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1

Current Zero Missing Phenomena caused by D.C. Current which Flows from Shunt Reactor at the Ground Fault and its Interruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At substations where shunt reactors are installed, when a ground fault occurs near the reactor, d.c. current flows from the reactor to the fault point. There are cases where circuit breakers installed near the reactor interrupt only the d.c. current from the reactor with long arcing times. In those cases, attention should be paid to the damage of the contacts. This paper shows the investigation of the d.c. current interrupting performance for the 550kV one-break SF6 gas circuit breaker. In the range of some hundreds amperes, the d.c. arc voltages with long arcing times of the 550kV one-break circuit breaker were measured. The d.c. current waveform and arcing time at the d.c. current interruption by 550kV one-break circuit breaker in the 500kV cable system were calculated. Interrupting test circuit for the d.c. current interruption was constructed in the high power laboratory. From the interrupting test results, it was made clear that the circuit breaker had a good interrupting performance after the d.c. current interruptions.

Kobayashi, Takayuki; Eto, Atsushi; Koshizuka, Tadashi; Nishiwaki, Susumu; Kudo, Kietsu; Matsushita, Kozo; Hosokawa, Osamu

2

Current Zero Missing Phenomena caused by D.C. Current which Flows from Shunt Reactor at the Ground Fault and its Interruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

At substations where shunt reactors are installed, when a ground fault occurs near the reactor, d.c. current flows from the reactor to the fault point. There are cases where circuit breakers installed near the reactor interrupt only the d.c. current from the reactor with long arcing times. In those cases, attention should be paid to the damage of the contacts.

Takayuki Kobayashi; Atsushi Eto; Tadashi Koshizuka; Susumu Nishiwaki; Kietsu Kudo; Kozo Matsushita; Osamu Hosokawa

2007-01-01

3

Hybrid arcless low-voltage AC\\/DC current limiting interrupting device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives an extended summary of results on research and development of the hybrid current limiting and interrupting device (H-CLID) suitable for DC and AC applications, carried out in the Technical University of Gdansk. Research included mathematical simulations, physical models, design, and laboratory verification on a low voltage short-circuit test station. The paper briefly covers present state of the

Jacek Zyborski; Tadeusz Lipski; Jozef Czucha; Saady Hasan

2000-01-01

4

Precise DC current sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three novel DC current sensors are described. Portable 40 A DC current clamps have resolution of 1 mA and high immunity to unclamped currents and external fields. AC\\/DC comparator with amorphous core may serve for precise measurement of DC currents with AC component up to 1 kHz. Magnetoresistive sensor field has limited accuracy but potential bandwidth from DC to 1

P. Ripka; P. Kejik; P. Kaspar; K. Draxler

1996-01-01

5

Development of a DC Current Limiting Interrupting System for Mines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A switching system for high fault current, 300- and 600-volt dc trolley and haulage systems, as used in the mining industry are presented. The system consists of paralleled main and auxiliary contactor circuits with a liquid metal current limiting device ...

H. B. Hamilton

1982-01-01

6

A low-noise high output impedance DC current source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes a structure of a new low noise high output impedance DC current source which acts as a quasi-ideal source for frequencies lower than 10 kHz. It uses a feed-back structure with low noise operational amplifiers. The DC current, the small signal output impedance and the noise level are controlled by the value of one single resistance. The

J.-M. Routoure; D. Fadil; S. Flament; L. Méchin

2007-01-01

7

DC Current Injection Into the Network from PV Grid Inverters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is focused on the study of the DC current injection for low voltage small grid-connected PV systems, which is one power quality requirements by the utility companies. For this aim, the existing status of guidelines and regulations in six selected countries where the development in the grid PV sector has evolved rapidly over the last decade, (Japan,

V. Salas; E. Olias; M. Alonso; F. Chenlo; A. Barrado

2006-01-01

8

Effect of electrojet irregularities on DC current flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study is presented of the effect of plasma density irregularities in the auroral and equatorial electrojets on the DC currents giving rise to these irregularities. It is shown that the theory predicts extra dissipation and deviation in the direction of the mean current flow from that of E0 × B0/B2, in general agreement with observations. The average power input to the turbulent plasma, equal to the product of the externally applied electric field and the mean current, can be equated to the power input with that resulting in a plasma devoid of irregularities but with an increased collision frequency. Similarly one can compute the deviation in direction of the current flow due to the irregularities and compare this with the deviation caused in a plasma without irregularities, but with an increased collision frequency, and from this comparison assign an anomalous dissipation in the plasma caused by the irregularities. Our study applies elementary principles and deals with the mean current driven by an external field, including effects of the mean values of second order terms in the perturbed quantities. We do not discuss the elementary processes giving rise to the irregularities in the plasma; only their effect on the mean current flow. The anomalous dissipation or the increased apparent collision frequency, is related directly to the angular power spectrum of plasma density fluctuations. It is shown that the power dissipated by the DC current in these anomalous collisions is exactly the same as the power dissipated through normal collisions by the wave modes making up the power spectrum leading to the anomalous DC current dissipation. The study also suggests that the saturation of the instabilities, giving rise to the electrojet turbulence, is likely to be caused by the control of the current by the anomalous resistivity rather than by local nonlinear effects.

Buchert, S. C.; Hagfors, T.; McKenzie, J. F.

2006-02-01

9

Interrupt Handling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The OâÂÂReilly Online Catalog provides us with a look at Chapter 9 of the book Linux Device Drivers by Alessandro Rubini and Jonathon Corbet. The chapter is entitled Interrupt Handling and it covers the overall control of interrupts, preparing the parallel port, installing and interrupt handler, interrupt sharing, race conditions, and more. The website offers example functions and codes to assist in the installation, implementation, and comprehension processes. The easily navigable table of contents makes the amount of text on the website easy and stress-free and the ordering information is available if the entire book seems of interest to those computer science teachers and students.

Corbet, Jonathan; Rubini, Alessandro

2009-07-06

10

Variations of the oxygen minimum zone of the Okhotsk Sea during the last 50 ka as indicated by benthic foraminiferal and biogeochemical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benthic foraminiferal and sediment biogeochemical data (total organic carbon, calcium carbonate and biogenic opal contents)\\u000a in two cores (1265 and 1312 m water depths) from the southeastern Sakhalin slope and one core (839 m water depth) from the\\u000a southwestern Kamchatka slope were investigated to reconstruct variations of the oxygen minimum zone during the last 50 ka\\u000a in the Okhotsk Sea.

N. V. Bubenshchikova; D. Nürnberg; S. A. Gorbarenko; L. Lembke-Jene

2010-01-01

11

Interrupt Handling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The PowerPoint presentation, created by authors Hebah Kohari, Rathnakar Reddy Bodhireddy, and Sheril Dhabriya for Marist College, provides a great overview of interrupt handling in regards to computer operating systems. The presentation discusses the definition of interrupt handling and also provides examples of different types. Explanation of the hardware and software needed to handle interruption is outlined. Use of diagrams and flowcharts help illustrate these concepts; this provides each aspect with both a textual and visual representation. While complex, the authors make attempts to have the lesson be understandable for more novice users. Overall, this is certainly a useful resource for anyone in computer science education.

Kohari, Hebah; Bodhireddy, Rathnakar R.; Dhabriya, Sheril

2009-06-30

12

Design, Modeling, and Verification of High-Performance AC-DC Current Shunts From Inexpensive Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of AC current shunt for AC-DC current transfer is presented for which the AC-DC current differences at frequencies from 10 to 100 kHz are calculated with uncertainties smaller than plusmn 9 muA\\/A in the current range of 30 mA-10 A. This is an independent realization of the AC-DC current-transfer standards in addition to the step-up method used

Kare Lind; T. Sorsdal; Harald Slinde

2008-01-01

13

Sensing and measurement of DC current using a transformer and RL-multivibrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A circuit for sensing and measurement of DC current using a transformer and RL-multivibrator is proposed. The bridge multivibrator circuit is obtained, connecting the primary coil of a nonlinear transformer to an operational amplifier. The DC current that has to be measured is applied to the secondary of the transformer. It is shown that the DC voltage measured at the

I. M. Filanovsky; V. A. Piskarev

1991-01-01

14

AC-DC current transfer step-up and step-down calibration and uncertainty calculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

New AC-DC current transfer standards are built for the current range from 0.3 mA to 20 A and the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. A three-dimensional PTB-multijunction thermal converter (MJTC) with a heater resistance of 27 ? is the basic standard for the AC-DC current transfer at currents from 20 to 50 mA. At lower currents, planar

Manfred Klonz; Héctor Laiz; Thomas Spiegel; Peter Bittel

2002-01-01

15

High-current high-precision openable-core AC and AC\\/DC current transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of an electronic technique, which greatly increases the apparent permeability of the magnetic core of a current transformer, to high-current high-precision openable-core AC and AC\\/DC current transformers is described. The openable-core AC\\/DC current transformer can be used to measure accurately alternating current only or direct current only, or both alternating and direct currents simultaneously. Test results of two

Eddy So; Shiyan Ren; David A. Bennett

1993-01-01

16

Development of a DC current-blocking device for transformer neutrals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1990s, Hydro-Que´bec undertook a joint project with GE to develop and commission a dc current-blocking series capacitor for the transmission lines forming part of its main power system in the area surrounding the grounding electrode of the Radisson HVdc substation. The aim of this project was to minimize the harmful effects of dc current flowing through the

Léonard Bolduc; Michel Granger; Grégoire Paré; Jean Saintonge; Luc Brophy

2005-01-01

17

Variations of the oxygen minimum zone of the Okhotsk Sea during the last 50 ka as indicated by benthic foraminiferal and biogeochemical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic foraminiferal and sediment biogeochemical data (total organic carbon, calcium carbonate and biogenic opal contents) in two cores (1265 and 1312 m water depths) from the southeastern Sakhalin slope and one core (839 m water depth) from the southwestern Kamchatka slope were investigated to reconstruct variations of the oxygen minimum zone during the last 50 ka in the Okhotsk Sea. The oxygen minimum zone was less pronounced during cooling in the MIS 2 that is suggested to be caused by a maximal expansion of sea ice cover, decrease of marine productivity and increase of production of the oxygenated Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water (OSIW). A two-step-like strengthening of oxygen minimum zone during the warmings in the Termination 1a and 1b was linked to (1) enhanced oxygen consumption due to degradation of large amount of organic matter in the water column and bottom sediments, originated from increased marine productivity and supply of terrigenous material from the submerged northern shelves; (2) sea ice cover retreat and reduction of OSIW production; (3) freely inflow of the oxygen-depleted intermediate water mass from the North Pacific.

Bubenshchikova, N. V.; Nürnberg, D.; Gorbarenko, S. A.; Lembke-Jene, L.

2010-02-01

18

Optical dc current and voltage measurement by superposing ac magnetic or electric field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical DC current and voltage measurement using Faraday or Pockels effect necessitates the compensation of light intensity variation with some methods, because it is possible the intensity variation may give rise to a measuring error. We have proposed a method which suggests superposing AC magnetic field on linearly polarized light or AC electric field on elliptically polarized light and compensating light intensity variation by detecting AC components caused by constant AC magnetic or electric field. Experiments of long term stability for DC current and voltage measurement were carried out by using flint glass for DC current measurement and B12SiO20 (BSO) crystals for DC voltage measurement. An experimental result of DC current measurement where DC current of 1.0 A was passed under AC current of 1 kHz 1.5 Arms showed that the modulation depth without compensation through AC magnetic field varied largely with time because of the temperature rise of the flint glass, but that with compensation through AC magnetic field hardly varied with time and the effectiveness of AC magnetic field superposition was confirmed. The same compensation method was applied to optical DC voltage measurement using Pockels effect. An experimental result of DC voltage measurement where DC voltage of 500 V was applied under AC voltage of 5 kHz 50 Vrms clarified that the time variation of the modulation depth with compensation through AC electric field was small compared with that without compensation through AC electric field.

Higaki, Masaru; Fujii, Kunio; Yamaguchi, Shizuo

1999-05-01

19

Millennial-scale variability of diatom paleoproductivity during the last 50 ka: an equator-to-subtropics comparison along western Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal upwelling accounts for ~50% of the global export production in eastern boundary current systems. In these areas, diatoms deliver a substantial part of the ocean's primary productivity. Although productivity variations in coastal areas are usually attributed to wind stress-forced changes in upwelling intensity, the dynamics of primary production along the western African coast is less straightforward due to the complex atmospheric and hydrographic settings. In this study, we compare high-resolution diatom records encompassing the last 50 ka, which were generated at three hemipelagic sites drilled along the western African coast between 20°N and 25°S. The studied cores are: GeoB3606-1 (SE Atlantic, off Namibia), GeoB4905 (Guinea Basin), and GeoB7926-2 (NE Atlantic, off Mauritania). Though the three sites are coastal in location, the processes and mechanisms behind the preserved signal differ. This is clearly mirrored in both the variations of total diatom concentration and the qualitative composition of the community at each core site. While the inflow of silica-rich waters of Southern Ocean origin played a significant role off Namibia, precipitation-controlled riverine input of dissolved silica was decisive in the Guinea Basin. Off northwestern Africa, changes in wind intensity, the subsequent upwelling of dissolved silica and the seaward extension of the chlorophyll filament were responsible for diatom production. The implications of our observations for the late Quaternary productivity and the nutrient dynamics from low-latitude ocean areas, the possible effect of abrupt climate changes as well as interhemispheric teleconnections at both Milankovitch and millennial time-scales are discussed.

Romero, O.; Crosta, X.

2012-04-01

20

Operation of the DC Current Transformer Intensity Monitors at FNAL during Run II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Circulating beam intensity measurements at FNAL are provided by five DC current transformers (DCCT), one per machine. With the exception of the DCCT in the Recycler, all DCCT systems were designed and built at FNAL. This paper presents an overview of both...

B. Fellenz D. Heikkinen G. Vogel J. Crisp M. A. Ibrahim T. Meyer

2011-01-01

21

Degradation mechanisms of GaN-based LEDs after accelerated DC current aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the results of an extensive DC current aging and failure analysis carried out on blue InGaN\\/GaN LEDs which identify failure mechanisms related to package degradation, changes in effective doping profile, and generation of deep levels. DLTS and photocurrent spectra indicate the creation of extended defects in devices aged at very high current density.

G. Meneghesso; S. Levada; R. Pierobon; F. Rampazzo; E. Zanoni; A. Cavallini; A. Castaldini; G. Scamarcio; S. Du; I. Eliashevich

2002-01-01

22

High precision automated measuring system for AC-DC current transfer standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated measuring system for AC-DC current transfer standards were developed at the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute (SP). The use of a guard makes intercomparisons with ppm precision possible at frequencies up to 100 kHz. Two multijunction thermal converters are used for evaluating the uncertainty of the system

Karl-Erik Rydler

1993-01-01

23

Clamp-on DC current transducer employing mixing effects in nonlinear ferromagnetic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clamp-on transducer based on nonlinear mixing effects for measuring DC currents in the range of 0.1 mA to several amperes is described. The present device consists of a closed magnetic circuit which surrounds a wire carrying the measured current. The transducer consists of three thin strips arranged in a U form, while the fourth strip serves for closing and

R. Rabinovici; B.-Z. Kaplan; H. Shachanovitz

1990-01-01

24

Impact of quasi-dc currents on three-phase distribution transformer installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes a series of tests designed to determine the response of quasi-dc currents on three-phase power distribution transformers for electric power systems. In general, if the dc injection is limited to the primary side of a step-down transformer, significant harmonic distortion is noted and an increase in the reactive power demand results. For dc injection on the secondary

B. W. McConnell; P. R. Barnes; F. M. Tesche; D. A. Schafer

1992-01-01

25

Modified interfacial reactions in Ag–Zn multilayers under the influence of high DC currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of DC currents of up to 764 A\\/cm2 on interfacial reactions in silver–zinc diffusion couples was investigated at temperatures between 300 and 350 °C. Regardless of current density, the product always contained three intermetallic compounds: AgZn, Ag5Zn8, and AgZn3. The relative abundance of each of the compounds was unaffected by the current. The AgZn phase was dominant, followed

J. R Friedman; J. E Garay; U Anselmi-Tamburini; Z. A Munir

2004-01-01

26

New Capability for Generating and Measuring Small DC Currents at NPL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes two systems recently developed at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, U.K., for the generation and measurement of dc currents in the range 100 fA to 1 nA. Both systems are based on the capacitor charging technique. One system generates known currents, and constitutes a new reference at NPL. The other was designed to meet the traceability

Nick E. Fletcher; Stephen P. Giblin; Jonathan M. Williams; K. J. Lines

2007-01-01

27

Quartz planar multijunction thermal converter as a new AC-DC current transfer standard up to 1 MHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new generation of PMJTCs on quartz crystal chips and on quartz membranes developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) results in new calculable ac-dc current transfer standards for a current of 10 mA in the frequency range from 10 kHz to 1 MHz, with considerably reduced uncertainties. AC-DC current transfer differences below 1 ?A\\/A with standard uncertainties below 1 ?A\\/A

Luciana Scarioni; Manfred Klonz; Torsten Funck

2005-01-01

28

Game interruptions in elite soccer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the study were to analyse game interruptions of league soccer in detail and the tactical use of game interruptions. Sixteen matches of a German first league soccer team were observed. An observational system was designed to assess interruption types, score, duration of interruption, location of interruption, time of interruption and number of occurrences. Results showed that there

Malte Siegle; Martin Lames

2012-01-01

29

Interrupt payment system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An interrupt payment system (100) comprising means (100) for detecting an interrupt signal generated by a party to a call; means (102) for obtaining details of a payment to be made on detection of an interrupt signal; a payment processor (104) operable to process the payment in accordance with the obtained details (104); and means (100) for resuming the call between all parties concerned on processing of a payment by the payment processor (104).

2012-07-31

30

Repetitive Series Interrupter II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes work done from May through December, 1976 on the Repetitive Series Interrupter, a hydrogen thyratron modified for switch-opening operation. Parametric studies of tube behavior, particularly of tube voltage drop and current-quenching ...

R. Simon D. V. Turnquist

1977-01-01

31

Challenges For Vacuum Interrupter Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum interrupters form the key component of a medium voltage (MV) vacuum switchgear design. Vacuum interrupter technology is now well established and key manufacturers across the world are routinely producing interrupters for ratings up to 52kVrms. Manufacturers have focused on reducing the cost of interrupter components by adapting to more efficient contact geometry, improved contact materials, finite element modelling for

R. Parashar; A. Baker; A. Sitzia

2006-01-01

32

Upgrade of the RFX energy transfer system for a reliable 35 kV, 50 kA DC-current interruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the reversed field pinch experiment (RFX), the energy transfer system (ETS) is operated so as to divert the magnetising current into the transfer resistors, in order to ionise the gas and start the plasma current.In the next experimental campaigns, the current in the magnetising circuit will be increased to the design target of 50kA; this will lead to unbearable

F. Milani

2009-01-01

33

Impact of quasi-dc currents on three-phase distribution transformer installations  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a series of tests designed to determine the response of quasi-dc currents on three-phase power distribution transformers for electric power systems. In general, if the dc injection is limited to the primary side of a step-down transformer, significant harmonic distortion is noted and an increase in the reactive power demand results. For dc injection on the secondary (load) side of the step-down transformer the harmonic content at the secondary side is quite high and saturation occurs with a relatively low level of dc injection; however, the reactive power demand is significantly lower. These tests produced no apparent damage to the transformers. Transformer damage is dependent on the duration of the dc excitation, the level of the excitation, and on thermal characteristics of the transfer. The transformer response time is found to be much shorter than seen in power transformer tests at lower dc injection levels. This shorter response time suggests that the response time is strongly dependent on the injected current levels, and that higher levels of dc injection for shorter durations could produce very high reactive power demands and harmonic distortion within a few tenths of a second. The added reactive power load could result in the blowing of fuses on the primary side of the transformer for even moderate dc injection levels, and neutral currents are quite large under even low-level dc injection. This smoking neutral'' results in high-level harmonic injection into equipment via the neutral and in possible equipment failure.

McConnell, B.W.; Barnes, P.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Tesche, F.M. (Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States)); Schafer, D.A. (Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1992-06-01

34

Miscarriage: A Dream Interrupted  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pregnancy is a developmental task that requires women to become accustomed to inherent and sometimes profound biological, somatic, and psychological changes. When pregnancy is interrupted by miscarriage, it may become a pivotal crisis point in the development of a woman's maternal identity as well as an issue in family development. This…

Trepal, Heather C.; Semivan, Suzanne Gibson; Caley-Bruce, Mary

2005-01-01

35

Preventing interrupt overload  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance guarantees can be given to tasks in an embedded system by ensuring that access to each shared resource is mediated by an appropriate scheduler. However, almost all previous work on CPU scheduling has focused on thread-level scheduling, resulting in systems that are vulnerable to a lower-level form of overload that occurs when too many interrupts arrive. This paper describes

John Regehr; Usit Duongsaa

2005-01-01

36

Impact of quasi-dc currents on three-phase distribution transformer installations. Power Systems Technology Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes a series of tests designed to determine the response of quasi-dc currents on three-phase power distribution transformers for electric power systems. In general, if the dc injection is limited to the primary side of a step-down transformer, significant harmonic distortion is noted and an increase in the reactive power demand results. For dc injection on the secondary

B. W. McConnell; P. R. Barnes; F. M. Tesche; D. A. Schafer

1992-01-01

37

Analysis of the duality of three phase PWM converters with DC voltage link and DC current link  

Microsoft Academic Search

The duality of three-phase pulse-width modulation (PWM) converters with DC current and DC voltage links is analyzed by means of space-vector calculus for the example of a forced commutated rectifier system. The power-invariant transformation of the converter phase voltages or line currents into complex image quantities (space vectors) allows the presentation of the converter system as a complex space-vector voltage

JOHANN W. KOLAR; HANS ERTL; FRANZ C. ZACH

1989-01-01

38

Frontline: The Interrupters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many organizations and individuals are working to transform some of America's most violent inner city neighborhoods by forming a series of coalitions with local residents, religious organizations, and schools. This engaging documentary from PBS's Frontline takes a look into "the violent landscape of our cities through the eyes of those fighting to sow peace and security." First-time visitors should click on "Meet the Interrupters" to learn about the unique individuals working on projects such as CeaseFire in Chicago and the Al Hafeez Initiative, which is designed to find resources for young boys and girls to utilize in after-school programs. Visitors can watch the entire program (one version that contains graphic language), move on to explore an online digital memorial for victims of violence, and also listen to profiles from National Public Radio and Chicago Tonight. Finally, visitors can click on the "Where Are They Now?" area to learn about what has happened to each "interrupter" since the documentary was released.

2012-03-02

39

Long period variability of a High Resolution Hydraulic Balance Proxy for Southern California and Northwestern Mexico: A 50 ka-long Sediment Record from Laguna Salada Basin, Baja California, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Salton Trough region of southern California and the Mexicali valley in northwestern Mexico are areas of rapid subsidence due to extension along the San Andreas-Imperial fault system and are being filled by clastic sediments transported by the Colorado River. The relatively high sedimentation rates of these basins have a high potential to preserve high-resolution climatic information. With this goal in mind, we drilled a 42 m-long core in the center of the Laguna Salada, a lacustrine basin located west of the Mexicali valley and to the south of the Salton Trough. Two 14C dates from plant remnants indicate sedimentation rates are in the order of 1mm/yr; based on this we estimate the age of the bottom of the core close to 50 Ka. This high sedimentation rate could in principle allow us to reconstruct the climatic variability of this hyperarid region on timescales ranging from centennial and millennial periodicities up to Milankovitch forcing. Here we present data on the first-order changes introduced by the later longer periods. Sedimentary facies in the core were identified based on color, granulometry, mineralogical composition and primary structures such as laminations, dissecation cracks, and bioturbation. Additionally, we obtained reflectivity of sediments every 5 mm to 1 cm, depending on the scale of primary structures. The recovered stratigraphy consists of three sedimentary successions. The lower part of the core is characterized by an alternation of mud and silt laminae of varying thickness between 5mm-1cm, probably deposited during stage 3. This ancient paleolake was dominated by sub-aqueous conditions with a permanent water table year-round. Good preservation of laminae suggests seasonal bottom anoxia. During the last glacial maximum, moisture conditions changed drastically. Laminations are replaced by finely stratified sand and further upsection by repetitive packages 50cm-thick composed of fine sand, brown mud, greenish silt and mud, and mud, caped with dissecation cracks and laminated gypsum. These sediments were deposited in a continental sabka environment with intermittent freshwater input, as evidenced by the clear dissecation cycles. Transition to the Holocene climate is characterized by deposition of well-classified sand with textural properties very similar to that of modern eolian dunes. This is indicative of extreme hyper-arid conditions. The Holocene, on the other hand is marked by a return to periodic wet and dry conditions. Present high rates of local precipitation during El Niño years and periodic infillings by occasional discharges from the Colorado river are balanced by high evaporation rates that lead to intermittent diseccation of the lake and yield a characteristic alternation of laminated mud, fine sand, and evaporitic deposits.

Aco-Palestina, A.; Contreras, J.; Martin-Barajas, A.; Hergeura, J. C.; Rendon-Marquez, G.

2005-12-01

40

How to Interrupt Oppressive Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes continuum of responses to examples of race-, handicap-, and sex discrimination by participants and staff of camping programs. Recommends following actions toward social justice: educating oneself; interrupting negative behavior; interrupting and educating; supporting proactive response; and initiating proactive response. Includes…

McClintock, Mary

1990-01-01

41

The Outsider interruption algorithm  

SciTech Connect

The Outsider Analysis (Outsider) module is part of the Analytic System and Software for Evaluation of Safeguards and Security (ASSESS). Outsider and the ASSESS Facility Descriptor (Facility) module together supercede the Systematic Analysis of Vulnerability to Intrusion (SAVI) PC software package. Outsider calculates P(I), the probability that outsiders are interrupted during an attack on a facility by security forces at the facility, and P(W), the probability of security system win. SAVI exhaustively examines every possible path to find the ten most vulnerable paths. Exhaustive search is adequate if the number of paths to examine is small, but moderately complex facilities can have millions of paths, making exhaustive search too slow for practical purposes. Outsider has two new algorithms that generate paths in order of vulnerability, finishing in a fraction of the time required by SAVI. The new Outsider algorithms make containment analysis easier for analysts than ever before. We describe the new algorithms and show how much better they perform than the SAVI exhaustive search algorithm. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Snell, M.; Bingham, B.

1989-01-01

42

Interprofessional simulation on nurse interruptions.  

PubMed

This project was an initial attempt to help nonnurses who will potentially work in the health care field to gain an understanding of the impact of distractions and interruptions on nurses. Graduate students in the Institute for Health Care Improvement Open School participated in an unfolding simulation in a hospital setting to expose them to the challenges of providing care in a work environment that often includes multiple interruptions. PMID:22647981

Rochman, Monica F; Aebersold, Michelle; Tschannen, Dana; Cambridge, Betsy

43

Phase response curve for the ultradian rhythm of the lateral leaflets of Desmodium gyrans using DC current pulses.  

PubMed

In the present study the leaf movement rhythm was perturbed by the application of DC current pulses (15 microA, 10 seconds, voltage applied: 10 V) to the upper part of the pulvinus, passing through the pulvinus and its stalk. The pulses were applied at four different positions of the leaflets: when the leaves were at the lowermost position, when moving up, at the uppermost position and when moving down. The pre-perturbed and the post-perturbed rhythms were compared. We found that the rhythms were shifted in phase and the phase shifts observed at the four different positions of the leaflets were significantly different in magnitude as well as direction. Furthermore, we could also observe phase advances, which is in contrast to an earlier finding. A phase response curve (PRC) was constructed to illustrate the sensitivity of the oscillating leaflet system to DC pulses. Substantial delays of about 50 s (as compared to the period of about 200 s) were obtained when pulses were administered at the lowermost position and when leaflet were moving upwards, while advances or no phase shifts were recorded in the uppermost position and when leaflet were moving down respectively. PMID:11302218

Sharma, V K; Jensen, C; Johnsson, A

44

DC current injection into the network from PV inverters of <5 kW for low-voltage small grid-connected PV systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is focused on the study of DC current injection for low-voltage small grid-connected PV systems, which is one of the power quality requirements of utility companies. To achieve this aim, the existing status of guidelines and regulations in six selected countries where the development in the grid PV sector has evolved rapidly over the last decade (Australia,

V. Salas; M. Alonso-Abella; E. Olías; F. Chenlo; A. Barrado

2007-01-01

45

Impact of quasi-dc currents on three-phase distribution transformer installations. Power Systems Technology Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a series of tests designed to determine the response of quasi-dc currents on three-phase power distribution transformers for electric power systems. In general, if the dc injection is limited to the primary side of a step-down transformer, significant harmonic distortion is noted and an increase in the reactive power demand results. For dc injection on the secondary (load) side of the step-down transformer the harmonic content at the secondary side is quite high and saturation occurs with a relatively low level of dc injection; however, the reactive power demand is significantly lower. These tests produced no apparent damage to the transformers. Transformer damage is dependent on the duration of the dc excitation, the level of the excitation, and on thermal characteristics of the transfer. The transformer response time is found to be much shorter than seen in power transformer tests at lower dc injection levels. This shorter response time suggests that the response time is strongly dependent on the injected current levels, and that higher levels of dc injection for shorter durations could produce very high reactive power demands and harmonic distortion within a few tenths of a second. The added reactive power load could result in the blowing of fuses on the primary side of the transformer for even moderate dc injection levels, and neutral currents are quite large under even low-level dc injection. This ``smoking neutral`` results in high-level harmonic injection into equipment via the neutral and in possible equipment failure.

McConnell, B.W.; Barnes, P.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tesche, F.M. [Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States); Schafer, D.A. [Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-06-01

46

Experiments with Mercury Jet Interrupters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Paper describes an experimental attempt to ascertain the form of the mercury column issuing from a hole in the side of a rotating drum, that is continuously supplied with mercury by centrifugal action.Incidentally a new form of interrupter is introduced, in which the interior is visible through a window in the lid. The arrangement forms a suitable apparatus for

C E S Phillips

1915-01-01

47

Analysis of variable-frequency currents superimposed on DC currents in asynchronous HVDC links in stressing turbine-generator-exciter shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper makes an indepth analysis of the excitation of shaft torsional vibrations in steam turbine-generator-exciter shafts by variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on DC currents in asynchronous links using the finite element and reduced models of the machine shafts. Frequencies at which sympathetic shaft torsional vibrations would be excited by modulation product harmonics in 50 Hz\\/50 Hz and 50 Hz\\/60

T. J. Hammons; J. J. Bremner

1995-01-01

48

(In,Ga)As\\/InP n-p-n heterojunction bipolar transistors grown by liquid phase epitaxy with high DC current gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results on heterojunction bipolar transistors made in liquid phase epitaxial (In,Ga)As and InP layers on InP substrates are described. The (In,Ga)As base layer was doped with manganese during growth and contacts were made to it by beryllium ion implantation. The maximum measured dc current gain ? of these devices was in excess of 500. These devices also demonstrate for

H. Kanbe; J. C. Vlcek; C. G. Fonstad

1984-01-01

49

Current interruption by density depression  

SciTech Connect

Using a one-dimensional electrostatic particle code, we examine processes associated with current interruption in a collisionless plasma when a density depression is present along the current channel. Current interruption due to double layers was suggested by Alfven and Carlqvist (1967) as a cause of solar flares. At a local density depression, plasma instabilities caused by an electron current flow are accentuated, leading to current disruption. Our simulation study encompasses a wide range of the parameters in such a way that under appropriate conditions, both the Alfven and Carlqvist (1967) regime and the Smith and Priest (1972) regime take place. In the latter regime the density depression decays into a stationary structure (''ion-acoustic layer'') which spawns a series of ion-acoustic ''solitons'' and ion phase space holes travelling upstream. A large inductance of the current circuit tends to enhance the plasma instabilities.

Wagner, J.S.; Tajima, T.; Akasofu, S.I.

1985-04-01

50

A Laboratory Circuit for Arc Interruption Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthetic laboratory circuit for arc interruption research is described. The ability of this circuit to simulate many power system fault conditions is shown. The important role it has in the development of new circuit breaker interrupters is presented. Results of some experimental studies on arc interruption are reported and discussed.

D. R. Kurtz; E. H. Bogert

1965-01-01

51

Proposing a taxonomy and model of interruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interruptions not only decrease performance but can also cause human errors that lead to catastrophic events. Interruptions in high-risk industries such as aviation and nuclear power plants have been studied extensively because of catastrophic events such as power plant shut downs and plane crashes. In contrast, healthcare has a limited understanding of interruption despite the frequent occurrence of medical errors;

Juliana J. Brixey; Muhammad Walji; Jiajie Zhang; Todd R. Johnson; James P. Turley

2004-01-01

52

Eliminating Interrupt Overload in Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embedded systems can fail to operate correctly due to in- terrupt overload: starvation caused by too many interrupt requests. This paper describes three new techniques, two software-based and one hardware-based, for creating systems that delay or drop excessive interrupt requests before they can overload a processor. Our solutions to the interrupt overload problem have several desirable properties. During underload, overhead

John Regehr; Usit Duongsaa

2004-01-01

53

WORK INTERRUPTED: A CLOSER LOOK AT THE ROLE OF INTERRUPTIONS IN ORGANIZATIONAL LIFE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Interruptions are typically considered disruptive for organizational members, hindering their performance,and effectiveness. Although interruptions can have negative effects on work performance, they also can serve in multiple ways as facilitators of performance. In this paper, we discuss four key types of interruptions that have different causes and consequences: intrusions, breaks, distractions, and discrepancies. Each type of interruption can occur

QUINTUS R. JETT; JENNIFER M. GEORGE

2003-01-01

54

Editorial: The Interrupted Case Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many ways to tell a tale. This issue of the journal demonstrates that point as it devotes itself once again entirely to case studies. One particularly useful type of case study is the Interrupted Case Method. In this form, information is fed piecemeal to students working in small groups, allowing all students to be engaged in problem solving. The case is presented in one class period, which faculty find appealing due to the ease of writing and teaching this type of case.

Herreid, Clyde F.

2005-10-01

55

Improvements in DC Current-Ioltage (I-V) Characteristics of n-GaN Schottky Diode using Metal Overlap Edge Termination  

SciTech Connect

Practical design of GaN Schottky diodes incorporating a field plate necessitates an understanding of how the addition of such plate affects the diode performance. In this paper, we investigated the effects on DC current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of n-GaN schottky diode by incorporating metal overlap edge termination. The thickness of the oxide film varies from 0.001 to 1 micron. Two-dimensional Atlas/Blaze simulations revealed that severe electric field crowding across the metal semiconductor contact will cause reliability concern and limit device breakdown voltage. DC current-voltage (I-V) measurements indicate that the forward currents are higher for thinner oxide film schottky diodes with metal overlap edge termination than those of unterminated schottky diodes. The forward current increased due to formation of an accumulation layer underneath the oxide layer. Extending the field plate to beyond periphery regions of schottky contact does not result in any significant increase in forward current. The new techniques of ramp oxide metal overlap edge termination have been implemented to increase the forward current of n-GaN schottky diode. In reverse bias, breakdown voltage increased with edge termination oxide up to a certain limit of oxide thickness.

Munir, T.; Aziz, A. A.; Abdullah, M. J. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research Laboratory (NOR), School of Physics Universiti Sains Malaysia 11800 Minden Penang Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research Laboratory (NOR), School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

2010-03-11

56

Interrupted cognition in an undergraduate programming course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer and Information Science courses are frequently taught in networked computer laboratories where students have access to advanced development environments, connectivity, communications, and multi-media capabilities. Advanced connectivity and communications can have positive or negative effects on learning. One cause for concern can be interruptions from emails, cell phones, and instant messages. This paper presents a theoretical foundation for Technology Interrupted

Kay Wijekumar; Paul Meidinger

2005-01-01

57

Deadline Analysis of Interrupt-Driven Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Real - time, reactive, and embedded systems are widely used throughout society (e g , flight control, railway signaling, ve - hicle management, medical devices, and many others) For real - time, interrupt - driven software, timely interrupt han - dling is part of correctness It is vital for software verifica - tion in such systems to check that

Dennis Brylow; Jens Palsberg

2004-01-01

58

The Creep of Metals under Interrupted Stressing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creep behaviour of polycrystalline lead subjected to interrupted stress, or 'stress pulses', has been examined with an apparatus which enables the creep curve to be recorded as a magnified photographic trace. When the metal is reloaded after an interruption, a new creep transient is exhibited which can be adequately expressed by assuming a fraction n of the material to

A. J. Kennedy

1952-01-01

59

A Concept Analysis of the Phenomenon Interruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interruption was found to have no consistent definition in either healthcare or nonhealth- care literature. Walker and Avant's 8-step method of concept analysis was used to clarify, de- fine, and develop a conceptual model of interruption. The analysis led to the identification of 5 defining attributes that include (1) a human experience; (2) an intrusion of a secondary, unplanned,

Juliana J. Brixey; David J. Robinson; Craig W. Johnson; Todd R. Johnson; James P. Turley; Jiajie Zhang

2007-01-01

60

Interrupted Visual Searches Reveal Volatile Search Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated memory from interrupted visual searches. Participants conducted a change detection search task on polygons overlaid on scenes. Search was interrupted by various disruptions, including unfilled delay, passive viewing of other scenes, and additional search on new displays. Results showed that performance was unaffected by…

Shen, Y. Jeremy; Jiang, Yuhong V.

2006-01-01

61

DC Interruption Characteristic on Vacuum Circuit Breaker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high speed vacuum circuit breaker (HSVCB) has been investigated. HSVCB makes high frequency current superimposed on a fault current so that the current is forced to be zero and is interrupted. Its interruption performance is considered to be dependent on a rate of change of the current (di/dt). As a fundamental research, we investigated the di/dt-dv/dt characteristics and the insulation recovery characteristic after interrupting the counter-pulse current for various contact materials of AgWC, CuW, and CuCr. The results revealed that the case where gap length is larger is better in a current interruption performance. Moreover, it was found that di/dt is not dependent on the insulation recovery characteristics, but the magnitude of interruption current influences greatly.

Odaka, Hiromi; Yamada, Masataka; Sakuma, Ryohei; Ding, Cuie; Kaneko, Eiji; Yanabu, Satoru

62

18 CFR 284.9 - Interruptible transportation service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Interruptible transportation service. 284.9 Section 284...RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL...Conditions § 284.9 Interruptible transportation service. (a) Interruptible...

2013-04-01

63

Interrupted aortic arch in an adult female.  

PubMed

Interrupted aortic arch is a rare and usually lethal malformation, representing approximately 1% of congenital heart disease. This presents as a missing segment of the aortic arch and is divided into three types: A-called extreme form of coarctation, and is characterized by disruption of aorta's continuity distal to the left subclavian artery (30-40%), B-disruption between the left subclavian and the left carotid arteries (55-60%), and C-the most uncommon type, interruption proximal to the left common carotid artery. The suspicion of coarctation of the aorta can be made from a combination of physical findings including systolic ejection murmur, the murmurs of collateral blood vessels, diminished or absent femoral pulse, and difference in blood pressure between arms and legs. Interrupted aortic arch is an extremely rare anomaly in adult patients. To our knowledge, the world medical literature contains only about 13 reports of interrupted aortic arch diagnosed in adults. PMID:21050264

Kleinrok, Andrzej; Zaremba-Flis, Ewa; Smyk, Tomasz

2010-08-01

64

Coordinating the Interruption of People in Human Computer Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

People have cognitive limitations that make them sensitive to interruption. These limitations can cause people to make serious mistakes when they are interrupted. Unfortunately, interruption of people is a side effect of systems that allow users to delegate tasks to active background processes, like intelligent software agents. Delegation carries the costs of supervision, and that often includes being interrupted by

Daniel C. McFarlane

65

Development of an in situ calibration method for current-to-voltage converters for high-accuracy SI-traceable low dc current measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For photocurrent measurements with low uncertainties, wide dynamic range reference current-to-voltage converters and a new converter calibration method have been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The high-feedback resistors of a reference converter were in situ calibrated on a high-resistivity, printed circuit board placed in an electrically shielded box electrically isolated from the operational amplifier using jumpers. The feedback resistors, prior to their installation, were characterized, selected and heat treated. The circuit board was cleaned with solvents, and the in situ resistors were calibrated using measurement systems for 10 k? to 10 G? standard resistors. We demonstrate that dc currents from 1 nA to 100 µA can be measured with uncertainties of 55 × 10-6 (k = 2) or lower, which are lower in uncertainties than any commercial device by factors of 10 to 30 at the same current setting. The internal (NIST) validations of the reference converter are described.

Eppeldauer, George P.; Yoon, Howard W.; Jarrett, Dean G.; Larason, Thomas C.

2013-10-01

66

Vacuum interrupters and thyratrons as opening switches  

SciTech Connect

The clear advantages of inductive storage for large scale energy storage applications are creating an increasing interest in the research and development of the opening switches required. Opening switches for single-shot inductive transfers have received considerable attention and are fairly well advanced. The problem addressed by this workshop of high power opening switches for high repetition rate applications is much more severe, however, and may well require a major research and development effort. Two candidates for such an opening switch, the triggered vacuum interrupter and the magnetically quenched thyratron, are discussed. By electrically retriggering the discharge in the vacuum interrupter between pulses, the dependence on mechanical motion is eliminated. This should enable repetition rate operation at 10 to 15 kHz while still maintaining the vacuum interrupter's proven interrupting performance of tens of kiloamps at tens of kilovolts. The magnetically quenched thyratron, on the other hand, uses a cross magnetic field to raise the switch impedance by decreasing the electron mobility and driving the discharge into an arc chute wall where it is quenched. Successful interruptions of 1 kA at 15 kV and 100 A at 50 kV after conduction for 10 ..mu..s have been demonstrated by previous researchers. Work at Los Alamos is directed toward understanding the basic mechanisms involved and increasing the switch ratings, particularly the conduction time.

Honig, E.M.

1981-01-01

67

User requirements for interruption management in mobile communications in hospitals.  

PubMed

In hospitals, mobile communication devices increase the occurrence of inappropriate interruptions during clinical task performance. These interruptions have been related to decreased quality of clinical care. User requirements were elicited using a scenario based approach. The results present insights into user requirements for an interruption management system for hospitals. Hospital workflow protocols were identified as a major source of interruptions. Many suggestions for managing these interruptions related to improving workflow using IT. We have shown that even though the hospital is an exceptionally demanding environment, the user requirements for interruption management concur with earlier findings in the broader fields of context aware interruption management and computer supported cooperative work. PMID:23920869

Talsma, Bernd G; Solvoll, Terje; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

2013-01-01

68

Volcanic eruption induced WWVB transmission path interruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is reported that the 60 kHz transmission of WWVB from Fort Collins, Colorado, was not received in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, for about 11 h from 1109 UT to 2153 UT on July 23, 1980. It is suggested that this transmission path interruption is correlated with the 15 km height ash cloud due to the July 22, 1980 volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens as it drifted eastward interrupting both the ground- and first hop sky-wave paths and that this ash cloud is the source of the conductivity and/or ionization necessary to produce this interruption. Small phase retardations are also reported which could be correlated with other Mount St. Helens volcanic events during May-July 1980.

Buckmaster, H. A.; Hansen, C. H.

1985-07-01

69

Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.  

PubMed

We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:1621022

Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

1992-06-01

70

More about arc-fault circuit interrupters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) was commercially introduced in 1998, questions have arisen about how it detect arcs, whether it detects series and parallel arcs, and what types of AFCIs are available. Types other than the original branch\\/feeder AFCI are emerging. This paper is intended to provide an update regarding answers to those questions, following an earlier paper that

George D. Gregory; Kon Wong; Robert Dvorak

2003-01-01

71

More about arc-fault circuit interrupters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) was commercially introduced in 1998, questions have arisen about how it detects arcs, whether it detects series and parallel arcs, and what types of AFCIs are available. Types other than the original branch\\/feeder AFCI are emerging. This paper is intended to provide an update regarding answers to those questions, following an earlier paper that

George D. Gregory; Kon Wong; Robert F. Dvorak

2004-01-01

72

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2012-10-01

73

14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary...91.1417 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption...

2009-01-01

74

14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary...91.1417 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption...

2013-01-01

75

34 CFR 650.35 - May fellowship tenure be interrupted?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false May fellowship tenure be interrupted? 650...OF EDUCATION JACOB K. JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be Met By Fellows? § 650.35 May fellowship tenure be interrupted?...

2013-07-01

76

Testing of a 50 kA, 50 kV current interrupter with I sup 2 t preheating and long recovery voltage  

SciTech Connect

The Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) presently being constructed at Los Alamos in a next generation Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) plasma experiment. An inductive energy transfer system, employing a 50 kA, 50 kV dc current interrupter, is being utilized for initiating the plasma current. These performance requirements (50 kA, 50 kV) had yet to be realized in a reliable switching system, development of this current interrupter system was initiated. A switch test bay with a 50 kA battery bank has been built at Los Alamos to test the interrupter in conditions which will exist in the CPRF experiment. Many switch parameters were measured to provide information on the current interrupting characteristics and reliability. Some of these diagnostics include voltage, current, pre and post I{sup 2}t contact resistance, opening speed and position, arc voltage, and stem temperature. To determine any long term changes, all shots and data channels are computer indexed, and may be easily recalled for review. Extensive testing was performed on Siemens D-10 vacuum interrupter. Test parameter space included 55 kA, 40 kV (per bottle); di/dt of 2250 A/{mu}s, I{sup 2}t of 5 {times} 10{sup 9} amp{sup 2} sec; and 20 kV-200 msec RC recovery decay. Circuit parameters effect opening reliability. Circuit data and the associated testing results will be presented along with long term trends of switch performance under normal'' conditions. 12 figs.

Reass, W.A.; Boenig, H.J.; Melton, J.G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-01-01

77

Service-interruption costs vary widely  

SciTech Connect

The costs of interruptions in electricity service by class of customer on a worldwide basis is examined, as well as factors relating to these costs. Residential capacity-related outage costs vary from 5 cents/kWh to $1.50/kWh; energy-shortfall outage costs between zero and 50 cents/kWh. Industrial capacity-related costs are typically $1 to $7/kWh; energy-shortfall costs between 5 cents and $1/kWh.

Sanghvi, A.P.

1982-09-01

78

Interrupting long periods of sitting: good STUFF  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that sedentary behaviour is in itself a health risk, regardless of the daily amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Therefore, sedentary behaviour should be targeted as important health behaviour. It is known that even relatively small changes of health behaviour often require serious efforts from an individual and from people in their environment to become part of their lifestyle. Therefore, interventions to promote healthy behaviours should ideally be simple, easy to perform and easily available. Since sitting is likely to be highly habitual, confrontation with an intervention should almost automatically elicit a reaction of getting up, and thus break up and reduce sitting time. One important prerequisite for successful dissemination of such an intervention could be the use of a recognisable term relating to sedentary behaviour, which should have the characteristics of an effective brand name. To become wide spread, this term may need to meet three criteria: the “Law of the few”, the “Stickiness factor”, and the “Power of context”. For that purpose we introduce STUFF: Stand Up For Fitness. STUFF can be defined as “interrupting long sitting periods by short breaks”, for instance, interrupting sitting every 30 min by standing for at least five minutes. Even though we still need evidence to test the health-enhancing effects of interrupted sitting, we hope that the introduction of STUFF will facilitate the testing of the social, psychological and health effects of interventions to reduce sitting time.

2013-01-01

79

Reliability evaluation of radial distribution system considering momentary interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose the reliability evaluation method of power distribution systems considering the momentary interruptions. The results of research are concentrated on two parts. One is the reliability evaluation method of power distribution system considering the momentary interruptions and the other is the reliability cost evaluation that unifies the sustained and momentary interruption costs. These proposed evaluation methodologies

S.-Y. Yun; J.-C. Kim; J.-F. Moon; C.-H. Park; S.-M. Park; M.-S. Lee

2003-01-01

80

IT Use and the Interruption of NPD Knowledge Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

While product development (NPD) groups typically use information technology (IT) to enhance their knowledge work, such usage also elicits group-level interruptions. This paper develops a conceptual model that studies the partial mediation effect of interruptions on the link between IT use and knowledge integration in NPD. It proposes that IT use causes two interruption types that represent alternate channels of

Shamel Addas; Alain Pinsonneault

2010-01-01

81

Conceptualizing Interpersonal Interruption Management: A Theoretical Framework and Research Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research exploring interpersonal-technology- mediated interruptions has focused on understanding how the knowledge of an individual?s local context can be utilized to reduce unwanted intrusions by employing sensor and agent technology to detect and manage their interruptions. However, this approach has produced limited benefit for users because it fails to take into account who the interruption is from or what

Sukeshini A. Grandhi; Quentin Jones

2009-01-01

82

Interruptions and Distractions in Healthcare: Review and Reappraisal  

PubMed Central

Healthcare settings can be hectic, demanding, time-constrained environments. Within these environments, health care professionals (HCP) are expected to perform tasks that often require their undivided attention. However, HCPs are frequently interrupted, which can distract their attention and add to the complexity of their work. That said, not all interruptions are bad; many interruptions are essential to the patient care process and provide HCPs with necessary information. This paper systematically reviews the peer-reviewed literature on interruptions in healthcare settings to determine the state of the science and to identify gaps. It then provides a complex sociotechnical systems approach to understanding interruptions in healthcare.

Rivera, A. Joy; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

2010-01-01

83

Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter  

DOEpatents

A device and a method for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens.

Rockot, Joseph H. (N. Huntingdon, PA); Mikesell, Harvey E. (McMurray, PA); Jha, Kamal N. (Bethel Park, PA)

1998-01-01

84

Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter  

DOEpatents

A device and a method are disclosed for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens. 7 figs.

Rockot, J.H.; Mikesell, H.E.; Jha, K.N.

1998-08-11

85

Differential pricing of electricity through interruption insurance  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to suggest differential tariffs that can improve the allocation of electricity. The study is motivated both by recent regulatory trends to encourage differentiation of electric power service with respect to certain quality attributes (such as reliability), and by ongoing economic pressures to market resources efficiently. Some of the areas investigated include the provision of compensatory insurance for interruptible power, individually owned backup generation capacity, and efficient pricing of standby service for bypassers of central distribution systems. The work on compensatory insurance sets the stage for the rest of the investigation as it offers a mechanism through which the utility can differentiate consumers according to their valuation of service. Next, a framework is developed with which to analyze backup capacity as a supplementary form of interruption insurance. Backup capacity naturally leads to the discussion of bypass and a mechanism for discouraging inefficient bypass and a mechanism for discouraging inefficient bypass. In particular, the author focuses on the standby charge, which may be viewed as an insurance premium, and attempts to reconcile some of the divergent views on this subject.

Doucet, J.A.

1988-01-01

86

Energy expenditure of interruptions to sedentary behavior  

PubMed Central

Background Advances in technology, social influences and environmental attributes have resulted in substan-tial portions of the day spent in sedentary pursuits. Sedentary behavior may be a cause of many chronic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Research demonstrated that breaking up sedentary time was beneficially associated with markers of body composition, cardiovascular health and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the total energy expenditure of three different durations of physical activity within a 30-minute sedentary period and to examine the potential benefits of interrupting sedentary behavior with physical activity for weight control. Methods Participants completed four consecutive 30-minute bouts of sedentary behavior (reading, working on the computer, or doing other desk activities) with and without interruptions of walking at a self-selected pace. Bout one contained no walking interruptions. Bout two contained a 1-minute walking period. Bout three contained a 2-minute walking period. Bout four contained a 5-minute walking period. Body composition and resting metabolic rate were assessed. Result Twenty males and females (18-39 years) completed this study. Results of the repeated measures analysis of variance with post-hoc testing showed that significantly more energy was expended during each 30 minute sedentary bout with a walking break than in the 30 minute sedentary bout (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). On average, participants expended an additional 3.0, 7.4, and 16.5 additional net or activity kilocalories during bouts 2, 3, and 4, respectively compared with bout 1. When extrapolated for a full eight-hour working day, this data shows that an individual would theoretically expend an additional 24, 59 or 132 kilocalories per day, if they stood up and walked at a normal, self selected pace for one, two or five minutes every hour, respectively, compared with sitting for the 8-hour period. Conclusions This study demonstrated that making small changes, such as taking a five minute walking break every hour could yield beneficial weight control or weight loss results. Therefore, taking breaks from sedentary time is a potential outlet to prevent obesity and the rise of obesity in developed countries.

2011-01-01

87

Physiological Growth Responses by Nutrient Interruption in Aeroponically Grown Potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to retard potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs Superior, Atlantic, and Jasim) shoot growth by nutrient interruption and thereby induce tuber formation in an aeroponic\\u000a cultivation system. In the period between 25 and 55 days after transplanting (DAT), a 10-day nutrient interruption was carried\\u000a out on the potato plants. The interruption of nutrient supply significantly increased root activity

Dong Chil Chang; Choun Soo Park; Sung Yeul Kim; Su Jeong Kim; Yong Beom Lee

2008-01-01

88

Evaluation of Interruption Capability on Various Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical characteristics of Air, CO2, etc. are studied as candidate of substitute gas for SF6. To evaluate their interruption capability as close as actual case the gas blasting with sonic velocity was applied. Authors have measured time constant (?) and power loss coefficient (N0). In this experiment, Air, He, CO2, and SF6 and gas mixture with SF6 were varied. Among these gases it was found to be ?SF6N0CO2>N0air>N0He, and it is understood that the arc extinction performance of CO2 was excellent except for SF6. Moreover, the time constant became large when the rate of SF6 in mixture gas was reduced, and the power loss coefficient became small. Moreover, the simulation of the SLF interception by EMTP was performed using the obtained arc parameters of the various gases.

Motiduki, Kunio; Ueno, Takafumi; Mizoguchi, Hitoshi; Yanabu, Satoru; Okabe, Sigemitu; Yuasa, Sadayuki

89

Operational Failures and Interruptions in Hospital Nursing  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the work environment of hospital nurses with particular focus on the performance of work systems supplying information, materials, and equipment for patient care. Data Sources Primary observation, semistructured interviews, and surveys of hospital nurses. Study Design We sampled a cross-sectional group of six U.S. hospitals to examine the frequency of work system failures and their impact on nurse productivity. Data Collection We collected minute-by-minute data on the activities of 11 nurses. In addition, we conducted interviews with six of these nurses using questions related to obstacles to care. Finally, we created and administered two surveys in 48 nursing units, one for nurses and one for managers, asking about the frequency of specific work system failures. Principal Findings Nurses we observed experienced an average of 8.4 work system failures per 8-hour shift. The five most frequent types of failures, accounting for 6.4 of these obstacles, involved medications, orders, supplies, staffing, and equipment. Survey questions asking nurses how frequently they experienced these five categories of obstacles yielded similar frequencies. For an average 8-hour shift, the average task time was only 3.1 minutes, and in spite of this, nurses were interrupted mid-task an average of eight times per shift. Conclusions Our findings suggest that nurse effectiveness can be increased by creating improvement processes triggered by the occurrence of work system failures, with the goal of reducing future occurrences. Second, given that nursing work is fragmented and unpredictable, designing processes that are robust to interruption can help prevent errors.

Tucker, Anita L; Spear, Steven J

2006-01-01

90

Possibility of high current interruption of vacuum interrupter with low surge contact material: Improved Ag-WC  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-current interruption experiments were carried out on low-surge contact material Ag-WC set in axial magnetic field electrodes. The most influential factors on high-current interruption are the contact material, the axial magnetic field, and the initial opening speed. Though the interruption ability of conventional contact material was limited up to 20 kA, the ability of the improved material rose up to

E. Kaneko; K. Yokokura; M. Homma; Y. Satoh; M. Okawa; I. Okutomi; I. Ohshima

1995-01-01

91

Application of arc-interruption fundamentals to nozzles for puffer interrupters. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept of an SFâ puffer breaker having an insulated dual-flow nozzle with bell-shaped downstream sections and one coaxially located puffer was introduced. When tested as a scaled-down model breaker for thermal (short line fault) interruption, it performed at the higher current and di\\/dt ratings three times better than an optimized model of a conventional single-flow breaker. As scaling

H. O. Noeske; D. M. Benenson; G. Frind; K. Hirasawa; R. E. Kinsinger; H. T. Nagamatsu; R. E. Jr. Sheer; Y. Yoshioka

1983-01-01

92

Lean manufacturing in temperature dependent processes with interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A particular difficulty arises when lean manufacturing principles are applied to temperature dependent processes. Specifically, when an interruption occurs, lean manufacturing advocates stopping the production line to find the “root cause” of the problem. However, interruptions in temperature dependent processes will cause work-in-progress and process equipment to cool down and quality problems are likely when production restarts. This difficulty could

Wee Leong LEE; J. M. Allwood

2003-01-01

93

Assessment of interruption cost to high tech industry in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major issue in utility system resource planning is to provide justification of new reliability levels. Electric service interruption cost is a key indicator of customer expectation and therefore reliability worth. Various surveys have been conducted for assessing interruption costs to different types of customers. To justify the investment on providing premium power for high tech industry, a survey aimed

Shih-An Yin; Chan-Nan Lu; E. Liu; Yu-Chang Huang; Chinug-Yi Huang

2001-01-01

94

Institutional narcissism, arrogant organization disorder and interruptions in organizational learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This article aims to present an alternative approach to diagnosing behavioral barriers to organizational learning. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper juxtaposes interruptions in organizational learning with characteristics of narcissism and arrogant organization disorder. Psychoanalytically informed theory and DSM-IV criteria are applied to interruptions in organizational learning and an alternative approach to diagnosing behavioral barriers to organizational learning is suggested.

Lynn Godkin; Seth Allcorn

2009-01-01

95

Interrupter resistance and wheezing phenotypes at 4 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to distinguish young children with respiratory symp- toms who will develop asthma from those with transient symptoms only. Measurement of interrupter resistance may help to identify children at high risk of asthma. The aim of this study is to compare interrupter resistance in 4-year-old children with different wheez- ing phenotypes. All children participated in the Prevention and

Jessica E. Brussee; Henriette A. Smit; Laurens P. Koopman; Alet H. Wijga; Marjan Kerkhof; Karen Corver; Ada P. H. Vos; Jorrit Gerritsen; Diederick E. Grobbee; Bert Brunekreef; Peter J. F. M. Merkus; J. C. de Jongste

2004-01-01

96

Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Interrupter for Safe and Arm Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis addresses the development of a new micro-scale interrupter mechanism for a safe and arm device used in modern weapon systems. The interrupter mechanism often consists of a physical barrier that prevents an initial source of energy, in an explo...

S. S. Mink

2006-01-01

97

Enhancing the Television‐Viewing Experience through Commercial Interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers prefer to watch television programs without commercials. Yet, in spite of most consumers’ extensive experience with watching television, we propose that commercial interruptions can actually improve the television‐viewing experience. Although consumers do not foresee it, their enjoyment diminishes over time. Commercial interruptions can disrupt this adaptation process and restore the intensity of consumers’ enjoyment. Six studies demonstrate that, although

Tom Meyvis; Jeff Galak

2009-01-01

98

Interruptions as Multimodal Outputs: Which are the Less Disruptive?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes exploratory studies of interruption modalities and disruptiveness. Fiveinterruption modalities were compared: Heat, Smell, Sound, Vibration, and Light. Much more notable than the differences between modalities was the differences between people. We found that subjects' sensitiveness depended on their previous life exposure to the modalities.Individual differences greatly control the effect of interrupting stimuli .We show that is possible

Alexandre Stouffs; Ted Selker

2002-01-01

99

Task interruptability and duration as measures of visual distraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tasks that are easily interrupted under intermittent viewing conditions may be less distracting while driving because they allow drivers greater control over task sharing decisions. This paper investigates the reliability and sensitivity of the occlusion paradigm as a potential means of measuring task interruptability and distraction. Twenty-four participants, between the ages of 21 and 34, completed two separate experimental sessions.

Y. Ian Noy; Tracy L. Lemoine; Christopher Klachan; Peter C. Burns

2004-01-01

100

We Interrupt This Program...Attention for Television Sequences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study assessed the variable amounts of attention that are required for a viewer to process two kinds of interruptions that commonly occur in television: the shift from one message to a different, unexpected message; and the reference to previously presented material that follows an interruption. Twenty-six subjects recruited from an…

Geiger, Seth; Reeves, Byron

101

Controlling interruptions: awareness displays and social motivation for coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous communication is common in the workplace but can be disruptive. Such communication usually benefits the initiator more than the target of the disruption. Previous research has indicated that awareness displays showing the workload of a target can reduce the harm interruptions inflict, but can increase the cognitive load on interrupters. This paper describes an experiment testing whether team membership

Laura A. Dabbish; Robert E. Kraut

2004-01-01

102

Physics of high-current interruption of vacuum circuit breakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present state of knowledge concerning the physical phenomena of high-current interruption with vacuum interrupters (VI) is reviewed. Two arc control methods, application of externally applied axial magnetic field (AMF) or transverse magnetic field (TMF), are available to distribute the heat flux from arc to contacts homogeneously over contact surface, to avoid local overheating. AMF spreads the arc at fixed

Ekkehard Schade

2005-01-01

103

Greatly prolonged period non-interruptible power supply system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to a power supply system having the capability of furnishing to a load sensitive to electrical faults and interruptions, electrical power for prolonged periods of time after a utility or other external power supply source thereto is interrupted. The system comprises a main A.C. generator furnishing A.C. potential at a selected frequency and a selected voltage to

Roesel; J. F. Jr

1983-01-01

104

Mapping raster imagery to the Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the increasing emphasis on global monitoring, processing remotely-sensed raster image data onto global map projections has become an important issue. One class of map projections, interrupted equal-area projections, is especially useful for this purpose. The use of the Interrupted Goode Homolosine map projection for the Global Land Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1 km project and the

D. R. STEINWAND

1994-01-01

105

Preparing to resume an interrupted task: effects of prospective goal encoding and retrospective rehearsal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We examine people's strategic cognitive responses to being interrupted while performing a task Based on memory theory, we propose that resumption of a task after interruption is facilitated by preparation during the interruption lag , or the interval between an alert to a pending interruption (e g the phone ringing) and the interruption proper (the ensuing conversation) To test

J. Gregory Trafton; Erik M. Altmann; Derek P. Brock; Farilee E Mintz

2003-01-01

106

Preparing to resume an interrupted task: effects of prospective goal encoding and retrospective rehearsal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine people's strategic cognitive responses to being interrupted while performing a task. Based on memory theory, we propose that resumption of a task after interruption is facilitated by preparation during the interruption lag, or the interval between an alert to a pending interruption (e.g. the phone ringing) and the interruption proper (the ensuing conversation). To test this proposal, we

J. Gregory Trafton; Erik M. Altmann; Derek P. Brock; Farilee E. Mintz

107

Eliminating Receive Livelock in an Interrupt-driven Kernel  

Microsoft Academic Search

ments tend to generate a few hundred packets per second for any single end-system. Although people Most operating systems use interface interrupts to understood the need to reduce the cost of taking an

Jeffrey C. Mogul; K. K. Ramakrishnan

1996-01-01

108

14 CFR 121.705 - Mechanical interruption summary report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2009-01-01 2009-01-01...Mechanical interruption summary report. 121.705 Section 121.705 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.705...

2009-01-01

109

14 CFR 121.705 - Mechanical interruption summary report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...Mechanical interruption summary report. 121.705 Section 121.705 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.705...

2010-01-01

110

High Voltage Nanosecond Pulser Using a Repetitive Series Interrupter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pulse generation system using an inductive energy storage technique is described. A high magnitude current flowing in a storage inductor is suddenly halted by means of a repetitive series interrupter device and an accompanying magnetic field coupled con...

M. Weiner

1978-01-01

111

Interruption-free construction of a firewall for research network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a novel method to construct a firewall for research network without any interruption. The advantage of the proposed method is that the construction of the firewall does never interrupt the research network which has been already running and used for everyday research activity. There are two key ideas. One is that a new protected network is created and attached on the fly to the currently used research network. The other is that migration from the old unprotected network to the new protected one is quite gradual, i.e. one computer by one computer, not all computers at once. This step by step manner ensures continuous operation of the network and interruption free firewall construction. These ideas are inspired by methods to reconstruct bridges, railroads, motorways, and so on by making bypass to avoid traffic interruption.

Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Teshiba, Masashi; Hiraoka, Kazuyuki; Shigehara, Takaomi; Mishima, Taketoshi

2000-11-01

112

Effect of Etching Interruptions on Track Formation in Plastics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of etch interruptions on track formation was studied in nitrocellulose plastic sheets using alpha particle tracks. The step effect is markable on some parameters of the tracks while on others, as the lengthening with development time, it seems ...

C. Sgarbi G. Baroni G. Romano M. C. Tabasso S. Dilliberto

1971-01-01

113

Antiretroviral treatment interruptions and risk of non-opportunistic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured treatment interruptions have been studied as a strategy to reduce antiretroviral toxicities and expenditures in\\u000a the treatment of HIV-infected individuals. Paradoxically, in addition to the increased incidence of death and opportunistic\\u000a infections, these interruptions in therapy have resulted in the development of a number of non-opportunistic diseases, including\\u000a cardiovascular events, renal insufficiency, hepatic failure, and non-AIDS-defining malignancies. Hypotheses regarding

Kenneth A. Lichtenstein

2009-01-01

114

Interrupted Time-Series Designs for Evaluating Health Communication Campaigns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interrupted time series (ITS) constitute a class of powerful quasi-experimental designs for evaluating health communication campaigns. This article: 1) describes the basic elements of time-series designs in general and interrupted time-series designs in particular; 2) discusses briefly some of the more widely recognized ITS designs in order of increasing methodological rigor; 3) introduces the two major types of time-series statistical

Philip Palmgreen

2009-01-01

115

Interrupter resistance in preschool children: measurement characteristics and reference values  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for quick, reliable, and noninvasive lung function tests\\u000a to assess airway obstruction in preschool children both for pediatric\\u000a pulmonary care as well as for research purposes. We studied feasibility,\\u000a reproducibility, and validity of measurements of the respiratory system\\u000a using the interrupter technique (interrupter resistance [Rint]) and\\u000a obtained reference values in children from a general population, 2

PETER J. F. M. MERKUS; JACQUELINE Y. MIJNSBERGEN; WIM C. J. HOP; Jongste de J. C

2001-01-01

116

Investigation of high-current interruption of vacuum circuit breakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical processes occurring during recovery of a vacuum interrupter after high-current interruption are surveyed. New results have been obtained by the application of modern diagnostic techniques like laser shadow imaging, laser-induced fluorescence of atoms and of metal vapor ions, Mie scattering of droplets, and high-resolution recording of voltage and current on digital oscilloscopes. The density of metal vapor produced

E. Dullni; E. Schade

1993-01-01

117

High-current interruption in vacuum circuit breakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this project was to find a correlation between contact gap length and switching behavior of a vacuum circuit breaker. A large number of interruption experiments were executed in a vacuum chamber with butt type contacts made of Cu, CuCr 50\\/50 and AgWC. The currents to be interrupted varied from 2.5 to 32 kA. The rate of change

M. Binnendijk; W. F. H. Merck; R. P. P. Smeets; K. Watanabe; E. Kaneko

1997-01-01

118

Interruptible load management using optimal power flow analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interruptible load management (ILM) scheme is proposed using dynamic optimal power flow analysis. It enables real-time selection of interruptible loads incorporating power network constraints and dynamic restriction on generation, viz. ramp-rate limits. The model provides an analytical framework for addressing several important issues associated with optimal selection of load curtailment, e.g. advance notification for load curtailment, short-term price discounts

S. Majumdar; D. Chattopadhyay; J. Parikh

1996-01-01

119

A new synthetic test installation for testing vacuum interrupters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthetic test installation using voltage injection and medium voltage off-communication schemes has been constructed to conduct dynamic performance testing on vacuum interrupters. The test circuit in its present setup is capable of simulating variable forward currents up to 10kA, conduction time of interrupters in vacuum-arc made up to approximately 15ms, di\\/dt up to 100A\\/µs and recovery voltages in the

T. Mukutmoni; W. M. Parsons; H. H. Woodson

1976-01-01

120

Circuit breaker interrupting capacity and short-time current ratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-voltage circuit breakers have interrupting capacity ratings and short-time current ratings that an engineer uses for their application. Interrupting capacity and short-time current ratings define different circuit breaker performance characteristics. The short-time rating is used by the engineer to determine the ability of the circuit breaker to protect itself and other devices and to coordinate with other circuit breakers so

D. D. Roybal

2004-01-01

121

Interruption of People in Human-Computer Interaction: A General Unifying Definition of Human Interruption and Taxonomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

User-interruption in human-computer interaction (HCI) is an increasingly important problem. This previously innocuous HCI problem has become critical to the successful function of many kinds of modern computer systems. This report asserts that a single un...

D. C. McFarlane

1997-01-01

122

Application of arc-interruption fundamentals to nozzles for puffer interrupters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A new concept of an SF/sub 6/ puffer breaker having an insulated dual-flow nozzle with bell-shaped downstream sections and one coaxially located puffer was introduced. When tested as a scaled-down model breaker for thermal (short line fault) interruption, it performed at the higher current and di/dt ratings three times better than an optimized model of a conventional single-flow breaker. As scaling parameters for the model breakers, current densities at the nozzle throat were chosen identical to those of a full size breaker. For the optimization effort, a major number of nozzles were investigated, first on dual-flow dual-pressure apparatus. A method was developed for the computation of the subsonic (upstream) part of the flow field under conditions of compressible, nonviscous cold flow. This method was checked experimentally and then extensively used for the comparison of the flow fields of different nozzles. Interferometric measurements were used to determine the effect of electrode vapor on the arc mantle for an air arc in a single-flow nozzle. High speed movies showed the importance of a short arc section immediately downstream of the vena contracta for interruption speed. Following preliminary optimization in dual-pressure tests, the single- and dual-flow nozzles were used in puffer experiments, where they were exposed to conditions of nozzle blocking and strong nozzle ablation. In these tests the pressure and electrical potential distribution were measured in single-flow nozzles during the arcing period. These results together with measurements of the ablation distribution along the nozzles and the results of a computer program for the flow initiation time gave insight into the blocking and deblocking dynamics of puffer breakers. Complementary work was done also on an asymmetrical dual-flow puffer breaker.

Noeske, H.O.; Benenson, D.M.; Frind, G.; Hirasawa, K.; Kinsinger, R.E.; Nagamatsu, H.T.; Sheer, R.E. Jr.; Yoshioka, Y.

1983-12-01

123

Research on breaking capacity of hybrid circuit breaker based on vacuum interrupter and SF6 interrupter in series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid circuit breaker, consisting of a vacuum interrupter and an SF6 interrupter connected in series, which takes the place of SF6 circuit breaker, is a kind of high-voltage big-capacity circuit breaker for Low-carbon technology research area. The experimental model of fiber-controlled hybrid circuit breaker with a vacuum circuit breaker and an SF6 circuit breaker in series was set up, and

Xian Cheng; Minfu Liao; Xiongying Duan; Ji-yan Zou

2011-01-01

124

Study on dynamic arc model for high voltage hybrid circuit breaker using vacuum interrupter and SF6 interrupter in series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid circuit breaker, consisting of a vacuum interrupter and an SF6 interrupter in series, which take the place of single SF6 circuit breaker, is a research area to low-carbon technology for high-voltage switch. In this paper, the model simulation system of hybrid circuit breaker was established by Alternative Transients Program. The system simulation model establishment mainly includes building the electromagnetic

Liao Minfu; Cheng Xian; Duan Xiongying; Zou Jiyan

2010-01-01

125

Interruption of People in Human-Computer Interaction: A General Unifying Definition of Human Interruption and Taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

User-interruption in human-computer interaction (HCI) is an increasingly important problem. Many of the useful advances in intelligent and multitasking computer systems have the significant side effect of greatly increasing user-interruption. This previously innocuous HCI problem has become critical to the successful function of many kinds of modern computer systems. Unfortunately, no HCI design guidelines exist for solving this problem. In

DANIEL C. MCFARLANE

1997-01-01

126

Prediction of DC current flow between the Otjiwarongo and Katima Mulilo regions, using 3D DC resistivity forward modelling and magnetotelluric and audio-magnetotelluric data recorded during SAMTEX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SAMTEX (Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment) is a multinational project initiated in 2003 to study the regional-scale electrical conductivity substructure of southern Africa and to infer from it the tectonic processes involved in the formation and deformation of the southern African subcontinental lithosphere. As an additional opportunistic component to SAMTEX, audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data were acquired during the most recent phase of the experiment (Phase IV) to investigate the local-scale conductivity substructure in the Otjiwarongo and Katima Mulilo regions (northern and north-eastern Namibia), where in future the installation of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) earth electrodes will commence. Both of the AMT surveys are situated close to the edge of the orogenic Neo-Proterozoic Ghanzi-Chobe/Damara belts (collectively termed the Damara Mobile Belt, DMB), which represents in part the collision between the Congo and Kalahari cratons during the amalgamation of South Gondwana. Previous studies using magnetotellurics (MT), magnetometer arrays and geomagnetic observatory data all point to the existence of a highly conductive mid-crustal zone which correlates well with the spatial location of the DMB. Preliminary modelling of the Otjiwarongo AMT data confirms the existence of a high conductive zone at mid-crustal depths (10-15 km), whereas in Katima Mulilo insufficient penetration of electromagnetic energy in the AMT frequency band, due to conductive sediment cover, prevents information being obtained of the conductivity at mid-crustal depths. However, at Katima Mulilo there are sparser broadband MT (BBMT) and long period MT (LMT) measurements that can be incorporated. The high conductivity of the DMB is explained by the presence of conductive materials (graphites, sulphides). In contrast, the lithospheric structure of the neighbouring Archaean cratons, the Congo and Kalahari, are generally found to be electrically resistive and therefore it is hypothesized that the return path of DC current, flowing along the path of least resistance between the two electrodes, is most likely to lie somewhere within, or in the vicinity of, the DMB. To obtain a better understanding of the current flow we propose using geological information, previous results of studies of the conductivity of the DMB and surrounding regions and 2D and 3D inversion results from the AMT and MT data recorded during SAMTEX in northern Botswana and Namibia, as input to a 3D DC resistivity forward modelling code, and to try to predict the return path that the DC current will follow.

Share, P.; Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Miensopust, M. P.; Khoza, D. T.; Fourie, S.; Webb, S. J.; Thunehed, H.

2009-12-01

127

Vacuum interrupters, the new technology for switching and protecting distribution circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides application guidelines for, and shows the advantages of, applying vacuum interrupters to the switching and to the protection of power distribution circuits. The performance of vacuum interrupters for load switching and for short circuit interruption is discussed with reference to long-term switching life and low maintenance costs. During this discussion, the unique ability of the vacuum interrupter

Paul G. Slade

1997-01-01

128

The roles of MDs and RNs as initiators and recipients of interruptions in workflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPrevious research studies have focused on the recipients of interruptions because of the negative impact interruptions have on task performance. It is equally important to understand the initiators of interruptions to help design strategies to lessen the number of interruptions and the possible negatives consequences. The purpose of this study was to examine MDs and RNs as initiators and recipients

Juliana J. Brixey; David J. Robinson; James P. Turley; Jiajie Zhang

2010-01-01

129

The Effect of Interruption Duration and Demand on Resuming Suspended Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The time to resume task goals after an interruption varied depending on the duration and cognitive demand of interruptions, as predicted by the memory for goals model (Altmann & Trafton, 2002). Three experiments using an interleaved tasks interruption paradigm showed that longer and more demanding interruptions led to longer resumption times in a…

Monk, Christopher A.; Trafton, J. Gregory; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A.

2008-01-01

130

DC current sensor for PWM converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensor for inductor current in PWM converters which offers improved performance over presently available sensors is presented. The sensor is based on a saturable transformer, derives power from existing converter waveforms, provides DC isolation, and has inherently wide bandwidth. The sensor is compared to available current sensors. A theory of operation for the sensor is presented, the results of

Arthur W. Kelley; John E. Titus

1991-01-01

131

Temperature dependence of DC currents in HBT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DC thermal-electrical heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) model is presented. Only three parameters were needed to simulate completely an HBT with the self-heating effect. It can be very easily implemented in any CAD software which uses the SPICE bipolar junction transistor model. Parameter extraction has been carried out on measured data and good fits were obtained over a wide temperature

H. Wang; C. Algani; A. Konczykowska; W. Zuberek

1992-01-01

132

Complete interruption of the aortic arch in a dog.  

PubMed

Complete interruption of the aortic arch was diagnosed by angiocardiography in a dog with exercise intolerance, a cardiac murmur, polycythemia, and cardiomegaly. The defect was accompanied by a patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect, and subaortic stenosis. The dog was euthanatized, and the clinical diagnosis was documented by gross dissection of the heart. The site of aortic interruption was between the left carotid and left subclavian arteries, which is the most common location in human beings. The similarity with the pathologic findings of interrupted aortic arch in human beings suggests a similar mechanism responsible for the abnormal cardiac morphogenesis. The defect may be confused with other cardiac anomalies that can result in exercise intolerance, polycythemia, and cardiac murmur. This defect is amenable to surgical treatment, which emphasizes the importance of a correct anatomic diagnosis in clinical patients. PMID:3693014

Jacobs, G; Patterson, D; Knight, D

1987-12-15

133

Hierarchical scheduling for integrating real-time applications with interrupt routines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a split interrupt routine model for a two-level hierarchical scheduling in order to integrate multiple independently developed applications that consist of tasks and interrupt routines into a shared CPU. In this model, an interrupt routine is split into an Interrupt Handler (IH), providing device-depended service, and an Interrupt Service Task (IST), providing application-specific service. By using this

Yutaka MATSUBARA; Shinya HONDA; Hiroaki TAKADA

2009-01-01

134

Development of distribution and subtransmission SFâ circuit breaker and hybrid transmission interrupter. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project covered the development of a new generation of SFâ arc spinner interrupters, a 15-kV circuit breaker (distribution) using this interrupter, and investigated the feasibility of a high voltage (transmission) hybrid interrupter using the arc-spinner and a vacuum interrupter in series. The arc spinner interrupter concept uses a self-generated magnetic field to drive an arc, on a circular path

Votta

1978-01-01

135

Fundamentals of interruption in vacuum. Eighth progress report  

SciTech Connect

In analyzing the behavior of a vacuum arc during interruption , a mathematical model has been set up to describe the events occurring in the interelectrode gap during interruption. The reliability of the results obtained using such a model depends on the accuracy of the initial assumptions made in setting up the model equations. Previous results obtained from the model analysis were compared to experimental data and it was found that there was a discrepancy close to current zero. To improve our model results some of the original model assumptions have been reconsidered in order to make the model more closely represent the physical reality of a vacuum arc.

Greenwood, A N; Childs, S E

1980-05-30

136

Institutional Narcissism, Arrogant Organization Disorder and Interruptions in Organizational Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This article aims to present an alternative approach to diagnosing behavioral barriers to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper juxtaposes interruptions in organizational learning with characteristics of narcissism and arrogant organization disorder. Psychoanalytically informed theory and DSM-IV criteria are…

Godkin, Lynn; Allcorn, Seth

2009-01-01

137

A brief history showing trends in vacuum interrupter technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum interrupters have been in continuous development since the 1950s, and manufacture since the early 1960s. This paper attempts to identify the trends in the technology over this period by means of a brief overview of work carried out in this field by Alstom and its predecessor companies. The paper concentrates mainly on work carried out in the United Kingdom

L. T. Falkingham

1998-01-01

138

Electrical power supply for short term power interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct current power supply for instantaneously providing tens of kilowatts of electrical energy for brief periods, such as 100 ms, during momentary power interruptions between a load and an electrical power source having a supply voltage includes a capacitor having an initial voltage charge preferably greater than the supply voltage. The cathode of a Zener diode is operably coupled

Russell E. Hammond; Robert L. Northup; Alan G. Shimp; Francis B. Fassnacht

1991-01-01

139

Arc-fault Circuit Interrupters For Aerospace Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circuit Breakers have historically been the preferred protection for aerospace wiring. Present designs are based on technologies that are 40 years old. Advancements in electrical circuit protection introduced by the residential and commercial industries have been slow finding their way into aerospace applications. Ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI) for personnel protection have been available in the home since the early

John Brooks; Gary Scott

140

The arc-fault circuit interrupter, an emerging product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) is beginning to emerge as a new product in residential power system applications in the United States to protect against conditions that may cause fire. This paper provides some of the background regarding its emergence as a product and the function it is intended to provide. The evolving technology may also lend itself to industrial

George D. Gregory; Gary W. Scott

1998-01-01

141

The arc-fault circuit interrupter: an emerging product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arc-fault circuit interrupter is beginning to emerge as a new product in residential applications in the US to protect against conditions that may cause fire. This paper provides some of the background regarding its emergence as a product and the function it is intended to provide. The evolving technology may also lend itself to industrial applications, as the potential

George D. Gregory; Gary W. Scott

1998-01-01

142

Multi-megampere current interruption from explosive deformation of conductors  

SciTech Connect

Two approaches for using explosives to interrupt current flowing in solid conductors are described. One concept uses explosives to extrude the switch conductor into thin regions that fuse due to current in the switch. A preliminary scaling law is presented. The second approach employs dielectric jets to sever current carrying conductors. A feasibility experiment and an improved design are described.

Goforth, J.H.; Williams, A.H.; Marsh, S.P.

1985-01-01

143

Accounting for interrupt handling costs in dynamic priority task systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to apply the results of formal studies of real-time task models, a practitioner must account for the effects of phenomena present in the implementation but not present in the formal model. We study the feasibility and schedulability problems for periodic tasks that must compete for the processor with interrupt handlers - tasks that are assumed to always have

Kevin Jeffay; Donald L. Stone

1993-01-01

144

Computer simulation of structured treatment interruption for HIV infection.  

PubMed

The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for suppression of measurable levels of virus in the body has greatly contributed to restoration and preservation of the immune system in HIV positive patients. However, short and long term problems associated with HAART have led to proposals for alternative treatment strategies for controlling HIV infection. In particular, structured treatment interruptions (STIs) that consist of therapy withdrawal and re-initiation according to specific criteria have been considered. The aim of these STIs was one or both of: (i) to stimulate the immune system to react to HIV, (ii) to allow re-emergence of wild-type virus and thereby reduce problems of drug resistance. However, a number of clinical trials of STIs have shown adverse outcomes for patients under discontinuous therapy, including serious health risks associated with treatment interruptions. In this paper we consider in some detail two of the larger clinical studies, namely, (a) strategies for management of anti-retroviral therapy (SMART); (b) Staccato study. For each of these studies we perform computer simulations of the treatment strategies. These simulations suggest several underlying reasons for the adverse outcomes during treatment interruption. In particular, HIV infection exhibits rapid dynamic load changes, and therefore measurement based treatment regimes need to be carefully designed to avoid large transients in healthy CD4+ T cell count. Furthermore, repeated treatment interruptions may accelerate the emergence of resistant mutant virus and may increase the infection of long term reservoirs such as macrophages which will accelerate progression to AIDS. PMID:21899913

Ferreira, Jorge; Hernandez-Vargas, Esteban A; Middleton, Richard H

2011-09-06

145

Computer simulation of structured treatment interruption for HIV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for suppression of measurable levels of virus in the body has greatly contributed to restoration and preservation of the immune system in HIV positive patients. However, short and long term problems associated with HAART have led to proposals for alternative treatment strategies for controlling HIV infection. In particular, structured treatment interruptions (STIs)

Jorge Ferreira; Esteban A. Hernandez-Vargas; Richard H. Middleton

2011-01-01

146

Radiobiological compensation for unintended treatment interruptions during palliative radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike radical treatment protocols, in which radiobiological methods have been used in an attempt to overcome the risk of reduced tumour control, the problem of compensation for unintended treatment interruptions during palliative radiotherapy has received little attention. For palliative radiotherapy, unnecessarily extended treatment times could theoretically reduce the duration of tumour regression and symptomatic relief. It can be shown, using

B Jones; J W Hopewell; R G Dale

2007-01-01

147

Analysis of the Interruption Process of Molded Case Circuit Breakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the optimization design of molded case circuit breakers (MCCBs), it is important and necessary to simulate the interruption process and analyze the characteristics. A set of differential equations can describe the interactive coupled phenomena of electric circuit, electromagnetic field and mechanism motion system in MCCB. First, with virtual prototyping technology, the simulation model for the operation mechanism of MCCB

Xingwen Li; Degui Chen; Yunfeng Wang; Qian Wang; Yingsan Geng

2007-01-01

148

Improving the effectiveness of an interruption lag by inducing a memory-based strategy.  

PubMed

The memory for goals model (Altmann & Trafton, 2002) posits the importance of a short delay (the 'interruption lag') before an interrupting task to encode suspended goals for retrieval post-interruption. Two experiments used the theory of soft constraints (Gray, Simms, Fu & Schoelles, 2006) to investigate whether the efficacy of an interruption lag could be improved by increasing goal-state access cost to induce a more memory-based encoding strategy. Both experiments used a copying task with three access cost conditions (Low, Medium, and High) and a 5-s interruption lag with a no lag control condition. Experiment 1 found that the participants in the High access cost condition resumed more interrupted trials and executed more actions correctly from memory when coupled with an interruption lag. Experiment 2 used a prospective memory test post-interruption and an eyetracker recorded gaze activity during the interruption lag. The participants in the High access cost condition with an interruption lag were best at encoding target information during the interruption lag, evidenced by higher scores on the prospective memory measure and more gaze activity on the goal-state during the interruption lag. Theoretical and practical issues regarding the use of goal-state access cost and an interruption lag are discussed. PMID:23261418

Morgan, Phillip L; Patrick, John; Tiley, Leyanne

2012-12-20

149

Simulation-based power calculation for designing interrupted time series analyses of health policy interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveInterrupted time series is a strong quasi-experimental research design to evaluate the impacts of health policy interventions. Using simulation methods, we estimated the power requirements for interrupted time series studies under various scenarios.

Fang Zhang; Anita K. Wagner; Dennis Ross-Degnan

2011-01-01

150

Helpful or Harmful. Examining the Effects of Interruptions on Task Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most studies examining the impact of interruptions on primary task performance showed that interruptions can be detrimental in accomplishing the primary task (Altmann & Trafton, 2004; Czerwinski, Cutrell, & Horovitz, 2000; Gillie & Broadbent, 1989; Monk, ...

C. Myers J. G. Trafton R. M. Ratwani

2006-01-01

151

Interrupted Aortic Arch in an Adult with Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary kidney disease and is responsible for 8–10% of patients with end-stage renal failure. The major extrarenal complications of ADPKD are cardiovascular abnormalities. Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a lethal congenital cardiac abnormality seen with a frequency of 3/1000000 births and is defined as a segment of the arcus aorta being atresic. In the literature, there are no any reports showing that polycystic kidney disease and interrupted aortic arch occur together. In this study, we present a rare case in which the patient has polycystic kidney disease and IAA together and discuss whether IAA is a complication of ADPKD.

Seker Kockara, Ayse; Kayatas, Mansur; Huzmeli, Can; Gumus, Cesur

2013-01-01

152

Mathematic principles of interrupted-sampling repeater jamming (ISRJ)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coherent jamming is one of the important trends in modern radar electronic warfare. High-speed sampling of wideband radio\\u000a frequency (RF) signals and high isolation of two receive-transmit antennas are key technologies for the realization of coherent\\u000a jamming. However, these technologies present significant challenges to engineering application. In this paper, a novel repeater\\u000a jamming based on interrupted sampling technique is presented.

Xuesong Wang; Jiancheng Liu; Wenming Zhang; Qixiang Fu; Zhong Liu; Xiaoxia Xie

2007-01-01

153

Interrupted Fischer indolization approach toward the communesin alkaloids and perophoramidine.  

PubMed

A concise approach toward the total synthesis of the communesin alkaloids and perophoramidine is reported. The strategy relies on the use of the interrupted Fischer indolization to build the tetracyclic indoline core of the natural products. Studies to probe the scope and limitations of this plan are presented. Although the methodology does not tolerate a C8-allyl substituent en route to the challenging vicinal quaternary stereocenters, variation at C7 and on the C ring is permitted. PMID:22905746

Schammel, Alex W; Chiou, Grace; Garg, Neil K

2012-08-20

154

Short-line fault interruption capability of vacuum circuit breakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current zero measurements are performed during short-line fault interruption tests of vacuum circuit breakers. Various reignition modes (occurring between 0 and 75 ms after current zero) were observed due to insufficient arcing time. The (single) restrike and the (single) failure occurred with higher current than rated. The relationship between post-arc current\\/charge, reignition mode and TRV are discussed in this paper.

R. P. P. Smeets; W. A. van der Linden

2002-01-01

155

Arc extinction performance of SF6gas blast interrupter  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a model SF6gas blast interrupter, arc extinction performance was investigated. The measurements were carried out for di\\/dt values ranging from 13 ? 27 A\\/µs, for RRRV extending from 3.5? 13.0kV\\/µs and for a fixed pressure of 15kg\\/cm2. On the other hand, the voltage and current wave forms near current zero in the short line fault (SLF) test circuit were

H. Nishikawa; A. Kobayashi; T. Okazaki; S. Yamashita

1976-01-01

156

A Context Aware Interruption Management System for Mobile Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To prevent unwanted interruptions from cell phones, this paper proposes a system solution considering user’s unavailability.\\u000a We first look at desirable characteristics of the system, then design a system architecture which takes as input user preferences,\\u000a relevant context information and then produces as output if an incoming call should be allowed to ring. We also present a\\u000a case study application

Sina Zulkernain; Praveen Madiraju; Sheikh Iqbal Ahamed

2010-01-01

157

Current-interruption testing of vacuum switching devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the international IEC standards for medium and HV switching devices no distinction in test requirements is made between switching devices with different arc-quenching media, like SF6, oil and vacuum. This had led to the situation that due to the different technology of arc interruption applied, various aspects of the prescribed test-procedures have a different weight in terms of severity

R. P. P. Smeets; A. G. A. Lathouwers

1999-01-01

158

Investigation and development of high voltage vacuum interrupters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical and mechanical subjects are investigated to design and manufacture high voltage vacuum interrupters (HV VIs). In electrical aspects, vacuum breakdowns are experimented to rod-plane and plane-plane models with stainless steel (SUS) and gaps. To overcome the defects of HV VIs in tank-type vacuum circuit breakers, outer shields are proposed. Mechanically, since HV VIs are large and have a heavy

Hyeong Goo Lee; Jung Se Kim; Myung Jun Choi; Jung Lock Kwon

2008-01-01

159

Pressure oscillations after flow interruption in relation to lung mechanics.  

PubMed

The value of interrupter resistance measurements has been questioned because these depend on equilibration between alveolar (PA) and mouth pressure (PAO), which may not occur during airway obstruction or in measurements in children. In order to determine whether airway geometry and its interaction with the lung volume can be obtained without complete pressure equilibration, the postocclusional oscillatory airway opening pressure transients PAO(t) after flow interruption were studied in comparison to airway resistance (RAW), lung volumes (TGV, VC) and MEF50 in 9 healthy children (7-14 y) and 5 adults (28-37 y) in both time and frequency domains. The frequency of pressure oscillations was correlated to TGV (p < 0.01). Its damping properties (d) were correlated to MEF50 (p < 0.005). Performing airflow interruptions in the same subject showed that d increased at low lung volumes. During bronchial challenge test, d significantly increased with carbachol and decreased with salbutamol, whereas the frequency decreased with carbachol and increased with salbutamol. Therefore, the analysis of postocclusional pressure oscillations can be used to assess relative changes in airway mechanics and its interaction with lung volume during bronchial challenge tests in patients such as children with poor cooperation. PMID:8904014

Frey, U; Schibler, A; Kraemer, R

1995-12-01

160

A Study on Users' Preference on Interruption When Using Wearable Computers and Head Mounted Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important part of making a wearable computer un- obtrusive is the user interface and the way it interrupts the user. The amount of interruption that have to be made on the users primary task should be minimized. Usage with- out interruption is of course best for the performance of the primary task but is often not possible as many

Marcus Nilsson; Mikael Drugge; Urban Liljedahl; Kåre Synnes; Peter Parnes

2005-01-01

161

Interruption Management in the Intensive Care Unit: Predicting Resumption Times and Assessing Distributed Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interruptions are frequent in many work domains. Researchers in health care have started to study interruptions extensively, but their studies usually do not use a theoretically guided approach. Conversely, researchers conducting theoretically rich laboratory studies on interruptions have not usually investigated how effectively their findings…

Grundgeiger, Tobias; Sanderson, Penelope; MacDougall, Hamish G.; Venkatesh, Balasubramanian

2010-01-01

162

A portable device based on the interrupter technique for measuring airway resistance in preschool children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The interrupter technique for measuring airway resistance is a noninvasive method reported to require minimal subject cooperation. Therefore it has a good potential for use in young children who are not able to cooperate with conventional lung function tests. The interrupter method is based on transient interruption of airflow at the mouth for a brief period during which alveolar

O. Derman; A. Yaramis; G. Kirbas

163

Development of an EMTP Simulation Model of Arcing Horns Interrupting Fault Current  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arcing horns interrupting fault current is a new type of arcing horns installed on transmission-line towers, which act to interrupt fault current independently within one cycle of commercial frequency. In this paper, we have developed an Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) simulation model of the arcing horns interrupting fault current to ascertain the application effects and devise an installation strategy. The

Toshiya Ohtaka; Mikimasa Iwata; Shin-ichi Tanaka; Yutaka Goda

2010-01-01

164

Diagnostic of circuit breaker interrupter by means of a frequency response analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SF6 self blast circuit breakers use the flow back of high pressure gas from the expansion chamber, which is generated by ablation of a PTFE-nozzle and the arc radiation to interrupt the arc. The interruption capability of SF6 self blast circuit breakers depends on the pressure inside the switching chamber at current zero. During each fault current interruption, the arc

M. Srisupha; C. Hille

2011-01-01

165

A Model for Human Interruptability: Experimental Evaluation and Automatic Estimation from Wearable Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the estimation of user interruptability in wearable and mobile settings, we propose in (8) to distinguish be- tween the users' personal and social interruptability. In this paper, we verify this thesis with a user study on 24 subjects. Results show that there is a significant difference between social and personal interruptability. Further, we present a novel approach to estimate

Nicky Kern; Stavros Antifakos; Bernt Schiele; Adrian Schwaninger

2004-01-01

166

Interruption of the Tower of London Task: Support for a Goal-Activation Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Unexpected interruptions introduced during the execution phase of simple Tower of London problems incurred a time cost when the interrupted goal was retrieved, and this cost was exacerbated the longer the goal was suspended. Furthermore, time taken to retrieve goals was greater following a more complex interruption, indicating the processing…

Hodgetts, Helen M.; Jones, Dylan M.

2006-01-01

167

Individualising Scaffolding: Teachers' Literacy Interruptions of Ethnic Minority Students and Students from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes a small-scale study that examined the ways four elementary teachers in the United States scaffolded the literacy of students differently through interruptions. One thousand four hundred and ninety-eight interruptions were identified and coded in the study. Findings show that teachers' interruption patterns frequently…

Mertzman, Tania

2008-01-01

168

Interruption Management in the Intensive Care Unit: Predicting Resumption Times and Assessing Distributed Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interruptions are frequent in many work domains. Researchers in health care have started to study interruptions extensively, but their studies usually do not use a theoretically guided approach. Conversely, researchers conducting theoretically rich laboratory studies on interruptions have not usually investigated how effectively their findings…

Grundgeiger, Tobias; Sanderson, Penelope; MacDougall, Hamish G.; Venkatesh, Balasubramanian

2010-01-01

169

Towards a hybrid method to categorize interruptions and activities in healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Interruptions are known to have a negative impact on activity performance. Under- standing how an interruption contributes to human error is limited because there is not a standard method for analyzing and classifying interruptions. Qualitative data are typically analyzed by either a deductive or an inductive method. Both methods have limitations. In this paper, a hybrid method was developed

Juliana J. Brixey; David J. Robinson; Craig W. Johnson; Todd R. Johnson; James P. Turley; Vimla L. Patel; Jiajie Zhang

2007-01-01

170

Control and Anticipation of Social Interruptions: Reduced Stress and Improved Task Performance 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social interruptions are frequent occurrences that often have distressing conse- quences for employees, yet little research has gauged their effect on individuals. Participants were exposed to 2 social interruptions as they engaged in a computer task with an accepted performance goal. Participants who were able to anticipate social interruptions performed significantly better than did those who could not anticipate them.

Andrew M. Carton; John R. Aiello

2009-01-01

171

Method and system for employing a non-masking interrupt as an input-output processor interrupt  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A computer system is provided that has an input-output processor having a non-masking interrupt. In addition to the central processing unit, the computer system has a host bus, a host operating system, at least one input-output bus connected to the host bus. At least one input-output device is connected to the input-output bus with facilities for connecting many more. In addition to the above-mentioned components, the computer system also includes a mask register. The mask register is capable of receiving input-output related messages from the host or from a local input-output device. The mask register is able to write a MASK signal based upon the received signals. Along with the mask register, the computer system is provided with a status register. The status register is capable of receiving input-output write messages from the host or from a local input-output device. The status register is used to write an INT signal based upon the message it receives. Additional circuitry is provided for processing the MASK signal from the mask register and the INT signal from the status register. This circuitry, depending upon the signals it receives from the mask register and the status register, triggers the non-masking interrupt of the input-output central processing unit which vectors to a trap routine that reroutes to the appropriate interrupt service routine based upon the settings in the status register.

Bonola; Thomas J. (Tomball, TX); Purcell; Brian T. (Tomball, TX); Hammons; Mark L. (Magnolia, TX)

2001-04-24

172

A systematic review of the psychological literature on interruption and its patient safety implications  

PubMed Central

Objective To understand the complex effects of interruption in healthcare. Materials and methods As interruptions have been well studied in other domains, the authors undertook a systematic review of experimental studies in psychology and human–computer interaction to identify the task types and variables influencing interruption effects. Results 63 studies were identified from 812 articles retrieved by systematic searches. On the basis of interruption profiles for generic tasks, it was found that clinical tasks can be distinguished into three broad types: procedural, problem-solving, and decision-making. Twelve experimental variables that influence interruption effects were identified. Of these, six are the most important, based on the number of studies and because of their centrality to interruption effects, including working memory load, interruption position, similarity, modality, handling strategies, and practice effect. The variables are explained by three main theoretical frameworks: the activation-based goal memory model, prospective memory, and multiple resource theory. Discussion This review provides a useful starting point for a more comprehensive examination of interruptions potentially leading to an improved understanding about the impact of this phenomenon on patient safety and task efficiency. The authors provide some recommendations to counter interruption effects. Conclusion The effects of interruption are the outcome of a complex set of variables and should not be considered as uniformly predictable or bad. The task types, variables, and theories should help us better to identify which clinical tasks and contexts are most susceptible and assist in the design of information systems and processes that are resilient to interruption.

Magrabi, Farah; Coiera, Enrico

2011-01-01

173

Paradoxical effects of repeat interruptions on spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 expansions and repeat instability.  

PubMed

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a noncoding ATTCT pentanucleotide expansion. An inverse correlation between SCA10 expansion size and age at onset has been reported, and genetic anticipation has been documented. Interruptions in the ATTCT expansion are known to occur within the expansion. In order to determine the effect of repeat interruptions in SCA10 expansions, we designed a PCR assay to easily identify ATCCT repeat interruptions in the 5'-end of the expansion. We screened a cohort of 31 SCA10 families of Mexican, Brazilian and Argentinean ancestry to identify those with ATCCT repeat interruptions within their SCA10 expansions. We then studied the effects of ATCCT interruptions on intergenerational repeat instability, anticipation and age at onset. We find that the SCA10 expansion size is larger in SCA10 patients with an interrupted allele, but there is no difference in the age at onset compared with those expansions without detectable interruptions. An inverse correlation between the expansion size and the age at onset was found only with SCA10 alleles without interruptions. Interrupted expansion alleles show anticipation but are accompanied by a paradoxical contraction in intergenerational repeat size. In conclusion, we find that SCA10 expansions with ATCCT interruptions dramatically differ from SCA10 expansions without detectable ATCCT interruptions in repeat-size-instability dynamics and pathogenicity. PMID:23443018

McFarland, Karen N; Liu, Jilin; Landrian, Ivette; Gao, Rui; Sarkar, Partha S; Raskin, Salmo; Moscovich, Mariana; Gatto, Emilia M; Teive, Hélio A G; Ochoa, Adriana; Rasmussen, Astrid; Ashizawa, Tetsuo

2013-02-27

174

Efficient system interrupt concept design at the microprogramming level  

SciTech Connect

Over the past decade the demand for high speed super microcomputers has been tremendously increased. To satisfy this demand many high speed 32-bit microcomputers have been designed. However, the currently available 32-bit systems do not provide an adequate solution to many highly demanding problems such as in multitasking, and in interrupt driven applications, which both require context switching. Systems for these purposes usually incorporate sophisticated software. In order to be efficient, a high end microprocessor based system must satisfy stringent software demands. Although these microprocessors use the latest technology in the fabrication design and run at a very high speed, they still suffer from insufficient hardware support for such applications. All too often, this lack also is the premier cause of execution inefficiency. In this dissertation a micro-programmable control unit and operation unit is considered in an advanced design. An automaton controller is designed for high speed micro-level interrupt handling. Different stack models are designed for the single task and multitasking environment. The stacks are used for storage of various components of the processor during the interrupt calls, procedure calls, and task switching. A universal (as an example seven port) register file is designed for high speed parameter passing, and intertask communication in the multitasking environment. In addition, the register file provides a direct path between ALU and the peripheral data which is important in real-time control applications. The overall system is a highly parallel architecture, with no pipeline and internal cache memory, which allows the designer to be able to predict the processor's behavior during the critical times.

Fakharzadeh, M.M.

1989-01-01

175

Properties and application of a randomly interrupted, random radar waveform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A random biphase coded waveform with random interruptions is proposed for high power monostatic radars requiring a 'thumbtack' ambiguity function. Attention is given to the statistical properties of the ambiguity function, which is a random function; these allow image quality and target-detection performance to be defined through an indication of the threshold needed to discriminate against other targets and clutter at different ranges and velocities. Also important is the degree of non-Gaussian character of the sidebands, as an indicator of system-noise or target-related signal status.

Porter, N. J.; Tough, R. J. A.; Ward, K. D.

176

Genetic interruption of target genes for investigation of virulence factors.  

PubMed

Recently, more emphasis has been given to understand molecular genetics and the contribution of a gene in the disease process. In fact, increased understanding of bacterial pathogenesis and intracellular communication has revealed many potential strategies for development of novel agents to treat bacterial infection. Therefore, to study the function and the involvement of a particular gene in pathogenesis, the inactivation or interruption is very important. In this section, various methods leading to inactivation of the gene in Staphylococcus aureus will be discussed. PMID:24085695

Manna, Adhar C

2014-01-01

177

Interrupting the transmission of wild polioviruses with vaccines: immunological considerations.  

PubMed Central

In 1988 the World Health Assembly set the goal of global poliomyelitis eradication by the year 2000. Substantial progress has been made, and 143 countries reported no poliomyelitis cases associated with the wild virus in 1993. This article reviews the immunological considerations relevant to interrupting the transmission of wild polioviruses with vaccines. Although serum immunity prevents poliomyelitis in the individual, it is local immunity that is important in preventing the transmission of polioviruses in the community. Natural infection and vaccination with oral polioviruses vaccine (OPV) produce local immunity in the intestine and the nasopharynx in about 70-80% of individuals. In contrast, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) produces local intestinal immunity in only 20-30% of the individuals. With either vaccine, however, a substantial proportion of the immunized population can transmit the wild virus. Moreover, although serum immunity is long-lasting, limited data suggest that local immunity may not be as persistent. To interrupt the transmission of wild polioviruses efforts should be made to achieve and sustain high levels of poliovirus vaccine coverage. Recent outbreaks show that wild poliovirus poses a risk for unimmunized individuals, even when overall coverage levels are high. Delivery of poliovirus vaccine to hard-to-reach populations will be of increasing importance as countries progress toward the final stages of poliomyelitis eradication. The immunization status of persons from poliomyelitis-free countries should be updated prior to travel to poliomyelitis-endemic areas.

Ghendon, Y.; Robertson, S. E.

1994-01-01

178

Interrupted escape and the emergence of exponential relaxation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple statistical theory of irreversible processes in a subsystem coupled to (or ``interrupted'' by) a stochastic bath is formulated. The theory does not explicitly invoke time scale separation that underlies the standard description of nonequilibrium phenomena and is intrinsic to the concept of quasiequilibrium in the canonical ensemble. Arbitrary statistics and speed of bath fluctuations are straightforwardly treated by the theory. Except in the case of an extremely slow, nonequilibrium bath, the ultimate statistics of interrupted escape are shown to be Poisson, which is solely a consequence of the stationary nature of interactions in a sufficiently dense system. In the limit of a fast bath, the corresponding relaxation rate is shown to equal the initial rate of decay, thus validating a wide class of Golden Rate type expressions at long times. This true exponentiality thus appears when the time scale separation takes place. The theory also applies to a number of specific phenomena including transport in a fluctuating or disordered medium, gated reactions, the line shape theory, and the quantum Zeno effect. The general nature of motional narrowing phenomena is demonstrated and related to the bath mediated slowing down of a decay process with a nearly deterministic uninterrupted escape probability. The corresponding survival probability is shown also to exhibit discernible oscillations around the exponential background. Mathematical tools necessary for using the theory in specific applications are exposed in some detail.

Lubchenko, Vassiliy; Silbey, Robert J.

2004-09-01

179

Prediction formula for interrupter respiratory resistance in healthy Japanese adults.  

PubMed

Interrupter respiratory resistance (Rint) measurement is useful for evaluating lung function in patients who cannot perform traditional pulmonary function tests. However, data on the prediction formulas for Rint in healthy Japanese adults are lacking. Our aims were to examine the relationship between Rint and sex, age, height, and weight, to establish prediction formulas, and to evaluate our new prediction formula (%Rint) in patients with asthma. Rint measurement was performed in 1,536 healthy adult subjects aged 21-80 years. This study was conducted according to ATS guidelines, which recommend obtaining 10 measurements to ensure a minimum of 5 technically acceptable interruptions (Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis indicated that height was the most significant variable independently correlating with Rint. The Rint prediction formulas for our cohort based on height were: RintE = -0.03168 x height + 8.204084 and Rinti = -0.02985 x height + 7.920835. Both %RintE and %Rinti were significantly higher in patients with asthma than in normal subjects (%RintE; 135.2 +/- 26.4 vs. 98.6 +/- 25.5, %RintI; 142.4 +/- 30.4 vs. 98.6 +/- 27.4; p < 0.0001). We established prediction formulas of Rint for healthy Japanese adults. %Rint is useful in screening for asthma. PMID:23198530

Nakade, Yusuke; Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Okuizumi, Yuko; Nakatas, Masako; Nanbu, Yuko; Oe, Hiroyasu; Horita, Hiroshi; Sakai, Yoshio; Wada, Takashi

2012-08-01

180

Genital shedding of HIV after scheduled treatment interruption.  

PubMed

This study assessed genital shedding of HIV in patients on intermittent combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and assessed predictors of having detectable genital HIV RNA in 156 Thai patients with CD4 > 350 cells/?L and HIV RNA ?50 copies/mL who were randomized to continuous therapy (CT, n = 65) or CD4-guided cART (n = 91). There were 383 matched genital and plasma HIV RNA samples (CT: 158, CD4 guided: 225). In 14 samples collected within eight weeks of treatment interruption, detectable HIV RNA was present in 29% of genital samples and 71% of plasma samples. In 55 samples collected after eight weeks of treatment interruption, detectable HIV RNA was present in 60% of genital samples and 98% of plasma samples. In 110 samples collected up to 96 weeks after treatment re-initiation, detectable genital HIV RNA was found in 8% of samples and all of these were within the first 17 weeks. Independent predictors of detectable genital HIV RNA were increasing age and increasing concentrations of HIV RNA in plasma. These findings support the role of cART in maintaining undetectable HIV RNA in genital secretions. PMID:21427425

Ananworanich, J; Kerr, S J; Vernazza, P; Mangclaviraj, S; Chaithongwongwatthana, S; Chotnopparatpattara, P; Mahanontharit, A; Ubolyam, S; Jupimai, T; Cooper, D A; Ruxrungtham, K; Hirschel, B

2011-02-01

181

Evaluation of a new interrupter device for measuring bronchial responsiveness and the response to bronchodilator in 3 year old children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interrupter technique for measuring airway resistance is non- invasive and convenient, and therefore ideally suited for the assessment of induced changes in airway calibre in preschool children. The aim of this study was to eval- uate a commercially available interrupter device (based on Microlab 4000), which calculates the interrupter resistance (Rint) from pressure and flow following a brief interruption

S. B. Phagoo; N. M. Wilson; M. Silverman

1996-01-01

182

Investigation of Dielectric Breakdown Characteristics for Double-break Vacuum Interrupter and Dielectric Breakdown Probability Distribution in Vacuum Interrupter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the reliability of equipment of vacuum insulation, a study was carried out to clarify breakdown probability distributions in vacuum gap. Further, a double-break vacuum circuit breaker was investigated for breakdown probability distribution. The test results show that the breakdown probability distribution of the vacuum gap can be represented by a Weibull distribution using a location parameter, which shows the voltage that permits a zero breakdown probability. The location parameter obtained from Weibull plot depends on electrode area. The shape parameter obtained from Weibull plot of vacuum gap was 10?14, and is constant irrespective non-uniform field factor. The breakdown probability distribution after no-load switching can be represented by Weibull distribution using a location parameter. The shape parameter after no-load switching was 6?8.5, and is constant, irrespective of gap length. This indicates that the scatter of breakdown voltage was increased by no-load switching. If the vacuum circuit breaker uses a double break, breakdown probability at low voltage becomes lower than single-break probability. Although potential distribution is a concern in the double-break vacuum cuicuit breaker, its insulation reliability is better than that of the single-break vacuum interrupter even if the bias of the vacuum interrupter's sharing voltage is taken into account.

Shioiri, Tetsu; Asari, Naoki; Sato, Junichi; Sasage, Kosuke; Yokokura, Kunio; Homma, Mitsutaka; Suzuki, Katsumi

183

Development of arcing horn device for interrupting ground-fault current of 77 W overhead lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. This paper describes an arcing horn device for interrupting the ground-fault current of 77-kV overhead lines. The main characteristics of the device are as follows. The arcing horn device interrupted the ground-fault current 445 A within a half cycle without replacement ten times. The arcing horn device did not interrupt short-circuit current. However, even when a

M. Iwata; T. Chino; S. Moto; M. Nakayama; H. Sakamoto; R. Matsushita

2006-01-01

184

A Formal Model-Based Approach for Designing Interruptions-Tolerant Advanced User Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Due to the omnipresence of multitasking features in modern working environments, interruptions become commonplace as users\\u000a must temporarily suspend a task to complete unexpected intervening activities. Interruptions are unpredictable and cannot\\u000a be usually disregarded by users. They are quite often associated with negative effects (e.g. resuming to task after interruptions\\u000a is difficult and is time consuming) but also with positive

Philippe Palanque; Marco Winckler; Célia Martinie

2011-01-01

185

Determination of gas pressure in vacuum interrupter based on partial discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial discharge characteristics in air under a low vacuum region were studied to develop a diagnosis technique to determine the gas pressure in a vacuum interrupter. The pressures were set at from 1.3 Pa to 2.6 kPa in order to simulate the leakage of gas into the vacuum interrupter. The structure of the vacuum interrupter, the measurement and the circuit

Mohamad Kamarol; Shinya Ohtsuka; Masayuki Hikita; Hitoshi Saitou; Masayuki Sakaki

2007-01-01

186

Gas evolving materials for improved low current interruption in high voltage current limiting fuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various organic and inorganic compounds have been identified to be very effective arc interrupters when applied to the silver elements of high power current limiting fuses (typical ratings for a single barrel range from 5.5--15.5 kV, 20--250 Amps). These compounds reduced the non-interruption band which occurs between the rated fuse current and the minimum interruption current. The lower current limit

J. J. Shea; W. R. Crooks; J. D. B. Smith

1995-01-01

187

Facing the Pain An Interrupted Case Study in Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interrupted case study in cardiovascular and nerve physiology focuses on Lynn, a married woman with a young child whose husband is often away from home traveling on business. Lynn is anxious and short-tempered. She is also overweight and appears frustrated with her life. Recently, she has been experiencing intense pain on the right side of her face. One day she becomes disoriented while driving and crashes into a tree. Students research and analyze a variety of signs, symptoms, and medical data to solve the case. Developed for an animal physiology course taken by sophomore and junior science majors, the case could also be used in an anatomy and physiology course or general biology course.

Stephens, Phil

2009-01-01

188

The Ice Hockey Injury An Interrupted Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The high school ice hockey team is playing the last of three games in one day. The game gets rough and Rick, the star player, is slammed against the boards. Injured, he has to be  escorted from the ice. This interrupted case study follows Ricks health as it deteriorates over the next few hours. Students are presented with Rick’s symptoms and use their knowledge of anatomy and physiology to diagnose the problem. The case was developed for a one-semester animal physiology course taken mostly by sophomore and junior biology or general science majors. It could also be used in a freshman general biology course, anatomy and physiology course, or human physiology course for non-science majors.

Stephens, Phil

2004-01-01

189

Early results of gate valve flow interruption blowdown tests  

SciTech Connect

The preliminary results of the USNRC/INEL high-energy BWR line break flow interruption testing are presented. Two representative nuclear valve assemblies were cycled under design basis Reactor Water Cleanup pipe break conditions to provide input for the technical basis for resolving the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Generic Issue 87. The effects of the blowdown hydraulic loadings on valve operability, especially valve closure stem forces, were studied. The blowdown tests showed that, given enough thrust, typical gate valves will close against the high flow resulting from a line break. The tests also showed that proper operator sizing depends on the correct identification of values for the sizing equation. Evidence exists that values used in the past may not be conservative for all valve applications. The tests showed that improper operator lock ring installation following test or maintenance can invalidate in-situ test results and prevent the valve from performing its design function. 2 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

DeWall, K.G.

1988-01-01

190

Triggered discharges with high arc voltages in a vacuum interrupter  

SciTech Connect

Studies of nonsustained disruptive discharges (NSDD), isolated cases of which can occur in vacuum interrupters, are presented. They indicate lateral discharges between the cathode and shield, which can initiate a brief discharge between the contacts. To facilitate the study of such discharges, they were triggered by a surface discharge induced by a spark gap, built into the side of the cathode, and observed with a high-speed film camera and an image-converter camera. The tests showed a cathode spot after igniting. The electrons emitted here first charge the shield negatively and are directed toward the anode. The discharge burns at a high voltage, with currents ranging from 10 to 100 A. After a period of up to 400{mu}s, the current demand increases abruptly; an arc discharge occurs between the contacts and discharges the capacitances near the switch. The contact gap undergoes a rapid dielectric recovery, and the restored voltage is maintained.

Gebel, R.; Falkenberg, D. (Siemens AG, Zentralabteilung Forschung und Entwicklung, D-8520 Erlangen (DE))

1990-10-01

191

Interrupted Self-Organization of SiGe Pyramids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the morphological evolution of SiGe quantum dots deposited on Si(100) during long-time annealing. At low strain, the dots’ self-organization begins by an instability and interrupts when (105) pyramids form. This evolution and the resulting island density are quantified by molecular-beam epitaxy. A kinetic model accounting for elasticity, wetting, and anisotropy is shown to reproduce well the experimental findings with appropriate wetting parameters. In this nucleationless regime, a mean-field kinetic analysis explains the existence of nearly stationary states by the vanishing of the coarsening driving force. The island size distribution follows in both experiments and theory the scaling law associated with a single characteristic length scale.

Aqua, Jean-Noël; Gouyé, Adrien; Ronda, Antoine; Frisch, Thomas; Berbezier, Isabelle

2013-03-01

192

Interruptions in Workflow for RNs in a Level One Trauma Center  

PubMed Central

An understanding of interruptions in healthcare is important for the design, implementation, and evaluation of health information systems and for the management of clinical workflow and medical errors. The purpose of this study is to identify and classify the types of interruptions experienced by Emergency Department(ED) nurses working in a Level One Trauma Center. This was an observational field study of Registered Nurses (RNs) employed in a Level One Trauma Center using the shadowing method. Results of the study indicate that nurses were both recipients and initiators of interruptions. Telephones, pagers, and face-to-face conversations were the most common sources of interruptions. Unlike other industries, the healthcare community has not systematically studied interruptions in clinical settings to determine and weigh the necessity of the interruption against their sometimes negative results such as medical errors, decreased efficiency, and increased costs. Our study presented here is an initial step to understand the nature, causes, and effects of interruptions, thereby improving both the quality of healthcare and patient safety. We developed an ethnographic data collection technique and a data coding method for the capturing and analysis of interruptions. The interruption data we collected are systematic, comprehensive, and close to exhaustive. They confirmed the findings from earlier studies by other researchers that interruptions are frequent events in critical care and other healthcare settings. We are currently using these data to analyze the workflow dynamics of ED clinicians, to identify the bottlenecks of information flow, and to develop interventions to improve the efficiency of emergency care through the management of interruptions.

Brixey, Juliana J.; Robinson, David J.; Tang, Zhihua; Johnson, Todd R.; Zhang, Jiajie; Turley, James P.

2005-01-01

193

Understanding Online Interruption-Based Advertising: Impacts of Exposure Timing, Advertising Intent, and Brand Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interruption-based advertising has gained prominence in the online channel. Yet, little attention has been paid to deriving design principles and conceptualizations for online interruption-based advertising. This paper examines three novel design factors related to this phenomenon, namely, exposure timing, advertising intent, and brand image. Exposure timing pertains to the time by which the advertisement (ad) is launched within a website.

Jason C. F. Chan; Zhenhui Jiang; Bernard C. Y. Tan

2010-01-01

194

Custom Interrupt Management for Real-Time and Embedded System Kernels1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we make an analysis of the traditional model of interrupt management and its incapacity to incorporate reliability and the temporal determinism demanded on real-time systems. As a result of this analysis, we propose a model that integrates interrupts and tasks handling. Also, we make a schedulability analysis to evaluate and distinguish the circumstances under which this integrated

Luis E. Leyva-del-Foyo; Facultad de Matemática; Pedro Mejia-Alvarez

195

Probabilistic assessment of financial losses due to interruptions and voltage sags - part II: practical implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second part of this paper presents a practical implementation and application of the methodology for the stochastic assessment of the annual financial losses due to interruptions and voltage sags discussed in the first part of this paper. The costs of interruptions and voltage sags are determined separately and then combined in order to estimate the total financial losses in

Jovica V. Milanovic ´; C. P. Gupta

2006-01-01

196

Probabilistic assessment of financial losses due to interruptions and voltage sags-part I: the methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a generalized methodology for stochastic\\/probabilistic assessment of the annual financial losses due to interruptions and voltage sags. The costs of interruptions and voltage sags are treated separately and then combined in order to estimate the total financial losses in the network per annum. The methodology proposed is applicable to both assessment of individual customer losses and assessment

Jovica V. Milanovic ´; Chandra P. Gupta

2006-01-01

197

A Formal Model-Based Approach for Designing Interruptions-Tolerant Advanced User Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the omnipresence of multitasking features in modern working environments, interruptions become commonplace as users must temporarily suspend a task to complete unexpected intervening activities. Interruptions are unpredictable and cannot be usually disregarded by users. They are quite often associated with negative effects (e.g. resuming to task after interruptions is difficult and is time consuming) but also with positive ones (e.g. alert systems shift our attention to matters that require immediate care to perform adequately a monitoring task). As users are facing more and more sources of information competing for attention, it is important to understand how interruptions affect user abilities to complete tasks. Despite multitasking environments are not new, interruptions are rarely considered explicitly in the design phases of interactive systems. In this chapter, we present how to integrate system models, task models and interruption models within a Model-Driven Approach (MDA). We show how formal descriptions of system and tasks can be used for simulation purposes while assessing system performance and how such simulations can be exploited to understand the consequences of interruptions on users' work. These aspects are illustrated by a case study demonstrating that these simulations can support the assessment of various interaction techniques according to interruption rates. An application of such concepts is also presented in the case of dynamic reconfiguration of the user interface (after hardware or software failures for instance).

Palanque, Philippe; Winckler, Marco; Martinie, Célia

198

Recovery of breakdown strength of a vacuum interrupter after extinction of high currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relevant phenomena during the period of the recovery of the dielectric strength of vacuum interrupter (VI) are reviewed. Metal vapor, residual charge and the effects of molten contact surfaces reduce the breakdown strength after the interruption of high currents. Metal droplets seem to play only a secondary role during the recovery phase. Instability of liquid protrusions is suspected to initiate

E. Schade; E. Dullni

2002-01-01

199

The Long-term Psychological Effects of Daily Sedative Interruption on Critically Ill Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critically ill patients often receive sedatives, which may delay libera- tion from mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit discharge. Daily interruption of sedatives alleviates these problems, but the impact of this practice on long-term psychological outcomes is un- known. We compared psychological outcomes of intensive care unit patients undergoing daily sedative interruption (intervention) with those without this protocol (control). Assessments

John P. Kress; Brian Gehlbach; Maureen Lacy; Neil Pliskin; Anne S. Pohlman; Jesse B. Hall

2003-01-01

200

Sustained attention, inattention, receptive language, and story interruptions in preschool Head Start story time  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the influence of story interruptions, age, and receptive vocabulary knowledge on sustained attention during multiple sessions of Head Start story time for 32 children, ages 45 to 67 months. Teacher interruptions of the story with relevant remarks increased class attention while nonrelevant remarks did not. Children with less receptive vocabulary knowledge were slow to focus their attention

Lorraine Gianvecchio; Lucia French

2002-01-01

201

Stabilizing Effects of Interruptions on Trinucleotide Repeat Expansions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

In most trinucleotide repeat (TNR) diseases, the primary factor determining the likelihood of expansions is the length of the TNR. In some diseases, however, stable alleles contain one to three base pair substitutions that interrupt the TNR tract. The unexpected stability of these alleles compared to the frequent expansions of perfect TNRs suggested that interruptions somehow block expansions and that expansions occur only upon loss of at least one interruption. The work in this study uses a yeast genetic assay to examine the mechanism of stabilization conferred by two interruptions of a 25-repeat tract. Expansion rates are reduced up to 90-fold compared to an uninterrupted allele. Stabilization is greatest when the interruption is replicated early on the lagging strand, relative to the rest of the TNR. Although expansions are infrequent, they are often polar, gaining new DNA within the largest available stretch of perfect repeats. Surprisingly, interruptions are always retained and sometimes even duplicated, suggesting that expansion in yeast cells can proceed without loss of the interruption. These findings support a stabilization model in which interruptions contribute in cis to reduce hairpin formation during TNR replication and thus inhibit expansion rates.

Rolfsmeier, Michael L.; Lahue, Robert S.

2000-01-01

202

Isolated Type A Interrupted Aortic Arch in an Asymptomatic 19-Year-Old Man  

PubMed Central

Interrupted aortic arch, characterized by luminal and anatomic discontinuity between the ascending and descending aorta, is a very rare congenital malformation. The condition is typically diagnosed in neonates and is highly fatal if left untreated. Herein, we report the unusual diagnosis of an isolated type A interrupted aortic arch in a hypertensive, asymptomatic 19-year-old man.

Bugan, Baris; Iyisoy, Atila; Celik, Murat; Kucuk, Ugur; Boz, Ugur; Celik, Turgay

2011-01-01

203

Vacuum interrupters: the new technology for switching and protecting distribution circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides application guidelines for, and shows the advantages of, applying vacuum interrupters (VIs) to switch and to protect power distribution circuits. The performance of VIs for load switching and for short-circuit interruption is discussed with reference to long-term switching life and low maintenance costs. During this discussion, the unique ability of the VI to handle developing faults is

Paul G. Slade

1997-01-01

204

Calculation of the interruption Process of a self-blast circuit breaker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the physics occurring during an interruption process is not well known, it is not easy to analyze the characteristics of a self-blast circuit breaker neither theoretically nor experimentally. Fortunately, the available computational power and the numerical method improved recently made it possible to predict an interruption process as precisely and fast as possible. Therefore many researches using computational methods

Jong-Chul Lee; Youn J. Kim

2005-01-01

205

New Technology for Preventing Residential Electrical Fires: Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupters (AFCIs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new generation of residential electrical branch circuit breakers that incorporates technology to detect and mitigate the effects of arcing faults is described. Fire loss estimates attributed to electrical wiring and the development of the arc-fault circuit interrupter for the prevention of residential electrical fires are discussed. The industry voluntary standard for arc-fault circuit interrupters as well as the 1999

Douglas A. Lee; Andrew M. Trotta; William H. King

2000-01-01

206

Discourse Markers in Turn-Initial Positions in Interruptive Speech in a Malaysian Radio Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discourse markers play significant roles in any spoken interaction. This research examines the functions of the discourse markers (DMs) well, now and and used as turn-initial interruptive devices in a Malaysian radio discourse. Using Schegloff's (2002) framework of what constitutes an interruption in turn-taking and previous studies on the…

Nor, Siti Nurbaya Mohd

2012-01-01

207

Auditory training of speech recognition with interrupted and continuous noise maskers by children with hearing impairment.  

PubMed

Previous studies have indicated that individuals with normal hearing (NH) experience a perceptual advantage for speech recognition in interrupted noise compared to continuous noise. In contrast, adults with hearing impairment (HI) and younger children with NH receive a minimal benefit. The objective of this investigation was to assess whether auditory training in interrupted noise would improve speech recognition in noise for children with HI and perhaps enhance their utilization of glimpsing skills. A partially-repeated measures design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of seven 1-h sessions of auditory training in interrupted and continuous noise. Speech recognition scores in interrupted and continuous noise were obtained from pre-, post-, and 3 months post-training from 24 children with moderate-to-severe hearing loss. Children who participated in auditory training in interrupted noise demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in speech recognition compared to those who trained in continuous noise. Those who trained in interrupted noise demonstrated similar improvements in both noise conditions while those who trained in continuous noise only showed modest improvements in the interrupted noise condition. This study presents direct evidence that auditory training in interrupted noise can be beneficial in improving speech recognition in noise for children with HI. PMID:23297921

Sullivan, Jessica R; Thibodeau, Linda M; Assmann, Peter F

2013-01-01

208

How Speakers Interrupt Themselves in Managing Problems in Speaking: Evidence from Self-Repairs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When speakers detect a problem in what they are saying, they must decide whether or not to interrupt themselves and repair the problem, and if so, when. Speakers will maximize accuracy if they interrupt themselves as soon as they detect a problem, but they will maximize fluency if they go on speaking until they are ready to produce the repair.…

Seyfeddinipur, Mandana; Kita, Sotaro; Indefrey, Peter

2008-01-01

209

Exact Efficient Handling of Interrupted Illumination in Helical Cone-Beam Computed Tomography with Arbitrary Pitch  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a theoretically-exact and stable computed tomography (CT) reconstruction algorithm that is capable of handling interrupted illumination and therefore of using all measured data at arbitrary pitch. This algorithm is based on a differentiated backprojection (DBP) on M-lines. First, we discuss the problem of interrupted illumination and how it affects the DBP. Then we show that it is possible

Harald Schöndube; Karl Stierstorfer; Frédéric Noo

2010-01-01

210

The basolateral amygdala mediates the effects of cues associated with meal interruption on feeding behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable evidence shows that environmental cues that signal food delivery when rats are food-deprived can substantially potentiate feeding later when rats are food-sated. Similarly, cues associated with meal interruption, food removal or impending food scarcity may also induce increased eating. For example, after learning the association between a discrete “interruption” stimulus and the unexpected termination of food trials, sated rats

Ezequiel M. Galarce; Michael A. McDannald; Peter C. Holland

2010-01-01

211

Interruptions in Workflow for RNs in a Level One Trauma Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of interruptions in healthcare is important for the design, implementation, and evaluation of health information systems and for the management of clinical workflow and medical errors. The purpose of this study is to identify and classify the types of interruptions experienced by Emergency Department(ED) nurses working in a Level One Trauma Center. This was an observational field study

Juliana J. Brixey; David J. Robinson; Zhihua Tang; Todd R. Johnson; Jiajie Zhang; James P. Turley

2005-01-01

212

Towards a Hybrid Method to Categorize Interruptions and Activities in Healthcare  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective Interruptions are known to have a negative impact on activity performance. Understanding how an interruption contributes to human error is limited because there is not a standard method for analyzing and classifying interruptions. Qualitative data are typically analyzed by either a deductive or an inductive method. Both methods have limitations. In this paper a hybrid method was developed that integrates deductive and inductive methods for the categorization of activities and interruptions recorded during an ethnographic study of physicians and registered nurses in a Level One Trauma Center. Understanding the effects of interruptions is important for designing and evaluating informatics tools in particular and for improving healthcare quality and patient safety in general. Method The hybrid method was developed using a deductive a priori classification framework with the provision of adding new categories discovered inductively in the data. The inductive process utilized line-by-line coding and constant comparison as stated in Grounded Theory. Results The categories of activities and interruptions were organized into a three-tiered hierarchy of activity. Validity and reliability of the categories were tested by categorizing a medical error case external to the study. No new categories of interruptions were identified during analysis of the medical error case. Conclusions Findings from this study provide evidence that the hybrid model of categorization is more complete than either a deductive or an inductive method alone. The hybrid method developed in this study provides the methodical support for understanding, analyzing, and managing interruptions and workflow.

Brixey, Juliana J.; Robinson, David J.; Johnson, Craig W.; Johnson, Todd R.; Turley, James P.; Patel, Vimla L.; Zhang, Jiajie

2007-01-01

213

Hybrid Method to Assess Sensitive Process Interruption Costs Due to Faults in Electric Power Distribution Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows a new hybrid method for risk assessment regarding interruptions in sensitive processes due to faults in electric power distribution systems. This method determines indices related to long duration interruptions and short duration voltage variations (SDVV), such as voltage sags and swells in each customer supplied by the distribution network. Frequency of such occurrences and their impact on

Juan C. Cebrian; Nelson Kagan

2010-01-01

214

Pinpointing interrupts in embedded real-time systems using context checksums  

Microsoft Academic Search

When trying to track down bugs using cyclic debugging, the ability to correctly reproduce executions is imperative. In sequential, deterministic, non-real-time software, this re- producibility is inherent. However, when the execution is affected by preemptive interrupts, this will have severe ef- fects on the ability to reproduce program behaviors deter- ministically, since a reproduction requires the interrupts to hit the

Daniel Sundmark; Henrik Thane

2008-01-01

215

Development of the Vacuum Interrupter Computer Aided Design System VI-CAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author made some discussion and research on the related technical details of the vacuum interrupter computer aided design system. And then, the author developed the vacuum interrupter computer aided design system by using SolidWorks, Visual Basic and Microsoft office Access. The author used Visual Basic to make secondary developing to the SolidWorks, and used Microsoft office Access to manage

Xiu Shixin; Chen Lingfei; Ji Liang; Pang Lei

2006-01-01

216

Reference ranges for interrupter resistance technique: the Asthma UK Initiative.  

PubMed

Measuring interrupter resistance (R(int)) is an increasingly popular lung function technique and especially suitable for preschool children because it is simple, quick and requires only passive cooperation. A European Respiratory Society (ERS)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) Task Force recently published empirical recommendations related to procedures, limitations and interpretation of the technique. However, for valid interpretation, high-quality reference equations are required and these have been lacking. The aim of the present study was to collate R(int) data from healthy children in order to produce more robust reference equations. A further aim was to examine the influence of methodological differences on predicted R(int) values. R(int) data from healthy children were collected from published and unpublished sources. Reference equations for expiratory and inspiratory R(int) were developed using the LMS (lambda, mu, sigma) method. Data from 1,090 children (51% males) aged 3-13 yrs were collated to construct sex-specific reference equations for expiratory R(int) and data from 629 children (51% males) were collated for inspiratory R(int). Height was the best independent predictor of both expiratory and inspiratory R(int). Differences between centres were clinically irrelevant, and differences between ethnic groups could not be examined. The availability of a large and generalisable sample and the use of modern statistical techniques enabled the development of more appropriate reference equations for R(int) in young children. PMID:20032015

Merkus, P J F M; Stocks, J; Beydon, N; Lombardi, E; Jones, M; McKenzie, S A; Kivastik, J; Arets, B G M; Stanojevic, S

2009-12-23

217

An industrial tool wear monitoring system for interrupted turning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective wear-monitoring system for machine tool inserts could yield significant cost savings for manufacturers. Over the years, various methods have been proposed to achieve tool condition monitoring (TCM), and recently sensor-based approaches for indirectly estimating tool wear have become highly popular. One difficulty with collecting sensory information from machine tools is that the signal-to-noise ratio of useful information about the tool wear is extremely poor. This problem can be overcome by using advanced signal-processing methods and also by fusing the information obtained from numerous sensors into a single modelling or decision-making scheme such as neural networks (NNs). Neural networks are known for their capacity to solve problems effectively in cases where theoretical/analytical models cannot be established. Furthermore, NNs can handle noisy and incomplete data such as that typically obtained from machining operations. Although numerous authors have proposed the NN approach for TCM, various problems still hamper a practical method of applying the technique for industrial use. This paper proposes a technique which should overcome these difficulties. A cost-effective and reliable tool condition monitoring system (TCMS) was developed, utilising the advantages of NNs for a typical industrial machining operation. The operation considered is interrupted turning (facing and boring) of Aluminium alloy components for the automotive industry. The development and implementation of various hardware and software components for the proposed technique are described in this paper. The main advantages of the technique are its accuracy, reliability and cost-effectiveness.

Scheffer, C.; Heyns, P. S.

2004-09-01

218

[Effects of bkdAB interruption on avermectin biosynthesis].  

PubMed

In this study, Streptomyces avermitilis Bjbm0006 which produces four avermectin B components was used as an original test strain. A replacement plasmid containing a gene cluster bkdAB (branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase gene) involved in the biosynthesis of avermectin B in S. avermitilis Bjbm0006 was constructed by means of PCR technique and then named as pHJ5821 (pHZ1358::bkdAB&erm). A recombinant strain Bjbm5821 was obtained after the gene cluster was interrupted by double crossover. This strain was tested in laboratory conditions and analysed by PCR using the total DNA as template. The HPLC analysis showed that the strain Bjbm5821 synthesized the same 'a' components Bla and B2a as the original strain did. However, It lost the ability for the production of 'b'components for example B1b and B2b. A novel compound was detected in fermentation products. The results of present study suggests that the production of gene cluster bkdAB may play a main role similar to alpha-ketoisovaleric acid dehydrogenase in the pathway of avermectin synthesis. PMID:15969120

Zhu, Hao-Jun; Liang, Yun-Xiang; Zhou, Jun-Chu; Zheng, Ying-Hua

2004-03-01

219

Interruption of malaria transmission by chloroquinized salt in Guyana  

PubMed Central

Malaria and its local vector, Anopheles darlingi, were eradicated from the coastlands and near interior of Guyana by DDT house-spraying in 1945-51. In the remote interior, where 10% of the population live, only partial control could be achieved, owing to the semi-silvatic habits of A. darlingi and the considerable movement of the sparse population; low malaria endemicity persisted in these areas with occasional localized outbreaks. In the south-west the problem was further complicated by the presence of malaria across the frontier. During the years 1961-65, the use of chloroquinized salt was made compulsory over an area of some 109 000 km2, covering a population of 48 500. Satisfactory results were obtained over 84% of this area within 6 months of the start of the campaign; only four cases of malaria were seen in four years. In the south-west, however, an initially favourable trend was reversed in 1962 with the introduction of a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum from Brazil. The situation was brought under control by house-spraying with DDT and interruption of transmission is expected.

Giglioli, George; Rutten, Frans J.; Ramjattan, S.

1967-01-01

220

Ocular motor anatomy in a case of interrupted saccades.  

PubMed

Saccades normally place the eye on target with one smooth movement. In late-onset Tay-Sachs (LOTS), intrasaccadic transient decelerations occur that may result from (1) premature omnipause neuron (OPN) re-activation due to malfunction of the latch circuit that inhibits OPNs for the duration of the saccade or (2) premature inhibitory burst neuron (IBN) activation due to fastigial nucleus (FN) dysregulation by the dorsal cerebellar vermis. Neuroanatomic analysis of a LOTS brain was performed. Purkinje cells were absent and gliosis of the granular cell layer was present in the dorsal cerebellar vermis. Deep cerebellar nuclei contained large inclusions. IBNs were present with small inclusions. The sample did not contain the complete OPN region; however, neurons in the OPN region contained massive inclusions. Pathologic findings suggest that premature OPN re-activation and/or inappropriate firing of IBNs may be responsible for interrupted saccades in LOTS. Cerebellar clinical dysfunction, lack of saccadic slowing, and significant loss of cerebellar cells suggest that the second cause is more likely. PMID:18718354

Rucker, Janet C; Leigh, R John; Optican, Lance M; Keller, Edward L; Bu Ttner-Ennever, Jean A

2008-01-01

221

The features of 0.4 kV motor interruption by a vacuum contactor with different contact materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer aided modelling has been used to simulate current chopping behaviour at different current levels. This model is based on the known are life time of a DC current. The appropriate experimental research has been carried out for a batch of 35 industrial VI with CuCr contacts. The obtained dependencies of the average arc life time VC current show a

Alexey M. Chaly; Alevtina T. Chalaya; Irina N. Poluyanova; Victor N. Poluyanov

1998-01-01

222

43 CFR 3481.4-3 - Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements applicable to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...4-3 Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence...

2012-10-01

223

Plethysmograph and interrupter resistance measurements in prematurely born young children  

PubMed Central

Background Airways obstruction in premature infants is often assessed by plethysmography, which requires sedation. The interrupter (Rint) technique does not require sedation, but has rarely been examined in children under 2 years of age. Objective To compare Rint results with plethysmographic measurements of airway resistance (Raw) in prematurely born, young children. Design Prospective study. Setting Infant and Paediatric Lung Function Laboratories. Patients Thirty children with a median gestational age of 25–29?weeks and median postnatal age of 13?months. Interventions and main outcome measures The infants were sedated, airway resistance was measured by total body plethysmography (Raw), and Rint measurements were made using a MicroRint device. Further Raw and Rint measurements were made after salbutamol administration if the children remained asleep. Results Baseline measurements of Raw and Rint were obtained from 30 and 26 respectively of the children. Mean baseline Rint values were higher than mean baseline Raw results (3.45 v 2.84?kPa/l/s, p ?=? 0.006). Limits of agreement for the mean difference between Rint and Raw were ?1.52 to 2.74?kPa/l/s. Ten infants received salbutamol, after which the mean Rint result was 3.6?kPa/l/s and mean Raw was 3.1?kPa/l/s (limits of agreement ?0.28 to 1.44?kPa/l/s). Conclusion The poor agreement between Rint and Raw results suggests that Rint measurements cannot substitute for plethysmographic measurements in sedated prematurely born infants.

Thomas, M R; Rafferty, G F; Blowes, R; Peacock, J L; Marlow, N; Calvert, S; Milner, A; Greenough, A

2006-01-01

224

Power spectra for both interrupted and perennial aging processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the power spectrum of a random telegraphic noise with the distribution density of waiting times ? given by ?(?)~1/??, with ?~2. The condition ?<2 violates the ergodic hypothesis, and in this case the adoption of Wiener-Khintchine (WK) theorem for the spectrum evaluation requires some caution. We study this problem theoretically and numerically and we prove that the power spectrum obeys the prescription S(f)=K/f?, with ?=3-?, namely, the 1/f noise lives at border between the ergodic ?>2 and nonergodic ?<2 condition. We study sequences with the finite length L. In the case ?<2 the adoption of WK theorem is made legitimate by two different kinds of truncation effects: the physical and observation-induced effect. In the former case ?(?) is truncated at ?~Tmax and L>>Tmax ensures the condition of interrupted aging. In this case, we find that K is a number independent of L. The latter case, L<2. We do not limit our treatment to the time asymptotic case, thereby producing a prediction that accounts for the transition from the 1/f? to the 1/f2 regime, recently observed in an experiment on blinking quantum dots. Our theoretical approach allows us to discuss some other recent experiments on molecular intermittent fluorescence and affords indications that should help to assess whether the spectrum is determined by the L<>Tmax condition.

Lukovic, Mirko; Grigolini, Paolo

2008-11-01

225

Management of antipsychotic treatment discontinuation and interruptions using model-based simulations  

PubMed Central

Background Medication nonadherence is a well described and prevalent clinical occurrence in schizophrenia. These pharmacokinetic model-based simulations analyze predicted antipsychotic plasma concentrations in nonadherence and treatment interruption scenarios and with treatment reinitiation. Methods Starting from steady state, pharmacokinetic model-based simulations of active moiety plasma concentrations of oral, immediate-release risperidone 3 mg/day, risperidone long-acting injection 37.5 mg/14 days, oral paliperidone extended-release 6 mg/day, and paliperidone palmitate 117 mg (75 mg equivalents)/28 days were assessed under three treatment discontinuation/interruption scenarios, ie, complete discontinuation, one week of interruption, and four weeks of interruption. In the treatment interruption scenarios, pharmacokinetic simulations were performed using medication-specific reinitiation strategies. Results Following complete treatment discontinuation, plasma concentrations persisted longest with paliperidone palmitate, followed by risperidone long-acting injection, while oral formulations exhibited the most rapid decrease. One week of oral paliperidone or risperidone interruption resulted in near complete elimination from the systemic circulation within that timeframe, reflecting the rapid elimination rate of the active moiety. After 1 and 4 weeks of interruption, minimum plasma concentrations were higher with paliperidone palmitate than risperidone long-acting injection over the simulated period. Four weeks of treatment interruption followed by reinitiation resulted in plasma levels returning to predicted therapeutic levels within 1 week. Conclusion Due to the long half-life of paliperidone palmitate (25–49 days), putative therapeutic plasma concentrations persisted longest in simulated cases of complete discontinuation or treatment interruption. These simulations may help clinicians better conceptualize the impact of antipsychotic nonadherence on plasma concentrations, and the impact of medication-specific reinitiation strategies after intermittent nonadherence.

Samtani, Mahesh N; Sheehan, John J; Fu, Dong-Jing; Remmerie, Bart; Sliwa, Jennifer Kern; Alphs, Larry

2012-01-01

226

Comparison of labial and mechanical interruption for measurement of aerodynamic parameters  

PubMed Central

Objectives/Hypothesis To directly compare the mechanical and labial interruption techniques of measuring subglottal pressure (Ps), mean flow rate (MFR) and laryngeal resistance (RL). Methods Thirty-four subjects performed 10 trials with both mechanical and labial interruption. Ps and MFR were recorded while RL was calculated by dividing Ps by MFR. Coefficients of variation were calculated in order to compare intra-subject precision. A subset of 10 subjects performed the tasks twice with thirty minutes between sessions. Bland-Altman plots were used to determine intra-subject repeatability for each of the methods. Results Mechanical interruption produced coefficients of variation for Ps, MFR, and RL of 0.0995, 0.127 and 0.129 respectively. Labial interruption produced coefficients of variation of 0.102, 0.147 and 0.169 respectively. P-values were 0.824 for Ps, 0.159 for MFR and 0.043 for RL. The Bland-Altman plots revealed comparable repeatability between the two methods. The 95% confidence intervals of the Bland-Altman plots for mechanical interruption were (-0.050 to 0.072), (-0.543 to 1.832), and (-2.498 to 10.528) for MFR, Ps, and RL. Confidence intervals for labial interruption were (-0.018 to 0.031), (0.057 to 2.442), and (-3.267 to 10.595) for MFR, Ps, and RL. Conclusions Mechanical interruption produced higher precision when measuring RL due to more reliable airflow measurements. Mechanical and labial interruption showed comparable repeatability. Further research into using mechanical interruption clinically is warranted.

Chapin, William J.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Rieves, Adam L.; Jiang, Jack J.

2010-01-01

227

Genetic Characterization of Rebounding Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Plasma during Multiple Interruptions of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various strategies of interrupting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are being investigated for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Interruptions of greater than 2 weeks frequently result in rebound of plasma HIV RNA. In order to discern changes in the viral population that might occur during cycles of treatment interruption, we evaluated the homology of HIV-1 envelope gene

Mark Dybul; Marybeth Daucher; Mark A. Jensen; Claire W. Hallahan; Tae-Wook Chun; Michael Belson; Bertha Hidalgo; David C. Nickle; Christian Yoder; Julia A. Metcalf; Richard T. Davey; Linda Ehler; Diane Kress-Rock; Elizabeth Nies-Kraske; Shuying Liu; James I. Mullins; Anthony S. Fauci

2003-01-01

228

Tests show ability of vacuum circuit breaker to interrupt fast transient recovery voltage rates of rise of transformer secondary faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum circuit breaker demonstrated its ability to interrupt short circuits with faster than normal rates of rise of transient recovery voltage (TRV) at levels greater than those produced by most transformer secondary faults. Two recent exploratory test programs evaluated the interrupting ability of a 15kV vacuum circuit breaker containing interrupters of the rotating arc type with contacts made from

R. K. Smith

1995-01-01

229

Tests show ability of vacuum circuit breaker to interrupt fast transient recovery voltage rates of rise of transformer secondary faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) has demonstrated its ability to interrupt short circuits with faster than normal rates of rise of transient recovery voltage (TRV) at levels greater than those produced by most transformer secondary faults. Two recent exploratory test programs evaluated the interrupting ability of a 15 kV VCB containing interrupters of the rotating arc type with contacts made

R. K. Smith

1994-01-01

230

Estimation of interruption performance in high-voltage circuit breakers with a modified method for arc parameter evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interruption performance of high-voltage circuit breakers has been quantitatively evaluated through current zero measurements during interruption tests. The interruption capabilities of the circuit breakers are able to be estimated by means of an arc model calculation. The parameters of the arc model are determined through the current zero measurements. In order to simulate more precisely the success or failure of

Hajime Urai; Youichi Ooshita; Makoto Koizumi; Noriyuki Yaginuma; Masanori Tsukushi

2011-01-01

231

Sequence-dependent effect of interruptions on microsatellite mutation rate in mismatch repair-deficient human cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although microsatellite mutation rates generally increase with increasing length of the repeat tract, interruptions in a microsatellite may stabilize it. We have performed a direct analysis of the effect of microsatellite interruptions on mutation rate and spectrum in cultured mammalian cells. Two mononucleotide sequences (G17 and A17) and a dinucleotide [(CA)17] were compared with interrupted repeats of the same size

Jayne C. Boyer; Joshua D. Hawk; Lela Stefanovic; Rosann A. Farber

2008-01-01

232

Power spectra for both interrupted and perennial aging processes.  

PubMed

We study the power spectrum of a random telegraphic noise with the distribution density of waiting times tau given by psi(tau) proportional to 1tau(mu), with mu approximately 2. The condition mu<2 violates the ergodic hypothesis, and in this case the adoption of Wiener-Khintchine (WK) theorem for the spectrum evaluation requires some caution. We study this problem theoretically and numerically and we prove that the power spectrum obeys the prescription S(f)=Kf(eta), with eta=3-mu, namely, the 1f noise lives at border between the ergodic mu>2 and nonergodic mu<2 condition. We study sequences with the finite length L. In the case mu<2 the adoption of WK theorem is made legitimate by two different kinds of truncation effects: the physical and observation-induced effect. In the former case psi(tau) is truncated at tau approximately T(max) and L>T(max) ensures the condition of interrupted aging. In this case, we find that K is a number independent of L. The latter case, L2. We do not limit our treatment to the time asymptotic case, thereby producing a prediction that accounts for the transition from the 1f(eta) to the 1f(2) regime, recently observed in an experiment on blinking quantum dots. Our theoretical approach allows us to discuss some other recent experiments on molecular intermittent fluorescence and affords indications that should help to assess whether the spectrum is determined by the LT(max) condition. PMID:19045381

Lukovic, Mirko; Grigolini, Paolo

2008-11-14

233

Nested Interrupt Analysis of Low Cost and High Performance Embedded Systems Using GSPN Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interrupt service routines are a key technology for embedded systems. In this paper, we introduce the standard approach for using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPNs) as a high-level model for generating CTMC Continuous-Time Markov Chains (CTMCs) and then use Markov Reward Models (MRMs) to compute the performance for embedded systems. This framework is employed to analyze two embedded controllers with low cost and high performance, ARM7 and Cortex-M3. Cortex-M3 is designed with a tail-chaining mechanism to improve the performance of ARM7 when a nested interrupt occurs on an embedded controller. The Platform Independent Petri net Editor 2 (PIPE2) tool is used to model and evaluate the controllers in terms of power consumption and interrupt overhead performance. Using numerical results, in spite of the power consumption or interrupt overhead, Cortex-M3 performs better than ARM7.

Lin, Cheng-Min

234

Women in Medicine -- A Survey of Professional Activities, Career Interruptions and Conflict Resolutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is concerned with the education of women physicians, their professional activities, interruptions in their careers, and resolutions to conflict generated by the dual responsibilities of family and career. Questionnaires were mailed to 735 women...

E. D. Cohen

1975-01-01

235

Electric Power Interruption Cost Estimates for Individual Industries, Sectors and the U.S. Economy  

SciTech Connect

Distributed energy resources (DER) have been promoted as the least-cost approach to meeting steadily increasing energy demand. However, it is unclear whether DER deployment can maintain or improve the electric power supply reliability and quality currently available to consumers. This report addresses two key factors relating to this question: 1) characteristics of existing power supply reliability, and 2) costs resulting from supply interruptions characteristic of the existing power grid. Interruption cost data collected by the University of Saskatchewan was used in conjunction with data generated by the United States Department of Energy’s Annual Survey of Manufacturers, along with industry shares of gross domestic product (GDP) and gross output to derive interruption cost estimates for U.S. industries at the 2-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level. Interruption cost estimates are presented as a function of outage duration (e.g., 20 minutes, 1-hour, 3-hour), and are normalized in terms of dollars per peak kW.

Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; DeSteese, John G.; Weimar, Mark R.

2003-05-16

236

Robust testing of level changes in interrupted time-series analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ramsey and Ramsey [Ramsey, P.P. and Ramsey, P.H., 2003, Comparing lease-squares lines for testing level changes in interrupted time-series analysis. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 73, 31–44.] have shown that a composite procedure (CP) can provide accurate tests of level changes in interrupted time-series analysis. A CP combines the Mann–Wald procedure [Gottman, J.M., 1981, Time-Series Analysis (New York: Cambridge

Patricia P. Ramsey; Philip H. Ramsey

2006-01-01

237

Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series studies in medication use research.  

PubMed

Interrupted time series design is the strongest, quasi-experimental approach for evaluating longitudinal effects of interventions. Segmented regression analysis is a powerful statistical method for estimating intervention effects in interrupted time series studies. In this paper, we show how segmented regression analysis can be used to evaluate policy and educational interventions intended to improve the quality of medication use and/or contain costs. PMID:12174032

Wagner, A K; Soumerai, S B; Zhang, F; Ross-Degnan, D

2002-08-01

238

Research Paper: Impact of Non-interruptive Medication Laboratory Monitoring Alerts in Ambulatory Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveInterruptive alerts within electronic applications can cause “alert fatigue” if they fire too frequently or are clinically reasonable only some of the time. We assessed the impact of non-interruptive, real-time medication laboratory alerts on provider lab test ordering.DesignWe enrolled 22 outpatient practices into a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Clinics either used the existing system or received on-screen recommendations for baseline

Helen G. Lo; Michael E. Matheny; Diane L. Seger; David W. Bates; Tejal K. Gandhi

2009-01-01

239

An assessment of the interruption level of doctors in outpatient appointment scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interruptions to the server in an outpatient clinic environment have received limited attention in the appointment scheduling\\u000a literature. However, explicitly modeling interruptions on the part of the doctor may have an impact on the optimal appointment\\u000a schedule and consequently, on patient waiting times. This is explored with a simulation optimization model that is based on\\u000a data from time studies and

Kenneth J. Klassen; Reena Yoogalingam

2008-01-01

240

An opening displacement characteristic determined by high-current anode phenomena of vacuum interrupter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum interrupter reaches its interruption limit once high-current anode phenomena occur. It is well-known that contact diameter, contact material, and magnetic field have a significant influence on high-current anode phenomena formation. However, an opening displacement characteristic of movable contact is another contribution for an anode spot formation. The objective of this paper is to propose an opening displacement characteristic

Liqiong Sun; Li Yu; Zhiyuan Liu; Jianhua Wang; Yingsan Geng

2011-01-01

241

Enclosed Low-voltage ``Deion'' Air Circuit Breaker of High Interrupting Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for protection against fault currents up to 20,000 amperes at 250 volts d-c or 600 volts a-c has led to the development of air circuit breakers having the desirable features of the present line of enclosed air circuit breakers, but having higher interrupting capacity. Tests at 20,000 amperes on the circuit breaker of lower interrupting capacity showed that

Jerome Sandin

1938-01-01

242

Structured Treatment Interruption in Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

background We compared two strategies for treating patients infected with multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). methods Patients with multidrug-resistant HIV and HIV RNA levels of more than 5000 copies per milliliter were randomly assigned to a four-month structured interruption of treat- ment followed by a change in antiretroviral regimen (treatment-interruption group) or to an immediate change in regimen (control group).

Jody Lawrence; Douglas L. Mayers; Katherine Huppler Hullsiek; Gary Collins; Donald I. Abrams; Ronald B. Reisler; Lawrence R. Crane; Barry S. Schmetter; Thomas J. Dionne; Jennifer M. Saldanha; Michael C. Jones; John D. Baxter

2003-01-01

243

Surviving task interruptions: Investigating the implications of long-term working memory theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typically, we have several tasks at hand, some of which are in interrupted state while others are being carried out. Most of the time, such interruptions are not disruptive to task performance. Based on the theory of Long-Term Working Memory (LTWM; Ericsson, K.A., Kintsch, W., 1995. Long-term working memory. Psychological Review, 102, 211-245), we posit that unless there are enough

Antti Oulasvirta; Pertti Saariluoma

244

Sex-Related Wage Differentials and Women's Interrupted Labor Careers--The Chicken or the Egg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wage differentials between men and women are often attributed to differences in on-the-job training-the lower investment of women being explained by their plans to interrupt their careers for family reasons. Career interruptions, however, are often explained by low wages. To trace this interrelationship, the author adopts a simultaneous equations approach-trying to explain wages, planned separations, on-the-job training, and the skill

Reuben Gronau

1988-01-01

245

Play persistence: Some effects of interruption, social reinforcement, and defective toys  

Microsoft Academic Search

56 Negro 5-yr-old girls were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 10-min treatment programs: (a) neutral (free play), (b) defective (free play with defective toys), (c) intervention (play interrupted by E), and (d) social reinforcement (matched S on interruption schedule socially reinforced on same schedule). Play persistence on parquetry blocks followed by the 10-min treatment and was the independent variable

S. Farnham-Diggory; Barbara Ramsey

1971-01-01

246

Gas evolving materials for improved low current interruption in high voltage current limiting fuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various organic and inorganic compounds have been identified to be very effective arc interrupters when applied to the silver elements of high power current limiting fuses (typical ratings for a single barrel range from 5.5-15.5 kV, 20-250 amps). These compounds reduced the noninterruption band which occurs between the rated fuse current and the minimum interruption current. The lower current limit

J. J. Shea; W. R. Crooks; J. D. B. Smith

1994-01-01

247

Atypical ?15N variations at the southern boundary of the East Pacific oxygen minimum zone over the last 50 ka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a nitrogen isotope record (ODP Site 1233) from the southern Chile margin at 41°S. The site is located slightly south of the southern boundary of the Peru Chile upwelling system and the associated oxygen minimum zone off Peru and northern Chile. We show that our nitrogen isotope record, from the time interval 0 50 calendar kiloyears before present (ka B.P.), bears an atypical pattern both in shape and timing when compared with records obtained from either the continental margin of the eastern Pacific or the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) of the Southern Ocean. The ?15N values at Site 1233 are relatively high throughout the record, varying between 9‰ and 13‰. The major features are a pronounced ?15N increase at the beginning of the deglaciation, a maximum from 19 to 10 ka B.P.; thereafter a large decrease during the early Holocene, and millenial scale oscillations showing an Antarctic timing. We propose that the record results from an amalgam of low-latitude and high-latitude processes. Low-latitude processes, including a stronger advection signal of heavy nitrates from the denitrifying zones off Peru and northern Chile, would explain the timing of the deglaciation rise and the heaviest values found over this interval, excluding the Antarctic Cold Reversal period. The overall differences between site 1233 and records from Peru and northwest American margins suggest however that the origin of the ?15N signal off Chile is largely controlled by hydrologic and climatic changes in the Southern Ocean. We propose that the interplay between nutrient demand in the SAZ and latitudinal shifts of hydrologic fronts controlled both the concentrations and the isotopic signature of the remaining nitrate delivered to the Chile margin. Then, the glacial surface waters of the southern Chile margin were likely lower in nitrate concentration and bear a higher ?15N than during interglacial periods.

Martinez, Philippe; Lamy, Frank; Robinson, Rebecca R.; Pichevin, Laetitia; Billy, Isabelle

2006-11-01

248

PASADO - ICDP Deep Drilling at Laguna Potrok Aike (Argentina): A 50 ka Record of Increasing Environmental Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laguna Potrok Aike, located in the South-Patagonian province of Santa Cruz (52°58'S, 70°23'W), was formed by a volcanic (maar) eruption in the late Quaternary Pali Aike Volcanic Field several hundred thousand years ago. This archive holds a unique record of paleoclimatic and paleoecological variability from a region sensitive to variations in southern hemispheric wind and pressure systems, which provide a

Bernd Zolitschka; Flavio Anselmetti; Daniel Ariztegui; Pierre Francus; Catalina Gebhardt; Annette Hahn Pierre Kliem; Andreas Lücke; Christian Ohlendorf; Frank Schäbitz; Stefan Wastegard

2010-01-01

249

Reconstructing paleoenvironmental conditions during the past 50 ka from the biogeochemical record of Laguna Potrok Aike, southern Patagonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC) and biogenic silica (BSi) assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) are used to reconstruct the environmental history during the past 50kyrs in high resolution from Laguna Potrok Aike. During the Holocene warmer conditions lead to an increased productivity reflected in higher TOC and BSi contents. Calcite precipitation initiated around 9 ka cal. BP probably due to supersaturation induced by lake level lowering. It is assumed that prior to this time period sediments are carbonate-free because high lake-level conditions prevailed. During the Glacial, increased runoff linked to permafrost, precipitation related to stronger cyclonic activity and reduced evaporation have caused higher lake levels. Moreover, during cold glacial conditions lake productivity was low and organic matter mainly of algal or cyanobacterial origin as indicated by generally low TOC and C/N values. During interstadials, such as the Antarctic A-events and the Younger Dryas, TOC contents appear to rise. The glacial C/N ratios and their correlation with TOC concentrations indicate that aquatic moss blooms probably induce these increases in TOC. Aquatic mosses grow if surface water temperatures rise due to warmer climatic conditions and/or development of a lake water stratification. The latter may occur if wind speeds are low and melt water inflow caused higher density gradients. Prevailing permafrost thawing during warmer periods could lead to considerable rises of lake levels, which would contribute to the preservation of organic material. This may explain why higher C/N and TOC values occur at the end of Antarctic A-events. For the uppermost 25 m, the BSi profile shows a high correlation with the TOC profile. In deeper horizons, however, there are indications that the BSi/TOC ratio increased. This part of the record is dominated by mass movement events, which may have supplied nutrients and thus triggered diatom blooms.

Hahn, A.; Rosén, P.; Kliem, P.; Ohlendorf, C.; Zolitschka, B.

2011-12-01

250

Functional characterization and high-throughput proteomic analysis of interrupted genes in the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.  

PubMed

Sequenced genomes often reveal interrupted coding sequences that complicate the annotation process and the subsequent functional characterization of the genes. In the past, interrupted genes were generally considered to be the result of sequencing errors or pseudogenes, that is, gene remnants with little or no biological importance. However, recent lines of evidence support the hypothesis that these coding sequences can be functional; thus, it is crucial to understand whether interrupted genes are expressed in vivo. We addressed this issue by experimentally demonstrating the existence of functional disrupted genes in archaeal genomes. We discovered previously unknown disrupted genes that have interrupted homologues in distantly related species of archaea. The combination of a RT-PCR strategy with shotgun proteomics demonstrates that interrupted genes in the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus are expressed in vivo. In addition, the sequence of the peptides determined by LCMSMS and experiments of in vitro translation allows us to identify a gene expressed by programmed -1 frameshifting. Our findings will enable an accurate reinterpretation of archaeal interrupted genes shedding light on their function and on archaeal genome evolution. PMID:20192274

Cobucci-Ponzano, Beatrice; Guzzini, Lucia; Benelli, Dario; Londei, Paola; Perrodou, Emmanuel; Lecompte, Odile; Tran, Diem; Sun, Jun; Wei, Jing; Mathur, Eric J; Rossi, Mosè; Moracci, Marco

2010-05-01

251

Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined. 17 figs.

Andrews, L.B.

1998-08-18

252

[Analysis of indications in late pregnancy interruption on a two-year material].  

PubMed

Indications for a late pregnancy interruption on a two-year material (2002-2003) were analyzed. In the stated period, there were 101 interruptions of advanced pregnancy in total, out of which 52 occurred in 2002 and 49 in 2003. Out of the total number of interruptions, social indications were the reason in 54 cases, which amounted to 53.46% of the whole material, wherein they amounted to 53.84% in 2002, and in 2003 to 53.06% of indications for late interruption. Average gestational age of patients was X=15 Weeks in 2002, and X=14 Weeks of pregnancy in 2003. Average age of patients in the first year of research was X=29, and in the second year X=28 years of age. Pregnancy interruption was carried out by prostaglandin induction. Average induction-abortion interval was X=9.2 hours for the first group, and X=8.2 hours for the second one. The increased number of social indications for late interruptions in advanced pregnancies is a result of difficult economic conditions of living, and medical ignorance as well. PMID:15822684

Bukvi?, Idriz; Dekovi?, Sanjin

2005-01-01

253

Highly unstable sequence interruptions of the CTG repeat in the myotonic dystrophy gene.  

PubMed

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 is caused by the expansion of a CTG repeat in the 3' UTR of the DMPK gene. A length exceeding 50 CTG triplets is pathogenic. Intermediate alleles with 35-49 triplets are not disease-causing but show instability in intergenerational transmissions. We report on the identification of multiple patients with different patterns of CCG and CTC interruptions in the DMPK CTG repeat tract that display unique intergenerational instability. In patients bearing interrupted expanded alleles, the location of the interruptions changed dramatically between generations and the repeats tended to contract. The phenotype for these patients corresponded to the classical form of the disease, but in some cases without muscular dystrophy and possibly with a later onset than expected. Symptomatic patients bearing interrupted intermediate length repeat tracts were also identified, although the role of the interruptions in their phenotype remains unclear. The identification of interruptions in the DMPK repeat has important consequences for molecular genetic testing where they can lead to false negative conclusions. PMID:19514047

Musova, Zuzana; Mazanec, Radim; Krepelova, Anna; Ehler, Edvard; Vales, Jiri; Jaklova, Radka; Prochazka, Tomas; Koukal, Petr; Marikova, Tatana; Kraus, Josef; Havlovicova, Marketa; Sedlacek, Zdenek

2009-07-01

254

Collecting and categorizing information related to electric power distribution interruption events: customer interruption data collection within the electric power distribution industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability of electric power systems remains a top societal issue. While transmission disturbances draw national attention and scrutiny, service interruptions at the distribution level are the primary concern of end-use customers and their regulatory and governmental representatives. Much effort has been expended in developing methods to uniformly and consistently quantify reliability of distribution service based on electric system performance. However,

Rodney L. Robinson; Donald F. Hall; Cheryl A. Warren; Val G. Werner

2006-01-01

255

Effect of Radiotherapy Interruptions on Survival in Medicare Enrollees With Local and Regional Head-and-Neck Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate whether interruptions in radiotherapy are associated with decreased survival in a population-based sample of head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database we identified Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years and older diagnosed with local-regional head-and-neck cancer during the period 1997-2003. We examined claims records of 3864 patients completing radiotherapy for the presence of one or more 5-30-day interruption(s) in therapy. We then performed Cox regression analyses to estimate the association between therapy interruptions and survival. Results: Patients with laryngeal tumors who experienced an interruption in radiotherapy had a 68% (95% confidence interval, 41-200%) increased risk of death, compared with patients with no interruptions. Patients with nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oral, salivary gland, and sinus tumors had similar associations between interruptions and increased risk of death, but these did not reach statistical significance because of small sample sizes. Conclusions: Treatment interruptions seem to influence survival time among patients with laryngeal tumors completing a full course of radiotherapy. At all head-and-neck sites, the association between interruptions and survival is sensitive to confounding by stage and other treatments. Further research is needed to develop methods to identify patients most susceptible to interruption-induced mortality.

Fesinmeyer, Megan Dann [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Mehta, Vivek [Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Blough, David [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); School of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Tock, Lauri [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Ramsey, Scott D., E-mail: sramsey@fhcrc.or [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); School of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

2010-11-01

256

Folding Delay and Structural Perturbations Caused by Type IV Collagen Natural Interruptions and Nearby Gly Missense Mutations*  

PubMed Central

The standard collagen triple helix requires Gly as every third residue in the amino acid sequence, yet all nonfibrillar collagens contain sites where this repeating pattern is interrupted. To explore the effects of such natural interruptions on the triple helix, a 4- or 15-residue sequence from human basement membrane type IV collagen was introduced between (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)n domains within a recombinant bacterial collagen. The interruptions had little effect on melting temperature, consistent with the high thermal stability reported for nonfibrillar collagens. Although the 4-residue interruption cannot be accommodated within a standard triple helix, trypsin and thermolysin resistance indicated a tightly packed structure. Central residues of the 15-residue interruption were protease-susceptible, whereas residues near the (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)n boundary were resistant, supporting a transition from an alternate conformation to a well packed triple helix. Both interruptions led to a delay in triple-helix folding, with the 15-residue interruption causing slower folding than the 4-residue interruption. These results suggest that propagation through interruptions represents a slow folding step. To clarify the relation between natural interruptions and pathological mutations, a Gly to Ser missense mutation was placed three triplets away from the 4-residue interruption. As a result of this mutation, the 4-residue interruption and nearby triple helix became susceptible to protease digestion, and an additional folding delay was observed. Because Gly missense mutations that cause disease are often located near natural interruptions, structural and folding perturbations arising from such proximity could be a factor in collagen genetic diseases.

Hwang, Eileen S.; Brodsky, Barbara

2012-01-01

257

HIV Reservoirs and Immune Surveillance Evasion Cause the Failure of Structured Treatment Interruptions: A Computational Study  

PubMed Central

Continuous antiretroviral therapy is currently the most effective way to treat HIV infection. Unstructured interruptions are quite common due to side effects and toxicity, among others, and cannot be prevented. Several attempts to structure these interruptions failed due to an increased morbidity compared to continuous treatment. The cause of this failure is poorly understood and often attributed to drug resistance. Here we show that structured treatment interruptions would fail regardless of the emergence of drug resistance. Our computational model of the HIV infection dynamics in lymphoid tissue inside lymph nodes, demonstrates that HIV reservoirs and evasion from immune surveillance themselves are sufficient to cause the failure of structured interruptions. We validate our model with data from a clinical trial and show that it is possible to optimize the schedule of interruptions to perform as well as the continuous treatment in the absence of drug resistance. Our methodology enables studying the problem of treatment optimization without having impact on human beings. We anticipate that it is feasible to steer new clinical trials using computational models.

Mancini, Emiliano; Castiglione, Filippo; Bernaschi, Massimo; de Luca, Andrea; Sloot, Peter M. A.

2012-01-01

258

Quasistatic resonance of a chemical potential interruption in a graphene layer and its polarizability: The mixed-polarity semilocalized plasmon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical potential of a graphene layer can be locally interrupted by electrostatic gating or chemical doping. When properly designed, electrically small local interruption can possess quasistatic resonance and be strongly excited by electromagnetic field. This excitation generates a mixed-type semilocalized plasmon wave, e.g., it launches TM mode within the interruption domain and TE modes into the surrounding layer. Since the resonance is quasistatic, it is essentially independent of the interruption size and it exists also for sizes much smaller than the corresponding wavelengths of the aforementioned modes. Furthermore, the interruption's polarizability can be defined and calculated. Unlike the conventional polarizability, which is defined directly via a particle's dipole response, here it is defined via the induced currents in the interruption and in its surrounding. We verify our results by comparing them to full-wave numerical simulations. The results have potential applications in many one-atom-thick metamaterials and devices.

Hadad, Y.; Steinberg, Ben Z.

2013-08-01

259

Growth-interruption-induced low-density InAs quantum dots on GaAs  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the use of growth interruption to obtain low-density InAs quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs. The process was realized by Ostwald-type ripening of a thin InAs layer. It was found that the optical properties of the QDs as a function of growth interruption strongly depend on InAs growth rate. By using this approach, a low density of QDs (4 dots/{mu}m{sup 2}) with uniform size distribution was achieved. As compared to QDs grown without growth interruption, a larger energy separation between the QD confined levels was observed, suggesting a situation closer to the ideal zero-dimensional system. Combining with an InGaAs capping layer such as In-rich QDs enable 1.3 {mu}m emission at 4 K.

Li, L. H.; Alloing, B. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics, Station 3, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Chauvin, N.; Fiore, A. [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Patriarche, G. [LPN/CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France)

2008-10-15

260

The Capability of 500kV Circuit Breaker for Interruption of Short Circuit Current with a Large D.C. Component  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time constants of the D.C. component of asymmetrical fault current are trend to increase. It is said that interruption capability of gas circuit breaker degrades at asymmetrical current interruption. This paper shows the investigation of the interruption capability of 550kV one-break SF6 gas circuit breaker at asymmetrical current interruption. Interrupting tests of asymmetrical current with time constant 100ms, 150ms

Takayuki Kobayashi; Atsushi Eto; Tadashi Koshizuka; Susumu Nishiwaki; Kietsu Kudo; Kozo Matsushita; Osamu Hosokawa

2007-01-01

261

Peptide models for inherited neurodegenerative disorders: conformation and aggregation properties of long polyglutamine peptides with and without interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several neurodegenerative diseases are caused by expansion of polyglutamine repeats in the affected proteins. In spino-cerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), histidine interruptions have been reported to mitigate the pathological effects of long glutamine stretches. To understand this phenomenon, we investigated the conformational preferences of peptides containing both the uninterrupted polyglutamine stretches and those with histidine interruption(s) as seen in SCA1

Deepak Sharma; Sunita Sharma; Santosh Pasha; Samir K Brahmachari

1999-01-01

262

Development of arcing horn device for interrupting ground-fault current of 77 kV overhead lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an arcing horn device for interrupting the ground-fault current of 77-kV overhead lines. The main characteristics of the device are as follows. The arcing horn device interrupted the ground-fault current 445A within a half cycle without replacement ten times. The arcing horn device did not interrupt short-circuit current. However, even when a short-circuit current of 10 kA

Takashi Chino; Mikimasa Iwata; Sugio Imoto; Masato Nakayama; Hiroki Sakamoto; Ryoji Matsushita

2005-01-01

263

Interaction of a Vacuum Arc With an SF6 Arc in a Hybrid Circuit Breaker During High-Current Interruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid circuit breaker consists of a series-connected vacuum- and SF6 interrupter. The vacuum interrupter has the function to withstand very steep-rising transient recovery voltages, whereas the SF6 interrupter is stressed with the peak of it. Full scale tests are described of a 145-kV prototype, which is subjected to short-line faults based on 63 kA. During these tests, current through

RenÉ Peter Paul Smeets; Viktor Kertesz; Denis Dufournet; Dan Penache; Martin Schlaug

2007-01-01

264

Interaction of a Vacuum Arc with an SF6 Arc in a Hybrid Circuit Breaker during High-Current Interruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid circuit breaker consists of a series connected vacuum- and SF6 interrupter. The vacuum interrupter has the function to withstand very steep rising transient recovery voltages, whereas the SF6 interrupter is stressed with the peak of this voltage. Full scale tests are described of a 145 kV prototype, subjected to short-line faults based on 63 kA. During these tests,

R. P. P. Smeets; V. Kerteszl; D. Dufournet; D. Penache; M. Schlaug

2006-01-01

265

On the minimum number of interrupts in time-slot assignments for time-division multiple-access systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors study the minimum number of interrupts in an optimal time-slot assignment of a time-division multiple-access (TDMA) system. If the number of channels c in the TDMA systems equals 2, then there always exists an optimal assignment with at most one interrupt. If c is at least 3, then there exist TDMA systems for which each optimal assignment requires at least (c-1)(c-2) interrupts.

Li, Chi-Kwong; Schneider, Hans

1991-12-01

266

Operation Method for AC Motor Control during Power Interruption in Direct AC/AC Converter System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct AC/AC converters have been studied due to their potential use in power converters with no DC-link capacitor, which can contribute to the miniaturization of power converters. However, the absence of a DC-link capacitor makes it difficult to control the AC motor during power interruption. First, this paper proposes a system that realizes AC motor control during power interruption by utilizing a clamp capacitor. In general, direct AC/AC converters have a clamp circuit consisting of a rectifier diode(s) and a clamp capacitor in order to avoid over-voltages. In the proposed system, there is an additional semiconductor switch reverse-parallel to the rectifier diode(s), and the clamp capacitor voltage can be utilized for AC motor control by turning on the additional switch. Second, this paper discusses an operation method for AC motor control and clamp capacitor voltage control during power interruption. In the proposed method “DC-link voltage control”, the kinetic energy in the AC motor is transformed into electrical energy and stored in the clamp capacitor; the clamp capacitor is therefore charged and the capacitor voltage is controlled to remain constant at an instruction value. Third, this paper discusses a switching operation during power interruption. A dead-time is introduced between the operation of turning off all switches on the rectifier side and the operation of turning on the additional switch, which prevents the occurrence of a short circuit between the interrupted power source and the clamp capacitor. Finally, experimental results are presented. During power interruptions, an output current was continuously obtained and the clamp capacitor voltage was maintained to be equal to the instruction value of the capacitor voltage. These results indicate that both AC motor control and capacitor voltage control were successfully achieved by using the proposed system.

Shizu, Keiichiro; Azuma, Satoshi

267

Effect of DC Current on the Creep Deformation of Tin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impression creep testing of tin was performed in the temperature range of 343 K to 398 K and under a punching stress of 12 MPa to 55 MPa. During the impression test at constant load, a direct electric current in the range of 0 A to 6 A flowed through the punch into the sample, introducing an electromechanical interaction. Steady-state creep was observed under the simultaneous action of the electric current and mechanical stress. The steady-state impression velocity increased with increasing temperature, punching stress, and electric current. A hyperbolic sine relation was used to describe the stress dependence of the steady-state impression velocity for impression creep of tin. The apparent activation energy decreased with increasing electric current.

Chen, Rong; Yang, Fuqian

2010-12-01

268

Interleukin-10 responses to therapeutic vaccination during highly active antiretroviral therapy and after analytical therapy interruption.  

PubMed

We investigated whether therapeutic vaccination in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated patients with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara-vectored HIV-1 vaccine, with or without therapy interruption, induced the production of interleukin (IL)-10. Plasma IL-10 levels were not significantly increased postvaccination, but increased in parallel with viraemia in patients who interrupted therapy. Surprisingly, IL-10 blockade augmented HIV-specific T cell proliferative responses in HAART-suppressed patients but had no effect once virological control was lost. Modulation of IL-10 might enhance vaccine-induced immune responses. PMID:19770697

Yang, Hongbing; Guimarães-Walker, Ana; Hibbs, Stephen; Dong, Tao; Stacey, Andrea; Borrow, Persephone; Hanke, Tomás; Davenport, Miles P; McMichael, Andrew; Dorrell, Lucy

2009-10-23

269

Perception of interrupted speech: Cross-rate variation in the intelligibility of gated and concatenated sentences  

PubMed Central

Temporal constraints on the perception of variable-size speech fragments produced by interruption rates between 0.5 and 16 Hz were investigated by contrasting the intelligibility of gated sentences with and without silent intervals. Concatenation of consecutive speech fragments produced a significant decrease in intelligibility at 2 and 4 Hz, while having little effect at lower and higher rates. Consistent with previous studies, these findings indicate that (1) syllable-sized intervals associated with intermediate-rate interruptions are more susceptible to temporal distortions than the longer word-size or shorter phoneme-size intervals and (2) suggest qualitative differences in underlying perceptual processes at different rates.

Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Risley, Robert

2011-01-01

270

Isolated interrupted aortic arch in 42-year-old adult-case report.  

PubMed

Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by a complete luminal and anatomical interruption between the ascending and descending thoracic aorta. It is usually detected in the perinatal period or during infancy, but a very few cases have been reported in adults. Here, we present the case of a 42-year-old man who visited our hospital for arterial hypertension and in whom IAA was diagnosed with echocardiography and confirmed by computed tomography angiography. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 41:521-523, 2013; PMID:22865714

Liping, Chen; Pradhan, Dipesh; Jing, Zhang; Hongwei, Zhou; Shrestha, Rajina

2012-08-02

271

Thermal response of the multiplier of an accelerator driven system to beam interruptions.  

SciTech Connect

Thermal response of the multiplier of an accelerator driven system to beam trips has been calculated for sodium cooled and lead-bismuth cooled multipliers. The temperature transients caused by a beam trip lead to thermal fatigue in structural components, and restoring the beam causes an additional temperature transient that adds to thermal fatigue. Design lifetimes for various multiplier components are calculated, based on the frequency of beam interruptions and on the thermal fatigue per interruption. Mitigation strategies to increase design lifetimes are discussed.

Dunn, F. E.

2002-05-15

272

Minimizing Weighted Tardiness of Jobs with Stochastic Interruptions in Parallel Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we address the problem of minimizing expected total weighted tardiness of jobs that have stochastic interruptions and that are processed on a set of parallel machines. Our research generalizes the problem of scheduling parallel machines to minimize total weighted tardiness. The proposed solution method is based on the scatter search methodology and implements an innovative structured combination

Manuel Laguna; Pilar Lino; Angeles Pérez; Sacramento Quintanilla; Vicente Valls

273

The Effects of Verbal Operant Training and Response Interruption and Redirection on Appropriate and Inappropriate Vocalizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Past research has shown that response interruption and redirection (RIRD) can effectively decrease automatically reinforced motor behavior (Hagopian & Adelinis, 2001). Ahearn, Clark, MacDonald, and Chung (2007) found that a procedural adaptation of RIRD reduced vocal stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for some children, although…

Colon, Candice L.; Ahearn, William H.; Clark, Kathleen M.; Masalsky, Jessica

2012-01-01

274

Methods for estimating confidence intervals in interrupted time series analyses of health interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveInterrupted time series (ITS) is a strong quasi-experimental research design, which is increasingly applied to estimate the effects of health services and policy interventions. We describe and illustrate two methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) around absolute and relative changes in outcomes calculated from segmented regression parameter estimates.

Fang Zhang; Anita K. Wagner; Stephen B. Soumerai; Dennis Ross-Degnan

2009-01-01

275

A Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach to Pooled Interrupted Time Series Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a latent variable approach for the estimation of treatment effects within a pooled interrupted time series (ITS) design. Although considered quasi-experimental, the ITS design has been noted as representing one of the strongest alternatives to the randomized experiment, making it highly appropriate for use in documenting the presence of effects that might warrant further evaluation in a

Terry E. Duncan; Susan C. Duncan

2004-01-01

276

Interrupted Time-Series Analysis with Brief Single-Subject Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing change with short time-series data is difficult because visual inference is unreliable with such data, and current statistical procedures cannot control Type I error because they underestimate positive autocorrelation. This article describes these problems and shows how they can be solved with a new interrupted time-series analysis procedure (ITSACORR) that uses a more accurate estimate of autocorrelation. Monte Carlo

John Crosbie

1993-01-01

277

Circulating current in a superconducting loop interrupted by a DC-SQUID with asymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A superconducting loop interrupted by a DC-SQUID may be applied for coupling flux qubits with controllable coupling strength. In reality, complete switching off cannot be realized due to the asymmetry in the Josephson junctions in the DC-SQUID. We studied the effect of the asymmetry on the flux transfer characteristic. Numerical calculation showed that the leakage of the input flux in

Y. Shimazu; T. Niizeki; Z. Wada; Y. Saito

2007-01-01

278

Muscle fatigue in interrupted stimulation: Effect of partial recovery on force and EMG dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscle fatigue is a major problem in functional electrical stimulation (FES); the understanding of fatigue and recovery processes is thus of great interest. In interrupted stimulation, fatigue and recovery occur in sequence, and the history-dependency of the muscle's response to FES becomes significant. In this work, the force and electromyographical (EMG) fatigue characteristics of FES-activated paralysed muscles were studied, both

Joseph Mizrahi; Oron Levin; Aviv Aviram; Eli Isakov; Zev Susak

1997-01-01

279

CAG repeat instability at SCA2 locus: anchoring CAA interruptions and linked single nucleotide polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that results from the expansion of a cryptic CAG repeat within the exon 1 of the SCA2 gene. The CAG repeat in normal individuals varies in length from 14 to 31 repeats and is frequently interrupted by one or more CAA triplets, whereas the expanded alleles contain a pure uninter-

Shweta Choudhry; Mitali Mukerji; Achal K. Srivastava; Satish Jain; Samir K. Brahmachari

2001-01-01

280

Inflow rates and interrupted flow effects on concentrated flow erosion and intake rate in two soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surface irrigation is the most widely used irrigation practice world wide, but its water use efficiency is low. Interrupted supply of water to furrows may reduce intake rate (IR) upstream and improve irrigation efficiency in many soils, but has an insignificant effect in others. Similarly, intermitt...

281

Teachers Who Interrupt Their Careers: Characteristics of Those Who Return to the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using maximum likelihood logistic regression analysis, this study of public school teachers identifies the characteristics that distinguish teachers who return to the classroom after a career interruption from those who do not. Its purpose is to improve our ability to monitor and predict teacher supply and demand by determining areas that may be vulnerable to shortages in the future. The

Barbara Q. Beaudin

1993-01-01

282

Interrupted speech perception: the effects of hearing sensitivity and frequency resolution.  

PubMed

Jin & Nelson (2006) found that although amplified speech recognition performance of hearing-impaired (HI) listeners was equal to that of normal-hearing (NH) listeners in quiet and in steady noise, nevertheless HI listeners' performance was significantly poorer in modulated noise. As a follow-up, the current study investigated whether three factors, auditory integration, low-mid frequency audibility and auditory filter bandwidths, might contribute to reduced sentence recognition of HI listeners in the presence of modulated interference. Three findings emerged. First, sentence recognition in modulated noise found in Jin & Nelson (2006) was highly correlated with perception of sentences interrupted by silent gaps. This suggests that understanding speech interrupted by either noise or silent gaps require similar perceptual integration of speech fragments available either in the dips of a gated noise or across silent gaps of an interrupted speech signal. Second, those listeners with greatest hearing losses in the low frequencies were poorest at understanding interrupted sentences. Third, low-to mid-frequency hearing thresholds accounted for most of the variability in Masking Release (MR) for HI listeners. As suggested by Oxenham and his colleagues (2003 and 2009), low-frequency information within speech plays an important role in the perceptual segregation of speech from competing background noise. PMID:20707457

Jin, Su-Hyun; Nelson, Peggy B

2010-08-01

283

Interruption of the Calvin cycle inhibits the repair of Photosystem II from photodamage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In photosynthetic organisms, impairment of the activities of enzymes in the Calvin cycle enhances the extent of photoinactivation of Photosystem II (PSII). We investigated the molecular mechanism responsible for this phenomenon in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. When the Calvin cycle was interrupted by glycolaldehyde, which is known to inhibit phosphoribulokinase, the extent of photoinactivation of PSII was enhanced.

Shunichi Takahashi; Norio Murata

2005-01-01

284

Distinct mechanisms for the impact of distraction and interruption on working memory in aging.  

PubMed

Interference is known to negatively impact the ability to maintain information in working memory (WM), an effect that is exacerbated with aging. Here, we explore how distinct sources of interference, i.e., distraction (stimuli to-be-ignored) and interruption (stimuli requiring attention), differentially influence WM in younger and older adults. EEG was recorded while participants engaged in three versions of a delayed-recognition task: no interference, a distracting stimulus, and an interrupting stimulus presented during WM maintenance. Behaviorally, both types of interference negatively impacted WM accuracy in older adults significantly more than younger adults (with a larger deficit for interruptions). N170 latency measures revealed that the degree of processing both distractors and interruptors predicted WM accuracy in both populations. However, while WM impairments could be explained by excessive attention to distractors by older adults (a suppression deficit), impairment induced by interruption were not clearly mediated by age-related increases in attention to interruptors. These results suggest that distinct underlying mechanisms mediate the impact of different types of external interference on WM in normal aging. PMID:20144492

Clapp, Wesley C; Gazzaley, Adam

2010-02-09

285

46 CFR 401.420 - Cancellation, delay or interruption in rendition of services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...provided in this section, whenever the passage of a ship is interrupted and...hour or part of an hour including the first hour of the delay, with a maximum basic...hour or part of an hour including the first hour, with a maximum basic rate...

2012-10-01

286

Resistance to the impact of interruptions during multitasking by healthy adults and dysexecutive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments (one with healthy adult volunteers and the other with controls and dysexecutive patients) assessed the impact of interruptions on a novel test of multitasking. The test involved switching repeatedly between four tasks (block construction, bead threading, paper folding, alphabetical searching) over a 10 min period. In Experiment 1, there were four groups of 20 healthy participants. One group

Anna S. Law; Robert H. Logie; David G. Pearson; Anna Cantagallo; Eva Moretti; Francesca Dimarco

2004-01-01

287

Effects of nozzle shape on the interruption performance of thermal puffer-type gas circuit breakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade the advanced interruption techniques, which use the arc energy itself to increase the pressure inside a chamber by PTFE nozzle ablation, have displaced the puffer circuit breakers due to reduced driving forces and better maintainability. In this paper, we have investigated thermal flow characteristics inside a thermal puffer-type gas circuit breaker (GCB) by solving the Navier–Stokes

Jong-Chul Lee; Youn J. Kim

2006-01-01

288

Recognition of temporally interrupted and spectrally degraded sentences with additional unprocessed low-frequency speech  

PubMed Central

Recognition of periodically interrupted sentences (with an interruption rate of 1.5 Hz, 50% duty cycle) was investigated under conditions of spectral degradation, implemented with a noiseband vocoder, with and without additional unprocessed low-pass filtered speech (cutoff frequency 500 Hz). Intelligibility of interrupted speech decreased with increasing spectral degradation. For all spectral-degradation conditions, however, adding the unprocessed low-pass filtered speech enhanced the intelligibility. The improvement at 4 and 8 channels was higher than the improvement at 16 and 32 channels: 19% and 8%, on average, respectively. The Articulation Index predicted an improvement of 0.09, in a scale from 0 to 1. Thus, the improvement at poorest spectral-degradation conditions was larger than what would be expected from additional speech information. Therefore, the results implied that the fine temporal cues from the unprocessed low-frequency speech, such as the additional voice pitch cues, helped perceptual integration of temporally interrupted and spectrally degraded speech, especially when the spectral degradations were severe. Considering the vocoder processing as a cochlear-implant simulation, where implant users’ performance is closest to 4 and 8-channel vocoder performance, the results support additional benefit of low-frequency acoustic input in combined electric-acoustic stimulation for perception of temporally degraded speech.

Baskent, Deniz; Chatterjee, Monita

2010-01-01

289

Discharge Properties and Emitted Electromagnetic Wave Spectrum in Low Vacuum Region of Vacuum Interrupter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study on reliability of vacuum interrupter (VI) such as detection method of the slow leak has been extensively carried out, while study on discharge properties in low vacuum of VI is still insufficient. In this report, we experimentally investigated discharge properties inside VI under closed contact and open contact conditions of main contactors in low vacuum of VI to simulate

Mohamad Kamarol; Shinya Ohtsuka; Hitoshi Saitou; Masayuki Sakaki; Masayuki Hikita

2005-01-01

290

Distinct mechanisms for the impact of distraction and interruption on working memory in aging  

PubMed Central

Interference is known to negatively impact the ability to maintain information in working memory (WM), an effect that is exacerbated with aging. Here, we explore how distinct sources of interference, i.e., distraction (stimuli to-be-ignored) and interruption (stimuli requiring attention), differentially influence WM in younger and older adults. EEG was recorded while participants engaged in three versions of a delayed-recognition task: no interference, a distracting stimulus, and an interrupting stimulus presented during WM maintenance. Behaviorally, both types of interference negatively impacted WM accuracy in older adults significantly more than younger adults (with a larger deficit for interruptions). N170 latency measures revealed that the degree of processing both distractors and interruptors predicted WM accuracy in both populations. However, while WM impairments could be explained by excessive attention to distractors by older adults (a suppression deficit), impairment induced by interruption were not clearly mediated by age-related increases in attention to interruptors. These results suggest that distinct underlying mechanisms mediate the impact of different types of external interference on WM in normal aging.

Clapp, Wesley C; Gazzaley, Adam

2010-01-01

291

Reasoning about Concurrent Execution Prioritized Interrupts, and Exogenous Actions in the Situation Calculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an alternative to planning, an approach to high- level agent control based on concurrent program execution is considered. A formal definition in the situation calculus of such a programming language is presented and illustrated with a detailed exam­ ple. The language includes facilities for prioritizing the concurrent execution, interrupting the execution when certain conditions become true, and dealing with

Giuseppe De Giacomo; Yves Lespérance; Hector J. Levesque

1997-01-01

292

Teaching Refugee Learners with Interrupted Education in Science: Vocabulary, literacy and pedagogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the globalisation of education, large numbers of students with interrupted schooling and low English literacy levels represent both a quantitative and qualitative shift in the kinds of students faced by teachers in classrooms. In Australia, after a year in an intensive English language programme, immigrant and refugee students are placed in the mainstream, where they face enormous challenges in

Jennifer Miller

2009-01-01

293

The basolateral amygdala mediates the effects of cues associated with meal interruption on feeding behavior  

PubMed Central

Considerable evidence shows that environmental cues that signal food delivery when rats are food-deprived can substantially potentiate feeding later when rats are food-sated. Similarly, cues associated with meal interruption, food removal or impending food scarcity may also induce increased eating. For example, after learning the association between a discrete “interruption” stimulus and the unexpected termination of food trials, sated rats show enhanced food consumption when exposed to that stimulus. In Experiment 1, unlike sham-lesioned controls, rats with bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) failed to display such cue-potentiated feeding. In Experiment 2, potentiation of feeding by an interruption signal was found to be food-specific. That is, a stimulus that signaled interruption of trials with one food but not trials with a second food later only facilitated consumption of the first food. These studies extend our knowledge of the psychological and neural processes underlying cue-induced feeding. Understanding these mechanisms may contribute our understanding of the etiology and treatment of binge eating disorders.

Galarce, Ezequiel M.; McDannald, Michael A.; Holland, Peter C.

2010-01-01

294

MultiLevel Arc Fault Circuit Interrupter with Collaborative Communications for Smart Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

An arc fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) is a device that provides protection from the effects of arc faults by de-energizing a circuit within a specified time after an arc fault is detected. In the United States, AFCI installation in bedroom receptacle outlets has been mandated since 2002. As AFCIs have been widely adapted to real situations, several kinds of AFCIs

HyungSeok Kim; SeongWoo Kim; GiPoong Gwon; DongRyul Lee; SeungWoo Seo

2010-01-01

295

Interruption of bispectral index monitoring by nerve integrity monitoring during tympanoplasty -A case report-  

PubMed Central

We report that intraoperative NIM-2 monitoring devices can interfere with bispectral index monitoring. A 45-year-old male with chronic otits media underwent tympanolasty under general anesthesia with NIM-2 monitoring and bispectral index monitoring at our institution. And then, bispectral index monitoring was severely interrupted by facial nerve monitoring.

Kim, Jun Hyun; Kim, Ah Na; Kim, Kyung Woo; Lee, Sang-Il; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Park, Jang Su; Kim, Jung Won

2013-01-01

296

Contextual Cues Aid Recovery from Interruption: The Role of Associative Activation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A series of experiments introduced interruptions to the execution phase of simple Tower of London problems and found that the opportunity for preparation before the break in task reduced the time cost at resumption. Retrieval of the suspended goal was facilitated when participants were given the opportunity to encode retrieval cues during an…

Hodgetts, Helen M.; Jones, Dylan M.

2006-01-01

297

Atrial flutter ablation through the azygous continuation in a patient with inferior vena cava interruption.  

PubMed

Ablation of atrial flutter (AFL) requires linear radiofrequency application; these procedures are usually performed via a femoral approach from the inferior vena cava (IVC). Congenital anomalies of this venous system may limit catheter ablation. This report presents ablation of an AFL through the azygous continuation and also reviews the prevalence of congenital IVC interruption among patients referred for AFL ablation. PMID:21030393

Pérez-Silva, Armando; Merino, Jose L; Peinado, Rafael; Lopez-Sendon, Jose

2010-10-27

298

Continuous versus interrupted schedules of thermal biofeedback: An exploratory analysis with clinical subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers administer thermal biofeedback in several different formats, although the most common are continuous administration and a series of brief trials separated by frequent rest breaks. The present study directly compared these two administration schedules with individuals suffering from migraine headache. Optimal training effects occurred for the continuous schedule of administration. Surprisingly, the interrupted schedule actually led to decreases in

Frank Andrasik; Thomas P. Pallmeyer; Edward B. Blanchard; Virginia Attanasio

1984-01-01

299

A Comparison of Alternative Approaches to the Analysis of Interrupted Time-Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Computer generated data representative of 16 Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA) models were used to compare the results of interrupted time-series analysis using: (1) the known model identification, (2) an assumed (l,0,0) model, and (3) an assumed (3,0,0) model as an approximation to the General Transformation approach.…

Harrop, John W.; Velicer, Wayne F.

1985-01-01

300

The Effects of Matched Stimulation and Response Interruption and Redirection on Vocal Stereotypy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stereotypy has been classified as repetitive behavior that does not serve any apparent function. Two procedures that have been found to reduce rates of vocal stereotypy effectively are response interruption and redirection (RIRD) and noncontingent access to matched stimulation (MS). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of…

Love, Jessica J.; Miguel, Caio F.; Fernand, Jonathan K.; LaBrie, Jillian K.

2012-01-01

301

Contextual Cues Aid Recovery From Interruption: The Role of Associative Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments introduced interruptions to the execution phase of simple Tower of London problems and found that the opportunity for preparation before the break in task reduced the time cost at resumption. Retrieval of the suspended goal was facilitated when participants were given the opportunity to encode retrieval cues during an \\

Helen M. Hodgetts; Dylan M. Jones

2006-01-01

302

Optimal pricing and capacity choice for a public service under risk of interruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop rules for pricing and capacity choice for an interruptible service that recognize the interdependence between consumers’\\u000a perceptions of system reliability and their market behavior. Consumers post ex ante demands, based on their expectations on aggregate demand. Posted demands are met if ex post supply capacity is sufficient. However, if supply is inadequate all ex ante demands are proportionally

Fred Schroyen; Adekola Oyenuga

2011-01-01

303

Rapid Resumption of Interrupted Search Is Independent of Age-Related Improvements in Visual Search  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, 7-19-year-olds performed an interrupted visual search task in two experiments. Our question was whether the tendency to respond within 500 ms after a second glimpse of a display (the "rapid resumption" effect ["Psychological Science", 16 (2005) 684-688]) would increase with age in the same way as overall search efficiency. The…

Lleras, Alejandro; Porporino, Mafalda; Burack, Jacob A.; Enns, James T.

2011-01-01

304

Interruptibility of long call production in tamarins: implications for vocal control.  

PubMed

Vocal production can be highly deterministic, such that once the central nervous system generates a signal to call, the vocalization is emitted immune to external events. Conversely, vocal production can be modulated by auditory feedback such that interference or disruption can cause an individual to stop calling or, if it continues to call, for the acoustic morphology of the signal to change. To explore which of these models best accounts for the control of vocal production in non-human primates, we adapted an interruption technique originally developed for songbirds for use with a New World monkey species, the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus). Results from a pilot experiment indicated that an auditory stimulus (white noise) was more effective than a visual stimulus (strobe light) at interrupting the tamarin's species-typical 'combination long call (CLC)'. Data from a second experiment showed that although the duration of the auditory stimulus did not affect the proportion of interruptions that occurred, a 1000 ms white noise stimulus perturbed the temporal structure of the CLC to a greater extent than did a 250 ms white noise stimulus. Furthermore, when call production was interrupted, tamarins stopped vocalizing after the completion of a syllable, suggesting that the syllable represents a unit of organization within the call. Overall, these results provide evidence that tamarins can modify their vocal output based on external events, but the degree of vocal control is significantly less than in oscine songbirds. PMID:12819269

Miller, Cory T; Flusberg, Stephen; Hauser, Marc D

2003-08-01

305

A Model Predictive Control Strategy Toward Optimal Structured Treatment Interruptions in Anti-HIV Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) strategies are applied to the control of human immunodeficiency virus infection, with the final goal of implementing an optimal structured treatment interruptions protocol. The MPC algorithms proposed in this paper use a dynamic model recently developed in order to mimic both transient responses and ultimate behavior, and to describe accordingly the different effect

Gabriele Pannocchia; Marco Laurino; Alberto Landi

2010-01-01

306

A computer simulation of transformer magnetising current interruption by a vacuum circuit breaker  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program has been elaborated to calculate the switching overvoltages during transformer interruption of a magnetising current by a vacuum circuit breaker (VCB). This program uses the Monte Carlo simulation technique and takes into account three-phase switching phenomena in an isolated neutral electric circuit. The distinguishing feature of this program is the application of a current chopping model, based

Alexey M. Chaly; Alevtina T. Chalaya

1996-01-01

307

Response Interruption and Redirection for Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism: A Systematic Replication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study systematically replicated and extended previous research on response interruption and redirection (RIRD) by assessing instructed responses of a different topography than the target behavior, percentage of session spent in treatment, generalization of behavior reduction, and social validity of the intervention. Results showed that RIRD…

Cassella, Megan Duffy; Sidener, Tina M.; Sidener, David W.; Progar, Patrick R.

2011-01-01

308

The Effects of Response Interruption and Redirection and Sertraline on Vocal Stereotypy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although response interruption and redirection (RIRD) has been shown to be successful in reducing vocal stereotypy, recent reports have suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may also reduce these behaviors. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effects of RIRD with and without sertraline on…

Miguel, Caio F.; Clark, Kathy; Tereshko, Lisa; Ahearn, William H.

2009-01-01

309

Improving Memory after Interruption: Exploiting Soft Constraints and Manipulating Information Access Cost  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forgetting what one was doing prior to interruption is an everyday problem. The recent soft constraints hypothesis (Gray, Sims, Fu, & Schoelles, 2006) emphasizes the strategic adaptation of information processing strategy to the task environment. It predicts that increasing information access cost (IAC: the time, and physical and mental effort…

Morgan, Phillip L.; Patrick, John; Waldron, Samuel M.; King, Sophia L.; Patrick, Tanya

2009-01-01

310

The Capability of 500kV Circuit Breaker for Interruption of Short Circuit Current with a Large D.C. Component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time constants of the D.C. component of asymmetrical fault current are trend to increase. It is said that interruption capability of gas circuit breaker degrades at asymmetrical current interruption. This paper shows the investigation of the interruption capability of 550kV one-break SF6 gas circuit breaker at asymmetrical current interruption. Interrupting tests of asymmetrical current with time constant 100ms, 150ms were carried out in high power laboratory. At the interrupting tests, arcing time was changed due to the time constant of the D.C. component. From the interrupting test results, arc energy was calculated. Degradation of the interrupting capability at asymmetrical current interruption was investigated by using measured arc energy.

Kobayashi, Takayuki; Eto, Atsushi; Koshizuka, Tadashi; Nishiwaki, Susumu; Kudo, Kietsu; Matsushita, Kozo; Hosokawa, Osamu

311

Computer assessment of indirect insight during an airflow interrupter maneuver of breathing.  

PubMed

The paper answers the questions if it is possible to conclude in objective way on more (than one -Rint - in a classical IT) number of parameters from the time domain post-interrupter signals during the occlusional measurement of respiratory mechanics and also verifies what accuracy can be achieved in such attempt. To obtain reported results, the time-domain enhanced interrupter technique (TD-EIT) was developed in this paper using computer simulations. Three-stage scheme of work was assumed in the project. First, the quality of the model identification was assessed for various combinations of pressure and flow signals recorded during the interruption. Then, the correlation between the working characteristics of the interrupter valve and the precision of the parameter estimation were assessed for the TD-EIT algorithm. Finally, a verification experiment by forward-inverse modeling was organized, in which the mechanical characteristics of a complex model were mapped with reduced analogs and with the use of neural networks for three typical modes: 'Normal state', 'Airway constriction' and 'Cheeks supported'. Obtained results show that to became effective in time-domain post-interrupter data exploration, both pressure and flow signals should be used in assessment of respiratory mechanics, taken in a range of at least 100ms and when both slopes (valve closing and opening) of quasi-step excitation are included. What is more, the faster the valve the smaller error of parameter estimation in proposed TD-EIT was observed, and this uncertainty importantly falls down for the length of time window exceeding the limit of 100ms. The pioneering use of neural network for mapping the mechanical properties of lungs with the use of interrupter experiment methodology proves that it is possible to conclude about more (than one) number of parameters characterizing the complex system and that this insight is biased with the error not exceeding of 10%; only peripheral properties are estimated worse. Such observation has a potential to change the experimental protocol, which was used in interrupter measurements up to date and to make this technique more attractive in comparison to other method, i.e. forced oscillation technique or impulse oscillometry. As regards the practical meaning of reported results for engineers and end-users (physicians and patients), proposed solution can be applied in simple portable devices with a feature of easy operation (important for e-monitoring). PMID:23639117

Jab?o?ski, Ireneusz

2013-02-01

312

Histamine selectively interrupts VE-cadherin adhesion independently of capacitive calcium entry.  

PubMed

Histamine is an important agent of innate immunity, transiently increasing the flux of immune-competent molecules from the vascular space to the tissues and then allowing rapid restoration of the integrity of the endothelial barrier. In previous work we found that histamine alters the endothelial barrier by disrupting cell-cell adhesion and identified VE-cadherin as an essential participant in this process. The previous work did not determine whether histamine directly interrupted VE-cadherin adhesion, whether the effects of histamine were selective for cadherin adhesion, or whether capacitive calcium flux across the cell membrane was necessary for the effects of histamine on cell-cell adhesion. In the current work we found that histamine directly interrupts adhesion of L cells expressing the type 1 histamine (H1) receptor and VE-cadherin to a VE-cadherin-Fc fusion protein. In contrast, integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin of the same L cells expressing the H1 receptor was not affected by histamine, demonstrating that the effects of histamine are selective for cadherin adhesion. Some of the effects of many edemagenic agonists on endothelium are dependent on the capacitive flux of calcium across the endothelial cell membrane. Blocking capacitive calcium flux with LaCl3 did not prevent histamine from interrupting VE-cadherin adhesion of transfected L cells, nor did it prevent histamine from interrupting cell-cell adhesion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These data support the contentions that histamine directly and selectively interrupts cadherin adhesion and this effect on cadherin adhesion is independent of capacitive calcium flux. PMID:15220112

Winter, Michael C; Shasby, Sandra S; Ries, Dana R; Shasby, D Michael

2004-06-25

313

[The use of digitalis: a prospective study on the posology of digoxin with weekly interruption].  

PubMed

The dixogin dosage with an interruption of two consecutive days a week is frequently used in our country. We decided to compare this kind of digoxin dosage with an uninterrupted one by means of describing in each case the serum digoxin level, by determining whether it is in the so-called therapeutic range (0.8-2.0 ng/ml) or not, and by correlating the serum level to the clinical response (the control of heart rate in patients with atrial fibrillation). We designed a crossover clinical trial on 14 patients taking digoxin, having normal renal function and suffering from atrial fibrillation. The serum digoxin concentration found in the weekly interruption digoxin dosage (1.02 +/- 0.23 ng/ml before and 0.66 +/- 0.15 ng/ml after) was lower than one found in the continuous dosage (1.09 +/- 0.23 ng/ml). The 25% of the patients (before the interruption) and 75% (after the interruption) had plasma levels lower than 0.8 ng/ml, in opposition to the 8.3% found in the uninterrupted dosage. No patient on the continuous dosage showed clinical and/or electrocardiographic signs of digoxin toxicity. The mean heart rate was higher in the weekly interruption dosage (74.4 +/- 11.6 beats/min before and 83.9 +/- 6.4 beats/min after) than in the continuous dosage (72.9 +/- 10.5 beats/min). In terms of achieving serum digoxin levels within the so-called therapeutic range, the uninterrupted dosage proved to be better than the discontinuous one as well as to control the heart rate. PMID:2093956

Soto Pedre, E; Castro Beirás, A; Cuña Estévez, B

314

Long-term outcome of patients after a single interruption of antiretroviral therapy: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the long term outcome of patients who interrupted highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) once, identify the variables associated with earlier need to re-start HAART, and the response when therapy was resumed. A retrospective observational cohort of 66 adult patients with HIV-1 infection who interrupted HAART with a CD4+cell count ?350 cells/?L and undetectable viral load (VL) was performed. The pre-established CD4+ cell count for restarting therapy was 300cells/?L. Cox regression was used to analyse the variables associated with earlier HAART reinitiation. Results The median follow-up was 209 weeks (range, 64–395). Rates of HIV-related or possible HIV-related events were 0.37 (one case of acute retroviral syndrome) and 1.49 per 100 patient-years, respectively. Two patients died after re-starting therapy and having reached undetectable VL. Three patients suffered a sexually transmitted disease while off therapy. Fifty patients (76%) resumed therapy after a median of 97 weeks (range, 17–267). Age, a nadir of CD4+ <250 cells/?L, and a mean VL during interruption of >10,000 copies/ml were independent predictors for earlier re-start. The intention-to-treat success rate of the first HAART resumed regimen was 85.4%. There were no differences by regimen used, nor between regimens that were the same as or different from the one that had been interrupted. Conclusions Our data suggest highly active antiretroviral therapy may be interrupted in selected patients because in these patients, when the HAART is restarted, the viral and clinical response may be achieved.

2012-01-01

315

Transcatheter Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Interruption of Inferior Vena Cava with Azygous Continuation Using an Amplatzer Duct Occluder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases with interrupted inferior vena cava and azygous continuation requiring patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) occlusion\\u000a per cardiac catheterization are presented. A technique is described enabelmy occlusion of PDA using an Amplatzer ductal occluder\\u000a despite interruption of inferior vena cava and azygous continuation.

Sadiq Al-Hamash

2006-01-01

316

Comparison of normal and feebleminded children with college adults in their tendency-to-continue interrupted activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

29 feeble minded children, 29 normal children, and 41 college students were compared with each other in their tendencies to continue when interrupted in various tasks, such as modeling and cutting paper patterns in the case of the children and solving block puzzles in the case of the adults. The behavior of the subjects at the time of the interruption

D. Rethlingshafer

1941-01-01

317

43 CFR 3481.4-1 - Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...3481.4-1 Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as...

2012-10-01

318

Effects of Growth Interruption during Growth of InAs Wetting Layer on Formation of InAs Quantum Dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of growth interruption on the formation of InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The growth interruption was carried out during the growth of InAs with a nominal thickness of 1.2 monolayers (ML). The number of growth interruptions was varied between 1 and 6, and the interruption time (tINT) was varied between 5 and 15 s. After the growth interruption, a 2.8-ML-thick InAs was grown, and the total thickness was nominally 4 ML. The structural characterization was performed using an atomic force microscope. In the case of the growth with tINT=5 s, the average size of QDs decreased and their density increased with increasing number of growth interruptions. On the other hand, the size of QDs increased and their density decreased with increasing number of growth interruptions for the growth with tINT=10 or 15 s. These results suggested that the extremely uniform distribution of In adatoms in the wetting layer due to the migration of In atoms on the surface as well as the reduction of stress in the wetting layer due to the interchange of In and Ga atoms during the growth interruption affect the size and density of QDs.

Morishita, Yoshitaka; Osada, Koh; Hasegawa, Tomoaki

2005-05-01

319

HLA-A*2402-restricted HIV1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and escape mutation after ART with structured treatment interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a limited duration of immune activation of structured treatment interruptions (STIs) has been reported, the immune escape mechanism during STIs remains obscure. We therefore investigated the role of three immunodominant cytotoxic T lymphocyte (epitopes) in 12 HLA-A*2402-positive patients participating longitudinally during the clinical study of early antiretroviral treatment (ART) with five series of structured treatment interruptions (STIs). The frequency

Junko Tanuma; Mamoru Fujiwara; Katsuji Teruya; Saori Matsuoka; Hikaru Yamanaka; Hiroyuki Gatanaga; Natsuo Tachikawa; Yoshimi Kikuchi; Masafumi Takiguchi; Shinichi Oka

2008-01-01

320

Disruptive and Cooperative Interruptions in Prime-Time Television Fiction: The Role of Gender, Status, and Topic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech characteristics of male and female characters in fictional television have received only scant attention in media content research. A content analysis of prime-time television revealed that male characters were more likely to initiate disruptive interruptions than female characters whereas female characters were more likely to use cooperative interruptions than male characters. Such differences, however, were moderated by status differential

Xiaoquan Zhao; Walter Gantz

2003-01-01

321

Interrupt Service Threads - A New Approach to Handle Multiple Hard Real-Time Events on a Multithreaded Microcontroller  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new event handling mechanism based on a multithreaded microcontroller, that allows efficient han- dling of concurrent events with hard real-time require- ments. Real-time threads are used as interrupt service threads (ISTs) instead of interrupt service routines (ISRs) and are executed on a multithreaded microcontroller. Sev- eral thread priority schemes are managed in hardware, in particular, we propose

U. Brinkschulte; C. Krakowski; J. Kreuzinger

1999-01-01

322

The influence of a vacuum circuit breaker and circuit parameters on switching overvoltages generated during interruption of starting motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program has been developed for simulating the voltage escalation (VE) when a vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) interrupts the starting of a motor. The influences of the vacuum circuit breaker's high frequency (HF) interrupting capability, dielectric strength rise, cable length and also motor power, has been traced in order to produce a sort of general view of the overvoltage

Alexey M. Chaly; Alevtina T. Chalaya

1996-01-01

323

43 CFR 3481.4-2 - What are some examples of circumstances that qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? 3481.4-2 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? (a) Movement,...

2012-10-01

324

Technical considerations in knot construction. Part II. Interrupted dermal suture closure.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal knot construction for interrupted dermal sutures. A synthetic braided absorbable suture, sizes 3-0 and 5-0, was selected for this evaluation. With reproducible mechanical performance tests, we determined that the construction of secure knots without ears required one additional throw as compared with secure knots with 3-mm ears. The direction of applied tension did not alter knot security, with the exception of granny knots, which required an extra throw when tension was applied parallel to the suture loop. Because interrupted dermal knot construction is accomplished without knot ears and with an applied tension parallel to the wound, one additional throw must be added to the knot to ensure knot security. PMID:9279704

Mazzarese, P M; Faulkner, B C; Gear, A J; Watkins, F H; Rodeheaver, G T; Edlich, R F

325

The Generating Mechanism of Non-Sustained Disruptive Discharges in Vacuum Interrupters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To develop vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) for higher voltage application, it may be important to understand generating mechanism and its influence of non-sustained disruptive discharges (NSDD) to the systems. So, we carried out the tests using equivalent testing circuit and observed the contacts after testing, For the test, by using commercial vacuum circuit interrupters, AC voltages of 50Hz was applied between contacts for 4 seconds after current interruption, and measured generating frequencies of NSDD vs. the voltages and vs. currents. Typical contact material used in the commercial switching equipment, such as AgWC, CuW, CuCr were tested and compared. Then CuCr's of different composition and manufacturing process are investigated. And CuCr-50 (manufactured by melting process) showed the best performance in all tests. We point out that surface condition may affect the generation of NSDD and also conditioning effect is very important.

Hara, Daisuke; Taki, Masayuki; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Okawa, Mikio; Yanabu, Satoru

326

Phased array ghost elimination (PAGE) for segmented SSFP imaging with interrupted steady-state.  

PubMed

Steady-state free precession (SSFP) has recently proven to be valuable for cardiac imaging due to its high signal-to-noise ratio and blood-myocardium contrast. Data acquired using ECG-triggered, segmented sequences during the approach to steady-state, or return to steady-state after interruption, may have ghost artifacts due to periodic k-space distortion. Schemes involving several preparatory RF pulses have been proposed to restore steady-state, but these consume imaging time during early systole. Alternatively, the phased-array ghost elimination (PAGE) method may be used to remove ghost artifacts from the first several frames. PAGE was demonstrated for cardiac cine SSFP imaging with interrupted steady-state using a simple alpha/2 magnetization preparation and storage scheme and a spatial tagging preparation. PMID:12465121

Kellman, Peter; Guttman, Michael A; Herzka, Daniel A; McVeigh, Elliot R

2002-12-01

327

Phased Array Ghost Elimination (PAGE) for Segmented SSFP Imaging With Interrupted Steady-State  

PubMed Central

Steady-state free precession (SSFP) has recently proven to be valuable for cardiac imaging due to its high signal-to-noise ratio and blood-myocardium contrast. Data acquired using ECG-triggered, segmented sequences during the approach to steady-state, or return to steady-state after interruption, may have ghost artifacts due to periodic k-space distortion. Schemes involving several preparatory RF pulses have been proposed to restore steady-state, but these consume imaging time during early systole. Alternatively, the phased-array ghost elimination (PAGE) method may be used to remove ghost artifacts from the first several frames. PAGE was demonstrated for cardiac cine SSFP imaging with interrupted steady-state using a simple alpha/2 magnetization preparation and storage scheme and a spatial tagging preparation.

Kellman, Peter; Guttman, Michael A.; Herzka, Daniel A.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

2007-01-01

328

Thermal fatigue due to beam interruptions in a Lead-Bismuth cooled ATW blanket  

SciTech Connect

Thermal fatigue consequences of frequent accelerator beam interruptions are quantified for both sodium and lead-bismuth cooled blankets in current designs for accelerator transmutation of waste devices. Temperature response was calculated using the SASSYS-1 systems analysis code for an immediate drop in beam current from full power to zero. Coolant temperatures from SASSYS-1 were fed into a multi-node structure temperature calculation to obtain thermal strains for various structural components. Fatigue curves from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code were used to determine the number of cycles that these components could endure, based on these thermal strains. Beam interruption frequency data from a current accelerator were used to estimate design lifetimes for components. Mitigation options for reducing thermal fatigue are discussed.

Dunn, F.

2000-11-15

329

Treatment Interruptions  

MedlinePLUS

Home Fact Sheet Categories Internet Bookmarks on AIDS Have Questions? Printing & Downloading Fact Sheets Permission to Use Fact Sheets Sponsors and Advertising Privacy Policy Project Staff Contact Us This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here . Site ...

330

An improved portmanteau test for autocorrelated errors in interrupted time-series regression models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new portmanteau test for autocorrelation among the errors of interrupted time-series regression models is proposed. Simulation\\u000a results demonstrate that the inferential properties of the proposedQ\\u000a H-M test statistic are considerably more satisfactory than those of the well known Ljung-Box test and moderately better than\\u000a those of the Box-Pierce test. These conclusions generally hold for a wide variety of autoregressive

Bradley E. Huitema; Joseph W. McKean

2007-01-01

331

An Interrupted Time Series Evaluation of a Hepatitis C Intervention for Persons with HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate HCV knowledge is lacking among high-risk groups, including people with HIV\\/AIDS (PLWHA). Liver disease primarily\\u000a due to HCV has emerged as a serious cause of mortality among PLWHA. We used an Interrupted Time Series design to evaluate\\u000a a social-ecologically based intervention for PLWHA, where an infectious disease clinic serving a six-county intervention area\\u000a was monitored before (7 months) and after

Rae Jean Proeschold-Bell; Bettina Hoeppner; Baishakhi Taylor; Sarah Cohen; Rachel Blouin; Beth Stringfield; Andrew J. Muir

332

An interrupted time series analysis of parenteral antibiotic use in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A University-based hospital in Bogotá, Colombia, developed and implemented an educational intervention to complement a new structured antibiotic order form. This intervention was performed after assessing the appropriateness of the observed antibiotic prescribing practices using a quasi-experimental study. An application of interrupted time series intervention analysis was conducted in three antibiotic groups (aminoglycosides, cephradine\\/cephalothin, and ceftazidime\\/cefotaxime) and their hospital weekly

Adriana Pérez; Rodolfo J. Dennis; Benigno Rodr??guez; Amparo Y. Castro; Victor Delgado; Juan Manuel Lozano; Maria Clara Castro

2003-01-01

333

The Value of Interrupted Time-Series Experiments for Community Intervention Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater use of interrupted time-series experiments is advocated for community intervention research. Time-series designs enable the development of knowledge about the effects of community interventions and policies in circumstances in which randomized controlled trials are too expensive, premature, or simply impractical. The multiple baseline time-series design typically involves two or more communities that are repeatedly assessed, with the intervention introduced

Anthony Biglan; Dennis Ary; Alexander C. Wagenaar

2000-01-01

334

Improving the Empirical Credibility of Cinematherapy: A Single-Subject Interrupted Time-Series Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study intends to improve the empirical credibility of cinematherapy by measuring its effect on the level of hopelessness experienced by an adult diagnosed with Major Depression. Using a single-subject interrupted time-series design, themes of positivism were highlighted during a 5-week group showing of the movie The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring. Data obtained during the

Michael Lee Powell; Rebecca A. Newgent

2010-01-01

335

The Role of AGG Interruptions in the Transcription of FMR1 Premutation Alleles  

PubMed Central

Fragile X associated disorders are caused by a premutation allele in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) and are hypothesized to result from the toxic effect of elevated levels of expanded FMR1 transcripts. Increased levels of FMR1 mRNA have indeed been reported in premutation carriers; however the mechanism by which expanded alleles lead to elevated levels of FMR1 mRNA in premutation carriers is unknown. Within the CGG repeat tract AGG interruptions are found, generally 1–3 present in normal/intermediate alleles (6–54 CGG repeats) and usually 0–1 in premutation alleles (55–200 CGG repeats). They are present at specific locations, generally occurring after 9 or 10 uninterrupted CGG repeats [(CGG)9AGG(CGG)9AGG(CGG)n]. We evaluated both the number of AGG interruptions and the resulting length of the uninterrupted 3? CGG repeat pure tract in premutation alleles derived from two large cohorts of male and female carriers to determine whether the presence of AGG interruptions or the length of a pure stretch of CGG repeats influence the levels of FMR1 mRNA in blood. Our findings indicate that neither the number of AGG interruptions, nor their position along the CGG tract have a significant affect on mRNA levels in premutation carriers. We also, as expected based on previous findings, observed a highly significant correlation between CGG repeat number (as both total length and length of pure CGG stretch) and FMR1 mRNA expression levels, in both males and females. Importantly, we did not observe any significant difference in FMR1 mRNA levels in premutation carriers based on age.

Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Tassone, Federica; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Tassone, Flora

2011-01-01

336

EVALUATION OF THE IMMEDIATE AND SUBSEQUENT EFFECTS OF RESPONSE INTERRUPTION AND REDIRECTION ON VOCAL STEREOTYPY  

PubMed Central

We evaluated 2 3-component multiple-schedule sequences—a response interruption and redirection (RIRD) treatment sequence and a no-interaction control sequence—using a multielement design. With this design, we were able to evaluate the immediate and subsequent effects of RIRD on 2 participants' vocal stereotypy. For both participants, RIRD produced an immediate decrease in vocal stereotypy and did not result in a subsequent increase.

Schumacher, Brittany I; Rapp, John T

2011-01-01

337

Interrupted Aortic Arch Associated with Absence of Left Common Carotid Artery: Imaging with MDCT  

SciTech Connect

Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare severe congenital heart defect defined as complete luminal and anatomic discontinuity between ascending and descending aorta. Although its association with various congenital heart defects has been reported, absence of left common carotid artery (CCA) in patients with IAA has not been reported previously. We report a case of IAA associated with the absence of left CCA which was clearly shown on multidetector-row spiral CT.

Onbas, Omer [Atatuerk University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)], E-mail: oonbas@hotmail.com; Olgun, Hasim; Ceviz, Naci [Atatuerk University, School of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Cardiology (Turkey); Ors, Rahmi [Atatuerk University, School of Medicine, Division of Neonatology (Turkey); Okur, Adnan [Atatuerk University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2006-06-15

338

Outcomes in patients with interrupted aortic arch and associated anomalies: a 20-year experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The surgical results for the repair of interrupted aortic arch (IAA) have evolved in recent years. We report our results for staged repair of this complex congenital malformation. Methods: Sixty-five patients (mean age, 16.9±41.7 days) were diagnosed with IAA and referred for surgical therapy. The surgical management strategy at our institution between 1982 and 2005 has been one-stage complete

John W. Brown; Mark Ruzmetov; Yuji Okada; Palaniswamy Vijay; Mark D. Rodefeld; Mark W. Turrentine

2006-01-01

339

Behavior of induction motor due to voltage sags and short interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study and some calculations on induction motor behavior were carried out. The effects due to short interruptions and voltage sags were investigated. A standard three-phase squirrel-cage motor of 5.5 kW, 1500 r\\/min, and 380 V was used. The presence of induction motor changes the voltage sag waveform and duration. Protection characteristic curves and contactor ride-through capability together with

Juan C. Gomez; Medhat M. Morcos; Claudio A. Reineri; Gabriel N. Campetelli

2002-01-01

340

Vacuum interrupters with axial magnetic field contacts based on bipolar and quadrupolar design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axial magnetic field (AMF) contacts are applied within vacuum interrupters especially for high short-circuit currents. In this paper, two AMF contact designs based on a bipolar and a quadrupolar magnetic field arrangement and their characteristics are presented. In the first section, both principles are discussed. This is followed by three-dimensional field simulations performed by means of a finite-element-analysis program. The

Harald Fink; Markus Heimbach; Wenkai Shang

2001-01-01

341

Resettable economic fault current interrupter for taps of a padmounted switchgear package  

SciTech Connect

A resettable overcurrent protective device has been developed for padmounted switchgear packages. A low curie temperature alloy and permanent magnet latch provide a simple, direct sensing and tripping means. Electromagnetic trip action at high fault currents causes 2 cycle interruption to be attainable with the vacuum bottle and spring actuated mechanism. Linkage can be incorporated to provide 3 phase tripping with single phase fault detection.

Mikulecky, H.W. (RTE Cooper Power Systems (US))

1990-04-01

342

Arcing Behavior on Different TMF Contacts at High-Current Interrupting Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum circuit breakers are widely used in the medium-voltage area. The majority of the installed vacuum tubes are equipped with electrodes using the transverse-magnetic-field design forcing the electric arc on a circular motion to avoid severe local overheating. A vacuum test switch was used to investigate the arc movement behavior between spiral- and cup-shaped electrodes at high-current interrupting operations. The

Christian Wolf; Michael Kurrat; Manfred Lindmayer; Dietmar Gentsch

2011-01-01

343

Experimental research and computer simulation process of pulse heating high current contacts of vacuum interrupters  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major factors limiting magnitude of currents passing through the contacts of vacuum inter-rupters is the possibility of electrode melting and following welding of electrodes with pulse currents of high amplitude. Research of processes of melting is complicated because of their significant non-linearity and non-stationarity. In full formulation it is necessary to solve a joint thermoelectromechanical problem. Today

A. Chaly; V. Dmitriev; M. Pavleino; O. Pavleino

2010-01-01

344

Immunological predictors of CD4+ T cell decline in antiretroviral treatment interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The common response to stopping anti-HIV treatment is an increase of HIV-RNA load and decrease in CD4+, but not all the patients have similar responses to this therapeutic strategy. The aim was to identify predictive markers of CD4+ cell count declines to < 350\\/?L in CD4-guided antiretroviral treatment interruptions. METHODS: 27 HIV-infected patients participated in a prospective multicenter study

Elena Seoane; Salvador Resino; Santiago Moreno; Juan Carlos Lopez Bernaldo de Quiros; Ana Moreno; Rafael Rubio; Juan Gonzalez-García; José Ramón Arribas; Federico Pulido; Ma Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández

2008-01-01

345

Practical Modeling of the Circuit Breaker ARC as a Short Line Fault Interrupter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short-line fault interrupting ability of gas-blast circuit breakers is limited by arc energy balance processes very close to current zero. Practical calculation of the energy balance limit in a given circuit requires mathematical modeling of the arc as a circuit element. Using the combined Cassie-Mayr model, useful relations are derived for treating the limiting cases of the short-line fault

T. E. Browne

1978-01-01

346

Current-zero measurements of vacuum circuit breakers interrupting short-line faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current zero measurements are performed during short-line fault interruption tests of vacuum circuit breakers. This switching cycle is characterized by a very steep transient recovery voltage. High-resolution measurements of near current-zero arc current and voltage were carried out. Various reignition modes (occurring between 0 and 75 ms after current zero) were observed due to insufficient arcing time or current in

R. P. P. Smeets; W. A. van der Linden

2003-01-01

347

Cognitive Interruption as an Object of Metacognitive Monitoring: Feeling of Difficulty and Surprise  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An important question regarding metacognition in problem solving is what triggers the metacognitive experience of feeling\\u000a of difficulty? In this chapter, we present three experiments suggesting that feeling of difficulty arises from lack of fluency\\u000a in processing due to either working memory load or cognitive interruption. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that working memory\\u000a load reduces performance (as measured by

Alexandra Touroutoglou; Anastasia Efklides

348

Unusual Vascular Anatomy in Interrupted Aortic Arch With Ventricular Septal Defect  

Microsoft Academic Search

5-day-old boy weighing 3.3 kg presented with type B interrupted aortic arch, ventricular septal defect, and absent femoral, as well as radial pulses. An umbilical arterial line revealed no waveform with an adequate mean pressure of 40 to 45 mm Hg. The boy had no metabolic acidosis and satisfactory renal function. A 2-dimensional echocardiogram revealed severe biven- tricular hypertrophy (Fig

Marco Ricci; Steven Schultz; Eliot Rosenkranz

2010-01-01

349

A re-entry tachycardia triggered by the spontaneous interruption of an atrial tachycardia.  

PubMed

The common atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia is the most common form of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. It starts frequently with a supraventricular ectopic beat that, on finding the fast pathway in refractory period, travels in the slow pathway as to appear as a prolongation of the PR interval on the ECG. In this study, we show a singular case of a common atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia triggered by the spontaneous interruption of an atrial tachycardia. PMID:23656917

Buttà, Carmelo; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Giarrusso, Lucia; Miceli, Giuseppe; Cuttitta, Francesco; La Rosa, Donata; Licata, Giuseppe; Pinto, Antonio

2013-05-01

350

Continuous versus interrupted schedules of thermal biofeedback: an exploratory analysis with clinical subjects.  

PubMed

Researchers administer thermal biofeedback in several different formats, although the most common are continuous administration and a series of brief trials separated by frequent rest breaks. The present study directly compared these two administration schedules with individuals suffering from migraine headache. Optimal training effects occurred for the continuous schedule of administration. Surprisingly, the interrupted schedule actually led to decreases in hand temperature over eight sessions. Possible reasons for this finding and its implications are discussed. PMID:6395904

Andrasik, F; Pallmeyer, T P; Blanchard, E B; Attanasio, V

1984-09-01

351

Avoiding Interruptions - A QoE Reliability Function for Streaming Media Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We take an analytical approach to study funda- mental rate-delay-reliability trade-offs in the context of media streaming. We consider the probability of interruption in media playback (buffer underflow) as well as the number of initially buffered packets (initial waiting time) as the Quality of user Experience (QoE) metrics. We characterize the optimal trade- off between these metrics as a function

Ali ParandehGheibi; Muriel Médard; Asuman E. Ozdaglar; Srinivas Shakkottai

2011-01-01

352

Phased array ghost elimination (PAGE) for segmented SSFP imaging with interrupted steady-state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady-state free precession (SSFP) has recently proven to be valuable for cardiac imaging due to its high signal-to-noise ratio and blood-myocardium contrast. Data acquired using ECG- triggered, segmented sequences during the approach to steady-state, or return to steady-state after interruption, may have ghost artifacts due to periodic k-space distortion. Schemes involving several preparatory RF pulses have been proposed to restore

Peter Kellman; Michael A. Guttman; Daniel A. Herzka; Elliot R. McVeigh

2002-01-01

353

Could the new high interrupting capacity circuit breaker change your distribution system?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe characteristics and applications for high-interrupting-capacity molded-case circuit breakers and motor circuit protectors that allow the use of large secondary unit substation transformers. Generalized system data are presented, allowing most system selections without detailed calculation. Test data results are noted that provide series ratings of these circuit breakers when applied as upstream devices, or for various lesser-rated downstream

J. A. Rooks; N. E. Rowe

1988-01-01

354

Influence of AC interruption points on AC arc erosion of silver based contact materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental results obtained from a study into the reduction of contact erosion on break, using controlled AC point interruption principles. Five thousand break tests are carried out for a utilisation category of AC-1, at a current of 6 A rms, a gap-length of 2 mm on AgCdO (90%, 10%), AgCu3 (97%,3%) and Ag (fine, 99.9%) contacts, each

H. Nouri; T. S. Davies; J. Head

1998-01-01

355

The role of AGG interruptions in the transcription of FMR1 premutation alleles.  

PubMed

Fragile X associated disorders are caused by a premutation allele in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) and are hypothesized to result from the toxic effect of elevated levels of expanded FMR1 transcripts. Increased levels of FMR1 mRNA have indeed been reported in premutation carriers; however the mechanism by which expanded alleles lead to elevated levels of FMR1 mRNA in premutation carriers is unknown. Within the CGG repeat tract AGG interruptions are found, generally 1-3 present in normal/intermediate alleles (6-54 CGG repeats) and usually 0-1 in premutation alleles (55-200 CGG repeats). They are present at specific locations, generally occurring after 9 or 10 uninterrupted CGG repeats [(CGG)(9)AGG(CGG)(9)AGG(CGG)(n)]. We evaluated both the number of AGG interruptions and the resulting length of the uninterrupted 3' CGG repeat pure tract in premutation alleles derived from two large cohorts of male and female carriers to determine whether the presence of AGG interruptions or the length of a pure stretch of CGG repeats influence the levels of FMR1 mRNA in blood. Our findings indicate that neither the number of AGG interruptions, nor their position along the CGG tract have a significant affect on mRNA levels in premutation carriers. We also, as expected based on previous findings, observed a highly significant correlation between CGG repeat number (as both total length and length of pure CGG stretch) and FMR1 mRNA expression levels, in both males and females. Importantly, we did not observe any significant difference in FMR1 mRNA levels in premutation carriers based on age. PMID:21818263

Yrigollen, Carolyn M; Tassone, Federica; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Tassone, Flora

2011-07-19

356

Bottom-up Synthesis of Nanoscale Conjugation-Interrupted Frameworks and Their Electrical Properties.  

PubMed

Soluble covalent organic nanoframeworks up to generation 2.5 (G2.5) are synthesized with self-similar H-shaped conformations by using a bottom-up approach including iterative C-H bond functionalization. The electrical characteristics of nanoscale thin-film semiconductors of the conjugation-interrupted frameworks can be tuned by post-modification with diazonium salt. PMID:23585358

Chang, Yong-Zheng; Shao, Qi; Bai, Lin-Yi; Ou, Chang-Jin; Lin, Jin-Yi; Xie, Ling-Hai; Liu, Zheng-Dong; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Guang-Wei; Huang, Wei

2013-04-15

357

Allelopathic effects of interrupted fern on northern red oak seedlings: Amelioration by Suillus luteus L.: Fr  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The allelopathic effects of interrupted fern frond leachates on ectomycorrhizal (inoculated) and nonmycorrhizal (noninoculated)\\u000a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings were investigated. Container-grown northern red oak was inoculated with vegetative mycelium ofSuillus luteus L. Fr. following acorn germination. Noninoculated control seedlings were also maintained. Seedlings were grown in a glasshouse\\u000a under full sunlight or shaded (25% of full sunlight)

P. J. Hanson; R. K. Dixon

1987-01-01

358

Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To review systematically the evidence of effectiveness of physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses.Data sources Cochrane Library, Medline, OldMedline, Embase, and CINAHL, without restrictions on language or publication.Data selection Studies of any intervention to prevent the transmission of respiratory viruses (isolation, quarantine, social distancing, barriers, personal protection, and hygiene). A search of study designs

Tom Jefferson; Chris Del Mar; Liz Dooley; Eliana Ferroni; Lubna A Al-Ansary; Ghada A Bawazeer; Mieke L van Driel; Ruth Foxlee; Alessandro Rivetti

2009-01-01

359

Impact Of East Asia’s Growth Interruption and Policy Responses: The Case Of Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessments to date of the consequences of implementing the Uruguay Round (UR) of multilateral trade negotiations have assumed medium-term rates of economic growth in East Asia that now seem unsustainable. This paper compares one set of those estimates to 2005 with an alternative set involving an interruption to East Asian economic growth in the late 1990s, using the global, economy-wide

Kym Anderson; Anna Strutt

1999-01-01

360

[Coronary artery bypass-grafting using interrupted anastomosis with the U-clip].  

PubMed

For coronary artery anastomosis, the continuous suture technique is generally used because it is easy to perform, there is less anastomotic leakage, and a shorter anastomotic time compared with the interrupted suture technique. However, with this technique there is a potential risk of anastomotic stenosis caused by the purse-string effect, which does not occur with the interrupted suture technique. The U-Clip device was designed to facilitate the interrupted suture technique in coronary anastomosis by eliminating the need for suture management, knot tying, and surgical assistance. The device employs the superelastic properties of nitinol and two components: 1. a needle/suture delivery system, and 2. a detachable nitinol self-closing wire. We used this device successfully for LITA-LAD anastomosis in MIDCAB. When this device is applied to small caliber conduits, such as the internal thoracic arteries and the gastroepiploic artery, the side-to-side anastomosis can reduce the anastomotic leakage more efficiently, since the coronary incision and graft incision can be perfectly matched. The U-Clip facilitates coronary anastomosis by simplifying and decreasing the amount of manipulation and complexity required in minimally invasive CABG procedures. Nitinol technology also has potential in robotic and endoscopic surgical applications. PMID:11712367

Niinami, H; Takeuchi, Y; Ichikawa, S; Ban, T; Higashita, R; Suda, Y; Suzuki, S

2001-11-01

361

Interrupted versus uninterrupted flow: a safety propensity index for driver behavior.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to develop a quantitative safety propensity index (SPI) that captures the overall propensity of a given surrounding environment to cause unsafe driving. The study is conducted in two different flow conditions: interrupted and uninterrupted. Using structural modeling techniques, the index can be estimated from observed geometric, weather-related, vehicular, driver-related, and traffic-related characteristics. To illustrate the adopted approach, extensive effort was conducted to "sync" data from different sources including the Virginia Department of Transportation and the FARS/GES crash data libraries. The Virginia Department of Transportation provided traffic data for 10 freeway sections with interrupted flow and 9 highway sections with interrupted flow in the Northern Virginia area, USA. Two different structural equations models were found allowing insights to the safety impact of different surrounding elements/dimensions. The SPI provides (a) a basis for quantifying the effects of the aforementioned characteristics on safety, (b) a basis for comparing the differences between the factors affecting safety in different flow scenarios and (c) ranking the corresponding roadway sections/locations for improved safety performance. The framework and methodology used to develop this index have the potential to support safety policy analysis and decision making. PMID:23507432

Hamdar, Samer H; Schorr, Justin

2013-02-27

362

Interruption of a dry-type transformer in no-load by a vacuum circuit-breaker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overvoltages generated during interruption of a dry type delta-star connected transformer in no load by a vacuum breaker were studied. During interruption of inrush current 37% of the phase-to-ground overvoltages were 5 pu, and 6% 7 pu. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results using Boyle's model shows no discrepancy for inrush currents and clean overvoltages from the steady-state interruption. Overvoltages due to repetitive reignitions (not covered by Boyle's model) are higher than the calculated values during steady-state switching.

Vandenheuvel, W. M. C.; Daalder, J. E.; Boone, M. J. M.; Wilmes, L. A. H.

1983-08-01

363

Interruptions of tenofovir/emtricitabine-based antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV/hepatitis B virus co-infection.  

PubMed

Thai patients enrolled in STACCATO with HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection and tenofovir/emtricitabine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) were randomly assigned to continuous treatment or CD4 cell count-guided interruptions. HBV replication was suppressed below detection in 15/16 patients. Structured treatment interruption increased transaminases and HBV viraemia in five of six patients; one flare was severe. Conversion to anti-hepatitis Be occurred with continuous treatment only. Tenofovir/emtricitabine-containing ART is highly effective in controlling chronic HIV/HBV co-infection but treatment should not be interrupted. PMID:18090405

Nüesch, Reto; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Srasuebkul, Preeyaporn; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Prasithsirikul, Wisit; Klinbuayam, Wirat; Mahanontharit, Apicha; Jupimai, Thidarat; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Hirschel, Bernard

2008-01-01

364

A Human Operator Gunner Model for a Tracking Task with Interrupted Observations in an Antiaircraft Artillery System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development of a mathematical model (blanking model) for a human operator's tracking performance under visual interruptions via blanking the target in a simulated manned antiaircraft artillery system. The basic ideas of the Luenb...

C. F. Yu

1981-01-01

365

41 CFR 301-30.3 - What should I do if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel? 301-30.3 Section 301-30.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES...

2011-07-01

366

41 CFR 301-30.3 - What should I do if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel? 301-30.3 Section 301-30.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES...

2012-07-01

367

A study on DC hybrid three-phase fault current limiting interrupter for a power distribution system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of protecting electric power system, many researches and developments of fault current limiters are being performed. The authors studied a dc hybrid three-phase fault current limiting interrupter (FCLI) composed of a superconducting reactor and an S/N transition element, connected in series each other. The dc hybrid type fault current limiting interrupter can limit a fault current by means of the inductance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil together with the normal transition of HTS bulk material (HTSB). In the case of an accident, the normal transition of the bulk material can be accelerated by the magnetic field of the HTS coil. In this paper, the dc hybrid type fault current limiting interrupter for 5.5 km long 6.6 kV 600 A power distribution system is analyzed, and performances of fault current limitation and interruption are confirmed. Moreover, a reclosing operation is discussed for this power distribution system.

Shao, Hongtian; Satoh, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Mitsugi; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Satoh, Takao; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki

2005-10-01

368

High-current vacuum arc: The relationship between anode phenomena and the average opening velocity of vacuum interrupter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the influence of the average opening velocity on the high-current vacuum arc anode phenomena, a high-speed photography was used to observe anode phenomena of vacuum arc discharge in vacuum interrupters. The contact diameters used in the vacuum interrupters were 12 mm and 25 mm, respectively. The contact materials included Cu, CuCr25, and CuCr50. The arc current

Guowei Kong; Zhiyuan Liu; Dong Wang; Mingzhe Rong

2010-01-01

369

The peculiarities of interruption of the medium voltage motors by VCB with CuCr contacts [vacuum circuit breakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monte-Carlo simulation technique and appropriate software has been developed to analyze the switching overvoltages occurring at the interruption of 6 and 10 kV motors by vacuum circuit breakers (VCB) with CuCr contacts. VCB parameters have been determined experimentally. A comparison has been provided between VCB switching behaviour at the interruption of 6 and 10 kV motors. Voltage escalation has

Alexy M. Chaly; Alevtina T. Chalaya; Victor N. Poluyanov; Irina N. Poluyanova

1998-01-01

370

High-Current Vacuum Arc: The Relationship Between Anode Phenomena and the Average Opening Velocity of Vacuum Interrupters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the influence of the average opening velocity on the high-current vacuum arc anode phenom- ena, high-speed photography was used to observe the anode phe- nomena of the vacuum arc discharge in vacuum interrupters. The contact diameters used in the vacuum interrupters were 12 and 25 mm, respectively. The contact materials included Cu, CuCr25, and CuCr50. The

Guowei Kong; Zhiyuan Liu; Dong Wang; Mingzhe Rong

2011-01-01

371

The characteristics of the vacuum arc and the interruption ability on the high-speed vacuum circuit breaker  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-speed vacuum circuit breaker, which forced a fault current to zero, has been investigated. The characteristics of the arc behavior and the interruption ability were investigated experimentally. Two types of electrode, an axial magnetic field electrode and a disk-shaped electrode, were tested. The results demonstrate the characteristics of the arc behavior and the interruption ability of the high-speed vacuum

Y. Niwa; T. Funahashi; K. Yokokura; M. Homma; E. Kaneko

2002-01-01

372

Waiting time approximation in multi-class queueing systems with multiple types of class-dependent interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a single-server queue subject to class-dependent interruptions motivated by vessel queueing at entrances of waterways.\\u000a Two classes of customers and k types of possibly simultaneous and class-dependent service interruptions are considered. We have employed service completion\\u000a time analysis and proposed approximations to obtain the expected waiting time of a customer (vessel) in the queue.

Özgecan S. Ulusçu; Tayfur Altiok

373

Tests show ability of vacuum circuit breaker to interrupt fast transient recovery voltage rates of rise of transformer secondary faults  

SciTech Connect

A vacuum circuit breaker demonstrated its ability to interrupt short circuits with faster than normal rates of rise of transient recovery voltage (TRV) at levels greater than those produced by most transformer secondary faults. Two recent exploratory test programs evaluated the interrupting ability of a 15kV vacuum circuit breaker containing interrupters of the rotating arc type with contacts made from a chromium-copper powder metal mixture. The interrupting conditions covered a wide range of currents from 10% to 130% of the 28kA rated short circuit current of the tested circuit breaker and a wide range of TRV rates of rise, including the relatively slow rate of rise, normally used in testing and found in most indoor circuit breaker applications, two faster rates of rise equaling and exceeding those found in a known power plant transformer secondary protection application, and the fastest rates of rise possible in the laboratory which exceed the requirements of most transformer secondary faults. These tests showed that the interrupting performance of the tested vacuum circuit breaker was unaffected by the TRV rate of rise to the fastest rates available in the test lab. Such a vacuum circuit breaker can therefore be used without TRV modifying capacitors to slow down the rate of rise provided by the power system. This ability is particularly important if analysis shows that the expected TRV from a transformer secondary fault has a fast rate of rise beyond the recognized ability of an older circuit breaker to acceptably interrupt.

Smith, R.K. [Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-01-01

374

From simple interrupted to complex spiral: a systematic review of various suture techniques for microvascular anastomoses.  

PubMed

Accomplishing successful microvascular anastomoses is undoubtedly one of the most critical steps in performing free tissue transfer. However, the ideal technique has often been a subject of debate. Therefore, our objective was to review the current literature in an attempt to find objective evidence supporting the superiority of one particular technique. A PubMed and OVID on-line search was performed in November 2007 using the following keywords: microvascular anastomoses, microsurgical anastomosis, continuous suture, interrupted suture, mattress suture, and sleeve anastomosis. Our literature review found no difference in short- and/or long-term patency rates between the six main published techniques, which includes continuous suture, interrupted suture, locking continuous, continuous horizontal, horizontal interrupted with eversion, and sleeve anastomoses. These findings were consistent for each technique as long as the microsurgeon maintained standard microsurgical principles and practice, including suture line eversion, minimized tension, and direct intima-to-intima contact. Current literature supports no overall statistical difference in short- and/or long-term patency rates between any of the various techniques. The choice to perform one suture technique over another ultimately depends on the plastic surgeon's preference and microsurgical experience. To date, there are no human randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing the efficacy and clinical outcomes of each of the various suture techniques, and therefore one's comfort and familiarity should dictate his or her microsurgical technique. However, "exposure to many and mastery of one" simply provides the plastic surgery resident, fellow, or staff the technical flexibility needed for less-complicated surgical planning when performing free tissue transfer. PMID:21207502

Alghoul, Mohammed S; Gordon, Chad R; Yetman, Randal; Buncke, Gregory M; Siemionow, Maria; Afifi, Ahmed M; Moon, Wong K

2010-11-28

375

Successful Interruption of Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Escuintla-Guatemala Focus, Guatemala  

PubMed Central

Background Elimination of onchocerciasis (river blindness) through mass administration of ivermectin in the six countries in Latin America where it is endemic is considered feasible due to the relatively small size and geographic isolation of endemic foci. We evaluated whether transmission of onchocerciasis has been interrupted in the endemic focus of Escuintla-Guatemala in Guatemala, based on World Health Organization criteria for the certification of elimination of onchocerciasis. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted evaluations of ocular morbidity and past exposure to Onchocerca volvulus in the human population, while potential vectors (Simulium ochraceum) were captured and tested for O. volvulus DNA; all of the evaluations were carried out in potentially endemic communities (PEC; those with a history of actual or suspected transmission or those currently under semiannual mass treatment with ivermectin) within the focus. The prevalence of microfilariae in the anterior segment of the eye in 329 individuals (?7 years old, resident in the PEC for at least 5 years) was 0% (one-sided 95% confidence interval [CI] 0–0.9%). The prevalence of antibodies to a recombinant O. volvulus antigen (Ov-16) in 6,432 school children (aged 6 to 12 years old) was 0% (one-sided 95% IC 0–0.05%). Out of a total of 14,099 S. ochraceum tested for O. volvulus DNA, none was positive (95% CI 0–0.01%). The seasonal transmission potential was, therefore, 0 infective stage larvae per person per season. Conclusions/Significance Based on these evaluations, transmission of onchocerciasis in the Escuintla-Guatemala focus has been successfully interrupted. Although this is the second onchocerciasis focus in Latin America to have demonstrated interruption of transmission, it is the first focus with a well-documented history of intense transmission to have eliminated O. volvulus.

Gonzalez, Rodrigo J.; Cruz-Ortiz, Nancy; Rizzo, Nidia; Richards, Jane; Zea-Flores, Guillermo; Dominguez, Alfredo; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Catu, Eduardo; Oliva, Orlando; Richards, Frank O.; Lindblade, Kim A.

2009-01-01

376

Curcumin eliminates leptin's effects on hepatic stellate cell activation via interrupting leptin signaling.  

PubMed

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is commonly found in patients with obesity and is often accompanied with abnormally elevated levels of plasma leptin, i.e. hyperleptinemia. A relatively high population of NASH patients develops hepatic fibrosis, even cirrhosis. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major effector cells during liver fibrogenesis and could be activated by leptin. The antioxidant curcumin, a phytochemical from turmeric, has been shown to suppress HSC activation in vitro and in vivo. This project is to evaluate the effect of curcumin on leptin-induced HSC activation and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. We hypothesize that curcumin abrogates the stimulatory effect of leptin on HSC activation by interrupting leptin signaling and attenuating leptin-induced oxidative stress. Curcumin eliminates the stimulatory effects of leptin on regulating expression of genes closely relevant to HSC activation. Curcumin interrupts leptin signaling by reducing phosphorylation levels of leptin receptor (Ob-R) and its downstream intermediators. In addition, curcumin suppresses gene expression of Ob-R in HSCs, which requires the activation of endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and de novo synthesis of glutathione. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that curcumin abrogates the stimulatory effect of leptin on HSC activation in vitro by reducing the phosphorylation level of Ob-R, stimulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activity, and attenuating oxidative stress, leading to the suppression of Ob-R gene expression and interruption of leptin signaling. These results provide novel insights into therapeutic mechanisms of curcumin in inhibiting HSC activation and intervening liver fibrogenesis associated with hyperleptinemia in NASH patients. PMID:19299451

Tang, Youcai; Zheng, Shizhong; Chen, Anping

2009-03-19

377

[Chagas disease in Switzerland: managing an emerging infection and interrupting its transmission].  

PubMed

Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, is a parasitic infection endemic in Latin America. The late onset chronic complications can be fatal. Several cases have been recently diagnosed in Switzerland, where systematic screening of groups at risk should be implemented. Considering the variable transmission patterns, screening strategies should be adapted to the different groups at risk. As the vast majority of persons at risk belong to marginalized communities with limited access to care, systematic screening and treatment of infected individuals represent a major challenge in order to interrupt the congenital transmission and improve the long-term prognosis. PMID:18561827

Jackson, Yves; Chappuis, François; Loutan, Louis

2008-05-14

378

Decreasing Beam Auto Tuning Interruption Events with In-Situ Chemical Cleaning on Axcelis GSD  

SciTech Connect

Ion beam auto tuning time and success rate are often major factors in the utilization and productivity of ion implanters. Tuning software frequently fails to meet specified setup times or recipe parameters, causing production stoppages and requiring manual intervention. Build-up of conductive deposits in the arc chamber and extraction gap can be one of the main causes of auto tuning problems. The deposits cause glitching and ion beam instabilities, which lead to errors in the software optimization routines. Infineon Regensburg has been testing use of XeF{sub 2}, an in-situ chemical cleaning reagent, with positive results in reducing auto tuning interruption events.

Fuchs, Dieter; Spreitzer, Stefan; Vogl, Josef [Infineon Technologies AG., Wernerwerkstr.2, 93049 Regensburg (Germany); Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Kaim, Robert [ATMI Inc., 7 Commerce Drive, Danbury, CT 06810 (United States)

2008-11-03

379

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in a premature baby with interrupted aortic arch and aortopulmonary window.  

PubMed

Aortopulmonary window is a communication between the main pulmonary artery and the ascending aorta in the presence of two separate semilunar valves. The combination of an aortopulmonary window with interrupted aortic arch is rare. We discuss the unique case of an extremely premature infant weighing 1.7 kilograms who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging as a pre-operative assessment in a high-field open 1.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system as a one-stop investigation before complete repair. PMID:23137589

Tzifa, Aphrodite; Komnou, Areti; Loggitsi, Dimitra

2012-11-09

380

Biphasic decline of CD4 cell count during scheduled treatment interruptions.  

PubMed

In 115 patients whose scheduled treatment interruptions (STI) lasted 24 weeks, the CD4 cell count declined by a median of 30 cells/ml/week during the first 4 weeks, compared with 3 cells/ml/week during the next 20 weeks. In multivariate regression, a pronounced early fall in CD4 cells correlated with a higher CD4 cell count at the start of STI, with more gain in CD4 cells during antiretroviral treatment preceding STI, and with a higher viral load at week 4. PMID:15750398

Fagard, Catherine; Bandelier, Cédric Y; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Le Braz, Michelle; Günthard, Huldrych; Perneger, Thomas; García, Felipe; Hirschel, Bernard

2005-03-01

381

Differential radiosensitivity in cultured B-16 melanoma cells following interrupted melanogenesis induced by glucosamine  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between cell pigmentation and radiosensitivity was investigated in a cell model in which melanogenesis was suppressed by a glycosylation inhibitor. It was found that X-irradiation of melanotic B-16 melanoma cells and their amelanotic counterparts, obtained by glucosamine treatment, showed an inverse correlation between radiosensitivity and melanin contents. Since melanogenesis interruption by glucosamine does not affect the DNA repair capacity of nonpigmented cells, it is likely that intracellular melanins play a role in the relative resistance of pigmented cells to X-irradiation.

Mileo, A.M.; Mattei, E.; Fanuele, M.; Delpino, A.; Ferrini, U. (Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy))

1989-05-01

382

Differential radiosensitivity in cultured B-16 melanoma cells following interrupted melanogenesis induced by glucosamine.  

PubMed

The relationship between cell pigmentation and radiosensitivity was investigated in a cell model in which melanogenesis was suppressed by a glycosylation inhibitor. It was found that X-irradiation of melanotic B-16 melanoma cells and their amelanotic counterparts, obtained by glucosamine treatment, showed an inverse correlation between radiosensitivity and melanin contents. Since melanogenesis interruption by glucosamine does not affect the DNA repair capacity of nonpigmented cells, it is likely that intracellular melanins play a role in the relative resistance of pigmented cells to X-irradiation. PMID:2771876

Mileo, A M; Mattei, E; Fanuele, M; Delpino, A; Ferrini, U

383

Mechanism of interrupted saccades in patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease.  

PubMed

In late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS), saccades are interrupted by one or more transient decelerations. Some saccades reaccelerate and continue on before eye velocity reaches zero, even in darkness. Intervals between successive decelerations are not regularly spaced. Peak decelerations of horizontal and vertical components of oblique saccades in LOTS is more synchronous than those in control subjects. We hypothesize that these decelerations are caused by dysregulation of the fastigial nuclei (FN) of the cerebellum, which fire brain stem inhibitory burst neurons (IBNs). PMID:18718355

Optican, Lance M; Rucker, Janet C; Keller, Edward L; Leigh, R John

2008-01-01

384

Understanding the cost of power interruptions to U.S. electricity consumers  

SciTech Connect

The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern United States and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 resulted in the U.S. electricity system being called ''antiquated'' and catalyzed discussions about modernizing the grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of $50 to $100 billion would be needed. This report seeks to quantify an important piece of information that has been missing from these discussions: how much do power interruptions and fluctuations in power quality (power-quality events) cost U.S. electricity consumers? Accurately estimating this cost will help assess the potential benefits of investments in improving the reliability of the grid. We develop a comprehensive end-use framework for assessing the cost to U.S. electricity consumers of power interruptions and power-quality events (referred to collectively as ''reliability events''). The framework expresses these costs as a function of: (1) Number of customers by type in a region; (2) Frequency and type of reliability events experienced annually (including both power interruptions and power-quality events) by these customers; (3) Cost of reliability events; and (4) Vulnerability of customers to these events. The framework is designed so that its cost estimate can be improved as additional data become available. Using our framework, we estimate that the national cost of power interruptions is about $80 billion annually, based on the best information available in the public domain. However, there are large gaps in and significant uncertainties about the information currently available. Notably, we were not able to develop an estimate of power-quality events. Sensitivity analysis of some of these uncertainties suggests that the total annual cost could range from less than $30 billion to more than $130 billion. Because of this large range and the enormous cost of the decisions that may be based on this estimate, we encourage policy makers, regulators, and industry to jointly under take the comparatively modest-cost improvements needed in the information used to estimate the cost of reliability events. Specific areas for improvement include: coordinated, nationwide collection of updated information on the cost of reliability events; consistent definition and recording of the duration and frequency of reliability events, including power-quality events; and improved information on the costs of and efforts by consumers to reduce their vulnerability to reliability events.

LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Eto, Joseph H.

2004-09-01

385

Electric Power Interruption Cost Estimates for Individual Industries, Sectors, and U.S. Economy  

SciTech Connect

During the last 20 years, utilities and researchers have begun to understand the value in the collection and analysis of interruption cost data. The continued investigation of the monetary impact of power outages will facilitate the advancement of the analytical methods used to measure the costs and benefits from the perspective of the energy consumer. More in-depth analysis may be warranted because of the privatization and deregulation of power utilities, price instability in certain regions of the U.S. and the continued evolution of alternative auxiliary power systems.

Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; DeSteese, John G.; Weimar, Mark R.

2002-02-27

386

Photolytic interruptions of the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle examined by time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of the photolytic conditions used to initiate and spectroscopically monitor the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) photocycle utilizing time-resolved resonance Raman (TR3) spectroscopy has revealed and characterized two photoinduced reactions that interrupt the thermal pathway. One reaction involves the photolytic interconversion of M-412 and M', and the other involves the direct photolytic conversion of the BR-570/K-590 photostationary mixture either to M-412 and M' or to M-like intermediates within 10 ns. The photolytic threshold conditions describing both reactions have been quantitatively measured and are discussed in terms of experimental parameters.

Grieger, I.; Atkinson, G.H.

1985-09-24

387

The effect of interruptions during training on the time to the first trial and race start in Thoroughbred racehorses.  

PubMed

Few studies have investigated the effect of having interruptions during training on future training and racing performance in Thoroughbred racehorses. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of having an interruption before the first trial on starting in a trial or a race. A prospective cohort study was used to record the training activity of a cohort of Thoroughbred racehorses, over two racing seasons. Fourteen racehorse trainers recorded information on the distances worked at canter and at fast speeds (<15s/200 m) and provided reasons for horses not training, or for having interruptions (break from training). Trial and racing results were obtained from the New Zealand Thoroughbred Racing online database. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to investigate two outcome measures of performance: (1) time to the first trial and (2) time to the first race. The type of interruption that had occurred before the first trial was the main exposure of interest, and was grouped into: no interruption, voluntary (no known condition or disease present) and involuntary interruptions (due to the presence of a condition or disease). A total of 160/200 (80%) horses started in at least one trial and 100/205 (48%) horses started in at least one race during the study period. The median time to starting in a trial or a race differed significantly (p<0.001) with the type of interruption. The hazard of starting in a trial was lower for horses experiencing voluntary and involuntary interruptions (p<0.001) but there was no association with starting in a race, after adjusting for confounding variables. As age at the start of training increased the hazard of starting in a trial decreased. Horses accumulating longer distances at 15s/200 m had a higher hazard of starting in a trial, whilst horses accumulating fewer events at high speed and fewer trials had a reduced hazard of starting in a race. There was significant clustering at the trainer level for both the outcomes investigated. Interruptions to training had an effect on the time to, and hazard of, a trial but not a race start. The timing of these interruptions may have implications for future racing success and career longevity. PMID:22954462

Bolwell, C F; Rogers, C W; French, N P; Firth, E C

2012-09-04

388

Feasibility of global measles eradication after interruption of transmission in the Americas.  

PubMed

Measles is one of the most infectious diseases. Before the introduction of the measles vaccine, nearly all children contracted measles. By the end of the 1980s, most countries of the world had incorporated the measles vaccine into their routine vaccination programs. Globally, some 345,000 deaths due to measles still occur every year. Eradication of measles would play an important role in improving child survival. The goal to eradicate measles from the Americas was set by the Pan-American Sanitary Conference in 1994. Progress to date has been remarkable. Measles is no longer an endemic disease in the Americas and interruption of transmission has been documented in most countries. As of December 2007, 5 years have elapsed since the detection of the last endemic case in Venezuela in November 2002. This experience demonstrates that interruption of measles transmission can be achieved and sustained over a long period of time. Global eradication should be feasible if the appropriate strategies are implemented. Even in a new paradigm in which eradication is not followed by the discontinuation of vaccination, eradication of measles should be a good investment to avoid expensive epidemics and save those children that would potentially die due to infection with the measles virus. It is not only a dream to think that we will see a world free of measles by the year 2015. PMID:18393605

de Quadros, Ciro A; Andrus, Jon Kim; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Castillo-Solórzano, Carlos

2008-04-01

389

Characterization of cryobiological responses in TF-1 cells using interrupted freezing procedures.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation currently is the only method for long-term preservation of cellular viability and function for uses in cellular therapies. Characterizing the cryobiological response of a cell type is essential in the approach to designing and optimizing cryopreservation protocols. For cells used in therapies, there is significant interest in designing cryopreservation protocols that do not rely on dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO) as a cryoprotectant, since this cryoprotectant has been shown to have adverse effects on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant patients. This study characterized the cryobiological responses of the human erythroleukemic stem cell line TF-1, as a model for HSC. We measured the osmotic parameters of TF-1 cells, including the osmotically-inactive fraction, temperature-dependent membrane hydraulic conductivity and the membrane permeability to 1M Me(2)SO. A two-step freezing procedure (interrupted rapid cooling with hold time) and a graded freezing procedure (interrupted slow cooling without hold time) were used to characterize TF-1 cell recovery during various phases of the cooling process. One outcome of these experiments was high recovery of TF-1 cells cryopreserved in the absence of traditional cryoprotectants. The results of this study of the cryobiology of TF-1 cells will be critical for future understanding of the cryobiology of HSC, and to the design of cryopreservation protocols with specific design criteria for applications in cellular therapies. PMID:19766619

Ross-Rodriguez, Lisa U; Elliott, Janet A W; McGann, Locksley E

2009-09-18

390

Study of carrier transport in molecularly doped polymers by interrupted time-of-flight measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interrupted hole transit experiments were carried out on dispersions of DEH, BD, and DBH in polycarbonate, using electron beam excitation. The sweep field was switched off for intervals 0953-8984/9/23/007/img1 between 10 ms and 10 s. On re-applying the field after more than 30 ms, the transit current initially rose to a value lower than that before interruption, but then gradually increased until holes began to arrive at the collecting electrode. The observations of a current plateau in uninterrupted transits, and of almost constant total charge collected irrespective of 0953-8984/9/23/007/img1, suggest negligible deep trapping. The results seem incompatible with monoenergetic polaron transport, but can be understood on the basis of the Gaussian disorder model. When the field is switched off, the hole population `cools', slowly sinking into tail states. When the field is restored it is more quickly `re-heated' towards its original field-enhanced mean energy.

Németh-Buhin, A.; Juhasz, C.

1997-06-01

391

Interrupting Violence: How the CeaseFire Program Prevents Imminent Gun Violence through Conflict Mediation.  

PubMed

Cities are increasingly adopting CeaseFire, an evidence-based public health program that uses specialized outreach workers, called violence interrupters (VIs), to mediate potentially violent conflicts before they lead to a shooting. Prior research has linked conflict mediation with program-related reductions in homicides, but the specific conflict mediation practices used by effective programs to prevent imminent gun violence have not been identified. We conducted case studies of CeaseFire programs in two inner cities using qualitative data from focus groups with 24 VIs and interviews with eight program managers. Study sites were purposively sampled to represent programs with more than 1 year of implementation and evidence of program effectiveness. Staff with more than 6 months of job experience were recruited for participation. Successful mediation efforts were built on trust and respect between VIs and the community, especially high-risk individuals. In conflict mediation, immediate priorities included separating the potential shooter from the intended victim and from peers who may encourage violence, followed by persuading the parties to resolve the conflict peacefully. Tactics for brokering peace included arranging the return of stolen property and emphasizing negative consequences of violence such as jail, death, or increased police attention. Utilizing these approaches, VIs are capable of preventing gun violence and interrupting cycles of retaliation. PMID:23440488

Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Parker, Elizabeth M

2013-02-26

392

Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Abu Hamed focus, Sudan.  

PubMed

Abu Hamed, Sudan, the northernmost location of onchocerciasis in the world, began community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in 1998, with annual treatments enhanced to semiannual in 2007. We assessed the status of the parasite transmission in 2011 entomologically, parasitologically, and serologically. O-150 pool screening showed no parasite DNA in 17,537 black flies collected in 2011 (95% confidence interval upper limit [95% CI UL] = 0.023). Skin microfilariae, nodules, and signs of skin disease were absent in 536 individuals in seven local communities. Similarly, no evidence of Onchocerca volvulus Ov16 antibodies was found in 6,756 school children ? 10 years (95% CI UL = 0.03%). Because this assessment of the focus meets the 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for interrupted transmission, treatment was halted in 2012, and a post-treatment surveillance period was initiated in anticipation of declaration of disease elimination in this area. We provide the first evidence in East Africa that long-term CDTI alone can interrupt transmission of onchocerciasis. PMID:23690554

Higazi, Tarig B; Zarroug, Isam M A; Mohamed, Hanan A; Elmubark, Wigdan A; Deran, Tong Chor M; Aziz, Nabil; Katabarwa, Moses; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R; Mackenzie, Charles D; Richards, Frank; Hashim, Kamal

2013-05-20

393

Customer response to interruptible and curtailable rates: Volume 1, Methodology and results: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Interruptible or curtailable (I/C) service, one of the fastest growing utility programs, provides the utility with both an innovative rate alternative as well as a demand side management tool. This project examines existing (I/C) programs with the objective of providing information that will enable utilities to plan for future I/C programs. First, the report summarizes the rate and customer characteristics of I/C programs at ten utilities. Second, the report presents a regression technique that can be used to assess load relief provided by customers on I/C rates. The report demonstrates the technique by assessing load relief for each of the ten utilities. Tests of the regression technique showed it to be significantly more accurate than other procedures that are sometimes used. Utilities can implement the regression technique using standard statistical software in conjunction with the RELIEF software that was developed as part of this project. Finally the project examined those customer and program factors that influence load relief. Important customer factors were type of industry and load factor. Important program characteristics were number of interruptions, length of size of credit. 12 refs., 44 figs., 35 tabs.

Caves, D.W.; Herriges, J.A.; Windle, R.J.

1988-03-01

394

Effects of Political Conflict Induced Treatment Interruptions on HIV Drug Resistance  

PubMed Central

34 million people worldwide were living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) by the end of 2010. Despite significant advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART), drug resistance remains a major deterrent to successful, enduring treatment. Unplanned interruptions in ART have negative effects on HIV treatment outcomes including increased morbidity and mortality, as well as development of drug resistance. Treatment interruptions due to political conflicts, not infrequent in resource-limited settings, result in disruptions in health care, infrastructure, or treatment facilities and patient displacement. Such circumstances are ideal bases for ART resistance development, however there is limited awareness of and data available on the association between political conflicts and the development of HIV drug resistance. In this review we identify and discuss this association and review how varying ART half-lives, genetic barriers, different HIV subtypes, and archived resistance can lead to lack of medication effectiveness upon post-conflict resumption of care. Optimized ART stopping strategies as well as infrastructural concerns and stable HIV treatment systems to ensure continuity of care and rapid resumption of care must be addressed in order to mitigate risks of HIV drug resistance development during and after political conflicts. Increased awareness of such associations by clinicians as well as politicians and stakeholders is essential.

Mann, Marita; Lurie, Mark N.; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Kantor, Rami

2013-01-01

395

The fallacy of neutrality: the interruption of pregnancy of anencephalic fetus in Brazil.  

PubMed

Those who favor and those who oppose the interruption of pregnancy with anencephalic fetuses answer the question 'what is the right to life?' differently. Those in favor argue that life exists only when it is 'viable'; that is to say, when cerebral activities occur or may occur. Those who oppose it argue that it is not possible to describe 'life' as residing in a particular quality, since life 'exists from conception'. In fact, in both cases, the noun 'life' is being defined by a particular quality, either as 'viable' or as 'existing from the time of conception'. Also, simply saying that 'there is life' cannot count as a neutral answer since those who utter such a sentence employ an unspecified criterion to establish if there is life or not. There are two possible ways to investigate this controversial matter: either we look for a definition of 'life' which is neutral and objective and does not reside in a particular quality or we try to establish whether or not the search for a neutral point of view can lead to a satisfactory answer. In this article we explore the argument against the interruption of pregnancy - as defined above - in order to show 1) the impossibility of establishing a neutral point of view regarding knowledge; 2) the existence of a psychological motivation which justifies the longing for an absolute criterion for the evaluation of human actions. This psychological motivation is analyzed from a Nietzschean perspective. PMID:21929705

Fonseca, Ana Carolina D A Costa E

2011-10-01

396

Plants cause ecosystem nutrient depletion via the interruption of bird-derived spatial subsidies  

PubMed Central

Plant introductions and subsequent community shifts are known to affect nutrient cycling, but most such studies have focused on nutrient enrichment effects. The nature of plant-driven nutrient depletions and the mechanisms by which these might occur are relatively poorly understood. In this study we demonstrate that the proliferation of the commonly introduced coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, interrupts the flow of allochthonous marine subsidies to terrestrial ecosystems via an indirect effect: impact on birds. Birds avoid nesting or roosting in C. nucifera, thus reducing the critical nutrient inputs they bring from the marine environment. These decreases in marine subsidies then lead to reductions in available soil nutrients, decreases in leaf nutrient quality, diminished leaf palatability, and reduced herbivory. This nutrient depletion pathway contrasts the more typical patterns of nutrient enrichment that follow plant species introductions. Research on the effects of spatial subsidy disruptions on ecosystems has not yet examined interruptions driven by changes within the recipient community, such as plant community shifts. The ubiquity of coconut palm introductions across the tropics and subtropics makes these observations particularly noteworthy. Equally important, the case of C. nucifera provides a strong demonstration of how plant community changes can dramatically impact the supply of allochthonous nutrients and thereby reshape energy flow in ecosystems.

Young, Hillary S.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Dirzo, Rodolfo

2010-01-01

397

Increasing the Mand Repertoire of Children With Autism Through the Use of an Interrupted Chain Procedure  

PubMed Central

Mand training is an essential component of verbal behavior training for any individual who lacks this skill. The current study replicates and extends, with some procedural differences, the work of Hall and Sundberg (1987) by using an interrupted chain procedure to teach mands for missing items to children with autism. The participants were 3 children with autism, ranging between 5 and 8 years of age, who would regularly mand for a wide variety of reinforcers when they were present but would rarely mand for items that were not in sight (i.e., missing items). Participants were first taught to complete 3 behavior chains. Subsequently, the chains were interrupted by removing 1 item needed to complete each chain to contrive motivating operations (MOs) as a means of teaching mands for missing items. Following mand training incorporating vocal prompt and prompt fading procedures, all participants emitted unprompted mands for the missing items within the context of the trained chains and within the context of novel, untrained chains. After teaching mands for missing items, probes were conducted to test for untrained tact acquisition. All participants also demonstrated tact responses relative to the missing items as a result of the mand training.

Albert, Kristin M.; Carbone, Vincent J.; Murray, Danielle D.; Hagerty, Margaret; Sweeney-Kerwin, Emily J.

2012-01-01

398

Implementation challenges in the intensive care unit: the why, who and how of daily interruption of sedation  

PubMed Central

Purpose Despite strong medical evidence and policy initiatives supporting the use of daily interruption of sedation in mechanically ventilated patients, compliance remains suboptimal. We sought to identify new barriers to daily interruption of sedation. Materials and Methods We conducted 5 focus groups of intensive care unit (ICU) physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists over a two-month period to identify attitudes, barriers, and motivations to perform a daily interruption of sedation. Each focus group was audiotaped and the transcripts analyzed using qualitative methods to identify recurrent themes. Results There was wide consensus on the importance of daily interruptions of sedation, however practitioners usually performed sedation interruption for 1 of 5 distinct reasons: minimizing the dose of sedation, performing a neurologic exam, facilitating ventilator weaning, reducing ICU length of stay, and assessing patient pain. Participants rarely espoused more than one main reason, and there was no shared understanding of why one might do a DIS. This lack of shared understanding led to different patients being selected and diverse approaches to carrying out the DIS. Conclusions Despite apparent consensus, lack of shared understanding of the rationale for an intervention may lead to divergent practice patterns and failure to implement standardized, evidence-based practice.

Bosk, Emily A.; Iwashyna, Theodore J.; Krein, Sarah L.

2012-01-01

399

Learning from Accident and Error: Avoiding the Hazards of Workload, Stress, and Routine Interruptions in the Emergency Department  

PubMed Central

This article presents a model of how a build-up of interruptions can shift the dynamics of the emergency department (ED) from an adaptive, self-regulating system into a fragile, crisis-prone one. Drawing on case studies of organizational disasters and insights from the theory of high-reliability organizations, the authors use computer simulations to show how the accumulation of small interruptions could have disproportionately large effects in the ED. In the face of a mounting workload created by interruptions, EDs, like other organizational systems, have tipping points, thresholds beyond which a vicious cycle can lead rather quickly to the collapse of normal operating routines and in the extreme to a crisis of organizational paralysis. The authors discuss some possible implications for emergency medicine, emphasizing the potential threat from routine, non-novel demands on EDs and raising the concern that EDs are operating closer to the precipitous edge of crisis as ED crowding exacerbates the problem.

Morrison, J. Bradley; Rudolph, Jenny W.

2012-01-01

400

Development of Vacuum Insulation Technology for a Multifunctional VacuumInterrupter Loaded into an SF6 Gas Free 24 kV Switchgear  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a multifunctional vacuum interrupter that has three functions: current interruption, disconnection, and earth operation in a vacuum vessel. Using the multifunctional vacuum interrupter, we realized 24 kV, 630 A, 25 kA rated switchgear that do not use SF6 gas. In addition, we could downsize the switchgear greatly compared with conventional switchgear by applying excellent vacuum insulation characteristics. In

Shinji Sato; Kenichi Koyama; Takayuki Itotani; Seiichi Miyamoto; Toshimasa Maruyama

2003-01-01

401

Estimation of 80kA short-line fault interrupting capability in an SF6 gas circuit breaker based on arc model calculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interrupting performances of high-voltage circuit breakers have been quantitatively evaluated through current zero measurements during interrupting tests. The interrupting capability of circuit breakers can also be estimated by means of an arc model calculation, the parameters of which are determined through current zero measurement. An actual case where the arc model calculation was used for the development of an 80kA

H. Urai; Y. Ooshita; M. Koizumi; N. Yaginuma; M. Tsukushi; R. P. P. Smeets

2008-01-01

402

The efficacy of protected mealtimes in reducing mealtime interruptions and improving mealtime assistance in adult inpatients in an Australian hospital.  

PubMed

Background/objectives:A Protected Mealtimes Programme (PMP) encourages staff, volunteers and visitors to assist patients and cease non-urgent clinical activity during mealtimes. Given the limited evidence available establishing the efficacy of PMP, we compared mealtime interruptions, mealtime assistance received and nutrient intakes before and after PMP implementation in adult inpatients on acute wards.Subjects/methods:Data collected on patients at main meals before and after PMP implementation included the following: diet code, level of assistance required and received and by whom, time available to consume the meal, position of the patient and tray during eating, type of interruption and by whom and proportion of foods and drinks consumed. Outcomes pre- and post-PMP implementation were compared using ?(2), independent samples t-tests and logistic regression analyses.Results:Over two years, 1632 inpatient mealtime observations were conducted (65 (18) years, 51% M). Similar proportions of patients received mealtime assistance when required (?84%, P=0.928). Feeding assistance nearly doubled post-PMP implementation (15-29%, P=0.002). Interruptions by nursing staff increased by 8% post-PMP implementation (P<0.001) and represented 61% of all interruptions. Interruptions were less likely to occur pre-PMP implementation (odds ratio, 0.403, 95% confidence interval, 0.301-0.539). Mealtime energy and protein intakes were not changed post-PMP (P=0.979, P=0.482, respectively).Conclusions:The PMP increased nursing staff availability at mealtimes and feeding assistance, but also increased mealtime interruptions. This may explain the lack of change in patient energy and protein consumption. Strategies promoting adherence with PMP implementation, such as nurse ward champions or nursing staff driving PMP implementation, may be required to maximise the benefits of protected mealtimes. PMID:23860001

Huxtable, S; Palmer, M

2013-07-17

403

Women endurance runners with menstrual dysfunction have prolonged interruption of training due to injury.  

PubMed

Strenuous exercise by women is associated with menstrual dysfunction, eating disorders and osteoporosis. Intensive training may also increase the susceptibility to infections. In this study, we investigated whether menstrual dysfunction was related to musculoskeletal injuries and/or upper respiratory tract infections in women middle/long-distance runners. A questionnaire was mailed to 127 Swedish female runners of whom 75% answered. This retrospective study showed a higher frequency of menstrual disorders (25%) in runners than in the general population. Furthermore, almost half of the athletes (46%) were classified as at risk of developing eating disorders. Women athletes with menstrual dysfunction were found to have had a longer interruption of training due to musculoskeletal injuries than those with regular cycles (34.1 +/- 3.0 vs. 9.0 +/- 9. 4 days, p < 0.05). However, no relation was found between susceptibility to infections and menstrual status. PMID:10629372

Beckvid Henriksson, G; Schnell, C; Lindén Hirschberg, A

2000-01-01

404

Closed-loop optogenetic control of thalamus as a tool for interrupting seizures after cortical injury.  

PubMed

Cerebrocortical injuries such as stroke are a major source of disability. Maladaptive consequences can result from post-injury local reorganization of cortical circuits. For example, epilepsy is a common sequela of cortical stroke, but the mechanisms responsible for seizures following cortical injuries remain unknown. In addition to local reorganization, long-range, extra-cortical connections might be critical for seizure maintenance. In rats, we found that the thalamus, a structure that is remote from, but connected to, the injured cortex, was required to maintain cortical seizures. Thalamocortical neurons connected to the injured epileptic cortex underwent changes in HCN channel expression and became hyperexcitable. Targeting these neurons with a closed-loop optogenetic strategy revealed that reducing their activity in real-time was sufficient to immediately interrupt electrographic and behavioral seizures. This approach is of therapeutic interest for intractable epilepsy, as it spares cortical function between seizures, in contrast with existing treatments, such as surgical lesioning or drugs. PMID:23143518

Paz, Jeanne T; Davidson, Thomas J; Frechette, Eric S; Delord, Bruno; Parada, Isabel; Peng, Kathy; Deisseroth, Karl; Huguenard, John R

2012-11-07

405

Progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus transmission--worldwide, January 2006-May 2007.  

PubMed

Progress toward global polio eradication continued during 2006 and the first 5 months of 2007, although the number of countries where wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted remained at four (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan). Continuing challenges included intense WPV circulation in northern India during 2006, low vaccination coverage with oral polio vaccine (OPV) during supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) in Nigeria, and security problems preventing access to children during SIAs along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border. Programmatic strategies to address these challenges consisted of large-scale use of type 1 monovalent oral polio vaccine (mOPV1), targeted programs (e.g., cross-border synchronization of polio campaigns) to reach more children through SIAs, and introduction of new laboratory procedures to confirm cases more rapidly. This report summarizes these strategies and overall progress toward global polio eradication. PMID:17625496

2007-07-13

406

Further evaluation of response interruption and redirection as treatment for stereotypy.  

PubMed

The effects of 2 forms of response interruption and redirection (RIRD)-motor RIRD and vocal RIRD-were examined with 4 boys with autism to evaluate further the effects of this intervention and its potential underlying mechanisms. In Experiment 1, the effects of motor RIRD and vocal RIRD on vocal stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were compared for 2 participants. In Experiment 2, the effects of both RIRD procedures on both vocal and motor stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were compared with 2 additional participants. Results suggested that RIRD was effective regardless of the procedural variation or topography of stereotypy and that vocal RIRD functioned as a punisher. This mechanism was further explored with 1 participant by manipulating the schedule of RIRD in Experiment 3. Results were consistent with the punishment interpretation. PMID:21541130

Ahrens, Erin N; Lerman, Dorothea C; Kodak, Tiffany; Worsdell, April S; Keegan, Courtney

2011-01-01

407

An interrupted time series analysis of parenteral antibiotic use in Colombia.  

PubMed

A University-based hospital in Bogotá, Colombia, developed and implemented an educational intervention to complement a new structured antibiotic order form. This intervention was performed after assessing the appropriateness of the observed antibiotic prescribing practices using a quasi-experimental study. An application of interrupted time series intervention analysis was conducted in three antibiotic groups (aminoglycosides, cephradine/cephalothin, and ceftazidime/cefotaxime) and their hospital weekly rate of incorrect prescriptions before and after the intervention. A fourth time series was defined on prophylactic antibiotic use in elective surgery. Preintervention models were used in the postintervention series to test for pre-post series level differences. An abrupt constant change was significant in the first, third, and fourth time series indicating a 47, 7.3, and 20% reduction of incorrect prescriptions after the intervention. We conclude that a structured antibiotic order form, coupled with graphic and educational interventions can improve antibiotic use in a university hospital. PMID:14568634

Pérez, Adriana; Dennis, Rodolfo J; Rodríguez, Benigno; Castro, Amparo Y; Delgado, Victor; Lozano, Juan Manuel; Castro, Maria Clara

2003-10-01

408

Mapping of the nick site on conjugative plasmid pVT745 by interrupted mating  

PubMed Central

Conjugal transfer of plasmid DNA initiates and terminates at a specific non-coding site called the origin of transfer (oriT). Previous analysis of conjugative plasmid pVT745 from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans suggested that oriT was located adjacent to the operon responsible for initiation of ssDNA transfer. The location of oriT was confirmed by assaying both subclones of the region as well as a pVT745 deletion derivative for mobilization. The precise DNA nick site (nic) and polarity of DNA transfer were identified by use of interrupted mating assays, a technique originally used for the mapping of bacterial chromosomes. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the pVT745-specific nick region was similar to the consensus nick sequence of the IncP family albeit the actual cleavage site differed. Functionality of nic was confirmed by point mutations.

Chen, Jinbiao; Pappas, Donald L.; Galli, Dominique M.

2010-01-01

409

Analysis of switching surges generated by current interruption in an energy-storage coil  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents an analysis of the transient voltages which are generated when the current in a large magnetic energy storage coil is interrupted by a dc vacuum circuit breaker. The effect of the various parameters in the circuit on the transient voltage is discussed. The self inductance of the dump resistor must be minimized to control the generated transient. Contrary to general belief, a capacitor across the coil is not an effective surge suppressor. In fact, the capacitor may excite oscillations of higher magnitude. However, a capacitor, in addition to a surge suppressor, may be used to modify the frequency components of the transient voltage so that these frequency components are not coincident with the natural frequencies of the coil. Otherwise, resonant oscillations inside the coil may attain damaging magnitudes. The capacitor would also reduce the steepness of the wavefront of the transient across the coil, thus reducing the nonlinear voltage distribution inside the coil.

Chowdhuri, P.

1981-01-01

410

Estimates of thermal fatigue due to beam interruptions for an ALMR-type ATW  

SciTech Connect

Thermal fatigue due to beam interruptions has been investigated in a sodium cooled ATW using the Advanced Liquid Metal mod B design as a basis for the subcritical source driven reactor. A k{sub eff} of 0.975 was used for the reactor. Temperature response in the primary coolant system was calculated, using the SASSYS- 1 code, for a drop in beam current from full power to zero in 1 microsecond.. Temperature differences were used to calculate thermal stresses. Fatigue curves from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code were used to determine the number of cycles various components should be designed for, based on these thermal stresses.

Dunn, F. E.; Wade, D. C.

1999-11-12

411

Driving Can Be Dangerous to Your Health An Interrupted Case Study in Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interrupted case study, students read about an older woman named Barbara who becomes ill after driving with her husband 19 hours from Florida to visit their son’s family. Barbara experiences an asthma attack and then more serious breathing problems, which result in her admission to the hospital. Students are presented with a variety of signs, symptoms, and medical data relating to Barbara’s health, which they must interpret to solve this case in circulatory and respiratory physiology. Developed for use in a one-semester animal physiology course taken by sophomore and junior science majors, it could also be used in a human anatomy and physiology course as well as a course in general biology.

Stephens, Phil

2008-01-01

412

The Use of Interrupted Case Studies to Enhance Critical Thinking Skills in Biology  

PubMed Central

There has been a dramatic increase in the availability of case studies for use in the biology classroom, and perceptions of the effectiveness of case-study-based learning are overwhelmingly positive. Here we report the results of a study in which we evaluated the ability of interrupted case studies to improve critical thinking in the context of experimental design and the conventions of data interpretation. Students were assessed using further case studies designed to evaluate their ability to recognize and articulate problematic approaches to these elements of experimentation. Our work reveals that case studies have broad utility in the classroom. In addition to demonstrating a small but statistically significant increase in the number of students capable of critically evaluating selected aspects of experimental design, we also observed increased student engagement and documented widespread misconceptions regarding the conventions of data acquisition and analysis.

White, Tracy K.; Whitaker, Paul; Gonya, Terri; Hein, Richard; Kroening, Dubear; Lee, Kevin; Lee, Laura; Lukowiak, Andrea; Hayes, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

413

FURTHER EVALUATION OF RESPONSE INTERRUPTION AND REDIRECTION AS TREATMENT FOR STEREOTYPY  

PubMed Central

The effects of 2 forms of response interruption and redirection (RIRD)—motor RIRD and vocal RIRD—were examined with 4 boys with autism to evaluate further the effects of this intervention and its potential underlying mechanisms. In Experiment 1, the effects of motor RIRD and vocal RIRD on vocal stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were compared for 2 participants. In Experiment 2, the effects of both RIRD procedures on both vocal and motor stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were compared with 2 additional participants. Results suggested that RIRD was effective regardless of the procedural variation or topography of stereotypy and that vocal RIRD functioned as a punisher. This mechanism was further explored with 1 participant by manipulating the schedule of RIRD in Experiment 3. Results were consistent with the punishment interpretation.

Ahrens, Erin N; Lerman, Dorothea C; Kodak, Tiffany; Worsdell, April S; Keegan, Courtney

2011-01-01

414

Neuromagnetic responses of human auditory cortex to interruptions in a steady rhythm.  

PubMed

We have recorded, with a 7-channel SQUID gradiometer, evoked magnetic responses of 6 healthy humans to interruptions of a steady rhythm of 50 ms 'standard' tone bursts repeated once every 610 ms. Ten percent of the tones occurred 'too early', 410 ms after the preceding stimulus. The response to standards peaked, on average, at 90 ms and that to the early tones at 148 ms. Field patterns were dipolar during both responses and the equivalent sources agreed with activation of the supratemporal auditory cortex, at slightly different locations. The dipole moments were more than twice as strong for the early tones as for the standards. The results emphasize the importance of temporal stimulation patterns in activating the human auditory cortex. PMID:2748007

Hari, R; Joutsiniemi, S L; Hämäläinen, M; Vilkman, V

1989-04-24

415

Activation and interruption of the reproduction of Varroa destructor is triggered by host signals (Apis mellifera).  

PubMed

The reproductive cycle of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor is closely linked to the development of the honey bee host larvae. Using a within colony approach we introduced phoretic Varroa females into brood cells of different age in order to analyze the capacity of certain stages of the honey bee larva to either activate or interrupt the reproduction of Varroa females. Only larvae within 18 h (worker) and 36 h (drones), respectively, after cell capping were able to stimulate the mite's oogenesis. Therewith we could specify for the first time the short time window where honey bee larvae provide the signals for the activation of the Varroa reproduction. Stage specific volatiles of the larval cuticle are at least part of these activation signals. This is confirmed by the successful stimulation of presumably non-reproducing mites to oviposition by the application of a larval extract into the sealed brood cells. According to preliminary quantitative GC-MS analysis we suggest certain fatty acid ethyl esters as candidate compounds. If Varroa females that have just started with egg formation are transferred to brood cells containing host larvae of an elder stage two-thirds of these mites stopped their oogenesis. This confirms the presence of an additional signal in the host larvae allowing the reproducing mites to adjust their own reproductive cycle to the ontogenetic development of the host. From an adaptive point of view that sort of a stop signal enables the female mite to save resources for a next reproductive cycle if the own egg development is not sufficiently synchronized with the development of the host. The results presented here offer the opportunity to analyze exactly those host stages that have the capacity to activate or interrupt the Varroa reproduction in order to identify the crucial host signals. PMID:23376006

Frey, Eva; Odemer, Richard; Blum, Thomas; Rosenkranz, Peter

2013-01-30

416

Can Structured Treatment Interruptions (STIs) Be Used as a Strategy to Decrease Total Drug Requirements and Toxicity in HIV Infection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured treatment interruptions (STIs) are a new strategy under investigation in clinical trials involving a number of different HIV-infected populations. These populations include patients with prolonged HIV RNA suppression who were treated in either seroconversion or later in disease, and patients with virologic failure despite HAART, prior to the initiation of a salvage regimen. The goals of STI vary in

Sharon Walmsley; Mona Loutfy

2002-01-01

417

Probability-based Prevention of Voltage Violation and Momentary Interruption due to Uncertainty of Renewable Energy Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Generation (DG) provides many advantages to distribution systems. However, the presence of DG units usually causes voltage fluctuation in the systems, and even causes voltage violation. A number of researches have paid attention to this issue that is widely known for years. The other fact that is revealed in this paper is momentary electricity interruptions due to the voltage

Surachai Chaitusaney; Akihiko Yokoyama

2008-01-01

418

The Effect of Regionalization On Infant and Early Neonatal MortalityAn Interrupted Time-Series Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regionalization ofperinatal care is widely assumed to be an effective means of improving pregnancy outcomes. However, due to limitations of the research designs employed in previous studies aimed at empirically confirming this conventional wisdom, strong evidence concerning the impact of regionalization on pregnancy outcomes is still lacking. In this article an interrupted time-series design is used to assess the impact

Marvin B. Mandell

1986-01-01

419

The impact of the introduction of critical care outreach services in England: a multicentre interrupted time-series analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Critical care outreach services (CCOS) have been widely introduced in England with little rigorous evaluation. We undertook a multicentre interrupted time-series analysis of the impact of CCOS, as characterised by the case mix, outcome and activity of admissions to adult, general critical care units in England. METHODS: Data from the Case Mix Programme Database (CMPD) were linked with the

Haiyan Gao; David A Harrison; Gareth J Parry; Kathleen Daly; Christian P Subbe; Kathy Rowan

2007-01-01

420

INTERRUPTED TIME SERIES DESIGNS IN HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: LESSONS FROM TWO SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE STRATEGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: In an interrupted time series (ITS) design, data are collected at multiple instances over time before and after an intervention to detect whether the intervention has an effect significantly greater than the underlying secular trend. We critically reviewed the methodological quality of ITS designs using studies included in two systematic reviews (a review of mass media interventions and a

Craig R. Ramsay; Lloyd Matowe; Roberto Grilli; Jeremy M. Grimshaw; Ruth E. Thomas

2003-01-01

421

Improving the match between callers and receivers: A study on the effect of contextual information on cell phone interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A problem with the location-free nature of cell phones is that callers have difficulty predicting receivers' states, leading to inappropriate calls. One promising solution involves helping callers decide when to interrupt by providing them contextual information about receivers. We tested the effectiveness of different kinds of contextual information by measuring the degree of agreement between receivers' desires and callers' decisions.

Daniel Avrahami; D. Gergle; Scott E. Hudson; Sara B. Kiesler

2007-01-01

422

Measuring the Impacts of Community Development Initiatives: A New Application of the Adjusted Interrupted Time-Series Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors contribute to the development of empirical methods for measuring the impacts of place-based local development strategies by introducing the adjusted interrupted time-series (AITS) approach. It estimates a more precise counterfactual scenario, thus offering a stronger basis for drawing causal inferences about impacts. The authors…

Galster, George; Temkin, Kenneth; Walker, Chris; Sawyer, Noah

2004-01-01

423

Evaluating the impact of community mental health centers on hospital admissions: An interrupted time-series analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results o fan evaluation of the impact of center services on first admissions and readmissions to state hospitals in a large Southwestern state using an interrupted time-series design with switching replications and sequential treatments. Of the five centers investigated, only one appeared to be effective in reducing both first admissions and readmissions from its catchment area,\\

James L. Spearly

1980-01-01

424

Effects of age and hearing loss on the recognition of interrupted words in isolation and in sentences  

PubMed Central

The ability to recognize spoken words interrupted by silence was investigated with young normal-hearing listeners and older listeners with and without hearing impairment. Target words from the revised SPIN test by Bilger et al. [J. Speech Hear. Res. 27(1), 32–48 (1984)] were presented in isolation and in the original sentence context using a range of interruption patterns in which portions of speech were replaced with silence. The number of auditory “glimpses” of speech and the glimpse proportion (total duration glimpsed/word duration) were varied using a subset of the SPIN target words that ranged in duration from 300 to 600?ms. The words were presented in isolation, in the context of low-predictability (LP) sentences, and in high-predictability (HP) sentences. The glimpse proportion was found to have a strong influence on word recognition, with relatively little influence of the number of glimpses, glimpse duration, or glimpse rate. Although older listeners tended to recognize fewer interrupted words, there was considerable overlap in recognition scores across listener groups in all conditions, and all groups were affected by interruption parameters and context in much the same way.

Kidd, Gary R.; Humes, Larry E.

2012-01-01

425

Placing the ‘mad woman’: troubling cultural representations of being a woman with mental illness in Girl Interrupted  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I examine cultural narratives about the lives and places of women with mental illness in the commercial Hollywood film: Girl Interrupted (1999). In contrast to most of the disability studies literature concerned with cultural representation, this article explicitly examines how the spatiality of ‘mad women's’ lives is constructed through film. Drawing on post-structuralist, and feminist perspectives on

Vera Chouinard

2009-01-01

426

An influence of new arc quenching methods for improving the interrupting capacity of low voltage circuit breaker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low voltage circuit breakers are widely used in power distribution systems for rapid interruption of fault currents to assure the reliability of the power supply. While power distribution systems are demanding transformers with higher capacity than ever, there is an increase in the number of short-circuit current accidents. To prevent such accidents, molded case circuit breakers with improved short-circuit current

Jung-Hun Kwon; Sung-Hoon Cho; Kee-Joe Lim; Kil-Sou Kim

2011-01-01

427

Effects of a Group Response Cost Contingency Procedure on the Rate of Classroom Interruptions with Emotionally Disturbed Secondary Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effectiveness of a group response cost contingency procedure on the frequency of interruptions by students enrolled in a self-contained residential class for emotionally disturbed adolescents. The group response cost procedure consisted of the class being given 30 tokens at the beginning of each observation session. A token was taken away contingent upon each occurrence of an

Karen A. Sprute; Randy Lee Williams; T. F. McLaughlin

1990-01-01

428

Electrothermal-Chemical (ETC) Closed-Chamber Interrupted-Burning Tests With JA2 and M30 Solid Propellants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interrupted- and noninterrupted-burning tests were conducted with cylindrical perforated grains of JA2 and M30 in a closed bomb with a loading density of approximately 0.2 g/cu cm. Both conventional black-powder and plasma igniters were used. The plasma i...

A. Birk M. Del Guercio A. Kinkennon D. E. Kooker P. Kaste

2000-01-01

429

Analysis of Burning Rate Phenomena and Extinguished Solid Propellants From an Interrupted Closed Bomb with Plasma Igniter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interrupted closed-bomb analyses of M30 and JA2 propellants have been performed with the goal of understanding the phenomena responsible for the apparent augmentation of closed-bomb burning rates when plasma, rather than black powder, ignition is used. Bu...

R. J. Lieb P. J. Kaste A. Birk M. A. Schroder M. A. Del Guercio

2001-01-01

430

Investigation on 1,4-dichlorophthalazine-derivatized cinchona alkaloids-catalyzed asymmetric "interrupted" Feist-Bénary reaction.  

PubMed

Different 1,4-dichlorophthalazine-cinchona alkaloid derivatives have been used to catalyze the asymmetric "interrupted" Feist-Bénary reaction of ethyl bromopyruvate/substituted bromoketoesters and beta-dicarbonyl compounds. The corresponding hydroxydihydrofurans have been obtained in excellent yields and with up to 91%ee. PMID:17380487

Jin, Ying; Liu, Xue Ying; Jing, Lin Lin; He, Wei; Sun, Xiao Li; Zhang, Sheng Yong

2007-05-15

431

How much does it cost to stay at home? Career interruptions and the gender wage gap in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childbearing and subsequent interruptions have from a long time been cited as one of the major causes of the gender wage gap. The time spent out of the labour market to raise children may result not only in women accumulating less professional experience than men on average, but also in a pay penalty. Children can also have indirect effects on

Dominique MEURS; Ariane PAILHE; Sophie PONTHIEUX

432

Consequences of return to power after a beam interruption in the blanket of an accelerator driven system..  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sudden drop in power after a beam interruption leads to thermal fatigue effects in structural components in the blanket of an accelerator driven system. These thermal fatigue effects limit component lifetimes. A sudden return to power after a beam inter...

F. Dunn

2001-01-01

433

Experimental Evaluation of the Methods of Interrupting Visual Feedback in Investigating the Control System of Man's Movements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper contains an evaluation of the methods of interrupting visual feedback in the pursuit tracking movements of man, on the basis of experimental data. It is demonstrated that the control of man's movements is described by a closed-loop, open-loop sy...

A. Gidikov

1970-01-01

434

PREVENTION OF HIGH-FAT DIET INDUCED INSULIN RESISTANCE BY TRANSGENIC INTERRUPTION OF MYOSTATIN FUNCTION IN MICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Myostatin (MSTN), a member of TGF-B family of growth factors, negatively regulates muscle development. Previously, mouse myostatin's function was interrupted by over-expressing MSTN's prodomain in skeletal muscle, resulting in a significant increase in muscle mass (Yang, et al., Mol. Rep. Dev 60: 35...

435

One-stage neonatal repair of complex aortic arch obstruction or interruption. Recent experience at Texas Children's Hospital.  

PubMed Central

The optimal surgical approach for complex aortic coarctation or an interrupted aortic arch with associated intracardiac defects is not universally agreed upon. We reviewed our experience with 18 consecutive patients (10 with coarctation, 8 with interrupted aortic arch) undergoing a 1-stage repair through median sternotomy between September of 1995 and February of 1997. Age at operation ranged from 3 days to 3 months (mean 23 days) and weight ranged from 1,700 g to 5,100 g (mean 3,350 g). Under hypothermic circulatory arrest, the aortic arch was reconstructed using native tissue-tissue anastomoses, and coexisting intracardiac anomalies were repaired by standard techniques. All patients survived the procedure and were ultimately discharged from the hospital. There were 2 late deaths in the interrupted aortic arch group, 1 during reoperation for subaortic stenosis and the other from noncardiac causes 5 months after discharge. Another interrupted aortic arch patient required a Ross-Konno procedure 8 months later. There has been no recoarctation among the 16 survivors. Thus a 1-stage repair for complex aortic arch obstruction in neonates can be accomplished with low operative risk, although long-term outcome is strongly influenced by the presence of subaortic obstruction.

Hirooka, K; Fraser, C D

1997-01-01

436

Collecting and categorizing information related to electric power distribution interruption events: data consistency and categorization for benchmarking surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Reliability of electric power systems remains an important societal issue. While transmission disturbances draw national attention and scrutiny, service interruptions at the distribution level are the primary concern of the end-use customer and their regulatory and governmental representatives. Much effort has been expended in developing methods to uniformly and consistently quantify the reliability of distribution service

V. Werner; D. Hall; R. Robinson; C. Warren

2005-01-01

437

Collecting and categorizing information related to electric power distribution interruption events: data consistency and categorization for benchmarking surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability of electric power systems remains an important societal issue. While transmission disturbances draw national attention and scrutiny, service interruptions at the distribution level are the primary concern of the end-use customer and their regulatory and governmental representatives. Much effort has been expended in developing methods to uniformly and consistently quantify the reliability of distribution service based on electric system

V. G. Werner; D. F. Hall; R. L. Robinson; C. A. Warren

2006-01-01

438

43 CFR 3481.4-4 - What is the aggregate amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my lease...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my...

2012-10-01

439

A study of Time\\/Current Characteristics of the Ignition Processes in Cellulosic Material Caused by Electrical Arcing for Application in 240V Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the development of Arc-Fault Circuit interrupters (AFCIs), one of the most important parameters is the time that an arcing fault could persist before the device will interrupt the current flow and hopefully mitigate fire propagation. In 1996 Underwriters laboratories (UL) published a report on time\\/current ignition characteristics of arcs at 120 V. Despite the very limited number of tests

D. Kolker; S. Campolo; N. DiSalvo

2007-01-01

440

Modelling of the Interruption Process in SF6 High Voltage Circuit Breaker and Preliminary Study of the Arc Characteristics for Different Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

SF6 is exclusively used as insulation and quenching medium for high voltage circuit breaker because of its high insulation strength and high interruption capability of fault current at present. Therefore it is very necessary to investigate SF6 arc interruption process in high voltage circuit breaker. On the other hand, its greenhouse effect has stimulated the studies for searching environmentally friendly

Jian Zhang; Shenli Jia; Xingwen Li; Pengwei Liu; Zongqin Shi; Lijun Wang

2009-01-01

441

GGA*TCC-interrupted triplets in long GAA*TTC repeats inhibit the formation of triplex and sticky DNA structures, alleviate transcription inhibition, and reduce genetic instabilities.  

PubMed

Large expansions of GAA.TTC repeats in the first intron of the frataxin (X25) gene are the principal mutation responsible for Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). Sticky DNA, based on R.R.Y triplexes, was found at the expanded GAA.TTC repeats from FRDA patients. The (GAAGGA.TCCTTC)(65) repeat occurs in the same frataxin locus but is nonpathogenic and does not form sticky DNA. To elucidate the behavior of sticky DNA, we introduced various extents of GGA.TCC interruptions into the long GAA.TTC repeat. More than 20% of GGA.TCC interruptions abolished the formation of sticky DNA. However, the GAA.TTC repeats with less than 11% of GGA.TCC interruptions formed triplexes and/or sticky DNA similar to the uninterrupted repeat sequence. These triplexes showed different P1 nuclease sensitivities, and the GGA.TCC interruptions were slightly more sensitive than the surrounding GAA.TTC repeats. Furthermore, genetic instability investigations in Escherichia coli revealed that a small number (4%) of interruptions substantially stabilized the long GAA.TTC tracts. Furthermore, the greater the extent of interruptions of the GAA.TTC repeats, the less inhibition of in vitro transcription was observed, as expected, based on the capacity of interruptions to inhibit the formation of sticky DNA. We propose that the interruptions introduce base mismatches into the R.R.Y triplex, which explains the observed chemical and biological properties. PMID:11325966

Sakamoto, N; Larson, J E; Iyer, R R; Montermini, L; Pandolfo, M; Wells, R D

2001-04-26

442

42 CFR 412.531 - Special payment provisions when an interruption of a stay occurs in a long-term care hospital.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...interruption of a stay occurs in a long-term care hospital. 412.531 Section 412...Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.531 Special payment...interruption of a stay occurs in a long-term care hospital. (a) Definitions...

2010-10-01

443

The Relationship between the Current Waveform just before the Current Zero and the Interruption Ability in the High-speed VCB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-speed vacuum circuit breaker, which forced the fault current to zero was investigated. The test circuit breaker consisted of a vacuum interrupter and a high frequency current source. The vacuum interrupter, which had the axial magnetic field electrode and the disk shape electrode, was tested. The arcing period of the high-speed vacuum circuit breaker is much shorter than that of conventional circuit breaker. The arc behavior of the test electrodes immediately after the contact separation was observed by a high-speed video camcorder. The relation between the current waveform just before the current zero and the interruption ability by varying the high frequency current source was investigated experimentally. The results demonstrate the interruption ability and the arc behavior of the high-speed vacuum circuit breaker. The high current interruption was made possible by the low current period just before the current zero, although the arcing time is short and the arc is concentrated.

Niwa, Yoshimitsu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yokokura, Kunio

444

Unusual minor nonmethylene-interrupted di-, tri-, and tetraenoic fatty acids in limpet gonads.  

PubMed

Unusual minor nonmethylene-interrupted (NMI) FA have been identified in the lipids of gonads from the limpets Cellana grata and Collisella dorsuosa by using GC-MS of the combination of their 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives and picolinyl esters. Among 23 NMI unsaturated FA from C18 to C22 and C24 identified in this study, 5,11-nonadecadienoic (5,11-19:2), 7,1 6-heneicosadienoic (7,16-21:2), 9,15-tetracosadienoic (9,15-24:2), 5,9,15-docosatrienoic (5,9,15-22:3), and 5,9,15-tetracosatrienoic (5,9,15-24:3) acids may not have been reported previously from living organisms. The presence of 5,11,14,17-eicosatetraenonoic (5,11,14,17-20:4) and 7,13,16,19-docosatetraenenoic (7,13,16,19-22:4) acids as FA components in marine mollusks may be reported here for the first time. In this study, the male and female gonads of both species showed distinct differences in both their composition and proportions of NMI FA. Most NMI FA identified were mainly present in the female gonads of both species, especially in TAG that contained 21 NMI FA. PMID:16149742

Kawashima, Hideki

2005-06-01

445

The beta-tubulin genes of Paramecium are interrupted by two 27 bp introns.  

PubMed Central

In the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia, the analysis of the tubulin gene family has revealed the existence of four alpha and three beta genes. We show here that the coding sequence of the first beta-tubulin gene to be cloned and sequenced is interrupted by two short non-coding sequences of 27 bp each, which present at their extremities the pairs GT/AG, characteristic of eukaryotic pre-mRNA introns, and the internal pentanucleotide TTAAT, consensual in Tetrahymena introns. We demonstrate by PCR experiments that the three macronuclear beta-tubulin genes contain these sequences in similar positions, thereby ruling out the possibility that these sequences are ciliate IES present in the micronucleus and eliminated in the transcriptionally active macronucleus. S1 mapping analysis and mRNA sequencing show that the sequences are absent from the beta-tubulin transcripts. These sequences are the first introns described in protein encoding genes in P. tetraurelia and the shortest known introns altogether. Images

Dupuis, P

1992-01-01

446

A LTR copia retrotransposon and Mutator transposons interrupt Pgip genes in cultivated and wild wheats.  

PubMed

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins involved in plant defence. Wheat pgip genes have been isolated from the B (Tapgip1) and D (Tapgip2) genomes, and now we report the identification of pgip genes from the A genomes of wild and cultivated wheats. By Southern blots and sequence analysis of BAC clones we demonstrated that wheat contains a single copy pgip gene per genome and the one from the A genome, pgip3, is inactivated by the insertion of a long terminal repeat copia retrotranspon within the fourth LRR. We demonstrated also that this retrotransposon insertion is present in Triticum urartu and all the polyploidy wheats assayed, but is absent in T. monococcum (Tmpgip3), suggesting that this insertion took place after the divergence between T. monococcum and T. urartu, but before the formation of the polyploid wheats. We identified also two independent insertion events of new Class II transposable elements, Vacuna, belonging to the Mutator superfamily, that interrupted the Tdipgip1 gene of T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides. The occurrence of these transposons within the coding region of Tdipgip1 facilitated the mapping of the Pgip locus in the pericentric region of the short arm of chromosome group 7. We speculate that the inactivation of pgip genes are tolerated because of redundancy of PGIP activities in the wheat genome. PMID:18301877

Di Giovanni, Michela; Cenci, Alberto; Janni, Michela; D'Ovidio, Renato

2008-02-27

447

Sequestration of TRAF2 into Stress Granules Interrupts Tumor Necrosis Factor Signaling under Stress Conditions  

PubMed Central

The cellular stress response (SR) is a phylogenetically conserved protection mechanism that involves inhibition of protein synthesis through recruitment of translation factors such as eIF4G into insoluble stress granules (SGs) and blockade of proinflammatory responses by interruption of the signaling pathway from tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) to nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation. However, the link between these two physiological phenomena has not been clearly elucidated. Here we report that eIF4GI, which is a scaffold protein interacting with many translation factors, interacts with TRAF2, a signaling molecule that plays a key role in activation of NF-?B through TNF-?. These two proteins colocalize in SGs during cellular exposure to stress conditions. Moreover, TRAF2 is absent from TNFR1 complexes under stress conditions even after TNF-? treatment. This suggests that stressed cells lower their biological activities by sequestration of translation factors and TRAF2 into SGs through a protein-protein interaction.

Kim, Woo Jae; Back, Sung Hoon; Kim, Vit; Ryu, Incheol; Jang, Sung Key

2005-01-01

448

Reduction in male suicide mortality following the 2006 Russian alcohol policy: an interrupted time series analysis.  

PubMed

Objectives. We took advantage of a natural experiment to assess the impact on suicide mortality of a suite of Russian alcohol policies. Methods. We obtained suicide counts from anonymous death records collected by the Russian Federal State Statistics Service. We used autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) interrupted time series techniques to model the effect of the alcohol policy (implemented in January 2006) on monthly male and female suicide counts between January 2000 and December 2010. Results. Monthly male and female suicide counts decreased during the period under study. Although the ARIMA analysis showed no impact of the policy on female suicide mortality, the results revealed an immediate and permanent reduction of about 9% in male suicides (Ln ?0?=?-0.096; P?=?.01). Conclusions. Despite a recent decrease in mortality, rates of alcohol consumption and suicide in Russia remain among the highest in the world. Our analysis revealed that the 2006 alcohol policy in Russia led to a 9% reduction in male suicide mortality, meaning the policy was responsible for saving 4000 male lives annually that would otherwise have been lost to suicide. Together with recent similar findings elsewhere, our results suggest an important role for public health and other population level interventions, including alcohol policy, in reducing alcohol-related harm. PMID:24028249

Pridemore, William Alex; Chamlin, Mitchell B; Andreev, Evgeny

2013-09-12

449

Structured Treatment Interruptions with Tenofovir Monotherapy for Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Newborn Macaques  

PubMed Central

We demonstrated previously that prolonged tenofovir treatment of infant macaques, starting early during infection with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251), can lead to persistently low or undetectable viremia even after the emergence of mutants with reduced in vitro susceptibility to tenofovir as a result of a K65R mutation in reverse transcriptase; this control of viremia was demonstrated to be mediated by the generation of effective antiviral immune responses. To determine whether structured treatment interruptions (STI) can induce similar immunologic control of viremia, eight newborn macaques were infected with highly virulent SIVmac251 and started on a tenofovir STI regimen 5 days later. Treatment was withdrawn permanently at 33 weeks of age. All animals receiving STI fared much better than 22 untreated SIVmac251-infected infant macaques. However, there was a high variability among animals in the viral RNA set point after complete drug withdrawal, and none of the animals was able to achieve long-term immunologic suppression of viremia to persistently low levels. Early immunologic and viral markers in blood (including the detection of the K65R mutation) were not predictive of the viral RNA set point after drug withdrawal. These results, which reflect the complex interactions between drug resistance mutations, viral virulence, and drug- and immune-mediated inhibition of virus replication, highlight the difficulties associated with trying to develop STI regimens with predictable efficacy for clinical practice.

Van Rompay, Koen K. A.; Singh, Raman P.; Heneine, Walid; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Montefiori, David C.; Bischofberger, Norbert; Marthas, Marta L.

2006-01-01

450

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and acceptability of planned treatment interruptions in HIV-infected children.  

PubMed

There have been no paediatric randomised trials describing the effect of planned treatment interruptions (PTIs) of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on adherence, or evaluating acceptability of such a strategy. In PENTA 11, HIV-infected children were randomised to CD4-guided PTIs (n = 53) or continuous therapy (CT, n = 56). Carers, and children if appropriate, completed questionnaires on adherence to ART and acceptability of PTIs. There was no difference in reported adherence on ART between CT and PTI groups; non-adherence (reporting missed doses over the last 3 days or marking <100 % adherence since the last clinical visit on a visual analogue scale) was 18 % (20/111) and 14 % (12/83) on carer questionnaires in the CT and PTI groups respectively (odds ratios, OR (95 % CI) = 1.04 (0.20, 5.41), ?(2) (1) = 0.003, p = 0.96). Carers in Europe/USA reported non-adherence more often (31/121, 26 %) than in Thailand (1/73, 1 %; OR (95 % CI) = 54.65 (3.68, 810.55), ?(2) (1) = 8.45, p = 0.004). The majority of families indicated they were happy to have further PTIs (carer: 23/36, 64 %; children: 8/13, 62 %), however many reported more clinic visits during PTI were a problem (carer: 15/36, 42 %; children: 6/12, 50 %). PMID:22584916

Harrison, Linda; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Hamadache, Djamel; Compagnucci, Alexandra; Penazzato, Martina; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Mazza, Antonio; Ramos, Jose Tomas; Flynn, Jacquie; Rampon, Osvalda; Mellado Pena, Maria Jose; Floret, Daniel; Marczynska, Magdalena; Puga, Ana; Forcat, Silvia; Riault, Yoann; Lallemant, Marc; Castro, Hannah; Gibb, Diana M; Giaquinto, Carlo

2013-01-01

451

Children with smoking parents have a higher airway resistance measured by the interruption technique.  

PubMed

Children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, during or after pregnancy, are known to have decreased lung function. So far this has been measured using spirometry in schoolchildren and invasive techniques in newborns. The interruption technique (Rint) is a noninvasive technique to measure airway resistance in preschool children. Our aim in this study was to investigate the effect of passive smoke exposure on Rint values in preschool and school-aged children. Rint values were obtained from 557 children in two nursery and two primary schools in the north of the Netherlands. Besides information on parental smoking habits, we collected data on characteristics that might affect airway resistance (respiratory symptoms, atopy, and family history for asthma), using a short questionnaire. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the associations of these characteristics with Rint, for the whole group as well as for the preschool group separately. Atopy or a positive family history for asthma did not affect Rint values in the total group of 4-12-year-olds. However, as may be expected, height, age, weight, and having respiratory symptoms were associated with Rint. Moreover, Rint was significantly increased if parents smoked three or more cigarettes a day in the presence of their child. This result remained after subgroup analysis in the preschool children (4-6 years old). We conclude that passive smoke exposure is associated with a significantly higher airway resistance in preschool and school-aged children measured by Rint. PMID:15470684

Kooi, Elisabeth M W; Vrijlandt, Elianne J L E; Boezen, H Marike; Duiverman, Eric J

2004-11-01

452

Genomic Analysis of Pseudomonas putida Phage tf with Localized Single-Strand DNA Interruptions  

PubMed Central

The complete sequence of the 46,267 bp genome of the lytic bacteriophage tf specific to Pseudomonas putida PpG1 has been determined. The phage genome has two sets of convergently transcribed genes and 186 bp long direct terminal repeats. The overall genomic architecture of the tf phage is similar to that of the previously described Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages PaP3, LUZ24 and phiMR299-2, and 39 out of the 72 products of predicted tf open reading frames have orthologs in these phages. Accordingly, tf was classified as belonging to the LUZ24-like bacteriophage group. However, taking into account very low homology levels between tf DNA and that of the other phages, tf should be considered as an evolutionary divergent member of the group. Two distinguishing features not reported for other members of the group were found in the tf genome. Firstly, a unique end structure – a blunt right end and a 4-nucleotide 3?-protruding left end – was observed. Secondly, 14 single-chain interruptions (nicks) were found in the top strand of the tf DNA. All nicks were mapped within a consensus sequence 5?-TACT/RTGMC-3?. Two nicks were analyzed in detail and were shown to be present in more than 90% of the phage population. Although localized nicks were previously found only in the DNA of T5-like and phiKMV-like phages, it seems increasingly likely that this enigmatic structural feature is common to various other bacteriophages.

Glukhov, Anatoly S.; Krutilina, Antonina I.; Shlyapnikov, Michael G.; Severinov, Konstantin; Lavysh, Daria; Kochetkov, Vladimir V.; McGrath, John W.; de Leeuwe, Colin; Shaburova, Olga V.; Krylov, Victor N.; Akulenko, Natalia V.; Kulakov, Leonid A.

2012-01-01

453

Postkeratoplasty astigmatism control. Single continuous suture adjustment versus selective interrupted suture removal.  

PubMed

Two different suturing techniques performed during keratoplasty were retrospectively evaluated to compare postkeratoplasty astigmatism, number of suture manipulations, and time to optical stability. One group of patients (n = 31) received a combination of continuous 11.0 nylon suture and 12 or 16 interrupted 10.0 nylon sutures (CCIS), which were selectively removed post-operatively to reduce astigmatism. The second group of patients (n = 26) received a single continuous 10.0 nylon suture (SCS) that was adjusted postoperatively at the slit lamp to regulate corneal astigmatism. Compared with the CCIS technique, adjusting the single continuous suture resulted in less postoperative astigmatism (SCS, 1.5 +/- 1.1 diopters [D]; CCIS, 3.2 +/- 1.9 D), fewer suture manipulations per patient (SCS, 0.9 +/- 0.7; CCIS, 3.8 +/- 1.8), and earlier optical stability for visual rehabilitation (SCS, 2.6 +/- 1.5 months; CCIS, 9.6 +/- 4.7 months) (P less than 0.01). No continuous sutures were broken during adjustment. The adjustable single continuous suture may offer an improved method for early control of postkeratoplasty astigmatism. PMID:2008275

Van Meter, W S; Gussler, J R; Soloman, K D; Wood, T O

1991-02-01

454

Non-structured treatment interruptions (NTIs) among injection drug users in Baltimore, MD  

PubMed Central

Background We characterized patterns of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use and predictors of non-structured treatment interruptions (NTIs) among injection drug users (IDUs) in Baltimore, MD. Methods 335 IDUs who initiated HAART from 1996-2006 were studied. NTIs were defined as any subsequent six-month interval where HAART was not reported. Predictors of the first NTI and subsequent restart of HAART were examined using Cox regression. Results 260 (78%) reported ?1 NTI. Of 215 with ?1 follow-up visit after the NTI, 44 (20%) never restarted HAART, 62 (29%) restarted and remained on HAART and 109 (51%) reported multiple NTIs. NTIs were less likely among those who initiated HAART in later calendar years and hada recent outpatient visit and more likely among women, persons with detectable HIV RNA at the prior visit and those who reported injecting daily. Among those with NTIs, interuptions occurred earlier in persons who were younger, did not have a prior AIDS diagnosis and were actively injecting; NTIs lasted longer in persons who had higher HIV RNA levels, were incarcerated and drinking alcohol. A recent outpatient visit and not actively injecting were associated with restarting HAART. Conclusions NTIs were common in this population and occurred most frequently in the setting of active drug use and disruption of health care. Effective linkages between primary care for HIV and substance abuse treatment may improve HAART outcomes in this population.

Kavasery, Ravi; Galai, Noya; Astemborski, Jacquie; Lucas, Gregory M; Celentano, David D; Kirk, Gregory D; Mehta, Shruti H.

2009-01-01

455

Tokyoken ni okeru daikibo teiden no seikatsu, keizai eikyo chosa. (Investigation on influences of large-scale power service interruption on life and economy in the Tokyo metropolitan region).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigation and study are made on influences of large-scale power service interruption over life, society and economy in the Tokyo metropolitan region. The area of service interruption covers Tokyo Metropolis and Prefectures of Kanagawa, Saitama and Chi...

1994-01-01

456

Development of a Discharge Channel upon Electric Explosion of a Wire in Interrupted- and Uninterrupted-Current Regimes  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results on the electrical explosion of thin W, Cu and Ni wires with a current density of {approx}10{sup 12} A/m{sup 2}, a current rise rate (dI/dt){approx}40 A/ns and a current pulse with amplitude 9 kA are presented. The structures of the discharge channels developed in single wire explosions in air and vacuum using laser shadow and schlieren imaging have been studied under the condition that the current in the circuit was interrupted. A difference in the shock wave propagation in air and the expansion of the exploded wire dense core in interrupted- and uninterrupted-current regimes has been observed. Analysis of the optical images has been performed in a shunting breakdown scenario.

Romanova, Vera; Tkachenko, Svetlana; Mingaleev, Albert; Agafonov, Alexey; Ter-Oganesyan, Alexey; Shelkovenko, Tatiana; Pikuz, Sergey [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

2009-01-21

457

An investigation of list equivalency of the northwestern university auditory test no. 6 in interrupted broadband noise.  

PubMed

The equivalency of Lists 1 to 4 of the Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 (NU-6; T. W. Tillman and R. Carhart, 1966) was investigated in interrupted broadband noise. Forty-eight young adults with normal hearing participated. All lists were administered at 50 dB sensation level re: listener spondee recognition thresholds at signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) of 10, 5, 0, -5, -10, -15, -20, -25, and -30 dB. Significant differences in listener performance were observed only at S/Ns ranging from 10 to -10. Significant mean list differences varied from 5.8% to 12.0%. These findings support the notion that caution should be exercised in the interpretation of listener performance differences with NU-6 stimuli presented in a background of interrupted noise. PMID:15248801

Stuart, Andrew

2004-06-01

458

Efficient Interruption of Infection Chains by Targeted Removal of Central Holdings in an Animal Trade Network  

PubMed Central

Centrality parameters in animal trade networks typically have right-skewed distributions, implying that these networks are highly resistant against the random removal of holdings, but vulnerable to the targeted removal of the most central holdings. In the present study, we analysed the structural changes of an animal trade network topology based on the targeted removal of holdings using specific centrality parameters in comparison to the random removal of holdings. Three different time periods were analysed: the three-year network, the yearly and the monthly networks. The aim of this study was to identify appropriate measures for the targeted removal, which lead to a rapid fragmentation of the network. Furthermore, the optimal combination of the removal of three holdings regardless of their centrality was identified. The results showed that centrality parameters based on ingoing trade contacts, e.g. in-degree, ingoing infection chain and ingoing closeness, were not suitable for a rapid fragmentation in all three time periods. More efficient was the removal based on parameters considering the outgoing trade contacts. In all networks, a maximum percentage of 7.0% (on average 5.2%) of the holdings had to be removed to reduce the size of the largest component by more than 75%. The smallest difference from the optimal combination for all three time periods was obtained by the removal based on out-degree with on average 1.4% removed holdings, followed by outgoing infection chain and outgoing closeness. The targeted removal using the betweenness centrality differed the most from the optimal combination in comparison to the other parameters which consider the outgoing trade contacts. Due to the pyramidal structure and the directed nature of the pork supply chain the most efficient interruption of the infection chain for all three time periods was obtained by using the targeted removal based on out-degree.

Buttner, Kathrin; Krieter, Joachim; Traulsen, Arne; Traulsen, Imke

2013-01-01

459

Mechanism of evenness interrupted (Evi)-exosome release at synaptic boutons.  

PubMed

Wnt signaling plays critical roles during synaptic development and plasticity. However, the mechanisms by which Wnts are released and travel to target cells are unresolved. During synaptic development, the secretion of Drosophila Wnt1, Wingless, requires the function of Evenness Interrupted (Evi)/Wls, a Wingless-binding protein that is secreted along with Wingless at the neuromuscular junction. Given that Evi is a transmembrane protein, these studies suggested the presence of a novel vesicular mechanism of trans-synaptic communication, potentially in the form of exosomes. To establish the mechanisms for the release of Evi vesicles, we used a dsRNA assay in cultured cells to screen for genes that when down-regulated prevent the release of Evi vesicles. We identified two proteins, Rab11 and Syntaxin 1A (Syx1A), that were required for Evi vesicle release. To determine whether the same mechanisms were used in vivo at the neuromuscular junction, we altered the activity of Rab11 and Syx1A in motoneurons and determined the impact on Evi release. We found that Syx1A, Rab11, and its effector Myosin5 were required for proper Evi vesicle release. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis of synaptic boutons demonstrated the presence of multivesicular bodies, organelles involved in the production and release of exosomes, and these multivesicular bodies contained Evi. We also used mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and biochemical techniques to characterize the exosome fraction from cultured cells. Our studies revealed that secreted Evi vesicles show remarkable conservation with exosomes in other systems. In summary, our observations unravel some of the in vivo mechanisms required for Evi vesicle release. PMID:22437826

Koles, Kate; Nunnari, John; Korkut, Ceren; Barria, Romina; Brewer, Cassandra; Li, Yihang; Leszyk, John; Zhang, Bing; Budnik, Vivian

2012-03-21

460

The Psychosocial Impact of Interrupted Childbearing in Long-term Female Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Objective To understand the influence of cancer-related infertility on women’s long-term distress and quality of life. Women diagnosed at age 40 or less with breast cancer, Hodgkin disease (HD), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), were interviewed an average of 10 years later. We predicted that women whose desire for a child at diagnosis remained unfulfilled would be significantly more distressed. Methods Participants completed a semi-structured phone interview, including the SF-12®, Brief Symptom Inventory-18, Impact of Events Scale (IES), Reproductive Concerns Scale (RCS), brief measures of marital satisfaction or comfort with dating, sexual satisfaction, and menopause symptoms. Results Of 455 women contacted by phone, 240 (53%) participated. Seventy-seven women had wanted a child at diagnosis but did not conceive subsequently (38 remaining childless and 39 with secondary infertility). Even controlling for other psychosocial and health factors, this group had higher distress about infertility (RCS) (P < 0.001), had more intrusive thoughts about infertility, and used more avoidance strategies when reminded of infertility (IES) (P < 0.001). Childless women were the most distressed. Women with adopted or stepchildren were intermediate, and those with at least one biological child were least distressed. Infertility-related distress did not differ significantly by cancer site. Conclusions Even at long-term follow-up, distress about interrupted childbearing persists, particularly in childless women. Social parenthood buffers distress somewhat, but not completely. Not only is it important to offer fertility preservation before cancer treatment, but interventions should be developed for survivors to alleviate unresolved grief about cancer-related infertility.

Canada, Andrea L.; Schover, Leslie R.

2010-01-01

461

Interruption of Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Southern Chiapas Focus, M?xico  

PubMed Central

Background The Southern Chiapas focus of onchocerciasis in Southern Mexico represents one of the major onchocerciasis foci in Latin America. All 559 endemic communities of this focus have undergone semi-annual mass treatment with ivermectin since 1998. In 50 communities of this focus, ivermectin frequency shifted from twice to four times a year in 2003; an additional 113 communities were added to the quarterly treatment regimen in 2009 to achieve a rapid suppression of transmission. Methodology/Principal findings In-depth epidemiologic and entomologic assessments were performed in six sentinel communities (which had undergone 2 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year) and three extra-sentinel communities (which had undergone 4 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year). None of the 67,924 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from this focus during the dry season of 2011 were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA), resulting in an upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI) of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.06/2,000 flies examined. Serological assays testing for Onchocerca volvulus exposure conducted on 4,230 children 5 years of age and under (of a total population of 10,280 in this age group) revealed that 2/4,230 individuals were exposed to O. volvulus (0.05%; one sided 95% confidence interval?=?0.08%). Conclusions/Significance The in-depth epidemiological and entomological findings from the Southern Chiapas focus meet the criteria for interruption of transmission developed by the international community.

Rodriguez-Perez, Mario A.; Dominguez-Vazquez, Alfredo; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Arredondo-Jimenez, Juan I.; Orozco-Algarra, Maria Eugenia; Rodriguez-Morales, Kristel B.; Rodriguez-Luna, Isabel C.; Prado-Velasco, Francisco Gibert

2013-01-01

462

Cognitive functioning during highly active antiretroviral therapy interruption in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.  

PubMed

Although no longer considered therapeutically beneficial, antiretroviral treatment interruptions (TIs) still occur frequently among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection for a variety of reasons. TIs typically result in viral rebound and worsening immunosuppression, which in turn are risk factors for neurocognitive decline and dementia. We sought to determine the extent of neurocognitive risk with TIs and subsequent reintroduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by using a comprehensive, sensitive neuropsychological assessment and by concurrently determining changes in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral load and CD4 counts. Prospective, serial, clinical evaluations including neuropsychological (NP) testing and measurement of plasma HIV RNA and CD4 count and mood state were performed on HIV-1-infected individuals (N=11) at three time points: (1) prior to a TI, while on HAART; (2) after TIs averaging 6 months; and (3) after reinitiating HAART therapy. During TI, plasma HIV RNA increased and CD4 counts declined significantly, but NP performance did not change. Following reinitiation of HAART, viral loads fell below pre-TI levels, and CD4 counts rose. Improved viral suppression and immune restoration with reinitiation of HAART resulted in significant improvement in neurocognitive performance. No changes on comprehensive questionnaires of mood state were observed in relation to TI.NP performance and mood state remained stable during TIs despite worsened viral loads and CD4 counts. Because "practice effects" are generally greatest between the first and second NP testing sessions, improvement at the third, post-TI time point was unlikely to be accounted for by practice. TIs of up to 6 months appear to be neurocognitively and psychiatrically safe for most patients. PMID:19016380

Childers, Meredith E; Woods, Steven Paul; Letendre, Scott; McCutchan, J Allen; Rosario, Debralee; Grant, Igor; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Ellis, Ronald J

2008-11-01

463

Immunological predictors of CD4+ T cell decline in antiretroviral treatment interruptions  

PubMed Central

Background The common response to stopping anti-HIV treatment is an increase of HIV-RNA load and decrease in CD4+, but not all the patients have similar responses to this therapeutic strategy. The aim was to identify predictive markers of CD4+ cell count declines to < 350/?L in CD4-guided antiretroviral treatment interruptions. Methods 27 HIV-infected patients participated in a prospective multicenter study in with a 24 month follow-up. Patients on stable highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), with CD4+ count > 600/?L, and HIV-RNA < 50 copies/ml for at least 6 months were offered the option to discontinue antiretroviral therapy. The main outcome was a decline in CD4+ cell count to < 350/?L. Results After 24 months of follow-up, 16 of 27 (59%) patients (who discontinued therapy) experienced declines in CD4+ cell count to < 350/?L. Patients with a CD4+ nadir of < 200 cells/?L had a greater risk of restarting therapy during the follow-up (RR (CI95%): 3.37 (1.07; 10.36)). Interestingly, lymphoproliferative responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD) below 10000 c.p.m. at baseline (4.77 (1.07; 21.12)), IL-4 production above 100 pg/mL at baseline (5.95 (1.76; 20.07)) in PBMC cultured with PPD, and increased IL-4 production of PBMC with p24 antigen at baseline (1.25 (1.01; 1.55)) were associated to declines in CD4+ cell count to < 350/?L. Conclusion Both the number (CD4+ nadir) and the functional activity of CD4+ (lymphoproliferative response to PPD) predict the CD4+ decrease associated with discontinuation of ART in patients with controlled viremia.

Seoane, Elena; Resino, Salvador; Moreno, Santiago; de Quiros, Juan Carlos Lopez Bernaldo; Moreno, Ana; Rubio, Rafael; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, Jose Ramon; Pulido, Federico; Munoz-Fernandez, Ma Angeles

2008-01-01

464

Closing of interrupted vascular segmentations: an automatic approach based on shortest paths and level sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exact segmentations of the cerebrovascular system are the basis for several medical applications, like preoperation planning, postoperative monitoring and medical research. Several automatic methods for the extraction of the vascular system have been proposed. These automatic approaches suffer from several problems. One of the major problems are interruptions in the vascular segmentation, especially in case of small vessels represented by low intensities. These breaks are problematic for the outcome of several applications e.g. FEM-simulations and quantitative vessel analysis. In this paper we propose an automatic post-processing method to connect broken vessel segmentations. The approach proposed consists of four steps. Based on an existing vessel segmentation the 3D-skeleton is computed first and used to detect the dead ends of the segmentation. In a following step possible connections between these dead ends are computed using a graph based approach based on the vesselness parameter image. After a consistency check is performed, the detected paths are used to obtain the final segmentation using a level set approach. The method proposed was validated using a synthetic dataset as well as two clinical datasets. The evaluation of the results yielded by the method proposed based on two Time-of-Flight MRA datasets showed that in mean 45 connections between dead ends per dataset were found. A quantitative comparison with semi-automatic segmentations by medical experts using the Dice coefficient revealed that a mean improvement of 0.0229 per dataset was achieved. In summary the approach presented can considerably improve the accuracy of vascular segmentations needed for following analysis steps.

Forkert, Nils Daniel; Schmidt-Richberg, Alexander; Säring, Dennis; Illies, Till; Fiehler, Jens; Handels, Heinz

2010-03-01

465

Within-season flowering interruptions are common in the water-limited Sky Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within-season breaks in flowering have been reported in a wide range of highly variable ecosystems including deserts, tropical forests and high-elevation meadows. A tendency for interruptions in flowering has also been documented in southwestern US "Sky Island" plant communities, which encompass xeric to mesic conditions. Seasonal breaks in flowering have implications for plant reproductive success, population structure, and gene flow as well as resource availability for pollinators and dependent animals. Most reports of multiple within-season flowering events describe only two distinct flowering episodes. In this study, we set out to better quantify distinct within-season flowering events in highly variable Sky Islands plant communities. Across a >1,200 m elevation gradient, we documented a strong tendency for multiple within-season flowering events. In both distinct spring and summer seasons, we observed greater than two distinct within-season flowering in more than 10 % of instances. Patterns were clearly mediated by the different climate factors at work in the two seasons. The spring season, which is influenced by both temperature and precipitation, showed a mixed response, with the greatest tendency for multiple flowering events occurring at mid-elevations and functional types varying in their responses across the gradient. In the summer season, during which flowering across the gradient is limited by localized precipitation, annual plants exhibited the fewest within-season flowering events and herbaceous perennial plants showed the greatest. Additionally, more distinct events occurred at lower elevations. The patterns documented here provide a baseline for comparison of system responses to changing climate conditions.

Crimmins, Theresa M.; Bertelsen, C. David; Crimmins, Michael A.

2013-10-01

466

Chemical disinfection to interrupt transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from environmental surfaces to hands.  

PubMed Central

Rhinoviruses can survive on environmental surfaces for several hours under ambient conditions. Hands can readily become contaminated after contact with such surfaces, and self-inoculation may lead to infection. Whereas hand washing is crucial in preventing the spread of rhinovirus colds, proper disinfection of environmental surfaces may further reduce rhinovirus transmission. In this study, the capacities of Lysol Disinfectant Spray (0.1% o-phenylphenol and 79% ethanol), a domestic bleach (6% sodium hypochlorite diluted to give 800 ppm of free chlorine), a quaternary ammonium-based product (7.05% quaternary ammonium diluted 1:128 in tap water), and a phenol-based product (14.7% phenol diluted 1:256 in tap water) were compared in interrupting the transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from stainless steel disks to fingerpads of human volunteers upon a 10-s contact at a pressure of 1 kg/cm2. Ten microliters of the virus, suspended in bovine mucin (5 mg/ml), was placed on each disk, and the inoculum was dried under ambient conditions; the input number on each disk ranged from 0.5 x 10(5) to 2.1 x 10(6) PFU. The dried virus was exposed to 20 microliters of the test disinfectant. The Lysol spray was able to reduce virus infectivity by > 99.99% after a contact of either 1 or 10 min, and no detectable virus was transferred to fingerpads from Lysol-treated disks. The bleach (800 ppm of free chlorine) reduced the virus titer by 99.7% after a contact time of 10 min, and again no virus was transferred from the disks treated with it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Sattar, S A; Jacobsen, H; Springthorpe, V S; Cusack, T M; Rubino, J R

1993-01-01

467

Cerebral Activations Related to Ballistic, Stepwise Interrupted and Gradually Modulated Movements in Parkinson Patients  

PubMed Central

Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG) contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N?=?12) and healthy subjects (N?=?18). In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN) and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static) model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account enhanced responsiveness to external stimuli in this disease and the effects of hyper-fluctuating cortical inputs to the striatum and STN in particular.

Toxopeus, Carolien M.; Maurits, Natasha M.; Valsan, Gopal; Conway, Bernard A.; Leenders, Klaus L.; de Jong, Bauke M.

2012-01-01

468

Mechanism of Evenness Interrupted (Evi)-Exosome Release at Synaptic Boutons*  

PubMed Central

Wnt signaling plays critical roles during synaptic development and plasticity. However, the mechanisms by which Wnts are released and travel to target cells are unresolved. During synaptic development, the secretion of Drosophila Wnt1, Wingless, requires the function of Evenness Interrupted (Evi)/Wls, a Wingless-binding protein that is secreted along with Wingless at the neuromuscular junction. Given that Evi is a transmembrane protein, these studies suggested the presence of a novel vesicular mechanism of trans-synaptic communication, potentially in the form of exosomes. To establish the mechanisms for the release of Evi vesicles, we used a dsRNA assay in cultured cells to screen for genes that when down-regulated prevent the release of Evi vesicles. We identified two proteins, Rab11 and Syntaxin 1A (Syx1A), that were required for Evi vesicle release. To determine whether the same mechanisms were used in vivo at the neuromuscular junction, we altered the activity of Rab11 and Syx1A in motoneurons and determined the impact on Evi release. We found that Syx1A, Rab11, and its effector Myosin5 were required for proper Evi vesicle release. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis of synaptic boutons demonstrated the presence of multivesicular bodies, organelles involved in the production and release of exosomes, and these multivesicular bodies contained Evi. We also used mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and biochemical techniques to characterize the exosome fraction from cultured cells. Our studies revealed that secreted Evi vesicles show remarkable conservation with exosomes in other systems. In summary, our observations unravel some of the in vivo mechanisms required for Evi vesicle release.

Koles, Kate; Nunnari, John; Korkut, Ceren; Barria, Romina; Brewer, Cassandra; Li, Yihang; Leszyk, John; Zhang, Bing; Budnik, Vivian

2012-01-01

469

Interruptions of the ancient Shu Civilization: triggered by climate change or natural disaster?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental proxies of a stable carbon isotope, total organic carbon, free iron oxide, and particle size distribution in sediments as well as the stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in fossil human and animal teeth were used to reconstruct the history of climate change and natural disasters near the Jinsha Relic Site and to track their effect on the ancient Shu Civilization, which was established in the Chengdu Plain of southwest China during the late Holocene. In general, the late Holocene climate in the Chengdu Plain demonstrated a drying and cooling trend, with evident cooler events ~4100 and ~2700 a BP, which coincided with global climate changes. The ancient Shu Civilization was interrupted twice, and it included three stages—the Baodun (4700-3700 a BP), the Sanxingdui (3700-3150 a BP), and the Shi'erqiao (3150-2600 a BP)—that were slightly related to the abrupt climate changes that resulted from the collapse of the classic Sanxingdui Civilization, which was founded in a regional warm period. The abrupt increase in sand content in the sediment from the Jinsha Site coincided with the palaeoearthquake and palaeodam burst in the Longmen Mountains when the Baodun and Shi'erqiao desisted, indicating that a flood had occurred due to a dam burst and may likely have caused the ancient civilization's destruction. Although the warm and humid climate, flat terrain and rich water resources prompted the prosperity of the ancient towns of Sanxingdui and Jinsha, frequent natural disasters, such as powerful earthquakes, landslide dams, and outburst floods, consistently affected the ancient Shu inhabitants.

Wen, Xingyue; Bai, Song; Zeng, Na; Page Chamberlain, C.; Wang, Chengshan; Huang, Chengmin; Zhang, Qing

2013-04-01

470

Progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus transmission--worldwide, January 2010-March 2011.  

PubMed

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was launched in 1988. By 2006, transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) was interrupted in all but four countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nigeria). Subsequently, 39 previously polio-free countries experienced outbreaks following importation of WPV, and transmission became reestablished in Angola, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Sudan. This update summarizes progress toward polio eradication during 2010 and the first quarter of 2011. Worldwide, 1,291 WPV cases were reported in 2010, a 19% decrease from 2009; WPV type 3 (WPV3) cases decreased 92%, but WPV type 1 (WPV1) cases increased 145%. During 2010, 232 (18%) WPV cases were reported from the four polio-endemic countries; 159 (12%) cases were reported in Angola, Chad, and DRC; and 900 (70%) cases were reported in 13 countries, including two countries with outbreaks continuing from 2009 and 11 with new importations. During 2010, WPV cases in India and Nigeria decreased ?94% compared with 2009. Outbreaks in Tajikistan and the Republic of the Congo (Congo) accounted for two thirds of cases (842) in 2010. All new outbreaks in 11 polio-free countries in 2010 were stopped or were on track to being stopped within 6 months of outbreak confirmation. During January--March 2011, substantially more WPV cases occurred in Chad, DRC, and Pakistan than during the same period of 2010. To further progress toward polio eradication and achieve the 2012 target of ending all WPV transmission, significant increases in resources and political commitment are needed. PMID:21566559

2011-05-13

471

Evolution of mitochondrial DNA content after planned interruption of HAART in HIV-infected pediatric patients.  

PubMed

HAART-related long-term toxicities, many of them ascribed to mitochondrial (mt) toxicity of the nucleoside analogues, are being increasingly reported in HIV-infected children. HIV infection can also cause mt damage. Case series include 13 vertically HIV-infected pediatric patients (9 girls, median age 10.5 years) with optimal long-term response to a first-line HAART regimen who underwent planned treatment interruption (PTI). MtDNA content from peripheral blood mononuclear cells was assessed by means of a real-time PCR technique at PTI and 12 months later and expressed as an mtDNA/nuclear DNA ratio, together with lactate levels. At PTI, patients had remained a median time of 4.7 years on HAART and 4.3 years with complete suppression of viral replication. The main reason leading to PTI was treatment fatigue. One month after PTI, HIV plasmatic viral load had increased to 4.8 log copies/ml and stabilized thereafter. During the 12-month study period, all children remained free from any HIV-related clinical event. A progressive and significant decrease in median CD4 cell counts and percentages was observed 12 months after PTI. One year after PTI, the median mtDNA/nuclear DNA ratios had increased from 0.76 to 1.08 (p = 0.002) and lactate levels had decreased (from 1.12 to 0.73 mmol/liter; p = 0.019). Changes in mtDNA did not correlate with changes in lactate levels. No relationship was found between the evolution in mt toxicity markers and the rest of the clinical, immunological, and virological variables. In this series, PTI led to a partial restoration of mtDNA levels and a significant decrease in lactate values. PMID:20707732

Noguera, Antoni; Morén, Constanza; Rovira, Núria; Sànchez, Emília; Garrabou, Glòria; Nicolàs, Mireia; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Cardellach, Francesc; Miró, Oscar; Fortuny, Clàudia

2010-09-01

472

Interruptions in supplies of second-line antituberculosis drugs--United States, 2005-2012.  

PubMed

Second-line drugs (SLDs) are essential for treating multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB* and XDR TB†). Drug shortages, in which supplies of all clinically interchangeable versions of a given Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated drug become inadequate to meet actual or projected user demand, have been well-documented in many areas of medicine; for several years, drug shortages in the United States have affected the availability of SLDs for treatment of TB. In November 2010, a nationwide survey of TB control programs conducted by the National Tuberculosis Controllers Association (NTCA) indicated that shortages and other problems that hinder access to SLDs interfere with patient care and could promote the development of drug resistance as well as the transmission of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This report focuses on the growing issue of TB drug shortages and summarizes the findings of that survey, which indicated that 26 (79%) of the 33 responding health departments, representing approximately 75% of the U.S. TB burden, reported MDR TB during 2005-2010. Of these 26, 21 (81%) faced difficulties with SLD procurement, citing nationwide shortages (100%), shipping delays (71%), lack of resources (62%), and a complicated procurement process related to investigational new drug (IND) protocols (48%) as the main reasons. Adverse outcomes or other problems related to difficulties with SLD procurement were reported by 19 (90%) of 21 jurisdictions, with treatment delay (58%), a treatment lapse or interruption (32%), or the use of an inadequate regimen (32%) most commonly reported. Potential solutions for alleviating SLD shortages include stockpiling drugs centrally, sharing SLDs among jurisdictions, obtaining drugs from foreign manufacturers, and taking advantage of new legal requirements for drug suppliers to report shortages and impending shortages to FDA within a specified timeframe. Reliable, consistent access to SLDs will require the collaboration of CDC, FDA, state and local health departments, national health professional societies, and the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:23325352

2013-01-18

473

Do Active Surveillance and Contact Precautions Reduce MRSA Acquisition? A Prospective Interrupted Time Series  

PubMed Central

Background Consensus for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) control has still not been reached. We hypothesised that use of rapid MRSA detection followed by contact precautions and single room isolation would reduce MRSA acquisition. Methods This study was a pre-planned prospective interrupted time series comparing rapid PCR detection and use of long sleeved gowns and gloves (contact precautions) plus single room isolation or cohorting of MRSA colonised patients with a control group. The study took place in a medical-surgical intensive care unit of a tertiary adult hospital between May 21st 2007 and September 21st 2009. The primary outcome was the rate of MRSA acquisition. A segmented regression analysis was performed to determine the trend in MRSA acquisition rates before and after the intervention. Findings The rate of MRSA acquisition was 18.5 per 1000 at risk patient days in the control phase and 7.9 per 1000 at-risk patient days in the intervention phase, with an adjusted hazard ratio 0.39 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.62). Segmented regression analysis showed a decline in MRSA acquisition of 7% per month in the intervention phase, (95%CI 1.9% to 12.8% reduction) which was a significant change in slope compared with the control phase. Secondary analysis found prior exposure to anaerobically active antibiotics and colonization pressure were associated with increased acquisition risk. Conclusion Contact precautions with single room isolation or cohorting were associated with a 60% reduction in MRSA acquisition. While this study was a quasi-experimental design, many measures were taken to strengthen the study, such as accounting for differences in colonisation pressure, hand hygiene compliance and individual risk factors across the groups, and confining the study to one centre to reduce variation in transmission. Use of two research nurses may limit its generalisability to units in which this level of support is available.

Marshall, Caroline; Richards, Michael; McBryde, Emma

2013-01-01

474

Control of wake-induced exposure using an interrupted oscillating jet.  

PubMed

A problem may arise in ventilation design when the contaminant source is located in the worker's wake, where turbulence and vortex formation can carry the contaminant into the breathing zone even though the source is downwind. It was found previously that forced directional variations in the flow can reduce or eliminate the vortex formation that causes these local reversals. Reported here is a simple realization of this concept, in which an oscillating jet of air was directed at a mannequin in an otherwise steady flow of air. A 50th percentile male mannequin was placed in a nearly uniform flow of approximately 0.18 m/sec (36 ft/min). A low-velocity tracer gas source (isobutylene) was held in the standing mannequin's hands with the upper arms vertical and the elbows at 90 degrees. Four ventilation scenarios were compared by concentration measurements in the breathing zone, using photoionization detectors: (A) uniform flow; (B) addition of a steady jet with initial velocity 5.1 m/sec (1.0 x 10(3) ft/min) directed at the mannequin's back, parallel to the main flow; (C) making the jet oscillate to 45 degrees on either side of the centerline with a period of 13 sec; and (D) introducing a blockage at the centerline so the oscillating jet never blew directly at the worker. At the 97.5% confidence level the interrupted oscillating jet (case D) achieved at least 99% exposure reduction compared with the uniform flow by itself (case A), at least 93% compared with the steady jet (case B), and at least 45% exposure reduction compared with the unblocked oscillating jet (case C). PMID:12570392

Bennett, James S; Crouch, Keith G; Shulman, Stanley A

475

Detecting the molecular scars of evolution in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by analyzing interrupted coding sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Computer-assisted analyses have shown that all bacterial genomes contain a small percentage of open reading frames with a frameshift or in-frame stop codon We report here a comparative analysis of these interrupted coding sequences (ICDSs) in six isolates of M. tuberculosis, two of M. bovis and one of M. africanum and question their phenotypic impact and evolutionary significance. Results ICDSs were classified as "common to all strains" or "strain-specific". Common ICDSs are believed to result from mutations acquired before the divergence of the species, whereas strain-specific ICDSs were acquired after this divergence. Comparative analyses of these ICDSs therefore define the molecular signature of a particular strain, phylogenetic lineage or species, which may be useful for inferring phenotypic traits such as virulence and molecular relationships. For instance, in silico analysis of the W-Beijing lineage of M. tuberculosis, an emergent family involved in several outbreaks, is readily distinguishable from other phyla by its smaller number of common ICDSs, including at least one known to be associated with virulence. Our observation was confirmed through the sequencing analysis of ICDSs in a panel of 21 clinical M. tuberculosis strains. This analysis further illustrates the divergence of the W-Beijing lineage from other phyla in terms of the number of full-length ORFs not containing a frameshift. We further show that ICDS formation is not associated with the presence of a mutated