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1

Current Zero Missing Phenomena caused by D.C. Current which Flows from Shunt Reactor at the Ground Fault and its Interruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At substations where shunt reactors are installed, when a ground fault occurs near the reactor, d.c. current flows from the reactor to the fault point. There are cases where circuit breakers installed near the reactor interrupt only the d.c. current from the reactor with long arcing times. In those cases, attention should be paid to the damage of the contacts. This paper shows the investigation of the d.c. current interrupting performance for the 550kV one-break SF6 gas circuit breaker. In the range of some hundreds amperes, the d.c. arc voltages with long arcing times of the 550kV one-break circuit breaker were measured. The d.c. current waveform and arcing time at the d.c. current interruption by 550kV one-break circuit breaker in the 500kV cable system were calculated. Interrupting test circuit for the d.c. current interruption was constructed in the high power laboratory. From the interrupting test results, it was made clear that the circuit breaker had a good interrupting performance after the d.c. current interruptions.

Kobayashi, Takayuki; Eto, Atsushi; Koshizuka, Tadashi; Nishiwaki, Susumu; Kudo, Kietsu; Matsushita, Kozo; Hosokawa, Osamu

2

14C ages and activity for the past 50 ka at Volca??n Galeras, Colombia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volca??n Galeras is the southernmost Colombian volcano with well-recorded historic activity. The volcano is part of a large and complex volcanic center upon which 400,000 people live. Historic activity has centered on a small-volume cone inside the youngest of several large amphitheaters that breach the west flank of the volcano, away from the city of Pasto (population 300,000). Lava flows (SiO2 between 54.6 and 64.7 wt.%) have dominated activity for more than 1 Ma, but explosive events have also occurred. Joint studies by volcanologists from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and the United States produced 24 new 14C ages and more than 100 stratigraphic sections to interpret the past 50 ka of activity at Galeras, including sector collapse events. The youngest collapse event truncated 12.8 ka lava flows and may have occurred as recently as 8 to 10 ka. Tephra-fall material rapidly thins and becomes finer away from the vent area. The only widespread marker in the < 10 ka section is a biotite-bearing tephra deposited between 4.1 and 4.5 ka from a source south of Galeras. It separates cryoturbated from largely undisturbed layers on Galeras, and thus dates a stratigraphic horizon which is useful in the interpretation of other volcanoes and geotectonics in the equatorial Andes. Pyroclastic flows during the past 50 ka have been small to moderate in volume, but they have left numerous thin deposits on the north and east flanks where lava flows have been impeded by crater and amphitheater walls. Many of the pyroclastic-flow deposits are lithic rich, with fines and clasts so strongly altered by hydrothermal action before eruption that they, as well as the sector collapse deposits, resemble waste dumps of leached cappings from disseminated sulfide deposits more than volcanogenic deposits. This evidence of a long-lived hydrothermal system indicates susceptibility to mass failure and explosive events higher than expected for a volcano built largely by lava flows and modest Vulcanian eruptions. Photographs, written accounts, and our study document historic north and east flank pyroclastic flows as far as 10 km from the summit; however, none have left recognizable deposits in Pasto for more than 40 ka.

Banks, N.G.; Calvache, V.M.L.; Williams, S.N.

1997-01-01

3

Manipulating DC currents with bilayer bulk natural materials.  

PubMed

A novel and general method for spatially manipulating DC currents has been proposed and experimentally verified by only using bilayer bulk natural conductive materials. Our approach shows distinctive advantages with respect to homogeneity, isotropy, and independence of complicated microfabrication techniques. Our design scheme can be readily extended to robust manipulations of magnetic fields, thermal heat, elastic mechanics, and matter waves. PMID:24643906

Han, Tiancheng; Ye, Huapeng; Luo, Yu; Yeo, Swee Ping; Teng, Jinghua; Zhang, Shuang; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

2014-06-01

4

Interrupt Handling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The OâÂÂReilly Online Catalog provides us with a look at Chapter 9 of the book Linux Device Drivers by Alessandro Rubini and Jonathon Corbet. The chapter is entitled Interrupt Handling and it covers the overall control of interrupts, preparing the parallel port, installing and interrupt handler, interrupt sharing, race conditions, and more. The website offers example functions and codes to assist in the installation, implementation, and comprehension processes. The easily navigable table of contents makes the amount of text on the website easy and stress-free and the ordering information is available if the entire book seems of interest to those computer science teachers and students.

Corbet, Jonathan; Rubini, Alessandro

2009-07-06

5

DC current induced second order optical nonlinearity in graphene.  

PubMed

We calculate the dc current induced second harmonic generation in doped graphene using the semiconductor Bloch equations under relaxation time approximations. We find that the maximum value of the effective second order susceptibility appears when the fundamental photon energy matches the chemical potential. For a surface current density 1.1 × 10(3) A/m and a relaxation time at optical frequencies of 13 fs, the effective second order susceptibility ?eff(2);xxx can be as large as 10(-7)m/V for h?? = 0.2 eV or 10(-8) m/V for h?? = 0.53 eV. PMID:24977842

Cheng, J L; Vermeulen, N; Sipe, J E

2014-06-30

6

Interrupt Handling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The PowerPoint presentation, created by authors Hebah Kohari, Rathnakar Reddy Bodhireddy, and Sheril Dhabriya for Marist College, provides a great overview of interrupt handling in regards to computer operating systems. The presentation discusses the definition of interrupt handling and also provides examples of different types. Explanation of the hardware and software needed to handle interruption is outlined. Use of diagrams and flowcharts help illustrate these concepts; this provides each aspect with both a textual and visual representation. While complex, the authors make attempts to have the lesson be understandable for more novice users. Overall, this is certainly a useful resource for anyone in computer science education.

Bodhireddy, Rathnakar R.; Dhabriya, Sheril; Kohari, Hebah

2009-06-30

7

Interruptible iterators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces interruptible iterators, a language feature that makes expressive iteration abstractions much easier to implement. Iteration abstractions are valuable for software design, as shown by their frequent use in well-designed data structure libraries such as the Java Collections Framework. While Java iterators support iter- ation abstraction well from the standpoint of client code, they are awkward to implement

Jed Liu; Aaron Kimball; Andrew C. Myers

2006-01-01

8

Interruptible iterators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces interruptible iterators, a language feature that makes expressive iteration abstractions much easier to implement. Iteration abstractions are valuable for software design, as shown by their frequent use in well-designed data structure libraries such as the Java Collections Framework. While Java iterators support iteration abstraction well from the standpoint of client code, they are awkward to implement correctly

Jed Liu; Aaron Kimball; Andrew C. Myers

2006-01-01

9

Interrupted Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interrupted reading is a close reading technique that consists of dividing a passage of text into short chunks and pausing the reading after each section in order for the student to consider possible responses. This type of reading helps students connect with the text by requiring that they summarize, look for devices, make predictions, etc., as they are reading. This technique helps students to build confidence as they are forced to slow down and notice detail, and it is a tool to help build analysis and commentary skills. Passages from Annie Dillard, The Things They Carried and Cold Mountain are utilized in this lesson.

Edwins, Cathy

2012-09-01

10

Marine sediments and Beryllium-10 record of the geomagnetic moment variations of the 20-50ka interval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better constrain the Earth's dipole moment changes at the time of the Laschamp and Mono Lake excursions, we reconstructed the cosmogenic nuclide 10Be production variations in the atmosphere using authigenic 10Be/9Be records measured along two marine sediment sequences from the north-east Atlantic (Portuguese margin) and west-equatorial Pacific (Papua-New Guinea margin) oceans. These two records evidence an almost doubling of the 10Be production at ~41 ka, thus assignable to the geomagnetic dipole low associated to the Laschamp excursion. The compilation of authigenic 10Be/9Be marine records provides a stack which indicates that the global 10Be production rates at 41 ka were enhanced by a ~1.5 factor compared to the average over the 20-50 ka interval. The comparison of this authigenic 10Be/9Be marine stack with the Greenland 10Be flux record (smoothed by 1000-year averaging) evidences a good coherency of the timing and amplitude of 10Be production recorded at high, mid and low latitudes. This confirms that the 10Be overproduction signal has a global significance, as expected from a geomagnetic dipole moment loss. The calibration of the 10Be/9Be stack using absolute virtual dipole moment values provides an independent tool to reconstruct geomagnetic dipole moment variations. This allows computing the loss rate leading to the Laschamp dipole minimum (~ -1.5 x 1022 A.m2.ka-1), which constitutes an interesting criterion to assess the loss rate of the historical field. In constrast with relative paleointensity records and absolute paleointensity data sets, the absence of significant cosmogenic enhancement at the age of 34 ka suggests that the Mono Lake dipole low was not sufficient to trigger a significant cosmogenic overproduction. This demonstrates that if the Mono lake excursion really occurred at that time, the duration and amplitude of the dipole weakening were very limited compared to that of the Laschamp. The 10Be overproduction quantified in this study constitutes a reliable basis to calibrate radiocarbon production and in situ cosmogenic nuclides production. For example, it can help to understand the atmospheric 14C concentration variations, recorded near 41 ka and near 34 ka in ? 14C series. The 10Be production peak linked to the Laschamp dipole low can be used as a global tie point for correlation of high-resolution paleoclimatic series obtained from high quality archives. This study is funded through the MAG-ORB project ANR- 09-BLAN-0053-01.

Ménabréaz, L.; Thouveny, N.; Bourles, D. L.

2012-12-01

11

Variability of Western Pacific Warm Pool Rainfall since 50 ka BP: Lithologic and Isotopic Perspectives from Lake Matano, Central Sulawesi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use multiple paleohydrological proxies applied to the sedimentary record of Lake Matano (2°29.1'S 121°20'E), central Sulawesi, Indonesia, to understand the mechanisms controlling long-term variations of the Australian-Indonesian Monsoon (AIM) and Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) convection during the past 50 ka. Lithogenic tracers of surface runoff, including magnetic susceptibility and XRF-derived iron counts, are high during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2/Last Glacial Maximum as well as during millennial-scale northern hemisphere cold events (e.g. the Younger Dryas and Heinrich events), indicating a wetter climate during these northern hemisphere stadials. These events appear in antiphase to dry conditions in mainland Asia, reconstructed by oxygen isotopic analyses of Chinese speleothems, demonstrating antiphasing between the AIM (our record) and the East Asian Summer Monsoon (Chinese speleothems) at both orbital and millennial timescales. At the orbital band, this antiphasing is likely due to the influence of changing seasonal insolation on the global summer monsoons, northern hemisphere ice sheet expansion, and associated shifts in the mean latitudinal position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Interestingly, our data indicates that MIS2 was far wetter than the late Holocene, despite similar austral summer insolation at these times. The strikingly wet MIS2 signal in our proxy data compared to MIS1 and MIS3 suggests that the climate in this region is strongly sensitive to glacial forcings, likely related to changes in WPWP convection driven by greenhouse gas forcing and ice-volume induced atmospheric circulation changes. To better understand the connection between WPWP convection, water vapor transport, and AIM strength at orbital timescales, we also investigate hydrogen isotopic ratios of terrestrial higher plant leaf waxes (?Dwax) in Lake Matano's sediments. Assuming that ?Dwax records the ?D of past precipitation, which may be related to the intensity of WPWP convection, we hypothesize that periods of strong convection covary with intervals of high surface runoff. Comparison of our lithologic and isotopic proxies of terrestrial paleohydrology, including nearby Lake Towuti, with regional proxy data will also help constrain the boundary between wet and dry events in the WPWP during the northern hemisphere stadials.

Wicaksono, S. A.; Russell, J. M.; Bijaksana, S.; Noren, A. J.; Wattrus, N. J.; Vogel, H.

2012-12-01

12

Sensitivity enhancement of a microcantilever based DC current sensor by using its torsional modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigated the current sensitivity of a resonant sensor based on a magnetically actuated piezoresistive microcantilever in different resonant modes, which were the first flexural mode and the first and second torsional modes. The sensor was based on the idea of measuring the electrothermally induced resonance frequency shift as a result of the Joule heating dissipated when the DC current flowed through the Wheatstone bridge on the microcantilever. Two theoretical models between the microcantilever’s resonance frequency and the square of the applied DC current for the sensor operating under the flexural and torsional modes were established. From the experimental results, it can be seen that the current sensitivity of the first torsional mode is an order of magnitude greater than the first flexural mode, but less than that of the second torsional mode. In addition, the effect of the DC current’s direction on the measured results should be taken into account before detecting the DC current.

Zhang, Guiming; Zhao, Libo; Jiang, Zhuangde; Xu, Longqi; Hu, Yingjie; Zhao, Yulong; Liu, Zhigang

2014-12-01

13

DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a HTS-SQUID gradiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar panels are expected to play a major role as a source of sustainable energy. In order to evaluate solar panels, non-destructive tests, such as defect inspections and response property evaluations, are necessary. We developed a DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a High Critical Temperature Superconductor Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (HTS-SQUID) gradiometer with ramp edge type Josephson junctions. Two independent components of the magnetic fields perpendicular to the panel surface (?Bz/?x, ?Bz/?y) were detected. The direct current of the solar panel is visualized by calculating the composition of the two signal components, the phase angle, and mapping the DC current vector. The developed system can evaluate the uniformity of DC current distributions precisely and may be applicable for defect detection of solar panels.

Miyazaki, Shingo; Kasuya, Syohei; Mawardi Saari, Mohd; Sakai, Kenji; Kiwa, Toshihiko; Tsukamoto, Akira; Adachi, Seiji; Tanabe, Keiichi; Tsukada, Keiji

2014-05-01

14

Zeroing Transformer's DC Current in Resonant Converters with No Series Capacitors  

E-print Network

Zeroing Transformer's DC Current in Resonant Converters with No Series Capacitors Alexander in a transformer coupled resonant converter that does not include a series capacitor. This issue was explored capacitors which could lead to a significant cost and size reduction. Index Terms - Resonant power conversion

15

Operation of the DC current transformer intensity monitors at FNAL during run II  

SciTech Connect

Circulating beam intensity measurements at FNAL are provided by five DC current transformers (DCCT), one per machine. With the exception of the DCCT in the Recycler, all DCCT systems were designed and built at FNAL. This paper presents an overview of both DCCT systems, including the sensor, the electronics, and the front-end instrumentation software, as well as their performance during Run II.

Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Meyer, T.; Vogel, G.; /Fermilab

2012-01-01

16

Studies of high DC current induced degradation in III-V nitride based heterojunctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report experiments on high dc current stressing in commercial III-V nitride based heterojunction light-emitting diodes. Stressing currents ranging from 100 mA to 200 mA were used. Degradations in the device properties were investigated through detailed studies of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, electroluminescence, deep-level transient Fourier spectroscopy and flicker noise. Our experimental data demonstrated significant distortions in the I-V characteristics

W. Y. Ho; Charles Surya; K. Y. Tong; L. W. Lu; W. K. Ge

2000-01-01

17

Millennial-scale variability of diatom paleoproductivity during the last 50 ka: an equator-to-subtropics comparison along western Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal upwelling accounts for ~50% of the global export production in eastern boundary current systems. In these areas, diatoms deliver a substantial part of the ocean's primary productivity. Although productivity variations in coastal areas are usually attributed to wind stress-forced changes in upwelling intensity, the dynamics of primary production along the western African coast is less straightforward due to the complex atmospheric and hydrographic settings. In this study, we compare high-resolution diatom records encompassing the last 50 ka, which were generated at three hemipelagic sites drilled along the western African coast between 20°N and 25°S. The studied cores are: GeoB3606-1 (SE Atlantic, off Namibia), GeoB4905 (Guinea Basin), and GeoB7926-2 (NE Atlantic, off Mauritania). Though the three sites are coastal in location, the processes and mechanisms behind the preserved signal differ. This is clearly mirrored in both the variations of total diatom concentration and the qualitative composition of the community at each core site. While the inflow of silica-rich waters of Southern Ocean origin played a significant role off Namibia, precipitation-controlled riverine input of dissolved silica was decisive in the Guinea Basin. Off northwestern Africa, changes in wind intensity, the subsequent upwelling of dissolved silica and the seaward extension of the chlorophyll filament were responsible for diatom production. The implications of our observations for the late Quaternary productivity and the nutrient dynamics from low-latitude ocean areas, the possible effect of abrupt climate changes as well as interhemispheric teleconnections at both Milankovitch and millennial time-scales are discussed.

Romero, O.; Crosta, X.

2012-04-01

18

Portable circuit-interruption indicator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device locates transient power interruptions occurring in electrical equipment. Indicator operates on principle that circuit in normal use retains residual current in the line prior to an interruption.

Bezant, K. R.

1971-01-01

19

Interrupted monogroove slot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interrupted monogroove slot in a heat pipe facilitates priming of the heat pipe under zero gravity conditions by preventing the monogroove slot from completely priming before the liquid channel is primed.

Brown, Richard F. (Inventor); Edelstein, Fred (Inventor); Kosson, Robert L. (Inventor)

1993-01-01

20

Vortex domain structures and dc current dependence of magneto-resistances in magnetic tunnel junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfabrication and the magneto-transport characteristics of the magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with a spin-valve-type structure of Ta (5nm)/Ni79Fe21 (25nm)/Ir22Mn78 (12nm)/Co75Fe25 (4nm)/Al(0.8nm) oxide/Co75Fe25 (4nm)/Ni79Fe21 (20nm)/Ta(5nm) were investigated in this paper. A series of experimental data measured with a MTJ was used to verify a magnon-assisted tunnelling model and theory. Furthermore, a micromagnetics simulation shows that the butterfly-like vortex domain structures can be formed under a current-induced Oersted field, which decreases the net magnetization values of the ferromagnetic electrodes under a large dc current (i.e., in high voltage regimes). It is one of the main reasons for the tunnel magnetoresistance ratios to decrease significantly at high voltage biasing.

Wei, Hong-Xiang; Lu, Qing-Feng; Zhao, Su-Fen; Zhang, Xie-Qun; Feng, Jia-Feng; Han, Xiu-Feng

2004-09-01

21

Game interruptions in elite soccer.  

PubMed

The objectives of the study were to analyse game interruptions of league soccer in detail and the tactical use of game interruptions. Sixteen matches of a German first league soccer team were observed. An observational system was designed to assess interruption types, score, duration of interruption, location of interruption, time of interruption and number of occurrences. Results showed that there is an average of 108 interruptions per match. Throw-ins (40) and free kicks (33) were most frequent. Goal kicks (17), corner kicks (10), substitutions (4), and kick offs (3) occurred less often. Drop balls, penalties, and injuries occurred least often. For 38% of the total match time observed, matches were halted. The mean duration of running and interrupted match parts were 32.1 s and 18.7 s, respectively. The analysis showed significant differences concerning the influence of the location of interruption, score, and time of interruption on the duration of different interruption types (P < 0.05). The results of the study showed the tactical use of game interruptions during league soccer matches, e.g. goal kicks of the leading team take longer towards the end of the match. Examining game interruptions has turned out to be a valuable source of information adding to our knowledge of soccer. We have shown evidence that the durations of many interruptions serve tactical purposes, a well-known hypothesis in practice. PMID:22404095

Siegle, Malte; Lames, Martin

2012-01-01

22

ABBGroup-1-Thermal interruption  

E-print Network

separation occurs at 5 mm, vplug = 5.5 m/s. The early pressure oscillations are due to travelling waves©ABBGroup-1- 2-Jun-06 Thermal interruption performance and fluctuations in high voltage gas circuit...500 kA generation transmission distribution transformer HV substation MV substation 72...800 kV 2500

Basse, Nils Plesner

23

Deconstruction as Narrative Interruption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the way it prioritizes "interruption" and calls into question the very possibility of producing coherent, self-contained narratives, the deconstructive work of Jacques Derrida is often thought to be intrinsically anti-narrative in its very structure; and yet there are those who insist that, to the contrary, deconstruction is a narrative…

Gilbert-Walsh, James

2007-01-01

24

Miscarriage: A Dream Interrupted  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pregnancy is a developmental task that requires women to become accustomed to inherent and sometimes profound biological, somatic, and psychological changes. When pregnancy is interrupted by miscarriage, it may become a pivotal crisis point in the development of a woman's maternal identity as well as an issue in family development. This manuscript…

Trepal, Heather C.; Semivan, Suzanne Gibson; Caley-Bruce, Mary

2005-01-01

25

Frontline: The Interrupters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many organizations and individuals are working to transform some of America's most violent inner city neighborhoods by forming a series of coalitions with local residents, religious organizations, and schools. This engaging documentary from PBS's Frontline takes a look into "the violent landscape of our cities through the eyes of those fighting to sow peace and security." First-time visitors should click on "Meet the Interrupters" to learn about the unique individuals working on projects such as CeaseFire in Chicago and the Al Hafeez Initiative, which is designed to find resources for young boys and girls to utilize in after-school programs. Visitors can watch the entire program (one version that contains graphic language), move on to explore an online digital memorial for victims of violence, and also listen to profiles from National Public Radio and Chicago Tonight. Finally, visitors can click on the "Where Are They Now?" area to learn about what has happened to each "interrupter" since the documentary was released.

2012-03-02

26

Global interrupt and barrier networks  

DOEpatents

A system and method for generating global asynchronous signals in a computing structure. Particularly, a global interrupt and barrier network is implemented that implements logic for generating global interrupt and barrier signals for controlling global asynchronous operations performed by processing elements at selected processing nodes of a computing structure in accordance with a processing algorithm; and includes the physical interconnecting of the processing nodes for communicating the global interrupt and barrier signals to the elements via low-latency paths. The global asynchronous signals respectively initiate interrupt and barrier operations at the processing nodes at times selected for optimizing performance of the processing algorithms. In one embodiment, the global interrupt and barrier network is implemented in a scalable, massively parallel supercomputing device structure comprising a plurality of processing nodes interconnected by multiple independent networks, with each node including one or more processing elements for performing computation or communication activity as required when performing parallel algorithm operations. One multiple independent network includes a global tree network for enabling high-speed global tree communications among global tree network nodes or sub-trees thereof. The global interrupt and barrier network may operate in parallel with the global tree network for providing global asynchronous sideband signals.

Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton-On-Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kopcsay, Gerard V. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY)

2008-10-28

27

An architecture for intelligent task interruption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the design of real time systems the capability for task interruption is often considered essential. The problem of task interruption in knowledge-based domains is examined. It is proposed that task interruption can be often avoided by using appropriate functional architectures and knowledge engineering principles. Situations for which task interruption is indispensable, a preliminary architecture based on priority hierarchies is described.

Sharma, D. D.; Narayan, Srini

1990-01-01

28

Longitudinal inhomogeneity of DC current transport properties in Gd-system HTS tapes - Statistical approach for system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we studied the DC current transport properties of GdBCO-coated conductors, including the longitudinal distribution of critical current. Inhomogeneity of the local critical current was firstly measured by means of TapeStar™ at 77 K, and then characterized based on a statistical method. Current transport properties were also measured for different positions and/or distances of potential taps using a four-probe method. It was shown that the longitudinal inhomogeneity of the conductor was described by use of a simplified percolation depinning model that takes account of Gaussian distribution. We further distinguished the above-mentioned inhomogeneity between statistical distribution and random failure. Influence of the aforementioned statistically distributed current transport properties on the magnet performance was also elucidated for simple pancake coils. This information is important as it provides guidance for practical system design.

Nakamura, T.; Takamura, Y.; Amemiya, N.; Nakao, K.; Izumi, T.

2014-09-01

29

MgB2 cylindrical superconducting shielding for cryogenic measurement applications: a case study on DC current transformers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for designing cylindrical hollow superconducting shields for cryogenic measurement devices operating in background fields of 1 T is proposed. The shield design is based on MgB2 composite, manufactured by the reactive Mg liquid infiltration process [1]. The MgB2 composite allows low-cost shields with good mechanical resistance to be realized easily. The geometrical design is benchmarked by the experimental characterization at 4.2 K. A design case study for the shield of a cryogenic DC current transformer is reported. Design results show a shielding efficiency of 70% for both the axial and radial components, with prospective measurement accuracy up to 10 ppm on 100 kA.

Arpaia, P.; Ballarino, A.; Giunchi, G.; Montenero, G.

2014-04-01

30

A socio-technical systems approach to studying interruptions: understanding the interrupter's perspective.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to understand the cognitive processes underlying nurses' decision to interrupt other nurses. The Institute of Medicine (2000) reported that interruptions are likely contributors to medical errors. Unfortunately, the research to date has been quite homogenous, focusing only on the healthcare provider being interrupted, ignoring the true complexities of interruptions. This study took a socio-technical approach being the first to examine interruptions from the viewpoint of the interrupting nurse. Over 15 h of observations and 10 open-ended interviews with expert nurses in a Neuroscience Surgical Intensive Care Unit were conducted. It was found that nurses conduct a quick cost-benefit assessment to determine the interruptibility of other nurses and whether an interruption is value-added vs. non-value added. To complete the assessment, nurses consider several conditional factors related to the interruptee, the interrupter, and the nature of the interruption content, and different potential consequences of the interruption. PMID:24103213

Rivera, A Joy

2014-05-01

31

Assisting interruption recovery in mission control operations  

E-print Network

Frequent interruptions are commonplace in modem work environments. The negative impacts of interruptions are well documented and include increased task completion and error rates in individual task activities, as well as ...

Wan, Jordan (Jordan X.)

2007-01-01

32

Investigating Interruptions: Implications for Flightdeck Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fundamental aspect of multiple task management is attending to new stimuli and integrating associated task requirements into an ongoing task set; this is "interruption management" (IM). Anecdotal evidence and field studies indicate the frequency and consequences of interruptions, however experimental investigations of mechanisms influencing IM are scarce. Interruptions on commercial flightdecks are numerous, of various forms, and have been cited as contributing factors in many aviation incident and accident reports. This research grounds an experimental investigation of flightdeck interruptions in a proposed IM stage model. This model organizes basic research, identifies influencing mechanisms, and suggests appropriate dependent measures for IM. Fourteen airline pilots participated in a flightdeck simulation experiment to investigate the general effects of performing an interrupting task and interrupted procedure, and the effects of specific task factors: (1) modality; (2) embeddedness, or goal-level, of an interruption; (3) strength of association, or coupling-strength, between interrupted tasks; (4) semantic similarity; and (5) environmental stress. General effects of interruptions were extremely robust. All individual task factors significantly affected interruption management, except "similarity." Results extend the Interruption Management model, and are interpreted for their implications for interrupted flightdeck performance and intervention strategies for mitigating their effects on the flightdeck.

Latorella, Kara A.

1999-01-01

33

Implementation of precise interrupts in pipelined processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interrupt is precise if the saved process state corresponds with the sequential model of program execution where one instruction completes before the next begins. In a pipelined processor, precise interrupts are difficult to achieve because an instruction may be initiated before its predecessors have been completed. This paper describes and evaluates solutions to the precise interrupt problem in pipelined

James E. Smith; Andrew R. Pleszkun

1985-01-01

34

Implementing Precise Interrupts in Pipelined Processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and evaluates solutions to the precise interrupt problem in pipelined processors. An interrupt is precise if the saved process state corresponds with a sequential model of program execution where one instruction completes before the next begins. In a pipelined processor, precise interrupts are difficult to implement because an instruction may be initiated before its predecessors have completed.

James E. Smith; Andrew R. Pleszkun

1988-01-01

35

Heat Pipe With Interrupted Slot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Newer version of heat pipe slot interrupted by plug or, if heat pipe is cast, by bridge of heat-pipe material cast integrally across groove. Small barrier assists in priming heat pipe. Vapor and noncondensible gas still accumulates in liquid channel at evaporator before or during startup, but barrier keeps liquid out of small part of slot at bubble. Dry part of slot allows bubble to escape into vapor channel, making room for liquid to move in during startup.

Brown, Richard F.; Kosson, Robert L.; Edelstein, Fred

1994-01-01

36

WORK INTERRUPTED: A CLOSER LOOK AT THE ROLE OF INTERRUPTIONS IN ORGANIZATIONAL LIFE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Interruptions are typically considered disruptive for organizational members, hindering their performance,and effectiveness. Although interruptions can have negative effects on work performance, they also can serve in multiple ways as facilitators of performance. In this paper, we discuss four key types of interruptions that have different causes and consequences: intrusions, breaks, distractions, and discrepancies. Each type of interruption can occur

QUINTUS R. JETT; JENNIFER M. GEORGE

2003-01-01

37

Editorial: The Interrupted Case Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many ways to tell a tale. This issue of the journal demonstrates that point as it devotes itself once again entirely to case studies. One particularly useful type of case study is the Interrupted Case Method. In this form, information is fed piecemeal to students working in small groups, allowing all students to be engaged in problem solving. The case is presented in one class period, which faculty find appealing due to the ease of writing and teaching this type of case.

Herreid, Clyde F.

2005-10-01

38

Interruption-similarity effects during discourse processing  

PubMed Central

We examined the effect of interruption on reading to determine if discourse processing is susceptible to similarity-based interference. Participants read pairs of passages, either one before the other (in the continuous condition) or with the sentences of the two passages interleaved (in the interruption condition). In addition, the similarity of the types of passages (narrative or expository) in a pair was manipulated. Performance was measured with self-paced reading time of the sentences and with accuracy in answering comprehension questions. In two experiments, interruption slowed the reading of text sentences; this effect of interruption was greatest when the interrupting text was of the same style as the primary text (an interruption-similarity effect). We discuss these results with respect to current models of the role of working memory in discourse processing. PMID:16938692

Ledoux, Kerry; Gordon, Peter C.

2006-01-01

39

Formal Modelling of Task Interruptions Francis Jambon  

E-print Network

the right questions when developing a system. ISAU will be assessed using a real­world exemplar: the Data­Link system that supports communications between pilots from different aircraft's and air traffic controllers of an interruption is about 2 minutes. Interruptions in the workspace are significant but not dangerous; in safety

Nigay, Laurence

40

MODEL-BASED PREDICTIONS OF INTERRUPTED CHECKLISTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improper completion of a cockpit checklist has contributed to a number of aviation accidents. In many of these cases, it can be shown that interruptions were a contributing factor in the failure to complete the checklist properly. Unfortunately, most studies of interruptions have provided only post-hoc explanations for these failures. Further, research has focused on whether or not tasks

Melanie Diez; Deborah A. Boehm-Davis; Robert W. Holt

2002-01-01

41

Opportunistic Interruptions: Interactional Vulnerabilities Deriving from Linearization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speaking involves "linearizing" a message into a string of words. This process leaves us vulnerable to being interrupted in such a way that the aborted turn is a misrepresentation of the intended message. Further, because we linearize our messages in standard ways, we are recurrently vulnerable to interruptions at particular turn-construction…

Gibson, David R.

2005-01-01

42

Interrupt Synchronization Lock for Real-time Operating Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fundamental design decisions in an operating system is how to handle coordination between synchronous and asynchronous event handlers, especially handling the asynchronous interrupts. Interrupt synchronization is critical for real-time operating systems to increase system performance and reduce the interrupt response time. This paper proposes an interrupt synchronization lock (ISLock) technology to synchronize the interrupts without masking. Experimental

Huaidong Shi; Ming Cai; Jinxiang Dong

2006-01-01

43

30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Circuit-interrupting devices. ...APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT...Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. ...machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device...

2010-07-01

44

30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Circuit-interrupting devices. ...APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT...Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. ...machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device...

2014-07-01

45

30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Circuit-interrupting devices. ...APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT...Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. ...machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device...

2013-07-01

46

30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Circuit-interrupting devices. ...APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT...Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. ...machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device...

2011-07-01

47

30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Circuit-interrupting devices. ...APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT...Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. ...machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device...

2012-07-01

48

Improvements in DC Current-Ioltage (I-V) Characteristics of n-GaN Schottky Diode using Metal Overlap Edge Termination  

SciTech Connect

Practical design of GaN Schottky diodes incorporating a field plate necessitates an understanding of how the addition of such plate affects the diode performance. In this paper, we investigated the effects on DC current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of n-GaN schottky diode by incorporating metal overlap edge termination. The thickness of the oxide film varies from 0.001 to 1 micron. Two-dimensional Atlas/Blaze simulations revealed that severe electric field crowding across the metal semiconductor contact will cause reliability concern and limit device breakdown voltage. DC current-voltage (I-V) measurements indicate that the forward currents are higher for thinner oxide film schottky diodes with metal overlap edge termination than those of unterminated schottky diodes. The forward current increased due to formation of an accumulation layer underneath the oxide layer. Extending the field plate to beyond periphery regions of schottky contact does not result in any significant increase in forward current. The new techniques of ramp oxide metal overlap edge termination have been implemented to increase the forward current of n-GaN schottky diode. In reverse bias, breakdown voltage increased with edge termination oxide up to a certain limit of oxide thickness.

Munir, T.; Aziz, A. A.; Abdullah, M. J. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research Laboratory (NOR), School of Physics Universiti Sains Malaysia 11800 Minden Penang Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research Laboratory (NOR), School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

2010-03-11

49

Magnetoimpedance effect of the Ni80Fe20/Cu composite wires: The influence of DC current imposed on the Cu base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the copper composite wires of 75 ?m in diameter with a sputtered layer of Ni80Fe20 permalloy were prepared, with a DC current applied to the basal Cu terminals during the fabrication process. The influence of the DC current on the magnetic configuration and Magneto-Impedance (MI) effect was studied. The results indicate that both the current amplitude and actuation duration have significant effect on the magnetic properties of the Ni80Fe20 layer. With appropriate current applied, the induced magnetic field leads to a circumferential magnetic domain structure and reduces significantly the equivalent anisotropy field of Ni80Fe20 layer. Then, the GMI ratio of the composite wires was significantly increased. A maximum GMI of 194.8% can be reached when the current was fixed at 100 mA and the Ni80Fe20 thickness is 780 nm. If the Ni80Fe20 thickness is above 780 nm, the coercivity of the coating layer increases while the GMI ratio of the composite wire reduces, since the magnetic anisotropy of the Ni80Fe20 layer varies from circumferential to longitudinal. The results were explained combining the thermal and magnetic effects of current.

Chen, Delu; Li, Xin; Ji, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Qiang; Ruan, Jianzhong; Zhao, Zhenjie

2014-06-01

50

ATmega128 Interrupt Jee-Hwan Ryu  

E-print Network

of Technology and Education Korea University of Technology and Education (Interrupt, ) CPU of Technology and Education CPU Zero ATmega128 . #12;Korea University of Technology and Education A/D DMA Korea University of Technology and Education

Ryu, Jee-Hwan

51

Quantifying distraction and interruption in urological surgery  

PubMed Central

Background To enhance safety in surgery, it is necessary to develop a variety of tools for measuring and evaluating the system of work. One important consideration for safety in any high?risk work is the frequency and effect of distraction and interruption. Aim To quantify distraction and interruption to the sterile surgical team in urology. Methods Observation of the behaviour of the surgical team and their task activity determined distraction and interruption recorded. Using an ordinal scale, an observer rated each salient distraction or interruption observed in relation to the team's involvement. Results The frequency of events and their attached ratings were high, deriving from varying degrees of equipment, procedure and environment problems, telephones, bleepers and conversations. Discussion With further refinement and testing, this method may be useful for distinguishing ordinal levels of work interference in surgery and helpful in raising awareness of its origin for postoperative surgical team debriefing. PMID:17403761

Healey, A N; Primus, C P; Koutantji, M

2007-01-01

52

Checklist interruption and resumption: A linguistic study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study forms part of a project investigating the relationships among the formal structure of aviation procedures, the ways in which the crew members are taught to execute them, and the ways in which thet are actually performed in flight. Specifically, this report examines the interactions between the performance of checklists and interruptions, considering both interruptions by radio communications and by other crew members. The data consists of 14 crews' performance of a full mission simulation of a higher ratio of checklist speech acts to all speech acts within the span of the performance of the checklist. Further, it is not number of interruptions but length of interruptions which is associated with crew performance quality. Use of explicit holds is also associated with crew performance.

Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph

1987-01-01

53

Fast interrupt platform for extended DOS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extended DOS offers the unique combination of a simple operating system which allows direct access to the interrupt tables, 32 bit protected mode access to 4096 MByte address space, and the use of industry standard C compilers. The drawback is that fast interrupt handling requires both 32 bit and 16 bit versions of each real-time process interrupt handler to avoid mode switches on the interrupts. A set of tools has been developed which automates the process of transforming the output of a standard 32 bit C compiler to 16 bit interrupt code which directly handles the real mode interrupts. The entire process compiles one set of source code via a make file, which boosts productivity by making the management of the compile-link cycle very simple. The software components are in the form of classes written mostly in C. A foreground process written as a conventional application which can use the standard C libraries can communicate with the background real-time classes via a message passing mechanism. The platform thus enables the integration of high performance real-time processing into a conventional application framework.

Duryea, T. W.

1995-01-01

54

Coordinating the Interruption of People in Human Computer Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

People have cognitive limitations that make them sensitive to interruption. These limitations can cause people to make serious mistakes when they are interrupted. Unfortunately, interruption of people is a side effect of systems that allow users to delegate tasks to active background processes, like intelligent software agents. Delegation carries the costs of supervision, and that often includes being interrupted by

Daniel C. McFarlane

55

Interruption as a test of the user-computer interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to study the effects different logic systems might have on interrupted operation, an algebraic calculator and a reverse polish notation calculator were compared when trained users were interrupted during problem entry. The RPN calculator showed markedly superior resistance to interruption effects compared to the AN calculator although no significant differences were found when the users were not interrupted. Causes and possible remedies for interruption effects are speculated. It is proposed that because interruption is such a common occurrence, it be incorporated into comparative evaluation tests of different logic system and control/display system and that interruption resistance be adopted as a specific design criteria for such design.

Kreifeldt, J. G.; Mccarthy, M. E.

1981-01-01

56

Control algorithm for the inverter fed induction motor drive with DC current feedback loop based on principles of the vector control  

SciTech Connect

This paper brings out a control algorithm for VSI fed induction motor drives based on the converter DC link current feedback. It is shown that the speed and flux can be controlled over the wide speed and load range quite satisfactorily for simpler drives. The base commands of both the inverter voltage and frequency are proportional to the reference speed, but each of them is further modified by the signals derived from the DC current sensor. The algorithm is based on the equations well known from the vector control theory, and is aimed to obtain the constant rotor flux and proportionality between the electrical torque, the slip frequency and the active component of the stator current. In this way, the problems of slip compensation, Ri compensation and correction of U/f characteristics are solved in the same time. Analytical considerations and computer simulations of the proposed control structure are in close agreement with the experimental results measured on a prototype drive.

Vuckovic, V.; Vukosavic, S. (Electrical Engineering Inst. Nikola Tesla, Viktora Igoa 3, Belgrade, 11000 (Yugoslavia))

1992-01-01

57

Implementation Of Precise Interrupts In Pipelined Processors  

E-print Network

This paper describes and evaluates solutions m the precise interrupt problem in pipelined proces- The precise interrupt problem is first described. Then five solutions are discussed in detail. The first forces instructions to complete and modi' the process state in rchimctural order. The other four allow instructions to complete in any order. bul additional hardware is used so that a prec,se state can be restored when n interrupt occurs. All the methods are dzscussed in the contaxi of a parallel pipeline struc- lure. Simulation results based on the CRAY-IS scalar arch,teclure are ud to show that. a! heal. the firsl solution results in a performance degradation of about 16. The remaining four solutions offer similar performance. and three of them result in as lillle as a 3% performance loss. Several extcnstons. including virtual memory and linear pipeline structures. are briefly discussed

James E. Smith; Andrew R. Plesskun

1985-01-01

58

Interruptible Electric Rates: Where We Are Today  

E-print Network

for an airline which are p!iCed below the regular service fare but allow th air line to "bump" the passenger should the fli ht be overbooked. Just as there has to be an eco~omic advantage for an airline passenger to purchase such a ticket, industrial... public education effort to sell interruptible service can produce an initial reduction of:at least 50 percent of one year's normal growt~ in generation and transmission capacity. I Interruptible service is very similar to stand-by tickets...

Frees, R. J.

1982-01-01

59

DC current induced metal-insulator transition in epitaxial Sm{sub 0.6}Nd{sub 0.4}NiO{sub 3}/LaAlO{sub 3} thin film  

SciTech Connect

The metal-insulator transition (MIT) in strong correlated electron materials can be induced by external perturbation in forms of thermal, electrical, optical, or magnetic fields. We report on the DC current induced MIT in epitaxial Sm{sub 0.6}Nd{sub 0.4}NiO{sub 3} (SNNO) thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition on (001)-LaAlO{sub 3} substrate. It was found that the MIT in SNNO film not only can be triggered by thermal, but also can be induced by DC current. The T{sub MI} of SNNO film decreases from 282 K to 200 K with the DC current density increasing from 0.003 × 10{sup 9} A•m{sup ?2} to 4.9 × 10{sup 9} A•m{sup ?2}. Based on the resistivity curves measured at different temperatures, the MIT phase diagram has been successfully constructed.

Huang, Haoliang [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China) [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Luo, Zhenlin, E-mail: zlluo@ustc.edu.cn; Yang, Yuanjun; Yang, Mengmeng; Wang, Haibo; Hu, Sixia; Bao, Jun [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China) [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Yun, Yu; Meng, Dechao; Lu, Yalin [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)] [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Gao, Chen, E-mail: cgao@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China) [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2014-05-15

60

Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.  

PubMed

We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:1621022

Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

1992-06-01

61

Effects of Interrupt Coalescence on Network Measurements  

E-print Network

used in the early days of Fast Ethernet NICs [1]. In this work, we identify and describe the negative Gigabit Ethernet controllers. Then, we identify the negative effects of IC on active and passive network interrupts instead of processing the data contained in received packets [1]. In Gigabit Ethernet (GigE) paths

Dovrolis, Constantinos

62

Atomic Heap Transactions and Finegrain Interrupts  

E-print Network

page faults. We cast the space of possible implementations into a gen­ eral taxonomy, and describe and the compiler can collude to make atomic heap allocation and interrupt handling cheap. Finally, we'll To appear. show a new technique for cheap heap interlock and discuss its implementation. Program threads must

Shivers, Olin

63

Avoiding and Managing Interruptions of Electric Service Under an Interruptible Contract or Tariff  

E-print Network

to curtail their usage, and may be assuming that interruptions will never occur. This situation is largely due to the glut of electric generating capacity that exists today in the United States -generally speaking, there is enough generation available...

Evans, G. W.

64

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2013-10-01

65

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2012-10-01

66

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2014-10-01

67

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2011-10-01

68

Time dependent electric field and E-I curves in Bi-2223 tapes carrying DC currents and exposed to perpendicular AC magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the time-dependent electric field, E(t), and E-I curves of BSCCO/Ag tapes at 77 K is presented. Measurements were performed on tapes carrying DC transport current and exposed to external AC (0-500 G, 4-400 Hz) magnetic fields perpendicular to the broad side of the tape. E-I curves measured at frequencies exceeding 50 Hz and at amplitudes of the AC field below 400 G are well described by power law in the range between 0.1 and 10 µV/cm of the electric field. The results within this domain of parameters are discussed, assuming a narrowing down of the DC current path under the application of a perpendicular AC field. Nearly linear dependency of electric field on transport current was observed at the frequency-amplitude domain below 10 Hz and above 500 G. Using magneto-optical techniques we are able to determine that in this domain the AC magnetic field fully penetrates the tape. Behaviour of E-I curves under these conditions can be elucidated using the ''dynamic resistance'' model in conjunction with the assumption that the magnetic field fully penetrates the superconductor.

Friedman, A.; Lukovsky, G.; Roitberg, V.; Wolfus, Y.; Kopansky, F.; Kalisky, B.; Yeshurun, Y.

2006-06-01

69

Determining the Overall Impact of Interruptions during Online Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With an increase in the number of online tests, interruptions during testing due to unexpected technical issues seem unavoidable. For example, interruptions occurred during several recent state tests. When interruptions occur, it is important to determine the extent of their impact on the examinees' scores. There is a lack of research on this…

Sinharay, Sandip; Wan, Ping; Whitaker, Mike; Kim, Dong-In; Zhang, Litong; Choi, Seung W.

2014-01-01

70

IMPROVING CATASTROPHE MODELING FOR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION INSURANCE NEEDS  

E-print Network

IMPROVING CATASTROPHE MODELING FOR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION INSURANCE NEEDS by Adam Rose Price School, Surrey, UK KT21 2BT May 10, 2012 #12;1 IMPROVING CATASTROPHE MODELING FOR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION INSURANCE modeling of business interruption (BI) is still in a relative state of infancy. One reason

Wang, Hai

71

Environmental Simulation of Real-Time Systems with Nested Interrupts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interrupts are important aspects of real-time embedded systems to handle events in time. When there exist nested in- terrupts in a real-time system, and an urgent interrupt is al- lowed to preempt the current interrupt handling, the design and analysis of the system become difficult due to the lack of appropriate behavioral models. This paper proposes a compositional model for

Guoqiang Li; Shoji Yuen; Masakazu Adachi

2009-01-01

72

Giving the Caller the Finger: Collaborative Responsibility for Cellphone Interruptions  

E-print Network

Giving the Caller the Finger: Collaborative Responsibility for Cellphone Interruptions Stefan Marti if it is their own cellphones that are about to interrupt, each of them has the possibility to veto the call. Author Keywords Mobile communication, cellphone interruption, social polling, collaborative

Madiraju, Praveen

73

Interrupting long periods of sitting: good STUFF.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that sedentary behaviour is in itself a health risk, regardless of the daily amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Therefore, sedentary behaviour should be targeted as important health behaviour. It is known that even relatively small changes of health behaviour often require serious efforts from an individual and from people in their environment to become part of their lifestyle. Therefore, interventions to promote healthy behaviours should ideally be simple, easy to perform and easily available. Since sitting is likely to be highly habitual, confrontation with an intervention should almost automatically elicit a reaction of getting up, and thus break up and reduce sitting time. One important prerequisite for successful dissemination of such an intervention could be the use of a recognisable term relating to sedentary behaviour, which should have the characteristics of an effective brand name. To become wide spread, this term may need to meet three criteria: the "Law of the few", the "Stickiness factor", and the "Power of context". For that purpose we introduce STUFF: Stand Up For Fitness. STUFF can be defined as "interrupting long sitting periods by short breaks", for instance, interrupting sitting every 30 min by standing for at least five minutes. Even though we still need evidence to test the health-enhancing effects of interrupted sitting, we hope that the introduction of STUFF will facilitate the testing of the social, psychological and health effects of interventions to reduce sitting time. PMID:23281722

Rutten, Geert M; Savelberg, Hans H; Biddle, Stuart J H; Kremers, Stef P J

2013-01-01

74

Workflow Interruptions and Failed Action Regulation in Surgery Personnel  

PubMed Central

Background Workflow interruptions during surgery may cause a threat to patient's safety. Workflow interruptions were tested to predict failure in action regulation that in turn predicts near-accidents in surgery and related health care. Methods One-hundred-and-thirty-three theater nurses and physicians from eight Swiss hospitals participated in a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The study participation rate was 43%. Results Structural equation modeling confirmed an indirect path from workflow interruptions through cognitive failure in action regulation on near-accidents (p < 0.05). The indirect path was stronger for workflow interruptions by malfunctions and task organizational blockages compared with workflow interruptions that were caused by persons. The indirect path remained meaningful when individual differences in conscientiousness and compliance with safety regulations were controlled. Conclusion Task interruptions caused by malfunction and organizational constraints are likely to trigger errors in surgery. Work redesign is recommended to reduce workflow interruptions by malfunction and regulatory constraints. PMID:24932412

Elfering, Achim; Nützi, Marina; Koch, Patricia; Baur, Heiner

2013-01-01

75

Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter  

DOEpatents

A device and a method are disclosed for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens. 7 figs.

Rockot, J.H.; Mikesell, H.E.; Jha, K.N.

1998-08-11

76

Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter  

DOEpatents

A device and a method for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens.

Rockot, Joseph H. (N. Huntingdon, PA); Mikesell, Harvey E. (McMurray, PA); Jha, Kamal N. (Bethel Park, PA)

1998-01-01

77

Interrupting the Interruption: Neoliberalism and the Challenges of an Antiracist School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines a US public elementary bilingual, multicultural school that attempts to interrupt the reproduction of existing relations of dominance and subordination across a variety of differences. The school's experiences illuminate the complex reality of schools as a site of struggle and compromise between at times contradictory…

Meshulam, Assaf; Apple, Michael W.

2014-01-01

78

Consumer interruption costing for reliability cost/benefit evaluation  

SciTech Connect

A procedure for determining customer interruption costs for use in a power system reliability cost/benefit evaluation is presented. The procedure uses the results of a calculation of the frequency and duration of reserve margin states together with emergency operating procedures, customer curtailment strategies, and interruption cost coefficients to predict the total expected customer interruption costs for a given power system configuration. The customer interruption costing procedure is described, an example is given, and the results of the application of the procedure in a generation system reliability cost/benefit evaluation are discussed.

Poore, W.P.; Greene, S.R.; Kuliasha, M.A.

1983-05-01

79

InterruptMe: Designing Intelligent Prompting Mechanisms for Pervasive Applications  

E-print Network

. However, this accessibility does not necessarily translate to reachability, as recipients might refuse Keywords Interruptibility; Mobile sensing; Context-aware computing; Machine learning. ACM Classification

Musolesi, Mirco

80

Operational Failures and Interruptions in Hospital Nursing  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the work environment of hospital nurses with particular focus on the performance of work systems supplying information, materials, and equipment for patient care. Data Sources Primary observation, semistructured interviews, and surveys of hospital nurses. Study Design We sampled a cross-sectional group of six U.S. hospitals to examine the frequency of work system failures and their impact on nurse productivity. Data Collection We collected minute-by-minute data on the activities of 11 nurses. In addition, we conducted interviews with six of these nurses using questions related to obstacles to care. Finally, we created and administered two surveys in 48 nursing units, one for nurses and one for managers, asking about the frequency of specific work system failures. Principal Findings Nurses we observed experienced an average of 8.4 work system failures per 8-hour shift. The five most frequent types of failures, accounting for 6.4 of these obstacles, involved medications, orders, supplies, staffing, and equipment. Survey questions asking nurses how frequently they experienced these five categories of obstacles yielded similar frequencies. For an average 8-hour shift, the average task time was only 3.1 minutes, and in spite of this, nurses were interrupted mid-task an average of eight times per shift. Conclusions Our findings suggest that nurse effectiveness can be increased by creating improvement processes triggered by the occurrence of work system failures, with the goal of reducing future occurrences. Second, given that nursing work is fragmented and unpredictable, designing processes that are robust to interruption can help prevent errors. PMID:16704505

Tucker, Anita L; Spear, Steven J

2006-01-01

81

Interruption costs, customer satisfaction and expectations for service reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the results of a comprehensive study of the economic value of electric service carried out by Duke Power Company in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute in the US. In the study, customer interruption costs were estimated for generation, transmission and distribution outages of differing lengths occurring under varying circumstances. Interruption costs for momentary outages and

Michael J. Sullivan; B. Noland Suddeth; T. Vardell; A. Vojdani

1996-01-01

82

Fully developed turbulent flow in rectangular interrupted-plate ducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rectangular flow passages with interrupted surface configurations are often found in heat transfer equipment such as compact heat exchanger cores widely used in automobiles, spacecraft, aircraft, and the power and process industries. Experimental and numerical investigations of turbulent spatially periodic fully developed flows in straight ducts of rectangular cross section with interrupted plate inserts are presented. A computer code, based

Robert Kevin McBrien

1989-01-01

83

THERMAL INTERRUPTION PERFORMANCE AND FLUCTUATIONS IN HIGH VOLTAGE GAS CIRCUIT  

E-print Network

THERMAL INTERRUPTION PERFORMANCE AND FLUCTUATIONS IN HIGH VOLTAGE GAS CIRCUIT BREAKERS Nils P the thermal interruption capability of high voltage self-blast gas circuit breakers1 . In parallel that nozzle ablation leads to systematic performance degradation. The influence of nozzle ablation on various

Basse, Nils Plesner

84

The Effect of Interruptions on Part 121 Air Carrier Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary purpose of this study was to determine the relative priorities of various events and activities by examining the probability that a given activity was interrupted by a given event. The analysis will begin by providing frequency of interruption data by crew position (captain versus first officer) and event type. Any differences in the pattern of interruptions between the first officers and the captains will be explored and interpreted in terms of standard operating procedures. Subsequent data analyses will focus on comparing the frequency of interruptions for different types of activities and for the same activities under normal versus emergency conditions. Briefings and checklists will receive particular attention. The frequency with which specific activities are interrupted under multiple- versus single-task conditions also will be examined; because the majority of multiple-task data were obtained under laboratory conditions, LOFT-type tapes offer a unique opportunity to examine concurrent task performance under 'real-world' conditions. A second purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the interruptions on performance. More specifically, when possible, the time to resume specific activities will be compared to determine if pilots are slower to resume certain types of activities. Errors in resumption or failures to resume specific activities will be noted and any patterns in these errors will be identified. Again, particular attention will be given to the effects of interruptions on the completion of checklists and briefings. Other types of errors and missed events (i.e., the crew should have responded to the event but did not) will be examined. Any methodology using interruptions to examine task prioritization must be able to identify when an interruption has occurred and describe the ongoing activities that were interrupted. Both of these methodological problems are discussed In detail in the following section,

Damos, Diane L.

1998-01-01

85

Interrupt-based Phase-locked Frequency Multiplier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method aud system utilize a processor's digital timer and two interrupts to form a frequency multiplier. The first internipt's processing time window is definable by a first uumber of counts C(sub 1), of the digital timer while the second interrupt's processing time window is definable by a second number of counts C(sub 2) of the digital timer. A count value CV utilized by the systedmethod is based on a desired frequency multiplier N(sub 1), the timer clock rate, and the tiole required for one cycle of an input signal. The first interrupt is triggered upon completion of one cycle ofthe input sigual at which point the processing time window associated therewith begins. The second interrupt is triggered each time the timer's overflow signal is generated at which point the processing time window associated with the second interrupt begins. During the occurrence of the second interrupt's processing. the count value CV is modified to maintain the first interrupt's processing time window approximately centered between two of the second internipt's processing time windows.

Palumbo, Daniel L. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

86

78 FR 47749 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Enforcement Proceeding)] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing...States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing...exclusion order barring entry of ground fault circuit interrupters that infringe...

2013-08-06

87

77 FR 26579 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing...States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing...prohibiting the unlicensed entry of ground fault circuit interrupters and products...

2012-05-04

88

77 FR 66080 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing...States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing...exclusion order barring entry of ground fault circuit interrupters that infringe the...

2012-11-01

89

78 FR 73562 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same Final Commission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Enforcement Proceeding)] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing...States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing...exclusion order barring entry of ground fault circuit interrupters [[Page...

2013-12-06

90

Interruption costs, customer satisfaction and expectations for service reliability  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes results of a comprehensive study of the economic value of electric service carried out by Duke Power Company in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute. In the study, customer interruption costs were estimated for generation, transmission and distribution outages of differencing lengths occurring under varying circumstances. Interruption costs for momentary outages and voltage disturbances are also reported. In addition to these economic indicators of customer value of service, customer expectations for service reliability and power quality and their satisfaction with the service currently offered are reported. Statistical methods and procedures used in estimating interruption costs are described.

Sullivan, M.J. [Freeman, Sullivan and Co., San Francisco, CA (United States)] [Freeman, Sullivan and Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Suddeth, B.N.; Vardell, T. [Duke Power Co., Charlotte, NC (United States)] [Duke Power Co., Charlotte, NC (United States); Vojdani, A. [Electrical Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [Electrical Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1996-05-01

91

Interruption of motor cortical discharge subserving aimed arm movements.  

PubMed

Can evolving motor commands be interrupted by changes in sensory signals that triggered them? We investigated this problem by observing the changes in single cell activity in the motor cortex of monkeys, changes that preceded movement of the hand toward a visual target. We found that this activity was interrupted following a shift of the target during the reaction or movement time and replaced by the pattern activity related to the movement towards the new target. This suggests that motor cortical commands subserving aimed arm movements are processes that can be interrupted in the course of their formation and/or execution by changes in afferent controlling inputs. PMID:6641831

Georgopoulos, A P; Kalaska, J F; Caminiti, R; Massey, J T

1983-01-01

92

Interruptible Power: An Economic Advantage to Industrial Users  

E-print Network

costs will be nearly prohibitive. In view of this, it is imperative that utilities leave no stone unturned in developing methods that might reduce power costs and increase the power supply reliability. Interruptible power has been utilized as one...

Reynolds, S. D.; Gardner, J. R.

1981-01-01

93

Denitrogenation interruptions with air. [resulting in decompression sickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 3-h denitrogenation period at ground-level pressure with 95% O2-5% N2, with an air interruption of 5 min or more and matched with additional denitrogenation time equal to the interruption, will later result occasionally in altitude decompression sickness ('bends') during a 2-h decompression exposure at 3.8 psia (10,058 m equivalent) with 92% O2- 8% N2. Thus the equal time or 'mirror-image' make-up time for loss of denitrogenation did not prevent bends 7 times in 17 subjects during 71 exposures with air interruptions; on the other hand, no case of bends was reported after uninterrupted denitrogenation periods. Nitrogen-loading during the interruptive period is believed to resupply the bends sites with additional nitrogen, which re-establishes conditions favoring a return to a high incidence of bends.

Cooke, J. P.

1976-01-01

94

38 CFR 21.5078 - Interruption to conserve entitlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Entitlement § 21.5078 Interruption to...

2010-07-01

95

Critical care 24 × 7: But, why is critical nutrition interrupted?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: Adequate nutritional support is crucial in prevention and treatment of malnutrition in critically ill-patients. Despite the intention to provide appropriate enteral nutrition (EN), meeting the full nutritional requirements can be a challenge due to interruptions. This study was undertaken to determine the cause and duration of interruptions in EN. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to a multidisciplinary critical care unit (CCU) of a tertiary care hospital from September 2010 to January 2011 and who received EN for a period >24 h were included in this observational, prospective study. A total of 327 patients were included, for a total of 857 patient-days. Reasons and duration of EN interruptions were recorded and categorized under four groups-procedures inside CCU, procedures outside CCU, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and others. Results: Procedure inside CCU accounted for 55.9% of the interruptions while GI symptoms for 24.2%. Although it is commonly perceived that procedures outside CCU are the most common reason for interruption, this contributed only to 18.4% individually; ventilation-related procedures were the most frequent cause (40.25%), followed by nasogastric tube aspirations (15.28%). Although GI bleed is often considered a reason to hold enteral feed, it was one of the least common reasons (1%) in our study. Interruption of 2-6 h was more frequent (43%) and most of this (67.1%) was related to “procedures inside CCU”. Conclusion: Awareness of reasons for EN interruptions will aid to modify protocol and minimize interruptions during procedures in CCU to reach nutrition goals. PMID:24701064

Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan; Daphnee, D. K.; Ranganathan, Lakshmi; Bhuvaneshwari, S.

2014-01-01

96

Cubic boron nitride tool wear in interrupted hard cutting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cubic boron nitride (CBN) tool wear in interrupted turning of hardened M50 steel has been investigated. The goal was to identify the dominant wear mechanism during interrupted cutting, and in particular, to study the effect of CBN content. Results show significantly different wear characteristics between high (CBN-H) and low (CBN-L) CBN content tools. Contrary to Taylor's tool life equation, tool

Y. Kevin Chou; Chris J Evans

1999-01-01

97

Interruption of People in Human-Computer Interaction: A General Unifying Definition of Human Interruption and Taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

User-interruption in human-computer interaction (HCI) is an increasingly important problem. Many of the useful advances in intelligent and multitasking computer systems have the significant side effect of greatly increasing user-interruption. This previously innocuous HCI problem has become critical to the successful function of many kinds of modern computer systems. Unfortunately, no HCI design guidelines exist for solving this problem. In

DANIEL C. MCFARLANE

1997-01-01

98

Describing the strategies used for dealing with email interruptions according to different situational parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interruptions research is heavily reliant on a paradigm involving 'enforced interruption'. Email use however constitutes a special form of 'controlled interruption'. As there is no precedent available in the existing literature to describe what strategies people use to deal with 'controlled interruption', an exploratory first study was undertaken using an open-ended interview design. Twenty-eight email users working within UK organisations

Emma Russell; Lynne Millward Purvis; Adrian Banks

2007-01-01

99

The achievement motive and recall of interrupted and completed tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Divided Ss into three groups on an interruption-of-tasks experiment on the basis of instructions presumed to vary the probability that the Ss would perceive completion as personal accomplishment and incompletion as personal failure. Each S was also classified high or low in motivation to achieve based on a thematic apperception measure of the need to achieve. Found that recall of

John W. Atkinson

1953-01-01

100

Early results of gate valve flow interruption blowdown tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preliminary results of the USNRC\\/INEL high-energy BWR line break flow interruption testing are presented. Two representative nuclear valve assemblies were cycled under design basis Reactor Water Cleanup pipe break conditions to provide input for the technical basis for resolving the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Generic Issue 87. The effects of the blowdown hydraulic loadings on valve operability, especially valve closure

DeWall

1988-01-01

101

Multi-megampere current interruption from explosive deformation of conductors  

SciTech Connect

Two approaches for using explosives to interrupt current flowing in solid conductors are described. One concept uses explosives to extrude the switch conductor into thin regions that fuse due to current in the switch. A preliminary scaling law is presented. The second approach employs dielectric jets to sever current carrying conductors. A feasibility experiment and an improved design are described.

Goforth, J.H.; Williams, A.H.; Marsh, S.P.

1985-01-01

102

Toward a Model of Members' Methods for Recognizing Interruptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that simultaneous speech is not necessary for the recognition of "interruption" by interlocutors. A speaker's "completion right" is validated by how long s/he has been speaking, how often s/he has spoken, the number of "points" s/he has made, and the rights of some speakers to speak about some topics. (SED)

Murray, Stephen O.

1985-01-01

103

Investigating Time Properties of Interrupt-Driven Programs  

E-print Network

Investigating Time Properties of Interrupt-Driven Programs Yanhong Huang1 , Yongxin Zhao1 , Jianqi Shi1 , Huibiao Zhu1 , and Shengchao Qin2 1 Shanghai Key Laboratory of Trustworthy Computing East China of Computing, Teesside University S.Qin@tees.ac.uk Abstract. In design of dependable software for real

Qin, Shengchao

104

Distribution of AGG interruption patterns within nine world populations  

PubMed Central

Summary The CGG trinucleotide repeat within the FMR1 gene is associated with multiple clinical disorders, including fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency, and fragile X syndrome. Differences in the distribution and prevalence of CGG repeat length and of AGG interruption patterns have been reported among different populations and ethnicities. In this study we characterized the AGG interruption patterns within 3,065 normal CGG repeat alleles from nine world populations including Australia, Chile, United Arab Emirates, Guatemala, Indonesia, Italy, Mexico, Spain, and United States. Additionally, we compared these populations with those previously reported, and summarized the similarities and differences. We observed significant differences in AGG interruption patterns. Frequencies of longer alleles, longer uninterrupted CGG repeat segments and alleles with greater than 2 AGG interruptions varied between cohorts. The prevalence of fragile X syndrome and FMR1 associated disorders in various populations is thought to be affected by the total length of the CGG repeat and may also be influenced by the AGG distribution pattern. Thus, the results of this study may be important in considering the risk of fragile X-related conditions in various populations. PMID:25606365

Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Sweha, Stefan; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Zhou, Lili; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Fernandez-Carvajal, Isabel; Faradz, Sultana MH; Amiri, Khaled; Shaheen, Huda; Polli, Roberta; Murillo-Bonilla, Luis; Silva Arevalo, Gabriel de Jesus; Cogram, Patricia; Murgia, Alessandra; Tassone, Flora

2014-01-01

105

Distribution of AGG interruption patterns within nine world populations.  

PubMed

The CGG trinucleotide repeat within the FMR1 gene is associated with multiple clinical disorders, including fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency, and fragile X syndrome. Differences in the distribution and prevalence of CGG repeat length and of AGG interruption patterns have been reported among different populations and ethnicities. In this study we characterized the AGG interruption patterns within 3,065 normal CGG repeat alleles from nine world populations including Australia, Chile, United Arab Emirates, Guatemala, Indonesia, Italy, Mexico, Spain, and United States. Additionally, we compared these populations with those previously reported, and summarized the similarities and differences. We observed significant differences in AGG interruption patterns. Frequencies of longer alleles, longer uninterrupted CGG repeat segments and alleles with greater than 2 AGG interruptions varied between cohorts. The prevalence of fragile X syndrome and FMR1 associated disorders in various populations is thought to be affected by the total length of the CGG repeat and may also be influenced by the AGG distribution pattern. Thus, the results of this study may be important in considering the risk of fragile X-related conditions in various populations. PMID:25606365

Yrigollen, Carolyn M; Sweha, Stefan; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Zhou, Lili; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Fernandez-Carvajal, Isabel; Faradz, Sultana Mh; Amiri, Khaled; Shaheen, Huda; Polli, Roberta; Murillo-Bonilla, Luis; Silva Arevalo, Gabriel de Jesus; Cogram, Patricia; Murgia, Alessandra; Tassone, Flora

2014-11-01

106

The Needs of Others: Gender and Sleep Interruptions for Caregivers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Received wisdom, some sociological theory and a handful of qualitative studies suggest that the "night shift" of caregiving work that interrupts sleep is a burden borne disproportionately by women. However, there is no broadly representative evidence to substantiate claims about who takes the night shift in contemporary American households.…

Burgard, Sarah A.

2011-01-01

107

Atomic Heap Transactions and Fine-grain Interrupts  

E-print Network

cast the space of possible implementations into a gen- eral taxonomy, and describe a new technique to make atomic heap allocation and interrupt handling cheap. Finally, we'll To appear in the ACM 1999 for cheap heap interlock and discuss its implementation. Program threads must allocate storage atomically

Shivers, Olin

108

Conversational Interruptions in Israeli—Palestinian `Dialogue' Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous cross-cultural research has not undertaken in situ analysis of conversational style between groups in severe political conflict. The present study is a quantitative and ethnographic study of conversational interruptions in one Israeli-Palestinian `dialogue' event which took place during the Palestinian Uprising. Findings indicate that the previously documented divergent cultural styles of the two groups underwent a process of change.

YAEL-JANETTE ZUPNIK

2000-01-01

109

Sensitivity of Personal Computers to Voltage Sags and Short Interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the sensitivity of personal com- puters (PCs) to voltage sags and short interruptions on the basis of the extensive test results. Existing standards and previously pub- lished works are reviewed, and a description of a used testing pro- cedure is presented. The following tests were performed: sensitivity to rectangular voltage sags with ideal and nonideal supply charac-

J. Desmet; G. Vanalme; J. V. Milanovic ´; K. Stockman

2005-01-01

110

Sensitivity of personal computers to voltage sags and short interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the sensitivity of personal computers (PCs) to voltage sags and short interruptions on the basis of the extensive test results. Existing standards and previously published works are reviewed, and a description of a used testing procedure is presented. The following tests were performed: sensitivity to rectangular voltage sags with ideal and nonideal supply characteristics, and sensitivity to

S. Z. Djokic; J. Desmet; G. Vanalme; J. V. Milanovic; K. Stockman

2005-01-01

111

Strategic Treatment Interruptions During Imatinib Treatment of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Although imatinib is an effective treatment for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and nearly all patients treated with imatinib attain some form of remission, imatinib does not completely eliminate leukemia. Moreover, if the imatinib treatment is stopped, most patients eventually relapse (Cortes et al. in Clin. Cancer Res. 11:3425–3432, 2005). In Kim et al. (PLoS Comput. Biol. 4(6):e1000095, 2008), the authors presented a mathematical model for the dynamics of CML under imatinib treatment that incorporates the anti-leukemia immune response. We use the mathematical model in Kim et al. (PLoS Comput. Biol. 4(6):e1000095, 2008) to study and numerically simulate strategic treatment interruptions as a potential therapeutic strategy for CML patients. We present the results of numerous simulated treatment programs in which imatinib treatment is temporarily stopped to stimulate and leverage the anti-leukemia immune response to combat CML. The simulations presented in this paper imply that treatment programs that involve strategic treatment interruptions may prevent leukemia from relapsing and may prevent remission for significantly longer than continuous imatinib treatment. Moreover, in many cases, strategic treatment interruptions may completely eliminate leukemic cells from the body. Thus, strategic treatment interruptions may be a feasible clinical approach to enhancing the effects of imatinib treatment for CML. We study the effects of both the timing and the duration of the treatment interruption on the results of the treatment. We also present a sensitivity analysis of the results to the parameters in the mathematical model. PMID:20532990

Kim, Peter S.; Lee, Peter P.; Levy, Doron

2013-01-01

112

The long-term costs of career interruptions.  

PubMed

This article is based on a study that analyzed the long-term salary implications of career choices made by healthcare administrators. The study used a cohort of graduates from a single health administration program; these individuals had comparable levels of human capital at the outset of their careers. We estimated the effect of periods of part-time employment and job interruptions--voluntary and involuntary--on long-term salary progression. We also estimated the impact of other career choices, such as membership in a professional organization or the decision to relocate. After controlling for these choices, we estimated the residual effect of gender on salary. We found that voluntary interruptions had a greater effect on long-term salary growth than did involuntary interruptions of the same length or periods of part-time employment. Individuals evaluating options for balancing career and family constraints should understand the long-term cost of choosing a career interruption rather than part-time employment during periods of heightened responsibilities outside the workplace. Healthcare administrators should also be educated about the positive association between professional memberships and career advancement to make informed decisions about participation in such organizations. Surprisingly, after controlling for all choice variables, gender had no measurable effect on long-term salary growth. Half of those who indicated a voluntary interruption for dependent care reasons preferred part-time or flexible-hour work if it had been available. These results suggest that a pool of healthcare administrators might compete for positions if more part-time opportunities were available. PMID:12592867

Ketsche, Patricia G; Branscomb, Lisette

2003-01-01

113

Prediction of DC current flow between the Otjiwarongo and Katima Mulilo regions, using 3D DC resistivity forward modelling and magnetotelluric and audio-magnetotelluric data recorded during SAMTEX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SAMTEX (Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment) is a multinational project initiated in 2003 to study the regional-scale electrical conductivity substructure of southern Africa and to infer from it the tectonic processes involved in the formation and deformation of the southern African subcontinental lithosphere. As an additional opportunistic component to SAMTEX, audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data were acquired during the most recent phase of the experiment (Phase IV) to investigate the local-scale conductivity substructure in the Otjiwarongo and Katima Mulilo regions (northern and north-eastern Namibia), where in future the installation of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) earth electrodes will commence. Both of the AMT surveys are situated close to the edge of the orogenic Neo-Proterozoic Ghanzi-Chobe/Damara belts (collectively termed the Damara Mobile Belt, DMB), which represents in part the collision between the Congo and Kalahari cratons during the amalgamation of South Gondwana. Previous studies using magnetotellurics (MT), magnetometer arrays and geomagnetic observatory data all point to the existence of a highly conductive mid-crustal zone which correlates well with the spatial location of the DMB. Preliminary modelling of the Otjiwarongo AMT data confirms the existence of a high conductive zone at mid-crustal depths (10-15 km), whereas in Katima Mulilo insufficient penetration of electromagnetic energy in the AMT frequency band, due to conductive sediment cover, prevents information being obtained of the conductivity at mid-crustal depths. However, at Katima Mulilo there are sparser broadband MT (BBMT) and long period MT (LMT) measurements that can be incorporated. The high conductivity of the DMB is explained by the presence of conductive materials (graphites, sulphides). In contrast, the lithospheric structure of the neighbouring Archaean cratons, the Congo and Kalahari, are generally found to be electrically resistive and therefore it is hypothesized that the return path of DC current, flowing along the path of least resistance between the two electrodes, is most likely to lie somewhere within, or in the vicinity of, the DMB. To obtain a better understanding of the current flow we propose using geological information, previous results of studies of the conductivity of the DMB and surrounding regions and 2D and 3D inversion results from the AMT and MT data recorded during SAMTEX in northern Botswana and Namibia, as input to a 3D DC resistivity forward modelling code, and to try to predict the return path that the DC current will follow.

Share, P.; Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Miensopust, M. P.; Khoza, D. T.; Fourie, S.; Webb, S. J.; Thunehed, H.

2009-12-01

114

76 FR 35014 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of...within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by...

2011-06-15

115

77 FR 11591 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same, Investigations...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same, Investigations...within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by...

2012-02-27

116

Interruptions of antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus infection: are they detrimental to neurocognitive functioning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because interruptions of antiretroviral treatment may entail clinical risks for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected\\u000a individuals, we investigated their impact on neurocognitive functioning. Cross-sectional study was carried out, comparing\\u000a HIV-infected persons who had interrupted antiretroviral therapy in the past (interruption group, IG) with persons who had\\u000a never discontinued therapy (noninterruption group, NIG). Interruption was defined as the discontinuation of highly active

Jose A. Muñoz-Moreno; Carmina R. Fumaz; Anna Prats; Maria J. Ferrer; Eugènia Negredo; Núria Pérez-Álvarez; José Moltó; Guadalupe Gómez; Maite Garolera; Bonaventura Clotet

2010-01-01

117

75 FR 62420 - In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...337-TA-739] In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing...States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing...States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products...

2010-10-08

118

Individualising Scaffolding: Teachers' Literacy Interruptions of Ethnic Minority Students and Students from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a small-scale study that examined the ways four elementary teachers in the United States scaffolded the literacy of students differently through interruptions. One thousand four hundred and ninety-eight interruptions were identified and coded in the study. Findings show that teachers' interruption patterns frequently…

Mertzman, Tania

2008-01-01

119

A Study on Users' Preference on Interruption When Using Wearable Computers and Head Mounted Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important part of making a wearable computer un- obtrusive is the user interface and the way it interrupts the user. The amount of interruption that have to be made on the users primary task should be minimized. Usage with- out interruption is of course best for the performance of the primary task but is often not possible as many

Marcus Nilsson; Mikael Drugge; Urban Liljedahl; Kåre Synnes; Peter Parnes

2005-01-01

120

Interrupted Visual Searches Reveal Volatile Search Memory Y. Jeremy Shen and Yuhong V. Jiang  

E-print Network

Interrupted Visual Searches Reveal Volatile Search Memory Y. Jeremy Shen and Yuhong V. Jiang Harvard University This study investigated memory from interrupted visual searches. Participants conducted was not. The authors suggest that spatial memory aids interrupted visual searches, but the use

Jiang, Yuhong

121

2003 American Psychological Society meeting. A Task Interrupted Becomes A Prospective Task  

E-print Network

2003 American Psychological Society meeting. A Task Interrupted Becomes A Prospective Task Rahul M: Reminder condition - right before the interrupting task started, participants were given a 4 second text message that reminded them to return to the interrupted task. Control condition - participants were

122

Repair of interrupted aortic arch: A ten-year experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-two consecutive patients with interrupted aortic arch were referred to our institution between 1985 and 1995. Three died before any attempt at operation and 79 underwent surgical repair. Median age at operation was 9 days (range 1 day to 6 years) and median weight was 3.0 kg (range 1.8 to 20 kg). All but one were in severe congestive heart

Alain Serraf; François Lacour-Gayet; Monica Robotin; Jacqueline Bruniaux; Miguel Sousa-Uva; Régine Roussin; Claude Planché

1996-01-01

123

Dental surgery in anticoagulated patients-stop the interruption.  

PubMed

In a literature review, the incidence and morbidity of bleeding complications after dental surgery in anticoagulated patients was compared with embolic complications when anticoagulation was interrupted. Over 99% of anticoagulated patients had no postoperative bleeding that required more than local hemostatic measures. Of more than 5431 patients undergoing more than 11,381 surgical procedures, with many patients at higher than present therapeutic intenational normalized ratio (INR) levels, only 31 (?0.6% of patients) required more than local hemostasis to control the hemorrhage; none died due to hemorrhage. Among at least 2673 patients whose warfarin dose was reduced or withdrawn for at least 2775 visits for dental procedures, there were 22 embolic complications (0.8% of cessations), including 6 fatal events (0.2% of cessations). The embolic morbidity risk in patients whose anticoagulation is interrupted for dental surgery exceeds that of significant bleeding complications in patients whose anticoagulation is continued, even when surgery is extensive. Warfarin anticoagulation, therefore, should not be interrupted for most dental surgery. PMID:25577414

Wahl, Michael J; Pinto, Andres; Kilham, Jessica; Lalla, Rajesh V

2015-02-01

124

High-capacity single-pressure SF/sub 6/ interrupters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The object of this project was to design and develop a high-voltage, single-pressure, SF/sub 6/ interrupter with an interrupting capability of 120 kA at 145 kV with a continuous current rating of 5000 A and an interrupting time of 1.5 cycles or less. A second objective of 100 kA at 242 kV was added during the project. Mathematical models were used to extrapolate design requirements from existing data for 63 and 80 kA. Two model puffers, one liquid and the other gas, were designed and tested to obtain data at 100 kA. An interrupter, optimized on the basis of total prospective breaker cost, was designed using the mathematical models. A study was made of the construction materials to operate under the high-stress conditions in this interrupter. Existing high-speed movies of high-current arcs under double-flow conditions were analyzed to obtain more information for modeling the interrupter. The optimized interrupter design was built and tested. The interrupting capability confirmed calculations of predicted performance near current zero; however, the dielectric strength after interrupting these high-current arcs was not adequate for the 145-kV or the 242-kV ratings. The dielectric strength was reduced by hot gases flowing out of the interrupter. Valuable data have been obtained for modeling the SF/sub 6/ puffer interrupter for high currents.

Rostron, J R; Berkebile, L E; Spindle, H E

1983-05-01

125

The Voltage Distribution Characteristics of a Hybrid Circuit Breaker During High Current Interruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid circuit breaker (HCB) technology based on a vacuum interrupter and a SF6 interrupter in series has become a new research direction because of the low-carbon requirements for high voltage switches. The vacuum interrupter has an excellent ability to deal with the steep rising part of the transient recovery voltage (TRV), while the SF6 interrupter can withstand the peak part of the voltage easily. An HCB can take advantage of the interrupters in the current interruption process. In this study, an HCB model based on the vacuum ion diffusion equations, ion density equation, and modified Cassie-Mayr arc equation is explored. A simulation platform is constructed by using a set of software called the alternative transient program (ATP). An HCB prototype is also designed, and the short circuit current is interrupted by the HCB under different action sequences of contacts. The voltage distribution of the HCB is analyzed through simulations and tests. The results demonstrate that if the vacuum interrupter withstands the initial TRV and interrupts the post-arc current first, then the recovery speed of the dielectric strength of the SF6 interrupter will be fast. The voltage distribution between two interrupters is determined by their post-arc resistance, which happens after current-zero, and subsequently, it is determined by the capacitive impedance after the post-arc current decays to zero.

Cheng, Xian; Duan, Xiongying; Liao, Minfu; Huang, Zhihui; Luo, Yan; Zou, Jiyan

2013-08-01

126

Those Old Kentucky Blues An Interrupted Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interrupted case study begins with the construction of a pedigree following an initial encounter with a clan of “blue people.” After constructing a pedigree, students decide whether the condition (methemoglobinemia) is a heritable trait. Students are then exposed to a different perspective of this condition and have to re-evaluate the inheritance pattern. This case study was written for a first year honors course in general biology. It could be modified for most general science majors’ biology, genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology courses.

Celeste A. Leander

2008-01-01

127

Some effects of magnetic blowouts on arc interruption  

E-print Network

value of x, possttble& and since 'this can occur only when sin tet i. s a maximum or unityq equation 12 can be modified to (l3) sin + L sin 1 r -M+ x rr m v' L -~' = ~X 5tsR' Experimentally & ths value of x ia I"ound from figure l hy entering.... en ir isis csu:, , interruption. T? is is a maz- 1;. , us r?; . . ''ng, T:!' influence ', s t? sn z-duccd to s. very low value and increased in small increments through the region of several failures out of ten trials until nine out of ten...

Benish, Joe

1949-01-01

128

Series and parallel arc-fault circuit interrupter tests.  

SciTech Connect

While the 2011 National Electrical Code%C2%AE (NEC) only requires series arc-fault protection, some arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) manufacturers are designing products to detect and mitigate both series and parallel arc-faults. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has extensively investigated the electrical differences of series and parallel arc-faults and has offered possible classification and mitigation solutions. As part of this effort, Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with MidNite Solar to create and test a 24-string combiner box with an AFCI which detects, differentiates, and de-energizes series and parallel arc-faults. In the case of the MidNite AFCI prototype, series arc-faults are mitigated by opening the PV strings, whereas parallel arc-faults are mitigated by shorting the array. A range of different experimental series and parallel arc-fault tests with the MidNite combiner box were performed at the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) at SNL in Albuquerque, NM. In all the tests, the prototype de-energized the arc-faults in the time period required by the arc-fault circuit interrupt testing standard, UL 1699B. The experimental tests confirm series and parallel arc-faults can be successfully mitigated with a combiner box-integrated solution.

Johnson, Jay; Fresquez, Armando J.; Gudgel, Bob [MidNite Solar, Arlington, WA; Meares, Andrew [MidNite Solar, Arlington, WA

2013-07-01

129

Effects of cues associated with meal interruption on feeding behavior  

PubMed Central

Food consumption is controlled by both internal and external factors. Environmental signals associated with food may prepare an animal to forage, consume and digest more effectively. Furthermore, environmental cues that provide information about food availability enable animals to make predictions about future food resources and act upon that knowledge in appropriate fashion. For example, when exposed to a cue that signals the presence of food, animals can eat beyond their present needs to cope with predicted future famine. Interestingly, cues previously paired with meal interruption have a similar effect. In two experiments, food-deprived rats learned to associate one conditioned stimulus (CS+) with delivery of a food unconditioned stimulus (US), and another stimulus (IS) with an unexpected termination of CS-US trials. Subsequently, both CS+ and IS enhanced consumption of the US food by sated rats. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that IS's ability to potentiate feeding of sated rats in test depended more on its accompanying CS+ termination in training than on its signaling reductions in US frequency. These experiments may provide a novel animal model of binge-like behaviors in sated rats induced by external cues paired with meal interruption. PMID:19501768

Galarce, Ezequiel M.; Holland, Peter C.

2009-01-01

130

Interrupted Aortic Arch Associated with AP Window and Complex Cardiac Anomalies: Multi Detector Computed Tomography Findings  

PubMed Central

Interrupted aortic arch is a rare congenital malformation of the aortic arch defined as a loss of luminal continuity between the ascending and descending portions of the aorta. In a simple interrupted aortic arch, only a ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus are observed. We present a rare complex form of type A interrupted aorta with an aortopulmonary window, an atrial septal defect, a ventricular septal defect, and a patent ductus arteriosus on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) imaging.

Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kantarci, Mecit; Ceviz, Naci; Yuce, Ihsan; Ogul, Hayri; Sagsoz, M. Erdem; Kaya, Idris

2013-01-01

131

An Approach to Identifying the Conditions Under Which Response Interruption Will Reduce Automatically Reinforced Problem Behavior  

PubMed Central

Response interruption is a common intervention for problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement, but this intervention is challenging for caregivers to implement with consistent fidelity. In the current study, we challenged the integrity of response interruption across two participants by examining carry over into conditions in which the procedure was not implemented, by removing the presence of an interventionist, and by introducing delays to implementation. The results indicated that these challenges severely compromised treatment efficacy. Conditions under which response interruption procedures are likely to be effective and possible strategies to increase the effectiveness of response interruption are discussed. PMID:22532900

Kliebert, Megan L; Tiger, Jeffrey H; Toussaint, Karen A

2011-01-01

132

Facing the Pain An Interrupted Case Study in Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interrupted case study in cardiovascular and nerve physiology focuses on Lynn, a married woman with a young child whose husband is often away from home traveling on business. Lynn is anxious and short-tempered. She is also overweight and appears frustrated with her life. Recently, she has been experiencing intense pain on the right side of her face. One day she becomes disoriented while driving and crashes into a tree. Students research and analyze a variety of signs, symptoms, and medical data to solve the case. Developed for an animal physiology course taken by sophomore and junior science majors, the case could also be used in an anatomy and physiology course or general biology course.

Stephens, Phil

2009-01-01

133

Repair of interrupted aortic arch: a ten-year experience.  

PubMed

Eighty-two consecutive patients with interrupted aortic arch were referred to our institution between 1985 and 1995. Three died before any attempt at operation and 79 underwent surgical repair. Median age at operation was 9 days (range 1 day to 6 years) and median weight was 3.0 kg (range 1.8 to 20 kg). All but one were in severe congestive heart failure and 31.5% had oliguria or anuria. Preoperative pH varied between 6.8 and 7.4 (median 7.3). Sixty-nine received prostaglandin E1 infusion and 54 received mechanical ventilation. Aggressive preoperative ressucitation was necessary in 43 cases. Preoperative transfontanellar echography (performed routinely) since 1987 revealed intracerebral bleeding in six patients. Type A interrupted aortic arch was present in 37 cases, 41 patients had type B, and one had type C. Interrupted aortic arch was associated with single ventricular septal defect in 35 cases, 24 patients had associated complex heart defects, and 30 had significant subaortic stenosis (six had both subaortic stenosis and complex association). Aortopulmonary window was found in four patients, truncus arteriosus was found in eight, and transposition of the great arteries was found in five, double-outlet right ventricle was found in one, single ventricle was found in three, multiple ventricular septal defects were found in two and superior-inferior ventricles were found in one. Sixty-four patients underwent single-stage repair and 15 underwent multistage repair. Aortic arch repair consisted of direct anastomosis in 59 cases, patch augmentation in eight, and conduit interposition in 12. Ten patients underwent associated pulmonary artery banding and 19 underwent concomitant repair of complex associated lesions. The subaortic stenosis was addressed by four surgical techniques: myotomy or myectomy in five patients; creation of a double-outlet left ventricle, aortopulmonary anastomosis, and conduit insertion between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery bifurcation in four; no direct attempt to relieve the subaortic stenosis in six; and left-sided ventricular septal defect patch in 15. Mean duration of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, crossclamp time, and cardiopulmonary bypass time were 38.8 +/- 15.6 min, 60.5 +/- 24.7 min, and 143 +/- 40.1 min, respectively. Postoperative mortality rate was 18.9% (70% confidence limits 14% to 24.6%), and overall mortality rate was 31% (70% confidence limits 20.9% to 42.2%). The results have improved with time, with an overall operative mortality rate of 12% since 1990. Univariate statistical analysis revealed that early survival was influenced by preoperative renal function, detection of cerebral bleeding by transfontanellar echography, the number of cardioplegic injections, and the date of operation. Multivariate analysis revealed that preoperative renal function and the number of cardioplegic injections were independent risk factors for early mortality. Echocardiographic measurements of the left heart-aorta complex with preoperative Z values as low as-4 demonstrated rapid growth after repair. In the presence of subaortic stenosis, better survival was obtained with a left-sided patch for ventricular septal defect closure (p < 0.05). Twenty-three patients underwent 26 reoperations for recoarctations (seven), left bronchial compression (two), second-stage repair (eight), right ventricle-pulmonary artery conduit replacement (three), and miscellaneous (four). One of the survivors was reoperated on for subaortic membrane. Survival at 5 years for the entire series was 70%. For isolated forms, it was 73.5% (90% for 1990 to 1995), for complex forms it was 70%, and in the presence of subaortic stenosis it was 60%. In conclusion, interrupted aortic arch remains a surgical challenge with continually improving results. Early diagnosis with preoperative resuscitation and adequate myocardial protection seem extremely important for further improvements. Associated subaortic stenosis or complex lesions PMID:8911311

Serraf, A; Lacour-Gayet, F; Robotin, M; Bruniaux, J; Sousa-Uva, M; Roussin, R; Planché, C

1996-11-01

134

The Ice Hockey Injury An Interrupted Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The high school ice hockey team is playing the last of three games in one day. The game gets rough and Rick, the star player, is slammed against the boards. Injured, he has to be  escorted from the ice. This interrupted case study follows Ricks health as it deteriorates over the next few hours. Students are presented with Rick’s symptoms and use their knowledge of anatomy and physiology to diagnose the problem. The case was developed for a one-semester animal physiology course taken mostly by sophomore and junior biology or general science majors. It could also be used in a freshman general biology course, anatomy and physiology course, or human physiology course for non-science majors.

Phil Stephens

2004-01-01

135

Early results of gate valve flow interruption blowdown tests  

SciTech Connect

The preliminary results of the USNRC/INEL high-energy BWR line break flow interruption testing are presented. Two representative nuclear valve assemblies were cycled under design basis Reactor Water Cleanup pipe break conditions to provide input for the technical basis for resolving the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Generic Issue 87. The effects of the blowdown hydraulic loadings on valve operability, especially valve closure stem forces, were studied. The blowdown tests showed that, given enough thrust, typical gate valves will close against the high flow resulting from a line break. The tests also showed that proper operator sizing depends on the correct identification of values for the sizing equation. Evidence exists that values used in the past may not be conservative for all valve applications. The tests showed that improper operator lock ring installation following test or maintenance can invalidate in-situ test results and prevent the valve from performing its design function. 2 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

DeWall, K.G.

1988-01-01

136

Landmarks and ant search strategies after interrupted tandem runs.  

PubMed

During a tandem run, a single leading ant recruits a single follower to an important resource such as a new nest. To examine this process, we used a motorized gantry, which has not previously been used in ant studies, to track tandem running ants accurately in a large arena and we compared their performance in the presence of different types of landmark. We interrupted tandem runs by taking away the leader and moved a large distant landmark behind the new nest just at the time of this separation. Our aim was to determine what information followers might have obtained from the incomplete tandem run they had followed, and how they behaved after the tandem run had been interrupted. Our results show that former followers search by using composite random strategies with elements of sub-diffusive and diffusive movements. Furthermore, when we provided more landmarks former followers searched for longer. However, when all landmarks were removed completely from the arena, the ants' search duration lasted up to four times longer. Hence, their search strategy changes in the presence or absence of landmarks. Even after extensive search of this kind, former followers headed back to their old nest but did not return along the path of the tandem run they had followed. The combination of the position to which the large distant landmark behind the new nest was moved and the presence or absence of additional landmarks influenced the orientation of the former followers' paths back to the old nest. We also found that these ants exhibit behavioural lateralization in which they possibly use their right eye more than their left eye to recognize landmarks for navigation. Our results suggest that former follower ants learn landmarks during tandem running and use this information to make strategic decisions. PMID:24198259

Basari, Norasmah; Bruendl, Aisha C; Hemingway, Charlotte E; Roberts, Nicholas W; Sendova-Franks, Ana B; Franks, Nigel R

2014-03-15

137

Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of digitoxin by cholestyramine  

PubMed Central

Previous studies of digitalis glycoside metabolism and excretion have indicated that these compounds undergo a significant enterohepatic cycle in some species. It has been suggested that the existence of such a cycle in man contributes to the prolonged action of certain cardiac glycosides. Previous studies have demonstrated that cholestyramine binds digitoxin and digoxin in vitro and accelerates the metabolic disposition of digitoxin in rats and guinea pigs, presumably by interrupting the enterohepatic circulation. In order to assess the role of the enterohepatic circulation in the metabolism of digitalis glycosides in humans, maintenance doses of cholestyramine were administered to 7 of 15 normal human subjects beginning 8 hr after digitalization with 1.2 mg of digitoxin-3H. All subjects had frequent measurements of serum radioactivity, left ventricular ejection time (LVET), and electromechanical systole (QS2), the latter recorded as the interval from onset of Q wave to first major component of second heart sound. Measurement of the LVET and QS2 intervals affords a sensitive index of the cardiac response to digitalis. In addition, chloroform extraction of serum was performed to separate unchanged digitoxin and active metabolites from cardioinactive metabolites of digitoxin. Cholestyramine treatment resulted in reduction in half-life to total serum radioactivity from 11.5 to 6.6 days, and in chloroform-extractable radioactivity from 6.0 to 4.5 days, as compared to controls. In addition, cholestyramine treatment was accompanied by more rapid return to base line values of digitoxin-induced changes in the LVET and QS2 intervals. A significant positive correlation was found between QS2 values and chloroform-extractable radioactivity, the latter reflecting unchanged digitoxin-H3 (r=0.64; P=<0.01). The results indicate that administration of cholestyramine to digitalized human subjects accelerates the metabolic disposition of digitoxin and abbreviates the physiologic response to the glycoside. This effect is presumably mediated by interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of digitoxin by cholestyramine. PMID:5129315

Caldwell, James H.; Bush, Charles A.; Greenberger, Norton J.

1971-01-01

138

Interrupted abdominal closure prevents burst: randomized controlled trial comparing interrupted-x and conventional continuous closures in surgical and gynecological patients.  

PubMed

Reduction in the risk of abdominal dehiscence with application of interrupted method of laparotomy closure and comparison with risk of burst with continuous method of closure. Three hundred forty eight patients undergoing laparotomy (114-elective gynecology, 114-emergency gynecology, 120-emergency surgery) were randomized into three arms to undergo closure with continuous, interrupted-X, and Modified Smead-Jones suturing techniques. Burst abdomen occurring up to 4 weeks of operation. Twenty-nine (8.33 %) of 348 patients developed burst in the post-operative period. 19 (15.70 %) of 121 patients in continuous arm developed burst. Five of 110 (4.55 %) patients in Interrupted-X arm and 5 of 117 (4.27 %) patients in Modified Smead-Jones arm developed burst. Interrupted suturing was associated with significant reduction in risk of burst when compared with continuous closure. Important predictors of burst were Intraperitoneal sepsis, cough, uremia, and surgical site infection. PMID:25278649

Agrawal, Chandra Shekhar; Tiwari, Pamit; Mishra, Sangeeta; Rao, Arpit; Hadke, Niladhar S; Adhikari, Shailesh; Srivastava, Anurag

2014-08-01

139

Investigating Interruptions in the Context of Computerised Cognitive Testing for Older Adults  

E-print Network

of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are conducted using paper-based tests including the Mini in all contexts, affecting all people, young and old. Interruptions can have detrimental effects the ageing mind is affected by interruptions to ongoing primary tasks, which is the focus of our current work

McGrenere, Joanna

140

Interrupted Life: Incarcerated Mothers in the United States: A Traveling Public Art Exhibition  

E-print Network

Interrupted Life: Incarcerated Mothers in the United States: A Traveling Public Art Exhibition­70] ©2007 by Smith College. All rights reserved. rickie solinger wakeup/arts Interrupted Life: Incarcerated than there were in 1980. That means there are approximately 200,000 incarcerated women in the United

Edwards, Paul N.

141

Investigation on Welding Arc Interruptions in the Presence of Magnetic Fields: Welding Current Influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arc interruptions and, therefore, oscillation in the amount of energy and molten wire delivered to the plate have been observed during tandem pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW). It appears that these instabilities are related to the magnetic interaction between the arcs. In order to clarify the possible mechanisms involved, this paper tries to mimic the tandem GMAW arc interruptions.

Ruham Pablo Reis; Américo Scotti; John Norrish; Dominic Cuiuri

2012-01-01

142

Finding a Tradeoff between Host Interrupt Load and MPI Latency over Ethernet  

E-print Network

Finding a Tradeoff between Host Interrupt Load and MPI Latency over Ethernet Brice Goglin1 ETHERNET hardware suffers from the NIC interrupt- driven model where coalescing is usually involved. We in generic ETHERNET hardware. OPEN-MX [1] is a message passing stack implemented on top of the ETHERNET

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

143

The Scope and Importance of Human Interruption in Human-Computer Interaction Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

At first glance it seems absurd that busy people doing important jobs should want their computers to interrupt them. Interruptions are disruptive and people need to concentrate to make good decisions. However, successful job perfor- mance also frequently depends on people's abilities to (a) constantly monitor their dynamically changing information environments, (b) collaborate and communi- cate with other people in

Daniel C. McFarlane; Kara A. Latorella

2002-01-01

144

Specification of Hazards, Stalls, Interrupts, and Exceptions in Prabhat Mishra Nikil Dutt Alex Nicolau  

E-print Network

Specification of Hazards, Stalls, Interrupts, and Exceptions in EXPRESSION Prabhat Mishra Nikil supports interrupts and hazards specification. Hazard/Stall specification is closely tied detection and stalling using the simple DLX pipeline as described in Hennessey and Patterson [8] figure 3

Mishra, Prabhat

145

Measuring and minimizing interrupt latency in Linux-based embedded systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paper describes performance of embedded real-time system controlled by Linux. Interrupt latency is taken into account as a main measured parameter in further considerations. To improve and minimize system's interrupt latency two separate approaches were evaluated. Obtained results proved that its possible to build a hard real-time system based on a modified Linux kernel.

Rybaniec, Rados?aw; Wieczorek, Piotr Z.

2012-05-01

146

Instruction Issue Logic for High-Performance Interruptible, Multiple Functional Unit, Pipelines Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of data dependency resolution and precise interrupt implementation in pipelined processors are combined. A design for a hardware mechanism that resolves dependencies dynamically and, at the same time, guarantees precise interrupts is presented. Simulation studies show that by resolving dependencies the proposed mechanism is able to obtain a significant speedup over a simple instruction issue mechanism as well

Gurindar S. Sohi

1990-01-01

147

A Single Server Retrial Queue with Different Types of Server Interruptions  

E-print Network

A Single Server Retrial Queue with Different Types of Server Interruptions Tewfik Kernane@gmail.com February 11, 2009 Abstract We consider a single server retrial queue with the server subject to interruptions and classical retrial policy for the access from the orbit to the server. We analyze

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

148

Effects of Modality on Interrupted Flight Deck Performance: Implications for Data Link  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Externally-imposed tasks frequently interrupt ongoing task performance in the commercial flight deck. While normally managed without consequence, basic research as well as aviation accident and incident investigations show that interruptions can negatively affect performance and safety. This research investigates the influence of interruption and interrupted task modality on pilot performance in a simulated commercial flight deck. Fourteen current commercial airline pilots performed approach scenarios in a fixed-base flight simulator. Air traffic control instructions, conveyed either aurally or visually (via a data link system) interrupted a visual task (obtaining information from the Flight Management System) and an auditory task (listening to the automated terminal information service recording). Some results confirm the hypothesized performance advantage of cross-modality conditions, more compelling nature of auditory interruptions, and interruption-resistance of auditory ongoing tasks. However, taken together, results suggest the four interaction conditions had different effects on pilot performance. These results have implications for the design of data link systems, and for facilitating interruption management through interface design, aiding, and training programs.

Latorella, Kara A.

1997-01-01

149

Resistance to the impact of interruptions during multitasking by healthy adults and dysexecutive patients.  

PubMed

Two experiments (one with healthy adult volunteers and the other with controls and dysexecutive patients) assessed the impact of interruptions on a novel test of multitasking. The test involved switching repeatedly between four tasks (block construction, bead threading, paper folding, alphabetical searching) over a 10 min period. In Experiment 1, there were four groups of 20 healthy participants. One group attempted multitasking with no interruption, a second group was interrupted early in the test, a third group late in the test and a fourth group was interrupted both early and late. Interruption involved carrying out a fifth, unexpected task for a period of 1 min before returning to the four main tasks. There was no difference in multitasking performance between the groups. In Experiment 2 the participants were seven dysexecutive patients and 14 age-matched controls. A repeated measures approach was employed to assess the impact of two interruptions (early and late) for both groups. Contrary to predictions, the patients as well as controls were resistant to the effects of interruptions, despite their clearly impaired multitasking performance. These results suggest that the ability to deal with interruptions may be separable from the ability to organise and execute multiple tasks within a limited time frame. PMID:15222971

Law, Anna S; Logie, Robert H; Pearson, David G; Cantagallo, Anna; Moretti, Eva; Dimarco, Francesca

2004-07-01

150

Incidental finding of complete interruption of the aorta in a septuagenarian.  

PubMed

Adult survivors of aortic interruption is extremely rare. Diagnosis mostly depends on additional imaging with CT and MRI. We present a rare case of acquired complete interruption of the aorta that was found incidentally at the time of coronary angiography. This finding was confirmed by CT scan. PMID:25222340

Ozturk, Semi; Gurbuz, Ahmet Seyfeddin; Efe, Suleyman Cagan

2015-03-01

151

Direct Load Control (DLC) Considering Nodal Interrupted Energy Assessment Rate (NIEAR) in Restructured Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct load control (DLC) scheme of air conditioning loads (ACL) considering direct monetary compensation to ACL customers for the service interruption caused by the DLC program is proposed in this paper for restructured power systems. The nodal interrupted energy assessment rate (NIEAR), which is used as the bids from the ACL customers, is utilized to determine the direct monetary

Qiuwei Wu; Peng Wang; Lalit Goel

2010-01-01

152

Direct load control considering interrupted energy assessment rate in restructured power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct load control (DLC) scheme of air conditioning loads (ACL), which considers the interrupted energy assessment rate (IEAR) of nodes where ACL are connected, is proposed in this paper for restructured power systems. The IEAR is utilized to determine the compensation for the discomfort of the ACL customers due to the service interruption caused by the DLC of ACL.

Qiuwei Wu; Peng Wang; L. Goel

2009-01-01

153

Discourse Markers in Turn-Initial Positions in Interruptive Speech in a Malaysian Radio Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discourse markers play significant roles in any spoken interaction. This research examines the functions of the discourse markers (DMs) well, now and and used as turn-initial interruptive devices in a Malaysian radio discourse. Using Schegloff's (2002) framework of what constitutes an interruption in turn-taking and previous studies on the…

Nor, Siti Nurbaya Mohd

2012-01-01

154

Predicting human interruptibility with sensors: a Wizard of Oz feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A person seeking someone else's attention is normally able to quickly assess how interruptible they are. This assessment allows for behavior we perceive as natural, socially appropriate, or simply polite. On the other hand, today's computer systems are almost entirely oblivious to the human world they operate in, and typically have no way to take into account the interruptibility of

Scott E. Hudson; James Fogarty; Christopher G. Atkeson; Daniel Avrahami; Jodi Forlizzi; Sara B. Kiesler; Johnny C. Lee; Jie Yang

2003-01-01

155

Real time interrupt handling using FORTRAN IV plus under RSX-11M  

SciTech Connect

A real-time data acquisition application for a linear accelerator is described. The important programming features of this application are use of connect to interrupt, a shared library, map to I/O page, and a shared data area. How you can provide rapid interrupt handling using these tools from FORTRAN IV PLUS is explained.

Schultz, D.E.

1981-01-01

156

Probabilistic assessment of financial losses due to interruptions and voltage sags - part II: practical implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second part of this paper presents a practical implementation and application of the methodology for the stochastic assessment of the annual financial losses due to interruptions and voltage sags discussed in the first part of this paper. The costs of interruptions and voltage sags are determined separately and then combined in order to estimate the total financial losses in

Jovica V. Milanovic ´; C. P. Gupta

2006-01-01

157

Severity Indices for Assessment of Equipment Sensitivity to Voltage Sags and Short Interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes new indices to assess the impact of voltage sags and short interruptions on industrial equipment. The indices translate physical sag parameters into terms that reflect the severity of the disturbances as seen by the equipment. Based on actual tests performed with different types of equipment, the impact of voltage sags and short interruptions is described in terms

J. Y. Chan; J. V. Milanovic

2007-01-01

158

Probabilistic assessment of financial losses due to interruptions and voltage sags-part I: the methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a generalized methodology for stochastic\\/probabilistic assessment of the annual financial losses due to interruptions and voltage sags. The costs of interruptions and voltage sags are treated separately and then combined in order to estimate the total financial losses in the network per annum. The methodology proposed is applicable to both assessment of individual customer losses and assessment

Jovica V. Milanovic ´; Chandra P. Gupta

2006-01-01

159

Current Interrupting Capability of Switch Equipped with Deion Plates and Electromagnetic Force Applied to the Arc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper reports the measurements of the arc interrupting capability and calculation of the electromagnetic force of an arc quenching chamber equipped with deion plates,. The interrupting capability of an ac current was measured to be about 350 A for four plates made of copper (condition named C1-4). Locating four deion plates made of iron at the same intervals

Yasunobu Yokomizu; Toshiro Matsumura; Seiji Fujiwara

2010-01-01

160

Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of digitoxin by cholestyramine  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated that considerable amounts of parenterally administered cardiac glycosides are excreted in the bile and reabsorbed across the intestinal mucosa in several species. It is currently believed that the more prolonged action of nonpolar digitalis glycosides is due to their retention and recycling in the enterohepatic circulation. This report describes studies carried out to evaluate the effects of pharmacologic interruption of this enterohepatic cycle with the intraluminal sequestering agent cholestyramine. Cholestyramine was found to bind substantial quantities of digitoxin-3H and digoxin-3H in vitro and this binding was only modestly inhibited by the presence of bile. Administration of cholestyramine to rats by intragastric catheter before the subcutaneous injection of the LD100 dose of digitoxin (10 mg/kg) resulted in a 70% survival rate. Further, oral administration of cholestyramine to rats before the subcutaneous injection of digitoxin-3H resulted in accelerated fecal excretion of radioactivity and lower levels of digitoxin-3H and metabolites in brain tissue compared to controls. Similarly, pretreatment of guinea pigs with cholestyramine orally before the injection of digitoxin in dosages of 10.0 and 4.0 mg/kg resulted in a 25 and 70% survival rate respectively as compared to survival rates of 0 and 30% in control animals. Cholestyramine pretreatment of guinea pigs was also accompanied by lower levels of digitoxin-3H and metabolites in heart and liver 90 min after injection of digitoxin-3H. Cholestyramine therapy did not result in significant changes in serum potassium levels excluding the possibility that drug-induced hyperkalemia might have affected the cardiac uptake of digitoxin. The data obtained in this study indicate that cholestyramine treatment affords a significant degree of protection against lethal digitoxin intoxication in rats and guinea pigs. It is suggested that cholestyramine binds appreciable amounts of digitoxin in the intestinal lumen resulting in reduced reabsorption, increased fecal excretion, and lower tissue levels of glycoside in critical organs. The protective effects of cholestyramine appear to be mediated by interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of digitoxin. PMID:5129314

Caldwell, James H.; Greenberger, Norton J.

1971-01-01

161

Trastuzumab interruption and treatment-induced cardiotoxicity in early HER2-positive breast cancer.  

PubMed

Trastuzumab improves outcomes among patients with HER2-positive breast cancer but is associated with a risk of treatment-induced cardiotoxicity (TIC). It is unclear how frequently TIC leads to trastuzumab interruption outside of prospective trials, and how TIC is managed in clinical practice. Patients with HER2-postive breast cancer receiving adjuvant trastuzumab from 2005 to 2010 were identified (n = 608). We evaluated the incidence, risk factors, and management of trastuzumab interruption due to TIC. In total, 488 (80 %) patients were treated with anthracycline prior to trastuzumab. Trastuzumab was interrupted in 108 (18 %) patients. Cumulative trastuzumab dose was lower in the interrupted group (median 86 vs. 108 mg/kg, p < 0.0001). The most common reason for interruption was TIC (66 of 108 patients): 20 had symptomatic heart failure and 46 had asymptomatic left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decline. Patients with trastuzumab interruption for TIC were older (54 vs. 50 years, p = 0.014) with lower LVEF before anthracycline (63 vs. 67 %, p < 0.0001) and trastuzumab (62 vs. 67 %, p < 0.0001) therapy. Mean LVEF at baseline, TIC diagnosis, and follow-up after trastuzumab interruption was 63, 45, and 55 %, respectively. Thirty-three of 66 patients with TIC were re-challenged with trastuzumab, and five patients had recurrent LVEF decline. In clinical practice, trastuzumab interruption is common and most often due to TIC, with most patients receiving anthracycline prior to trastuzumab. Cardiac dysfunction improves after trastuzumab interruption but may not fully recover to baseline. Strategies to minimize cardiotoxicity and treatment interruption should be investigated to prevent persistent left ventricular dysfunction in affected patients. PMID:25552363

Yu, Anthony F; Yadav, Nandini U; Lung, Betty Y; Eaton, Anne A; Thaler, Howard T; Hudis, Clifford A; Dang, Chau T; Steingart, Richard M

2015-01-01

162

University students' attitudes towards Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy.  

PubMed

An evaluation of the future professional trends was performed by analyzing the attitudes of university students to the Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy (VIP). An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 300 students (Medicine, Nursing and Law) of the University of Santiago de Compostela, with questions on their personal beliefs, opinion on the law and intention to participate in VIP. Of the 245 respondents (response rate 82%), 66.5% were pro-abortion and their attitudes towards VIP were consistent with their opinion on the beginning of life and with the ethical arguments related to the fetus and the mother. No differences were found with age, sex or degree. The students showed to be well informed on the VIP law, and the majority of them considered unsuitable termination of pregnancy in minors without parental consent. Students' intentions to take part in abortion provision were influenced by their views on abortion, level of participation and circumstances of pregnancy. Although the majority of participants would be willing to perform VIP in situations that affect fetus and mother's life or health (87-66%), their intentions clearly diminished in other situations, such as abortion on demand (17%). These data suggest that conscientious objection of health professionals can even increase with the new policy, a fact that might affect VIP availability. It is important to stress the need of ethical training to help in the solution of conflicts between patient and health professional values. PMID:22498236

Rodríguez-Calvo, María Sol; Martínez-Silva, Isabel María; Soto, José Luis; Concheiro, Luis; Muñoz-Barús, José Ignacio

2012-07-01

163

Execution-Based Model Checking of Interrupt-Based Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Execution-based model checking (EMC) is a verification technique based on executing a multi-threaded/multiprocess program repeatedly in a systematic manner in order to explore the different interleavings of the program. This is in contrast to traditional model checking, where a model of a system is analyzed Several execution-based model-checking tools exist at this point, such as for example Verisoft and Java PathFinder. The most common formal specification languages used by EMC tools are un- timed, either just assertions, or linear-time temporal logic (LTL). An alternative verification technique is Runtime Execution Monitoring (REM), which is based on monitor- ing the execution of a program, checking that the execution trace conforms to a requirement specification. The Temporal Rover and DBRover are such tools. They provide a very rich specification language, being an extension of LTL with real-time constraints and time-series. We show how execution-based model checking, combined with runtime execution monitoring, can be used for the verification of a large class of safety critical systems commonly known as interrupt-based systems. The proposed approach is novel in that: (i) it supports model checking of a large class of applications not practically verifiable using conventional EMC tools, (ii) it supports verification of LTL assertions extended with real-time and time-series constraints, and (iii) it supports the verification of custom schedulers.

Drusinsky, Doron; Havelund, Klaus

2003-01-01

164

ICE System: Interruptible control expert system. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interruptible Control Expert (ICE) System is based on an architecture designed to provide a strong foundation for real-time production rule expert systems. Three principles are adopted to guide the development of ICE. A practical delivery platform must be provided, no specialized hardware can be used to solve deficiencies in the software design. Knowledge of the environment and the rule-base is exploited to improve the performance of a delivered system. The third principle of ICE is to respond to the most critical event, at the expense of the more trivial tasks. Minimal time is spent on classifying the potential importance of environmental events with the majority of the time used for finding the responses. A feature of the system, derived from all three principles, is the lack of working memory. By using a priori information, a fixed amount of memory can be specified for the hardware platform. The absence of working memory removes the dangers of garbage collection during the continuous operation of the controller.

Vezina, James M.

1990-01-01

165

75 FR 70289 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Investigation No. 337-TA-739] In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of...within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same....

2010-11-17

166

76 FR 2708 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Investigation No. 337-TA-739] In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of...within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same....

2011-01-14

167

43 CFR 3481.4-3 - Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements applicable to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...4-3 Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence...

2014-10-01

168

43 CFR 3481.4-3 - Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements applicable to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...4-3 Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence...

2013-10-01

169

43 CFR 3481.4-3 - Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements applicable to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...4-3 Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence...

2012-10-01

170

43 CFR 3481.4-3 - Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements applicable to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...4-3 Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence...

2011-10-01

171

Analysis of Transposon Interruptions Suggests Selection for L1 Elements on the X Chromosome  

PubMed Central

It has been hypothesised that the massive accumulation of L1 transposable elements on the X chromosome is due to their function in X inactivation, and that the accumulation of Alu elements near genes is adaptive. We tested the possible selective advantage of these two transposable element (TE) families with a novel method, interruption analysis. In mammalian genomes, a large number of TEs interrupt other TEs due to the high overall abundance and age of repeats, and these interruptions can be used to test whether TEs are selectively neutral. Interruptions of TEs, which are beneficial for the host, are expected to be deleterious and underrepresented compared with neutral ones. We found that L1 elements in the regions of the X chromosome that contain the majority of the inactivated genes are significantly less frequently interrupted than on the autosomes, while L1s near genes that escape inactivation are interrupted with higher frequency, supporting the hypothesis that L1s on the X chromosome play a role in its inactivation. In addition, we show that TEs are less frequently interrupted in introns than in intergenic regions, probably due to selection against the expansion of introns, but the insertion pattern of Alus is comparable to other repeats. PMID:18769724

Abrusán, György; Giordano, Joti; Warburton, Peter E.

2008-01-01

172

Genetic Characterization of Rebounding Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Plasma during Multiple Interruptions of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various strategies of interrupting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are being investigated for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Interruptions of greater than 2 weeks frequently result in rebound of plasma HIV RNA. In order to discern changes in the viral population that might occur during cycles of treatment interruption, we evaluated the homology of HIV-1 envelope gene

Mark Dybul; Marybeth Daucher; Mark A. Jensen; Claire W. Hallahan; Tae-Wook Chun; Michael Belson; Bertha Hidalgo; David C. Nickle; Christian Yoder; Julia A. Metcalf; Richard T. Davey; Linda Ehler; Diane Kress-Rock; Elizabeth Nies-Kraske; Shuying Liu; James I. Mullins; Anthony S. Fauci

2003-01-01

173

Interview interruption and responses to questions about domestic violence in India.  

PubMed

This article uses the National Family Health Survey 2005-2006 (NFHS-3) of India to examine the relationship between interview interruption and the reporting of domestic violence. A sample of 65,610 currently married women was used to compare reported acts of physical and sexual violence among women who had been interrupted during their interview and those who had not. Logistic regression analyses indicated that women whose interviews were interrupted by either an adult man or woman were significantly more likely to report intimate partner violence. PMID:25125491

Rabel, Brenna V; Cunningham, Solveig A; Stephenson, Rob

2014-08-01

174

Interrupting Anticoagulation in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Three target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs)—dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban—have been approved by the FDA to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation; however, no agents are currently approved to reverse the anticoagulant effects of these TSOACs in cases of active bleeding. This review discusses the benefits and risks of these TSOACs from a clinician’s perspective, with a focus on the interruption of treatment for either elective or emergent surgery, monitoring, and reversal of anticoagulation. Available coagulation assays are not ideal for monitoring the effects of TSOACs and do not provide reliable quantitative measurement of their anticoagulant effects. When necessary, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) may provide qualitative information on dabigatran, and prothrombin time (PT) may provide qualitative assessment of the presence of the factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban and apixaban. Current recommendations for reversal of TSOACs are based largely on limited and sometimes conflicting data from in vitro or in vivo animal models, and clinical experience with these recommendations is also limited. Methods that have been investigated for effectiveness for reversal of the pharmacodynamic effects of the TSOACs include dialysis, activated charcoal, prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), and recombinant activated factor VII. It is important to note that even within a class of anticoagulant drugs, compounds respond differently to reversal agents; therefore, recommendations for one agent should not be extrapolated to another, even if they are from the same therapeutic class. New antidotes are being explored, including a mouse monoclonal antibody to dabigatran; andexanet alfa, a potential universal factor Xa inhibitor reversal agent; and a synthetic small molecule (PER977) that may be effective for the reversal of factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors. Given the short half-lives of TSOACs, watchful waiting, rather than reversal, may be the best approach in some circumstances. PMID:25516695

Yates, Scott W.

2014-01-01

175

Interrupting anticoagulation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.  

PubMed

Three target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs)-dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban-have been approved by the FDA to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation; however, no agents are currently approved to reverse the anticoagulant effects of these TSOACs in cases of active bleeding. This review discusses the benefits and risks of these TSOACs from a clinician's perspective, with a focus on the interruption of treatment for either elective or emergent surgery, monitoring, and reversal of anticoagulation. Available coagulation assays are not ideal for monitoring the effects of TSOACs and do not provide reliable quantitative measurement of their anticoagulant effects. When necessary, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) may provide qualitative information on dabigatran, and prothrombin time (PT) may provide qualitative assessment of the presence of the factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban and apixaban. Current recommendations for reversal of TSOACs are based largely on limited and sometimes conflicting data from in vitro or in vivo animal models, and clinical experience with these recommendations is also limited. Methods that have been investigated for effectiveness for reversal of the pharmacodynamic effects of the TSOACs include dialysis, activated charcoal, prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), and recombinant activated factor VII. It is important to note that even within a class of anticoagulant drugs, compounds respond differently to reversal agents; therefore, recommendations for one agent should not be extrapolated to another, even if they are from the same therapeutic class. New antidotes are being explored, including a mouse monoclonal antibody to dabigatran; andexanet alfa, a potential universal factor Xa inhibitor reversal agent; and a synthetic small molecule (PER977) that may be effective for the reversal of factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors. Given the short half-lives of TSOACs, watchful waiting, rather than reversal, may be the best approach in some circumstances. PMID:25516695

Yates, Scott W

2014-12-01

176

SOHO Mission Interruption Joint NASA/ESA Investigation Board  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contact with the SOlar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft was lost in the early morning hours of June 25, 1998, Eastern Daylight Time (EDT), during a planned period of calibrations, maneuvers, and spacecraft reconfigurations. Prior to this the SOHO operations team had concluded two years of extremely successful science operations. A joint European Space Agency (ESA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engineering team has been planning and executing recovery efforts since loss of contact with some success to date. ESA and NASA management established the SOHO Mission Interruption Joint Investigation Board to determine the actual or probable cause(s) of the SOHO spacecraft mishap. The Board has concluded that there were no anomalies on-board the SOHO spacecraft but that a number of ground errors led to the major loss of attitude experienced by the spacecraft. The Board finds that the loss of the SOHO spacecraft was a direct result of operational errors, a failure to adequately monitor spacecraft status, and an erroneous decision which disabled part of the on-board autonomous failure detection. Further, following the occurrence of the emergency situation, the Board finds that insufficient time was taken by the operations team to fully assess the spacecraft status prior to initiating recovery operations. The Board discovered that a number of factors contributed to the circumstances that allowed the direct causes to occur. The Board strongly recommends that the two Agencies proceed immediately with a comprehensive review of SOHO operations addressing issues in the ground procedures, procedure implementation, management structure and process, and ground systems. This review process should be completed and process improvements initiated prior to the resumption of SOHO normal operations.

1998-01-01

177

46 CFR 401.420 - Cancellation, delay or interruption in rendition of services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...interruption in rendition of services. 401.420 Section 401.420 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage Services §...

2011-10-01

178

46 CFR 401.420 - Cancellation, delay or interruption in rendition of services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...interruption in rendition of services. 401.420 Section 401.420 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage Services §...

2010-10-01

179

Nested Interrupt Analysis of Low Cost and High Performance Embedded Systems Using GSPN Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interrupt service routines are a key technology for embedded systems. In this paper, we introduce the standard approach for using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPNs) as a high-level model for generating CTMC Continuous-Time Markov Chains (CTMCs) and then use Markov Reward Models (MRMs) to compute the performance for embedded systems. This framework is employed to analyze two embedded controllers with low cost and high performance, ARM7 and Cortex-M3. Cortex-M3 is designed with a tail-chaining mechanism to improve the performance of ARM7 when a nested interrupt occurs on an embedded controller. The Platform Independent Petri net Editor 2 (PIPE2) tool is used to model and evaluate the controllers in terms of power consumption and interrupt overhead performance. Using numerical results, in spite of the power consumption or interrupt overhead, Cortex-M3 performs better than ARM7.

Lin, Cheng-Min

180

Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome: Case report of three cases with review of literature.  

PubMed

Pickardt syndrome (Pickardt-Fahlbusch syndrome) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by tertiary hypothyroidism caused by the interruption of the portal veins between hypothalamus and adenohypophysis. Typical features of this syndrome are tertiary hypothyroidism with low thyroid stimulating hormone, hyperprolactinemia and other pituitary hormone deficiencies. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome is characterized by a triad of thin or interrupted pituitary stalk, aplasia or hypoplasia of the anterior pituitary and absent or ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP) seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is a congenital anomaly of pituitary whose exact prevalence is unknown. In some cases, it is restricted to EPP or pituitary stalk interruption. We are presenting the case history along with MRI finding of three children's who presented with short stature and delayed puberty. PMID:25250085

Gutch, Manish; Kumar, Sukriti; Razi, Syed Mohd; Saran, Sanjay; Gupta, Keshav Kumar

2014-05-01

181

Functional Interrupts and Destructive Failures from Single Event Effect Testing of Point-Of-Load Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We show examples of single event functional interrupt and destructive failure in modern POL devices. The increasing complexity and diversity of the design and process introduce hard SEE modes that are triggered by various mechanisms.

Chen, Dakai; Phan, Anthony; Kim, Hak; Swonger, James; Musil, Paul; LaBel, Kenneth

2013-01-01

182

GI\\/M\\/1 Queue with Set-Up Period and Working Vacation and Vacation Interruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider a GI\\/M\\/1 queue with set-up period and working vacation and working interruption. We introduce set-up time and vacation interruption policy: the server can come back to the set-up period once there are customers after a service completion during the vacation period, thus the server may not accomplish vacation. Using matrix-geometric solution method, we obtain the

Guo-hui Zhao; Xin-xin Du; P. R. China; Nai-shuo Tian

183

Interruption in the maintenance of compulsive sexual disorder: Two case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual offenses and disorders are at times compulsive in nature. It is hypothesized that compulsive sexuality is a function of a history of interrupted or frustrated approach behavior. Two case studies involving compulsive features were treated by preventing such interruptions and delays. An A-B-A-B single-case experimental design on one of the two case studies provided some support for the hypothesized

Worek P. Konopacki; Tian P. S. Oei

1988-01-01

184

Analysis of an optical energy interrupter for MEMS-based safety and arming systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an investigation into the development of a LIGA optical energy interrupter for use in a MEMS-based Safety and Arming (S&A) system. The energy interrupter acts as a switch to selectively couple optical power between input and output fiber optic waveguides using either a reflectance or direct coupling technique. This device is a critical component of the S&A

Michael Beamesderfer; Shiping Chen; Don L. Devoe; Edward Litcher; Kenneth Johnson

1999-01-01

185

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical interruption: The technique of choice for patent ductus arteriosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical interruption for patent ductus arteriosus is a well-standardized procedure already described. We present our entire series of such cases, from the first case (performed on Sept. 5, 1991) to March 1, 1995. Two hundred thirty patients in a variety of age groups underwent video-assisted interruption: younger than 6 months (70 patients, 30%), 6 to 48 months (123

François Laborde; Thierry Folliguet; Alain Batisse; Alain Dibie; Edouardo Da-Cruz; Daniel Carbognani

1995-01-01

186

Characterization of a 100 cm² class molten carbonate fuel cell with current interruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

A current-interrupter method has been employed to measure the potential relaxation from output to open-circuit voltage (OCV). The relaxation process represents the voltage losses of molten-carbonate fuel cells which are composed of ohmic loss (η{sub IR}), reaction overpotential (η{sub Re}), and Nernst loss (ÎE{sub loss}). The responses of current interruption for a 100 cm² class Li-Na carbonate fuel cell were

C.-G. Lee; H. Nakano; I. Uchida; T. Nishina; S. Kuroe

1998-01-01

187

Epidemiology of Interruptions to Nutrition Support in Critically Ill Children in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.  

PubMed

Background: Nutrition support is often delayed or interrupted. The aim of this study is to identify reasons for and quantify time spent without nutrition in a mixed medical-surgical-cardiac pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods: Data were prospectively collected to describe the patient cohort (anthropometrics and diagnostic category) and nutrition practices (time to nutrition initiation; frequency, duration, and causes of interruptions; and overall caloric intake). Descriptive statistics were used; comparisons of groups were performed using an independent t test and P < .05 as significance. Results: The mean (standard deviation) time to nutrition initiation was 22.8 (16.6) hours following admission; 35% of patients were initiated after >24 hours. Nutrition was interrupted 1.2 (2.0) times per patient. Time spent without nutrition due to interruptions was 11.6 (23.0) hours, up to 102 hours. Patients spent 42.4% (28.2%) of their median (range) PICU admission of 2.9 days (0.25-39 days) without any form of nutrition. Patients aged 0-6 months had a significantly higher mean number and duration of interruptions (P = .001 and P < .001, respectively) compared with children >6 months. Interruptions due to surgery and planned extubation lasted significantly longer than all other interruptions (P < .001 and P = .001, respectively). Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) III scores were not correlated with percentage of length of stay spent without nutrition (r = 0.137). Conclusions: Prolonged time to nutrition initiation and interruptions in delivery caused pediatric patients to spend a high proportion of admission without nutrition support, preventing most from meeting energy requirements. Further research addressing specific patient outcomes is required to define optimal initiation times and appropriate procedural-specific fasting times. PMID:24285250

Keehn, Alysha; O'Brien, Christina; Mazurak, Vera; Brunet-Wood, Kim; Joffe, Ari; de Caen, Allan; Larsen, Bodil

2013-11-27

188

Effect of Radiotherapy Interruptions on Survival in Medicare Enrollees With Local and Regional Head-and-Neck Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate whether interruptions in radiotherapy are associated with decreased survival in a population-based sample of head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database we identified Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years and older diagnosed with local-regional head-and-neck cancer during the period 1997-2003. We examined claims records of 3864 patients completing radiotherapy for the presence of one or more 5-30-day interruption(s) in therapy. We then performed Cox regression analyses to estimate the association between therapy interruptions and survival. Results: Patients with laryngeal tumors who experienced an interruption in radiotherapy had a 68% (95% confidence interval, 41-200%) increased risk of death, compared with patients with no interruptions. Patients with nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oral, salivary gland, and sinus tumors had similar associations between interruptions and increased risk of death, but these did not reach statistical significance because of small sample sizes. Conclusions: Treatment interruptions seem to influence survival time among patients with laryngeal tumors completing a full course of radiotherapy. At all head-and-neck sites, the association between interruptions and survival is sensitive to confounding by stage and other treatments. Further research is needed to develop methods to identify patients most susceptible to interruption-induced mortality.

Fesinmeyer, Megan Dann [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Mehta, Vivek [Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Blough, David [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); School of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Tock, Lauri [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Ramsey, Scott D., E-mail: sramsey@fhcrc.or [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); School of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

2010-11-01

189

Viral re-suppression and detection of drug resistance following interruption of a suppressive NNRTI-based regimen  

PubMed Central

Background Interruption of an NNRTI-regimen is often necessary, but must be performed with caution because NNRTIs have a low genetic barrier to resistance. Limited data exist to guide clinical practice on the best interruption strategy to use. Methods Patients in the drug-conservation arm of SMART who interrupted a fully suppressive NNRTI-regimen were evaluated. From 2003, SMART recommended interruption of an NNRTI by: a staggered-interruption, where the NNRTI was stopped before the NRTIs; or by replacing the NNRTI with another drug before interruption. Simultaneous-interruption of all ARVs was discouraged. Re-suppression rates four-to-eight months after re-initiating NNRTI-therapy were assessed, as was the detection of drug-resistance mutations within two months of the treatment interruption in a subset (N=141). Results Overall, 601/688 (87.4%) patients who re-started an NNRTI achieved viral re-suppression. The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for achieving re-suppression was 1.94 (1.02-3.69) for patients with a staggered-interruption and 3.64 (1.37-9.64) for those with a switched-interruption compared to patients with a simultaneous-interruption. At least one NNRTI-mutation was detected in the virus of 16.4% patients with simultaneous-interruption, 12.5% patients with staggered-interruption and 4.2% patients with switched-interruption. Fewer patients with detectable mutations (i.e. 69.2%) achieved HIV-RNA?400 copies/mL compared to those in whom no mutations were detected (i.e. 86.7%), p=0.05. Conclusions In patients who interrupt a suppressive NNRTI-regimen, the choice of interruption-strategy may influence re-suppression rates when re-starting a similar regimen. NNRTI drug-resistance mutations were observed in a relatively high proportion of patients. These data provide additional support for a staggered- or switched-interruption strategy for NNRTI drugs. PMID:18981767

Fox, Zoe; Phillips, Andrew; Cohen, Cal; Neuhaus, Jacquie; Baxter, John; Emery, Sean; Hirschel, Bernard; Hullsiek, Kathy Huppler; Stephan, Christoph; Lundgren, Jens

2009-01-01

190

Supervisory-level interruption recovery in time-critical control tasks.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the effectiveness of providing interruption recovery assistance in the form of an interactive visual timeline of historical events on a peripheral display in support of team supervision in time-critical settings. As interruptions can have detrimental effects on task performance, particularly in time-critical work environments, there is growing interest in the design of tools to assist people in resuming their pre-interruption activity. A user study was conducted to evaluate the use of an interactive event timeline that provides assistance to human supervisors in time-critical settings. The study was conducted in an experimental platform that emulated a team of operators and a mission commander performing a time-critical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mission. The study results showed that providing interruption assistance enabled people to recover from interruptions faster and more accurately. These results have implications for interface design that could be adopted in similar time-critical environments such as air-traffic control, process control, and first responders. PMID:24581931

Sasangohar, Farzan; Scott, Stacey D; Cummings, M L

2014-07-01

191

Activation and inhibition of posterior parietal cortex have bi-directional effects on spatial errors following interruptions  

PubMed Central

Interruptions to ongoing mental activities are omnipresent in our modern digital world, but the brain networks involved in interrupted performance are not known, nor have the activation of those networks been modulated. Errors following interruptions reflect failures in spatial memory, whose maintenance is supported by a brain network including the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC). The present study therefore used bi-directional transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) of right PPC to examine the neuromodulation of spatial errors following interruptions, as well as performance on another PPC-dependent task, mental rotation. Anodal stimulation significantly reduced the number of interruption-based errors and increased mental rotation accuracy whereas cathodal stimulation significantly increased errors and reduced mental rotation accuracy. The results provide evidence for a causal role of the PPC in the maintenance of spatial representations during interrupted task performance. PMID:25628543

Foroughi, Cyrus K.; Blumberg, Eric J.; Parasuraman, Raja

2015-01-01

192

Quasistatic resonance of a chemical potential interruption in a graphene layer and its polarizability: The mixed-polarity semilocalized plasmon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical potential of a graphene layer can be locally interrupted by electrostatic gating or chemical doping. When properly designed, electrically small local interruption can possess quasistatic resonance and be strongly excited by electromagnetic field. This excitation generates a mixed-type semilocalized plasmon wave, e.g., it launches TM mode within the interruption domain and TE modes into the surrounding layer. Since the resonance is quasistatic, it is essentially independent of the interruption size and it exists also for sizes much smaller than the corresponding wavelengths of the aforementioned modes. Furthermore, the interruption's polarizability can be defined and calculated. Unlike the conventional polarizability, which is defined directly via a particle's dipole response, here it is defined via the induced currents in the interruption and in its surrounding. We verify our results by comparing them to full-wave numerical simulations. The results have potential applications in many one-atom-thick metamaterials and devices.

Hadad, Y.; Steinberg, Ben Z.

2013-08-01

193

Current interruption in a low-pressure high-current pulsed discharge with hollow cathode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the investigation of current interruption in the hollow-cathode discharge as applied to the electrode configuration of pseudospark switch. The phenomenon of interruption manifests itself at currents of several kiloamperes or higher and at a low gas pressure. It is demonstrated that the region of the hollow cathode is able to pass a high current density. The region that is responsible for the current interruption is the main gap of the switch, i.e., the positive column of discharge. The theoretical model of the positive column is proposed. The model implies that the gas ionization in the column is provided by the fast electrons which are accelerated in a double electric layer at the exit of cathode cavity. The estimates with a usage of the model are in agreement with the experimental data.

Korolev, Y. D.; Landl, N. V.; Geyman, V. G.; Frants, O. B.; Bolotov, A. V.; Nekhoroshev, V. O.; Kasyanov, V. S.

2014-11-01

194

Sequencing analysis of the spinal bulbar muscular atrophy CAG expansion reveals absence of repeat interruptions?  

PubMed Central

Trinucleotide repeat disorders are a heterogeneous group of diseases caused by the expansion, beyond a pathogenic threshold, of unstable DNA tracts in different genes. Sequence interruptions in the repeats have been described in the majority of these disorders and may influence disease phenotype and heritability. Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a motor neuron disease caused by a CAG trinucleotide expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Diagnostic testing and previous research have relied on fragment analysis polymerase chain reaction to determine the AR CAG repeat size, and have therefore not been able to assess the presence of interruptions. We here report a sequencing study of the AR CAG repeat in a cohort of SBMA patients and control subjects in the United Kingdom. We found no repeat interruptions to be present, and we describe differences between sequencing and traditional sizing methods. PMID:24041967

Fratta, Pietro; Collins, Toby; Pemble, Sally; Nethisinghe, Suran; Devoy, Anny; Giunti, Paola; Sweeney, Mary G.; Hanna, Michael G.; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.

2014-01-01

195

Sequencing analysis of the spinal bulbar muscular atrophy CAG expansion reveals absence of repeat interruptions.  

PubMed

Trinucleotide repeat disorders are a heterogeneous group of diseases caused by the expansion, beyond a pathogenic threshold, of unstable DNA tracts in different genes. Sequence interruptions in the repeats have been described in the majority of these disorders and may influence disease phenotype and heritability. Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a motor neuron disease caused by a CAG trinucleotide expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Diagnostic testing and previous research have relied on fragment analysis polymerase chain reaction to determine the AR CAG repeat size, and have therefore not been able to assess the presence of interruptions. We here report a sequencing study of the AR CAG repeat in a cohort of SBMA patients and control subjects in the United Kingdom. We found no repeat interruptions to be present, and we describe differences between sequencing and traditional sizing methods. PMID:24041967

Fratta, Pietro; Collins, Toby; Pemble, Sally; Nethisinghe, Suran; Devoy, Anny; Giunti, Paola; Sweeney, Mary G; Hanna, Michael G; Fisher, Elizabeth M C

2014-02-01

196

AGG interruptions and maternal age affect FMR1 CGG repeat allele stability during transmission  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of AGG interruptions in the CGG repeat locus of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene decreases the instability of the allele during transmission from parent to child, and decreases the risk of expansion of a premutation allele to a full mutation allele (the predominant cause of fragile X syndrome) during maternal transmission. Methods To strengthen recent findings on the utility of AGG interruptions in predicting instability or expansion to a full mutation of FMR1 CGG repeat alleles, we assessed the outcomes of 108 intermediate (also named gray zone) and 710 premutation alleles that were transmitted from parent to child, and collected from four international clinical sites. We have used the results to revise our initial model that predicted the risk of a maternal premutation allele expanding to a full mutation during transmission and to test the effect of AGG interruptions on the magnitude of expanded allele instability of intermediate or premutation alleles that did not expand to a full mutation. Results Consistent with previous studies, the number of AGG triplets that interrupts the CGG repeat locus was found to influence the risk of allele instability, including expansion to a full mutation. The total length of the CGG repeat allele remains the best predictor of instability or expansion to a full mutation, but the number of AGG interruptions and, to a much lesser degree, maternal age are also factors when considering the risk of transmission of the premutation allele to a full mutation. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that a model with total CGG length, number of AGG interruptions, and maternal age is recommended for calculating the risk of expansion to a full mutation during maternal transmission. Taken together, the results of this study provide relevant information for the genetic counseling of female premutation carriers, and improve the current predictive models which calculate risk of expansion to a full mutation using only total CGG repeat length. PMID:25110527

2014-01-01

197

Greater Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Interrupted Stress Pattern Compared to Daily Restraint Stress in Rats  

PubMed Central

Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated stress on psychiatric disorders. PMID:25014526

Zhang, Wei; Hetzel, Andrea; Shah, Bijal; Atchley, Derek; Blume, Shannon R.; Padival, Mallika A.; Rosenkranz, J. Amiel

2014-01-01

198

Use and Outcomes Associated With Bridging During Anticoagulation Interruptions in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Background— Temporary interruption of oral anticoagulation for procedures is often required, and some propose using bridging anticoagulation. However, the use and outcomes of bridging during oral anticoagulation interruptions in clinical practice are unknown. Methods and Results— The Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF) registry is a prospective, observational registry study of US outpatients with atrial fibrillation. We recorded incident temporary interruptions of oral anticoagulation for a procedure, including the use and type of bridging therapy. Outcomes included multivariable-adjusted rates of myocardial infarction, stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, cause-specific hospitalization, and death within 30 days. Of 7372 patients treated with oral anticoagulation, 2803 overall interruption events occurred in 2200 patients (30%) at a median follow-up of 2 years. Bridging anticoagulants were used in 24% (n=665), predominantly low-molecular-weight heparin (73%, n=487) and unfractionated heparin (15%, n=97). Bridged patients were more likely to have had prior cerebrovascular events (22% versus 15%; P=0.0003) and mechanical valve replacements (9.6% versus 2.4%; P<0.0001); however, there was no difference in CHA2DS2-VASc scores (scores ?2 in 94% versus 95%; P=0.5). Bleeding events were more common in bridged than nonbridged patients (5.0% versus 1.3%; adjusted odds ratio, 3.84; P<0.0001). The incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, hospitalization, or death within 30 days was also significantly higher in patients receiving bridging (13% versus 6.3%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.94; P=0.0001). Conclusions— Bridging anticoagulation is used in one quarter of anticoagulation interruptions and is associated with higher risk for bleeding and adverse events. These data do not support the use of routine bridging, and additional data are needed to identify best practices concerning anticoagulation interruptions. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01165710. PMID:25499873

Peterson, Eric D.; Kim, Sunghee; Thomas, Laine; Gersh, Bernard J.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Kowey, Peter R.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Sherwood, Matthew W.; Chang, Paul; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Ansell, Jack

2015-01-01

199

Evaluation of Parameters Affecting Arc Plasma Chute in a Typical Gas Interrupter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we examined a typical high-voltage gas circuit breaker. The main goal of this study is to characterize arc plasma and to determine its behavior using the generalized Mayr-type equation model following the interruption of high-voltage circuit breakers according to a semi-empirical one, named conductance model. Here, we tried to evaluate some arc parameters that affect interrupting ability by performing a numerical analysis so that our model defines recorded experimental results of an actual test.

Borghei, Seyed Majid; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Abolhassani, Mohammad Reza; Anvari, Abbas

2008-01-01

200

Throughput Analysis of Go-Back-N ARQ Protocol under Markovian Interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we determine the performance of a packet data multiplexer with go-back-N ARQ protocol under Markovian interruption. It is assumed that the input process into the system is Poisson process. The output channel is divided into a series of time slots and a data packet can be transmitted in a slot time. It is modeled that the output

Dashdondov Khongorzul; Brian B. C. Shinn

2008-01-01

201

Service Interruption Notices Between 06/06/14 and 07/05/14  

E-print Network

Environmental Chamber Fire Alarms/Suppression Heat Hot Water Kitchen Equipment Lab Equipment Sewer Vacuum System Systems Fume Hood #11076 fass - standby Fire Alarms elevator Isenberg Mngmt. School Annual elevator safetyService Interruption Notices Between 06/06/14 and 07/05/14 DCM Brett House Fire Alarm system

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

202

Assigning Student Leaders: Decreasing Interruptions during Teacher-Led Small-Group Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used a withdrawal design to evaluate an intervention designed to decrease interruptions during small-group instruction in a Kindergarten class. A new rule was put into place; during teacher-led small-group instruction, those not in the small group were required to address questions to designated student leaders, as opposed to…

Coles, Jeremy T.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Best, Tiffany L.; Wood, Allison; Luna, Elisa; Adcock, Wes

2013-01-01

203

Workflow interruptions, cognitive failure and near-accidents in health care.  

PubMed

Errors are frequent in health care. A specific model was tested that affirms failure in cognitive action regulation to mediate the influence of nurses' workflow interruptions and safety conscientiousness on near-accidents in health care. One hundred and sixty-five nurses from seven Swiss hospitals participated in a questionnaire survey. Structural equation modelling confirmed the hypothesised mediation model. Cognitive failure in action regulation significantly mediated the influence of workflow interruptions on near-accidents (p?interruptions. Workflow interruptions caused by colleagues, patients and organisational constraints are likely to trigger errors in nursing. Work redesign is recommended to reduce cognitive failure and improve safety of nurses and patients. PMID:24787909

Elfering, Achim; Grebner, Simone; Ebener, Corinne

2015-03-01

204

Timing for distribution and interrupt control for the TOPAZ Data Acquisition System  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide a standardized control for the data acquisition system for the TOPAZ detector, a Timing Server/Receiver scheme was developed. The entire system is under control of the Interrupt Control Section, which manages an integral operation of the data acquisition system in the FASTBUS environment.

Ikeda, H.; Enomoto, R.; Kawabata, S.; Yamauchi, M.; Imanishi, A.; Ishii, T.; Maruyama, K.; Masuda, H.; Okumo, H.; Ukai, K.

1987-02-01

205

The Effects of Matched Stimulation and Response Interruption and Redirection on Vocal Stereotypy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stereotypy has been classified as repetitive behavior that does not serve any apparent function. Two procedures that have been found to reduce rates of vocal stereotypy effectively are response interruption and redirection (RIRD) and noncontingent access to matched stimulation (MS). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of…

Love, Jessica J.; Miguel, Caio F.; Fernand, Jonathan K.; LaBrie, Jillian K.

2012-01-01

206

Discharge Properties and Emitted Electromagnetic Wave Spectrum in Low Vacuum Region of Vacuum Interrupter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study on reliability of vacuum interrupter (VI) such as detection method of the slow leak has been extensively carried out, while study on discharge properties in low vacuum of VI is still insufficient. In this report, we experimentally investigated discharge properties inside VI under closed contact and open contact conditions of main contactors in low vacuum of VI to simulate

Mohamad Kamarol; Shinya Ohtsuka; Hitoshi Saitou; Masayuki Sakaki; Masayuki Hikita

2005-01-01

207

A Study on Users' Preference on Interruption When Using Wearable Computers and Head Mounted Displays  

E-print Network

interfaces for wearable computers and head mounted displays that con- siders stress and other subjectiveA Study on Users' Preference on Interruption When Using Wearable Computers and Head Mounted Displays Marcus Nilsson1 , Mikael Drugge1 , Urban Liljedahl2 , Kre Synnes1 , Peter Parnes1 Lule

Madiraju, Praveen

208

Wage Penalties for Career Interruptions: An Empirical Analysis for West Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the wage effects of different types of career interruptions. We consider the timing and duration of non-employment spells by exploiting an administrative data set of German social security accounts (IAB employment sample) supplemented with information on the employees? entire working lives (IAB supplement sample I). These data allow us to distinguish between employment breaks due to registered

Miriam Beblo; Elke Wolf

2002-01-01

209

Cerebrospinal fluid signs of neuronal damage after antiretroviral treatment interruption in HIV1 infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The neurofilament is a major structural component of myelinated axons. Increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the light chain of the neurofilament protein (NFL) can serve as a sensitive indicator of central nervous system (CNS) injury. To assess whether interrupting antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection might have a deleterious effect on the CNS, we measured NFL levels in HIV-infected

Magnus Gisslén; Lars Rosengren; Lars Hagberg; Steven G Deeks; Richard W Price

2005-01-01

210

Aging correlation functions of the interrupted fractional Fokker-Planck propagator  

E-print Network

Aging correlation functions of the interrupted fractional Fokker-Planck propagator James B The authors explore aging in a general semi-Markov process with arbitrary waiting time distributions coordination, but one can generalize the construction to incorporate cutoffs in the aging of the system, i

Cao, Jianshu

211

Rapid Resumption of Interrupted Search Is Independent of Age-Related Improvements in Visual Search  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, 7-19-year-olds performed an interrupted visual search task in two experiments. Our question was whether the tendency to respond within 500 ms after a second glimpse of a display (the "rapid resumption" effect ["Psychological Science", 16 (2005) 684-688]) would increase with age in the same way as overall search efficiency. The…

Lleras, Alejandro; Porporino, Mafalda; Burack, Jacob A.; Enns, James T.

2011-01-01

212

Electric Power Interruption Cost Estimates for Individual Industries, Sectors, and the U.S. Economy  

E-print Network

Analysis, 1995a) and gross output (Bureau of Economic Analysis, 1995b) to derive interruption cost estimates for U.S. industries at the 2-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level, as well as for broader sectors and the U.S. economy...

Balducci, P. J.; Roop, J. M.; Schienbein, L. A.; DeSteese, J. G.; Weimar, M. R.

213

Further Evaluation of Response Interruption and Redirection as Treatment for Stereotypy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of 2 forms of response interruption and redirection (RIRD)--motor RIRD and vocal RIRD--were examined with 4 boys with autism to evaluate further the effects of this intervention and its potential underlying mechanisms. In Experiment 1, the effects of motor RIRD and vocal RIRD on vocal stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were…

Ahrens, Erin N.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Kodak, Tiffany; Worsdell, April S.; Keegan, Courtney

2011-01-01

214

Teaching Refugee Learners with Interrupted Education in Science: Vocabulary, literacy and pedagogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the globalisation of education, large numbers of students with interrupted schooling and low English literacy levels represent both a quantitative and qualitative shift in the kinds of students faced by teachers in classrooms. In Australia, after a year in an intensive English language programme, immigrant and refugee students are placed in the mainstream, where they face enormous challenges in

Jennifer Miller

2009-01-01

215

The Antecedents and Consequences of Interruptions in Formal Schooling: A Review of the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document presents a literature review, providing a summary of existing research findings relevant to all types of schooling interruptions. The section on the noncollege interruptee examines primary and secondary schooling: the types of programs available, characteristics of returnees, probabilities of program completion, and effect of…

Kohen, Andrew I.; Barker, Susan C.

216

Using Exponential Smoothing to Specify Intervention Models for Interrupted Time Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors demonstrate how exponential smoothing can play a role in the identification of the intervention component of an interrupted time-series design model that is analogous to the role that the sample autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions serve in the identification of the noise portion of such a model. (Author/BW)

Mandell, Marvin B.; Bretschneider, Stuart I.

1984-01-01

217

Interrupted Time-Series Analysis with Brief Single-Subject Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes problems of assessing change with short time-series data: unreliability of visual inference and fact that current statistical procedures cannot control Type I error because they underestimate positive autocorrelation. Shows how problems can be solved with new interrupted time-series analysis procedure (ITSACORR) that uses more accurate…

Crosbie, John

1993-01-01

218

Balancing Awareness and Interruption in Mobile Patrol using Context-Aware Notification  

E-print Network

student participants used a prototype notification system in a controlled mobile patrol task. The results were validated in a follow-up study with twenty-four police officers. We found that full messages unwanted interruption, a context-aware notification system adapts the timing and appearance of incident

McCrickard, Scott

219

Fragile X full mutation expansions are inhibited by one or more AGG interruptions in premutation carriers.  

PubMed

Purpose:Fragile X CGG repeat alleles often contain one or more AGG interruptions that influence allele stability and risk of a full mutation transmission from parent to child. We have examined transmissions of maternal and paternal alleles with 45-90 repeats to quantify the effect of AGG interruptions on fragile X repeat instability.Methods:A novel FMR1 polymerase chain reaction assay was used to determine CGG repeat length and AGG interruptions for 1,040 alleles from 705 families.Results:We grouped transmissions into nine categories of five repeats by parental size and found that in every size category, alleles with no AGGs had the greatest risk for instability. For maternal alleles <75 repeats, 89% (24/27) that expanded to a full mutation had no AGGs. Two contractions in maternal transmission were accompanied by loss of AGGs, suggesting a mechanism for generating alleles that lack AGG interruptions. Maternal age was examined as a factor in full mutation expansions using prenatal samples to minimize ascertainment bias, and a possible effect was observed though it was not statistically significant (P = 0.06).Conclusion:These results strengthen the association of AGG repeats with CGG repeat stability and provide more accurate risk estimates of full mutation expansions for women with 45-90 repeat alleles.Genet Med advance online publication 11 September 2014Genetics in Medicine (2014); doi:10.1038/gim.2014.106. PMID:25210937

Nolin, Sarah L; Glicksman, Anne; Ersalesi, Nicole; Dobkin, Carl; Brown, W Ted; Cao, Ru; Blatt, Eliot; Sah, Sachin; Latham, Gary J; Hadd, Andrew G

2014-09-11

220

TELEPHONE BOMB THREAT REPORT FORM INSTRUCTIONS: Be calm. Be courteous. Listen. Do not interrupt the caller.  

E-print Network

TELEPHONE BOMB THREAT REPORT FORM INSTRUCTIONS: Be calm. Be courteous. Listen. Do not interrupt for caller (Try to ask these questions and document responses) When will the bomb explode? What kind of bomb is it? What will cause the bomb to explode? Where is the bomb located? What does the bomb look like? Did

Almor, Amit

221

Response Interruption and Redirection for Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism: A Systematic Replication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study systematically replicated and extended previous research on response interruption and redirection (RIRD) by assessing instructed responses of a different topography than the target behavior, percentage of session spent in treatment, generalization of behavior reduction, and social validity of the intervention. Results showed that RIRD…

Cassella, Megan Duffy; Sidener, Tina M.; Sidener, David W.; Progar, Patrick R.

2011-01-01

222

Integrating interruptible IPP contracts in the probabilistic production simulation of power market systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assuring appropriate levels of reliability at the minimum possible cost using market-based approaches is a contemporary issue that is attracting much attention in deregulated power market systems. Introducing interruptible electricity contracts could provide a possible solution to such a problem. However, theoretical frameworks for examining the impact of these contractual arrangements on system operations have not been maturely developed. This

C. W. Yu; S. H. Zhang; L. Wang; T. S. Chung

2007-01-01

223

Mitigating Disruptive Effects of Interruptions through Training: What Needs to Be Practiced?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is generally accepted that, with practice, people improve on most tasks. However, when tasks have multiple parts, it is not always clear what aspects of the tasks practice or training should focus on. This research explores the features that allow training to improve the ability to resume a task after an interruption, specifically focusing on…

Cades, David M.; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A.; Trafton, J. Gregory; Monk, Christopher A.

2011-01-01

224

BusyBody: Creating and Fielding Personalized Models of the Cost of Interruption  

E-print Network

-weight offline training systems packaged into a self-contained system. During a training phase, Busy a training phase and that builds decision-theoretic models with the ability to predict the cost of the expected cost of interruption, trained by users in an offline setting, are coupled with models that assign

Horvitz, Eric

225

Sensitivity of AC coil contactors to voltage sags, short interruptions, and undervoltage transients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the sensitivity of ac coil contactors to voltage sags, short interruptions, and undervoltage transients on the basis of extensive test results. Existing standards and previously published work are reviewed, and a detailed description of the testing procedure used is presented. The following tests were performed: sensitivity to rectangular voltage sags with ideal and nonideal supply voltage, testing

S. Z. Djokic; Jovica V. Milanovic ´; Daniel S. Kirschen

2004-01-01

226

OCTL Laser Beam Transmission Interruptions due to Aircraft and Predictive Avoidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser beam transmission from the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) at Table Mountain, California, is required in order to provide a beacon source for optical link acquisition between spacecraft carrying laser communication terminals and OCTL. The laser transmission must be regulated in order to avoid inadvertent irradiation of overflying aircraft or spacecraft. In this article, we present an analysis and data to determine the frequency and duration of laser transmission interruptions so that future laser communication operations can be planned. A week's worth of aircraft flight-path data in the vicinity of OCTL was obtained from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The FAA data were analyzed, along with simulated Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft predicted orbital data, in order to determine the frequency of laser transmission interruptions. An upper bound of five interruptions per 15-min period was observed due to aircraft overflights. Under more favorable conditions, a 15-min pass to the LADEE spacecraft could encounter no interruptions due to aircraft. The analysis was corroborated with "ground-truth" measurements at OCTL, using the existing laser safety system sensors and radar, to monitor aircraft that intercept a plus-or-minus 2.5-deg exclusion zone around the boresight axis of the OCTL telescope. The frequency of interruptions obtained from this data was in agreement with the predictions obtained using the FAA data analysis. Furthermore, the ground observation confirmed typical interrupt durations of 3 to 5 s due to overflying aircraft. This sets a lower bound for the fractional duration of the shoot window to be approximately 98 percent. Predictive avoidance (PA) data obtained from the Laser Clearing House (LCH) for approximately one month with the Moon as a target was analyzed. Note that the difference between using the Moon as a target versus simulated LADEE spacecraft orbital data is that the Moon line of sight is continuous from moonrise to moonset, whereas the line of sight to the spacecraft is interrupted due to occultation of the spacecraft by the Moon. The limited LCH data analysis presented indicates that though greater than 90 percent of laser shoot windows can be accessed nearly two-thirds of the time, it can drop to 60 to 90 percent approximately one-third of the time, with a single instance when it dropped to 32 percent.

Biswas, A.; Roberts, W. T.; Kovalik, J. M.; Wright, M. W.

2012-11-01

227

43 CFR 3481.4-1 - Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...3481.4-1 Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as...

2014-10-01

228

43 CFR 3481.4-1 - Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...3481.4-1 Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as...

2013-10-01

229

43 CFR 3481.4-1 - Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...3481.4-1 Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as...

2012-10-01

230

An evaluation of diagnostic techniques relevant to arcing fault current interrupters for direct current power systems in future aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arc fault circuit interrupters (AFCI) are a relatively new development in the area of circuit protection. Typical circuit breakers are designed to detect an overload current in the protected circuit and trip open within a specified period of time. The AFCI is a device that detects and interrupts an arcing fault when it occurs. An arc fault is a dangerous

R. Spyker; D. L. Schweickart; J. C. Horwath; L. C. Walko; D. Grosjean

2005-01-01

231

43 CFR 3481.4-1 - Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...3481.4-1 Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as...

2011-10-01

232

Transcatheter Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Interruption of Inferior Vena Cava with Azygous Continuation Using an Amplatzer Duct Occluder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases with interrupted inferior vena cava and azygous continuation requiring patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) occlusion\\u000a per cardiac catheterization are presented. A technique is described enabelmy occlusion of PDA using an Amplatzer ductal occluder\\u000a despite interruption of inferior vena cava and azygous continuation.

Sadiq Al-Hamash

2006-01-01

233

Determinants of survival following repair of interrupted aortic arch in infancy.  

PubMed

Between January 1971 and March 1987, surgery was performed in 26 infants with interrupted aortic arch. At operation the 14 boys and 12 girls weighted between 1.71 and 4.23 kg (mean +/- SD = 3.1 +/- 0.63 kg) and ranged in age from 2 to 90 days (13 +/- 18 days). The interruption was distal to the left subclavian artery in 4 (15%), between the left carotid and subclavian arteries in 20 (77%) and between the brachiocephalic (innominate) and left carotid arteries in 2 (8%). Associated complex cardiac lesions in 8 patients included complete transposition (2), common arterial trunk (2), aortopulmonary window (2), double inlet left ventricle (1) and tricuspid atresia (1). The remaining patients had an isolated ventricular septal defect. The arch was reconstructed with a prosthetic conduit in 14 patients; by a direct anastomosis in 6; using the subclavian artery in 3; and with the pulmonary trunk and the arterial duct in 2. Twenty patients (77%) underwent palliative surgery as the first stage of management, and banding of the pulmonary trunk was also performed in 16 of these. Five patients (19%) underwent primary complete repair of the interruption and intracardiac anomalies. One patient (4%) died soon after thoracotomy for palliative surgery. Of the 15 (57%, 70% confidence limits CL = 46-69%) early deaths, 7 occurred in patients with complex associated defects and 4 occurred when single stage repair was attempted. Survival following first-stage palliative surgery for arch interruption with isolated ventricular septal defect was 64% (9/14) [70% CL = 47-79%]. All of these patients subsequently underwent complete repair. Chi-squared and t-tests showed the year of operation and the type of operation (two-stage repair) to be associated with improved survival. It is concluded that a two-stage repair of interrupted aortic arch offers a reasonable alternative to primary complete correction and will lead to satisfactory subsequent repair in most cases. PMID:1690182

Qureshi, S A; Maruszewski, B; McKay, R; Arnold, R; West, C A; Hamilton, D I

1990-03-01

234

The Role of Interruptions in polyQ in the Pathology of SCA1  

PubMed Central

At least nine dominant neurodegenerative diseases are caused by expansion of CAG repeats in coding regions of specific genes that result in abnormal elongation of polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts in the corresponding gene products. When above a threshold that is specific for each disease the expanded polyQ repeats promote protein aggregation, misfolding and neuronal cell death. The length of the polyQ tract inversely correlates with the age at disease onset. It has been observed that interruption of the CAG tract by silent (CAA) or missense (CAT) mutations may strongly modulate the effect of the expansion and delay the onset age. We have carried out an extensive study in which we have complemented DNA sequence determination with cellular and biophysical models. By sequencing cloned normal and expanded SCA1 alleles taken from our cohort of ataxia patients we have determined sequence variations not detected by allele sizing and observed for the first time that repeat instability can occur even in the presence of CAG interruptions. We show that histidine interrupted pathogenic alleles occur with relatively high frequency (11%) and that the age at onset inversely correlates linearly with the longer uninterrupted CAG stretch. This could be reproduced in a cellular model to support the hypothesis of a linear behaviour of polyQ. We clarified by in vitro studies the mechanism by which polyQ interruption slows down aggregation. Our study contributes to the understanding of the role of polyQ interruption in the SCA1 phenotype with regards to age at disease onset, prognosis and transmission. PMID:23935513

Faggiano, Serena; Vannocci, Tommaso; Rezaei, Human; Pemble, Sally; Sweeney, Mary G.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Davis, Mary B.; Pastore, Annalisa; Giunti, Paola

2013-01-01

235

Daily sedative interruption versus intermittent sedation in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients: a randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background Daily sedative interruption and intermittent sedation are effective in abbreviating the time on mechanical ventilation. Whether one is superior to the other has not yet been determined. Our aim was to compare daily interruption and intermittent sedation during the mechanical ventilation period in a low nurse staffing ICU. Methods Adult patients expected to need mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours were randomly assigned, in a single center, either to daily interruption of continuous sedative and opioid infusion or to intermittent sedation. In both cases, our goal was to maintain a Sedation Agitation Scale (SAS) level of 3 or 4; that is patients should be calm, easily arousable or awakened with verbal stimuli or gentle shaking. Primary outcome was ventilator-free days in 28 days. Secondary outcomes were ICU and hospital mortality, incidence of delirium, nurse workload, self-extubation and psychological distress six months after ICU discharge. Results A total of 60 patients were included. There were no differences in the ventilator-free days in 28 days between daily interruption and intermittent sedation (median: 24 versus 25 days, P?=?0.160). There were also no differences in ICU mortality (40 versus 23.3%, P?=?0.165), hospital mortality (43.3 versus 30%, P?=?0.284), incidence of delirium (30 versus 40%, P?=?0.472), self-extubation (3.3 versus 6.7%, P?=?0.514), and psychological stress six months after ICU discharge. Also, the nurse workload was not different between groups, but it was reduced on day 5 compared to day 1 in both groups (Nurse Activity Score (NAS) in the intermittent sedation group was 54 on day 1 versus 39 on day 5, P?interruption group was 53 on day 1 versus 38 on day 5, P?interruption group. The tidal volume was higher in the intermittent sedation group during the first five days of ICU stay. Conclusions There was no difference in the number of ventilator-free days in 28 days between both groups. Intermittent sedation was associated with lower sedative and opioid doses. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00824239. PMID:24900938

2014-01-01

236

43 CFR 3481.4-2 - What are some examples of circumstances that qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? 3481.4-2 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? (a) Movement,...

2013-10-01

237

43 CFR 3481.4-2 - What are some examples of circumstances that qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? 3481.4-2 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? (a) Movement,...

2014-10-01

238

43 CFR 3481.4-2 - What are some examples of circumstances that qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? 3481.4-2 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? (a) Movement,...

2012-10-01

239

43 CFR 3481.4-2 - What are some examples of circumstances that qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? 3481.4-2 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? (a) Movement,...

2011-10-01

240

A hybrid metalloarsenate 3D framework-1D interrupted metal oxide.  

PubMed

Complex metal arsenates of the stoichiometry M(1)(-)(x)()M'(6)(OH)(3)(AsO(4)H(2)(x)()(/3))(3)(HAsO(4)), M = M' = Co, Ni, have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The two compounds display a very similar structural topology to that of the mineral dumortierite, an uncommon complex oxyborosilicate of aluminum. The hybrid structures consist of well separated, vacancy interrupted chains of face sharing MO(6) octahedra, with short M.M distances near 2.5 A, embedded in a metalloarsenate 3D framework having the topology of the aluminosilicate cancrinite. The framework also contains a quadruply bridging hydroxide ion. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal a strong antiferromagnetic interaction and magnetic transition to low temperature spin canted phases below 51 K (Co) and 42 K (Ni). The material may be considered as a zeotype framework structure templated by an interrupted one-dimensional metal oxide. PMID:12817976

Hughes, Robert W; Gerrard, Lee A; Price, Daniel J; Weller, Mark T

2003-06-30

241

Effectiveness of interruptive alerts in increasing application functionality utilization: a controlled trial.  

PubMed

Medical applications frequently contain a wide range of functionalities. Users are often unaware of all of the functionalities available. More effective ways of delivering information about available functionalities to the users are needed. We conducted a pseudo-randomized controlled trial to determine whether interruptive alerts will increase utilization of several functionalities by the users of the Pre-Admission Medication List (PAML) Builder application at two academic medical centers. In a log-linear model, alerts increased total utilization of the promoted functionalities per PAML built by 70% compared to the controls at the site level (p<0.0001). At the user level, frequency of utilization of the PAML Builder functionalities by individual users increased by 0.03 for every extra alert shown to the user (p<0.0001). Alerts led to a nearly 2-fold increase in utilization of the promoted functionalities. Interruptive alerts are an effective method of delivering information about application functionalities to users. PMID:20637899

Turchin, Alexander; James, Oliver D; Godlewski, Eric D; Shubina, Maria; Coley, Christopher M; Gandhi, Tejal K; Broverman, Carol

2011-06-01

242

Hypoplastic right retro-oesophageal aortic arch: similarities to interrupted aortic arch.  

PubMed Central

At echocardiography a dysmorphic neonate was found to have a hypoplastic mitral valve, left ventricle, and ascending aorta with interruption of the aortic arch between the left common carotid and the left subclavian arteries--the left subclavian artery arose from a normal sized left descending aorta. Cardiac catheterisation and subsequent necropsy confirmed this arrangement but also showed a tortuous right retro-oesophageal aortic arch. This arch was severely hypoplastic distal to the right subclavian artery. These cardiovascular anomalies occurred in the child of a family in which other members showed the velo-cardio-facial syndrome, a condition known to be associated with right aortic arch. This aortic arch arrangement may be impossible to distinguish from simple aortic interruption by echocardiography alone. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:2605064

Knight, W B

1989-01-01

243

Bottom-up synthesis of nanoscale conjugation-interrupted frameworks and their electrical properties.  

PubMed

Soluble covalent organic nanoframeworks up to generation 2.5 (G2.5) are synthesized with self-similar H-shaped conformations by using a bottom-up approach including iterative C-H bond functionalization. The electrical characteristics of nanoscale thin-film semiconductors of the conjugation-interrupted frameworks can be tuned by post-modification with diazonium salt. PMID:23585358

Chang, Yong-Zheng; Shao, Qi; Bai, Lin-Yi; Ou, Chang-Jin; Lin, Jin-Yi; Xie, Ling-Hai; Liu, Zheng-Dong; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Guang-Wei; Huang, Wei

2013-10-11

244

An exploratory study of the corrosion of Mg alloys during interrupted salt spray testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A first systematic investigation was carried out to understand the corrosion of common Mg alloys (Pure Mg, AZ31, AZ91, AM30, AM60, ZE41) exposed to interrupted salt spray. The corrosion rates were also evaluated for these alloys immersed in 3wt.% NaCl by measuring hydrogen evolution and an attempt was made to estimate the corrosion rate using Tafel extrapolation of the cathodic

Ming-Chun Zhao; Patrik Schmutz; Samuel Brunner; Ming Liu; Guang-ling Song; Andrej Atrens

2009-01-01

245

Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and\\/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in:

Tadej Mezek; Ed Sverko; Martina D. Rudy; Donna Zaruk; Alfredo Capretta; Craig E. Hebert; Aaron T. Fisk; Daryl J. McGoldrick; Teresa J. Newton; Trent M. Sutton; Marten A. Koops; Andrew M. Muir; Timothy B. Johnson; Mark P. Ebener; Michael T. Arts

2011-01-01

246

Use of interrupter technique in assessment of bronchial responsiveness in normal subjects  

PubMed Central

Background A number of subjects, especially the very young and the elderly, are unable to cooperate and to perform forced expiratory manoeuvres in the evaluation of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). The objective of our study was to investigate the use of the interrupter technique as a method to measure the response to provocation and to compare it with the conventional PD20 FEV1. Methods We studied 170 normal subjects, 100 male and 70 female (mean ± SD age, 38 ± 8.5 and 35 ± 7.5 years, respectively), non-smoking from healthy families. These subjects had no respiratory symptoms, rhinitis or atopic history. A dosimetric cumulative inhalation of methacholine was used and the response was measured by the dose which increases baseline end interruption resistance by 100% (PD100Rint, EI) as well as by percent dose response ratio (DRR). Results BHR at a cut-off level of 0.8 mg methacholine exhibited 31 (18%) of the subjects (specificity 81.2%), 21 male and 10 female, while 3% showed a response in the asthmatic range. The method was reproducible and showed good correlation with PD20FEV1 (r = 0.76, p < 0.005), with relatively narrow limits of agreement at -1.39 ?mol and 1.27 ?mol methacholine, respectively, but the interrupter methodology proved more sensitive than FEV1 in terms of reactivity (DRR). Conclusions Interrupter methodology is clinically useful and may be used to evaluate bronchial responsiveness in normal subjects and in situations when forced expirations cannot be performed. PMID:15541173

Panagou, Panagiotis; Kottakis, Ioannis; Tzouvelekis, Argyris; Anevlavis, Stavros; Bouros, Demosthenes

2004-01-01

247

An improved portmanteau test for autocorrelated errors in interrupted time-series regression models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new portmanteau test for autocorrelation among the errors of interrupted time-series regression models is proposed. Simulation\\u000a results demonstrate that the inferential properties of the proposedQ\\u000a H-M test statistic are considerably more satisfactory than those of the well known Ljung-Box test and moderately better than\\u000a those of the Box-Pierce test. These conclusions generally hold for a wide variety of autoregressive

Bradley E. Huitema; Joseph W. McKean

2007-01-01

248

A video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical technique for interruption of patent ductus arteriosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe herein a technique for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure using a method of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical\\u000a (VATS) interruption derived from video-assisted endoscopic surgery. This technique of repair was performed on five patients\\u000a with a mean age of 3 years and a mean weight of 13.7 kg during 1994 and 1995. Under general anesthesia, two 10-mm trocars\\u000a and two

Hidetoshi Tsuboi; Nobutaka Ikeda; Yoshihide Minami; Hidenori Gohra; Kimikazu Hamano; Kazuro Sugi; Tomoe Katoh; Yoshihiko Fujimura; Kensuke Esato

1997-01-01

249

Sensitivity of AC adjustable speed drives to voltage sags and short interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the sensitivity of adjustable speed drives (ASDs) to voltage sags and short interruptions on the basis of extensive test results. Existing standards and previously published work are critically reviewed, and a description of test procedures needed for appropriate assessment of ASD sensitivity is presented. The following tests were performed: sensitivity to rectangular three-phase, two-phase, and single-phase voltage

S. Z. Djokic; K. Stockman; J. V. Milanovic; J. J. M. Desmet; R. Belmans

2005-01-01

250

Sensitivity of AC Adjustable Speed Drives to Voltage Sags and Short Interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the sensitivity of adjustable speed drives (ASDs) to voltage sags and short interruptions on the basis of extensive test results. Existing standards and previously published work are critically reviewed, and a description of test procedures needed for appropriate assessment of ASD sensitivity is presented. The following tests were performed: sensitivity to rectangular three-phase, two-phase, and single-phase voltage

K. Stockman; J. V. Milanovic ´; J. J. M. Desmet; R. Belmans

2005-01-01

251

Extinction and interruption of diffusion flame interacting with a large scale vortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instantaneous and simultaneous measurements of two-dimensional temperature and OH LIF profiles by combining Rayleigh scattering with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) were demonstrated in nitrogen-diluted hydrogen (H2 30%+N2 70%) diffusion flame interacting with a large scale vortex induced by the continuous acoustic excitation on the fuel side. It is investigated to analyze dynamic behavior of flame extinction and interruption during the flame–vortex

Masaharu Komiyama; Ryoji Kawabe; Toshimi Takagi

2009-01-01

252

Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus in interrupted inferior caval vein through femoral vein approach  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous closure of the patent arterial duct in patients with interrupted inferior caval vein poses a technical challenge. A 12-year-old girl with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and interrupted inferior caval vein is described in this report. The diagnosis of interrupted inferior caval vein and azygos continuation was made in the catheterization laboratory. A catheter was advanced and snared in the descending aorta. An exchange wire was advanced through the catheter and snared in the descending aorta. Then, an Amplatzer TorqVue 2 delivery sheath was advanced over the wire from the venous side and again snared in the descending aorta. An Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO) size 8/6 was advanced through the sheath while still holding the sheath with a snare. The device was opened. The sheath was then unsnared once the aortic disc was completely out. The sheath and the device were pulled back into the duct and the device was successfully implanted. The device was then released and it attained a stable position. An aortic angiogram was performed which showed complete occlusion. PMID:24701089

Tefera, Endale; Bermudez-Cañete, Ramon

2014-01-01

253

Speech reception by listeners with real and simulated hearing impairment: Effects of continuous and interrupted noise  

PubMed Central

The effects of audibility and age on masking for sentences in continuous and interrupted noise were examined in listeners with real and simulated hearing loss. The absolute thresholds of each of ten listeners with sensorineural hearing loss were simulated in normal-hearing listeners through a combination of spectrally-shaped threshold noise and multi-band expansion for octave bands with center frequencies from 0.25–8 kHz. Each individual hearing loss was simulated in two groups of three normal-hearing listeners (an age-matched and a non-age-matched group). The speech-to-noise ratio (S?N) for 50%-correct identification of hearing in noise test (HINT) sentences was measured in backgrounds of continuous and temporally-modulated (10 Hz square-wave) noise at two overall levels for unprocessed speech and for speech that was amplified with the NAL-RP prescription. The S?N in both continuous and interrupted noise of the hearing-impaired listeners was relatively well-simulated in both groups of normal-hearing listeners. Thus, release from masking (the difference in S?N obtained in continuous versus interrupted noise) appears to be determined primarily by audibility. Minimal age effects were observed in this small sample. Observed values of masking release were compared to predictions derived from intelligibility curves generated using the extended speech intelligibility index (ESII) [Rhebergen et al. (2006). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 3988–3997]. PMID:20649229

Desloge, Joseph G.; Reed, Charlotte M.; Braida, Louis D.; Perez, Zachary D.; Delhorne, Lorraine A.

2010-01-01

254

Enhancing the Simulation Speed of Sensor Network Applications by Asynchronization of Interrupt Service Routines  

PubMed Central

Sensor network simulations require high fidelity and timing accuracy to be used as an implementation and evaluation tool. The cycle-accurate and instruction-level simulator is the known solution for these purposes. However, this type of simulation incurs a high computation cost since it has to model not only the instruction level behavior but also the synchronization between multiple sensors for their causality. This paper presents a novel technique that exploits asynchronous simulations of interrupt service routines (ISR). We can avoid the synchronization overheads when the interrupt service routines are simulated without preemption. If the causality errors occur, we devise a rollback procedure to restore the original synchronized simulation. This concept can be extended to any instruction-level sensor network simulator. Evaluation results show our method can enhance the simulation speed up to 52% in the case of our experiments. For applications with longer interrupt service routines and smaller number of preemptions, the speedup becomes greater. In addition, our simulator is 2 to 11 times faster than the well-known sensor network simulator. PMID:23966200

Joe, Hyunwoo; Woo, Duk-Kyun; Kim, Hyungshin

2013-01-01

255

Interrupted versus uninterrupted flow: a safety propensity index for driver behavior.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to develop a quantitative safety propensity index (SPI) that captures the overall propensity of a given surrounding environment to cause unsafe driving. The study is conducted in two different flow conditions: interrupted and uninterrupted. Using structural modeling techniques, the index can be estimated from observed geometric, weather-related, vehicular, driver-related, and traffic-related characteristics. To illustrate the adopted approach, extensive effort was conducted to "sync" data from different sources including the Virginia Department of Transportation and the FARS/GES crash data libraries. The Virginia Department of Transportation provided traffic data for 10 freeway sections with interrupted flow and 9 highway sections with interrupted flow in the Northern Virginia area, USA. Two different structural equations models were found allowing insights to the safety impact of different surrounding elements/dimensions. The SPI provides (a) a basis for quantifying the effects of the aforementioned characteristics on safety, (b) a basis for comparing the differences between the factors affecting safety in different flow scenarios and (c) ranking the corresponding roadway sections/locations for improved safety performance. The framework and methodology used to develop this index have the potential to support safety policy analysis and decision making. PMID:23507432

Hamdar, Samer H; Schorr, Justin

2013-06-01

256

Effects of Light Interruption on Sleep and Viability of Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Light is a very important regulator of the daily sleep rhythm. Here, we investigate the influence of nocturnal light stimulation on Drosophila sleep. Results showed that total daytime sleep was reduced due to a decrease in daytime sleep episode duration caused by discontinuous light stimulation, but sleep was not strongly impacted at nighttime although the discontinuous light stimulation occurred during the scotophase. During a subsequent recovery period without light interruption, the sleep quality of nighttime sleep was improved and of daytime sleep reduced, indicating flies have a persistent response to nocturnal light stimulation. Further studies showed that the discontinuous light stimulation damped the daily rhythm of a circadian light-sensitive protein cryptochrome both at the mRNA and protein levels, which subsequently caused disappearance of circadian rhythm of the core oscillator timeless and decrease of TIMLESS protein at nighttime. These data indicate that the nocturnal light interruption plays an important role in sleep through core proteins CRYTOCHROME and TIMLESS, Moreover, interruption of sleep further impacted reproduction and viability. PMID:25148297

Liu, Zhenxing; Zhao, Zhangwu

2014-01-01

257

Visuospatial cues for reinstating mental models in working memory during interrupted reading.  

PubMed

Reading involves constructing a mental representation in long-term working memory of the world described by the text. Disrupting short-term working memory can interfere with the maintenance of mental models (sets of retrieval cues) needed to access these representations, producing detrimental effects on reading time. In two experiments, subjects read passages that included pairs of coreferential sentences interrupted by unrelated text. As in previous research, reading times increased for the first sentence after the interruption, likely reflecting a reinstatement process for mental models in working memory. In the present research, pictures were provided as visuospatial cues to aid the reinstatement process. The interruption effect was found to be smaller with pictures related to the passages than with unrelated pictures (Experiment 1) or titles (Experiment 2); however, both of these effects occurred only for slow readers. The authors hypothesize that slow readers take the time needed to integrate visuospatial information into their mental models, providing more resilient access to long-term working memory. PMID:19739899

Schneider, Darryl W; Dixon, Peter

2009-09-01

258

Treatment Interruptions  

MedlinePLUS

... using “intermittent therapy” could reduce side effects and costs. Providers have studied “cycling” people on and off ... stop your ART without careful discussion with your health care provider. Viral load and CD4 cell levels ...

259

18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service...

2010-04-01

260

Correlation of shape changes of grain surfaces and reversible stress evolution during interruptions of polycrystalline film growth  

SciTech Connect

Short interruptions of the growth of polycrystalline films often lead to stress evolution that is reversed when growth is resumed. Correlated in situ stress measurements and ex situ transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy characterizations of grain boundary surface grooves as a function of the interruption time are reported for films deposited at different temperatures and held for different times before quenching to room temperature. These studies suggest that during film deposition surface grooves at grain boundaries are kinetically constrained to be shallow, while during a growth interruption surface diffusion allows grain boundary grooves to deepen and approach their equilibrium depth. The latter relieves a component of the compressive stress associated with trapped atoms in the grain boundaries. When growth is resumed, the non-equilibrium surface morphology is reestablished and the compressive stress increases to its pre-interruption value.

Yu, Hang Z.; Thompson, Carl V., E-mail: cthomp@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2014-04-07

261

Mitigating errors caused by interruptions during medication verification and administration: interventions in a simulated ambulatory chemotherapy setting  

PubMed Central

Background Nurses are frequently interrupted during medication verification and administration; however, few interventions exist to mitigate resulting errors, and the impact of these interventions on medication safety is poorly understood. Objective The study objectives were to (A) assess the effects of interruptions on medication verification and administration errors, and (B) design and test the effectiveness of targeted interventions at reducing these errors. Methods The study focused on medication verification and administration in an ambulatory chemotherapy setting. A simulation laboratory experiment was conducted to determine interruption-related error rates during specific medication verification and administration tasks. Interventions to reduce these errors were developed through a participatory design process, and their error reduction effectiveness was assessed through a postintervention experiment. Results Significantly more nurses committed medication errors when interrupted than when uninterrupted. With use of interventions when interrupted, significantly fewer nurses made errors in verifying medication volumes contained in syringes (16/18; 89% preintervention error rate vs 11/19; 58% postintervention error rate; p=0.038; Fisher's exact test) and programmed in ambulatory pumps (17/18; 94% preintervention vs 11/19; 58% postintervention; p=0.012). The rate of error commission significantly decreased with use of interventions when interrupted during intravenous push (16/18; 89% preintervention vs 6/19; 32% postintervention; p=0.017) and pump programming (7/18; 39% preintervention vs 1/19; 5% postintervention; p=0.017). No statistically significant differences were observed for other medication verification tasks. Conclusions Interruptions can lead to medication verification and administration errors. Interventions were highly effective at reducing unanticipated errors of commission in medication administration tasks, but showed mixed effectiveness at reducing predictable errors of detection in medication verification tasks. These findings can be generalised and adapted to mitigate interruption-related errors in other settings where medication verification and administration are required. PMID:24906806

Prakash, Varuna; Koczmara, Christine; Savage, Pamela; Trip, Katherine; Stewart, Janice; McCurdie, Tara; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Trbovich, Patricia

2014-01-01

262

The impact of a set of interventions to reduce interruptions and distractions to nurses during medication administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess the impact of a set of interventions in reducing the interruption\\/distraction rate during medication administration.Design and participantsPre- and postintervention observational study of nurses undertaking medication rounds.SettingAcute Medical Admissions Unit (AMAU) of a 1000-bed teaching hospital.InterventionA set of measures previously proven successful in reducing interruptions (behaviour modification and staff education; checklists; visible symbols in the form of a red

Eileen Relihan; Valerie OBrien; Sharon OHara; Bernard Silke

2010-01-01

263

Electric current interruption in the plasma formed by UV laser radiation and application of this effect in inductive energy storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present report, plasma formed on the surface of metals and dielectric materials under the action of XeCl and KrCl lasers is studied. Plasma formation thresholds and plasma expansion velocities are measured. It was shown that long-lived plasma objects are formed near a target in the atmosphere of Xe or air at pressure 0.1 - 1 atm. Duration of luminescence of the plasma objects was maximal in xenon. Non-symmetric current passing through the laser plasma and the current interruption were obtained. The interruption time was as short as 10 ns while the plasma resistance increases with the rate up to 1010 Ohm/s. It is shown that the interruption rate increases when plasma of elements with small atomic weight is used and at higher rice-time of the current before its interruption. It was found that the plasma ionization degree is saturated before the interruption. The interruption effect was used for development of generators with inductive energy storages. Generator with a plasma erosion opening switch with opening current of 10 kA operating at pulse repetition rate up to several Hz was used for excitation of pulsed lasers. Using the generator, laser action on nitrogen and XeCl molecules and atomic transition of Ne was obtained.

Tarasenko, Victor F.; Panchenko, Alexei N.; Yakovlenko, Sergey I.

2000-08-01

264

Reconstructing paleoenvironmental conditions during the past 50 ka from the biogeochemical record of Laguna Potrok Aike, southern Patagonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC) and biogenic silica (BSi) assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) are used to reconstruct the environmental history during the past 50kyrs in high resolution from Laguna Potrok Aike. During the Holocene warmer conditions lead to an increased productivity reflected in higher TOC and BSi contents. Calcite precipitation initiated around 9 ka cal. BP probably due to supersaturation induced by lake level lowering. It is assumed that prior to this time period sediments are carbonate-free because high lake-level conditions prevailed. During the Glacial, increased runoff linked to permafrost, precipitation related to stronger cyclonic activity and reduced evaporation have caused higher lake levels. Moreover, during cold glacial conditions lake productivity was low and organic matter mainly of algal or cyanobacterial origin as indicated by generally low TOC and C/N values. During interstadials, such as the Antarctic A-events and the Younger Dryas, TOC contents appear to rise. The glacial C/N ratios and their correlation with TOC concentrations indicate that aquatic moss blooms probably induce these increases in TOC. Aquatic mosses grow if surface water temperatures rise due to warmer climatic conditions and/or development of a lake water stratification. The latter may occur if wind speeds are low and melt water inflow caused higher density gradients. Prevailing permafrost thawing during warmer periods could lead to considerable rises of lake levels, which would contribute to the preservation of organic material. This may explain why higher C/N and TOC values occur at the end of Antarctic A-events. For the uppermost 25 m, the BSi profile shows a high correlation with the TOC profile. In deeper horizons, however, there are indications that the BSi/TOC ratio increased. This part of the record is dominated by mass movement events, which may have supplied nutrients and thus triggered diatom blooms.

Hahn, A.; Rosén, P.; Kliem, P.; Ohlendorf, C.; Zolitschka, B.

2011-12-01

265

50 Ka Till-Filled Pleistocene Plunge Pools and Potholes Found Beneath the World Trade Center Site, New York, NY  

E-print Network

of pegmatite are scattered across the site, with concentrations in the NW corner (Tower 1), seen above, and SE of massive granitic pegmatite was concentrated primarily in the northwest (Tower 1 area) and southeast (Tower

Merguerian, Charles

266

Differential radiosensitivity in cultured B-16 melanoma cells following interrupted melanogenesis induced by glucosamine  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between cell pigmentation and radiosensitivity was investigated in a cell model in which melanogenesis was suppressed by a glycosylation inhibitor. It was found that X-irradiation of melanotic B-16 melanoma cells and their amelanotic counterparts, obtained by glucosamine treatment, showed an inverse correlation between radiosensitivity and melanin contents. Since melanogenesis interruption by glucosamine does not affect the DNA repair capacity of nonpigmented cells, it is likely that intracellular melanins play a role in the relative resistance of pigmented cells to X-irradiation.

Mileo, A.M.; Mattei, E.; Fanuele, M.; Delpino, A.; Ferrini, U. (Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy))

1989-05-01

267

Brief Therapy Based on Interrupting Ironic Processes: The Palo Alto Model  

PubMed Central

The model of brief therapy developed by Fisch, Weakland, Watzlawick, and colleagues in Palo Alto is based on identifying and interrupting ironic processes that occur when repeated attempts to solve a problem keep the problem going or make it worse. Formulations of ironic problem-solution loops provide a template for assessment and strategic intervention, indicating where to look to understand what keeps a problem going (look for “more of the same” solution) and what needs to happen for the complaint to be resolved (someone must apply “less of the same” solution). Supporting research is preliminary but suggests this approach may be well suited for change-resistant clients. PMID:19997533

Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Shoham, Varda

2009-01-01

268

Electric Power Interruption Cost Estimates for Individual Industries, Sectors, and U.S. Economy  

SciTech Connect

During the last 20 years, utilities and researchers have begun to understand the value in the collection and analysis of interruption cost data. The continued investigation of the monetary impact of power outages will facilitate the advancement of the analytical methods used to measure the costs and benefits from the perspective of the energy consumer. More in-depth analysis may be warranted because of the privatization and deregulation of power utilities, price instability in certain regions of the U.S. and the continued evolution of alternative auxiliary power systems.

Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; DeSteese, John G.; Weimar, Mark R.

2002-02-27

269

A chemical synthesis of 11-methoxy mitragynine pseudoindoxyl featuring the interrupted Ugi reaction  

PubMed Central

A synthesis of 11-methoxy mitragynine pseudoindoxyl, a new member of the mitragynine class of opioid agonists, from a derivative of the Geissman-Waiss lactone is described. An internal attack of an electron-rich aromatic ring on an electrophilic nitrilium ion and a late-stage construction of the functionalized piperidine ring by the method of reductive cyclization are the pivotal transformations; both ring annulations proceed in a highly diastereoselective fashion. The construction of substituted indoxyl frameworks by the interrupted Ugi method offers an attractive alternative to the strategy of oxidatively rearranging indoles. PMID:23878716

Kim, Jimin; Schneekloth, John S.

2013-01-01

270

Nanosecond photolytic interruption of bacteriorhodopsin photocycle: K-590 --> BR-570 reaction.  

PubMed

The molecular processes comprising the room temperature bacteriorhodopsin (BR) photocycle are examined through the properties of the photo-induced reverse reaction, K-590 + hnu --> BR-570 (K --> BR). Two sequential pumping pulses, each of 10-ns duration, are used, respectively, to initiate the photocycle via the forward BR-570 + hnu --> K-590 (BR --> K) reaction (532 nm) and to photolytically interrupt the thermal BR photocycle after a 20-ns delay via K --> BR (620-700 nm). The ground-state BR-570 population, monitored by 633-nm absorption 200 mus after the photocycle begins, provides a quantitative measure of the efficiency with which K --> BR interrupts the photocycle to reform BR-570. The quantum yield (Phi) for K --> BR is found to be 1.6 +/- 0.1 times larger than that for BR --> K which, when compared to a Phi of 0.64 for BR --> K, suggests that Phi for K --> BR is approximately 1.0. The significance of such a high efficiency K --> BR reaction with respect to mechanistic descriptions of the BR photocycle is discussed. PMID:19431837

Bazhenov, V; Schmidt, P; Atkinson, G H

1992-06-01

271

Complete interruption of the aortic arch. 1. Characteristic radiographic findings in 21 patients.  

PubMed

The radiographs of 21 patients with complete interruption of the aortic arch are reviewed, together with the literature, to emphasize characteristic radiographic features previously not recognized or discussed. In addition to the nonspecific radiologic findings of a left-to-right shunt through the invariably present ventricular septal defect, charateristic and unique features noted on chest radiograph and barium swallow that may suggest the diagnosis prior to catheterization include: a) a midline trachea; b) a hypoplastic ascending aorta with direct vertical ascent toward the neck; c) absence of the aortic "knob;" d) termination of the descending thoracic aortic shadow at the level of the main pulmonary artery; e) a "low arch" on lateral or left anterior oblique projections; and f) absence of the normal aortic impression on the barium-filled esophagus. Rib notching, when present, in association with the above findings indicates a stenotic or closed ductus arteriosus with collateral circulation through intercostal arteries to the descending aorta. The bilateral or unilateral location, right or left side, of the notching is dependent on the site of interruption and origin of the subclavian arteries and may permit differentiation into types and subtypes on chest radiograph. PMID:125633

Jaffe, R B

1975-10-01

272

Fast and interrupted expansion in cyclic void growth in dusty plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-pressure acetylene plasmas are able to spontaneously form dust particles. This will result in a dense cloud of solid particles that is levitated in the plasma. The formed particles can grow up to micrometers. We observed a spontaneous interruption in the expansion of the so-called dust void. A dust void is a macroscopic region in the plasma that is free of nanoparticles. The phenomenon is periodical and reproducible. We refer to the expansion interruption as ‘hiccup’. The expanding void is an environment in which a new cycle of dust particle formation can start. At a certain moment in time, this cycle reaches the (sudden) coagulation phase and as a result the void will temporarily shrink. To substantiate this reasoning, the electron density is determined non-intrusively using microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy. Moreover, video imaging of laser light scattering of the dust particles provides their spatial distribution. The emission intensity of a single argon transition is measured similarly. Our results support the aforementioned hypothesis for what happens during the void hiccup. The void dynamics preceding the hiccup are modeled using a simple analytical model for the two dominant forces (ion drag and electric) working on a nanoparticle in a plasma. The model results qualitatively reproduce the measurements.

van de Wetering, F. M. J. H.; Brooimans, R. J. C.; Nijdam, S.; Beckers, J.; Kroesen, G. M. W.

2015-01-01

273

Microstructural development and mechanical properties of interrupted aged Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of a recently developed interrupted aging procedure on the microstructural development and mechanical properties of the commercial Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy 6061 have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and mechanical testing. This so-called T6I6 temper involves partially aging the alloy at a typical T6 temperature (the underaging stage), quenching, then holding at a reduced temperature (in this case 65 °C) to facilitate further hardening (the secondary aging stage), prior to final aging to peak properties at, or close to, the initial aging (T6) temperature (the reaging stage). The T6I6 aging treatment produces simultaneous increases in tensile properties, hardness, and toughness, as compared with conventional T6. The overall improvement in the mechanical properties of 6061 T6I6 is associated with the formation of a greater number of finer, and more densely dispersed, ?? precipitates in the final microstructure. Secondary precipitation took place during the interrupted aging stage of the T6I6 temper, resulting in the formation of a large number of Guinier-Preston (GP) zones that served as precursors to the needlelike ?? precipitates when elevated temperature aging was resumed.

Buha, J.; Lumley, R. N.; Crosky, A. G.

2006-10-01

274

Whole exome sequencing identifies homozygous GPR161 mutation in a family with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome.  

PubMed

Context: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is a rare congenital anomaly of the pituitary gland characterized by pituitary gland insufficiency, thin or discontinuous pituitary stalk, anterior pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic positioning of the posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophysis). The clinical presentation of patients with PSIS varies from isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency to combined pituitary insufficiency and accompanying extrapituitary findings. Mutations in HESX1, LHX4, OTX2, SOX3, and PROKR2 have been associated with PSIS in less than 5% of cases; thus, the underlying genetic etiology for the vast majority of cases remains to be determined. Objective: We applied whole exome sequencing to a consanguineous family with two affected siblings who have pituitary gland insufficiency and radiographic findings of hypoplastic (thin) pituitary gland, empty sella, ectopic neurohypophysis, and interrupted pitiutary stalk - characteristic clinical diagnostic findings of PSIS. Design and Participants: Targeted whole exome sequencing (WES) was applied to two affected and one unaffected siblings. Results: WES of two affected and one unaffected sibling revealed a unique homozygous missense mutation in GPR161, which encodes the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 161, a protein responsible for transducing extracellular signals across the plasma membrane into the cell. Conclusion: Mutations of GPR161 may be implicated as a potential novel cause of PSIS. PMID:25322266

Karaca, Ender; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Pehlivan, Davut; Charng, Wu-Lin; Yaykasli, Kursat O; Bayram, Yavuz; Gambin, Tomasz; Withers, Marjorie; Atik, Mehmed M; Arslanoglu, Ilknur; Bolu, Semih; Erdin, Serkan; Buyukkaya, Ayla; Yaykasli, Emine; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Lupski, James R

2014-10-16

275

Venous interruption for pulmonary embolism: the illustrative case of Richard M. Nixon.  

PubMed

This politically prominent patient was seen in consultation on October 26, 1974 because of chronic venous thrombosis and a recent pulmonary embolism. His problems had begun in 1965 when he developed venous thrombosis in the left leg after a length trip by air. His treatment had been sporadic and his compliance with treatment less than satisfactory. Because of detailed phlebography demonstrating (1) no clots in the veins of the right leg, (2) extensive loose lying clot filling the superficial, deep, and external iliac veins on the left, and (3) because of prior difficulties with patient compliance unilateral interruption of the left external iliac vein above the top of the clot was proposed. Despite some postoperative complications, the patient made a full recovery and lived 19 years on warfarin therapy before death from unrelated causes. He suffered no significant edema or other postphlebitic symptoms in the affected leg. The history of the use of venous interruption under these circumstances is reviewed to justify the operation that was performed. PMID:9236996

Barker, W F; Hickman, E B; Harper, J A; Lungren, J

1997-07-01

276

Increasing the Mand Repertoire of Children With Autism Through the Use of an Interrupted Chain Procedure  

PubMed Central

Mand training is an essential component of verbal behavior training for any individual who lacks this skill. The current study replicates and extends, with some procedural differences, the work of Hall and Sundberg (1987) by using an interrupted chain procedure to teach mands for missing items to children with autism. The participants were 3 children with autism, ranging between 5 and 8 years of age, who would regularly mand for a wide variety of reinforcers when they were present but would rarely mand for items that were not in sight (i.e., missing items). Participants were first taught to complete 3 behavior chains. Subsequently, the chains were interrupted by removing 1 item needed to complete each chain to contrive motivating operations (MOs) as a means of teaching mands for missing items. Following mand training incorporating vocal prompt and prompt fading procedures, all participants emitted unprompted mands for the missing items within the context of the trained chains and within the context of novel, untrained chains. After teaching mands for missing items, probes were conducted to test for untrained tact acquisition. All participants also demonstrated tact responses relative to the missing items as a result of the mand training. PMID:23730468

Albert, Kristin M.; Carbone, Vincent J.; Murray, Danielle D.; Hagerty, Margaret; Sweeney-Kerwin, Emily J.

2012-01-01

277

Daily interruption of sedation in critically ill children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background In adult patients who are critically ill and mechanically ventilated, daily interruption of sedation (DSI) is an effective method of improving sedation management, resulting in a decrease of the duration of mechanical ventilation, the length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the length of stay in the hospital. It is a safe and effective approach and is common practice in adult ICUs. For critically ill children it is unknown if DSI is effective and feasible. The aim of this multicenter randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of daily sedation interruption in critically ill children. Methods/Design Children between 0 and 18 years of age who require mechanical ventilation, with an expected duration of at least 48 h and need for sedative infusion, will be included. After enrollment patients will be randomly assigned to DSI in combination with protocolized sedation (intervention group) or protocolized continuous sedation (control group). A sedation protocol that contains an algorithm for increasing and weaning of sedatives and analgesics will be used. The sedative infusion will be restarted if the patient becomes uncomfortable or agitated according to the sedation protocol. The primary endpoint is the number of ventilator-free days at 28 days. Trial registration NTR2030 PMID:24524204

2014-01-01

278

Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Abu Hamed focus, Sudan.  

PubMed

Abu Hamed, Sudan, the northernmost location of onchocerciasis in the world, began community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in 1998, with annual treatments enhanced to semiannual in 2007. We assessed the status of the parasite transmission in 2011 entomologically, parasitologically, and serologically. O-150 pool screening showed no parasite DNA in 17,537 black flies collected in 2011 (95% confidence interval upper limit [95% CI UL] = 0.023). Skin microfilariae, nodules, and signs of skin disease were absent in 536 individuals in seven local communities. Similarly, no evidence of Onchocerca volvulus Ov16 antibodies was found in 6,756 school children ? 10 years (95% CI UL = 0.03%). Because this assessment of the focus meets the 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for interrupted transmission, treatment was halted in 2012, and a post-treatment surveillance period was initiated in anticipation of declaration of disease elimination in this area. We provide the first evidence in East Africa that long-term CDTI alone can interrupt transmission of onchocerciasis. PMID:23690554

Higazi, Tarig B; Zarroug, Isam M A; Mohamed, Hanan A; Elmubark, Wigdan A; Deran, Tong Chor M; Aziz, Nabil; Katabarwa, Moses; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R; Mackenzie, Charles D; Richards, Frank; Hashim, Kamal

2013-07-01

279

Simulation of SLF Interrupting Performance for CO2 Gas Circuit Breaker based on Serially Connected 3 Arc Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper shows the simulation of SLF interrupting performances for CO2 gas circuit breakers. In the SLF interruption tests using 72kV-CO2 gas model circuit breakers, very large post arc currents were measured. This point is obviously difference between CO2 circuit breaker and SF6 one. To simulate the SLF interrupting performances for the SF6 gas circuit breakers, serially connected 3 arc models were developed. In the arc model, Cassie arc model and two Mayr arc models were serially connected. It was tried to use the arc model to simulate the SLF interrupting performances for CO2 circuit breaker. As a result, it was good agreement with the measurements and simulations. The large post arc currents could be simulated by the arc model. It was shown that the SLF interrupting performance of the CO2 circuit breaker was dependent on the Mayr model simulated around voltage extinction peak. On the other hand, the performance of the SF6 gas circuit breaker was dependent on the Mayr model simulated around current zero. From the result, it proved that most severe SLF condition for the CO2 gas circuit breaker was L75 or L80.

Koshizuka, Tadashi; Udagawa, Keisuke; Shinkai, Takeshi; Uchii, Toshiyuki; Kawano, Hiromichi

280

Treatment Interruptions and Non-Adherence with Imatinib and Associated Healthcare Costs: A Retrospective Analysis among Managed Care Patients with Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Identify treatment interruptions and non-adherence with imatinib; examine the clinical and patient characteristics related to treatment interruptions and non-adherence; and estimate the association between treatment interruptions and non-adherence with imatinib and healthcare costs for US managed care patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Methods: This retrospective analysis utilised electronic healthcare claims data from a US managed care provider. Adult

Theodore Darkow; Henry J. Henk; Simu K. Thomas; Weiwei Feng; Jean-Francois Baladi; George A. Goldberg; Alan Hatfield; Jorge Cortes

2007-01-01

281

Enhancing the quantum efficiency of InGaN yellow-green light-emitting diodes by growth interruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the effect of multiple interruptions during the quantum well growth on emission-efficiency enhancement of InGaN-based yellow-green light emitting diodes on c-plane sapphire substrate. The output power and dominant wavelength at 20 mA are 0.24 mW and 556.3 nm. High resolution x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and electroluminescence measurements demonstrate that efficiency enhancement could be partially attributed to crystal quality improvement of the active region resulted from reduced In clusters and relevant defects on the surface of InGaN layer by introducing interruptions. The less tilted energy band in the quantum well is also caused by the decrease of In-content gradient along c-axis resulted from In segregation during the interruptions, which increases spatial overlap of electron-hole wavefunction and thus the internal quantum efficiency. The latter also leads to smaller blueshift of dominant wavelength with current increasing.

Du, Chunhua; Ma, Ziguang; Zhou, Junming; Lu, Taiping; Jiang, Yang; Zuo, Peng; Jia, Haiqiang; Chen, Hong

2014-08-01

282

Learning from Accident and Error: Avoiding the Hazards of Workload, Stress, and Routine Interruptions in the Emergency Department  

PubMed Central

This article presents a model of how a build-up of interruptions can shift the dynamics of the emergency department (ED) from an adaptive, self-regulating system into a fragile, crisis-prone one. Drawing on case studies of organizational disasters and insights from the theory of high-reliability organizations, the authors use computer simulations to show how the accumulation of small interruptions could have disproportionately large effects in the ED. In the face of a mounting workload created by interruptions, EDs, like other organizational systems, have tipping points, thresholds beyond which a vicious cycle can lead rather quickly to the collapse of normal operating routines and in the extreme to a crisis of organizational paralysis. The authors discuss some possible implications for emergency medicine, emphasizing the potential threat from routine, non-novel demands on EDs and raising the concern that EDs are operating closer to the precipitous edge of crisis as ED crowding exacerbates the problem. PMID:22168187

Morrison, J. Bradley; Rudolph, Jenny W.

2012-01-01

283

Microprocessor-based control for an ac-dc power conversion system with dc interrupter protection  

SciTech Connect

The use of microprocessors in power converted controls is of interest, since they could potentially reduce system costs, increase system adaptability, and enhance system reliability where analog circuitry is conventionally used. This report discusses the techniques that were applied in designing a complete microprocessor-controlled ac/dc power conversion system, including thyristor-gating control and closed-loop regulation of system voltages. The project also served as a vehicle for further evaluation of a ringing-bypass valve dc interrupter that had been previously designed in work related to the ac/dc conversion system used here. The microprocessor control techniques described here are applicable to most energy conversion systems where a dc power source exchanges energy with an ac network via line-commutated converters. 4 refs., 33 figs.

Kovalsky, L.J.; Putkovich, R.P.

1982-12-20

284

Closed-loop optogenetic control of thalamus as a tool for interrupting seizures after cortical injury.  

PubMed

Cerebrocortical injuries such as stroke are a major source of disability. Maladaptive consequences can result from post-injury local reorganization of cortical circuits. For example, epilepsy is a common sequela of cortical stroke, but the mechanisms responsible for seizures following cortical injuries remain unknown. In addition to local reorganization, long-range, extra-cortical connections might be critical for seizure maintenance. In rats, we found that the thalamus, a structure that is remote from, but connected to, the injured cortex, was required to maintain cortical seizures. Thalamocortical neurons connected to the injured epileptic cortex underwent changes in HCN channel expression and became hyperexcitable. Targeting these neurons with a closed-loop optogenetic strategy revealed that reducing their activity in real-time was sufficient to immediately interrupt electrographic and behavioral seizures. This approach is of therapeutic interest for intractable epilepsy, as it spares cortical function between seizures, in contrast with existing treatments, such as surgical lesioning or drugs. PMID:23143518

Paz, Jeanne T; Davidson, Thomas J; Frechette, Eric S; Delord, Bruno; Parada, Isabel; Peng, Kathy; Deisseroth, Karl; Huguenard, John R

2013-01-01

285

Dynamic characteristics of high-speed operated, long-stroke bellows for vacuum interrupters  

SciTech Connect

The authors observed and analyzed the dynamic characteristics of long-stroke stainless steel bellows for a vacuum interrupter when it is extended and contracted at high speeds. Dimensions of bellows tested are as follows: outer diameter 85 mm, inner diameter 62 mm, number of folds 44 and 55. Test conditions: contracted speed: 4 m/s, 2 m/s, extended speed: 2 m/s, 1 m/s. They found that increasing the number of folds on the bellows does not necessarily prolong the life of bellows and it is preferable that the bellows be designed so that the ratio of operation stroke and free length of bellows falls in the range between 0.3 to 0.4.

Tsutsumi, T.; Kanai, Y.; Okabe, N.; Kaneko, E.; Kamikawaji, T.; Homma, M. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

1993-01-01

286

The interrupt distraction procedure: a brief hypnotic intervention for belief change and diminishing distress.  

PubMed

The Interrupt Distraction Procedure (IDP) is a brief therapeutic technique for cognitive and emotional change. It is comprised of a hypnotic induction, several 20-sec iterations during which the person concentrates on distressing thoughts or imagery or a thought they would like to believe, as well as on a neutral distracting image. It is simple to administer for clinicians familiar with other hypnotic techniques. IDP is useful when a change in beliefs is desired by a client, but some internal process is preventing such a change, and it lessens concomitant distress. It appears to be a simple therapeutic intervention that decreases emotional reactions that accompany certain thoughts or imagery providing some alleviation of symptoms in somatoform, mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:10570850

Laidlaw, T M

1999-07-01

287

Driving Can Be Dangerous to Your Health An Interrupted Case Study in Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interrupted case study, students read about an older woman named Barbara who becomes ill after driving with her husband 19 hours from Florida to visit their son’s family. Barbara experiences an asthma attack and then more serious breathing problems, which result in her admission to the hospital. Students are presented with a variety of signs, symptoms, and medical data relating to Barbara’s health, which they must interpret to solve this case in circulatory and respiratory physiology. Developed for use in a one-semester animal physiology course taken by sophomore and junior science majors, it could also be used in a human anatomy and physiology course as well as a course in general biology.

Phil Stephens

2008-01-01

288

Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome in 59 children: the value of MRI in assessment of pituitary functions.  

PubMed

Pituitary imaging abnormality is a specific indicator of hypopituitarism. This study involved a retrospective review of 59 children diagnosed with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS). Of the 59 eligible patients, 54 were born by breech delivery, and there was a significant difference between numbers of patients with breech and head-presenting birth. In order to discuss the relationship between pituitary functions and delineation of pituitary structure in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a control analysis was carried out in children with PSIS. Fifty-nine children were subdivided into two groups: group I (partial PSIS, 20 cases) and group II (complete PSIS, 39 cases). There was a significantly small anterior pituitary in both groups of PSIS compared with controls (P?Interruption of pituitary stalk and ectopic posterior pituitary both represent important markers of pituitary structure and function. PMID:24257915

Wang, Qian; Hu, Yanyan; Li, Guimei; Sun, Xiaojun

2014-05-01

289

Activation and interruption of the reproduction of Varroa destructor is triggered by host signals (Apis mellifera).  

PubMed

The reproductive cycle of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor is closely linked to the development of the honey bee host larvae. Using a within colony approach we introduced phoretic Varroa females into brood cells of different age in order to analyze the capacity of certain stages of the honey bee larva to either activate or interrupt the reproduction of Varroa females. Only larvae within 18 h (worker) and 36 h (drones), respectively, after cell capping were able to stimulate the mite's oogenesis. Therewith we could specify for the first time the short time window where honey bee larvae provide the signals for the activation of the Varroa reproduction. Stage specific volatiles of the larval cuticle are at least part of these activation signals. This is confirmed by the successful stimulation of presumably non-reproducing mites to oviposition by the application of a larval extract into the sealed brood cells. According to preliminary quantitative GC-MS analysis we suggest certain fatty acid ethyl esters as candidate compounds. If Varroa females that have just started with egg formation are transferred to brood cells containing host larvae of an elder stage two-thirds of these mites stopped their oogenesis. This confirms the presence of an additional signal in the host larvae allowing the reproducing mites to adjust their own reproductive cycle to the ontogenetic development of the host. From an adaptive point of view that sort of a stop signal enables the female mite to save resources for a next reproductive cycle if the own egg development is not sufficiently synchronized with the development of the host. The results presented here offer the opportunity to analyze exactly those host stages that have the capacity to activate or interrupt the Varroa reproduction in order to identify the crucial host signals. PMID:23376006

Frey, Eva; Odemer, Richard; Blum, Thomas; Rosenkranz, Peter

2013-05-01

290

Immune correlates of CD4 decline in HIV-infected patients experiencing virologic failure before undergoing treatment interruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The advantage of treatment interruptions (TIs) in salvage therapy remains controversial. Regardless, characterizations of the correlates of CD4 count fall during TI are important to identify since patients with virologic failure commonly stop antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. The objective of this study was to determine the predictive value of pre-TI proliferative capacity and cell surface markers for CD4 count change

Kenneth H Huang; Mona R Loutfy; Christos M Tsoukas; Nicole F Bernard

2008-01-01

291

Interruptible service system: A demand-side management application for the City of Los Angeles Department of Water & Power  

SciTech Connect

The Los Angeles Department of Water & Power (LADWP) instituted an electric rate schedule, A3-B, for its largest industrial power consumers in 1985. The A3 rate provides these LADWP customers (2000 Kilowatts or more users) a significant savings on their electric service rate. LADWP benefits by having the capability to interrupt the industrial customer`s load after giving them a 10 minute warning notice of interruption. The Interruptible Service System (ISS) automates this formerly manual process and allows for continuous monitoring of the power used of the power system`s largest power consumers. An ISS remote terminal unit (RTU) is installed at each customer`s site. This RTU communicates with a master computer (desktop PC) at LADWP`s Energy Control Center (ECC). The ECC initiates control, monitoring, and interrupt operations involving all customers on the ISS rate. Communication between the master computer and the various ISS customer RTUs will be accomplished via Pacific Bell Telephone`s advanced digital network (ADN). Future Plans include expansion to monitoring and control of co-generation facilities and monitoring of other large industrial customer power consumption.

Leblanc, M.; Sweeney, D.

1994-12-31

292

Complicating Consent: A Study of the Rhetorical Strategies Employed to Interrupt Rape Myths in the Prosecutor v. Kunarac  

E-print Network

The justices in the trial of the Prosecutor v. Kunarac were able to interrupt the rape myths that generally exist in rape trials by complicating the notion of consent. In this paper I argue that the justices de-naturalize common myths about consent...

Shook, Lindsey

2010-08-31

293

Laboratory studies of the effects of interrupted, sloping topography on intermediate depth boundary currents in linearly stratified fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments are described which provide insight into the interaction of intermediate depth boundary currents (IDBCs) with interrupted sloping topography. Specifically, they contribute to the debate over meddy formation on the Iberian continental slope. The experiments were performed in a rectilinear rotating tank filled initially with a linearly-stratified fluid. A false bottom sloped away from the side-wall along which the

Andrew M Folkard; Peter A Davies

2001-01-01

294

Increase in nitrate uptake by soybean plants during interruption of the dark period with low intensity light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diurnal patterns of net NO3- uptake by nonnodulated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] plants growing in flowing hydroponic culture at 26 and 16 degrees C root temperatures were measured at hourly intervals during alternate days of a 12-day growth period. Ion chromatography was used to determine removal of NO3- from the culture solution. Day and night periods of 9 and 15 h were used during growth. The night period included two 6-h dark periods and an intervening 3-h period of night interruption by incandescent lamps to effect a long-day photoperiod and repress floral initiation. At both root temperatures, the average specific rates of NO3- uptake were twice as great during the night interruption period as during the day period; they were greater during the day period than during the dark periods; and they were greater during the dark period immediately following the day period than during the later dark period that followed the night interruption. While these average patterns were repetitious among days, measured rates of uptake varied hourly and included intervals of net efflux scattered through the day period and more frequently through the 2 dark periods. Root temperature did not affect the average daily specific rates of uptake or the qualitative relationships among day, dark and night interruption periods of the diurnal cycle.

Raper, C. D. Jr; Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.

1991-01-01

295

Measuring the Impacts of Community Development Initiatives: A New Application of the Adjusted Interrupted Time-Series Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors contribute to the development of empirical methods for measuring the impacts of place-based local development strategies by introducing the adjusted interrupted time-series (AITS) approach. It estimates a more precise counterfactual scenario, thus offering a stronger basis for drawing causal inferences about impacts. The authors…

Galster, George; Temkin, Kenneth; Walker, Chris; Sawyer, Noah

2004-01-01

296

Reappearance of an 11-year-old sequence in an HIV-1 infected patient during treatment interruption.  

PubMed

HIV-1 from a patient with multi-drug resistant virus was identified as wild type during treatment interruption. The aim of the study was to describe how the viral population is affected by treatment interruptions and use phylogeny to reconstruct the evolutionary pattern. 15 samples covering 13 y and 2 treatment interruptions were analysed in both pol and env. The wild type virus found in the sample from the second treatment interruption in 2002 had not been present as a dominant population since 1994. Phylogeny showed that the 2002 sample was more closely related to wild type sequences than to other sequences sampled in 2002. This indicated that the wild type virus was caused by recruitment from the viral archives rather than reversion of previously circulating resistant strains. A few weeks after re-initiated treatment, virus showed full resistance, indicating that resistant virus was present as a subpopulation and reselected due to higher fitness in the presence of drugs. Phylogeny of env showed that CCR5 and CXCR4 viruses coexist in the patient. In conclusion, the study showed that at all times during infection, virus is archived in the cells and can be recruited when the surrounding environment changes and the archived virus is more fit. PMID:17926204

Madsen, Tina Vasehus; Gerstoft, Jan; Nielsen, Claus; Jørgensen, Louise Bruun

2008-01-01

297

The Interrupted Time Series as Quasi-Experiment: Three Tests of Significance. A Fortran Program for the CDC 3400 Computer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computational formulae for the following three tests of significance, useful in the interrupted time series design, are given: (1) a "t" test (Mood, 1950) for the significance of the first post-change observation from a value predicted by a linear fit of the pre-change observations; (2) an "F" test (Walker and Lev, 1953) of the hypothesis that one…

Sween, Joyce; Campbell, Donald T.

298

Synchronizing Bees With Bloom: Interrupted Incubation and Short-Term Storage of the Alfalfa Pollinator, Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interrupting the spring incubation with short-term low-temperature storage of the developing pupae and pharate adult stage of Megachile rotundata (F.) is a useful technique for synchronizing the emergence of these bees with the peak alfalfa bloom. However, low-temperature exposure can be stressful d...

299

Examining the Internal Validity and Statistical Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time Series Design by Comparison with a Randomized Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although evaluators often use an interrupted time series (ITS) design to test hypotheses about program effects, there are few empirical tests of the design's validity. We take a randomized experiment on an educational topic and compare its effects to those from a comparative ITS (CITS) design that uses the same treatment group as the…

St.Clair, Travis; Cook, Thomas D.; Hallberg, Kelly

2014-01-01

300

Exploring Relationships between Teachers' Philosophical Beliefs and Practices Relative to Unforeseen Interruptions in Elementary Classroom Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' knowledge, goals, beliefs, and decision-making activities were explored individually and combined relative to their philosophical beliefs and practices in the elementary classroom setting in response to unforeseen interruptions. Schoenfeld's Theory of Teaching-in-Context and Brown's "The Experimental Mind in…

Mays, Faye Jeanette

2012-01-01

301

Technical Note: The use of an interrupted-flow centrifugation method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an interrupted-flow centrifugation technique to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media. The method entails a minimum of three phases: centrifuge induced flow, no flow and centrifuge induced flow, which may be repeated several times in order to most effectively characterise multi-rate mass transfer behaviour. In addition, the method enables accurate simulation of relevant in situ total stress conditions during flow by selecting an appropriate centrifugal force level. We demonstrate the utility of the technique for characterising the hydraulic properties of smectite clay dominated core samples. All samples exhibited a non-Fickian tracer breakthrough (early tracer arrival), combined with a decrease in tracer concentration immediately after each period of interrupted-flow. This is indicative of dual (or multi) porosity behaviour, with solute migration predominately via advection during induced flow, and via molecular diffusion (between the preferential flow network(s) and the low hydraulic conductivity domain) during interrupted-flow. Tracer breakthrough curves were simulated using a bespoke dual porosity model with excellent agreement between the data and model output (Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient was >0.97 for all samples). In combination interrupted-flow centrifuge experiments and dual porosity transport modelling are shown to be a powerful method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media.

Crane, R. A.; Cuthbert, M. O.; Timms, W.

2015-01-01

302

43 CFR 3481.4-4 - What is the aggregate amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my lease...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my...

2014-10-01

303

43 CFR 3481.4-4 - What is the aggregate amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my lease...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my...

2012-10-01

304

43 CFR 3481.4-4 - What is the aggregate amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my lease...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my...

2013-10-01

305

43 CFR 3481.4-4 - What is the aggregate amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my lease...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my...

2011-10-01

306

Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective To review systematically the evidence of effectiveness of physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Data sources Cochrane Library, Medline, OldMedline, Embase, and CINAHL, without restrictions on language or publication. Data selection Studies of any intervention to prevent the transmission of respiratory viruses (isolation, quarantine, social distancing, barriers, personal protection, and hygiene). A search of study designs included randomised trials, cohort, case-control, crossover, before and after, and time series studies. After scanning of the titles, abstracts and full text articles as a first filter, a standardised form was used to assess the eligibility of the remainder. Risk of bias of randomised studies was assessed for generation of the allocation sequence, allocation concealment, blinding, and follow-up. Non-randomised studies were assessed for the presence of potential confounders and classified as being at low, medium, or high risk of bias. Data synthesis 58 papers of 59 studies were included. The quality of the studies was poor for all four randomised controlled trials and most cluster randomised controlled trials; the observational studies were of mixed quality. Meta-analysis of six case-control studies suggested that physical measures are highly effective in preventing the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome: handwashing more than 10 times daily (odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.57; number needed to treat=4, 95% confidence interval 3.65 to 5.52), wearing masks (0.32, 0.25 to 0.40; NNT=6, 4.54 to 8.03), wearing N95 masks (0.09, 0.03 to 0.30; NNT=3, 2.37 to 4.06), wearing gloves (0.43, 0.29 to 0.65; NNT=5, 4.15 to 15.41), wearing gowns (0.23, 0.14 to 0.37; NNT=5, 3.37 to 7.12), and handwashing, masks, gloves, and gowns combined (0.09, 0.02 to 0.35; NNT=3, 2.66 to 4.97). The combination was also effective in interrupting the spread of influenza within households. The highest quality cluster randomised trials suggested that spread of respiratory viruses can be prevented by hygienic measures in younger children and within households. Evidence that the more uncomfortable and expensive N95 masks were superior to simple surgical masks was limited, but they caused skin irritation. The incremental effect of adding virucidals or antiseptics to normal handwashing to reduce respiratory disease remains uncertain. Global measures, such as screening at entry ports, were not properly evaluated. Evidence was limited for social distancing being effective, especially if related to risk of exposure—that is, the higher the risk the longer the distancing period. Conclusion Routine long term implementation of some of the measures to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses might be difficult. However, many simple and low cost interventions reduce the transmission of epidemic respiratory viruses. More resources should be invested into studying which physical interventions are the most effective, flexible, and cost effective means of minimising the impact of acute respiratory tract infections. PMID:19773323

2009-01-01

307

Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective To systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Data extraction Search strategy of the Cochrane Library, Medline, OldMedline, Embase, and CINAHL, without language restriction, for any intervention to prevent transmission of respiratory viruses (isolation, quarantine, social distancing, barriers, personal protection, and hygiene). Study designs were randomised trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, and controlled before and after studies. Data synthesis Of 2300 titles scanned 138 full papers were retrieved, including 49 papers of 51 studies. Study quality was poor for the three randomised controlled trials and most of the cluster randomised controlled trials; the observational studies were of mixed quality. Heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis of most data except that from six case-control studies. The highest quality cluster randomised trials suggest that the spread of respiratory viruses into the community can be prevented by intervening with hygienic measures aimed at younger children. Meta-analysis of six case-control studies suggests that physical measures are highly effective in preventing the spread of SARS: handwashing more than 10 times daily (odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.57; number needed to treat=4, 95% confidence interval 3.65 to 5.52); wearing masks (0.32, 0.25 to 0.40; NNT=6, 4.54 to 8.03); wearing N95 masks (0.09, 0.03 to 0.30; NNT=3, 2.37 to 4.06); wearing gloves (0.43, 0.29 to 0.65; NNT=5, 4.15 to 15.41); wearing gowns (0.23, 0.14 to 0.37; NNT=5, 3.37 to 7.12); and handwashing, masks, gloves, and gowns combined (0.09, 0.02 to 0.35; NNT=3, 2.66 to 4.97). The incremental effect of adding virucidals or antiseptics to normal handwashing to decrease the spread of respiratory disease remains uncertain. The lack of proper evaluation of global measures such as screening at entry ports and social distancing prevent firm conclusions being drawn. Conclusion Routine long term implementation of some physical measures to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses might be difficult but many simple and low cost interventions could be useful in reducing the spread. PMID:18042961

2008-01-01

308

Predictors of unstructured antiretroviral treatment interruption and resumption among HIV-positive individuals in Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Sustained optimal use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) has been shown to decrease morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. However, incomplete adherence and treatment interruption (TI) remain challenges to the full realization of the promise of cART. We estimated trends and predictors of treatment interruption and resumption among individuals in the Canadian Observational Cohort (CANOC) collaboration. Methods cART-naïve individuals ?18 years of age who initiated cART between 2000–2011 were included. We defined TIs as ?90 consecutive days off cART. We used descriptive analyses to study TI trends over time and Cox regression to identify factors predicting time to first TI and time to treatment resumption after a first TI. Results 7,633 participants were eligible, of whom 1,860 (24.5%) experienced a TI. The prevalence of TI in the first calendar year of cART decreased by half over the study period. Our analyses highlighted a higher risk of TI among women (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.59, 95%CI: 1.33–1.92), younger individuals (aHR: 1.27, 95%CI: 1.15–1.37 per decade increase), earlier treatment initiators (CD4 count ?350 versus <200 mm3, aHR: 1.46, 95%CI: 1.17–1.81), Aboriginal participants (aHR: 1.67, 95%CI: 1.27–2.20), injecting drug users (aHR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.09–1.89), and users of zidovudine versus tenofovir in the initial cART regimen (aHR: 2.47, 95%CI: 1.92–3.20). Conversely, factors predicting treatment resumption were male sex, older age, and a CD4 cell count <200 mm3 at cART initiation. Conclusion Despite significant improvements in cART since its advent, our results demonstrate that TIs remain relatively prevalent. Strategies to support continuous HIV treatment are needed to maximize the benefits of cART. PMID:25174373

Samji, Hasina; Taha, Taha E; Moore, David; Burchell, Ann N; Cescon, Angela; Cooper, Curtis; Raboud, Janet M; Klein, Marina; Loutfy, Mona R; Machouf, Nima; Tsoukas, Chris M; Montaner, Julio SG; Hogg, Robert S

2014-01-01

309

Alterations of natural hand movements after interruption of fasciculus cuneatus in the macaque.  

PubMed

As part of a series of investigations on the control of fine finger movements in the macaque, spontaneous use of the hand in grooming, scratching, and manipulation was observed before and after interruption of fasciculus cuneatus (FC). Videotaped observations were made of four stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides) living outdoors in social groups. The monkeys were followed for 1 to 3 years postoperatively. For the first 2 weeks following surgery, all monkeys neglected the affected hand and did not use it for support, locomotion, climbing, scratching, foraging, or grooming. Recovery of gross arm and hand movements occurred over a 1- to 3-month period. All the monkeys eventually used the hand for support, climbing, and object manipulation, but fine control of the fingers did not recover. Also, there was an apparent hypotonia of the fingers, imparting a "floppy" appearance to the hand. The animals coped with the loss of fine control by decreasing the frequency of some behaviors, eliminating others, and developing alternative strategies. Exploratory movements that were utilized for investigating the anogenital area or foraging for small food items were eliminated by FC interruption. There were obvious deficits in grip formation and grasp of small food objects (see Glendinning et al., this issue), but effects on similar movements during grooming only became obvious after repeated inspection of videotaped records. Self-scratching and sweeps of the hand in grooming were preserved but altered in form and frequency. The component movements in these behaviors were relatively uncoordinated, and the fingers were splayed (abducted). Often the hand was formed in a rigid posture throughout the sweeping motion, and the fingers did not stroke the skin individually. Frame-by-frame analysis of videotapes revealed that the morphology of the precision grip during grooming, in movements termed "plucks," was permanently altered. Preoperatively, the monkeys kept the index finger and thumb closely apposed and routinely made contact on the distal surfaces of the digits, as has been described for precision grip in humans. Postoperatively, this relationship was altered. The index finger frequently missed the thumb tip and made contact on the proximal part of the phalanx, or missed the thumb altogether. Thus, the dorsal column input is important for proprioceptive guidance of movements that achieve "tactile foveation," when objects or surfaces are actively contacted by the receptive areas of keenest sensitivity (on the fingertips). PMID:1595323

Leonard, C M; Glendinning, D S; Wilfong, T; Cooper, B Y; Vierck, C J

1992-01-01

310

Interruptions improve choice performance in gray jays: prolonged information processing versus minimization of costly errors.  

PubMed

Under the assumption that selection favors minimization of costly errors, erroneous choice may be common when its fitness cost is low. According to an adaptive-choice model, this cost depends on the rate at which an animal encounters the choice: the higher this rate, the smaller the cost of choosing a less valuable option. Errors should thus be more common when interruptions to foraging are shorter. A previous experiment supported this prediction: gray jays, Perisoreus canadensis, were more error prone when subjected to shorter delays to access to food rewards. This pattern, though, is also predicted by an attentional-constraints model. Because the subjects were able to inspect the rewards during delays, their improved performance when subjected to longer delays could have been a byproduct of the experimentally prolonged opportunity for information processing. To evaluate this possibility, a follow-up experiment manipulated both delay to access and whether rewards could be inspected during delays. Depriving jays of the opportunity to inspect rewards (using opaque lids) induced only a small, nonsignificant increase in error rate. This effect was independent of length of delay and so the jays' improved performance when subjected to longer delays was not simply a byproduct of prolonged information processing. More definitively, even when the jays were prevented from inspecting rewards during delays, their performance improved when subjected to longer delays. The findings are thus consistent with the adaptive-choice model. PMID:12461598

Waite, Thomas A

2002-12-01

311

Interrupted Catalysis: The EF4 (LepA) Effect on Back Translocation  

PubMed Central

EF4, though similar structurally to the translocase EF-G, promotes back translocation of tRNAs on the ribosome, and is important for bacterial growth under certain conditions. Here, using a coordinated set of in vitro kinetic measures, including changes in the puromycin reactivity of peptidyl tRNA and in the fluorescence of labeled tRNAs and mRNA, we elucidate the kinetic mechanism of EF4-catalyzed back translocation and determine the effects of the translocation inhibitors spectinomycin and viomycin on the process. EF4-dependent back translocation proceeds from post-translocation complex (POST) to pre-translocation complex (PRE) via a four-step kinetic scheme, i.e., POST ? I1 ? I2 ? I3 ? PRE, that is not the simple reverse of translocation. During back translocation, movements of the tRNA core regions and of mRNA are closely coupled to one another, but are sometimes decoupled from movement of the 3?-end of peptidyl–tRNA. EF4 may be thought of as performing an interrupted catalysis of back translocation, stopping at the formation of I3 rather than catalyzing the complete process of back translocation culminating in PRE complex formation. The delay in polypeptide elongation resulting from transient accumulation of I3 is likely to be important for optimizing functional protein biosynthesis. PMID:20045415

Liu, Hanqing; Pan, Dongli; Pech, Markus; Cooperman, Barry S.

2011-01-01

312

Improving Malaria Control in West Africa: Interruption of Transmission as a Paradigm Shift  

PubMed Central

With the paradigm shift from the reduction of morbidity and mortality to the interruption of transmission, the focus of malaria control broadens from symptomatic infections in children ? 5 years of age to include asymptomatic infections in older children and adults. In addition, as control efforts intensify and the number of interventions increases, there will be decreases in prevalence, incidence and transmission with additional decreases in morbidity and mortality. Expected secondary consequences of these changes include upward shifts in the peak ages for infection (parasitemia) and disease, increases in the ages for acquisition of antiparasite humoral and cellular immune responses and increases in false-negative blood smears and rapid diagnostic tests. Strategies to monitor these changes must include: 1] studies of the entire population (that are not restricted to children ? 5 or ? 10 years of age), 2] study sites in both cities and rural areas (because of increasing urbanization across sub-Saharan Africa) and 3] innovative strategies for surveillance as the prevalence of infection decreases and the frequency of false-negative smears and rapid diagnostic tests increases. PMID:22142790

Doumbia, Seydou O.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Koita, Ousmane A.; Diakité, Mahamadou; Nwakanma, Davis; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Traoré, Sekou F.; Keating, Joseph; Milner, Danny A.; Ndiaye, Jean-Louis; Sene, Papa Diogoye; Ahouidi, Ambroise; Dieye, Tandakha N.; Gaye, Oumar; Okebe, Joseph; Ceesay, Serign J.; Ngwa, Alfred; Oriero, Eniyou C.; Konaté, Lassana; Sy, Ngayo; Jawara, Musa; Faye, Ousmane; Kéita, Moussa; Cissé, Moussa; Sogoba, Nafomon; Poudiougou, Belco; Diawara, Sory; Sangaré, Lansana; Coulibaly, Tinzana; Seck, Ibrahima; Abubakar, Ismaela; Gomis, Jules; Mather, Frances J.; Sissako, Aliou; Diarra, Ayouba; Kandeh, Balla; Whalen, Christopher; Moyer, Brian; Nnedu, Obinna; Thiero, Oumar; Bei, Amy K.; Daniels, Rachel; Miura, Kazutoyo; Long, Carole A.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Duraisingh, Manoj; Muskavitch, Marc A.T.; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Conway, David J.; Volkman, Sarah K.; Valim, Clarissa; Wirth, Dyann F.; Krogstad, Donald J.

2011-01-01

313

Reversible Inhibition of Ethylene Action and Interruption of Petal Senescence in Carnation Flowers by Norbornadiene 1  

PubMed Central

The inhibitory effects of the cyclic olefin 2,5-norbornadiene (NBD) on ethylene action were tested in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv White Sim) flowers. Treatment of flowers at anthesis with ethylene in the presence of 500 microliters per liter NBD increased the concentration of ethylene required to elicit a response (petal senescence), indicating that NBD behaves as a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Transfer of flowers producing autocatalytic ethylene and exhibiting evidence of senescence (petal in-rolling) to an atmosphere of NBD resulted in a rapid reduction in ethylene production, petal 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase activity, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid content, and ethylene forming enzyme activity. Removal of NBD resulted in recovery of ethylene biosynthesis. These results support the autocatalytic regulation of ethylene production during the climacteric stage of petal senescence and suggest that continued perception of ethylene is required for maintenance of ethylene biosynthesis. The inhibition of ethylene action by NBD after the flowers had reached the climacteric peak was associated with interruption of petal senescence as evidenced by reversal of senescence symptoms. This result is in contrast to the widely held belief that the rate of petal senescence is fixed and irreversible once petals enter into the ethylene climacteric. Images Figure 4 PMID:16666561

Wang, Hong; Woodson, William R.

1989-01-01

314

Life interrupted and life regained? Coping with stroke at a young age  

PubMed Central

Stroke is a leading cause of disability across the developed world, affecting an increasing number of younger people. In this article, we seek to understand the experience of stroke as a disabling life situation among young people and the strategies that they use to recover and cope. Directed content analysis was conducted from interviews with 17 community-dwelling stroke survivors aged 55 years and younger across the United Kingdom. The sample was drawn from a larger maximum variation sample of stroke survivors. Using the sociological concepts of biographical disruption and biographical repair as a guide, excerpts from the interviews pertaining to aspects of the patients’ life that were interrupted, in addition to how they coped with the changes, were selected and analysed. All individuals described an “altered sense of self,” a theme that included loss of identity, family disruption, and/or loss of valued activities. Individuals sought to adapt their sense of self by seeking external support, by restoring normality, and/or through positive reflection. Despite the adapted self that emerged, most individuals continued to experience impairments. While young stroke survivors adapt to their illness over time, they continue to experience impairments and disruptions in their personal and work lives. A holistic model of rehabilitation that helps individuals regain the capacity for everyday activities related to work, family life, and leisure can begin to address the emotional ramifications of diseases such as stroke, restore wellness, and work towards minimizing the burden felt by family caregivers and children. PMID:24461569

Dow, Clare; Locock, Louise; Lyons, Renee F.; Lasserson, Daniel

2014-01-01

315

Dolphins Can Maintain Vigilant Behavior through Echolocation for 15 Days without Interruption or Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

In dolphins, natural selection has developed unihemispheric sleep where alternating hemispheres of their brain stay awake. This allows dolphins to maintain consciousness in response to respiratory demands of the ocean. Unihemispheric sleep may also allow dolphins to maintain vigilant states over long periods of time. Because of the relatively poor visibility in the ocean, dolphins use echolocation to interrogate their environment. During echolocation, dolphin produce clicks and listen to returning echoes to determine the location and identity of objects. The extent to which individual dolphins are able to maintain continuous vigilance through this active sense is unknown. Here we show that dolphins may continuously echolocate and accurately report the presence of targets for at least 15 days without interruption. During a total of three sessions, each lasting five days, two dolphins maintained echolocation behaviors while successfully detecting and reporting targets. Overall performance was between 75 to 86% correct for one dolphin and 97 to 99% correct for a second dolphin. Both animals demonstrated diel patterns in echolocation behavior. A 15-day testing session with one dolphin resulted in near perfect performance with no significant decrement over time. Our results demonstrate that dolphins can continuously monitor their environment and maintain long-term vigilant behavior through echolocation. PMID:23082170

Branstetter, Brian K.; Finneran, James J.; Fletcher, Elizabeth A.; Weisman, Brian C.; Ridgway, Sam H.

2012-01-01

316

A LTR copia retrotransposon and Mutator transposons interrupt Pgip genes in cultivated and wild wheats.  

PubMed

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins involved in plant defence. Wheat pgip genes have been isolated from the B (Tapgip1) and D (Tapgip2) genomes, and now we report the identification of pgip genes from the A genomes of wild and cultivated wheats. By Southern blots and sequence analysis of BAC clones we demonstrated that wheat contains a single copy pgip gene per genome and the one from the A genome, pgip3, is inactivated by the insertion of a long terminal repeat copia retrotranspon within the fourth LRR. We demonstrated also that this retrotransposon insertion is present in Triticum urartu and all the polyploidy wheats assayed, but is absent in T. monococcum (Tmpgip3), suggesting that this insertion took place after the divergence between T. monococcum and T. urartu, but before the formation of the polyploid wheats. We identified also two independent insertion events of new Class II transposable elements, Vacuna, belonging to the Mutator superfamily, that interrupted the Tdipgip1 gene of T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides. The occurrence of these transposons within the coding region of Tdipgip1 facilitated the mapping of the Pgip locus in the pericentric region of the short arm of chromosome group 7. We speculate that the inactivation of pgip genes are tolerated because of redundancy of PGIP activities in the wheat genome. PMID:18301877

Di Giovanni, Michela; Cenci, Alberto; Janni, Michela; D'Ovidio, Renato

2008-04-01

317

Application of padmounted fault interrupters to single-phase URD systems  

SciTech Connect

Underground distribution has proven itself to be a highly effective means of eliminating the temporary faults that plague overhead distribution, however, the permanent faults that do occur are often cable or splice failures which are unpredictable, difficult to locate and require a lot of time and expense to repair. One of the ways that the designer seeks to minimize the impact of such events on service reliability is by incorporating an overcurrent protection scheme which removes the faulted section from the rest of the system and contingency scheme which allows isolation of the faulted section and restoration of service in the shortest possible time with a minimal number of switching operations. As a result there has been a continuing interest in the development of devices, equipment, and methods which help to realize the ideals of rapid service restoration and isolation of faults to the smallest segment of the system. Overcurrent protection of the single-phase URD system has, traditionally, been the province of fused cutouts and fused padmounted sectionalizing terminals and switchgear. Recently however, padmounted vacuum fault interrupters, that utilize electronic controls for tripping, have become available from several manufacturers and are beginning to make inroads into this portion of the distribution system. This paper will discuss the characteristics and potential applications of a new product offered by Cooper Power Systems, the Shrubline VFI, which was designed specifically for use in single phase residential underground distribution.

Israel, W.F. [Cooper Power Systems, South Milwaukee, WI (United States)

1995-12-31

318

Crystal structure of restriction endonuclease BglI bound to its interrupted DNA recognition sequence.  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of the type II restriction endonuclease BglI bound to DNA containing its specific recognition sequence has been determined at 2.2 A resolution. This is the first structure of a restriction endonuclease that recognizes and cleaves an interrupted DNA sequence, producing 3' overhanging ends. BglI is a homodimer that binds its specific DNA sequence with the minor groove facing the protein. Parts of the enzyme reach into both the major and minor grooves to contact the edges of the bases within the recognition half-sites. The arrangement of active site residues is strikingly similar to other restriction endonucleases, but the co-ordination of two calcium ions at the active site gives new insight into the catalytic mechanism. Surprisingly, the core of a BglI subunit displays a striking similarity to subunits of EcoRV and PvuII, but the dimer structure is dramatically different. The BglI-DNA complex demonstrates, for the first time, that a conserved subunit fold can dimerize in more than one way, resulting in different DNA cleavage patterns. PMID:9736624

Newman, M; Lunnen, K; Wilson, G; Greci, J; Schildkraut, I; Phillips, S E

1998-01-01

319

Molecular dynamic simulation studies on the effect of one residue chain staggering on the structure and stability of heterotrimeric collagen-like peptides with interruption.  

PubMed

A systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been carried out on collagen-like peptides with different combinations of interruptions in the Gly-X(AA) -Y(AA) repeats. Although experimental studies have been carried out to elucidate the structural consequences of homotrimeric collagen-like peptides, this is the first report on the structural effect on the heterotrimeric models with G4G and G1G breaks present simultaneously in the constituent chains with difference in one residue chain staggering. The results reveal that the axial registry of the interrupted region changes significantly from that of conventional triple helical peptide without interruption. Further, results from MD simulations show the formation of a kink in the interrupted region of the triple-helical peptides. The conformational analysis reveals that the interruption in the Gly-X(AA) -Y(AA) pattern in these peptides induces ?-strand conformation in triple helical peptides. The conventional hydrogen bonds in the interrupted triad are affected and new nonconventional H-bonds are formed in the triple helical structure, and as a result interrupted region becomes locally fragile. MM-PBSA calculations on the different systems clearly suggest that the binding affinity varies marginally due to one residue staggering. However, it is found from the structural parameters that hydrogen-bonding pattern differs significantly due to the difference in the staggering of chains. PMID:22899360

Singam, Ettayapuram Ramaprasad Azhagiya; Balamurugan, Kanagasabai; Gopalakrishnan, Ravimohan; Subramanian, Sundar Raman; Subramanian, Venkatesan; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

2012-11-01

320

Effect of deposition interruption and substrate bias on the structure of sputter-deposited yttria-stabilized zirconia thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of altering the morphological structure of radio-frequency magnetron sputter- deposited yttria-stabilized zirconia thin films was studied. A columnar grain structure is often observed in sputter deposited thin films; however, this morphology may not be desirable. Two potential methods of disrupting the columnar grain structure were investigated; deposition interruption and periodic application of a substrate bias. Simple interruption of the deposition process was not effective in altering the columnar grain structure of the sputter-deposited films. The use of a periodic substrate bias produced a laminate structure with alternating layers of distinctly different microstructure. X-ray diffraction showed that as the thickness of the layers decreased (with increasing number of layers), the monoclinic phase was eliminated from the deposited thin films, and the films showed a preference for the (200)t orientation. copyright 2002 American Vacuum Society.

Ruddell, David E.; Stoner, Brian R.; Thompson, Jeffrey Y.

2002-09-01

321

Simulation of SLF Interrupting Performance for SF6 Gas Circuit Breaker based on Serially Connected 3 Arc Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper shows the simulation of SLF interrupting performances for SF6 gas circuit breakers. From the measurements using 300kV-SF6 gas model circuit breakers, it was shown that the extinction peak voltages were varying with arcing times. But, the current values at the extinction peak were the same. To simulate the SLF interrupting performances for the circuit breakers, serially connected 3 arc models were used. Cassie arc model and two Mayr arc models were serially connected. In this arc model, the Cassie model simulates the high current arc. One of the Mayr arc model (Mayr model 1) simulates the arc around the voltage extinction peak. And the other Mayr arc model simulates the arc around current zero. In this model, arc voltage of the Cassie model and arc power loss of the Mayr model 1 are only estimated from the experiments. It was good agreement with the measurements and simulations.

Koshizuka, Tadashi; Shinkai, Takeshi; Udagawa, Keisuke; Kawano, Hiromichi

322

Long-Term Evolution of Endocrine Disorders and Effect of GH Therapy in 35 Patients with Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report long-term evolution of endocrine functions and the results of GH treatment in 35 patients (26 male and 9 female) with pituitary stalk interruption. At diagnosis, mean chronological age was 4.8 ± 2.7 years, mean SDS for height –3.1 ± 0.8 with a bone age retardation of 2.3 ± 1.3 years and a mean SDS for growth velocity of

Maïthé Tauber; Jean Chevrel; Gwenaelle Diene; Pierre Moulin; Béatrice Jouret; Isabelle Oliver; Catherine Pienkowski; Annick Sevely

2005-01-01

323

A 6-hour nocturnal interruption of a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion: 2. Marked attenuation of the metabolic deterioration by somatostatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We investigated the respective roles of insulin deprivation and counter-regulatory hormones in the metabolic deterioration after a nocturnal interruption of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients without residual insulin secretion. Changes in blood glucose, plasma non-esterified fatty acids, 3-hydroxybutyrate, glucagon, growth hormone, cortisol and free insulin in seven patients whose pumps were deliberately stopped between 23.00

A. J. Scheen; G. Krzentowski; M. Castillo; P. J. Lefèbvre; A. S. Luyckx

1983-01-01

324

Garnet growth interruptions during high- and ultra high-pressure metamorphism constrained by thermodynamic forward models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth and chemical composition of garnet in metamorphic rocks excellently reflect thermodynamic as well kinetic properties of the host rock during garnet growth. This valuable information can be extracted from preserved compositional growth zoning patterns in garnet. However, metamorphic rocks often contain multiple garnet generations that commonly develop as corona textures with distinct compositional core-overgrowth features. This circumstance can lead to a misinterpretation of information extracted from such grains if the age- and metamorphic relations between different garnet generations are unclear. Especially garnets from high-pressure (HP) and ultra high-pressure (UHP) rocks often preserve textures that show multiple growth stages reflected in core-overgrowth differences both in main and trace element composition and in the inclusion assemblage. Distinct growth zones often have sharp boundaries with strong compositional gradients and/or inclusion- and trace-element-enriched zones. Such growth patterns indicate episodic garnet growth as well as growth interruptions during the garnet evolution. A quantitative understanding of these distinct growth pulses enables the relationship between reaction path, age determinations in spatially controlled garnet domains or temperature-time constraints to be fully characterised. In this study we apply thermodynamic forward models to simulate garnet growth along a series of HP and UHP P-T paths, representative for subducted oceanic crust. We study garnet growth in different basaltic rock compositions and under different element fractionation scenarios in order to detect path-dependent P-T regions of limited or ceased garnet growth. Modeled data along P-T trajectories involving fractional crystallisation are assembled in P-T diagrams reflecting garnet growth in a changing bulk rock composition. Our models show that in all investigated rock compositions garnet growth along most P-T trajectories is discontinuous, pulse-like and triggered by relatively discrete mineral reactions under homogeneous as well as fractional equilibrium crystallisation conditions. The effect on the positions of the garnet-forming reactions of fractional crystallisation is limited, whereas garnet mode and composition are influenced at UHP conditions by element fractionation along the P-T trajectories. In water saturated homogeneous equilibrium models a medium- to high-pressure garnet stability field reaching from 350-650°C and 1.2-2.5 GPa is clearly separated from a UHP field above 700°C and 2.7 GPa. Between the two fields the thermodynamically calculated garnet mode decreases, enabling garnet resorption. Fractional garnet crystallisation along the P-T trajectories influences position and shape of this growth interruption but never eliminates it. Our results indicate that multiple garnet growth stages are likely to occur along a single prograde HP P-T path. As garnet formation mostly involves dehydration reactions, episodic garnet growth indicates pulse-like rather than continuous water release from the oceanic crust in subduction zones. Further, it is evident from our results that numerical models must consider non-linear garnet growth rate laws to reflect garnet evolution in HP rocks.

Konrad-Schmolke, M.; Schildhauer, H.

2013-12-01

325

Effect of interrupted cooling on retention of austenite and development of case hardness in a carburizing process  

SciTech Connect

Conventional industrial practice is to heat product to be gas carburized into the single phase austenite region of the equilibrium phase diagram for introduction of carbon. On quenching of the carburized product, not all of the austenite is transformed; some of the austenite is retained. The extent of retained austenite is affected by several material and processing factors. One factor studied by prior investigators is the phenomenon of thermal stabilization of austenite. The phase transformations occurring during the cooling of high carbon steel specimens within controlled experiments were the subject of these prior investigations. An investigation into the interruption of cooling occurring during quenching of carburized product within an industrial gas carburizing process was conducted. It was found that an interruption in the cooling caused some of the austenite to become stabilized and resist transformation to martensite. A statistically significant reduction in the proportion of retained austenite and an increase in the range of resultant hardness was obtained by minimizing the interruption in cooling to ambient temperature.

Milam, D.L. [Timken Co., Canton, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

326

Genomic Analysis of Pseudomonas putida Phage tf with Localized Single-Strand DNA Interruptions  

PubMed Central

The complete sequence of the 46,267 bp genome of the lytic bacteriophage tf specific to Pseudomonas putida PpG1 has been determined. The phage genome has two sets of convergently transcribed genes and 186 bp long direct terminal repeats. The overall genomic architecture of the tf phage is similar to that of the previously described Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages PaP3, LUZ24 and phiMR299-2, and 39 out of the 72 products of predicted tf open reading frames have orthologs in these phages. Accordingly, tf was classified as belonging to the LUZ24-like bacteriophage group. However, taking into account very low homology levels between tf DNA and that of the other phages, tf should be considered as an evolutionary divergent member of the group. Two distinguishing features not reported for other members of the group were found in the tf genome. Firstly, a unique end structure – a blunt right end and a 4-nucleotide 3?-protruding left end – was observed. Secondly, 14 single-chain interruptions (nicks) were found in the top strand of the tf DNA. All nicks were mapped within a consensus sequence 5?-TACT/RTGMC-3?. Two nicks were analyzed in detail and were shown to be present in more than 90% of the phage population. Although localized nicks were previously found only in the DNA of T5-like and phiKMV-like phages, it seems increasingly likely that this enigmatic structural feature is common to various other bacteriophages. PMID:23236447

Glukhov, Anatoly S.; Krutilina, Antonina I.; Shlyapnikov, Michael G.; Severinov, Konstantin; Lavysh, Daria; Kochetkov, Vladimir V.; McGrath, John W.; de Leeuwe, Colin; Shaburova, Olga V.; Krylov, Victor N.; Akulenko, Natalia V.; Kulakov, Leonid A.

2012-01-01

327

Genomic analysis of Pseudomonas putida phage tf with localized single-strand DNA interruptions.  

PubMed

The complete sequence of the 46,267 bp genome of the lytic bacteriophage tf specific to Pseudomonas putida PpG1 has been determined. The phage genome has two sets of convergently transcribed genes and 186 bp long direct terminal repeats. The overall genomic architecture of the tf phage is similar to that of the previously described Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages PaP3, LUZ24 and phiMR299-2, and 39 out of the 72 products of predicted tf open reading frames have orthologs in these phages. Accordingly, tf was classified as belonging to the LUZ24-like bacteriophage group. However, taking into account very low homology levels between tf DNA and that of the other phages, tf should be considered as an evolutionary divergent member of the group. Two distinguishing features not reported for other members of the group were found in the tf genome. Firstly, a unique end structure--a blunt right end and a 4-nucleotide 3'-protruding left end--was observed. Secondly, 14 single-chain interruptions (nicks) were found in the top strand of the tf DNA. All nicks were mapped within a consensus sequence 5'-TACT/RTGMC-3'. Two nicks were analyzed in detail and were shown to be present in more than 90% of the phage population. Although localized nicks were previously found only in the DNA of T5-like and phiKMV-like phages, it seems increasingly likely that this enigmatic structural feature is common to various other bacteriophages. PMID:23236447

Glukhov, Anatoly S; Krutilina, Antonina I; Shlyapnikov, Michael G; Severinov, Konstantin; Lavysh, Daria; Kochetkov, Vladimir V; McGrath, John W; de Leeuwe, Colin; Shaburova, Olga V; Krylov, Victor N; Akulenko, Natalia V; Kulakov, Leonid A

2012-01-01

328

Mechanism of Evenness Interrupted (Evi)-Exosome Release at Synaptic Boutons*  

PubMed Central

Wnt signaling plays critical roles during synaptic development and plasticity. However, the mechanisms by which Wnts are released and travel to target cells are unresolved. During synaptic development, the secretion of Drosophila Wnt1, Wingless, requires the function of Evenness Interrupted (Evi)/Wls, a Wingless-binding protein that is secreted along with Wingless at the neuromuscular junction. Given that Evi is a transmembrane protein, these studies suggested the presence of a novel vesicular mechanism of trans-synaptic communication, potentially in the form of exosomes. To establish the mechanisms for the release of Evi vesicles, we used a dsRNA assay in cultured cells to screen for genes that when down-regulated prevent the release of Evi vesicles. We identified two proteins, Rab11 and Syntaxin 1A (Syx1A), that were required for Evi vesicle release. To determine whether the same mechanisms were used in vivo at the neuromuscular junction, we altered the activity of Rab11 and Syx1A in motoneurons and determined the impact on Evi release. We found that Syx1A, Rab11, and its effector Myosin5 were required for proper Evi vesicle release. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis of synaptic boutons demonstrated the presence of multivesicular bodies, organelles involved in the production and release of exosomes, and these multivesicular bodies contained Evi. We also used mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and biochemical techniques to characterize the exosome fraction from cultured cells. Our studies revealed that secreted Evi vesicles show remarkable conservation with exosomes in other systems. In summary, our observations unravel some of the in vivo mechanisms required for Evi vesicle release. PMID:22437826

Koles, Kate; Nunnari, John; Korkut, Ceren; Barria, Romina; Brewer, Cassandra; Li, Yihang; Leszyk, John; Zhang, Bing; Budnik, Vivian

2012-01-01

329

STAT3 interrupts ATR-Chk1 signaling to allow oncovirus-mediated cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

DNA damage response (DDR) is a signaling network that senses DNA damage and activates response pathways to coordinate cell-cycle progression and DNA repair. Thus, DDR is critical for maintenance of genome stability, and presents a powerful defense against tumorigenesis. Therefore, to drive cell-proliferation and transformation, viral and cellular oncogenes need to circumvent DDR-induced cell-cycle checkpoints. Unlike in hereditary cancers, mechanisms that attenuate DDR and disrupt cell-cycle checkpoints in sporadic cancers are not well understood. Using Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) as a source of oncogenes, we have previously shown that EBV-driven cell proliferation requires the cellular transcription factor STAT3. EBV infection is rapidly followed by activation and increased expression of STAT3, which mediates relaxation of the intra-S phase cell-cycle checkpoint; this facilitates viral oncogene-driven cell proliferation. We now show that replication stress-associated DNA damage, which results from EBV infection, is detected by DDR. However, signaling downstream of ATR is impaired by STAT3, leading to relaxation of the intra-S phase checkpoint. We find that STAT3 interrupts ATR-to-Chk1 signaling by promoting loss of Claspin, a protein that assists ATR to phosphorylate Chk1. This loss of Claspin which ultimately facilitates cell proliferation is mediated by caspase 7, a protein that typically promotes cell death. Our findings demonstrate how STAT3, which is constitutively active in many human cancers, suppresses DDR, fundamental to tumorigenesis. This newly recognized role for STAT3 in attenuation of DDR, discovered in the context of EBV infection, is of broad interest as the biology of cell proliferation is central to both health and disease. PMID:24639502

Koganti, Siva; Hui-Yuen, Joyce; McAllister, Shane; Gardner, Benjamin; Grasser, Friedrich; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Tangye, Stuart G.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Bhaduri-McIntosh, Sumita

2014-01-01

330

Reduction of maternal mortality due to preeclampsia in Colombia-an interrupted time-series analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Preeclampsia is the most important cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. A comprehensive prenatal care program including bio-psychosocial components was developed and introduced at a national level in Colombia. We report on the trends in maternal mortality rates and their related causes before and after implementation of this program. Methods: General and specific maternal mortality rates were monitored for nine years (1998-2006). An interrupted time-series analysis was performed with monthly data on cases of maternal mortality that compared trends and changes in national mortality rates and the impact of these changes attributable to the introduction of a bio-psychosocial model. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate correlations between the interventions. Results: Five years after (2002 - 2006) its introduction the general maternal mortality rate was significantly reduced to 23% (OR=0.77, CI 95% 0.71-0.82).The implementation of BPSM also reduced the incidence of preeclampsia in 22% (OR= 0.78, CI 95% 0.67-0.88), as also the labor complications by hemorrhage in 25% (OR=0.75, CI 95% 0.59-0.90) associated with the implementation of red code. The other causes of maternal mortality did not reveal significant changes. Biomedical, nutritional, psychosocial assessments, and other individual interventions in prenatal care were not correlated to maternal mortality (p= 0.112); however, together as a model we observed a significant association (p= 0.042). Conclusions: General maternal mortality was reduced after the implementation of a comprehensive national prenatal care program. Is important the evaluation of this program in others populations. PMID:24970956

Herrera-Medina, Rodolfo; Herrera-Escobar, Juan Pablo; Nieto-Díaz, Aníbal

2014-01-01

331

Validity Testing of the Stopwatch Urine Stream Interruption Test in Radical Prostatectomy Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess convergent validity of the stopwatch urine stream interruption test (UST). Specific aims were to describe relationships among stopwatch UST scores and four common clinical indices of pelvic floor muscle strength: 24-hour urine leakage, confidence in performing pelvic muscle exercise, 24-hour pad count, and daily pelvic muscle exercise count. Design Secondary analysis; instrumentation study. Methods The final sample consisted of baseline stopwatch UST scores and measurements of comparison variables from 47 participants in a randomized clinical trial of three approaches to pelvic floor training for patients with urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy. The sample size provided 80% power to detect correlations of moderate strength or higher. The stopwatch UST was conducted in an examination room at the study site by trained study personnel. Measurements of comparison variables were obtained from three instruments: 24-hour pad test, Broome Pelvic Muscle Self-Efficacy Scale, and 3-day bladder diary. Relationships among study variables were evaluated with Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results Stopwatch UST scores were moderately correlated with 24-hour urine leakage on the 24-hour pad test (r = .35, p < .05), the most robust comparison measure. Correlations between stopwatch UST scores and all other comparison measures were in the appropriate direction, although weak and did not reach statistical significance Conclusion Findings suggest the stopwatch UST may be a valid index of pelvic floor muscle strength in men following radical prostatectomy. With further testing, the stopwatch UST could become a valuable clinical tool for assessing pelvic floor muscle strength in radical prostatectomy patients with urinary incontinence. PMID:22825573

Robinson, Joanne P.; Burrell, Sherry A.; Avi-Itzhak, Tamara; McCorkle, Ruth

2012-01-01

332

Evaluating the Impact of Flexible Alcohol Trading Hours on Violence: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background On November 24th 2005, the Government of England and Wales removed regulatory restrictions on the times at which licensed premises could sell alcohol. This study tests availability theory by treating the implementation of Licensing Act (2003) as a natural experiment in alcohol policy. Methods An interrupted time series design was employed to estimate the Act’s immediate and delayed impact on violence in the City of Manchester (Population 464,200). We collected police recorded rates of violence, robbery, and total crime between the 1st of February 2004 and the 31st of December 2007. Events were aggregated by week, yielding a total of 204 observations (95 pre-, and 109 post-intervention). Secondary analysis examined changes in daily patterns of violence. Pre- and post-intervention events were separated into four three-hour segments 18?00–20?59, 21?00–23.59, 00?00–02?59, 03?00–05?59. Results Analysis found no evidence that the Licensing Act (2003) affected the overall volume of violence. However, analyses of night-time violence found a gradual and permanent shift of weekend violence into later parts of the night. The results estimated an initial increase of 27.5% between 03?00 to 06?00 (??=?0.2433, 95% CI?=?0.06, 0.42), which increased to 36% by the end of the study period (??=??0.897, 95% CI?=??1.02, ?0.77). Conclusions This study found no evidence that a national policy increasing the physical availability of alcohol affected the overall volume of violence. There was, however, evidence suggesting that the policy may be associated with changes to patterns of violence in the early morning (3 a.m. to 6 a.m.). PMID:23457474

Humphreys, David K.; Eisner, Manuel P.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

2013-01-01

333

Chemical disinfection to interrupt transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from environmental surfaces to hands.  

PubMed Central

Rhinoviruses can survive on environmental surfaces for several hours under ambient conditions. Hands can readily become contaminated after contact with such surfaces, and self-inoculation may lead to infection. Whereas hand washing is crucial in preventing the spread of rhinovirus colds, proper disinfection of environmental surfaces may further reduce rhinovirus transmission. In this study, the capacities of Lysol Disinfectant Spray (0.1% o-phenylphenol and 79% ethanol), a domestic bleach (6% sodium hypochlorite diluted to give 800 ppm of free chlorine), a quaternary ammonium-based product (7.05% quaternary ammonium diluted 1:128 in tap water), and a phenol-based product (14.7% phenol diluted 1:256 in tap water) were compared in interrupting the transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from stainless steel disks to fingerpads of human volunteers upon a 10-s contact at a pressure of 1 kg/cm2. Ten microliters of the virus, suspended in bovine mucin (5 mg/ml), was placed on each disk, and the inoculum was dried under ambient conditions; the input number on each disk ranged from 0.5 x 10(5) to 2.1 x 10(6) PFU. The dried virus was exposed to 20 microliters of the test disinfectant. The Lysol spray was able to reduce virus infectivity by > 99.99% after a contact of either 1 or 10 min, and no detectable virus was transferred to fingerpads from Lysol-treated disks. The bleach (800 ppm of free chlorine) reduced the virus titer by 99.7% after a contact time of 10 min, and again no virus was transferred from the disks treated with it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8390817

Sattar, S A; Jacobsen, H; Springthorpe, V S; Cusack, T M; Rubino, J R

1993-01-01

334

Control of wake-induced exposure using an interrupted oscillating jet.  

PubMed

A problem may arise in ventilation design when the contaminant source is located in the worker's wake, where turbulence and vortex formation can carry the contaminant into the breathing zone even though the source is downwind. It was found previously that forced directional variations in the flow can reduce or eliminate the vortex formation that causes these local reversals. Reported here is a simple realization of this concept, in which an oscillating jet of air was directed at a mannequin in an otherwise steady flow of air. A 50th percentile male mannequin was placed in a nearly uniform flow of approximately 0.18 m/sec (36 ft/min). A low-velocity tracer gas source (isobutylene) was held in the standing mannequin's hands with the upper arms vertical and the elbows at 90 degrees. Four ventilation scenarios were compared by concentration measurements in the breathing zone, using photoionization detectors: (A) uniform flow; (B) addition of a steady jet with initial velocity 5.1 m/sec (1.0 x 10(3) ft/min) directed at the mannequin's back, parallel to the main flow; (C) making the jet oscillate to 45 degrees on either side of the centerline with a period of 13 sec; and (D) introducing a blockage at the centerline so the oscillating jet never blew directly at the worker. At the 97.5% confidence level the interrupted oscillating jet (case D) achieved at least 99% exposure reduction compared with the uniform flow by itself (case A), at least 93% compared with the steady jet (case B), and at least 45% exposure reduction compared with the unblocked oscillating jet (case C). PMID:12570392

Bennett, James S; Crouch, Keith G; Shulman, Stanley A

2003-01-01

335

Diagnosis of growth hormone (GH) deficiency: comparison of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome and transient GH deficiency  

PubMed Central

Background Most patients with childhood non-organic growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) produce a normal GH peak as young adults. Our objectives were to better define this transient GHD and evaluate the factors influencing the growth response of patients with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS). Methods We studied 72 prepubertal patients with a GH peak < 6.7 ng/ml after 2 stimulation tests, treated with 0.2 mg GH/kg/w for at least 3 years. Group 1 (n = 53, 4.7 ± 4.0 years) had PSIS and Group 2 (n = 19, 9.2 ± 3.0 years) had transient GHD and normal pituitary. Results At diagnosis, 64% of Group 1 and one Group 2 were < 5 years old. The growth rate of 59% Group 1 and two Group 2 patients was ? -2 SDS. The GH peak of 64% Group 1 patients and no Group 2 patients was < 3 ng/ml. The plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 of all Group 1 and all but one Group 2 patients was ? -2 z scores. During the first year of GH treatment, the growth rate was ? 2 SDS in 81% Group 1 and 37% Group 2 patients. In Group 1, it was negatively correlated with the GH peak before treatment (P < 0.03), and with the difference between the target and adult heights (P < 0.01). The height gain SDSs between diagnosis and adult height were 1.7 ± 1.2 in Group 1 (n = 30) and 1.08 ± 0.8 in Group 2 (n = 12, P = 0.05). Conclusion The factors of the growth response to GH treatment should be analysed separately for each population: with and without PSIS or other markers. PMID:19419564

Louvel, Murielle; Marcu, Mariana; Trivin, Christine; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Brauner, Raja

2009-01-01

336

Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome in Chinese People: Clinical Characteristic Analysis of 55 Cases  

PubMed Central

Objective Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is characterized by the absence of pituitary stalk, pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic posterior pituitary. Due to the rarity of PSIS, clinical data are limited, especially in Chinese people. Herein, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with PSIS from our center over 10 years. Patients and Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical manifestations and laboratory and MRI findings in 55 patients with PSIS. Results Of the 55 patients with PSIS, 48 (87.3%) were male. The average age was 19.7±6.7 years and there was no familial case. A history of breech delivery was documented in 40 of 45 patients (88.9%) and 19 of 55 patients (34.5%) had a history of dystocia. Short stature was found in 47 of 55 patients (85.5%) and bone age delayed 7.26±5.37 years. Secondary sex characteristics were poor or undeveloped in most patients. The prevalence of deficiencies in growth hormone, gonadotropins, corticotropin, and thyrotropin were 100%, 95.8%, 81.8%, 76.3%, respectively. Hyperprolactinemia was found in 36.4% of patients. Three or more pituitary hormone deficiencies were found in 92.7% of the patients. All patients had normal posterior pituitary function and absent pituitary stalk on imaging. The average height of anterior pituitary was 28 mm, documented anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Midline abnormalities were presented in 9.1% of patients. Conclusions The clinical features of our Chinese PSIS patients seem to be different from other reported patients in regarding to the higher degree of hypopituitarism and lower prevalence of midline defects. In addition, our patients were older at the time of case detection and the bone age was markedly delayed. We also had no cases of familial PSIS. PMID:23341953

Mu, Yiming; Lu, Jvming; Pan, Changyu; Dou, Jingtao; Lv, Zhaohui; Ba, Jianming; Wang, Baoan; Zou, Xiaoman; Yang, Lijuan; Ouyang, Jinzhi; Yang, Guoqing; Wang, Xianling; Du, Jin; Gu, Weijun; Jin, Nan; Chen, Kang; Zang, Li; Erickson, Bradley J.

2013-01-01

337

Differentiation of Secreted and Membrane-Type Matrix Metalloproteinase Activities Based on Substitutions and Interruptions of Triple-Helical Sequences†  

PubMed Central

The turnover of collagen triple-helical structure (collagenolysis) is a tightly regulated process in normal physiology, and has been ascribed to small number of proteases. Several members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) family possess collagenolytic activity, and the mechanisms by which these enzymes process triple-helices are beginning to be unraveled. The present study has utilized 2 triple-helical sequences to compare the cleavage site specificities of 10 MMPs. One substrate featured a continuous Gly-Xxx-Yyy sequence (Pro-Leu-Gly~Met-Arg-Gly) while the other incorporated an interruption in the Gly-Xxx-Yyy repeat (Pro-Val-Asn~Phe-Arg-Gly). Both sequences were selectively cleaved by MMP-13 while in linear form, but neither proved to be selective within a triple-helix. This suggests that the conformational presentation of substrate sequences to an MMP active site is critical for enzyme specificity, in that activities differ when sequences are presented from an unwound triple-helix versus an independent single strand. Differences in specificity between secreted and membranetype (MT) MMPs were also observed for both sequences, where MMP-2 and MT-MMPs showed an ability to hydrolyze a triple-helix at an additional site (Gly-Gln bond). Interruption of the triple-helix had different effects on secreted MMPs and MT-MMPs, as MT-MMPs could not hydrolyze the Asn-Phe bond, but instead cleaved the triple-helix nearer the C-terminus at a Gly-Gln bond. It is possible that MT-MMPs have a requirement for Gly in the P1 subsite in order to be able to efficiently process a triple-helical molecule. Analysis of individual kinetic parameters and activation energies indicated different substrate preferences within secreted MMPs, as MMP-13 preferred the interrupted sequence while MMP-8 showed little discrimination between non-interrupted and interrupted triple-helices. Based on the present and prior studies, we can assign unique triple-helical peptidase behaviors to the collagenolytic MMPs. Such differences may be significant for understanding MMP mechanisms of action and aid in the development of selective MMP inhibitors. PMID:17338550

Minond, Dmitriy; Lauer-Fields, Janelle L.; Cudic, Mare; Overall, Christopher M.; Pei, Duanqing; Brew, Keith; Moss, Marcia L.; Fields, Gregg B.

2008-01-01

338

41 CFR 301-10.8 - What is my liability if, for personal convenience, I travel by an indirect route or interrupt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...my liability if, for personal convenience, I travel by an indirect route or interrupt travel by a direct route? 301-10.8 Section...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY)...

2010-07-01

339

Medical Treatment of an Adult with Uncorrected Isolated Interrupted Aorta Resulted in no Complications after 4 Years of Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 56 Final Diagnosis: Isolated adult interrupted aortic arch Symptoms: Headache • hypertension • left ventricular hypertrophy Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Congenital defects/diseases Background: Interrupted aorta is a rare congenital malformation defined as the lack of continuity between the ascending and descending parts of the aorta. Case Report: This malformation was first described by Steidele in 1778. To date a few isolated adult interrupted aortic arch patients have been reported and most of them were treated surgically. However, there is not data about outcome of patients who decline surgery or who are not good candidates for surgery because of excessive risks, and there is not a data about how to follow these patients. Conclusions: Herein we present a case of adult type A isolated interrupted aorta followed-up for 4 years by medical therapy without complications. PMID:25087767

Öztürk, Ali; Özcan, Emin Evren; Özel, Erdem; Uyar, Samet; ?enaslan, Ömer

2014-01-01

340

The role of interruptible natural gas customers in New England heating oil markets: A preliminary examination of events in January-February 2000  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an analysis of data collected from gas service providers and end-use customers in the six New England States and offers a preliminary assessment of the impact of interruptible gas customers on the distillate fuel oil market this past winter. Based on information collected and analyzed as of October 2000, the main findings areas follows: (1) For interruptible gas customers with distillate fuel oil as a backup fuel, their volume of interruptions was equivalent to about 1 to 2 percent of the total sales of distillate fuel oil in New England during January-February 2000. For the two peak weeks of gas supply interruptions, however, the equivalent volume of distillate fuel oil amounted to an estimated 3 to 6 percent of total sales in New England. There were no interruptions of the natural gas service during the 2-month period. (2) Purchases of distillate fuel oil by interruptible gas customers may have contributed somewhat to the spike in the price of distillate fuel oil in January-February 2000, especially during the peak weeks of gas interruptions. Nevertheless, other factors--a sudden drop in temperatures, low regional stocks of distillate fuels, and weather-related supply problems during a period of high customer demand--appear to have played a significant role in this price spike, as they have in previous spikes. (3) While this preliminary analysis suggests that interruptible natural gas service does not threaten the stability of the home heating oil market, several steps might be taken-without undermining the benefits of interruptible service--to reduce the potential adverse impacts of gas supply interruptions in times of market stress. Regardless of the magnitude of the impact of distillate fuel oil purchases by interruptible gas customers on Northeast heating oil markets, the threat of future heating oil price spikes and supply problems still remains. To help counter the threat, President Clinton in July 2000 directed Secretary Richardson to establish a heating oil component of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in the Northeast, and 2 million barrels of heating oil are now stored in the reserve. Other possible policy options are outlined.

None

2000-11-01

341

Coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass and without interruption of native coronary flow using a novel anastomosis site restraining device (“Octopus”)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. This study assessed the feasibility of coronary artery bypass grafting on the beating heart without interruption of native coronary blood flow using a novel anastomosis site restraining device.Background. Recently, an end-to-side bypass technique was described that does not require interruption of flow in the recipient artery.Methods. By means of a suction device (“Octopus”), in 31 pigs the epicardium was

Cornelius Borst; Erik W. L. Jansen; Cornelis A. F. Tulleken; Paul F. Grundeman; Hendricus J. Mansvelt Beck; Jeroen W. F. van Dongen; Kees C. Hodde; Jaap J. Bredée

1996-01-01

342

Perioperative bridging anticoagulation during dabigatran or warfarin interruption among patients with an elective surgery or procedure. Substudy of the RE-LY trial.  

PubMed

In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who require interruption of dabigatran or warfarin for an elective surgery/procedure, the risks and benefits of perioperative bridging anticoagulation is uncertain. We accessed the database from RE-LY, a randomised trial comparing dabigatran with warfarin for stroke prevention in AF, to assess the potential benefits and risks of bridging. In patients who had a first interruption of dabigatran or warfarin for an elective surgery/procedure, we compared the risk for major bleeding (MB), stroke or systemic embolism (SSE) and any thromboembolism (TE) in patients who were bridged or not bridged during the period of seven days before until 30 days after surgery/procedure. We used multivariable Cox regression to adjust for potential confounders. Bridging was used more during warfarin interruption than dabigatran interruption (27.5?% vs 15.4?%; pinterruption, bridged patients had more MB (6.5?% vs. 1.8?%, Pinterruption, bridged patients had more MB (6.8?% vs 1.6?%, pinterrupted dabigatran or warfarin for a surgery/procedure in the RE-LY trial, use of bridging anticoagulation appeared to increase the risk for major bleeding irrespective of dabigatran or warfarin interruption. PMID:25472710

Douketis, J D; Healey, J S; Brueckmann, M; Eikelboom, J W; Ezekowitz, M D; Fraessdorf, M; Noack, H; Oldgren, J; Reilly, P; Spyropoulos, A C; Wallentin, L; Connolly, S J

2014-12-01

343

Non-adherence to antiretroviral treatment and unplanned treatment interruption among people living with HIV\\/AIDS in Cameroon: Individual and healthcare supply-related factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In low-income countries, health system deficiencies may undermine treatment continuity and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) that are crucial for the success of large-scale public ART programs. In addition to examining the effects of individual characteristics, on non-adherence to ART and treatment interruption behaviors – i.e. treatment interruption for more than 2 consecutive days during the previous 4 weeks, this

Sylvie Boyer; Isabelle Clerc; Cécile-Renée Bonono; Fabienne Marcellin; Paule-Christiane Bilé; Bruno Ventelou

2011-01-01

344

Training emergency services’ dispatchers to recognise stroke: an interrupted time-series analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke is a time-dependent medical emergency in which early presentation to specialist care reduces death and dependency. Up to 70% of all stroke patients obtain first medical contact from the Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Identifying ‘true stroke’ from an EMS call is challenging, with over 50% of strokes being misclassified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the training package on the recognition of stroke by Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMDs). Methods This study took place in an ambulance service and a hospital in England using an interrupted time-series design. Suspected stroke patients were identified in one week blocks, every three weeks over an 18 month period, during which time the training was implemented. Patients were included if they had a diagnosis of stroke (EMS or hospital). The effect of the intervention on the accuracy of dispatch diagnosis was investigated using binomial (grouped) logistic regression. Results In the Pre-implementation period EMDs correctly identified 63% of stroke patients; this increased to 80% Post-implementation. This change was significant (p=0.003), reflecting an improvement in identifying stroke patients relative to the Pre-implementation period both the During-implementation (OR=4.10 [95% CI 1.58 to 10.66]) and Post-implementation (OR=2.30 [95% CI 1.07 to 4.92]) periods. For patients with a final diagnosis of stroke who had been dispatched as stroke there was a marginally non-significant 2.8 minutes (95% CI ?0.2 to 5.9 minutes, p=0.068) reduction between Pre- and Post-implementation periods from call to arrival of the ambulance at scene. Conclusions This is the first study to develop, implement and evaluate the impact of a training package for EMDs with the aim of improving the recognition of stroke. Training led to a significant increase in the proportion of stroke patients dispatched as such by EMDs; a small reduction in time from call to arrival at scene by the ambulance also appeared likely. The training package has been endorsed by the UK Stroke Forum Education and Training, and is free to access on-line. PMID:23947656

2013-01-01

345

Cockpit Interruptions and Distractions: Effective Management Requires a Careful Balancing Act  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Managing several tasks concurrently is an everyday part of cockpit operations. For the most part, crews handle concurrent task demands efficiently, yet crew preoccupation with one task to the detriment of performing other tasks is one of the more common forms of error in the cockpit. Most pilots are familiar with the December 1972 L1011 crash that occurred when the crew became preoccupied with a landing gear light malfunction and failed to notice that someone had inadvertently bumped off the autopilot. More recently a DC-9 landed gear-up in Houston when the crew, preoccupied with an stabilized approach, failed to recognize that the gear was not down because they had not switched the hydraulic pumps to high. We have recently started a research project to study why crews are vulnerable to these sorts of errors. As part of that project we reviewed NTSB reports of accidents attributed to crew error; we concluded that nearly half of these accidents involved lapses of attention associated with interruptions, distractions, or preoccupation with one task to the exclusion of another task. We have also analyzed 107 ASRS reports involving competing tasks; we present here some of our conclusions from those ASRS reports. These 107 reports involved 21 different types of routine tasks crews neglected at a critical moment while attending to another task. Sixty-nine percent of the neglected tasks involved either failure to monitor the current status or position of the aircraft or failure to monitor the actions of the pilot flying or taxiing. Thirty-four different types of competing activities distracted or preoccupied the pilots. Ninety percent of these competing activities fell into one of four broad categories: communication (e.g., discussion among crew or radio communication), heads-down work (e.g., programming the FMS or reviewing approach plates), responding to abnormals, or searching for VMC traffic. We will discuss examples of each of these four categories and suggest things crews can do to reduce their vulnerability to these and similar situations.

Dismukes, R. K.; Young, Grant E.; Sumwalt, Robert L., III; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

346

The Interruption of Alpine Foehn by a Cold Front. Part II: Numerical Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the interaction of Alpine foehn winds with a cold front is investigated. Despite the wealth of studies on south foehn in the region of Innsbruck during the last century not much is known about the dynamics of foehn breakdown. In most cases, the interruption of foehn is connected with a cold front, which approaches the Alps from northerly or northwesterly directions. The resulting change of warm and dry southerly winds to a cold and moist airmass may occur within less than an hour. The objective of this study is to receive a better understanding of the dynamical processes connected with the collision of two airflows from opposing directions in an Alpine valley by means of numerical simulations conducted with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, Version 3.1. For this purpose a foehn event at the Special Observing Period (SOP) of the Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP) has been chosen. On 6 November 1999 a cold front impinged on the Alps and caused the breakdown of the foehn flow. The investigations are mainly focused on the Austrian Inn- and Wipp Valley, which has been one of the target areas during the MAP SOP. The results from the mesoscale model are compaired against the large available observational data set, including surface station, radiosonde and lidar measurements. Nested model runs provide the ability to investigate a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. The model is able to capture the blocking of moist air south of the Alps during foehn and the deformation of the cold front by the mountain range north of the Alps. To quantitatively describe the exchange of air masses in a given box near Innsbruck a mass budget calculation has been accomplished. The most prominent feature is a sudden increase of the inflow from the west during the cold front passage. The fine-scale structure of the cold front, which shows the nature of a density current, is determined with an additional one-way nested high-resolution simulation in the Wipp Valley. Futhermore, the sensitivity of the model results on the initial and boundary conditions, which are based on different ECMWF analysis products, is studied. Apart from these tests, it is shown, that the quality of the numerical simulations strongly depends on the type of boundary-layer parametrization used in the model.

Dautz, E.; Gohm, A.

2010-09-01

347

Results of Antiretroviral Treatment Interruption and Intensification in Advanced Multi-Drug Resistant HIV Infection from the OPTIMA Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Guidance is needed on best medical management for advanced HIV disease with multidrug resistance (MDR) and limited retreatment options. We assessed two novel antiretroviral (ARV) treatment approaches in this setting. Methods and Findings We conducted a 2×2 factorial randomized open label controlled trial in patients with a CD4 count ?300 cells/µl who had ARV treatment (ART) failure requiring retreatment, to two options (a) re-treatment with either standard (?4 ARVs) or intensive (?5 ARVs) ART and b) either treatment starting immediately or after a 12-week monitored ART interruption. Primary outcome was time to developing a first AIDS-defining event (ADE) or death from any cause. Analysis was by intention to treat. From 2001 to 2006, 368 patients were randomized. At baseline, mean age was 48 years, 2% were women, median CD4 count was 106/µl, mean viral load was 4.74 log10 copies/ml, and 59% had a prior AIDS diagnosis. Median follow-up was 4.0 years in 1249 person-years of observation. There were no statistically significant differences in the primary composite outcome of ADE or death between re-treatment options of standard versus intensive ART (hazard ratio 1.17; CI 0.86–1.59), or between immediate retreatment initiation versus interruption before re-treatment (hazard ratio 0.93; CI 0.68–1.30), or in the rate of non-HIV associated serious adverse events between re-treatment options. Conclusions We did not observe clinical benefit or harm assessed by the primary outcome in this largest and longest trial exploring both ART interruption and intensification in advanced MDR HIV infection with poor retreatment options. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00050089 PMID:21483491

Holodniy, Mark; Brown, Sheldon T.; Cameron, D. William; Kyriakides, Tassos C.; Angus, Brian; Babiker, Abdel; Singer, Joel; Owens, Douglas K.; Anis, Aslam; Goodall, Ruth; Hudson, Fleur; Piaseczny, Mirek; Russo, John; Schechter, Martin; Deyton, Lawrence; Darbyshire, Janet

2011-01-01

348

Factors associated with antiretroviral treatment interruption in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected children attending the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Interrupting anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for any number of reasons is an indication of a compromised adherence to ART. Several factors, including the pill burden from other drugs used in treating co-infections in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), may influence ART adherence. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with ART interruption in HIV-1-infected children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study analysing data on 580 children consecutively enrolled on ART between February 2006 and December 2010 at the paediatric HIV clinic of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos. Subjects were children aged 2 months — 15 years diagnosed with HIV-1 infection and on first-line ART. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was usually commenced at diagnosis while awaiting ART commencement. Children diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) were also placed on multiple individual anti-TB drugs. Statistical analysis used: A comparison of the data on children with and without ART interruption was made. Variables associated with ART interruption in a univariate analysis were fit in a multivariate logistic model to determine the factors that were associated with ART interruption. Results: Children on anti-TB drugs were twice more likely to interrupt ART compared to those who were not, (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 1.84 (1.03-3.28); P = 0.04). But children on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis had a 57% reduction in the odds of interrupting ART compared to those who were not, (AOR = 0.43 (0.20-0.93); P = 0.03). Conclusion: Children on ART and also taking multiple individual anti-TB drugs should be monitored closely for ART adherence. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis should be encouraged in children diagnosed with HIV while awaiting ART commencement as this may prime them for a better ART adherence.

Ebonyi, Augustine O.; Ejeliogu, Emeka U.; Okpe, Sylvanus E.; Shwe, David D.; Yiltok, Esther S.; Ochoga, Martha O.; Oguche, Stephen

2015-01-01

349

Feasibility of bloodless liver resection using Lumagel, a reverse thermoplastic polymer, to produce temporary, targeted hepatic blood flow interruption  

PubMed Central

Background Lumagel, a reverse thermosensitive polymer (RTP), provides targeted flow interruption to the kidney by reversibly plugging segmental branches of the renal artery, allowing blood-free partial nephrectomy. Extending this technology to the liver requires the development of techniques for temporary occlusion of the hepatic artery and selected portal vein branches. Methods A three-phased, 15 swine study was performed to determine feasibility, techniques and survival implications of using Lumagel for occlusion of inflow vessels to targeted portions of the liver. Lumagel was delivered using angiographic techniques to sites determined by pre-operative 3-D vascular reconstructions of arterial and venous branches. During resection, the targeted liver mass was resected without vascular clamping. Three survival swine were sacrificed at 3 weeks; the remainder at 6 weeks for pathological studies. Results Six animals (100%) survived, with normal growth, blood tests and no adverse events. Three left lateral lobe resections encountered no bleeding during resection; one right median resection bled; two control animals bled significantly. Pre-terminal angiography and autopsy showed no local pathology and no remote organ damage. Conclusions Targeted flow interruption to the left lateral lobe of the swine liver is feasible and allows resection without bleeding, toxicity or pathological sequelae. Targeting the remaining liver will require more elaborate plug deposition owing to the extensive collateral venous network. PMID:22221572

Pomposelli, James J; Akoad, Mohamed; Flacke, Sebastian; Benn, James J; Solano, Mauricio; Kalra, Aarti; Madras, Peter N

2012-01-01

350

Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coating During Interrupted High-Heat Flux Laser Testing Using Upconversion Luminescence Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upconversion luminescence imaging of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has been shown to successfully monitor TBC delamination progression during interrupted furnace cycling. However, furnace cycling does not adequately model engine conditions where TBC-coated components are subjected to significant heat fluxes that produce through-thickness temperature gradients that may alter both the rate and path of delamination progression. Therefore, new measurements are presented based on luminescence imaging of TBC-coated specimens subjected to interrupted high-heat-flux laser cycling exposures that much better simulate the thermal gradients present in engine conditions. The TBCs tested were deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and were composed of 7wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) with an integrated delamination sensing layer composed of 7YSZ co-doped with erbium and ytterbium (7YSZ:Er,Yb). The high-heat-flux exposures that produce the desired through-thickness thermal gradients were performed using a high power CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 10.6 microns. Upconversion luminescence images revealed the debond progression produced by the cyclic high-heat-flux exposures and these results were compared to that observed for furnace cycling.

Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

2011-01-01

351

Partial Interruption of Axonal Transport Due to Microtubule Breakage Accounts for the Formation of Periodic Varicosities after Traumatic Axonal Injury  

PubMed Central

Due to their viscoelastic nature, white matter axons are susceptible to damage by high strain rates produced during traumatic brain injury (TBI). Indeed, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is one of the most common features of TBI, characterized by the hallmark pathological profiles of axonal bulbs at disconnected terminal ends of axons and periodic swellings along axons, known as “varicosities.” Although transport interruption underlies axonal bulb formation, it is unclear how varicosities arise, with multiple sites accumulating transported materials along one axon. Recently, axonal microtubules have been found to physically break during dynamic stretch-injury of cortical axons in vitro. Here, the same in vitro model was used in parallel with histopathological analyses of human brains acquired acutely following TBI to examine the potential role of mechanical microtubule damage in varicosity formation post-trauma. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) following in vitro stretch-injury revealed periodic breaks of individual microtubules along axons that regionally corresponded with undulations in axon morphology. However, typically less than a third of microtubules were broken in any region of an axon. Within hours, these sites of microtubule breaks evolved into periodic swellings. This suggests axonal transport may be halted along one broken microtubule, yet can proceed through the same region via other intact microtubules. Similar axonal undulations and varicosities were observed following TBI in humans, suggesting primary microtubule failure may also be a feature of DAI. These data indicate a novel mechanism of mechanical microtubule damage leading to partial transport interruption and varicosity formation in traumatic axonal injury. PMID:22079153

Tang-Schomer, Min D.; Johnson, Victoria E.; Baas, Peter W.; Stewart, William; Smith, Douglas H.

2012-01-01

352

Locally Advanced Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Impact of Pre-Radiotherapy Hemoglobin Level and Interruptions During Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Stage IV head and neck cancer patients carry a poor prognosis. Clear understanding of prognostic factors can help to optimize care for the individual patient. This study investigated 11 potential prognostic factors including pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level and interruptions during radiotherapy for overall survival (OS), metastases-free survival (MFS), and locoregional control (LC) after radiochemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven factors were investigated in 153 patients receiving radiochemotherapy for Stage IV squamous cell head and neck cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor site, grading, T stage, N stage, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, surgery, chemotherapy type, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved OS was associated with KPS 90-100 (relative risk [RR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.93; p = .012), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.01-3.53; p = .048), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.15-5.78; p = .021). Improved LC was significantly associated with lower T stage (RR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.16-4.63; p = .013), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.92-9.09; p < .001), surgery (RR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.28-5.88; p = .008), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.26-8.79; p = .015). Improved MFS was associated with KPS 90-100 (RR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.46-8.85; p = .012). Conclusions: Significant predictors for outcome in Stage IV head and neck cancer were performance status, stage, surgery, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. It appears important to avoid anemia and radiotherapy interruptions to achieve the best treatment results.

Rades, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net; Stoehr, Monika [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Kazic, Nadja [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Sarajevo, Sarajevo(Bosnia and Herzegowina); Hakim, Samer G. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Walz, Annette [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Dunst, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany)

2008-03-15

353

Interruption of poliovirus transmission in Ghana: molecular epidemiology of wild-type 1 poliovirus isolated from 1995 to 2008.  

PubMed

Described in detail is the molecular epidemiology of wild-type 1 poliovirus circulation in Ghana between 1995-2008, following the implementation of a surveillance system for cases of acute flaccid paralysis and poliovirus infection. Molecular phylogenetic analysis combined with a detailed evaluation of epidemiological indicators revealed that the geographical and temporal circulation of wild-type poliovirus in Ghana was determined by the quality of the implementation of global eradication strategies. The transmission of "indigenous" wild-type 1 poliovirus was eliminated in 1999. However, a drastic reduction in national immunization campaigns resulted in the importation in 2003 and 2008 of wild-type 1 poliovirus from neighboring countries. Both outbreaks were promptly interrupted following resumption of immunization activities. The results detailed here provide scientific evidence that supports the feasibility of polio eradication in Central West Africa, one of the remaining endemic areas for the disease, provided that comprehensive immunization campaigns and sensitive surveillance systems are in place. PMID:22829642

Odoom, John Kofi; Forrest, Lindsay; Dunn, Glynis; Osei-Kwasi, Mubarak; Obodai, Evangeline; Arthur-Quarm, Jacob; Barnor, Jacob; Minor, Philip D; Martin, Javier

2012-10-01

354

Fatty acids. VII. Gas-liquid chromatographic properties of all dimethylene interrupted methyl trans,trans-octadecadienoates.  

PubMed

All the dimethylene interrupted trans,trans-octadecadienoic acids were synthesised by lithium metal-ammonia reduction of the corresponding octadecadiynoic acids, except for the detla2t,6t isomer, which was obtained by the isomerisation of the delta2c,6c isomer. The gas-liquid chromatographic behaviour of the methyl esters was studied on polar [Carbowax 20M, FFAP, DEGA, DEGS, Silar 10C (recently renamed as Apolar 10) and SP 2330], semi-polar (XE-60), and non-polar (SE-30, OV101 and Apiezon L) stationary phases. The equivalent chain length of each isomer is recorded (including the delta2t,6c isomer) and the possibility of separation of these isomers is discussed. PMID:932147

Lam, C H; Lie Ken Jie, M S

1976-06-23

355

Correlates of unstructured antiretroviral treatment interruption in a cohort of HIV-positive individuals in British Columbia.  

PubMed

Treatment interruptions (TIs) limit the therapeutic success of combination antiretroviral therapy and are associated with higher morbidity and mortality. HIV-positive individuals dealing with concurrent health issues, access challenges and competing life demands are hypothesized to be more likely to interrupt treatment. Individuals were included if they initiated cART ?1 year prior to interview date and had a CD4 cell count and initial regimen recorded at initiation. Using pharmacy recording, a TI was defined as a patient-initiated gap in treatment ?90 consecutive days during the 12 months preceding or following the study interview. 117 (15.2 %) of 768 participants included in this study had a TI during the study window. 76.0 % of participants were male, 27.5 % were of Aboriginal ancestry and the median age was 46 (interquartile range 40-52). In multivariable logistic regression, TIs were significantly associated with current illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.68, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.68); <95 % adherence in the first year of treatment (aOR 2.68, 95 % CI 1.67-4.12); living with at least one person (aOR 1.95; 95 % CI 1.22-3.14) or living on the street (aOR 5.08, 95 % CI 1.72-14.99) compared to living alone; poor perception of overall health (aOR 1.64 95 % CI 1.05-2.55); being unemployed (aOR: 2.22, 95 % CI 1.16-4.23); and younger age at interview (aOR 0.57, 95 % CI 0.44-0.75, per 10 year increase). Addressing socioeconomic barriers to treatment retention is vital for supporting the continuous engagement of patients in care. PMID:24781638

Samji, Hasina; Chen, Yalin; Salters, Kate; Montaner, Julio S G; Hogg, Robert S

2014-11-01

356

Internet-based remote counseling to support stress management: preventing interruptions to regular exercise in elderly people  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our research showed that a high degree of life-stress has a negative mental health effect that may interrupt regular exercise. We used an internet based, remotely conducted, face to face, preventive counseling program using video monitors to reduce the source of life-stresses that interrupts regular exercise and evaluated the preventative effects of the program in elderly people. NTSC Video signals were converted to the IP protocol and facial images were transmitted to a PC display using the exclusive optical network lines of JGN2. Participants were 22 elderly people in Hokkaido, Japan, who regularly played table tennis. A survey was conducted before the intervention in August 2003. IT remote counseling was conducted on two occasions for one hour on each occasion. A post intervention survey was conducted in February 2004 and a follow-up survey was conducted in March 2005. Network quality was satisfactory with little data loss and high display quality. Results indicated that self-esteem increased significantly, trait anxiety decreased significantly, cognition of emotional support by people other than family members had a tendency to increase, and source of stress had a tendency to decrease after the intervention. Follow-up results indicated that cognition of emotional support by family increased significantly, and interpersonal dependency decreased significantly compared to before the intervention. These results suggest that face to face IT remote counseling using video monitors is useful to keep elderly people from feeling anxious and to make them confident to continue exercising regularly. Moreover, it has a stress management effect.

Hashimoto, Sayuri; Munakata, Tsunestugu; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Okunaka, Jyunzo; Koga, Tatsuzo

2006-01-01

357

Interruption of the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles to ethanol-baited traps and ethanol-injected trap trees by Verbenone  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We examined the ability of verbenone, a bark beetle anti-aggregation pheromone, to interrupt the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles. Field trapping studies conducted in Ohio showed that a verbenone dispenser with a release rate of 50 mg / d at 25 oC reduced the attraction of Anisandr...

358

This number is still far more than I actually implemented. I reduced the number of transitions needed using several techniques. Interrupt  

E-print Network

needed using several techniques. Interrupt transitions do `double duty' by taking care of the transitions201 This number is still far more than I actually implemented. I reduced the number of transitions both into and out of a behavior. I cut out many transitions by writing several generic transitions

359

The effect of high temperature interruptions during inductive period on the extent of flowering and on metabolic responses in olives (Olea europaea L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of the duration of high temperature interruption and the timing of it’s occurrence during inductive period on the extent of inhibition of inflorescence production in ‘Arbequina’ olive trees was investigated. Trees kept under inductive conditions in different growth chambers were subjected...

360

[Diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ with interruption of the anterior border of the mammary gland by ultrasonography-a case report].  

PubMed

We report a case of ductal carcinoma in situ( DCIS) with interruption of the anterior border of the mammary gland by ultrasonography. The patient was a 41-year-old woman. The patient was identified by a focal asymmetric density on her left breast by screening mammography. Ultrasonography showed an ill-defined low echoic mass, 25 mm in diameter, in the A area of her left breast. The tumor had features consistent with the interruption of the anterior border of the mammary gland. Therefore, she was diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. We performed a modified radical mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy. A resected specimen led to a diagnosis of DCIS positive for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, and negative for HER2/neu protein expression. After surgery, she was administered tamoxifen. One year and 6 months after the operation, she is well without metastases. Ultrasonography is generally useful to differentiate between a DCIS lesion or an invasive ductal carcinoma lesion. However, in this case, we could not diagnose the tumor as DCIS by ultrasonography because the tumor was interrupted by the anterior border of the mammary gland. This case suggests that we should be cautious when diagnosing low echoic tumors with interruption of the anterior border of the mammary gland by ultrasonography. PMID:24394112

Sakurai, Kenichi; Fujisaki, Shigeru; Maeda, Tetsuyo; Nagashima, Saki; Hara, Yukiko; Tomita, Ryouichi; Suzuki, Shuhei; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao

2013-11-01

361

An Interrupted Time Series Analysis of the State College Nuisance Property Ordinance and an Assessment of Rental Property Managers as Place Manager/Intimate Handler of Offender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research involves a legal impact study of the State College Nuisance Property Ordinance and an assessment of State College Rental Property Managers in the role of place manager/intimate handler of offender. The impact of the Ordinance was assessed by employing an interrupted time series design which examined five years of pre-ordinance…

Koehle, Gregory M.

2011-01-01

362

Peek-a-What? Infants' Response to the Still-Face Task after Normal and Interrupted Peek-a-Boo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants' sensitivity to the vitality or tension envelope within dyadic social exchanges was investigated by examining their responses following normal and interrupted games of peek-a-boo embedded in a Still-Face Task. Infants 5-6 months old engaged in two modified Still-Face Tasks with their mothers. In one task, the initial interaction ended…

Bigelow, Ann E.; Best, Caitlin

2013-01-01

363

Influence of apheresis container size on the maintenance of platelet in vitro storage properties after a 30-h interruption of agitation.  

PubMed

We have previously conducted studies investigating maintenance of apheresis platelet in vitro quality measures during storage under simulated shipping conditions in which agitation was interrupted. This study examines the effect of increasing bag surface area on the preservation of in vitro platelet properties during storage with continuous agitation and with a 30 h interruption of agitation. Apheresis platelets were collected in 100% plasma with the Amicus separator to provide two identical platelet products, each with approximately 4-5 x 10(11) platelets. After collection, the volume was divided equally between 1.0 and 1.3 L PL2410 containers. In an initial study, both products were continuously agitated. In a second study, both products were subjected to a single 30-h period of interrupted agitation between Days 2 and 3 of storage by placement in a standard shipping box at room temperature. In each study, units were assayed during storage for standard in vitro platelet quality measures. Platelets stored in the 1.3 L container maintained slightly greater mean pH during 7 day storage with either continuous agitation (n=6) or with a 30-h interruption of agitation (n=12) than those of similarly treated identical platelets stored in the 1.0 L container. Most noteworthy, in experiments with products stored in the 1.0 L container in which there was a large decrease in pH to levels <6.7 or <6.3 on days 5 or 7, respectively, the pH in the matched product stored in the 1.3 L container was substantially greater (0.17+/-06 and 0.37+/-0.09 pH units greater, n=4, respectively). Other measures showed either small differences or comparability of platelet in vitro parameters with storage in the two containers after an interruption of agitation. PMID:20554476

Wagner, Stephen J; Skripchenko, Andrey; Seetharaman, Shalini; Myrup, Andrew; Kurtz, James; Thomas-Montgomery, Dedeene; Awatefe, Helen; Moroff, Gary

2010-08-01

364

The effect of interrupting prolonged sitting time with short, hourly, moderate-intensity cycling bouts on cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy, young adults.  

PubMed

Although detrimental associations of sitting time and health indicators have been observed in young adults, evidence of pathophysiological mechanisms is lacking. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that the acute cardiometabolic effects of prolonged sitting can be compensated by hourly interruptions to sitting in healthy, young adults. Additionally, leg muscle activation during sitting and moderate-intensity physical activity interruptions was assessed. Eleven apparently healthy adults (18-24 yr; five men/six women) participated in this randomized, crossover study, involving two experimental conditions: 1) 8 h prolonged sitting and 2) 8 h of sitting, interrupted with hourly, 8-min, moderate-intensity cycling exercise bouts. In both conditions, participants consumed two standardized, high-fat mixed meals after 1 and 5 h. Capillary blood samples were collected hourly during each 8-h experimental condition. Muscle activity was measured using electromyography. Muscle activity during cycling was seven to eight times higher compared with rest. Postprandial levels of C-peptide were significantly lower (unstandardized regression coefficient = -0.19; confidence interval = [-0.35; -0.03]; P = 0.017) during interrupted sitting compared with prolonged sitting. Postprandial levels of other cardiometabolic biomarkers (e.g., glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol) were not significantly different between conditions. Hourly physical activity interruptions in sitting time, requiring a muscle activity of seven to eight times the resting value, led to an attenuation of postprandial C-peptide levels but not for other cardiometabolic biomarkers compared with prolonged sitting in healthy, young adults. Whether this acute effect transfers to chronic effects over time is unknown. PMID:24136111

Altenburg, Teatske M; Rotteveel, Joost; Dunstan, David W; Salmon, Jo; Chinapaw, Mai J M

2013-12-01

365

Impact of STROBE Statement Publication on Quality of Observational Study Reporting: Interrupted Time Series versus Before-After Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background In uncontrolled before-after studies, CONSORT was shown to improve the reporting of randomised trials. Before-after studies ignore underlying secular trends and may overestimate the impact of interventions. Our aim was to assess the impact of the 2007 STROBE statement publication on the quality of observational study reporting, using both uncontrolled before-after analyses and interrupted time series. Methods For this quasi-experimental study, original articles reporting cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies published between 2004 and 2010 in the four dermatological journals having the highest 5-year impact factors (?4) were selected. We compared the proportions of STROBE items (STROBE score) adequately reported in each article during three periods, two pre STROBE period (2004–2005 and 2006–2007) and one post STROBE period (2008–2010). Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series was also performed. Results Of the 456 included articles, 187 (41%) reported cohort studies, 166 (36.4%) cross-sectional studies, and 103 (22.6%) case-control studies. The median STROBE score was 57% (range, 18%–98%). Before-after analysis evidenced significant STROBE score increases between the two pre-STROBE periods and between the earliest pre-STROBE period and the post-STROBE period (median score2004–05 48% versus median score2008–10 58%, p<0.001) but not between the immediate pre-STROBE period and the post-STROBE period (median score2006–07 58% versus median score2008–10 58%, p?=?0.42). In the pre STROBE period, the six-monthly mean STROBE score increased significantly, by 1.19% per six-month period (absolute increase 95%CI, 0.26% to 2.11%, p?=?0.016). By segmented analysis, no significant changes in STROBE score trends occurred (?0.40%; 95%CI, ?2.20 to 1.41; p?=?0.64) in the post STROBE statement publication. Interpretation The quality of reports increased over time but was not affected by STROBE. Our findings raise concerns about the relevance of uncontrolled before-after analysis for estimating the impact of guidelines. PMID:23990867

Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Sbidian, Emilie; Gaudy-Marqueste, Caroline; Ferrat, Emilie; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Richard, Marie-Aleth; Canoui-Poitrine, Florence

2013-01-01

366

Peri-procedural interrupted oral anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation ablation: comparison of aspirin, warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban  

PubMed Central

Aims Atrial fibrillation ablation requires peri-procedural oral anticoagulation (OAC) to prevent thromboembolic events. There are several options for OAC. We evaluate peri-procedural AF ablation complications using a variety of peri-procedural OACs. Methods and results We examined peri-procedural OAC and groin, bleeding, and thromboembolic complications for 2334 consecutive AF ablations using open irrigated-tip radiofrequency (RF) catheters. Pre-ablation OAC was warfarin in 1113 (47.7%), dabigatran 426 (18.3%), rivaroxaban 187 (8.0%), aspirin 472 (20.2%), and none 136 (5.8%). Oral anticoagulation was always interrupted and intraprocedural anticoagulation was unfractionated heparin (activated clotting time, ACT = 237 ± 26 s). Pre- and post-OAC drugs were the same for 1591 (68.2%) and were different for 743 (31.8%). Following ablation, 693 (29.7%) were treated with dabigatran and 291 (12.5%) were treated with rivaroxaban. There were no problems changing from one OAC pre-ablation to another post-ablation. Complications included 12 (0.51%) pericardial tamponades [no differences for dabigatran (P = 0.457) or rivaroxaban (P = 0.163) compared with warfarin], 12 (0.51%) groin complications [no differences for rivaroxaban (P = 0.709) and fewer for dabigatran (P = 0.041) compared with warfarin]. Only 5 of 2334 (0.21%) required blood transfusions. There were two strokes (0.086%) and no transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) in the first 48 h post-ablation. Three additional strokes (0.13%), and two TIAs (0.086%) occurred from 48 h to 30 days. Only one stroke had a residual deficit. Compared with warfarin, the neurologic event rate was not different for dabigatran (P = 0.684) or rivaroxaban (P = 0.612). Conclusion Using interrupted OAC, low target intraprocedural ACT, and irrigated-tip RF, the rate of peri-procedural groin, haemorrhagic, and thromboembolic complications was extremely low. There were only minimal differences between OACs. Low-risk patients may remain on aspirin/no OAC pre-ablation. There are no problems changing from one OAC pre-ablation to another post-ablation. PMID:25115168

Winkle, Roger A.; Mead, R. Hardwin; Engel, Gregory; Kong, Melissa H.; Patrawala, Rob A.

2014-01-01

367

An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Durkheim's Social Deregulation Thesis: The Case of the Russian Federation  

PubMed Central

The dissolution of the Soviet Union resulted in sudden, widespread, and fundamental changes to Russian society. The former social welfare system-with its broad guarantees of employment, healthcare, education, and other forms of social support-was dismantled in the shift toward democracy, rule of law, and a free-market economy. This unique natural experiment provides a rare opportunity to examine the potentially disintegrative effects of rapid social change on deviance, and thus to evaluate one of Durkheim's core tenets. We took advantage of this opportunity by performing interrupted time-series analyses of annual age-adjusted homicide, suicide, and alcohol-related mortality rates for the Russian Federation using data from 1956 to 2002, with 1992-2002 as the postintervention time-frame. The ARIMA models indicate that, controlling for the long-term processes that generated these three time series, the breakup of the Soviet Union was associated with an appreciable increase in each of the cause-of-death rates. We interpret these findings as being consistent with the Durkheimian hypothesis that rapid social change disrupts social order, thereby increasing the level of crime and deviance. PMID:20165565

Pridemore, William Alex; Chamlin, Mitchell B.; Cochran, John K.

2009-01-01

368

Fifteen Years of Annual Mass Treatment of Onchocerciasis with Ivermectin Have Not Interrupted Transmission in the West Region of Cameroon  

PubMed Central

We followed up the 1996 baseline parasitological and entomological studies on onchocerciasis transmission in eleven health districts in West Region, Cameroon. Annual mass ivermectin treatment had been provided for 15 years. Follow-up assessments which took place in 2005, 2006, and 2011 consisted of skin snips for microfilariae (mf) and palpation examinations for nodules. Follow-up Simulium vector dissections for larval infection rates were done from 2011 to 2012. mf prevalence in adults dropped from 68.7% to 11.4%, and nodule prevalence dropped from 65.9% to 12.1%. The decrease of mf prevalence in children from 29.2% to 8.9% was evidence that transmission was still continuing. mf rates in the follow-up assessments among adults and in children levelled out after a sharp reduction from baseline levels. Only three health districts out of 11 were close to interruption of transmission. Evidence of continuing transmission was also observed in two out of three fly collection sites that had infective rates of 0.19% and 0.18% and ATP of 70 (Foumbot) and 300 (Massangam), respectively. Therefore, halting of annual mass treatment with ivermectin cannot be done after 15 years as it might escalate the risk of transmission recrudescence. PMID:23691275

Katabarwa, Moses N.; Eyamba, Albert; Nwane, Philippe; Enyong, Peter; Kamgno, Joseph; Kueté, Thomas; Yaya, Souleymanou; Aboutou, Rosalie; Mukenge, Léonard; Kafando, Claude; Siaka, Coulibaly; Mkpouwoueiko, Salifou; Ngangue, Demanga; Biholong, Benjamin Didier; Andze, Gervais Ondobo

2013-01-01

369

Electrical Impedance Tomography for assessing Ventilation/Perfusion mismatch for Pulmonary Embolism detection without interruptions in respiration.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown high correlation between pulmonary perfusion mapping with impedance contrast enhanced Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) and standard perfusion imaging methods such as Computed Tomography (CT) and Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT). EIT has many advantages over standard imaging methods as it is highly portable and non-invasive. Contrast enhanced EIT uses hypertonic saline bolus instead of nephrotoxic contrast medium that are utilized by CT and nuclear Ventilation/Perfusion (V/Q) scans. However, current implementation of contrast enhanced EIT requires induction of an apnea period for perfusion measurement, rendering it disadvantageous compared with current gold standard imaging modalities. In the present paper, we propose the use of a wavelet denoising algorithm to separate perfusion signal from ventilation signal such that no interruption in patient's ventilation would be required. Furthermore, right lung to left lung perfusion ratio and ventilation ratio are proposed to assess the mismatch between ventilation and perfusion for detection of Pulmonary Embolism (PE). The proposed methodology was validated on an ovine model (n=3, 83.7±7.7 kg) with artificially induced PE in the right lung. The results showed a difference in right lung to left lung perfusion ratio between baseline and diseased states in all cases with all paired t-tests between baseline and PE yielding p <; 0.01, while the right lung to left lung ventilation ratio remained unchanged in two out of three experiments. Statistics were pooled from multiple repetitions of measurements per experiment. PMID:25571381

Doan Trang Nguyen; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Bhaskaran, Abhishek; Barry, Michael A; Pouliopoulos, Jim; Jin, Craig; McEwan, Alistair L

2014-08-01

370

The Effects of Finish Rolling Temperature and Cooling Interrupt Conditions on Precipitation in Microalloyed Steels Using Small Angle Neutron Scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to quantify the precipitate characteristics ( i.e., mean precipitate size, number of precipitates, and distribution broadening) in X-70 and X-80 pipeline steel and in grades 80 and 100 microalloyed steel plate. The precipitate distributions measured for the different steels were correlated with the finish rolling temperature (FRT) and cooling interrupt temperature (CT) as a means of identifying processing conditions that may enhance fine precipitate evolution. It was observed that for some combinations of processing conditions two distinct precipitation events—based on size of the precipitates—were occurring. The first precipitation event (larger size) was strongly associated with the FRT, where a decrease in the mean precipitate radius with decreasing FRT was observed. The second (finer size) precipitation event was affected by both the CT and the FRT. Both the size and volume of the second precipitation event was observed to decrease with decreasing CT. The precipitate distribution predicted from the SANS data for grade 100 steel compared favorably to precipitation data obtained from particle counting analysis conducted with a transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Wiskel, J. B.; Ivey, D. G.; Henein, H.

2008-02-01

371

Novel X-linked glomerulopathy associated with a COL4A5 missense mutation in a noncollagenous interruption  

PubMed Central

We report a novel COL4A5 mutation causing rapid progression to end stage renal disease in males despite the absence of clinical and biopsy findings associated with Alport syndrome. Affected males had proteinuria, variable hematuria, early progression to end stage renal disease; and renal biopsy findings which included global and segmental glomerulosclerosis, mesangial hypercellularity and basement membrane immune complex deposition. Exon sequencing of the COL4A5 locus identified a thymine to guanine transversion at nucleotide 665, resulting in a phenylalanine to cysteine missense mutation at codon 222. This mutation was confirmed in 4 affected males and 4 female obligate carriers, but was absent in 6 asymptomatic male family members and 198 unrelated individuals. ?5(IV) collagen staining in renal biopsies from affected males was normal. The phenylalanine at position 222 is 100% conserved among vertebrates. This is the first description of a mutation in a non-collagenous interruption associated with severe renal disease, providing evidence for the importance of this structural motif. The range of phenotypes associated with COL4A5 mutations is more diverse than previously realized. COL4A5 mutation analysis should be considered when glomerulonephritis presents in an X-linked inheritance pattern, even with a distinct presentation from Alport syndrome. PMID:20881942

Becknell, Brian; Zender, Gloria; Houston, Ronald; Baker, Peter; McBride, Kim L.; Luo, Wentian; Hains, David; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Schwaderer, Andrew L.

2011-01-01

372

Formation of a 40 A DC Current Arc During the Opening of Silver Contacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The erosion of silver contacts due to break arcs with length proportional to time and of variable duration has been measured by weighing the contacts following 5000 openings at a constant current equal to 40 A. The experimental results show that, for arc durations shorter than 60 ?s, the transfer of metal from the anode to the cathode occurs, but after passing this stage, when the two electrodes are separated by greater distances, each will display erosion. This is the result of the diffusion of material outside the space between the two electrodes. In order to interpret these results, we have applied a classical model of the physical phenomena occurring at the root of the arc. Analysis of the experimental results shows that for an arc duration of less than 15 ?s, no distinct cathode root is seen to exist, but beyond this, several spots appear gradually on the cathode for arc duration up to 50 ?s, after which they merge into a single spot. The comparison between experiment results and theoretical interpretation is reasonable up to 60 ?s.

M'hammed, Abbaoui; André, Lefort; Erwann, Carvou; Damien, Sallais; James, Brian Alexander Mitchell; Noureddine Ben, Jemaa

2014-05-01

373

Parametric excitation of dc current in a single-dot shuttle system via spontaneous symmetry breaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate theoretically the dynamics of a spatially symmetric shuttle system subjected to an ac gate voltage. We demonstrate that in such a system parametric excitation gives rise to mechanical vibrations when the frequency of the ac signal is close to the eigenfrequency of the mechanical subsystem. These mechanical oscillations result in a dc shuttle current in a certain direction due to spontaneous symmetry breaking. The direction of the current is determined by the phase shift between the ac gate voltage and the parametrically excited mechanical oscillations. The dependence of the shuttle current on the dc gate voltage is also analyzed.

Peña-Aza, Milton E.; Scorrano, Alessandro; Gorelik, Leonid Y.

2013-07-01

374

Individualized Computer-Based Surgical Planning Addressing Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations in Single-Ventricle Patients with Interrupted Inferior Vena Cava and Azygous Continuation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Single-ventricle patients with interrupted inferior vena cava (IVC) can develop pulmonary arterio-venous malformations due to abnormal hepatic flow distribution (HFD). However, preoperatively determining the hepatic baffle design that optimizes HFD is far from trivial. In this study, we combine virtual surgery and numerical simulations to identify potential surgical strategies for patients with interrupted IVC. METHODS Five patients with interrupted IVC and severe PAVMs were enrolled. Their in vivo anatomies were reconstructed from MRI (n=4) and CT (n=1), and alternate virtual-surgery options (intra/extra-cardiac, Y-grafts, hepato-to-azygous and azygous-to-hepatic shunts) were generated for each. HFD was assessed for all options using a fully validated computational flow solver. RESULTS For patients with a single superior vena cava (SVC, n=3), intra/extra-cardiac connections proved dangerous, as even a small left or right offset led to a highly preferential HFD to the associated lung. Best results were obtained with either a Y-graft spanning the Kawashima to split the flow, or hepato-to-azygous shunts to promote mixing. For patients with bilateral SVCs (n=2), results depended on the balance between the left and right superior inflows. When those were equal, connecting the hepatic baffle between the SVCs performed well, but other options should be pursued otherwise. CONCLUSION This study demonstrates how virtual-surgery environments can benefit the clinical community, especially for rare and complex cases such as single-ventricle patients with interrupted IVC. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the optimal baffle design to the superior inflows underscores the need to characterize both pre-operative anatomy and flows to identify the best suited option. PMID:21334010

de Zélicourt, Diane A.; Haggerty, Christopher M.; Sundareswaran, Kartik S.; Whited, Brian S.; Rossignac, Jarek R.; Kanter, Kirk R.; Gaynor, J. William; Spray, Thomas L.; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Fogel, Mark A.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

2010-01-01

375

Identifying Autocorrelation Generated by Various Error Processes in Interrupted Time-Series Regression Designs: A Comparison of AR1 and Portmanteau Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regression models used in the analysis of interrupted time-series designs assume statistically independent errors. Four methods of evaluating this assumption are the Durbin-Watson (D-W), Huitema-McKean (H-M), Box-Pierce (B-P), and Ljung-Box (L-B) tests. These tests were compared with respect to Type I error and power under a wide variety of error…

Huitema, Bradley E.; McKean, Joseph W.

2007-01-01

376

N-(guanidinoethyl)-2'-deoxy-5-methylisocytidine exhibits selective recognition of a CG interrupting site for the formation of anti-parallel triplexes.  

PubMed

The development of novel nucleoside analogues for the formation of triplex DNA containing pyrimidine-purine inversion sites has been a challenging field. In this paper, we describe the design and synthesis of non-natural nucleoside analogues, N-substituted-2'-deoxy-5-methylisocytidine derivatives, and their evaluation for triplex formation. It has been shown that N-(guanidinoethyl)-2'-deoxy-5-methylisocytidine exhibits selective recognition of a CG interrupting site and potentiates the formation of anti-parallel triplexes. PMID:23660599

Okamura, Hidenori; Taniguchi, Yosuke; Sasaki, Shigeki

2013-06-21

377

Electrochemistry of anodic fluorine gas evolution at carbon electrodes: Part II studies on the ‘CF’ film by the current-interruption, AC impedance, ESCA and auger techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘CF’ films that are formed on the surface of carbon anodes used for the fluorine evolution reaction (FER) in KF·2HF melts at 358 K have been studied by bothin situ electrochemical current-interruption and a.c. impedance methods, and byex situ surface spectroscopy [ESCA (XPS) and Auger] techniques. The surface analysis measurements indicate that a thin ‘CF’ (CF2) film, ~1.7 nm

L. Bai; B. E. Conway

1990-01-01

378

A 6-hour nocturnal interruption of a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion: 1. Metabolic and hormonal consequences and scheme for a prompt return to adequate control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Interruption of a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, most often due to technical problems occurring during the night, is a not uncommon event whose metabolic consequences have received relatively little attention until now. We have therefore investigated the changes in blood glucose, plasma non-esterified fatty acids, 3-hydroxybutyrate, glucagon and free insulin in eight C-peptide negative Type 1 diabetic patients whose pumps

G. Krzentowski; A. Scheen; M. Castillo; A. S. Luyckx; P. J. Lefèbvre

1983-01-01

379

Targeted deletion of PTEN in cardiomyocytes renders cardiac contractile dysfunction through interruption of Pink1-AMPK signaling and autophagy.  

PubMed

Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deleted from chromosome 10 has been implicated in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis although the underlying mechanism(s) remains elusive. We generated a murine model of cardiomyocyte-specific knockout of PTEN to evaluate cardiac geometry and contractile function, as well as the effect of metformin on PTEN deficiency-induced cardiac anomalies, if any. Cardiac histology, autophagy and related signaling molecules were evaluated. Cardiomyocyte-specific PTEN deletion elicited cardiac hypertrophy and contractile anomalies (echocardiographic and cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction) associated with compromised intracellular Ca(2+) handling. PTEN deletion-induced cardiac hypertrophy and contractile anomalies were associated with dampened phosphorylation of PTEN-inducible kinase 1 (Pink1) and AMPK. Interestingly, administration of AMPK activator metformin (200mg/kg/d, in drinking H2O for 4weeks) rescued against PTEN deletion-induced geometric and functional defects as well as interrupted autophagy and autophagic flux in the heart. Moreover, metformin administration partially although significantly attenuated PTEN deletion-induced accumulation of superoxide. RNA interference against Pink1 in H9C2 myoblasts overtly increased intracellular ATP levels and suppressed AMPK phosphorylation, confirming the role of AMPK as a downstream target for PTEN-Pink1. Further scrutiny revealed that activation of AMPK and autophagy using metformin and rapamycin, respectively, rescued against PTEN deletion-induced mechanical anomalies with little additive effect. These data demonstrated that cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of PTEN leads to the loss of Pink1-AMPK signaling, development of cardiac hypertrophy and contractile defect. Activation of AMPK rescued against PTEN deletion-induced cardiac anomalies associated with restoration of autophagy and autophagic flux. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Autophagy and protein quality control in cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:25229693

Roe, Nathan D; Xu, Xihui; Kandadi, Machender R; Hu, Nan; Pang, Jiaojiao; Weiser-Evans, Mary C M; Ren, Jun

2015-02-01

380

The impact of an electronic health record on nurse sensitive patient outcomes: an interrupted time series analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the impact of electronic health record (EHR) implementation on nursing care processes and outcomes. Design Interrupted time series analysis, 2003–2009. Setting A large US not-for-profit integrated health care organization. Participants 29 hospitals in Northern and Southern California. Intervention An integrated EHR including computerized physician order entry, nursing documentation, risk assessment tools, and documentation tools. Main outcome measures Percentage of patients with completed risk assessments for hospital acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) and falls (process measures) and rates of HAPU and falls (outcome measures). Results EHR implementation was significantly associated with an increase in documentation rates for HAPU risk (coefficient 2.21, 95% CI 0.67 to 3.75); the increase for fall risk was not statistically significant (0.36; ?3.58 to 4.30). EHR implementation was associated with a 13% decrease in HAPU rates (coefficient ?0.76, 95% CI ?1.37 to ?0.16) but no decrease in fall rates (?0.091; ?0.29 to 0.11). Irrespective of EHR implementation, HAPU rates decreased significantly over time (?0.16; ?0.20 to ?0.13), while fall rates did not (0.0052; ?0.01 to 0.02). Hospital region was a significant predictor of variation for both HAPU (0.72; 0.30 to 1.14) and fall rates (0.57; 0.41 to 0.72). Conclusions The introduction of an integrated EHR was associated with a reduction in the number of HAPUs but not in patient fall rates. Other factors, such as changes over time and hospital region, were also associated with variation in outcomes. The findings suggest that EHR impact on nursing care processes and outcomes is dependent on a number of factors that should be further explored. PMID:22174327

Turley, Marianne; Garrido, Terhilda

2011-01-01

381

Kinetics and activation energy of recrystallization of intracellular ice in mouse oocytes subjected to interrupted rapid cooling.  

PubMed

Intracellular ice formation (IIF) is almost invariably lethal. In most cases, it results from the too rapid cooling of cells to below -40 degrees C, but in some cases it is manifested, not during cooling, but during warming when cell water that vitrified during cooling first devitrifies and then recrystallizes during warming. Recently, Mazur et al. [P. Mazur, I.L. Pinn, F.W. Kleinhans, Intracellular ice formation in mouse oocytes subjected to interrupted rapid cooling, Cryobiology 55 (2007) 158-166] dealt with one such case in mouse oocytes. It involved rapidly cooling the oocytes to -25 degrees C, holding them 10 min, rapidly cooling them to -70 degrees C, and warming them slowly until thawed. No IIF occurred during cooling but intracellular freezing, as evidenced by blackening of the cells, became detectable at -56 degrees C during warming and was complete by -46 degrees C. The present study differs in that the oocytes were warmed rapidly from -70 degrees C to temperatures between -65 and -50 degrees C and held for 3-60 min. This permitted us to determine the rate of blackening as function of temperature. That in turn allowed us to calculate the activation energy (E(a)) for the blackening process; namely, 27.5 kcal/mol. This translates to about a quadrupling of the blackening rate for every 5 degrees C rise in temperature. These data then allowed us to compute the degree of blackening as a function of temperature for oocytes warmed at rates ranging from 10 to 10,000 degrees C/min. A 10-fold increase in warming rate increased the temperature at which a given degree of blackening occurred by 8 degrees C. These findings have significant implications both for cryobiology and cryo-electron microscopy. PMID:18359013

Seki, Shinsuke; Mazur, Peter

2008-06-01

382

Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coatings During Interrupted High-Heat-Flux Laser Testing using Luminescence Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation showed progress made in extending luminescence-base delamination monitoring to TBCs exposed to high heat fluxes, which is an environment that much better simulates actual turbine engine conditions. This was done by performing upconversion luminescence imaging during interruptions in laser testing, where a high-power CO2 laser was employed to create the desired heat flux. Upconverison luminescence refers to luminescence where the emission is at a higher energy (shorter wavelength) than the excitation. Since there will be negligible background emission at higher energies than the excitation, this methods produces superb contrast. Delamination contrast is produced because both the excitation and emission wavelengths are reflected at delamination cracks so that substantially higher luminescence intensity is observed in regions containing delamination cracks. Erbium was selected as the dopant for luminescence specifically because it exhibits upconversion luminescence. The high power CO2 10.6 micron wavelength laser facility at NASA GRC was used to produce the heat flux in combination with forced air backside cooling. Testing was performed at a lower (95 W/sq cm) and higher (125 W/sq cm) heat flux as well as furnace cycling at 1163C for comparison. The lower heat flux showed the same general behavior as furnace cycling, a gradual, "spotty" increase in luminescence associated with debond progression; however, a significant difference was a pronounced incubation period followed by acceleration delamination progression. These results indicate that extrapolating behavior from furnace cycling measurements will grossly overestimate remaining life under high heat flux conditions. The higher heat flux results were not only accelerated, but much different in character. Extreme bond coat rumpling occurred, and delamination propagation extended over much larger areas before precipitating macroscopic TBC failure. This indicates that under the higher heat flux (and surface & interface temperatures), the TBC was more tolerant of damage. The main conclusions were that high heat flux conditions can not only accelerate TBC debond progression but can also grossly alter the pathway of delamination.

Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

2011-01-01

383

Interruption or deferral of antiretroviral therapy reduces markers of bone turnover compared with continuous therapy: The SMART body composition substudy.  

PubMed

Bone mineral density (BMD) declines significantly in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared the effects of intermittent versus continuous ART on markers of bone turnover in the Body Composition substudy of the Strategies for Management of AntiRetroviral Therapy (SMART) trial and determined whether early changes in markers predicted subsequent change in BMD. For 202 participants (median age 44 years, 17% female, 74% on ART) randomized to continuous or intermittent ART, plasma markers of inflammation and bone turnover were evaluated at baseline and months 4 and 12; BMD at the spine (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA] and computed tomography) and hip (DXA) was evaluated annually. Compared with the continuous ART group, mean bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP), osteocalcin, procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX), and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen (?CTX) decreased significantly in the intermittent ART group, whereas RANKL and the RANKL:osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio increased (all p ? 0.002 at month 4 and month 12). Increases in bALP, osteocalcin, P1NP, NTX, and ?CTX at month 4 predicted decrease in hip BMD at month 12, whereas increases in RANKL and the RANKL:OPG ratio at month 4 predicted increase in hip and spine BMD at month 12. This study has shown that compared with continuous ART, interruption of ART results in a reduction in markers of bone turnover and increase in BMD at hip and spine, and that early changes in markers of bone turnover predict BMD changes at 12 months. PMID:23299909

Hoy, Jennifer; Grund, Birgit; Roediger, Mollie; Ensrud, Kristine E; Brar, Indira; Colebunders, Robert; Castro, Nathalie De; Johnson, Margaret; Sharma, Anjali; Carr, Andrew

2013-06-01

384

Interrupted orthodontic force results in less root resorption than continuous force in human premolars as measured by microcomputed tomography.  

PubMed

Introduction. Root resorption is an undesirable but very frequently occurring sequel of orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to compare root resorption caused by either continuous (CF) or interrupted (IF) orthodontic force. Material and methods. The study was performed on human subjects on 30 first upper and lower premolars scheduled for extraction for orthodontic reasons. During four weeks before extraction 12 teeth were subjected to either CF or IF. The force was generated by a segmental titanium-molybdenum alloy cantilever spring that was activated in buccal direction. Initially a force of 60 CentiNewton was used in both CF and IF groups, the force in the former, however, was reactivated every week for 4 weeks. There was no reactivation of force in the IF group after initial application. A morphometric analysis of root resorption was performed by microcomputed tomography and the extent of tooth movement was measured on stone casts. Furthermore, a Tartarate-Resistant Acidic Phosphatase activity (TRAP), the marker enzyme of osteoclasts and cementoclasts, was determined by histochemical method. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the difference in measured parameters between treatment and control tooth groups. Results. The number of resorption craters was significantly higher and their average volume almost twice as large in the CF compared to the IF group (p < 0.05). However, the distance of tooth displacement was similar for both groups. Cementoclasts were detected with the TRAP technique on the surface of two teeth only; both were subjected to continuous force. Conclusions. The use of IF leads to less destruction of root structure as opposed to continuous force while the same tooth movement was achieved. PMID:25530465

Sawicka, Monika; Bedini, Rossella; Wierzbicki, Piotr M; Pameijer, Cornelis H

2014-01-01

385

Interruptions in Chat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research on text-based synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC), while generally acknowledging the potential benefits afforded by the medium's capacity for extensive self-repair, has done little in the way of exploration of the nature of such text. Indeed, until quite recently, output logs have been favored almost exclusively at the…

Smith, Bryan; Sauro, Shannon

2009-01-01

386

Data for improvement and clinical excellence: report of an interrupted time series trial of feedback in long-term care.  

PubMed

BackgroundThere is considerable evidence about the effectiveness of audit coupled with feedback for provider behavior change, although few feedback interventions have been conducted in long-term care settings. The primary purpose of the Data for Improvement and Clinical Excellence-Long-Term Care (DICE-LTC) project was to assess the effects of a feedback intervention delivered to all direct care providers on resident outcomes. Our objective in this report is to assess the effect of feedback reporting on rates of pain assessment, depression screening, and falls over time.MethodsThe intervention consisted of monthly feedback reports delivered to all direct care providers, facility and unit administrators, and support staff, delivered over 13 months in nine LTC units across four facilities. Data for feedback reports came from the Resident Assessment Instrument Minimum Data Set (RAI) version 2.0, a standardized instrument mandated in LTC facilities throughout Alberta. The primary evaluation used an interrupted time series design with a comparison group (units not included in the feedback intervention) and a comparison condition (pressure ulcers). We used segmented regression analysis to assess the effect of the feedback intervention.ResultsThe primary outcome of the study, falls, showed little change over the period of the intervention, except for a small increase in the rate of falls during the intervention period. The only outcome that improved during the intervention period was the proportion of residents with high pain scores, which decreased at the beginning of the intervention. The proportion of residents with high depression scores appeared to worsen during the intervention.ConclusionsMaintaining all nine units in the study for its 13-month duration was a positive outcome. The feedback reports, without any other intervention included, did not achieve the desired reduction in proportion of falls and elevated depression scores. The survey on intention to change pain assessment practice which was conducted shortly after most of the feedback distribution cycles may have acted as a co-intervention supporting a reduction in pain scores. The processing and delivery of feedback reports could be accomplished at relatively low cost because the data are mandated and could be added to other intervention approaches to support implementation of evidence-based practices. PMID:25384801

Sales, Anne E; Schalm, Corinne; Baylon, Melba; Fraser, Kimberly D

2014-11-11

387

Can malaria vector control accelerate the interruption of lymphatic filariasis transmission in Africa; capturing a window of opportunity?  

PubMed Central

Background The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) was launched in 2000, and nearly all endemic countries in the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean and Asia-Pacific regions have now initiated the WHO recommended mass drug administration (MDA) campaign to interrupt transmission of the parasite. However, nearly 50% of the LF endemic countries in Africa are yet to implement the GPELF MDA strategy, which does not include vector control. Nevertheless, the recent scale up in insecticide treated /long lasting nets (ITNs/LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control in Africa may significantly impact LF transmission because the parasite is transmitted mainly by Anopheles mosquitoes. This study examined the magnitude, geographical extent and potential impact of vector control in the 17 African countries that are yet to or have only recently started MDA. Methods National data on mosquito bed nets, ITNs/LLINs and IRS were obtained from published literature, national reports, surveys and datasets from public sources such as Demographic Health Surveys, Malaria Indicator Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, Malaria Report, Roll Back Malaria and President’s Malaria Initiative websites. The type, number and distribution of interventions were summarised and mapped at sub-national level. and compared with known or potential LF distributions, and those which may be co-endemic with Loa loa and MDA is contraindicated. Results Analyses found that vector control activities had increased significantly since 2005, with a three-fold increase in ITN ownership and IRS coverage. However, coverage varied dramatically across the 17 countries; some regions reported >70% ITNs ownership and regular IRS activity, while others had no coverage in remote rural populations where the risk of LF was potentially high and co-endemic with high risk L.loa. Conclusions Despite many African countries being slow to initiate MDA for LF, the continued commitment and global financial support for NTDs, and the concurrent expansion of vector control activities for malaria, is promising. It is not beyond the capacity of GPELF to reach its target of global LF elimination by 2020, but monitoring and evaluating the impact of these activities over the next decade will be critical to its success. PMID:23433078

2013-01-01

388

The impact of economic austerity and prosperity events on suicide in Greece: a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To complete a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis of the impact of austerity-related and prosperity-related events on the occurrence of suicide across Greece. Setting Greece from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 2012. Participants A total of 11?505 suicides, 9079 by men and 2426 by women, occurring in Greece over the study period. Primary and secondary outcomes National data from the Hellenic Statistical Authority assembled as 360 monthly counts of: all suicides, male suicides, female suicides and all suicides plus potentially misclassified suicides. Results In 30?years, the highest months of suicide in Greece occurred in 2012. The passage of new austerity measures in June 2011 marked the beginning of significant, abrupt and sustained increases in total suicides (+35.7%, p<0.001) and male suicides (+18.5%, p<0.01). Sensitivity analyses that figured in undercounting of suicides also found a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in June 2011 (+20.5%, p<0.001). Suicides by men in Greece also underwent a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in October 2008 when the Greek recession began (+13.1%, p<0.01), and an abrupt but temporary increase in April 2012 following a public suicide committed in response to austerity conditions (+29.7%, p<0.05). Suicides by women in Greece also underwent an abrupt and sustained increase in May 2011 following austerity-related events (+35.8%, p<0.05). One prosperity-related event, the January 2002 launch of the Euro in Greece, marked an abrupt but temporary decrease in male suicides (?27.1%, p<0.05). Conclusions This is the first multidecade, national analysis of suicide in Greece using monthly data. Select austerity-related events in Greece corresponded to statistically significant increases for suicides overall, as well as for suicides among men and women. The consideration of future austerity measures should give greater weight to the unintended mental health consequences that may follow and the public messaging of these policies and related events. PMID:25643700

Branas, Charles C; Kastanaki, Anastasia E; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Tzougas, John; Kranioti, Elena F; Theodorakis, Pavlos N; Carr, Brendan G; Wiebe, Douglas J

2015-01-01

389

Curcumin eliminates the effect of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on the divergent regulation of gene expression of receptors of AGEs by interrupting leptin signaling  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a major risk factor for hepatic fibrogenesis. NASH is often found in diabetic patients with hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia induces non-enzymatic glycation of proteins, yielding advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Effects of AGEs are mainly mediated by two categories of cytoplasmic membrane receptors. Receptor for AGEs (RAGE) is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation, whereas AGE receptor-1 (AGE-R1) is involved in detoxification and clearance of AGEs. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) is crucial to the development of hepatic fibrosis. We recently reported that AGEs stimulated HSC activation likely by inhibiting gene expression of AGE-R1 and inducing gene expression of RAGE in HSC, which were eliminated by the antioxidant curcumin. This study is to test our hypothesis that curcumin eliminates the effects of AGEs on the divergent regulation of the two receptors of AGEs in HSC by interrupting the AGEs-caused activation of leptin signaling, leading to the inhibition of HSC activation. We observed herein that AGEs activated leptin signaling by inducing gene expression of leptin and its receptor in HSC. Like AGEs, leptin differentially regulated gene expression of RAGE and AGE-R1. Curcumin eliminated the effects of AGEs in HSC by interrupting leptin signaling and activating transcription factor Nrf2, leading to the elevation of cellular glutathione and the attenuation of oxidative stress. In conclusions, curcumin eliminated the effects of AGEs on the divergent regulation of gene expression of RAGE and AGE-R1 in HSC by interrupting the AGEs-caused activation of leptin signaling, leading to the inhibition of HSC activation. PMID:24614199

Tang, Youcai; Chen, Anping

2014-01-01

390

[No interrupted surgical defects of the white upper lip: repair by a combined advancement and rotation flap in the lip subunit].  

PubMed

A solid understanding of anatomy, basic surgical principles, and tissue movement is essential when undertaking the reconstruction of facial cutaneous surgical defects. Aesthetic facial reconstruction requires understanding ability to use the tissue adjacent to the defect to create a reconstruction that preserves the function of the area and the cosmetic facial units and subunits. The closure of non interrupted white upper lip defects by using a combined advancement and rotation flap is preferred for defects not overtaking 2.5 cm in diameter. PMID:25252575

Guillot, P

2013-01-01

391

Successful staged repair for a rare type of truncus arteriosus with interruption of the aortic arch and abnormal origin of the left coronary artery  

PubMed Central

We report a successful staged repair for a quite rare combination of truncus arteriosus (TA), Van Praagh type A4, and abnormal origin of the left coronary artery (CA). Furthermore, the case was complicated by a variant of the chromosomal anomaly in cat-cry syndrome. The presence of interruption of the aortic arch (IAA) and abnormal CA origin has been previously reported to increase mortality. To decrease the risk of bronchomalacia in infants, bilateral pulmonary artery banding (PAB) was performed as the first stage procedure for adjusting the pulmonary flow. Staged repair is a useful strategy for infants with complex TA. PMID:23714656

2013-01-01

392

Successful staged repair for a rare type of truncus arteriosus with interruption of the aortic arch and abnormal origin of the left coronary artery.  

PubMed

We report a successful staged repair for a quite rare combination of truncus arteriosus (TA), Van Praagh type A4, and abnormal origin of the left coronary artery (CA). Furthermore, the case was complicated by a variant of the chromosomal anomaly in cat-cry syndrome. The presence of interruption of the aortic arch (IAA) and abnormal CA origin has been previously reported to increase mortality. To decrease the risk of bronchomalacia in infants, bilateral pulmonary artery banding (PAB) was performed as the first stage procedure for adjusting the pulmonary flow. Staged repair is a useful strategy for infants with complex TA. PMID:23714656

Uchita, Shunji; Harada, Yorikazu; Honda, Kentaro; Toguchi, Koji; Nishimura, Yoshiharu; Suenaga, Tomohiro; Takeuchi, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Okamura, Yoshitaka

2013-01-01

393

Pulmonary artery rupture after bilateral pulmonary artery banding in a neonate with Loeys-Dietz syndrome and an interrupted aortic arch complex: report of a case.  

PubMed

Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a recognized connective tissue disorder characterized by progressive aortic aneurysm and dissection. Patients are at high risk of aortic dissection or rupture at an early age, but to our knowledge, surgery on the great arteries has never been attempted in the neonatal period. We report a case of LDS with dilated pulmonary arteries and an interrupted aortic arch complex in a neonate. We performed bilateral pulmonary artery banding, but 12 days after the procedure, the infant died of rupture of the distal portion of the banding sites following massive dilatation. PMID:24817126

Ozawa, Hideto; Kawata, Hiroaki; Iwai, Shigemitsu; Yamauchi, Sanae; Kanaya, Tomomitsu; Kishimoto, Hidefumi

2014-05-11

394

Spatially localized band-gap renormalization and band-filling effects in three growth-interrupted multiple asymmetric coupled narrow quantum wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time to our knowledge, we have observed a large excitonic linewidth broadening at low temperatures in three growth-interrupted asymmetric coupled GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As narrow quantum wells as the irradiance increases. We attribute this broadening to the decrease of the exciton binding energy that results from spatially localized band-gap renormalization. We also observed the stepwise saturation of the photoluminescence emission peaks as irradiance increases. We attribute this saturation to the result of spatially localized band filling. Based on time-resolved photoluminescence measurements, we have determined the nature of the recombination processes. We have also determined the exciton densities. In both undoped and modulation-doped samples, the small interface island area that results from growth interruption allows us to generate a large carrier density in the islands; both band-gap renormalization and band-filling effects become stronger even at low irradiances. When the temperature is higher than the transition temperature, the free-carrier recombination dominates the photoluminescence spectrum. The band-gap renormalization then results in a red shift of the photoluminescence emissions.

Cui, A. G.; Ding, Y. J.; Lee, S. J.; Veliadis, J. V. D.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Li, S.; Reynolds, D. C.; Grata, J.

1996-03-01

395

Identification of a previously unknown human collagen chain, alpha 1(XV), characterized by extensive interruptions in the triple-helical region.  

PubMed Central

A previously unknown collagen cDNA clone, PF19, was isolated from a human placenta library. The 2.1-kilobase insert has a complete open reading frame of 709 amino acids that includes 12 amino acids of the NH2-terminal domain, a principally collagenous region of 577 residues, and 120 residues of the noncollagenous COOH terminus. The collagenous part of the sequence encoded by PF19 is characterized by 13 interruptions ranging in size from 2 to 45 amino acids. Within four interruptions are consensus sequences for attachment of serine-linked glycosaminoglycans and asparagine-linked oligosaccharides suggesting that this collagen may be extensively glycosylated. A synthetic decapeptide representing a sequence at the beginning of the COOH-terminal noncollagenous domain was used to prepare an antibody in rabbits. This antiserum detected a 125-kDa bacterial collagenase-sensitive protein in Western blots of HeLa cell lysate. Consistent with the size of the collagen chain, Northern blot hybridization revealed a major transcript of 5.3 kilobases and two minor ones of 4.7 and 4.4 kilobases that are present in cultured human fibroblasts but absent from umbilical vein endothelial cells. We propose that the previously unidentified polypeptide described in this report be designated the alpha 1 chain of type XV collagen. Images PMID:1279671

Myers, J C; Kivirikko, S; Gordon, M K; Dion, A S; Pihlajaniemi, T

1992-01-01

396

Impact of material substitution in the analysis of interruptions in the supply of critical and strategic minerals from the Republic of South Africa  

SciTech Connect

Advice provided to government officials responsible for establishing U.S. foreign policy toward the Republic of South Africa must consider the economic welfare of this nation. This welfare is threatened by a loss of access to critical metals imported from South Africa if the economy is unable to adjust to shortages of raw materials without severe dislocations. One of the factors that influences the adjustment process is the operation of materials substitution. This study examines the microeconomic theory that explains the economic-adjustment process, with specific attention to the impact of material substitution. The literature concerning supply interruptions is reviewed to assess the degree to which it accounts properly for the influence of substitution. The study concludes that policy makers may rely on materials substitution operating through the free market to protect the United States from the adverse economic impacts of a supply interruption in the long run. Relatively inexpensive options are available to provide protection during the immediate- and short-run before substitution becomes effective.

McEliece, J.H.

1986-01-01

397

Identification of a previously unknown human collagen chain, alpha 1(XV), characterized by extensive interruptions in the triple-helical region.  

PubMed

A previously unknown collagen cDNA clone, PF19, was isolated from a human placenta library. The 2.1-kilobase insert has a complete open reading frame of 709 amino acids that includes 12 amino acids of the NH2-terminal domain, a principally collagenous region of 577 residues, and 120 residues of the noncollagenous COOH terminus. The collagenous part of the sequence encoded by PF19 is characterized by 13 interruptions ranging in size from 2 to 45 amino acids. Within four interruptions are consensus sequences for attachment of serine-linked glycosaminoglycans and asparagine-linked oligosaccharides suggesting that this collagen may be extensively glycosylated. A synthetic decapeptide representing a sequence at the beginning of the COOH-terminal noncollagenous domain was used to prepare an antibody in rabbits. This antiserum detected a 125-kDa bacterial collagenase-sensitive protein in Western blots of HeLa cell lysate. Consistent with the size of the collagen chain, Northern blot hybridization revealed a major transcript of 5.3 kilobases and two minor ones of 4.7 and 4.4 kilobases that are present in cultured human fibroblasts but absent from umbilical vein endothelial cells. We propose that the previously unidentified polypeptide described in this report be designated the alpha 1 chain of type XV collagen. PMID:1279671

Myers, J C; Kivirikko, S; Gordon, M K; Dion, A S; Pihlajaniemi, T

1992-11-01

398

A DC-81-indole conjugate agent suppresses melanoma A375 cell migration partially via interrupting VEGF production and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha}-mediated signaling  

SciTech Connect

Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) chemicals are antitumor antibiotics inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis. An indole carboxylate-PBD hybrid with six-carbon spacer structure (IN6CPBD) has been previously demonstrated to induce melanoma cell apoptosis and reduce metastasis in mouse lungs. This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of the other hybrid compound with four-carbon spacer (IN4CPBD) and elucidating its anti-metastatic mechanism. Human melanoma A375 cells with IN4CPBD treatment underwent cytotoxicity and apoptosis-associated assays. Transwell migration assay, Western blotting, and ELISA were used for mechanistic study. IN4CPBD exhibited potent melanoma cytotoxicity through interrupting G1/S cell cycle progression, increasing DNA fragmentation and hypodipoidic DNA contents, and reducing mitochondrial membrane potential. Caspase activity elevation suggested that both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways were involved in IN4CPBD-induced melanoma apoptosis. IN4CPBD up-regulated p53 and p21, thereby concomitantly derailing the equilibrium between Bcl-2 and Bax levels. Transwell migration assay demonstrated that stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}) stimulated A375 cell motility, while kinase inhibitors treatment confirmed that Rho/ROCK, Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK pathways were involved in SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced melanoma migration. IN4CPBD not only abolished the SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced chemotactic motility but also suppressed constitutive MMP-9 and VEGF expression. Mechanistically, IN4CPBD down-regulated Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK total proteins and MYPT1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, beyond the fact that IN4CPBD induces melanoma cell apoptosis at cytotoxic dose, the interruption in the VEGF expression and the SDF-1{alpha}-related signaling at cytostatic dose may partially constitute the rationale for its in vivo anti-metastatic potency. - Research Highlights: > A novel carboxylate-PBD hybrid as anti-melanoma drug. > IN4CPBD interrupts melanoma cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis. > IN4CPBD suppresses SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced signaling and melanoma migration. > IN4CPBD abolishes angiogenic factor production and chemotactic effect of SDF-1{alpha}. > This drug is clinically applicable to melanoma therapy.

Hsieh, Ming-Chu [Graduate Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Hu, Wan-Ping [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Yu, Hsin-Su [Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Wu, Wen-Chuan [Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Long-Sen [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Kao, Ying-Hsien, E-mail: danyhkao@gmail.com [Department of Medical Research, E-DA Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jeh-Jeng, E-mail: jjwang@kmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

2011-09-01

399

Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis of Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis in the Lower Extremity of a Child with Interrupted Inferior Vena Cava  

SciTech Connect

We present the case of a 14-year-old girl who developed acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in her right lower extremity. Laboratory testing revealed protein S deficiency, and the patient's father also had this abnormality with a history of lower extremity DVT. Manual thromboaspiration followed by catheter-directed thrombolysis resulted in total clearance of all thrombi. Computed tomography and later venography revealed an interrupted inferior vena cava. Catheter-directed thrombolysis is an established treatment for adults with acute DVT. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe catheter-directed thrombolysis in a pediatric patient with lower extremity DVT. Our results suggest that catheter-directed thrombolysis is safe and effective for use in selected older children and adolescents with acute DVT in the lower extremity.

Oguzkurt, Levent, E-mail: loguzkurt@yahoo.com; Ozkan, Ugur; Tercan, Fahri; Koc, Zafer [Baskent University, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2007-04-15

400

Development and testing of a 180-volt dc electronic circuit breaker with a 335-ampere carry and 1200-ampere interrupt rating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center and associated contractors have conducted a program to assess the potential requirements for a high-current switch to conceptually design a switch using the best existing technology, and to build and demonstrate a breadboard which meets the requirements. The result is the high current remote bus isolator (HRBI). The HRBI is rated at 180 V dc, 335 A continuous with a 1200 A interrupt rating. It also incorporates remote-control and protective features called for by the Space Station Freedom PMAD dc test bed design. Two breadboard 335 A circuit breakers were built and tested that demonstrate a promising concept of paralleled current-limiting modules. The units incorporated all control and protective features required by advanced aerospace power systems. Component stresses in each unit were determined by design, and are consistent with a life of many thousands of fault operations.

Brush, A. S.; Phillips, R. L.

1991-01-01

401

Interruption of the aortic arch associated with patent ductus arteriosus and ventricular septal defect. Proposal of a new surgical technique for total correction.  

PubMed

A four-year-old girl underwent complete correction of the association of interruption of the aortic arch (Type A, Celoria and Patton's classification), patent ductus arteriosus, and ventricular septal defect. The surgical procedure consists of establishment of a continuity between the ascending and descending aortas utilizing the patent ductus arteriosus and the anterior wall of the pulmonary arterial trunk, reconstruction of the rest of pulmonary arterial trunk with pericardium, and closure of the ventricular septal defect. Though the patient expired from cerebral complications, the hemodynamic result after repair was quite satisfactory. The procedure described makes total correction of this complex anomaly feasible at one operation through a median sternotomy and seems to be a method of choice for most patients with this association of anomalies, unless there is severe narrowing of the patent ductus arteriosus. PMID:1184673

Kawashima, Y; Oyama, C; Mori, T; Manabe, H

1975-01-01

402

Experimentally Determining the IR Drop in Solution at Carbon Fiber Microelectrodes with Current Interruption and Application to Single-Cell Electroporation  

PubMed Central

Single-cell electroporation uses microelectrodes, capillaries or micropipets positioned near single, adherent cells to increase transiently the membrane permeability of the cell. The increased permeability permits, for example, transfection without chemical reagents. When using microelectrodes for applying an electric field to the cell, there is a question of how much voltage to apply. Unlike in bulk electroporation where hundreds of volts may be applied between electrodes, a rather small voltage is applied to a microelectrode in single-cell electroporation. In the single-cell experiment with microelectrodes, a substantial fraction of the voltage is lost at the interface, and does not therefore exist in solution. This problem is the same as the classical electrochemist's problem of knowing the ‘iR’ drop in solution and correcting for it to obtain true interfacial potential differences. Therefore, we have used current interruption to determine the iR drop in solution near microcylinder electrodes. As the field is inhomogeneous, calculations are required to understand the field distribution. Results of the current interruption are validated by comparing two independent measurements of the resistance in solution: one value results from the measured iR drop in conjunction with the known applied current. The other value results from a measured solution conductivity and a computed cell constant. We find substantial agreement in the range of resistances from about 2 to 50 k?, but not at higher resistances. We propose a simple, four-step plan which takes a few minutes to calculate the approximate current required to electroporate a cell with an electrode of a particular size, shape and distance from the cell. We validate the approach with electroporation of single A549 cells. PMID:17411009

Lambie, Bradley A.; Brennan, Carrie; Olofsson, Jessica; Orwar, Owe; Weber, Stephen G.

2008-01-01

403

Effects of controlled interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts by biliary diversion and by ileal resection on bile salt secretion, synthesis, and pool size in the rhesus monkey  

PubMed Central

The effects of controlled interruption of the enterohepatic circulation (EHC) of bile salts by biliary diversion on bile volume, bile salt secretion and synthesis rates, bile salt pool size, and the relationship to fecal fat excretion were studied in 16 rhesus monkeys. Bile from a chronic bile fistula was returned to the intestine through an electronic stream-splitter which, by diverting different percentages of bile to a collecting system, provided graded and controlled interruption of the EHC. The increase in hepatic bile salt synthesis in response to interruption of the EHC was limited and reached a maximum rate at 20% interruption of the EHC. Up to this level of biliary diversion, the increased hepatic synthesis compensated for bile salt loss so that bile salt secretion and pool size were maintained at normal levels. With diversion of 33% or more, there was no further increase in hepatic bile salt synthesis to compensate for external loss, and as a result there was diminished bile salt secretion, a reduction in bile salt pool size, and steatorrhea was observed. The effects of interruption of the EHC by the streamsplitter were compared with those produced by resection of the distal one-third or two-thirds of small bowel. While ileal resection appreciably reduced bile salt secretion, the EHC was by no means abolished. Bile salt reabsorption from the residual intestine was greater after one-third than after two-thirds small bowel resection. These observations suggest that jejunal reabsorption of bile salts occurs and may well contribute to the normal EHC. PMID:4983661

Dowling, R. Hermon; Mack, Eberhard; Small, Donald M.

1970-01-01

404

Antiretroviral treatment interruption and loss to follow-up in two HIV cohorts in Australia and Asia: implications for 'test and treat' prevention strategy.  

PubMed

Both antiretroviral treatment interruption (TI) and cessation have been strongly discouraged since 2006. We describe the incidence, duration, and risk factors for TI and loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) rates across 13 countries. All 4689 adults (76% men) in two large HIV cohorts in Australia and Asia commencing combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) to March 2010 were included. TI was defined by ART cessation >30 days, then recommencement, and loss to follow-up (LTFU) by no visit since 31 March 2009 and no record of death. Survival analysis and Poisson regression methods were used. With median follow-up of 4.4 years [interquartile range (IQR):2.1-6.5], TI incidence was 6.7 per 100 person years (PY) (95% CI:6.1-7.3) pre-2006, falling to 2.0 (95% CI:1.7-2.2) from 2006 (p<0.01). LTFU incidence was 3.5 per 100 PY (95% CI:3.1-3.9) pre-2006, and 4.1 (95% CI:3.5-4.9) from 2006 (p=0.22). TIs accounted for 6.4% of potential time on ART pre-2006 and 1.2% from 2006 (p<0.01), and LTFU 4.7% of potential time on ART pre-2006 and 6.6% from 2006 (p<0.01). Median TI duration was 163 (IQR: 75-391) days pre-2006 and 118 (IQR: 67-270) days from 2006 (p<0.01). Independent risk factors for the first TI were: Australia HIV Observational Database participation; ART initiation pre-2006; ART regimens including stavudine and didanosine; three nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors; ?7 pills per day; and ART with food restrictions (fasting or with food). In conclusion, since 2006, 7.8% of patients had significant time off treatment, which has the potential to compromise any 'test and treat' policy as during the interruption viral load will rebound and increase the risk of transmission. PMID:24320013

Guy, Rebecca; Wand, Handan; McManus, Hamish; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Woolley, Ian; Honda, Miwako; Read, Tim; Sirisanthana, Thira; Zhou, Julian; Carr, Andrew

2013-12-01

405

Antiretroviral Treatment Interruption and Loss to Follow-Up in Two HIV Cohorts in Australia and Asia: Implications for ‘Test and Treat’ Prevention Strategy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Both antiretroviral treatment interruption (TI) and cessation have been strongly discouraged since 2006. We describe the incidence, duration, and risk factors for TI and loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) rates across 13 countries. All 4689 adults (76% men) in two large HIV cohorts in Australia and Asia commencing combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) to March 2010 were included. TI was defined by ART cessation >30 days, then recommencement, and loss to follow-up (LTFU) by no visit since 31 March 2009 and no record of death. Survival analysis and Poisson regression methods were used. With median follow-up of 4.4 years [interquartile range (IQR):2.1–6.5], TI incidence was 6.7 per 100 person years (PY) (95% CI:6.1–7.3) pre-2006, falling to 2.0 (95% CI:1.7–2.2) from 2006 (p<0.01). LTFU incidence was 3.5 per 100 PY (95% CI:3.1–3.9) pre-2006, and 4.1 (95% CI:3.5–4.9) from 2006 (p=0.22). TIs accounted for 6.4% of potential time on ART pre-2006 and 1.2% from 2006 (p<0.01), and LTFU 4.7% of potential time on ART pre-2006 and 6.6% from 2006 (p<0.01). Median TI duration was 163 (IQR: 75–391) days pre-2006 and 118 (IQR: 67–270) days from 2006 (p<0.01). Independent risk factors for the first TI were: Australia HIV Observational Database participation; ART initiation pre-2006; ART regimens including stavudine and didanosine; three nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors; ?7 pills per day; and ART with food restrictions (fasting or with food). In conclusion, since 2006, 7.8% of patients had significant time off treatment, which has the potential to compromise any ‘test and treat’ policy as during the interruption viral load will rebound and increase the risk of transmission. PMID:24320013

Wand, Handan; McManus, Hamish; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Woolley, Ian; Honda, Miwako; Read, Tim; Sirisanthana, Thira; Zhou, Julian; Carr, on behalf of Australia HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and Treat Asia HIV Observation Database (TAHOD), Andrew

2013-01-01

406

Evaluation of the impact of transient interruption of antiangiogenic treatment using ultrasound-based techniques in a murine model of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Development of escape pathways from antiangiogenic treatments was reported to be associated with enhanced tumor aggressiveness and rebound effect was suggested after treatment stop. Aim of the study was to evaluate tumor response simulating different conditions of administration of antiangiogenic treatment (transient or definitive treatment stop) in a mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods Subcutaneous tumors were created by inoculating 5×106 Huh7 cells into the right flank of 14 nude mice. When tumor size reached 5–10 mm, mice were divided in 3 groups: group 1 was treated with placebo, group 2 was treated with sorafenib (62 mg/kg via gavage) but temporarily suspended from day +5 to +9, whereas in group 3 sorafenib was definitively stopped at day +5. At day +13 all mice were sacrificed, collecting masses for Western-Blot analyses. Volume was calculated with B-mode ultrasonography at day 0, +5, +9, +11 and +13. VEGFR2-targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound using BR55 (Bracco Imaging) was performed at day +5 and +13 and elastonosography (Esaote) at day +9 and +11 to assess tumor stiffness. Results Median growth percentage delta at day +13 versus day 0 was 197% (115–329) in group 1, 81% (48–144) in group 2 and 111% (27–167) in group 3. Median growth delta at day +13 with respect to day +5 was 79% (48–127), 37% (?14128) and 81% (15–87) in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Quantification of targeted-CEUS at day +13 showed higher values in group 3 (509 Arbitrary Units AI, range 293–652) than group 1 (275 AI, range 191–494) and group 2 (181 AI, range 63–318) (p?=?0.033). Western-Blot analysis demonstrated higher VEGFR2 expression in group 3 with respect to group 1 and 2. Conclusions A transient interruption of antiangiogenic treatment does not impede restoration of tumor response, while a definitive interruption tends to stimulate a rebound of angiogenesis to higher level than without treatment. PMID:24902850

2014-01-01

407

Interruption of the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles to ethanol-baited traps and ethanol-injected trap trees by verbenone.  

PubMed

We examined the extent to which verbenone, a bark beetle antiaggregation pheromone, interrupted the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles. Field trapping studies conducted in Ohio showed that a verbenone dispenser with a release rate of 50 mg/d at 25°C reduced the attraction of Anisandrus sayi Hopkins, Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Hypothenemus dissimilis (Zimmermann), Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), and Xyleborinus saxesenii (Ratzeburg) to ethanol-baited traps. A verbenone dispenser attached to ethanol-injected Magnolia virginiana L. trap trees deployed in Ohio also reduced ambrosia beetle attacks compared to trap trees without a verbenone dispenser. Subsequent field trials demonstrated a direct relationship between distance from a verbenone dispenser and ambrosia beetle attacks on trap trees in Ohio in 2011 and 2012 and Tennessee in 2012, but not in Tennessee and Virginia in 2011. Assessment of the influence of verbenone on the probability of attacks above a density threshold found that although attacks occurred on trap trees regardless of their proximity to a verbenone dispenser, the higher density of attacks per tree occurred on trap trees farthest away from the verbenone source in Ohio and Tennessee. Verbenone alone could be somewhat useful for discouraging ambrosia beetle attacks on individual trees or on a small spatial scale, but deployment of verbenone might be most effective when integrated as part of a "push-pull" strategy. PMID:23726063

Ranger, Christopher M; Tobin, Patrick C; Reding, Michael E; Bray, Alicia M; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Frank, Steven D; Persad, Anand B

2013-06-01

408

Comparison of therapeutic response to gonadotropin therapy between chinese male adolescents and young adults with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism caused by pituitary stalk interruption.  

PubMed

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is common in pituitary stalk interruption (PSI) patients. However, the optimal timing and effective regimen in the management of the pituitary-gonadal axis deficiency is still controversial. This study involved a retrospective review of 38 male patients with HH resulting from PSI. The HH patients were subdivided according to their ages into 2 experiment groups: Group I (adolescents, 14-18 years old, 25 cases) and Group II (young adults, 18-24 years old, 13 cases). To compare the therapeutic response to exogenous gonadotropin, a control analysis was carried out in the experimental groups with age-matched control groups. Before gonadotropin therapy, no significant increases in gonadal hormones were noted in either of the 2 experimental groups. After treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for less than 6 months, the hormone levels of pituitary-gonadal axis significantly increased in group I than in group II. After adding the human menopause gonadotropin (hMG) for 6 months, the gonadal hormone levels of group II were significantly increased. In addition, the Tanner stage and penis lengths in group I were significantly improved. There was no significant adverse impact on BMI and height velocity (HV) after less than one year therapy. A prolonged hypogonadotropic period without treatment may be responsible for testicular dysfunction in HH males caused by PSI. Early supplementary therapy with hCG and hMG is beneficial for the recovery of gonadal hormone and development of secondary sexual characteristics. PMID:24867138

Wang, Q; Jiang, W; Li, G; Tang, L; Hu, Y

2014-08-01

409

Cloning of a cDNA for a new member of the class of fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices.  

PubMed

cDNA from embryonic chick skin has been isolated and characterized which encodes a novel member of the FACIT (fibril-associated collagen with interrupted triple helices) group whose other known members are collagen types IX and XII. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the cDNA, combined with characterization of a pepsin-resistant fragment of the protein from embryonic chick skin, demonstrates that the collagen chain is more closely related to the chain of type XII collagen than to those of type IX. It is most similar to a collagen, type XIV, recently identified in bovine skin. It is possible, therefore, that the cDNA codes for a chain of chicken type XIV collagen. From the additional data on molecular structure obtained by sequencing the cDNA, the FACIT family appears to consist of at least two classes of molecules: one of which contains the three chains of type IX collagen, and a second which includes the chains of collagen types XII and XIV. PMID:1935930

Gordon, M K; Castagnola, P; Dublet, B; Linsenmayer, T F; Van der Rest, M; Mayne, R; Olsen, B R

1991-10-15

410

The parathyroid hormone-responsive B1 gene is interrupted by a t(1;7)(q42;p15) breakpoint associated with Wilms' tumour.  

PubMed

Wilms' tumour (WT) has a diverse and complex molecular aetiology, with several different loci identified by cytogenetic and molecular analyses. One such locus is on chromosome 7p, where cytogenetic abnormalities and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) indicate the presence of a Wilms' tumour suppressor gene. In order to isolate a candidate gene for this locus, we have characterized the breakpoint regions at a novel constitutional chromosome translocation (t(1;7)(q42;p15)), found in a child with WT and skeletal abnormalities. We identified two genes that were interrupted by the translocation: the parathyroid hormone-responsive B1 gene (PTH-B1) at 7p and obscurin at 1q. With no evidence for LOH at 1q42, we focused on the characterization of PTH-B1. We detected novel alternately spliced isoforms of PTH-B1, which were expressed in a wide range of adult and foetal tissues. Importantly, expression of two isoforms were disrupted in the WT of the t(1;7) patient. We also identified an additional splice isoform expressed only in 7p LOH tumours. The disruption of PTH-B1 by the t(1;7), together with aberrant splicing in sporadic WTs, suggests that PTH-B1 is a candidate for the 7p Wilms' tumour suppressor gene. PMID:12618763

Vernon, Ellen G; Malik, Karim; Reynolds, Paul; Powlesland, Rachel; Dallosso, Anthony R; Jackson, Sally; Henthorn, Karla; Green, Eric D; Brown, Keith W

2003-03-01

411

Sequential depletion of rat testicular lipids with long-chain and very long-chain polyenoic fatty acids after X-ray-induced interruption of spermatogenesis[S  

PubMed Central

When a single dose of X-rays is applied to the adult rat testis, stem spermatogonia are damaged, and spermatogenesis is interrupted. Supported by Sertoli cells, spermatogenic cells that endure irradiation complete their differentiation and gradually leave the testis as spermatozoa. In this study, the in vivo changes taking place a number of weeks after irradiation revealed cell-specific features of testicular lipid classes. A linear drop, taking about six weeks, in testis weight, nonlipid materials, free cholesterol, and 22:5n-6-rich glycerophospholipids took place with germ cell depletion. Sphingomyelins and ceramides with nonhydroxy very long-chain polyenoic fatty acids (n-VLCPUFA) disappeared in four weeks, together with the last spermatocytes, whereas species with 2-hydroxy VLCPUFA lasted for six weeks, disappearing with the last spermatids and spermatozoa. The amount per testis of 22:5n-6-rich triacylglycerols, unchanged for four weeks, fell between weeks 4 and 6, associating these lipids with spermatids and their residual bodies, detected as small, bright lipid droplets. In contrast, 22:5n-6-rich species of cholesterol esters and large lipid droplets increased in seminiferous tubules up to week 6, revealing they are Sertoli cell products. At week 30, the lipid and fatty acid profiles reflected the resulting permanent testicular involution. Our data highlight the importance of Sertoli cells in maintaining lipid homeostasis during normal spermatogenesis. PMID:20529883

Oresti, Gerardo M.; Ayuza Aresti, Pablo L.; Gigola, Graciela; Reyes, Luis E.; Aveldaño, Marta I.

2010-01-01

412

Experimental Study on Pressure Distribution in Upper Flow Path and Gas Blast Angle of Nozzle in Tandem-puffer Interrupting Chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure measurement with insulation tubes is successfully performed at the nozzle throat, in the upper flow path and in the thermal room for the two types of tandem-puffer (self-blast chamber) adopting different gas blast angle of nozzle. The pressure rise mechanism with auto-expansion effect of arc is discussed. The pressure rise in the upper flow path and the thermal chamber is driven by propagation of pressure wave from the arc to the thermal chamber. And several types of oscillation caused by rarefaction wave after the pressure wave and multi-reflection of the pressure wave are superposed on the pressure profile. Finally, an influence of the gas blast angle of the nozzle on cooling of stagnation point (thermal interruption capability) is explained based on the results of these measurement and 2-dimensional thermo-fluid analysis. A little larger gas blast angle of the nozzle leads to stronger gas flow to the stagnation point caused by a little larger resistance to the pressure wave and the gas flow.

Shinkai, Takeshi; Udagawa, Keisuke; Suzuki, Katsumi

413

Yatein from Chamaecyparis obtusa suppresses herpes simplex virus type 1 replication in HeLa cells by interruption the immediate-early gene expression.  

PubMed

Inhibitory effects of methanolic extracts from nine Chinese herbs on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication were studied. By a bioassay-guided fractionation procedure, yatein (C(22)H(23)O(7); M.W.399) was isolated from Chamaecyparis obtusa; yatein significantly suppressed HSV-1 multiplication in HeLa cells without apparent cytotoxicity. To further localize the point in the HSV-1 replication cycle where arrest occurred, a set of key regulatory events leading to the viral multiplication was examined, including viral immediate-early (alpha) and late (gamma) gene expression and DNA replication. Results indicated that levels of glycoprotein B (gB) and gC mRNA expression in HeLa cells were impeded by yatein. Data from polymerase chain reaction showed that replication of HSV-1 DNA in HeLa cells was arrested by yatein. Furthermore, yatein decreased ICP0 and ICP4 gene expression in HeLa cells. Results of an electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that yatein interrupted the formation of alpha-trans-induction factor/C1/Oct-1/GARAT multiprotein complex. The mechanisms of antiviral action of yatein seem to be mediated, by inhibiting HSV-1 alpha gene expression, including expression of the ICP0 and ICP4 genes, and by arresting HSV-1 DNA synthesis and structural protein expression in HeLa cells. These results suggest that yatein is an antiviral agent against HSV-1 replication. PMID:16540181

Kuo, Yuh-Chi; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lin, Yuang-Lian; Tsai, Wei-Jern

2006-07-01

414

Design and current status of CONTINT: continuous versus interrupted abdominal wall closure after emergency midline laparotomy - a randomized controlled multicenter trial [NCT00544583  

PubMed Central

Background The optimal strategy for abdominal wall closure has been an issue of ongoing debate. Available studies do not specifically enroll patients who undergo emergency laparotomy and thus do not consider the distinct biological characteristics of these patients. The present randomized controlled trial evaluates the efficacy and safety of two commonly applied abdominal wall closure strategies in patients undergoing primary emergency midline laparotomy. Methods/design The CONTINT trial is a multicenter, open label, randomized controlled trial with a two-group parallel design. Patients undergoing a primary emergency midline laparotomy are enrolled in the trial. The two most commonly applied strategies of abdominal wall closure after midline laparotomy are compared: the continuous, all-layer suture technique using slowly absorbable monofilament material (two Monoplus® loops) and the interrupted suture technique using rapidly absorbable braided material (Vicryl® sutures). The primary endpoint within the CONTINT trial is an incisional hernia within 12 months or a burst abdomen within 30 days after surgery. As reliable data on this primary endpoint is not available for patients undergoing emergency surgery, an adaptive interim analysis will be conducted after the inclusion of 80 patients, allowing early termination of the trial if necessary or modification of design characteristics such as recalculation of sample size. Discussion This is a randomized controlled multicenter trial with a two-group parallel design to assess the efficacy and safety of two commonly applied abdominal wall closure strategies in patients undergoing primary emergency midline laparotomy. Trial registration NCT00544583 PMID:22647387

2012-01-01

415

Prediction of Unmet Primary Care Needs for the Medically Vulnerable Post-Disaster: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Health System Responses  

PubMed Central

Disasters serve as shocks and precipitate unanticipated disturbances to the health care system. Public health surveillance is generally focused on monitoring latent health and environmental exposure effects, rather than health system performance in response to these local shocks. The following intervention study sought to determine the long-term effects of the 2005 chlorine spill in Graniteville, South Carolina on primary care access for vulnerable populations. We used an interrupted time-series approach to model monthly visits for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, an indicator of unmet primary care need, to quantify the impact of the disaster on unmet primary care need in Medicaid beneficiaries. The results showed Medicaid beneficiaries in the directly impacted service area experienced improved access to primary care in the 24 months post-disaster. We provide evidence that a health system serving the medically underserved can prove resilient and display improved adaptive capacity under adverse circumstances (i.e., technological disasters) to ensure access to primary care for vulnerable sub-groups. The results suggests a new application for ambulatory care sensitive conditions as a population-based metric to advance anecdotal evidence of secondary surge and evaluate pre- and post-health system surge capacity following a disaster. PMID:23202752

Runkle, Jennifer D.; Zhang, Hongmei; Karmaus, Wilfried; Brock-Martin, Amy; Svendsen, Erik R.

2012-01-01

416

DNA Sequence Analyses Support the Role of Interrupted Gap Repair in the Origin of Internal Deletions of the Maize Transposon, Mudr  

PubMed Central

Previous research has demonstrated that the autonomous Cy transposon can activate the excision of Mu transposons. To determine the relationship between Cy and the more recently described autonomous Mu transposon, MuDR, a Cy transposon inserted at the mutable a1 allele, a1-m5216, was isolated and cloned. DNA sequence analyses established that this Cy insertion is identical to MuDR (Mu9, GenBank accession No.: m76978.gb_pl). Therefore, Cy will henceforth be termed MuDR:Cy. Defective derivatives of MuDR:Cy were isolated that had lost their capacity to activate their own excision or the excision of a Mu7 transposon. Most of these derivatives are nonautonomous transposons because they can excise, but only in the presence of unlinked MuDR:Cy transposons. Physical mapping and DNA sequence analyses have established that six of these defective derivatives carry internal deletions. It has been proposed previously that such deletions arise via interrupted gap repair. The DNA sequences of the break points associated with all four sequenced deletions are consistent with this model. The finding that three of the excision-defective derivatives carry deletions that disrupt the coding region of the mudrA (but not the mudrB) transcript supports the view that mudrA plays a role in the excision of Mu transposons. PMID:8852857

Hsia, A. P.; Schnable, P. S.

1996-01-01

417

Impact of Pay for Performance on Prescribing of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in Primary Care: An Interrupted Time Series Study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), a major pay-for-performance programme in the United Kingdom, on prescribing of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) in primary care. Methods Negative binomial interrupted time series analysis using practice level prescribing data from April 2007 to March 2012. The main outcome measure was the prescribing rate of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), including hormonal and non hormonal intrauterine devices and systems (IUDs and IUSs), injectable contraceptives and hormonal implants. Results Prescribing rates of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) were stable before the introduction of contraceptive targets to the QOF and increased afterwards by 4% annually (rate ratios ?=?1.04, 95% CI?=?1.03, 1.06). The increase in LARC prescribing was mainly driven by increases in injectables (increased by 6% annually), which was the most commonly prescribed LARC method. Of other types of LARC, the QOF indicator was associated with a step increase of 20% in implant prescribing (RR?=? 1.20, 95% CI?=? 1.09, 1.32). This change is equivalent to an additional 110 thousand women being prescribed with LARC had QOF points not been introduced. Conclusions Pay for performance incentives for contraceptive counselling in primary care with women seeking contraceptive advice has increased uptake of LARC methods. PMID:24694949

Arrowsmith, Myat E.; Majeed, Azeem; Lee, John Tayu; Saxena, Sonia

2014-01-01

418

Performance Evaluation of a Multi-Port DC-DC Current Source Converter for High Power Applications  

E-print Network

to the one stated above except it is performed on half bridges. The dc-link capacitors combine the power from the inputs (supercapacitor and fuel cell) and then the phase shift between HB2 and HB3 transfers the power by using the leakage inductance...

Yancey, Billy Ferrall

2011-08-08

419

Interruption of the cydB Locus in Brucella abortus Attenuates Intracellular Survival and Virulence in the Mouse Model of Infection  

PubMed Central

Brucellosis is characterized by abortion in ruminants and a protracted undulant fever in humans, which often results in severe pathological manifestations. Scant information exists about the molecular mechanisms employed by Brucella abortus to combat host defenses or to persist and replicate within host cells. Transposon (Tn5) mutagenesis of B. abortus and the subsequent screening of mutants for sensitivity to killing in murine macrophages and in the mouse model led to the identification of mutants which were severely attenuated for intracellular survival. One group of mutants was interrupted in cydB, a gene that is part of the cydAB operon encoding cytochrome bd oxidase, which catalyzes an alternate terminal electron transport step in bacterial respiration. The elevated affinity for molecular oxygen of this enzyme in Escherichia coli has suggested that it is involved in the protection of sensitive enzymatic activities such as those of hydrogenases and nitrogenases from damage. B. abortus cydB::Tn5 strains exhibited heightened sensitivity to the respiratory inhibitors zinc and azide, highly reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide, low pH, and attenuated virulence in the mouse model of infection. Virulence was restored by an intact copy of cydAB or by B. abortus genes encoding the oxidative radical-scavenging enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase or catalase. These results suggest a bifunctional role for the products of the cydAB operon, both in preventing the buildup of oxidative free radicals and in detoxifying the intracellular compartment, thus indicating the importance of these products in preventing intracellular destruction. Intracellular conditions that favor expression of the cydAB operon are under investigation and may be linked to the acid sensitivity also observed in this strain. PMID:11274104

Endley, Seema; McMurray, David; Ficht, Thomas A.

2001-01-01

420

Impact of pharmaceutical policy interventions on utilization of antipsychotic medicines in Finland and Portugal in times of economic recession: interrupted time series analyses  

PubMed Central

Objectives To analyze the impacts of pharmaceutical sector policies implemented to contain country spending during the economic recession – a reference price system in Finland and a mix of policies including changes in reimbursement rates, a generic promotion campaign and discounts granted to the public payer in Portugal – on utilization of, as a proxy for access to, antipsychotic medicines. Methodology We obtained monthly IMS Health sales data in standard units of antipsychotic medicines in Portugal and Finland for the period January 2007 to December 2011. We used an interrupted time series design to estimate changes in overall use and generic market shares by comparing pre-policy and post-policy levels and trends. Results Both countries’ policy approaches were associated with slight, likely unintended, decreases in overall use of antipsychotic medicines and with increases in generic market shares of major antipsychotic products. In Finland, quetiapine and risperidone generic market shares increased substantially (estimates one year post-policy compared to before, quetiapine: 6.80% [3.92%, 9.68%]; risperidone: 11.13% [6.79%, 15.48%]. The policy interventions in Portugal resulted in a substantially increased generic market share for amisulpride (estimate one year post-policy compared to before: 22.95% [21.01%, 24.90%]; generic risperidone already dominated the market prior to the policy interventions. Conclusions Different policy approaches to contain pharmaceutical expenditures in times of the economic recession in Finland and Portugal had intended – increased use of generics – and likely unintended – slightly decreased overall sales, possibly consistent with decreased access to needed medicines – impacts. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring and evaluating the effects of pharmaceutical policy interventions on use of medicines and health outcomes. PMID:25062657

2014-01-01

421

Participation of kinins in the captopril-induced inhibition of intimal hyperplasia caused by interruption of carotid blood flow in the mouse  

PubMed Central

In the rat balloon injury model, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors prevent vascular remodelling by inhibiting angiotensin II generation and kinin breakdown. We investigated if ACE inhibition also prevents the structural vascular responses to disruption of carotid artery blood flow and if kinin potentiation plays a role in such a protection. Morphometric analysis of the structural alterations caused by ligation of the left carotid artery was performed 14 days after surgery in J129Sv wild-type mice (B2+/+) drinking normal tap water or water containing captopril (120?mg?kg?1 per day). In addition, the effect of captopril on vascular remodelling was tested in B2+/+ given the bradykinin (BK) B1 receptor antagonist des-Arg9-[Leu8]-BK (DALBK, 50?nmol?kg?1 per day, intraperitoneally) or the BK B2 receptor antagonist D-Arg,[Hyp3,Thi5D-Tic7,Oic8]-BK (icatibant, 1??mol?kg?1 per day, intraperitoneally), and in B2 receptor gene knockout mice (B2?/?). Interruption of blood flow resulted in carotid artery intimal hyperplasia and media thickening in untreated B2+/+, these responses being partially suppressed by captopril. The inhibition of intimal thickening exerted by captopril was reduced in B2+/+ given DALBK or icatibant (P<0.05 for both comparisons) as well as in B2?/? (P<0.05). Neither antagonism of kinin receptors nor disruption of the B2 receptor gene altered the suppressive effect of captopril on media thickening. The protection of vascular wall structure was independent of the reduction in blood pressure by captopril. These results demonstrate that kinins participate in the inhibitory effect of captopril on intimal hyperplasia via B1 and B2 receptor signalling. Our findings may have important implications in treating vascular remodelling evoked by altered shear stress conditions. PMID:10882392

Emanueli, Costanza; Salis, Maria Bonaria; Figueroa, Carlos; Chao, Julie; Chao, Lee; Gaspa, Leonardo; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Madeddu, Paolo

2000-01-01

422

Ligustrazine attenuates oxidative stress-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells by interrupting platelet-derived growth factor-? receptor-mediated ERK and p38 pathways  

SciTech Connect

Hepatic fibrosis represents a frequent event following chronic insult to trigger wound healing reactions with accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the liver. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the pivotal event during liver fibrogenesis. Compelling evidence indicates that oxidative stress is concomitant with liver fibrosis irrespective of the underlying etiology. Natural antioxidant ligustrazine exhibits potent antifibrotic activities, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Our studies were to investigate the ligustrazine effects on HSC activation stimulated by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), an in vitro model mimicking the oxidative stress in liver fibrogenesis, and to elucidate the possible mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at 5 ?M significantly stimulated HSC proliferation and expression of marker genes of HSC activation; whereas ligustrazine dose-dependently suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-activated HSCs, and attenuated expression of fibrotic marker genes. Mechanistic investigations revealed that ligustrazine reduced platelet-derived growth factor-? receptor (PDGF-?R) expression and blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase, two downstream effectors of PDGF-?R. Further molecular evidence suggested that ligustrazine interruption of ERK and p38 pathways was dependent on the blockade of PDGF-?R and might be involved in ligustrazine reduction of fibrotic marker gene expression under H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stimulation. Furthermore, ligustrazine modulated some proteins critical for HSC activation and ECM homeostasis in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-stimulated HSCs. These data collectively indicated that ligustrazine could attenuate HSC activation caused by oxidative stress, providing novel insights into ligustrazine as a therapeutic option for hepatic fibrosis. Highlights: ? Ligustrazine inhibits oxidative stress-induced HSC activation. ? Ligustrazine reduces fibrotic marker genes in HSCs under oxidative stress. ? Disruption of PDGF-?R-mediated ERK and p38 pathways was involved. ? Ligustrazine could be a promising antifibrotic candidate.

Zhang, Feng [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China)] [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Ni, Chunyan [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China) [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); The First People's Hospital of Changzhou, Changzhou 213003 (China); Kong, Desong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhu, Xiaojing; Chen, Li [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China)] [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Lu, Yin [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China) [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China); National First-Class Key Discipline for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China); Zheng, Shizhong, E-mail: nytws@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China) [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China); National First-Class Key Discipline for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China)

2012-11-15

423

Small tyrosine kinase inhibitors interrupt EGFR signaling by interacting with erbB3 and erbB4 in glioblastoma cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is relevant in glioblastoma. We have determined the effects of the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 in glioblastoma cell lines and found that U87 and LN-229 cells were very sensitive to this drug, since their proliferation diminished and underwent a marked G{sub 1} arrest. T98 cells were a little more refractory to growth inhibition and A172 cells did not undergo a G{sub 1} arrest. This G{sub 1} arrest was associated with up-regulation of p27{sup kip1}, whose protein turnover was stabilized. EGFR autophosphorylation was blocked with AG1478 to the same extent in all the cell lines. Other small-molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors employed in the clinic, such as gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib, were able to abrogate proliferation of glioblastoma cell lines, which underwent a G{sub 1} arrest. However, the EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab had no effect on cell proliferation and consistently, had no effect on cell cycle either. Similarly, cetuximab did not inhibit proliferation of U87 {Delta}EGFR cells or primary glioblastoma cell cultures, whereas small-molecule EGFR inhibitors did. Activity of downstream signaling molecules of EGFR such as Akt and especially ERK1/2 was interrupted with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, whereas cetuximab treatment could not sustain this blockade over time. Small-molecule EGFR inhibitors were able to prevent phosphorylation of erbB3 and erbB4, whereas cetuximab only hindered EGFR phosphorylation, suggesting that EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors may mediate their anti-proliferative effects through other erbB family members. We can conclude that small-molecule EGFR inhibitors may be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of glioblastoma patients.

Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Saceda, Miguel [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain) [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, 03203 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Grasso, Silvina; Rocamora-Reverte, Lourdes; Conde, Mariano; Gomez-Martinez, Angeles [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain)] [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Garcia-Morales, Pilar [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain) [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, 03203 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Ferragut, Jose A. [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain)] [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Martinez-Lacaci, Isabel, E-mail: imlacaci@umh.es [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain) [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad AECC de Investigacion Traslacional en Cancer, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 Murcia (Spain)

2011-06-10

424

Reasons for and correlates of antiretroviral treatment interruptions in a cohort of patients from public and private clinics in southern India  

PubMed Central

Understanding the prevalence and correlates of treatment interruptions (TIs) in resource-limited settings is important for improving adherence. HIV-infected adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Bangalore, India, were enrolled into a prospective cohort study assessing HAART adherence. Participants underwent a structured interview assessing adherence, including occurrence of TI > 48 hours since HAART initiation, length of TI, and self-reported reasons for TI. Serum HIV viral load (VL) and CD4 was measured at 6-month intervals. Baseline data are presented in this article. For the 552 participants mean age was 37.8, 32% were female, 70% were married, 45% earned < $2/day. Eighty-four percent were on nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy; median duration on HAART was 18 months (range: 1–175) and median CD4 count was 318 cells/µl (IQR: 195–460) at time of study enrollment. Twenty percent (n = 110) reported at least one TI; of these, 33% (n = 36) reported more than one TI. Median length of most recent TI was 10 days (range: 2–1095). TI was associated with a higher probability of having VL > 400 copies/ml (43% versus 12%; p < 0.001). After controlling for time on HAART, TI was more likely among those who were unmarried (OR: 1.9; CI: 1.2–3.1), those treated in a private clinic setting (OR: 2.7; CI: 1.6–4.6 compared with public, and OR: 4.1; CI: 1.9–9.0 compared with public–private setting), and those on efavirenz-based therapy (OR: 2.0; CI: 1.1–3.6). The most common self-reported reason for TI was “side effects” (n = 28; 25%), followed by cost of therapy (n = 24; 22%). We discuss implications for both individual and structural level interventions to reduce TIs. PMID:22107044

Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; Chandy, Sara; Heylen, Elsa; Ekstrand, Maria

2012-01-01

425

Nonlethal aluminum maltolate can reduce brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced Arc expression through interrupting the ERK signaling in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.  

PubMed

Although many studies have demonstrated that aluminum (Al) exposure impairs learning and memory, its underlying mechanism is still uncertain. Long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity that underlie memory are dependent on new protein synthesis. In particular, activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) has a versatile role in synaptic plasticity, and its synthesis can be induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF-induced Arc expression has been suggested to play a fundamental role in the stabilization of synaptic plasticity. In the present study, the pretreatment of Al(malt)? at nonlethal level (200 ?M, 24 h) significantly reduced BDNF (10 ng/ml, 1h)-induced Arc expression in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. BDNF-induced activation of ERK but not PI3K signaling pathway was interfered with the Al(malt)? pretreatment, resulting in the subsequent reduction of BDNF-induced phosphorylation of 4EBP1, p70S6K, and eIF4E. Reduced phospho-4EBP1 and phospho-eIF4E hindered the initiation step of translation, which may lead to a reduction in BDNF-induced Arc expression. However, reduced phospho-p70S6K did not influence the phosphorylation of eEF2K and eEF2, indicating no significant effect on BDNF-enhanced translation elongation. Therefore, even at nonlethal level, Al(malt)? pretreatment reduced BDNF-induced Arc expression, which was caused by interrupting the ERK signaling pathway as well as the subsequent translation initiation. PMID:21040763

Chen, Tsan-Ju; Cheng, Hsiu-Min; Wang, Dean-Chuan; Hung, Hui-Shan

2011-01-15

426

Schistosoma haematobium detection in snails by DraI PCR and Sh110/Sm-Sl PCR: further evidence of the interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in Morocco  

PubMed Central

Background This is the first study in Morocco to estimate snail infection rates at the last historic transmission sites of schistosomiasis, known to be free from new infection among humans since 2004. Screening of large numbers of snails for infection is one way to confirm that Schistosoma haematobium transmission has stopped and does not resurge. Methods A total of 2703 Bulinus truncatus snails were collected from 24 snail habitats in five provinces of Morocco: Errachidia, El Kelaa des Sraghna, Tata, Beni Mellal, and Chtouka Ait Baha. All visible snails were collected with a scoop net or by hand. We used waders and gloves as simple precautions. Snails were morphologically identified according to Moroccan Health Ministry guide of schistosomiasis (1982). All snails were analyzed in pools by molecular tool, using primers from the newly identified repeated DNA sequence, termed DraI, in the S. haematobium group. To distinguish S. bovis and S. haematobium, the snails were analyzed by Sh110/Sm-Sl PCR that was specific of S. haematobium. Results The results showed that snails from Errachidia, Chtouka Ait Baha, sector of Agoujgal in Tata and sector of Mbarkiya in El kelaa des Sraghna were negative for DraI PCR; but, snails from remaining snail habitats of El Kelaa des Sraghna, Tata and Beni Mellal were positive. This led to suggest the presence of circulating schistosome species (S. haematobium, S. bovis or others) within these positive snail habitats. Subsequently, confirmation with S. haematobium species specific molecular assay, Sh110/Sm-Sl PCR, showed that none of the collected snails were infected by S. haematobium in all historic endemic areas. Conclusion The absence of S. haematobium infection in snails supports the argument of S. haematobium transmission interruption in Morocco. PMID:24962624

2014-01-01

427

The effect of regulatory advisories on maternal antidepressant prescribing, 1995-2007: an interrupted time series study of 228,876 pregnancies.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess whether antidepressant prescribing during pregnancy decreased following release of U.S. and Canadian public health advisory warnings about the risk of perinatal complications with antidepressants. We analyzed data from 228,876 singleton pregnancies among women (aged 15-44 years) continuously enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid with full pharmacy benefits (1995-2007). Antidepressant prescribing was determined through outpatient pharmacy dispensing files. Information on sociodemographic and clinical factors was obtained from enrollment files and linked birth certificates. An interrupted time series design with segmented regression analysis was used to quantify the impact of the advisory warnings (2002-2005). Antidepressant prescribing rates increased steadily from 1995 to 2001, followed by sharper increases from 2002 to late 2004. Overall antidepressant prescribing prevalence was 34.51 prescriptions [95 % confidence interval (CI) 33.37-35.65] per 1,000 women in January 2002, and increased at a rate of 0.46 (95 % CI 0.41-0.52) prescriptions per 1,000 women per month until the end of the pre-warning period (May 2004). During the post-warning period (October 2004-June 2005), antidepressant prescribing decreased by 1.48 (95 % CI 1.62-1.35) prescriptions per 1,000 women per month. These trends were observed for both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and non-SSRI antidepressants, although SSRI prescribing decreased at a greater rate. We conclude that antidepressant prescribing to pregnant women in Tennessee Medicaid increased from 1995 to late 2004. U.S. and Canadian public health advisories about antidepressant-associated perinatal complications were associated with steady decreases in antidepressant prescribing from late 2004 until the end of the study period, suggesting that the advisory warnings were impactful on antidepressant prescribing in pregnancy. PMID:24196827

Bobo, William V; Epstein, Richard A; Hayes, Rachel M; Shelton, Richard C; Hartert, Tina V; Mitchel, Ed; Horner, Jeff; Wu, Pingsheng

2014-02-01

428

Measurement of interstrand cross-link frequency and distance between interruptions in DNA exposed to 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen and near-ultraviolet light  

SciTech Connect

Bifunctional psoralens react photochemically with DNA to form single-strand adducts and interstrand, chemical cross-links. Cross-link formation is first order with (P), the concentration of added psoralen, when (P) much less than Kd, the psoralen-DNA dissociation constant. DNA molecules containing interstrand cross-links are reversibly bihelical and so are readily detected. It was not heretofore possible to determine cross-link frequency in polydisperse DNA from the mass F of DNA spared cross-linkage. We have derived a statistical relation to calculate cross-link frequency at fixed light exposure and variable (P). We show here that S, the initial slope of the curve described by -ln F as a function of (P), is proportional to Mw, the weight-average molecular weight of nick-free DNA. The cross-link frequency at any (P) can be determined from k, a constant measured for DNA of known Mw at low cross-linkage. This relation is valid for DNA of any molecular weight distribution. In experiments with uniform length DNA, -ln F (cross-link frequency) increased in simple proportion to (P). Intact and restriction endonuclease HindIII digested phage lambda DNA molecules have discrete lengths. S for each was proportional to Mw of the twin helix even though the molecular weight distribution of the restriction fragments was skewed. S was proportional to Mw and to the median molecular weight of sheared cellular DNA over a wide range. Also, we found that 1/S was linear with exposure of cellular DNA to gamma radiation. S can therefore be used to calculate L, the average distance between interruptions in the double helix.

Matsuo, N.; Ross, P.M.

1987-04-07

429

Factors influencing the growth hormone peak and plasma insulin-like growth factor I in young adults with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnostic criteria for growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in adolescents and young adults are not yet clearly established. We evaluated the factors influencing the GH peak and plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I in order to determine the cut-off limits for the diagnosis of GHD during the transition period. Methods 21 patients treated for GHD due to pituitary stalk interruption syndrome at 5.7 ± 4.1 years were reevaluated at 16.0 ± 1.8 years, 0.6 ± 0.6 years after the end of GH treatment. Group 1 had isolated GHD (n = 9) and group 2 had multiple pituitary deficiencies (n = 12), including deficiencies of thyroid stimulating (n = 12), adrenocorticotropin (n = 8) and gonadotropin (n = 9) hormones. Results At diagnosis, group 1 had a greater pituitary height (2.8 ± 1.2 vs 1.6 ± 1.1 mm, P = 0.03) and GH peak (3.8 ± 1.9 vs 1.6 ± 1.5 ng/ml, P < 0.02) than did group 2. At last evaluation, group 1 had greater GH peak (3.9 ± 1.9 vs 0.2 ± 0.4 ng/ml, P = 0.0001) and plasma IGF I (211 ± 88 vs 78 ± 69 ng/ml, P < 0.002) than did group 2. No group 1 and 9 group 2 patients had an undetectable GH peak, while the 3 others had GH peak below 1 ng/ml. The GH peak decreased between diagnosis and last evaluation only in group 2 (P < 0.008). Conclusion The GH peak response to pharmacological stimulation and the plasma IGF I concentration in young adults with GHD of childhood onset depend on the presence of additional pituitary deficiencies, reflecting a more severe defect of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The sex steroids cannot increase the IGF I if the GH secretion is zero. PMID:18620575

Marcu, Mariana; Trivin, Christine; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Brauner, Raja

2008-01-01

430

Episomal Viral cDNAs Identify a Reservoir That Fuels Viral Rebound after Treatment Interruption and That Contributes to Treatment Failure  

PubMed Central

Viral reservoirs that persist in HIV-1 infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are the major obstacle to viral eradication. The identification and definition of viral reservoirs in patients on ART is needed in order to understand viral persistence and achieve the goal of viral eradication. We examined whether analysis of episomal HIV-1 genomes provided the means to characterize virus that persists during ART and whether it could reveal the virus that contributes to treatment failure in patients on ART. For six individuals in which virus replication was highly suppressed for at least 20 months, proviral and episomal genomes present just prior to rebound were phylogenetically compared to RNA genomes of rebounding virus after therapy interruption. Episomal envelope sequences, but not proviral envelope sequences, were highly similar to sequences in rebounding virus. Since episomes are products of recent infections, the phylogenetic relationships support the conclusion that viral rebound originated from a cryptic viral reservoir. To evaluate whether the reservoir revealed by episomal sequence analysis was of clinical relevance, we examined whether episomal sequences define a viral population that contributes to virologic failure in individuals receiving the CCR5 antagonist, Vicriviroc. Episomal envelope sequences at or near baseline predicted treatment failure due to the presence of X4 or D/M (dual/mixed) viral variants. In patients that did not harbor X4 or D/M viruses, the basis for Vicriviroc treatment failure was indeterminate. Although these samples were obtained from viremic patients, the assay would be applicable to a large percentage of aviremic patients, based on previous studies. Summarily, the results support the use of episomal HIV-1 as an additional or alternative approach to traditional assays to characterize virus that is maintained during long-term, suppressive ART. PMID:21383975

Greenough, Thomas; Gulick, Roy; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Stevenson, Mario

2011-01-01

431

Your Career Without Interrupting It  

E-print Network

in information security. He showed his employer, Chick-fil-A, that he had a commitment to learning and growing at Chick-fil-A, Bohannon would talk to the team members about what he was learning, realizing that he became more marketable." Daniel Bohannon, Chick-fil-A Online Master's Degree Graduate, Dec. 2013 Real

432

The impact of Regional co-payment and National reimbursement criteria on statins use in Italy: an interrupted time-series analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Statins are among the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and their effectiveness is largely acknowledged. The consumption of statins increased four-fold during the 2000–2010 decade in Italy and national and regional control policies were developed. Restrictions to reimbursement were fixed at the national level, whereas co-payment was introduced in some, but not all, regions. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of such policies on the consumption of statins in Italy between 2001–2007 among outpatients. Methods The statin use was measured in terms of defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DDD/1000 inh. day) from May 2001 to December 2007. The study was conducted in 17 out of 21 regions, nine of which had implemented a co-payment policy. Time trends in consumption before and after the introduction of co-payment policies and reimbursement criteria were examined using segmented regression analysis of interrupted time-series, adjusting for seasonal components. Results The consumption of statins increased by 22.9 DDD/1000 inh. day in May 2001 to 54.7 DDD/1000 inh. day in December 2007. On average, there was a 1.7% increase in statin use each month before the national guideline changed while the increase was about 0.5% afterwards. The revision of the reimbursement criteria was associated with a significant decrease in level (coefficient?=??2.80, 95% CI ?3.70 to ?1.90 p-value <0.001) and trend (coefficient?=??0.33, 95% CI ?0.37 to ?0.29 p-value <0.001). The introduction of co-payment was associated with a significant change in trend of consumption so that the overall use of the drug increased by 0.04 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.07, p-value?

2014-01-01

433

Localized corrosion susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zn alloy AF/C458 due to interrupted quenching from solutionizing temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isothermal time-temperature-localized corrosion-behavior curves were determined for the Al-1.8Li-2.70Cu-0.6Mg-0.3Zn alloy AF/C458, to understand the effect of slow or delayed quenching on localized corrosion susceptibility. Alloy samples were subject to a series of systematic interrupted quenching experiments conducted at temperatures ranging from 480 °C to 230 °C for times ranging from 5 to 1000 seconds. Individual samples were then exposed to an oxidizing aqueous chloride solution consisting of 57 g/L NaCl plus 10 mL/L H2O2 to induce localized attack. The localized corrosion mode was characterized by optical microscopy. Additionally, the microstructure of selected samples was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to relate the corrosion mode and morphology to microstructural features. Results showed that only pitting attack was exhibited by samples subjected to isothermal treatment at temperatures greater than 430 °C. At temperatures ranging from 280 °C to 430 °C, isothermal treatment tended to induce susceptibility to intergranular attack (IGA) and intersubgranular attack (ISGA) for all treatment times investigated. For isothermal treatments at temperatures lower than 280 °C, only pitting was observed for treatment times less than about 30 seconds, while IGA and ISGA were observed for longer treatment times. Comparisons showed that the time-temperature domains for IGA and ISGA were virtually coincident. Based on this finding and the results from TEM characterization, IGA and ISGA appear to be related to the precipitation of a Zn-modified T 1 (Al2(Cu,Zn)Li) precipitate, which can occur both on low-angle and high-angle grain boundaries in this alloy. When the alloy is resistant to IGA and ISGA, the grain boundaries are decorated by ?' (Al2Cu), and T B (Al7Cu4Li) phase particles, or subgrain boundaries are populated by a comparatively low density of T 1 precipitates. It is, therefore, speculated that ?' and T B are more corrosion-resistant precipitate phases than T 1, and that a critical concentration of boundary T 1 must exist for IGA or ISGA to occur.

Kertz, J. E.; Gouma, P. I.; Buchheit, R. G.

2001-10-01

434

The effects of financial incentives for case finding for depression in patients with diabetes and coronary heart disease: interrupted time series analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effects of Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) incentivised case finding for depression on diagnosis and treatment in targeted and non-targeted long-term conditions. Design Interrupted time series analysis. Setting General practices in Leeds, UK. Participants 65 (58%) of 112 general practices shared data on 37?229 patients with diabetes and coronary heart disease targeted by case finding incentives, and 101?008 patients with four other long-term conditions not targeted (hypertension, epilepsy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma). Intervention Incentivised case finding for depression using two standard screening questions. Main outcome measures Clinical codes indicating new depression-related diagnoses and new prescriptions of antidepressants. We extracted routinely recorded data from February 2002 through April 2012. The number of new diagnoses and prescriptions for those on registers was modelled with a binomial regression, which provided the strength of associations between time periods and their rates. Results New diagnoses of depression increased from 21 to 94/100?000 per month in targeted patients between the periods 2002–2004 and 2007–2011 (OR 2.09; 1.92 to 2.27). The rate increased from 27 to 77/100?000 per month in non-targeted patients (OR 1.53; 1.46 to 1.62). The slopes in prescribing for both groups flattened to zero immediately after QOF was introduced but before incentivised case finding (p<0.01 for both). Antidepressant prescribing in targeted patients returned to the pre-QOF secular upward trend (Wald test for equivalence of slope, z=0.73, p=0.47); the slope was less steep for non-targeted patients (z=?4.14, p<0.01). Conclusions Incentivised case finding increased new depression-related diagnoses. The establishment of QOF disrupted rising trends in new prescriptions of antidepressants, which resumed following the introduction of incentivised case finding. Prescribing trends are of concern given that they may include people with mild-to-moderate depression unlikely to respond to such treatment. PMID:25142262

McLintock, Kate; Russell, Amy M; Alderson, Sarah L; West, Robert; House, Allan; Westerman, Karen; Foy, Robbie

2014-01-01

435

The anesthetic eye: an investigation of changes in the anterior ocular segment of the monkey caused by interrupting the trigeminal nerve at various levels along its course.  

PubMed Central

Operations were performed at four different levels on the fifth nerve of the monkey to determine which procedure offers the best chance of avoiding ocular complications after surgical treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (Figure 18). (1) Section of the ophthalmic branch of N V results in immediate corneal anesthesia. After one week, chromatolysis of the unipolar gasserian ganglion cells subserving the first division occurs and Wallerian degeneration of the corneal nerves of the ipsilateral eye is seen. This is associated with perilimbal round cell invasion of the superficial cornea and subconjunctival area. In addition, iritis develops de novo or becomes worse if it pre-exists. Miosis occurs, but the chemodiagnostic tests of cocaine and adrenalin indicate an intact sympathetic system. The cause for this inflammatory reaction and pupillary change is unexplained by this study. The intraocular pressure is slightly lower on the side of the section than in the normal fellow control eye after surgery, but the difference is not statistically significant. (2) Section of the posterior sensory root of N V in the middle cranial fossa at a point between the gasserian glanglion and the tentorium results in similar ocular changes as is seen after interrupting the ophthalmic division alone. Wallerian degeneration of the corneal nerves, however, is not seen after seven, twelve or twenty-one days. (3) Transtentorial section of the trigeminal posterior sensory root performed in the middle cranial fossa, results in immediate corneal anesthesia. The gasserian ganglion cells, however, remain healthy and there is no perilimbal round cell invasion of the superficial cornea or subconjunctival tissue. Miosis occurs but the chemodiagnostic tests of cocaine and adrenalin indicate an intact sympathetic system. The intraocular pressure is only slightly lower on the side of section than in the control eye, but the difference is not statistically significant. (4) Suboccipital rhizotomy of the posterior sensory root of NV at the pons results in immediate corneal anesthesia. The gasserian ganglion cells remain healthy and there is no perilimbal round cell invasion of the superficial cornea or subconjunctival tissue. Miosis occurs in most animals (2 of 3) and is associated with an intact sympathetic system as indicated by the chemodiagnostic tests of cocaine and adrenalin. Intraocular pressure is very slightly lower on the side of section than in the control eye, but the difference is not statistically significant. (5) Thinning of the corneal epithelium occurs in an anesthetic eye regardless of the location of the section of N V and is not adversely affected by tarsorrhaphy. The corneal stroma, however, remains unchanged. (6) The experimental data demonstrate that to decrease ocular complications, operations on the trigeminal nerve should be performed on the caudal end of the sensory root as far from the gasserian ganglion as is techanically feasible. Images FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 15 A FIGURE 15 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 13 A FIGURE 13 B FIGURE 14 A FIGURE 14 B FIGURE 16 A FIGURE 16 B FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 17 A FIGURE 17 B PMID:813349

Alper, M G

1975-01-01

436

After 66 years, the University of Washington will confer honorary degrees upon Japanese Americans whose studies were interrupted by time in internment camps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Man who helped inspire ceremony may not attendhttp://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2004391404_uwjapaneseryo24m.htmlJapanese American Exhibit and Access Projecthttp://www.lib.washington.edu/exhibits/harmony/Densho: The Japanese American Legacy Project [Real Player, Quick Time]http://www.densho.org/U.S. Office of War Information: Japanese Relocationhttp://www.archive.org/details/Japanese1943Ansel Adams's Photographs of Japanese-American Internment at Manzanarhttp://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/anseladams/Ryo Kumasaka is set to receive an honorary degree from the University of Washington in a few days, but he's not sure whether or not he'll show up to receive it. Kumasaka's situation is a bit different than most students today, as his studies were interrupted by a decision by the United States government to move thousands of Japanese Americans to internment camps several months after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. A number of people moved to these camps happened to be students at the University of Washington, and after the war was over, some were able to return to finish their degrees and some were not. Several faculty members at the University of Washington have been working to make the degrees a reality, including Gail Nomura, who recently commented, "We don't want this story to be forgotten. Civil liberties are a special thing. Only when we lose them do we realize how important it is to protect and defend them all." While a number of Kumasaka's former classmates will be at the commencement ceremony on May 18th in Seattle, he remains a bit ambivalent about the honor, "I can take it or leave it. It doesn't matter one way or the other. It's too late for that to have any effect on my life." The first link will take visitors to a news article from this Monday's Seattle Times about the upcoming honorary degree ceremony at the University of Washington. The second link leads to another article from the Seattle Times about Kumasaka, complete with an audio clip of him talking about his experiences on the way to the internment camp. Moving on, the third link leads to the Japanese American Exhibit and Access Project at the University of Washington Libraries. Here visitors can view images from the camps, read oral histories of the students who were moved to the camps, and also look over a number of historical documents from the period. The fourth link takes users to the Densho Digital Archives site, which provides access to many hours of interviews with Japanese Americans who spent time in the internment camps and a wide range of related educational resources. The fifth link leads to a film created by the U.S. Office of War Information in 1943 that attempts to offer a justification for the relocation of thousands of Japanese Americans into the internment campus. Finally, the last link will take users to a moving exhibit of photographs taken by Ansel Adams at the internment camp in Manzanar, California in 1943 offered by the American Memory project at the Library of Congress.

437

Interventions to reduce colonisation and transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in intensive care units: an interrupted time series study and cluster randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Intensive care units (ICUs) are high-risk areas for transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, but no controlled study has tested the effect of rapid screening and isolation of carriers on transmission in settings with best-standard precautions. We assessed interventions to reduce colonisation and transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in European ICUs. Methods We did this study in three phases at 13 ICUs. After a 6 month baseline period (phase 1), we did an interrupted time series study of universal chlorhexidine body-washing combined with hand hygiene improvement for 6 months (phase 2), followed by a 12–15 month cluster randomised trial (phase 3). ICUs were randomly assigned by computer generated randomisation schedule to either conventional screening (chromogenic screening for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] and vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE]) or rapid screening (PCR testing for MRSA and VRE and chromogenic screening for highly resistant Enterobacteriaceae [HRE]); with contact precautions for identified carriers. The primary outcome was acquisition of resistant bacteria per 100 patient-days at risk, for which we calculated step changes and changes in trends after the introduction of each intervention. We assessed acquisition by microbiological surveillance and analysed it with a multilevel Poisson segmented regression model. We compared screening groups with a likelihood ratio test that combined step changes and changes to trend. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00976638. Findings Seven ICUs were assigned to rapid screening and six to conventional screening. Mean hand hygiene compliance improved from 52% in phase 1 to 69% in phase 2, and 77% in phase 3. Median proportions of patients receiving chlorhexidine body-washing increased from 0% to 100% at the start of phase 2. For trends in acquisition of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, weekly incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 0·976 (0·954–0·999) for phase 2 and 1·015 (0·998–1·032) for phase 3. For step changes, weekly IRR was 0·955 (0·676–1·348) for phase 2 and 0·634 (0·349–1·153) for phase 3. The decrease in trend in phase 2 was largely caused by changes in acquisition of MRSA (weekly IRR 0·925, 95% CI 0·890–0·962). Acquisition was lower in the conventional screening group than in the rapid screening group, but did not differ significantly (p=0·06). Interpretation Improved hand hygiene plus unit-wide chlorhexidine body-washing reduced acquisition of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, particularly MRSA. In the context of a sustained high level of compliance to hand hygiene and chlorhexidine bathings, screening and isolation of carriers do not reduce acquisition rates of multidrug-resistant bacteria, whether or not screening is done with rapid testing or conventional testing. Funding European Commission. PMID:24161233

Derde, Lennie P G; Cooper, Ben S; Goossens, Herman; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Willems, Rob J L; Gniadkowski, Marek; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Empel, Joanna; Dautzenberg, Mirjam J D; Annane, Djillali; Aragão, Irene; Chalfine, Annie; Dumpis, Uga; Esteves, Francisco; Giamarellou, Helen; Muzlovic, Igor; Nardi, Giuseppe; Petrikkos, George L; Tomic, Viktorija; Martí, Antonio Torres; Stammet, Pascal; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Bonten, Marc J M

2014-01-01

438

Direct-current vacuum contractor for railway transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of studies of switching off a direct current using a vacuum interrupter with a transverse axial-symmetric magnetic\\u000a field at a recovery voltage of up to 9 kV are presented. The prototype of the DC vacuum contactor based on this vacuum interrupter\\u000a was developed and manufactured for applications in railways. The contactor is intended for switching off DC current

D. F. Alferov; A. I. Budovskii; D. V. Evsin; V. P. Ivanov

2010-01-01

439

A randomized, double-blind study comparing Clostridium difficile immune whey and metronidazole for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: efficacy and safety data of a prematurely interrupted trial.  

PubMed

A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was designed to compare Clostridium difficile immune whey (CDIW) with metronidazole for treatment of laboratory-confirmed, recurrent, mild to moderate episodes of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD). CDIW was manufactured by immunization of cows in their gestation period with inactivated C. difficile vaccine. The resulting colostrum was processed, immunoglubulins were concentrated and the end-product containing high titres of C. difficile immunoglobulin was used as CDIW. 20 patients received metronidazole at a dosage of 400 mg t.i.d. and 18 patients CDIW 200 ml t.i.d. The study was interrupted early because of the bankruptcy of the sponsor. After 14 d of treatment, all 20 (100%) of 20 patients had responded to metronidazole therapy, compared with 16 (89%) of 18 who had received CDIW. 70 d after the beginning of treatment, sustained responses were observed in 11 (55%) of 20 patients receiving metronidazole and 10 (56%) of 18 patients treated with CDIW. In this preliminary study CDIW was as effective as metronidazole in the prevention of CDAD recurrences and it was well tolerated. PMID:19086244

Mattila, Eero; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Broas, Markku; Marttila, Harri; Poukka, Paula; Kuusisto, Kaisa; Pusa, Liana; Sammalkorpi, Kari; Dabek, Jan; Koivurova, Olli-Pekka; Vähätalo, Markku; Moilanen, Veikko; Widenius, Tom

2008-01-01

440

THE EFFECTS OF RESPONSE INTERRUPTION AND REDIRECTION  

E-print Network

1 CHAPTER I Introduction Autism is a broad spectrum of disorders caused by neurological impairments (Simpson, Myles, & LaCava, 1998/2008). In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition Tex Revised; DSM... Autism is a broad spectrum of disorders caused by neurological impairments (Simpson, Myles, & LaCava, 1998/2008). These disorders are characterized by social, communication, and 7 behavioral deficiencies. The severity of each challenging condition...

Joung, Eun Gi

2011-07-15