Sample records for 50ka dc-current interruption

  1. Precise DC current sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ripka; P. Kejik; P. Kaspar; K. Draxler

    1996-01-01

    Three novel DC current sensors are described. Portable 40 A DC current clamps have resolution of 1 mA and high immunity to unclamped currents and external fields. AC\\/DC comparator with amorphous core may serve for precise measurement of DC currents with AC component up to 1 kHz. Magnetoresistive sensor field has limited accuracy but potential bandwidth from DC to 1

  2. 14C ages and activity for the past 50 ka at Volcán Galeras, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, N.G.; Calvache, V.M.L.; Williams, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    Volcán Galeras is the southernmost Colombian volcano with well-recorded historic activity. The volcano is part of a large and complex volcanic center upon which 400,000 people live. Historic activity has centered on a small-volume cone inside the youngest of several large amphitheaters that breach the west flank of the volcano, away from the city of Pasto (population 300,000). Lava flows (SiO2 between 54.6 and 64.7 wt.%) have dominated activity for more than 1 Ma, but explosive events have also occurred. Joint studies by volcanologists from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and the United States produced 24 new14C ages and more than 100 stratigraphic sections to interpret the past 50 ka of activity at Galeras, including sector collapse events. The youngest collapse event truncated 12.8 ka lava flows and may have occurred as recently as 8 to 10 ka. Tephra-fall material rapidly thins and becomes finer away from the vent area. The only widespread marker in the < 10 ka section is a biotite-bearing tephra deposited between 4.1 and 4.5 ka from a source south of Galeras. It separates cryoturbated from largely undisturbed layers on Galeras, and thus dates a stratigraphic horizon which is useful in the interpretation of other volcanoes and geotectonics in the equatorial Andes. Pyroclastic flows during the past 50 ka have been small to moderate in volume, but they have left numerous thin deposits on the north and east flanks where lava flows have been impeded by crater and amphitheater walls. Many of the pyroclastic-flow deposits are lithic rich, with fines and clasts so strongly altered by hydrothermal action before eruption that they, as well as the sector collapse deposits, resemble waste dumps of leached cappings from disseminated sulfide deposits more than volcanogenic deposits. This evidence of a long-lived hydrothermal system indicates susceptibility to mass failure and explosive events higher than expected for a volcano built largely by lava flows and modest Vulcanian eruptions. Photographs, written accounts, and our study document historic north and east flank pyroclastic flows as far as 10 km from the summit; however, none have left recognizable deposits in Pasto for more than 40 ka.

  3. Schooling, Interrupted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCapua, Andrea; Smathers, Will; Tang, Lixing Frank

    2007-01-01

    As the ranks of English language learners swell in the United States, the number of students with interrupted formal education (SIFE) is on the rise. In 2004-05, New York City schools estimated that 10 percent of their English language learners were students with interrupted schooling. According to the New York State Department of Education,…

  4. Interrupt Handling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bodhireddy, Rathnakar Reddy

    2009-06-30

    The PowerPoint presentation, created by authors Hebah Kohari, Rathnakar Reddy Bodhireddy, and Sheril Dhabriya for Marist College, provides a great overview of interrupt handling in regards to computer operating systems. The presentation discusses the definition of interrupt handling and also provides examples of different types. Explanation of the hardware and software needed to handle interruption is outlined. Use of diagrams and flowcharts help illustrate these concepts; this provides each aspect with both a textual and visual representation. While complex, the authors make attempts to have the lesson be understandable for more novice users. Overall, this is certainly a useful resource for anyone in computer science education.

  5. Marine sediments and Beryllium-10 record of the geomagnetic moment variations of the 20-50ka interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménabréaz, L.; Thouveny, N.; Bourles, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    To better constrain the Earth's dipole moment changes at the time of the Laschamp and Mono Lake excursions, we reconstructed the cosmogenic nuclide 10Be production variations in the atmosphere using authigenic 10Be/9Be records measured along two marine sediment sequences from the north-east Atlantic (Portuguese margin) and west-equatorial Pacific (Papua-New Guinea margin) oceans. These two records evidence an almost doubling of the 10Be production at ~41 ka, thus assignable to the geomagnetic dipole low associated to the Laschamp excursion. The compilation of authigenic 10Be/9Be marine records provides a stack which indicates that the global 10Be production rates at 41 ka were enhanced by a ~1.5 factor compared to the average over the 20-50 ka interval. The comparison of this authigenic 10Be/9Be marine stack with the Greenland 10Be flux record (smoothed by 1000-year averaging) evidences a good coherency of the timing and amplitude of 10Be production recorded at high, mid and low latitudes. This confirms that the 10Be overproduction signal has a global significance, as expected from a geomagnetic dipole moment loss. The calibration of the 10Be/9Be stack using absolute virtual dipole moment values provides an independent tool to reconstruct geomagnetic dipole moment variations. This allows computing the loss rate leading to the Laschamp dipole minimum (~ -1.5 x 1022 A.m2.ka-1), which constitutes an interesting criterion to assess the loss rate of the historical field. In constrast with relative paleointensity records and absolute paleointensity data sets, the absence of significant cosmogenic enhancement at the age of 34 ka suggests that the Mono Lake dipole low was not sufficient to trigger a significant cosmogenic overproduction. This demonstrates that if the Mono lake excursion really occurred at that time, the duration and amplitude of the dipole weakening were very limited compared to that of the Laschamp. The 10Be overproduction quantified in this study constitutes a reliable basis to calibrate radiocarbon production and in situ cosmogenic nuclides production. For example, it can help to understand the atmospheric 14C concentration variations, recorded near 41 ka and near 34 ka in ? 14C series. The 10Be production peak linked to the Laschamp dipole low can be used as a global tie point for correlation of high-resolution paleoclimatic series obtained from high quality archives. This study is funded through the MAG-ORB project ANR- 09-BLAN-0053-01.

  6. Variability of Western Pacific Warm Pool Rainfall since 50 ka BP: Lithologic and Isotopic Perspectives from Lake Matano, Central Sulawesi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicaksono, S. A.; Russell, J. M.; Bijaksana, S.; Noren, A. J.; Wattrus, N. J.; Vogel, H.

    2012-12-01

    We use multiple paleohydrological proxies applied to the sedimentary record of Lake Matano (2°29.1'S 121°20'E), central Sulawesi, Indonesia, to understand the mechanisms controlling long-term variations of the Australian-Indonesian Monsoon (AIM) and Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) convection during the past 50 ka. Lithogenic tracers of surface runoff, including magnetic susceptibility and XRF-derived iron counts, are high during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2/Last Glacial Maximum as well as during millennial-scale northern hemisphere cold events (e.g. the Younger Dryas and Heinrich events), indicating a wetter climate during these northern hemisphere stadials. These events appear in antiphase to dry conditions in mainland Asia, reconstructed by oxygen isotopic analyses of Chinese speleothems, demonstrating antiphasing between the AIM (our record) and the East Asian Summer Monsoon (Chinese speleothems) at both orbital and millennial timescales. At the orbital band, this antiphasing is likely due to the influence of changing seasonal insolation on the global summer monsoons, northern hemisphere ice sheet expansion, and associated shifts in the mean latitudinal position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Interestingly, our data indicates that MIS2 was far wetter than the late Holocene, despite similar austral summer insolation at these times. The strikingly wet MIS2 signal in our proxy data compared to MIS1 and MIS3 suggests that the climate in this region is strongly sensitive to glacial forcings, likely related to changes in WPWP convection driven by greenhouse gas forcing and ice-volume induced atmospheric circulation changes. To better understand the connection between WPWP convection, water vapor transport, and AIM strength at orbital timescales, we also investigate hydrogen isotopic ratios of terrestrial higher plant leaf waxes (?Dwax) in Lake Matano's sediments. Assuming that ?Dwax records the ?D of past precipitation, which may be related to the intensity of WPWP convection, we hypothesize that periods of strong convection covary with intervals of high surface runoff. Comparison of our lithologic and isotopic proxies of terrestrial paleohydrology, including nearby Lake Towuti, with regional proxy data will also help constrain the boundary between wet and dry events in the WPWP during the northern hemisphere stadials.

  7. Linking the10Be continental record of Lake Baikal to marine and ice archives of the last 50 ka: Implication for the global dust-aerosol input

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.; Peck, J.; King, J.; Colman, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present here a 10Be profile from the continental sediments of Lake Baikal (the world's largest fresh water lake), which, for the first time, shows the ??? 40 ka 10Be enhancement and a pattern that strongly matches those from the marine and ice records for the last 50 ka. This finding provides a new horizon for global and regional correlation of continental archives. Additionally, our VADM-predicted 10Be production confirms and further strengthens a common global cause (geomagnetic field intensity) for the change in atmospheric 10Be over the last 50 ka. We also show that most of the 10Be inventory to the lake has been provided by riverine input, but with a significant addition from direct precipitation and dust-aerosol fallout. We estimate a higher dust-aerosol contribution of 10Be during the Holocene and interstadial stage 3 (22-50 ka) as compared with the glacial period (12-22 ka). Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. UConn PhysicsBarrett O. Wells Zero resistance to dc current

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    UConn PhysicsBarrett O. Wells · Zero resistance to dc current · Expels magnetic fields · A state, magnetic field BC. Superconductivity #12;UConn PhysicsBarrett O. Wells Superconductivity ­ discovered State Physics #12;UConn PhysicsBarrett O. Wells Theory Immediately recognized that superconductivity

  9. Zeroing Transformer's DC Current in Resonant Converters with No Series Capacitors

    E-print Network

    Zeroing Transformer's DC Current in Resonant Converters with No Series Capacitors Alexander in a transformer coupled resonant converter that does not include a series capacitor. This issue was explored capacitors which could lead to a significant cost and size reduction. Index Terms - Resonant power conversion

  10. Operation of the DC current transformer intensity monitors at FNAL during run II

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Meyer, T.; Vogel, G.; /Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Circulating beam intensity measurements at FNAL are provided by five DC current transformers (DCCT), one per machine. With the exception of the DCCT in the Recycler, all DCCT systems were designed and built at FNAL. This paper presents an overview of both DCCT systems, including the sensor, the electronics, and the front-end instrumentation software, as well as their performance during Run II.

  11. Investigation of DC current injection effect on the microwave characteristics of HTS YBCO microstrip resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurgaliev, T.; Blagoev, B.; Mateev, E.; Neshkov, L.; Strbik, V.; Uspenskaya, L.; Nedkov, I.; Chromik, Š.

    2014-03-01

    The DC current injection effect from a ferromagnetic (FM) La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) to a high temperature superconducting (HTS) Y1Ba2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) thin film was investigated by the microwave surface impedance measurements in a FM/HTS structure, formed as a microstrip resonator for improving the sensitivity of the experiments. The quality factor and the resonance frequency of this structure were found to strongly depend on the current strength, injected from the LSMO electrode into the HTS microstrip electrode. The magnetic penetration depth and the quasiparticle conductivity of the HTS component were determined to increase under DC current injection process, which in all probability stimulated breaking of Cooper pairs and led to a decrease of the superfluid concentration and an increase of the normal fluid concentration without significantly affecting the relaxation time of the quasiparticles.

  12. SIM regional comparison of ac-dc current transfer difference SIM.EM-K12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lillo, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The ac-dc current transfer difference identified as SIM.EM.K-12 began in July 2010 and was completed in September 2012. Six NMIs in the SIM region and one NMI in the AFRIMET region took part: NRC (Canada), NIST (United States of America), CENAM (Mexico), INTI (Argentina), UTE (Uruguay), INMETRO (Brazil) and NIS (Egypt). The comparisons were proposed to assess the measurement capabilities in ac-dc current transfer difference of the participants NMIs. The ac-dc current transfer differences of the travelling standard had been measured at 10 mA and 5 A at 10 Hz, 55 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz, 20 kHz, 50 kHz and 100 kHz. The test points were selected to link the results with the equivalent CCEM Key Comparisons (CCEM-K12), through three NMIs participating in both SIM and CCEM key comparisons (INTI, NRC and NIST). The report shows the degree of equivalence in the SIM region and also the degree of equivalence with the corresponding CCEM reference value. The results of all participants support the values and uncertainties of the applicable CMC entries for ac-dc current transfer difference in the Key Comparison Database held at the BIPM. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. A regional overview of the last glacial period in the temperate NE Atlantic: varying paleoproductivity centers over the last 50 ka BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penaud, Aurélie; Eynaud, Frédérique; Ganne, Axelle

    2015-04-01

    Recent palynological investigations carried out in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz (MD99-2339 core) over MIS 3 enable to consider dinoflagellate cyst assemblage patterns over the last 50 ka BP through a compilation of 6 cores from the NE subtropical Atlantic to the Northern Bay of Biscay (also including cores MD95-2042, MD95-2043, MD04-2805CQ, VK03-58bis). Dinocyst signals depict hydrological front latitudinal shifts over the last glacial and associated sea-surface consequences regarding past regimes of primary productivity. We show here new data clearly evidencing subtropical latitudes of Cadiz as being as productive areas over the last glacial as recorded today in the septentrional part of the Bay of Biscay, especially between GI 8 and GI 12. We especially focus on dinocyst-species Lingulodinium machaerophorum relative abundances and absolute concentrations that we first evidence as a powerful tool to reconstruct and discuss productivity shifts through time in the temperate North Atlantic. This spatio-temporal synthesis bring important evidences of fast migrating paleoproductiviy centers from the last glacial period to present, implying also large consequences on the biological pump through time. Regarding this specific session, 5 of the 6 cores discussed here were retrieved by the R/V Marion Dufresne through 3 different cruises: Core MD99-2339 (35.89°N, 7.53°W, 1170m water depth, 18.54m long) was retrieved in a contouritic field in the oriental part of the Gulf of Cadiz by the oceanographic R/V Marion Dufresne during the 1999 International Marine Global Change Studies V (IMAGES V) cruise (Labeyrie, Jansen and Cortijo, 2003). Cores MD95-2042 (37°48'N, 10°10'W, 3146m water depth, 39.56m long) and MD95-2043 (36°8.6'N, 2°37.3'W, 1841m water depth, 36m long) were retrieved from the SW Iberian margin and the central Alboran Sea, respectively, by the oceanographic R/V Marion Dufresne during the 1995 IMAGES I cruise (Bassinot and Labeyrie, 1996). Core MD04-2805 CQ (34.52°N, 7.02°W, 859m water depth, 7.72m long) was retrieved 40 km off the Moroccan coast by the oceanographic R/V Marion Dufresne during the 2004 PRIVILEGE cruise.

  14. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25867225

  15. Impact of quasi-dc currents on three-phase distribution transformer installations

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, B.W.; Barnes, P.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Tesche, F.M. (Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States)); Schafer, D.A. (Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes a series of tests designed to determine the response of quasi-dc currents on three-phase power distribution transformers for electric power systems. In general, if the dc injection is limited to the primary side of a step-down transformer, significant harmonic distortion is noted and an increase in the reactive power demand results. For dc injection on the secondary (load) side of the step-down transformer the harmonic content at the secondary side is quite high and saturation occurs with a relatively low level of dc injection; however, the reactive power demand is significantly lower. These tests produced no apparent damage to the transformers. Transformer damage is dependent on the duration of the dc excitation, the level of the excitation, and on thermal characteristics of the transfer. The transformer response time is found to be much shorter than seen in power transformer tests at lower dc injection levels. This shorter response time suggests that the response time is strongly dependent on the injected current levels, and that higher levels of dc injection for shorter durations could produce very high reactive power demands and harmonic distortion within a few tenths of a second. The added reactive power load could result in the blowing of fuses on the primary side of the transformer for even moderate dc injection levels, and neutral currents are quite large under even low-level dc injection. This smoking neutral'' results in high-level harmonic injection into equipment via the neutral and in possible equipment failure.

  16. Oceanic density fronts steering bottom-current induced sedimentation deduced from a 50 ka contourite-drift record and numerical modeling (off NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Zhang, Wenyan; Hofmann, Antonia L.; Löwemark, Ludvig A.; Schwenk, Tilmann

    2015-03-01

    How the various bottom-near hydrographic and sedimentary processes control the formation of contourite drifts, i.e. of bottom-current related confined deep-sea depocenters, usually remains widely speculative. This study uses a transect of six sediment cores and a sediment echosounder profile across a whole contourite system off NW Spain to address the sediment dynamics responsible for the depositional pattern. This "mounded patch"-type contourite drift (18 km long, 20 km wide) with a 150-m deep channel (moat) has formed around an 800-m high structural obstacle. Deposition on the contourite drift in the past was characterized by alternating calm and high-energy bottom-flow conditions. Calm conditions (Last Glacial period: 27-17 cal ka BP; late Holocene times: <4 cal ka BP) led to slightly current-influenced deposition of fine-grained sediments (10 ?m) in the entire basin. This regime was interrupted by periods of short-lasting waxing-and-waning high-energy conditions (D/O events during Marine Isotope Stage 3; the Deglacial/early Holocene time interval at 17-4 cal ka BP), resulting in the deposition of coarse sediments (70 ?m). Process-based numerical modeling demonstrates that pulse-like oceanic density fronts traveling within the transition zone of two water masses (Labrador Sea Water, Mediterranean Outflow Water) provide a powerful mechanism for contouritic deposition, rather than the core of a water mass itself. These gravity-driven density fronts lead to local re-suspension of sands stored inside the drift's moat and to subsequent upward transport towards the drift's crest. Here, the oceanic density fronts produce additional km-scale eddies. These migrating eddies provide an efficient mechanism for further widespread sediment re-distribution. In comparison with paleoceanographic reconstructions, a downward migration or expansion of the Mediterranean Outflow Water by about 300 m led most probably to such temporary contouritic sand deposition. We finally propose a conceptual model to explain how seafloor obstacles redirect and perturbate bottom currents. This model proposes not only a sharp contact between two water masses but also the transition zone between those as an important high-energy regime, offering oceanic density fronts a travel medium. These fronts are strong enough to distribute fine sands across highly pronounced seabed topography. On the respective time scale, the moat itself seems to act as the main source for those sands, making a remote source and a long-distance sediment transport unnecessary.

  17. A comparison of human versus virtual interruptions.

    PubMed

    Nees, Michael A; Fortna, Anjali

    2015-05-01

    Although a wealth of research has examined the effects of virtual interruptions, human-initiated interruptions are common in many work settings. An experiment compared performance on a primary data-entry task during human-initiated (human) versus computer-initiated (virtual) interruptions. Participants completed blocks of trials that featured either an interruption from a computer or an interruption from a human experimenter. The timing of the onset of the interruptions was also varied across trials. Human interruptions resulted in much shorter interruption lags. No significant differences were observed for the number of correct responses on the primary task for human versus virtual interruptions, but interruptions that occurred later in the task sequence resulted in fewer mistakes. The social aspect of human interruptions may have attenuated interruption lags in that condition, and it is possible that virtual interruptions may permit people greater temporal flexibility in managing their engagement with interruptions. PMID:25537689

  18. Advanced-priority interrupt module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeane, H. L.

    1974-01-01

    Module contains mask register, line register, primary sync register, secondary sync register, push-pop stacking register, control section, and interrupt address generator. APIM operates in conjunction with logic found in majority of minicomputers to provide fully-vectored interrupt capabilities.

  19. Assisting interruption recovery in mission control operations

    E-print Network

    Wan, Jordan (Jordan X.)

    2007-01-01

    Frequent interruptions are commonplace in modem work environments. The negative impacts of interruptions are well documented and include increased task completion and error rates in individual task activities, as well as ...

  20. Implementing Precise Interrupts in Pipelined Processors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Smith; Andrew R. Pleszkun

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates solutions to the precise interrupt problem in pipelined processors. An interrupt is precise if the saved process state corresponds with a sequential model of program execution where one instruction completes before the next begins. In a pipelined processor, precise interrupts are difficult to implement because an instruction may be initiated before its predecessors have completed.

  1. Implementation of precise interrupts in pipelined processors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Smith; Andrew R. Pleszkun

    1985-01-01

    An interrupt is precise if the saved process state corresponds with the sequential model of program execution where one instruction completes before the next begins. In a pipelined processor, precise interrupts are difficult to achieve because an instruction may be initiated before its predecessors have been completed. This paper describes and evaluates solutions to the precise interrupt problem in pipelined

  2. Current interruption by density depression

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.S.; Tajima, T.; Akasofu, S.I.

    1985-04-01

    Using a one-dimensional electrostatic particle code, we examine processes associated with current interruption in a collisionless plasma when a density depression is present along the current channel. Current interruption due to double layers was suggested by Alfven and Carlqvist (1967) as a cause of solar flares. At a local density depression, plasma instabilities caused by an electron current flow are accentuated, leading to current disruption. Our simulation study encompasses a wide range of the parameters in such a way that under appropriate conditions, both the Alfven and Carlqvist (1967) regime and the Smith and Priest (1972) regime take place. In the latter regime the density depression decays into a stationary structure (''ion-acoustic layer'') which spawns a series of ion-acoustic ''solitons'' and ion phase space holes travelling upstream. A large inductance of the current circuit tends to enhance the plasma instabilities.

  3. Fluid flow across the jejunal epithelia in vivo elicited by d-c current: effects of mesenteric nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hemlin, M

    1995-09-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to investigate the effect of electrical gradients on fluid transport across the rat jejunal mucosa in vivo; and (2) to evaluate the effect of mesenteric nerve stimulation (MNS) on current-induced fluid flow. Segments of rat jejunum were mounted with intact blood circulation in an in vivo chamber, allowing parallel registration of net fluid transport rate (NFT) and electrical properties of the tissue. Directed currents (d-c) of varying densities were passed across the jejunal wall in both directions and the current-induced fluid flows were measured. D-c current elicited fluid flows across the jejunal mucosa towards the cathode in both directions in a 'dose-dependent' manner. The effect was markedly greater when the anode was placed on the serosal side (s-->m current) than when it was placed on the mucosal side (m-s current). MNS abolished m-->s current induced flow whereas the effect of s-->m current was not significantly changed. It was concluded that: (1) true electro-osmosis probably accounts for the major portion of current-induced fluid flow in this model; (2) current induced fluid flow is rectified in opposite directions in vivo and in vitro; and (3) MNS inhibits current-induced fluid flow m-->s, possibly via a sympathetic effect on epithelial permeability. PMID:8553880

  4. Impact of quasi-dc currents on three-phase distribution transformer installations. Power Systems Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, B.W.; Barnes, P.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tesche, F.M. [Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States); Schafer, D.A. [Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes a series of tests designed to determine the response of quasi-dc currents on three-phase power distribution transformers for electric power systems. In general, if the dc injection is limited to the primary side of a step-down transformer, significant harmonic distortion is noted and an increase in the reactive power demand results. For dc injection on the secondary (load) side of the step-down transformer the harmonic content at the secondary side is quite high and saturation occurs with a relatively low level of dc injection; however, the reactive power demand is significantly lower. These tests produced no apparent damage to the transformers. Transformer damage is dependent on the duration of the dc excitation, the level of the excitation, and on thermal characteristics of the transfer. The transformer response time is found to be much shorter than seen in power transformer tests at lower dc injection levels. This shorter response time suggests that the response time is strongly dependent on the injected current levels, and that higher levels of dc injection for shorter durations could produce very high reactive power demands and harmonic distortion within a few tenths of a second. The added reactive power load could result in the blowing of fuses on the primary side of the transformer for even moderate dc injection levels, and neutral currents are quite large under even low-level dc injection. This ``smoking neutral`` results in high-level harmonic injection into equipment via the neutral and in possible equipment failure.

  5. Deadline analysis of interrupt-driven software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Brylow; Jens Palsberg

    2003-01-01

    Real-time, reactive, and embedded systems are widely used throughout society (e.g., flight control, railway signaling, vehicle management, medical devices, and many others). For real-time, interrupt-driven software, timely interrupt handling is part of correctness. It is vital for software verification in such systems to check that all specified deadlines for interrupt handling will be met. Such verification is a daunting task

  6. Improved Stability of Pd/Ti Contacts to p-Type SiC Under Continuous DC and Pulsed DC Current Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, B. P.; Mohney, S. E.; Flemish, J. R.

    2011-04-01

    The enhanced stability of Pd/Ti contacts to p-type SiC under high-current-density continuous direct-current (DC) stressing is investigated and compared with previous work on Ti/Al contacts. Additionally, differing failure modes were observed for the Pd/Ti contacts under continuous DC and pulsed DC stress. The improved stability of the Pd/Ti contacts is demonstrated through a 29% increase in the applied continuous DC current required to cause electrical failure during a 1 h test compared with the Ti/Al contacts. The metallization scheme includes a TiW barrier and a thick electroplated Au overlayer. While severe intermixing and voiding in the ohmic contact layer caused the Pd/Ti contacts to fail under continuous DC stress, electromigration of the Au overlayer degraded the contacts under pulsed DC stress. The temperature of the surface of the contacts was reduced from over 649°C for contacts that failed under continuous DC current to between 316°C and 371°C for pulsed DC current. The difference in temperature and failure modes of the continuous and pulsed DC stressed contacts indicates different failure mechanisms.

  7. The Role of Interruption in Building Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroutunian-Gordon, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    In the article, we explore conditions under which people may allow their listening to be interrupted, that is, allow themselves to start listening for something they had not been trying to hear previously. We present empirical evidence for the conditions by analyzing an interview with a teacher who tells us how his listening was interrupted as he…

  8. Deadline Analysis of Interrupt-Driven Software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Brylow; Jens Palsberg

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT Real - time, reactive, and embedded systems are widely used throughout society (e g , flight control, railway signaling, ve - hicle management, medical devices, and many others) For real - time, interrupt - driven software, timely interrupt han - dling is part of correctness It is vital for software verifica - tion in such systems to check that

  9. Interrupt Synchronization Lock for Real-time Operating Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huaidong Shi; Ming Cai; Jinxiang Dong

    2006-01-01

    One of the fundamental design decisions in an operating system is how to handle coordination between synchronous and asynchronous event handlers, especially handling the asynchronous interrupts. Interrupt synchronization is critical for real-time operating systems to increase system performance and reduce the interrupt response time. This paper proposes an interrupt synchronization lock (ISLock) technology to synchronize the interrupts without masking. Experimental

  10. THE EFFECTS OF RESPONSE INTERRUPTION AND REDIRECTION

    E-print Network

    Joung, Eun Gi

    2011-07-15

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of Response Interruption and Redirection on automatically maintained vocal stereotypy of a ten year old boy with autism. The researcher hypothesized that RIRD ...

  11. Checklist interruption and resumption: A linguistic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    This study forms part of a project investigating the relationships among the formal structure of aviation procedures, the ways in which the crew members are taught to execute them, and the ways in which thet are actually performed in flight. Specifically, this report examines the interactions between the performance of checklists and interruptions, considering both interruptions by radio communications and by other crew members. The data consists of 14 crews' performance of a full mission simulation of a higher ratio of checklist speech acts to all speech acts within the span of the performance of the checklist. Further, it is not number of interruptions but length of interruptions which is associated with crew performance quality. Use of explicit holds is also associated with crew performance.

  12. ATmega128 Interrupt Jee-Hwan Ryu

    E-print Network

    Ryu, Jee-Hwan

    ATmega128 Interrupt MEC382 Jee-Hwan Ryu School of Mechanical Engineering Korea University of Technology and Education CPU Zero ATmega128 . #12;Korea University of Technology University of Technology and Education CPU , CPU . ATmega128 #12

  13. dc arc interruption in pressurized gasses

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhuri,P.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the possibility of achieving (1) short interruption time and (2) minimum contact erosion in a dc circuit interrupter. Arc interruption tests were performed on a 100-A, 600-V dc contactor under atmospheres of argon dry air, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen, each at four pressures 0.17, 0.34, 0.52, and 0.69 MPa (25, 50, 75 and 100 psig). It was found that the average arcing time in helium and hydrogen was the shortest, and that in argon the longest for the circuit conditions used. The contact erosion in hydrogen was the worst, and that in argon the best for the contact materials used in the tests. The static pressure in the chamber did not appear to have much effect on the arc interruption phenomenon for the contactor and gas pressures used.

  14. Magnetoimpedance effect of the Ni80Fe20/Cu composite wires: The influence of DC current imposed on the Cu base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Delu; Li, Xin; Ji, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Qiang; Ruan, Jianzhong; Zhao, Zhenjie

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the copper composite wires of 75 ?m in diameter with a sputtered layer of Ni80Fe20 permalloy were prepared, with a DC current applied to the basal Cu terminals during the fabrication process. The influence of the DC current on the magnetic configuration and Magneto-Impedance (MI) effect was studied. The results indicate that both the current amplitude and actuation duration have significant effect on the magnetic properties of the Ni80Fe20 layer. With appropriate current applied, the induced magnetic field leads to a circumferential magnetic domain structure and reduces significantly the equivalent anisotropy field of Ni80Fe20 layer. Then, the GMI ratio of the composite wires was significantly increased. A maximum GMI of 194.8% can be reached when the current was fixed at 100 mA and the Ni80Fe20 thickness is 780 nm. If the Ni80Fe20 thickness is above 780 nm, the coercivity of the coating layer increases while the GMI ratio of the composite wire reduces, since the magnetic anisotropy of the Ni80Fe20 layer varies from circumferential to longitudinal. The results were explained combining the thermal and magnetic effects of current.

  15. Stressing of turbine-generator-exciter shafts by variable-frequency currents superimposed on DC currents in asynchronous HVDC links and following disturbances at converter stations

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J.; Bremner, J.J. (Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom))

    1994-09-01

    Ripple currents on the DC side of both HVDC synchronous and asynchronous. Links together with cleared HVDC and AC system disturbances can excite in some circumstances onerous torsional vibrations in large steam generator shafts. The problem has assumed importance in recent months on account of the HVDC Link between Scotland and Northern Ireland going ahead, on account of the proposed Eire/Wales Link, and because AC/DC/AC couplers are to be installed extensively to interconnect the East and West European Grid Systems. This paper discusses and analyses excitation of shaft torsional vibrations in steam turbine-generator-exciter shafts in close proximity to HVDC converter stations by (1) variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on the DC currents in asynchronous Links, and (2) disturbances at bi-polar converter stations. The time response and tables show that for the systems studied variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on the DC current in asynchronous Links can excite shaft torsional vibrations, the very small noncharacteristic currents could result in onerous shaft torques which might damage the machine, and that DC line faults at converter stations in close proximity of steam turbine-generator units can excite onerous turbine-generator shaft torsional response. Detailed simulation of the HVDC converter and generator is necessary for precise assessments of shaft torsional response following HVDC converter station faults. 500MW, 660MW, 1000MW and 1300MW machines are considered in the analyses that are made.

  16. Power links with Ireland -- Excitation of turbine-generator shaft torsional vibrations by variable frequency currents superimposed on DC currents in asynchronous HVDC links

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J.; Tay, B.W.; Kok, K.L. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom)] [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1995-08-01

    The paper describes an in-depth analysis of excitation of shaft torsional vibrations in steam-turbine-generator-exciter shafts in close proximity to HVDC converter stations by variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on the DC currents in asynchronous Links. It extends earlier work to include an in depth analysis of system scaling factors for harmonic currents impressed on generators in Northern Ireland by an inverter and to investigate the phenomena for possible torsional vibrations in the generators by the Link. Frequencies at which shaft torsional vibrations would be excited by modulation product harmonics in 50Hz/50Hz asynchronous Links as a function of deviation in system frequency is reviewed. Relative noncharacteristic current levels for 50Hz/50Hz connectors are illustrated assuming ripple currents at the inverter which gives realistic harmonic voltages in a twelve-pulse bridge. The paper then shows that torques in machines in multi-machine networks may be estimated by proportioning HVDC link harmonic disturbance current appropriately to each machine at risk. It is concluded that variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on the DC current in asynchronous links can excite sympathetic torsional vibrations in turbine-generator-exciter shafts.

  17. Fast interrupt platform for extended DOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duryea, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    Extended DOS offers the unique combination of a simple operating system which allows direct access to the interrupt tables, 32 bit protected mode access to 4096 MByte address space, and the use of industry standard C compilers. The drawback is that fast interrupt handling requires both 32 bit and 16 bit versions of each real-time process interrupt handler to avoid mode switches on the interrupts. A set of tools has been developed which automates the process of transforming the output of a standard 32 bit C compiler to 16 bit interrupt code which directly handles the real mode interrupts. The entire process compiles one set of source code via a make file, which boosts productivity by making the management of the compile-link cycle very simple. The software components are in the form of classes written mostly in C. A foreground process written as a conventional application which can use the standard C libraries can communicate with the background real-time classes via a message passing mechanism. The platform thus enables the integration of high performance real-time processing into a conventional application framework.

  18. Coordinating the Interruption of People in Human Computer Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel C. McFarlane

    People have cognitive limitations that make them sensitive to interruption. These limitations can cause people to make serious mistakes when they are interrupted. Unfortunately, interruption of people is a side effect of systems that allow users to delegate tasks to active background processes, like intelligent software agents. Delegation carries the costs of supervision, and that often includes being interrupted by

  19. Volcanic eruption induced WWVB transmission path interruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckmaster, H. A.; Hansen, C. H.

    1985-07-01

    It is reported that the 60 kHz transmission of WWVB from Fort Collins, Colorado, was not received in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, for about 11 h from 1109 UT to 2153 UT on July 23, 1980. It is suggested that this transmission path interruption is correlated with the 15 km height ash cloud due to the July 22, 1980 volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens as it drifted eastward interrupting both the ground- and first hop sky-wave paths and that this ash cloud is the source of the conductivity and/or ionization necessary to produce this interruption. Small phase retardations are also reported which could be correlated with other Mount St. Helens volcanic events during May-July 1980.

  20. DC current induced metal-insulator transition in epitaxial Sm{sub 0.6}Nd{sub 0.4}NiO{sub 3}/LaAlO{sub 3} thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Haoliang [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China) [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Luo, Zhenlin, E-mail: zlluo@ustc.edu.cn; Yang, Yuanjun; Yang, Mengmeng; Wang, Haibo; Hu, Sixia; Bao, Jun [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China) [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Yun, Yu; Meng, Dechao; Lu, Yalin [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)] [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Gao, Chen, E-mail: cgao@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China) [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-05-15

    The metal-insulator transition (MIT) in strong correlated electron materials can be induced by external perturbation in forms of thermal, electrical, optical, or magnetic fields. We report on the DC current induced MIT in epitaxial Sm{sub 0.6}Nd{sub 0.4}NiO{sub 3} (SNNO) thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition on (001)-LaAlO{sub 3} substrate. It was found that the MIT in SNNO film not only can be triggered by thermal, but also can be induced by DC current. The T{sub MI} of SNNO film decreases from 282 K to 200 K with the DC current density increasing from 0.003 × 10{sup 9} A•m{sup ?2} to 4.9 × 10{sup 9} A•m{sup ?2}. Based on the resistivity curves measured at different temperatures, the MIT phase diagram has been successfully constructed.

  1. More about arc-fault circuit interrupters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George D. Gregory; Kon Wong; Robert F. Dvorak

    2004-01-01

    Since the arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) was commercially introduced in 1998, questions have arisen about how it detects arcs, whether it detects series and parallel arcs, and what types of AFCIs are available. Types other than the original branch\\/feeder AFCI are emerging. This paper is intended to provide an update regarding answers to those questions, following an earlier paper that

  2. Volcanic eruption induced WWVB transmission path interruption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Buckmaster; C. H. Hansen

    1985-01-01

    It is reported that the 60 kHz transmission of WWVB from Fort Collins, Colorado, was not received in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, for about 11 h from 1109 UT to 2153 UT on July 23, 1980. It is suggested that this transmission path interruption is correlated with the 15 km height ash cloud due to the July 22, 1980 volcanic eruption

  3. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:1621022

  4. Transmissive Photosensors (Photo Interrupters) Mark for indicating

    E-print Network

    Dennis, Robert G.

    ) Parameter Symbol Ratings Unit Input (Light Reverse voltage (DC) VR 3 V emitting diode) Forward current (DC1 Transmissive Photosensors (Photo Interrupters) 2 3 1 4 2 3 1 4 SEC. A-A' Mark for indicating LED (typ.) Small output current variation against change in temperature Absolute Maximum Ratings (Ta = 25°C

  5. Interruptions in the wild: Development of a sociotechnical systems model of interruptions in the emergency department through a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Werner, Nicole E; Holden, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Interruptions are unavoidable in the "interrupt driven" Emergency Department (ED). A critical review and synthesis of the literature on interruptions in the ED can offer insight into the nature of interruptions in complex real-world environments. Fifteen empirical articles on interruptions in the ED were identified through database searches. Articles were reviewed, critiqued, and synthesized. There was little agreement and several gaps in conceptualizing sociotechnical system factors, process characteristics, and interruption outcomes. While multiple outcomes of interruptions were mentioned, few were measured, and the relationship between multiple outcomes was rarely assessed. Synthesizing the literature and drawing on ergonomic concepts, we present a sociotechnical model of interruptions in complex settings that motivates new directions in research and design. The model conceptualizes interruptions as a process, not a single event, that occurs within and is shaped by an interacting socio-technical system and that results in a variety of interrelated outcomes. PMID:26154223

  6. Testing of a 50 kA, 50 kV current interrupter with I sup 2 t preheating and long recovery voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Reass, W.A.; Boenig, H.J.; Melton, J.G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) presently being constructed at Los Alamos in a next generation Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) plasma experiment. An inductive energy transfer system, employing a 50 kA, 50 kV dc current interrupter, is being utilized for initiating the plasma current. These performance requirements (50 kA, 50 kV) had yet to be realized in a reliable switching system, development of this current interrupter system was initiated. A switch test bay with a 50 kA battery bank has been built at Los Alamos to test the interrupter in conditions which will exist in the CPRF experiment. Many switch parameters were measured to provide information on the current interrupting characteristics and reliability. Some of these diagnostics include voltage, current, pre and post I{sup 2}t contact resistance, opening speed and position, arc voltage, and stem temperature. To determine any long term changes, all shots and data channels are computer indexed, and may be easily recalled for review. Extensive testing was performed on Siemens D-10 vacuum interrupter. Test parameter space included 55 kA, 40 kV (per bottle); di/dt of 2250 A/{mu}s, I{sup 2}t of 5 {times} 10{sup 9} amp{sup 2} sec; and 20 kV-200 msec RC recovery decay. Circuit parameters effect opening reliability. Circuit data and the associated testing results will be presented along with long term trends of switch performance under normal'' conditions. 12 figs.

  7. 14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135...Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. ...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

  8. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. 91...Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

  9. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. 91...Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

  10. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. 91...Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

  11. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. 91...Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

  12. 14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135...Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. ...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

  13. 14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135...Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. ...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

  14. 14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135...Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. ...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

  15. 14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135...Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. ...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

  16. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. 91...Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

  17. Interruptions : using activity transitions to trigger proactive messages

    E-print Network

    Ho, Joyce (Joyce Carmen)

    2004-01-01

    The proliferation of mobile devices and their tendency to present information proactively has led to an increase in device generated interruptions experienced by users. These interruptions are not confined to a particular ...

  18. Assessing Individual-Level Impact of Interruptions during Online Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Wan, Ping; Choi, Seung W.; Kim, Dong-In

    2015-01-01

    With an increase in the number of online tests, the number of interruptions during testing due to unexpected technical issues seems to be on the rise. For example, interruptions occurred during several recent state tests. When interruptions occur, it is important to determine the extent of their impact on the examinees' scores. Researchers such as…

  19. Deadline Analysis of Interrupt-Driven Software Dennis Brylow

    E-print Network

    Brylow, Dennis

    control, railway signaling, vehicle management, medical devices, and many others). For realDeadline Analysis of Interrupt-Driven Software Dennis Brylow Jens Palsberg October 4, 2004 Abstract-time, interrupt-driven software, timely interrupt handling is part of correctness. It is vital for software

  20. Deadline Analysis of Interrupt-Driven Software Dennis Brylow

    E-print Network

    Palsberg, Jens

    control, railway signaling, vehicle management, medical devices, and many others). For realDeadline Analysis of Interrupt-Driven Software Dennis Brylow Jens Palsberg August 2004 Abstract-time, interrupt-driven software, timely interrupt handling is part of correctness. It is vital for software

  1. Multislice CT angiography of interrupted aortic arch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Hyun Yang; Hyun Woo Goo; Dong-Man Seo; Tae-Jin Yun; Jeong-Jun Park; In-Sook Park; Jae Kon Ko; Young Hwee Kim

    2008-01-01

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is defined as complete luminal and anatomic discontinuity between the ascending and descending\\u000a aorta. Because almost all patients with IAA become critically ill during the neonatal period, they should undergo urgent corrective\\u000a surgery. This clinical urgency necessitates a fast and accurate noninvasive diagnostic method. Although echocardiography remains\\u000a the primary imaging tool for this purpose, it is

  2. Design, Assembly, and Commissioning of a Cryogenic DC Current Transformer Designed for Measuring Currents of up to 80 kA

    E-print Network

    Montenero, G; Bottura, L; Arpaia, P

    2015-01-01

    A new cryogenic dc current transformer (Cryo-DCCT) has recently been designed and assembled at CERN. The device, whose design is based on that of a high-accuracy 600 A market solution suitable for room temperature applications, is optimized for measuring currents of up to 80 kA and for operation at 4.2 K. The CryoDCCT has been conceived with the objective of preserving the metrological performance of the original commercial device in the new extended range of operation. For reducing the effect of interfering magnetic fields arising from test conditions, it incorporates ferromagnetic and MgB2 superconducting shields. In this paper, the design of the CryoDCCT and the results of the commissioning of the device at CERN are reported. The effectiveness of the current transducer is analysed and discussed. This new device will be used for measuring the secondary current of a 80 kA superconducting transformer feeding a sample of NbSn3 cable at the Facility for Research on Superconducting Cables (FRESCA) at CERN.

  3. Analysis of variable-frequency currents superimposed on DC currents in asynchronous HVDC Links in stressing turbine-generator-exciter shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J.; Bremner, J.J. [Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1995-03-01

    Ripple currents on the DC side of both HVDC asynchronous and synchronous Links can excite in some circumstances onerous torsional vibrations in large steam generator shafts. The problem has assumed importance in recent months on account of the HVDC Link between Scotland and Northern Ireland going ahead, on account of the proposed Eire/Wales Link, because AC/DC/AC couplers are to be installed to interconnect the East and West European Grid Systems, and because resonances have been observed on machines in close proximity to AC/DCIAC couplers and HVDC Links. This paper discusses and analyses excitation of shaft torsional vibrations in steam turbine-generator-exciter shafts in close proximity to HVDC converter stations by variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on DC currents in asynchronous Links. It presents technical knowledge not arranged for convenient reference heretofore in studying possible excitation of turbine-generator-v/ exciter shaft torsional vibrations by non-characteristic HVDC converter harmonic currents if a machine should be considered to be at risk. Shaft torques in multi-machine networks are evaluated by proportioning HVDC Link disturbance currents to each machine at risk using system network data, generator data and fault analysis data considering frequency dependence of the system parameters. This scaling factor is calculated for different scenarios of system operation and load. Equivalent circuits for the synchronous generator are employed appropriately to correlate HVDC Link disturbance current impressed on the generator stator with s state torque excitation from which magnitude of turbine-generator-exciter shaft torque is deduced.

  4. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOEpatents

    Rockot, J.H.; Mikesell, H.E.; Jha, K.N.

    1998-08-11

    A device and a method are disclosed for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens. 7 figs.

  5. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOEpatents

    Rockot, Joseph H. (N. Huntingdon, PA); Mikesell, Harvey E. (McMurray, PA); Jha, Kamal N. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A device and a method for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens.

  6. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    SciTech Connect

    Rockot, J.H.; Mikesell, H.E.; Jha, K.N.

    1996-12-31

    A device and a method for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens.

  7. Interrupting the Interruption: Neoliberalism and the Challenges of an Antiracist School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meshulam, Assaf; Apple, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    The article examines a US public elementary bilingual, multicultural school that attempts to interrupt the reproduction of existing relations of dominance and subordination across a variety of differences. The school's experiences illuminate the complex reality of schools as a site of struggle and compromise between at times contradictory…

  8. Space assembly interruptability with applications to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, James W.

    1990-01-01

    The task of assembling large structures in space creates the possibility of construction interruptions. The unscheduled interruption of the assembly process may require abandoning the Station and returning to Earth. This interruption may be due to: crew illness/injury, Shuttle Orbiter mechanical failure, Orbiter or Station pressure loss, space debris damage, etc. If not handled properly these interruptions may jeopardize crew safety, Orbiter operations and the recoverability of the structure being assembled. The problem of space assembly interruptability was first addressed in January 1989 by astronaut Vance Brand (NASA-JSC) to Dr. George Morgenthaler at the University of Colorado - Boulder, at which time an Interruptability Team was organized at the University to study the problem of Space Station Freedom assembly interruptability. The approach which is being undertaken at the University of Colorado is to create a methodology capable of analyzing generic structures. This is being accomplished by developing a software tool, DYCA, to plan assembly sequences, and will be used in conjunction with INTERPRO, the INTERrupatbility PROgram, to analyze the Space Station Freedom assembly interruptability problem. Using an automated networking approach with some human interaction, the most favorable near-term safing plus options will be calculated in the event of an interruption. PERT network techniques are employed to analyze which of these near-term improvements provide the optimal long-term response, as far as impact on the time and cost of the overall project are concerned.

  9. Development of interrupting chamber for 1000kV HSGS with a delayed-zero-current interrupting performance

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagata, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Terasawa, Y. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. (Japan); Shinkai, T.; Mizoguchi, H.; Hioki, I.; Suzuki, K.; Yokota, T. [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    High Speed Grounding Switches (HSGS) for 1,000kV class transmission lines are required to interrupt a delayed-zero-current, which does not pass zero for more than 80ms under particular fault conditions. A new interrupting chamber has been developed with an ability of keeping a gas blast for more than 80ms. New testing methods have been investigated with an aim of testing the delayed-zero-current interrupting performance of the HSGS.

  10. Operational Failures and Interruptions in Hospital Nursing

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Anita L; Spear, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the work environment of hospital nurses with particular focus on the performance of work systems supplying information, materials, and equipment for patient care. Data Sources Primary observation, semistructured interviews, and surveys of hospital nurses. Study Design We sampled a cross-sectional group of six U.S. hospitals to examine the frequency of work system failures and their impact on nurse productivity. Data Collection We collected minute-by-minute data on the activities of 11 nurses. In addition, we conducted interviews with six of these nurses using questions related to obstacles to care. Finally, we created and administered two surveys in 48 nursing units, one for nurses and one for managers, asking about the frequency of specific work system failures. Principal Findings Nurses we observed experienced an average of 8.4 work system failures per 8-hour shift. The five most frequent types of failures, accounting for 6.4 of these obstacles, involved medications, orders, supplies, staffing, and equipment. Survey questions asking nurses how frequently they experienced these five categories of obstacles yielded similar frequencies. For an average 8-hour shift, the average task time was only 3.1 minutes, and in spite of this, nurses were interrupted mid-task an average of eight times per shift. Conclusions Our findings suggest that nurse effectiveness can be increased by creating improvement processes triggered by the occurrence of work system failures, with the goal of reducing future occurrences. Second, given that nursing work is fragmented and unpredictable, designing processes that are robust to interruption can help prevent errors. PMID:16704505

  11. Procedures for the Interruption and Voluntary Withdrawal of Taught Students

    E-print Network

    Mumby, Peter J.

    Procedures for the Interruption and Voluntary Withdrawal of Taught Students TQA Manual the timeframe for completion of a programme and a student is not required to undertake academic study, nor will they receive any tuition or supervision, nor be required to pay tuition fees. 1.2 On interruption, students

  12. Lean manufacturing in temperature dependent processes with interruptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wee Leong LEE; J. M. Allwood

    2003-01-01

    A particular difficulty arises when lean manufacturing principles are applied to temperature dependent processes. Specifically, when an interruption occurs, lean manufacturing advocates stopping the production line to find the “root cause” of the problem. However, interruptions in temperature dependent processes will cause work-in-progress and process equipment to cool down and quality problems are likely when production restarts. This difficulty could

  13. Preparing to resume an interrupted task: effects of prospective goal encoding and retrospective rehearsal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gregory Trafton; Erik M. Altmann; Derek P. Brock; Farilee E Mintz

    2003-01-01

    Abstract We examine people's strategic cognitive responses to being interrupted while performing a task Based on memory theory, we propose that resumption of a task after interruption is facilitated by preparation during the interruption lag , or the interval between an alert to a pending interruption (e g the phone ringing) and the interruption proper (the ensuing conversation) To test

  14. The Effect of Interruptions on Part 121 Air Carrier Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damos, Diane L.

    1998-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the relative priorities of various events and activities by examining the probability that a given activity was interrupted by a given event. The analysis will begin by providing frequency of interruption data by crew position (captain versus first officer) and event type. Any differences in the pattern of interruptions between the first officers and the captains will be explored and interpreted in terms of standard operating procedures. Subsequent data analyses will focus on comparing the frequency of interruptions for different types of activities and for the same activities under normal versus emergency conditions. Briefings and checklists will receive particular attention. The frequency with which specific activities are interrupted under multiple- versus single-task conditions also will be examined; because the majority of multiple-task data were obtained under laboratory conditions, LOFT-type tapes offer a unique opportunity to examine concurrent task performance under 'real-world' conditions. A second purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the interruptions on performance. More specifically, when possible, the time to resume specific activities will be compared to determine if pilots are slower to resume certain types of activities. Errors in resumption or failures to resume specific activities will be noted and any patterns in these errors will be identified. Again, particular attention will be given to the effects of interruptions on the completion of checklists and briefings. Other types of errors and missed events (i.e., the crew should have responded to the event but did not) will be examined. Any methodology using interruptions to examine task prioritization must be able to identify when an interruption has occurred and describe the ongoing activities that were interrupted. Both of these methodological problems are discussed In detail in the following section,

  15. 78 FR 47749 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ...Enforcement Proceeding)] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing...States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing...exclusion order barring entry of ground fault circuit interrupters that infringe...

  16. 78 FR 73562 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same Final Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ...Enforcement Proceeding)] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing...States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing...exclusion order barring entry of ground fault circuit interrupters [[Page...

  17. 77 FR 26579 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ...Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing...States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing...prohibiting the unlicensed entry of ground fault circuit interrupters and products...

  18. 38 CFR 21.5078 - Interruption to conserve entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Entitlement § 21.5078 Interruption to...

  19. 38 CFR 21.5078 - Interruption to conserve entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Entitlement § 21.5078 Interruption to...

  20. A framework of interruptions in distributed team environments.

    PubMed

    Rukab, Jamie A; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A; Malin, Jane; Zhang, Jiajie

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we developed a framework for the study of interruptions in distributed team environments from the perspectives of distributed cognition and activity theory. The core of this framework is the Action Coding System (ACS) that provides a language for the description, representation, categorization, and analysis of interruptions at the level of activities that are meaningful for team performance. We demonstrated the practical utility and theoretical significance of ACS in an its application to a real-world, complex, dynamic, and mission critical environment--the Biomedical Engineer (BME) console in the Mission Control Center at NASA's Johnson Space Center. We discussed the potentials of our framework for the design of interruption management systems that could potentially eliminate some interruptions by information redesign, delegate others to autonomous agents, and help human agents to better manage the rest. PMID:15361021

  1. Improving Interrupt Response Time in a Verifiable Protected Microkernel

    E-print Network

    or hundreds of cycles. They achieve this by making the RTOS kernel fully preemptible, permitting interrupts written in a low-level language such as C. An alternate model for an RTOS kernel is to permit in- terrupts

  2. Surveillance of hazardous substances releases due to system interruptions, 2002.

    PubMed

    Orr, Maureen F; Ruckart, Perri Zeitz

    2007-04-11

    The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system collected information on 9014 acute hazardous substance releases in 15 participating states in 2002. There were 3749 fixed-facility manufacturing events, of which 2100 involved "interruptions" to normal processing and 1649 "comparisons" that did not involve interruption. Equipment failure (69%) or intentional acts (20%) were the main root factor. Many events occurred in October and November in three states (Texas, Louisiana, and New Jersey), in three manufacturing industries (industrial and miscellaneous chemicals; petroleum refining; and plastics, synthetics, and resins). In interruption events, the substance categories most often released were mixtures, other inorganic substances, and volatile organic compounds and those most often causing injury were acids, chlorine, bases, and ammonia. Comparison events resulted in more acutely injured persons (408 versus 59) and more evacuees (11,318 versus 335) than interruption events and therefore may receive more public health attention. Because of the large number of interruption events, targeted prevention activities, including management of change procedures, lessons-learned implementation, process hazards analysis, and appropriate protection for workers could be economically advantageous and improve environmental quality. Efforts should focus on the identified areas of greater occurrence. The relationship of weather and equipment failure with interruption events needs further investigation. PMID:16920261

  3. Endovascular reconstruction of an interrupted inferior vena cava?

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Shannon D.; Ofri, Adam; Tang, Tjun; Englund, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Inferior vena cava (IVC) interruption was established as a procedure to treat refractory venous thromboembolism (VTE) complicated by pulmonary embolism. Ilio-caval thrombosis and lower limb chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) are well known long-term complications of IVC interruption, where subsequent treatments may carry significant morbidity and mortality. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present here a case of chronic venous insufficiency resulting from IVC interruption with a vascular clip placed forty years previously. A novel approach utilising endovascular stents was used to reconstruct the iliocaval confluence and interrupted distal IVC without the need for laparotomy to remove the plicating clip. This procedure was associated with minimal morbidity and resulted with a quick resolution of the patient's CVI symptoms. DISCUSSION Endovascular angioplasty and stenting is an alternative to open reconstruction of the interrupted inferior vena cava. We have demonstrated successful opening of a plication vascular clip using only endovascular utilities. Advantages include a shorter hospital stay, and reduced morbidity and mortality when compared to a re-do laparotomy. CONCLUSION Endovascular stents may be used safely and effectively to reconstruct the surgically interrupted inferior vena cava in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. PMID:24441437

  4. Interruption of People in Human-Computer Interaction: A General Unifying Definition of Human Interruption and Taxonomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIEL C. MCFARLANE

    1997-01-01

    User-interruption in human-computer interaction (HCI) is an increasingly important problem. Many of the useful advances in intelligent and multitasking computer systems have the significant side effect of greatly increasing user-interruption. This previously innocuous HCI problem has become critical to the successful function of many kinds of modern computer systems. Unfortunately, no HCI design guidelines exist for solving this problem. In

  5. The Effect of Interruption Duration and Demand on Resuming Suspended Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Christopher A.; Trafton, J. Gregory; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    The time to resume task goals after an interruption varied depending on the duration and cognitive demand of interruptions, as predicted by the memory for goals model (Altmann & Trafton, 2002). Three experiments using an interleaved tasks interruption paradigm showed that longer and more demanding interruptions led to longer resumption times in a…

  6. Pain demands attention: A cognitive-affective model of the interruptive function of pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Eccleston; Geert Crombez

    1999-01-01

    Pain interrupts and demands attention. The authors review evidence for how and why this interruption of attention is achieved. The interruptive function of pain depends on the relationship between pain- related characteristics (e.g., the threat value of pain) and the characteristics of the environmental demands (e.g., emotional arousal). A model of the interruptive function of pain is developed that holds

  7. [Structured treatment interruption in HIV-infected adolescents].

    PubMed

    Vidal, P; Lalande, M; Rodiere, M

    2009-07-01

    Structured treatment interruption in HIV is now being debated. There are 2 cases in which it may be discussed: when the initial treatment was started early and when there is no compliance to treatment [Yeni P, et al. Les nouvelles recommandations de prise en charge des personnes infectées par le VIH 2006. Paris: Flammarion médecine-sciences; 2006]. Noncompliant behavior is one of the characteristics of chronic illness during adolescence. In HIV infection, however, the prognosis is negatively influenced because the resulting resistance to the antiretroviral therapy can further reduce therapeutic options. Therefore, it is important in such a critical period to consider both what is consciously and unconsciously at stake and what responsible action could be taken when a specialist is faced with spontaneous (unplanned) treatment interruption. We report here examples of follow-up care, interruption, and resumption of treatment in 4 female adolescents. PMID:19369045

  8. Institutional Narcissism, Arrogant Organization Disorder and Interruptions in Organizational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, Lynn; Allcorn, Seth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to present an alternative approach to diagnosing behavioral barriers to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper juxtaposes interruptions in organizational learning with characteristics of narcissism and arrogant organization disorder. Psychoanalytically informed theory and DSM-IV criteria are…

  9. Distribution of AGG interruption patterns within nine world populations.

    PubMed

    Yrigollen, Carolyn M; Sweha, Stefan; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Zhou, Lili; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Fernandez-Carvajal, Isabel; Faradz, Sultana Mh; Amiri, Khaled; Shaheen, Huda; Polli, Roberta; Murillo-Bonilla, Luis; Silva Arevalo, Gabriel de Jesus; Cogram, Patricia; Murgia, Alessandra; Tassone, Flora

    2014-11-01

    The CGG trinucleotide repeat within the FMR1 gene is associated with multiple clinical disorders, including fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency, and fragile X syndrome. Differences in the distribution and prevalence of CGG repeat length and of AGG interruption patterns have been reported among different populations and ethnicities. In this study we characterized the AGG interruption patterns within 3,065 normal CGG repeat alleles from nine world populations including Australia, Chile, United Arab Emirates, Guatemala, Indonesia, Italy, Mexico, Spain, and United States. Additionally, we compared these populations with those previously reported, and summarized the similarities and differences. We observed significant differences in AGG interruption patterns. Frequencies of longer alleles, longer uninterrupted CGG repeat segments and alleles with greater than 2 AGG interruptions varied between cohorts. The prevalence of fragile X syndrome and FMR1 associated disorders in various populations is thought to be affected by the total length of the CGG repeat and may also be influenced by the AGG distribution pattern. Thus, the results of this study may be important in considering the risk of fragile X-related conditions in various populations. PMID:25606365

  10. Distribution of AGG interruption patterns within nine world populations

    PubMed Central

    Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Sweha, Stefan; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Zhou, Lili; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Fernandez-Carvajal, Isabel; Faradz, Sultana MH; Amiri, Khaled; Shaheen, Huda; Polli, Roberta; Murillo-Bonilla, Luis; Silva Arevalo, Gabriel de Jesus; Cogram, Patricia; Murgia, Alessandra; Tassone, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Summary The CGG trinucleotide repeat within the FMR1 gene is associated with multiple clinical disorders, including fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency, and fragile X syndrome. Differences in the distribution and prevalence of CGG repeat length and of AGG interruption patterns have been reported among different populations and ethnicities. In this study we characterized the AGG interruption patterns within 3,065 normal CGG repeat alleles from nine world populations including Australia, Chile, United Arab Emirates, Guatemala, Indonesia, Italy, Mexico, Spain, and United States. Additionally, we compared these populations with those previously reported, and summarized the similarities and differences. We observed significant differences in AGG interruption patterns. Frequencies of longer alleles, longer uninterrupted CGG repeat segments and alleles with greater than 2 AGG interruptions varied between cohorts. The prevalence of fragile X syndrome and FMR1 associated disorders in various populations is thought to be affected by the total length of the CGG repeat and may also be influenced by the AGG distribution pattern. Thus, the results of this study may be important in considering the risk of fragile X-related conditions in various populations. PMID:25606365

  11. The Needs of Others: Gender and Sleep Interruptions for Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgard, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Received wisdom, some sociological theory and a handful of qualitative studies suggest that the "night shift" of caregiving work that interrupts sleep is a burden borne disproportionately by women. However, there is no broadly representative evidence to substantiate claims about who takes the night shift in contemporary American households.…

  12. Bisimilarity is not Finitely Based over BPA with Interrupt

    E-print Network

    Fokkink, Wan

    Bisimilarity is not Finitely Based over BPA with Interrupt Luca Aceto1,3 , Wan Fokkink4 , Anna BPA enriched with the disrupt operator is proven to be finitely based. 1 Introduction Programming Algebra (BPA), as introduced by Bergstra and Klop in [12], some of these extensions, and their relative

  13. A Hybrid System Solution Of The Interrupt Latency Compatibility Problem

    E-print Network

    Lin, Feng

    Electronics Technical Center, Visteon Automotive Systems, 17000 Rotunda Drive, Dearborn, MI 48121-6010 Michael Michael J. Burke Electronics Technical Center, Visteon Automotive Systems, 17000 Rotunda Drive, Dearborn1 99PC-314 A Hybrid System Solution Of The Interrupt Latency Compatibility Problem Feng Lin

  14. Customer interruption cost assessment: an Indian commercial survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Kaur; G. Singh; M. S. Bedi; T. Bhatti

    2002-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the impact of power interruptions on the commercial sector of Punjab, a fast developing state of India. Punjab State Electricity Board, a state public sector undertaking is the only organization in Punjab responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity Commercial consumers of Punjab, on whom the present study is based, have a connected load of

  15. A Model for DC Interruption in Diffuse Vacuum Arcs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. CHILDSAND; A. N. Greenwood

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical model for current interruption in a diffuse vacuum arc with dc commutation is described. Before current zero the interelectrode plasma is modeled as an ion-neutral fluid through which electrons are flowing. After current zero a positive ion sheath grows into the plasma from the former anode, driven by the transient recovery voltage. Using the basic laws of conservation,

  16. Some interruption criteria for short high-frequency vacuum arcs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Glinkowski; A. Greenwood

    1989-01-01

    If the contacts of a vacuum interrupter open shortly before a current zero, the transient recovery voltage (TRV) can cause a reignition and reestablish the arc. When the current in a diffuse vacuum arc passes through zero, there is a distinct pause before the TRV builds up (approximately 40 ns for copper). During this pause the gap carries conduction current

  17. Multi-megampere current interruption from explosive deformation of conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Goforth, J.H.; Williams, A.H.; Marsh, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    Two approaches for using explosives to interrupt current flowing in solid conductors are described. One concept uses explosives to extrude the switch conductor into thin regions that fuse due to current in the switch. A preliminary scaling law is presented. The second approach employs dielectric jets to sever current carrying conductors. A feasibility experiment and an improved design are described.

  18. The arc-fault circuit interrupter: an emerging product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George D. Gregory; Gary W. Scott

    1998-01-01

    The arc-fault circuit interrupter is beginning to emerge as a new product in residential applications in the US to protect against conditions that may cause fire. This paper provides some of the background regarding its emergence as a product and the function it is intended to provide. The evolving technology may also lend itself to industrial applications, as the potential

  19. The discounting-by-interruptions hypothesis: model and experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel E. Henly; Allison Ostdiek; Erika Blackwell; Sarah Knutie; Aimee S. Dunlap; David W. Stephens

    2008-01-01

    Experimental animals often prefer small but immediate rewards even when larger-delayed rewards provide a higher rate of intake. This impulsivity has important implications for models of foraging and cooperation. Behavioral ecologists have hypothesized that animals discount delayed rewards because delay imposes a collection risk. According to this long-standing hypothesis, delay reduces value because an interruption that occurs while an animal

  20. The discounting-by-interruptions hypothesis: model and experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel E. Henly; Allison Ostdiek; Erika Blackwell; Sarah Knutie; Aimee S. Dunlap; David W. Stephens

    2007-01-01

    Experimental animals often prefer small but immediate rewards even when larger-delayed rewards provide a higher rate of intake. This impulsivity has important implications for models of foraging and cooperation. Behavioral ecologists have hypoth- esized that animals discount delayed rewards because delay imposes a collection risk. According to this long-standing hypothesis, delay reduces value because an interruption that occurs while an

  1. OPTIMAL SWITCHING IN STRUCTURED TREATMENT INTERRUPTION FOR HIV THERAPY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won Hee Kim; Han Byul Chung; Chung Choo Chung

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes 'optimal switching control during structured treat- ment interruption,' which switches RTI and PI to reduce medication and estab- lish long-term immune response against HIV. The proposed method is com- pared with 'optimized STI' through numerical simulation. The proposed method results in a more rapid increase of CTLp, and thus total drug intake and the therapy period are

  2. Instant Messaging and Interruption: Influence of Task Type on Performance

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, Eric

    , user studies, attention, reminders 1. Introduction Instant messaging systems, including America OnlineInstant Messaging and Interruption: Influence of Task Type on Performance Mary Czerwinski, Edward research on the effects of instant messaging (IM) on ongoing computing tasks. We present a study

  3. 76 FR 35014 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ...COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of...within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by...

  4. 77 FR 11591 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same, Investigations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ...COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same, Investigations...within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by...

  5. Prediction of DC current flow between the Otjiwarongo and Katima Mulilo regions, using 3D DC resistivity forward modelling and magnetotelluric and audio-magnetotelluric data recorded during SAMTEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Share, P.; Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Miensopust, M. P.; Khoza, D. T.; Fourie, S.; Webb, S. J.; Thunehed, H.

    2009-12-01

    SAMTEX (Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment) is a multinational project initiated in 2003 to study the regional-scale electrical conductivity substructure of southern Africa and to infer from it the tectonic processes involved in the formation and deformation of the southern African subcontinental lithosphere. As an additional opportunistic component to SAMTEX, audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data were acquired during the most recent phase of the experiment (Phase IV) to investigate the local-scale conductivity substructure in the Otjiwarongo and Katima Mulilo regions (northern and north-eastern Namibia), where in future the installation of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) earth electrodes will commence. Both of the AMT surveys are situated close to the edge of the orogenic Neo-Proterozoic Ghanzi-Chobe/Damara belts (collectively termed the Damara Mobile Belt, DMB), which represents in part the collision between the Congo and Kalahari cratons during the amalgamation of South Gondwana. Previous studies using magnetotellurics (MT), magnetometer arrays and geomagnetic observatory data all point to the existence of a highly conductive mid-crustal zone which correlates well with the spatial location of the DMB. Preliminary modelling of the Otjiwarongo AMT data confirms the existence of a high conductive zone at mid-crustal depths (10-15 km), whereas in Katima Mulilo insufficient penetration of electromagnetic energy in the AMT frequency band, due to conductive sediment cover, prevents information being obtained of the conductivity at mid-crustal depths. However, at Katima Mulilo there are sparser broadband MT (BBMT) and long period MT (LMT) measurements that can be incorporated. The high conductivity of the DMB is explained by the presence of conductive materials (graphites, sulphides). In contrast, the lithospheric structure of the neighbouring Archaean cratons, the Congo and Kalahari, are generally found to be electrically resistive and therefore it is hypothesized that the return path of DC current, flowing along the path of least resistance between the two electrodes, is most likely to lie somewhere within, or in the vicinity of, the DMB. To obtain a better understanding of the current flow we propose using geological information, previous results of studies of the conductivity of the DMB and surrounding regions and 2D and 3D inversion results from the AMT and MT data recorded during SAMTEX in northern Botswana and Namibia, as input to a 3D DC resistivity forward modelling code, and to try to predict the return path that the DC current will follow.

  6. 75 FR 62420 - In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ...337-TA-739] In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing...States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing...States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products...

  7. Dielectric Recovery and Shield-Currents in Vacuum-Arc Interrupters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Kimblin

    1971-01-01

    Dielectric recovery data is presented following forced current interruption of 930 A dc copper vapor arcs in a vacuum interrupter. At given free recovery periods during the first 6 to 25 , us following interruption, the instantaneous dielectric strength is determined by the application of high voltage step function pulses. This instantaneous dielectric strength is defined as the maximum voltage

  8. Deadline Analysis of Interrupt-Driven Software Dennis Brylow Jens Palsberg y

    E-print Network

    Brylow, Dennis

    control, railway signaling, vehicle management, medical devices, and many others). For realDeadline Analysis of Interrupt-Driven Software Dennis Brylow #3; Jens Palsberg y October 4, 2004-time, interrupt-driven software, timely interrupt handling is part of correctness. It is vital for software veri

  9. Deadline Analysis of Interrupt-driven Software Dennis Brylow Jens Palsberg

    E-print Network

    Brylow, Dennis

    throughout society (e.g., flight control, railway signaling, ve- hicle management, medical devices, and manyDeadline Analysis of Interrupt-driven Software Dennis Brylow Jens Palsberg Purdue University others). For real-time, interrupt-driven software, timely interrupt han- dling is part of correctness

  10. Effects of Instant Messaging Interruptions on Computing Tasks Edward B. Cutrell, Mary Czerwinski, and Eric Horvitz

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, Eric

    Effects of Instant Messaging Interruptions on Computing Tasks Edward B. Cutrell, Mary Czerwinski}@microsoft.com Abstract This paper describes a study that probes the cost of interrupting users with instant messages for the principled design of intelligent interrupters and instant messages. Introduction People using computers

  11. Reversible harmless interruption of testicular blood supply in the ram

    SciTech Connect

    van Vliet, J.; De Ruiter-Bootsma, A.L.; Oei, Y.H.; Hoekstra, A.; De Rooij, D.G.; Wensing, C.J.

    1987-03-01

    An effective method of interrupting testicular blood flow temporarily and repeatedly in the ram has been developed. Blockade of flow has been achieved mechanically by an inflatable occluder placed around the testicular artery at the level of the spermatic cord. The effect of the blockade on total testicular blood supply was investigated using Doppler flowmetry and a percutaneous Xenon-133 injection method. With both approaches, the blood flow changes after inflation or deflation of the occluders could be estimated satisfactorily. A substantial decrease of testicular blood flow was achieved in eight of the 10 testes with inflated occluders. However, there were indications that in the remaining two testes blockade of the arterial flow was not complete. After deflation of the occluders, blood flow was restored rapidly and completely in all testes. Macro- and microscopic examinations revealed no long-term damage to the testis after blood flow interruptions lasting 30 or 60 minutes.

  12. Interrupted Fischer Indolization Approach toward the Communesin Alkaloids and Perophoramidine

    PubMed Central

    Schammel, Alex W.; Chiou, Grace; Garg, Neil K.

    2012-01-01

    A concise approach toward the total synthesis of the communesin alkaloids and perophoramidine is reported. The strategy relies on the use of the interrupted Fischer indolization to build the tetracyclic indoline core of the natural products. Studies to probe the scope and limitations of this plan are presented. Although the methodology does not tolerate a C8-allyl substituent en route to the challenging vicinal quaternary stereocenters, variation at C7 and on the C ring is permitted. PMID:22905746

  13. Estimation and prediction with HIV-treatment interruption data.

    PubMed

    Adams, B M; Banks, H T; Davidian, M; Rosenberg, E S

    2007-02-01

    We consider longitudinal clinical data for HIV patients undergoing treatment interruptions. We use a nonlinear dynamical mathematical model in attempts to fit individual patient data. A statistically-based censored data method is combined with inverse problem techniques to estimate dynamic parameters. The predictive capabilities of this approach are demonstrated by comparing simulations based on estimation of parameters using only half of the longitudinal observations to the full longitudinal data sets. PMID:17211735

  14. Interruption of Tidal Disruption Flares By Supermassive Black Hole Binaries

    E-print Network

    F. K. Liu; S. Li; Xian Chen

    2009-11-04

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are products of galaxy mergers, and are important in testing Lambda cold dark matter cosmology and locating gravitational-wave-radiation sources. A unique electromagnetic signature of SMBHBs in galactic nuclei is essential in identifying the binaries in observations from the IR band through optical to X-ray. Recently, the flares in optical, UV, and X-ray caused by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) tidally disrupting nearby stars have been successfully used to observationally probe single SMBHs in normal galaxies. In this Letter, we investigate the accretion of the gaseous debris of a tidally disrupted star by a SMBHB. Using both stability analysis of three-body systems and numerical scattering experiments, we show that the accretion of stellar debris gas, which initially decays with time $\\propto t^{-5/3}$, would stop at a time $T_{\\rm tr} \\simeq \\eta T_{\\rm b}$. Here, $\\eta \\sim0.25$ and $T_{\\rm b}$ is the orbital period of the SMBHB. After a period of interruption, the accretion recurs discretely at time $T_{\\rm r} \\simeq \\xi T_b$, where $\\xi \\sim 1$. Both $\\eta$ and $\\xi$ sensitively depend on the orbital parameters of the tidally disrupted star at the tidal radius and the orbit eccentricity of SMBHB. The interrupted accretion of the stellar debris gas gives rise to an interrupted tidal flare, which could be used to identify SMBHBs in non-active galaxies in the upcoming transient surveys.

  15. DC current sensor for PWM converters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur W. Kelley; John E. Titus

    1991-01-01

    A sensor for inductor current in PWM converters which offers improved performance over presently available sensors is presented. The sensor is based on a saturable transformer, derives power from existing converter waveforms, provides DC isolation, and has inherently wide bandwidth. The sensor is compared to available current sensors. A theory of operation for the sensor is presented, the results of

  16. High-capacity single-pressure SF/sub 6/ interrupters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rostron, J R; Berkebile, L E; Spindle, H E

    1983-05-01

    The object of this project was to design and develop a high-voltage, single-pressure, SF/sub 6/ interrupter with an interrupting capability of 120 kA at 145 kV with a continuous current rating of 5000 A and an interrupting time of 1.5 cycles or less. A second objective of 100 kA at 242 kV was added during the project. Mathematical models were used to extrapolate design requirements from existing data for 63 and 80 kA. Two model puffers, one liquid and the other gas, were designed and tested to obtain data at 100 kA. An interrupter, optimized on the basis of total prospective breaker cost, was designed using the mathematical models. A study was made of the construction materials to operate under the high-stress conditions in this interrupter. Existing high-speed movies of high-current arcs under double-flow conditions were analyzed to obtain more information for modeling the interrupter. The optimized interrupter design was built and tested. The interrupting capability confirmed calculations of predicted performance near current zero; however, the dielectric strength after interrupting these high-current arcs was not adequate for the 145-kV or the 242-kV ratings. The dielectric strength was reduced by hot gases flowing out of the interrupter. Valuable data have been obtained for modeling the SF/sub 6/ puffer interrupter for high currents.

  17. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Player, Michael J.; Proudfoot, Judy; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Spurrier, Michael; Shand, Fiona; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Wilhelm, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men’s specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1) development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors), (2) men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3) understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4) distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5) suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals’ preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk. PMID:26090794

  18. A reevaluation of the interrupter technique for airway resistance measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. C.; Milhorn, H. T., Jr.; Norman, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    An attempt was made to obtain a better insight into the actual transient response of airway opening pressure (Pao) following rapid occlusion. With this knowledge it was hoped to be able to clarify the reason for the overestimations found by other investigators, and possibly to obtain a more accurate method of estimating alveolar pressure just prior to interruption. This would result in an improved method for estimating airway resistance. Use of an extrapolation method was found to provide an improved correlation between resistances determined by the interruptor technique and those found by the plethysmograph in normal subjects.

  19. Those Old Kentucky Blues An Interrupted Case Study

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Celeste A. Leander

    2008-01-01

    This interrupted case study begins with the construction of a pedigree following an initial encounter with a clan of “blue people.” After constructing a pedigree, students decide whether the condition (methemoglobinemia) is a heritable trait. Students are then exposed to a different perspective of this condition and have to re-evaluate the inheritance pattern. This case study was written for a first year honors course in general biology. It could be modified for most general science majors’ biology, genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology courses.

  20. Some effects of magnetic blowouts on arc interruption

    E-print Network

    Benish, Joe

    1949-01-01

    ~ 5 SOME EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC BLOWOUTS ON , ' ARC INTEHHVPTION A Thes1s J'oe Ben1sh 1949 Approved. as bo sty1e and content by Chairtaan of Comrade t tee SOME EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC BLONOUTS ON ARC INTERRUPTION Joe Benish A Thesis Subnitted... influence of magnetic blowouts. (b ) A desire to determine the merits of statistical methods in the 1nvsstigation of s. phenomenon as uncertain as the 1ntsx ruption of an azc. THE wSTATISTICAL METHOD" An arc does not extinguish by degrees. It is either...

  1. Series and parallel arc-fault circuit interrupter tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay; Fresquez, Armando J.; Gudgel, Bob [MidNite Solar, Arlington, WA; Meares, Andrew [MidNite Solar, Arlington, WA

    2013-07-01

    While the 2011 National Electrical Code%C2%AE (NEC) only requires series arc-fault protection, some arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) manufacturers are designing products to detect and mitigate both series and parallel arc-faults. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has extensively investigated the electrical differences of series and parallel arc-faults and has offered possible classification and mitigation solutions. As part of this effort, Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with MidNite Solar to create and test a 24-string combiner box with an AFCI which detects, differentiates, and de-energizes series and parallel arc-faults. In the case of the MidNite AFCI prototype, series arc-faults are mitigated by opening the PV strings, whereas parallel arc-faults are mitigated by shorting the array. A range of different experimental series and parallel arc-fault tests with the MidNite combiner box were performed at the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) at SNL in Albuquerque, NM. In all the tests, the prototype de-energized the arc-faults in the time period required by the arc-fault circuit interrupt testing standard, UL 1699B. The experimental tests confirm series and parallel arc-faults can be successfully mitigated with a combiner box-integrated solution.

  2. Effects of cues associated with meal interruption on feeding behavior

    PubMed Central

    Galarce, Ezequiel M.; Holland, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Food consumption is controlled by both internal and external factors. Environmental signals associated with food may prepare an animal to forage, consume and digest more effectively. Furthermore, environmental cues that provide information about food availability enable animals to make predictions about future food resources and act upon that knowledge in appropriate fashion. For example, when exposed to a cue that signals the presence of food, animals can eat beyond their present needs to cope with predicted future famine. Interestingly, cues previously paired with meal interruption have a similar effect. In two experiments, food-deprived rats learned to associate one conditioned stimulus (CS+) with delivery of a food unconditioned stimulus (US), and another stimulus (IS) with an unexpected termination of CS-US trials. Subsequently, both CS+ and IS enhanced consumption of the US food by sated rats. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that IS's ability to potentiate feeding of sated rats in test depended more on its accompanying CS+ termination in training than on its signaling reductions in US frequency. These experiments may provide a novel animal model of binge-like behaviors in sated rats induced by external cues paired with meal interruption. PMID:19501768

  3. Electric Power Interruption Cost Estimates for Individual Industries, Sectors, and the U.S. Economy 

    E-print Network

    Balducci, P. J.; Roop, J. M.; Schienbein, L. A.; DeSteese, J. G.; Weimar, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    the costs associated with power interruptions. Table 1 provides summary information for several interruption cost studies. In Table 1, studies are listed with the geographic area studied, year of publication and findings. Billinton used survey data..., and it ignores virtually all ind irect costs. 111 ESL-IE-03-05-14 Proceedings from theTwenty-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 13-16, 2003 Table I Summary of Interruption Cost Studies Author Geographic Area Date Finding...

  4. Biases in human estimation of interruptibility: effects and implications for practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Avrahami; James Fogarty; Scott E. Hudson

    2007-01-01

    People have developed a variety of conventions for negotiating face-to-face interruptions. The physical distribution of teams, however, together with the use of computer-mediated communication and awareness systems, fundamentally alters what information is available to a person considering an interruption of a remote collaborator. This paper presents a detailed comparison between self- reports of interruptibility, collected from participants over extended periods

  5. Certifying low-level programs with hardware interrupts and preemptive threads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinyu Feng; Zhong Shao; Yuan Dong; Yu Guo

    2008-01-01

    Hardware interrupts are widely used in the world's critical software systems to support preemptive threads, device drivers, operating system kernels, and hypervisors. Handling interrupts properly is an essential component of low-level system programming. Unfortunately, interrupts are also extremely hard to reason about: they dramatically alter the program control flow and complicate the invariants in low-level concurrent code (e.g., implementation of

  6. Supervised automatic interpretation of technical documents: when interruption is a time saver.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Sylvain; Jamet, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Summary.-The present study examined human-computer interactions in which the operator has to detect errors made by software designed to automatically recognize technical documents. The goal was to assess the effect of user-initiated interruptions of the recognition process to correct these errors. Participants were asked to check the interpretations, either with or without the possibility of interrupting the process. Results showed that interruptions can improve efficiency by decreasing task duration, especially in the post-recognition verification phase. Interruptions provide an opportunity to correct errors during rather than after the recognition process, which is easier because it requires fewer cognitive resources. PMID:25695489

  7. Basal plane dislocation reduction in 4H-SiC epitaxy by growth interruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahlbush, R. E.; VanMil, B. L.; Myers-Ward, R. L.; Lew, K.-K.; Gaskill, D. K.; Eddy, C. R.

    2009-01-01

    The paths of basal plane dislocations (BPDs) through 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown on wafers with an 8° offcut were tracked using ultraviolet photoluminescence imaging. The reduction of BPDs by conversion to threading edge dislocations was investigated at ex situ and in situ growth interrupts. For ex situ interrupts, BPDs are imaged after each of several growths. The wafer remains in the reactor for in situ interrupts and BPDs are imaged after the growth is finished. For in situ interrupts, a combination of temperature, propane flow, and duration has been determined, which achieve a BPD reduction of 98%.

  8. Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of digitoxin by cholestyramine

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, James H.; Bush, Charles A.; Greenberger, Norton J.

    1971-01-01

    Previous studies of digitalis glycoside metabolism and excretion have indicated that these compounds undergo a significant enterohepatic cycle in some species. It has been suggested that the existence of such a cycle in man contributes to the prolonged action of certain cardiac glycosides. Previous studies have demonstrated that cholestyramine binds digitoxin and digoxin in vitro and accelerates the metabolic disposition of digitoxin in rats and guinea pigs, presumably by interrupting the enterohepatic circulation. In order to assess the role of the enterohepatic circulation in the metabolism of digitalis glycosides in humans, maintenance doses of cholestyramine were administered to 7 of 15 normal human subjects beginning 8 hr after digitalization with 1.2 mg of digitoxin-3H. All subjects had frequent measurements of serum radioactivity, left ventricular ejection time (LVET), and electromechanical systole (QS2), the latter recorded as the interval from onset of Q wave to first major component of second heart sound. Measurement of the LVET and QS2 intervals affords a sensitive index of the cardiac response to digitalis. In addition, chloroform extraction of serum was performed to separate unchanged digitoxin and active metabolites from cardioinactive metabolites of digitoxin. Cholestyramine treatment resulted in reduction in half-life to total serum radioactivity from 11.5 to 6.6 days, and in chloroform-extractable radioactivity from 6.0 to 4.5 days, as compared to controls. In addition, cholestyramine treatment was accompanied by more rapid return to base line values of digitoxin-induced changes in the LVET and QS2 intervals. A significant positive correlation was found between QS2 values and chloroform-extractable radioactivity, the latter reflecting unchanged digitoxin-H3 (r=0.64; P=<0.01). The results indicate that administration of cholestyramine to digitalized human subjects accelerates the metabolic disposition of digitoxin and abbreviates the physiologic response to the glycoside. This effect is presumably mediated by interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of digitoxin by cholestyramine. PMID:5129315

  9. Exploring Minimal Nonverbal Interruption in Social HRI Paul Saulnier, Ehud Sharlin and Saul Greenberg

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Saul

    communication to interrupting users. Yet many robots will be non-verbal, and there are likely many situationsExploring Minimal Nonverbal Interruption in Social HRI Paul Saulnier, Ehud Sharlin and Saul evaluate a minimal set of physical and nonverbal cues that can be exhibited by a robot to initiate robot

  10. BusyBody: Creating and Fielding Personalized Models of the Cost of Interruption

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, Eric

    deliberates about the cost of transmitting alerts to users in different ways, based on a sensing of desktop over the cost of interruption based on sensed events. This probability distribution is then combined of the cost of interruption associated with meetings, based on a collection of training data from users

  11. Instruction Issue Logic for High-Performance Interruptible, Multiple Functional Unit, Pipelines Computers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gurindar S. Sohi

    1990-01-01

    The problems of data dependency resolution and precise interrupt implementation in pipelined processors are combined. A design for a hardware mechanism that resolves dependencies dynamically and, at the same time, guarantees precise interrupts is presented. Simulation studies show that by resolving dependencies the proposed mechanism is able to obtain a significant speedup over a simple instruction issue mechanism as well

  12. Effects of Modality on Interrupted Flight Deck Performance: Implications for Data Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorella, Kara A.

    1997-01-01

    Externally-imposed tasks frequently interrupt ongoing task performance in the commercial flight deck. While normally managed without consequence, basic research as well as aviation accident and incident investigations show that interruptions can negatively affect performance and safety. This research investigates the influence of interruption and interrupted task modality on pilot performance in a simulated commercial flight deck. Fourteen current commercial airline pilots performed approach scenarios in a fixed-base flight simulator. Air traffic control instructions, conveyed either aurally or visually (via a data link system) interrupted a visual task (obtaining information from the Flight Management System) and an auditory task (listening to the automated terminal information service recording). Some results confirm the hypothesized performance advantage of cross-modality conditions, more compelling nature of auditory interruptions, and interruption-resistance of auditory ongoing tasks. However, taken together, results suggest the four interaction conditions had different effects on pilot performance. These results have implications for the design of data link systems, and for facilitating interruption management through interface design, aiding, and training programs.

  13. Assessment of economic impact of electricity supply interruptions in the Sri Lanka industrial sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priyantha D. C. Wijayatunga; M. S. Jayalath

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of the Sri Lanka case study on assessing the economic impact of power interruptions on industry in the South Asia region, comprising the countries of Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and India. The technical assessment evaluates the cost to the country’s economy in terms of the industrial loss due to supply interruptions and environmental impacts from

  14. The Scope and Importance of Human Interruption in Human-Computer Interaction Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel C. McFarlane; Kara A. Latorella

    2002-01-01

    At first glance it seems absurd that busy people doing important jobs should want their computers to interrupt them. Interruptions are disruptive and people need to concentrate to make good decisions. However, successful job perfor- mance also frequently depends on people's abilities to (a) constantly monitor their dynamically changing information environments, (b) collaborate and communi- cate with other people in

  15. Handling interrupts It used to be that programmers met concurrently executing processes only

    E-print Network

    Jones, Geraint

    to handle urgent tasks, when it would be unreasonably expensive to make that processing capability9 Handling interrupts It used to be that programmers met concurrently executing processes only. An interrupt is a mechanism designed to make small amounts of processing power available at short notice

  16. Discourse Markers in Turn-Initial Positions in Interruptive Speech in a Malaysian Radio Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nor, Siti Nurbaya Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Discourse markers play significant roles in any spoken interaction. This research examines the functions of the discourse markers (DMs) well, now and and used as turn-initial interruptive devices in a Malaysian radio discourse. Using Schegloff's (2002) framework of what constitutes an interruption in turn-taking and previous studies on the…

  17. Dove Coos and Flashed Lights: Interruptibility of Song in a Nonsongbird

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carel Ten Cate; Mechteld R. Ballintijn

    1996-01-01

    The vocal control mechanism of the collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto) was examined by analyzing the effect of a light flash on the interruptibility of the perch coo. Flashes sometimes resulted in an immediate startle response, which often coincided with a distortion of the ongoing vocalization. Some flashes led to an interruption of cooing, usually some time after the flash and

  18. Evolution of Drug-resistant Viral Populations during Interruption of Antiretroviral Therapy

    E-print Network

    Ahlers, Guenter

    therapy (ART), some HIV-2 infected patients still fail treatment due to drug resistance, poor adherence1 Evolution of Drug-resistant Viral Populations during Interruption of Antiretroviral Therapy antiretroviral treatment (ART) interruption allows determination of the evolution of3 drug-resistant viruses

  19. When do Students Interrupt Help? Effects of Time, Help Type, and

    E-print Network

    Mostow, Jack

    When do Students Interrupt Help? Effects of Time, Help Type, and Individual Differences Cecily Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Abstract. When do students interrupt help to request different help's Reading Tutor. We analyze 168,983 trials of this experiment, randomized by help type, and report patterns

  20. Notification, Disruption, and Memory: Effects of Messaging Interruptions on Memory and Performance

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, Eric

    of wireless communications, the ability to subscribe to services that deliver instant messages the nature of interruptions associated with instant messaging on computer users. We shall review related workNotification, Disruption, and Memory: Effects of Messaging Interruptions on Memory and Performance

  1. Giant higher harmonic generation in mesoscopic metal wires and rings interrupted by tunnel junctions

    E-print Network

    van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    Giant higher harmonic generation in mesoscopic metal wires and rings interrupted by tunnel metal wires and loops interrupted by tunnel junctions is explored experimentally. When the sample to the probability for an electron to return to the barrier after tunneling. The full set of experimental data

  2. Estimating business and residential water supply interruption losses from catastrophic events

    E-print Network

    Sunding, David

    Estimating business and residential water supply interruption losses from catastrophic events activity ceases. To estimate residential losses from water supply interruption, we integrate consumers. As an illustration, we estimate the economic losses to business and residential water users of one of the major water

  3. Estimating business and residential water supply interruption losses from catastrophic events

    E-print Network

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Estimating business and residential water supply interruption losses from catastrophic events residential losses from water supply interruption we integrate consumers' demand curves, calibrated to water losses to business and residential water users of one of the major water supply systems of the San

  4. Airway resistance in children measured using the interrupter technique: reference values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viviane Viegas Rech; Paula Cristina; Vasconcellos Vidal; Renato Tetelbom Stein; Paulo Márcio; Condessa Pitrez; Marcus Herbert Jones

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The interrupter technique is used for determining interrupter resistance (Rint) during quiet breathing. This noninvasive method requires minimal cooperation and can therefore be useful in evaluating airway obstruction in uncooperative children. To date, no reference values have been determined for Rint in a Brazilian population. The objective of this study was to define a prediction equation for airway resist-

  5. cs281: Introduction to Computer Systems Lab08 Interrupt Handling and Stepper Motor Controller

    E-print Network

    Kretchmar, R. Matthew

    Overview The objective of this lab is to introduce ourselves to the Arduino interrupt capabilities and to use them to build a stepper motor controller. The interrupt handler will allow the Arduino allows the Arduino to monitor and respond to its external environment even while already performing

  6. Impact of interruption of antiscalant dosing or cleaning balls circulation during MSF plant operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osman A. Hamed; Khalid B. Mardouf; Adnan Al-Omran

    2007-01-01

    MSF desalination plants occasionally experience interruption of antiscalant dosing or circulation of cleaning balls. The interruption may be either due to sudden system failure or the system is to be isolated for maintenance works. In such situations, specific operational procedures are normally adopted to counter the consequences of mal-operation of antiscalant dosing or cleaning balls systems. The various corrective measures

  7. 75 FR 70289 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ...Investigation No. 337-TA-739] In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of...within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same....

  8. 76 FR 2708 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ...Investigation No. 337-TA-739] In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of...within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same....

  9. 76 FR 17670 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ...Investigation No. 337-TA-615] In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of...within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by...

  10. ICE System: Interruptible control expert system. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vezina, James M.

    1990-01-01

    The Interruptible Control Expert (ICE) System is based on an architecture designed to provide a strong foundation for real-time production rule expert systems. Three principles are adopted to guide the development of ICE. A practical delivery platform must be provided, no specialized hardware can be used to solve deficiencies in the software design. Knowledge of the environment and the rule-base is exploited to improve the performance of a delivered system. The third principle of ICE is to respond to the most critical event, at the expense of the more trivial tasks. Minimal time is spent on classifying the potential importance of environmental events with the majority of the time used for finding the responses. A feature of the system, derived from all three principles, is the lack of working memory. By using a priori information, a fixed amount of memory can be specified for the hardware platform. The absence of working memory removes the dangers of garbage collection during the continuous operation of the controller.

  11. Interruption of malaria transmission by chloroquinized salt in Guyana

    PubMed Central

    Giglioli, George; Rutten, Frans J.; Ramjattan, S.

    1967-01-01

    Malaria and its local vector, Anopheles darlingi, were eradicated from the coastlands and near interior of Guyana by DDT house-spraying in 1945-51. In the remote interior, where 10% of the population live, only partial control could be achieved, owing to the semi-silvatic habits of A. darlingi and the considerable movement of the sparse population; low malaria endemicity persisted in these areas with occasional localized outbreaks. In the south-west the problem was further complicated by the presence of malaria across the frontier. During the years 1961-65, the use of chloroquinized salt was made compulsory over an area of some 109 000 km2, covering a population of 48 500. Satisfactory results were obtained over 84% of this area within 6 months of the start of the campaign; only four cases of malaria were seen in four years. In the south-west, however, an initially favourable trend was reversed in 1962 with the introduction of a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum from Brazil. The situation was brought under control by house-spraying with DDT and interruption of transmission is expected. PMID:4864651

  12. Interruption of indigenous measles transmission in Bolivia since October 2000.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Rosario; Barrezueta, Oswaldo; Venczel, Linda; Halkyer, Percy; Gil, Fernando; Machicao, Eric; Landaverde, Mauricio; Quiñonez, Arturo; Izurieta, Héctor

    2003-05-15

    Measles incidence in Bolivia declined after the introduction of campaign strategies in the 1980s. From 1990 to 1993, the peak incidence of measles (59 cases/100,000 population) was in 1992. In 1994, after the goal of interruption of measles transmission was adopted, a national vaccination campaign targeting children <15 years old was conducted and achieved 96% coverage. During 1995-1997, cases declined, although routine coverage was <90% in most years. During 1998-2000, a nationwide epidemic occurred among 2567 case-patients, most of whom were unvaccinated. A national vaccination campaign, with strong supervision, was conducted during November and December 1999 and targeted areas with low coverage. Only 122 cases were confirmed in 2000, with the last confirmed case occurring in October. Crucial to the control of the outbreak were sufficient resources and political support, intensive local planning, door-to-door vaccination with strict supervision, and rapid house-to-house coverage monitoring that improved accountability at the local level and timely and thorough outbreak investigations. PMID:12721902

  13. Impact of interrupted leptin pathways on ventilatory control.

    PubMed

    Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Smaldone, Marc C; Scharf, Matthew T; Li, Jianguo; Tankersley, Clarke G; Smith, Philip L; Schwartz, Alan R; O'Donnell, Christopher P

    2004-03-01

    Leptin deficiency in ob/ob mice produces marked depression of the hypercapnic ventilatory response, particularly during sleep. We now extend our previous findings to determine whether 1) leptin deficiency affects the hypoxic ventilatory response and 2) blockade of the downstream excitatory actions of leptin on melanocortin 4 receptors or inhibitory actions on neuropeptide Y (NPY) pathways has an impact on hypercapnic and hypoxic sensitivity. We have found that leptin-deficient ob/ob mice have the same hypoxic ventilatory response as weight-matched wild-type obese mice. There were no differences in the hypoxic sensitivity between agouti yellow mice and weight-matched controls, or NPY-deficient mice and wild-type littermates. Agouti yellow mice, with blocked melanocortin pathways, exhibited a significant depression of the hypercapnic sensitivity compared with weight-matched wild-type controls during non-rapid eye movement sleep (5.8 +/- 0.7 vs. 8.9 +/- 0.7 ml x min(-1) x %CO(2)(-1), P < 0.01), but not during wakefulness. NPY-deficient transgenic mice exhibited a small increase in the hypercapnic ventilatory response compared with wild-type littermates, but this was only present during wakefulness. We conclude that interruption of leptin pathways does not affect hypoxic sensitivity during sleep and wakefulness but that melanocortin 4 blockade is associated with depressed hypercapnic sensitivity in non-rapid eye movement sleep. PMID:14578371

  14. University students' attitudes towards Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Calvo, María Sol; Martínez-Silva, Isabel María; Soto, José Luis; Concheiro, Luis; Muñoz-Barús, José Ignacio

    2012-07-01

    An evaluation of the future professional trends was performed by analyzing the attitudes of university students to the Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy (VIP). An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 300 students (Medicine, Nursing and Law) of the University of Santiago de Compostela, with questions on their personal beliefs, opinion on the law and intention to participate in VIP. Of the 245 respondents (response rate 82%), 66.5% were pro-abortion and their attitudes towards VIP were consistent with their opinion on the beginning of life and with the ethical arguments related to the fetus and the mother. No differences were found with age, sex or degree. The students showed to be well informed on the VIP law, and the majority of them considered unsuitable termination of pregnancy in minors without parental consent. Students' intentions to take part in abortion provision were influenced by their views on abortion, level of participation and circumstances of pregnancy. Although the majority of participants would be willing to perform VIP in situations that affect fetus and mother's life or health (87-66%), their intentions clearly diminished in other situations, such as abortion on demand (17%). These data suggest that conscientious objection of health professionals can even increase with the new policy, a fact that might affect VIP availability. It is important to stress the need of ethical training to help in the solution of conflicts between patient and health professional values. PMID:22498236

  15. Effects of age and hearing loss on the intelligibility of interrupted speech.

    PubMed

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Risley, Robert; Gygi, Brian

    2015-02-01

    How age and hearing loss affect the perception of interrupted speech may vary based on both the physical properties of preserved or obliterated speech fragments and individual listener characteristics. To investigate perceptual processes and interruption parameters influencing intelligibility across interruption rates, participants of different age and hearing status heard sentences interrupted by silence at either a single primary rate (0.5-8?Hz; 25%, 50%, 75% duty cycle) or at an additional concurrent secondary rate (24?Hz; 50% duty cycle). Although age and hearing loss significantly affected intelligibility, the ability to integrate sub-phonemic speech fragments produced by the fast secondary rate was similar in all listener groups. Age and hearing loss interacted with rate with smallest group differences observed at the lowest and highest interruption rates of 0.5 and 24?Hz. Furthermore, intelligibility of dual-rate gated sentences was higher than single-rate gated sentences with the same proportion of retained speech. Correlations of intelligibility of interrupted speech to pure-tone thresholds, age, or measures of working memory and auditory spectro-temporal pattern discrimination were generally low-to-moderate and mostly nonsignificant. These findings demonstrate rate-dependent effects of age and hearing loss on the perception of interrupted speech, suggesting complex interactions of perceptual processes across different time scales. PMID:25698009

  16. An Assessment of Instant Messaging Interruptions on Knowledge Workers' Task Performance in E-Learning-Based Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansi, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    The modern workplace environment is filled with interruptions due to the necessity of coworkers to communicate with each other. Studies have revealed that interruptions can disrupt the ability of a knowledge worker to concentrate on a task, which can impact task performance (TP). Communication interruptions are due, in part, to the unavoidable…

  17. Algorithm Design of CPCI Backboard's Interrupts Management Based on VxWorks' Multi-Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jingyuan; An, Qi; Yang, Junfeng

    2006-09-01

    This paper begins with a brief introduction of the embedded real-time operating system VxWorks and CompactPCI standard, then gives the programming interfaces of Peripheral Controller Interface (PCI) configuring, interrupts handling and multi-tasks programming interface under VxWorks, and then emphasis is placed on the software frameworks of CPCI interrupt management based on multi-tasks. This method is sound in design and easy to adapt, ensures that all possible interrupts are handled in time, which makes it suitable for data acquisition systems with multi-channels, a high data rate, and hard real-time high energy physics.

  18. Interrupting anticoagulation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Yates, Scott W

    2014-12-01

    Three target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs)-dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban-have been approved by the FDA to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation; however, no agents are currently approved to reverse the anticoagulant effects of these TSOACs in cases of active bleeding. This review discusses the benefits and risks of these TSOACs from a clinician's perspective, with a focus on the interruption of treatment for either elective or emergent surgery, monitoring, and reversal of anticoagulation. Available coagulation assays are not ideal for monitoring the effects of TSOACs and do not provide reliable quantitative measurement of their anticoagulant effects. When necessary, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) may provide qualitative information on dabigatran, and prothrombin time (PT) may provide qualitative assessment of the presence of the factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban and apixaban. Current recommendations for reversal of TSOACs are based largely on limited and sometimes conflicting data from in vitro or in vivo animal models, and clinical experience with these recommendations is also limited. Methods that have been investigated for effectiveness for reversal of the pharmacodynamic effects of the TSOACs include dialysis, activated charcoal, prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), and recombinant activated factor VII. It is important to note that even within a class of anticoagulant drugs, compounds respond differently to reversal agents; therefore, recommendations for one agent should not be extrapolated to another, even if they are from the same therapeutic class. New antidotes are being explored, including a mouse monoclonal antibody to dabigatran; andexanet alfa, a potential universal factor Xa inhibitor reversal agent; and a synthetic small molecule (PER977) that may be effective for the reversal of factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors. Given the short half-lives of TSOACs, watchful waiting, rather than reversal, may be the best approach in some circumstances. PMID:25516695

  19. Exotic Options for Interruptible Electricity Supply Rajnish Kamat and Shmuel S. Oren

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley. University of

    financial instruments such as forwards and options using different price process specifications financial instruments like forwards and options to price these contracts. Section 2 describesPWP-071 Exotic Options for Interruptible Electricity Supply Contracts Rajnish Kamat and Shmuel S

  20. 46 CFR 401.420 - Cancellation, delay or interruption in rendition of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...interruption in rendition of services. 401.420 Section 401.420 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage Services §...

  1. 46 CFR 401.420 - Cancellation, delay or interruption in rendition of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...interruption in rendition of services. 401.420 Section 401.420 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage Services §...

  2. Nested Interrupt Analysis of Low Cost and High Performance Embedded Systems Using GSPN Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-Min

    Interrupt service routines are a key technology for embedded systems. In this paper, we introduce the standard approach for using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPNs) as a high-level model for generating CTMC Continuous-Time Markov Chains (CTMCs) and then use Markov Reward Models (MRMs) to compute the performance for embedded systems. This framework is employed to analyze two embedded controllers with low cost and high performance, ARM7 and Cortex-M3. Cortex-M3 is designed with a tail-chaining mechanism to improve the performance of ARM7 when a nested interrupt occurs on an embedded controller. The Platform Independent Petri net Editor 2 (PIPE2) tool is used to model and evaluate the controllers in terms of power consumption and interrupt overhead performance. Using numerical results, in spite of the power consumption or interrupt overhead, Cortex-M3 performs better than ARM7.

  3. Functional Interrupts and Destructive Failures from Single Event Effect Testing of Point-Of-Load Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Dakai; Phan, Anthony; Kim, Hak; Swonger, James; Musil, Paul; LaBel, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    We show examples of single event functional interrupt and destructive failure in modern POL devices. The increasing complexity and diversity of the design and process introduce hard SEE modes that are triggered by various mechanisms.

  4. 78 FR 65904 - Permanent Discontinuance or Interruption in Manufacturing of Certain Drug or Biological Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 20, 310, 314...Discontinuance or Interruption in Manufacturing of Certain Drug or Biological Products AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed...

  5. High-Dose Oral Misoprostol for Mid-Trimester Pregnancy Interruption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirk D. Ramin; Paul L. Ogburn; Diana R. Danilenko; Patrick S. Ramsey

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of high-dose oral misoprostol for mid-trimester pregnancy interruption. Methods: We reviewed our experience with high-dose oral misoprostol for mid-trimester pregnancy interruption from November 1995 to May 1999. Patients undergoing labor induction for intrauterine fetal demise or medically indicated pregnancy termination at 13–32 weeks of gestation with a non-dilated cervix were evaluated. Patients received 400 ?g

  6. Control of SIV Rebound Through Structured Treatment Interruptions During Early Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Lori; Mark G. Lewis; Jianqing Xu; Georg Varga; Donald E. Zinn; Carrol Crabbs; Wendeline Wagner; Jack Greenhouse; Peter Silvera; Jake Yalley-Ogunro; Carmine Tinelli; Julianna Lisziewicz

    2000-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial with acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques, both highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and HAART with fixed-schedule structured treatment interruption (STI-HAART; alternating 3 weeks on and 3 weeks off therapy) suppressed viral load. In the STI-HAART group, T cell virus-specific immune response (VIR) and control of viral rebound increased concurrently during subsequent interruptions. In contrast,

  7. Algorithm Design of CPCI Backboard's Interrupts Management Based on VxWorks' Multi-Tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingyuan Cheng; Qi An; Junfeng Yang

    2006-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief introduction of the embedded real-time operating system VxWorks and CompactPCI standard, then gives the programming interfaces of Peripheral Controller Interface (PCI) configuring, interrupts handling and multi-tasks programming interface under VxWorks, and then emphasis is placed on the software frameworks of CPCI interrupt management based on multi-tasks. This method is sound in design and easy

  8. Surviving task interruptions: Investigating the implications of long-term working memory theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antti Oulasvirta; Pertti Saariluoma

    Typically, we have several tasks at hand, some of which are in interrupted state while others are being carried out. Most of the time, such interruptions are not disruptive to task performance. Based on the theory of Long-Term Working Memory (LTWM; Ericsson, K.A., Kintsch, W., 1995. Long-term working memory. Psychological Review, 102, 211-245), we posit that unless there are enough

  9. Not Now! Supporting interruption management by indicating the modality and urgency of pending tasks.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chih-Yuan; Nikolic, Mark I; Waters, Molly J; Sarter, Nadine B

    2004-01-01

    Operators in complex event-driven domains must coordinate competing attentional demands in the form of multiple tasks and interactions. This study examined the extent to which this requirement can be supported more effectively through informative interruption cueing (in this case, partial information about the nature of pending tasks). The 48 participants performed a visually demanding air traffic control (ATC) task. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental groups that differed in the availability of information (not available, available upon request, available automatically) about the urgency and modality of pending interruption tasks. Within-subject variables included ATC-related workload and the modality, frequency, and priority of interruption tasks. The results show that advance knowledge about the nature of pending tasks led participants to delay visual interruption tasks the longest, which allowed them to avoid intramodal interference and scanning costs associated with performing these tasks concurrently with ATC tasks. The 3 experimental groups did not differ significantly in terms of their interruption task performance; however, the group that automatically received task-related information showed better ATC performance, thus experiencing a net performance gain. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of interfaces in support of attention and interruption management in a wide range of event-driven environments. PMID:15573541

  10. Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, L.B.

    1998-08-18

    An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined. 17 figs.

  11. Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, Lowell B. (2181-13th Ave. SW., Largo, FL 34640)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined.

  12. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Northern Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis is caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium species (black flies). In the Americas, the infection has been previously described in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela) where more than 370,000 people are currently considered at risk. Since 2001, disease control in Venezuela has relied on the mass drug administration to the at-risk communities. This report provides empirical evidence of interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium metallicum in 510 endemic communities from two Northern foci of Venezuela, after 10–12 years of 6-monthly Mectizan® (ivermectin) treatment to all the eligible residents. Methods In-depth entomologic and epidemiologic surveys were serially conducted from 2001–2012 in selected (sentinel and extra-sentinel) communities from the North-central (NC) and North-east (NE) onchocerciasis foci of Venezuela in order to monitor the impact of ivermectin treatment. Results From 2007–2009, entomological indicators in both foci confirmed that 0 out of 112,637 S. metallicum females examined by PCR contained L3 infection in insect heads. The upper bound of the 95% confidence intervals of the infective rate of the vector reached values below 1% by 2009 (NC) and 2012 (NE). Additionally, after 14 (NC) and 22 (NE) rounds of treatment, the seasonal transmission potential (±UL CIs) of S. metallicum was under the critical threshold of 20 L3 per person per season. Serological analysis in school children < 15 years-old demonstrated that 0 out of 6,590 individuals were harboring antibodies to Ov-16. Finally, epidemiological surveys made during 2010 (NC) and 2012 (NE) showed no evidence of microfilariae in the skin and eyes of the population. Conclusions These results meet the WHO criteria for absence of parasite transmission and disease morbidity in these endemic areas which represent 91% of the population previously at-risk in the country. Consequently, the two Northern foci are currently under post-treatment onchocerciasis surveillance status in Venezuela. PMID:24499653

  13. Errors and electronic prescribing: a controlled laboratory study to examine task complexity and interruption effects

    PubMed Central

    Li, Simon Y W; Day, Richard O; Coiera, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of interruptions and task complexity on error rates when prescribing with computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems, and to categorize the types of prescribing errors. Design Two within-subject factors: task complexity (complex vs simple) and interruption (interruption vs no interruption). Thirty-two hospital doctors used a CPOE system in a computer laboratory to complete four prescribing tasks, half of which were interrupted using a counterbalanced design. Measurements Types of prescribing errors, error rate, resumption lag, and task completion time. Results Errors in creating and updating electronic medication charts that were measured included failure to enter allergy information; selection of incorrect medication, dose, route, formulation, or frequency of administration from lists and drop-down menus presented by the CPOE system; incorrect entry or omission in entering administration times, start date, and free-text qualifiers; and omissions in prescribing and ceasing medications. When errors occurred, the error rates across the four prescribing tasks ranged from 0.5% (1 incorrect medication selected out of 192 chances for selecting a medication or error opportunities) to 16% (5 failures to enter allergy information out of 32 error opportunities). Any impact of interruptions on prescribing error rates and task completion times was not detected in our experiment. However, complex tasks took significantly longer to complete (F(1, 27)=137.9; p<0.001) and when execution was interrupted they required almost three times longer to resume compared to simple tasks (resumption lag complex=9.6?seconds, SD=5.6; resumption lag simple=3.4?seconds, SD=1.7; t(28)=6.186; p<0.001). Conclusion Most electronic prescribing errors found in this study could be described as slips in using the CPOE system to create and update electronic medication charts. Cues available within the user interface may have aided resumption of interrupted tasks making CPOE systems robust to some interruption effects. Further experiments are required to rule out any effect interruption might have on CPOE error rates. PMID:20819867

  14. Recovering from an interruption: investigating speed-accuracy trade-offs in task resumption behavior.

    PubMed

    Brumby, Duncan P; Cox, Anna L; Back, Jonathan; Gould, Sandy J J

    2013-06-01

    Interruptions are disruptive because they take time to recover from, in the form of a resumption lag, and lead to an increase in the likelihood of errors being made. Despite an abundance of work investigating the effect of interruptions on routine task performance, little is known about whether there is a link between how quickly a task is resumed following an interruption (i.e., the duration of the postinterruption resumption lag) and the likelihood that an error is made. Two experiments are reported in which participants were interrupted by a cognitively demanding secondary mental arithmetic task while working on a routine sequential data-entry task. In Experiment 1 the time-cost of making an error on the primary task was varied between conditions. When errors were associated with a high time-cost penalty, participants made fewer errors and resumed the primary task more slowly than when errors were associated with a low time-cost penalty. In Experiment 2 participants were prohibited from resuming the primary task quickly by a 10-s system lockout period following the completion of the interrupting task. This lockout period led to a significant reduction in resumption errors because the lockout prohibited fast, inaccurate task resumptions. Taken together, our results suggest that longer resumption lags following an interruption are beneficial in terms of reducing the likelihood of errors being made. We discuss the practical implications of how systems might be designed to encourage more reflective task resumption behavior in situations where interruptions are commonplace. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23795978

  15. PolyQ Repeat Expansions in ATXN2 Associated with ALS Are CAA Interrupted Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Clay-Falcone, Dana; McCluskey, Leo; Elman, Lauren; Kalb, Robert G.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Gitler, Aaron D.; Bonini, Nancy M.

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating, rapidly progressive disease leading to paralysis and death. Recently, intermediate length polyglutamine (polyQ) repeats of 27–33 in ATAXIN-2 (ATXN2), encoding the ATXN2 protein, were found to increase risk for ALS. In ATXN2, polyQ expansions of ?34, which are pure CAG repeat expansions, cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. However, similar length expansions that are interrupted with other codons, can present atypically with parkinsonism, suggesting that configuration of the repeat sequence plays an important role in disease manifestation in ATXN2 polyQ expansion diseases. Here we determined whether the expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS were pure or interrupted CAG repeats, and defined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs695871 and rs695872 in exon 1 of the gene, to assess haplotype association. We found that the expanded repeat alleles of 40 ALS patients and 9 long-repeat length controls were all interrupted, bearing 1–3 CAA codons within the CAG repeat. 21/21 expanded ALS chromosomes with 3CAA interruptions arose from one haplotype (GT), while 18/19 expanded ALS chromosomes with <3CAA interruptions arose from a different haplotype (CC). Moreover, age of disease onset was significantly earlier in patients bearing 3 interruptions vs fewer, and was distinct between haplotypes. These results indicate that CAG repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are uniformly interrupted repeats and that the nature of the repeat sequence and haplotype, as well as length of polyQ repeat, may play a role in the neurological effect conferred by expansions in ATXN2. PMID:21479228

  16. Folding Delay and Structural Perturbations Caused by Type IV Collagen Natural Interruptions and Nearby Gly Missense Mutations*

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eileen S.; Brodsky, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The standard collagen triple helix requires Gly as every third residue in the amino acid sequence, yet all nonfibrillar collagens contain sites where this repeating pattern is interrupted. To explore the effects of such natural interruptions on the triple helix, a 4- or 15-residue sequence from human basement membrane type IV collagen was introduced between (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)n domains within a recombinant bacterial collagen. The interruptions had little effect on melting temperature, consistent with the high thermal stability reported for nonfibrillar collagens. Although the 4-residue interruption cannot be accommodated within a standard triple helix, trypsin and thermolysin resistance indicated a tightly packed structure. Central residues of the 15-residue interruption were protease-susceptible, whereas residues near the (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)n boundary were resistant, supporting a transition from an alternate conformation to a well packed triple helix. Both interruptions led to a delay in triple-helix folding, with the 15-residue interruption causing slower folding than the 4-residue interruption. These results suggest that propagation through interruptions represents a slow folding step. To clarify the relation between natural interruptions and pathological mutations, a Gly to Ser missense mutation was placed three triplets away from the 4-residue interruption. As a result of this mutation, the 4-residue interruption and nearby triple helix became susceptible to protease digestion, and an additional folding delay was observed. Because Gly missense mutations that cause disease are often located near natural interruptions, structural and folding perturbations arising from such proximity could be a factor in collagen genetic diseases. PMID:22179614

  17. Supervisory-level interruption recovery in time-critical control tasks.

    PubMed

    Sasangohar, Farzan; Scott, Stacey D; Cummings, M L

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of providing interruption recovery assistance in the form of an interactive visual timeline of historical events on a peripheral display in support of team supervision in time-critical settings. As interruptions can have detrimental effects on task performance, particularly in time-critical work environments, there is growing interest in the design of tools to assist people in resuming their pre-interruption activity. A user study was conducted to evaluate the use of an interactive event timeline that provides assistance to human supervisors in time-critical settings. The study was conducted in an experimental platform that emulated a team of operators and a mission commander performing a time-critical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mission. The study results showed that providing interruption assistance enabled people to recover from interruptions faster and more accurately. These results have implications for interface design that could be adopted in similar time-critical environments such as air-traffic control, process control, and first responders. PMID:24581931

  18. Activation and inhibition of posterior parietal cortex have bi-directional effects on spatial errors following interruptions

    PubMed Central

    Foroughi, Cyrus K.; Blumberg, Eric J.; Parasuraman, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Interruptions to ongoing mental activities are omnipresent in our modern digital world, but the brain networks involved in interrupted performance are not known, nor have the activation of those networks been modulated. Errors following interruptions reflect failures in spatial memory, whose maintenance is supported by a brain network including the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC). The present study therefore used bi-directional transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) of right PPC to examine the neuromodulation of spatial errors following interruptions, as well as performance on another PPC-dependent task, mental rotation. Anodal stimulation significantly reduced the number of interruption-based errors and increased mental rotation accuracy whereas cathodal stimulation significantly increased errors and reduced mental rotation accuracy. The results provide evidence for a causal role of the PPC in the maintenance of spatial representations during interrupted task performance. PMID:25628543

  19. Activation and inhibition of posterior parietal cortex have bi-directional effects on spatial errors following interruptions.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Blumberg, Eric J; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-01-01

    Interruptions to ongoing mental activities are omnipresent in our modern digital world, but the brain networks involved in interrupted performance are not known, nor have the activation of those networks been modulated. Errors following interruptions reflect failures in spatial memory, whose maintenance is supported by a brain network including the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC). The present study therefore used bi-directional transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) of right PPC to examine the neuromodulation of spatial errors following interruptions, as well as performance on another PPC-dependent task, mental rotation. Anodal stimulation significantly reduced the number of interruption-based errors and increased mental rotation accuracy whereas cathodal stimulation significantly increased errors and reduced mental rotation accuracy. The results provide evidence for a causal role of the PPC in the maintenance of spatial representations during interrupted task performance. PMID:25628543

  20. Use and Outcomes Associated With Bridging During Anticoagulation Interruptions in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Eric D.; Kim, Sunghee; Thomas, Laine; Gersh, Bernard J.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Kowey, Peter R.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Sherwood, Matthew W.; Chang, Paul; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Ansell, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Background— Temporary interruption of oral anticoagulation for procedures is often required, and some propose using bridging anticoagulation. However, the use and outcomes of bridging during oral anticoagulation interruptions in clinical practice are unknown. Methods and Results— The Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF) registry is a prospective, observational registry study of US outpatients with atrial fibrillation. We recorded incident temporary interruptions of oral anticoagulation for a procedure, including the use and type of bridging therapy. Outcomes included multivariable-adjusted rates of myocardial infarction, stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, cause-specific hospitalization, and death within 30 days. Of 7372 patients treated with oral anticoagulation, 2803 overall interruption events occurred in 2200 patients (30%) at a median follow-up of 2 years. Bridging anticoagulants were used in 24% (n=665), predominantly low-molecular-weight heparin (73%, n=487) and unfractionated heparin (15%, n=97). Bridged patients were more likely to have had prior cerebrovascular events (22% versus 15%; P=0.0003) and mechanical valve replacements (9.6% versus 2.4%; P<0.0001); however, there was no difference in CHA2DS2-VASc scores (scores ?2 in 94% versus 95%; P=0.5). Bleeding events were more common in bridged than nonbridged patients (5.0% versus 1.3%; adjusted odds ratio, 3.84; P<0.0001). The incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, hospitalization, or death within 30 days was also significantly higher in patients receiving bridging (13% versus 6.3%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.94; P=0.0001). Conclusions— Bridging anticoagulation is used in one quarter of anticoagulation interruptions and is associated with higher risk for bleeding and adverse events. These data do not support the use of routine bridging, and additional data are needed to identify best practices concerning anticoagulation interruptions. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01165710. PMID:25499873

  1. Airway resistance measurements in pre-school children with asthmatic symptoms: the interrupter technique.

    PubMed

    Kooi, E M W; Schokker, S; van der Molen, T; Duiverman, E J

    2006-06-01

    Measuring airway resistance in pre-school children with the interrupter technique has proven to be feasible and reliable in daily clinical practice and research settings. Whether it contributes to diagnosing asthma in pre-school children still remains uncertain. From the results of previous studies a need for standardisation of the technique has emerged. In this overview we will elaborate on research concerning the position of the interrupter technique in the difficult process of diagnosing asthma in pre-school children. PMID:16504493

  2. Perception of interrupted speech: cross-rate variation in the intelligibility of gated and concatenated sentences.

    PubMed

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Risley, Robert

    2011-08-01

    Temporal constraints on the perception of variable-size speech fragments produced by interruption rates between 0.5 and 16 Hz were investigated by contrasting the intelligibility of gated sentences with and without silent intervals. Concatenation of consecutive speech fragments produced a significant decrease in intelligibility at 2 and 4 Hz, while having little effect at lower and higher rates. Consistent with previous studies, these findings indicate that (1) syllable-sized intervals associated with intermediate-rate interruptions are more susceptible to temporal distortions than the longer word-size or shorter phoneme-size intervals and (2) suggest qualitative differences in underlying perceptual processes at different rates. PMID:21877768

  3. Perception of interrupted speech: Cross-rate variation in the intelligibility of gated and concatenated sentences

    PubMed Central

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Risley, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Temporal constraints on the perception of variable-size speech fragments produced by interruption rates between 0.5 and 16 Hz were investigated by contrasting the intelligibility of gated sentences with and without silent intervals. Concatenation of consecutive speech fragments produced a significant decrease in intelligibility at 2 and 4 Hz, while having little effect at lower and higher rates. Consistent with previous studies, these findings indicate that (1) syllable-sized intervals associated with intermediate-rate interruptions are more susceptible to temporal distortions than the longer word-size or shorter phoneme-size intervals and (2) suggest qualitative differences in underlying perceptual processes at different rates. PMID:21877768

  4. Abstract--Designing robotic behaviours capable of initiating an interruption will be extremely important as robots

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Saul

    of using verbal communication to interrupting users. Yet many robots will be non-verbal of a minimal set of physical nonverbal cues that can be exhibited by a robot to initiate robot being constrained to use only a set of behavioural cues that could be mimicked by a simple nonverbal

  5. Inflow rates and interrupted flow effects on concentrated flow erosion and intake rate in two soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface irrigation is the most widely used irrigation practice world wide, but its water use efficiency is low. Interrupted supply of water to furrows may reduce intake rate (IR) upstream and improve irrigation efficiency in many soils, but has an insignificant effect in others. Similarly, intermitt...

  6. Distinct mechanisms for the impact of distraction and interruption on working memory in aging

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Wesley C; Gazzaley, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Interference is known to negatively impact the ability to maintain information in working memory (WM), an effect that is exacerbated with aging. Here, we explore how distinct sources of interference, i.e., distraction (stimuli to-be-ignored) and interruption (stimuli requiring attention), differentially influence WM in younger and older adults. EEG was recorded while participants engaged in three versions of a delayed-recognition task: no interference, a distracting stimulus, and an interrupting stimulus presented during WM maintenance. Behaviorally, both types of interference negatively impacted WM accuracy in older adults significantly more than younger adults (with a larger deficit for interruptions). N170 latency measures revealed that the degree of processing both distractors and interruptors predicted WM accuracy in both populations. However, while WM impairments could be explained by excessive attention to distractors by older adults (a suppression deficit), impairment induced by interruption were not clearly mediated by age-related increases in attention to interruptors. These results suggest that distinct underlying mechanisms mediate the impact of different types of external interference on WM in normal aging. PMID:20144492

  7. A gunner model for an AAA tracking task with interrupted observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. F.; Wei, K. C.; Vikmanis, M.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of modeling a trained human operator's tracking performance in an anti-aircraft system under various display blanking conditions is discussed. The input to the gunner is the observable tracking error subjected to repeated interruptions (blanking). A simple and effective gunner model was developed. The effect of blanking on the gunner's tracking performance is approached via modeling the observer and controller gains.

  8. Using context-aware computing to reduce the perceived burden of interruptions from mobile devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joyce Ho; Stephen S. Intille

    2005-01-01

    The potential for sensor-enabled mobile devices to proactively present information when and where users need it ranks among the greatest promises of ubiquitous computing. Unfortunately, mobile phones, PDAs, and other computing devices that compete for the user's attention can contribute to interruption irritability and feelings of information overload. Designers of mobile computing interfaces, therefore, require strategies for minimizing the perceived

  9. Reasoning about Concurrent Execution Prioritized Interrupts, and Exogenous Actions in the Situation Calculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe De Giacomo; Yves Lespérance; Hector J. Levesque

    1997-01-01

    As an alternative to planning, an approach to high- level agent control based on concurrent program execution is considered. A formal definition in the situation calculus of such a programming language is presented and illustrated with a detailed exam­ ple. The language includes facilities for prioritizing the concurrent execution, interrupting the execution when certain conditions become true, and dealing with

  10. Interrupted time-series analysis and its application to behavioral data

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Donald P.; Gottman, John M.; Jones, Richard R.; Gardner, William; Kazdin, Alan E.; Vaught, Russell S.

    1980-01-01

    This paper uses a question-and-answer format to present the technical aspects of interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA). Topics include the potential relevance of ITSA to behavioral researchers, serial dependency, time-series models, tests of significance, and sources of ITSA information. PMID:16795632

  11. TELEPHONE BOMB THREAT REPORT FORM INSTRUCTIONS: Be calm. Be courteous. Listen. Do not interrupt the caller.

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    TELEPHONE BOMB THREAT REPORT FORM INSTRUCTIONS: Be calm. Be courteous. Listen. Do not interrupt for caller (Try to ask these questions and document responses) When will the bomb explode? What kind of bomb is it? What will cause the bomb to explode? Where is the bomb located? What does the bomb look like? Did

  12. Assigning Student Leaders: Decreasing Interruptions during Teacher-Led Small-Group Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Jeremy T.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Best, Tiffany L.; Wood, Allison; Luna, Elisa; Adcock, Wes

    2013-01-01

    The authors used a withdrawal design to evaluate an intervention designed to decrease interruptions during small-group instruction in a Kindergarten class. A new rule was put into place; during teacher-led small-group instruction, those not in the small group were required to address questions to designated student leaders, as opposed to…

  13. The Effects of Matched Stimulation and Response Interruption and Redirection on Vocal Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica J.; Miguel, Caio F.; Fernand, Jonathan K.; LaBrie, Jillian K.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypy has been classified as repetitive behavior that does not serve any apparent function. Two procedures that have been found to reduce rates of vocal stereotypy effectively are response interruption and redirection (RIRD) and noncontingent access to matched stimulation (MS). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of…

  14. The urine stream interruption test and pelvic muscle function in the puerperium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sartore; R. Pregazzi; P. Bortoli; E. Grimaldi; G. Ricci; S. Guaschino

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: This study assesses the role of the uroflowmetric urine stream interruption test (UST) in the evaluation of postpartum pelvic floor muscle function. Method: Two months after vaginal delivery, 492 women who underwent a digital test, vaginal manometry, and a UST were divided into two groups: continent and incontinent. Variables were subjected to the Student's t-test and to Fisher's exact

  15. Re-Thinking Pedagogy for Middle School Students with Little, No or Severely Interrupted Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The arrival of substantial cohorts of English language learners from Africa with little, no or severely interrupted schooling is requiring new pedagogic responses from teachers in Australia and other Western countries of refugee re-settlement. If the students are to have optimal educational and life chances, it is crucial for them to acquire…

  16. EMG and metabolite-based prediction of force in paralyzed quadriceps muscle under interrupted stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oron Levin; Joseph Mizrahi

    1999-01-01

    A major issue associated with functional electrical stimulation (FES) of a paralyzed limb is the decay with time of the muscle force as a result of fatigue. A possible means to reduce fatigue during FES is by using interrupted stimulation, in which fatigue and recovery occur in sequence. In this study, we present a model which enables us to evaluate

  17. Acoustic Predictors of Intelligibility for Segmentally Interrupted Speech: Temporal Envelope, Voicing, and Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogerty, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Temporal interruption limits the perception of speech to isolated temporal glimpses. An analysis was conducted to determine the acoustic parameter that best predicts speech recognition from temporal fragments that preserve different types of speech information--namely, consonants and vowels. Method: Young listeners with normal hearing…

  18. Comparison Groups in Short Interrupted Time-Series: An Illustration Evaluating No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Manyee; Cook, Thomas D.; Steiner, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    Interrupted time-series (ITS) are often used to assess the causal effect of a planned or even unplanned shock introduced into an on-going process. The pre-intervention slope is supposed to index the causal counterfactual, and deviations from it in mean, slope or variance are used to indicate an effect. However, a secure causal inference is only…

  19. Ambient Life: Interrupted Permanent Tactile Life-like Actuation as a Status Display in Mobile Phones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabian Hemmert

    In this paper, a novel means of status display in mobile phones is discussed: A permanent tactile heartbeat-like pulsation of the phone. In the study presented, this pulse was used to let the phone continuously communicate a calm state of 'Everything is okay .' - then, this pulse was suddenly interrupted, as soon as the phone needed the user's attention.

  20. Housekeeping recA gene interrupted by group II intron in the thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gab-Joo Chee; Hideto Takami

    2005-01-01

    Most of group II introns are found in intergenes and CDSs with unknown functions, but not in housekeeping genes. In particular, no group II intron within the housekeeping recA gene has been reported either in eukaryotic genomes or in prokaryotic genomes. In this study, we found that the recA gene of the thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus genome is interrupted by a

  1. Targeting Mutant (V600E) B-Raf in Melanoma Interrupts Immunoediting of Leukocyte Functions and

    E-print Network

    Dong, Cheng

    Targeting Mutant (V600E) B-Raf in Melanoma Interrupts Immunoediting of Leukocyte Functions and Melanoma Extravasation Shile Liang, 1 Arati Sharma, 3 Hsin-Hsin Peng, 2 Gavin Robertson, 3 Dermatology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine; 6 The Foreman Foundation for Melanoma

  2. The Effects of Response Interruption and Redirection and Sertraline on Vocal Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Caio F.; Clark, Kathy; Tereshko, Lisa; Ahearn, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Although response interruption and redirection (RIRD) has been shown to be successful in reducing vocal stereotypy, recent reports have suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may also reduce these behaviors. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effects of RIRD with and without sertraline on…

  3. A Task Interrupted Becomes a Prospective Memory Task Rahul Dodhia1,2

    E-print Network

    significantly. References a Dismukes, R.K., Young, G., and Sumwalt, R. (1998). Cockpit interruptions.D., Dismukes, R. K., & Barshi, I. (2003). Concurrent task demands in the cockpit: Challenges and vulnerabilites. 737-742). Dayton, OH: The Wright State University. #12

  4. If Not Now, When?: The Effects of Interruption at Different Moments Within Task Execution

    E-print Network

    Madiraju, Praveen

    applications such as email agents [18], instant messaging [10], and web assistants [17] are increasingly (changing instant messaging availability, blocking web site pop-ups) with their need for information}@uiuc.edu ABSTRACT User attention is a scarce resource, and users are susceptible to interruption overload. Systems

  5. Validation of a novel method to interrupt sleep in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Sinton, Christopher M; Kovakkattu, Della; Friese, Randall S

    2009-10-30

    Interrupted sleep, fragmented sleep or restricted sleep is a corollary of many psychiatric, neurological and respiratory disorders and also results from disruptive environments such as that of the intensive care unit (ICU). Recent rodent studies have revealed that sleep interruption (SI) can have more significant consequences for cognitive and neurophysiological variables than were expected and may even be equivalent to those of total sleep deprivation. Results from this research are therefore being increasingly recognized for their implications, which may include delayed recovery from critical illness in the ICU. Here we describe in detail a method for interrupting sleep in a murine model, which we had previously adopted to show an increase in mortality after septic insult. Interrupting sleep for 30s every 2 min over 48 h significantly decreased rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. The technique, which is based on using a standard laboratory orbital shaker to oscillate the cage containing the mouse, can easily be adapted to use different parameters for SI. During recovery, mice exhibited a rebound in REM sleep time and an increase in the depth of NREM sleep as measured by delta (1-4 Hz) power in the electroencephalogram. The changes in sleep both during and after SI showed some differences from those previously observed in the rat using the same SI parameters. In conclusion, the mouse may provide a useful alternative model for studying the effects of SI. PMID:19646474

  6. Recognition of temporally interrupted and spectrally degraded sentences with additional unprocessed low-frequency speech

    PubMed Central

    Ba?kent, Deniz; Chatterjee, Monita

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of periodically interrupted sentences (with an interruption rate of 1.5 Hz, 50% duty cycle) was investigated under conditions of spectral degradation, implemented with a noiseband vocoder, with and without additional unprocessed low-pass filtered speech (cutoff frequency 500 Hz). Intelligibility of interrupted speech decreased with increasing spectral degradation. For all spectral-degradation conditions, however, adding the unprocessed low-pass filtered speech enhanced the intelligibility. The improvement at 4 and 8 channels was higher than the improvement at 16 and 32 channels: 19% and 8%, on average, respectively. The Articulation Index predicted an improvement of 0.09, in a scale from 0 to 1. Thus, the improvement at poorest spectral-degradation conditions was larger than what would be expected from additional speech information. Therefore, the results implied that the fine temporal cues from the unprocessed low-frequency speech, such as the additional voice pitch cues, helped perceptual integration of temporally interrupted and spectrally degraded speech, especially when the spectral degradations were severe. Considering the vocoder processing as a cochlear-implant simulation, where implant users’ performance is closest to 4 and 8-channel vocoder performance, the results support additional benefit of low-frequency acoustic input in combined electric-acoustic stimulation for perception of temporally degraded speech. PMID:20817081

  7. Measurement of ground-state decoherence via interruption of coherent population trapping

    E-print Network

    Patnaik, Anil K.; Hsu, Paul S.; Agarwal, Girish S.; Welch, George R.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of ground-state decoherence via interruption of coherent population trapping Anil K. Patnaik,1,2 Paul S. Hsu,1 Girish S. Agarwal,3 George R. Welch,1 and Marlan O. Scully1,2,4 1Institute for Quantum Studies and Department of Physics...

  8. Sensitivity of AC coil contactors to voltage sags, short interruptions, and undervoltage transients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Z. Djokic; Jovica V. Milanovic ´; Daniel S. Kirschen

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the sensitivity of ac coil contactors to voltage sags, short interruptions, and undervoltage transients on the basis of extensive test results. Existing standards and previously published work are reviewed, and a detailed description of the testing procedure used is presented. The following tests were performed: sensitivity to rectangular voltage sags with ideal and nonideal supply voltage, testing

  9. The Behavior Chain Interruption Strategy: A Review of Research and Discussion of Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Mark; Grunsell, Julie

    2001-01-01

    A review of 10 studies that utilize the behavior chain interruption strategy (BCIS) to teach communication skills to individuals with severe disabilities found that BCIS has been successfully applied to individuals across a wide range of ages and levels of disability, including learners with multiple disabilities. Generalization concerns are…

  10. Pardon the Interruption: Enhancing Communication Skills for Students with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayes, Daniel A.; Heath, Amy K.; Williams, Carol; Ganz, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides teachers and parents with a description of the behavior chain interruption strategy (BCIS), an evidence-based intervention for increasing requesting behaviors in individuals with moderate to severe disabilities. A review of the relevant literature is provided, as well as a description of the behavioral principles that…

  11. GaN:Eu electroluminescent devices grown by interrupted growth epitaxy C. Munasinghe, A.J. Steckl *

    E-print Network

    Steckl, Andrew J.

    ; Gallium nitride 1. Introduction Inorganic electroluminescent devices (ELDs) have been a leading technologyGaN:Eu electroluminescent devices grown by interrupted growth epitaxy C. Munasinghe, A.J. Steckl In this paper we report on electroluminescent devices fabricated using Eu-doped GaN films grown by interrupted

  12. An evaluation of diagnostic techniques relevant to arcing fault current interrupters for direct current power systems in future aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Spyker; D. L. Schweickart; J. C. Horwath; L. C. Walko; D. Grosjean

    2005-01-01

    Arc fault circuit interrupters (AFCI) are a relatively new development in the area of circuit protection. Typical circuit breakers are designed to detect an overload current in the protected circuit and trip open within a specified period of time. The AFCI is a device that detects and interrupts an arcing fault when it occurs. An arc fault is a dangerous

  13. AGG/CCT interruptions affect nucleosome formation and positioning of healthy-length CGG/CCG triplet repeats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited form of mental retardation, is caused by expansion of a CGG/CCG repeat tract in the 5?-untranslated region of the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene, which changes the functional organization of the gene from euchromatin to heterochromatin. Interestingly, healthy-length repeat tracts possess AGG/CCT interruptions every 9–10 repeats, and clinical data shows that loss of these interruptions is linked to expansion of the repeat tract to disease-length. Thus, it is important to understand how these interruptions alter the behavior of the repeat tract in the packaged gene. Results To investigate how uninterrupted and interrupted CGG/CCG repeat tracts interact with the histone core, we designed experiments using the nucleosome core particle, the most basic unit of chromatin packaging. Using DNA containing 19 CGG/CCG repeats, flanked by either a nucleosome positioning sequence or the FMR1 gene sequence, we determined that the addition of a single AGG/CCT interruption modulates both the ability of the CGG/CCG repeat DNA to incorporate into a nucleosome and the rotational and translational position of the repeat DNA around the histone core when flanked by the nucleosome positioning sequence. The presence of these interruptions also alters the periodicity of the DNA in the nucleosome; interrupted repeat tracts have a greater periodicity than uninterrupted repeats. Conclusions This work defines the ability of AGG/CCT interruptions to modulate the behavior of the repeat tract in the packaged gene and contributes to our understanding of the role that AGG/CCT interruptions play in suppressing expansion and maintaining the correct functional organization of the FMR1 gene, highlighting a protective role played by the interruptions in genomic packaging. PMID:24261641

  14. Daily sedative interruption versus intermittent sedation in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Daily sedative interruption and intermittent sedation are effective in abbreviating the time on mechanical ventilation. Whether one is superior to the other has not yet been determined. Our aim was to compare daily interruption and intermittent sedation during the mechanical ventilation period in a low nurse staffing ICU. Methods Adult patients expected to need mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours were randomly assigned, in a single center, either to daily interruption of continuous sedative and opioid infusion or to intermittent sedation. In both cases, our goal was to maintain a Sedation Agitation Scale (SAS) level of 3 or 4; that is patients should be calm, easily arousable or awakened with verbal stimuli or gentle shaking. Primary outcome was ventilator-free days in 28 days. Secondary outcomes were ICU and hospital mortality, incidence of delirium, nurse workload, self-extubation and psychological distress six months after ICU discharge. Results A total of 60 patients were included. There were no differences in the ventilator-free days in 28 days between daily interruption and intermittent sedation (median: 24 versus 25 days, P?=?0.160). There were also no differences in ICU mortality (40 versus 23.3%, P?=?0.165), hospital mortality (43.3 versus 30%, P?=?0.284), incidence of delirium (30 versus 40%, P?=?0.472), self-extubation (3.3 versus 6.7%, P?=?0.514), and psychological stress six months after ICU discharge. Also, the nurse workload was not different between groups, but it was reduced on day 5 compared to day 1 in both groups (Nurse Activity Score (NAS) in the intermittent sedation group was 54 on day 1 versus 39 on day 5, P?interruption group was 53 on day 1 versus 38 on day 5, P?interruption group. The tidal volume was higher in the intermittent sedation group during the first five days of ICU stay. Conclusions There was no difference in the number of ventilator-free days in 28 days between both groups. Intermittent sedation was associated with lower sedative and opioid doses. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00824239. PMID:24900938

  15. Demonstration of the mechanism of transient entrainment and interruption of ventricular tachycardia with rapid atrial pacing.

    PubMed

    Waldo, A L; Henthorn, R W; Plumb, V J; MacLean, W A

    1984-02-01

    An unusual case is presented in which ventricular tachycardia at a rate of 141 beats/min was transiently entrained by rapid atrial pacing at rates of 150, 155 and 160 beats/min, and was interrupted by rapid atrial pacing at a rate of 165 beats/min. During each period of transient entrainment, constant ventricular fusion beats were present except for the last entrained beat, and progressive ventricular fusion (different fusion QRS complexes) was demonstrated when comparing QRS complex configurations during transient entrainment at each pacing rate. Interruption of the ventricular tachycardia was associated with localized conduction block to the right ventricular recording site, followed by activation of that site from a different direction and with a shorter conduction time by the subsequent pacing impulse. These data clearly distinguish transient entrainment of a tachycardia from overdrive suppression of a tachycardia, and strongly suggest that reentry was the underlying mechanism of the ventricular tachycardia. PMID:6693629

  16. Phenomena in interrupted tensile tests of heat treated aluminium alloy 6061

    SciTech Connect

    Sritharan, T.; Chandel, R.S. [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore)] [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore)

    1997-08-01

    Interrupted tensile tests were performed in alloy 6061 extrusion after solutionizing and artificial aging treatments. Samples in the peak-aged, under-aged, over-aged and solutionized conditions were studied. Two phenomena were apparent in the stress-strain curves of interrupted tests. They are unload-reload hysteresis loops, and the yield effect on reloading which is referred to as the unloading yield effect. The width of a hysteresis loop increased with prestrain and aging time until the peak-aged strength was attained. Over-aging caused the loop width to decrease. A mechanism based on relaxation of the back stress in a dislocation pile-up is used to explain the hysteresis loop phenomenon and its relationship to prestrain and aging. The unloading yield effect also increases as the prestrain is increased.

  17. Cost of Power Interruptions to Electricity Consumers in the UnitedStates (U.S.)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Eto, Joseph H.

    2006-02-16

    The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern U.S.and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 catalyzed discussions about modernizingthe U.S. electricity grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of$50 to $100 billion would be needed. This work seeks to better understandan important piece of information that has been missing from thesediscussions: What do power interruptions and fluctuations in powerquality (power-quality events) cost electricity consumers? We developed abottom-up approach for assessing the cost to U.S. electricity consumersof power interruptions and power-quality events (referred to collectivelyas "reliability events"). The approach can be used to help assess thepotential benefits of investments in improving the reliability of thegrid. We developed a new estimate based on publicly availableinformation, and assessed how uncertainties in these data affect thisestimate using sensitivity analysis.

  18. Growth interruption studies on vertically aligned 2-3 wall carbon nanotubes by water assisted chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patole, S. P.; Park, J. H.; Lee, T. Y.; Lee, J. H.; Patole, A. S.; Yoo, J. B.

    2008-09-01

    Highly aligned, 2-3 wall carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays were used to examine the kinetics of CNT growth. A growth interruption method was used to determine the in situ growth rate. The growth interruption method with a water vapor treatment or acetylene treatment during the interruption enabled the production of CNT stacks with different morphologies. The catalytic activity was also monitored using this method. The lifetime of the catalyst was predicted and verified using the catalyst decay model. High temperature metal oxidation behavior using parabolic curve fitting is assigned to the decay process. Details of the analysis are presented.

  19. Plasma Amino Acids in Interrupted Aortic Arch and the Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry L. Halliday; Raymond Moore; Denis O’Hara

    1987-01-01

    Plasma amino acids were measured in 8 babies with left-sided congenital heart disease, 3 interrupted aortic arch (IAA) and 5 hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLH), at 1–6 days of age. There was an increase in total amino acid levels when compared with 40 control infants of similar gestational age and birth weight. Both branched-chain and aromatic amino acids were raised

  20. Interrupted coarsening in the zero-temperature kinetic Ising chain driven by a periodic external field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Su Do; Baek, Seung Ki

    2015-06-01

    If quenched to zero temperature, the one-dimensional Ising spin chain undergoes coarsening, whereby the density of domain walls decays algebraically in time. We show that this coarsening process can be interrupted by exerting a rapidly oscillating periodic field with enough strength to compete with the spin-spin interaction. By analyzing correlation functions and the distribution of domain lengths both analytically and numerically, we observe nontrivial correlation with more than one length scale at the threshold field strength.

  1. A Distributed Telemedical System for Monitoring of the Respiratory Mechanics by Enhanced Interrupter Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ireneusz Jab?o?ski; Janusz Mroczka

    \\u000a The chapter presents the development of a telemedical system. Works have been focused on algorithmic, applied hardware, software\\u000a and transmission solutions. Modification of classical interrupter method, dedicated to the respiratory mechanics evaluation,\\u000a has been postulated as a starting point for the whole project. It assumes exploitation of post-occlusional transients states\\u000a in indirect measurement of physiological properties by solution of the

  2. Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadej Mezek; Ed Sverko; Martina D. Rudy; Donna Zaruk; Alfredo Capretta; Craig E. Hebert; Aaron T. Fisk; Daryl J. McGoldrick; Teresa J. Newton; Trent M. Sutton; Marten A. Koops; Andrew M. Muir; Timothy B. Johnson; Mark P. Ebener; Michael T. Arts

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and\\/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in:

  3. [Interrupted aortic arch in a 68-year-old female with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Benincasa, Susanna; Fineschi, Massimo; Ceccherini, Claudio; Pierli, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare congenital malformation of the aorta and aortic arch. We report the case of a 68-year-old female with hypertension and poor control of blood pressure levels. She was diagnosed with aortic coarctation by aortography during young age. A double access angiography was performed that showed a type A IAA, a rare condition in adults that may cause hypertension. PMID:25959763

  4. Arc-wall interaction phenomena immediately after contact separation in magnet-blast interrupters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Gauster; W. Rieder

    1995-01-01

    Arc-wall interaction phenomena without and with a baffle plate arranged next the switching contacts opposite to the direction of arc motion were investigated in a model interrupter. The criterion considered was the time of reduced arc motion immediately after contact separation. Arc current geometry of contacts and walls, contact material (Cu, Ag\\/C, Ag\\/SnO2, Ag\\/CdO) and the materials of lateral walls

  5. Arc-wall interaction phenomena immediately after contact separation in magnet-blast interrupters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Gauster; W. F. Rieder

    1996-01-01

    Arc-wall interaction phenomena, with and without a baffle plate arranged next the switching contacts opposite to the direction of arc motion, were investigated in a model interrupter. The criterion considered was the time of reduced arc motion immediately after contact separation. Arc current, geometry of contacts and walls, contact materials (Cu, Ag\\/C, Ag\\/SnO2, Ag\\/CdO) and the materials of lateral walls

  6. When supplier's availability affects the replenishment lead time - An extension of the supply-interruption problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esmail Mohebbi; Daipeng Hao

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an exact treatment of a continuous-review inventory system with compound Poisson demand, Erlang-distributed lead times and random supply interruptions. In contrast with the existing models in the literature, we take into account the supplier’s availability in characterizing the lead time of a replenishment order. Assuming that the supplier’s availability can be described by a continuous-time homogeneous Markov

  7. Severe neurological crisis in a patient with hereditary tyrosinaemia type I after interruption of NTBC treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-U. Schlump; C. Perot; K. Ketteler; M. Schiff; E. Mayatepek; U. Wendel; U. Spiekerkoetter

    Summary  Neurological crises do not occur in patients with tyrosinaemia type I treated with NTBC. We report an 8 month-old boy with\\u000a severe neurological crisis after interruption of NTBC treatment including progressive ascending polyneuropathy and diaphragmatic\\u000a paralysis, arterial hypertension, respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation who later also developed impaired\\u000a liver function and tubulopathy. After re-introduction of NTBC the patient slowly regained normal

  8. Severe neurological crisis in a patient with hereditary tyrosinaemia type I after interruption of NTBC treatment.

    PubMed

    Schlump, J-U; Perot, C; Ketteler, K; Schiff, M; Mayatepek, E; Wendel, U; Spiekerkoetter, U

    2008-12-01

    Neurological crises do not occur in patients with tyrosinaemia type I treated with NTBC. We report an 8 month-old boy with severe neurological crisis after interruption of NTBC treatment including progressive ascending polyneuropathy and diaphragmatic paralysis, arterial hypertension, respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation who later also developed impaired liver function and tubulopathy. After re-introduction of NTBC the patient slowly regained normal neurological functions and recovered completely. PMID:18500574

  9. Antiretroviral Treatment Interruptions Predict Female Genital Shedding of Genotypically Resistant HIV-1 RNA

    PubMed Central

    GRAHAM, Susan M.; JALALIAN-LECHAK, Zahra; SHAFI, Juma; CHOHAN, Vrasha; DEYA, Ruth W.; JAOKO, Walter; MANDALIYA, Kishor N.; PESHU, Norbert M.; OVERBAUGH, Julie; MCCLELLAND, R. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Resistant viruses may emerge in the female genital tract during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to identify predictors of drug-resistant HIV-1 RNA in genital secretions after initiation of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based therapy. Design We conducted a prospective cohort study with periodic evaluation of plasma and genital swab samples for HIV-1 RNA levels and antiretroviral resistance mutations. Methods First-line ART was initiated in 102 women. Plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA levels were measured at months 0, 3, 6, and 12. Genotypic resistance testing was performed for samples from all participants with RNA >1,000 copies/mL at month 6 or 12. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with incident genital tract resistance. Results Detectable genital tract resistance developed in 5 women, all with detectable plasma resistance (estimated incidence, 5.5/100 person-years of observation). Treatment interruption >48 hours, adherence by pill count, adherence by visual analog scale, and baseline plasma viral load were associated with incident genital tract resistance. In multivariate analysis, only treatment interruption was associated with risk of detectable genital tract resistance (adjusted hazard ratio 14.2, 95% CI 1.3–158.4). Conclusions Treatment interruption >48 hours during NNRTI-based therapy led to a significantly increased risk of detecting genotypically resistant HIV-1 RNA in female genital tract secretions. Patient- and program-level interventions to prevent treatment interruptions could reduce the risk of shedding resistant HIV-1 during ART. PMID:22592588

  10. Interruptions and distractions in the gynaecological operating theatre: irritating or dangerous?

    PubMed

    Yoong, Wai; Khin, Ayemon; Ramlal, Navin; Loabile, Bogadi; Forman, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Distractions and interference can include visual (e.g. staff obscuring monitors), audio (e.g. noise, irrelevant communication) and equipment problems. Level of distraction is usually defined as I: relatively inconsequential; II: > one member of the surgical team affected; III: the entire surgical team affected. The aim of this study was to observe the frequency and impact of distracting events and interruptions on elective gynaecology cases. Data from 35 cases were collected from 10 consecutive operating sessions. Mean number of interruptions was 26 episodes/case, while mean number of level II/III distractions was 17 episodes/case. Ninety per cent of interruptions occur in the first 30 minutes of the procedure and 80.9% lead to level II/III distraction. Although no complications were directly attributable to the observed distractions, the mean prolongation of operating time was 18.46 minutes/case. Understanding their effects on theatre environment enables appropriate measures to be taken so that theatre productivity and patient safety are optimised. PMID:25672986

  11. Joint imaging and change detection for robust exploitation in interrupted SAR environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ash, Joshua N.

    2013-05-01

    Modern radar systems equipped with agile-beam technology support multiple modes of operation, including, for example, tracking, automated target recognition (ATR), and synthetic aperture radar imaging (SAR). In a multimode operating environment, the services compete for radar resources and leave gaps in the coherent collection aperture devoted to SAR imaging. Such gapped collections, referred to as interrupted SAR, typically result in significant image distortion and can substantially degrade subsequent exploitation tasks, such as change detection. In this work we present a new form of exploitation that jointly performs imaging and coherent change detection in interrupted environments. We adopt a Bayesian approach that inherently accommodates different interrupt patterns and compensates for missing data via exploitation of 1) a partially coherent model for reference-pass to mission-pass pixel transitions, and 2) the a priori notion that changes between passes are generally sparse and spatially clustered. We employ approximate message passing for computationally efficient Bayesian inference and demonstrate performance on measured and synthetic SAR data. The results demonstrate near optimal (ungapped) performance with pulse loss rates up to ˜ 50% and highlight orders of magnitude reduction in false alarm rates compared to traditional methods.

  12. Enhancing the Simulation Speed of Sensor Network Applications by Asynchronization of Interrupt Service Routines

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Hyunwoo; Woo, Duk-Kyun; Kim, Hyungshin

    2013-01-01

    Sensor network simulations require high fidelity and timing accuracy to be used as an implementation and evaluation tool. The cycle-accurate and instruction-level simulator is the known solution for these purposes. However, this type of simulation incurs a high computation cost since it has to model not only the instruction level behavior but also the synchronization between multiple sensors for their causality. This paper presents a novel technique that exploits asynchronous simulations of interrupt service routines (ISR). We can avoid the synchronization overheads when the interrupt service routines are simulated without preemption. If the causality errors occur, we devise a rollback procedure to restore the original synchronized simulation. This concept can be extended to any instruction-level sensor network simulator. Evaluation results show our method can enhance the simulation speed up to 52% in the case of our experiments. For applications with longer interrupt service routines and smaller number of preemptions, the speedup becomes greater. In addition, our simulator is 2 to 11 times faster than the well-known sensor network simulator. PMID:23966200

  13. Neonatal repair of right interrupted aortic arch with cerebro-myocardial perfusion technique.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Koh; Masuzawa, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Jotaro; Tsuchiya, Keiji

    2011-10-01

    Right interrupted aortic arch and descending aorta is exceedingly rare and most likely cause respiratory presentation, since patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) courses over the right mainstem bronchus. We report a case of successful neonatal biventricular repair of a right interrupted aortic arch (type B), with an aberrant right subclavian artery ventricular septal defect (VSD) in a 2.7 kg term neonate with DiGeorge syndrome. Patient presented in severe respiratory distress and acidosis at one day old. Two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography revealed aortic arch interruption beyond the common carotid arteries with large perimembranous outlet VSD. Aortic annulus diameter was 4.8 mm and there was no left ventricle (LV) outflow tract obstruction. Three-dimensional (3D) CT-scan confirmed these findings and identified a right-sided ductal arch that continued over the right mainstem bronchus into a right-sided descending aorta and aberrant right subclavian artery. Brachiocephalic perfusion and ductal perfusion was employed for cooling during cardiopulmonary bypass. Under deep hypothermia (27 °C rectal temperature), selective cerebro-myocardial perfusion was used for successful aortic arch repair without sacrificing the aberrant right subclavian artery. A direct tension-free anastomosis was attained. Her postoperative course was uneventful and her respiratory symptoms disappeared postoperatively. Early surgical correction is mandatory for these patients with unique anatomy and presentation. PMID:21791517

  14. Speech reception by listeners with real and simulated hearing impairment: Effects of continuous and interrupted noise

    PubMed Central

    Desloge, Joseph G.; Reed, Charlotte M.; Braida, Louis D.; Perez, Zachary D.; Delhorne, Lorraine A.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of audibility and age on masking for sentences in continuous and interrupted noise were examined in listeners with real and simulated hearing loss. The absolute thresholds of each of ten listeners with sensorineural hearing loss were simulated in normal-hearing listeners through a combination of spectrally-shaped threshold noise and multi-band expansion for octave bands with center frequencies from 0.25–8 kHz. Each individual hearing loss was simulated in two groups of three normal-hearing listeners (an age-matched and a non-age-matched group). The speech-to-noise ratio (S?N) for 50%-correct identification of hearing in noise test (HINT) sentences was measured in backgrounds of continuous and temporally-modulated (10 Hz square-wave) noise at two overall levels for unprocessed speech and for speech that was amplified with the NAL-RP prescription. The S?N in both continuous and interrupted noise of the hearing-impaired listeners was relatively well-simulated in both groups of normal-hearing listeners. Thus, release from masking (the difference in S?N obtained in continuous versus interrupted noise) appears to be determined primarily by audibility. Minimal age effects were observed in this small sample. Observed values of masking release were compared to predictions derived from intelligibility curves generated using the extended speech intelligibility index (ESII) [Rhebergen et al. (2006). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 3988–3997]. PMID:20649229

  15. Visual context due to speech-reading suppresses the auditory response to acoustic interruptions in speech

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Jyoti; Pitt, Mark A.; Shahin, Antoine J.

    2014-01-01

    Speech reading enhances auditory perception in noise. One means by which this perceptual facilitation comes about is through information from visual networks reinforcing the encoding of the congruent speech signal by ignoring interfering acoustic signals. We tested this hypothesis neurophysiologically by acquiring EEG while individuals listened to words with a fixed portion of each word replaced by white noise. Congruent (meaningful) or incongruent (reversed frames) mouth movements accompanied the words. Individuals judged whether they heard the words as continuous (illusion) or interrupted (illusion failure) through the noise. We hypothesized that congruent, as opposed to incongruent, mouth movements should further enhance illusory perception by suppressing the auditory cortex's response to interruption onsets and offsets. Indeed, we found that the N1 auditory evoked potential (AEP) to noise onsets and offsets was reduced when individuals experienced the illusion during congruent, but not incongruent, audiovisual streams. This N1 inhibitory effect was most prominent at noise offsets, suggesting that visual influences on auditory perception are instigated to a greater extent during noisy periods. These findings suggest that visual context due to speech-reading disengages (inhibits) neural processes associated with interfering sounds (e.g., noisy interruptions) during speech perception. PMID:25053937

  16. INTERRUPTION OF TIDAL-DISRUPTION FLARES BY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F. K.; Li, S.; Chen Xian, E-mail: fkliu@bac.pku.edu.c, E-mail: lis@bac.pku.edu.c, E-mail: chenx@bac.pku.edu.c [Astronomy Department, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China)

    2009-11-20

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are products of galaxy mergers, and are important in testing LAMBDA cold dark matter cosmology and locating gravitational-wave-radiation sources. A unique electromagnetic signature of SMBHBs in galactic nuclei is essential in identifying the binaries in observations from the IR band through optical to X-ray. Recently, the flares in optical, UV, and X-ray caused by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) tidally disrupting nearby stars have been successfully used to observationally probe single SMBHs in normal galaxies. In this Letter, we investigate the accretion of the gaseous debris of a tidally disrupted star by a SMBHB. Using both stability analysis of three-body systems and numerical scattering experiments, we show that the accretion of stellar debris gas, which initially decays with time propor tot {sup -5/3}, would stop at a time T{sub tr} approx = etaT{sub b}. Here, eta approx 0.25 and T{sub b} is the orbital period of the SMBHB. After a period of interruption, the accretion recurs discretely at time T{sub r} approx = xi{sub b}, where xi approx 1. Both eta and xi sensitively depend on the orbital parameters of the tidally disrupted star at the tidal radius and the orbit eccentricity of SMBHB. The interrupted accretion of the stellar debris gas gives rise to an interrupted tidal flare, which could be used to identify SMBHBs in non-active galaxies in the upcoming transient surveys.

  17. Treatment Interruptions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... who stopped their medications. Do not stop your ART without careful discussion with your health care provider. ... infection. People infected with hepatitis B who stopped ART were much more likely to experience a “flare” ...

  18. Microwave-induced DC currents in mesoscopic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. C.; Sung, Y. T.; Chang, C. W.; Suen, Y. W.; Chen, K. Y.; Liang, C. T.; Chen, Y. F.; Lee, B. C.; Lee, C. P.

    2010-02-01

    We report the power ( P) dependence of microwave (MW)-induced current ( Iph) of a 1-?m sized mesoscopic structure fabricated from two-dimensional electron gas in the GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure at temperature of 1.4 K. MW signals were fed onto the sample through a loop antenna nearby and Iph is measured from a pair of ohmic contacts. We found that Iph is proportional to P at low- P limit; this dependence has been predicted for diffusion-limited electron transport in mesoscopic systems. By contrast, for large P, the dependence is extremely non-monotonous and complicated; even though its physical origin is still not clear so far, our data suggest it is related to the scattering processes from boundaries and impurities in the mesoscopic structure. We also investigated the symmetry properties against reversal of magnetic field ( B) and found that the field-symmetric part of Iph(B) is consistent with the variation of magnetoresistance; there exists also an anti-symmetric part, which should be related to time-reversal-symmetry-breaking scattering mechanisms in the channel.

  19. Load flows and faults considering dc current injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusic, G. L.; Beach, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present novel methods for incorporating current injection sources into dc power flow computations and determining network fault currents when electronic devices limit fault currents. Combinations of current and voltage sources into a single network are considered in a general formulation. An example of relay coordination is presented. The present study is pertinent to the development of the Space Station Freedom electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system.

  20. Correlation of shape changes of grain surfaces and reversible stress evolution during interruptions of polycrystalline film growth

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hang Z.; Thompson, Carl V., E-mail: cthomp@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-04-07

    Short interruptions of the growth of polycrystalline films often lead to stress evolution that is reversed when growth is resumed. Correlated in situ stress measurements and ex situ transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy characterizations of grain boundary surface grooves as a function of the interruption time are reported for films deposited at different temperatures and held for different times before quenching to room temperature. These studies suggest that during film deposition surface grooves at grain boundaries are kinetically constrained to be shallow, while during a growth interruption surface diffusion allows grain boundary grooves to deepen and approach their equilibrium depth. The latter relieves a component of the compressive stress associated with trapped atoms in the grain boundaries. When growth is resumed, the non-equilibrium surface morphology is reestablished and the compressive stress increases to its pre-interruption value.

  1. A study on DC hybrid three-phase fault current limiting interrupter for a power distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hongtian; Satoh, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Mitsugi; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Satoh, Takao; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki

    2005-10-01

    For the purpose of protecting electric power system, many researches and developments of fault current limiters are being performed. The authors studied a dc hybrid three-phase fault current limiting interrupter (FCLI) composed of a superconducting reactor and an S/N transition element, connected in series each other. The dc hybrid type fault current limiting interrupter can limit a fault current by means of the inductance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil together with the normal transition of HTS bulk material (HTSB). In the case of an accident, the normal transition of the bulk material can be accelerated by the magnetic field of the HTS coil. In this paper, the dc hybrid type fault current limiting interrupter for 5.5 km long 6.6 kV-600 A power distribution system is analyzed, and performances of fault current limitation and interruption are confirmed. Moreover, a reclosing operation is discussed for this power distribution system.

  2. Multitasking and prospective memory: Resistance to the effect of interruptions in a computer-based student study setting 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jining

    2013-07-02

    The present experiment examined the effect of frequent, complex and dissimilar interruptions on multitasking and prospective memory (PM) performance in a computer-based student study setting. Participants were either ...

  3. Combination of double aortic arch and interruption of aortic arch in pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed

    Asada, Dai; Itoi, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Kenji

    2015-06-01

    No reports on pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect with the combination of double aortic arch and interruption between left and right carotid arteries have been published so far. PMID:25585494

  4. Reversal of left carotid arterial flow as a sign of type C interruption of the aortic arch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. A. Thomson; R. L. Teele

    1994-01-01

    While performing neurosonography on an 8-day-old baby boy, we noted antegrade flow in the right carotid and basilar arteries but retrograde flow in the left carotid artery. The child was diagnosed as having a severe cardiac malformation and associated interruption of the aortic arch on echocardiography. Our finding is explained by the site of interruption—between the innominate and left carotid

  5. Interrupting Malaria Transmission: Quantifying the Impact of Interventions in Regions of Low to Moderate Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Gatton, Michelle L.; Cheng, Qin

    2010-01-01

    Malaria has been eliminated from over 40 countries with an additional 39 currently planning for, or committed to, elimination. Information on the likely impact of available interventions, and the required time, is urgently needed to help plan resource allocation. Mathematical modelling has been used to investigate the impact of various interventions; the strength of the conclusions is boosted when several models with differing formulation produce similar data. Here we predict by using an individual-based stochastic simulation model of seasonal Plasmodium falciparum transmission that transmission can be interrupted and parasite reintroductions controlled in villages of 1,000 individuals where the entomological inoculation rate is <7 infectious bites per person per year using chemotherapy and bed net strategies. Above this transmission intensity bed nets and symptomatic treatment alone were not sufficient to interrupt transmission and control the importation of malaria for at least 150 days. Our model results suggest that 1) stochastic events impact the likelihood of successfully interrupting transmission with large variability in the times required, 2) the relative reduction in morbidity caused by the interventions were age-group specific, changing over time, and 3) the post-intervention changes in morbidity were larger than the corresponding impact on transmission. These results generally agree with the conclusions from previously published models. However the model also predicted changes in parasite population structure as a result of improved treatment of symptomatic individuals; the survival probability of introduced parasites reduced leading to an increase in the prevalence of sub-patent infections in semi-immune individuals. This novel finding requires further investigation in the field because, if confirmed, such a change would have a negative impact on attempts to eliminate the disease from areas of moderate transmission. PMID:21152042

  6. Radiologic MS disease activity during natalizumab treatment interruption: findings from RESTORE.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Michael; Cree, Bruce A C; De Sèze, Jerome; Fox, Robert J; Gold, Ralf; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Jeffery, Douglas; Kappos, Ludwig; Montalbán, Xavier; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Ticho, Barry; Duda, Petra; Pace, Amy; Campagnolo, Denise

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize the timing and extent of radiologic MS disease recurrence during the 24-week natalizumab treatment interruption period in RESTORE. RESTORE was a randomized, partially placebo-controlled exploratory study. Natalizumab-treated patients with no gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions at screening (n = 175) were randomized 1:1:2 to continue natalizumab (n = 45), switch to placebo (n = 42), or switch to other therapies (n = 88) for 24 weeks. MRI assessments were performed every 4 weeks. Predictors of increased numbers of Gd+ lesions during natalizumab treatment interruption were evaluated. The numbers of Gd+ lesions were compared with retrospectively collected pre-natalizumab MRI reports and data from placebo-treated patients from two historical randomized clinical trials. Gd+ lesions were detected in 0 % (0/45) of natalizumab patients, 61 % (25/41) of placebo patients, and 48 % (39/81) of other-therapies patients during the randomized treatment period. Gd+ lesions were detected starting at week 12; most were observed at week 16 or later. Thirteen percent (14/107) of patients had >5 Gd+ lesions on ?1 (of 6) scans during the randomized treatment period versus 7 % (7/107) of patients pre-natalizumab (based on medical record of a single scan). Younger patients and those with more Gd+ lesions pre-natalizumab were more likely to have increased MRI activity. Distribution of total and persistent Gd+ lesions in RESTORE patients was similar to placebo-treated historical control patients. In most patients, recurring radiological disease activity during natalizumab interruption did not exceed pre-natalizumab levels or levels seen in historical control patients. PMID:25381458

  7. Interrupter technique for evaluation of exercise-induced bronchospasm in children.

    PubMed

    Kannisto, S; Vanninen, E; Remes, K; Korppi, M

    1999-03-01

    The free running test is a useful method for evaluation of exercise-induced bronchospasm in children. In young children this test simulates real-life circumstances and can be done more easily than histamine or methacholine challenges. The interrupter technique is a noninvasive method for measuring airflow resistance during tidal breathing. This approach requires minimal cooperation, and is therefore promising for use in young children. Fifty children aged 5-15 years with asthma symptoms were tested by exercise challenge consisting of free outdoor running for 8 min at 85% of maximal predicted heart rate for age. Pulmonary function was measured by using the interrupter technique (IR), with a Wright's peak flow meter (WPEF), and by flow-volume spirometry (FVS). The measurements were done before and 10 min after exercise. In addition, WPEF was measured at 5, 15, and 20 min after exercise. A fall of 15% or more in WPEF associated with wheezing or cough symptoms was considered a positive test. The exercise challenge was positive in 16 (32%) of the 50 children. Measurements at 10 min by WPEF identified 9 positive cases. At the same time point the IR identified 10 positive cases; a rise in resistance of 15% or more was considered positive, giving it 80% sensitivity and 93% specificity. The repeatability coefficient (CoR) for the interrupter technique was 0.06 kPa x L(-1) x s (13%) before and 0.07 kPa x L(-1) x s (14%) after exercise. The IR provides a useful alternative for estimation of airway obstruction in children following exercise challenge. The results were comparable with the current reference methods of forced expiratory volume in 1 s and peak flow measurements. PMID:10213260

  8. Reconstructing paleoenvironmental conditions during the past 50 ka from the biogeochemical record of Laguna Potrok Aike, southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, A.; Rosén, P.; Kliem, P.; Ohlendorf, C.; Zolitschka, B.

    2011-12-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC) and biogenic silica (BSi) assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) are used to reconstruct the environmental history during the past 50kyrs in high resolution from Laguna Potrok Aike. During the Holocene warmer conditions lead to an increased productivity reflected in higher TOC and BSi contents. Calcite precipitation initiated around 9 ka cal. BP probably due to supersaturation induced by lake level lowering. It is assumed that prior to this time period sediments are carbonate-free because high lake-level conditions prevailed. During the Glacial, increased runoff linked to permafrost, precipitation related to stronger cyclonic activity and reduced evaporation have caused higher lake levels. Moreover, during cold glacial conditions lake productivity was low and organic matter mainly of algal or cyanobacterial origin as indicated by generally low TOC and C/N values. During interstadials, such as the Antarctic A-events and the Younger Dryas, TOC contents appear to rise. The glacial C/N ratios and their correlation with TOC concentrations indicate that aquatic moss blooms probably induce these increases in TOC. Aquatic mosses grow if surface water temperatures rise due to warmer climatic conditions and/or development of a lake water stratification. The latter may occur if wind speeds are low and melt water inflow caused higher density gradients. Prevailing permafrost thawing during warmer periods could lead to considerable rises of lake levels, which would contribute to the preservation of organic material. This may explain why higher C/N and TOC values occur at the end of Antarctic A-events. For the uppermost 25 m, the BSi profile shows a high correlation with the TOC profile. In deeper horizons, however, there are indications that the BSi/TOC ratio increased. This part of the record is dominated by mass movement events, which may have supplied nutrients and thus triggered diatom blooms.

  9. A chemical synthesis of 11-methoxy mitragynine pseudoindoxyl featuring the interrupted Ugi reaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jimin; Schneekloth, John S; Sorensen, Erik J

    2012-09-01

    A synthesis of 11-methoxy mitragynine pseudoindoxyl, a new member of the mitragynine class of opioid agonists, from a derivative of the Geissman-Waiss lactone is described. An internal attack of an electron-rich aromatic ring on an electrophilic nitrilium ion and a late-stage construction of the functionalized piperidine ring by the method of reductive cyclization are the pivotal transformations; both ring annulations proceed in a highly diastereoselective fashion. The construction of substituted indoxyl frameworks by the interrupted Ugi method offers an attractive alternative to the strategy of oxidatively rearranging indoles. PMID:23878716

  10. A chemical synthesis of 11-methoxy mitragynine pseudoindoxyl featuring the interrupted Ugi reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jimin; Schneekloth, John S.

    2013-01-01

    A synthesis of 11-methoxy mitragynine pseudoindoxyl, a new member of the mitragynine class of opioid agonists, from a derivative of the Geissman-Waiss lactone is described. An internal attack of an electron-rich aromatic ring on an electrophilic nitrilium ion and a late-stage construction of the functionalized piperidine ring by the method of reductive cyclization are the pivotal transformations; both ring annulations proceed in a highly diastereoselective fashion. The construction of substituted indoxyl frameworks by the interrupted Ugi method offers an attractive alternative to the strategy of oxidatively rearranging indoles. PMID:23878716

  11. Astronaut Andrew S. W. Thomas, mission specialist, interrupts a Spacehab task to pose for an

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 ESC VIEW --- Astronaut Andrew S. W. Thomas, mission specialist, interrupts a Spacehab task to pose for an Electronic Still Camera (ESC) snapshot inside the Spacehab Module onboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. In upper left is the view port which crew members had used for viewing and photographing operations with the Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE). Thomas has his hand on an aft-bulkhead-mounted locker. The Space Experiment Facility (SEF), designed and managed by the University of Alabama, is just behind his left shoulder.

  12. An interrupted field time-of-flight (IFTOF) technique in transient photoconductivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasap, S. O.; Polischuk, B.; Dodds, D.

    1990-08-01

    An interrupted field time-of-flight (IFTOF) technique that enables displacement-current-free measurement of the photocurrent in the conventional transient photoconductivity experiment is described and implemented. During the drift of the photoinjected charge carriers across the sample, the applied field is removed at time T1 and reapplied at time T2=T1+ti, where ti is the interruption time. During the interruption period ti, the charge carriers interact with the deep traps so that the recovered photocurrent when the field is reapplied at T2 = T1 + ti indicates the concentration of carriers remaining in the transport band. Although the IFTOF technique has a number of distinct advantages for studying charge trapping and release processes in high-resistivity solids, it has generally not been adopted as a convenient experiment since the sample capacitance results in large displacement currents at switching. The present paper describes a Schering-type bridge network that is excited by a switchable floating high-voltage supply. Recently available high-voltage complementary TMOS transistors were used to switch voltages as high as 500 V. Trigger signals to initiate the various IFTOF events were simply and economically generated from TTL logic gates and IC timers while the required time delays were obtained via clocked digital countdown techniques. The IFTOF method was successfully applied to the examination of hole trapping processes in chlorinated a-Se:0.3%As xeroradiographic-type films for which the conventional TOF measurement indicated essentially trap-free photocurrent. Using the IFTOF technique, it is shown that over a time scale far exceeding the conventional TOF transit time, the photoinjected hole concentration under low field conditions decays almost exponentially with a well-defined trapping time ?. Furthermore, by interrupting the electric field while the photoinjected charge packet is at different locations in the film, it is shown that the IFTOF technique may be used to examine the dependence of the trapping time on the distance into the film. IFTOF is therefore a valuable technique for studying trapping inhomogeneities in amorphous semiconductor films. It is expected that the simple displacement-current-free IFTOF technique described in this paper, with further improvements, may be applied to study charge carrier trapping and release kinetics in a wide variety of high-resistivity solids.

  13. Pre-conditioned place preference treatment of chloral hydrate interrupts the rewarding effect of morphine.

    PubMed

    Sun, YongMei; Zong, Wei; Zhou, MuRu; Ma, YuanYe; Wang, JianHong

    2015-08-01

    The medical use of morphine as a pain killer is hindered by its side effects including dependence and further addiction. As the prototypical ? receptor agonist, morphine's rewarding effect can be measured by conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms in animals. Chloral hydrate is a clinical sedative. Using a morphine CPP paradigm that mainly contains somatosensory cues, we found that pre-CPP treatment in rats using chloral hydrate for 6 consecutive days could disrupt the establishment of CPP in a U shape. Chloral hydrate had no effect on the body weight of rats. Our results indicate that prior treatment with chloral hydrate can interrupt the rewarding effect of morphine. PMID:26013578

  14. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the Abu Hamed Focus, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Higazi, Tarig B.; Zarroug, Isam M. A.; Mohamed, Hanan A.; ElMubark, Wigdan A.; Deran, Tong Chor M.; Aziz, Nabil; Katabarwa, Moses; Hassan, Hassan K.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Richards, Frank; Hashim, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Abu Hamed, Sudan, the northernmost location of onchocerciasis in the world, began community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in 1998, with annual treatments enhanced to semiannual in 2007. We assessed the status of the parasite transmission in 2011 entomologically, parasitologically, and serologically. O-150 pool screening showed no parasite DNA in 17,537 black flies collected in 2011 (95% confidence interval upper limit [95% CI UL] = 0.023). Skin microfilariae, nodules, and signs of skin disease were absent in 536 individuals in seven local communities. Similarly, no evidence of Onchocerca volvulus Ov16 antibodies was found in 6,756 school children ? 10 years (95% CI UL = 0.03%). Because this assessment of the focus meets the 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for interrupted transmission, treatment was halted in 2012, and a post-treatment surveillance period was initiated in anticipation of declaration of disease elimination in this area. We provide the first evidence in East Africa that long-term CDTI alone can interrupt transmission of onchocerciasis. PMID:23690554

  15. Fast and interrupted expansion in cyclic void growth in dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Wetering, F. M. J. H.; Brooimans, R. J. C.; Nijdam, S.; Beckers, J.; Kroesen, G. M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Low-pressure acetylene plasmas are able to spontaneously form dust particles. This will result in a dense cloud of solid particles that is levitated in the plasma. The formed particles can grow up to micrometers. We observed a spontaneous interruption in the expansion of the so-called dust void. A dust void is a macroscopic region in the plasma that is free of nanoparticles. The phenomenon is periodical and reproducible. We refer to the expansion interruption as ‘hiccup’. The expanding void is an environment in which a new cycle of dust particle formation can start. At a certain moment in time, this cycle reaches the (sudden) coagulation phase and as a result the void will temporarily shrink. To substantiate this reasoning, the electron density is determined non-intrusively using microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy. Moreover, video imaging of laser light scattering of the dust particles provides their spatial distribution. The emission intensity of a single argon transition is measured similarly. Our results support the aforementioned hypothesis for what happens during the void hiccup. The void dynamics preceding the hiccup are modeled using a simple analytical model for the two dominant forces (ion drag and electric) working on a nanoparticle in a plasma. The model results qualitatively reproduce the measurements.

  16. A logistic delay differential equation model for Chagas disease with interrupted spraying schedules.

    PubMed

    Spagnuolo, Anna Maria; Shillor, Meir; Kingsland, Lindsey; Thatcher, Andrea; Toeniskoetter, Matthew; Wood, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    This work studies a mathematical model for the dynamics of Chagas disease, a parasitic disease that affects humans and domestic mammals throughout rural areas in Central and South America. It presents a modified version of the model found in Spagnuolo et al. [A model for Chagas disease with controlled spraying, J. Biol. Dyn. 5 (2011), pp. 299-317] with a delayed logistic growth term, which captures an overshoot, beyond the vector carrying capacity, in the total vector population when the blood meal supply is large. It studies the steady states of the system in the case of constant coefficients without spraying, and the analysis shows that for given-averaged parameters, the endemic equilibrium is stable and attracting. The numerical simulations of the model dynamics with time-dependent coefficients are shown when interruptions in the annual insecticide spraying cycles are taken into account. Simulations show that when there are spraying schedule interruptions, spraying may become ineffective when the blood meal supply is large. PMID:22873596

  17. Phasic and Tonic Pain Differentially Impact the Interruptive Function of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sinke, Christopher; Schmidt, Katharina; Forkmann, Katarina; Bingel, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    The interruptive effect of painful experimental stimulation on cognitive processes is a well-known phenomenon. This study investigated the influence of pain duration on the negative effects of pain on cognition. Thirty-four healthy volunteers performed a rapid serial visual presentation task (RSVP) in which subjects had to detect (visual detection task) and count the occurrence of a target letter (working memory task) in two separate sessions while being stimulated on the left volar forearm with either short (2 sec) or long (18 sec) painful heat stimuli of equal subjective intensity. The results show that subjects performed significantly worse in the long pain session as indexed by decreased detection and counting performance. Interestingly, this effect on performance was also observed during control trials of the long pain session in which participants did not receive any painful stimulation. Moreover, subjects expected long painful stimulation to have a greater impact on their performance and individual expectation correlated with working memory performance. These findings suggest that not only the length of painful stimulation but also its expected ability to impair cognitive functioning might influence the interruptive function of pain. The exact relevance of expectation for the detrimental effects of pain on cognitive processes needs to be explored in more detail in future studies. PMID:25695254

  18. Importance of envelope modulations during consonants and vowels in segmentally interrupted sentencesa)

    PubMed Central

    Fogerty, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the importance of overall segment amplitude and intrinsic segment amplitude modulation of consonants and vowels to sentence intelligibility. Sentences were processed according to three conditions that replaced consonant or vowel segments with noise matched to the long-term average speech spectrum. Segments were replaced with (1) low-level noise that distorted the overall sentence envelope, (2) segment-level noise that restored the overall syllabic amplitude modulation of the sentence, and (3) segment-modulated noise that further restored faster temporal envelope modulations during the vowel. Results from the first experiment demonstrated an incremental benefit with increasing resolution of the vowel temporal envelope. However, amplitude modulations of replaced consonant segments had a comparatively minimal effect on overall sentence intelligibility scores. A second experiment selectively noise-masked preserved vowel segments in order to equate overall performance of consonant-replaced sentences to that of the vowel-replaced sentences. Results demonstrated no significant effect of restoring consonant modulations during the interrupting noise when existing vowel cues were degraded. A third experiment demonstrated greater perceived sentence continuity with the preservation or addition of vowel envelope modulations. Overall, results support previous investigations demonstrating the importance of vowel envelope modulations to the intelligibility of interrupted sentences. PMID:24606291

  19. Plants cause ecosystem nutrient depletion via the interruption of bird-derived spatial subsidies

    PubMed Central

    Young, Hillary S.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Plant introductions and subsequent community shifts are known to affect nutrient cycling, but most such studies have focused on nutrient enrichment effects. The nature of plant-driven nutrient depletions and the mechanisms by which these might occur are relatively poorly understood. In this study we demonstrate that the proliferation of the commonly introduced coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, interrupts the flow of allochthonous marine subsidies to terrestrial ecosystems via an indirect effect: impact on birds. Birds avoid nesting or roosting in C. nucifera, thus reducing the critical nutrient inputs they bring from the marine environment. These decreases in marine subsidies then lead to reductions in available soil nutrients, decreases in leaf nutrient quality, diminished leaf palatability, and reduced herbivory. This nutrient depletion pathway contrasts the more typical patterns of nutrient enrichment that follow plant species introductions. Research on the effects of spatial subsidy disruptions on ecosystems has not yet examined interruptions driven by changes within the recipient community, such as plant community shifts. The ubiquity of coconut palm introductions across the tropics and subtropics makes these observations particularly noteworthy. Equally important, the case of C. nucifera provides a strong demonstration of how plant community changes can dramatically impact the supply of allochthonous nutrients and thereby reshape energy flow in ecosystems. PMID:20133852

  20. Influence of allowable interruption period on estimates of accelerometer wear time and sedentary time in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mailey, Emily L.; Gothe, Neha P.; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Fanning, Jason T.; Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The criteria one uses to reduce accelerometer data can profoundly influence the interpretation of research outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of three different interruption periods (i.e., 20, 30, and 60 minutes) on the amount of data retained for analyses and estimates of sedentary time among older adults. Older adults (N=311; Mage=71.1) wore an accelerometer for seven days and reported wear time on an accelerometer log. Accelerometer data were downloaded and scored using 20, 30, and 60-minute interruption periods. Estimates of wear time derived using each interruption period were compared to self-reported wear time, and descriptive statistics were used to compare estimates of sedentary time. Results showed a longer interruption period (i.e., 60 minutes) yields the largest sample size and the closest approximation of self-reported wear time. A short interruption period (i.e., 20 minutes) is likely to underestimate sedentary time among older adults. PMID:23752299

  1. Learning from Accident and Error: Avoiding the Hazards of Workload, Stress, and Routine Interruptions in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, J. Bradley; Rudolph, Jenny W.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a model of how a build-up of interruptions can shift the dynamics of the emergency department (ED) from an adaptive, self-regulating system into a fragile, crisis-prone one. Drawing on case studies of organizational disasters and insights from the theory of high-reliability organizations, the authors use computer simulations to show how the accumulation of small interruptions could have disproportionately large effects in the ED. In the face of a mounting workload created by interruptions, EDs, like other organizational systems, have tipping points, thresholds beyond which a vicious cycle can lead rather quickly to the collapse of normal operating routines and in the extreme to a crisis of organizational paralysis. The authors discuss some possible implications for emergency medicine, emphasizing the potential threat from routine, non-novel demands on EDs and raising the concern that EDs are operating closer to the precipitous edge of crisis as ED crowding exacerbates the problem. PMID:22168187

  2. Effect of Growth Interruption on Surface Recombination Velocity in GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb Heterostructures Grown by Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    CA Wang; DA Shiau; D Donetsky; S Anikeev; G Belenky; S Luryi

    2004-04-29

    The effects of growth interruption on the quality of GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb heterostructures grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy are reported. In-situ reflectance monitoring and ex-situ characterization by high-resolution x-ray diffraction, 4K photoluminescence (PL), and time-resolved PL indicate that GaInAsSb is extremely sensitive to growth interruption time as well as the ambient atmosphere during interruption. By optimizing the interruption sequence, surface recombination velocity as low as 20 cm/s was achieved for GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb double heterostructures.

  3. HIV Reactivation from Latency after Treatment Interruption Occurs on Average Every 5-8 Days—Implications for HIV Remission

    PubMed Central

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Cromer, Deborah; Tolstrup, Martin; Grimm, Andrew J.; Cooper, David A.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Søgaard, Ole S.; Rasmussen, Thomas A.; Kent, Stephen J.; Kelleher, Anthony D.; Davenport, Miles P.

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection can be effectively controlled by anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in most patients. However therapy must be continued for life, because interruption of ART leads to rapid recrudescence of infection from long-lived latently infected cells. A number of approaches are currently being developed to ‘purge’ the reservoir of latently infected cells in order to either eliminate infection completely, or significantly delay the time to viral recrudescence after therapy interruption. A fundamental question in HIV research is how frequently the virus reactivates from latency, and thus how much the reservoir might need to be reduced to produce a prolonged antiretroviral-free HIV remission. Here we provide the first direct estimates of the frequency of viral recrudescence after ART interruption, combining data from four independent cohorts of patients undergoing treatment interruption, comprising 100 patients in total. We estimate that viral replication is initiated on average once every ?6 days (range 5.1- 7.6 days). This rate is around 24 times lower than previous thought, and is very similar across the cohorts. In addition, we analyse data on the ratios of different ‘reactivation founder’ viruses in a separate cohort of patients undergoing ART-interruption, and estimate the frequency of successful reactivation to be once every 3.6 days. This suggests that a reduction in the reservoir size of around 50-70-fold would be required to increase the average time-to-recrudescence to about one year, and thus achieve at least a short period of anti-retroviral free HIV remission. Our analyses suggests that time-to-recrudescence studies will need to be large in order to detect modest changes in the reservoir, and that macaque models of SIV latency may have much higher frequencies of viral recrudescence after ART interruption than seen in human HIV infection. Understanding the mean frequency of recrudescence from latency is an important first step in approaches to prolong antiretroviral-free viral remission in HIV. PMID:26133551

  4. Individual differences in top-down restoration of interrupted speech: links to linguistic and cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Benard, Michel Ruben; Mensink, Jorien Susanne; Ba?kent, Deniz

    2014-02-01

    Top-down restoration mechanisms can enhance perception of degraded speech. Even in normal hearing, however, a large variability has been observed in how effectively individuals can benefit from these mechanisms. To investigate if this variability is partially caused by individuals' linguistic and cognitive skills, normal-hearing participants of varying ages were assessed for receptive vocabulary (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test; PPVT-III-NL), for full-scale intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale; WAIS-IV-NL), and for top-down restoration of interrupted speech (with silent or noise-filled gaps). Receptive vocabulary was significantly correlated with the other measures, suggesting linguistic skills to be highly involved in restoration of degraded speech. PMID:25234920

  5. Driving Can Be Dangerous to Your Health An Interrupted Case Study in Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Phil Stephens

    2008-01-01

    In this interrupted case study, students read about an older woman named Barbara who becomes ill after driving with her husband 19 hours from Florida to visit their son’s family. Barbara experiences an asthma attack and then more serious breathing problems, which result in her admission to the hospital. Students are presented with a variety of signs, symptoms, and medical data relating to Barbara’s health, which they must interpret to solve this case in circulatory and respiratory physiology. Developed for use in a one-semester animal physiology course taken by sophomore and junior science majors, it could also be used in a human anatomy and physiology course as well as a course in general biology.

  6. Interruption of vector transmission by native vectors and “the art of the possible”

    PubMed Central

    Salvatella, Roberto; Irabedra, Pilar; Castellanos, Luis G

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article in the Reader’s Opinion, advantages and disadvantages of the certification processes of interrupted Chagas disease transmission (American trypanosomiasis) by native vector were discussed. Such concept, accepted by those authors for the case of endemic situations with introduced vectors, has been built on a long and laborious process by endemic countries and Subregional Initiatives for Prevention, Control and Treatment of Chagas, with Technical Secretariat of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, to create a horizon target and goal to concentrate priorities and resource allocation and actions. With varying degrees of sucess, which are not replaceable for a certificate of good practice, has allowed during 23 years to safeguard the effective control of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi not to hundreds of thousands, but millions of people at risk conditions, truly “the art of the possible.” PMID:24626310

  7. Antiretroviral Treatment Interruptions Induced by the Kenyan Postelection Crisis Are Associated With Virological Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kemboi, Emmanuel; Mambo, Fidelis; Rono, Mary; Injera, Wilfred; Delong, Allison; Schreier, Leeann; Kaloustian, Kara W.; Sidle, John; Buziba, Nathan; Kantor, Rami

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral treatment interruptions (TIs) cause suboptimal clinical outcomes. Data on TIs during social disruption are limited. Methods We determined effects of unplanned TIs after the 2007–2008 Kenyan postelection violence on virological failure, comparing viral load (VL) outcomes in HIV-infected adults with and without conflict-induced TI. Results Two hundred and one patients were enrolled, median 2.2 years after conflict and 4.3 years on treatment. Eighty-eight patients experienced conflict-related TIs and 113 received continuous treatment. After adjusting for preconflict CD4, patients with TIs were more likely to have detectable VL, VL >5,000 and VL >10,000. Conclusions Unplanned conflict-related TIs are associated with increased likelihood of virological failure. PMID:24047971

  8. Closed-loop optogenetic control of thalamus as a tool for interrupting seizures after cortical injury.

    PubMed

    Paz, Jeanne T; Davidson, Thomas J; Frechette, Eric S; Delord, Bruno; Parada, Isabel; Peng, Kathy; Deisseroth, Karl; Huguenard, John R

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrocortical injuries such as stroke are a major source of disability. Maladaptive consequences can result from post-injury local reorganization of cortical circuits. For example, epilepsy is a common sequela of cortical stroke, but the mechanisms responsible for seizures following cortical injuries remain unknown. In addition to local reorganization, long-range, extra-cortical connections might be critical for seizure maintenance. In rats, we found that the thalamus, a structure that is remote from, but connected to, the injured cortex, was required to maintain cortical seizures. Thalamocortical neurons connected to the injured epileptic cortex underwent changes in HCN channel expression and became hyperexcitable. Targeting these neurons with a closed-loop optogenetic strategy revealed that reducing their activity in real-time was sufficient to immediately interrupt electrographic and behavioral seizures. This approach is of therapeutic interest for intractable epilepsy, as it spares cortical function between seizures, in contrast with existing treatments, such as surgical lesioning or drugs. PMID:23143518

  9. Unplanned antiretroviral treatment interruptions in southern Africa: how should we be managing these?

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Nina; Whiteside, Alan; Lalloo, David; Gibbs, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is essential for maximising individual treatment outcomes and preventing the development of drug resistance. It is, however, frequently compromised due to predictable, but adverse, scenarios in the countries most severely affected by HIV/AIDS. This paper looks at lessons from three specific crises in southern Africa: the 2008 floods in Mozambique, the ongoing political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe, and the 2007 public sector strike in South Africa. It considers how these crises impacted on the delivery of antiretroviral therapy and looks at some of the strategies employed to mitigate any adverse effects. Based on this it makes recommendations for keeping patients on treatment and limiting the development of drug resistance where treatment interruptions are inevitable. PMID:20356383

  10. Drug resistance mutations during structured interruptions of HAART in two HIV-1-infected children.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo C; Rivera-Morales, Lydia G; Vázquez-Guillén, José M; Sánchez, Luz M; Ramírez, Teresa J; Briones, Evangelina; Ortiz-López, Rocío; Vázquez, Carlos A; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2011-04-01

    Information concerning structured treatment interruptions (STI) of the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and their risk for selecting antiretroviral drug resistance in children is scarce. In this study, we searched for antiretroviral drug resistance mutations at the end of five viral rebounds of two children with HIV and a chronically undetectable viral load (VL) who underwent an STI program. The HAART was interrupted for 4 weeks and then restarted and continued for 12 weeks for three cycles. VL, CD4+/CD8+ lymphocytes, and clinical status were evaluated at the end of each STI and at 6 and 12 weeks after HAART was resumed. Treatment of both the patients based on zidovudine+lamivudine+ritonavir remained identical during the study. The reverse transcriptase (RT)- and protease (PR)-coding regions were sequenced at the end of each viral rebound. One patient experienced progressively lower viral rebounds (269000-31300 at the first and third rebounds, respectively), while the other patient did not experience such a reduction, and the VL of both the patients fell to undetectable levels during therapy. In the five viral rebounds examined, no mutations for resistance to protease inhibitors (PIs) were found and the analysis indicated susceptibility to all PIs currently in clinical use. Although the mutation K103R associated with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance was found in two viral rebounds of one patient, the analysis indicated the absence of resistance to RT inhibitors. As no mutation related to antiretroviral drug resistance was found, our results suggest that the STI program evaluated may have a low risk of selecting antiretroviral drug resistance. Nevertheless, further studies evaluating larger cohorts over longer periods are required before definitive conclusions about the safety of STI of HAART in children may be drawn. PMID:21457133

  11. HIV-1 coreceptor switch during 2 years of structured treatment interruptions.

    PubMed

    Baroncelli, S; Galluzzo, C M; Andreotti, M; Pirillo, M F; Fragola, V; Weimer, L E; Giuliano, M; Vella, S; Palmisano, L

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) tropism of uncontrolled virus exposure during 2 years of intermittent highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The Istituto Superiore di Sanità-Pulsed Antiretroviral Therapy (ISS-PART) randomized study compared the outcome of 2 years of structured treatment interruptions (STIs) versus standard continuous treatment in first-line HAART responder subjects. The STI schedule consisted of five STIs of 1, 1, 2, 2, and 3 months, respectively, separated by four periods of 3-month therapy. In the present study, coreceptor tropism was assessed in 12 patients of the STI arm at different time points over a period of 2 years. Tropism was determined on DNA and RNA by V3 loop region sequencing. The Geno2pheno algorithm (false-positive rate, FPR: 20%) was used for data interpretation. At baseline, 9/12 subjects (75.0%) had CCR5-tropic viruses in their HIV. Three had a CXCR4-tropic virus. Ten patients maintained the same coreceptor in DNA after 2 years, whereas in two patients, a shift occurred (one R5-X4, one X4-R5). In a patient with an R5 virus at baseline, a transient change to X4 tropism was seen in the rebounding virus during STI. Changes in tropism were not associated with the amplitude and duration of virus exposure during STIs, residual viremia at baseline, or the development of resistance mutations in the RT region. Our preliminary results suggest that viral replication, observed after short periods of treatment interruption, is not enough to drive the evolution of HIV tropism. PMID:24213914

  12. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell and functional HIV Gag p55-specific T cells before treatment interruption can inform set-point plasma HIV viral load after treatment interruption in chronically suppressed HIV-1(+) patients.

    PubMed

    Papasavvas, Emmanouil; Foulkes, Andrea; Yin, Xiangfan; Joseph, Jocelin; Ross, Brian; Azzoni, Livio; Kostman, Jay R; Mounzer, Karam; Shull, Jane; Montaner, Luis J

    2015-07-01

    The identification of immune correlates of HIV control is important for the design of immunotherapies that could support cure or antiretroviral therapy (ART) intensification-related strategies. ART interruptions may facilitate this task through exposure of an ART partially reconstituted immune system to endogenous virus. We investigated the relationship between set-point plasma HIV viral load (VL) during an ART interruption and innate/adaptive parameters before or after interruption. Dendritic cell (DC), natural killer (NK) cell and HIV Gag p55-specific T-cell functional responses were measured in paired cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained at the beginning (on ART) and at set-point of an open-ended interruption from 31 ART-suppressed chronically HIV-1(+) patients. Spearman correlation and linear regression modeling were used. Frequencies of plasmacytoid DC (pDC), and HIV Gag p55-specific CD3(+)  CD4(-)  perforin(+)  IFN-?(+) cells at the beginning of interruption associated negatively with set-point plasma VL. Inclusion of both variables with interaction into a model resulted in the best fit (adjusted R(2)  = 0·6874). Frequencies of pDC or HIV Gag p55-specific CD3(+)  CD4(-)  CSFE(lo)  CD107a(+) cells at set-point associated negatively with set-point plasma VL. The dual contribution of pDC and anti-HIV T-cell responses to viral control, supported by our models, suggests that these variables may serve as immune correlates of viral control and could be integrated in cure or ART-intensification strategies. PMID:25684333

  13. A note on sound from the interruption of a cylindrical flow by a semi-infinite aerofoil of subsonic speed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. P. Guo

    1989-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the sound radiated from the interruption of a steady cylindrical flow by a semiinfinite aerofoil that moves subsonically in the plane perpendicular to the flow. The scattered sound energy is found explicitly as a function of the aerofoil Mach number, which is different from the case of supersonic aerofoils where the scattered energy is independent

  14. Examining the Internal Validity and Statistical Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time Series Design by Comparison with a Randomized Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St.Clair, Travis; Cook, Thomas D.; Hallberg, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Although evaluators often use an interrupted time series (ITS) design to test hypotheses about program effects, there are few empirical tests of the design's validity. We take a randomized experiment on an educational topic and compare its effects to those from a comparative ITS (CITS) design that uses the same treatment group as the…

  15. Study of Superconducting Fault Current Limiter Using Vacuum Interrupter Driven by Electromagnetic Repulsion Force for Commutating Switch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hori; A. Otani; K. Kaiho; I. Yamaguchi; M. Morita; S. Yanabu

    2006-01-01

    Using a high-temperature superconductor, we constructed and tested a model superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL). The superconductor and the vacuum interrupter as the commutation switch were connected in parallel using a bypass coil. When the fault current flows in this equipment, the superconductor is quenched and the current is transferred to the parallel coil because of the voltage drop in

  16. Improving the match between callers and receivers: A study on the effect of contextual information on cell phone interruptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Avrahami; D. Gergle; Scott E. Hudson; Sara B. Kiesler

    2007-01-01

    A problem with the location-free nature of cell phones is that callers have difficulty predicting receivers' states, leading to inappropriate calls. One promising solution involves helping callers decide when to interrupt by providing them contextual information about receivers. We tested the effectiveness of different kinds of contextual information by measuring the degree of agreement between receivers' desires and callers' decisions.

  17. Complicating Consent: A Study of the Rhetorical Strategies Employed to Interrupt Rape Myths in the Prosecutor v. Kunarac

    E-print Network

    Shook, Lindsey

    2010-08-31

    The justices in the trial of the Prosecutor v. Kunarac were able to interrupt the rape myths that generally exist in rape trials by complicating the notion of consent. In this paper I argue that the justices de-naturalize common myths about consent...

  18. Measuring the Impacts of Community Development Initiatives: A New Application of the Adjusted Interrupted Time-Series Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galster, George; Temkin, Kenneth; Walker, Chris; Sawyer, Noah

    2004-01-01

    The authors contribute to the development of empirical methods for measuring the impacts of place-based local development strategies by introducing the adjusted interrupted time-series (AITS) approach. It estimates a more precise counterfactual scenario, thus offering a stronger basis for drawing causal inferences about impacts. The authors…

  19. Doppler ultrasound in the assessment of severity of coarctation of the aorta and interruption of the aortic arch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A B Houston; I A Simpson; J C Pollock; M P Jamieson; W B Doig; E N Coleman

    1987-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound was used to investigate 48 infants and children (age 2 days-16 years, weight 1.0-58 kg) with aortic arch abnormalities. In only 38 of the 42 with an important coarctation was an increased blood flow velocity from the distal arch demonstrated. In three with interruption of the aortic arch an increased velocity recorded from the region of the distal

  20. The Interrupted Time Series as Quasi-Experiment: Three Tests of Significance. A Fortran Program for the CDC 3400 Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sween, Joyce; Campbell, Donald T.

    Computational formulae for the following three tests of significance, useful in the interrupted time series design, are given: (1) a "t" test (Mood, 1950) for the significance of the first post-change observation from a value predicted by a linear fit of the pre-change observations; (2) an "F" test (Walker and Lev, 1953) of the hypothesis that one…

  1. Longitudinal changes in HIV-specific IFN-? secretion in subjects who received Remune™ vaccination prior to treatment interruption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth H Huang; Marie-Pierre Boisvert; Famane Chung; Maude Loignon; Don Zarowny; Lise Cyr; Emil Toma; Nicole F Bernard

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of highly active antitretroviral therapy (HAART) for suppressing viral replication in HIV infection, virus persists and rebounds during treatment interruption (TI). This study explored whether HAART intensification with Remune™ vaccination before TI can boost HIV-1-specific immunity, leading to improved control of viremia off HAART. METHODS: Ten chronically HIV-infected adults were enrolled in this proof of concept

  2. Technical Note: The use of an interrupted-flow centrifugation method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, R. A.; Cuthbert, M. O.; Timms, W.

    2015-01-01

    We present an interrupted-flow centrifugation technique to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media. The method entails a minimum of three phases: centrifuge induced flow, no flow and centrifuge induced flow, which may be repeated several times in order to most effectively characterise multi-rate mass transfer behaviour. In addition, the method enables accurate simulation of relevant in situ total stress conditions during flow by selecting an appropriate centrifugal force level. We demonstrate the utility of the technique for characterising the hydraulic properties of smectite clay dominated core samples. All samples exhibited a non-Fickian tracer breakthrough (early tracer arrival), combined with a decrease in tracer concentration immediately after each period of interrupted-flow. This is indicative of dual (or multi) porosity behaviour, with solute migration predominately via advection during induced flow, and via molecular diffusion (between the preferential flow network(s) and the low hydraulic conductivity domain) during interrupted-flow. Tracer breakthrough curves were simulated using a bespoke dual porosity model with excellent agreement between the data and model output (Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient was >0.97 for all samples). In combination interrupted-flow centrifuge experiments and dual porosity transport modelling are shown to be a powerful method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media.

  3. Perception of interrupted speech: Effects of dual-rate gating on the intelligibility of words and sentencesa

    PubMed Central

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Risley, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Perception of interrupted speech and the influence of speech materials and memory load were investigated using one or two concurrent square-wave gating functions. Sentences (Experiment 1) and random one-, three-, and five-word sequences (Experiment 2) were interrupted using either a primary gating rate alone (0.5?24 Hz) or a combined primary and faster secondary rate. The secondary rate interrupted only speech left intact after primary gating, reducing the original speech to 25%. In both experiments, intelligibility increased with primary rate, but varied with memory load and speech material (highest for sentences, lowest for five-word sequences). With dual-rate gating of sentences, intelligibility with fast secondary rates was superior to that with single rates and a 25% duty cycle, approaching that of single rates with a 50% duty cycle for some low and high rates. For dual-rate gating of words, the positive effect of fast secondary gating was smaller than for sentences, and the advantage of sentences over word-sequences was not obtained in many dual-rate conditions. These findings suggest that integration of interrupted speech fragments after gating depends on the duration of the gated speech interval and that sufficiently robust acoustic-phonetic word cues are needed to access higher-level contextual sentence information. PMID:21973362

  4. Perception of interrupted speech: effects of dual-rate gating on the intelligibility of words and sentences.

    PubMed

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Risley, Robert

    2011-10-01

    Perception of interrupted speech and the influence of speech materials and memory load were investigated using one or two concurrent square-wave gating functions. Sentences (Experiment 1) and random one-, three-, and five-word sequences (Experiment 2) were interrupted using either a primary gating rate alone (0.5-24 Hz) or a combined primary and faster secondary rate. The secondary rate interrupted only speech left intact after primary gating, reducing the original speech to 25%. In both experiments, intelligibility increased with primary rate, but varied with memory load and speech material (highest for sentences, lowest for five-word sequences). With dual-rate gating of sentences, intelligibility with fast secondary rates was superior to that with single rates and a 25% duty cycle, approaching that of single rates with a 50% duty cycle for some low and high rates. For dual-rate gating of words, the positive effect of fast secondary gating was smaller than for sentences, and the advantage of sentences over word-sequences was not obtained in many dual-rate conditions. These findings suggest that integration of interrupted speech fragments after gating depends on the duration of the gated speech interval and that sufficiently robust acoustic-phonetic word cues are needed to access higher-level contextual sentence information. PMID:21973362

  5. A study of Time\\/Current Characteristics of the Ignition Processes in Cellulosic Material Caused by Electrical Arcing for Application in 240V Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Kolker; S. Campolo; N. DiSalvo

    2007-01-01

    In the development of Arc-Fault Circuit interrupters (AFCIs), one of the most important parameters is the time that an arcing fault could persist before the device will interrupt the current flow and hopefully mitigate fire propagation. In 1996 Underwriters laboratories (UL) published a report on time\\/current ignition characteristics of arcs at 120 V. Despite the very limited number of tests

  6. Typed Versus Voice Recognition for Data Entry in Electronic Health Records: Emergency Physician Time Use and Interruptions

    PubMed Central

    dela Cruz, Jonathan E.; Shabosky, John C.; Albrecht, Matthew; Clark, Ted R.; Milbrandt, Joseph C.; Markwell, Steven J.; Kegg, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Use of electronic health record (EHR) systems can place a considerable data entry burden upon the emergency department (ED) physician. Voice recognition data entry has been proposed as one mechanism to mitigate some of this burden; however, no reports are available specifically comparing emergency physician (EP) time use or number of interruptions between typed and voice recognition data entry-based EHRs. We designed this study to compare physician time use and interruptions between an EHR system using typed data entry versus an EHR with voice recognition. Methods We collected prospective observational data at 2 academic teaching hospital EDs, one using an EHR with typed data entry and the other with voice recognition capabilities. Independent raters observed EP activities during regular shifts. Tasks each physician performed were noted and logged in 30 second intervals. We compared time allocated to charting, direct patient care, and change in tasks leading to interruptions between sites. Results We logged 4,140 minutes of observation for this study. We detected no statistically significant differences in the time spent by EPs charting (29.4% typed; 27.5% voice) or the time allocated to direct patient care (30.7%; 30.8%). Significantly more interruptions per hour were seen with typed data entry versus voice recognition data entry (5.33 vs. 3.47; p=0.0165). Conclusion The use of a voice recognition data entry system versus typed data entry did not appear to alter the amount of time physicians spend charting or performing direct patient care in an ED setting. However, we did observe a lower number of workflow interruptions with the voice recognition data entry EHR. Additional research is needed to further evaluate the data entry burden in the ED and examine alternative mechanisms for chart entry as EHR systems continue to evolve. PMID:25035765

  7. Formation, Redox-Controled Preservation, and Interruption of Organic-rich Sapropel S1 sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, Gert J.; Hennekam, Rick; Goudeau, Marie-Louise; Filippidi, Amalia

    2015-04-01

    Distinct, organic-rich units (sapropels) occur in Mediterraneran sediments in a repetitive, climate-controled way. Their deposition is thought to be precession-related and to be associated with humid climate conditions. The last humid period from 11 - 5 kyr 14C ago, occurred simultaneous with a sustained circum-Mediterranean wet period. Within that period, the most recent sapropel (S1) formed synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ky BP at all water depths greater than a few hundred metres. As a consequence of increased fresh water (monsoon) input, surface waters had a reduced salinity and concomitantly the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea was devoid of oxygen during 4,000 years of S1. This has resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1 determined by water depth, as a result of different ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km. The end of this period is marked by a basin-wide high sedimentary manganese-oxide peak that represents an abrupt re-ventilation of the deep-water at 5.7 kyr. The sustaining oxic conditions thereafter have resulted in a downward progressing oxidation-front that is not only characterized by the degradation of most organic matter over its active pathway, but also by the built-up of manganese oxide. The latter has resulted in a secondary Mn-peak below the first, upper, ventilation Mn-peak. Apart from the major re-ventilation event at the end of sapropel S1 formation, also other, short-term ventilation events appear to have occurred during its formation, notably the 8.2 ka event. This potentially basin-wide event is particularly noticeable at relatively shallow near-coastal sites of high sedimentation rates. It marks a brief episode of not only re-oxygenated deep water thus reduced preservation, but also decreased primary productivity thus nutrient supply. This 8.2 cal ka BP interruption event is thought to be related to enhanced deep water formation in the Aegean or Adriatic due to a period of sustained cold air fluxes from Polar regions. The amount of precipitation thus stratified water column conditions seems associated with the N.African monsoonal system, whereas deep-water formation, thus disrupture of a stratified water column seems mostly related to the northern borderland climate system. Sapropel formation mechanisms, therefore, are related to a sensitive interplay between N-African monsoonal and northern climate systems. Assessing distinct sub-Milankovitch interruptions and related climate variability are vital for understanding future climate change

  8. Predictors of unstructured antiretroviral treatment interruption and resumption among HIV-positive individuals in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Samji, Hasina; Taha, Taha E; Moore, David; Burchell, Ann N; Cescon, Angela; Cooper, Curtis; Raboud, Janet M; Klein, Marina; Loutfy, Mona R; Machouf, Nima; Tsoukas, Chris M; Montaner, Julio SG; Hogg, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Background Sustained optimal use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) has been shown to decrease morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. However, incomplete adherence and treatment interruption (TI) remain challenges to the full realization of the promise of cART. We estimated trends and predictors of treatment interruption and resumption among individuals in the Canadian Observational Cohort (CANOC) collaboration. Methods cART-naïve individuals ?18 years of age who initiated cART between 2000–2011 were included. We defined TIs as ?90 consecutive days off cART. We used descriptive analyses to study TI trends over time and Cox regression to identify factors predicting time to first TI and time to treatment resumption after a first TI. Results 7,633 participants were eligible, of whom 1,860 (24.5%) experienced a TI. The prevalence of TI in the first calendar year of cART decreased by half over the study period. Our analyses highlighted a higher risk of TI among women (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.59, 95%CI: 1.33–1.92), younger individuals (aHR: 1.27, 95%CI: 1.15–1.37 per decade increase), earlier treatment initiators (CD4 count ?350 versus <200 mm3, aHR: 1.46, 95%CI: 1.17–1.81), Aboriginal participants (aHR: 1.67, 95%CI: 1.27–2.20), injecting drug users (aHR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.09–1.89), and users of zidovudine versus tenofovir in the initial cART regimen (aHR: 2.47, 95%CI: 1.92–3.20). Conversely, factors predicting treatment resumption were male sex, older age, and a CD4 cell count <200 mm3 at cART initiation. Conclusion Despite significant improvements in cART since its advent, our results demonstrate that TIs remain relatively prevalent. Strategies to support continuous HIV treatment are needed to maximize the benefits of cART. PMID:25174373

  9. Plasma amino acids in interrupted aortic arch and the hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    PubMed

    Halliday, H L; Moore, R; O'Hara, D

    1987-01-01

    Plasma amino acids were measured in 8 babies with left-sided congenital heart disease, 3 interrupted aortic arch (IAA) and 5 hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLH), at 1-6 days of age. There was an increase in total amino acid levels when compared with 40 control infants of similar gestational age and birth weight. Both branched-chain and aromatic amino acids were raised although there were differences between the babies with IAA and HLH. Babies with HLH had higher total amino acid levels than babies with IAA, the difference being due to raised branched-chain amino acids. Apart from the anatomical differences babies with HLH had metabolic acidosis at the time of sampling whereas babies with IAA had normal pH. It is possible that the increase in amino acid levels in babies with obstructed left-sided congenital heart disease is due to hepatic congestion and hypoperfusion, although altered acid base states may also be important. PMID:3580424

  10. Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplankton–zooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

  11. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and acceptability of planned treatment interruptions in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Linda; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Hamadache, Djamel; Compagnucci, Alexandra; Penazzato, Martina; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Mazza, Antonio; Ramos, Jose Tomas; Flynn, Jacquie; Rampon, Osvalda; Mellado Pena, Maria Jose; Floret, Daniel; Marczynska, Magdalena; Puga, Ana; Forcat, Silvia; Riault, Yoann; Lallemant, Marc; Castro, Hannah; Gibb, Diana M; Giaquinto, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    There have been no paediatric randomised trials describing the effect of planned treatment interruptions (PTIs) of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on adherence, or evaluating acceptability of such a strategy. In PENTA 11, HIV-infected children were randomised to CD4-guided PTIs (n = 53) or continuous therapy (CT, n = 56). Carers, and children if appropriate, completed questionnaires on adherence to ART and acceptability of PTIs. There was no difference in reported adherence on ART between CT and PTI groups; non-adherence (reporting missed doses over the last 3 days or marking <100 % adherence since the last clinical visit on a visual analogue scale) was 18 % (20/111) and 14 % (12/83) on carer questionnaires in the CT and PTI groups respectively (odds ratios, OR (95 % CI) = 1.04 (0.20, 5.41), ?(2) (1) = 0.003, p = 0.96). Carers in Europe/USA reported non-adherence more often (31/121, 26 %) than in Thailand (1/73, 1 %; OR (95 % CI) = 54.65 (3.68, 810.55), ?(2) (1) = 8.45, p = 0.004). The majority of families indicated they were happy to have further PTIs (carer: 23/36, 64 %; children: 8/13, 62 %), however many reported more clinic visits during PTI were a problem (carer: 15/36, 42 %; children: 6/12, 50 %). PMID:22584916

  12. Interrupted blood-feeding by Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) on European starlings.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, J C; Spielman, A; Komar, N; Krahforst, C F; Wallace, G T; Pollack, R J

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) mosquitoes tend to take multiple blood meals when birds of certain species serve as hosts, we compared the frequencies with which such mosquitoes fed upon caged starlings and robins and determined whether similar volumes of blood were imbibed from each. The blood of robins (Turdus migratorius) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) was marked contrastingly by injecting birds with rubidium or cesium salts. Caged birds were placed together in a natural wetland setting overnight. Mosquitoes captured nearby on the following morning were analyzed for each of the elemental markers. Where marked robins and starlings were equally abundant, 43% of freshly engorged Cs. melanura fed on more than or equal to two hosts. More Cs. melanura fed on robins than on starlings. Individual mosquitoes tended to contain far more robin- than starling-associated marker, indicating that mosquitoes "feasted" on robins but only "nibbled" on starlings. Mosquitoes marked with both elements apparently fed meagerly on the starlings then abundantly on the robins. Our estimates of bloodmeal volume indicate that 85% of mosquitoes that fed on marked starlings obtained < 0.5 microliter of blood from them. We suggest that defensive behavior by starlings interrupts mosquito blood-feeding and that, in a communal roost of starlings, each mosquito will tend to feed on more than one bird, thereby promoting rapid transmission of such ornithonotic arboviruses as eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and West Nile virus. PMID:11268693

  13. Reversible Inhibition of Ethylene Action and Interruption of Petal Senescence in Carnation Flowers by Norbornadiene 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Woodson, William R.

    1989-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of the cyclic olefin 2,5-norbornadiene (NBD) on ethylene action were tested in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv White Sim) flowers. Treatment of flowers at anthesis with ethylene in the presence of 500 microliters per liter NBD increased the concentration of ethylene required to elicit a response (petal senescence), indicating that NBD behaves as a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Transfer of flowers producing autocatalytic ethylene and exhibiting evidence of senescence (petal in-rolling) to an atmosphere of NBD resulted in a rapid reduction in ethylene production, petal 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase activity, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid content, and ethylene forming enzyme activity. Removal of NBD resulted in recovery of ethylene biosynthesis. These results support the autocatalytic regulation of ethylene production during the climacteric stage of petal senescence and suggest that continued perception of ethylene is required for maintenance of ethylene biosynthesis. The inhibition of ethylene action by NBD after the flowers had reached the climacteric peak was associated with interruption of petal senescence as evidenced by reversal of senescence symptoms. This result is in contrast to the widely held belief that the rate of petal senescence is fixed and irreversible once petals enter into the ethylene climacteric. Images Figure 4 PMID:16666561

  14. Reversible inhibition of ethylene action and interruption of petal senescence in carnation flowers by norbornadiene.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Woodson, W R

    1989-02-01

    The inhibitory effects of the cyclic olefin 2,5-norbornadiene (NBD) on ethylene action were tested in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv White Sim) flowers. Treatment of flowers at anthesis with ethylene in the presence of 500 microliters per liter NBD increased the concentration of ethylene required to elicit a response (petal senescence), indicating that NBD behaves as a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Transfer of flowers producing autocatalytic ethylene and exhibiting evidence of senescence (petal in-rolling) to an atmosphere of NBD resulted in a rapid reduction in ethylene production, petal 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase activity, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid content, and ethylene forming enzyme activity. Removal of NBD resulted in recovery of ethylene biosynthesis. These results support the autocatalytic regulation of ethylene production during the climacteric stage of petal senescence and suggest that continued perception of ethylene is required for maintenance of ethylene biosynthesis. The inhibition of ethylene action by NBD after the flowers had reached the climacteric peak was associated with interruption of petal senescence as evidenced by reversal of senescence symptoms. This result is in contrast to the widely held belief that the rate of petal senescence is fixed and irreversible once petals enter into the ethylene climacteric. PMID:16666561

  15. On the numerical simulation of the diffuse arc in a vacuum interrupter

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, Y. [Institut Jean Lamour-UMR 7198 CNRS, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, CS 14234, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Schneider Electric Industries SAS, Usine 38V, ZAC Champ Saint Ange, F-38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Chapelle, P.; Jardy, A. [Institut Jean Lamour-UMR 7198 CNRS, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, CS 14234, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Gentils, F. [Schneider Electric Industries SAS, Usine 38V, ZAC Champ Saint Ange, F-38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-06-01

    A 2D two-fluid numerical model is developed for the description of the diffuse arc in a vacuum interrupter under the possible influence of an axial magnetic field (AMF). This model incorporates the energy balance equations for both ions and electrons and takes into account the three components of the self-generated magnetic field. The possibility of both supersonic (at low current density) and subsonic (at high current density) plasma flow regimes is considered. Data from the literature are used to specify the values of the plasma parameters near the cathode, and the boundary conditions on the anode boundary rely on a simplified model of the anode sheath. Simulation results are presented for both ion flow regimes, with special attention to the current and plasma flow features. It is shown that there is always a contraction of the current flow, whereas the dynamics of the ions throughout the interelectrode gap is strongly influenced by their flow regime near the cathode. Finally, the influence of various operating parameters (presence of an AMF, gap length) on the current constriction at the anode is discussed.

  16. Effectiveness of an improved road safety policy in Ethiopia: an interrupted time series study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in implementing road safety policy by different low income countries. However; the evidence is scarce on its success in the reduction of crashes, injuries and deaths. This study was conducted to assess whether road crashes, injuries and fatalities was reduced following the road safety regulation introduced as of September 2007 by Oromia Regional State Transport Bureau. Methods Routine road traffic accident data for the year 2002-2011were collected from sixteen traffic police offices. Data on average daily vehicle flow was obtained from the Ethiopian Road Authority. Interrupted time series design using segmented linear regression model was applied to estimate the effect of an improved road safety policy. Results A total of 4,053 crashes occurred on Addis Ababa - Adama/Hawassa main road. Of these crashes, almost half 46.4% (1,880) were property damage, 29.4% (1,193) were fatal and 24.2% (980) injury crashes, resulting 1,392 fatalities and 1,749 injuries. There were statistically significant reductions in non-injury crashes and deaths. Non-injury crash was reduced by 19% and fatality by 12.4% in the first year of implementing the revised transport safety regulation. Conclusion Although revised road safety policy helped in reducing motor vehicle crashes and associated fatalities, the overall incidence rate is still very high. Further action is required to avoid unnecessary loss of lives. PMID:24886220

  17. Bovine leukosis virus transmission with mouthparts from Tabanus abactor after interrupted feeding.

    PubMed

    Perino, L J; Wright, R E; Hoppe, K L; Fulton, R W

    1990-08-01

    A successful attempt was made to mechanically transmit bovine leukosis virus (BLV) from a BLV-infected cow with a normal lymphocyte count to sheep by inoculation with horse fly (Tabanus abactor) mouthparts. After interrupted natural feeding, horse flies were anesthetized with CO2. Mouthparts were severed and pooled into a tissue grinder containing medium. Five inocula containing the mouthparts of 10 flies each, and 5 inocula containing the mouthparts of 20 flies each, were prepared and inoculated SC in the right axilla of 10 BLV antibody-negative sheep. Five additional sheep served as controls. Serum samples were collected at 2-week intervals and tested by agar gel immunodiffusion for BLV antibodies. One sheep injected with 20 mouthparts developed antibodies to BLV at 10 weeks after inoculation. Six months after inoculation with fly mouthparts, 1 BLV antibody-negative sheep was randomly selected from each treatment group and injected, in the left axilla, with 3 ml of blood from the donor cow to confirm susceptibility of the sheep. All 3 sheep developed antibodies to BLV within 4 weeks. PMID:2167027

  18. Structured Treatment Interruptions with Tenofovir Monotherapy for Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Newborn Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Van Rompay, Koen K. A.; Singh, Raman P.; Heneine, Walid; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Montefiori, David C.; Bischofberger, Norbert; Marthas, Marta L.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that prolonged tenofovir treatment of infant macaques, starting early during infection with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251), can lead to persistently low or undetectable viremia even after the emergence of mutants with reduced in vitro susceptibility to tenofovir as a result of a K65R mutation in reverse transcriptase; this control of viremia was demonstrated to be mediated by the generation of effective antiviral immune responses. To determine whether structured treatment interruptions (STI) can induce similar immunologic control of viremia, eight newborn macaques were infected with highly virulent SIVmac251 and started on a tenofovir STI regimen 5 days later. Treatment was withdrawn permanently at 33 weeks of age. All animals receiving STI fared much better than 22 untreated SIVmac251-infected infant macaques. However, there was a high variability among animals in the viral RNA set point after complete drug withdrawal, and none of the animals was able to achieve long-term immunologic suppression of viremia to persistently low levels. Early immunologic and viral markers in blood (including the detection of the K65R mutation) were not predictive of the viral RNA set point after drug withdrawal. These results, which reflect the complex interactions between drug resistance mutations, viral virulence, and drug- and immune-mediated inhibition of virus replication, highlight the difficulties associated with trying to develop STI regimens with predictable efficacy for clinical practice. PMID:16775328

  19. [How to manage the interruption of a treatment with anti-inflammatory corticosteroids?].

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Jean-Marc; Prévost, Gaëtan

    2014-04-01

    A prolonged treatment with anti-inflammatory corticosteroids induces an inhibition of ACTH secretion from pituitary corticotroph cells. An abrupt interruption of such a treatment potentially leads to the risk of an acute adrenal failure, in particular in stressing situations. The inertia in reactivation of the secretion of the stimulating hypothalamic factors (CRH and AVP) and consecutively of ACTH can be responsible for an inability to adapt the secretion of glucocorticoids in response to stress. A short-time treatment (<3 weeks) with anti-inflammatory corticoids does not expose to this risk. On the contrary, a more prolonged treatment, especially with high daily doses, needs to perform an evaluation of the level of corticotroph secretion. This evaluation should be done before to consider that either stopping the treatment is out of risk or if the initiation of a substitutive treatment with hydrocortisone is required. The measurement of morning plasma cortisol level already provides a significant information. As to whether that is needed, a dynamic evaluation can be performed. Among the available tests, the Synacthen(®)test, easy to perform and using at best 1?g of ?1-24 ACTH, appears the most finely informative to answer this question and to choose the most adapted follow-up. PMID:24613064

  20. A LTR copia retrotransposon and Mutator transposons interrupt Pgip genes in cultivated and wild wheats.

    PubMed

    Di Giovanni, Michela; Cenci, Alberto; Janni, Michela; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2008-04-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins involved in plant defence. Wheat pgip genes have been isolated from the B (Tapgip1) and D (Tapgip2) genomes, and now we report the identification of pgip genes from the A genomes of wild and cultivated wheats. By Southern blots and sequence analysis of BAC clones we demonstrated that wheat contains a single copy pgip gene per genome and the one from the A genome, pgip3, is inactivated by the insertion of a long terminal repeat copia retrotranspon within the fourth LRR. We demonstrated also that this retrotransposon insertion is present in Triticum urartu and all the polyploidy wheats assayed, but is absent in T. monococcum (Tmpgip3), suggesting that this insertion took place after the divergence between T. monococcum and T. urartu, but before the formation of the polyploid wheats. We identified also two independent insertion events of new Class II transposable elements, Vacuna, belonging to the Mutator superfamily, that interrupted the Tdipgip1 gene of T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides. The occurrence of these transposons within the coding region of Tdipgip1 facilitated the mapping of the Pgip locus in the pericentric region of the short arm of chromosome group 7. We speculate that the inactivation of pgip genes are tolerated because of redundancy of PGIP activities in the wheat genome. PMID:18301877

  1. Framework for evaluating the risks of paralytic poliomyelitis after global interruption of wild poliovirus transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Aylward, R. Bruce; Cochi, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    With the interruption of wild poliovirus transmission globally, the need for new policies to deal with the post-certification era will rapidly arise. New policies will be required in four areas: detection and notification of circulating polioviruses; biocontainment of wild, vaccine-derived and attenuated strains of poliovirus; vaccine stockpiles and response mechanisms; and routine immunization against polioviruses. A common understanding of the potential risks of paralytic poliomyelitis in the post-certification period is essential to the development of these policies. Since 2000, there has been increasing international consensus that the risks of paralytic poliomyelitis in the post-certification era fall into two categories: those due to the continued use of the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and those due to future improper handling of wild polioviruses. The specific risks within both categories have now been defined, and an understanding of the frequency and potential burden of disease associated with each is rapidly improving. This knowledge and clarity have provided a framework that is already proving valuable for identifying research priorities and discussing potential policy options with national authorities. However, this framework must be regarded as a dynamic tool, requiring regular updating as additional information on these risks becomes available through further scientific research, programmatic work, and policy decisions. PMID:15106299

  2. Life interrupted and life regained? Coping with stroke at a young age

    PubMed Central

    Dow, Clare; Locock, Louise; Lyons, Renee F.; Lasserson, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability across the developed world, affecting an increasing number of younger people. In this article, we seek to understand the experience of stroke as a disabling life situation among young people and the strategies that they use to recover and cope. Directed content analysis was conducted from interviews with 17 community-dwelling stroke survivors aged 55 years and younger across the United Kingdom. The sample was drawn from a larger maximum variation sample of stroke survivors. Using the sociological concepts of biographical disruption and biographical repair as a guide, excerpts from the interviews pertaining to aspects of the patients’ life that were interrupted, in addition to how they coped with the changes, were selected and analysed. All individuals described an “altered sense of self,” a theme that included loss of identity, family disruption, and/or loss of valued activities. Individuals sought to adapt their sense of self by seeking external support, by restoring normality, and/or through positive reflection. Despite the adapted self that emerged, most individuals continued to experience impairments. While young stroke survivors adapt to their illness over time, they continue to experience impairments and disruptions in their personal and work lives. A holistic model of rehabilitation that helps individuals regain the capacity for everyday activities related to work, family life, and leisure can begin to address the emotional ramifications of diseases such as stroke, restore wellness, and work towards minimizing the burden felt by family caregivers and children. PMID:24461569

  3. Interruption-assisted epitaxy of faceted p-InAs on buffered GaSb for terahertz emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadia, Cyril P.; Muldera, Joselito; Estacio, Elmer S.; Somintac, Armando S.; Salvador, Arnel A.; Que, Christopher T.; Yamamoto, Kohji; Tani, Masahiko

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate molecular beam epitaxy growth of p-InAs layers on GaAs-buffered GaSb that may be suitable for terahertz applications. GaAs buffer deposition is initiated by applying growth interruption. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction shows that GaAs growth proceeds to a quasi-two-dimensional growth mode. The scheme allows growth of a p-InAs layer 600 nm to 1.0 µm thick. Growth performed without GaAs and growth interruption resulted in decomposition of the p-InAs. When the scheme is used, the ensuing p-InAs first follows quasi-two-dimensional growth before favoring faceted islanding. Under 800-nm-wavelength femtosecond laser excitation, the p-InAs layer generates terahertz signals 70% of that of bulk p-InAs.

  4. Successful surgical treatment of descending aorta interruption in a 29-year-old woman with acute paraplegia and subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shutang; Wang, Zhiheng; Zhang, Liang; Fu, Hongdu; Zhuang, Huanwei; Cao, Xianjun; Liang, Liming; Yang, Yanqi

    2015-01-01

    Interruption of the descending aorta is an extremely rare great vessel malformation. In this report, we describe a very unusual case of a 29-year-old female with a 13-year history of hypertension who was found to have an interruption of the descending aorta when she was hospitalized with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and symptoms of acute paraplegia. We successfully surgically corrected the defect using a Gore-Tex® graft to bypass the aortic interruption. The patient's blood pressure postoperatively returned to normal, and the patient recovered completely from her paraplegia by the time of her 5-month follow-up visit. PMID:26045082

  5. Large number of rebounding/founder HIV variants emerge from multifocal infection in lymphatic tissues after treatment interruption

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberger, Meghan K.; Keele, Brandon F.; Wietgrefe, Stephen W.; Fletcher, Courtney V.; Beilman, Gregory J.; Chipman, Jeffrey G.; Khoruts, Alexander; Estes, Jacob D.; Anderson, Jodi; Callisto, Samuel P.; Schmidt, Thomas E.; Thorkelson, Ann; Reilly, Cavan; Perkey, Katherine; Reimann, Thomas G.; Utay, Netanya S.; Nganou Makamdop, Krystelle; Stevenson, Mario; Douek, Daniel C.; Haase, Ashley T.; Schacker, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV replication in most individuals but cannot eradicate latently infected cells established before ART was initiated. Thus, infection rebounds when treatment is interrupted by reactivation of virus production from this reservoir. Currently, one or a few latently infected resting memory CD4 T cells are thought be the principal source of recrudescent infection, but this estimate is based on peripheral blood rather than lymphoid tissues (LTs), the principal sites of virus production and persistence before initiating ART. We, therefore, examined lymph node (LN) and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) biopsies from fully suppressed subjects, interrupted therapy, monitored plasma viral load (pVL), and repeated biopsies on 12 individuals as soon as pVL became detectable. Isolated HIV RNA-positive (vRNA+) cells were detected by in situ hybridization in LTs obtained before interruption in several patients. After interruption, multiple foci of vRNA+ cells were detected in 6 of 12 individuals as soon as pVL was measureable and in some subjects, in more than one anatomic site. Minimal estimates of the number of rebounding/founder (R/F) variants were determined by single-gene amplification and sequencing of viral RNA or DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma obtained at or just before viral recrudescence. Sequence analysis revealed a large number of R/F viruses representing recrudescent viremia from multiple sources. Together, these findings are consistent with the origins of recrudescent infection by reactivation from many latently infected cells at multiple sites. The inferred large pool of cells and sites to rekindle recrudescent infection highlights the challenges in eradicating HIV. PMID:25713386

  6. Multi-Objective Value-Based Reliability Transmission Planning using Expected interruption COST due to transmission constraint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mojtaba Eliassi; Hossein Seifi; Mahmoud-Reza Haghifam

    2009-01-01

    Value-based reliability analysis needs to be addressed in transmission expansion planning in a competitive environment. This paper presents a new Value-Based Reliability Transmission Planning (VBRTP) process using a Multi-Objective Transmission Expansion Planning (MOTEP) approach. A so called Expected interruption COST due to transmission constraint (ECOSTTS) is proposed to measure, more accurately, the reliability benefits rendered by line addition to transmission

  7. Gammaglutamyltranspeptidase (gamma-GT) levels before treatment are predictive of Tipranavir interruption in ART multiexperienced HIV1-infected patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HAART HAART

    The Italian Tipranavir EUP\\/EAP study was an observational study involving nine Italian centres that enrolled three class drug- experienced patients who consecutively entered the EUP\\/EAP TPV programs. The Cox model performed to assess the risk corre- lates of interrupting TPV included sex, age, HIV risk factors, HBV\\/HCV status, use of T20,CD4, HIV-RNA, ALT, ?-GT, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose levels determination before

  8. Large number of rebounding/founder HIV variants emerge from multifocal infection in lymphatic tissues after treatment interruption.

    PubMed

    Rothenberger, Meghan K; Keele, Brandon F; Wietgrefe, Stephen W; Fletcher, Courtney V; Beilman, Gregory J; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Khoruts, Alexander; Estes, Jacob D; Anderson, Jodi; Callisto, Samuel P; Schmidt, Thomas E; Thorkelson, Ann; Reilly, Cavan; Perkey, Katherine; Reimann, Thomas G; Utay, Netanya S; Nganou Makamdop, Krystelle; Stevenson, Mario; Douek, Daniel C; Haase, Ashley T; Schacker, Timothy W

    2015-03-10

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV replication in most individuals but cannot eradicate latently infected cells established before ART was initiated. Thus, infection rebounds when treatment is interrupted by reactivation of virus production from this reservoir. Currently, one or a few latently infected resting memory CD4 T cells are thought be the principal source of recrudescent infection, but this estimate is based on peripheral blood rather than lymphoid tissues (LTs), the principal sites of virus production and persistence before initiating ART. We, therefore, examined lymph node (LN) and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) biopsies from fully suppressed subjects, interrupted therapy, monitored plasma viral load (pVL), and repeated biopsies on 12 individuals as soon as pVL became detectable. Isolated HIV RNA-positive (vRNA+) cells were detected by in situ hybridization in LTs obtained before interruption in several patients. After interruption, multiple foci of vRNA+ cells were detected in 6 of 12 individuals as soon as pVL was measureable and in some subjects, in more than one anatomic site. Minimal estimates of the number of rebounding/founder (R/F) variants were determined by single-gene amplification and sequencing of viral RNA or DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma obtained at or just before viral recrudescence. Sequence analysis revealed a large number of R/F viruses representing recrudescent viremia from multiple sources. Together, these findings are consistent with the origins of recrudescent infection by reactivation from many latently infected cells at multiple sites. The inferred large pool of cells and sites to rekindle recrudescent infection highlights the challenges in eradicating HIV. PMID:25713386

  9. Not-for-profit supply chains in interrupted environments : The case of a faith-based humanitarian relief organisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron McLachlin; Paul D. Larson; Soaleh Khan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This paper primarily aims to address the following research question: Are techniques and practices developed for uninterrupted, for-profit supply chains adaptable to the not-for-profit (NFP), interrupted context? In other words, can the managerial tools of business logistics be used in humanitarian relief logistics? Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A combination of grounded research and case-based research methods is used. Grounded research

  10. Catheter ablation of atrial arrhythmias in a patient with surgically corrected congenital heart disease and inferior vena cava interruption

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Jaishankar; Shah, Ruchit A.; Sankaradas, Mullasari Ajit

    2014-01-01

    A 15 year old girl who underwent surgical correction of ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus ligation in childhood presented with atrial tachycardia of crista terminalis origin and counterclockwise atrial flutter. She also had associated interruption of inferior vena cava which continued as azygous vein and left superior vena cava which drained via coronary sinus into the right atrium. She underwent radiofrequency ablation of both the tachycardias via internal jugular vein and azygous vein approach using 3D electroanatomical mapping system.

  11. Interrupted chalcogenide-based zeolite-analogue semiconductor: atomically precise doping for tunable electro-/photoelectrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian; Dong, Youzhen; Zhang, Qian; Hu, Dandan; Li, Na; Wang, Le; Liu, Yang; Wu, Tao

    2015-04-20

    Incorporation of semiconductor property into zeolite materials is a plausible approach to graft oxide zeolites with multifunctionality in which both electronic/optoelectronic functions and high porosity are integrated. However, creating such semiconductor zeolites, especially the ones with controllable function regulation still remains as a great synthetic challenge over the years. Hereby, we reported the first case of an interrupted chalcogenide-based zeolite-analog semiconductor with an entirely new boracite-related framework and specific sites at the interrupted section. The semiconducting nature and band structure of this open-framework n-type semiconductor material were characterized with solid-state UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky measurements. More importantly, the In-Se chalcogenide zeolite analog was for the first time explored as an effective electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The specific indium sites served as active centers and proved to be responsible for a superior ORR activity. Meanwhile, these specific sites could be precisely replaced by bismuth(III) ions, leading to facile manipulation in their electro-/photoelectrochemical properties. Such atomically precise doping successfully implemented at the semiconductor zeolite material with specifically interrupted sites presents a very promising route for accurately regulating electronic structure and photoelectrical properties of other open-framework semiconductor materials. PMID:25727727

  12. Dramatic decrease of carnitine esters after interruption of exogenous carnitine supply in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bene, Judit; Csiky, Botond; Wittmann, Istvan; Sulyok, Endre; Melegh, Bela

    2012-01-01

    L-carnitine supplementation is extensively used in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) to improve dialysis-related clinical symptoms. In a series of studies, we investigated the dynamics of carnitine pool in carnitine-supplemented HD patients; here we report dramatic decrease with special changes of the ester profile due to interruption of the exogenous intake after the last HD session. Serum samples were collected from 18 L-carnitine-repleted end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients before the L-carnitine supplementation, after completion of a carnitine supplementation period treatment (12 weeks, 1 g/IV/HD), right before the HD session, and 44 h after the dialysis. Levels of free carnitine (FC) and the individual esters were determined using electrospray MS/MS technique. Normally, L-carnitine supplementation causes significant elevation of all carnitine compounds to supraphysiological levels, which reaches a standard steady-state-like profile. In this study we found a dramatic decrease in the level of FC, and in short- and medium-chain acylcarnitines (ACs) 44 h after the last dialysis. At the end of this interdialytic period, FC levels increased to only 65% of the predialysis level, whereas the amounts of C2 and C3 esters recovered to only 50%. The level of C6 was 65% of the predialysis level, whereas the amount of C8 chain length ACs returned to 72% of the predialysis level. No significant change was seen in AC concentrations above C10 chain length. Omission of one single dosage of supplemental carnitine in long-term administration schemes results in dramatic decrease and reprofiling of carnitine esters even after the usual 44 h of interdialytic period. PMID:22417076

  13. Reducing Blood Culture Contamination in the Emergency Department: An Interrupted Time Series Quality Improvement Study

    PubMed Central

    Self, Wesley H.; Speroff, Theodore; Grijalva, Carlos G.; McNaughton, Candace D.; Ashburn, Jacki; Liu, Dandan; Arbogast, Patrick G.; Russ, Stephan; Storrow, Alan B.; Talbot, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Blood culture contamination is a common problem in the emergency department (ED) that leads to unnecessary patient morbidity and health care costs. The study objective was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a quality improvement (QI) intervention for reducing blood culture contamination in an ED. Methods The authors developed a QI intervention to reduce blood culture contamination in the ED and then evaluated its effectiveness in a prospective interrupted times series study. The QI intervention involved changing the technique of blood culture specimen collection from the traditional clean procedure, to a new sterile procedure, with standardized use of sterile gloves and a new materials kit containing a 2% chlorhexidine skin antisepsis device, a sterile fenestrated drape, a sterile needle, and a procedural checklist. The intervention was implemented in a university-affiliated ED and its effect on blood culture contamination evaluated by comparing the biweekly percentages of blood cultures contaminated during a 48-week baseline period (clean technique), and 48-week intervention period (sterile technique), using segmented regression analysis with adjustment for secular trends and first-order autocorrelation. The goal was to achieve and maintain a contamination rate below 3%. Results During the baseline period, 321 out of 7,389 (4.3%) cultures were contaminated, compared to 111 of 6,590 (1.7%) during the intervention period (p < 0.001). In the segmented regression model, the intervention was associated with an immediate 2.9% (95% CI = 2.2% to 3.2%) absolute reduction in contamination. The contamination rate was maintained below 3% during each biweekly interval throughout the intervention period. Conclusions A QI assessment of ED blood culture contamination led to development of a targeted intervention to convert the process of blood culture collection from a clean to a fully sterile procedure. Implementation of this intervention led to an immediate and sustained reduction of contamination in an ED with a high baseline contamination rate. PMID:23570482

  14. Validity Testing of the Stopwatch Urine Stream Interruption Test in Radical Prostatectomy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Joanne P.; Burrell, Sherry A.; Avi-Itzhak, Tamara; McCorkle, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess convergent validity of the stopwatch urine stream interruption test (UST). Specific aims were to describe relationships among stopwatch UST scores and four common clinical indices of pelvic floor muscle strength: 24-hour urine leakage, confidence in performing pelvic muscle exercise, 24-hour pad count, and daily pelvic muscle exercise count. Design Secondary analysis; instrumentation study. Methods The final sample consisted of baseline stopwatch UST scores and measurements of comparison variables from 47 participants in a randomized clinical trial of three approaches to pelvic floor training for patients with urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy. The sample size provided 80% power to detect correlations of moderate strength or higher. The stopwatch UST was conducted in an examination room at the study site by trained study personnel. Measurements of comparison variables were obtained from three instruments: 24-hour pad test, Broome Pelvic Muscle Self-Efficacy Scale, and 3-day bladder diary. Relationships among study variables were evaluated with Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results Stopwatch UST scores were moderately correlated with 24-hour urine leakage on the 24-hour pad test (r = .35, p < .05), the most robust comparison measure. Correlations between stopwatch UST scores and all other comparison measures were in the appropriate direction, although weak and did not reach statistical significance Conclusion Findings suggest the stopwatch UST may be a valid index of pelvic floor muscle strength in men following radical prostatectomy. With further testing, the stopwatch UST could become a valuable clinical tool for assessing pelvic floor muscle strength in radical prostatectomy patients with urinary incontinence. PMID:22825573

  15. Closing of interrupted vascular segmentations: an automatic approach based on shortest paths and level sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkert, Nils Daniel; Schmidt-Richberg, Alexander; Säring, Dennis; Illies, Till; Fiehler, Jens; Handels, Heinz

    2010-03-01

    Exact segmentations of the cerebrovascular system are the basis for several medical applications, like preoperation planning, postoperative monitoring and medical research. Several automatic methods for the extraction of the vascular system have been proposed. These automatic approaches suffer from several problems. One of the major problems are interruptions in the vascular segmentation, especially in case of small vessels represented by low intensities. These breaks are problematic for the outcome of several applications e.g. FEM-simulations and quantitative vessel analysis. In this paper we propose an automatic post-processing method to connect broken vessel segmentations. The approach proposed consists of four steps. Based on an existing vessel segmentation the 3D-skeleton is computed first and used to detect the dead ends of the segmentation. In a following step possible connections between these dead ends are computed using a graph based approach based on the vesselness parameter image. After a consistency check is performed, the detected paths are used to obtain the final segmentation using a level set approach. The method proposed was validated using a synthetic dataset as well as two clinical datasets. The evaluation of the results yielded by the method proposed based on two Time-of-Flight MRA datasets showed that in mean 45 connections between dead ends per dataset were found. A quantitative comparison with semi-automatic segmentations by medical experts using the Dice coefficient revealed that a mean improvement of 0.0229 per dataset was achieved. In summary the approach presented can considerably improve the accuracy of vascular segmentations needed for following analysis steps.

  16. Cerebral activations related to ballistic, stepwise interrupted and gradually modulated movements in Parkinson patients.

    PubMed

    Toxopeus, Carolien M; Maurits, Natasha M; Valsan, Gopal; Conway, Bernard A; Leenders, Klaus L; de Jong, Bauke M

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG) contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N?=?12) and healthy subjects (N?=?18). In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN) and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static) model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account enhanced responsiveness to external stimuli in this disease and the effects of hyper-fluctuating cortical inputs to the striatum and STN in particular. PMID:22911738

  17. Interruption of Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Southern Chiapas Focus, México

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I.; Orozco-Algarra, María Eugenia; Rodríguez-Morales, Kristel B.; Rodríguez-Luna, Isabel C.; Prado-Velasco, Francisco Gibert

    2013-01-01

    Background The Southern Chiapas focus of onchocerciasis in Southern Mexico represents one of the major onchocerciasis foci in Latin America. All 559 endemic communities of this focus have undergone semi-annual mass treatment with ivermectin since 1998. In 50 communities of this focus, ivermectin frequency shifted from twice to four times a year in 2003; an additional 113 communities were added to the quarterly treatment regimen in 2009 to achieve a rapid suppression of transmission. Methodology/Principal findings In-depth epidemiologic and entomologic assessments were performed in six sentinel communities (which had undergone 2 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year) and three extra-sentinel communities (which had undergone 4 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year). None of the 67,924 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from this focus during the dry season of 2011 were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA), resulting in an upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI) of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.06/2,000 flies examined. Serological assays testing for Onchocerca volvulus exposure conducted on 4,230 children 5 years of age and under (of a total population of 10,280 in this age group) revealed that 2/4,230 individuals were exposed to O. volvulus (0.05%; one sided 95% confidence interval?=?0.08%). Conclusions/Significance The in-depth epidemiological and entomological findings from the Southern Chiapas focus meet the criteria for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. PMID:23556018

  18. Evaluation of the interrupter technique in measuring post-exercise bronchodilator responses in children.

    PubMed

    Kannisto, S; Vanninen, E; Korppi, M

    2000-01-01

    A significant response in a bronchodilation test is one of the main diagnostic criteria of asthma. However, it is not known what the significant bronchodilator response (BDR) is by the interrupter technique (IR), measuring respiratory resistance (Rint) during tidal breathing. Fifty children with symptoms suggestive for asthma underwent an 8 min free running test outdoors. Flow-volume spirometry (FVS) and IR measurements were performed before and 10 min after running. Thereafter, all children received a salbutamol inhalation, and pulmonary function measurements were repeated 15 min later. The study population was classified into three groups according to the post-exercise pulmonary function: FEV1 > 100% of predicted (group I, n=15), FEV1 86-99% of predicted (group II, n=20) and FEV1 < 85% of predicted (group III, n=15). There were no differences in BDRs between groups I and II; the mean increases in FEV1 were 4-6% and in MMEF 20-23%, and the mean decreases in Rint were 23-26%. The mean changes in group III were significantly higher: 15% (P=0.004) in FEV1, 55% (P=0.021) in MMEF and 38% (P=0. 014) in Rint. BDR was positive (FEV1 rise >10%) in 15 children; five were in group II and 10 in group III. For MMEF and Rint, the best combination of sensitivity and specificity was achieved by a limit of 35%. By this limit, MMEF identified 14 and Rint 17 positive cases. The IR technique agreed with both FEV1 and MMEF in 73% of the cases. The IR technique provides an alternative to conventional ventilatory function measurements in bronchodilation tests in children. We suggest a decrease of 35% or more in Rint as diagnostic in post-exercise bronchodilation tests. PMID:10651794

  19. Intracellular ice formation in mouse oocytes subjected to interrupted rapid cooling

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Peter; Pinn, Irina L.; Kleinhans, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    The formation of ice crystals within cells (IIF) is lethal. The classical approach to avoiding it is to cool cells slowly enough so that nearly all their supercooled freezable water leaves the cell osmotically before they have cooled to a temperature that permits IIF. An alternative approach is to cool the cell rapidly to just above its ice nucleation temperature, and hold it there long enough to permit dehydration. Then, the cell is cooled rapidly to ?70°C or below. This approach, often called interrupted rapid cooling, is the subject of this paper. Mouse oocytes were suspended in 1.5 M ethylene glycol (EG)/PBS, rapidly cooled (50°C/min) to ?25°C and held for 5, 10, 20, 30, or 40 min before being rapidly cooled (50°C/min) to ?70°C. In cells held for 5 min, IIF (flashing) occurred abruptly during the second rapid cool. As the holding period was increased to 10 and 20 min, fewer cells flashed during the cooling and more turned black during warming. Finally, when the oocytes were held 30 or 40 min, relatively few flashed during either cooling or warming. Immediately upon thawing, these oocytes were highly shrunken and crenated. However, upon warming to 20°C, they regained most of their normal volume, shape, and appearance. These oocytes have intact cell membranes, and we refer to them as survivors. We conclude that 30 min at ?25°C removes nearly all intracellular freezable water, the consequence of which is that IIF occurs neither during the subsequent rapid cooling to ?70°C nor during warming. PMID:17686470

  20. Differentiation of secreted and membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase activities based on substitutions and interruptions of triple-helical sequences.

    PubMed

    Minond, Dmitriy; Lauer-Fields, Janelle L; Cudic, Mare; Overall, Christopher M; Pei, Duanqing; Brew, Keith; Moss, Marcia L; Fields, Gregg B

    2007-03-27

    The turnover of the collagen triple-helical structure (collagenolysis) is a tightly regulated process in normal physiology and has been ascribed to a small number of proteases. Several members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) family possess collagenolytic activity, and the mechanisms by which these enzymes process triple helices are beginning to be unraveled. The present study has utilized two triple-helical sequences to compare the cleavage-site specificities of 10 MMPs. One substrate featured a continuous Gly-Xxx-Yyy sequence (Pro-Leu-Gly approximately Met-Arg-Gly), while the other incorporated an interruption in the Gly-Xxx-Yyy repeat (Pro-Val-Asn approximately Phe-Arg-Gly). Both sequences were selectively cleaved by MMP-13 while in linear form, but neither proved to be selective within a triple helix. This suggests that the conformational presentation of substrate sequences to a MMP active site is critical for enzyme specificity, in that activities differ when sequences are presented from an unwound triple helix versus an independent single strand. Differences in specificity between secreted and membrane-type (MT) MMPs were also observed for both sequences, where MMP-2 and MT-MMPs showed an ability to hydrolyze a triple helix at an additional site (Gly-Gln bond). Interruption of the triple helix had different effects on secreted MMPs and MT-MMPs, because MT-MMPs could not hydrolyze the Asn-Phe bond but instead cleaved the triple helix closer to the C terminus at a Gly-Gln bond. It is possible that MT-MMPs have a requirement for Gly in the P1 subsite to be able to efficiently process a triple-helical molecule. Analysis of individual kinetic parameters and activation energies indicated different substrate preferences within secreted MMPs, because MMP-13 preferred the interrupted sequence, while MMP-8 showed little discrimination between non-interrupted and interrupted triple helices. On the basis of the present and prior studies, we can assign unique triple-helical peptidase behaviors to the collagenolytic MMPs. Such differences may be significant for understanding MMP mechanisms of action and aid in the development of selective MMP inhibitors. PMID:17338550

  1. 41 CFR 301-10.8 - What is my liability if, for personal convenience, I travel by an indirect route or interrupt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...my liability if, for personal convenience, I travel by an indirect route or interrupt travel by a direct route? 301-10.8 Section...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY)...

  2. A Fast Interrupt Handling Scheme for VLIW Processors E. zer, S. W. Sathaye, K. N. Menezes, S. Banerjia, M. D. Jennings and T. M. Conte

    E-print Network

    Conte, Thomas M.

    multiple functional units (FUs). Multiple independent operations are sent to these FUs at each clock cycle], the history buffer [10], the future file [10], checkpoint repair [4]. In this paper, we redefine the interrupt

  3. Interruptions Of Once-Daily Thoracic Radiotherapy Do Not Correlate With Outcomes In Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer: Analysis of CALGB Phase III Trial 9235

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Jeffrey A.; Watson, Dorothy; McClay, Edward F.; Evans, Lisa; Herndon, James E.; Laurie, Frances; Seagren, Stephen L; Fitzgerald, T.J; Vokes, Everett; Green, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Summary Purpose Retrospective data suggests prolonging the time to complete thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) may negatively impact tumor control and survival in limited stage small cell lung cancer (LSCLC). We examined the association between TRT duration and outcomes on a prospective phase III study. Material and Methods This review included 267 patients who received protocol TRT on a phase III CALGB LSCLC study assessing the addition of tamoxifen to standard chemo-radiotherapy. TRT, to a planned dose of 50 Gy in 2 Gy daily fractions, was initiated with the 4th chemotherapy cycle. TRT interruptions were mandated for hematologic toxicity (granulocytes < 1000/mm3 or platelets < 75,000/mm3) and esophageal toxicity (dysphagia necessitating intravenous hydration). Results TRT interruptions ? 3 days occurred in 115 patients (43%), most frequently during the 4th week of TRT, and did not differ between treatment arms. Hematologic toxicity and esophageal toxicity were the most frequent indications for interrupting TRT. Variables including advanced age (>70 years), gender, race, or radiotherapy treatment volume did not predict for TRT interruptions. Overall survival (OS) and local tumor control did not correlate with the administration of TRT interruptions or with TRT duration. Conclusion Toxicity mandated interruptions of conventional dose, once-daily, TRT may not adversely affect outcomes for patients receiving TRT concurrent with chemotherapy (cycle 4) for LSCLC. The implications for accelerated or high dose TRT regimens are not clear. PMID:18367288

  4. Results of Antiretroviral Treatment Interruption and Intensification in Advanced Multi-Drug Resistant HIV Infection from the OPTIMA Trial

    PubMed Central

    Holodniy, Mark; Brown, Sheldon T.; Cameron, D. William; Kyriakides, Tassos C.; Angus, Brian; Babiker, Abdel; Singer, Joel; Owens, Douglas K.; Anis, Aslam; Goodall, Ruth; Hudson, Fleur; Piaseczny, Mirek; Russo, John; Schechter, Martin; Deyton, Lawrence; Darbyshire, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Background Guidance is needed on best medical management for advanced HIV disease with multidrug resistance (MDR) and limited retreatment options. We assessed two novel antiretroviral (ARV) treatment approaches in this setting. Methods and Findings We conducted a 2×2 factorial randomized open label controlled trial in patients with a CD4 count ?300 cells/µl who had ARV treatment (ART) failure requiring retreatment, to two options (a) re-treatment with either standard (?4 ARVs) or intensive (?5 ARVs) ART and b) either treatment starting immediately or after a 12-week monitored ART interruption. Primary outcome was time to developing a first AIDS-defining event (ADE) or death from any cause. Analysis was by intention to treat. From 2001 to 2006, 368 patients were randomized. At baseline, mean age was 48 years, 2% were women, median CD4 count was 106/µl, mean viral load was 4.74 log10 copies/ml, and 59% had a prior AIDS diagnosis. Median follow-up was 4.0 years in 1249 person-years of observation. There were no statistically significant differences in the primary composite outcome of ADE or death between re-treatment options of standard versus intensive ART (hazard ratio 1.17; CI 0.86–1.59), or between immediate retreatment initiation versus interruption before re-treatment (hazard ratio 0.93; CI 0.68–1.30), or in the rate of non-HIV associated serious adverse events between re-treatment options. Conclusions We did not observe clinical benefit or harm assessed by the primary outcome in this largest and longest trial exploring both ART interruption and intensification in advanced MDR HIV infection with poor retreatment options. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00050089 PMID:21483491

  5. Comparison of perioperative outcomes between running versus interrupted vesicourethral anastomosis in open radical prostatectomy: A single-surgeon experience

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ju Hyun; Park, Chang Myon; Kim, Han Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare perioperative outcomes between running and interrupted vesicourethral anastomosis in open radical prostatectomy (RP). Materials and Methods The medical records of 112 patients who underwent open RP for prostate cancer at our institution from 2006 to 2008 by a single surgeon were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative parameters were measured. Results Of 112 consecutive patients, 62 patients underwent vesicourethral anastomosis by use of the running technique, whereas 50 patients underwent anastomosis with the interrupted technique. The groups did not differ significantly in age, body mass index, prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, or pathologic findings. The intraoperative extravasation rate was significantly lower in the running group (8.1% vs. 24.0%, p=0.01). The mean anastomosis time was 15.1±5.3 and 19.3±4.6 minutes in the running and interrupted groups, respectively (p=0.04). The rates of postoperative extravasation were similar for both groups (6.4% vs. 10.0%, p=0.12). The duration of catheterization was significantly shorter in the running group (9.0±3.0 days vs. 12.9±6.4 days, p<0.01). The rate of urinary retention after catheter removal and the rate of bladder neck contracture were not significantly different between the two groups. The rate of urinary continence at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after RP was also similar in both groups. Conclusions Both anastomosis techniques provided similar functional results and a similar rate of postoperative urine extravasation. However, running vesicourethral anastomosis decreased the rate of intraoperative extravasation and time for anastomosis, without increasing the risk of urinary retention or bladder neck contracture. PMID:26078841

  6. Stochastization as a possible cause of fast reconnection in the frequently interrupted regime of neoclassical tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Dumbrajs, O.; Igochine, V.; Constantinescu, D.; Zohm, H. [Helsinki University of Technology, Association Euratom-Tekes, P. O. Box 2200, FIN-02015 HUT, Finland and Institute of Solid State Physics, Association Euratom-University of Latvia, Kengaraga Street 8, LV-1063, Riga (Latvia); MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom-Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Craiova, A.I.Cuza Street 13, Craiova 1100 (200585) Romania (Romania); MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom-Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2005-11-15

    The role of stochastization of magnetic field lines in fast reconnection phenomena occurring in magnetized fusion plasma is analyzed. A mapping technique is applied to trace the field lines of toroidally confined plasma where the perturbation parameter is expressed in terms of experimental perturbation amplitudes determined from the Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment (ASDEX) Upgrade tokamak [S. Guenter, C. Angioni, M. Apostoliceanu et al., Nucl. Fusion 45, S98 (2005)]. It is found that fast reconnection observed during amplitude drops of the neoclassical tearing mode instability in the frequently interrupted regime can be related to stochastization.

  7. The Risk of the Preparation of Artificial DNAs via an Interrupted Automated Solid-Phase Triester Method.

    PubMed

    Buck, Henk M

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the risk of the preparation of artificial DNAs via an interrupted automated solid-phase triester procedure is discussed. These results differ completely from the corresponding results obtained by a gradual non-automated synthesis, indicated as solution-phase chemistry. With experimental results focused on model systems under various conditions and molecular-mechanics calculations, it feels as a challenge to offer an explanation for this different behavior. Attention is briefly given to click-linked DNA fragments as a substitute of phosphate linkages. PMID:25965329

  8. Transapical closure of paraprosthetic mitral leak in a patient with inferior vena cava interruption and azygos continuation.

    PubMed

    Mega, Simona; Patti, Giuseppe; Carminati, Mario; Sedati, Pietro; D'Ambrosio, Andrea; Di Sciascio, Germano

    2015-01-01

    Para-valvular leaks represent a relevant post-operative complication of cardiac valve replacement, often causing heart failure or severe hemolysis. We report a case of a 72 year-old woman with aortic and mitral mechanical prostheses who developed hemolytic anemia because of a para-prosthetic mitral leak. Chest tomography in such patient unexpectedly documented inferior vena cava interruption with azygos continuation into superior vena cava. Given the high surgical risk, the venous anomaly and the presence of the aortic valve prosthesis, transcatheter leak closure via antero-lateral mini-thoracotomy and transapical approach was performed. PMID:24048023

  9. Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Regulations to Reduce Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Oliver W; Griffiths, Clare; Majeed, Azeem

    2007-01-01

    Background Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning is the leading cause of acute liver failure in Great Britain and the United States. Successful interventions to reduced harm from paracetamol poisoning are needed. To achieve this, the government of the United Kingdom introduced legislation in 1998 limiting the pack size of paracetamol sold in shops. Several studies have reported recent decreases in fatal poisonings involving paracetamol. We use interrupted time-series analysis to evaluate whether the recent fall in the number of paracetamol deaths is different to trends in fatal poisoning involving aspirin, paracetamol compounds, antidepressants, or nondrug poisoning suicide. Methods and Findings We calculated directly age-standardised mortality rates for paracetamol poisoning in England and Wales from 1993 to 2004. We used an ordinary least-squares regression model divided into pre- and postintervention segments at 1999. The model included a term for autocorrelation within the time series. We tested for changes in the level and slope between the pre- and postintervention segments. To assess whether observed changes in the time series were unique to paracetamol, we compared against poisoning deaths involving compound paracetamol (not covered by the regulations), aspirin, antidepressants, and nonpoisoning suicide deaths. We did this comparison by calculating a ratio of each comparison series with paracetamol and applying a segmented regression model to the ratios. No change in the ratio level or slope indicated no difference compared to the control series. There were about 2,200 deaths involving paracetamol. The age-standardised mortality rate rose from 8.1 per million in 1993 to 8.8 per million in 1997, subsequently falling to about 5.3 per million in 2004. After the regulations were introduced, deaths dropped by 2.69 per million (p = 0.003). Trends in the age-standardised mortality rate for paracetamol compounds, aspirin, and antidepressants were broadly similar to paracetamol, increasing until 1997 and then declining. Nondrug poisoning suicide also declined during the study period, but was highest in 1993. The segmented regression models showed that the age-standardised mortality rate for compound paracetamol dropped less after the regulations (p = 0.012) but declined more rapidly afterward (p = 0.031). However, age-standardised rates for aspirin and antidepressants fell in a similar way to paracetamol after the regulations. Nondrug poisoning suicide declined at a similar rate to paracetamol after the regulations were introduced. Conclusions Introduction of regulations to limit availability of paracetamol coincided with a decrease in paracetamol-poisoning mortality. However, fatal poisoning involving aspirin, antidepressants, and to a lesser degree, paracetamol compounds, also showed similar trends. This raises the question whether the decline in paracetamol deaths was due to the regulations or was part of a wider trend in decreasing drug-poisoning mortality. We found little evidence to support the hypothesis that the 1998 regulations limiting pack size resulted in a greater reduction in poisoning deaths involving paracetamol than occurred for other drugs or nondrug poisoning suicide. PMID:17407385

  10. Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus by Simulium neavei in Mount Elgon Focus of Eastern Uganda Has Been Interrupted

    PubMed Central

    Katabarwa, Moses; Lakwo, Tom; Habomugisha, Peace; Agunyo, Stella; Byamukama, Edson; Oguttu, David; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Ochieng, Galex Orukan; Abwaimo, Francis; Onapa, Ambrose; Lwamafa, Dennis W. K.; Walsh, Frank; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Richards, Frank O.

    2014-01-01

    The study determined that Simulium neavei-transmitted onchocerciasis in Mount Elgon onchocerciasis focus had been interrupted. Annual mass treatment with ivermectin changed to two times per year along with vector elimination in 2007. Then, baseline microfilaria (mf) prevalence data of 1994 in five sentinel communities were compared with follow-up data in 2005 and 2011. Blood spots from 3,051 children obtained in 2009 were analyzed for Onchocerca volvulus immunoglobulin G4 antibodies. Fresh water crab host captures and blackflies collected indicated their infestation with larval stages of S. neavei and presence or absence of the vector, respectively. Mf rates dropped from 62.2% to 0.5%, and 1 (0.03%) of 3,051 children was positive for O. volvulus antibodies. Crab infestation dropped from 41.9% in 2007 to 0%, and S. neavei biting reduced to zero. Both remained zero for the next 3 years, confirming interruption of onchocerciasis transmission, and interventions were halted. PMID:24686740

  11. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them. PMID:26039326

  12. Neglect in Human Communication: Quantifying the Cost of Cell-Phone Interruptions in Face to Face Dialogs

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I.; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them. PMID:26039326

  13. Locally Advanced Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Impact of Pre-Radiotherapy Hemoglobin Level and Interruptions During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net; Stoehr, Monika [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Kazic, Nadja [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Sarajevo, Sarajevo(Bosnia and Herzegowina); Hakim, Samer G. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Walz, Annette [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Dunst, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Stage IV head and neck cancer patients carry a poor prognosis. Clear understanding of prognostic factors can help to optimize care for the individual patient. This study investigated 11 potential prognostic factors including pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level and interruptions during radiotherapy for overall survival (OS), metastases-free survival (MFS), and locoregional control (LC) after radiochemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven factors were investigated in 153 patients receiving radiochemotherapy for Stage IV squamous cell head and neck cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor site, grading, T stage, N stage, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, surgery, chemotherapy type, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved OS was associated with KPS 90-100 (relative risk [RR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.93; p = .012), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.01-3.53; p = .048), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.15-5.78; p = .021). Improved LC was significantly associated with lower T stage (RR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.16-4.63; p = .013), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.92-9.09; p < .001), surgery (RR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.28-5.88; p = .008), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.26-8.79; p = .015). Improved MFS was associated with KPS 90-100 (RR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.46-8.85; p = .012). Conclusions: Significant predictors for outcome in Stage IV head and neck cancer were performance status, stage, surgery, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. It appears important to avoid anemia and radiotherapy interruptions to achieve the best treatment results.

  14. [Micropump infusion of gonadorelin in the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in patients with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome: cases analysis and literature review].

    PubMed

    Shao, Wei-min; Bai, Wen-jun; Chen, Yi-min; Liu, Lei; Wang, Yu-jie

    2014-08-18

    Two cases of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome treated by pulse infusion of gonadorelin via micropump were reported, and their clinical features and the treatment process of pulse infusion of gonadorelin via micropump summarized. Both of the 2 patients were presented primarily with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. After the treatment with pulse infusion of gonadorelin via micropump, their syndrome of androgen deficiency improved and the gonadotropin levels promoted at the end of 12 weeks' follow-up. Pulse infusion of gonadorelin via micropump is an alternative to treat hypogonadotropic hypogonadism caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome. PMID:25131486

  15. Measuring the impacts of community development initiatives: a new application of the adjusted interrupted time-series method.

    PubMed

    Galster, George; Temkin, Kenneth; Walker, Chris; Sawyer, Noah

    2004-12-01

    The authors contribute to the development of empirical methods for measuring the impacts of place-based local development strategies by introducing the adjusted interrupted time-series (AITS) approach. It estimates a more precise counterfactual scenario, thus offering a stronger basis for drawing causal inferences about impacts. The authors applied the AITS approach to three community development initiatives using single-family home prices as the outcome indicator and found that it could measure impacts on both the base level of prices and the rate of price appreciation. The authors also found a situation in which the method appears unreliable, however. The AITS approach benefits from more recurrent data on outcomes during the pre-and post-intervention periods, with an intertemporal pattern that avoids great volatility. The AITS approach to measuring effects of community development initiatives holds strong promise, with caveats. PMID:15486159

  16. Paraventricular oxytocinergic hypothalamic prevention or interruption of long-term potentiation in dorsal horn nociceptive neurons: electrophysiological and behavioral evidence.

    PubMed

    DeLaTorre, Salvador; Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo; Martínez-Lorenzana, Guadalupe; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Javier; Villanueva, Luis; Condés-Lara, Miguel

    2009-08-01

    Spinal long-term potentiation (LTP) elicited by noxious stimulation enhances the responsiveness of dorsal horn nociceptive neurons to their normal input, and may represent a key mechanism of central sensitization by which acute pain could turn into a chronic pain state. This study investigated the electrophysiological and behavioral consequences of the interactions between LTP and descending oxytocinergic antinociceptive mechanisms mediated by the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). PVN stimulation or intrathecal oxytocin (OT) reduced or prevented the ability of spinal LTP to facilitate selectively nociceptive-evoked responses of spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons recorded in anesthetized rats. In a behavioral model developed to study the effects of spinal LTP on mechanical withdrawal thresholds in freely moving rats, the long-lasting LTP-mediated mechanical hyperalgesia was transiently interrupted or prevented by either PVN stimulation or intrathecal OT. LTP mediates long-lasting pain hypersensitivity that is strongly modulated by endogenous hypothalamic oxytocinergic descending controls. PMID:19493620

  17. Carpenter's Rule Folding in Rigid-Flexible Block Copolymers with Conjugation-Interrupting, Flexible Tethers Between Oligophenylenevinylenes.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Jeffrey M; Labastide, Joelle A; Wei, Lang; Tinkham, Jonathan S; Barnes, Michael D; Lahti, Paul M

    2015-07-23

    Rigid-flexible segmented block copolymers were synthesized and characterized as 4.5-oligophenylenevinylene chromophores tethered by flexible, conjugation-interrupting 1,2-ethanedioxy or 1,4-butanedioxy units. The flexible tethers allow the possibility of collapsed order chromophore assemblies within individual polymers by chain folding at specific sites much like an old fashioned, folding carpenter's rule. Our results indicate that using a short, flexible tether in a rigid-flexible segmented copolymer can result in collapsed rodlike structures as signaled by strongly quenched photoluminescence, even after thermal annealing. Such ability to "program" folding and tertiary structure in conjugated copolymers is important for solid-state organic light emitting materials and understanding of organic chromophore self-assembly. PMID:26125328

  18. Closed-loop optogenetic control of thalamus as a new tool to interrupt seizures after cortical injury

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Jeanne T.; Davidson, Thomas J.; Frechette, Eric S.; Delord, Bruno; Parada, Isabel; Peng, Kathy; Deisseroth, Karl; Huguenard, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrocortical injuries, such as stroke, are a major source of disability. Maladaptive consequences can result from post-injury local reorganization of cortical circuits. For example, epilepsy is a common sequela of cortical stroke, yet mechanisms responsible for seizures following cortical injuries remain unknown. In addition to local reorganization, long-range, extra-cortical connections might be critical for seizure maintenance. Here we report in rats the first evidence that the thalamus – a structure remote from but connected to the injured cortex – is required to maintain cortical seizures. Thalamocortical neurons connected to the injured epileptic cortex undergo changes in HCN channel expression and become hyperexcitable. Targeting these neurons with a closed-loop optogenetic strategy demonstrates that reducing their activity in real-time is sufficient to immediately interrupt electrographic and behavioral seizures. This approach is of therapeutic interest for intractable epilepsy, since it spares cortical function between seizures, in contrast to existing treatments such as surgical lesioning or drugs. PMID:23143518

  19. Paleomagnetic record in the Late Pleistocene loess-soil deposits of the Pekla section in the time interval 425-50 Ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, O. V.; Trubikhin, V. M.

    2011-08-01

    The composition, granulometry data, and concentration of grains that carry the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) are studied in the bottom 6.5 meters of the loess-soil deposits of the Pekla section (Azov coast, Krasnodar region). It was shown that these strata, which correspond to the 9th-11th marine oxygen isotope stages (MIS) and cover the time interval ˜425-300 ka, are suitable for further paleomagnetic investigation. The deposits in the upper portion of the Inzhavino paleosoils (Likhvin Interstadial) contain the records of anomalous deviations of the direction of magnetization from the dipole field at the sampling site. The studied interval was sampled by taking two hand blocks from four sampling levels, which minimizes the errors due to the specimen cutting. This anomaly dated ˜300 ka possibly corresponds to the Biva-II geomagnetic excursion. However, the studies of implications of anisotropy in magnetic susceptibility (AMS) for the direction of natural remanent magnetization (NMR) have shown that parts of the samples from the Inzhavino paleosoils and the underlying loess horizon are magnetically anisotropic, which is characteristic for biogenic magnetite grains, while other parts of the samples exhibit plane anisotropy typical for natural sedimentary structures. A weak correlation between the time series of averaged curves of relative paleointensity, NRM20/ARM20 (and NRM20/ K) for the loess horizons of the Pekla section and the global composite reference curve of relative paleointensity, Sint-800, in the time intervals 200-130 ka and 370-320 ka indicates that the paleomagnetic records have been imprinted not only on the detritic magnetic grains but also on the grains produced by chemical reactions and the life processes of bacteria.

  20. Peek-a-What? Infants' Response to the Still-Face Task after Normal and Interrupted Peek-a-Boo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Best, Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    Infants' sensitivity to the vitality or tension envelope within dyadic social exchanges was investigated by examining their responses following normal and interrupted games of peek-a-boo embedded in a Still-Face Task. Infants 5-6 months old engaged in two modified Still-Face Tasks with their mothers. In one task, the initial interaction ended…

  1. Implementation of active surveillance cultures and associated infection control practices for the reduction of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the healthcare setting: An interrupted time series analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shana Maureen OHeron

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To determine the effectiveness of active surveillance cultures and associated infection control practices on the incidence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the acute care setting. DESIGN. A historical analysis of existing clinical data utilizing an interrupted time series design. ^ SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS. Patients admitted to a 260-bed tertiary care facility in Houston, TX between January 2005

  2. Every day it grew worse, attacking him no longer at intervals, but relentlessly, with no interruption. He was unable to lie on

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    in common, including fatigue, shortness of breath and fluid retention, the clinical presentation of heart, with no interruption. He was unable to lie on either side, so weak that every breath involved great effort ... his condition was serious, for never for one moment could he breathe freely. He was forced to sit upright

  3. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 39, NO. 12, DECEMBER 1991 1729 On the Minimum Number of Interrupts in Time-Slot

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Hans

    , DECEMBER 1991 1729 On the Minimum Number of Interrupts in Time-Slot Assignments for Time-Division Multiple time-slot assignment of a time-division multiple-access (fDMA) system. If the number of channels c (measured in terms of number of time slots) between certain transmitters and receivers is given. Assume

  4. An Interrupted Time Series Analysis of the State College Nuisance Property Ordinance and an Assessment of Rental Property Managers as Place Manager/Intimate Handler of Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehle, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    This research involves a legal impact study of the State College Nuisance Property Ordinance and an assessment of State College Rental Property Managers in the role of place manager/intimate handler of offender. The impact of the Ordinance was assessed by employing an interrupted time series design which examined five years of pre-ordinance…

  5. Structured Treatment Interruptions and Low Doses of IL-2 in Patients with Primary HIV Infection. Inflammatory, Virological and Immunological Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Nicolás, David; Manzardo, Christian; Agüero, Fernando; Claramonte, Xavier; Plana, Montserrat; Tuset, Montserrat; Pumarola, Tomás; Gallart, Teresa; Gatell, José María; Miró, José María

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions during primary HIV infection (PHI) can modify the clinical course during the chronic phase. The long-term effect of structured treatment interruptions (STI) followed by low doses of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in treated PHI patients is unknown. Methods Twelve PHI patients with viral load (VL) <20 copies/mL, CD4 cells >500 cells/mm3, and CD4/CD8 ratio >1, on antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiated within the first 90 days of infection and continued for at least 12 months were included. They underwent four STI and were then allocated (week 0 of the study) to ART alone or ART plus low doses of IL-2. ART was stopped once VL <20 copies/mL ('final stop'). Primary endpoints were VL<3000 copies/mL and CD4 cells >500 cells/mm3 at 48 weeks; secondary endpoints were immune activation, inflammatory markers until 48 weeks and the time before resuming ART (CD4 <350 cells/mm3 or AIDS) after ‘final stop’, compared between groups. Results Ten out of 12 patients were males, median age was 35 years and the main risk was men-who-have-sex-with-men. Only one out of 12 patients (in the STI group) maintained VL<3000 copies/mL and CD4 cells >500 cells/mm3 without ART at 48 weeks. All other virological and immunological parameters were comparable between groups at week 0, 'final stop' and week 48. However, the proportion of CD8-CD38+ cells, tumor necrosis factor and srIL-2 were higher in the IL-2 group at 'final stop' and week 24. All these differences vanished during follow-up. At 5 years after the final stop 3 out of 6 patients in the IL-2 group and 6 out of 6 patients in the STI group have resumed ART (P = 0.19). Conclusions STI and IL-2 failed to achieve virological control after ART interruption. STI were not deleterious in long-term follow-up, an important issue for eradication and functional cure trials. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02300623 PMID:26186440

  6. Impact of STROBE Statement Publication on Quality of Observational Study Reporting: Interrupted Time Series versus Before-After Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Sbidian, Emilie; Gaudy-Marqueste, Caroline; Ferrat, Emilie; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Richard, Marie-Aleth; Canoui-Poitrine, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Background In uncontrolled before-after studies, CONSORT was shown to improve the reporting of randomised trials. Before-after studies ignore underlying secular trends and may overestimate the impact of interventions. Our aim was to assess the impact of the 2007 STROBE statement publication on the quality of observational study reporting, using both uncontrolled before-after analyses and interrupted time series. Methods For this quasi-experimental study, original articles reporting cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies published between 2004 and 2010 in the four dermatological journals having the highest 5-year impact factors (?4) were selected. We compared the proportions of STROBE items (STROBE score) adequately reported in each article during three periods, two pre STROBE period (2004–2005 and 2006–2007) and one post STROBE period (2008–2010). Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series was also performed. Results Of the 456 included articles, 187 (41%) reported cohort studies, 166 (36.4%) cross-sectional studies, and 103 (22.6%) case-control studies. The median STROBE score was 57% (range, 18%–98%). Before-after analysis evidenced significant STROBE score increases between the two pre-STROBE periods and between the earliest pre-STROBE period and the post-STROBE period (median score2004–05 48% versus median score2008–10 58%, p<0.001) but not between the immediate pre-STROBE period and the post-STROBE period (median score2006–07 58% versus median score2008–10 58%, p?=?0.42). In the pre STROBE period, the six-monthly mean STROBE score increased significantly, by 1.19% per six-month period (absolute increase 95%CI, 0.26% to 2.11%, p?=?0.016). By segmented analysis, no significant changes in STROBE score trends occurred (?0.40%; 95%CI, ?2.20 to 1.41; p?=?0.64) in the post STROBE statement publication. Interpretation The quality of reports increased over time but was not affected by STROBE. Our findings raise concerns about the relevance of uncontrolled before-after analysis for estimating the impact of guidelines. PMID:23990867

  7. Fifteen Years of Annual Mass Treatment of Onchocerciasis with Ivermectin Have Not Interrupted Transmission in the West Region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Katabarwa, Moses N.; Eyamba, Albert; Nwane, Philippe; Enyong, Peter; Kamgno, Joseph; Kueté, Thomas; Yaya, Souleymanou; Aboutou, Rosalie; Mukenge, Léonard; Kafando, Claude; Siaka, Coulibaly; Mkpouwoueiko, Salifou; Ngangue, Demanga; Biholong, Benjamin Didier; Andze, Gervais Ondobo

    2013-01-01

    We followed up the 1996 baseline parasitological and entomological studies on onchocerciasis transmission in eleven health districts in West Region, Cameroon. Annual mass ivermectin treatment had been provided for 15 years. Follow-up assessments which took place in 2005, 2006, and 2011 consisted of skin snips for microfilariae (mf) and palpation examinations for nodules. Follow-up Simulium vector dissections for larval infection rates were done from 2011 to 2012. mf prevalence in adults dropped from 68.7% to 11.4%, and nodule prevalence dropped from 65.9% to 12.1%. The decrease of mf prevalence in children from 29.2% to 8.9% was evidence that transmission was still continuing. mf rates in the follow-up assessments among adults and in children levelled out after a sharp reduction from baseline levels. Only three health districts out of 11 were close to interruption of transmission. Evidence of continuing transmission was also observed in two out of three fly collection sites that had infective rates of 0.19% and 0.18% and ATP of 70 (Foumbot) and 300 (Massangam), respectively. Therefore, halting of annual mass treatment with ivermectin cannot be done after 15 years as it might escalate the risk of transmission recrudescence. PMID:23691275

  8. Doppler ultrasound in the assessment of severity of coarctation of the aorta and interruption of the aortic arch.

    PubMed Central

    Houston, A B; Simpson, I A; Pollock, J C; Jamieson, M P; Doig, W B; Coleman, E N

    1987-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound was used to investigate 48 infants and children (age 2 days-16 years, weight 1.0-58 kg) with aortic arch abnormalities. In only 38 of the 42 with an important coarctation was an increased blood flow velocity from the distal arch demonstrated. In three with interruption of the aortic arch an increased velocity recorded from the region of the distal arch was thought to represent ductal flow. There was little difference between the peak to peak and instantaneous maximum gradients in the 20 patients with important coarctation in whom direct pressure measurements both proximal and distal to the obstruction were made at catheterisation. There were poor agreements between Doppler and measured peak to peak and instantaneous gradients in the 17 patients found to have both an increased velocity and important coarctation. It is concluded that although an increased blood flow velocity in the distal arch is usually demonstrated in coarctation this may not occur with severe obstruction. Furthermore, the maximum velocity is not related to the anatomical severity of the obstruction and the Doppler estimate of pressure drop in coarctation may not even reliably predict that measured at catheterisation. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:3801257

  9. The impact of public transportation strikes on use of a bicycle share program in London: interrupted time series design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the immediate and sustained effects of two London Underground strikes on use of a public bicycle share program. Methods An interrupted time series design was used to examine the impact of two 24 hour strikes on the total number of trips per day and mean trip duration per day on the London public bicycle share program. The strikes occurred on September 6th and October 4th 2010 and limited service on the London Underground. Results The mean total number of trips per day over the whole study period was 14699 (SD=5390) while the mean trip duration was 18.5 minutes (SD=3.7). Significant increases in daily trip rate were observed following strike 1 (3864: 95% CI 125 to 7604) and strike 2 (11293: 95% CI 5169 to 17416). Conclusions Brief interventions that greatly constrain the primary motorised mode of transportation for a population may have short-term effects on travel behaviour. Repeated brief interventions at frequent intervals could contribute to increasing population levels of physical activity by promoting the use of active modes of transportation. PMID:22024219

  10. An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Durkheim's Social Deregulation Thesis: The Case of the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex; Chamlin, Mitchell B; Cochran, John K

    2007-06-01

    The dissolution of the Soviet Union resulted in sudden, widespread, and fundamental changes to Russian society. The former social welfare system-with its broad guarantees of employment, healthcare, education, and other forms of social support-was dismantled in the shift toward democracy, rule of law, and a free-market economy. This unique natural experiment provides a rare opportunity to examine the potentially disintegrative effects of rapid social change on deviance, and thus to evaluate one of Durkheim's core tenets. We took advantage of this opportunity by performing interrupted time-series analyses of annual age-adjusted homicide, suicide, and alcohol-related mortality rates for the Russian Federation using data from 1956 to 2002, with 1992-2002 as the postintervention time-frame. The ARIMA models indicate that, controlling for the long-term processes that generated these three time series, the breakup of the Soviet Union was associated with an appreciable increase in each of the cause-of-death rates. We interpret these findings as being consistent with the Durkheimian hypothesis that rapid social change disrupts social order, thereby increasing the level of crime and deviance. PMID:20165565

  11. An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Durkheim's Social Deregulation Thesis: The Case of the Russian Federation

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Chamlin, Mitchell B.; Cochran, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The dissolution of the Soviet Union resulted in sudden, widespread, and fundamental changes to Russian society. The former social welfare system-with its broad guarantees of employment, healthcare, education, and other forms of social support-was dismantled in the shift toward democracy, rule of law, and a free-market economy. This unique natural experiment provides a rare opportunity to examine the potentially disintegrative effects of rapid social change on deviance, and thus to evaluate one of Durkheim's core tenets. We took advantage of this opportunity by performing interrupted time-series analyses of annual age-adjusted homicide, suicide, and alcohol-related mortality rates for the Russian Federation using data from 1956 to 2002, with 1992-2002 as the postintervention time-frame. The ARIMA models indicate that, controlling for the long-term processes that generated these three time series, the breakup of the Soviet Union was associated with an appreciable increase in each of the cause-of-death rates. We interpret these findings as being consistent with the Durkheimian hypothesis that rapid social change disrupts social order, thereby increasing the level of crime and deviance. PMID:20165565

  12. Teenage smoking behaviour following a high-school smoking ban in Chile: interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Joshua A; Danaei, Goodarz; Ding, Eric L; Calvo, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of a smoking ban in high schools on smoking behaviour among Chilean students. Methods We conducted an interrupted time-series analysis, using repeated cross-sectional data from Chile’s school population survey (2000–2011) for high-school students aged 12–18 years and a control group of persons aged 19–24 years. Poisson regression models were used to assess trends in smoking behaviour before and after the policy changes. The outcome measures were self-reported smoking prevalence (any smoking in the past month) and high frequency of smoking (smoking 15 days or more per month). Findings From 2005 to 2011, the prevalence of smoking declined among high-school students by 6.8% per year compared with 3.6% decline per year in the control group. The decline in the target group was 2.9% (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.18 to 5.00) greater. We estimated that 5–6 years after enforcing the law, smoking prevalence among high-school students was 13.7% lower as a result of the ban. The impact of the smoking ban was primarily driven by declines in smoking prevalence among students in grades 8 to 10. The smoking ban did not significantly alter the frequency of smoking. Conclusion The 2005 school smoking ban reduced smoking prevalence among younger high-school students in Chile. Further interventions targeting older individuals and frequent smokers may be needed. PMID:26170504

  13. Relationship of high CH50 level and interruption of cascade reaction of complement mRNA expression in acute venous thromboembolism patients

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Siwan; Yang, Fan; Wang, Lemin; Duan, Qianglin; Gong, Zhu; Lv, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In patients with pulmonary embolism (PE), forepart components of complements were activated. However there are interruption/decrease of cascade reaction and cytolytic effects in complement system. This study detected CRP, CH50, C3 and C4 levels in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and compare with the imbalance of complement associated gene mRNA expression in PE patients. There was significant increase of CH50 in acute VTE patients. Even though CH50 increased significantly in acute VTE patients and had a relatively high sensitivity, cytolytic effects of complements might decrease, based on the genomics results of complement cascade reactions imbalance/interruption and increased total complements in VTE patients. PMID:25232435

  14. Control of hydrogenation and modulation of the structural network in Si:H by interrupted growth and H-plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Debajyoti

    1995-04-01

    Control of hydrogenation and modulation of the structural network in Si:H is proposed by growth interruption and H-plasma exposure on stacking layers. Hydrogen incorporation as well as elimination are both possible through subsurface reactions by atomic hydrogen of the plasma. An increase in the optical gap due to rehydrogenation is obvious; however, widening in the optical gap during dehydrogenation of the network appears to be a unique feature which may suggest nanocrystallization and quantum size effects in the hydrogenated binary alloy. At the onset of nanocrystallization, a significant improvement in light-induced degradation has been observed. A wide range of temperatures to fabricate good quality equilibrated films could be provided by interrupted growth and H-plasma exposure technique.

  15. Multi-step interrupted-growth MBE technology for GaAs/AlGaAs (˜9.4 ?m) room temperature operating quantum-cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosiel, K.; Kubacka-Traczyk, J.; Sankowska, I.; Szerling, A.; Gutowski, P.; Bugajski, M.

    2012-09-01

    In order to adjust the highly controllable and optimum growth conditions, the multi-step interrupted-growth MBE processes were performed to deposit a series of GaAs/Al0.45Ga0.55As QCL structures. The additional calibrations of MBE system were carried out during the designed growth interruptions. This solution was combined with a relatively low growth rate of active region layers, in order to suppress the negative effects of elemental flux instabilities. As a result, the fabricated QCL structures have yielded devices operating with peak optical power of ˜12 mW at room temperature. That is a better result than was obtained for comparable structures deposited with a growth rate kept constant, and with the only initial calibrations performed just before the epitaxy of the overall structure.

  16. Sandostatin, a new analogue of somatostatin, reduces the metabolic changes induced by the nocturnal interruption of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Scheen; J. Gillet; J. Rosenthaler; J. Guiot; Ph. Henrivaux; B. Jandrain; P. J. Lefèbvre

    1989-01-01

    Summary  With the aim of assessing a new somatostatin analogue to prevent the metabolic changes induced by a 6-h nocturnal arrest of an insulin pump, nine C-peptide negative Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients were submitted blindly to two interruptions (from 23.00 to 05.00 hours) of their continuous s.c. insulin infusion, once after a single s.c. injection at 23.00 hours of 50

  17. Identifying Autocorrelation Generated by Various Error Processes in Interrupted Time-Series Regression Designs: A Comparison of AR1 and Portmanteau Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huitema, Bradley E.; McKean, Joseph W.

    2007-01-01

    Regression models used in the analysis of interrupted time-series designs assume statistically independent errors. Four methods of evaluating this assumption are the Durbin-Watson (D-W), Huitema-McKean (H-M), Box-Pierce (B-P), and Ljung-Box (L-B) tests. These tests were compared with respect to Type I error and power under a wide variety of error…

  18. Temporal responses of spectral line intensities emitted by d.c. arc plasma with aerosol supply studied by power interruption technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslav M Kuzmanovi?; Mirjana S Pavlovi?; Jelena J Savovi?; Momir Marinkovi?

    2003-01-01

    The responses to the fast interruption of the arc current have been studied for the spectral line intensities of several elements emitted by U-shaped direct current (d.c.) arc plasma with aerosol supply. The arc was burned at atmospheric pressure. Solutions containing the investigated elements were introduced with a concentric glass nebulizer into the argon stream of 2.7 lmin?1. The arc

  19. Pathogenic and Nef-Interrupted Simian–Human Immunodeficiency Viruses Traffic to the Macaque CNS and Cause Astrocytosis Early after Inoculation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dinesh K. Singh; Coleen McCormick; Erik Pacyniak; Darcy Griffin; David M. Pinson; Francis Sun; Nancy E. J. Berman; Edward B. Stephens

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have shown that deletion of the nef gene of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian–human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) results in attenuated viruses. However, studies have not critically examined trafficking of attenuated viruses to the central nervous system (CNS) at early stages after inoculation. In this study, we investigated the colocalization of pathogenic and vpu-negative, nef-interrupted SHIVs at early

  20. Short and long term variability of the interrupter technique under field and standardised conditions in 3–6 year old children

    PubMed Central

    Beelen, R; Smit, H; van Strien, R T; Koopman, L; Brussee, J; Brunekreef, B; Gerritsen, J; Merkus, P

    2003-01-01

    Methods: The interrupter technique was studied under field and standardised conditions in children aged 3–6 years. Under field conditions, five investigators performed the measurements using two different measurement devices in random sequence. Both short term (20–30 minutes) and long term variability (median 38 days) were assessed in 32 children. Under standardised conditions, a single investigator conducted all measurements using a single device; the repeated measurements were conducted at the same time of day in a familiar quiet classroom. Long term variability (median 11 days) was estimated in 15 children. Within-subject standard deviations were estimated by analysis of variance with adjustment for the effects of different investigators and measurement devices on within-subject variability under field conditions. Results: Under field conditions within-subject standard deviations for short and long term variability were 0.10 kPa/l/s (adjusted 0.10 kPa/l/s) and 0.13 kPa/l/s (adjusted 0.14 kPa/l/s), respectively. Under standardised conditions the within-subject standard deviation for long term variability was 0.10 kPa/l/s. Conclusions: Measurement of interrupter resistance under field conditions only slightly increased the within-subject variability compared with standardised conditions. The results indicate that interrupter resistance is a stable individual characteristic over a period of some weeks. PMID:12947133

  1. Changing Use of Surgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Thika Hospital, Kenya: A Quality Improvement Intervention with an Interrupted Time Series Design

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Alexander M.; Wanyoro, Anthony K.; Mwangi, Jonah; Juma, Francis; Mugoya, Isaac K.; Scott, J. Anthony G

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In low-income countries, Surgical Site Infection (SSI) is a common form of hospital-acquired infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis is an effective method of preventing these infections, if given immediately before the start of surgery. Although several studies in Africa have compared pre-operative versus post-operative prophylaxis, there are no studies describing the implementation of policies to improve prescribing of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in African hospitals. Methods We conducted SSI surveillance at a typical Government hospital in Kenya over a 16 month period between August 2010 and December 2011, using standard definitions of SSI and the extent of contamination of surgical wounds. As an intervention, we developed a hospital policy that advised pre-operative antibiotic prophylaxis and discouraged extended post-operative antibiotics use. We measured process, outcome and balancing effects of this intervention in using an interrupted time series design. Results From a starting point of near-exclusive post-operative antibiotic use, after policy introduction in February 2011 there was rapid adoption of the use of pre-operative antibiotic prophylaxis (60% of operations at 1 week; 98% at 6 weeks) and a substantial decrease in the use of post-operative antibiotics (40% of operations at 1 week; 10% at 6 weeks) in Clean and Clean-Contaminated surgery. There was no immediate step-change in risk of SSI, but overall, there appeared to be a moderate reduction in the risk of superficial SSI across all levels of wound contamination. There were marked reductions in the costs associated with antibiotic use, the number of intravenous injections performed and nursing time spent administering these. Conclusion Implementation of a locally developed policy regarding surgical antibiotic prophylaxis is an achievable quality improvement target for hospitals in low-income countries, and can lead to substantial benefits for individual patients and the institution. PMID:24244390

  2. Interruption of Infection Transmission in the Onchocerciasis Focus of Ecuador Leading to the Cessation of Ivermectin Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Lovato, Raquel; Guevara, Angel; Guderian, Ronald; Proaño, Roberto; Unnasch, Thomas; Criollo, Hipatia; Hassan, Hassan K.; Mackenzie, Charles D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A clinically significant endemic focus of onchocerciasis existing in Esmeraldas Province, coastal Ecuador has been under an ivermectin mass drug administration program since 1991. The main transmitting vector in this area is the voracious blackfly, Simulium exiguum. This paper describes the assessments made that support the decision to cease mass treatment. Methodology and Principle Findings: Thirty-five rounds of ivermectin treatment occurred between 1991–2009 with 29 of these carrying >85% coverage. Following the guidelines set by WHO for ceasing ivermectin distribution the impact on parasite transmission was measured in the two vector species by an O-150 PCR technique standard for assessing for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus. Up to seven collection sites in three major river systems were tested on four occasions between 1995 and 2008. The infectivity rates of 65.0 (CI 39–101) and 72.7 (CI 42–116) in 1995 dropped to zero at all seven collection sites by 2008. Assessment for the presence of antibodies against O. volvulus was made in 2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008 using standard ELISA assays for detecting anti-Ov16 antibodies. None of total of 1810 children aged 1–15 years (between 82 and 98% of children present in the surveyed villages) tested in the above years were found to be carrying antibodies to this antigen. These findings were the basis for the cessation of mass drug treatment with ivermectin in 2009. Significance: This fulfillment of the criteria for cessation of mass distribution of ivermectin in the only known endemic zone of onchocerciasis in Ecuador moves the country into the surveillance phase of official verification for national elimination of transmission of infection. These findings indicate that ivermectin given twice a year with greater than 85% of the community can move a program to the final stages of verification of transmission interruption. PMID:24853587

  3. ABBGroup-1-Thermal interruption

    E-print Network

    Basse, Nils Plesner

    separated from fingers 3. Arc forms between the separated contacts 4. Arc is extinguished at a current zeroV, frequency 1 kHz. #12;©ABBGroup-6- 2-Jun-06 1. High current phase Top right figure: Current (blue) and arc voltage (red). The current is terminated by the vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) after two half cycles

  4. Interruptions in Chat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bryan; Sauro, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    The research on text-based synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC), while generally acknowledging the potential benefits afforded by the medium's capacity for extensive self-repair, has done little in the way of exploration of the nature of such text. Indeed, until quite recently, output logs have been favored almost exclusively at the…

  5. Interrupting Gendered Assessment Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Gaell M.

    This paper is part of the symposium on "Gender and Assessment of Physics in Context: Getting It Right!" It examines ways in which current practices privilege the "masculine" over the "feminine" and presents an agenda for gender inclusive assessment practices. It is argued that physics like other domains of knowledge, is a constructed entity, and…

  6. Control of Three-Phase PWM Rectifiers Using A Single DC Current Sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhonghui Bing; Xiong Du; Jian Sun

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new current control method for three-phase pulse width modulation rectifiers with active power factor correction (PFC). Conventional three-phase PFC control re- quires sensing of at least two input phase currents. Since the input line must be isolated from the control circuitry, current transform- ers or Hall effects current sensors are required for sensing the phase currents,

  7. Low-energy DC current ablation in a mouse tumor model.

    PubMed

    Philips, Prejesh; Li, Yan; Martin, Robert C G

    2014-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation has recently been applied to tissue and tumor ablation. This animal model was developed to evaluate optimal parameters for subcutaneous tumor ablation. The immortalized Panc1 tumor cell line was used for generating tumors via subcutaneous injection in mice. Under general anesthesia with complete muscle relaxation, electroporation was performed with the NanoKnife device. Post-procedure tumors were recovered and studied at specified time intervals to assess the efficacy. PMID:24510830

  8. Can malaria vector control accelerate the interruption of lymphatic filariasis transmission in Africa; capturing a window of opportunity?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) was launched in 2000, and nearly all endemic countries in the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean and Asia-Pacific regions have now initiated the WHO recommended mass drug administration (MDA) campaign to interrupt transmission of the parasite. However, nearly 50% of the LF endemic countries in Africa are yet to implement the GPELF MDA strategy, which does not include vector control. Nevertheless, the recent scale up in insecticide treated /long lasting nets (ITNs/LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control in Africa may significantly impact LF transmission because the parasite is transmitted mainly by Anopheles mosquitoes. This study examined the magnitude, geographical extent and potential impact of vector control in the 17 African countries that are yet to or have only recently started MDA. Methods National data on mosquito bed nets, ITNs/LLINs and IRS were obtained from published literature, national reports, surveys and datasets from public sources such as Demographic Health Surveys, Malaria Indicator Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, Malaria Report, Roll Back Malaria and President’s Malaria Initiative websites. The type, number and distribution of interventions were summarised and mapped at sub-national level. and compared with known or potential LF distributions, and those which may be co-endemic with Loa loa and MDA is contraindicated. Results Analyses found that vector control activities had increased significantly since 2005, with a three-fold increase in ITN ownership and IRS coverage. However, coverage varied dramatically across the 17 countries; some regions reported >70% ITNs ownership and regular IRS activity, while others had no coverage in remote rural populations where the risk of LF was potentially high and co-endemic with high risk L.loa. Conclusions Despite many African countries being slow to initiate MDA for LF, the continued commitment and global financial support for NTDs, and the concurrent expansion of vector control activities for malaria, is promising. It is not beyond the capacity of GPELF to reach its target of global LF elimination by 2020, but monitoring and evaluating the impact of these activities over the next decade will be critical to its success. PMID:23433078

  9. Curcumin eliminates the effect of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on the divergent regulation of gene expression of receptors of AGEs by interrupting leptin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Youcai; Chen, Anping

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a major risk factor for hepatic fibrogenesis. NASH is often found in diabetic patients with hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia induces non-enzymatic glycation of proteins, yielding advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Effects of AGEs are mainly mediated by two categories of cytoplasmic membrane receptors. Receptor for AGEs (RAGE) is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation, whereas AGE receptor-1 (AGE-R1) is involved in detoxification and clearance of AGEs. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) is crucial to the development of hepatic fibrosis. We recently reported that AGEs stimulated HSC activation likely by inhibiting gene expression of AGE-R1 and inducing gene expression of RAGE in HSC, which were eliminated by the antioxidant curcumin. This study is to test our hypothesis that curcumin eliminates the effects of AGEs on the divergent regulation of the two receptors of AGEs in HSC by interrupting the AGEs-caused activation of leptin signaling, leading to the inhibition of HSC activation. We observed herein that AGEs activated leptin signaling by inducing gene expression of leptin and its receptor in HSC. Like AGEs, leptin differentially regulated gene expression of RAGE and AGE-R1. Curcumin eliminated the effects of AGEs in HSC by interrupting leptin signaling and activating transcription factor Nrf2, leading to the elevation of cellular glutathione and the attenuation of oxidative stress. In conclusions, curcumin eliminated the effects of AGEs on the divergent regulation of gene expression of RAGE and AGE-R1 in HSC by interrupting the AGEs-caused activation of leptin signaling, leading to the inhibition of HSC activation. PMID:24614199

  10. Increased soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 plasma levels and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 during antiretroviral therapy interruption and retention of elevated soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 levels following resumption of antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Papasavvas, Emmanouil; Azzoni, Livio; Pistilli, Maxwell; Hancock, Aidan; Reynolds, Griffin; Gallo, Cecile; Ondercin, Joe; Kostman, Jay R.; Mounzer, Karam; Shull, Jane; Montaner, Luis J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We investigated the effect of short viremic episodes on soluble markers associated with endothelial stress and cardiovascular disease risk in chronically HIV-1-infected patients followed during continuous antiretroviral therapy, antiretroviral therapy interruption and antiretroviral therapy resumption. Design and methods We assessed changes in plasma levels of von Willebrand factor, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, as well as T-cell activation (CD8+/CD38+, CD8+/HLA-DR+ and CD3+/CD95+) by flow cytometry, in 36 chronically HIV-1-infected patients participating in a randomized study. Patients were divided into the following three groups: a, on continuous antiretroviral therapy; b, on a 6-week antiretroviral therapy interruption; or c, on antiretroviral therapy interruption extended to the achievement of viral set point. Results Although all measurements remained stable over a 40-week follow-up on antiretroviral therapy, plasma levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (P < 0.0001) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (P = 0.003) increased during treatment interruption in correlation with viral rebound and T-cell activation. No significant changes in von Willebrand factor were observed in any of the groups. After resuming antiretroviral therapy, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels remained elevated even after achievement of viral suppression to less than 50 copies/ml. Conclusion The prompt rise in plasma soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 upon viral rebound suggests an acute increase in endothelial stress upon treatment interruption, which may persists after viral resuppression of virus. Thus, viral replication during short-term treatment interruption may increase the overall cardiovascular risk during and beyond treatment interruption. PMID:18525261

  11. Importance of low-frequency on understanding interrupted speech: Sentence recognition of hearing-impaired (HI) and normal-hearing (NH) listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Nelson, Peggy

    2005-09-01

    In a recent study of HI listeners' speech perception in noise (Jin and Nelson, 2004), two main factors, low-frequency audibility and auditory filter bandwidths, were highly related to amplified sentence recognition in modulated noise. Nine young adult listeners with sensorineural hearing loss and eight young NH listeners as controls participated in the series of experiments. Amplified speech recognition of the HI listeners was equal to that of the NH listeners in quiet and in steady noise, but was significantly poorer in modulated noise. Thus, even with adequate amount of amplification, HI listeners experienced significantly less masking release from the modulated maskers. The results indicated that those listeners with greatest hearing losses in the low frequencies were poorest at speech recognition in modulated noise. Additional results from HI and NH listeners will be presented, in which we systematically vary the audibility of different frequency regions of speech by filtering. Sentences are interrupted by either speech-shaped noise or silence gap while measuring the percent of sentence recognition. The purpose of the current study is to examine the importance of low-frequency audibility for auditory segregation/integration of interrupted speech.

  12. Predisposition to the fragile X syndrome in Jews of Tunisian descent is due to the absence of AGG interruptions on a rare Mediterranean haplotype.

    PubMed Central

    Falik-Zaccai, T C; Shachak, E; Yalon, M; Lis, Z; Borochowitz, Z; Macpherson, J N; Nelson, D L; Eichler, E E

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the ethnic distribution of the fragile X syndrome in Israel and have found that 36/136 (26.5%) of apparently unrelated pedigrees were of Tunisian Jewish descent. The Tunisian Jews, however, constitute only 2%-3% of the general Israeli population, identifying the first ethnic group significantly (P < .001) predisposed to the development of this disease. Associated with this increase in disease prevalence, we have found an unusually high incidence of FMR1 CGG repeats devoid of AGG interruptions among the normal Tunisian Jewish population (30/150, or 20.0%). Furthermore, the proportion of these alleles beyond the FMR1 CGG repeat instability threshold (>35 repeats) (8/150, or 5.3%) was significantly greater (P < .04) than that proportion found among non-Tunisian Jewish controls in Israel (1/136). Haplotype analysis has indicated that these large uninterrupted CGG repeat alleles are present on a previously unreported (DXS548-FRAXAC1-FRAXAC2) haplotype that accounts for all observed cases of disease among Tunisian Jewish X chromosomes. The high prevalence of disease among Tunisian Jews, we suggest, is due to a founder effect of this rare haplotype, which is completely devoid of AGG interruptions in the Jewish population of Tunisia. PMID:8981953

  13. Hepatic venous reconstruction using the superficial femoral vein in a right-lobe living donor liver transplant patient with interrupted inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazushige; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Kawagishi, Naoki; Akamatsu, Yorihiro; Miyagi, Shigeto; Yamaya, Hideyuki; Takeda, Ikuo; Fukushima, Daizo; Sato, Akira; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Satomi, Susumu

    2014-02-01

    Anatomical abnormalities in patients with BA often include polysplenia, preduodenal portal vein, interrupted retrohepatic IVC, cardiac abnormalities, and situs inversus. In LDLT patients who had congenital vascular anomalies, additional surgical modifications for the reconstruction of hepatic venous branches are sometimes necessary to prevent venous parenchymal congestion. We report a 12-yr-old female with post-Kasai BA with interrupted retrohepatic IVC who underwent right-lobe LDLT because the left liver graft volume was insufficient. The donor right liver graft had three major hepatic branches, including the RHV, IRHV, and MHV tributary (V8). We performed hepatic venous reconstruction by creating a large, wide triple orifice consisting of the RHV and two SFVs, which were anastomosed to the V8 and IRHV using the donor's SFV as an interposition graft. In conclusion, the reconstruction of venous orifices for right-lobe LDLT patients with the absent retrohepatic IVC is can be carried out using an SFV graft derived from the living donor or the recipient. PMID:24384053

  14. A randomized trial of continuous versus interrupted chest compressions in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: rationale for and design of the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Continuous Chest Compressions Trial.

    PubMed

    Brown, Siobhan P; Wang, Henry; Aufderheide, Tom P; Vaillancourt, Christian; Schmicker, Robert H; Cheskes, Sheldon; Straight, Ron; Kudenchuk, Peter; Morrison, Laurie; Colella, M Riccardo; Condle, Joseph; Gamez, George; Hostler, David; Kayea, Tami; Ragsdale, Sally; Stephens, Shannon; Nichol, Graham

    2015-03-01

    The Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium is conducting a randomized trial comparing survival with hospital discharge after continuous chest compressions without interruption for ventilation versus currently recommended American Heart Association cardiopulmonary resuscitation with interrupted chest compressions in adult patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without obvious trauma or respiratory cause. Emergency medical services perform study cardiopulmonary resuscitation for 3 intervals of manual chest compressions (each ~2 minutes) or until restoration of spontaneous circulation. Patients randomized to the continuous chest compression intervention receive 200 chest compressions with positive pressure ventilations at a rate of 10/min without interruption in compressions. Those randomized to the interrupted chest compression study arm receive chest compressions interrupted for positive pressure ventilations at a compression:ventilation ratio of 30:2. In either group, each interval of compressions is followed by rhythm analysis and defibrillation as required. Insertion of an advanced airway is deferred for the first ?6 minutes to reduce interruptions in either study arm. The study uses a cluster randomized design with every-6-month crossovers. The primary outcome is survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes are neurologically intact survival and adverse events. A maximum of 23,600 patients (11,800 per group) enrolled during the post-run-in phase of the study will provide ?90% power to detect a relative change of 16% in the rate of survival to discharge, 8.1% to 9.4% with overall significance level of 0.05. If this trial demonstrates improved survival with either strategy, >3,000 premature deaths from cardiac arrest would be averted annually. PMID:25728722

  15. A DC-81-indole conjugate agent suppresses melanoma A375 cell migration partially via interrupting VEGF production and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha}-mediated signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Ming-Chu [Graduate Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Hu, Wan-Ping [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Yu, Hsin-Su [Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Wu, Wen-Chuan [Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Long-Sen [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Kao, Ying-Hsien, E-mail: danyhkao@gmail.com [Department of Medical Research, E-DA Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jeh-Jeng, E-mail: jjwang@kmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-01

    Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) chemicals are antitumor antibiotics inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis. An indole carboxylate-PBD hybrid with six-carbon spacer structure (IN6CPBD) has been previously demonstrated to induce melanoma cell apoptosis and reduce metastasis in mouse lungs. This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of the other hybrid compound with four-carbon spacer (IN4CPBD) and elucidating its anti-metastatic mechanism. Human melanoma A375 cells with IN4CPBD treatment underwent cytotoxicity and apoptosis-associated assays. Transwell migration assay, Western blotting, and ELISA were used for mechanistic study. IN4CPBD exhibited potent melanoma cytotoxicity through interrupting G1/S cell cycle progression, increasing DNA fragmentation and hypodipoidic DNA contents, and reducing mitochondrial membrane potential. Caspase activity elevation suggested that both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways were involved in IN4CPBD-induced melanoma apoptosis. IN4CPBD up-regulated p53 and p21, thereby concomitantly derailing the equilibrium between Bcl-2 and Bax levels. Transwell migration assay demonstrated that stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}) stimulated A375 cell motility, while kinase inhibitors treatment confirmed that Rho/ROCK, Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK pathways were involved in SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced melanoma migration. IN4CPBD not only abolished the SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced chemotactic motility but also suppressed constitutive MMP-9 and VEGF expression. Mechanistically, IN4CPBD down-regulated Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK total proteins and MYPT1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, beyond the fact that IN4CPBD induces melanoma cell apoptosis at cytotoxic dose, the interruption in the VEGF expression and the SDF-1{alpha}-related signaling at cytostatic dose may partially constitute the rationale for its in vivo anti-metastatic potency. - Research Highlights: > A novel carboxylate-PBD hybrid as anti-melanoma drug. > IN4CPBD interrupts melanoma cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis. > IN4CPBD suppresses SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced signaling and melanoma migration. > IN4CPBD abolishes angiogenic factor production and chemotactic effect of SDF-1{alpha}. > This drug is clinically applicable to melanoma therapy.

  16. In situ RHEED, AFM, and REM investigations of the surface recovery of MBE-grown GaAs(0 0 1)-layers during growth interruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, T.; Kreutzer, P.; Zacher, Th.; Naumann, W.; Anton, R.

    1998-10-01

    The evolution of the surface morphology of homoepitaxial, MBE-grown GaAs(0 0 1)-layers was studied during growth interruptions by in situ RHEED (reflection high-energy electron diffraction) as well as by ex situ AFM (atomic force microscopy) and REM (reflection electron microscopy). The recovery of the RHEED intensity during annealing was correlated with a significant decrease of the densities of steps, islands and holes, seen in AFM and REM images, obtained from quenched samples. While islands seem to be dissolved by Ostwald ripening, the densities of steps and holes were found to approach saturation values. The appearance of anisotropic shapes of islands and holes, and characteristic changes during annealing were attributed to different mechanisms governing surface kinetics. It is concluded that, while diffusion of monomers dominate the growth periods, formation and diffusion of GaAs molecules is responsible for the changes of anisotropy during annealing under As pressure.

  17. Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis of Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis in the Lower Extremity of a Child with Interrupted Inferior Vena Cava

    SciTech Connect

    Oguzkurt, Levent, E-mail: loguzkurt@yahoo.com; Ozkan, Ugur; Tercan, Fahri; Koc, Zafer [Baskent University, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2007-04-15

    We present the case of a 14-year-old girl who developed acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in her right lower extremity. Laboratory testing revealed protein S deficiency, and the patient's father also had this abnormality with a history of lower extremity DVT. Manual thromboaspiration followed by catheter-directed thrombolysis resulted in total clearance of all thrombi. Computed tomography and later venography revealed an interrupted inferior vena cava. Catheter-directed thrombolysis is an established treatment for adults with acute DVT. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe catheter-directed thrombolysis in a pediatric patient with lower extremity DVT. Our results suggest that catheter-directed thrombolysis is safe and effective for use in selected older children and adolescents with acute DVT in the lower extremity.

  18. Development and testing of a 180-volt dc electronic circuit breaker with a 335-ampere carry and 1200-ampere interrupt rating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brush, A. S.; Phillips, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center and associated contractors have conducted a program to assess the potential requirements for a high-current switch to conceptually design a switch using the best existing technology, and to build and demonstrate a breadboard which meets the requirements. The result is the high current remote bus isolator (HRBI). The HRBI is rated at 180 V dc, 335 A continuous with a 1200 A interrupt rating. It also incorporates remote-control and protective features called for by the Space Station Freedom PMAD dc test bed design. Two breadboard 335 A circuit breakers were built and tested that demonstrate a promising concept of paralleled current-limiting modules. The units incorporated all control and protective features required by advanced aerospace power systems. Component stresses in each unit were determined by design, and are consistent with a life of many thousands of fault operations.

  19. Improved Atomistic Monte Carlo Simulations Demonstrate that Poly-L-Proline Adopts Heterogeneous Ensembles of Conformations of Semi-Rigid Segments Interrupted by Kinks

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Aditya; Vitalis, Andreas; Mao, Albert H.; Steffen, Adam T.; Pappu, Rohit V.

    2012-01-01

    Poly-L-proline (PLP) polymers are useful mimics of biologically relevant proline-rich sequences. Biophysical and computational studies of PLP polymers in aqueous solutions are challenging because of the diversity of length scales and the slow time scales for conformational conversions. We describe an atomistic simulation approach that combines an improved ABSINTH implicit solvation model, with conformational sampling based on standard and novel Metropolis Monte Carlo moves. Refinements to forcefield parameters were guided by published experimental data for proline-rich systems. We assessed the validity of our simulation results through quantitative comparisons to experimental data that were not used in refining the forcefield parameters. Our analysis shows that PLP polymers form heterogeneous ensembles of conformations characterized by semi-rigid, rod-like segments interrupted by kinks, which result from a combination of internal cis peptide bonds, flexible backbone ?-angles, and the coupling between ring puckering and backbone degrees of freedom. PMID:22329658

  20. The crystal structure of the interrupted framework silicate K 9.6Ca 1.2Si 12O 30 determined from laboratory X-ray diffraction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlenberg, V.; Kaindl, R.; Többens, D. M.

    2006-07-01

    The crystal structure of a potassium calcium silicate with composition K 9.6Ca 1.2Si 12O 30 (or K 8CaSi 10O 25) has been solved by direct methods aided by distance least squares optimization from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data. The trigonal compound adopts the non-centrosymmetric space group R3c with the following basic crystallographic data: a=11.13623(5) Å, c=21.9890(2) Å, V=2361.63(2) Å 3, Z=3, Dcalc=2.617 g cm -3. The crystal structure can be classified as an interrupted framework with exclusively Q3-units. It can be thought of as being built from layers parallel to (001) containing isolated six-membered tetrahedral rings in UDUDUD conformation. Corner sharing of tetrahedra belonging to adjacent sheets results in a tetrahedral framework. The framework density of the structure is 15.2 T-atoms/1000 Å 3. The coordination sequences are identical for both silicon atoms in the asymmetric unit: 3-6-11-20-32-46-60-80-102-122. The vertex symbols for the two tetrahedral centers are 10 2·10 2·6 1. Topologically, the structure can be described as an Archimedean three-dimensional 3-connected net. It can be derived from the diamond or cristobalite net by removing 20% of the knots. Charge compensation in the structure is achieved by the incorporation of mono- and divalent M-cations ( M: K, Ca). These extra-framework ions are coordinated by six to nine oxygen ligands. Ca/K distributions for the five symmetrically independent M-sites were obtained from a combination of bond distance considerations, site occupancy refinements and the bulk chemical composition. The structural characterization is completed by a detailed Raman spectroscopic study. Furthermore, possible implications of the structural chemistry of interrupted framework silicates for the field of silicate glass research are addressed.

  1. Statistical comparison of reverberation times measured by the integrated impulse response and interrupted noise methods, computationally simulated with ODEON software, and calculated by Sabine, Eyring and Arau-Puchades’ formulas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina Reich Marcon Passero; Paulo Henrique Trombetta Zannin

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates several procedures to determine the reverberation time, RT, in a classroom. These procedures are: (1) measurement by the integrated impulse response method, (2) measurement by the interrupted noise method, (3) computer simulation using ODEON Version 9.0 software, and (4) calculations using the Sabine, Eyring, and Arau-Puchades formulas. The resulting data are analyzed statistically to verify their similarity.

  2. Evaluation of the impact of transient interruption of antiangiogenic treatment using ultrasound-based techniques in a murine model of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of escape pathways from antiangiogenic treatments was reported to be associated with enhanced tumor aggressiveness and rebound effect was suggested after treatment stop. Aim of the study was to evaluate tumor response simulating different conditions of administration of antiangiogenic treatment (transient or definitive treatment stop) in a mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods Subcutaneous tumors were created by inoculating 5×106 Huh7 cells into the right flank of 14 nude mice. When tumor size reached 5–10 mm, mice were divided in 3 groups: group 1 was treated with placebo, group 2 was treated with sorafenib (62 mg/kg via gavage) but temporarily suspended from day +5 to +9, whereas in group 3 sorafenib was definitively stopped at day +5. At day +13 all mice were sacrificed, collecting masses for Western-Blot analyses. Volume was calculated with B-mode ultrasonography at day 0, +5, +9, +11 and +13. VEGFR2-targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound using BR55 (Bracco Imaging) was performed at day +5 and +13 and elastonosography (Esaote) at day +9 and +11 to assess tumor stiffness. Results Median growth percentage delta at day +13 versus day 0 was 197% (115–329) in group 1, 81% (48–144) in group 2 and 111% (27–167) in group 3. Median growth delta at day +13 with respect to day +5 was 79% (48–127), 37% (?14128) and 81% (15–87) in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Quantification of targeted-CEUS at day +13 showed higher values in group 3 (509 Arbitrary Units AI, range 293–652) than group 1 (275 AI, range 191–494) and group 2 (181 AI, range 63–318) (p?=?0.033). Western-Blot analysis demonstrated higher VEGFR2 expression in group 3 with respect to group 1 and 2. Conclusions A transient interruption of antiangiogenic treatment does not impede restoration of tumor response, while a definitive interruption tends to stimulate a rebound of angiogenesis to higher level than without treatment. PMID:24902850

  3. Antiretroviral treatment interruption and loss to follow-up in two HIV cohorts in Australia and Asia: implications for 'test and treat' prevention strategy.

    PubMed

    Guy, Rebecca; Wand, Handan; McManus, Hamish; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Woolley, Ian; Honda, Miwako; Read, Tim; Sirisanthana, Thira; Zhou, Julian; Carr, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    Both antiretroviral treatment interruption (TI) and cessation have been strongly discouraged since 2006. We describe the incidence, duration, and risk factors for TI and loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) rates across 13 countries. All 4689 adults (76% men) in two large HIV cohorts in Australia and Asia commencing combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) to March 2010 were included. TI was defined by ART cessation >30 days, then recommencement, and loss to follow-up (LTFU) by no visit since 31 March 2009 and no record of death. Survival analysis and Poisson regression methods were used. With median follow-up of 4.4 years [interquartile range (IQR):2.1-6.5], TI incidence was 6.7 per 100 person years (PY) (95% CI:6.1-7.3) pre-2006, falling to 2.0 (95% CI:1.7-2.2) from 2006 (p<0.01). LTFU incidence was 3.5 per 100 PY (95% CI:3.1-3.9) pre-2006, and 4.1 (95% CI:3.5-4.9) from 2006 (p=0.22). TIs accounted for 6.4% of potential time on ART pre-2006 and 1.2% from 2006 (p<0.01), and LTFU 4.7% of potential time on ART pre-2006 and 6.6% from 2006 (p<0.01). Median TI duration was 163 (IQR: 75-391) days pre-2006 and 118 (IQR: 67-270) days from 2006 (p<0.01). Independent risk factors for the first TI were: Australia HIV Observational Database participation; ART initiation pre-2006; ART regimens including stavudine and didanosine; three nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors; ?7 pills per day; and ART with food restrictions (fasting or with food). In conclusion, since 2006, 7.8% of patients had significant time off treatment, which has the potential to compromise any 'test and treat' policy as during the interruption viral load will rebound and increase the risk of transmission. PMID:24320013

  4. Antiretroviral Treatment Interruption and Loss to Follow-Up in Two HIV Cohorts in Australia and Asia: Implications for ‘Test and Treat’ Prevention Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Wand, Handan; McManus, Hamish; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Woolley, Ian; Honda, Miwako; Read, Tim; Sirisanthana, Thira; Zhou, Julian; Carr, on behalf of Australia HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and Treat Asia HIV Observation Database (TAHOD), Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Both antiretroviral treatment interruption (TI) and cessation have been strongly discouraged since 2006. We describe the incidence, duration, and risk factors for TI and loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) rates across 13 countries. All 4689 adults (76% men) in two large HIV cohorts in Australia and Asia commencing combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) to March 2010 were included. TI was defined by ART cessation >30 days, then recommencement, and loss to follow-up (LTFU) by no visit since 31 March 2009 and no record of death. Survival analysis and Poisson regression methods were used. With median follow-up of 4.4 years [interquartile range (IQR):2.1–6.5], TI incidence was 6.7 per 100 person years (PY) (95% CI:6.1–7.3) pre-2006, falling to 2.0 (95% CI:1.7–2.2) from 2006 (p<0.01). LTFU incidence was 3.5 per 100 PY (95% CI:3.1–3.9) pre-2006, and 4.1 (95% CI:3.5–4.9) from 2006 (p=0.22). TIs accounted for 6.4% of potential time on ART pre-2006 and 1.2% from 2006 (p<0.01), and LTFU 4.7% of potential time on ART pre-2006 and 6.6% from 2006 (p<0.01). Median TI duration was 163 (IQR: 75–391) days pre-2006 and 118 (IQR: 67–270) days from 2006 (p<0.01). Independent risk factors for the first TI were: Australia HIV Observational Database participation; ART initiation pre-2006; ART regimens including stavudine and didanosine; three nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors; ?7 pills per day; and ART with food restrictions (fasting or with food). In conclusion, since 2006, 7.8% of patients had significant time off treatment, which has the potential to compromise any ‘test and treat’ policy as during the interruption viral load will rebound and increase the risk of transmission. PMID:24320013

  5. Sequential depletion of rat testicular lipids with long-chain and very long-chain polyenoic fatty acids after X-ray-induced interruption of spermatogenesis[S

    PubMed Central

    Oresti, Gerardo M.; Ayuza Aresti, Pablo L.; Gigola, Graciela; Reyes, Luis E.; Aveldaño, Marta I.

    2010-01-01

    When a single dose of X-rays is applied to the adult rat testis, stem spermatogonia are damaged, and spermatogenesis is interrupted. Supported by Sertoli cells, spermatogenic cells that endure irradiation complete their differentiation and gradually leave the testis as spermatozoa. In this study, the in vivo changes taking place a number of weeks after irradiation revealed cell-specific features of testicular lipid classes. A linear drop, taking about six weeks, in testis weight, nonlipid materials, free cholesterol, and 22:5n-6-rich glycerophospholipids took place with germ cell depletion. Sphingomyelins and ceramides with nonhydroxy very long-chain polyenoic fatty acids (n-VLCPUFA) disappeared in four weeks, together with the last spermatocytes, whereas species with 2-hydroxy VLCPUFA lasted for six weeks, disappearing with the last spermatids and spermatozoa. The amount per testis of 22:5n-6-rich triacylglycerols, unchanged for four weeks, fell between weeks 4 and 6, associating these lipids with spermatids and their residual bodies, detected as small, bright lipid droplets. In contrast, 22:5n-6-rich species of cholesterol esters and large lipid droplets increased in seminiferous tubules up to week 6, revealing they are Sertoli cell products. At week 30, the lipid and fatty acid profiles reflected the resulting permanent testicular involution. Our data highlight the importance of Sertoli cells in maintaining lipid homeostasis during normal spermatogenesis. PMID:20529883

  6. Should antiplatelet therapy be interrupted in drug eluting stent recipients throughout the periendoscopic period? A very late stent thrombosis case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dong, Peng; Yang, Xin-Chun; Bian, Su-Yan

    2014-09-01

    In-stent thrombosis after cessation of antiplatelet medications in patients with drug-eluting stents (DES) is a significant problem in medical practice, particularly in the perioperative period. We report a case of an 87-year-old man with a medical history of hypertension, coronary artery disease and chronic atrophic gastritis. Very late thrombosis of a sirolimus-eluting stent occurred 1207 days after implantation, seven months after discontinuation of clopidogrel, and the interruption of aspirin 13 days in preparation of an elective endoscopic gastrointestinal procedure presented with acute myocardial infarction. The patient was treated with thrombectomy and successfully revascularized with superimposition of two sirolimus-eluting stents. Medications administered in the catheterization laboratory included low molecular weight heparin and nitroglycerin. Flow was defined as grade 2 according to the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction scale. Electrocardiogram after the procedure revealed persistent, but decreased, ST-segment elevation in the anterolateral leads. The patient recovered and was discharged on aspirin and clopidogrel indefinitely. There was no cardiac event during the two year follow-up period. This case underlines the importance of maintaining the balance of thrombosis and bleeding during perioperation of non-cardiac procedure and the possible need for continuation of aspirin therapy during periendoscopic procedures among patients with low bleeding risks who received DES. PMID:25278977

  7. Hog1 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Interrupts Signal Transduction between the Kss1 MAPK and the Tec1 Transcription Factor To Maintain Pathway Specificity? †

    PubMed Central

    Shock, Teresa R.; Thompson, James; Yates, John R.; Madhani, Hiten D.

    2009-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mating, filamentous growth (FG), and high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways share components and yet mediate distinct responses to different extracellular signals. Cross talk is suppressed between the mating and FG pathways because mating signaling induces the destruction of the FG transcription factor Tec1. We show here that HOG pathway activation results in phosphorylation of the FG MAPK, Kss1, and the MAPKK, Ste7. However, FG transcription is not activated because HOG signaling prevents the activation of Tec1. In contrast to the mating pathway, we find that the mechanism involves the inhibition of DNA binding by Tec1 rather than its destruction. We also find that nuclear accumulation of Tec1 is not affected by HOG signaling. Inhibition by Hog1 is apparently indirect since it does not require any of the consensus S/TP MAPK phosphorylation sites on Tec1, its DNA-binding partner Ste12, or the associated regulators Dig1 or Dig2. It also does not require the consensus MAPK sites of the Ste11 activator Ste50, in contrast to a recent proposal for a role for negative feedback in specificity. Our results demonstrate that HOG signaling interrupts the FG pathway signal transduction between the phosphorylation of Kss1 and the activation of DNA binding by Tec1. PMID:19218425

  8. Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) interrupts signal transduction between the Kss1 MAPK and the Tec1 transcription factor to maintain pathway specificity.

    PubMed

    Shock, Teresa R; Thompson, James; Yates, John R; Madhani, Hiten D

    2009-04-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mating, filamentous growth (FG), and high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways share components and yet mediate distinct responses to different extracellular signals. Cross talk is suppressed between the mating and FG pathways because mating signaling induces the destruction of the FG transcription factor Tec1. We show here that HOG pathway activation results in phosphorylation of the FG MAPK, Kss1, and the MAPKK, Ste7. However, FG transcription is not activated because HOG signaling prevents the activation of Tec1. In contrast to the mating pathway, we find that the mechanism involves the inhibition of DNA binding by Tec1 rather than its destruction. We also find that nuclear accumulation of Tec1 is not affected by HOG signaling. Inhibition by Hog1 is apparently indirect since it does not require any of the consensus S/TP MAPK phosphorylation sites on Tec1, its DNA-binding partner Ste12, or the associated regulators Dig1 or Dig2. It also does not require the consensus MAPK sites of the Ste11 activator Ste50, in contrast to a recent proposal for a role for negative feedback in specificity. Our results demonstrate that HOG signaling interrupts the FG pathway signal transduction between the phosphorylation of Kss1 and the activation of DNA binding by Tec1. PMID:19218425

  9. Design and current status of CONTINT: continuous versus interrupted abdominal wall closure after emergency midline laparotomy - a randomized controlled multicenter trial [NCT00544583

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The optimal strategy for abdominal wall closure has been an issue of ongoing debate. Available studies do not specifically enroll patients who undergo emergency laparotomy and thus do not consider the distinct biological characteristics of these patients. The present randomized controlled trial evaluates the efficacy and safety of two commonly applied abdominal wall closure strategies in patients undergoing primary emergency midline laparotomy. Methods/design The CONTINT trial is a multicenter, open label, randomized controlled trial with a two-group parallel design. Patients undergoing a primary emergency midline laparotomy are enrolled in the trial. The two most commonly applied strategies of abdominal wall closure after midline laparotomy are compared: the continuous, all-layer suture technique using slowly absorbable monofilament material (two Monoplus® loops) and the interrupted suture technique using rapidly absorbable braided material (Vicryl® sutures). The primary endpoint within the CONTINT trial is an incisional hernia within 12 months or a burst abdomen within 30 days after surgery. As reliable data on this primary endpoint is not available for patients undergoing emergency surgery, an adaptive interim analysis will be conducted after the inclusion of 80 patients, allowing early termination of the trial if necessary or modification of design characteristics such as recalculation of sample size. Discussion This is a randomized controlled multicenter trial with a two-group parallel design to assess the efficacy and safety of two commonly applied abdominal wall closure strategies in patients undergoing primary emergency midline laparotomy. Trial registration NCT00544583 PMID:22647387

  10. Implementation and Evaluation of a Wiki Involving Multiple Stakeholders Including Patients in the Promotion of Best Practices in Trauma Care: The WikiTrauma Interrupted Time Series Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Alexis F; Witteman, Holly O; Lauzier, François; Moore, Lynne; Lamontagne, François; Horsley, Tanya; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Droit, Arnaud; Weiss, Matthew; Tremblay, Sébastien; Lachaine, Jean; Le Sage, Natalie; Émond, Marcel; Berthelot, Simon; Plaisance, Ariane; Lapointe, Jean; Razek, Tarek; van de Belt, Tom H; Brand, Kevin; Bérubé, Mélanie; Clément, Julien; Grajales III, Francisco Jose; Eysenbach, Gunther; Kuziemsky, Craig; Friedman, Debbie; Lang, Eddy; Muscedere, John; Rizoli, Sandro; Roberts, Derek J; Scales, Damon C; Sinuff, Tasnim; Stelfox, Henry T; Gagnon, Isabelle; Chabot, Christian; Grenier, Richard; Légaré, France

    2015-01-01

    Background Trauma is the most common cause of mortality among people between the ages of 1 and 45 years, costing Canadians 19.8 billion dollars a year (2004 data), yet half of all patients with major traumatic injuries do not receive evidence-based care, and significant regional variation in the quality of care across Canada exists. Accordingly, our goal is to lead a research project in which stakeholders themselves will adapt evidence-based trauma care knowledge tools to their own varied institutional contexts and cultures. We will do this by developing and assessing the combined impact of WikiTrauma, a free collaborative database of clinical decision support tools, and Wiki101, a training course teaching participants how to use WikiTrauma. WikiTrauma has the potential to ensure that all stakeholders (eg, patients, clinicians, and decision makers) can all contribute to, and benefit from, evidence-based clinical knowledge about trauma care that is tailored to their own needs and clinical setting. Objective Our main objective will be to study the combined effect of WikiTrauma and Wiki101 on the quality of care in four trauma centers in Quebec. Methods First, we will pilot-test the wiki with potential users to create a version ready to test in practice. A rapid, iterative prototyping process with 15 health professionals from nonparticipating centers will allow us to identify and resolve usability issues prior to finalizing the definitive version for the interrupted time series. Second, we will conduct an interrupted time series to measure the impact of our combined intervention on the quality of care in four trauma centers that will be selected—one level I, one level II, and two level III centers. Participants will be health care professionals working in the selected trauma centers. Also, five patient representatives will be recruited to participate in the creation of knowledge tools destined for their use (eg, handouts). All participants will be invited to complete the Wiki101 training and then use, and contribute to, WikiTrauma for 12 months. The primary outcome will be the change over time of a validated, composite, performance indicator score based on 15 process performance indicators found in the Quebec Trauma Registry. Results This project was funded in November 2014 by the Canadian Medical Protective Association. We expect to start this trial in early 2015 and preliminary results should be available in June 2016. Two trauma centers have already agreed to participate and two more will be recruited in the next months. Conclusions We expect that this study will add important and unique evidence about the effectiveness, safety, and cost savings of using collaborative platforms to adapt knowledge implementation tools across jurisdictions. PMID:25699546

  11. The effect of regulatory advisories on maternal antidepressant prescribing, 1995–2007: an interrupted time-series study of 228,876 pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Bobo, William V.; Epstein, Richard A.; Hayes, Rachel M.; Shelton, Richard C.; Hartert, Tina V.; Mitchel, Ed; Horner, Jeff; Wu, Pingsheng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess whether antidepressant prescribing during pregnancy decreased following release of U.S. and Canadian public health advisory warnings about the risk of perinatal complications with antidepressants. Methods We analyzed data from 228,876 singleton pregnancies among women (aged 15–44 years) continuously enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid with full pharmacy benefits (1995–2007). Antidepressant prescribing was determined through outpatient pharmacy dispensing files. Information on sociodemographic and clinical factors was obtained from enrollment files and linked birth certificates. An interrupted time-series design with segmented regression analysis was used to quantify the impact of the advisory warnings (2002–2005). Results Antidepressant prescribing rates increased steadily from 1995–2001, followed by sharper increases from 2002–late 2004. Overall antidepressant prescribing prevalence was 34.51 prescriptions (95% CI 33.37–35.65) per 1,000 women in January 2002, and increased at a rate of 0.46 (95% CI 0.41–0.52) prescriptions per 1,000 women per month until the end of the pre-warning period (May 2004). During the post-warning period (October 2004 – June 2005), antidepressant prescribing decreased by 1.48 (95% CI 1.62-1.35) prescriptions per 1,000 women per month. These trends were observed for both SSRI and non-SSRI antidepressants, although SSRI prescribing decreased at a greater rate. Conclusion Antidepressant prescribing to pregnant women in Tennessee Medicaid increased from 1995–late 2004. U.S. and Canadian public health advisories about antidepressant-associated perinatal complications were associated with steady decreases in antidepressant prescribing from late 2004 until the end of the study period, suggesting that the advisory warnings were impactful on antidepressant prescribing in pregnancy. PMID:24196827

  12. Episomal viral cDNAs identify a reservoir that fuels viral rebound after treatment interruption and that contributes to treatment failure.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Mark; Babic, Dunja Z; Greenough, Thomas; Gulick, Roy; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Stevenson, Mario

    2011-02-01

    Viral reservoirs that persist in HIV-1 infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are the major obstacle to viral eradication. The identification and definition of viral reservoirs in patients on ART is needed in order to understand viral persistence and achieve the goal of viral eradication. We examined whether analysis of episomal HIV-1 genomes provided the means to characterize virus that persists during ART and whether it could reveal the virus that contributes to treatment failure in patients on ART. For six individuals in which virus replication was highly suppressed for at least 20 months, proviral and episomal genomes present just prior to rebound were phylogenetically compared to RNA genomes of rebounding virus after therapy interruption. Episomal envelope sequences, but not proviral envelope sequences, were highly similar to sequences in rebounding virus. Since episomes are products of recent infections, the phylogenetic relationships support the conclusion that viral rebound originated from a cryptic viral reservoir. To evaluate whether the reservoir revealed by episomal sequence analysis was of clinical relevance, we examined whether episomal sequences define a viral population that contributes to virologic failure in individuals receiving the CCR5 antagonist, Vicriviroc. Episomal envelope sequences at or near baseline predicted treatment failure due to the presence of X4 or D/M (dual/mixed) viral variants. In patients that did not harbor X4 or D/M viruses, the basis for Vicriviroc treatment failure was indeterminate. Although these samples were obtained from viremic patients, the assay would be applicable to a large percentage of aviremic patients, based on previous studies. Summarily, the results support the use of episomal HIV-1 as an additional or alternative approach to traditional assays to characterize virus that is maintained during long-term, suppressive ART. PMID:21383975

  13. Interruption of macrophage-derived IL-27(p28) production by IL-10 during sepsis requires STAT3 but not SOCS3.

    PubMed

    Bosmann, Markus; Russkamp, Norman F; Strobl, Birgit; Roewe, Julian; Balouzian, Liza; Pache, Florence; Radsak, Markus P; van Rooijen, Nico; Zetoune, Firas S; Sarma, J Vidya; Núñez, Gabriel; Müller, Mathias; Murray, Peter J; Ward, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Severe sepsis and septic shock are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Infection-associated inflammation promotes the development and progression of adverse outcomes in sepsis. The effects of heterodimeric IL-27 (p28/EBI3) have been implicated in the natural course of sepsis, whereas the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of gene expression and release of IL-27 in sepsis are poorly understood. We studied the events regulating the p28 subunit of IL-27 in endotoxic shock and polymicrobial sepsis following cecal ligation and puncture. Neutralizing Abs to IL-27(p28) improved survival rates, restricted cytokine release, and reduced bacterial burden in C57BL/6 mice during sepsis. Genetic disruption of IL-27 signaling enhanced the respiratory burst of macrophages. Experiments using splenectomized mice or treatment with clodronate liposomes suggested that macrophages in the spleen may be a significant source of IL-27(p28) during sepsis. In cultures of TLR4-activated macrophages, the frequency of F4/80(+)CD11b(+)IL-27(p28)(+) cells was reduced by the addition of IL-10. IL-10 antagonized both MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent release of IL-27(p28). Genetic deletion of STAT3 in Tie2-Cre/STAT3flox macrophages completely interrupted the inhibition of IL-27(p28) by IL-10 after TLR4 activation. In contrast, IL-10 remained fully active to suppress IL-27(p28) with deletion of SOCS3 in Tie2-Cre/SOCS3flox macrophages. Blockade of IL-10R by Ab or genetic deficiency of IL-10 resulted in 3-5-fold higher concentrations of IL-27(p28) in endotoxic shock and polymicrobial sepsis. Our studies identify IL-10 as a critical suppressing factor for IL-27(p28) production during infection-associated inflammation. These findings may be helpful for a beneficial manipulation of adverse IL-27(p28) release during sepsis. PMID:25348624

  14. Schistosoma haematobium detection in snails by DraI PCR and Sh110/Sm-Sl PCR: further evidence of the interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This is the first study in Morocco to estimate snail infection rates at the last historic transmission sites of schistosomiasis, known to be free from new infection among humans since 2004. Screening of large numbers of snails for infection is one way to confirm that Schistosoma haematobium transmission has stopped and does not resurge. Methods A total of 2703 Bulinus truncatus snails were collected from 24 snail habitats in five provinces of Morocco: Errachidia, El Kelaa des Sraghna, Tata, Beni Mellal, and Chtouka Ait Baha. All visible snails were collected with a scoop net or by hand. We used waders and gloves as simple precautions. Snails were morphologically identified according to Moroccan Health Ministry guide of schistosomiasis (1982). All snails were analyzed in pools by molecular tool, using primers from the newly identified repeated DNA sequence, termed DraI, in the S. haematobium group. To distinguish S. bovis and S. haematobium, the snails were analyzed by Sh110/Sm-Sl PCR that was specific of S. haematobium. Results The results showed that snails from Errachidia, Chtouka Ait Baha, sector of Agoujgal in Tata and sector of Mbarkiya in El kelaa des Sraghna were negative for DraI PCR; but, snails from remaining snail habitats of El Kelaa des Sraghna, Tata and Beni Mellal were positive. This led to suggest the presence of circulating schistosome species (S. haematobium, S. bovis or others) within these positive snail habitats. Subsequently, confirmation with S. haematobium species specific molecular assay, Sh110/Sm-Sl PCR, showed that none of the collected snails were infected by S. haematobium in all historic endemic areas. Conclusion The absence of S. haematobium infection in snails supports the argument of S. haematobium transmission interruption in Morocco. PMID:24962624

  15. Compromised local control due to treatment interruptions and late treatment breaks in early glottic cancer: Population-based outcomes study supporting need for intensified treatment schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Groome, Patti A. [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen's Cancer Research Institute, Queen's University, Kingston, ON (Canada)]. E-mail: patti.groome@krcc.on.ca; O'Sullivan, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Mackillop, William J. [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen's Cancer Research Institute, Queen's University, Kingston, ON (Canada); Jackson, Lynda D. [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen's Cancer Research Institute, Queen's University, Kingston, ON (Canada); Schulze, Karleen M.Math. [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen's Cancer Research Institute, Queen's University, Kingston, ON (Canada); Irish, Jonathan C. [Department of Otolaryngology, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Warde, Padraig R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Schneider, Ken M. [Regional Cancer Centres, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, ON (Canada); Mackenzie, Robert G. [Regional Cancer Centres, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hodson, D. Ian [Regional Cancer Centres, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hammond, J. Alex [Regional Cancer Centres, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, ON (Canada); Gulavita, Sunil P.P. [Regional Cancer Centres, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, ON (Canada); Eapen, Libni J. [Regional Cancer Centres, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, ON (Canada); Dixon, Peter F. M.B. [Regional Cancer Centres, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bissett, Randy J. [Regional Cancer Centres, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: This population-based study describes the treatment of early glottic cancer in Ontario, Canada and assesses whether treatment variations were associated with treatment effectiveness. Methods and Materials: We studied 491 T1N0 and 213 T2N0 patients. Data abstracted from charts included age, sex, stage, treatment details, disease control, and survival. Results: The total dose ranged from 50 to 70 Gy, and the daily dose ranged from 1.9 to 2.8 Gy. In 90%, treatment duration was between 25 and 50 days. Field sizes, field reductions, beam arrangement, and beam energy varied. Late treatment breaks occurred in 13.6% of T1N0 and 27.1% of T2N0 cases. Local control was comparable to other reports for T1N0 (82% at 5 years), but was only 63.2% in T2N0. Variables associated with local failure in T1N0 were age less than 49 years (relative risk [RR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-6.90) and >3 treatment interruption days (RR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.00-5.91). In T2N0, these were field reduction (RR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.23-4.42) and late treatment breaks (RR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.09-4.41). Conclusion: Some aspects of treatment for early glottic cancer were associated with worse local control. Problems with protracted treatment are of particular concern, underscoring the need for randomized studies to intensify radiotherapy.

  16. Ligustrazine attenuates oxidative stress-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells by interrupting platelet-derived growth factor-? receptor-mediated ERK and p38 pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China)] [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Ni, Chunyan [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China) [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); The First People's Hospital of Changzhou, Changzhou 213003 (China); Kong, Desong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhu, Xiaojing; Chen, Li [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China)] [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Lu, Yin [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China) [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China); National First-Class Key Discipline for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China); Zheng, Shizhong, E-mail: nytws@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China) [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China); National First-Class Key Discipline for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Hepatic fibrosis represents a frequent event following chronic insult to trigger wound healing reactions with accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the liver. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the pivotal event during liver fibrogenesis. Compelling evidence indicates that oxidative stress is concomitant with liver fibrosis irrespective of the underlying etiology. Natural antioxidant ligustrazine exhibits potent antifibrotic activities, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Our studies were to investigate the ligustrazine effects on HSC activation stimulated by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), an in vitro model mimicking the oxidative stress in liver fibrogenesis, and to elucidate the possible mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at 5 ?M significantly stimulated HSC proliferation and expression of marker genes of HSC activation; whereas ligustrazine dose-dependently suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-activated HSCs, and attenuated expression of fibrotic marker genes. Mechanistic investigations revealed that ligustrazine reduced platelet-derived growth factor-? receptor (PDGF-?R) expression and blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase, two downstream effectors of PDGF-?R. Further molecular evidence suggested that ligustrazine interruption of ERK and p38 pathways was dependent on the blockade of PDGF-?R and might be involved in ligustrazine reduction of fibrotic marker gene expression under H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stimulation. Furthermore, ligustrazine modulated some proteins critical for HSC activation and ECM homeostasis in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-stimulated HSCs. These data collectively indicated that ligustrazine could attenuate HSC activation caused by oxidative stress, providing novel insights into ligustrazine as a therapeutic option for hepatic fibrosis. Highlights: ? Ligustrazine inhibits oxidative stress-induced HSC activation. ? Ligustrazine reduces fibrotic marker genes in HSCs under oxidative stress. ? Disruption of PDGF-?R-mediated ERK and p38 pathways was involved. ? Ligustrazine could be a promising antifibrotic candidate.

  17. The effect of regulatory advisories on maternal antidepressant prescribing, 1995-2007: an interrupted time series study of 228,876 pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Bobo, William V; Epstein, Richard A; Hayes, Rachel M; Shelton, Richard C; Hartert, Tina V; Mitchel, Ed; Horner, Jeff; Wu, Pingsheng

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether antidepressant prescribing during pregnancy decreased following release of U.S. and Canadian public health advisory warnings about the risk of perinatal complications with antidepressants. We analyzed data from 228,876 singleton pregnancies among women (aged 15-44 years) continuously enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid with full pharmacy benefits (1995-2007). Antidepressant prescribing was determined through outpatient pharmacy dispensing files. Information on sociodemographic and clinical factors was obtained from enrollment files and linked birth certificates. An interrupted time series design with segmented regression analysis was used to quantify the impact of the advisory warnings (2002-2005). Antidepressant prescribing rates increased steadily from 1995 to 2001, followed by sharper increases from 2002 to late 2004. Overall antidepressant prescribing prevalence was 34.51 prescriptions [95 % confidence interval (CI) 33.37-35.65] per 1,000 women in January 2002, and increased at a rate of 0.46 (95 % CI 0.41-0.52) prescriptions per 1,000 women per month until the end of the pre-warning period (May 2004). During the post-warning period (October 2004-June 2005), antidepressant prescribing decreased by 1.48 (95 % CI 1.62-1.35) prescriptions per 1,000 women per month. These trends were observed for both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and non-SSRI antidepressants, although SSRI prescribing decreased at a greater rate. We conclude that antidepressant prescribing to pregnant women in Tennessee Medicaid increased from 1995 to late 2004. U.S. and Canadian public health advisories about antidepressant-associated perinatal complications were associated with steady decreases in antidepressant prescribing from late 2004 until the end of the study period, suggesting that the advisory warnings were impactful on antidepressant prescribing in pregnancy. PMID:24196827

  18. Microcontroller interrupts in frequency controlling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panoiu, C.; Rob, R.; Panoiu, M.

    2015-06-01

    Present paper represents an educational software application that permits to measure the signals frequency. The application is accomplished in MicroC compiler that also permit to user to program a microcontroller PIC18F45K22 using a developing board EasyPICv7. An important issue of present application is to measure the frequency of an external signal that is acquired by an input pin of the microcontroller. The frequency value is displayed on the seven segment display provided by the developing board.

  19. Curricula as Spaces of Interruption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests that there has been a move away from teaching as a means of transmitting information, towards supporting learning as a student-generated activity. There has been much work relating to this in the arena of problem-based learning, which to date has been seen as a relatively stable approach to learning, delineated by particular…

  20. Heat transfer from interrupted plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenka, R. L.; Loehrke, R. I.

    1983-02-01

    Heat transfer coefficients were measured in single and multiple flat plates equipped with interior heating elements and immersed in low Re flows in a wind tunnel. The plates were located successively in the tunnel and spanned the width of the channel. Attention was initially given to blunt leading edges, which were gradually reshaped in order to study various flow separation conditions over the course of the trials. Each plate was heated to 6 C over room temperature. The average value of a heat transfer coefficient for a single plate was determined to depend on the plate length and thickness, and may be inhibited by the leading edge separation bubble in the case of a blunt leading edge. Higher Re enhances the value of the coefficient. Turbulence induced by the presence of the first plate was observed to enhance heat transfer from the second plate.

  1. Performance Evaluation of a Multi-Port DC-DC Current Source Converter for High Power Applications 

    E-print Network

    Yancey, Billy Ferrall

    2011-08-08

    and ?23 = 0 (?12 0 ) ? Scenario 9: ?13 0 and ?12 < 0 ) These scenario studies were simulated with equal source voltages and a constant resistive load, i.e. V1 = V2 and RL1 = 50... predetermined range. By knowing how the load voltage varies with increasing or decreasing RL, ?13 can be adjusted to compensate the voltage back to its desired value. This is shown in Chapter IV. 41? ? 4. System Specifications and Control...

  2. Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Dyakonov; Michael Shur

    1993-01-01

    We demonstrate that electrons in a ballistic field effect transistor behave as a fluid similar to shallow water. Phenomena similar to wave and soliton propagation, hydraulic jump, and others should take place in this electron fluid. We show that a relatively slow electron flow should be unstable because of plasma wave amplification due to the reflection from the device boundaries.

  3. A cluster-randomized trial of mass drug administration with a gametocytocidal drug combination to interrupt malaria transmission in a low endemic area in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Effective mass drug administration (MDA) with anti-malarial drugs can clear the human infectious reservoir for malaria and thereby interrupt malaria transmission. The likelihood of success of MDA depends on the intensity and seasonality of malaria transmission, the efficacy of the intervention in rapidly clearing all malaria parasite stages and the degree to which symptomatic and asymptomatic parasite carriers participate in the intervention. The impact of MDA with the gametocytocidal drug combination sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus artesunate (AS) plus primaquine (PQ, single dose 0.75 mg/kg) on malaria transmission was determined in an area of very low and seasonal malaria transmission in northern Tanzania. Methods In a cluster-randomized trial in four villages in Lower Moshi, Tanzania, eight clusters (1,110 individuals; cluster size 47- 209) were randomized to observed treatment with SP+AS+PQ and eight clusters (2,347 individuals, cluster size 55- 737) to treatment with placebo over three days. Intervention and control clusters were 1km apart; households that were located between clusters were treated as buffer zones where all individuals received SP+AS+PQ but were not selected for the evaluation. Passive case detection was done for the entire cohort and active case detection in 149 children aged 1-10 year from the intervention arm and 143 from the control arm. Four cross-sectional surveys assessed parasite carriage by microscopy and molecular methods during a five-month follow-up period. Results The coverage rate in the intervention arm was 93.0% (1,117/1,201). Parasite prevalence by molecular detection methods was 2.2-2.7% prior to the intervention and undetectable during follow-up in both the control and intervention clusters. None of the slides collected during cross-sectional surveys had microscopically detectable parasite densities. Three clinical malaria episodes occurred in the intervention (n = 1) and control clusters (n = 2). Conclusions This study illustrates the possibility to achieve high coverage with a three-day intervention but also the difficulty in defining suitable outcome measures to evaluate interventions in areas of very low malaria transmission intensity. The decline in transmission intensity prior to the intervention made it impossible to assess the impact of MDA in the chosen study setting. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00509015 PMID:21864343

  4. Use of Interrupted Time-Series Method to Evaluate the Impact of Cigarette Excise Tax Increases in Pennsylvania, 2000–2009

    PubMed Central

    Kuller, Lewis H.; Fisher, Monica A.; Ostroff, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Scientific evidence shows that cigarette price increases can significantly reduce smoking prevalence and smoking initiation among adolescents and young adults. However, data are lacking regarding the effectiveness of increasing Pennsylvania’s cigarette tax to reduce smoking and/or adverse health effects of smoking. The objective of our study was to assess the impact of cigarette tax increases and resulting price increases on smoking prevalence, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and asthma hospitalization rates, and sudden cardiac death (SCD) rates in Pennsylvania. Methods We used segmented regression analyses of interrupted time series to evaluate the level and trend changes in Pennsylvania adults’ current smoking prevalence, age-adjusted AMI and asthma hospitalization rates, age-specific asthma hospitalization rates, and age-adjusted SCD rates following 2 cigarette excise tax increases. Results After the first excise tax increase, no beneficial effects were noted on the outcomes of interest. The second tax increase was associated with significant declines in smoking prevalence for people aged 18 to 39, age-adjusted AMI hospitalization rates for men, age-adjusted asthma hospitalizations rates, and SCD rates among men. Overall smoking prevalence declined by 5.2% (P = .01), with a quarterly decrease of 1.4% (P = .01) for people aged 18 to 39 years. The age-adjusted AMI hospitalization rate for men showed a decline of 3.87/100,000 population (P = .04). The rate of age-adjusted asthma hospitalizations decreased by 10.05/100,000 population (P < .001), and the quarterly trend decreased by 3.21/100,000 population (P < .001). Quarterly SCD rates for men decreased by 1.34/100,000 population (P < .001). Conclusion An increase in the price of cigarettes to more than $4 per 20-cigarette pack was associated with a significant decrease in smoking among younger people (aged 18–39). Decreases were also seen in asthma hospitalizations and men’s age-adjusted AMI hospitalization and SCD rates. Further research and policy development regarding the effect of cigarette taxes on tobacco consumption should be cognizant of the psychological tipping points at which overall price affects smoking patterns. PMID:24135393

  5. Impact of clinical trial findings on Bell's palsy management in general practice in the UK 2001–2012: interrupted time series regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Daniel R; Donnan, Peter T; Daly, Fergus; Staa, Tjeerd Van; Sullivan, Frank M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To measure the incidence of Bell's palsy and determine the impact of clinical trial findings on Bell's palsy management in the UK. Design Interrupted time series regression analysis and incidence measures. Setting General practices in the UK contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Participants Patients ?16?years with a diagnosis of Bell's palsy between 2001 and 2012. Interventions (1) Publication of the 2004 Cochrane reviews of clinical trials on corticosteroids and antivirals for Bell's palsy, which made no clear recommendation on their use and (2) publication of the 2007 Scottish Bell's Palsy Study (SBPS), which made a clear recommendation that treatment with prednisolone alone improves chances for complete recovery. Main outcome measures Incidence of Bell's palsy per 100?000 person-years. Changes in the management of Bell's palsy with either prednisolone therapy, antiviral therapy, combination therapy (prednisolone with antiviral therapy) or untreated cases. Results During the 12-year period, 14?460 cases of Bell's palsy were identified with an overall incidence of 37.7/100?000 person-years. The 2004 Cochrane reviews were associated with immediate falls in prednisolone therapy (?6.3% (?11.0 to ?1.6)), rising trends in combination therapy (1.1% per quarter (0.5 to 1.7)) and falling trends for untreated cases (?0.8% per quarter (?1.4 to ?0.3)). SBPS was associated with immediate increases in prednisolone therapy (5.1% (0.9 to 9.3)) and rising trends in prednisolone therapy (0.7% per quarter (0.4 to 1.2)); falling trends in combination therapy (?1.7% per quarter (?2.2 to ?1.3)); and rising trends for untreated cases (1.2% per quarter (0.8 to 1.6)). Despite improvements, 44% still remain untreated. Conclusions SBPS was clearly associated with change in management, but a significant proportion of patients failed to receive effective treatment, which cannot be fully explained. Clarity and uncertainty in clinical trial recommendations may change clinical practice. However, better ways are needed to understand and circumvent barriers in implementing clinical trial findings. PMID:23864211

  6. The effects of financial incentives for case finding for depression in patients with diabetes and coronary heart disease: interrupted time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    McLintock, Kate; Russell, Amy M; Alderson, Sarah L; West, Robert; House, Allan; Westerman, Karen; Foy, Robbie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) incentivised case finding for depression on diagnosis and treatment in targeted and non-targeted long-term conditions. Design Interrupted time series analysis. Setting General practices in Leeds, UK. Participants 65 (58%) of 112 general practices shared data on 37?229 patients with diabetes and coronary heart disease targeted by case finding incentives, and 101?008 patients with four other long-term conditions not targeted (hypertension, epilepsy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma). Intervention Incentivised case finding for depression using two standard screening questions. Main outcome measures Clinical codes indicating new depression-related diagnoses and new prescriptions of antidepressants. We extracted routinely recorded data from February 2002 through April 2012. The number of new diagnoses and prescriptions for those on registers was modelled with a binomial regression, which provided the strength of associations between time periods and their rates. Results New diagnoses of depression increased from 21 to 94/100?000 per month in targeted patients between the periods 2002–2004 and 2007–2011 (OR 2.09; 1.92 to 2.27). The rate increased from 27 to 77/100?000 per month in non-targeted patients (OR 1.53; 1.46 to 1.62). The slopes in prescribing for both groups flattened to zero immediately after QOF was introduced but before incentivised case finding (p<0.01 for both). Antidepressant prescribing in targeted patients returned to the pre-QOF secular upward trend (Wald test for equivalence of slope, z=0.73, p=0.47); the slope was less steep for non-targeted patients (z=?4.14, p<0.01). Conclusions Incentivised case finding increased new depression-related diagnoses. The establishment of QOF disrupted rising trends in new prescriptions of antidepressants, which resumed following the introduction of incentivised case finding. Prescribing trends are of concern given that they may include people with mild-to-moderate depression unlikely to respond to such treatment. PMID:25142262

  7. Localized corrosion susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zn alloy AF/C458 due to interrupted quenching from solutionizing temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertz, J. E.; Gouma, P. I.; Buchheit, R. G.

    2001-10-01

    Isothermal time-temperature-localized corrosion-behavior curves were determined for the Al-1.8Li-2.70Cu-0.6Mg-0.3Zn alloy AF/C458, to understand the effect of slow or delayed quenching on localized corrosion susceptibility. Alloy samples were subject to a series of systematic interrupted quenching experiments conducted at temperatures ranging from 480 °C to 230 °C for times ranging from 5 to 1000 seconds. Individual samples were then exposed to an oxidizing aqueous chloride solution consisting of 57 g/L NaCl plus 10 mL/L H2O2 to induce localized attack. The localized corrosion mode was characterized by optical microscopy. Additionally, the microstructure of selected samples was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to relate the corrosion mode and morphology to microstructural features. Results showed that only pitting attack was exhibited by samples subjected to isothermal treatment at temperatures greater than 430 °C. At temperatures ranging from 280 °C to 430 °C, isothermal treatment tended to induce susceptibility to intergranular attack (IGA) and intersubgranular attack (ISGA) for all treatment times investigated. For isothermal treatments at temperatures lower than 280 °C, only pitting was observed for treatment times less than about 30 seconds, while IGA and ISGA were observed for longer treatment times. Comparisons showed that the time-temperature domains for IGA and ISGA were virtually coincident. Based on this finding and the results from TEM characterization, IGA and ISGA appear to be related to the precipitation of a Zn-modified T 1 (Al2(Cu,Zn)Li) precipitate, which can occur both on low-angle and high-angle grain boundaries in this alloy. When the alloy is resistant to IGA and ISGA, the grain boundaries are decorated by ?' (Al2Cu), and T B (Al7Cu4Li) phase particles, or subgrain boundaries are populated by a comparatively low density of T 1 precipitates. It is, therefore, speculated that ?' and T B are more corrosion-resistant precipitate phases than T 1, and that a critical concentration of boundary T 1 must exist for IGA or ISGA to occur.

  8. After 66 years, the University of Washington will confer honorary degrees upon Japanese Americans whose studies were interrupted by time in internment camps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Man who helped inspire ceremony may not attendhttp://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2004391404_uwjapaneseryo24m.htmlJapanese American Exhibit and Access Projecthttp://www.lib.washington.edu/exhibits/harmony/Densho: The Japanese American Legacy Project [Real Player, Quick Time]http://www.densho.org/U.S. Office of War Information: Japanese Relocationhttp://www.archive.org/details/Japanese1943Ansel Adams's Photographs of Japanese-American Internment at Manzanarhttp://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/anseladams/Ryo Kumasaka is set to receive an honorary degree from the University of Washington in a few days, but he's not sure whether or not he'll show up to receive it. Kumasaka's situation is a bit different than most students today, as his studies were interrupted by a decision by the United States government to move thousands of Japanese Americans to internment camps several months after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. A number of people moved to these camps happened to be students at the University of Washington, and after the war was over, some were able to return to finish their degrees and some were not. Several faculty members at the University of Washington have been working to make the degrees a reality, including Gail Nomura, who recently commented, "We don't want this story to be forgotten. Civil liberties are a special thing. Only when we lose them do we realize how important it is to protect and defend them all." While a number of Kumasaka's former classmates will be at the commencement ceremony on May 18th in Seattle, he remains a bit ambivalent about the honor, "I can take it or leave it. It doesn't matter one way or the other. It's too late for that to have any effect on my life." The first link will take visitors to a news article from this Monday's Seattle Times about the upcoming honorary degree ceremony at the University of Washington. The second link leads to another article from the Seattle Times about Kumasaka, complete with an audio clip of him talking about his experiences on the way to the internment camp. Moving on, the third link leads to the Japanese American Exhibit and Access Project at the University of Washington Libraries. Here visitors can view images from the camps, read oral histories of the students who were moved to the camps, and also look over a number of historical documents from the period. The fourth link takes users to the Densho Digital Archives site, which provides access to many hours of interviews with Japanese Americans who spent time in the internment camps and a wide range of related educational resources. The fifth link leads to a film created by the U.S. Office of War Information in 1943 that attempts to offer a justification for the relocation of thousands of Japanese Americans into the internment campus. Finally, the last link will take users to a moving exhibit of photographs taken by Ansel Adams at the internment camp in Manzanar, California in 1943 offered by the American Memory project at the Library of Congress.

  9. Closure of the rectus sheath with a continuous looped suture and the skin with staples in dogs: speed, safety, and costs compared to closure of the rectus sheath with interrupted sutures and the skin with a continuous subdermal suture.

    PubMed

    Kummeling, A; van Sluijs, F J

    1998-10-01

    In dogs requiring a midline celiotomy, closure of the rectus sheath with a continuous polyglyconate looped suture and closure of the skin with stainless steel staples (group 1, 20 dogs) were compared with closure of the rectus sheath with interrupted polyglyconate sutures and closure of the skin with a continuous subdermal polyglactin suture (group 2, 20 dogs) with respect to speed, safety, and costs. The subcutis was closed with a continuous polyglactin suture in all dogs. The use of a looped suture saved 3.4 minutes and the use of staples saved 5.6 minutes. Total mean time saved for all layers was 7.7 minutes (38%). Wound healing was not significantly different between group 1 and group 2. There was one case of dehiscence of the rectus sheath in group 2 and two cases of wound infection in group 1. It was concluded that closing the rectus sheath with a continuous looped suture and the skin with staples is equally safe and significantly faster than closing the rectus sheath with simple interrupted sutures and the skin with a continuous subdermal suture. Additional costs were balanced by the reduction in surgery time. PMID:9810626

  10. Quenching of an electric arc in a vacuum gap with a uniform transverse magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Alferov, D. F.; Ahmetgareev, M. R.; Yevsin, D. V.; Ivanov, V. P. [All-Russia Electrotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15

    The breaking ability of a vacuum arc interrupter with a uniform transverse magnetic field formed by a system of permanent magnets was investigated experimentally. The vacuum interrupter with a 0.5-{mu}F shunting capacitor switched off a dc current of up to 150 A at magnetic fields of 100-180 mT. At magnetic fields of 120-160 mT, the breaking ability of the vacuum interrupter was increased to 300 A by introducing a nonuniformity in the magnetic field distribution near the contact surface.

  11. Comment on: “Does the Karakoram fault interrupt mid-crustal channel flow in the western Himalaya?” by Mary L. Leech, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 276 (2008) 314-322

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searle, M. P.; Phillips, R. J.

    2009-09-01

    Leech [Leech, M.L., 2008, Does the Karakoram fault interrupt mid-crustal channel flow in the western Himalaya? Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 276, 314-322.] proposed that (1) Himalayan granites are significantly more abundant east of the Karakoram fault termination (around Mount Kailas, in SW Tibet) than west of it in the Zanskar-Kumaon region, that (2) the fault may have created a barrier to southward flow of mid-crustal channel flow, and that (3) the fault acted as a vertical conduit for these melts. These inferences are based upon new U-Pb SHRIMP data from the Leo Pargil dome, NW India, and the analysis of published U-Pb ages from additional Himalayan domes. Here we point out the flaws in all these hypotheses and suggest a much closer comparison of granites along the Karakoram shear zone to the widespread Miocene crustal melt granites of the Baltoro Karakoram range in North Pakistan. Field relationships combined with U-(Th)-Pb dating of granites and metamorphic rocks clearly shows that the leucogranites exhumed along the Karakoram fault are related to regional metamorphic and melting events along the Baltoro Karakoram range of the Asian plate and not to Indian plate Himalayan leucogranites at all. We discuss individually the points raised.

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of de novo interstitial deletions involving 5q23.1-q23.3 and 18q12.1-q12.3 by array CGH using uncultured amniocytes in a pregnancy with fetal interrupted aortic arch and atrial septal defect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Huang, Ming-Chao; Chen, Yi-Yung; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Chen, Yu-Ting; Su, Jun-Wei; Wang, Wayseen

    2013-12-01

    We present prenatal diagnosis of de novo interstitial deletions involving 5q23.1-q23.3 and 18q12.1-q12.3 by aCGH using uncultured amniocytes in pregnancy with interrupted aortic arch and atrial septal defect in a fetus. The fetus postnatally manifested facial dysmorphisms and long slender fingers. We discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation and the consequence of haploinsufficiency of FBN2, DTNA and CELF4 in this case. PMID:24036431

  13. Changes in alcohol-related harm in Sweden after increasing alcohol import quotas and a Danish tax decrease—an interrupted time-series analysis for 2000–2007

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri J; Ramstedt, Mats R

    2011-01-01

    Background Denmark decreased its tax on spirits by 45% on 1 October 2003. Shortly thereafter, on 1 January 2004, Sweden increased its import quotas of privately imported alcohol, allowing travellers to bring in much larger amounts of alcohol from other European Union countries. Although these changes were assumed to increase alcohol-related harm in Sweden, particularly among people living close to Denmark, analyses based on survey data collected before and after these changes have not supported this assumption. The present article tests whether alcohol-related harm in southern Sweden was affected by these changes by analysing other indicators of alcohol-related harm, e.g. harm recorded in different kinds of registers. Methods Interrupted time-series analysis was performed with monthly data on cases of hospitalization due to acute alcohol poisoning, number of reported violent assaults and drunk driving for the years 2000–07 in southern Sweden using the northern parts of Sweden as a control and additionally controlling for two earlier major changes in quotas. Results The findings were not consistent with respect to whether alcohol-related harm increased in southern Sweden after the decrease in Danish spirits tax and the increase in Swedish alcohol import quotas. On the one hand, an increase in acute alcohol poisonings was found, particularly in the 50–69 years age group, on the other hand, no increase was found in violent assaults and drunk driving. Conclusions The present results raise important questions about the association between changes in availability and alcohol-related harms. More research using other methodological approaches and data is needed to obtain a comprehensive picture of what actually happened in southern Sweden. PMID:20841327

  14. Pharmacologic demonstration of the synergistic effects of a combination of the renin inhibitor aliskiren and the AT1 receptor antagonist valsartan on the angiotensin II-renin feedback interruption.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Michel; Ménard, Joël; Bissery, Alvine; Guyenne, Than-Tam; Bura-Rivière, Alessandra; Vaidyanathan, Sujata; Camisasca, Riccardo P

    2004-12-01

    Interrupting the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with a usual daily dose of a single-site RAS inhibitor does not achieve complete and long-lasting pharmacologic blockade. Hormonal and BP effects were compared for 48 h after administration of single oral doses of 300 mg (high dose) of the renin inhibitor aliskiren (A300) and 160 mg (standard antihypertensive dose) of the AT1 receptor antagonist valsartan (V160) and their combination each at half dose (A150+V80) in 12 mildly sodium-depleted normotensive individuals. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, four-period crossover study, A300 decreased plasma renin activity and angiotensin I and II levels for 48 h, stimulated immunoreactive active renin release more strongly than V160, and decreased urinary aldosterone excretion for a longer duration than V160. In contrast to V160, the A150+V80 combination did not increase plasma angiotensins. The renin and aldosterone effects of the A150+V80 combination were similar to those of A300 and greater than those of V160. When plasma drug concentrations were taken into account, the A150 +V80 combination had a synergistic effect on renin release. The A150+V80 combination lowered BP at least as effectively as either higher dose monotherapy. In conclusion, in mildly sodium-depleted normotensive individuals, the long-lasting effects of aliskiren alone or in combination with valsartan on plasma immunoreactive active renin and urinary aldosterone effects demonstrate strong and prolonged blockade of angiotensin II at the kidney and the adrenal level. Moreover, a renin inhibitor and AT1R antagonist combination may provide synergistic effects on RAS hormone levels. PMID:15579516

  15. The interruptive effect of pain on attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Moore; Edmund Keogh; Christopher Eccleston

    2011-01-01

    Pain is known to disrupt attentional performance in both healthy adults and patients with chronic pain. Exactly which aspects of attentional function are affected are, however, still to be determined. The primary aim of this investigation was to systematically examine the effects of experimentally induced pain on a range of attentional performance tasks. Following a review of tests of attentional

  16. The interruptive effect of pain on attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Moore; Edmund Keogh; Christopher Eccleston

    2012-01-01

    Pain is known to disrupt attentional performance in both healthy adults and patients with chronic pain. Exactly which aspects of attentional function are affected are, however, still to be determined. The primary aim of this investigation was to systematically examine the effects of experimentally induced pain on a range of attentional performance tasks. Following a review of tests of attentional

  17. Interrupting Adult Learning through Online Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart-Buttle, Ros

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers online pedagogy in relation to Christian adult learning and asks how this might be interpreted by theological educators. The online community of inquiry is proposed as one recognized pedagogical approach and illustrated by reference to a continuing professional development programme for online adult learners across the church…

  18. Inactive Brains An Interrupted Case Study

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David K. Spierer

    2007-01-01

    Two speakers have been invited to a town hall meeting to help decide a hotly contested issue. A grant has been awarded to the school district with the stipulation that the money be dedicated to only one program. School officials wish to use the funds to improve the science curriculum, but district parents favor an investment in physical education to improve the health of their children. Since the grant money cannot be divided, students are forced to grapple with the role of science in education, the growing problem of childhood obesity, and related issues of public policy.

  19. Industrial Interruptible Power: An Economical Alternative

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, S. D.; Gardner, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Prevailing utility cost forecasts project that long-term energy costs will rise in real terms. With the addition of capacity construction costs into electric utility rate bases, electric power costs for some utilities will rise sharply...

  20. Ant search strategies after interrupted tandem runs.

    PubMed

    Franks, Nigel R; Richardson, Thomas O; Keir, Samantha; Inge, Stephen J; Bartumeus, Frederic; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2010-05-01

    Tandem runs are a form of recruitment in ants. During a tandem run, a single leader teaches one follower the route to important resources such as sources of food or better nest sites. In the present study, we investigate what tandem leaders and followers do, in the context of nest emigration, if their partner goes missing. Our experiments involved removing either leaders or followers at set points during tandem runs. Former leaders first stand still and wait for their missing follower but then most often proceed alone to the new nest site. By contrast, former followers often first engage in a Brownian search, for almost exactly the time that their former leader should have waited for them, and then former followers switch to a superdiffusive search. In this way, former followers first search their immediate neighbourhood for their lost leader before becoming ever more wide ranging so that in the absence of their former leader they can often find the new nest, re-encounter the old one or meet a new leader. We also show that followers gain useful information even from incomplete tandem runs. These observations point to the important principle that sophisticated communication behaviours may have evolved as anytime algorithms, i.e. procedures that are beneficial even if they do not run to completion. PMID:20435821

  1. Energy expenditure of interruptions to sedentary behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann M Swartz; Leah Squires; Scott J Strath

    2011-01-01

    Background  Advances in technology, social influences and environmental attributes have resulted in substan-tial portions of the day spent\\u000a in sedentary pursuits. Sedentary behavior may be a cause of many chronic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, type\\u000a 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Research demonstrated that breaking up sedentary time was beneficially associated with\\u000a markers of body composition, cardiovascular health and type

  2. Sag, Swell, Interruption, Undervoltage and Overvoltage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surajit Chattopadhyay; Madhuchhanda Mitra; Samarjit Sengupta

    \\u000a This chapter highlights the power system disturbances related to rise or fall of rms voltage. Then it describes these disturbances\\u000a one after another along with their main causes and effects.

  3. RNA Polymerase II Collision Interrupts Convergent Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, David J.; Wei, Wu; Steinmetz, Lars M.; Svejstrup, Jesper Q.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Antisense noncoding transcripts, genes-within-genes, and convergent gene pairs are prevalent among eukaryotes. The existence of such transcription units raises the question of what happens when RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) molecules collide head-to-head. Here we use a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches in yeast to show that polymerases transcribing opposite DNA strands cannot bypass each other. RNAPII stops but does not dissociate upon head-to-head collision in vitro, suggesting that opposing polymerases represent insurmountable obstacles for each other. Head-to-head collision in vivo also results in RNAPII stopping, and removal of collided RNAPII from the DNA template can be achieved via ubiquitylation-directed proteolysis. Indeed, in cells lacking efficient RNAPII polyubiquitylation, the half-life of collided polymerases increases, so that they can be detected between convergent genes. These results provide insight into fundamental mechanisms of gene traffic control and point to an unexplored effect of antisense transcription on gene regulation via polymerase collision. PMID:23041286

  4. Applying Interruption Techniques from the HCI

    E-print Network

    McGrenere, Joanna

    electronic gadgets. These gadgets are prevalent in industrial and developing societies. One of the most common types of these electronic gadgets is the portable music player (PMP). There are two different

  5. Effect of DC current polarization on the electrochemical behaviour of La 2NiO 4+ ? and La 3Ni 2O 7+ ? -based systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Pérez-Coll; A. Aguadero; M. J. Escudero; L. Daza

    2009-01-01

    The electrode performance of La2NiO4 and La3Ni2O7 as cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) was analyzed. The study was focused on the electrode polarization resistance of the interfaces formed by the cathodes with Ce0.8Sm0.2O2??+2%Co electrolyte. The study was extended to cathodes based on La2NiO4–Ce0.8Sm0.2O2?? composite and Pt to analyze the effect of changing the electronic and\\/or ionic transport

  6. Activation Energy of Oxygen Vacancy Diffusion of Yttria-Stabilized-Zirconia Thin Film Determined from DC Current Measurements below 150 °C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoki Wakiya; Naoya Tajiri; Takanori Kiguchi; Nobuyasu Mizutani; Jeffrey S. Cross; Kazuo Shinozaki

    2006-01-01

    The current density versus time (J-t) characteristics of yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) films on Si(001) below 150 °C were measured. By the application of a negative voltage up to 20 V to the aluminum top electrode, a current peak was observed. The peak evolution was considered on the basis of the space-charge-limited current transient of oxygen vacancy (model-1), and the modulation of

  7. UVB Stimulates the Expression of Endothelin B Receptor in Human Melanocytes via a Sequential Activation of the p38/MSK1/CREB/MITF Pathway Which Can Be Interrupted by a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract through a Direct Inactivation of MSK1

    PubMed Central

    Tagashira, Hideki; Miyamoto, Aki; Kitamura, Sei-ichi; Tsubata, Masahito; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Takagaki, Kinya; Imokawa, Genji

    2015-01-01

    Melanogenesis is the physiological process by which melanin is synthesized to protect the skin from UV damage. While paracrine interactions between keratinocytes and melanocytes are crucial for regulating epidermal pigmentation, the endothelin (EDN)-endothelin B-receptor (EDNRB) interaction is one of the key linkages. In this study, we found that a single exposure of normal human melanocytes (NHMs) with UVB stimulates the expression of EDNRB and its upstream transcription factor microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) at the transcriptional and translational levels. That stimulation can be abrogated by post-irradiation treatment with a French maritime pine bark extract (PBE). UVB stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not ERK, followed by the increased phosphorylation of MSK1 and CREB. The post-irradiation treatment with PBE did not affect the increased phosphorylation of p38 and JNK, but distinctly abrogated the phosphorylation of MSK1 and CREB. Post-irradiation treatment with the MSK1 inhibitor H89 significantly down-regulated the increased gene expression of MITF and EDNRB in UVB-exposed NHMs. Our findings indicate for the first time that the increased expression of MITF that leads to the up-regulation of melanocyte-specific proteins in UVB-exposed NHMs is mediated via activation of the p38/MSK1/CREB pathway but not the ERK/RSK/CREB pathway. The mode of action by PBE demonstrates that interrupting MSK1 activation is a new target for antioxidants including PBE which can serve as anti-pigmenting agents in a reactive oxygen species-depletion-independent manner. PMID:26030901

  8. Instruction issue logic for high-performance, interruptable pipelined processors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gurindar S. Sohi; Sriram Vajapeyam

    1987-01-01

    The performance of pipelined processors is severely limited by data dependencies. In order to achieve high performance, a mechanism to alleviate the effects of data dependencies must exist. If a pipelined CPU with multiple functional units is to be used in the presence of a virtual memory hierarchy, a mechanism must also exist for determining the state of the machine

  9. A personal, mobile system for understanding stress and interruptions

    E-print Network

    Liu, Karen Kay-Lynn, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    A variety of legacy and emerging health applications are designed to monitor sensed information about a person's physiological signals over time. Such applications include systems for tracking heart conditions that have ...

  10. Off Peak Power - An Alternative to Interruptible Service 

    E-print Network

    Nordyke, H. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    20%, or about 7% annually. Billing demand is reduced year round in proportion to cut-backs taken during the summer on-peak period. Examples will be developed that quantity benefits to large, high load factor customers of Georgia Power Company who have...

  11. Reminiscences - Interrupted: A solar modulation theory once lost, now found?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, William R.

    2013-02-01

    In the course of reminiscing about the first studies of the newly discovered galactic proton and helium nuclei and their modulation in the 1950's, we recognized that this field has actually come full circle with the Voyager studies of these same nuclei out to beyond 120 AU in 2012. In the 1950's the first models of the heliospheric modulation postulated a "ring current" or something equivalent, which produced a modulation potential of up to 1 to 3 GV as a source of solar modulation. This potential difference was needed to explain the relative modulation of protons and helium nuclei. Later this modulation was explained as a force field potential by Gleeson and Axford in a Parker description of cosmic ray transport. Recent Voyager measurements of the proton, helium and carbon spectra in the outer heliosphere beyond the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) up to the beginning of 2012 are in accordance with this same earlier picture describing the modulation as due to a modulation potential. However, there is no longer a solar wind in the outermost heliosphere so Parker's original description is no longer complete. So our reminiscences have led us back to a modern picture of solar modulation in the heliosphere that is very similar to that existing in the 50's and 60's, searching for a cause for the modulation. Since Voyager 1 now appears to be at a location where this modulation potential is approaching zero, a whole new field of study of the unmodulated spectra of the charged species of galactic cosmic rays at lower energies down to perhaps as low as 10-20 MeV also is being opened up, similar in development to the original studies of these individual nuclei in the 1950's that were the result of newly developed high altitude balloons and also new experimental techniques that separated the individual charges.

  12. Off Peak Power - An Alternative to Interruptible Service

    E-print Network

    Nordyke, H. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    peak demand as well as to increase sales during the off-peak period. Olin Corporation has a plant in Augusta, Georgia that uses up to 50,000 Kilowatts of electrical power and is capable of operating at load factors approaching 100%. Olin signea... available to the utility for purposes of load management. This paper will lOOK at off-peak service from the user's perspective. TYPICAL CANDIDA,E - OLIN'S AUGUSTA PLANT Olin's plant at Augusta, Georgia produces chlorine and caustic soda...

  13. Interrupting Infants' Persisting Object Representations: An Object-Based Limit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheries, Erik W.; Wynn, Karen; Scholl, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    Making sense of the visual world requires keeping track of objects as the same persisting individuals over time and occlusion. Here we implement a new paradigm using 10-month-old infants to explore the processes and representations that support this ability in two ways. First, we demonstrate that persisting object representations can be maintained…

  14. Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Interrupted Rectangular Fins

    E-print Network

    Bahrami, Majid

    OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in the School of Engineering Science Faculty of Applied Sciences © Golnoosh with the Copyright Act of Canada, this work may be reproduced, without authorization, under the conditions for "Fair appropriately. #12;ii Approval Name: Golnoosh Mostafavi Degree: Master of Applied Science Title of Thesis

  15. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, Martin; Muniyandi, Manivannan; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Jung; Krause, Frank; Mueller, Stephanie; Srinivasan, Mandayam A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these “explorative stops” (ES) during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: (a) between mean exploration time and duration of ES, (b) between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and (c) the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Methods: Five different Experiments were used. The first two Experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A) and of common objects (B). In Experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For Experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D) and real (E) sunken reliefs. Results: In each Experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For Experiment A: 329.50 ms, Experiment B: 67.47 ms, Experiment C: 189.92 ms, Experiment D: 186.17 ms and Experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. Conclusions: We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory. PMID:24782797

  16. Those Old Kentucky Blues: An Interrupted Case Study

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Huskey, Robert J.

    This case study involves the topics of pedigree, genetics and inheritance. The condition methemoglobinemia is explored through the example of the blue people of Kentucky. The material would be appropriate for upper level high school or lower level undergraduate students. The case study and teaching notes may be downloaded in PDF format. The site also includes a section for instructor feedback where general comments may be read and contributed.

  17. Search, Interrupted: Understanding and Predicting Search Task Continuation

    E-print Network

    Dumais, Susan

    . Search engines are now often used for tasks such as travel planning, job hunting, or real estate searching. However, these tasks require significantly more effort and time to complete [10 reliably detect that a suspended search session is likely to be con- tinued at a later time. While previous

  18. Grief Interrupted: The Experience of Loss Among Incarcerated Women

    PubMed Central

    Harner, Holly M.; Hentz, Patricia M.; Evangelista, Maria Carmela

    2011-01-01

    Incarcerated women face a number of stressors apart from the actual incarceration. Nearly half of all women in prison experience the death of a loved one during their incarceration. Our purpose for this study was to explore the experience of grief and loss among incarcerated women using a phenomenological method. Our study approach followed van Manen's method of phenomenology and Munhall's description of existential lifeworlds. Our analysis revealed four existential lifeworlds: temporality: frozen in time; spatiality: no place, no space to grieve; corporeality: buried emotions; and relationality: never alone, yet feeling so lonely. The findings generated from this study can help mental health providers as well as correctional professionals develop policies and programs that facilitate the grief process of incarcerated women within the confines of imprisonment. PMID:20581074

  19. Grief interrupted: the experience of loss among incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Harner, Holly M; Hentz, Patricia M; Evangelista, Maria Carmela

    2011-04-01

    Incarcerated women face a number of stressors apart from the actual incarceration. Nearly half of all women in prison experience the death of a loved one during their incarceration. Our purpose for this study was to explore the experience of grief and loss among incarcerated women using a phenomenological method. Our study approach followed van Manen's method of phenomenology and Munhall's description of existential lifeworlds. Our analysis revealed four existential lifeworlds: temporality: frozen in time; spatiality: no place, no space to grieve; corporeality: buried emotions; and relationality: never alone, yet feeling so lonely. The findings generated from this study can help mental health providers as well as correctional professionals develop policies and programs that facilitate the grief process of incarcerated women within the confines of imprisonment. PMID:20581074

  20. Redox-Controled Mediterranean - S1, Formation, Preservation, and Interruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, G. J.; Goudeau, M. L. S.; Hennekam, R.; Filippidi, A.

    2014-12-01

    The repetitive formation of distinctly organic-rich sedimentary units (sapropels) in the Mediterraneran is known to be related to precession-minima, i.e. humid climate conditions. The most-recent sapropel S1 formed basin-wide, synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ky BP at all water depths greater than ~200m. Increased fresh water (monsoon) input, and associated stratification resulted in the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea to be devoid of oxygen during most of the 4,000 years of S1 formation. This resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1 determined by water depth, as a result of different predominant ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km.The end of this period was marked by a basin-wide sedimentary manganese-oxide peak representing abrupt re-ventilation and remaining oxic conditions thereafter. Other, short-term ventilation events occurred during S1, notably the 8.2 ka event. This basin-wide event marks a brief episode of not only re-oxygenated deep water thus reduced preservation, but also decreased primary productivity thus lower nutrient supply. Ventilation is closely linked to Aegean/Adriatic deepwater formation.Sapropel formation and preservation mechanisms are related to a sensitive interplay between N-African monsoonal and northern climate systems.

  1. Fatigue cracks detected and measured without test interruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Klima, S. J.; Lesco, D. J.

    1966-01-01

    Ultrasonic flaw detector records cracks in materials undergoing fatigue tests, without interfering with test progress. The detector contains modified transducers clamped to the specimens, and an oscillograph readout.

  2. Effect of Input Power Interruptions on Power Electronics Reliability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pippola; L. Frisk; K. Kokko; J. Kiilunen; T. Marttila

    2012-01-01

    Reliability demands for products in power electronics have increased as the desired lifetime of high reliability products has been raised from ten to even thirty years. Increased lifetime and reliability demands along with decreasing time to market have also affected the reliability testing needed for such products. To achieve more accurate reliability results in less time, combined stress testing methods

  3. Interruptible Power: An Economic Advantage to Industrial Users 

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, S. D.; Gardner, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    utility offering a rate incentive to the customer for allowing the utility to 770 ESL-IE-81-04-134 Proceedings from the Third Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 26-29, 1981 disconnect a portion of service to the customer... on the effective date of the increased credit. TVA, the distributor, and the customer may, however, agree to extend the contract term such that a minimum of five years remain after the effective date of the increased credit. 776 ESL-IE-81-04-134 Proceedings...

  4. Protection of lightning caused interruptions on transmission line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zar Ni Tun; Mann Cherry Hostel

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes transmission line protection system against lightning and which method used in this protection and also how to prevent lightning effects on the line. Although Transmission lines protection needs for lightning strokes and switching transient, lightning protection is essential on the transmission line. If the fault is present, additional power system will be damaged and minimizing system reliability.

  5. Post-abortion complications after interruption of pregnancy with misoprostol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Faúndes; L. C. Santos; M. Carvalho; C. Gras

    1996-01-01

    The high incidence of abortion in Brazil and the increased use of misoprostol among women having clandestine\\/unsafe abortions has led to an interest in evaluating whether there is an association between the use of misoprostol and the incidence of septic complications post-abortion. To test this association, a retrospective cohort study was conducted with 1840 women treated post-abortion at the Instituto

  6. Engagement beyond Interruption: A Performative Perspective on Listening and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Chris; Nainby, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an understanding of listening as a performative and pedagogical act. Moving beyond existing theories of listening in communication and education studies that frame listening as a selective and incremental act, this article considers listening in terms of a performance studies and critical education studies perspective. An…

  7. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction...with control switches to automatically stop the driving motor in the event the belt is stopped, or abnormally...

  8. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction...with control switches to automatically stop the driving motor in the event the belt is stopped, or abnormally...

  9. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction...with control switches to automatically stop the driving motor in the event the belt is stopped, or abnormally...

  10. Interrupting the "stream of consciousness": an fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Kristen A; D'Angelo, Benjamin R; Kaufman, Jacqueline N; Binder, Jeffrey R

    2006-02-15

    In functional neuroimaging, a local decrease in blood flow during an active task, relative to a "resting" baseline, is referred to as task-induced deactivation (TID). TID may occur when resources shift from ongoing, internally generated processing typical of "resting" states to processing required by an exogenous task. We previously found specific brain regions in which TID increased as task processing demands increased. When engaged in an exogenous cognitive task, reallocation of resources from areas involved in internal processing should result in suspension of that processing. Self-reported thought content has been used as an indicator of the extent of internal processing activity. We investigated the relationship between TID and task-unrelated thought (TUT) frequency using an auditory target detection task with seven levels of task difficulty. At varied intervals during task performance, subjects indicated whether they were experiencing a TUT. We expected TUT frequency to decrease as task demands increased and for this pattern to correlate with TID magnitude across conditions. Generally, fewer TUTs were reported during difficult task conditions than during easier conditions. As TID magnitude increased across task conditions, the frequency of TUTs declined (r = 0.90, P = 0.005). Four left hemisphere regions (posterior parieto-occipital cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus) showed strong relationships between TUTs and TID (r > 0.79, P < 0.05 corrected). As these regions have been implicated in semantic processing and self-referential thought, the findings support the suspension of internal cognitive processing as one mechanism for TID. PMID:16269249

  11. Rearranging Pigeonholes: Interrupting the Ethnic Hierarchy of a School's Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the cultural and linguistic diversity of the teaching workforce in Australia was a key recommendation of the House of Representatives Standing Committee Inquiry into Teacher Education in their report, "Top of the Class" (written by L. Hartsuyker). The report reflects findings from national and international research that support the…

  12. Researching involvement in health care practices: interrupting or reproducing medicalization?

    PubMed

    Donetto, Sara; Cribb, Alan

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we reflect upon and problematize the ways in which 'patient involvement' is interpreted in a substantial proportion of the research literature on involvement and shared decision making. Drawing upon an analysis of this literature we raise concerns about the 'medicalization of involvement' embedded in, and reproduced by, some dominant research lenses, suggesting that this medicalization has powerful discursive and material effects. For example, we suggest that it tends to normalize and arguably trivialize intrinsically problematic and contentious concepts such as 'patient preferences' and, at the same time, to obscure the full range of possibilities for reciprocity in the exchanges between the medical world of the professional and the experiential and narrative world of the patient. We argue that richer conceptualizations of collaboration in clinical work are both possible and very much needed, and we indicate some examples of scholarly resources and perspectives that point towards richer and more defensible accounts of involvement. Overall we call for more attention to the idea of 'epistemic involvement' and much greater cross-fertilization between different epistemological paradigms in this area of research. PMID:21848940

  13. Reward, Interrupted: Inhibitory Control and Its Relevance to Addictions

    PubMed Central

    Jentsch, James David; Pennington, Zachary T.

    2013-01-01

    There are broad individual differences in the ability to voluntarily and effortfully suppress motivated, reward-seeking behaviors, and this review presents the hypothesis that these individual differences are relevant to addictive disorders. On one hand, cumulative experience with drug abuse appears to alter the molecular, cellular and circuit mechanisms that mediate inhibitory abilities, leading to increasingly uncontrolled patterns of drug-seeking and –taking. On the other, native inter-individual differences in inhibitory control are apparently a risk factor for aspects of drug-reinforced responding and substance use disorders. In both cases, the behavioral manifestation of poor inhibitory abilities is linked to relatively low striatal dopamine D2-like receptor availability, and evidence is accumulating for a more direct contribution of striatopallidal neurons to cognitive control processes. Mechanistic research is now identifying genes upstream of dopamine transmission that mediate these relationships, as well as the involvement of other neurotransmitter systems, acting alone and in concert with dopamine. The reviewed research stands poised to identify new mechanisms that can be targeted by pharmacotherapies and/or by behavioral interventions that are designed to prevent or treat addictive behaviors and associated behavioral pathology. PMID:23748054

  14. Interrupting Life History: The Evolution of Relationship within Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the author explores how relationships are defined within the context of constructing a life history. The life history of Benjamin, a homeless young man transitioning to adulthood, is used to illustrate how difficult it is to define the parameters of the research environment. During an "ethically important moment" in the research…

  15. A Smart Break? College Tenure Interruption and Graduating Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routon, P. Wesley; Walker, Jay K.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from a longitudinal survey of college students from over 400 institutions, we examine the impacts of occupational internship programs and voluntary academic leave on returning academic achievement, post-college ambitions, and general facets of the college experience. Previous literature on college internships has focused on labor market…

  16. 38 CFR 21.3306 - Reentrance after interruption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...efforts to effect proper adjustment in the case have failed; and (ii) There is substantial evidence, resolving any reasonable doubt in favor of the eligible person (as discussed in § 3.102 of this chapter), that additional efforts will be...

  17. 38 CFR 21.3306 - Reentrance after interruption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...efforts to effect proper adjustment in the case have failed; and (ii) There is substantial evidence, resolving any reasonable doubt in favor of the eligible person (as discussed in § 3.102 of this chapter), that additional efforts will be...

  18. 38 CFR 21.3306 - Reentrance after interruption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...efforts to effect proper adjustment in the case have failed; and (ii) There is substantial evidence, resolving any reasonable doubt in favor of the eligible person (as discussed in § 3.102 of this chapter), that additional efforts will be...

  19. 38 CFR 21.3306 - Reentrance after interruption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...efforts to effect proper adjustment in the case have failed; and (ii) There is substantial evidence, resolving any reasonable doubt in favor of the eligible person (as discussed in § 3.102 of this chapter), that additional efforts will be...

  20. Analysis of interrupt handling schemes in real-time systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayman Fawaz; Pravin Varaiya; Jean Walrand

    1989-01-01

    In a real-time system where a microprocessor performs several tasks in response to the occurrence of external events, the execution of a task may be delayed if the processor is busy. This delay presents a problem as the task has to be performed within a fixed period of time. In this paper, the worst case queuing delay of a task

  1. Chasing vs. Stalking: Interrupting the Perception of Animacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Tao; Scholl, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Visual experience involves not only physical features such as color and shape, but also higher-level properties such as animacy and goal-directedness. Perceiving animacy is an inherently dynamic experience, in part because agents' goal-directed behavior may be frequently in flux--unlike many of their physical properties. How does the visual system…

  2. Desynchronizing effect of high-frequency stimulation in a generic cortical network model

    E-print Network

    Markus Schütt; Jens Christian Claussen

    2012-03-21

    Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (TCES) and Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) are two different applications of electrical current to the brain used in different areas of medicine. Both have a similar frequency dependence of their efficiency, with the most pronounced effects around 100Hz. We apply superthreshold electrical stimulation, specifically depolarizing DC current, interrupted at different frequencies, to a simple model of a population of cortical neurons which uses phenomenological descriptions of neurons by Izhikevich and synaptic connections on a similar level of sophistication. With this model, we are able to reproduce the optimal desynchronization around 100Hz, as well as to predict the full frequency dependence of the efficiency of desynchronization, and thereby to give a possible explanation for the action mechanism of TCES.

  3. Sex Education in Modern and Contemporary China: Interrupted Debates across the Last Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aresu, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    Since the late 1980s sex education has been widely promoted in the PRC, but this is not the first time in China's modern history that attempts to develop sex education have been made. The present essay traces the development of sex education debates over the last century, identifying the historical, political and social contexts in which they…

  4. Designing public safety mobile applications for disconnected, interrupted, and low bandwidth communication environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Erickson; A. Weinert; P. Breimyer; M. Samperi; J. Huff; C. Parra; S. Miller

    2013-01-01

    Public Safety emergency communication systems are crucial to effective incident and disaster response. Lack of situational awareness and communications are of the most cited factors that hamper Public Safety's ability to make critical decisions. In partnership with the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate ({DHS} {S\\\\&T)}, {MIT} Lincoln Laboratory ({MIT} {LL)} developed the Next-Generation Incident Command System ({NICS)}

  5. Interruption of Wnt Signaling in Müller Cells Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Retinal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kelu Kevin; Benyajati, Siribhinya; Le, Yun; Cheng, Rui; Zhang, Wenbo; Ma, Jian-xing

    2014-01-01

    Retinal Müller cells are major producers of inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines which contribute to diabetic retinopathy (DR). Over-activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway has been shown to play an important pathogenic role in DR. However, the roles of Müller cell-derived Wnt/?-catenin signaling in retinal neovascularization (NV) and DR remain undefined. In the present study, mice with conditional ?-catenin knockout (KO) in Müller cells were generated and subjected to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Wnt signaling was evaluated by measuring levels of ?-catenin and expression of its target genes using immunoblotting. Retinal vascular permeability was measured using Evans blue as a tracer. Retinal NV was visualized by angiography and quantified by counting pre-retinal nuclei. Retinal pericyte loss was evaluated using retinal trypsin digestion. Electroretinography was performed to examine visual function. No abnormalities were detected in the ?-catenin KO mice under normal conditions. In OIR, retinal levels of ?-catenin and VEGF were significantly lower in the ?-catenin KO mice than in littermate controls. The KO mice also had decreased retinal NV and vascular leakage in the OIR model. In the STZ-induced diabetic model, disruption of ?-catenin in Müller cells attenuated over-expression of inflammatory cytokines and ameliorated pericyte dropout in the retina. These findings suggest that Wnt signaling activation in Müller cells contributes to retinal NV, vascular leakage and inflammation and represents a potential therapeutic target for DR. PMID:25271989

  6. Office of Information Technology University of Minnesota 1 OIT Data Center Service Interruption

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    to support operational and management decision making. Down Data Warehouse (PeopleSoft Source) Nightly copy. Available Active Directory (Computer Management) Active Directory Computer Management Services provides centralized management and UMN computer accounts, software distribution, hardware and software reporting

  7. Interrupting the Professional Schism That Allows Less Successful Educational Practices with ELLs to Persist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Edmund T.; Reeves, Jenelle

    2013-01-01

    Different worldviews, different histories of induction into teaching, presumed differences in responsibilities, and different emphases in preservice and in-service preparation have all long contributed to enduring schisms that keep general education (or mainstream) teachers and English language support faculty from coordinating and finding common…

  8. Using Context-Aware Computing to Reduce the Perceived Burden of Interruptions from Mobile Devices

    E-print Network

    was developed that auto- matically detects postural and ambulatory activity transitions in real time using delivered at activity transitions relative to those deliv- ered at random times. Messages delivered at activity transi- tions were found to be better received, thereby suggesting a viable strategy for context

  9. Seventeen Years of Annual Distribution of Ivermectin Has Not Interrupted Onchocerciasis Transmission in North Region, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Katabarwa, Moses N.; Eyamba, Albert; Nwane, Philippe; Enyong, Peter; Yaya, Souleymanou; Baldiagaï, Jean; Madi, Théodore Kambaba; Yougouda, Abdoulaye; Andze, Gervais Ondobo; Richards, Frank O.

    2011-01-01

    We studied onchocerciasis transmission and impact on ocular morbidity in three health districts in North Region, Cameroon, where annual mass ivermectin treatment has been provided for 12–17 years. The studies, which took place from 2008 to 2010, consisted of skin snips for microfilariae (mf), palpation examinations for nodules, slit lamp examinations for mf in the eye, and Simulium vector dissections for larval infection rates. Adults had mf and nodule rates of 4.8% and 13.5%, respectively, and 5.5% had mf in the anterior chamber of the eye. Strong evidence of ongoing transmission was found in one health district, where despite 17 years of annual treatments, the annual transmission potential was 543 L3/person per year; additionally, children under 10 years of age had a 2.6% mf prevalence. Halting ivermectin treatments in North Cameroon now might risk recrudescence of transmission and ocular disease. PMID:22144441

  10. Observation and Modeling of Interrupted Pattern Coarsening: Surface Nanostructuring by Ion Erosion

    E-print Network

    Cuerno, Rodolfo

    this intriguing type of pattern dynamics through a continuum equation put forward in different contexts across pattern formation, coarsening, and kinetic roughening appear, each of these behaviors being associated patterns [1] to scale invariant, disordered behavior (kinetic roughening) [2], large-scale properties being

  11. Multiple Interruptions: Creative Encounters in Public Art and Public Pedagogy, a North-South Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildemeersch, Danny; von Kotze, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    This conversation began with a community arts project initiated in a poor area of Leuven, Belgium, and inspired by Paul Klee's "taking the line for a walk" (Couchez, 2012, p. 104). As educators committed to deepening democracy and believing that art can play an important role in the creation of new perspectives on how to deal with…

  12. Blue Gene\\/L Log Analysis and Time to Interrupt Estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narate Taerat; Nichamon Naksinehaboon; Clayton Chandler; James Elliott; Chokchai Leangsuksun; George Ostrouchov; Stephen L. Scott; Christian Engelmann

    2009-01-01

    System- and application-level failures could be characterized by analyzing relevant log files. The resulting data might then be used in numerous studies on and future developments for the mission-critical and large scale computational architecture, including fields such as failure prediction, reliability modeling, performance modeling and power awareness. In this paper, system logs covering a six month period of the Blue

  13. Impact of Aspirin and Clopidogrel Interruption on Platelet Function in Patients Undergoing Major Vascular Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Le Manach, Yannick; Kahn, David; Bachelot-Loza, Christilla; Le Sache, Frederic; Smadja, David M.; Remones, Veronique; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Coriat, Pierre; Gaussem, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Aims To investigate functional platelet recovery after preoperative withdrawal of aspirin and clopidogrel and platelet function 5 days after treatment resumption. Methods/Results We conducted an observational study, which prospectively included consecutive patients taking aspirin, taking clopidogrel, and untreated controls (15 patients in each group). The antiplatelet drugs were withdrawn five days before surgery (baseline) and were reintroduced two days after surgery. Platelet function was evaluated by optical aggregation in the presence of collagen, arachidonic acid (aspirin) and ADP (clopidogrel) and by VASP assay (clopidogrel). Platelet-leukocyte complex (PLC) level was quantified at each time-point. At baseline, platelet function was efficiently inhibited by aspirin and had recovered fully in most patients 5 days after drug withdrawal. PLC levels five days after aspirin reintroduction were similar to baseline (+4±10%; p?=?0.16), in line with an effective platelet inhibition. Chronic clopidogrel treatment was associated with variable platelet inhibition and its withdrawal led to variable functional recovery. PLC levels were significantly increased five days after clopidogrel reintroduction (+10±15%; p?=?0.02), compared to baseline. Conclusions Aspirin withdrawal 5 days before high-bleeding-risk procedures was associated with functional platelet recovery, and its reintroduction two days after surgery restored antiplaletet efficacy five days later. This was not the case of clopidogrel, and further work is therefore needed to define its optimal perioperative management. PMID:25141121

  14. Timed Auditory Interruption during Speech: Oral Sensory and Temporal Articulatory Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crary, Michael A.

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the phenomenon that subjects speaking under exposure to masking noise demonstrate decreases in oral sensory function and temporal reorganization of the articulatory pattern. The study attempts to measure the effects of this phenomenon under varying durations of exposure to auditory masking. (Author/NCR)

  15. An Investigation into the Affects of Healthy Adult Aging and Interruptions on Multitasking Abilities 

    E-print Network

    James, Vairi A. W.

    2009-07-03

    1. Abstract Multitasking is an incredibly important skill which most of us use everyday, often without conscious effort. Patients with frontal lobe damage have been shown to have deficits in multitasking abilities despite ...

  16. Interrupting Discourses Around Gender Through Collective Memory Work and Collaborative Curriculum Research in Middle School

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiran D. Purohit; Christopher Walsh

    2003-01-01

    Many schools in recent years have implemented curricular projects to 'deal with' homophobia and sexism as problems that affect adolescent students and make schools unsafe. The ways in which we, as teachers and researchers, confront such problems, however, depends upon how we view their power within schools. When viewed as discursive elements of a generally heteronormative school environment, gender and

  17. Smartphone interruptibility using density-weighted uncertainty sampling with reinforcement learning

    E-print Network

    Simmons, Reid

    , accelerometer, microphone, proximity sensor, and computing power to identify similar contexts and act according algorithms on the phone's sensor data to build a representation of the user's current context. In particular- gorithm on accelerometer and proximity sensor data. Given a representation of the current context, we

  18. The Effects of interruption on multi-tasking in healthy adults 

    E-print Network

    Hough, Emily

    2006-01-01

    Multitasking is a skill that is essential for effective everyday living. However, despite an increase in attempts to identify the cognitive components underlying such a skill, there is still uncertainty over the exact ...

  19. "I Am Not Angry in the Kindergarten!" Interruptive Anger as Democratic Participation in Norwegian Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindheim, Liv Torunn

    2014-01-01

    This article calls into question the idyllic picture of Norwegian kindergartens where harmonious and joyful interaction is the preferred and normal way to participate. If taking children's right to democratic participation and freedom of expression seriously, anger can also be seen as a legitimate way of participating. Conflicts of interest,…

  20. Instructional Television: Higher Education Without Commercial Interruption. AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Currents, May 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Carol Herrnstadt

    The history of instructional television, the development of the telecourse concept, current uses of instructional television, economic factors, and cooperative arrangements are considered. After the initial approach of presenting a professor lecturing as if before a class, producers of instructional television began to dramatize the subject, adopt…

  1. A queuing model with random interruptions for electric vehicle charging systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung Jun Baek; Daehee Kim; Seong-Jun Oh; Jong-Arm Jun

    2011-01-01

    We consider a queuing model with applications to electric vehicle (EV) charging systems in smart grids. We adopt a scheme where Electric Service Company (ESCo) broadcasts one bit signal to consumers indicating on-peak periods for the grid. EVs randomly suspend\\/resume charging based on the signal. To model the dynamics of the population of EVs we analyze an M\\/M\\/ë queue with

  2. Analysis of dielectric breakdown of SF6 gas circuit breaker during large current interruption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K. Kim; J. K. Chong; K. D. Song; K. Y. Park

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the dielectric characteristics of hot SF6 gas in the gas circuit breaker. Hot gas flow is analyzed using the finite volume method-based CFD code considering the moving boundary, material properties of hot SF6 gas, and arc model. In the arc model, the re-absorption of the emitted radiation is approximated with the boundary source layer

  3. In-line monitoring of cut surfaces in interrupted machining operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bosetti; S. Bruschi

    2010-01-01

    Todays market of machined products is characterized by an ever increasing demand in high-quality products, which can be assured\\u000a by low levels of variability of process conditions. This mostly concerns precise and ultraprecise machining operations, but\\u000a also more traditional operations are interested, which are far to be completely optimized in terms of obtainable quality of\\u000a cut surfaces. The paper presents

  4. A Model for Human Interruptability: Experimental Evaluation and Automatic Estimation from Wearable Sensors

    E-print Network

    sensors. It is scalable for a large number of sensors, contexts, and situations and allows for online opinion is that those systems do not model and recognize the user's current con- text and situation specialized settings, such as Military Command Control [11] or Space Shuttle Monitoring [3]. They often model

  5. Balancing Awareness and Interruption in Mobile Patrol using Context-Aware Notification

    E-print Network

    McCrickard, Scott

    of Technology, the Netherlands ABSTRACT In mobile computing, a fundamental problem is maintaining awareness of the environment and of information presented as messages on a mobile device. In mobile police patrol, officers were validated in a follow-up study with twenty-four police officers. We found that full messages

  6. GLI3 zinc-finger gene interrupted by translocations in Greig syndrome families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Vortkamp; Manfred Gessler; Karl-Heinz Grzeschik

    1991-01-01

    THE Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) is an auto-somal dominant disorder affecting limb and craniofacial development in humans1,2. GCPS-affected individuals are characterized by postaxial polysyndactyly of hands, preaxial polysyndactyly of feet, macroephaly, a broad base of the nose with mild hypertelorism and a prominent forehead. The genetic locus has been pinpointed to chromosome 7pl3 by three balanced translocations associated with GCPS

  7. Interrupting commemoration: thinking with art, thinking through the strictures of Argentina's Espacio para lamemoria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Di Paolantonio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a few buildings within the Espacio para la memoria in Buenos Aires have been designated as a UNESCO Centre where, amongst other educational activities, evidentiary materials of the past repression are to be stored and displayed. Another building in the complex houses a Community Centre operated by the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, where the mandate is to

  8. 41 CFR 302-6.106 - May I interrupt occupancy of temporary quarters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES PERMANENT...reimbursement in the following instances: (a) For the time allowed for en route travel between the old and new official stations;...

  9. 41 CFR 302-6.106 - May I interrupt occupancy of temporary quarters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES PERMANENT...reimbursement in the following instances: (a) For the time allowed for en route travel between the old and new official stations;...

  10. 41 CFR 302-6.106 - May I interrupt occupancy of temporary quarters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES PERMANENT...reimbursement in the following instances: (a) For the time allowed for en route travel between the old and new official stations;...

  11. Discontinuous transcription in Leptomonas seymouri: presence of intact and interrupted mini-exon gene families.

    PubMed Central

    Bellofatto, V; Cooper, R; Cross, G A

    1988-01-01

    Mature mRNAs of trypanosomatid protozoa result from the joining of at least two exons, which are initially transcribed as separate RNAs. In all trypanosomatids examined to date, the first exon (mini-exon) is encoded by approximately 200 tandemly reiterated genes. In characterizing the mini-exon genes of Leptomonas seymouri, we identified two predominant size classes of repetitive sequences that hybridized strongly to the L. seymouri mini-exon sequence. These two sequences are arranged as interspersed clusters. DNA sequence analysis of a clone representing the smaller size class demonstrated that these sequences have the capacity to encode a mini-exon donor (med)RNA corresponding to the 86 nt component seen in Northern blots of L. seymouri RNA. The larger size class comprises a family of related sequences, some of which contain DNA inserted into the mini-exon portion of the medRNA gene. The specific insert identified here (LINS 1) is exclusively associated with medRNA sequences, and is present in approximately 20% of the larger size class of L. seymouri medRNA genes. Disregarding the insertion, the sequences of the smaller bona fide mini-exon genes and the gene copy containing the insert were almost identical. The insert sequence is transcribed in the same direction as medRNA to yield at least four small non-polyadenylated RNAs, which appeared not to be linked to medRNA sequences. Images PMID:3137527

  12. Current constriction of high-current vacuum arc in vacuum interrupters

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Lijun; Jia Shenli; Zhang Ling; Yang Dingge; Shi Zongqian [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Gentils, Francois; Jusselin, Benoit [Schneider Electric SAS, 37 quai Paul-Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-03-15

    Compared with previous paper [L. Wang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 100, 113304 (2006)], higher-current vacuum arc is simulated and analyzed based on magnetohydrodynamics model, and current constriction phenomenon in arc column is mainly paid attention to and analyzed in this paper. According to simulation results, it can be found that significant current constriction only appears near anode regions for lower-current vacuum arc. However, with the increase of arc current, current constriction also appears near the cathode side, and with the further increase of arc current, current constriction near the cathode side can become more significant than that near the anode side. The current constriction near the cathode side can be mainly caused by very high current level. The increase of axial magnetic field (AMF) strength will inhibit current constriction in the whole arc column. For influence of AMF distribution, saddle-shaped distributed AMF can more efficiently inhibit current constriction of arc column than bell-shaped AMF. The phenomenon of current constriction near the cathode side has also been found by many experiments, which also can verify the correctness of simulation results.

  13. Hemispheric Lateralization Interrupted: Material-Specific Memory Deficits in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Willment, Kim Celone; Golby, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of memory has largely been informed through the study of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy originating from medial temporal sources (mTLE). The material-specific model of memory relies on the basic framework that the left temporal lobe mediates verbal memories, while the right temporal lobe mediates non-verbal memories. Over the years, this model has been refined, and even challenged, as our understanding of the material-specific memory deficits in mTLE has been further elaborated in the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature. The first goal of this mini-review is to highlight the major findings in the mTLE literature that have advanced and expanded our understanding of material-specific memory deficits in mTLE. Second, we will review how functional neuroimaging patterns of material-specific hemispheric lateralization in mTLE are being translated into the innovative clinical application of preoperative fMRI memory mapping. PMID:24032014

  14. The Interruption of Alpine Foehn by a Cold Front. Part I: Observations

    E-print Network

    Gohm, Alexander

    gustfront gustfront Foehn in the vicinity of Innsbruck Two gust fronts propagating towards Innsbruck in the lower Wipp Valley Western Inn-Valley gust front enters Wipp Valley Cold front propagates southward Collision of two gust fronts Mean prop. speed north-south (Seefeld-Sterzing): uf 6 m/s Mean prop. speed

  15. Interrupted Energy Transfer: Highly Selective Detection of Cyclic Ketones in the Vapor Phase

    E-print Network

    Swager, Timothy Manning

    We detail our efforts toward the selective detection of cyclic ketones, e.g. cyclohexanone, a component of plasticized explosives. Thin films comprised of a conjugated polymer are used to amplify the emission of an emissive ...

  16. Decolonizing Constructions of Childhood and History: Interrupting Narratives of Avoidance to Children's Questions about Social Injustice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diversi, Marcelo; Moreira, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Together, we the authors, wonder, write, imagine, suffer, and criticize the support of the Belo Monte Monster Dam in the Rio Xingu, in the heart of the Amazon, by two of our personal heroes and fellow Brazilians: Lula, former president and iconic founder of the Workers' Party, and, Dilma Rousseff, our presidenta guerilheira. Using our…

  17. Understanding and Interrupting Hegemonic Projects in Education: Learning from Stuart Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Stuart Hall had a significant impact on critical analyses of rightist mobilizations in education. This is very visible in my own work, for example, in such volumes as "Official Knowledge" (2014) and "Educating the 'Right' Way" (2006). After describing an important series of lectures that Stuart Hall gave at the Havens Center…

  18. It's Not Polite to Interrupt, and Other Rules of Classroom Etiquette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croom, Loren; Davis, Barbara H.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous classroom-based research projects have examined the important role social skills play in an elementary classroom (Browning, Davis, and Resta 2000; Burns 2003; Palmer and Wehmeyer 2003; Stone 2001). As Stone (2001, 18) suggested, "Teachers have an enormous influence on children's behavior by speaking directly and honestly to them, modeling…

  19. Service Interruption Notices Between 06/06/14 and 07/05/14

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Conditioning Autoclaves Cold Water Cold Storage Compressed Air Computers Condenser Pumps Distilled Water Storage Compressed Air Computers Condenser Pumps Distilled Water Electric Lights Electric Power Elevator/Crew: Air Conditioning Autoclaves Cold Water Cold Storage Compressed Air Computers Condenser Pumps Distilled

  20. We Interrupt This Program: Media Theorist Douglas Rushkoff Has Second Thoughts about Our Digital Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushkoff, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    When asked what Facebook is for, kids will say that it's there to help them make friends. The kids the author celebrated in his early books as "digital natives," capable of seeing through all efforts of big media and marketing, have actually proven less able to discern the integrity of the sources they read and the intentions of the programs they…