok; Olson, Michael; Paolone, Michael; Paschke, Kent; Perdrisat, Charles; Potokar, Milan; Pomatsalyuk, Roman; Pomerantz, Ishay; Puckett, Andrew; Punjabi, Vina; Qian, Xin; Qiang, Yi; Ransome, Ronald; Reyhand, Meral; Roche, Julie; Rousseau, Yannick; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Schulte, Elaine; Hashemi Shabestari, Mitra; Shahinyan, Albert; Shneor, R; Sirca, Simon; Slifer, Karl; Solvignon, Patricia; Song, JeongSeog; Sparks, Rachel; Subedi, Ramesh; Urciuoli, Guido; Wang, Kebin; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, Xinhu; Yao, Huan; Zhan, Xiaohui

    2011-03-01

    High precision measurements of induced and transferred recoil proton polarization in d(polarized gamma, polarized p})n have been performed for photon energies of 277--357 MeV and theta_cm = 20 degrees -- 120 degrees. The measurements were motivated by a longstanding discrepancy between meson-baryon model calculations and data at higher energies. At the low energies of this experiment, theory continues to fail to reproduce the data, indicating that either something is missing in the calculations and/or there is a problem with the accuracy of the nucleon-nucleon potential being used.

  20. Polarization observables in deuteron photodisintegration below 360 MeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Glister, J.; Ron, G.; Lee, B. W.; Gilman, R.; Sarty, A. J.; Strauch, S.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Piasetzky, E.; Allada, K.; Armstrong, W.; et al

    2011-02-03

    We performed high precision measurements of induced and transferred recoil proton polarization in d(more » $$\\vec{γ}$$, $$\\vec{p}$$)n for photon energies of 277--357 MeV and θcm = 20 ° -- 120 °. The measurements were motivated by a longstanding discrepancy between meson-baryon model calculations and data at higher energies. Moreover, at the low energies of this experiment, theory continues to fail to reproduce the data, indicating that either something is missing in the calculations and/or there is a problem with the accuracy of the nucleon-nucleon potential being used.« less

  1. Astronomical telescope for photons-gamma rays of low energy (approximately 4 MeV using the difference method like a Venetian blind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Aguiar, O. D.; Martin, I. M.

    1980-07-01

    A description of a gamma ray telescope, which is sensitive to photons in the energy range of 3 - 10 MeV is presented. Collimation was provided by a passive shield which functioned somewhat like a 'venetian blind' to block the signal from one of the detectors. Signal subtraction techniques were used to obtain the desired information.

  2. Nuclear sizes of /sup 40,42,44,48/Ca from elastic scattering of 104 MeV alpha particles. I. Experimental results and optical potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Gils, H.J.; Friedman, E.; Rebel, H.; Buschmann, J.; Zagromski, S.; Klewe-Nebenius, H.; Neumann, B.; Pesl, R.; Bechtold, G.

    1980-04-01

    Differential cross sections for elastic scattering of 104 MeV ..cap alpha.. particles from /sup 40,42,44,48/Ca have been measured with high angular accuracy over a wide angular range. Optical model analysis based on a Fourier-Bessel description of the real potential reveals isotopic differences which, in particular for /sup 48/Ca, indicate a small neutron skin.

  3. Measurement of the (236)U(n,f) cross section from 170 MeV to 2 MeV at the CERN n_TOF Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmento, R.; Goncalves, I. F.; Vaz, P.; Carrapico, C.; Carrillo de Albornoz, A.; Marques, L.; Salgado, J.; Tavora, L.; Calviani, M.; Andriamonje, S.; Chiaveri, E.; Guerrero, C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Colonna, N.; Barbagallo, M.; Marrone, S.; Tagliente, G.; Terlizzi, R.; Belloni, F.; Fuji, K.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Guerrero, C.; Martinez, T.; Mendoza, E.; Villamarin, D.; Vicente, M. C.; Andrzejewski, Jozef; Karamanis, D.; Marganiec, J.; Assimakopoulos, P. A.; Karadimos, D.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Patronis, N.; Audouin, L.; David, S.; Ferrant, L.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Leeb, H.; Oberhummer, H.; Pigni, M. T.; Baumann, P.; Kerveno, M.; Lukic, S.; Rudolf, G.; Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Calvino, F.; Capote, R.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Griesmayer, E.; Mengoni, A.; Praena, J.; Capote, R.; Lozano, M.; Quesada, J.; Cennini , P.; Chapel, V.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Neves, F.; et al.

    2011-01-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of {sup 236}U was measured at the neutron Time-of-Flight (n-TOF) facility at CERN relative to the standard {sup 235}U(n,f) cross section for neutron energies ranging from above thermal to several MeV. The measurement, covering the full range simultaneously, was performed with a fast ionization chamber, taking advantage of the high resolution of the n-TOF spectrometer. The n-TOF results confirm that the first resonance at 5.45 eV is largely overestimated in some nuclear data libraries. The resonance triplet around 1.2 keV was measured with high resolution and resonance parameters were determined with good accuracy. Resonances at high energy have also been observed and characterized and different values for the cross section are provided for the region between 10 keV and the fission threshold. The present work indicates various shortcomings of the current nuclear data libraries in the subthreshold region and provides the basis for an accurate re-evaluation of the {sup 236}U(n,f) cross section, which is of great relevance for the development of emerging or innovative nuclear reactor technologies.

  4. First Light: MeV Astrophysics from the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Richard S.; Lawrence, David J.

    2016-06-01

    We report evidence of the first astrophysical source detected from the Moon at MeV energies. Our detection of Cygnus X-1 is a validation of a new investigative paradigm in which the lunar environment is intrinsic to the detection approach: the Lunar Occultation Technique (LOT). NASA’s Lunar Prospector mission served as a proxy for a dedicated LOT-based mission. The characteristic signature of temporal modulation, generated by repeated lunar occultations and encoded within acquired gamma-ray data (0.5–9 MeV), is consistent with an unambiguous detection of Cygnus X-1 at 5.4σ significance. Source localization and long-term monitoring capabilities of the LOT are also demonstrated. This “first light” detection verifies the basic tenets of the LOT methodology, reinforces its feasibility as an alternative astronomical detection paradigm for nuclear astrophysics investigations, and is an illustration of the fundamental benefits of the Moon as a platform for science.

  5. Upgrading the Linac 400 MeV Switchyard

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M Ankenbrandt et al.

    2004-06-09

    This note describes changes in the 400 MeV beam transfer system from the Linac to improve the quality of the beam delivered to the Booster and to add the capability to direct beam to the MuCool Test Area (MTA). The new configuration has two pairs of pulsed dipole magnets on each side of the 400 MeV electrostatic Chopper. The smaller pair deflects vertically to replace the kick of the Chopper to send the beam to the Booster while the larger pair deflects horizontally to transfer the beam to the MTA. In this new scheme, the Chopper is uncharged while the beam is injected into the Booster such that the injection position does not rely on Chopper power supply regulation as it does now. A feature of the proposed upgrade is that no changes in the lattice functions are required in the lines to the Booster or to the Dump; once the four new magnets are installed, the switch between the old and new operating modes can be done from upstairs. The transfer to the MTA is already described in a previous note.

  6. Thermoluminescence response of flat optical fiber subjected to 9 MeV electron irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, S.; Omar, S. S. Che; Ibrahim, S. A.; Hassan, W. M. S. Wan; Ung, N. M.; Mahdiraji, G. A.; Bradley, D. A.; Alzimami, K.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the efforts of finding a new thermoluminescent (TL) media using pure silica flat optical fiber (FF). The present study investigates the dose response, sensitivity, minimum detectable dose and glow curve of FF subjected to 9 MeV electron irradiations with various dose ranges from 0 Gy to 2.5 Gy. The above-mentioned TL properties of the FF are compared with commercially available TLD-100 rods. The TL measurements of the TL media exhibit a linear dose response over the delivered dose using a linear accelerator. We found that the sensitivity of TLD-100 is markedly 6 times greater than that of FF optical fiber. The minimum detectable dose was found to be 0.09 mGy for TLD-100 and 8.22 mGy for FF. Our work may contribute towards the development of a new dosimeter for personal monitoring purposes.

  7. Ion shaking in the 200 MeV XLS-ring

    SciTech Connect

    Bozoki, E.; Kramer, S.L.

    1992-12-31

    It has been shown that ions, trapped inside the beam`s potential, can be removed by the clearing electrodes when the amplitude of the ion oscillation is increased by vertically shaking the ions. We will report on a similar experiment in the 200 Mev XLS ring. The design of the ion clearing system for the ring and the first results obtained, were already reported. In the present series of experiments, RF voltage was applied on a pair of vertical strip-lines. The frequency was scanned in the range of the ion (from H{sub 2} to CO{sub 2}) bounce frequencies in the ring (1--10 MHz). The response of the beam size, vertical betatron tune and lifetime was studied.

  8. Ion shaking in the 200 MeV XLS-ring

    SciTech Connect

    Bozoki, E.; Kramer, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    It has been shown that ions, trapped inside the beam's potential, can be removed by the clearing electrodes when the amplitude of the ion oscillation is increased by vertically shaking the ions. We will report on a similar experiment in the 200 Mev XLS ring. The design of the ion clearing system for the ring and the first results obtained, were already reported. In the present series of experiments, RF voltage was applied on a pair of vertical strip-lines. The frequency was scanned in the range of the ion (from H[sub 2] to CO[sub 2]) bounce frequencies in the ring (1--10 MHz). The response of the beam size, vertical betatron tune and lifetime was studied.

  9. Ion shaking in the 200 MeV XLS-ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozoki, E.; Kramer, S. L.

    1992-03-01

    It has been shown that ions, trapped inside the beam's potential, can be removed by the clearing electrodes when the amplitude of the ion oscillation is increased by vertically shaking the ions. We will report on a similar experiment in the 200 MeV XLS ring. The design of the ion clearing system for the ring and the first results obtained were already reported. In the present series of experiments, RF voltage was applied on a pair of vertical strip-lines. The frequency was scanned in the range of the ion (from H2 to CO2) bounce frequencies in the ring (1-10 MHz). The response of the beam size, vertical betatron tune, and lifetime was studied.

  10. Optical and structural properties of 100 MeV Fe9+ ion irradiated InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, R. L.; Dubey, S. K.; Bodhane, S. P.; Kanjilal, D.

    2016-05-01

    Single crystal InP samples were irradiated with 100 MeV Fe9+ ions for ion fluences 1x1012 and 1x1013 cm-2. Optical properties of irradiated InP was investigated by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy. The optical parameters like, refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient is found to be fluence dependent near the surface as well as near the projected range. Small change in the optical parameters near the surface region as investigated by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry indicatesthat the surfaces of irradiated InP are similar to non-irradiated InP. This is also supported by RBS/C measurements. The UV-VIS-NIR study revealed the decrease in the band gap and increase in the defect concentration in the irradiated sample as a result of nuclear energy loss.

  11. Total cross section for /p-d breakup below 30 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kievsky, A.; Brune, C. R.; Viviani, M.

    2000-05-01

    The total cross section for /p-d breakup is studied in terms of the elastic /S-matrix through the unitary condition. Calculations using the complex Kohn variational method along with the Pair Correlated Hyperspherical Harmonic basis are presented. The results have been restricted to energies below Ep=30 MeV where Coulomb effects are expected to be sizable and are compared to the existing data. Two different measurements have been found in the literature: 40 years ago, Gibbons and Macklin [Phys. Rev. 114 (1959) 571] and 26 years ago, Carlson et al. [Lett. Nuovo Cimento 8 (1973) 319]. The calculations are found to be in reasonable agreement with these old data, though a discrepancy is observed near the deuteron breakup threshold. Moreover, a detailed analysis of the contributions to the observable from different partial waves has been performed. Unexpectedly, the main contribution for a wide range of energies has been detected in the J=3/2- state.

  12. Pion scattering from polarized sup 15 N at T sub. pi. =164 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, R.; Boschitz, E.T.; Ritt, S.; Tacik, R.; Wessler, M. Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik der Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe ); Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.; Renker, D.; van den Brandt, B. ); Meyer, W.; Thiel, W. ); Mach, R. ); Amaudruz, P.; Johnson, R.R.; Smith, G.R.; Weber, P. University of Britich Columbia, Vancouver, BC )

    1990-11-01

    The analyzing power {ital A}{sub {ital y}} was measured for {pi}{sup +}{endash}{sup 15}{rvec N} elastic scattering at {ital T}{sub {pi}}=164 MeV between 40{degree} and 100{degree} using a polarized {sup 15}NH{sub 3} target. Within the statistical accuracy of the data {ital A}{sub {ital y}}({theta}) was found to be zero over the full angular range. These data together with differential cross sections from the literature are compared with theoretical predictions based on a momentum-space coupled-channel formalism. While the cross section is very well reproduced there are large discrepancies in the analyzing power for which large spin effects are predicted close to the cross-section minima. Possible deficiencies in the theoretical model are discussed.

  13. Composition of heavy cosmic rays from 25 to 180 MeV per atomic mass unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischer, R. L.; Hart, H. R., Jr.; Renshaw, A.

    1974-01-01

    Relative abundances of elements from neon through zinc in the energy range from 25 to 180 MeV per amu have been determined from particle tracks in polycarbonate detectors exposed on the Apollo 16 mission. The ratios of elemental abundances of Ne + Si and 17 less than Z less than 25 to Fe + Co + Ni are found to be 5.8 plus or minus 1.9 and 2.1 plus or minus 0.7, respectively, in agreement with the results from cellulose triacetate detectors by O'Sullivan et al. (1973). These results imply that the heavy particles observed are predominantly galactic in origin. The availability to investigators of unetched plastic detectors exposed to solar-flare particles on the Apollo 16 mission is noted.

  14. Calibration of imaging plates to electrons between 40 and 180 MeV.

    PubMed

    Rabhi, N; Bohacek, K; Batani, D; Boutoux, G; Ducret, J-E; Guillaume, E; Jakubowska, K; Thaury, C; Thfoin, I

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the response calibration of Imaging Plates (IPs) for electrons in the 40-180 MeV range using laser-accelerated electrons at Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée (LOA), Palaiseau, France. In the calibration process, the energy spectrum and charge of electron beams are measured by an independent system composed of a magnetic spectrometer and a Lanex scintillator screen used as a calibrated reference detector. It is possible to insert IPs of different types or stacks of IPs in this spectrometer in order to detect dispersed electrons simultaneously. The response values are inferred from the signal on the IPs, due to an appropriate charge calibration of the reference detector. The effect of thin layers of tungsten in front and/or behind IPs is studied in detail. GEANT4 simulations are used in order to analyze our measurements. PMID:27250413

  15. The dependence of single event upset on proton energy /15-590 MeV/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Andrews, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Low earth orbit satellite and Jupiter orbiter probe semiconductor devices may incur soft errors or single event upsets, manifested as bit flips, during exposure to such nuclear particles or heavy ions as trapped protons with energies ranging up to 1000 MeV. Experimental data is given on the average proton fluence needed to cause a bit flip as a function of proton energy for isoplanar bipolar TTL RAMs. Error dependence data shape and threshold energy can be related to the existing body of theoretical data on energy deposition following proton nuclear reactions. Experimental data also show that the relative cross sectional amplitude for functionally identical devices can be related to the device's power consumption.

  16. Mutation effect of MeV protons on bioflocculant bacteria Bacillus cereus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. N.; Ren, N.; Xue, J. M.; Yang, J.; Rong, B. L.

    2007-09-01

    A 3.2 MeV proton beam was used to irradiate bioflocculant bacteria (Bacillus cereus) to achieve mutation. The ion fluence ranged from 1011 to 1014/cm2. Most of the bacteria were killed when the ion fluence reached 1012 ions/cm2. The survival ratio drops in an exponential way on further increasing the ion fluence. The flocculating activity of 7 samples out of 51 showed a positive change, and a perfect mutant C7-23 with a stable high capacity of bioflocculant production was found. RAPD measurements showed that a new lane appears in this sample. The flocculating activity of the C7-23 bacteria increased by factors of 22%, 54% and 217% under pH values of 4, 7 or 10, respectively.

  17. Measurement of the neutron-capture cross section on 63,65Cu between 0.4 and 7.5 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Isabel; Bhike, Megha; Krishichayan, (None); Tornow, W.

    2015-10-01

    Copper is currently being used as a cooling and shielding material in most experimental searches for 0 ν β β decay. In order to accurately interpret background events in these experiments, the cross section of neutron-induced reactions on copper must be known. The purpose of this work was to measure the cross section of the 63,65Cu(n, γ)64,66Cu reactions. Data were collected through the activation method at a range of energies from approximately 0.4 MeV to 7.5 MeV, employing the neutron production reactions 3H(p,n)3Heand2H(d,n)3He. Previous data were limited to energies below approximately 3 MeV. The results are compared to predictions from the nuclear data libraries ENDF/B-VII.1 and TENDL-2014.

  18. Simultaneous quiet time observations of energetic radiation belt protons and helium ions - The equatorial alpha/p ratio near 1 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritz, T. A.; Spjeldvik, W. N.

    1979-01-01

    Simultaneous monitoring of energetic helium ions and protons in the earth's radiation belts has been conducted with Explorer 45 in the immediate vicinity of the equatorial plane. Protons were measured from less than 1 keV to 1.6 MeV and also above 3.3 MeV in a channel responsive up to 22 MeV; helium ions were monitored in three passbands: 910 keV to 3.15 MeV, 590 to 910 keV, and 2.0 to 3.99 MeV. Alpha/proton flux ratios were found to vary significantly with energy and location in the radiation belts. At equal energy per nucleon a range of variability for alpha/p from 0.0001 to well above 0.001 was found, and at equal energy per ion the corresponding variability was from 0.001 to above 10. The latter findings emphasize the relative importance of the very energetic helium ions in the overall radiation belt ion populations.

  19. Polypropylene compositional evolution under 3.5 MeV He+ ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdesselam, M.; Muller, D.; Djebara, M.; Chami, A. C.; Montgomery, P.

    2012-05-01

    A helium beam at 3.5 MeV was used to induce damage in thin polypropylene film of 5.1 μm in thickness. The fluence ranges from 2 × 1012 to 3.5 × 1015 cm-2. The evolution of the atomic composition (C and H) as a function of the fluence was investigated in situ by forward elastic scattering (C(α, α)C) and hydrogen elastic recoil detection (H(α, H)α), respectively. The helium beam was used at the same time for irradiation and analysis. In respect to the high sensitivity of the polypropylene to radiation damage, the beam current was kept at very low intensity of 0.5 nA. The mass loss becomes significant above a fluence of ˜5 × 1013 He+ cm-2. The carbon depletion levels off at a fluence of ˜5 × 1014 He+ cm-2 approximately while hydrogen loss continues to be present along the whole of the studied fluence range. The final carbon and hydrogen losses, at the highest fluence, are around 17% and 48% of their initial contents, respectively. Satisfactory fits to the release curves have been obtained in the framework of the bulk molecular recombination model (BMR). The deduced hydrogen and carbon release cross sections are 7.8 and 65.2 × 10-16 cm2, respectively. A comparison with our previous measurements of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film irradiated with 3.7 MeV He+ beam is made.

  20. Measurements of the differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering of 14-MeV neutrons in natural chromium, iron, nickel, and niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Christodoulou, E.G. . Dept. of Radiology); Tsirliganis, N.C. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Electronics); Knoll, G.F. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences)

    1999-07-01

    The time-of-flight technique was used with the ring scattering geometry in a laboratory with low neutron-scattering background to measure the angular distributions of the cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering of 14-MeV neutrons in natural chromium, iron, nickel, and niobium. Specifically for inelastic scattering, the measurements included the 1.43- and 4.56-MeV levels of [sup 52]Cr; the 0.85-, (2.94 to 3.12)-, and (4.46 to 4.51)-MeV level groups of [sup 56]Fe; the 1.33-MeV level of [sup 60]Ni combined with the 1.45-MeV level of [sup 58]Ni; and the 4.48-MeV level of [sup 58]Ni. Pulses of neutrons with time width of 0.9 to 1.1 ns were produced via the D-T reaction in a 150-keV linear accelerator, with average intensities of 9 [times] 10[sup 8] n/s. The scattering angles ranged from [approximately]16 to [approximately]160 deg, with a typical step of [approximately]10 deg. The overall uncertainty for the elastic scattering cross section was in the range of 7 to 10% for all materials, except around the minima of the angular distribution for niobium. The uncertainties for the inelastic scattering cross sections were estimated to be between 8 and 24%. The measured angular distributions were compared with the evaluations in the ENDF/B-VI, JENDL-3, CENDL-2, BROND-2, and JEF-2 nuclear data libraries. For elastic scattering, there are no significant discrepancies in general, neither among the evaluations nor between the present data and the evaluations. For the inelastic scattering there are substantial discrepancies both in shape and magnitude among the evaluations (when available) as well as between the present data and the evaluations.

  1. A Monte Carlo comparison of PGNAA system performance using 252Cf neutrons, 2.8-MeV neutrons and 14-MeV neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, A. A.

    2003-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to compare performance of a 252Cf neutron and a 14-MeV neutron-based prompt γ-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system with that of the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Since the energy of neutron beam used in the KFUPM PGNAA system is very close to that produced by a DD neutron generator, performance comparison between a DD and a DT neutron generator-based PGNAA system is highly desired. For the sake of comparison, the calculations were carried out for the PGNAA system with geometry similar to the KFUPM PGNAA system. These calculations were required to determine improvement in performance of the KFUPM PGNAA system if its 2.8-MeV neutron source is replaced by a 252Cf neutron source or a 14-MeV neutron source. Results of the calculations revealed that the geometry of the 252Cf neutron and the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system are not significantly different but the geometry of the 14-MeV neutron-based system is significantly different from that of the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system. Accordingly, the prompt γ-ray yields from the 252Cf neutron and the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system is comparable but prompt γ-ray yields from 14-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system are about three times smaller than that from the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system. This study has shown that performance of the 252Cf neutron-based PGNAA system is comparable with that of the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system but the performance of the 14-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system is poorer than that of the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system.

  2. 10B(n, Z) measurements in the energy range 0.7 to 5.0 MeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Massey, T. N.; Ralston, J.; Grimes, S. M.; Haight, R. C.

    2014-09-03

    Four ΔE E telescopes were used at the WNR (n,Z) station to investigate the production of charged particles from 10B. The telescope consisted of a gas proportional detector and a silicon surface barrier detector. The flux was determined using a 238U fission chamber. A clear separation of the ground state alpha group and first excited state a was not achieved due to the target thickness. Proton emission was also observed. Furthermore, the proton branch was up to an order of magnitude larger than predicted in ENDF/B-VII A simple R-matrix analysis has been performed on the available data

  3. Atmospheric gamma-ray lines at low latitudes in the energy range : 0.3-8 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azcarate, I. N.

    2003-12-01

    An experiment carried out with a collimated gamma-ray detector is described. The detector system was transported by an stratospheric balloon, that was launched from Parana, Provincia de Entre Rios, Argentina, on 18 November 1992 ( geomagnetic cut-off 11.1 GV). The presence of a peak was observed, as a characteristic feature of the energy-loss spectrum in the detector. That peak corresponds to the 511 keV line produced by positron annihilation in both the atmopsphere and the lead collimator. The contribution to the counting rate ``below" the peak due to the 511 keV photons produced in the lead is computed. The resulting flux for the atmospheric 511 keV line, at an atmospheric depth of 4.5 g.cm-2, is (9 ± 0.07) x 10-2 phot. cm-2.s-1, which is compatible with measurements performed at other geomagnetic latitudes. Upper limits for other atmospheric gamma-ray lines fluxes are obtained. Acknowledgements : This research was partially supported by grant PIP 0430/98 from CONICET, from Argentina. I.N. Azcarate is a member of the Carrera del Investigador Cientifico y Tecnologico from CONICET, Argentina.

  4. Measurements of radiological data of some amino acids in the energy range 0.122-1.330MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokhande, Rajkumar M.; More, Chaitali V.; Surung, Bharat S.; Raut, Siddheshwar D.; Pawar, Pravina P.

    2016-05-01

    Radiological parameters such as μm, σt, σe, Zeff and Neff of amino acids, namely Lysine (C6H15N2O2), Histidine (C6H9N3O2) and Arginine (C6H15N4O2), were measured using NaI (Tl)-based gamma spectrometry. Radioactive sources used in the study are 57Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, 54Mn, 60Co and 22Na. Gamma ray transmission method in a narrow beam good geometry set up was used in the study. The measured data were compared against XCOM-based data. The agreement is within 2%.

  5. Light Charged-Particle Production Activation Cross Sections of Zr Isotopes from 14 to 20 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Semkova, V.; Plompen, A.J.M.; Smith, D.L.

    2005-05-24

    Results of new cross-section measurements are presented for the following neutron-induced reactions: 90Zr(n,{alpha})87mSr, 90Zr(n,p)90mY, 91Zr(n,p)91mY, 91Zr(n,x)90mY, 92Zr(n,p)92Y, 92Zr(n,x)91mY, 94Zr(n,{alpha})91Sr, and 94Zr(n,p)94Y in the energy range from 14 to 21 MeV. Use was made of the activation technique in combination with high-resolution {gamma}-ray spectrometry. The irradiations were carried out at the 7-MV Van de Graaff accelerator at IRMM, Geel. Quasi-monoenergetic neutrons were produced via the 3H(d,n)4He reaction at 1, 2, 3, and 4 MeV incident deuteron energy. Both natural and samples enriched in 90Zr, 91Zr, and 92Zr were used to enhance the reaction yield or to facilitate correction for interfering reactions leading to the same product. The measured results are compared with work by other authors, TALYS-0.57 and EMPIRE-II model calculations, and current evaluated data files. Cross sections for all of the investigated reactions have been measured for the first time above 16 MeV.

  6. Elastic and inelastic scattering of polarized protons from carbon-12 at 400, 600, and 700 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.

    1984-04-01

    Good resolution cross section and analyzing power (p vector, p') data for many states in /sup 12/C up to an excitation energy of 21 MeV and spanning a momentum transfer range of 0.3 to 2.1 fm/sup -1/ were obtained using the High Resolution Spectrometer at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility at incident beam energies of 398, 597, and 698 MeV. Optical model potentials were obtained from the elastic scattering data. Inelastic data were analyzed in the Distorted Wave Impulse Approximation using the Love-Franey effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. The energy dependent isoscalar natural parity cross sections were underestimated, while phase difficulties were encountered in fitting analyzing powers. The energy independent isovector natural parity cross sections were reasonably reproduced, but analyzing powers were not, the calculations yielding positive trends whereas the data are of opposite sign. The energy independent isoscalar and isovector unnatural parity cross sections were quite well reproduced up to moderate momentum transfers, and striking successes were observed for some analyzing power data. Systematics of energy dependence together with the results of the DWIA calculations permitted the assignment of spin, parity and isospin quantum numbers to states in the 18-21 MeV excitation region. 64 references.

  7. Detectors for energies less than 10 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    In the energy domain 100 keV to 10 MeV, both crystal scintillations and semiconductors are widely used for gamma ray detectors in spectrometer systems. These detectors' operation depend on the fact that gamma rays lose energy by ionization in these materials and electrons and holes are produced. In the case of semiconductors, these electrons and holes are collected by an electric field, and they provide an electric signal that is a direct measure of the energy lost by the gamma ray in the material. Scintillation detectors depend on a further conversion of the energy lost in electron hole pair production to the production of photons. A photomultiplier tube measures the intensity of the photon flux, and an electrical pulse proportional to the photon intensity is produced at the photomultiplier output.

  8. The 50 MeV Beam Test Facility at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Leemans, W.; Behrsing, G.; Kim, K.J.; Krupnick, J.; Matuk, C.; Selph, F.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    1993-05-01

    A new beam line, expected to be built by September 1993, will transport the 50 MeV electron beam from the ALS LINAC into an experimental area to support various R&D activities in the Center for Beam Physics at LBL. A variety of experiments are planned involving the interaction of such a relativistic electron beam with plasmas (plasma focusing), laser beams (generation of femtosecond X-ray pulses) and electromagnetic cavities (Crab cavities etc....). The beam line is designed using the measured emittance and Twiss parameters of the ALS linac. It accommodates the different requirements of the various experiments on the electron beam properties (charge, energy, pulse length) and on the handling of the beam before and after the interaction point. Special attention has also been given to incorporate diagnostics for measuring the beam properties (such as the electron energy, bunch length and charge) needed in the interpretation of the experiments.

  9. Characteristics of Sustained >100 MeV γ-ray Emissions Observed by Fermi and their Association with Solar Eruptive Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Share, Gerald H.; Murphy, Ronald; Tylka, Allan J.; Dennis, Brian R.; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K; White, Stephen M.

    2014-06-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected >20 sustained gamma-ray events >100 MeV lasting up to 20 hours. Three of these events have been discussed by the LAT Collaboration in two papers. Similar high-energy events have been observed earlier and were given the name Long Duration Gamma Ray Flares (LDGRFs; Ryan, 2000). We discuss a comprehensive study of the Fermi events beginning with a list of 98 solar eruptive events (SEEs) from 2008 to 2012 May with broad/fast (>800 km/s) or >100 keV hard X-ray emission or SEPs with >10 MeV proton fluxes above 1 proton flux unit. Our study provides the following characteristics of LAT LDGRFs: of 67 disk SEEs, 41 had broad/fast CMEs and 20 had both broad/fast CMEs and impulsive >100 keV emission; 12 of these 20 were detected by LAT above 100 MeV; no LAT events were detected in 21 events with broad/fast CMEs when hard X-ray emission was <100 keV; no LAT events were detected from the 31 CMEs originating from behind the disk. This suggests that sustained emission appears to require both a broad-fast CME and a flare with impulsive emission >100 keV. From our studies of behind-the-limb SEEs and LAT fluxes vs heliolongitude, we conclude that the protons responsible for the sustained >100 MeV events interact within about 20-30 deg. of the active region, but not necessarily at the footpoints of the flare loops. We also find in a study of all events: >300 MeV proton interactions producing the >100 MeV emission begin from <1 min to tens of min from the peak of the HXR emission; durations of the sustained emission events last from ~30 min to 20 hrs; spectral indices of >300 MeV protons at the Sun range from about -2.5 (2012 May 17 GLE) to steeper than -6 (average about -4.8); the proton spectrum can both soften and harden in time; the numbers of >500 MeV solar protons producing the sustained emission are typically ten-times larger than those in the impulsive flare, but there are exceptions; the numbers of >500 MeV protons producing

  10. Compton-Pair Production Space Telescope (ComPair) for MeV Gamma-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The gamma-ray energy range from a few hundred keV to a few hundred MeV has remained largely unexplored, mainly due to the challenging nature of the measurements, since the pioneering, but limited, observations by COMPTEL on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991- 2000). This energy range is a transition region between thermal and nonthermal processes, and accurate measurements are critical for answering a broad range of astrophysical questions. We are developing a MIDEX-scale wide-aperture discovery mission, ComPair (Compton-Pair Production Space Telescope), to investigate the energy range from 200 keV to > 500 MeV with high energy and angular resolution and with sensitivity approaching a factor of 100 better than COMPTEL. This instrument will be equally capable to detect both Compton-scattering events at lower energy and pair-production events at higher energy. ComPair will build on the heritage of successful space missions including Fermi LAT, AGILE, AMS and PAMELA, and will utilize well-developed space-qualified detector technologies including Si-strip and CdZnTe-strip detectors, heavy inorganic scintillators, and plastic scintillators.

  11. Little Boy neutron spectrum below 3 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.E.; Bennett, E.F.; Yule, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The leakage neutron spectrum from the Little Boy replica has been measured from 12 keV to 3 MeV using a high-resolution /sup 3/He ionization chamber, and from 1 keV to 3 MeV using proton-recoil proportional counters. The /sup 3/He-spectrometer measurements were made at distances of 0.75 and 2.0 m from the active center and at angles of 0/sup 0/, 45/sup 0/, and 90/sup 0/ with respect to the axis of the assembly. Proton-recoil measurments were made at 90/sup 0/ to the assembly axis at distances of 0.75 and 2.0 m, with a shielded measurement made at 2.0 m to estimate background due to scattering. The /sup 3/He spectrometer was calibrated at Los Alamos using monoenergetic /sup 7/Li(p,n)/sup 7/Be neutrons to generate a family of response functions. The proton-recoil counters were calibrated at Argonne by studying the capture of thermal neutrons by nitrogen in the counters, by observation of the 24-keV neutron resonance in iron, and by relating to the known hydrogen content of the counters. The neutron spectrum from Little Boy was found to be highly structured, with peaks corresponding to minima in the iron total neutron cross section. In particular, influence of the 24-keV iron window was evident in both sets of spectra. The measurements provide information for dosimetry calculations and also a valuable intercomparison of neutron spectrometry using the two different detector types. Spectra measured with both detectors are in essential agreement. 8 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Parity Violation in Proton-Proton Scattering at 47 Mev.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Danelle Mary

    A measurement of parity-violation in proton-proton scattering at 47 MeV has been completed by observing the longitudinal analyzing power. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). where (sigma)('+)((sigma)('-)) is the scattering cross section for positive (negative) helicity. Polarized protons from an atomic beam ion source were accelerated by the 224-cm Texas A&M University cyclotron to an energy of 50 MeV, producing a vertically polarized beam. A superconducting solenoid magnet precessed the beam polarization into the horizontal plane after which a 47.6(DEGREES) bending magnet precessed the polarization into the longtitudinal direction (p(,z) = 0.69 (+OR-) 0.02). RF transitions reversed the polarization direction every 21 msec. Protons scattered from the high pressure ((DBLTURN)37 atm), 42-cm long H(,2) gas target were detected by four plastic scintillators located in the target chamber. Photomultiplier tubes amplified the light from the scintillators, providing a signal proportional to the scattered beam intensity. A lock-in amplifier (LIA) synchronized to the spin-flip frequency compared the scattered intensity to the total beam intensity, measured with a Faraday cup. The output of the LIA was integrated for one second and then read by an ADC. Polarimeters were used to monitor both beam intensity and polarization profiles. A series of tests were performed to determine the role of spurious asymmetries due to changes in beam position and angle, and due to beam intensity modulations correlated with the spin reversal. The result after correction for beam intensity modulation was A(,z) = -(4.6 (+OR-) 2.6) x 10('-7). A more conservative result, taking into account all of the possible spurious asymmetries was A(,z) = -(4.6 (+OR-) 4.2) x 10('-7).

  13. Modification of radiobiological effects of 171 MeV protons by elements of physical protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulinina, Taisia; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Ivanov, Alexander; Molokanov, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation includes protons of various energies. Physical protection is effective in the case of low energy protons (50-100 MeV) and becomes insufficient for radiation with a high part of high-energy protons. In the experiment performed on outbred mice, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the radiobiological effect of 171 MeV protons and protons modified by elements of physical protection of the spacecraft, on a complex of indicators of the functional condition of the system hematopoiesis and the central nervous system in 24 hours after irradiation at 20 cGy dose. The spacecraft radiation protection elements used in the experiment were a construction of wet hygiene wipes called a «protective curtain», and a glass plate imitating an ISS window. Mass thickness of the " protective curtain" in terms of water equivalent was ̴ 6,2 g/cm2. Physical shielding along the path of 171 MeV protons increases their linear energy transfer leading to the absorbed dose elevation and strengthening of the radiobiological effect. In the experiment, the two types of shielding together raised the absorbed dose from 20 to 23.2 cGy. Chemically different materials (glass and water in the wipes) were found to exert unequal modifying effects on physical and biological parameters of the proton-irradiated mice. There was a distinct dose-dependent reduction of bone marrow cellularity within the dose range from 20 cGy to 23.2 cGy in 24 hours after exposure. No modifying effect of the radiation protection elements on spontaneous motor activity was discovered when compared with entrance protons. The group of animals protected by the glass plate exhibited normal orientative-trying reactions and weakened grip with the forelimbs. The effects observed in the experiment indicate the necessity to carry out comprehensive radiobiological researches (physical, biological and mathematical) in assessing the effects of physical protection, that are actual for ensuring radiation safety of crews in

  14. Validation of the GEANT4 simulation of bremsstrahlung from thick targets below 3 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandola, L.; Andenna, C.; Caccia, B.

    2015-05-01

    The bremsstrahlung spectra produced by electrons impinging on thick targets are simulated using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit. Simulations are validated against experimental data available in literature for a range of energy between 0.5 and 2.8 MeV for Al and Fe targets and for a value of energy of 70 keV for Al, Ag, W and Pb targets. The energy spectra for the different configurations of emission angles, energies and targets are considered. Simulations are performed by using the three alternative sets of electromagnetic models that are available in GEANT4 to describe bremsstrahlung. At higher energies (0.5-2.8 MeV) of the impinging electrons on Al and Fe targets, GEANT4 is able to reproduce the spectral shapes and the integral photon emission in the forward direction. The agreement is within 10-30%, depending on energy, emission angle and target material. The physics model based on the Penelope Monte Carlo code is in slightly better agreement with the measured data than the other two. However, all models over-estimate the photon emission in the backward hemisphere. For the lower energy study (70 keV), which includes higher-Z targets, all models systematically under-estimate the total photon yield, providing agreement between 10% and 50%. The results of this work are of potential interest for medical physics applications, where knowledge of the energy spectra and angular distributions of photons is needed for accurate dose calculations with Monte Carlo and other fluence-based methods.

  15. Portable 1,5 MeV X-Band Linac For Non-destructive Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saversky, A. J.; Rodionov, A. E.; Shaltyrev, A. P.; Shchedrin, I. S.

    1997-05-01

    Portable linear electron accelerator Y-34 developed in Small Accelerator Laboratory of MEPhI for non-destructive industrial radiography. This Linac is a fully self-contained device with the exception of external electric power 220Vx50Gz, 1 phase, 5 kVA. Full mass of Linac Y-34 - less than 300 kg. The Radiographic parameters: Nominal Energy - 1,5 MeV; Energy Range - 0,7...1,8 MeV; Maximum pulse current - 100 mA; Maximum Intensity - 15 R/min@m; Focal spot size - less than 2 mm. The Linac is comprised of 4 subassemblies. The X-ray head with weight less than 100 kg, dimensions: 0,7x0,7x1,0 m contains the traveling-wave accelerating structure with lens 0,4 m, electron gun, vacuum pump, tungsten target and RF-system with 500-kW magnetron. The permanent magnets focusing system provides focal spot less than 2 mm. The high voltage power unit consist of a line-type magnetron/electron gun modulator 2 kW power supply, the weight is equal 70 kg. The self-contained cooling water supply provides temperature controlled water for accelerator structure and magnetron. The control console allows convenient monitoring of critical system and Linac parameters by manual or remote computer. Portable X-band Linac Y-34 is the effective X - ray and/or electron beam source for such applications as non-destructive examination of nuclear reactor systems, solid rocket motors, technology research.

  16. The 70 MeV p-Injector Design for FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratzinger, U.; Tiede, R.; Podlech, H.; Clemente, G.; Hofmann, B.; Schempp, A.; Groening, L.; Barth, W.; Yaramishev, S.; Li, Z.; Minaev, S.

    2005-06-01

    The new FAIR facility at GSI will include a research program with antiproton beams besides a largely extended activity with heavy ion beams. The requested antiproton production rate of 7ṡ1010 has to be achieved with a linac-synchrotron SIS12 - SIS100 accelerator configuration. Therefore GSI needs now a high intensity, pulsed proton linac as an independent new linac, additionally to the heavy ion linac injector UNILAC. A novel compact p linac for an operating frequency of 352 MHz has been designed. It is based on an RFQ of the 4-rod type or alternatively of the 4-window type followed by a C_ross-Bar H_-type (CH)-DTL ranging from 3 MeV up to 70 MeV. At an aperture diameter of 20 mm these structures will reach effective shunt impedances between 100 MΩ/m and 40 MΩ/m (high energy end). 11 independently phased cavities with focusing quadrupole triplets in the intertank sections will provide 67 MV effective voltage gain within a total length of 21 m. Beam dynamics studies are promising. Depending on the beam current, the needed transverse emittance is defined by the multiturn injection scheme into the horizontal phase space of SIS12. It is aimed to fill up to 7ṡ1012 protons into SIS12 within 25μs at linac currents around 70 mA and at a normalized horizontal beam emittance of 3 μm. The energy spread has to be kept within ± 1ṡ10-3. This design was also guided by available 352 MHz klystrons with peak rf power levels slightly above 1 MW.

  17. Evidence of shell effects in the excitation function of 0.136-MeV isomeric state populated in the {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92}Nb{sup m} reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gul, K.

    2004-09-01

    Calculation for the excitation function of 0.136-MeV (2{sup +}) isomeric state in {sup 92}Nb has been carried out using Hauser-Feshbach and pre-equilibrium nuclear reaction models in 10-20 MeV energy range. A satisfactory agreement between the calculation and measurements requires the suppression of contribution from the negative-parity doublet consisting of the 0.226-MeV (2{sup -}) and 0.390-MeV (3{sup -}) states in {sup 92}Nb. This can be explained on the basis of highly retarded gamma transitions of higher energy states to the negative-parity doublet on account of its different shell model configuration compared to the shell model configuration of positive-parity states.

  18. Variation of carrier concentration and interface trap density in 8MeV electron irradiated c-Si solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Sathyanarayana Rao, Asha; Krishnan, Sheeja; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Suresh, E. P.

    2014-04-24

    The capacitance and conductance measurements were carried out for c-Si solar cells, irradiated with 8 MeV electrons with doses ranging from 5kGy – 100kGy in order to investigate the anomalous degradation of the cells in the radiation harsh environments. Capacitance – Voltage measurements indicate that there is a slight reduction in the carrier concentration upon electron irradiation due to the creation of radiation induced defects. The conductance measurement results reveal that the interface state densities and the trap time constant increases with electron dose due to displacement damages in c-Si solar cells.

  19. Observations of solar flare photon energy spectra from 20 keV to 7 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshimori, M.; Watanabe, H.; Nitta, N.

    1985-01-01

    Solar flare photon energy spectra in the 20 keV to 7 MeV range are derived from the Apr. 1, Apr. 4, apr. 27 and May 13, 1981 flares. The flares were observed with a hard X-ray and a gamma-ray spectrometers on board the Hinotori satellite. The results show that the spectral shape varies from flare to flare and the spectra harden in energies above about 400 keV. Effects of nuclear line emission on the continuum and of higher energy electron bremsstrahlung are considered to explain the spectral hardening.

  20. Telemetry Ranging: Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2015-11-01

    Telemetry ranging is a proposed alternative to conventional two-way ranging for determining the two-way time delay between a Deep Space Station (DSS) and a spacecraft. The advantage of telemetry ranging is that the ranging signal on the uplink is not echoed to the downlink, so that telemetry alone modulates the downlink carrier. The timing information needed on the downlink, in order to determine the two-way time delay, is obtained from telemetry frames. This article describes the phase and timing estimates required for telemetry ranging, and how two-way range is calculated from these estimates. It explains why the telemetry ranging architecture does not require the spacecraft transponder to have a high-frequency or high-quality oscillator, and it describes how a telemetry ranging system can be infused in the Deep Space Network.

  1. Limited range of motion

    MedlinePlus

    Limited range of motion is a term meaning that a joint or body part cannot move through its normal range of motion. ... Motion may be limited because of a problem within the joint, swelling of tissue around the joint, ...

  2. A comparative study of 30MeV boron{sup 4+} and 60MeV oxygen{sup 8+} ion irradiated Si NPN BJTs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M. Vinay Krishnaveni, S.; Yashoda, T.; Dinesh, C. M.; Krishnakumar, K. S.; Jayashree, B.; Ramani

    2015-06-24

    The impact of 30MeV boron{sup 4+} and 60MeV oxygen{sup 8+} ion irradiation on electrical characteristics of 2N3773 Si NPN Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) is reported in the present study. The transistors were decapped and irradiated at room temperature. Gummel characteristics, DC current gain and Capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics were studied before and after irradiation at different fluences. DC current gain has decreased significantly in both boron and oxygen ion irradiation. Also the value of capacitance decreased 3-4 times with increase in fluence. Both 30MeV boron ion and 60MeV oxygen ion induced similar extent of degradation in electrical characteristics of the transistor.

  3. SAR ambiguous range suppression.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Pulsed Radar systems suffer range ambiguities, that is, echoes from pulses transmitted at different times arrive at the receiver simultaneously. Conventional mitigation techniques are not always adequate. However, pulse modulation schemes exist that allow separation of ambiguous ranges in Doppler space, allowing easy filtering of problematic ambiguous ranges.

  4. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Nieset, R.T.

    1961-05-16

    A radio ranging device is described. It utilizes a super regenerative detector-oscillator in which echoes of transmitted pulses are received in proper phase to reduce noise energy at a selected range and also at multiples of the selected range.

  5. Long Range Technology Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambron, Sueann, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This summary of a meeting of the Apple Education Advisory Council, on long range technology plans at the state, county, district, and school levels, includes highlights from group discussions on future planning, staff development, and curriculum. Three long range technology plans at the state level are provided: Long Range Educational Technology…

  6. Effect of 1.33 Mev gamma radiation and 0.5 Mev electrons on the mechanical properties of graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fornes, R. E.; Memory, J. D.; Naranong, N.

    1982-01-01

    Epoxy/graphite fiber, polyimide/graphite fiber, and polysulfone/graphite fiber composites were exposed to 1.33 Mev gamma irradiation and 0.5 Mev electron bombardment for varying periods of time. The effects of the irradiation treatments on the breaking stress and Young's modulus were studied by a three point bending test. Effects were small; both electron radiation up to 5000 Mrad and gamma radiation up to 350 Mrad resulted in slight increases in both stress and modulus.

  7. Predicting solar energetic proton events (E > 10 MeV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NúñEz, Marlon

    2011-07-01

    A high level of proton radiation exposure can be dangerous to astronauts, satellite equipment, and air passengers/crew flying along polar routes. The presented solar energetic proton (SEP) event forecaster is based on a dual-model approach for predicting the time interval within which the integral proton flux is expected to meet or surpass the Space Weather Prediction Center threshold of J (E > 10 MeV) = 10 pr cm-2 sr-1 s-1 and the intensity of the first hours of well- and poorly connected SEP events. This forecaster analyzes flare and near-Earth space environment data (soft X-ray, differential and integral proton fluxes). The purpose of the first model is to identify precursors of well-connected events by empirically estimating the magnetic connectivity from the associated CME/flare process zone to the near-Earth environment and identifying the flare temporally associated with the phenomenon. The goal of the second model is to identify precursors of poorly connected events by using a regression model that checks whether the differential proton flux behavior is similar to that in the beginning phases of previous historically poorly connected SEP events and thus deduce similar consequences. An additional module applies a higher-level analysis for inferring additional information about the situation by filtering out inconsistent preliminary forecasts and estimating the intensity of the first hours of the predicted SEP events. The high-level module periodically retrieves solar data and, in the case of well-connected events, automatically identifies the associated flare and active region. For the events of solar cycles 22 and 23 of the NOAA/SWPC SEP list, the presented dual-model system, called UMASEP, has a probability of detection of all well- and poorly connected events of 80.72% (134/166) and a false alarm rate of 33.99% (69/203), which outperforms current automatic forecasters in predicting >10 MeV SEP events. The presented forecaster has an average warning time

  8. Telemetry Ranging: Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the details of the signal processing used in a telemetry ranging system in which timing information is extracted from the downlink telemetry signal in order to compute spacecraft range. A previous article describes telemetry ranging concepts and architecture, which are a slight variation of a scheme published earlier. As in that earlier work, the telemetry ranging concept eliminates the need for a dedicated downlink ranging signal to communicate the necessary timing information. The present article describes the operation and performance of the major receiver functions on the spacecraft and the ground --- many of which are standard tracking loops already in use in JPL's flight and ground radios --- and how they can be used to provide the relevant information for making a range measurement. It also describes the implementation of these functions in software, and performance of an end-to-end software simulation of the telemetry ranging system.

  9. Determination of the {sup 233}Pa(n,f) reaction cross section from 11.5 to 16.5 MeV neutron energy by the hybrid surrogate ratio approach

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, B. K.; Saxena, A.; Biswas, D. C.; Mirgule, E. T.; John, B. V.; Santra, S.; Vind, R. P.; Choudhury, R. K.; Ganesan, S.

    2008-12-15

    A new hybrid surrogate ratio approach has been employed to determine neutron-induced fission cross sections of {sup 233}Pa in the energy range of 11.5 to 16.5 MeV for the first time. The fission probability of {sup 234}Pa and {sup 236}U compound nuclei produced in {sup 232}Th({sup 6}Li, {alpha}){sup 234}Pa and {sup 232}Th({sup 6}Li, d){sup 236}U transfer reaction channels has been measured at E{sub lab}=38.0 MeV in the excitation energy range of 17.0 to 22.0 MeV within the framework of the absolute surrogate method. The {sup 233}Pa(n,f) cross sections are then deduced from the measured fission decay probability ratios of {sup 234}Pa and {sup 236}U compound nuclei using the surrogate ratio method. The {sup 233}Pa(n,f) cross section data from the present experiment along with the data from the literature, covering the neutron energy range of 1.0 to 16.5 MeV have been compared with the predictions of statistical model code EMPIRE-2.19. While the present data are consistent with the model predictions, there is a discrepancy between the earlier experimental data and EMPIRE-2.19 predictions in the neutron energy range of 7.0 to 10.0 MeV.

  10. Telemetry-Based Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon; Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Shambayati, Shervin

    2011-01-01

    A telemetry-based ranging scheme was developed in which the downlink ranging signal is eliminated, and the range is computed directly from the downlink telemetry signal. This is the first Deep Space Network (DSN) ranging technology that does not require the spacecraft to transmit a separate ranging signal. By contrast, the evolutionary ranging techniques used over the years by NASA missions, including sequential ranging (transmission of a sequence of sinusoids) and PN-ranging (transmission of a pseudo-noise sequence) whether regenerative (spacecraft acquires, then regenerates and retransmits a noise-free ranging signal) or transparent (spacecraft feeds the noisy demodulated uplink ranging signal into the downlink phase modulator) relied on spacecraft power and bandwidth to transmit an explicit ranging signal. The state of the art in ranging is described in an emerging CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) standard, in which a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence is transmitted from the ground to the spacecraft, acquired onboard, and the PN sequence is coherently retransmitted back to the ground, where a delay measurement is made between the uplink and downlink signals. In this work, the telemetry signal is aligned with the uplink PN code epoch. The ground station computes the delay between the uplink signal transmission and the received downlink telemetry. Such a computation is feasible because symbol synchronizability is already an integral part of the telemetry design. Under existing technology, the telemetry signal cannot be used for ranging because its arrival-time information is not coherent with any Earth reference signal. By introducing this coherence, and performing joint telemetry detection and arrival-time estimation on the ground, a high-rate telemetry signal can provide all the precision necessary for spacecraft ranging.

  11. Compton-Pair Production Space Telescope: Extending Fermi-LAT Discoveries into MeV Gamma-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Andrew; ComPair Team

    2016-03-01

    The keV-MeV gamma-ray energy range has remained largely unexplored over the last decade despite offering an exciting window into many astrophysical questions. This energy range is particularly challenging because it is firmly in the Compton-dominated regime where the interaction cross section is minimized. We are developing a MIDEX-scale wide-aperture discovery mission, Compton-Pair Production Space Telescope (ComPair), to investigate the energy range from 200 keV to >500 MeV with good energy and angular resolution and with sensitivity approaching a factor of 20-50 better than previous instruments. ComPair will build on the heritage of successful space missions including Fermi-LAT, AGILE, AMS and PAMELA, and will use well-developed space-qualified detector technologies including Si-strip and CdZnTe-strip detectors, heavy inorganic scintillators, and plastic scintillators. on behalf of the ComPair Team.

  12. 80 MeV C6+ ion irradiation effects on the DC electrical characteristics of silicon NPN power transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathi, M. N.; Pushpa, N.; Vinayakprasanna, N. H.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana

    2016-05-01

    The total dose effects of 80 MeV C6+ ions on the DC electrical characteristics of Silicon NPN rf power transistors have been studied in the dose range of 100 krad to 100 Mrad. The SRIM simulation was used to understand the energy loss and range of the ions in the transistor structure. The different electrical parameters such as Gummel characteristics, excess base current (ΔIB = IBpost - IBpre), dc forward current gain (hFE), transconductance (gm), displacement damage factor (K) and output characteristics (VCE-IC) were studied systematically before and after irradiation. The significant degradation in base current (IB) and hFE was observed after irradiation. Isochronal annealing study was conducted on the irradiated transistors to analyze the recovery in different electrical parameters. These results were compared with 60C0 gamma irradiation results in the same dose range.

  13. Little Boy neutron spectrum below 1 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    A high-resolution /sup 3/He ionization chamber of the type development by Cuttler and Shalev was used to study the neutron spectrum from the Little Boy mockup. Measurements were made at distances of 0.75 and 2.0 m and at angles of 0/sup 0/, 45/sup 0/, and 90/sup 0/ with respect to the axis of the assembly, which was operated at power levels from 8.6 to 450 mW. Detector efficiency as a function of energy as well as parameters for correction of pulse-height distributions for proton-recoil and wall effects were determined from a set of response functions for monoenergetic neutrons measured at the Los Alamos 3.75-MeV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facility. Pulse-shape discrimination was used to separate /sup 3/He-recoil pulses from the pulse-height distribution. The spectrum was found to be highly structured, with peaks corresponding to minima in the total neutron cross section of iron. In particular, 15% of the neutrons above the epithermal peak in energy were found to be in the 24-keV iron window. Lesser peaks out to 700 keV are also attributable to filtering action of the weapon's heavy iron casing. Data taken using experimental proton-recoil proportional counters are compared with the high-resolution spectra.

  14. Multipurpose 5-MeV linear induction accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Birx, D.L.; Hawkins, S.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L. Smith, M.W.

    1984-06-11

    Although linear induction accelerators (LIAs) are quite reliable by most standards, they are limited in repeating rate, average power, and reliability because the final stage of energy delivery is based on spark gap performance. In addition, they have a low duty factor of operation. To provide a higher burst rate and greater reliability, the researchers used new technology to develop a magnetic pulse compression scheme that eliminates all spark gaps and exceeds requirements. The paper describes the scheme. The magnetic drive system can be tailored to drive induction cells from a few kA to over 10 kA at 500 kV, with average beam power levels in the megawatts. This new 5-MeV, 2.5-kA LIA under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be used for the development of high brightness sources and will provide a test bed for the new technology, which should lead to LIAs that surpass the radio frequency linacs for efficiency and reliability, as well as fit other industrial applications, such as sewage sterilization.

  15. Multipurpose 5-MeV linear induction accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birx, D. L.; Hawkins, S. A.; Poor, S. E.; Reginato, L. L.; Smith, M. W.

    1984-06-01

    Although linear induction accelerators (LIAs) are quite reliable by most standards, they are limited in repeating rate, average power, and reliability because the final stage of energy delivery is based on spark gap performance. In addition, they have a low duty factor of operation. To provide a higher burst rate and greater reliability, new technology was used to develop a magnetic pulse compression scheme that eliminates all spark gaps and exceeds requirements. The magnetic drive system are tailored to drive induction cells from a few kA to over 10 kA at 500 kV, with average beam power levels in the megawatts. This new 5-MeV, 2.5-kA LIA under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be used for the development of high brightness sources and will provide a test bed for the new technology, which should lead to LIAs that surpass the radio frequency linacs for efficiency and reliability, as well as fit other industrial applications, such as sewage sterilization.

  16. 5MeV Electron Beam Facilities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizusawa, K.; Kashiwagi, M.; Hoshi, Y.

    1998-06-01

    There are 3 facilities with 5MeV electron beam processing machines in Japan and another one is planned to start operation in 1998. 2 of them are installed by Nissin-High Voltage and the other are by Sumitomo Heavy/Radiation Dynamics. In this report are introduced 2 facilities which we have installed and are operating satisfactorily. The first one was: installed at Radia Industry for irradiation services and the second one for in-house use in a factory of a pharmaceutical plastic container manufacturer, Shinko Chemical. And the second one is available for contract irradiation. The machine in Radia Industry has a comprehensive conveyor system with a turn-over equipment to shoot from the top and the bottom of materials with e-beam and X-ray, and has been successfully operated for many years. The machine in Shinko Chemical is equipped with a unique conveyor system with two conveyor lines under the beam window and the motion of the lines are opposite each other. This conveyor system also has a turn-over equipment like other machines but the direction of turning-over is designed to give the irradiated materials more uniform dose.

  17. Lateral propagation of MeV electrons generated by femtosecond laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, J. F.; Szabo, C. I.; Audebert, P.; Brambrink, E.; Tabakhoff, E.; Hudson, L. T.

    2010-02-15

    The propagation of MeV electrons generated by intense (approx =10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) femtosecond laser irradiation, in the lateral direction perpendicular to the incident laser beam, was studied using targets consisting of irradiated metal wires and neighboring spectator wires embedded in electrically conductive (aluminum) or resistive (Teflon) substrates. The K shell spectra in the energy range 40-60 keV from wires of Gd, Dy, Hf, and W were recorded by a transmission crystal spectrometer. The spectra were produced by 1s electron ionization in the irradiated wire and by energetic electron propagation through the substrate material to the spectator wire of a different metal. The electron range and energy were determined from the relative K shell emissions from the irradiated and spectator wires separated by varying substrate lateral distances of up to 1 mm. It was found that electron propagation through Teflon was inhibited, compared to aluminum, implying a relatively weak return current and incomplete space-charge neutralization. The energetic electron propagation in the direction parallel to the electric field of the laser beam was larger than perpendicular to the electric field. Energetic electron production was lower when directly irradiating aluminum or Teflon compared to irradiating the heavy metal wires. These experiments are important for the determination of the energetic electron production mechanism and for understanding lateral electron propagation that can be detrimental to fast-ignition fusion and hard x-ray backlighter radiography.

  18. Suzaku Observations of Extreme MeV Blazar Swift J0746.3+2548

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Shin; Sato, Rie; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kataoka, Jun; Madejski, Greg; Sikora, Marek; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Sambruna, Rita; Romani, Roger; Edwards, Philip G.; Pursimo, Tapio

    2008-12-01

    We report the Suzaku observations of the high luminosity blazar SWIFT J0746.3+2548 (J0746) conducted in November 2005. This object, with z = 2.979, is the highest redshift source observed in the Suzaku Guaranteed Time Observer (GTO) period, is likely to show high gamma-ray flux peaking in the MeV range. As a result of the good photon statistics and high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum, the Suzaku observation clearly confirms that J0746 has an extremely hard spectrum in the energy range of 0.3-24 keV, which is well represented by a single power-law with a photon index of {Lambda}{sub ph} {approx_equal} 1.17 and Galactic absorption. The multiwavelength spectral energy distribution of J0746 shows two continuum components, and is well modeled assuming that the high-energy spectral component results from Comptonization of the broad-line region photons. In this paper we search for the bulk Compton spectral features predicted to be produced in the soft X-ray band by scattering external optical/UV photons by cold electrons in a relativistic jet. We discuss and provide constraints on the pair content resulting from the apparent absence of such features.

  19. Improved ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry E.

    1989-01-01

    Spacecraft range measurements have provided the most accurate tests, to date, of some relativistic gravitational parameters, even though the measurements were made with ranging systems having error budgets of about 10 meters. Technology is now available to allow an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy of spacecraft ranging. The largest gains in accuracy result from the replacement of unstable analog components with high speed digital circuits having precisely known delays and phase shifts.

  20. Experimental evaluation of the response of micro-channel plate detector to ions with 10s of MeV energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Tae Won; Singh, P. K.; Scullion, C.; Ahmed, H.; Kakolee, K. F.; Hadjisolomou, P.; Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Borghesi, M.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.

    2016-08-01

    The absolute calibration of a microchannel plate (MCP) assembly using a Thomson spectrometer for laser-driven ion beams is described. In order to obtain the response of the whole detection system to the particles' impact, a slotted solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39) was installed in front of the MCP to record the ions simultaneously on both detectors. The response of the MCP (counts/particles) was measured for 5-58 MeV carbon ions and for protons in the energy range 2-17.3 MeV. The response of the MCP detector is non-trivial when the stopping range of particles becomes larger than the thickness of the detector. Protons with energies E ≳ 10 MeV are energetic enough that they can pass through the MCP detector. Quantitative analysis of the pits formed in CR-39 and the signal generated in the MCP allowed to determine the MCP response to particles in this energy range. Moreover, a theoretical model allows to predict the response of MCP at even higher proton energies. This suggests that in this regime the MCP response is a slowly decreasing function of energy, consistently with the decrease of the deposited energy. These calibration data will enable particle spectra to be obtained in absolute terms over a broad energy range.

  1. Experimental evaluation of the response of micro-channel plate detector to ions with 10s of MeV energies.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae Won; Singh, P K; Scullion, C; Ahmed, H; Kakolee, K F; Hadjisolomou, P; Alejo, A; Kar, S; Borghesi, M; Ter-Avetisyan, S

    2016-08-01

    The absolute calibration of a microchannel plate (MCP) assembly using a Thomson spectrometer for laser-driven ion beams is described. In order to obtain the response of the whole detection system to the particles' impact, a slotted solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39) was installed in front of the MCP to record the ions simultaneously on both detectors. The response of the MCP (counts/particles) was measured for 5-58 MeV carbon ions and for protons in the energy range 2-17.3 MeV. The response of the MCP detector is non-trivial when the stopping range of particles becomes larger than the thickness of the detector. Protons with energies E ≳ 10 MeV are energetic enough that they can pass through the MCP detector. Quantitative analysis of the pits formed in CR-39 and the signal generated in the MCP allowed to determine the MCP response to particles in this energy range. Moreover, a theoretical model allows to predict the response of MCP at even higher proton energies. This suggests that in this regime the MCP response is a slowly decreasing function of energy, consistently with the decrease of the deposited energy. These calibration data will enable particle spectra to be obtained in absolute terms over a broad energy range. PMID:27587107

  2. The thermoluminescence characteristics and the glow curves of Thulium doped silica fiber exposed to 10MV photon and 21MeV electron radiation.

    PubMed

    Alawiah, A; Alina, M S; Bauk, S; Abdul-Rashid, H A; Gieszczyk, W; Noramaliza, M N; Mahdiraji, G A; Tamchek, N; Zulkifli, M I; Bradley, D A; Marashdeh, M W

    2015-04-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves and kinetics parameters of Thulium (Tm) doped silica cylindrical fibers (CF) are presented. A linear accelerator (LINAC) was used to deliver high-energy radiation of 21MeV electrons and 10MV photons. The CFs were irradiated in the dose range of 0.2-10Gy. The experimental glow curve data was reconstructed by using WinREMS. The WinGCF software was used for the kinetic parameters evaluation. The TL sensitivity of Tm-doped silica CF is about 2 times higher as compared to pure silica CF. Tm-doped silica CF seems to be more sensitive to 21MeV electrons than to 10MV photons. Surprisingly, no supralinearity was displayed and a sub-linear response of Tm-doped silica CF was observed within the analyzed dose range for both 21MeV electrons and 10MV photons. The Tm-doped silica CF glow curve consists of 5 individual glow peaks. The Ea of peak 4 and peak 5 was highly dependent on dose when irradiated with photons. We also noticed that the electron radiation (21MeV) caused a shift of glow peak by 7-13°C to the higher temperature region compared with photons radiation (10MV). Our Tm-doped fibers seem to give high TL response after 21MeV electrons, which gives around 2 times higher peak integral as compared with 10MV photon radiation. We concluded that peak 4 is the first-order kinetic peak and can be used as the main dosimetric peak of Tm-doped silica CF. PMID:25644081

  3. Automatic range selector

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  4. Origin of the MeV energy nucleon flux associated with CIRs

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, S.P.

    1981-10-01

    Measurements of recurrent enhancements of interplanetary nucleon flux in the MeV energy range, detected at widely separated points in the heliosphere by charged particle instruments on board the Pioneer 10 and 11, IMP 7 and 8, and Mariner 10 spacecraft, are presented and interpreted. These features recur at the solar rotation period in association with stream-stream plasma interaction regions corotating with the sun (CIRs) and are not directly produced by solar flaring activity. At distances from the sun r<1 AU, the maximum intensities of the hydrogen (H) and helium (He) components in these flux enhancements increase with increasing r at the same rate, usually between 300 %/AU and 600 %/AU. The nucleon abundance ratio H/He and the slopes of H and He differential energy spectra are relatively constant with r. One of the models proposed to explain these enhanced fluxes predicts the acceleration of nuclei from keV plasma energies to MeV energies via the transit time damping of magnetosonic waves as solar wind plasma flows from the sun. The predicted acceleration rates of H and He different in this model. We compute numerical solutions of the transport equation to show that this model does not reproduce the radial variations of the H and He fluxes observed with nearly identical University of Chicago instruments. Flux associated with one of the relatively rare CIR shocks at 1 AU is shown to be similar to the flux in other corotating enhancements. Direct estimates of the radial diffusive mean free path lambda/sub r/ ranging from 0.03 AU to 0.11 AU, are evaluated by using the sunward diffusive anisotropies obtained at 1 AU and the simultaneous increase of intensity with r. These values of lambda/sub r/ are consistent with those derived in studies of solar flare related particle flux and other corotating nucleon flux enhancements at higher rigidities. The observations are consistent with nucleon acceleration at the CIR shocks beyond 1 AU with subsequent diffusion inward.

  5. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  6. Laser ranging data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Near real-time Lageos laser ranging data are analyzed in terms of range bias, time bias, and internal precision, and estimates for earth orientation parameters X(sub p), Y(sub p), and UT1 are obtained. The results of these analyses are reported in a variety of formats. Copies of monthly summaries from November, 1986 through November, 1987 are included.

  7. Accuracy evaluation of a Compton X-ray spectrometer with bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by a 6 MeV electron bunch

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Sadaoki Arikawa, Yasunobu; Zhang, Zhe; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Morace, Alessio; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Sakata, Shouhei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Masaru; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Togawa, Hiromi; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Kato, Ryukou

    2014-11-15

    A Compton-scattering-based X-ray spectrometer is developed to obtain the energy distribution of fast electrons produced by intense laser and matter interactions. Bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by fast electrons in a material are used to measure fast electrons’ energy distribution in matter. In the Compton X-ray spectrometer, X-rays are converted into recoil electrons by Compton scattering in a converter made from fused silica glass, and a magnet-based electron energy analyzer is used to measure the energy distribution of the electrons that recoil in the direction of the incident X-rays. The spectrum of the incident X-rays is reconstructed from the energy distribution of the recoil electrons. The accuracy of this spectrometer is evaluated using a quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV electron bunch that emanates from a linear accelerator. An electron bunch is injected into a 1.5 mm thick tungsten plate to produce bremsstrahlung X-rays. The spectrum of these bremsstrahlung X-rays is obtained in the range from 1 to 9 MeV. The energy of the electrons in the bunch is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of particle-matter interactions. The result shows that the spectrometer's energy accuracy is ±0.5 MeV for 6.0 MeV electrons.

  8. Neutron induced fission of 238U at incident neutron energies from 1.2 to 5.8 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivès, F.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Barreau, G.; Bax, H.

    1998-10-01

    The reaction 238U(n,f) has been studied at IRMM at different incident neutron energies ranging from En=1.2 to 5.8 MeV. The existence of vibrational resonances in the region of the threshold of the fission cross-section and the proton pairing effect should induce variations in the fission fragment properties. The fission fragment mass, mean total kinetic energy (TKE¯) and angular distributions have been investigated with a double Frisch-gridded ionization chamber. For each incident neutron energy, more than 105 events have been accumulated. The TKE¯ shows an increasing trend up to En=3.5 MeV with a sudden drop at roughly En=3.8 MeV which might be related to the onset of pair breaking. Above En=3.8 MeV TKE¯ is again continually increasing. The two-dimensional mass-TKE distributions have been compared by means of a fit with theoretical calculations performed recently in the frame of the multi-modal random neck-rupture model. Actually, two solutions are possible with assuming either two or three Gaussians for the asymmetric part of the mass distribution. However, both solutions lead to the same physical interpretation. The solution with three Gaussians is more in line with the theoretical predictions. In any case the super-long symmetric mode has to be included, in order to explain the dip in TKE¯ close to symmetry.

  9. Tracking and imaging gamma-ray experiment (TIGRE) for 300-keV to 100-MeV gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumer, Tumay O.; Bhattacharya, Dipen; Blair, Scott C.; Case, Gary; Dixon, David D.; Liu, Chia-Ling; O'Neill, Terrence J.; White, R. Stephen; Zych, Allen D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tracking and Imaging Gamma-Ray Experiment (TIGRE) uses multilayers of silicon strip detectors both as a gamma-ray converter and to track Compton recoil electrons and positron-electron pairs. The silicon strip detectors also measure the energy losses of these particles. For Compton events, the direction and energy of the Compton scattered gamma ray are measured with arrays of small CsI(TI)-photodiode detectors so that an unique direction and energy can be found for each incident gamma ray. The incident photon direction for pair events is found from the initial pair particle directions. TIGRE is the first Compton telescope with a direct imaging capability. With a large (pi) -steradian field-of-view, it is sensitive to gamma rays from 0.3 to 100 MeV with a typical energy resolution of 3% (FWHM) and a 1-(sigma) angular resolution of 40 arc-minutes at 2 MeV. A small balloon prototype instrument is being constructed that has a high absolute detection efficiency of 8% over the full energy range and a sensitivity of 10 milliCrabs for an exposure of 500,000 s. TIGRE's innovative design also uses the polarization dependence of the Klein-Nishina formula for gamma-ray source polarization measurements. The telescope will be described in detail and new results from measurements at 0.5 MeV and Monte Carlo calculations from 1 to 100 MeV will be presented.

  10. Radiation hardness of n-type SiC Schottky barrier diodes irradiated with MeV He ion microbeam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastuović, Željko; Capan, Ivana; Cohen, David D.; Forneris, Jacopo; Iwamoto, Naoya; Ohshima, Takeshi; Siegele, Rainer; Hoshino, Norihiro; Tsuchida, Hidekazu

    2015-04-01

    We studied the radiation hardness of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBD) for the light ion detection and spectroscopy in harsh radiation environments. n-Type SBD prepared on nitrogen-doped (∼4 × 1014 cm-3) epitaxial grown 4H-SiC thin wafers have been irradiated by a raster scanning alpha particle microbeam (2 and 4 MeV He2+ ions separately) in order to create patterned damage structures at different depths within a sensitive volume of tested diodes. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) analysis revealed the formation of two deep electron traps in the irradiated and not thermally treated 4H-SiC within the ion implantation range (E1 and E2). The E2 state resembles the well-known Z1/2 center, while the E1 state could not be assigned to any particular defect reported in the literature. Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) microscopy with multiple He ion probe microbeams (1-6 MeV) having different penetration depths in tested partly damaged 4H-SiC SBD has been used to determine the degradation of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) over a wide fluence range of damaging alpha particle. A non-linear behavior of the CCE decrease and a significant degradation of the spectroscopic performance with increasing He ion fluence were observed above the value of 1011 cm-2.

  11. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  12. Cross-section for proton tritium scattering from 1.4 to 3.4 MeV at the laboratory angle of 165°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, X. J.; Ding, W.; Zhang, B.; Long, X. G.; Luo, S. Z.; Peng, S. M.; Hutton, R.; Shi, L. Q.

    2008-03-01

    The elastic scattering cross-section for proton scattering from tritium was measured at a laboratory angle of 165° and over an incident proton energy range from 1.4 to 3.4 MeV. A thin solid target containing 1.62 × 1017 T atoms/cm2 was prepared by absorption of tritium into a film of titanium on aluminium foil backing. The cross-section increases almost linearly with decreasing energy in the higher energy region of 2-3.4 MeV. The currently measured cross-section data are compared with data available in the literature values and they show a similarly linear trend in a similar higher energy range. The maximum difference in the cross-section at almost the same scattering angle between current data and the previous results is no worse than 2.3%.

  13. Comparison of the vector analyzing power iT sub 11 for. pi. sup + d scattering at 180 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Tacik, R.; Boschitz, E.T.; Gyles, W.; Wessler, M. Institut fuer Kernphysik and Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik der Universitaet Karlsruhe ); Mango, S.; van den Brandt, B.; Konter, J.A. ); Gill, D.R.; Weber, P. )

    1990-11-01

    The vector analyzing power {ital iT}{sub 11} has been measured for the first time for {pi}{sup +}{ital d} and {pi}{sup {minus}}{ital d} elastic scattering at {ital T}{sub {pi}}=180 MeV in the angular range between 50{degree} and 110{degree}, using a polarized deuteron target and a magnetic spectrometer. The data are compared with theoretical calculations involving different Coulomb prescriptions.

  14. Absolute calibration of photostimulable image plate detectors used as (0.5-20 MeV) high-energy proton detectors.

    PubMed

    Mancić, A; Fuchs, J; Antici, P; Gaillard, S A; Audebert, P

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, the absolute calibration of photostimulable image plates (IPs) used as proton detectors is presented. The calibration is performed in a wide range of proton energies (0.5-20 MeV) by exposing simultaneously the IP and calibrated detectors (radiochromic films and solid state detector CR39) to a source of broadband laser-accelerated protons, which are spectrally resolved. The final result is a calibration curve that enables retrieving the proton number from the IP signal. PMID:18681694

  15. Energy-range relations for hadrons in nuclear matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Range-energy relations for hadrons in nuclear matter exist similarly to the range-energy relations for charged particles in materials. When hadrons of GeV kinetic energies collide with atomic nuclei massive enough, events occur in which incident hadron is stopped completely inside the target nucleus without causing particle production - without pion production in particular. The stoppings are always accompanied by intensive emission of nucleons with kinetic energy from about 20 up to about 400 MeV. It was shown experimentally that the mean number of the emitted nucleons is a measure of the mean path in nuclear matter in nucleons on which the incident hadrons are stopped.

  16. Accurate measurements of the collision stopping powers for 5 to 30 MeV electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, Miller Shawn

    Accurate knowledge of electron stopping powers is crucial for accurate radiation dosimetry and radiation transport calculations. Current values for stopping powers are based on a theoretical model, with estimated uncertainties of 0.5-1% (1σ) for electron energies greater than 100 keV. This work presents the first measurements of electron collision stopping powers capable of testing the theoretical values within these stated uncertainties. A large NaI spectrometer was used to measure the change in electron energy when an absorbing disk of known thickness was placed in an electron beam. Monte Carlo simulations of the experiment were performed to account for the effects of surrounding materials. Energy differences between the calculated and measured spectra were used to determine corrections to the soft collision component of the theoretical stopping powers employed by the Monte Carlo simulations. Four different elemental materials were studied: Be, Al, Cu, and Ta. This provided a wide range of atomic numbers and densities over which to test the theory. In addition, stopping powers were measured for graphite (both standard and pyrolytic), A-150 tissue equivalent plastic, C-552 air equivalent plastic, and water. The incident electron energies ranged from 5 to 30 MeV. Generally, the measured stopping powers agree with the theoretical values within the experimental uncertainties, which range from 0.4% to 0.7% (1σ). Aluminum, however, exhibits a 0.7% discrepancy at higher electron energies. Furthermore, these measurements have established that the grain density stopping power is appropriate for graphite, contrary to the recommendations of ICRU Report 37. This removes a 0.2% uncertainty in air kerma calibrations, and impacts on dosimetric quantities determined via graphite calorimetry, such as ɛG for Fricke dosimetry and (W/ e)air for ion chamber measurements.

  17. Preliminary error budget for an optical ranging system: Range, range rate, and differenced range observables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Finger, M. H.

    1990-01-01

    Future missions to the outer solar system or human exploration of Mars may use telemetry systems based on optical rather than radio transmitters. Pulsed laser transmission can be used to deliver telemetry rates of about 100 kbits/sec with an efficiency of several bits for each detected photon. Navigational observables that can be derived from timing pulsed laser signals are discussed. Error budgets are presented based on nominal ground stations and spacecraft-transceiver designs. Assuming a pulsed optical uplink signal, two-way range accuracy may approach the few centimeter level imposed by the troposphere uncertainty. Angular information can be achieved from differenced one-way range using two ground stations with the accuracy limited by the length of the available baseline and by clock synchronization and troposphere errors. A method of synchronizing the ground station clocks using optical ranging measurements is presented. This could allow differenced range accuracy to reach the few centimeter troposphere limit.

  18. Snowy Range Wilderness, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, R.S.; Bigsby, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness was undertaken by the USGS and USBM in 1976-1978 and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, we conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  19. Full range resistive thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivieri, E.; Rotter, M.; De Combarieu, M.; Forget, P.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Pari, P.

    2015-12-01

    Resistive thermometers are widely used in low temperature physics, thanks to portability, simplicity of operation and reduced size. The possibility to precisely follow the temperature from room temperature down to the mK region is of major interest for numerous applications, although no single thermometer can nowadays cover this entire temperature range. In this article we report on a method to realize a full range thermometer, capable to measure, by itself, temperatures in the whole above-cited temperature range, with constant sensitivity and sufficient precision for the typical cryogenic applications. We present here the first results for three different full range thermometer prototypes. A detailed description of the set-up used for measurements and characterization is also reported.

  20. Mu-2 ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, W. L.; Zygielbaum, A. I.

    1977-01-01

    The Mu-II Dual-Channel Sequential Ranging System designed as a model for future Deep Space Network ranging equipment is described. A list of design objectives is followed by a theoretical explanation of the digital demodulation techniques first employed in this machine. Hardware and software implementation are discussed, together with the details relating to the construction of the device. Two appendixes are included relating to the programming and operation of this equipment to yield the maximum scientific data.

  1. Deuteron Photodisintegration between Egamma=2.4 MeV and 4.0 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czakon, Nicole; Tornow, Werner

    2002-10-01

    Deuteron Photodisintegration between Eγ=2.4 and 4.0 MeV W.Tornow, N.G. Czakon, C.R. Howell, A. Hutcheson, J.H. Kelley, V.N. Litvinenko, S. Mikhailov, I.V. Pinayev, and G.J. Weisel The p(n,γ)d reaction has no published data in the relevant big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) energy region. Theoretical calculations, such as the ones by Arenhoevel and Sanzone [1], contribute significant uncertainties in the relative abundances of elements produced BBN. This experiment was motivated by the varying theoretical calculations and the lack of experimental data. We measured the analyzing power for the ^2H(γ,n)p reaction at 90^o for eight different energies. A mono-energetic, linearly polarized g-ray beam was incident on a deuterated liquid scintillator (C_6D_12). The scattered neutrons were detected two detectors, mounted at θ = 90^o in the plane of the g-ray polarization, and two detectors, mounted at θ = 90^o in the plane perpendicular to the γ-ray polarization plane. The neutron time of flight and the proton energy were recorded in the deuterated scintillator. Monte-Carlo calculations have been performed to simulate finite-geometry and multiple scattering on Arenhövel's calculations [3]. Our data for the proton analyzing power will be compared to Rupak's predictions [2]. References 1. H. Arenhövel and M. Sanzone, Photodisintegration of the Deuteron: A Review of Theory and Experiment (Springer Verlag, 1991). 2. G. Rupak, Nucl. Phys. A678, 405 (2000). 3. H. Arenhövel, Private communication (2001).

  2. Absolute Calibration of Image Plate for electrons at energy between 100 keV and 4 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Back, N L; Eder, D C; Ping, Y; Song, P M; Throop, A

    2007-12-10

    The authors measured the absolute response of image plate (Fuji BAS SR2040) for electrons at energies between 100 keV to 4 MeV using an electron spectrometer. The electron source was produced from a short pulse laser irradiated on the solid density targets. This paper presents the calibration results of image plate Photon Stimulated Luminescence PSL per electrons at this energy range. The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX results are also presented for three representative incident angles onto the image plates and corresponding electron energies depositions at these angles. These provide a complete set of tools that allows extraction of the absolute calibration to other spectrometer setting at this electron energy range.

  3. Photoexcitation mechanisms and photofission cross section for Bi by 100--300 MeV quasi-monochromatic photons

    SciTech Connect

    Guaraldo, C.; Lucherini, V.; De Sanctis, E.; Levi Sandri, P.; Polli, E.; Reolon, A.R.; Lo Nigro, S.; Aiello, S.; Bellini, V.; Emma, V.; and others

    1987-09-01

    The photofission cross section of natural Bi was measured in the energy range 100--300 MeV by means of a quasi-monochromatic photon beam. The nuclear fissility P/sub f/ was calculated using the recently measured total photoabsorption cross sections. A discussion on the dependence of fissility from the excitation energy E/sub x/ shows that a linear dependence of lnP/sub f/ vs E/sub x//sup -1/2/ can hardly be assumed over all the considered energy range. The analysis of the data confirms this consideration and shows an evident saturation effect at high excitation energy. As a consequence, in disagreement with recent interpretations, inferring that the modified quasi-deuteron model is the only efficient mechanism in inducing fission of Bi is less compelling, and also the pion photoproduction excitation mechanism plays a role.

  4. A Compton scatter camera for spectral imaging of 0.5 to 3.0 MeV gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.B.

    1994-12-31

    A prototype Compton scatter camera for imaging gamma rays has been built and tested. This camera addresses unique aspects of gamma-ray imaging at nuclear industrial sites, including gamma-ray energies in the 0.5 to 3.0 MeV range and polychromatic fields. Analytic models of camera efficiency, resolution and contaminating events are developed. The response of the camera bears strong similarity to emission computed tomography devices used in nuclear medicine. A direct Fourier based algorithm is developed to reconstruct two-dimensional images of measured gamma-ray fields. Iterative ART and MLE algorithms are also investigated. The point response of the camera to gamma rays of energies from 0.5 to 2.8 MeV is measured and compared to the analytic models. The direct reconstruction algorithm is at least ten times more efficient than the iterative algorithms are also investigated. The point response of the camera to gamma rays energies from 0.5 to 2.8 MeV is measured and compared to the analytic models. The direct reconstruction algorithm is at least ten times more efficient than the iterative algorithms and produces images that are, in general, of the same quality. Measured images of several phantoms are shown. Important results include angular resolutions as low as 4.4{degrees}, reproduction of phantom size and position within 7%, and contrast recovery of 84% or better. Spectral imaging is demonstrated with independent images from a multi-energy phantom consisting of two sources imaged simultaneously.

  5. Fast electron production in collisions of swift heavy ions (20 MeV/ u < E < 100 MeV/ u) with foils of solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzanò, G.; De Filippo, E.; Rothard, H.; Volant, C.; Anzalone, A.; Arena, N.; Geraci, M.; Giustolisi, F.; Pagano, A.

    2005-05-01

    In nuclear and atomic experiments at high incident ion energies, 20 MeV/ u < E < 100 MeV/ u, the impact of swift heavy ions on thin solid targets is a source of fast electrons. The knowledge of their spatial and kinematical distributions is very useful for experimental nuclear and radiobiological applications as well as testing atomic ionization theories. An overview on the main mechanisms underlying the production of the electrons is given. Some recent results obtained at the Catania LNS superconducting cyclotron, mainly with a 45 MeV/ u58Ni 19+ beam are shown. In particular, the production and the properties of binary encounter-, convoy-, in-flight Auger- and backward emitted electrons are discussed.

  6. Angular distribution of 4.43-MeV γ-rays produced in inelastic scattering of 14.1-MeV neutrons by 12C nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Grozdanov, D. N.; Zontikov, A. O.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Rogov, Yu. N.; Ruskov, I. N.; Sadovsky, A. B.; Skoy, V. R.; Barmakov, Yu. N.; Bogolyubov, E. P.; Ryzhkov, V. I.; Yurkov, D. I.

    2016-07-01

    The work is devoted to measuring the angular distribution of 4.43-MeV γ-rays produced in inelastic scattering of 14.1-MeV neutrons by 12C nuclei. A portable ING-27 neutron generator (designed and fabricated at VNIIA, Moscow) with a built-in 64-pixel silicon α-detector was used as a source of tagged neutrons. The γ-rays of characteristic nuclear radiation from 12C were detected with a spectrometric system that consisted of 22 γ-detectors based on NaI(Tl) crystals arranged around the carbon target. The measured angular distribution of 4.43-MeV γ-rays is analyzed and compared with the results of other published experimental works.

  7. Pion absorption processes. [32 to 74 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, K G.R.

    1980-04-01

    Proton and deuteron production from low-energy pion absorption in light nuclei leading to discrete and continuum states were measured. The LEP beam line at LAMPF was used with a stack of 8 intrinsic germanium crystals. The proton energy spectra are in general characterized by a broad bump at an energy approximately corresponding to ..pi../sup +/d ..-->.. pp reaction kinematics, suggestive of pion absorption on 2 nucleons. The energy-integrated cross-section for production of deuterons has an angular distribution similar to that for production of protons. The dependence of the total pion absorption cross-section on A is explained using a semi-classical model for pion transport in nuclei. The (..pi../sup +/,p) as well as (..pi../sup +/,d) reactions generally favor transitions involving larger angular momentum transfer to the residual nucleus when states of similar nuclear structure are considered. The low-energy excitation spectra from the (..pi../sup +/,p) reaction are similar to the spectra from (p,d) reaction on /sup 12/C and /sup 13/C. However, a calculation of the (..pi.. = ,p) cross-section using the measured (p,d) reaction with the formulation of Wilkin to relate the two reactions is in moderate disagreement with the measured (..pi../sup +/,p) cross-sections. The excitation spectra from the (..pi../sup +/,p) reaction indicte the importance of two-step processes for the reaction. The (..pi../sup +/,d) reaction leading to the ground state of -- residual nucleus has been seen for /sup 7/Li, /sup 12/C, and /sup 13/C targets. The measured cross section for the /sup 12/C(..pi../sup +/,d)/sup 10/C reaction to the 2/sup +/ state is much higher than that for the ground state. For the case of /sup 18/O, no counts were seen for excitation energy of < 10 MeV, at a sensitivity of approx. 100 nb/sr count. These features indicate a possible failure of the model of Betz and Kerman for the (..pi../sup +/,d) reaction.

  8. Operation and improvements of the Fermilab 400 MeV Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, L.J.; Popovic, M.; Schmidt, C.W.

    1996-09-01

    The 400 MeV Fermilab Linac Upgrade commissioning began August 28, 1993. High energy physics collider operation (run 1b) began in November 1993 and ended March 1, 1996. The Linac, operating at 98% reliability, provided 400 MeV H{sup -} beam to the Booster and 66 MeV H{sup -} beam to the Neutron Therapy Facility. During this time, the beam intensity, which initially was administratively set to 35 MA, rose to a peak of 50 mA while losses decreased significantly. This paper discusses the Linac operation and reliability since the Upgrade.

  9. Spectral measurements of neutrons produced by 52 MeV protons with activation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kazuo; Saito, Takatsugu; Fujii, Masahiko; Nakamura, Takashi

    The accuracy of the neutron spectral measurement of energy up to ˜40 MeV with activation detectors was examined using high energy neutrons from thick targets bombarded by 52 MeV protons. The measured activation rates were unfolded with the modified SAND-II code and compared with the neutron spectra measured by the NE-213 scintillator. Quite good agreement in absolute values was obtained between the spectra recorded by these two different detectors. The activation detector was shown to be useful for neutron spectroscopy at energies higher than ˜ 10 MeV.

  10. MeV Gamma Ray Detection Algorithms for Stacked Silicon Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMurray, Robert E. Jr.; Hubbard, G. Scott; Wercinski, Paul F.; Keller, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    By making use of the signature of a gamma ray event as it appears in N = 5 to 20 lithium-drifted silicon detectors and applying smart selection algorithms, gamma rays in the energy range of 1 to 8 MeV can be detected with good efficiency and selectivity. Examples of the types of algorithms used for different energy regions include the simple sum mode, the sum-coincidence mode used in segmented detectors, unique variations on sum-coincidence for an N-dimensional vector event, and a new and extremely useful mode for double escape peak spectroscopy at pair-production energies. The latter algorithm yields a spectrum similar to that of the pair spectrometer, but without the need of the dual external segments for double escape coincidence, and without the large loss in efficiency of double escape events. Background events due to Compton scattering are largely suppressed. Monte Carlo calculations were used to model the gamma ray interactions in the silicon, in order to enable testing of a wide array of different algorithms on the event N-vectors for a large-N stack.

  11. A new study of 25Mg 28Si angular distributions at MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caciolli, A.; Marchi, T.; Depalo, R.; Appannababu, S.; Blasi, N.; Broggini, C.; Cinausero, M.; Collazuol, G.; Degerlier, M.; Fabris, D.; Gramegna, F.; Leone, M.; Mastinu, P.; Menegazzo, R.; Montagnoli, G.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Rigato, V.; Wieland, O.

    2014-09-01

    The observation of 26Al gives us the proof of active nucleosynthesis in the Milky Way. However the identification of the main producers of 26Al is still a matter of debate. Many sites have been proposed, but our poor knowledge of the nuclear processes involved introduces high uncertainties. In particular, the limited accuracy on the 25Mg 28Si reaction cross section has been identified as the main source of nuclear uncertainty in the production of 26Al in C/Ne explosive burning in massive stars, which has been suggested to be the main source of 26Al in the Galaxy. We studied this reaction through neutron spectroscopy at the CN Van de Graaff accelerator of the Legnaro National Laboratories. Thanks to this technique we are able to discriminate the events from possible contamination arising from parasitic reactions. In particular, we measured the neutron angular distributions at 5 different beam energies (between 3 and 5 MeV) in the - laboratory system angular range. The presented results disagree with the assumptions introduced in the analysis of a previous experiment.

  12. Electric-field-induced electron detachment of 800-MeV H{sup {minus}} ions

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, P.B.; Gulley, M.S.; Bryant, H.C.; MacKerrow, E.P.; Miller, W.A.; Rislove, D.C.; Cohen, S.; Donahue, J.B.; Fitzgerald, D.H.; Funk, D.J.; Frankle, S.C.; Hutson, R.L.; Macek, R.J.; Plum, M.A.; Stanciu, N.G.; van Dyck, O.B.; Wilkinson, C.A.

    1995-12-01

    The lifetime of 800-MeV H{sup {minus}} ions against electron detachment in a static electric field was measured over a range of eight orders of magnitude in experiments at the High Resolution Atomic Beam Facility of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The ions traversed a linear gradient magnetic field of 1.3-T peak strength resulting in a 6-MV/cm peak rest-frame electric field capable of stripping a large fraction of H{sup {minus}} ions. The unstripped H{sup {minus}} ions, neutral H{sup 0} atoms, and protons were detected 5.5 m from the magnet. This spectrum was analyzed to determine the lifetime of the H{sup {minus}} ion versus electric-field strength and the results were compared with previous studies. Three parametrizations of the lifetime formula based on an existing theory were used to calculate the stripping probability. The data were fit to the lifetime formula and good agreement with theoretical predictions was found. Finally, a possible experiment for observing excited states of H{sup {minus}} is briefly discussed.

  13. Test of 600 and 750 MeV NN matrix on elastic scattering Glauber model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissaud, I.

    1980-09-01

    The 600 and 750 MeV proton nucleus elastic scattering cross section and polarization calculations have been performed in the framework of the Glauber model to test the pp and pn scattering amplitudes deduced from a phase shift analysis by Bystricky, Lechanoine and Lehar. It is well known that up to now we do not possess a non-phenomenological NN scattering matrix at intermediate energies. However proton-nucleus scattering analyses are used to extract information about short range correlations1), Δ resonance2) or pion condensation presences)... etc. Most scattering calculations made at these energies have been done with phenomenological NN amplitudes having a gaussian q-dependence 10050_2005_Article_BF01438168_TeX2GIFE1.gif A(q) = {kσ }/{4π }(α + i) e^{ - β ^2 q^2 /2} and 10050_2005_Article_BF01438168_TeX2GIFE2.gif C(q) = {kσ }/{4π }iq(α + i) D_e - β ^2 q^2 /2 K and σ being respectively the projectile momentum and the total pN total cross section. The parameters α, β and D are badly known and are adjusted by fitting some specific reactions as p+4He elastic scattering4). Even when these amplitudes provide good fits to the data, our understanding of the dynamics of the scattering remains obscure.

  14. Laser Ranging Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazolla, Sabino; Hemmati, Hamid; Tratt, David

    2003-01-01

    Laser Ranging Simulation Program (LRSP) is a computer program that predicts selected aspects of the performances of a laser altimeter or other laser ranging or remote-sensing systems and is especially applicable to a laser-based system used to map terrain from a distance of several kilometers. Designed to run in a more recent version (5 or higher) of the MATLAB programming language, LRSP exploits the numerical and graphical capabilities of MATLAB. LRSP generates a graphical user interface that includes a pop-up menu that prompts the user for the input of data that determine the performance of a laser ranging system. Examples of input data include duration and energy of the laser pulse, the laser wavelength, the width of the laser beam, and several parameters that characterize the transmitting and receiving optics, the receiving electronic circuitry, and the optical properties of the atmosphere and the terrain. When the input data have been entered, LRSP computes the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of range, signal and noise currents, and ranging and pointing errors.

  15. Comparison of bactericidal efficiency of 7.5 MeV X-rays, gamma-rays, and 10 MeV e-beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Lee, Yunjong; Moon, Byeong-Geum; Go, Seon-Min; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Jung, Koo; Kim, Dong-Ho; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol

    2016-08-01

    This study was performed to verify the feasibility of 7.5 MeV X-rays for food pasteurization through a comparison of the bactericidal efficiency with those of other sources for selected bacterial pathogens. No significant differences were observed between the overall bactericidal efficiency for beef-inoculated pathogens based on the uncertainty of the absorbed dose and variations in bacterial counts. This result supported that all three irradiation sources were effective for inactivation of food-borne bacteria and that 7.5 MeV X-rays may be used for food pasteurization.

  16. L-shell x-ray production cross sections in Nd, Gd, Ho, Yb, Au and Pb for 25-MeV carbon and 32-MeV oxygen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, M.C.; McDaniel, F.D.; Duggan, J.L.; Mehta, R.; Lapicki, G.; Miller, P.D.; Pepmiller, P.L.; Krause, H.; Rosseel, T.M.; Rayburn, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    L-shell x-ray production cross sections in /sub 60/Nd, /sub 64/Gd, /sub 67/Ho, /sub 70/Yb, /sub 79/Au and /sub 82/Pb have been measured for incident 25 MeV /sub 6//sup 12/C/sup +q/(q = 4,5,6) and 32 MeV /sub 8//sup 16/O/sup +q/(q = 5,7,8) ions. Measurements were made on targets ranging in thickness from 1 to 100 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/. Echancement in the L-shell x-ray production cross section for projectiles with one or two K-shell vacancies over those for projectiles with no K-shell vacancies is observed. The sum of direct ionization to the continuum (DI) plus electron capture (EC) to the L,M,N ... shells and EC to the K-shell of the projectile have been extracted from the data. Calculations in the first Born approximation are approx. 10 times larger than the data. Predictions of the ECPSSR theory that accounts for the energy-loss, Coulomb deflection, perturbed-stationary state, and relativistic effects are in good agreement with the data for both ions.

  17. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  18. Satellite Laser Ranging operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is currently providing precision orbit determination for measurements of: 1) Ocean surface topography from satellite borne radar altimetry, 2) Spatial and temporal variations of the gravity field, 3) Earth and ocean tides, 4) Plate tectonic and regional deformation, 5) Post-glacial uplift and subsidence, 6) Variations in the Earth's center-of-mass, and 7) Variations in Earth rotation. SLR also supports specialized programs in time transfer and classical geodetic positioning, and will soon provide precision ranging to support experiments in relativity.

  19. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). Maps show the general location of the WATR area that is used for aeronautical testing and evaluation. The products, services and facilities of WATR are discussed,

  20. Mobile satellite ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverberg, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review of the constraints which have limited satellite ranging hardware and an outline of the steps which are underway to improve the status of the equipment in this area are given. In addition, some suggestions are presented for the utilization of newer instruments and for possible future research and development work in this area.

  1. STDN ranging equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Final results of the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) Ranging Equipment program are summarized. Basic design concepts and final design approaches are described. Theoretical analyses which define requirements and support the design approaches are presented. Design verification criteria are delineated and verification test results are specified.

  2. Agriculture, forest, and range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the panel for developing a satellite remote-sensing global information system in the next decade are reported. User requirements were identified in five categories: (1) cultivated crops, (2) land resources, (3)water resources, (4)forest management, and (5) range management. The benefits from the applications of satellite data are discussed.

  3. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crea, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    In the area of crop specie identification, it has been found that temporal data analysis, preliminary stratification, and unequal probability analysis were several of the factors that contributed to high identification accuracies. Single data set accuracies on fields of greater than 80,000 sq m (20 acres) are in the 70- to 90-percent range; however, with the use of temporal data, accuracies of 95 percent have been reported. Identification accuracy drops off significantly on areas of less than 80,000 sq m (20 acres) as does measurement accuracy. Forest stratification into coniferous and deciduous areas has been accomplished to a 90- to 95-percent accuracy level. Using multistage sampling techniques, the timber volume of a national forest district has been estimated to a confidence level and standard deviation acceptable to the Forest Service at a very favorable cost-benefit time ratio. Range specie/plant community vegetation mapping has been accomplished at various levels of success (69- to 90-percent accuracy). However, several investigators have obtained encouraging initial results in range biomass (forage production) estimation and range readiness predictions. Soil association map correction and soil association mapping in new area appear to have been proven feasible on large areas; however, testing in a complex soil area should be undertaken.

  4. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  5. Fact Sheet: Range Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelson, C.; Fretter, E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Ames has a long tradition in leadership with the use of ballistic ranges and shock tubes for the purpose of studying the physics and phenomena associated with hypervelocity flight. Cutting-edge areas of research run the gamut from aerodynamics, to impact physics, to flow-field structure and chemistry. This legacy of testing began in the NACA era of the 1940's with the Supersonic Free Flight Tunnel, and evolved dramatically up through the late 1950s with the pioneering work in the Ames Hypersonic Ballistic Range. The tradition continued in the mid-60s with the commissioning of the three newest facilities: the Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) in 1964, the Hypervelocity Free Flight Facility (HFFF) in 1965 and the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) in 1966. Today the Range Complex continues to provide unique and critical testing in support of the Nation's programs for planetary geology and geophysics; exobiology; solar system origins; earth atmospheric entry, planetary entry, and aerobraking vehicles; and various configurations for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft.

  6. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Bogle, R.W.

    1960-11-22

    A description is given of a super-regenerative oscillator ranging device provided with radiating and receiving means and being capable of indicating the occurrence of that distance between itself and a reflecting object which so phases the received echo of energy of a preceding emitted oscillation that the intervals between oscillations become uniform.

  7. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  8. Coherent bremsstrahlung and channeling radiation from electrons of one to three MeV in silicon and gold

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, James Edwin

    1981-01-01

    The observation of sharp peaks in the x-ray spectrum from 1 to 3 MeV electrons striking thin single crystals of silicon and gold is reported. These peaks were observed in the range 1 to 25 keV. The peaks are of two different origins, both direct results of the periodic nature of the target crystals. The first kind of radiation is caused by the interference of incoming and scattered electron wave functions. Because of the periodicity of the target material there is a coherence effect for certain bremsstrahlung wave vectors. This coherent bremsstrahlung, though well known at very high electron energies, has never been adequately studied at electron energies below several hundred MeV. Detailed agreement between theoretical prediction and observation in silicon is shown. The second kind of radiation is caused by electrons channeled along major crystal axes. The electrons enter certain quantized orbits as they channel and may emit photons as a consequence of transitions between the various orbits. Observations of channeling radiation for various crystal axes in silicon are presented. Both phenomena were observed in gold, the first such observation for any metallic target.

  9. Identification of materials hidden inside a container by using the 14 MeV tagged neutron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudac, Davorin; Pesente, Silvia; Nebbia, Giancarlo; Viesti, Giuseppe; Valkovic, Vladivoj

    2007-08-01

    The results of the experiments aiming to confirm the presence of explosive inside the container by using the 14 MeV tagged neutron beam are presented. Measurements were performed with paper, sugar, flour, fertilizer, tobacco and explosive (Semtex1a) as target material placed in the center of an empty container. Additional measurements were done with paper and explosive placed in the center of the container filled with the iron matrix of 0.2 gcm-3 density and with the paper target shielded by the 5.1 cm thick iron shield. The results of time of flight measurements and gamma ray spectra obtained by 14 MeV tagged neutron beam have showed that investigated materials could be well distinguished in the triangle plot with coordinates being the number of counts in the carbon peak, the number of counts in oxygen peak and the number of counts in transmitted neutron peak. By using such presentation we have been able to separate paper from Semtex1a, both hidden inside the 0.2 gcm-3 iron matrix. We have also been able to confirm the presence of 64.4 kg of paper behind the 5.1 cm thick iron shield corresponding to the range of 300 keV X-rays.

  10. Production of α-particle emitting ²¹¹At using 45 MeV α-beam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyehong; Chun, Kwonsoo; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Byungil

    2014-06-01

    Among the α-particle emitting radionuclides, (211)At is considered to be a promising radionuclide for targeted cancer therapy due to its decay properties. The range of alpha particles produced by the decay of (211)At are less than 70 µm in water with a linear energy transfer between 100 and 130 keV µm(-1), which are about the maximum relative biological effectiveness for heavy ions. It is important to note that at the present time, only a few of cyclotrons routinely produce (211)At. The direct production method is based on the nuclear reactions (209)Bi(α,2n)(211)At. Production of the radionuclide (211)At was carried out using the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). To ensure high beam current, the α-beam was extracted with an initial energy of 45 MeV, which was degraded to obtain the appropriate α-beam energy. The calculations of beam energy degradation were performed utilizing the MCNPX. Alumina-baked targets were prepared by heating the bismuth metal powder onto a circular cavity in a furnace. When using an E(α, av) of 29.17 MeV, the very small contribution of (210)At confirms the right choice of the irradiation energy to obtain a pure production of (211)At isotope. PMID:24819557

  11. On the origin of the MeV energy nucleon flux associated with CIRs. [plasma interaction regions corotating with sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christon, S. P.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of recurrent enhancements of interplanetary nucleon flux in the MeV energy range are presented and interpreted. The features recur at the solar rotation period in association with stream-stream plasma interaction regions corotating with the sun. At distances from the sun less than 1 AU, the maximum intensities of the hydrogen and helium components increase with increasing distance between 300%/AU and 600%/AU. A model is proposed which predicts the acceleration of nuclei from keV plasma energies to MeV energies by means of transit time damping of magnetosonic waves as solar wind plasma flows from the sun. Numerical solutions of the transport equation are derived to demonstrate that the model does not reproduce radial variations of hydrogen and helium fluxes, and estimates are made of the radial diffusive mean free path. Finally, the observations are found to be consistent with nucleon acceleration at the CIR shocks beyond 1 AU with subsequent diffusion toward the sun.

  12. Excitation function of the 60Ni(p ,γ )61Cu reaction from threshold to 16 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, M. S.; Sudár, S.; Spahn, I.; Shariff, M. A.; Qaim, S. M.

    2016-04-01

    Excitation function of the reaction 60Ni(p ,γ )61Cu was measured via the activation technique in the energy range of 1.3-16.0 MeV using a low-energy accelerator and a small cyclotron. The results are comparable to those previously obtained via prompt γ counting. In addition excitation functions of the more common competing 60Ni(p ,n )60Cu and 60Ni(p ,α )57Co reactions were also measured. Theoretical calculations on proton-induced reactions on 60Ni were performed using the nuclear model code talys. The results suggest that near the threshold of the reaction the compound nucleus mechanism dominates. Thereafter the contribution of direct interactions becomes rather strong, especially between 4 and 6 MeV, i.e., just below the threshold of the 60Ni(p ,n )60Cu reaction. The cross section at the maximum of the excitation function of each of the three reactions, namely, 60Ni(p ,γ )61Cu,60Ni(p ,n )60Cu , and 60Ni(p ,α )57Co , amounts to 2, 320, and 85 mb, respectively. The (p ,n ) reaction is thus the most commonly occurring process, and the (p ,γ ) reaction is the weakest, possibly due to higher probability of particle emission than γ-ray emission from the highly excited intermediate nucleus 61Cu formed in the interaction of a proton with the target nucleus 60Ni.

  13. Detector design for high-resolution MeV photon imaging of cargo containers using spectral information

    SciTech Connect

    Descalle, M A; Vetter, K; Hansen, A; Daniels, J; Prussin, S G

    2010-02-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of a pixelated detector array of inorganic scintillators for high spatial resolution imaging of 1-9 MeV photons are presented. The results suggest that a detector array of 0.5 cm x 0.5 cm x 5 cm pixels of bismuth germanate may provide sufficient efficiency and spatial resolution to permit imaging of an object with uncertainties in dimension of several mm. The cross talk between pixels is found to be in the range of a few percent when pixels are shielded by {approx} 1mm of lead or tungsten. The contrast at the edge of an object is greatly improved by rejection of events depositing less than {approx} 1 MeV. Given the relatively short decay time of BGO, the simulations suggest that such a detector may prove adequate for the purpose of rapid scanning of highly-shielded cargos for possible presence of high atomic number (including clandestine fissionable) materials when used with low current high duty factor x-ray sources.

  14. Space-Based Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Space-Based Range (SBR), previously known as Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS), is a multicenter NASA proof-of-concept project to determine if space-based communications using NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) can support the Range Safety functions of acquiring tracking data and generating flight termination signals, while also providing broadband Range User data such as voice, video, and vehicle/payload data. There was a successful test of the Range Safety system at Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on December 20, 2005, on a two-stage Terrier-Orion spin-stabilized sounding rocket. SBR transmitted GPS tracking data and maintained links with two TDRSS satellites simultaneously during the 10-min flight. The payload section deployed a parachute, landed in the Atlantic Ocean about 90 miles downrange from the launch site, and was successfully recovered. During the Terrier-Orion tests flights, more than 99 percent of all forward commands and more than 95 percent of all return frames were successfully received and processed. The time latency necessary for a command to travel from WFF over landlines to White Sands Complex and then to the vehicle via TDRSS, be processed onboard, and then be sent back to WFF was between 1.0 s and 1.1 s. The forward-link margins for TDRS-10 (TDRS East [TDE]) were 11 dB to 12 dB plus or minus 2 dB, and for TDRS-4 (TDRS Spare [TDS]) were 9 dB to 10 dB plus or minus 1.5 dB. The return-link margins for both TDE and TDS were 6 dB to 8 dB plus or minus 3 dB. There were 11 flights on an F-15B at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) between November 2006 and February 2007. The Range User system tested a 184-element TDRSS Ku-band (15 GHz) phased-array antenna with data rates of 5 Mbps and 10 Mbps. This data was a combination of black-and-white cockpit video, Range Safety tracking and transceiver data, and aircraft and antenna controller data streams. IP data formatting was used.

  15. MeV Au Ion Irradiation in Silicon and Nanocrystalline Zirconia Film Deposited on Silicon Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yongqin; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhu, Zihua; Edmondson, Philip D.; Weber, William J.

    2012-09-01

    Nanocrystalline zirconia (ZrO2) film with thickness of 305 nm deposited on a silicon substrate was irradiated with 2 MeV Au ions to different fluences at different temperatures. The implanted ion profiles were measured by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and simulated using the stopping and range of ions inmatter (SRIM) code, respectively. The experimental results show that a large fraction of the incident Au ions penetrates through the ZrO2 film and are deposited into the Si substrate. At the interface of ZrO2 and Si, a sudden decrease of Au concentration is observed due to the much larger scattering cross section of Au in ZrO2 than in Si. The depth profile of the Au ions is measured in both the ZrO2 films and the Si substrates, and the results show that the Au distribution profiles do not exhibit a dependence on irradiation temperature. The local Au concentration increases proportionally with the irradiation fluence, suggesting that no thermal or irradiation-induced redistribution of the implanted Au ions. However, the Au concentration in the ZrO2 films, as determined by SIMS, is considerably lower than that predicted by the SRIM results, and the penetration depth from the SIMS measurements is much deeper than that from the SRIM predictions. These observations can be explained by an overestimation of the electronic stopping power, used in the SRIM program, for heavy incident ions in light targets. Over-estimation of the heavy-ion electronic stopping power may lead to errors in local dose calculation and underestimation of the projected range of slow heavy ions in targets that contain light elements. A quick estimate based on a reduced target density may be used to compensate the overestimation of the electronic stopping power in the SRIM program to provide better ion profile prediction.

  16. An 800-MeV proton radiography facility for dynamic experiments

    SciTech Connect

    King, N.S.P.; Adams, K.; Ables, E.

    1998-12-01

    The capability has been successfully developed at the Los Alamos Nuclear Science Center (LANSCE) to utilize a spatially and temporally prepared 800-MeV proton beam to produce proton radiographs. A series of proton bursts are transmitted through a dynamically varying object and transported, via a unique magnetic lens system, to an image plane. The magnetic lens system permits correcting for the effects of multiple coulomb scattering which would otherwise completely blur the spatially transmitted information at the image plane. The proton radiographs are recorded on either a time integrating film plate or with a recently developed multi-frame electronic imaging camera system. The latter technique permits obtaining a time dependent series of proton radiographs with time intervals (modulo 358 ns) up to many microseconds and variable time intervals between images. One electronically shuttered, intensified, CCD camera is required per image. These cameras can detect single protons interacting with a scintillating fiber optic array in the image plane but also have a dynamic range which permits recording radiographs with better than 5% statistics for observation of detailed density variations in the object. A number of tests have been carried out to characterize the quality of the proton radiography system for absolute mass determination, resolution, and dynamic range. Initial dynamic experiments characterized the temporal and spatial behavior of shock propagation in high explosives with up to six images per experiment. Based on experience with the prototype system, a number of upgrades are being implemented including the anticipated capability for enhanced mass discrimination through differential multiple coulomb scattering radiographs and more images with improved imaging techniques.

  17. Proton-induced fragmentation of carbon at energies below 100 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, M.; Streibel, T.; Roecher, H.; Dreute, J.; Hirzebruch, S. E.; Huentrup, G.; Heinrich, Wolfgang

    1994-01-01

    Radiation effects caused by single cosmic ray particles have been studied for many years in radiobiological experiments for different biological objects and biological end-points. Additionally, single event effects in microelectronic devices have gained large interest. There are two fundamental mechanisms by which a single particle can cause radiation effects. On the one hand, a cosmic ray ion with high linear energy transfer can deposit a high dose along its path. On the other hand, in a nuclear collision, a high dose can be deposited by short range particles emitted from the target nucleus. In low earth orbits a large contribution to target fragmentation events originates from trapped protons which are encountered in the South Atlantic Anomaly. These protons have energies up to a few hundred MeV. We study the fragmentation of C, O and Si nuclei - the target nuclei of biological material and microelectronic devices - in nuclear collisions. Our aim is to measure production cross sections, energy spectra, emission directions and charge correlations of the emitted fragments. The present knowledge concerning these data is rather poor. M. Alurralde et al. have calculated cross sections and average energies of fragments produced from Si using the cascade-evaporation model. D.M. Ngo et al. have used the semiempirical cross section formula of Silberberg and Tsao to calculate fragment yields and the statistical model of Goldhaber to describe the reaction kinematics. Cross sections used in these models have uncertainties within a factor of two. Our data will help to test and improve existing models especially for energies below 300 MeV/nucleon. Charge correlations of fragments emitted in the same interaction are of particular importance, since high doses can be deposited if more than one heavy fragment with a short range is produced.

  18. /sup 24/Mg yrast sequence up to 30 MeV excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Szanto de Toledo, A.; Cormier, T.M.; Coimbra, M.M.; Filho, N.C.; Stwertka, P.M.; Nicolis, N.G.

    1984-11-01

    Highly excited states observed in the /sup 12/C(/sup 16/O,..cap alpha..)/sup 24/Mg reaction are analyzed within the statistical model. Evidence that the E( = 28.21, 33.34, and 38.22 MeV states correspond to high spin states is found. The /sup 24/Mg yrast line can be identified up to the 12/sup +/ state located at 28.21 MeV excitation energy.

  19. Measurement and evaluation of selected 14-MeV neutron cross sections for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, J.W.; Smith, D.L.; Cox, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental neutron-activation cross-section data in the vicinity of 14 MeV are evaluated for several reactions of fusion-related interest using a least-squares method. New experimental measurements are performed at 14.7 MeV for all of these considered reactions and for some commonly-used standard reactions as well. Comparison is made between measured and evaluated results.

  20. First experimental results from 2MeV proton tandem accelerator for neutron productiona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, A.; Belchenko, Yu.; Burdakov, A.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Khilchenko, A.; Konstantinov, S.; Krivenko, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Mekler, K.; Sanin, A.; Shirokov, V.; Sorokin, I.; Sulyaev, Yu.; Tiunov, M.

    2008-02-01

    A 2MeV proton tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation was developed and first experiments are carried out in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk). The accelerator is designed for neutron production via reaction Li7(p,n)Be7 for the boron neutron-capture therapy of the brain tumors, and for explosive detection based on 9.1724MeV resonance gamma, which are produced via reaction C13(p,γ)N14, absorption in nitrogen.

  1. [Simulation of an instrumental head for 6 MeV electron beam therapy].

    PubMed

    Albini, E; Belletti, S; Corrado, F; Galelli, M; Mascaro, L

    1990-10-01

    Simulation of a therapy head for 6 MeV electron beams. We present the results of a simulation, performed using a Monte Carlo method, of depth dose curves in water for electron beams of initial kinetic energy of 6.4 MeV, generated by a radiotherapy microtron MM22 Scanditronix. The Fortran code in EGS4: comparison is made between simulated curves, obtained using various approximation criteria, and the experimental one. PMID:2251422

  2. Thermally stable, buried high-resistance layers in [ital p]-type InP obtained by MeV energy Ti implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.M.; Nadella, R.K.; Vellanki, J.; Rao, M.V. ); Holland, O.W. )

    1993-06-01

    High-energy Ti[sup +] ions ranging from 1 to 5 MeV were implanted into [ital p]-type InP:Zn (for two different zinc concentrations) at both room temperature and 200 [degree]C. The range statistics for Ti implanted at various energies were calculated by analyzing the as-implanted profiles determined by secondary-ion mass spectrometry. Ti did not redistribute during post-implantation annealing except for a slight indiffusion, irrespective of the implant or annealing temperatures used. This behavior is different from the behavior of other implanted transition metals (Fe and Co) in InP, which redistributed highly when the implants were performed at room temperature. In the MeV Ti-implanted InP:Zn the background Zn showed a small degree of redistribution. Rutherford backscattering measurements showed a near virgin lattice perfection for 200 [degree]C implants after annealing. Buried layers with intrinsic resistivity were obtained by MeV Ti implantation in InP:Zn ([ital p]=5[times]10[sup 16] cm[sup [minus]3]).

  3. Phonon modes in cuprates possibly related to the 10 meV ARPES kink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Adrian; Park, Seung-Ryong; Castellan, John-Paul; Gu, Genda; Reznik, Dmitry

    One of the possible mechanisms of high Tc superconductivity is Cooper pairing with the help of bosons responsible for kinks in electronic dispersion observed by angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES). Up to now most effort has been devoted to the kinks near 70 meV. More recent ARPES experiments revealed an additional energy scale near 10 meV. Since no magnetic excitations peaked at these energies have been identified, the likeliest candidates appear to be phonons. We recently performed measurements of low-energy phonons in a large single crystal sample of optimally-doped 2212 BSCCO. We measured all phonons below 15 meV. There are many branches, in particular an optic branch disperses from 7 meV from the zone center with an anticrossing with an acoustic branch near h =0.2. In addition, there is evidence for a very low energy branch dispersing through 3-4 meV. I will present these results as well as similar data on LSCO and YBCO. A comparison with recent ultrafast optics experiment detecting lattice modes around 10 meV will also be made. This work was supported by the DOE Basic Energy Sciences Neutron Scattering Program.

  4. Measurement of the e+e- → π+π- cross section between 600 and 900 MeV using initial state radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Eren, E. E.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, X. Q.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kühn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-02-01

    We extract the e+e- →π+π- cross section in the energy range between 600 and 900 MeV, exploiting the method of initial state radiation. A data set with an integrated luminosity of 2.93 fb-1 taken at a center-of-mass energy of 3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider is used. The cross section is measured with a systematic uncertainty of 0.9%. We extract the pion form factor |Fπ | 2 as well as the contribution of the measured cross section to the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to (g - 2) μ. We find this value to be aμππ, LO (600- 900MeV) = (368.2 ±2.5stat ±3.3sys) ṡ10-10, which is between the corresponding values using the BaBar or KLOE data.

  5. {sup 25}Na and {sup 25}Mg fragmentation on {sup 12}C at 9.23 MeV per nucleon at TRIUMF

    SciTech Connect

    St-Onge, Patrick; Boisjoli, Mark; Fregeau, Marc-Olivier; Gauthier, Jerome; Wallace, Barton; Roy, Rene

    2012-10-20

    HERACLES is a multidetector that is used to study heavy-ion collisions, with ion beams with an energy range between 8 to 15 MeV per nucleon. It has 78 detectors axially distributed around the beam axis in 6 rings allowing detection of multiple charged fragments from nuclear reactions. HERACLES has 4 different types of detectors, BC408/BaF{sub 2} phoswich, Si/CsI(Tl) telescope, BC408/BC444 phoswich and CsI(Tl) detectors. The multidetector has been run with a radioactive {sup 25}Na beam and a stable {sup 25}Mg beam at 9.23 MeV per nucleon on a carbon target.

  6. Light beam range finder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    A "laser tape measure" for measuring distance which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%.

  7. Light beam range finder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16

    A ``laser tape measure`` for measuring distance is disclosed which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%. 7 figs.

  8. Front Range Report, Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, William

    The second regional conference of the Front Range Branch, AGU, was attended by more than 80 professionals and some 20 outstanding high school students. The conference included 2 days of interdisciplinary talks, and lots of discussion, that primarily were keyed to geophysical studies of Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Other talks reported on nonregional, and sometimes global, studies being done by geophypsicists of the Front Range region.Topics included tectonics of the Front Range and the Colorado Plateau, pollution of the Arkansas and Mississippi rivers, and a supreme polluting event that caused the late-Cretaceous extinctions. Other notable talks were on toxic cleanup, microburst (wind shear) detection at U.S. airports, and other meteorological studies. Several talks treated the audience to the excitement of new work and surprise discoveries. The meeting was multimedia, including the playing of two videos through a projection TV and the playing of a fascinating tape between an airport control tower and incoming pilots during a severe microburst event.

  9. Organic sonobuoy ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felgate, Nick

    2002-11-01

    It is important that military vessels periodically check their passive signatures for vunerabilities. Traditionally, this is undertaken on a fixed range (e.g., AUTEC, BUTEC) with low noise conditions. However, for operational and cost reasons it is desirable to be able to undertake such measurements while the asset is operating in other areas using expendable buoys deployed by the vessel itself. As well as the wet-end hardware for such organic sonobuoy ranging systems (e.g., calibrated sonobuoys, calibrated data uplink channels), careful consideration is needed of the signal-processing required in the harsher environmental conditions of the open ocean. In particular, it is noted that the open ocean is usually much noisier, and the propagation conditions more variable. To overcome signal-to-noise problems, techniques such as Doppler-correction, zero-padding/peak-picking, and noise estimation/correction techniques have been developed to provide accurate and unbiased estimates of received levels. To estimate propagation loss for source level estimation, a model of multipath effects has been included with the ability for analysts to compare predicted and observed received levels against time/range and adjust modeling parameters (e.g., surface loss, bottom loss, source depth) to improve the fit.

  10. Experimental and Calculation Study of Absolute Efficiency of {gamma}-Ray Detection with the Coaxial HPGe-Detector GC 5019 at E{gamma}=0.24-18.565 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Generalov, L.N.; Lebedev, B.L.; Livke, A.V.; Modenov, A.B.; Chirkin, V.A.

    2005-05-24

    In the range E{gamma}=0.24-18.565 MeV investigations were carried out of the absolute efficiency of {gamma}-ray detection with the HPGe-detector GC 5019 (CANBERRA). The investigations were performed in connection with measurements of proton radiation capture reaction cross sections on the lightest nuclei.

  11. Simple Reaction Structures in a "complicated" Kinematic Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash, Firooz; Moravcsik, Micheal J.; Goldstein, Gary R.

    The energy range between 500 and 1000 MeV is usually considered a "complicated" one for elastic proton-proton scattering in which there is no simple description. It is shown that in that energy range, for much of the angular range, two simple features of the magnitudes and relative phases of the invariant amplitudes in the planar transverse frame give a good approximation of the observed data on unpolarized cross section as well as all the various polarization measurements. The features appear to be particularly pronounced at the larger scattering angles and higher energies, thus suggesting a connection with the small distance part of the internucleon force which thus may shed light on the validity of various quark models. Similar regularities also appear in a similar energy and angular range for pion-nucleon scattering. A simple way is presented on a quark level to summarize these regularities.

  12. Theoretical model analysis of (d ,x n ) reactions on 9Be and 12C at incident energies up to 50 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Shinsuke; Kouno, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Iwamoto, Osamu; Ogata, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Background: In the design of deuteron accelerator neutron sources, accurate nuclear data of deuteron-induced reactions are indispensable over a wide range of incident energy. Reliable model calculations play an important role in completing the necessary nuclear data since currently available experimental data are insufficient. We have been developing a code system dedicated for the deuteron-induced reactions, called deuteron-induced reaction analysis code system (DEURACS). It was applied successfully to (d ,x p ) reactions at 56 and 100 MeV. Purpose: The purpose of the present work is to investigate the applicability of DEURACS to (d ,x n ) reactions on 9Be and 12C for incident energies below 50 MeV and to clarify neutron production mechanism. Methods: Double-differential thick target neutron yields (TTNYs) from deuteron bombardment on thick Be and C targets are analyzed. The TTNYs are derived using the double differential (d ,x n ) cross sections calculated by DEURACS and the stopping power of deuteron in the target. The calculated TTNYs are decomposed into individual components corresponding to elastic breakup, proton stripping, and statistical decay reactions. Results: The calculated TTNYs reproduced the experimental data quantitatively well in the incident energy range up to 50 MeV. From the analysis, it was found that the proton stripping reaction makes the most dominant contribution to neutron production. Conclusions: DEURACS is applicable to (d ,x n ) reactions on 9Be and 12C for incident energies below 50 MeV. Modeling of the stripping reaction is essential to predict neutron production yields accurately in the design of deuteron accelerator neutron sources.

  13. Detection of interplanetary electrons from 18 keV to 1.8 MeV during solar quiet times, 1. On the origin of 200 KeV interplanetary electrons, 2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.; Anderson, K. A.; Cline, T. L.; Ramaty, R.; Fisk, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    A quiet time component of interplanetary electrons having energies above solar wind energies and below those characterized as cosmic radiation was observed. Its energy spectrum falls with energy from 18 keV to 1.8 MeV, but it shows a feature in the 100 to 300 keV range. The observed temporal variations of the intensity suggest that the 18 to 100 keV portion is solar and the 0.3 to 1.8 MeV portion is galactic in origin. Solar and terrestrial neutron decay electrons appear inadequate to explain the 100 to 300 keV feature.

  14. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, S.H.

    1988-03-10

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are colliminated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. 1 fig.

  15. Gas cooking range

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, R.K.; Narang, K.

    1984-02-14

    An energy-efficient gas cooking range features an oven section with improved heat circulation and air preheat, a compact oven/broiler burner, a smoke-free drip pan, an efficient piloted ignition, flame-containing rangetop burner rings, and a small, portable oven that can be supported on the burner rings. Panels spaced away from the oven walls and circulation fans provide very effective air flow within the oven. A gas shutoff valve automatically controls the discharge of heated gases from the oven so that they are discharged only when combustion is occurring.

  16. AGILE as a particle detector: Magnetospheric measurements of 10-100 MeV electrons in L shells less than 1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argan, A.; Piano, G.; Tavani, M.; Trois, A.

    2016-04-01

    We study the capability of the AGILE gamma ray space mission in detecting magnetospheric particles (mostly electrons) in the energy range 10-100 MeV. Our measurements focus on the inner magnetic shells with L ≲ 1.2 in the magnetic equator. The instrument characteristics and a quasi-equatorial orbit of ˜500 km altitude make it possible to address several important properties of the particle populations in the inner magnetosphere. We review the on board trigger logic and study the acceptance of the AGILE instrument for particle detection. We find that the AGILE effective geometric factor (acceptance) is R≃50 cm2 sr for particle energies in the range 10-100 MeV. Particle event reconstruction allows to determine the particle pitch angle with the local magnetic field with good accuracy. We obtain the pitch angle distributions for both the AGILE "pointing" phase (July 2007 to October 2009) and the "spinning" phase (November 2009 to present). In spinning mode, the whole range (0-180 degrees) is accessible every 7 min. We find a pitch angle distribution of the "dumbbell" type with a prominent depression near α = 90° which is typical of wave-particle resonant scattering and precipitation in the inner magnetosphere. Most importantly, we show that AGILE is not affected by solar particle precipitation events in the magnetosphere. The satellite trajectory intersects magnetic shells in a quite narrow range (1.0 ≲ L ≲ 1.2); AGILE then has a high exposure to a magnetospheric region potentially rich of interesting phenomena. The large particle acceptance in the 10-100 MeV range, the pitch angle determination capability, the L shell exposure, and the solar-free background make AGILE a unique instrument for measuring steady and transient particle events in the inner magnetosphere.

  17. Monocular visual ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witus, Gary; Hunt, Shawn

    2008-04-01

    The vision system of a mobile robot for checkpoint and perimeter security inspection performs multiple functions: providing surveillance video, providing high resolution still images, and providing video for semi-autonomous visual navigation. Mid-priced commercial digital cameras support the primary inspection functions. Semi-autonomous visual navigation is a tertiary function whose purpose is to reduce the burden of teleoperation and free the security personnel for their primary functions. Approaches to robot visual navigation require some form of depth perception for speed control to prevent the robot from colliding with objects. In this paper present the initial results of an exploration of the capabilities and limitations of using a single monocular commercial digital camera for depth perception. Our approach combines complementary methods in alternating stationary and moving behaviors. When the platform is stationary, it computes a range image from differential blur in the image stack collected at multiple focus settings. When the robot is moving, it extracts an estimate of range from the camera auto-focus function, and combines this with an estimate derived from angular expansion of a constellation of visual tracking points.

  18. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). It is managed by the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) to provide the right facility at the right time. NASA is a tenant on Edwards Air Force Base and has an agreement with the Air Force Flight Test Center to use the land and airspace controlled by the Department of Defense (DoD). The topics include: 1) The WATR supports a variety of vehicles; 2) Dryden shares airspace with the AFFTC; 3) Restricted airspace, corridors, and special use areas are available for experimental aircraft; 4) WATR Products and Services; 5) WATR Support Configuration; 6) Telemetry Tracking; 7) Time Space Positioning; 8) Video; 9) Voice Communication; 10) Mobile Operations Facilities; 11) Data Processing; 12) Mission Control Center; 13) Real-Time Data Analysis; and 14) Range Safety.

  19. Range Process Simulation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  20. MiniAERCam Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Johnson Space Center (JSC) is designing a small, remotely controlled vehicle that will carry two color and one black and white video cameras in space. The device will launch and retrieve from the Space Vehicle and be used for remote viewing. Off the shelf cellular technology is being used as the basis for communication system design. Existing plans include using multiple antennas to make simultaneous estimates of the azimuth of the MiniAERCam from several sites on the Space Station and use triangulation to find the location of the device. Adding range detection capability to each of the nodes on the Space Vehicle would allow an estimate of the location of the MiniAERCam to be made at each Communication And Telemetry Box (CATBox) independent of all the other communication nodes. This project will investigate the techniques used by the Global Positioning System (GPS) to achieve accurate positioning information and adapt those strategies that are appropriate to the design of the CATBox range determination system.

  1. 196Pt(n,xn yp γ) reactions using spallation neutrons from En=1 to 250 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavukcu, E.; Bernstein, L. A.; Hauschild, K.; Becker, J. A.; Garrett, P. E.; McGrath, C. A.; McNabb, D. P.; Younes, W.; Chadwick, M. B.; Nelson, R. O.; Johns, G. D.; Mitchell, G. E.

    2001-11-01

    Neutron-induced reactions on 196Pt were studied over the neutron energy range from 1 to 250 MeV. A ``white'' neutron beam was provided by the spallation neutron source of the Weapons Neutron Research facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The prompt reaction γ rays were measured with the large-scale Compton-suppressed Ge spectrometer GEANIE. The incident neutron energy was determined by the time-of-flight technique. Excitation functions for γ-ray transitions in 184,186,188,190-196Pt and 189,191,193Ir isotopes are compared with enhanced Hauser-Feshbach reaction modeling, as implemented in the reaction code GNASH. Overall, the model predictions agree well with the measured γ-ray yields. Discrepancies appear, however, due to inadequate discrete-level information in the calculations describing the preequilibrium process.

  2. Friction wear and auger analysis of iron implanted with 1.5-MeV nitrogen ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of implantation of 1.5-MeV nitrogen ions on the friction and wear characteristics of pure iron sliding against steel was studied in a pin-on disk apparatus. An implantation dose of 5 x 10 to the 17th power ions/sq cm was used. Small reductions in initial and steady-state wear rates were observed for nitrogen-implanted iron riders as compared with unimplanted controls. Auger electron spectroscopy revealed a subsurface Gaussian nitrogen distribution with a maximum concentration of 15 at. % at a depth of 8 x 10 to the -7th m. A similar analysis within the wear scar of an implanted rider after 20 microns of wear yielded only background nitrogen concentration, thus giving no evidence for diffusion of nitrogen beyond the implanted range.

  3. Measurement of excitation functions in proton induced reactions on natural copper from their threshold to 43 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Kim, Kwangsoo; Naik, Haladhara; Zaman, Muhammad; Yang, Sung-Chul; Kim, Guinyun

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the production cross-sections of the residual radionuclides from proton-induced reactions of natCu by using a stacked-foil activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique in the energy range from their respective threshold to 43 MeV at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The measured results were compared with the earlier reported data as well as with the theoretical values obtained from the TENDL-2013 library based on the TALYS 1.6 code. The integral yields for thick target of the investigated radio-nuclides were calculated from the measured excitation function and the stopping power of natCu.

  4. Production cross-sections of radionuclides from α-induced reactions on natural copper up to 50MeV.

    PubMed

    Usman, Ahmed Rufai; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Haba, Hiromitsu; Otuka, Naohiko; Murakami, Masashi; Komori, Yukiko

    2016-08-01

    The excitation functions were measured for the (nat)Cu(α,x)(66,67)Ga,(65)Zn,(57,58,60)Co reactions in the energy range of 16.5 -50MeV. A conventional stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry was employed to determine cross-sections. The measured cross-sections were critically compared with relevant previous experimental data and also with the evaluated data in the TENDL-2014 library. Present results confirmed some of the previous experimental data, whereas only a partial agreement was found with the evaluated data. The measured data are useful for reducing the existing discrepancies in the literature, to improve the nuclear reaction model codes, and to enrich the experimental database towards various applications. PMID:27227905

  5. MEV ion beam induced epitaxial crystallization of Si0.99C0.01 layers on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, S.; Muller, D.; Grob, J. J.; Grob, A.; Stoquert, J. P.

    1997-02-01

    Multiple energy carbon ion implantation was used to form a 150 nm thick uniformly 1 at. %-doped layers in preamorphized silicon. Unlike conventional furnace annealing, inefficient up to 700 °C, a 1.5 MeV 84Kr+ bombardment is shown to induce the crystallization of such layers at temperatures ranging between 400 and 500 °C. RBS-channeling measurements have been used to estimate the crystallization velocity which is in the order of 10 nm per 1015cm-2. After complete recrystallization, the films have been characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy showing that the carbon atoms are neither located in substitutional position nor precipitated in SiC clusters. However, the carbon profile, measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy is not modified by the process and oblique incidence channeling angular scans demonstrate that the layers are strained.

  6. Solar particle abundances at energies of greater than 1 MeV per nucleon and the role of interplanetary shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Reames, D. V.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1991-01-01

    The abundances of elements in large solar energetic-particle events in the energy range of 2-12 MeV per nucleon are examined. It is confirmed that the abundances relative to mean values vary approximately monotonically as a function of mass, except for He-4; some events show a gradual depletion of heavy ions, whereas a small number displays a gradual increase. A further organization of abundance data is shown, which depends on the longitude of the source region. Enhancements in Fe/C and other heavy elements relative to C occur when source regions are near west 60 deg; the enhancements are attributed to the sampling of a flare-heated material. Depletions of these elements are found to be greatest for source regions near central meridian; they are matched by a steepening of the spectrum and can be understood in terms of diffusive shock acceleration.

  7. Rapid and direct micro-machining/patterning of polymer materials by oxygen MeV ion beam irradiation through masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, S.; Guibert, G.; Meunier, C.; Guibert, E.; Keppner, H.; Mikhailov, S.

    2011-10-01

    PTFE (PolyTetraFluoroEthylene), often called Teflon, is a well-known polymer for being a non-stick material with good thermal properties. Moreover, PTFE is biocompatible and especially it is a cyto-compatible polymer. To enable bonding, a chemical etching based on sodium solutions is generally used to modify surfaces. In this paper we study the etching of PTFE using an oxygen ion beam in the MeV energy range. We present micro-patterning of PTFE through masks with two fluences of 5 × 1015 and 1 × 1016 ion cm-2. As is demonstrated the use of a mask allows structuring of large areas while maintaining a distance between the mask and sample makes industrial applications possible.

  8. Thermal desorption behavior of deuterium for 6 MeV Fe ion irradiated W with various damage concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Yasuhisa; Li, Xiaochun; Sato, Misaki; Yuyama, Kenta; Zhang, Long; Kondo, Sosuke; Hinoki, Tatsuya; Hatano, Yuji; Watanabe, Hideo; Yoshida, Naoaki; Chikada, Takumi

    2015-06-01

    W samples were irradiated at 300 K with 6 MeV Fe ion with damage concentrations in the range from 0.0003 to 1.0 displacements per atom (dpa) and then implanted at 300 K with 500 eV D ions to a fluence of 5 × 1021 D/m2. Deuterium retention in the damaged samples was examined in situ by thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS). Simulation of the TDS spectra was performed using the Hydrogen Isotope Diffusion and Trapping (HIDT) simulation code to reveal the binding energies for deuterium captured by the ion-induced defects. It has been shown that the deuterium TDS spectra consist of two or three peaks (depending on the damage concentration) at about 400, 600 and 800 K, and can be simulated by the HIDT simulation code with the use of hydrogen-trap binding energies of 0.65, 1.25, and 1.55 eV.

  9. Measurement of the {pi}{sup +}{ital p{searrow}} analyzing power at 68.3 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Wieser, R.; Denig, A.; von Hagel, U.; Joram, C.; Kluge, W.; Andermann, R.; Bilger, R.; Clement, H.; Foehl, K.; Heitlinger, K.; Wagner, G.J.; van den Brandt, B.; Foroughi, F.; Hautle, P.; Konter, A.; Mango, S.; Kovalev, A. |||

    1996-10-01

    The analyzing power {ital A}{sub {ital y}} for {pi}{sup +}{ital p{searrow}} scattering at 68.3 MeV has been measured at the Paul Scherrer Institut with the magnetic spectrometer LEPS. The measurements cover the angular range 40{degree}{le}{theta}{sub lab}{le}70{degree}. The protons have been polarized in a butanol target, operated in frozen spin mode. The {ital S}31 phase shift comes out by about 1{degree} smaller than the Koch-Pietarinen [Nucl. Phys. A {bold 336}, 331 (1980)] phase shift analysis, supporting the necessity of an alternative dispersion analysis of {pi}{ital N} scattering to determine the {sigma} term and the {pi}{ital N} coupling constant. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Effect of 8 MeV Si ions irradiation and thermal annealing in ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Socorro, D. R.; Montiel-González, Z.; Rodil-Posada, S. E.; Flores-Morales, L.; Cruz-Manjarrez, H.; Hernández-Alcántara, J. M.; Rodríguez-Fernández, L.

    2012-09-01

    ZnO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on silicon (100) wafers were irradiated by 8 MeV Si ions and thermal annealed in order to study optical properties. The presence of defects inside thin films as well as their implications was discussed by Photoluminescence and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. Photoluminescence confirmed presence of energy states in forbidden band-gap associates with ultraviolet emission and Zni, Oi and OZn defects according to the treatment received. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry using the Tauc-Lorentz model plus a Lorentz oscillator was found to be the best model to describe the properties of irradiated samples that did not receive a second thermal annealing treatment. Through this model, it was possible to obtain optical band-gap in the range of 3.1-3.3 eV and excellent approximation of position in energy of the oscillator.

  11. Velocity spectra and angular distributions of evaporation residues from sup 32 S + sup 12 C at 145 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, N.; Cavallaro, S.; Femino', S.; Figuera, P.; Pirrone, S.; Porto, F.; Sambataro, S. )

    1991-11-01

    Velocity spectra and angular and mass distributions for the evaporation residues of the {sup 32}S+{sup 12}C system at {ital E}{sup 32}S=145 MeV in the angular range 3{degree}{le}{var theta}{sub {ital L}}{le}12{degree} have been measured. In order to separate compound nucleus evaporation residues from other heavy reaction products, a kinematic analysis based on simple statistical assumptions relative to the velocity spectra was performed. The structures in the mass distribution are compared with the LILITA code predictions. The fusion excitation function of the existing results is compared with theoretical models. The total reaction cross section has been extracted by means of the modified sum of differences method.

  12. HRTEM study of track evolution in 120-MeV U irradiated Gd2Ti2O7

    SciTech Connect

    Jozwik Biala, Iwona; Jagielski, Jacek K.; Thome, Lionel; Arey, Bruce W.; Kovarik, Libor; Sattonay, G.; Debelle, A.; Monnet, I.

    2012-09-01

    High resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) experiments were performed on Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlores irradiated with 120-MeV U ions. A judicious choice of irradiation energy, sample preparation (using Focused Ion Beam) and analytical technique (HRTEM) allowed us to visualize the complete evolution of tracks from the surface of samples down to depths exceeding the projected range of irradiating ions. Such features as variation of track diameters, changes in track directions and discontinuous segments of tracks were clearly documented at various depths. By using two different STEM imaging modes: High- and Low-Angle Annular Dark Field imaging (HAADF and LAADF), it was possible to observe the layered structure of tracks composed of an amorphous core surrounded by a strained crystalline envelope.

  13. (65)Cu isomeric cross sections for (n,α) reaction using approximately 14MeV neutrons.

    PubMed

    Durusoy, Ayşe; Reyhancan, Iskender Atilla; Akçalı, Özgür

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, activation cross-section measurements for the (65)Cu(n,α)(62m)Co (T1/2=13.86min.) reaction at six different neutron energies ranging from 13.6 and 14.9MeV are presented. The fast neutrons were produced via (3)H(d, n)(4)He reactions from an SAMES T-400 neutron generator. An activation technique was used to measure induced gamma activities. A high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer with a high-purity germanium (HpGe) detector was used to acquire the data. The measured cross section data were corrected for gamma-ray attenuations, pulse pile-up effects, dead time, variations in neutron flux, and contributions from scattered low-energy neutrons. The measured cross sections were compared with statistical model calculations (TALYS 1.6 code), the experimental data available in the literature and the data obtained from TENDL. PMID:25728005

  14. Charged Particle Characteristics of the ^124Xe+^112,124Sn reactions at 50A MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, A. B.; Hudan, S.; Gosser, Z.; Metelko, C. J.; Rudolph, M.; Yanez, R.; de Souza, R. T.; Chbihi, A.; Famiano, M.; Frégeau, M. O.; Gauthier, J.; Moisan, J.; Roy, R.; Schwarz, C.; Bianchin, S.; Trautmann, W.

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the density dependence of the symmetry energy in the nuclear equation of state, neutrons and charged particles produced in the reactions ^124Xe+^112,124Sn at E/A=50MeV were measured. Charged particles emitted in the angular range 2.8-14.5 were detected with the Indiana array FIRST with good energy and angular resolution. Charged products at larger angles (30-45 ) were detected in the Si strip array LASSA. The DEMON array was used to identify neutrons and measure their kinetic energies using pulse-shape discrimination and TOF. Isotopic resolution was obtained in all charged particle detectors. Energy distributions, angular distributions, and the Z distributions of charged products will be presented. Yields of isotopically resolved fragments will be compared; the effect of the target N/Z on the production of these fragments will be examined.

  15. Beam-dump/diagnostics box for a 10-kA 50-MeV, 50-ns electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.M.; Fessenden, T.J.; Fontaine, R.A.; Harvey, A.R.; Paul, A.C.

    1983-03-09

    We have developed a dump for the ATA beam that consists of a series of carbon plates whose collective thickness totals approximately 1.5 ranges at 50 MeV. The energy dissipated in the plates is radiated to a water-cooled wall. The dump is designed to dissipate up to 175 kW of average power. A small hole along the axis of the plates forms a beamlet that passes through an energy analyzer. The analyzer consists of a 60/sup 0/ bending magnet and two high-sensitivity beam-current/position monitors. The ratio of the beamlet current to full current is used to estimate the beam emittance.

  16. Complete identification of states in 208Pb below Ex=6.2 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusler, A.; Jolos, R. V.; Faestermann, T.; Hertenberger, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; von Brentano, P.

    2016-05-01

    The Q3D magnetic spectrograph at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München and the Technische Universität München (Garching, Germany), was used to study the 208Pb(p ,p' ) , 206,207,208Pb (d,p), and 208Pb(d ,d' ) reactions. One hundred fifty-one states at Ex<6.20 MeV in 208Pb are identified and spin and parity assigned. Four states are newly identified and new spins and/or parities are assigned to 25 states. Tentative spin assignments are done to five states at 5.90 MeV . Nearly 50 levels below Ex=6.20 MeV listed by the Nuclear Data Sheets as of 2007 are recognized to be nonexistent or doubly placed. The schematic shell model describing one-particle-one-hole configurations without residual interaction is extended by including two-particle-two-hole configurations. The number of configurations thus predicted at Ex<6.20 MeV nearly agrees with the number of states identified. Several states with dominant two-particle-two-hole configurations are identified. New isobaric analog resonances in 209Bi with two-particle-one-hole structure are discovered at Eres=17.6 MeV . The excitation energies of 70 states with unnatural parity at Ex<6.20 MeV are found to agree within about 200 keV with one-particle-one-hole configurations predicted by the extended schematic shell model. In contrast, the excitation energies of about 20 natural parity states are more than 0.5 MeV lower than predicted, demonstrating the residual interaction among the configurations to be much larger for natural parity than for unnatural parity.

  17. Cross sections for proton induced high energy γ -ray emission (PIGE) in reaction 19 F(p, αγ)16 O at incident proton energies between 1.5 and 4 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanelas, P.; Cruz, J.; Fonseca, M.; Henriques, A.; Lourenço, F.; Luís, H.; Machado, J.; Pires Ribeiro, J.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Teubig, P.; Velho, P.; Zarza-Moreno, M.; Galaviz, D.; Jesus, A. P.

    2016-08-01

    We have studied the high energy gamma-rays produced in the reaction 19 F(p, αγ)16 O for incident proton energies from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV over NaF/Ag and CaF2/Ag thin targets in two different sets of data. Gamma-rays were detected with a High Purity Ge detector with an angle of 130° with respect to the beam axis. The cross-sections for the high energy gamma-rays of 6.129, 6.915 and 7.115 MeV have been measured for the whole group between 5 and 7.2 MeV with accuracy better than 10%. A new energy range was covered and more points are included in the cross-sections data base expanding the existing set of data. Results are in agreement with previous measurements in similar conditions.

  18. Measurements of the 86Kr(n ,γ ) 87Kr and 86Kr(n ,2 n ) Kr85m reaction cross sections below En=15 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhike, Megha; Rubino, E.; Gooden, M. E.; Krishichayan, Tornow, W.

    2015-07-01

    The 86Kr(n ,γ ) 87Kr neutron-capture cross section was measured at 11 energies between 0.37 and 14.8 MeV. Cross-section data for the 86Kr(n ,2 n ) Kr85m reaction were obtained at 9 energies between 10.9 and 14.8 MeV. The data are important for testing calculations used to predict the s -process cross section in the unmeasured energy range above 1 MeV for the 86Kr(n ,γ ) 87Kr reaction, and to check on the consistency of parameters used in talys calculations for the 86Kr(γ ,n ) Krm+g85 cross section. The two data sets could also be used as a nuclear physics based diagnostic tool for studying properties of the deuterium-tritium plasma created in inertial confinement fusion reactions at the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  19. Analysis of a measured neutron background below 6 MeV for fast-neutron imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, K.; Becchetti, M. F.; Flaska, M.; Poitrasson-Riviere, A.; Hamel, M. C.; Polack, J. K.; Lawrence, C. C.; Clarke, S. D.; Pozzi, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed and accurate information on the neutron background is relevant for many applications that involve radiation detection, both for non-coincidence and coincidence countings. In particular, for the purpose of developing advanced neutron-detection techniques for nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear safeguards, the energy-dependent, ground-level, neutron-background information is needed. There are only a few previous studies available about the neutron background below 10 MeV, which is a typical neutron energy range of interest for nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear-safeguards applications. Thus, there is a potential for further investigation in this energy range. In this paper, neutron-background measurement results using organic-liquid scintillation detectors are described and discussed, with a direct application in optimization simulations of a fast-neutron imager based on liquid scintillators. The measurement was performed in summer 2011 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, and the measurement setup consisted of several EJ-309 liquid scintillators and a fast waveform digitizer. The average neutron flux below 6 MeV was measured to be approximately 4e-4 counts/cm2/s. In addition, the relationship between the neutron-background count rate and various environmental quantities, such as humidity, at Earth's ground level was investigated and the results did not reveal any straightforward dependences. The measured pulse height distribution (PHD) was unfolded to determine the energy spectrum of the background neutrons. The unfolded neutron-background spectrum was implemented to a previously-created MCNPX-PoliMi model of the neutron-scatter camera and simple-backprojection images of the background neutrons were acquired. Furthermore, a simulated PHD was obtained with the MCNPX-PoliMi code using the "Cosmic-Ray Shower Library" (CRY) source sub-routine which returns various types of radiation, including neutrons and photons at a surface, and accounts for solar cycle

  20. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high

  1. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Marion W.

    1990-01-01

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typicy sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream.

  2. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typically sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream. 2 figs.

  3. Measurement of the pp. -->. pi. d spin correlation parameters A/sub SL/ and A/sub LL/ at energies between 500 and 800 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, D.B.

    1984-11-01

    Angular distributions of the spin correlation parameters A/sub SL/ and A/sub LL/ for the inelastic reaction pp..--> pi..d have been measured at pion center-of-mass angles between 40 and 130/sup 0/, at energies of 500, 650, and 800 MeV. Additional measurements of A/sub LL/(THETA) were made at 600, 700, and 750 MeV. The reaction was studied using an incident beam of either longitudinally polarized protons. Both the final state pion and deuteron were detected in a two-armed detector system. The momenta of particles detected in the deuteron arm were analyzed with a magnetic spectrometer which allowed the deuterons to be distinguished from particles produced by quasi-free, three-body, or other background reactions. A/sub SL/ was found to be negative (approx. = -0.5) at 500 MeV. It became increasingly more negative as energy increased, going down to as low as -0.88 at forward angles at 800 MeV. A/sub SL/ showed only a slight angular dependence in the entire energy range. The angular distribution of A/sub LL/ was found to be almost flat at 500 (approx. = -0.5) and 600 MeV (approx. = -0.4). As energy increased A/sub LL/ became less negative and began to peak at theta/sub cm/ = 90/sup 0/. At 800 MeV A/sub LL/ was positive at almost all measured angles and had a well defined peak at theta/sub cm/ = 90/sup 0/ which reached a maximum of about +0.4. The data were compared to several partial wave analyses and to theoretical calculations based on unified theories of NN..-->..NN, ..pi..d..--> pi..d, and NN..--> pi..d reactions. In general these later calculations were found to be unsuccessful in fitting our data. Partial wave analyses, which included the present data, fitted the data reasonably well and did not indicate the need for any unusual (dibaryon like) structures in any of the partial waves. 52 references.

  4. Bremsstrahlung production at 50 MeV in different target materials and configurations.

    PubMed

    Sätherberg, A; Andreo, P; Karlsson, M

    1996-04-01

    A combination of Monte Carlo, convolution, and experimental techniques have been used to investigate bremsstrahlung production at 50 MeV in full-range targets to produce narrow elementary photon beams for scanning. Calculations using the ITS 3.0 Monte Carlo system for various target designs, including particle transport through the treatment head of an MM5O racetrack microtron and a water phantom, have been compared to experimental dose profiles from narrow photon beams at 10-cm depth in water. A reduction in the ITS 3.0 default substep size has been found necessary even for incomplete agreement, in consistency with the findings of Faddegon and Rogers [Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 327, 556-565 (1993)] for a different experimental setup and energy using the previous version of ITS. Results show that the calculated shape of the tail of dose distributions from narrow photon beams agrees well with measurements, but CYLTRAN/ITS 3.0 fails to reproduce the central part of the distribution. The discrepancy at small angles, reported previously for EGS4 and ITS 2.1 simulations, possess a limitation to Monte Carlo simulations of narrow photon beams used in scanned systems of clinical accelerators. Radial dose profiles have been calculated by convolution of the energy fluence at the exit of the target with one polyenergetic Monte Carlo calculated dose kernel and also a database consisting of ten different dose kernels corresponding to different monoenergetic photon pencil beams for comparison. The agreement with the much slower fully detailed Monte Carlo calculations was better when using the database kernels than the polyenergetic kernel. Results for the mean energy, mean polar angle, and energy fluence at different depths within various targets have been obtained. These are discussed in the context of the design characteristics of bremsstrahlung targets with emphasis on their utilization for scanning photon beam techniques. PMID:9157260

  5. Fast neutron (14.5 MeV) radiography: a comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R.T.

    1996-07-01

    Fast neutron (14.5 MeV) radiography is a type of non-destructive analysis tool that offers its own benefits and drawbacks. Because cross-sections vary with energy, a different range of materials can be examined with fast neutrons than can be studied with thermal neutrons, epithermal neutrons, or x-rays. This paper details these differences through a comparative study of fast neutron radiography to the other types of radiography available. The most obvious difference among the different types of radiography is in the penetrability of the sources. Fast neutrons can probe much deeper and can therefore obtain details of the internals of thick objects. Good images have been obtained through as much as 15 cm of steel, 10 cm of water, and 15 cm of borated polyethylene. In addition, some objects were identifiable through as much as 25 cm of water or 30 cm of borated polyethylene. The most notable benefit of fast neutron radiography is in the types of materials that can be tested. Fast neutron radiography can view through materials that simply cannot be viewed by X rays, thermal neutrons, or epithermal neutrons due to the high cross-sections or linear attenuation coefficients involved. Cadmium was totally transparent to the fast neutron source. Fast neutron radiography is not without drawbacks. The most pronounced drawback has been in the quality of radiograph produced. The image resolution is only about 0.8 mm for a 1.25 cm thick object, whereas, other forms of radiography have much better resolution.

  6. The Evolution of Swift/BAT blazars and the origin of the MeV background

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.; Costamante, L.; Sambruna, R.M.; Gehrels, N.; Chiang, J.; Rau, A.; Escala, A.; Greiner, J.; Tueller, J.; Wall, J.V.; Mushotzky, R.F.; /NASA, Goddard

    2009-10-17

    We use 3 years of data from the Swift/BAT survey to select a complete sample of X-ray blazars above 15 keV. This sample comprises 26 Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) and 12 BL Lac objects detected over a redshift range of 0.03 < z < 4.0. We use this sample to determine, for the first time in the 15-55 keV band, the evolution of blazars. We find that, contrary to the Seyfert-like AGNs detected by BAT, the population of blazars shows strong positive evolution. This evolution is comparable to the evolution of luminous optical QSOs and luminous X-ray selected AGNs. We also find evidence for an epoch-dependence of the evolution as determined previously for radio-quiet AGNs. We interpret both these findings as a strong link between accretion and jet activity. In our sample, the FSRQs evolve strongly, while our best-fit shows that BL Lacs might not evolve at all. The blazar population accounts for 10-20% (depending on the evolution of the BL Lacs) of the Cosmic X-ray background (CXB) in the 15-55 keV band. We find that FSRQs can explain the entire CXB emission for energies above 500 keV solving the mystery of the generation of the MeV background. The evolution of luminous FSRQs shows a peak in redshift (z{sub c} = 4.3 {+-} 0.5) which is larger than the one observed in QSOs and X-ray selected AGNs. We argue that FSRQs can be used as tracers of massive elliptical galaxies in the early Universe.

  7. Ambiguities in the elastic scattering of 8 MeV neutrons from adjacent nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.; Lawson, R.D.; Guenther, P.T.

    1989-10-01

    Ratios of the cross sections for elastic scattering of 8 MeV neutrons from adjacent nuclei are measured over the angular range {approx}20{degree} {minus} 160{degree} for the target pairs {sup 51}V/Cr, {sup 59}Co/{sup 58}Ni, Cu/Zn, {sup 89}Y/{sup 93}Nb, {sup 89}Y/Zr, {sup 93}Nb/Zr, In/Cd and {sup 209}Bi/Pb. The observed ratios vary from unity by as much as a factor of {approx}2 at some angles for the lighter target pairs. Approximately half the measured ratios are reasonably explained by a simple spherical optical model, including size and isospin contributions. In all cases, the geometry of the real optical--model potential is essentially the same for neighboring nuclei, and the real--potential strengths are consistent with the Lane model. In contrast, it is found that the imaginary potential may be quite different for adjacent nuclei, and the nature of this difference is examined. It is shown that the spin--spin interaction has a negligible effect on the calculation of the elastic--scattering ratios, but that channel coupling, leading to a large reorientation of the target ground state, can be a consideration, particularly in the {sup 59}Co/{sup 58}Ni case. In the A {approx} 50--60 region the calculated ratios are sensitive to spin--orbit effects, but the exact nature of this interaction must await more definitive polarization measurements. The measured and calculated results suggest that the concept of a conventional global'' or even regional'' optical potential provides no more than a qualitative representation of the physical reality for a number of cases. 48 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Low dose irradiation creep of pure nickel. [17 or 15 MeV deuterons

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, C.H. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    A detailed climb-controlled glide model of low dose irradiation creep has been developed to rationalize irradiation creep data of pure nickel irradiated in a light ion irradiation creep apparatus. Experimental irradiation creep data were obtained to study the effects of initial microstructure and stress on low dose irradiation creep in pure nickel. Pure nickel specimens (99.992% Ni), with three different microstructures, were irradiated with 17 or 15 MeV deuterons at 473 K and stresses ranging from 0.35 to 0.9 of the unirradiated yield stress. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the microstructure following irradiation to 0.05 dpa consisted of a high density of small dislocation loops, some small voids and network dislocations. The creep model predicted creep rates proportional to the mobile dislocation density and a comparison of experimental irradiation creep rates as a function of homologous stress revealed a dependence on initial microstructure of the magnitude predicted by the measured dislocation densities. The three microstructures that were irradiated consisted of 85% and 25% cold-worked Ni specimens and well-annealed Ni specimens. A weak stress dependence of irradiation creep was observed in 85% cold-worked Ni in agreement with experimental determinations of the stress dependence of irradiation creep by others. The weak stress dependence was shown to be a consequence of the stress independence of the dislocation climb velocity and the weak stress dependence of the barrier removal process. The irradiation creep rate was observed to be proportional to the applied stress. This linear stress dependence was suggested to be due to the stress dependence of the mobile dislocation density. 101 references, 27 figures, 11 tables.

  9. COMPTEL Studies of Gamma-Ray Bursts at MeV Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConnell, Mark L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to analyse and interpret gamma-ray burst (GRB) data using both telescope mode data and single detector burst mode data from COMPTEL. Collectively, these data span the energy range from 300 keV up to 30 MeV. The initial goal of our proposal was to perform a standard analysis for each significant GRB event seen by COMPTEL. This includes GRBs that are registered by the telescope mode data as well as GRBs that are registered only in the burst mode data. (The latter category includes both GRBs that he outside of the FoV as well as GRBs within the FoV that are too weak to be seen in the telescope mode.) A second goal of our proposal was to define a set of data products (including deconvolved photon spectra) that, for each detected GRB event, would be made available via the COMPTEL GRB Web Page. The third goal of our program was to perform more detailed studies of selected GRB events. This represented a continuation of past GRB studies by the COMPTEL team. In general, we have met with only limited success in achieving these goals, in part due to the limited resources provided and our philosophy of utilizing local high school students to participate in this effort. Using local high school student support, however, we expect that considerable progress will be made in our efforts to catalog the COMPTEL gamma-ray burst data between now and the end of the current academic year. In addition, observations with COMPTEL contributed to an analysis of GRB 990123, the first gamma-ray burst with simultaneous optical observations.

  10. Tests of a Compton imaging prototype in a monoenergetic 4.44 MeV photon field—a benchmark setup for prompt gamma-ray imaging devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golnik, C.; Bemmerer, D.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Hueso-González, F.; Pausch, G.; Römer, K.; Rohling, H.; Schöne, S.; Wagner, L.; Kormoll, T.

    2016-06-01

    The finite range of a proton beam in tissue opens new vistas for the delivery of a highly conformal dose distribution in radiotherapy. However, the actual particle range, and therefore the accurate dose deposition, is sensitive to the tissue composition in the proton path. Range uncertainties, resulting from limited knowledge of this tissue composition or positioning errors, are accounted for in the form of safety margins. Thus, the unverified particle range constrains the principle benefit of proton therapy. Detecting prompt γ-rays, a side product of proton-tissue interaction, aims at an on-line and non-invasive monitoring of the particle range, and therefore towards exploiting the potential of proton therapy. Compton imaging of the spatial prompt γ-ray emission is a promising measurement approach. Prompt γ-rays exhibit emission energies of several MeV. Hence, common radioactive sources cannot provide the energy range a prompt γ-ray imaging device must be designed for. In this work a benchmark measurement-setup for the production of a localized, monoenergetic 4.44 MeV γ-ray source is introduced. At the Tandetron accelerator at the HZDR, the proton-capture resonance reaction 15N(p,α γ4.439)12C is utilized. This reaction provides the same nuclear de-excitation (and γ-ray emission) occurrent as an intense prompt γ-ray line in proton therapy. The emission yield is quantitatively described. A two-stage Compton imaging device, dedicated for prompt γ-ray imaging, is tested at the setup exemplarily. Besides successful imaging tests, the detection efficiency of the prototype at 4.44 MeV is derived from the measured data. Combining this efficiency with the emission yield for prompt γ-rays, the number of valid Compton events, induced by γ-rays in the energy region around 4.44 MeV, is estimated for the prototype being implemented in a therapeutic treatment scenario. As a consequence, the detection efficiency turns out to be a key parameter for prompt

  11. Gamma ray lines from solar flares. [with 2.2 MeV line being strongest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The strongest line, both predicted theoretically and detected observationally at 2.2 MeV, is due to neutron capture by protons in the photosphere. The neutrons are produced in nuclear reactions of flare accelerated particles which also positrons and prompt nuclear gamma rays. From the comparison of the observed and calculated intensities of the lines at 4.4 or 6.1 MeV to that of the 2.2 MeV line, it is possible to deduce the spectrum of accelerated nuclei in the flare region; and from the absolute intensities of these lines, it is possible to obtain the total number of accelerated nuclei at the sun. The study of the 2.2 MeV line also gives information on the amount of He-3 in the photosphere. The study of the line at 0.51 MeV resulting from positron annihilation complements the data obtained from the other lines; in addition it gives information on the temperature and density in the annihilation region.

  12. Observations of 1-30 MeV gamma rays from the galactic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanrosso, E.; Long, J. L.; Zych, A. D.; White, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported for gamma ray observations of the galactic center region made during a 15-hour balloon flight from Alice Springs, Australia on April 18, 1979. The observations were carried out with the UGR double-scatter gamma-ray telescope at energies of 1 to 30 MeV. The observations are compatible with a galactic source of approximately equal brightness along the region of system II galactic longitudes between 300 and 60 deg. The energy distribution joins smoothly to previous spark chamber results at energies above 30 MeV and to scintillator results below 1 MeV. It appears to be a combination of nuclear gamma ray lines superimposed on a power-law bremsstrahlung spectrum. The metastable C-12 line at 4.4 MeV appears to be present with a significance of about 16 standard deviations. The flux in the line is 0.0006 + or - 0.0003 photons/sq cm per sec per rad. The oxygen line at 6.1 MeV does not seem to appear significantly above background.

  13. Independent isotopic yields in 25 MeV and 50 MeV proton-induced fission of natU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttilä, H.; Gorelov, D.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Moore, I. D.; Parkkonen, J.; Peräjärvi, K.; Pohjalainen, I.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Rubchenya, V. A.; Saastamoinen, A.; Simutkin, V.; Sonoda, T.; Weber, C.; Voss, A.; Äystö, J.

    2016-04-01

    Independent isotopic yields for elements from Zn to La in the 25 MeV proton-induced fission of {}^{nat}U were determined with the JYFLTRAP facility. In addition, isotopic yields for Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Zr, Pd and Xe in the 50 MeV proton-induced fission of {}^{nat}U were measured. The deduced isotopic yield distributions are compared with a Rubchenya model, the GEF model with universal parameters and the semi-empirical Wahl model. Of these, the Rubchenya model gives the best overall agreement with the obtained data. Combining the isotopic yield data with mass yield data to obtain the absolute independent yields was attempted. The result depends on the mass yield distribution.

  14. Neutron flux from a 14-MeV neutron generator with tungsten filter for research in NDA methods for nuclear safeguards and security

    SciTech Connect

    Rennhofer, H.; Pedersen, B.; Crochemore, J.-M.

    2009-12-02

    The Joint Research Centre has taken into operation a new experimental device designed for research in the fields of nuclear safeguards and security applications. The research projects currently undertaken include detection of shielded contraband materials, detection of fissile materials, and mass determination of small fissile materials in shielded containers. The device, called the Pulsed Neutron Interrogation Test Assembly (PUNITA), incorporates a pulsed 14-MeV (D-T) neutron generator and a large graphite mantle surrounding the sample cavity. By pulsing the neutron generator with a frequency in the range of 10 to 150 Hz, a sample may be interrogated first by fast neutrons and a few hundred micro-seconds later by a pure thermal neutron flux. The permanent detection systems incorporated in PUNITA include {sup 3}He neutrons detectors, HPGe gamma detectors, and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors.We have studied the effects of placing a tungsten liner around the neutron generator target. The 14-MeV neutrons induce (n, 2n) and (n, 3n) reactions. In addition the mean neutron energy emitted from generator/tungsten assembly is reduced to about 1 MeV. Both of these effects increase the thermal neutron flux in the sample cavity. The paper describes the observed advantages of the tungsten liner with respect to increase in thermal flux, and better shielding capabilities of the nearby gamma and neutron detectors.

  15. Response of the Li-7-enriched Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC-7) scintillator to 6-60 MeV neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, Richard S.; Hutcheson, Anthony L.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Wulf, Eric A.

    2015-12-01

    We discuss a test campaign designed to irradiate the 7Li-enriched Cs2LiYCl6:Ce3+ (CLYC-7) scintillator with 6-60 MeV neutrons using the cyclotron located at the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory in Davis, CA. CLYC-7 is a newly developed scintillator that exhibits the ability to make good γ-ray measurements and has the ability to detect and discriminate fast neutrons via pulse shape discrimination (PSD) while functioning as a spectrometer. This allows a single detector to make good measurement of both stimuli simultaneously. The response of this scintillation detector has been investigated below 20 MeV [1] but has yet to be explored for energies greater than 20 MeV. Understanding the spectral and pulse shape response across a broad energy range is important for any radiation detection instrumentation capable of detecting multiple species. At the highest energies sampled, the CLYC-7 PSD demonstrated not only the standard electron/proton separation expected in a mixed γ/n field but the ability to discriminate locally produced deuterons, tritons and α particles. We show the results from the four different neutron beam energies sampled during the experiment. Lastly, we present the results obtained for relating the light output equivalence between electrons and protons/deuterons.

  16. A comparison of 4 MeV Proton and Co-60 gamma irradiation induced degradation in the electrical characteristics of N-channel MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjum, Arshiya; Vinayakprasanna, N. H.; Pradeep, T. M.; Pushpa, N.; Krishna, J. B. M.; Gnana Prakash, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    N-channel depletion MOSFETs were irradiated with 4 MeV Proton and Co-60 gamma radiation in the dose range of 100 krad(Si) to 100 Mrad(Si). The electrical characteristics of MOSFET such as threshold voltage (Vth), density of interface trapped charges (ΔNit), density of oxide trapped charges (ΔNot), transconductance (gm), mobility (μ), leakage current (IL) and drain saturation current (ID Sat) were studied as a function of dose. A considerable increase in ΔNit and ΔNot and decrease in Vth,gm, μ, and ID Sat was observed after irradiation. The results of 4 MeV Proton irradiation were compared with that of Co-60 gamma radiation and it is found that the degradation is more for the devices irradiated with 4 MeV Protons when compared with the Co-60 gamma radiation. This indicates that Protons induce more trapped charges in the field oxide region when compared to the gamma radiation.

  17. Spectra and angular distributions of atmospheric gamma rays from 0.3 to 10 MeV at lambda = 40 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, J. C.; Gruber, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the spectral and angular distributions of atmospheric gamma sq cm rays in the energy range 0.3-10 MeV over Palestine, Texas, at residual depths of 2.5 and 70 g/sq cm are reported. In confirmation of the general features of a model prediction, the measurements show at 2.5 g/sq cm upward moving fluxes greater than the downward moving fluxes, the effect increasing with energy, and approximate isotropy at 70 g/sq cm. Numerous characteristic gamma-ray lines were observed, most prominently at 0.511, 1.6, 2.3, 4.4, and 6.1 MeV. Their intensities were also compared with model predictions. Observations were made with an actively shielded scintillator counter with two detectors, one of aperture 50 deg FWHM and the other of 120 deg FWHM. Above 1 MeV, contributions to the counting rate from photons penetrating the shield annulus and from neutron interactions were large; they were studied by means of a Monte Carlo code and are extensively discussed.

  18. Neutron spectra produced by 30, 35 and 40 MeV proton beams at KIRAMS MC-50 cyclotron with a thick beryllium target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Won; Bak, Sang-In; Ham, Cheolmin; In, Eun Jin; Kim, Do Yoon; Min, Kyung Joo; Zhou, Yujie; Park, Tae-Sun; Hong, Seung-Woo; Bhoraskar, V. N.

    2015-10-01

    Neutrons over a wide range of energies are produced by bombarding a 1.05 cm thick beryllium target with protons of different energies delivered by the MC-50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). The neutron flux Φ(En) versus neutron energy En, produced by protons of 30, 35, and 40 MeV energies, was obtained by using the GEANT4 code with a data-based hadronic model. For the experimental validation of the simulated neutron spectra, a number of pure aluminum and iron oxide samples were irradiated with the neutrons produced by 30, 35, and 40 MeV protons at 20 μA beam current. The gamma-ray activities of 24Na and 56Mn produced, respectively, through 27Al(n,α)24Na and 56Fe(n,p)56Mn reactions were measured by a HPGe detector. The neutron flux Φ(En) at each neutron energy from the simulation was multiplied with the evaluated cross-sections σ(En) of the respective nuclear reaction, and the summation ∑ Φ(En) σ(En) was calculated over the neutron spectrum for each proton energy of 30, 35, and 40 MeV. The measured gamma-ray activities of 24Na and 56Mn were found in good agreement with the activities estimated by using the summed values of ∑ Φ(En) σ(En) along with other parameters in a neutron activation method.

  19. Statistical analysis of energetic electrons (3. 4-16 MeV) at geosynchronous altitude and their relationship to interplanetary parameters. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.L.

    1983-12-01

    This analysis attempted to examine the relationship between energetic electrons in the magnetosphere between the energy levels of 3.4-16 MeV, solar wind speed, and the Bz component of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). The statistical analysis was accomplished using the SPSS computerized package and data from DOD spacecraft 1979-053 at geosynchronous altitude. The electron flux data from this satellite was compared statistically with IMF and solar sind plasma data measured by other spacecraft located in the solar wind stream. Analytic techniques used included graphical plotting, descriptive statistics, scatter plots, correlation analysis, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests. This statistical analysis of energetic electrons at geosynchronous altitude and their relationship to solar wind speed and the IMF Bz component resulted in different findings for electron flux above and below approximately 6.6 MeV energy level. There was a weak, positive correlation between electron flux in the energy ranges 3.4 - 4.9 and 4.9 - 6.6 MeV and values of solar wind speed, after two days passage.

  20. A high resolution liquid xenon imaging telescope for 0.3-10 MeV gamma-ray astrophysics: Construction and initial balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena

    1994-01-01

    An instrument is described which will provide a direct image of gamma-ray line or continuum sources in the energy range 300 keV to 10 MeV. The use of this instrument to study the celestial distribution of the (exp 26)Al isotope by observing the 1.809 MeV deexcitation gamma-ray line is illustrated. The source location accuracy is 2' or better. The imaging telescope is a liquid xenon time projection chamber coupled with a coded aperture mask (LXe-CAT). This instrument will confirm and extend the COMPTEL observations from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) with an improved capability for identifying the actual Galactic source or sources of (exp 26)Al, which are currently not known with certainty. sources currently under consideration include red giants on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), novae, Type 1b or Type 2 supernovae, Wolf-Rayet stars and cosmic-rays interacting in molecular clouds. The instrument could also identify a local source of the celestial 1.809 MeV gamma-ray line, such as a recent nearby supernova.

  1. Preliminary investigation of scintillator materials properties: SrI2:Eu, CeBr3 and GYGAG:Ce for gamma rays up to 9 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaz, A.; Hull, G.; Fossati, V.; Cherepy, N.; Camera, F.; Blasi, N.; Brambilla, S.; Coelli, S.; Million, B.; Riboldi, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we measured the performance of a 2ʺ×2ʺ cylindrical tapered crystal of SrI2:Eu, a 2ʺ×3ʺ cylindrical sample of CeBr3 and a 2ʺ×0.3ʺ cylindrical sample of GYGAG:Ce. These scintillators are prototypes in volume or material and were provided by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and by the Institut de Physique Nucléaire d'Orsay. The gamma-ray energy resolution was measured in the energy range of 0.1-9 MeV using different sources. Each scintillator was scanned along x, y and z axes, using a 400 MBq collimated 137Cs source. Owing to the GYGAG:Ce thickness, it was not possible to obtain the value of the energy resolution at 9 MeV and to scan the crystal along the z axis. The 662 keV full energy peak position and its FWHM were measured relative to the full energy peaks positions produced by a non-collimated 88Y source. The signals of the detectors were additionally digitized and compared, up to 9 MeV, using a 12 bit LeCroy 600 MHz oscilloscope.

  2. Fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients from monoenergetic neutrons below 20 MeV based on the VIP-Man anatomical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, A.; Chao, T. C.; Xu, X. G.; Bozkurt, A.; Chao, T. C.

    2000-10-01

    A new set of fluence-to-absorbed dose and fluence-to-effective dose conversion coefficients have been calculated for neutrons below 20 MeV using a whole-body anatomical model, VIP-Man, developed from the high-resolution transverse colour photographic images of the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project®. Organ dose calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP for 20 monoenergetic neutron beams between 1×10-9 MeV and 20 MeV under six different irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, right lateral, left lateral, rotational and isotropic. The absorbed dose for 24 major organs and effective dose results based on the realistic VIP-Man are presented and compared with those based on the simplified MIRD-based phantoms reported in the literature. Effective doses from VIP-Man are not significantly different from earlier results for neutrons in the energy range studied. There are, however, remarkable deviations in organ doses due to the anatomical differences between the image-based and the earlier mathematical models.

  3. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, Stephen H.

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  4. Limits on the antiproton/proton ratio in the cosmic radiation from 100 MeV to 1580 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salamon, M. H.; Mckee, S.; Musser, J. A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch, A.

    1990-01-01

    A search for antiprotons (p-bars) in the cosmic radiation with energies below 1580 MeV at the top of the atmosphere was performed using the PBAR balloon-borne magnetic spectrometer. No antiprotons were observed in 124,000 proton events. For the energy interval 100-640 MeV, an upper limit is reported to the p-bar/p ratio of 2.8 x 10 to the -5th at the top of the atmosphere, after correcting for instrumental efficiencies and contributions from secondary particles. No antiproton was observed in the energy interval 640-1580 MeV, which yields an upper limit to the p-bar/p ratio of 6.1 x 10. By combining both data sets, the limits on the p-bar/p ratio can be improved to 2.0 x 10 to the -5th. The detector performance and instrumental efficiencies of the individual detector components are discussed. A detail Monte Carlo calculation was used to evaluate the instrumental efficiency for both antiprotons and protons as a function of momentum.

  5. Characterization of PARIS LaBr3(Ce)-NaI(Tl) phoswich detectors up to Eγ ~ 22 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, C.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R. G.; Anoop, K. V.; Dokania, N.; Pal, Sanjoy; Pose, M. S.; Mishra, G.; Rout, P. C.; Kumar, Suresh; Pandit, Deepak; Mondal, Debasish; Pal, Surajit; Banerjee, S. R.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Dorvaux, O.; Kihel, S.; Mathieu, C.; Maj, A.

    2016-05-01

    In order to understand the performance of the PARIS (Photon Array for the studies with Radioactive Ion and Stable beams) detector, detailed characterization of two individual phoswich (LaBr3(Ce)-NaI(Tl)) elements has been carried out. The detector response is investigated over a wide range of Eγ = 0.6 to 22.6 MeV using radioactive sources and employing 11B(p,γ) reaction at Ep = 163 keV and Ep = 7.2 MeV . The linearity of energy response of the LaBr3(Ce) detector is tested upto 22.6 MeV using three different voltage dividers. The data acquisition system using CAEN digitizers is set up and optimized to get the best energy and time resolution. The energy resolution of ~ 2.1% at Eγ = 22.6 MeV is measured for the configuration giving best linearity up to high energy. Time resolution of the phoswich detector is measured with a 60Co source after implementing CFD algorithm for the digitized pulses and is found to be excellent (FWHM ~ 315 ps). In order to study the effect of count rate on detectors, the centroid position and width of the Eγ = 835 keV peak were measured upto 220 kHz count rate. The measured efficiency data with radioactive sources are in good agreement with GEANT4 based simulations. The total energy spectrum after the add-back of energy signals in phoswich components is also presented.

  6. Investigation of the fission fragment properties of the reaction 238U(n,f) at incident neutron energies up to 5.8 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivès, F.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Bax, H.; Oberstedt, S.

    2000-01-01

    The fission fragment properties of the reaction 238U(n,f) have been studied, at different incident neutron energies ranging from En=1.2 to 5.8 MeV. The pre-neutron emission mass, kinetic energy and fission fragment angular distributions have been investigated with a double Frisch-gridded ionization chamber. The influence of the subthreshold vibrational resonances and of the proton pairing effect on the fission fragment properties is clearly visible. The total kinetic energy averaged over all fission fragment masses ( overlineTKE) shows an increasing trend up to En=3.5 MeV with a sudden drop at roughly En=3.8 MeV which has been attributed to the onset of pair breaking at the barrier. Above En=3.8 MeV, the overlineTKE is again continuously increasing. The changes in the mass yield and overlineTKE( A) distributions have been studied as a function of the compound nuclear excitation energy and their contribution to the observed variations in the overlineTKE have been determined. The two-dimensional mass-TKE distributions have been described in terms of fission modes and compared with theoretical calculations performed recently in the frame of the multi-modal random neck-rupture model. Although theoretically six asymmetric fission modes are predicted which all surpass individual outer barriers, an interpretation in terms of only two asymmetric modes has physical meaning. This points to an influence of shell structure effects to the observed distributions. In any case, the super-long symmetric mode has to be included, in order to explain the dip in overlineTKE( A) distribution close to symmetry.

  7. RBE and genetic susceptibility of mouse and rat spermatogonial stem cells to protons, heavy charged particles and 1.5 MeV neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaglenov, A.; Fedorenko, B.; Kaltenboeck, B.

    The main purpose of the present study is to provide data on RBE and genetic susceptibility in the mouse and the rat when exposed to protons, HZE particles and neutrons. Genetic damage from exposure to 50 MeV and 9 GeV protons, 4 GeV/nucleon helium ions, 4 GeV/nucleon carbon ions and 1.5 MeV neutrons was studied in adult (CBA × C57Bl/6J) F1 mice. Damage from 9 GeV protons and 4 GeV helium ions was studied in adult Wistar rats. The incidence of reciprocal translocations (RT) induced in the spermatogonial stem cells of each species was recorded. RBE values were derived by comparing linear regression coefficients from dose-responses within the same dose-range for each of the radiation types tested and 60Co γ-rays or by means of a direct nonparametric method. RT yields measured after mouse and rat spermatogonial irradiation with protons, heavy charged particles and neutrons fit the linear model of the dose-response relationship. Relative to 60Co γ-rays, RBE values are as follows for mouse spermatogonia: 0.9 for 50 MeV protons; 1.3 for 9 GeV protons; 0.7 for 4 GeV helium ions; and 1.3 for 4 GeV carbon ions. For rat spermatogonia, values were: 1.7 for 9 GeV protons and 1.3 for helium ions. Compared to mice irradiated using the same experimental design, rats were more susceptible to high-LET radiations, with susceptibility assessed by genetic damage to their spermatogonial stem cells. The RBE of 1.5 MeV neutron is about 6.6.

  8. Neutron-induced Fission Cross Section of 240242Pu up to En = 3 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Bryś, T.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Pretel, C.; Vidali, M.

    2014-05-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross sections of 240,242Pu have been measured at JRC-IRMM with incident neutron energy from 0.2 MeV up to 3 MeV. A Twin-Frisch Grid Ionization Chamber (TFGIC) has been used in a back-to-back geometry. The measurements have been performed using the secondary standards 237Np and 238U as a reference. The purity of the plutonium samples was 99.89% for 240Pu and 99.97% for 242Pu. The results obtained follow the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation for 240Pu, but some discrepancies are visible around E/n = 1 MeV for 242Pu. In addition, the spontaneous fission half-life has been measured for both isotopes.

  9. Phase Shift Analyses of pp Elastic Scattering between 500 and 800 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, J.; Yoshino, H.; Matsuda, M.

    1995-03-01

    The single-energy phase-shift analyses of pp elastic scattering have been made by using double-spin and triple-spin correlation parameters measured at SIN in the incident energy region TL = 447-580 MeV, and at LAMPF at TL = 735 MeV. The scattering amplitudes have been almost uniquely determined at TL = 500, 530, 560, 580 and 735 MeV. The Argand diagrams of 1D2-, 3P2- and 3F3-wave amplitudes show counter clockwise behavior. The obtained I = 1 amplitudes in the present analysis will contribute to the determination of the I = 0 amplitudes of np scattering in the same energy region.

  10. Neutron-induced 2.2 MeV background in gamma ray telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanrosso, E. M.; Long, J. L.; Zych, A. D.; White, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron-induced gamma ray production is an important source of background in Compton scatter gamma ray telescopes where organic scintillator material is used. Most important is deuteron formation when atmospheric albedo and locally produced neutrons are thermalized and subsequently absorbed in the hydrogenous material. The resulting 2.2 MeV gamma ray line radiation essentially represents a continuous isotropic source within the scintillator itself. Interestingly, using a scintillator material with a high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio to minimize the scintillator material with a high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio to minimize the neutron-induced 4.4 MeV carbon line favors the np reaction. The full problem of neutron-induced background in Compton scatter telescopes has been previously discussed. Results are presented of observations with the University of California balloon-borne Compton scatter telescope where the 2.2 MeV induced line emission is prominently seen.

  11. Development of a Source of Quasi-Monochromatic MeV Energy Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Umstadter, Donald; Banerjee, Sudeep; Ramanathan, Vidya; Powers, Nathan; Cunningham, Nathaniel; Chandler-Smith, Nate

    2009-03-10

    We report current progress on a project to develop an all-optically-driven x-ray photon source. A laser pulse with 40-50 TW of peak power is focused on a supersonic helium nozzle to drive a relativistic plasma wave. Electron beams with energies of 320 MeV (+/-28 MeV) are accelerated by means of laser wakefield acceleration. Remarkably, the acceleration region is only 3 mm in length. This accelerator is currently being employed to demonstrate the generation of MeV-energy x-ray by means of all-optical Thomson scattering. By this mechanism, a lower power, laser pulse (from the same laser system) is focused onto the above laser-driven electron beam, 1-eV energy photons are Doppler-shifted in energy to >1 MeV.

  12. Experimental demonstration of high quality MeV ultrafast electron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Renkai; Tang, Chuanxiang; Du, Yingchao; Huang, Wenhui; Du, Qiang; Shi, Jiaru; Yan, Lixin; Wang, Xijie

    2009-08-01

    The simulation optimization and an experimental demonstration of improved performances of mega-electron-volt ultrafast electron diffraction (MeV UED) are reported in this paper. Using ultrashort high quality electron pulses from an S-band photocathode rf gun and a polycrystalline aluminum foil as the sample, we experimentally demonstrated an improved spatial resolution of MeV UED, in which the Debye-Scherrer rings of the (111) and (200) planes were clearly resolved. This result showed that MeV UED is capable to achieve an atomic level spatial resolution and a approximately 100 fs temporal resolution simultaneously, and will be a unique tool for ultrafast structural dynamics studies. PMID:19725647

  13. The evaluation of 6 and 18 MeV electron beams for small animal irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, T. C.; Chen, A. M.; Tu, S. J.; Tung, C. J.; Hong, J. H.; Lee, C. C.

    2009-10-01

    A small animal irradiator is critical for providing optimal radiation dose distributions for pre-clinical animal studies. This paper focuses on the evaluation of using 6 or 18 MeV electron beams as small animal irradiators. Compared with all other prototypes which use photons to irradiate small animals, an electron irradiator has many advantages in its shallow dose distribution. Two major approaches including simulation and measurement were used to evaluate the feasibility of applying electron beams in animal irradiation. These simulations and measurements were taken in three different fields (a 6 cm × 6 cm square field, and 4 mm and 30 mm diameter circular fields) and with two different energies (6 MeV and 18 MeV). A PTW Semiflex chamber in a PTW-MP3 water tank, a PTW Markus chamber type 23343, a PTW diamond detector type 60003 and KODAK XV films were used to measure PDDs, lateral beam profiles and output factors for either optimizing parameters of Monte Carlo simulation or to verify Monte Carlo simulation in small fields. Results show good agreement for comparisons of percentage depth doses (<=2.5% for 6 MeV e; <=1.8% for 18 MeV e) and profiles (FWHM <= 0.5 mm) between simulations and measurements on the 6 cm field. Greater deviation can be observed in the 4 mm field, which is mainly caused by the partial volume effects of the detectors. The FWHM of the profiles for the 18 MeV electron beam is 32.6 mm in the 30 mm field, and 4.7 mm in the 4 mm field at d90. It will take 1-13 min to complete one irradiation of 5-10 Gy. In addition, two different digital phantoms were also constructed, including a homogeneous cylindrical water phantom and a CT-based heterogeneous mouse phantom, and were implemented into Monte Carlo to simulate dose distribution with different electron irradiations.

  14. RF phase stability in the 100-MeV proton linac operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seol, Kyung-Tae

    2015-02-01

    The 100-MeV proton linac of the Korea multi-purpose accelerator complex (KOMAC) has been operated to provide a proton beam to users. The 100-MeV linac consists of a 3-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator (RFQ), four 20-MeV drift-tube linac (DTL) tanks, two medium-energy beam-transmitter (MEBT) tanks, and seven 100-MeV DTL tanks. The requirements of the field stability are within ±1% in RF amplitude and ±1 degree in RF phase. The RF phase stability is influenced by a RF reference line, RF transmission lines, and a RF control system. The RF reference signal is chosen to be a 300-MHz local oscillator (LO) signal, and a rigid copper coaxial line with temperature control was installed for an RF reference distribution. A phase stability of ±0.1 degrees was measured under a temperature change of ±0.1 °C. A digital feedback control system with a field-programmable gate-array (FPGA) module was adopted for a high RF stability. The RF phase was maintained within ±0.1 degrees with a dummy cavity and was within ±0.3 degrees at RFQ operation. In the case of the 20-MeV DTL tanks, one klystron drives 4 tanks, and the input phases of 4 tanks were designed to be in phase. The input phases of 4 tanks were fixed within ±1 degree by adjusting a phase shifter in each waveguide.

  15. Neutron induced fission of U isotopes up to 100 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Lestone, J.P.; Gavron, A.

    1993-10-01

    We have developed a statistical model description of the neutron induced fission of U isotopes using densities of intrinsic states and spin cut off parameters obtained directly from appropriate Nilsson model single particle levels. The first chance fission cross sections are well reproduced when the rotational contributions to the nuclear level densities are taken into account. In order to fit the U(n,f) cross sections above the threshold of second chance fission, we need to: (1) assume that the triaxial level density enhancement is washed out at an excitation energy of {approximately}7 MeV above the triaxial barriers with a width of {approximately}1 MeV, implying a {gamma} deformation for the first barriers of 10{degree} < {gamma} < 20{degree}; and (2) include pre-equilibrium particle emission in the calculations. Above an incoming neutron kinetic energy of {approximately}17 MeV our statistical model U(n,f) cross sections increasingly overestimate the experimental data when so called ``good`` optical model potentials are used to calculate the compound nucleus formation cross sections. This is not surprising since at these high energies little data exists on the scattering of neutrons to help guide the choice of optical model parameters. A satisfactory reproduction of all the available U(n,f) cross sections above 17 MeV is obtained by a simple scaling of our calculated compound nucleus formation cross sections. This scaling factor falls from 1.0 at 17 MeV to 0.82 at 100 MeV.

  16. Attenuation of 10 MeV electron beam energy to achieve low doses does not affect Salmonella spp. inactivation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieke, Anne-Sophie Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of attenuating the energy of a 10 MeV electron beam on Salmonella inactivation kinetics was investigated. No statistically significant differences were observed between the D10 values of either Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- or a Salmonella cocktail (S. 4,[5],12:i:-, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella) when irradiated with either a non-attenuated 10 MeV eBeam or an attenuated 10 MeV eBeam (~2.9±0.22 MeV). The results show that attenuating the energy of a 10 MeV eBeam to achieve low doses does not affect the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. when compared to direct 10 MeV eBeam irradiation.

  17. First experimental results from 2 MeV proton tandem accelerator for neutron production.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, A; Belchenko, Yu; Burdakov, A; Davydenko, V; Ivanov, A; Khilchenko, A; Konstantinov, S; Krivenko, A; Kuznetsov, A; Mekler, K; Sanin, A; Shirokov, V; Sorokin, I; Sulyaev, Yu; Tiunov, M

    2008-02-01

    A 2 MeV proton tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation was developed and first experiments are carried out in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk). The accelerator is designed for neutron production via reaction (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be for the boron neutron-capture therapy of the brain tumors, and for explosive detection based on 9.1724 MeV resonance gamma, which are produced via reaction (13)C(p,gamma)(14)N, absorption in nitrogen. PMID:18315262

  18. Loss of alpha-like MeV fusion products from TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Boivin, R.L.; Diesso, M.; Hayes, S.E.; Hendel, H.W.; Park, H.; Strachan, J.D.

    1990-03-01

    A detailed comparison between the observed and expected loss of alpha-like MeV fusion products in TFTR is presented. The D-D fusion products (mainly the 1 MeV triton) were measured with an 2-D imaging scintillation detector. The expected first-orbit loss was calculated with a simple Lorentz orbit code. In almost all cases the measured loss was consistent with the expected first-orbit loss model. Exceptions are noted for small major radius plasmas and during strong MHD activity. 37 refs., 28 figs.

  19. Reactions sup 58,64 Ni( p ,. pi. sup + ) at 201 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Badala, A.; Barbera, R.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Bonasera, A. ); Riggi, F.; Adorno, A. ); Bimbot, L. )

    1992-08-01

    The production of positive and negative pions induced by 201 MeV protons on {sup 58}Ni and {sup 64}Ni isotopes has been studied. The double differential cross sections have been measured at the laboratory angles 22{degree}, 35{degree}, 55{degree}, 72{degree}, 90{degree}, 105{degree}, 120{degree}, 138{degree}, 155{degree} and from 20 MeV kinetic energy up to the kinematical limit. Features of the double differential cross sections relative to the two targets are discussed and compared to results obtained at higher incident energies.

  20. Protactinium neutron-induced fission up to 200 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, V.

    2010-03-01

    The theoretical evaluation of 230-233Pa(n,F) cross sections is based on direct data, 230-234Pa fission probabilities and ratios of fission probabilities in first-chance and emissive fission domains, surrogate for neutroninduced fission. First chance fission cross sections trends of Pa are based on consistent description of 232Th(n,F), 232Th(n,2n) and 238U(n,F), 238U(n,xn) data, supported by the ratio surrogate data by Burke et al., 2006, for the 237U(n,F) reaction. Ratio surrogate data on fission probabilities of 232Th(6 Li,4 He)234Pa and 232 Th(6 Li,d)236U by Nayak et al., 2008, support the predicted 233Pa(n, F) cross section at En=11.5-16.5 MeV. The predicted trends of 230-232Pa(n, F) cross section up to En=20 MeV, are consistent with fissilities of Pa nuclides, extracted by 232Th(p,F) (Isaev et al., 2008) and 232Th(p,3n) (Morgenstern et al., 2008) data analysis. The excitation energy and nucleon composition dependence of the transition from asymmetric to symmetric scission for fission observables of Pa nuclei is defined by analysis of p-induced fission of 232Th at Ep=1-200 MeV. Predominantly symmetric fission in 232Th(p,F) at En( p)=200 MeV as revealed by experimental branching ratios (Dujvestijn et al., 1999) is reproduced. Steep transition from asymmetric to symmetric fission with increase of nucleon incident energy is due to fission of neutron-deficient Pa (A≤229) nuclei. A structure of the potential energy surface (a drop of f f symmetric and asymmetric fission barriers difierence (EfSYM - EfASYM) from ~3.5 MeV to ~1 MeV) of N-deficient Pa nuclides (A≤226) and available phase space at outer fission saddles, are shown to be responsible for the sharp increase with En( p) of the symmetric fission component contribution for 232Th(p,F) and 230-233 Pa(n, F) reactions. That is a strong evidence of emissive fission nature of moderately excited Pa nuclides, reliably quantified only up to En( p)~20(30) MeV. Predicted fission cross section of 232Pa(n,F) coincides

  1. Energy-resolved neutron SEU measurements from 22 to 160 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, K.; Dyreklev, P.; Granbom, B.; Olsson, N.; Blomgren, J.; Renberg, P.U.

    1998-12-01

    The energy dependence of the neutron- induced single-event upset (NSEU) cross section for Static RAMs have been measured, using quasi-monoenergetic neutrons of five different energies from 22 to 160 MeV. The measured SEU cross sections were corrected for the low-energy neutron tail by an iterative folding procedure. A clear energy dependence has been found. The SEU rate has been compared both with results from testing with a neutron spallation spectrum up to 800 MeV and the measured SEU rate from In-Flight experiments at 10 km.

  2. Design of a compact spectrometer for high-flux MeV gamma-ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Corvan, D. J. Sarri, G.; Zepf, M.

    2014-06-15

    A novel design for a compact gamma-ray spectrometer is presented. The proposed system allows for spectroscopy of high-flux multi-MeV gamma-ray beams with MeV energy resolution in a compact design. In its basic configuration, the spectrometer exploits conversion of gamma-rays into electrons via Compton scattering in a low-Z material. The scattered electron population is then spectrally resolved using a magnetic spectrometer. The detector is shown to be effective for gamma-ray energies between 3 and 20 MeV. The main properties of the spectrometer are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. First experimental results from 2 MeV proton tandem accelerator for neutron production

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, A.; Belchenko, Yu.; Burdakov, A.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Khilchenko, A.; Konstantinov, S.; Krivenko, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Mekler, K.; Sanin, A.; Shirokov, V.; Sorokin, I.; Sulyaev, Yu.; Tiunov, M.

    2008-02-15

    A 2 MeV proton tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation was developed and first experiments are carried out in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk). The accelerator is designed for neutron production via reaction {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be for the boron neutron-capture therapy of the brain tumors, and for explosive detection based on 9.1724 MeV resonance gamma, which are produced via reaction {sup 13}C(p,{gamma}){sup 14}N, absorption in nitrogen.

  4. Medical Application of the SARAF-Proton/Deuteron 40 MeV Superconducting Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Halfon, Shlomi

    2007-11-26

    The Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) is based on a superconducting linear accelerator currently being built at the Soreq research center (Israel). The SARAF is planned to generate a 2 mA 4 MeV proton beam during its first year of operation and up to 40 MeV proton or deuteron beam in 2012. The high intensity beam, together with the linac ability to adjust the ion energy provides opportunities for medical research, such as Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and the production of medical radioisotopes, for instance {sup 103}Pd for prostate brachytherapy.

  5. MeV negative ion generation from ultra-intense laser interaction with a water spray

    SciTech Connect

    Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Ramakrishna, B.; Borghesi, M.; Doria, D.; Zepf, M.; Sarri, G.; Ehrentraut, L.; Steinke, S.; Sandner, W.; Schnuerer, M.; Andreev, A.; Nickles, P. V.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2011-08-01

    MeV negative oxygen ions are obtained from a water spray target irradiated by high intensity (5 x 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) and ultrashort (50 fs) laser pulses. Generation of negative ions is ascribed to electron-capture processes that the laser-accelerated high-energy positive ion experiences when it interacts with atoms in the spray. This mechanism implies the existence of a large number of MeV neutral oxygen atoms, which is consistent with indirect experimental evidence.

  6. Production of Highly Polarized Positrons Using Polarized Electrons at MeV Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, D.; Adderley, P.; Adeyemi, A.; Aguilera, P.; Ali, M.; Areti, H.; Baylac, M.; Benesch, J.; Bosson, G.; Cade, B.; Camsonne, A.; Cardman, L. S.; Clark, J.; Cole, P.; Covert, S.; Cuevas, C.; Dadoun, O.; Dale, D.; Dong, H.; Dumas, J.; Fanchini, E.; Forest, T.; Forman, E.; Freyberger, A.; Froidefond, E.; Golge, S.; Grames, J.; Guèye, P.; Hansknecht, J.; Harrell, P.; Hoskins, J.; Hyde, C.; Josey, B.; Kazimi, R.; Kim, Y.; Machie, D.; Mahoney, K.; Mammei, R.; Marton, M.; McCarter, J.; McCaughan, M.; McHugh, M.; McNulty, D.; Mesick, K. E.; Michaelides, T.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Moser, D.; Muñoz Camacho, C.; Muraz, J.-F.; Opper, A.; Poelker, M.; Réal, J.-S.; Richardson, L.; Setiniyaz, S.; Stutzman, M.; Suleiman, R.; Tennant, C.; Tsai, C.; Turner, D.; Ungaro, M.; Variola, A.; Voutier, E.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; PEPPo Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Polarized Electrons for Polarized Positrons experiment at the injector of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility has demonstrated for the first time the efficient transfer of polarization from electrons to positrons produced by the polarized bremsstrahlung radiation induced by a polarized electron beam in a high-Z target. Positron polarization up to 82% have been measured for an initial electron beam momentum of 8.19 MeV /c , limited only by the electron beam polarization. This technique extends polarized positron capabilities from GeV to MeV electron beams, and opens access to polarized positron beam physics to a wide community.

  7. Neutron-induced charged-particle emission studies below 100 MeV at WNR

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, R.C.; Lee, T.M.; Sterbenz, S.M.

    1994-07-01

    Charged-particles produced by neutron bombardment of selected targets with Z=5 through 53 have been studied for neutron energies from 1 MeV to about 100 MeV using the spallation neutron source at WNR/LAMPF. Particle detection with energy measurement and particle identification is accomplished by two-element {Delta}E-E counters, three-element {Delta}E{sub l}-{Delta}E{sub 2}-E counters or with pulse-shape discrimination using scintillators directly in the neutron beam. The experimental techniques for these measurements are described and comparisons made among the different approaches. This presentation introduces five papers contributed to this conference.

  8. Effect of 100MeV oxygen ion irradiation on silicon NPN power transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M. Vinay; Krishnakumar, K. S.; Dinesh, C. M.; Krishnaveni, S.; Ramani

    2012-06-05

    The radiation response of npn Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) has been examined for 100 MeV O{sup 7+} ion. Key electrical properties like Gummel characteristics, dc current gain and capacitance-voltage of 100MeV O{sup 7+} ion irradiated transistor were studied before and after irradiation. The device was decapped and the electrical characterizations were performed at room temperature. Base current is observed to be more sensitive than collector current and gain appears to be degraded with ion fluence, also considerable degradation in C-V characteristics is observed and doping concentration is found to be increased along with the increase in ion fluence.

  9. Experimental evidence of the superfocusing effect for axially channeled MeV protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motapothula, M.; Petrović, S.; Nešković, N.; Breese, M. B. H.

    2016-08-01

    Sub-Ångström focusing of megaelectronvolt (MeV) ions within axial channels was predicted over 10 years ago, but evidence proved elusive. We present experimental angular distributions of axially channeled MeV protons in a 55-nm-thick (001) silicon membrane through which multiple scattering is negligible. Fine angular structure is in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations based on three interaction potentials, providing indirect evidence of the existence of the superfocusing effect with flux enhancement of around 800 within a focused beam width of ˜20 pm .

  10. The (4)He(gamma,dd) reaction at E(gamma) = 150--250 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Bryan Joseph

    1998-09-01

    We have performed a measurement of the cross section for the 4He(/gamma,d)2H reaction with Eγ=150[-]250 MeV at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory (SAL). The experiment was performed using bremsstrahlung γ rays produced by a 273 MeV electron beam. The target was liquid helium contained in a simple cryostat. Two detector arms consisting of plastic scintillator telescopes were utilized to detect both reaction particles in coincidence. We obtained relative and absolute cross sections at six angles in two energy bins (150-190 and 190-250 MeV). The angular distribution of the cross section shows peaking behavior at 90o in the center-of-mass frame. A Legendre polynomial fit to the data shows this distribution can be described by a sin2/theta angular distribution. This distribution suggests the presence of electric dipole or E1 radiation, but isospin selection rules and identical bosons in the exit channel forbid the dominant /Delta S=0 E1 transition. Performing a transition-matrix element (TME) analysis using only strictly allowed transitions, we found that the observed angular distribution could be described by the constructive interference of just two TME's: electric quadrupole (E2) s- and d-wave capture to the D-state of 4He. We performed a direct-capture calculation in order to determine if the D-state could contribute to such a high degree to the cross section. Our calculations, which used an optical model potential from elastic scattering data at lower energies, yielded the result that 90% of the cross section arises from capture to the D-state. The calculation, however, places all capture strength to the D-state into g-wave capture and, as a result, fails to reproduce the observed sin2/theta angular distribution. The lack of existing theoretical work for this system at these energies conspires to keep the mechanism for this angular distribution unclear, but we hope this result will motivate four-body theorists to extend their calculations to this energy

  11. Stopping of 236 keV - 3.019 MeV protons in mylar and polypropylene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damache, S.; Ouichaoui, S.; Belhout, A.; Medouni, A.; Toumert, I.

    2004-10-01

    The stopping powers of polypropylene and mylar polymers for protons have been accurately measured over the energy intervals Ep=(0.352-3.009) MeV and Ep=(0.236-3.019) MeV, respectively. Ab initio calculations using the Sigmund-Schinner binary collision theory for electronic stopping yielded S( E) values fairly consistent with the measured data that show no noticeable deviations from the Bragg-Kleeman additivity rule. The data have also been analyzed in the framework of the modified Bethe-Bloch theory assuming additivity. Values of the mean excitation and ionization potential, I, and of the Barkas parameter, b, have been deduced for the two polymers and for their (C, O) atomic constituents by adopting values of these parameters recommended in the ICRU-49 report for the H element. Thus, the respective I-values {(56.90 ± 0.72) eV, (79.92 ± 1.30) eV} for the two polymers and the same b-value 1.39 for their (C, O) atomic constituents have been determined by adopting for H the value b=1.8, while the I-values {(81.73 ± 1.38) eV, (109.46 ± 6.55) eV} have been deduced for the (C, O) constituents by adopting for H the value I=19.2 eV. Priorily, the shell, Barkas and Bloch corrections to the calculated S( E) values have been evaluated for both polymers over the explored respective energy ranges. The obtained results are discussed in comparison with previous ones when reported in the literature to our knowledge.

  12. Measurement of the cross section for the reaction 20Ne( n,α)17O in the neutron-energy between 4 and 7 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khryachkov, V. A.; Bondarenko, I. P.; Kuzminov, B. D.; Semenova, N. N.; Sergachev, A. I.

    2012-04-01

    The cross section for the reaction 20Ne( n, α)17O was measured in the neutron-energy range 4-7 MeV. An ionization chamber equipped with a Frisch grid combined with a pulse-shape digitizer was used as a detector. Gaseous neon that served as a target on which the reaction being studied proceeded was added to the gas filling the ionization chamber. The partial cross sections for the α 0, α 1, α 2, and α 3 channels of the reaction 20Ne( n, α)17O were obtained for the first time.

  13. /sup 14/C(/sup 6/Li,t)/sup 17/O reaction at E(/sup 6/Li) = 34 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Cunsolo, A.; Foti, A.; Imme, G.; Pappalardo, G.; Raciti, G.; Saunier, N.

    1981-11-01

    Energy spectra and angular distributions of tritons from the /sup 14/C(/sup 6/Li,t)/sup 17/O reaction have been measured at 34 MeV /sup 6/Li incident enegy and between theta/sub lab/ = 5/sup 0/ and 45/sup 0/. The observed selectivity and the forward peaked angular distributions suggest a predominantly direct reaction mechanism. /sup 17/O states with main 3p-2h configuration are tentatively identified. The experimental data have been analyzed in terms of Hauser-Feshbach and exact-finite-range distorted-wave Born approximation theories. /sup 3/He spectroscopic strengths are extracted.

  14. Comparison of the (p,xn) cross sections from /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U, and /sup 232/Th targets irradiated with 200-MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Y.Y.; Zhou, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    We have measured absolute cross sections for (p,xn) reactions (x ranges from 0 to 8) from /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U, and /sup 232/Th targets irradiated with 200-MeV protons at the Brookhaven AGS Linac injector. Chemical yields were determined by using /sup 239/Np and /sup 233/Pa as tracers. Yield patterns obtained in this work can be compared to the experimental results and theoretical calculations from earlier work, and they are consistent within the framework of intranuclear cascade followed by neutron evaporation and fission competition.

  15. Σ+p elastic scattering in the region of 300 ⩽ pΣ ⩽ 600 MeV/ c with a scintillating fiber target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J. K.; Bassalleck, B.; Chung, M. S.; Chung, W. M.; En'yo, H.; Fukuda, T.; Funahashi, H.; Goto, Y.; Higashi, A.; Ieiri, M.; Iinuma, M.; Imai, K.; Itow, Y.; Kanda, H.; Kim, Y. D.; Lee, J. M.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Park, I. S.; Park, Y. M.; Saito, N.; Mihara, S.; Shin, Y. M.; Sim, K. S.; Susukita, R.; Takashima, R.; Takeutchi, F.; Tlustý, P.; Yamashita, S.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoshida, M.; KEK-PS E251 Collaboration

    1999-03-01

    Σ+p elastic scattering has been studied using a scintillating fiber block (SCIFI) which served as a target for the production of Σ+ hyperons as well as for subsequent Σ+ scattering on hydrogen. A new technique for the analysis of the hyperon-nucleon scattering in the SCIFI has been developed and established. In this paper, Σ+p elastic scattering events have been identified in the Σ+ momentum range of 300-600 MeV/ c, and differential cross sections have been obtained at two angles. The results are compared with various theoretical baryon-baryon interaction models.

  16. T(T,2n)4He and 3He(3He,2p)4He: The Reaction Mechanism from Solar Energies to 10 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacher, A. D.; Brune, C. R.; Sayre, D. B.; Hale, G. M.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the energy dependence of the reaction mechanism of the T(t,2n)4He reaction at stellar energies and of its charge symmetric analog reaction 3He(3He,2p)4He at energies up 10 MeV. We find that the reaction mechanism changes dramatically over this energy range in part due to the interference of the two identical fermions in the three-body final state. This contribution is dedicated to the memory of Tom Tombrello, my Ph.D. advisor at Cal Tech, who died in 2014.

  17. Correlated evolution of barrier capacitance charging, generation, and drift currents and of carrier lifetime in Si structures during 25 MeV neutrons irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T.; Jasiunas, A.; Uleckas, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Cortina, E.; Militaru, O.

    2012-12-03

    The in situ examination of barrier capacitance charging, of generation and drift currents, and of carrier lifetime in Si structures during 25 MeV neutrons irradiation has been implemented to correlate radiation induced changes in carrier recombination, thermal release, and drift characteristics and to clarify their impact on detector performance. It has been shown that microwave probed photo-conductivity technique implemented in contact-less and distant manner can be a powerful tool for examination in wide dynamic range of carrier lifetime modified by radiation defects and for rather precise prediction of detector performance.

  18. The low energy particle detector sled (~30 keV-3.2 MeV) and its performance on the phobos mission to mars and its moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Afonin, V. V.; Gringauz, K. I.; Keppler, E.; Kirsch, E.; Richter, A.; Witte, M.; O'Sullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Somogyi, A. J.; Szabo, L.; Varga, A.

    1990-05-01

    A low energy particle detector system (SLED) is described which was designed to measure the flux densities of electrons and ions in the energy range from ~30 keV to a few MeV in (a) the varying solar aspect angles and temperatures pertaining during the Cruise Phase of the Phobos Mission and (b) in the low temperature environment (reaching -25° C) pertaining during Mars Encounter. Representative data illustrating the excellent functioning of SLED during both phases of the mission are presented.

  19. Measurement of cross sections for the 63Cu(alpha,gamma)67Ga reaction from 5.9-8.7 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Basunia, M. Shamsuzzoha; Norman, Eric B.; Shugart, Howard A.; Smith, Alan R.; Dolinski, Michelle J.; Quiter, Brian J.

    2004-09-23

    We have measured cross sections for the 63Cu(alpha,gamma)67Ga reaction in the 5.9-8.7 MeV energy range using an activation technique. Natural Cu foils were bombarded with alpha beams from the 88 Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Activated foils were counted using gamma spectrometry system at LBNL's Low Background Facility. The 63Cu(alpha,gamma)67Ga cross-sections were determined and compared with the latest NON-SMOKER theoretical values. Experimental cross sections were found to be in agreement with theoretical values.

  20. Reference Ranges & What They Mean

    MedlinePlus

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