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1

14C ages and activity for the past 50 ka at Volca??n Galeras, Colombia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volca??n Galeras is the southernmost Colombian volcano with well-recorded historic activity. The volcano is part of a large and complex volcanic center upon which 400,000 people live. Historic activity has centered on a small-volume cone inside the youngest of several large amphitheaters that breach the west flank of the volcano, away from the city of Pasto (population 300,000). Lava flows (SiO2 between 54.6 and 64.7 wt.%) have dominated activity for more than 1 Ma, but explosive events have also occurred. Joint studies by volcanologists from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and the United States produced 24 new 14C ages and more than 100 stratigraphic sections to interpret the past 50 ka of activity at Galeras, including sector collapse events. The youngest collapse event truncated 12.8 ka lava flows and may have occurred as recently as 8 to 10 ka. Tephra-fall material rapidly thins and becomes finer away from the vent area. The only widespread marker in the < 10 ka section is a biotite-bearing tephra deposited between 4.1 and 4.5 ka from a source south of Galeras. It separates cryoturbated from largely undisturbed layers on Galeras, and thus dates a stratigraphic horizon which is useful in the interpretation of other volcanoes and geotectonics in the equatorial Andes. Pyroclastic flows during the past 50 ka have been small to moderate in volume, but they have left numerous thin deposits on the north and east flanks where lava flows have been impeded by crater and amphitheater walls. Many of the pyroclastic-flow deposits are lithic rich, with fines and clasts so strongly altered by hydrothermal action before eruption that they, as well as the sector collapse deposits, resemble waste dumps of leached cappings from disseminated sulfide deposits more than volcanogenic deposits. This evidence of a long-lived hydrothermal system indicates susceptibility to mass failure and explosive events higher than expected for a volcano built largely by lava flows and modest Vulcanian eruptions. Photographs, written accounts, and our study document historic north and east flank pyroclastic flows as far as 10 km from the summit; however, none have left recognizable deposits in Pasto for more than 40 ka.

Banks, N.G.; Calvache, V.M.L.; Williams, S.N.

1997-01-01

2

50 Ka Till-Filled Pleistocene Plunge Pools and Potholes Found Beneath the World Trade Center Site, New York, NY  

E-print Network

50 Ka Till-Filled Pleistocene Plunge Pools and Potholes Found Beneath the World Trade Center Site, explored the feature further, identifying additional till filled depressions (Moss and Merguerian, 2008 in greater detail and wood found buried in the till was 14 C dated. Figure 1 ­ World Trade Center site

Merguerian, Charles

3

DC Current Injection Into the Network from PV Grid Inverters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is focused on the study of the DC current injection for low voltage small grid-connected PV systems, which is one power quality requirements by the utility companies. For this aim, the existing status of guidelines and regulations in six selected countries where the development in the grid PV sector has evolved rapidly over the last decade, (Japan,

V. Salas; E. Olias; M. Alonso; F. Chenlo; A. Barrado

2006-01-01

4

Interrupt Handling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The OâReilly Online Catalog provides us with a look at Chapter 9 of the book Linux Device Drivers by Alessandro Rubini and Jonathon Corbet. The chapter is entitled Interrupt Handling and it covers the overall control of interrupts, preparing the parallel port, installing and interrupt handler, interrupt sharing, race conditions, and more. The website offers example functions and codes to assist in the installation, implementation, and comprehension processes. The easily navigable table of contents makes the amount of text on the website easy and stress-free and the ordering information is available if the entire book seems of interest to those computer science teachers and students.

Corbet, Jonathan; Rubini, Alessandro

2009-07-06

5

Variability of Western Pacific Warm Pool Rainfall since 50 ka BP: Lithologic and Isotopic Perspectives from Lake Matano, Central Sulawesi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use multiple paleohydrological proxies applied to the sedimentary record of Lake Matano (229.1'S 12120'E), central Sulawesi, Indonesia, to understand the mechanisms controlling long-term variations of the Australian-Indonesian Monsoon (AIM) and Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) convection during the past 50 ka. Lithogenic tracers of surface runoff, including magnetic susceptibility and XRF-derived iron counts, are high during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2/Last Glacial Maximum as well as during millennial-scale northern hemisphere cold events (e.g. the Younger Dryas and Heinrich events), indicating a wetter climate during these northern hemisphere stadials. These events appear in antiphase to dry conditions in mainland Asia, reconstructed by oxygen isotopic analyses of Chinese speleothems, demonstrating antiphasing between the AIM (our record) and the East Asian Summer Monsoon (Chinese speleothems) at both orbital and millennial timescales. At the orbital band, this antiphasing is likely due to the influence of changing seasonal insolation on the global summer monsoons, northern hemisphere ice sheet expansion, and associated shifts in the mean latitudinal position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Interestingly, our data indicates that MIS2 was far wetter than the late Holocene, despite similar austral summer insolation at these times. The strikingly wet MIS2 signal in our proxy data compared to MIS1 and MIS3 suggests that the climate in this region is strongly sensitive to glacial forcings, likely related to changes in WPWP convection driven by greenhouse gas forcing and ice-volume induced atmospheric circulation changes. To better understand the connection between WPWP convection, water vapor transport, and AIM strength at orbital timescales, we also investigate hydrogen isotopic ratios of terrestrial higher plant leaf waxes (?Dwax) in Lake Matano's sediments. Assuming that ?Dwax records the ?D of past precipitation, which may be related to the intensity of WPWP convection, we hypothesize that periods of strong convection covary with intervals of high surface runoff. Comparison of our lithologic and isotopic proxies of terrestrial paleohydrology, including nearby Lake Towuti, with regional proxy data will also help constrain the boundary between wet and dry events in the WPWP during the northern hemisphere stadials.

Wicaksono, S. A.; Russell, J. M.; Bijaksana, S.; Noren, A. J.; Wattrus, N. J.; Vogel, H.

2012-12-01

6

Linking the10Be continental record of Lake Baikal to marine and ice archives of the last 50 ka: Implication for the global dust-aerosol input  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present here a 10Be profile from the continental sediments of Lake Baikal (the world's largest fresh water lake), which, for the first time, shows the ??? 40 ka 10Be enhancement and a pattern that strongly matches those from the marine and ice records for the last 50 ka. This finding provides a new horizon for global and regional correlation of continental archives. Additionally, our VADM-predicted 10Be production confirms and further strengthens a common global cause (geomagnetic field intensity) for the change in atmospheric 10Be over the last 50 ka. We also show that most of the 10Be inventory to the lake has been provided by riverine input, but with a significant addition from direct precipitation and dust-aerosol fallout. We estimate a higher dust-aerosol contribution of 10Be during the Holocene and interstadial stage 3 (22-50 ka) as compared with the glacial period (12-22 ka). Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.; Peck, J.; King, J.; Colman, S.

1999-01-01

7

PASADO - ICDP Deep Drilling at Laguna Potrok Aike (Argentina): A 50 ka Record of Increasing Environmental Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laguna Potrok Aike, located in the South-Patagonian province of Santa Cruz (5258'S, 7023'W), was formed by a volcanic (maar) eruption in the late Quaternary Pali Aike Volcanic Field several hundred thousand years ago. This archive holds a unique record of paleoclimatic and paleoecological variability from a region sensitive to variations in southern hemispheric wind and pressure systems, which provide a significant cornerstone for the understanding of the entire global climate system. Moreover, Laguna Potrok Aike is close to many active volcanoes allowing a better understanding of the history of volcanism in the Pali Aike Volcanic Field as well as in the Andean mountain chain, the latter located in a distance of less than 150 km to the west. Finally, Patagonia is the source region of eolian dust blown from the South American continent into the South Atlantic and onto the Antarctic ice sheet. The currently ongoing global climate change, the thread of volcanic hazards as well as of regional dust storms are of increasing socio-economic relevance and thus challenging scientific themes that are tackled for southernmost South America with an interdisciplinary research approach in the framework of the ICDP-funded "Potrok Aike Maar Lake Sediment Archive Drilling Project" (PASADO). Using the GLAD800 drilling platform seven holes were drilled in the southern spring of 2008. A total of 510 m of lacustrine sediments were recovered by an international scientific team from the central 100 m deep basin with an excellent core recovery rate of 94.4%. The reference profile with a composite depth of 106 m consists of undisturbed laminated and sand-layered lacustrine silts with an increasing number of coarse gravel layers, turbidites and homogenites with depth. Below 80 m composite depth two mass-movement deposits (10 m and 5 m in thickness) are recorded. These deposits show tilted and distorted layers as well as nodules of fine-grained sediments and randomly distributed gravel. Such features either indicate an increased seismicity that cannot be completely excluded for this late Quaternary backarc volcanic field or they are the result of hydrologically induced lake level variations and hence relate to changes in hydrological conditions within the catchment area. Intercalated throughout the record are 24 macroscopically visible volcanic ash layers that document the regional volcanic history and open the possibility to establish an independent time control through tephrochronology supported by Ar/Ar dating. Moreover, these isochrones potentially act as links to marine sediment records from the South Atlantic and to Antarctic ice cores. Preliminary extrapolation of the mean sedimentation rate of 1.1 mm/a determined for the upper 16 ka indicates that a continuous and high quality record may go back in time to approximately 50 ka. A comparable time frame is supported by first radiocarbon dates obtained from aquatic mosses.

Zolitschka, Bernd; Anselmetti, Flavio; Ariztegui, Daniel; Francus, Pierre; Gebhardt, Catalina; Kliem, Annette Hahn Pierre; Lcke, Andreas; Ohlendorf, Christian; Schbitz, Frank; Wastegard, Stefan

2010-05-01

8

DC Current-Induced Rollover of Illumination Efficiency of GaN-Based Power LEDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulse drive currents were utilized to investigate dc current-induced rollover of illumination efficiency of GaN-based power light-emitting diodes (LEDs). By using the pulse drive currents, we can separate the effects that junction temperature and current injection have on dc current-induced rollover of illumination efficiency of GaN-based power LEDs. Comparing the measurement results obtained from pulse and dc drive currents, we

Michael P. Liao

2007-01-01

9

DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a HTS-SQUID gradiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar panels are expected to play a major role as a source of sustainable energy. In order to evaluate solar panels, non-destructive tests, such as defect inspections and response property evaluations, are necessary. We developed a DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a High Critical Temperature Superconductor Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (HTS-SQUID) gradiometer with ramp edge type Josephson junctions. Two independent components of the magnetic fields perpendicular to the panel surface (?Bz/?x, ?Bz/?y) were detected. The direct current of the solar panel is visualized by calculating the composition of the two signal components, the phase angle, and mapping the DC current vector. The developed system can evaluate the uniformity of DC current distributions precisely and may be applicable for defect detection of solar panels.

Miyazaki, Shingo; Kasuya, Syohei; Mawardi Saari, Mohd; Sakai, Kenji; Kiwa, Toshihiko; Tsukamoto, Akira; Adachi, Seiji; Tanabe, Keiichi; Tsukada, Keiji

2014-05-01

10

AC losses in a HTS coil carrying DC current in AC external magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We electrically measured AC losses in a Bi2223\\/Ag-sheathed pancake coil excited by a DC current in AC external magnetic field. Losses in the coil contain two kinds of loss components that are the magnetization losses and dynamic resistance losses. In the measurement, current leads to supply a current to the coil were specially arranged to suppress electromagnetic coupling between the

J. Ogawa; Y. Zushi; M. Fukushima; O. Tsukamoto; E. Suzuki; M. Hirakawa; K. Kikukawa

2003-01-01

11

Degradation mechanisms of GaN-based LEDs after accelerated DC current aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the results of an extensive DC current aging and failure analysis carried out on blue InGaN\\/GaN LEDs which identify failure mechanisms related to package degradation, changes in effective doping profile, and generation of deep levels. DLTS and photocurrent spectra indicate the creation of extended defects in devices aged at very high current density.

G. Meneghesso; S. Levada; R. Pierobon; F. Rampazzo; E. Zanoni; A. Cavallini; A. Castaldini; G. Scamarcio; S. Du; I. Eliashevich

2002-01-01

12

Self-stimulation by DC current as a model of motivated behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are reported on the frequency spectrum and coherence function of the electrical activity of the motor and the visual\\u000a cortex, the hippocampus, the olfactory bulb, and the emotionally positive and negative areas of the hypothalamus during selfstimulation\\u000a of rats by DC current. It was shown that certain stages of motivated behavior are accompanied by natural changes in the synchronization

R. A. Pavlygina; V. D. Trush; N. G. Mikhailova; P. V. Simonov

1980-01-01

13

Clamp-on DC current transducer employing mixing effects in nonlinear ferromagnetic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clamp-on transducer based on nonlinear mixing effects for measuring DC currents in the range of 0.1 mA to several amperes is described. The present device consists of a closed magnetic circuit which surrounds a wire carrying the measured current. The transducer consists of three thin strips arranged in a U form, while the fourth strip serves for closing and

R. Rabinovici; B.-Z. Kaplan; H. Shachanovitz

1990-01-01

14

Performance Evaluation of a Multi-Port DC-DC Current Source Converter for High Power Applications  

E-print Network

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A MULTI-PORT DC-DC CURRENT SOURCE CONVERTER FOR HIGH POWER APPLICATIONS A Thesis by BILLY FERRALL YANCEY III Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2010 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A MULTI-PORT DC-DC CURRENT SOURCE CONVERTER FOR HIGH POWER APPLICATIONS A Thesis by BILLY FERRALL YANCEY III...

Yancey, Billy Ferrall

2011-08-08

15

Recovering Context After Interruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

As information systems become more complex and present an increasingly rich amount of information to users, interruptions present an ever larger hurdle to operational eciency. User interface technologies intended to support increased user-control of the transitions between computer-based tasks can help mitigate that obstacle. We present a three-pronged approach that combines dynamic interruption co- ordination support with context review mechanisms

Jerry L. Franke; Jody J. Daniels; Daniel C. McFarlane

16

AC losses in a HTS coil carrying DC current in AC external magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We electrically measured AC losses in a Bi2223/Ag-sheathed pancake coil excited by a DC current in AC external magnetic field. Losses in the coil contain two kinds of loss components that are the magnetization losses and dynamic resistance losses. In the measurement, current leads to supply a current to the coil were specially arranged to suppress electromagnetic coupling between the coil current and the AC external magnetic field. A double pick-up coils method was used to suppress a large inductive voltage component contained in voltage signal for measuring the magnetization losses. It was observed that the magnetization losses were dependent on the coil current and that a peak of a curve of the loss factor vs. amplitude of the AC external magnetic field shifted to lower amplitude of the AC magnetic field as the coil current increased. This result suggests the full penetration magnetic field of the coil tape decreases as the coil current increases. The dynamic resistance losses were measured by measuring a DC voltage appearing between the coil terminals. It was observed that the DC voltage appearing in the coil subject to the AC external magnetic field was much larger than that in the coil subject to DC magnetic field.

Ogawa, J.; Zushi, Y.; Fukushima, M.; Tsukamoto, O.; Suzuki, E.; Hirakawa, M.; Kikukawa, K.

17

Multiprocessor interrupt rerouting mechanism  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a local area network (LAN) system having a computer system comprised of at least one bus, CPUs coupled to the bus for executing application processes, each CPU having a memory associated to it, the LAN also having at least one controller coupled to the bus and including at least one controller member, the LAN system further including resources coupled to the bus, and additional LANs coupled to at least one controller, and means for creating LAN control blocks (LCBs) within any of the memories, the LCBs for providing control information to effect the transfer of messages to/from the memories, resources, controller and LANs, the controller capable of effecting the interruption of any of the CPUs, a multiprocessor interrupt rerouting mechanism for rerouting messages intended for any one of the processors to a different one of the processors.

Yu, K.C.; Hirtle, A.C

1989-05-16

18

Frontline: The Interrupters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many organizations and individuals are working to transform some of America's most violent inner city neighborhoods by forming a series of coalitions with local residents, religious organizations, and schools. This engaging documentary from PBS's Frontline takes a look into "the violent landscape of our cities through the eyes of those fighting to sow peace and security." First-time visitors should click on "Meet the Interrupters" to learn about the unique individuals working on projects such as CeaseFire in Chicago and the Al Hafeez Initiative, which is designed to find resources for young boys and girls to utilize in after-school programs. Visitors can watch the entire program (one version that contains graphic language), move on to explore an online digital memorial for victims of violence, and also listen to profiles from National Public Radio and Chicago Tonight. Finally, visitors can click on the "Where Are They Now?" area to learn about what has happened to each "interrupter" since the documentary was released.

2012-03-02

19

The AutoBlast Interrupter Switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air interrupter switch may be defined as a nonautomatic air switch which combines the functions of a disconnecting switch with the ability to interrupt current up to a predetermined magnitude. It primarily differs in function from a circuit breaker in that it cannot interrupt overload or short-circuit currents. General specifications for interrupter switches are proposed. The Auto-Blast interrupter switch

E. A. Williams; W. G. Harlow

1943-01-01

20

Global interrupt and barrier networks  

DOEpatents

A system and method for generating global asynchronous signals in a computing structure. Particularly, a global interrupt and barrier network is implemented that implements logic for generating global interrupt and barrier signals for controlling global asynchronous operations performed by processing elements at selected processing nodes of a computing structure in accordance with a processing algorithm; and includes the physical interconnecting of the processing nodes for communicating the global interrupt and barrier signals to the elements via low-latency paths. The global asynchronous signals respectively initiate interrupt and barrier operations at the processing nodes at times selected for optimizing performance of the processing algorithms. In one embodiment, the global interrupt and barrier network is implemented in a scalable, massively parallel supercomputing device structure comprising a plurality of processing nodes interconnected by multiple independent networks, with each node including one or more processing elements for performing computation or communication activity as required when performing parallel algorithm operations. One multiple independent network includes a global tree network for enabling high-speed global tree communications among global tree network nodes or sub-trees thereof. The global interrupt and barrier network may operate in parallel with the global tree network for providing global asynchronous sideband signals.

Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton-On-Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kopcsay, Gerard V. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY)

2008-10-28

21

DC current induced metal-insulator transition in epitaxial Sm0.6Nd0.4NiO3/LaAlO3 thin film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metal-insulator transition (MIT) in strong correlated electron materials can be induced by external perturbation in forms of thermal, electrical, optical, or magnetic fields. We report on the DC current induced MIT in epitaxial Sm0.6Nd0.4NiO3 (SNNO) thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition on (001)-LaAlO3 substrate. It was found that the MIT in SNNO film not only can be triggered by thermal, but also can be induced by DC current. The TMI of SNNO film decreases from 282 K to 200 K with the DC current density increasing from 0.003 109 Am-2 to 4.9 109 Am-2. Based on the resistivity curves measured at different temperatures, the MIT phase diagram has been successfully constructed.

Huang, Haoliang; Luo, Zhenlin; Yang, Yuanjun; Yun, Yu; Yang, Mengmeng; Meng, Dechao; Wang, Haibo; Hu, Sixia; Bao, Jun; Lu, Yalin; Gao, Chen

2014-05-01

22

Chemical mechanisms inducing a dc current measured in the flowing post-discharge of an RF He-O2 plasma torch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The post-discharge of an RF plasma torch supplied with helium and oxygen gases is characterized by mass spectrometry, optical emission spectroscopy and electrical measurements. We have proved the existence of a dc current in the post-discharge (1-20 A), attributed to the Penning ionization of atmospheric nitrogen and oxygenated species. The mechanisms ruling this dc current are investigated through experiments in which we discuss the influence of the O2 flow rate, the He flow rate and the distance separating the plasma torch from a material surface located downstream.

Dufour, T.; Hubert, J.; Vandencasteele, N.; Reniers, F.

2012-08-01

23

Assisting interruption recovery in mission control operations  

E-print Network

Frequent interruptions are commonplace in modem work environments. The negative impacts of interruptions are well documented and include increased task completion and error rates in individual task activities, as well as ...

Wan, Jordan (Jordan X.)

2007-01-01

24

DC current injection into the network from PV inverters of <5 kW for low-voltage small grid-connected PV systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is focused on the study of DC current injection for low-voltage small grid-connected PV systems, which is one of the power quality requirements of utility companies. To achieve this aim, the existing status of guidelines and regulations in six selected countries where the development in the grid PV sector has evolved rapidly over the last decade (Australia,

V. Salas; M. Alonso-Abella; E. Olas; F. Chenlo; A. Barrado

2007-01-01

25

Interruption-similarity effects during discourse processing  

PubMed Central

We examined the effect of interruption on reading to determine if discourse processing is susceptible to similarity-based interference. Participants read pairs of passages, either one before the other (in the continuous condition) or with the sentences of the two passages interleaved (in the interruption condition). In addition, the similarity of the types of passages (narrative or expository) in a pair was manipulated. Performance was measured with self-paced reading time of the sentences and with accuracy in answering comprehension questions. In two experiments, interruption slowed the reading of text sentences; this effect of interruption was greatest when the interrupting text was of the same style as the primary text (an interruption-similarity effect). We discuss these results with respect to current models of the role of working memory in discourse processing. PMID:16938692

Ledoux, Kerry; Gordon, Peter C.

2006-01-01

26

1 Do Interruptions Pay off? Effects of Interruptive Ads on Consumers' 2 Willingness to Pay  

E-print Network

1 Do Interruptions Pay off? Effects of Interruptive Ads on Consumers' 2 Willingness to Pay 2 a computer 9 game they were testing. We measured subjects' willingness to pay for a good associated the appearance of ads mitigates the negative impact of ad interruption. Our results contribute to the research

Sadeh, Norman M.

27

Opportunistic Interruptions: Interactional Vulnerabilities Deriving from Linearization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speaking involves "linearizing" a message into a string of words. This process leaves us vulnerable to being interrupted in such a way that the aborted turn is a misrepresentation of the intended message. Further, because we linearize our messages in standard ways, we are recurrently vulnerable to interruptions at particular turn-construction

Gibson, David R.

2005-01-01

28

The Role of Interruption in Building Trust  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the article, we explore conditions under which people may allow their listening to be interrupted, that is, allow themselves to start listening for something they had not been trying to hear previously. We present empirical evidence for the conditions by analyzing an interview with a teacher who tells us how his listening was interrupted as he

Haroutunian-Gordon, Sophie

2009-01-01

29

Interrupted Visual Searches Reveal Volatile Search Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated memory from interrupted visual searches. Participants conducted a change detection search task on polygons overlaid on scenes. Search was interrupted by various disruptions, including unfilled delay, passive viewing of other scenes, and additional search on new displays. Results showed that performance was unaffected by

Shen, Y. Jeremy; Jiang, Yuhong V.

2006-01-01

30

Interrupt Synchronization Lock for Real-time Operating Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fundamental design decisions in an operating system is how to handle coordination between synchronous and asynchronous event handlers, especially handling the asynchronous interrupts. Interrupt synchronization is critical for real-time operating systems to increase system performance and reduce the interrupt response time. This paper proposes an interrupt synchronization lock (ISLock) technology to synchronize the interrupts without masking. Experimental

Huaidong Shi; Ming Cai; Jinxiang Dong

2006-01-01

31

Checklist interruption and resumption: A linguistic study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study forms part of a project investigating the relationships among the formal structure of aviation procedures, the ways in which the crew members are taught to execute them, and the ways in which thet are actually performed in flight. Specifically, this report examines the interactions between the performance of checklists and interruptions, considering both interruptions by radio communications and by other crew members. The data consists of 14 crews' performance of a full mission simulation of a higher ratio of checklist speech acts to all speech acts within the span of the performance of the checklist. Further, it is not number of interruptions but length of interruptions which is associated with crew performance quality. Use of explicit holds is also associated with crew performance.

Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph

1987-01-01

32

Interruptible Electric Rates: Where We Are Today  

E-print Network

Interruptible electric rates are as far from being a widespread method of load management today as they were almost nine years ago at the height of the Arab Oil Embargo. Utilities and industrial consumers have been 'cooperating' to reduce overall...

Frees, R. J.

1982-01-01

33

Improvements in DC Current-Ioltage (I-V) Characteristics of n-GaN Schottky Diode using Metal Overlap Edge Termination  

SciTech Connect

Practical design of GaN Schottky diodes incorporating a field plate necessitates an understanding of how the addition of such plate affects the diode performance. In this paper, we investigated the effects on DC current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of n-GaN schottky diode by incorporating metal overlap edge termination. The thickness of the oxide film varies from 0.001 to 1 micron. Two-dimensional Atlas/Blaze simulations revealed that severe electric field crowding across the metal semiconductor contact will cause reliability concern and limit device breakdown voltage. DC current-voltage (I-V) measurements indicate that the forward currents are higher for thinner oxide film schottky diodes with metal overlap edge termination than those of unterminated schottky diodes. The forward current increased due to formation of an accumulation layer underneath the oxide layer. Extending the field plate to beyond periphery regions of schottky contact does not result in any significant increase in forward current. The new techniques of ramp oxide metal overlap edge termination have been implemented to increase the forward current of n-GaN schottky diode. In reverse bias, breakdown voltage increased with edge termination oxide up to a certain limit of oxide thickness.

Munir, T.; Aziz, A. A.; Abdullah, M. J. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research Laboratory (NOR), School of Physics Universiti Sains Malaysia 11800 Minden Penang Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research Laboratory (NOR), School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

2010-03-11

34

Improvements in DC Current-Ioltage (I-V) Characteristics of n-GaN Schottky Diode using Metal Overlap Edge Termination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Practical design of GaN Schottky diodes incorporating a field plate necessitates an understanding of how the addition of such plate affects the diode performance. In this paper, we investigated the effects on DC current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of n-GaN schottky diode by incorporating metal overlap edge termination. The thickness of the oxide film varies from 0.001 to 1 micron. Two-dimensional Atlas/Blaze simulations revealed that severe electric field crowding across the metal semiconductor contact will cause reliability concern and limit device breakdown voltage. DC current-voltage (I-V) measurements indicate that the forward currents are higher for thinner oxide film schottky diodes with metal overlap edge termination than those of unterminated schottky diodes. The forward current increased due to formation of an accumulation layer underneath the oxide layer. Extending the field plate to beyond periphery regions of schottky contact does not result in any significant increase in forward current. The new techniques of ramp oxide metal overlap edge termination have been implemented to increase the forward current of n-GaN schottky diode. In reverse bias, breakdown voltage increased with edge termination oxide up to a certain limit of oxide thickness.

Munir, T.; Aziz, A. A.; Abdullah, M. J.; Ain, M. F.

2010-03-01

35

Industrial Interruptible Power: An Economical Alternative  

E-print Network

INDUSTRIAL INTERRUPTIBLE POWER: AN ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE Sidney D. Reynolds John R. Gardner Tennessee Valley Authority Chattanooga, Tennessee ABSTRACT Prevailing utility cost forecasts project that long-term energy costs will rise in real...INDUSTRIAL INTERRUPTIBLE POWER: AN ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE Sidney D. Reynolds John R. Gardner Tennessee Valley Authority Chattanooga, Tennessee ABSTRACT Prevailing utility cost forecasts project that long-term energy costs will rise in real...

Reynolds, S. D.; Gardner, J. R.

1984-01-01

36

Interruption as a test of the user-computer interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to study the effects different logic systems might have on interrupted operation, an algebraic calculator and a reverse polish notation calculator were compared when trained users were interrupted during problem entry. The RPN calculator showed markedly superior resistance to interruption effects compared to the AN calculator although no significant differences were found when the users were not interrupted. Causes and possible remedies for interruption effects are speculated. It is proposed that because interruption is such a common occurrence, it be incorporated into comparative evaluation tests of different logic system and control/display system and that interruption resistance be adopted as a specific design criteria for such design.

Kreifeldt, J. G.; Mccarthy, M. E.

1981-01-01

37

WHAT HAPPENS WHEN BONDED RELATIONSHIPS ARE INTERRUPTED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interrupting or severing bonded relationships takes a heavy toll on human health and well-being. It is as serious as brain surgery, death or divorce. The younger the child and the deeper the bond, the more devastating the result. The trauma begins, of course, with the initial abuse and\\/or neglect, when a decision is made to change homes for the basic

James A. Kenny

38

Can Critical Education Interrupt the Right?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the ways in which the complex and at times contradictory project of "conservative modernization" has altered the terrain of education. It extends the arguments I make in "Educating the "Right" Way" (2006) about understanding the "right", about the possibilities of interrupting the right in education, and about our roles in

Apple, Michael W.

2009-01-01

39

Improving the Management of Controllers Interruptions through the Working Awareness Interruption Tool: WAIT.  

E-print Network

??Interruptions in time-critical, dynamic, and collaborative environments, such as air traffic control (ATC), can provide valuable, task-relevant information. However, they also negatively impact task performance (more)

Alqahtani, Meshael

2014-01-01

40

Avoiding and Managing Interruptions of Electric Service Under an Interruptible Contract or Tariff  

E-print Network

to curtail their usage, and may be assuming that interruptions will never occur. This situation is largely due to the glut of electric generating capacity that exists today in the United States -generally speaking, there is enough generation available...

Evans, G. W.

41

Development of an in situ calibration method for current-to-voltage converters for high-accuracy SI-traceable low dc current measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For photocurrent measurements with low uncertainties, wide dynamic range reference current-to-voltage converters and a new converter calibration method have been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The high-feedback resistors of a reference converter were in situ calibrated on a high-resistivity, printed circuit board placed in an electrically shielded box electrically isolated from the operational amplifier using jumpers. The feedback resistors, prior to their installation, were characterized, selected and heat treated. The circuit board was cleaned with solvents, and the in situ resistors were calibrated using measurement systems for 10 k? to 10 G? standard resistors. We demonstrate that dc currents from 1 nA to 100 A can be measured with uncertainties of 55 10-6 (k = 2) or lower, which are lower in uncertainties than any commercial device by factors of 10 to 30 at the same current setting. The internal (NIST) validations of the reference converter are described.

Eppeldauer, George P.; Yoon, Howard W.; Jarrett, Dean G.; Larason, Thomas C.

2013-10-01

42

Interrupted aortic arch with retrograde subclavian perfusion.  

PubMed

Type B interrupted aortic arch results in the left subclavian artery being perfused by a patent ductus arteriosus and antegrade flow is usually seen in the left subclavian artery. We describe a case of retrograde perfusion of the left subclavian artery through the circle of Willis in the presence of interrupted aortic arch type B and a restrictive patent ductus arteriosus. This is similar to subclavian steal syndrome when the perfusion pressure from the cerebral circuit is greater than that from the left subclavian artery. Early recognition of this phenomenon may alter management by indicating restriction at ductal level. This case highlights the need for a comprehensive review of both ventricular systolic function and ductal haemodynamics when retrograde flow is seen in the subclavian artery. PMID:25029884

Kang, Sok-Leng; Forsey, Jonathan; Walsh, Mark A

2014-06-01

43

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2011-10-01

44

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2013-10-01

45

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2012-10-01

46

Interruptions : using activity transitions to trigger proactive messages  

E-print Network

The proliferation of mobile devices and their tendency to present information proactively has led to an increase in device generated interruptions experienced by users. These interruptions are not confined to a particular ...

Ho, Joyce (Joyce Carmen)

2004-01-01

47

14 CFR 121.705 - Mechanical interruption summary report.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 121... Records and Reports 121.705 Mechanical interruption summary report. ...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

2014-01-01

48

14 CFR 121.705 - Mechanical interruption summary report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 121... Records and Reports 121.705 Mechanical interruption summary report. ...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

2013-01-01

49

14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. 91...Program Management 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

2013-01-01

50

14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. 91...Program Management 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

2014-01-01

51

14 CFR 121.705 - Mechanical interruption summary report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 121... Records and Reports 121.705 Mechanical interruption summary report. ...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

2011-01-01

52

14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135...Maintenance, and Alterations 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. ...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

2012-01-01

53

14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135...Maintenance, and Alterations 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. ...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

2011-01-01

54

14 CFR 121.705 - Mechanical interruption summary report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 121... Records and Reports 121.705 Mechanical interruption summary report. ...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

2012-01-01

55

14 CFR 121.705 - Mechanical interruption summary report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 121... Records and Reports 121.705 Mechanical interruption summary report. ...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

2010-01-01

56

14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. 91...Program Management 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

2011-01-01

57

14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135...Maintenance, and Alterations 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. ...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

2010-01-01

58

14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. 91...Program Management 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

2010-01-01

59

14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. 91...Program Management 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report...route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that...

2012-01-01

60

34 CFR 650.35 - May fellowship tenure be interrupted?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false May fellowship tenure be interrupted? 650.35 Section 650.35...JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be Met By Fellows? 650.35 May fellowship tenure be interrupted? (a) An institution of...

2010-07-01

61

New rules for Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation will cover Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCIs) as defined under OSHA General Industry Electrical Standard S29CFR1910, Subpart S [1], effective Oct 2008. These recent OSHA changes outline GFCI Requirements for General Industry temporary wiring installations that are used during construction-like activities including certain maintenance, remodeling or repair activities, involving buildings, structures or equipment. This General Industry rule also

Steve Antman; Roger Nolter; Danny Liggett

2011-01-01

62

Handling CAMAC Interrupts in Alpha OpenVMS\\/PCI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software for Alpha\\/OpenVMS systems has beendeveloped to support CAMAC interrupts (LAMs) via PCIbus. A number of devices in TRIUMF's Central ControlSystem generate interrupts that are delivered via CAMACsystems. These interrupts arrive using previously existingCAMAC executive crates and system crate interfaces.Until this development, these interrupts were only beingserviced by VAX\\/OpenVMS computers using Qbus but thetendency to replace VAXes by Alphas has

K. s. Lee; S. g. Kadantsev; E. Klassen; M. m. Mouat; P. w. Wilmshurst

63

Interruptions in Adolescent Girls' Conversations: Comparing Mothers and Friends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined meaning of interruptions in conversations of 56 adolescent girls conversing with their mothers or same-gender friends. Found that girls used more confirming interruptions and rejecting simultaneous speech than mothers. Functions of interruptions and simultaneous speech were the same with mothers and friends. Results suggest that increased

Beaumont, Sherry L.; Cheyne, J. Allan

1998-01-01

64

Random Testing of Interrupt-Driven Software John Regehr  

E-print Network

. Interrupts have led to well-known problems in safety-critical embedded software. For example, a numberRandom Testing of Interrupt-Driven Software John Regehr School of Computing University of Utah regehr@cs.utah.edu ABSTRACT Interrupt-driven embedded software is hard to thoroughly test since

Regehr, John

65

IT Use and the Interruption of NPD Knowledge Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

While product development (NPD) groups typically use information technology (IT) to enhance their knowledge work, such usage also elicits group-level interruptions. This paper develops a conceptual model that studies the partial mediation effect of interruptions on the link between IT use and knowledge integration in NPD. It proposes that IT use causes two interruption types that represent alternate channels of

Shamel Addas; Alain Pinsonneault

2010-01-01

66

Breakdown Phenomena of a Vacuum Interrupter after Current Zero  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on breakdown phenomena in a vacuum interrupter was conducted with the use of a numerical model based on the continuous transition model by Andrews and Varey (1). The vacuum model was validated against test data for the device under consideration. The study aim to find the mechanisms that prompt the breakdown of the interrupter as well as interrupting

Lionel R. Orama

67

Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter  

DOEpatents

A device and a method for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens.

Rockot, Joseph H. (N. Huntingdon, PA); Mikesell, Harvey E. (McMurray, PA); Jha, Kamal N. (Bethel Park, PA)

1998-01-01

68

Interrupting the Interruption: Neoliberalism and the Challenges of an Antiracist School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines a US public elementary bilingual, multicultural school that attempts to interrupt the reproduction of existing relations of dominance and subordination across a variety of differences. The school's experiences illuminate the complex reality of schools as a site of struggle and compromise between at times contradictory

Meshulam, Assaf; Apple, Michael W.

2014-01-01

69

Energy expenditure of interruptions to sedentary behavior  

PubMed Central

Background Advances in technology, social influences and environmental attributes have resulted in substan-tial portions of the day spent in sedentary pursuits. Sedentary behavior may be a cause of many chronic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Research demonstrated that breaking up sedentary time was beneficially associated with markers of body composition, cardiovascular health and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the total energy expenditure of three different durations of physical activity within a 30-minute sedentary period and to examine the potential benefits of interrupting sedentary behavior with physical activity for weight control. Methods Participants completed four consecutive 30-minute bouts of sedentary behavior (reading, working on the computer, or doing other desk activities) with and without interruptions of walking at a self-selected pace. Bout one contained no walking interruptions. Bout two contained a 1-minute walking period. Bout three contained a 2-minute walking period. Bout four contained a 5-minute walking period. Body composition and resting metabolic rate were assessed. Result Twenty males and females (18-39 years) completed this study. Results of the repeated measures analysis of variance with post-hoc testing showed that significantly more energy was expended during each 30 minute sedentary bout with a walking break than in the 30 minute sedentary bout (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). On average, participants expended an additional 3.0, 7.4, and 16.5 additional net or activity kilocalories during bouts 2, 3, and 4, respectively compared with bout 1. When extrapolated for a full eight-hour working day, this data shows that an individual would theoretically expend an additional 24, 59 or 132 kilocalories per day, if they stood up and walked at a normal, self selected pace for one, two or five minutes every hour, respectively, compared with sitting for the 8-hour period. Conclusions This study demonstrated that making small changes, such as taking a five minute walking break every hour could yield beneficial weight control or weight loss results. Therefore, taking breaks from sedentary time is a potential outlet to prevent obesity and the rise of obesity in developed countries. PMID:21708007

2011-01-01

70

Operational Failures and Interruptions in Hospital Nursing  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the work environment of hospital nurses with particular focus on the performance of work systems supplying information, materials, and equipment for patient care. Data Sources Primary observation, semistructured interviews, and surveys of hospital nurses. Study Design We sampled a cross-sectional group of six U.S. hospitals to examine the frequency of work system failures and their impact on nurse productivity. Data Collection We collected minute-by-minute data on the activities of 11 nurses. In addition, we conducted interviews with six of these nurses using questions related to obstacles to care. Finally, we created and administered two surveys in 48 nursing units, one for nurses and one for managers, asking about the frequency of specific work system failures. Principal Findings Nurses we observed experienced an average of 8.4 work system failures per 8-hour shift. The five most frequent types of failures, accounting for 6.4 of these obstacles, involved medications, orders, supplies, staffing, and equipment. Survey questions asking nurses how frequently they experienced these five categories of obstacles yielded similar frequencies. For an average 8-hour shift, the average task time was only 3.1 minutes, and in spite of this, nurses were interrupted mid-task an average of eight times per shift. Conclusions Our findings suggest that nurse effectiveness can be increased by creating improvement processes triggered by the occurrence of work system failures, with the goal of reducing future occurrences. Second, given that nursing work is fragmented and unpredictable, designing processes that are robust to interruption can help prevent errors. PMID:16704505

Tucker, Anita L; Spear, Steven J

2006-01-01

71

The intelligibility of interrupted speech depends upon its uninterrupted intelligibility.  

PubMed

Recognition of sentences containing periodic, 5-Hz, silent interruptions of differing duty cycles was assessed for three types of processed speech. Processing conditions employed different combinations of spectral resolution and the availability of fundamental frequency (F0) information, chosen to yield similar, below-ceiling performance for uninterrupted speech. Performance declined with decreasing duty cycle similarly for each processing condition, suggesting that, at least for certain forms of speech processing and interruption rates, performance with interrupted speech may reflect that obtained with uninterrupted speech. This highlights the difficulty in interpreting differences in interrupted speech performance across conditions for which uninterrupted performance is at ceiling. PMID:25324110

Ardoint, Marine; Green, Tim; Rosen, Stuart

2014-10-01

72

Enhancing the Television‐Viewing Experience through Commercial Interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers prefer to watch television programs without commercials. Yet, in spite of most consumers extensive experience with watching television, we propose that commercial interruptions can actually improve the television‐viewing experience. Although consumers do not foresee it, their enjoyment diminishes over time. Commercial interruptions can disrupt this adaptation process and restore the intensity of consumers enjoyment. Six studies demonstrate that, although

Tom Meyvis; Jeff Galak

2009-01-01

73

Negotiating task interruptions with virtual agents for health behavior change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual health counseling agents on mobile devices need to be able to interrupt their users when it is time for them to engage in healthy behaviors, such as scheduled medication taking or exercise. However, these real-time reminders often represent task interruptions for individuals who are engaged in work activities. This paper presents the results of a study which compares four

Timothy W. Bickmore; Daniel Mauer; Francisco Crespo; Thomas Brown

2008-01-01

74

A diary study of task switching and interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a diary study of the activities of information workers aimed at characterizing how people interleave multiple tasks amidst interruptions. The week-long study revealed the type and complexity of activities performed, the nature of the interruptions experienced, and the difficulty of shifting among numerous tasks. We present key findings from the diary study and discuss implications of the

Mary Czerwinski; Eric Horvitz; Susan Wilhite

2004-01-01

75

Controlling interruptions: awareness displays and social motivation for coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous communication is common in the workplace but can be disruptive. Such communication usually benefits the initiator more than the target of the disruption. Previous research has indicated that awareness displays showing the workload of a target can reduce the harm interruptions inflict, but can increase the cognitive load on interrupters. This paper describes an experiment testing whether team membership

Laura A. Dabbish; Robert E. Kraut

2004-01-01

76

Career Interruptions and Subsequent Earnings: A Reexamination Using Swedish Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cross-sectional and panel estimations of Swedish data reveal that different types of career interruptions have different effects on wages, varying by gender. Therefore, human capital depreciation does not entirely account for the negative effect of career interruptions on subsequent wages. (SK)

Albrecht, James W.; Edin, Per-Anders; Sundstrom, Marianne; Vroman, Susan B.

1999-01-01

77

Negotiating Task Interruptions with Virtual Agents for Health Behavior Change  

E-print Network

Negotiating Task Interruptions with Virtual Agents for Health Behavior Change Timothy Bickmore,daniel,crespof,brown.tho}@ccs.neu.edu ABSTRACT Virtual health counseling agents on mobile devices need to be able to interrupt their users when activities. This paper presents the results of a study which compares four strategies used by a virtual agent

Bickmore, Timothy

78

What makes interruptions disruptive? A study of length, similarity, and complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classic work on interruptions by Zeigarnik showed that tasks that were interrupted were more likely to be recalled after a delay than tasks that were not interrupted. Much of the literature on interruptions has been devoted to examining this effect, although more recently interruptions have been used to choose between competing designs for interfaces to complex devices. However, none of

Tony Gillie; Donald Broadbent

1989-01-01

79

Interrupt-based Phase-locked Frequency Multiplier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method aud system utilize a processor's digital timer and two interrupts to form a frequency multiplier. The first internipt's processing time window is definable by a first uumber of counts C(sub 1), of the digital timer while the second interrupt's processing time window is definable by a second number of counts C(sub 2) of the digital timer. A count value CV utilized by the systedmethod is based on a desired frequency multiplier N(sub 1), the timer clock rate, and the tiole required for one cycle of an input signal. The first interrupt is triggered upon completion of one cycle ofthe input sigual at which point the processing time window associated therewith begins. The second interrupt is triggered each time the timer's overflow signal is generated at which point the processing time window associated with the second interrupt begins. During the occurrence of the second interrupt's processing. the count value CV is modified to maintain the first interrupt's processing time window approximately centered between two of the second internipt's processing time windows.

Palumbo, Daniel L. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

80

Railgun power supply system utilizing traction motors and vacuum interrupters  

SciTech Connect

A railgun power supply has been designed that utilizes traction motors, vacuum interrupters and pulse transformers. An assembly of 28 traction motors, which store approximately 75 MJ, energize the primary windings of three pulse transformers at a peak current of 50 kA. At peak current an array of vacuum interrupters disconnects the transformer primary windings and forces the current to flow in the secondary windings. The secondary windings are connected directly to the railgun and require no opening switches. By staging the vacuum interrupter openings, a 1 MA to 1.3 MA ramped current waveform can be delivered to the railgun.

Parsons, W.M.; Parker, J.V.; Thullen, P.

1985-01-01

81

Undulator interruption in high-gain free electron lasers  

SciTech Connect

The effect of interrupting an undulator on the performance of high-gain free-electron lasers (FELs) is evaluated by analyzing 1-D Maxwell-Vlasov equations. It is found that the effect is small for a reasonable length of the interruptions for FEL parameters envisaged for short wavelength self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). Since the interruptions provide valuable space for quadrupoles and diagnostics, and at the same time permit a greater flexibility in mechanical design, the result of this paper is encouraging for construction of long undulator magnets required for SASE.

Kim, K.J.

1997-10-01

82

38 CFR 21.5078 - Interruption to conserve entitlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Entitlement 21.5078 Interruption to...

2010-07-01

83

Critical care 24 7: But, why is critical nutrition interrupted?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: Adequate nutritional support is crucial in prevention and treatment of malnutrition in critically ill-patients. Despite the intention to provide appropriate enteral nutrition (EN), meeting the full nutritional requirements can be a challenge due to interruptions. This study was undertaken to determine the cause and duration of interruptions in EN. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to a multidisciplinary critical care unit (CCU) of a tertiary care hospital from September 2010 to January 2011 and who received EN for a period >24 h were included in this observational, prospective study. A total of 327 patients were included, for a total of 857 patient-days. Reasons and duration of EN interruptions were recorded and categorized under four groups-procedures inside CCU, procedures outside CCU, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and others. Results: Procedure inside CCU accounted for 55.9% of the interruptions while GI symptoms for 24.2%. Although it is commonly perceived that procedures outside CCU are the most common reason for interruption, this contributed only to 18.4% individually; ventilation-related procedures were the most frequent cause (40.25%), followed by nasogastric tube aspirations (15.28%). Although GI bleed is often considered a reason to hold enteral feed, it was one of the least common reasons (1%) in our study. Interruption of 2-6 h was more frequent (43%) and most of this (67.1%) was related to procedures inside CCU. Conclusion: Awareness of reasons for EN interruptions will aid to modify protocol and minimize interruptions during procedures in CCU to reach nutrition goals. PMID:24701064

Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan; Daphnee, D. K.; Ranganathan, Lakshmi; Bhuvaneshwari, S.

2014-01-01

84

Interruptible Power: An Economic Advantage to Industrial Users  

E-print Network

INTERRUPTIBLE POWER: AN ECONOMIC ADVANTAGE TO INDUSTRIAL USERS Sidney D. Reynolds and John R. Gardner, Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, Tennessee ABSTRACT Energy costs have increased rapidly during the last several years...'s advantage to reduce this increment of production if possible. Interruptible power, which has been made available to industrial customers in the Tennessee Valley in some form for over 40 years, is one successful method TVA has found which enables system...

Reynolds, S. D.; Gardner, J. R.

1981-01-01

85

Exploring Minimal Nonverbal Interruption in Social HRI Paul Saulnier, Ehud Sharlin and Saul Greenberg  

E-print Network

an interruption will be extremely important as robots increasingly interact with people. In this paper, we performed an extensive user study of robotic nonverbal interruption across interruption scenarios. People were able to interpret robot behaviour as interruptions, and we identified the dominant cues people

Greenberg, Saul

86

2003 American Psychological Society meeting. A Task Interrupted Becomes A Prospective Task  

E-print Network

(PM Task). Similarity of the interrupting task to the interrupted task affects PM performance negatively If the interruption is a similar task, subjects may be less likely to recall at the end: Reminder condition - right before the interrupting task started, participants were given a 4 second text

87

A multielement analysis of contingent versus contingent-interrupted music.  

PubMed

A multielement design was employed to evaluate the comparative effects of contingent music and contingent-interrupted music procedures. Two profoundly mentally retarded children who attended a community day training center participated. During the contingent music procedure, access to brief periods of listening to music was contingent upon the display of a specified criterion of appropriate behavior. Alternately, during the contingent-interrupted music procedure, access to music was provided at the beginning of the session, and it remained on until an inappropriate behavior occurred. The two procedures were implemented to decrease crying and increase unsupported sitting. The multielement design required that each procedure and a baseline condition be alternated across sessions. Results demonstrated that the contingent-interrupted music procedure was more effective for both reducing crying and increasing proper sitting. Implications for research with music as a reinforcer were discussed. PMID:3994361

Allen, L D; Bryant, M C

1985-01-01

88

Interruptible load management using optimal power flow analysis  

SciTech Connect

An interruptible load management (ILM) scheme is proposed using dynamic Optimal Power Flow analysis. It enables real-time selection of interruptible loads incorporating network constraints and dynamic restriction on generation viz. ramp-rate limits. The model provides an analytical framework for addressing several important issues associated with optimal selection of load curtailment, e.g. advance notification for load curtailment, short-term price discounts and long-term discounts on demand-charges, power factor of the load and customer-cost associated with the load to be curtailed, and system security. A six-bus example illustrates the proposed methodology.

Majumdar, S.; Chattopadhyay, D.; Parikh, J. [Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Research, Bombay (India)] [Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Research, Bombay (India)

1996-05-01

89

Interrupted fluorescence, quantum jumps, and wave-function collapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of antibunching provides important support for the physical principle of the collapse of the wave function following a detection of a photon. In this paper it is shown that interrupted fluorescence in a three-level, V-configuration atom, with one transition strongly driven and one weakly driven, can be regarded as evidence supporting the complementary principle of 'collapse by nondetection'.

D. T. Pegg; P. L. Knight

1988-01-01

90

The Needs of Others: Gender and Sleep Interruptions for Caregivers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Received wisdom, some sociological theory and a handful of qualitative studies suggest that the "night shift" of caregiving work that interrupts sleep is a burden borne disproportionately by women. However, there is no broadly representative evidence to substantiate claims about who takes the night shift in contemporary American households.

Burgard, Sarah A.

2011-01-01

91

The discounting-by-interruptions hypothesis: model and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental animals often prefer small but immediate rewards even when larger-delayed rewards provide a higher rate of intake. This impulsivity has important implications for models of foraging and cooperation. Behavioral ecologists have hypoth- esized that animals discount delayed rewards because delay imposes a collection risk. According to this long-standing hypothesis, delay reduces value because an interruption that occurs while an

Samuel E. Henly; Allison Ostdiek; Erika Blackwell; Sarah Knutie; Aimee S. Dunlap; David W. Stephens

2007-01-01

92

Phasic norepinephrine: A neural interrupt signal for unexpected events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive animal studies indicate that the neuromodulator norepinephrine plays an important role in specific aspects of vigilance, attention and learning, putatively serving as a neural interrupt or reset function. The activity of norepinephrine-releasing neurons in the locus coeruleus during attentional tasks is modulated not only by the animal's level of engagement and the sensory inputs, but also by temporally rich

Peter Dayan; Angela J. Yu

2006-01-01

93

Considering Costs of Interruption and Deferral in Routing Interpersonal Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a prototype service that performs cost-benefit analysis about whether to route a phone call to a user versus reschedule the communication for later. The system balances the expected cost of interruption with the cost of deferral of a communication. We first present a decision- theoretic perspective on the handling of interpersonal communications. Then, we describe a prototype system

Eric Horvitz; Johnson Apacible; Paul Koch; Raman Sarin; Muru Subramani

94

Balancing Awareness and Interruption: Investigation of Notification Deferral Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review experiments with bounded deferral, a method aimed at reducing the disruptiveness of incoming messages and alerts in return for bounded delays in receiving information. Bounded deferral provides users with a means for balancing awareness about potentially urgent information with the cost of interruption.

Eric Horvitz; Johnson Apacible; Muru Subramani

2005-01-01

95

December 1988 Order Number 231468-003 PROGRAMMABLE INTERRUPT CONTROLLER  

E-print Network

Levels Y Programmable Interrupt Modes Y Individual Request Mask Capability Y Single a5V Supply (No Clocks technology and requires a single a5V supply Circuitry is static requiring no clock input The 8259A Name and Function VCC 28 I SUPPLY a5V Supply GND 14 I GROUND CS 1 I CHIP SELECT A low on this pin

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

96

A Personal, Mobile System for Understanding Stress and Interruptions  

E-print Network

A Personal, Mobile System for Understanding Stress and Interruptions by Karen Kay-Lynn Liu B.A. Computer Science Wellesley College, 2002 Submitted to the Program in Media Arts and Sciences, School Supervisor Accepted by Andrew B. Lippman Chair, Departmental Committee on Graduate Students Program in Media

97

Thinking Aloud in the Presence of Interruptions and Time Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thinking aloud is widely used for usability evaluation and its reactivity is therefore important to the quality of evaluation results. This study investigates whether thinking aloud (i.e., verbalization at levels 1 and 2) affects the behaviour of users who perform tasks that involve interruptions and time constraints, two frequent elements of real-world activities. We find that the presence of auditory,

Morten Hertzum; Kristin Due Holmegaard

2012-01-01

98

Bisimilarity is not Finitely Based over BPA with Interrupt  

E-print Network

Bisimilarity is not Finitely Based over BPA with Interrupt Luca Aceto1,3 , Wan Fokkink4 , Anna BPA enriched with the disrupt operator is proven to be finitely based. 1 Introduction Programming Algebra (BPA), as introduced by Bergstra and Klop in [12], some of these extensions, and their relative

Fokkink, Wan

99

Coping With Competing Demands: Interruption and the Type A Pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interruption and Type A behavior as causes of overload in police radio dispatchers were examined in this observational study. All of the dispatchers (N = 72) were observed throughout one work shift, and about one half of the sample were observed for two additional shifts. For each work activity, observers recorded whether it was finished before the next activity was

Sandra L. Kirmeyer

1988-01-01

100

Prediction of DC current flow between the Otjiwarongo and Katima Mulilo regions, using 3D DC resistivity forward modelling and magnetotelluric and audio-magnetotelluric data recorded during SAMTEX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SAMTEX (Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment) is a multinational project initiated in 2003 to study the regional-scale electrical conductivity substructure of southern Africa and to infer from it the tectonic processes involved in the formation and deformation of the southern African subcontinental lithosphere. As an additional opportunistic component to SAMTEX, audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data were acquired during the most recent phase of the experiment (Phase IV) to investigate the local-scale conductivity substructure in the Otjiwarongo and Katima Mulilo regions (northern and north-eastern Namibia), where in future the installation of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) earth electrodes will commence. Both of the AMT surveys are situated close to the edge of the orogenic Neo-Proterozoic Ghanzi-Chobe/Damara belts (collectively termed the Damara Mobile Belt, DMB), which represents in part the collision between the Congo and Kalahari cratons during the amalgamation of South Gondwana. Previous studies using magnetotellurics (MT), magnetometer arrays and geomagnetic observatory data all point to the existence of a highly conductive mid-crustal zone which correlates well with the spatial location of the DMB. Preliminary modelling of the Otjiwarongo AMT data confirms the existence of a high conductive zone at mid-crustal depths (10-15 km), whereas in Katima Mulilo insufficient penetration of electromagnetic energy in the AMT frequency band, due to conductive sediment cover, prevents information being obtained of the conductivity at mid-crustal depths. However, at Katima Mulilo there are sparser broadband MT (BBMT) and long period MT (LMT) measurements that can be incorporated. The high conductivity of the DMB is explained by the presence of conductive materials (graphites, sulphides). In contrast, the lithospheric structure of the neighbouring Archaean cratons, the Congo and Kalahari, are generally found to be electrically resistive and therefore it is hypothesized that the return path of DC current, flowing along the path of least resistance between the two electrodes, is most likely to lie somewhere within, or in the vicinity of, the DMB. To obtain a better understanding of the current flow we propose using geological information, previous results of studies of the conductivity of the DMB and surrounding regions and 2D and 3D inversion results from the AMT and MT data recorded during SAMTEX in northern Botswana and Namibia, as input to a 3D DC resistivity forward modelling code, and to try to predict the return path that the DC current will follow.

Share, P.; Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Miensopust, M. P.; Khoza, D. T.; Fourie, S.; Webb, S. J.; Thunehed, H.

2009-12-01

101

Vocal interruptions in dyadic communication as a function of speech and social anxiety.  

PubMed

Interruptions have been defined as a breach of the "turn-taking" contract in interpersonal communication. The relation between a speaker's personality and his or her propensity to interrupt was examined in 30-min unstructured conversations for 36 dyads (12 male, 12 female, and 12 mixed sex). The following predictions were made: (a) Interruptive behavior is inversely related to speech anxiety and positively related to confidence as a speaker; (b) interruptive behavior is inversely related to social anxiety (avoidance-distress; fear of negative evaluation). A stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed, controlling for the systematic effects of sex, the conversational partner's personality and amount of speech, and the speaker's use of back-channel responses. These hypotheses were confirmed for rate of total interruptions and rate of successful interruptions, for percentage of successful interruptions, and for mean duration of interruptions; the results withstood cross-validation analysis. PMID:490308

Natale, M; Entin, E; Jaffe, J

1979-06-01

102

Estimating business and residential water supply interruption losses from catastrophic events  

E-print Network

residential losses from water supply interruption we integrate consumers' demand curves, calibrated to waterEstimating business and residential water supply interruption losses from catastrophic events and residential consumers resulting from water supply disruption. The methodology we present for estimating

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

103

A Context Aware Interruption Management System for Mobile Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To prevent unwanted interruptions from cell phones, this paper proposes a system solution considering users unavailability.\\u000a We first look at desirable characteristics of the system, then design a system architecture which takes as input user preferences,\\u000a relevant context information and then produces as output if an incoming call should be allowed to ring. We also present a\\u000a case study application

Sina Zulkernain; Praveen Madiraju; Sheikh Iqbal Ahamed

2010-01-01

104

Sustained HIV viral suppression following treatment interruption: an observational study.  

PubMed

Treatment of HIV-infected patients with HAART can result in long-term suppression of viral loads to undetectable levels. Rapid virologic rebound typically follows treatment interruption (TI), with a potential for significant loss of CD4+ cells. Patients who maintain virologic suppression despite interrupting treatment have not been well described. All patients with a pretreatment viral load (VL) > or = 5000 copies/ml, who had been on therapy for > or = 2 weeks, and who underwent a TI lasting > or = 180 days were analyzed. Patients whose maximum VL did not exceed 5000 copies/ml > or = 6 months after starting TI ("nonrebounders") were compared with those whose VL exceeded 5000 copies/ml (rebounders). Seventy-one patients were included in the analysis. Nineteen (27%) were nonrebounders. Ninety-four percent of patients in each group interrupted treatment for reasons unrelated to virologic response. Median change in CD4 count during TI was not significantly different between the nonrebounder and rebounder groups (-20.5/microl vs. -64.0/microl; p < 0.086). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the following factors predicted nonrebounder status: peak VL before TI (log10 copies/ml) (OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.04-0.48, p = 0.0016); having received HAART (vs. mono/dual therapy) as initial regimen (OR: 11.0, 95% CI: 2.04-59.8, p = 0.0054); and female gender (OR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.09-21.5, p = 0.0384). The large majority of chronically infected HIV patients with a TI > or = 180 days interrupted treatment for reasons unrelated to virologic response. Almost 30% did not have a significant virologic rebound. Those patients were more likely to be female, had a lower peak VL prior to treatment, and their initial regimen was more likely to be HAART. Examining the immune responses of nonrebounders may contribute to the understanding of protective immunity to HIV. PMID:16438644

Bedimo, Roger; Chen, Ray Y; Westfall, Andrew O; Raper, James L; Allison, Jeroan J; Saag, Michael S

2006-01-01

105

Some effects of magnetic blowouts on arc interruption  

E-print Network

~ 5 SOME EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC BLOWOUTS ON , ' ARC INTEHHVPTION A Thes1s J'oe Ben1sh 1949 Approved. as bo sty1e and content by Chairtaan of Comrade t tee SOME EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC BLONOUTS ON ARC INTERRUPTION Joe Benish A Thesis Subnitted... ON A Thesis By Joe Banish In4 COMMENTS Synopsis Introduction- The "Statistical Method" Equipment Vsed. - Tests Made- Analytical Approach to the Mechanism of Blowout-?-ID Bibliography---- 26 Appendix I& Summary of Experimental Data...

Benish, Joe

2012-06-07

106

Percutaneous stenting of interrupted aortic arch to treat compressive myelopathy.  

PubMed

Neurological complications of coarctation of aorta include spontaneous SAH, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral abscess. Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) present as compressive myelopathy is not known. We describe an adult male presenting to neurology department with progressive paraparesis and was detected to have IAA with intraspinal collaterals causing compressive myelopathy. He was successfully treated with percutaneous stenting of IAA with dramatic improvement in paraparesis. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24458503

Moorthy, Nagaraja; Ananthakrishna, Rajiv; Nanjappa, Manjunath C

2014-11-01

107

This art of psychoanalysis. Dreaming undreamt dreams and interrupted cries.  

PubMed

It is the art of psychoanalysis in the making, a process inventing itself as it goes, that is the subject of this paper. The author articulates succinctly how he conceives of psychoanalysis, and offers a detailed clinical illustration. He suggests that each analysand unconsciously (and ambivalently) is seeking help in dreaming his 'night terrors' (his undreamt and undreamable dreams) and his 'nightmares' (his dreams that are interrupted when the pain of the emotional experience being dreamt exceeds his capacity for dreaming). Undreamable dreams are understood as manifestations of psychotic and psychically foreclosed aspects of the personality; interrupted dreams are viewed as reflections of neurotic and other non-psychotic parts of the personality. The analyst's task is to generate conditions that may allow the analysand--with the analyst's participation--to dream the patient's previously undreamable and interrupted dreams. A significant part of the analyst's participation in the patient's dreaming takes the form of the analyst's reverie experience. In the course of this conjoint work of dreaming in the analytic setting, the analyst may get to know the analysand sufficiently well for the analyst to be able to say something that is true to what is occurring at an unconscious level in the analytic relationship. The analyst's use of language contributes significantly to the possibility that the patient will be able to make use of what the analyst has said for purposes of dreaming his own experience, thereby dreaming himself more fully into existence. PMID:15310425

Ogden, Thomas H

2004-08-01

108

Errors and electronic prescribing: a controlled laboratory study to examine task complexity and interruption effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the effect of interruptions and task complexity on error rates when prescribing with computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems, and to categorize the types of prescribing errors.DesignTwo within-subject factors: task complexity (complex vs simple) and interruption (interruption vs no interruption). Thirty-two hospital doctors used a CPOE system in a computer laboratory to complete four prescribing tasks, half of

Farah Magrabi; Simon Y. W. Li; Richard O. Day; Enrico W. Coiera

2010-01-01

109

The Influence of Task Interruption on Individual Decision Making: An Information Overload Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interruptions are a common aspect of the work environment of most organizations. Yet little is known about how intemptions and their characteristics, such as frequency of occurrence, influence decision-making performance of individuals. Consequently, this paper reports the results of two experiments investigating the influence of interruptions on individual decision making. Interruptions were found to improve decision-making performance on simple tasks

Cheri Speier; Joseph S. Valacich; Iris Vessey

1999-01-01

110

Fractionation of Macro and Trace Metals Due to Off-Time Interrupted Electrodewatering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrodewatering with interrupted voltage was set up to investigate the effects of long off-time interruption on solid content in the final sludge cake and the fractionation of macro and trace elements in the sludge matrix. In comparison to continuous direct current (DC) electrodewatering, long off-time interruption had a negative effect on water removal, resulting in a high water content in

Tuan Pham-Anh; Mika Sillanp

2010-01-01

111

The Voltage Distribution Characteristics of a Hybrid Circuit Breaker During High Current Interruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid circuit breaker (HCB) technology based on a vacuum interrupter and a SF6 interrupter in series has become a new research direction because of the low-carbon requirements for high voltage switches. The vacuum interrupter has an excellent ability to deal with the steep rising part of the transient recovery voltage (TRV), while the SF6 interrupter can withstand the peak part of the voltage easily. An HCB can take advantage of the interrupters in the current interruption process. In this study, an HCB model based on the vacuum ion diffusion equations, ion density equation, and modified Cassie-Mayr arc equation is explored. A simulation platform is constructed by using a set of software called the alternative transient program (ATP). An HCB prototype is also designed, and the short circuit current is interrupted by the HCB under different action sequences of contacts. The voltage distribution of the HCB is analyzed through simulations and tests. The results demonstrate that if the vacuum interrupter withstands the initial TRV and interrupts the post-arc current first, then the recovery speed of the dielectric strength of the SF6 interrupter will be fast. The voltage distribution between two interrupters is determined by their post-arc resistance, which happens after current-zero, and subsequently, it is determined by the capacitive impedance after the post-arc current decays to zero.

Cheng, Xian; Duan, Xiongying; Liao, Minfu; Huang, Zhihui; Luo, Yan; Zou, Jiyan

2013-08-01

112

High-capacity single-pressure SF/sub 6/ interrupters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The object of this project was to design and develop a high-voltage, single-pressure, SF/sub 6/ interrupter with an interrupting capability of 120 kA at 145 kV with a continuous current rating of 5000 A and an interrupting time of 1.5 cycles or less. A second objective of 100 kA at 242 kV was added during the project. Mathematical models were used to extrapolate design requirements from existing data for 63 and 80 kA. Two model puffers, one liquid and the other gas, were designed and tested to obtain data at 100 kA. An interrupter, optimized on the basis of total prospective breaker cost, was designed using the mathematical models. A study was made of the construction materials to operate under the high-stress conditions in this interrupter. Existing high-speed movies of high-current arcs under double-flow conditions were analyzed to obtain more information for modeling the interrupter. The optimized interrupter design was built and tested. The interrupting capability confirmed calculations of predicted performance near current zero; however, the dielectric strength after interrupting these high-current arcs was not adequate for the 145-kV or the 242-kV ratings. The dielectric strength was reduced by hot gases flowing out of the interrupter. Valuable data have been obtained for modeling the SF/sub 6/ puffer interrupter for high currents.

Rostron, J R; Berkebile, L E; Spindle, H E

1983-05-01

113

Synchronization Phenomena Observed in Coupled Oscillator with Interrupted Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the synchronization in coupled oscillator with interrupted characteristics. First, we briefly explain the circuit model of the oscillator and its behavior. Next, the exact solution is derived from the differential equations. The hybrid return map can be realized by using symmetrical property. Also, we define the switching rate ? using the output pulses. From investigation of the bifurcation diagrams and the lyapunov exponent, we show the bifurcation structure, the existence regions of the periodic solutions and the quasi-periodic solutions within a parameter space. Moreover, we confirm the simulation results in the circuit experiments.

Tomonaga, Shingo; Kitajima, Hiroyuki; Kousaka, Takuji

114

Those Old Kentucky Blues An Interrupted Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interrupted case study begins with the construction of a pedigree following an initial encounter with a clan of “blue people.” After constructing a pedigree, students decide whether the condition (methemoglobinemia) is a heritable trait. Students are then exposed to a different perspective of this condition and have to re-evaluate the inheritance pattern. This case study was written for a first year honors course in general biology. It could be modified for most general science majors’ biology, genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology courses.

Leander, Celeste A.; Huskey, Robert J.

2008-01-01

115

The interrupted power law and the size of shadow banking.  

PubMed

Using public data (Forbes Global 2000) we show that the asset sizes for the largest global firms follow a Pareto distribution in an intermediate range, that is "interrupted" by a sharp cut-off in its upper tail, where it is totally dominated by financial firms. This flattening of the distribution contrasts with a large body of empirical literature which finds a Pareto distribution for firm sizes both across countries and over time. Pareto distributions are generally traced back to a mechanism of proportional random growth, based on a regime of constant returns to scale. This makes our findings of an "interrupted" Pareto distribution all the more puzzling, because we provide evidence that financial firms in our sample should operate in such a regime. We claim that the missing mass from the upper tail of the asset size distribution is a consequence of shadow banking activity and that it provides an (upper) estimate of the size of the shadow banking system. This estimate-which we propose as a shadow banking index-compares well with estimates of the Financial Stability Board until 2009, but it shows a sharper rise in shadow banking activity after 2010. Finally, we propose a proportional random growth model that reproduces the observed distribution, thereby providing a quantitative estimate of the intensity of shadow banking activity. PMID:24728096

Fiaschi, Davide; Kondor, Imre; Marsili, Matteo; Volpati, Valerio

2014-01-01

116

The Interrupted Power Law and the Size of Shadow Banking  

PubMed Central

Using public data (Forbes Global 2000) we show that the asset sizes for the largest global firms follow a Pareto distribution in an intermediate range, that is interrupted by a sharp cut-off in its upper tail, where it is totally dominated by financial firms. This flattening of the distribution contrasts with a large body of empirical literature which finds a Pareto distribution for firm sizes both across countries and over time. Pareto distributions are generally traced back to a mechanism of proportional random growth, based on a regime of constant returns to scale. This makes our findings of an interrupted Pareto distribution all the more puzzling, because we provide evidence that financial firms in our sample should operate in such a regime. We claim that the missing mass from the upper tail of the asset size distribution is a consequence of shadow banking activity and that it provides an (upper) estimate of the size of the shadow banking system. This estimatewhich we propose as a shadow banking indexcompares well with estimates of the Financial Stability Board until 2009, but it shows a sharper rise in shadow banking activity after 2010. Finally, we propose a proportional random growth model that reproduces the observed distribution, thereby providing a quantitative estimate of the intensity of shadow banking activity. PMID:24728096

Fiaschi, Davide; Kondor, Imre; Marsili, Matteo; Volpati, Valerio

2014-01-01

117

Facing the Pain An Interrupted Case Study in Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interrupted case study in cardiovascular and nerve physiology focuses on Lynn, a married woman with a young child whose husband is often away from home traveling on business. Lynn is anxious and short-tempered. She is also overweight and appears frustrated with her life. Recently, she has been experiencing intense pain on the right side of her face. One day she becomes disoriented while driving and crashes into a tree. Students research and analyze a variety of signs, symptoms, and medical data to solve the case. Developed for an animal physiology course taken by sophomore and junior science majors, the case could also be used in an anatomy and physiology course or general biology course.

Stephens, Phil

2009-01-01

118

The Ice Hockey Injury An Interrupted Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The high school ice hockey team is playing the last of three games in one day. The game gets rough and Rick, the star player, is slammed against the boards. Injured, he has to be  escorted from the ice. This interrupted case study follows Ricks health as it deteriorates over the next few hours. Students are presented with Rick’s symptoms and use their knowledge of anatomy and physiology to diagnose the problem. The case was developed for a one-semester animal physiology course taken mostly by sophomore and junior biology or general science majors. It could also be used in a freshman general biology course, anatomy and physiology course, or human physiology course for non-science majors.

Stephens, Phil

2004-01-01

119

Human Capital Depreciation during Family-related Career Interruptions in Male and Female Occupations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human Capital Depreciation during Family-related Career Interruptions in Male and Female Occupations This study investigates the relation between human capital depreciation during family-related career interruptions and occupational choice of women in the (West) German labour market. In contrast to other studies that do not explicitly focus on family-related career interruptions, we find that short-term human capital depreciation during these career

Dennis Goerlich; Grip Andries de

2007-01-01

120

Landmarks and ant search strategies after interrupted tandem runs.  

PubMed

During a tandem run, a single leading ant recruits a single follower to an important resource such as a new nest. To examine this process, we used a motorized gantry, which has not previously been used in ant studies, to track tandem running ants accurately in a large arena and we compared their performance in the presence of different types of landmark. We interrupted tandem runs by taking away the leader and moved a large distant landmark behind the new nest just at the time of this separation. Our aim was to determine what information followers might have obtained from the incomplete tandem run they had followed, and how they behaved after the tandem run had been interrupted. Our results show that former followers search by using composite random strategies with elements of sub-diffusive and diffusive movements. Furthermore, when we provided more landmarks former followers searched for longer. However, when all landmarks were removed completely from the arena, the ants' search duration lasted up to four times longer. Hence, their search strategy changes in the presence or absence of landmarks. Even after extensive search of this kind, former followers headed back to their old nest but did not return along the path of the tandem run they had followed. The combination of the position to which the large distant landmark behind the new nest was moved and the presence or absence of additional landmarks influenced the orientation of the former followers' paths back to the old nest. We also found that these ants exhibit behavioural lateralization in which they possibly use their right eye more than their left eye to recognize landmarks for navigation. Our results suggest that former follower ants learn landmarks during tandem running and use this information to make strategic decisions. PMID:24198259

Basari, Norasmah; Bruendl, Aisha C; Hemingway, Charlotte E; Roberts, Nicholas W; Sendova-Franks, Ana B; Franks, Nigel R

2014-03-15

121

Interruptions and Failure in Higher Education: Evidence from ISEG-UTL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Failure in higher education (HE) is the outcome of multiple time-dependent determinants. Interruptions in students' individual school trajectories are one of them, and that is why research on this topic has been attracting much attention these days. From an individual point of view, it is expected that interruptions in school trajectory, whatever

Chagas, Margarida; Fernandaes, Graca Leao

2011-01-01

122

A Formal Model-Based Approach for Designing Interruptions-Tolerant Advanced User Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the omnipresence of multitasking features in modern working environments, interruptions become commonplace as users must temporarily suspend a task to complete unexpected intervening activities. Interruptions are unpredictable and cannot be usually disregarded by users. They are quite often associated with negative effects (e.g. resuming to task after interruptions is difficult and is time consuming) but also with positive ones (e.g. alert systems shift our attention to matters that require immediate care to perform adequately a monitoring task). As users are facing more and more sources of information competing for attention, it is important to understand how interruptions affect user abilities to complete tasks. Despite multitasking environments are not new, interruptions are rarely considered explicitly in the design phases of interactive systems. In this chapter, we present how to integrate system models, task models and interruption models within a Model-Driven Approach (MDA). We show how formal descriptions of system and tasks can be used for simulation purposes while assessing system performance and how such simulations can be exploited to understand the consequences of interruptions on users' work. These aspects are illustrated by a case study demonstrating that these simulations can support the assessment of various interaction techniques according to interruption rates. An application of such concepts is also presented in the case of dynamic reconfiguration of the user interface (after hardware or software failures for instance).

Palanque, Philippe; Winckler, Marco; Martinie, Clia

123

Relative subjective count and assessment of interruptive technologies applied to mobile monitoring of stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of technologies - from agents designed to assist or encourage you, to context-based messaging services - have the opportunity to interrupt you many times throughout the day. One of the challenges with designing new highly interruptive technologies is how to objectively assess their influence on human experience. This paper presents an assessment of a new mobile system that

Rosalind W. Picard; Karen K. Liu

2007-01-01

124

Towards a Politics of Interruption: High School Design as Politically Relevant Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following essay seeks to highlight the use of engaged qualitative community-based research in education to respond to conditions of structural inequality. As "the politics of interruption", the process of creating neighborhood public high schools is centred in community accountability. Responsibility in this mode "interrupts" the resurgence of

Stovall, David

2007-01-01

125

Factors defining face-to-face interruptions in the office environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an on-going investigation on in ter- ruptions in the office caused by face-to-face inter ac- tions between knowledge workers. The study aims to identify opportunities for interactive solutions th at will support both, the interrupters and the interrupted. The study involves contextual interviews and observatio ns of how administrative assistants manage interruptio ns.

Agnieszka Matysiak Szstek; Panos Markopoulos

2006-01-01

126

Evolution of Drug-resistant Viral Populations during Interruption of Antiretroviral Therapy  

E-print Network

therapy (ART), some HIV-2 infected patients still fail treatment due to drug resistance, poor adherence1 Evolution of Drug-resistant Viral Populations during Interruption of Antiretroviral Therapy antiretroviral treatment (ART) interruption allows determination of the evolution of3 drug-resistant viruses

Ahlers, Guenter

127

Truncus Arteriosus Associated with Interrupted Aortic Arch in 50 Neonates: A Congenital Heart Surgeons Society Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Patients with both interrupted aortic arch (IAA) and truncus arteriosus (TA) have worse outcomes than those with either lesion in isolation. We determined outcomes and associated factors in this rare group. Methods. From 1987 to 1997, 50 (11%) of 472 neonates with IAA were identified with TA. Site of aortic arch interruption was distal to the left subclavian artery

Igor E. Konstantinov; Tara Karamlou; Eugene H. Blackstone; Ralph S. Mosca; Gary K. Lofland; Christopher A. Caldarone; William G. Williams; Andrew S. Mackie; Brian W. McCrindle

2006-01-01

128

Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior Occasioned by Interruption of Free-Operant Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study describes the assessment and treatment of the problem behavior of 3 individuals with autism for whom initial functional analysis results were inconclusive. Subsequent analyses revealed that the interruption of free-operant behavior using ''do'' requests (Study 1) as well as ''do'' and ''don't'' requests (Study 2) occasioned problem behavior. Initially, treatment involved differential and noncontingent reinforcement without interruption.

LOUIS P. HAGOPIAN; Jennifer L Bruzek; L YNN G. BOWMAN; HEATHER K. JENNETT

2007-01-01

129

Career Interruptions: how do they impact pension rights? Karine Briard1  

E-print Network

Career Interruptions: how do they impact pension rights? Karine Briard1 Cindy Duc2 Najat El appear to be more exposed to career interruptions. Second, we determine how pension rights for French. The literature dealing with this subject highlights the specific situation of women. A lot of studies provide

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

Voltage Dips and Short Interruption Immunity Test Generator As per IEC 61000 - 4 - 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Voltage Dips and Short Interruption Immunity Test Generator, to check the immunity of equipment against the voltage dips and short interruption, which occurs widely in low voltage mains and interface with electrical and electronics equipment connected to the mains. The output voltage waveforms of the immunity test generator are in full compliance with the standard IEC 61000

Sneha Bhavsar; Varsha A Shah; Vinod Gupta

2008-01-01

131

ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MULTITHREADING FOR INTERRUPTS ON COMMUNICATION PROCESSORS  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MULTITHREADING FOR INTERRUPTS ON COMMUNICATION PROCESSORS Vinu, and the possibil- ity of NIC buffer overflow. Therefore, this paper analyzes the effectiveness of multithreading model. Our simulation results reveal that multithreading for interrupts from a single NIC brings only

Lee, Ben

132

Exotic Options for Interruptible Electricity Supply Rajnish Kamat and Shmuel S. Oren  

E-print Network

rainy season for a hydro-dominated grid, or planned shutdowns of some major electricity plants. WePWP-071 Exotic Options for Interruptible Electricity Supply Contracts Rajnish Kamat and Shmuel S Options for Interruptible Electricity Supply Contracts Rajnish Kamat and Shmuel S. Oren Department

California at Berkeley. University of

133

Investigation on Welding Arc Interruptions in the Presence of Magnetic Fields: Welding Current Influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arc interruptions and, therefore, oscillation in the amount of energy and molten wire delivered to the plate have been observed during tandem pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW). It appears that these instabilities are related to the magnetic interaction between the arcs. In order to clarify the possible mechanisms involved, this paper tries to mimic the tandem GMAW arc interruptions.

Ruham Pablo Reis; Amrico Scotti; John Norrish; Dominic Cuiuri

2012-01-01

134

Electrolytic Hydrogen Evolution in DMFCs Induced by Oxygen Interruptions and Its Effect on Cell Performance  

E-print Network

Electrolytic Hydrogen Evolution in DMFCs Induced by Oxygen Interruptions and Its Effect on Cell and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China Localized hydrogen evolution was found in the anode the relationship among oxygen interruption, hydrogen evolution, and performance variation. Experimental Membrane

Zhao, Tianshou

135

The Limitations of Fixed-Priority Interrupt Handling in PREEMPT RT and Alternative Approaches  

E-print Network

}@cs.unc.edu Abstract Threaded interrupt handling is a common technique used in real-time operating systems since thread in such cases. We then survey alternative approaches from academic literature and commercial real-time operating systems to inspire new solutions in PREEMPT RT. 1 Introduction An interrupt is a hardware signal

Anderson, James

136

Execution-Based Model Checking of Interrupt-Based Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Execution-based model checking (EMC) is a verification technique based on executing a multi-threaded/multiprocess program repeatedly in a systematic manner in order to explore the different interleavings of the program. This is in contrast to traditional model checking, where a model of a system is analyzed Several execution-based model-checking tools exist at this point, such as for example Verisoft and Java PathFinder. The most common formal specification languages used by EMC tools are un- timed, either just assertions, or linear-time temporal logic (LTL). An alternative verification technique is Runtime Execution Monitoring (REM), which is based on monitor- ing the execution of a program, checking that the execution trace conforms to a requirement specification. The Temporal Rover and DBRover are such tools. They provide a very rich specification language, being an extension of LTL with real-time constraints and time-series. We show how execution-based model checking, combined with runtime execution monitoring, can be used for the verification of a large class of safety critical systems commonly known as interrupt-based systems. The proposed approach is novel in that: (i) it supports model checking of a large class of applications not practically verifiable using conventional EMC tools, (ii) it supports verification of LTL assertions extended with real-time and time-series constraints, and (iii) it supports the verification of custom schedulers.

Drusinsky, Doron; Havelund, Klaus

2003-01-01

137

Current interruption and particle beam generation by a plasma focus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through collaboration with Dr. K. H. Schoenbach of Texas Tech University the plasma focus opening switch (PFOS) was revised to answer basic questions as to utility of the concept. To estimate the plasma temperature and classical resistivity a soft X-ray spectrometer and X-ray pinhole camera were developed. The temperature was estimated from a coronal model to range between 0.4 to 0.5 keV for either a nitrogen or neon impurity (1 to 2%) in deuterium at 3 torr. Strong pinches were observed in pure neon (0.6 torr) with an electron temperature in the same range. The corresponding classical resistance of the pinch is 9 m omega whereas 500 m omega is more consistent with output voltage pulse and current flow at interruption indicating anomalous resistivity is present. A one-dimensional two-fluid computer code has been developed to model anomalous resistivity in the pinch phase and preliminary results are consistent with the snowplow model. The final analysis of the plasma focus particle beam generation experiments was completed and a strong correlation was found for the beam-target model as the mechanism for neutron production in the Illinois plasma focus device.

Gerdin, G.; Venneri, F.

1982-11-01

138

Interruption of malaria transmission by chloroquinized salt in Guyana  

PubMed Central

Malaria and its local vector, Anopheles darlingi, were eradicated from the coastlands and near interior of Guyana by DDT house-spraying in 1945-51. In the remote interior, where 10% of the population live, only partial control could be achieved, owing to the semi-silvatic habits of A. darlingi and the considerable movement of the sparse population; low malaria endemicity persisted in these areas with occasional localized outbreaks. In the south-west the problem was further complicated by the presence of malaria across the frontier. During the years 1961-65, the use of chloroquinized salt was made compulsory over an area of some 109 000 km2, covering a population of 48 500. Satisfactory results were obtained over 84% of this area within 6 months of the start of the campaign; only four cases of malaria were seen in four years. In the south-west, however, an initially favourable trend was reversed in 1962 with the introduction of a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum from Brazil. The situation was brought under control by house-spraying with DDT and interruption of transmission is expected. PMID:4864651

Giglioli, George; Rutten, Frans J.; Ramjattan, S.

1967-01-01

139

ICE System: Interruptible control expert system. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interruptible Control Expert (ICE) System is based on an architecture designed to provide a strong foundation for real-time production rule expert systems. Three principles are adopted to guide the development of ICE. A practical delivery platform must be provided, no specialized hardware can be used to solve deficiencies in the software design. Knowledge of the environment and the rule-base is exploited to improve the performance of a delivered system. The third principle of ICE is to respond to the most critical event, at the expense of the more trivial tasks. Minimal time is spent on classifying the potential importance of environmental events with the majority of the time used for finding the responses. A feature of the system, derived from all three principles, is the lack of working memory. By using a priori information, a fixed amount of memory can be specified for the hardware platform. The absence of working memory removes the dangers of garbage collection during the continuous operation of the controller.

Vezina, James M.

1990-01-01

140

Response to Interrupted Hyperopia after Restraint of Axial Elongation in Tree Shrews  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine if early restraint of axial elongation in response to plus lenses increases the subsequent response to interrupted hyperopia. Methods The normal, interrupted hyperopia group (n=5) had normal visual exposure until 24 days of visual experience (VE). Then, from 24 to 45 days of VE, the animals wore binocular ?4 D lenses which shifted the refractive state of the eyes in the direction of hyperopia. Interrupted hyperopia was produced by removing the lenses for 2 hours per day. The early restraint, interrupted hyperopia group (n=5) wore binocular +4 D lenses continuously from 11 to 24 days of VE, becoming emmetropic with the lenses in place and hyperopic when they were removed. Then, from 24 to 45 days of VE, the lenses were removed 22 hours per day and replaced for 2 hours per day. This created the same initial regimen of interrupted hyperopia as in the normal, interrupted hyperopia group. A plus-lens control group wore binocular +4 D lenses (n=5) continuously from 11 to 45 Days of VE to assess the stability of the refractive compensation. Results In the normal, interrupted hyperopia animals, 2 hours of relief from the imposed hyperopia was sufficient to prevent myopia development. In the early restraint, interrupted hyperopia animals, 2 hours of relief from the hyperopia did not prevent myopia development; the eyes became myopic while wearing the lens. The control animals compensated for the +4 D lenses and maintained a stable with-the-lens emmetropia through 45 days of VE, demonstrating that the myopic shift in the early-restraint group was due to the interrupted hyperopia. Conclusions Compensation for plus lenses, involving slowed axial elongation, increases the response to subsequent interrupted hyperopia. Similar to previous reports of an eye-size factor in elongated eyes, these data provide evidence for an eye-size mechanism operating, in this case, in eyes that have restrained their axial length. PMID:23314128

Siegwart, John T.; Norton, Thomas T.

2012-01-01

141

Interruptions in the collagen repeating tripeptide pattern can promote supramolecular association  

PubMed Central

The standard collagen triple-helix requires a perfect (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)n sequence, yet all nonfibrillar collagens contain interruptions in this tripeptide repeating pattern. Defining the structural consequences of disruptions in the sequence pattern may shed light on the biological role of sequence interruptions, which have been suggested to play a role in molecular flexibility, collagen degradation, and ligand binding. Previous studies on model peptides with 1- and 4-residue interruptions showed a localized perturbation within the triple-helix, and this work is extended to introduce natural collagen interruptions up to nine residue in length within a fixed (Gly-Pro-Hyp)n peptide context. All peptides in this set show decreases in triple-helix content and stability, with greater conformational perturbations for the interruptions longer than five residue. The most stable and least perturbed structure is seen for the 5-residue interruption peptide, whose sequence corresponds to a Gly to Ala missense mutation, such as those leading to collagen genetic diseases. The triple-helix peptides containing 8- and 9-residue interruptions exhibit a strong propensity for self-association to fibrous structures. In addition, a small peptide modeling only the 9-residue sequence within the interruption aggregates to form amyloid-like fibrils with antiparallel ?-sheet structure. The 8- and 9-residue interruption sequences studied here are predicted to have significant cross-? aggregation potential, and a similar propensity is reported for ?10% of other naturally occurring interruptions. The presence of amyloidogenic sequences within or between triple-helix domains may play a role in molecular association to normal tissue structures and could participate in observed interactions between collagen and amyloid. PMID:20340134

Hwang, Eileen S; Thiagarajan, Geetha; Parmar, Avanish S; Brodsky, Barbara

2010-01-01

142

NK-cell phenotype at interruption underlies widely divergent duration of CD4+-guided antiretroviral treatment interruption.  

PubMed

Long-term side effects may represent a relevant burden of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in HIV-infected patients with good CD4 immune reconstitution over extended time spans. CD4-guided treatment interruption (TI) has been evaluated to address this point and may result in a wide spectrum of time off ART in different patient cohorts. We studied whether differences in innate immune responses, in particular NK cells, are associated to patterns of longer (LoTI) or a shorter (ShTI) TI. Clinical cohort parameters were analyzed on a group of patients widely diverging for TI duration (<9 versus >18 months) on samples before TI, including NK-cell analysis and function by natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR)-triggered ?-IFN production. Although persistently reduced NCR expression (NKp30) and function were observed in both LoTI and ShTI patients on ART compared with healthy donors, relevant differences were observed at baseline TI in those patients who subsequently developed LoTI course. Lower expression of NKG2D and NKp46 on NK cells. This also translates in reduced ?-IFN production in redirected functional assays. Thus, differences in innate immune balance exist during ART, may be associated to differential control of HIV infection and their understanding could explain clinical differences in individual patients that are not reflected by CD4(+) cell counts alone. PMID:21216830

Bozzano, Federica; Nasi, Milena; Bertoncelli, Linda; Nemes, Elisa; Prati, Francesca; Marras, Francesco; Mussini, Cristina; Moretta, Lorenzo; Cossarizza, Andrea; De Maria, Andrea

2011-02-01

143

Addressing the problem of interruptability in the construction of large space structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large scale space missions of the near future will depend upon successful multi-launch coordination and construction in the space environment. One of the main challenges is how to accomplish a valid global analysis of a construction project with the intent of improving safety, reducing overall mission cost, and total construction time. These three items are dependent on the interruptability of the project, which is the ability of the project to recover from unplanned interruptions; such as failure of the launch vehicle; sudden, on-orbit, crew illness; or damage from a space debris impact on the partially completed space structure. A new method for addressing and analyzing this type of problem is being developed. The method is called Program Interruptability and Risk Evaluation Technique, or PIRET. PIRET has been developed in order to model and analyze potential interruptability concerns of the construction of the U.S. Space Station Freedom (SSF), although PIRET is applicable to any complex, multi-launch structural assembly. This paper is a progress report on the continuing research of the NASA Center for Space Construction at the University of Colorado, Boulder into this area of space construction interruptability. The paper will define the problem of interruptability, will diagram the PIRET approach to space construction, will share results from a preliminary PIRET analysis of SSF, and will show that PIRET is a useful tool for modelling space construction interruptability.

Davidson, Roger A.; Morgenthaler, George W.

1989-01-01

144

43 CFR 3481.4-3 - Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements applicable to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...4-3 Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence...

2012-10-01

145

43 CFR 3481.4-3 - Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements applicable to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...4-3 Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence...

2011-10-01

146

43 CFR 3481.4-3 - Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements applicable to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...4-3 Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence...

2013-10-01

147

Comparison of labial and mechanical interruption for measurement of aerodynamic parameters  

PubMed Central

Objectives/Hypothesis To directly compare the mechanical and labial interruption techniques of measuring subglottal pressure (Ps), mean flow rate (MFR) and laryngeal resistance (RL). Methods Thirty-four subjects performed 10 trials with both mechanical and labial interruption. Ps and MFR were recorded while RL was calculated by dividing Ps by MFR. Coefficients of variation were calculated in order to compare intra-subject precision. A subset of 10 subjects performed the tasks twice with thirty minutes between sessions. Bland-Altman plots were used to determine intra-subject repeatability for each of the methods. Results Mechanical interruption produced coefficients of variation for Ps, MFR, and RL of 0.0995, 0.127 and 0.129 respectively. Labial interruption produced coefficients of variation of 0.102, 0.147 and 0.169 respectively. P-values were 0.824 for Ps, 0.159 for MFR and 0.043 for RL. The Bland-Altman plots revealed comparable repeatability between the two methods. The 95% confidence intervals of the Bland-Altman plots for mechanical interruption were (-0.050 to 0.072), (-0.543 to 1.832), and (-2.498 to 10.528) for MFR, Ps, and RL. Confidence intervals for labial interruption were (-0.018 to 0.031), (0.057 to 2.442), and (-3.267 to 10.595) for MFR, Ps, and RL. Conclusions Mechanical interruption produced higher precision when measuring RL due to more reliable airflow measurements. Mechanical and labial interruption showed comparable repeatability. Further research into using mechanical interruption clinically is warranted. PMID:20189755

Chapin, William J.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Rieves, Adam L.; Jiang, Jack J.

2010-01-01

148

Interview interruption and responses to questions about domestic violence in India.  

PubMed

This article uses the National Family Health Survey 2005-2006 (NFHS-3) of India to examine the relationship between interview interruption and the reporting of domestic violence. A sample of 65,610 currently married women was used to compare reported acts of physical and sexual violence among women who had been interrupted during their interview and those who had not. Logistic regression analyses indicated that women whose interviews were interrupted by either an adult man or woman were significantly more likely to report intimate partner violence. PMID:25125491

Rabel, Brenna V; Cunningham, Solveig A; Stephenson, Rob

2014-08-01

149

Algorithm Design of CPCI Backboard's Interrupts Management Based on VxWorks' Multi-Tasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper begins with a brief introduction of the embedded real-time operating system VxWorks and CompactPCI standard, then gives the programming interfaces of Peripheral Controller Interface (PCI) configuring, interrupts handling and multi-tasks programming interface under VxWorks, and then emphasis is placed on the software frameworks of CPCI interrupt management based on multi-tasks. This method is sound in design and easy to adapt, ensures that all possible interrupts are handled in time, which makes it suitable for data acquisition systems with multi-channels, a high data rate, and hard real-time high energy physics.

Cheng, Jingyuan; An, Qi; Yang, Junfeng

2006-09-01

150

An Assessment of Instant Messaging Interruptions on Knowledge Workers' Task Performance in E-Learning-Based Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The modern workplace environment is filled with interruptions due to the necessity of coworkers to communicate with each other. Studies have revealed that interruptions can disrupt the ability of a knowledge worker to concentrate on a task, which can impact task performance (TP). Communication interruptions are due, in part, to the unavoidable

Mansi, Gary R.

2011-01-01

151

The Effects of Interruptions, Task Complexity, and Information Presentation on Computer-Supported Decision-Making Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interruptions are a frequent occurrence in the work life of most decision makers. This pa- per investigated the influence of interruptions on different types of decision-making tasks and the ability of information presentation formats, an aspect of information systems design, to alleviate them. Results from the experimental study indicate that interruptions facilitate performance on simple tasks, while inhibiting performance on

Cheri Speier; Iris Vessey; Joseph S. Valacich

2003-01-01

152

Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Northern Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Background Onchocerciasis is caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium species (black flies). In the Americas, the infection has been previously described in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela) where more than 370,000 people are currently considered at risk. Since 2001, disease control in Venezuela has relied on the mass drug administration to the at-risk communities. This report provides empirical evidence of interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium metallicum in 510 endemic communities from two Northern foci of Venezuela, after 1012 years of 6-monthly Mectizan (ivermectin) treatment to all the eligible residents. Methods In-depth entomologic and epidemiologic surveys were serially conducted from 20012012 in selected (sentinel and extra-sentinel) communities from the North-central (NC) and North-east (NE) onchocerciasis foci of Venezuela in order to monitor the impact of ivermectin treatment. Results From 20072009, entomological indicators in both foci confirmed that 0 out of 112,637 S. metallicum females examined by PCR contained L3 infection in insect heads. The upper bound of the 95% confidence intervals of the infective rate of the vector reached values below 1% by 2009 (NC) and 2012 (NE). Additionally, after 14 (NC) and 22 (NE) rounds of treatment, the seasonal transmission potential (UL CIs) of S. metallicum was under the critical threshold of 20 L3 per person per season. Serological analysis in school children < 15 years-old demonstrated that 0 out of 6,590 individuals were harboring antibodies to Ov-16. Finally, epidemiological surveys made during 2010 (NC) and 2012 (NE) showed no evidence of microfilariae in the skin and eyes of the population. Conclusions These results meet the WHO criteria for absence of parasite transmission and disease morbidity in these endemic areas which represent 91% of the population previously at-risk in the country. Consequently, the two Northern foci are currently under post-treatment onchocerciasis surveillance status in Venezuela. PMID:24499653

2013-01-01

153

Exact interrupt capability for processors using a packet-switching storage channel  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a technique for providing exact interrupts in the address translate or storage protect mode for a high-speed microprocessor which employs pipelining and a packet-switching main storage channel.

Hester, P.D.; Jeremiah, T.L.; Johnson, W.M.

1982-08-01

154

46 CFR 401.420 - Cancellation, delay or interruption in rendition of services.  

...interruption in rendition of services. 401.420 Section 401.420 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage Services ...

2014-10-01

155

Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome: Case report of three cases with review of literature  

PubMed Central

Pickardt syndrome (Pickardt-Fahlbusch syndrome) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by tertiary hypothyroidism caused by the interruption of the portal veins between hypothalamus and adenohypophysis. Typical features of this syndrome are tertiary hypothyroidism with low thyroid stimulating hormone, hyperprolactinemia and other pituitary hormone deficiencies. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome is characterized by a triad of thin or interrupted pituitary stalk, aplasia or hypoplasia of the anterior pituitary and absent or ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP) seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is a congenital anomaly of pituitary whose exact prevalence is unknown. In some cases, it is restricted to EPP or pituitary stalk interruption. We are presenting the case history along with MRI finding of three children's who presented with short stature and delayed puberty.

Gutch, Manish; Kumar, Sukriti; Razi, Syed Mohd; Saran, Sanjay; Gupta, Keshav Kumar

2014-01-01

156

A Diary Study of Task Switching and Interruptions Mary Czerwinski Eric Horvitz Susan Wilhite  

E-print Network

1 A Diary Study of Task Switching and Interruptions Mary Czerwinski Eric Horvitz Susan Wilhite Microsoft Research One Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA USA {marycz; horvitz; susanw}@microsoft.com ABSTRACT We

Horvitz, Eric

157

HF-reignition phenomena related to post-arc current in vacuum interrupters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After interruption of a high-frequency (hf) current by a vacuum arc, two distinct types of reignition can be observed. The first type follows immediately after interruption, the second type tends to allow a currentless pause of a few tenths of a microsecond. The post-arc current that flows after hf-current interruption has been measured and has a peak of several A and a decay time of a several hundreds of ns. A dynamic sheath model for the decaying plasma after hf current interruption has been used successfully to model the measured post-arc current waveshapes. The first type of reignition may be attributed to thermal stress during the period in which no ion sheath has been formed yet, the second type to high electric fields, either due to the ion sheath, or due to the TRV, the weight of each depending on gaplength and di/dt.

Smeets, Rene P.; Li, Honqun; Lamerichs, Nico J.; Kaneko, Eiji

1994-05-01

158

Estimating business and residential water supply interruption losses from catastrophic events  

E-print Network

' demand curves, calibrated to water agency price and quantity data. Our methodologies are spatiallyEstimating business and residential water supply interruption losses from catastrophic events of economic impacts on businesses and residential consumers resulting from water supply disruption

Sunding, David

159

Predictable Interrupt Management for Real Time Kernels over conventional PC Hardware1  

E-print Network

cases real-time guarantees during its operation. Embedded and real-time operating systems generally rely in the response to interrupts, general purpose (and also real-time) operating systems offer a set of mechanisms

Mejia-Alvarez, Pedro

160

Are interventions to reduce interruptions and errors during medication administration effective?: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Medication administration errors are frequent and lead to patient harm. Interruptions during medication administration have been implicated as a potential contributory factor. Objective To assess evidence of the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing interruptions during medication administration on interruption and medication administration error rates. Methods In September 2012 we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group reviews, Google and Google Scholar, and hand searched references of included articles. Intervention studies reporting quantitative data based on direct observations of at least one outcome (interruptions, or medication administration errors) were included. Results Ten studies, eight from North America and two from Europe, met the inclusion criteria. Five measured significant changes in interruption rates pre and post interventions. Four found a significant reduction and one an increase. Three studies measured changes in medication administration error rates and showed reductions, but all implemented multiple interventions beyond those targeted at reducing interruptions. No study used a controlled design pre and post. Definitions for key outcome indicators were reported in only four studies. Only one study reported ? scores for inter-rater reliability and none of the multi-ward studies accounted for clustering in their analyses. Conclusions There is weak evidence of the effectiveness of interventions to significantly reduce interruption rates and very limited evidence of their effectiveness to reduce medication administration errors. Policy makers should proceed with great caution in implementing such interventions until controlled trials confirm their value. Research is also required to better understand the complex relationship between interruptions and error to support intervention design. PMID:23980188

Raban, Magdalena Z; Westbrook, Johanna I

2014-01-01

161

Influence of air flow velocity distribution on current interruption in flat-type arc quenching chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current interrupting capability and distribution of the airflow velocity were investigated in a flat-type air-blast arc quenching chamber. Seven orifice-nozzles with different inlet widths were used to obtain various distributions of the flow velocities. A number of interruption tests for an AC current with a peak value of 1000 A revealed that a decrease in the inlet width from 20

T. Matsumura; Y. Yokomizu; H. Ohno

2000-01-01

162

Structured Treatment Interruption in Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

background We compared two strategies for treating patients infected with multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). methods Patients with multidrug-resistant HIV and HIV RNA levels of more than 5000 copies per milliliter were randomly assigned to a four-month structured interruption of treat- ment followed by a change in antiretroviral regimen (treatment-interruption group) or to an immediate change in regimen (control group).

Jody Lawrence; Douglas L. Mayers; Katherine Huppler Hullsiek; Gary Collins; Donald I. Abrams; Ronald B. Reisler; Lawrence R. Crane; Barry S. Schmetter; Thomas J. Dionne; Jennifer M. Saldanha; Michael C. Jones; John D. Baxter

2003-01-01

163

Surviving task interruptions: Investigating the implications of long-term working memory theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typically, we have several tasks at hand, some of which are in interrupted state while others are being carried out. Most of the time, such interruptions are not disruptive to task performance. Based on the theory of Long-Term Working Memory (LTWM; Ericsson, K.A., Kintsch, W., 1995. Long-term working memory. Psychological Review, 102, 211-245), we posit that unless there are enough

Antti Oulasvirta; Pertti Saariluoma

164

Repeat interruptions in spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 expansions are strongly associated with epileptic seizures.  

PubMed

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, is the result of a non-coding, pentanucleotide repeat expansion within intron 9 of the Ataxin 10 gene. SCA10 patients present with pure cerebellar ataxia; yet, some families also have a high incidence of epilepsy. SCA10 expansions containing penta- and heptanucleotide interruption motifs, termed "ATCCT interruptions," experience large contractions during germline transmission, particularly in paternal lineages. At the same time, these alleles confer an earlier age at onset which contradicts traditional rules of genetic anticipation in repeat expansions. Previously, ATCCT interruptions have been associated with a higher prevalence of epileptic seizures in one Mexican-American SCA10 family. In a large cohort of SCA10 families, we analyzed whether ATCCT interruptions confer a greater risk for developing seizures in these families. Notably, we find that the presence of repeat interruptions within the SCA10 expansion confers a 6.3-fold increase in the risk of an SCA10 patient developing epilepsy (6.2-fold when considering patients of Mexican ancestry only) and a 13.7-fold increase in having a positive family history of epilepsy (10.5-fold when considering patients of Mexican ancestry only). We conclude that the presence of repeat interruptions in SCA10 repeat expansion indicates a significant risk for the epilepsy phenotype and should be considered during genetic counseling. PMID:24318420

McFarland, Karen N; Liu, Jilin; Landrian, Ivette; Zeng, Desmond; Raskin, Salmo; Moscovich, Mariana; Gatto, Emilia M; Ochoa, Adriana; Teive, Hlio A G; Rasmussen, Astrid; Ashizawa, Tetsuo

2014-03-01

165

Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined. 17 figs.

Andrews, L.B.

1998-08-18

166

Folding Delay and Structural Perturbations Caused by Type IV Collagen Natural Interruptions and Nearby Gly Missense Mutations*  

PubMed Central

The standard collagen triple helix requires Gly as every third residue in the amino acid sequence, yet all nonfibrillar collagens contain sites where this repeating pattern is interrupted. To explore the effects of such natural interruptions on the triple helix, a 4- or 15-residue sequence from human basement membrane type IV collagen was introduced between (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)n domains within a recombinant bacterial collagen. The interruptions had little effect on melting temperature, consistent with the high thermal stability reported for nonfibrillar collagens. Although the 4-residue interruption cannot be accommodated within a standard triple helix, trypsin and thermolysin resistance indicated a tightly packed structure. Central residues of the 15-residue interruption were protease-susceptible, whereas residues near the (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)n boundary were resistant, supporting a transition from an alternate conformation to a well packed triple helix. Both interruptions led to a delay in triple-helix folding, with the 15-residue interruption causing slower folding than the 4-residue interruption. These results suggest that propagation through interruptions represents a slow folding step. To clarify the relation between natural interruptions and pathological mutations, a Gly to Ser missense mutation was placed three triplets away from the 4-residue interruption. As a result of this mutation, the 4-residue interruption and nearby triple helix became susceptible to protease digestion, and an additional folding delay was observed. Because Gly missense mutations that cause disease are often located near natural interruptions, structural and folding perturbations arising from such proximity could be a factor in collagen genetic diseases. PMID:22179614

Hwang, Eileen S.; Brodsky, Barbara

2012-01-01

167

HIV Reservoirs and Immune Surveillance Evasion Cause the Failure of Structured Treatment Interruptions: A Computational Study  

PubMed Central

Continuous antiretroviral therapy is currently the most effective way to treat HIV infection. Unstructured interruptions are quite common due to side effects and toxicity, among others, and cannot be prevented. Several attempts to structure these interruptions failed due to an increased morbidity compared to continuous treatment. The cause of this failure is poorly understood and often attributed to drug resistance. Here we show that structured treatment interruptions would fail regardless of the emergence of drug resistance. Our computational model of the HIV infection dynamics in lymphoid tissue inside lymph nodes, demonstrates that HIV reservoirs and evasion from immune surveillance themselves are sufficient to cause the failure of structured interruptions. We validate our model with data from a clinical trial and show that it is possible to optimize the schedule of interruptions to perform as well as the continuous treatment in the absence of drug resistance. Our methodology enables studying the problem of treatment optimization without having impact on human beings. We anticipate that it is feasible to steer new clinical trials using computational models. PMID:22558348

Mancini, Emiliano; Castiglione, Filippo; Bernaschi, Massimo; de Luca, Andrea; Sloot, Peter M. A.

2012-01-01

168

Feasibility of sedation and analgesia interruption following cannulation in neonates on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation  

PubMed Central

Purpose In most extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) centers patients are heavily sedated to prevent accidental decannulation and bleeding complications. In ventilated adults not on ECMO, daily sedation interruption protocols improve short- and long-term outcome. This study aims to evaluate safety and feasibility of sedation interruption following cannulation in neonates on ECMO. Methods Prospective observational study in 20 neonates (0.175.8days of age) admitted for ECMO treatment. Midazolam (n=20) and morphine (n=18) infusions were discontinued within 30min after cannulation. Pain and sedation were regularly assessed using COMFORT-B and visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Midazolam and/or morphine were restarted and titrated according to protocolized treatment algorithms. Results Median (interquartile range, IQR) time without any sedatives was 10.3h (5.024.1h). Median interruption duration for midazolam was 16.5h (6.629.6h), and for morphine was 11.2h (6.739.4h). During this period no accidental extubations, decannulations or bleeding complications occurred. Conclusions This is the first study to show that interruption of sedatives and analgesics following cannulation in neonates on ECMO is safe and feasible. Interruption times are 23times longer than reported for adult ICU patients not on ECMO. Further trials are needed to substantiate these findings and evaluate short- and long-term outcomes. PMID:20508914

Wildschut, E. D.; Hanekamp, M. N.; Vet, N. J.; Houmes, R. J.; Ahsman, M. J.; Mathot, R. A. A.; de Wildt, S. N.

2010-01-01

169

Interrupting the balance: reconsidering the complexities of conflict in South Sudan.  

PubMed

By the start of 2014, violent conflict had erupted across much of South Sudan following initial violence in Juba on 15 December 2013. The speed with which the fighting has spread raises questions regarding the impact of national-level politics on violence at the local level. This article develops a framework in which violent conflict can be comprehended as a response to the interruption of the negotiation of the balance of power between groups; the negotiation is interrupted when that balance tips in favour of one group, such as through changes in the national political market or government reforms. The article provides two cases studies of attempts to strengthen the state that inadvertently interrupted local power relations between groups. In response, the groups engaged in violent conflict to reinstate a balance of power. Both examples involve conflict among Dinka groups from 2005 to 2008. PMID:24601915

Pendle, Naomi

2014-04-01

170

Sequencing analysis of the spinal bulbar muscular atrophy CAG expansion reveals absence of repeat interruptions?  

PubMed Central

Trinucleotide repeat disorders are a heterogeneous group of diseases caused by the expansion, beyond a pathogenic threshold, of unstable DNA tracts in different genes. Sequence interruptions in the repeats have been described in the majority of these disorders and may influence disease phenotype and heritability. Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a motor neuron disease caused by a CAG trinucleotide expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Diagnostic testing and previous research have relied on fragment analysis polymerase chain reaction to determine the AR CAG repeat size, and have therefore not been able to assess the presence of interruptions. We here report a sequencing study of the AR CAG repeat in a cohort of SBMA patients and control subjects in the United Kingdom. We found no repeat interruptions to be present, and we describe differences between sequencing and traditional sizing methods. PMID:24041967

Fratta, Pietro; Collins, Toby; Pemble, Sally; Nethisinghe, Suran; Devoy, Anny; Giunti, Paola; Sweeney, Mary G.; Hanna, Michael G.; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.

2014-01-01

171

The role of AGG interruptions in fragile X repeat expansions: a twenty-year perspective.  

PubMed

In 1994, it was suggested that AGG interruptions affect the stability of the fragile X triplet repeat. Until recently, however, this hypothesis was not explored on a large scale due primarily to the technical difficulty of determining AGG interruption patterns of the two alleles in females. The recent development of a PCR technology that overcomes this difficulty and accurately identifies the number and position of AGGs has led to several studies that examine their influence on repeat stability. Here, we present a historical perspective of relevant studies published during the last 20 years on AGG interruptions and examine those recent publications that have refined risk estimates for repeat instability and full-mutation expansions. PMID:25120560

Latham, Gary J; Coppinger, Justine; Hadd, Andrew G; Nolin, Sarah L

2014-01-01

172

Growth-interruption-induced low-density InAs quantum dots on GaAs  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the use of growth interruption to obtain low-density InAs quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs. The process was realized by Ostwald-type ripening of a thin InAs layer. It was found that the optical properties of the QDs as a function of growth interruption strongly depend on InAs growth rate. By using this approach, a low density of QDs (4 dots/{mu}m{sup 2}) with uniform size distribution was achieved. As compared to QDs grown without growth interruption, a larger energy separation between the QD confined levels was observed, suggesting a situation closer to the ideal zero-dimensional system. Combining with an InGaAs capping layer such as In-rich QDs enable 1.3 {mu}m emission at 4 K.

Li, L. H.; Alloing, B. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics, Station 3, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Chauvin, N.; Fiore, A. [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Patriarche, G. [LPN/CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France)

2008-10-15

173

Continuum modeling for two-lane traffic flow with consideration of the traffic interruption probability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering the effects that the probability of traffic interruption and the friction between two lanes have on the car-following behaviour, this paper establishes a new two-lane microscopic car-following model. Based on this microscopic model, a new macroscopic model was deduced by the relevance relation of microscopic and macroscopic scale parameters for the two-lane traffic flow. Terms related to lane change are added into the continuity equations and velocity dynamic equations to investigate the lane change rate. Numerical results verify that the proposed model can be efficiently used to reflect the effect of the probability of traffic interruption on the shock, rarefaction wave and lane change behaviour on two-lane freeways. The model has also been applied in reproducing some complex traffic phenomena caused by traffic accident interruption.

Tian, Chuan; Sun, Di-Hua

2010-12-01

174

Properties of InGaN/GaN heterostructures obtained using growth interruption under various conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conversion of the near-surface regions of InGaN into GaN during growth interruption has been studied. It has been established that the process exhibits saturation in time, develops at a depth below 2 nm, and proceeds in a similar way in the presence and absence of hydrogen, although hydrogen supply significantly accelerates the conversion process. InGaN/GaN heterostructures obtained with interruption of growth exhibit an additional photoluminescence line with a longer wavelength as compared to that for an otherwise analogous continuous InGaN layer. It is established that growth interruption in a hydrogen-free atmosphere is more favorable for obtaining light-emitting structures for the green spectral range.

Lundin, W. V.; Nikolaev, A. E.; Sakharov, A. V.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.

2014-05-01

175

Mediated interruptions of anaesthesia providers using predictions of workload from anaesthesia information management system data.  

PubMed

Perioperative interruptions generated electronically from anaesthesia information management systems (AIMS) can provide useful feedback, but may adversely affect task performance if distractions occur at inopportune moments. Ideally such interruptions would occur only at times when their impact would be minimal. In this study of AIMS data, we evaluated the times of comments, drugs, fluids and periodic assessments (e.g. electrocardiogram diagnosis and train-of-four) to develop recommendations for the timing of interruptions during the intraoperative period. The 39,707 cases studied were divided into intervals between: 1) enter operating room; 2) induction; 3) intubation; 4) surgical incision; and 5) end surgery. Five-minute intervals of no documentation were determined for each case. The offsets from the start of each interval when >50% of ongoing cases had completed initial documentation were calculated (MIN50). The primary endpoint for each interval was the percentage of all cases still ongoing at MIN50. Results were that the intervals from entering the operating room to induction and from induction to intubation were unsuitable for interruptions confirming prior observational studies of anaesthesia workload. At least 13 minutes after surgical incision was the most suitable time for interruptions with 92% of cases still ongoing. Timing was minimally affected by the type of anaesthesia, surgical facility, surgical service, prone positioning or scheduled case duration. The implication of our results is that for mediated interruptions, waiting at least 13 minutes after the start of surgery is appropriate. Although we used AIMS data, operating room information system data is also suitable. PMID:22934862

Epstein, R H; Dexter, F

2012-09-01

176

Effects of growth interruption on the properties of InGaN\\/GaN MQWs grown by MOCVD  

Microsoft Academic Search

InGaN\\/GaN MQWs structures were grown by MOCVD. The effects of the growth interruption time on the optical and structural properties\\u000a of InGaN\\/GaN MQWs were investigated. The experimental results show that the growth interruption can improve the interface\\u000a quality, increase the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL); but if the interruption time was too\\u000a long, the well thickness and the

Nan-Hui Niu; Huai-Bing Wang; Jian-Ping Liu; Nai-Xin Liu; Yan-Hui Xing; Jun Han; Jun Deng; Guang-Di Shen

2007-01-01

177

Interrupted Aortic Arch Type B in A Patient with Cat Eye Syndrome  

PubMed Central

We report a patient with cat eye syndrome and interrupted aortic arch type B, a typical finding in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Chromosomal analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed a supernumerary bisatellited isodicentric marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22. The segment from 22pter to 22q11.2 in the supernumerary chromosome found in our patient does not overlap with the region deleted in patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. However, the finding of an interrupted aortic arch type B is unusual in CES, although it is a frequent heart defect in the 22q11 deletion syndrome. PMID:19629279

Belangero, Sintia Iole Nogueira; Bellucco, Fernanda Teixeira da Silva; Cernach, Mirlene C. S. P.; Hacker, April M.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

2010-01-01

178

Changes in Lipids and Lipoprotein Particle Concentrations After Interruption of Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background The effect of interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on lipoprotein particle subclasses has not been studied. We examined short-term changes in lipids and lipoprotein particles among 332 HIV-infected individuals randomized to interrupt or continue ART in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy trial. Methods Lipids and lipoprotein particles measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were compared between randomized groups at month 1; associations with inflammatory and coagulation markers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein; interleukin 6; amyloid A; amyloid P; D-dimer; prothrombin fragment 1 + 2) were assessed. Results Compared with continuation of ART, treatment interruption resulted in substantial declines in total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride, at month 1 but had little net effect on total/HDL cholesterol ratio [baseline-adjusted mean difference [95% confidence interval (CI)] interruption versus continuation arms: ?0.10 (?0.59 to 0.38); P = 0.67]. ART interruption resulted in declines in total, large, and medium very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle concentrations (VLDL-p) and total and medium HDL-p. However, there was no change in small HDL-p [baseline-adjusted percentage difference between arms: ?4.6% (?13.1%, +5.1% ); P = 0.35], small LDL-p [?5.0% (?16.9%, +8.6%); P = 0.45], or other LDL-p subclasses. Changes in lipid parameters on ART interruption did not differ according to baseline ART class (protease inhibitor versus non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) but were negatively associated both with changes in HIV viral load and with changes in inflammatory and coagulation markers, particularly D-dimer. Conclusions These results suggest that ART interruption does not favorably influence overall lipid profile: there was little net effect on total/HDL cholesterol ratio, and no change in small LDL-p or small HDL-p, the lipoprotein particle subclasses most consistently linked to coronary risk. Short-term declines in lipid parameters after ART interruption were not associated with class of ART and may be linked to increases in viral replication, inflammation and coagulation. PMID:20658749

Lampe, Fiona C.; Duprez, Daniel A.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Tracy, Russell; Otvos, James; Stroes, Erik; Cooper, David A.; Hoy, Jennifer; Paton, Nick I.; Friis-M?ller, Nina; Neuhaus, Jacquie; Liappis, Angelike P.; Phillips, Andrew N.

2011-01-01

179

Interruption in the maintenance of compulsive sexual disorder: two case studies.  

PubMed

Sexual offenses and disorders are at times compulsive in nature. It is hypothesized that compulsive sexuality is a function of a history of interrupted or frustrated approach behavior. Two case studies involving compulsive features were treated by preventing such interruptions and delays. An A-B-A-B single-case experimental design on one of the two case studies provided some support for the hypothesized relationship. Implications for assessment and treatment are examined and the mechanisms underlying the hypothesized relationship are discussed. PMID:3219064

Konopacki, W P; Oei, T P

1988-10-01

180

Interrupted aortic arch with ventricular septal defect: an unsuspected fatal congenital anomaly in forensic pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a relatively rare cardiovascular anomaly worldwide and is very rarely encountered in forensic pathology. A case of clinically unsuspected fatal IAA in a 5-day old neonate is described. A full term female baby was declared dead on arrival at an emergency hospital few hours after having been discharged from a maternity hospital following delivery. There

P. M Ngwalali; Y Ohtsu; S Tsunenari

2002-01-01

181

EMG and metabolite-based prediction of force in paralyzed quadriceps muscle under interrupted stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major issue associated with functional electrical stimulation (FES) of a paralyzed limb is the decay with time of the muscle force as a result of fatigue. A possible means to reduce fatigue during FES is by using interrupted stimulation, in which fatigue and recovery occur in sequence. In this study, we present a model which enables us to evaluate

Oron Levin; Joseph Mizrahi

1999-01-01

182

Interrupted Experiences: Reflection, Listening and "Negativity" in the Practice of Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This inquiry explores the educative meaning of interruptions or breaks in teacher's experiences by looking at their role in reflection and listening. Reflection and listening are not only two vital and distinct aspects of teaching, but are also interrelated and as such can serve to productively inform one another. In this context, I develop the

English, Andrea

2007-01-01

183

Contextual Cues Aid Recovery from Interruption: The Role of Associative Activation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of experiments introduced interruptions to the execution phase of simple Tower of London problems and found that the opportunity for preparation before the break in task reduced the time cost at resumption. Retrieval of the suspended goal was facilitated when participants were given the opportunity to encode retrieval cues during an

Hodgetts, Helen M.; Jones, Dylan M.

2006-01-01

184

Teaching Refugee Learners with Interrupted Education in Science: Vocabulary, Literacy and Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the globalisation of education, large numbers of students with interrupted schooling and low English literacy levels represent both a quantitative and qualitative shift in the kinds of students faced by teachers in classrooms. In Australia, after a year in an intensive English language programme, immigrant and refugee students are placed in

Miller, Jennifer

2009-01-01

185

On the Failure to Detect Changes in Scenes Across Brief Interruptions  

E-print Network

On the Failure to Detect Changes in Scenes Across Brief Interruptions Ronald A. Rensink Cambridge Basic Research, Nissan Research & Development Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA J. Kevin O'Regan Laboratoire de to occur (Rensink, O'Regan, & Clark, 1997). To deter- mine the mechanisms behind this induced "change

Rensink, Ronald A.

186

A Mobile Intelligent Interruption Management System Sina Zulkernain, Praveen Madiraju1  

E-print Network

, it is possible to manage cell phone disruptions using advanced features like sensing capability, ubiquitous unavailability with regard to cell phones. We provide the problem description of interruption and its impact, Ubiquitous Computing, Unavailability Categories: H.5.m 1 Introduction A cell phone is an electronic device

Madiraju, Praveen

187

Abstract--Designing robotic behaviours capable of initiating an interruption will be extremely important as robots  

E-print Network

important as robots increasingly interact with people. Consequently, we explore the social impact that people were able to interpret interruption urgency from robot behaviour using only minimal nonverbal important as robots increasingly interact with people. We can expect classes of robots that will be capable

Greenberg, Saul

188

Response Interruption and Redirection for Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism: A Systematic Replication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study systematically replicated and extended previous research on response interruption and redirection (RIRD) by assessing instructed responses of a different topography than the target behavior, percentage of session spent in treatment, generalization of behavior reduction, and social validity of the intervention. Results showed that RIRD

Cassella, Megan Duffy; Sidener, Tina M.; Sidener, David W.; Progar, Patrick R.

2011-01-01

189

Quantifying the diffusive mass transfer of nonreactive solutes in columns of fractured saprolite using flow interruption  

SciTech Connect

Subsurface transport processes of low-level radioactive contaminants at hazardous waste sites are complex due to a nonuniform distribution of pore regions in heterogeneous media. During transport, contaminant mass is continuously transferred between the various pore regions via hydraulic and concentration gradients. Our objective was to quantify the diffusive mass transfer of a nonreactive solute between the matrix porosity and preferential flow paths in fractured subsurface media. A large, undisturbed soil column (41 cm long by 17 cm diameter) of weathered, fractured shale was acquired from a proposed waste site on the Oak Ridge Reservation in eastern Tennessee. We injected a nonreactive a nonreactive tracer, Br{sup -}, under saturated conditions, interrupting tracer flow for a designated time, and then reinitiating flow. Experiments considered tracer injection and displacement, variations in duration of flow interruption, and variations in flux. Transport of Br{sup -} through the undisturbed medium was characterized by asymmetric breakthrough curves (BTC), indicative of preferential flow coupled with movement into the matrix. Interrupting flow resulted in decreased and increased Br{sup -} concentrations during tracer infusion and displacement, respectively, when flow was reinitiated. More pronounced concentration perturbations were observed at high fluxes and long interrupt durations. These perturbations were driven by solute concentration gradients established between pore regions as a result of preferential flow. 39 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Reedy, O.C.; Jardine, P.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilson, G.V. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Selim, H.M. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1996-09-01

190

Re-thinking pedagogy for middle school students with little, no or severely interrupted schooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arrival of substantial cohorts of English language learners from Africa with little, no or severely interrupted schooling is requiring new pedagogic responses from teachers in Australia and other Western countries of refugee re-settlement. If the students are to have optimal educational and life chances, it is crucial for them to acquire resources for conceptually deep and critical literacy tasks

KAREN DOOLEY

2009-01-01

191

Re-Thinking Pedagogy for Middle School Students with Little, No or Severely Interrupted Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The arrival of substantial cohorts of English language learners from Africa with little, no or severely interrupted schooling is requiring new pedagogic responses from teachers in Australia and other Western countries of refugee re-settlement. If the students are to have optimal educational and life chances, it is crucial for them to acquire

Dooley, Karen

2009-01-01

192

Cerebrospinal fluid signs of neuronal damage after antiretroviral treatment interruption in HIV1 infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The neurofilament is a major structural component of myelinated axons. Increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the light chain of the neurofilament protein (NFL) can serve as a sensitive indicator of central nervous system (CNS) injury. To assess whether interrupting antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection might have a deleterious effect on the CNS, we measured NFL levels in HIV-infected

Magnus Gissln; Lars Rosengren; Lars Hagberg; Steven G Deeks; Richard W Price

2005-01-01

193

Interrupted Maternal Education and Child Health: The Long Run Health Impact of the Chinese Cultural Revolution  

E-print Network

Interrupted Maternal Education and Child Health: The Long Run Health Impact of the Chinese Cultural the correlation between maternal education and child health is commonly found and almost unanimously acknowledged when the documented strong association between maternal education and child health is indeed causal (i

Levinson, David M.

194

Influence of Gap Distance on Vacuum Arc Characteristics of Cup Type AMF Electrode in Vacuum Interrupters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greenhouse effect of SF6 is a great concern today. The development of high voltage vacuum circuit breakers becomes more important. The vacuum circuit breaker has minimum pollution to the environment. The vacuum interrupter is the key part of a vacuum circuit breaker. The interrupting characteristics in vacuum and arc-controlling technique are the main problems to be solved for a longer gap distance in developing high voltage vacuum interrupters. To understand the vacuum arc characteristics and provide effective technique to control vacuum arc in a long gap distance, the arc mode transition of a cup-type axial magnetic field electrode is observed by a high-speed charge coupled device (CCD) video camera under different gap distances while the arc voltage and arc current are recorded. The controlling ability of the axial magnetic field on vacuum arc obviously decreases when the gap distance is longer than 40 mm. The noise components and mean value of the arc voltage significantly increase. The effective method for controlling the vacuum arc characteristics is provided by long gap distances based on the test results. The test results can be used as a reference to develop high voltage and large capacity vacuum interrupters.

Cheng, Shaoyong; Xiu, Shixin; Wang, Jimei; Shen, Zhengchao

2006-11-01

195

TELEPHONE BOMB THREAT REPORT FORM INSTRUCTIONS: Be calm. Be courteous. Listen. Do not interrupt the caller.  

E-print Network

TELEPHONE BOMB THREAT REPORT FORM INSTRUCTIONS: Be calm. Be courteous. Listen. Do not interrupt for caller (Try to ask these questions and document responses) When will the bomb explode? What kind of bomb is it? What will cause the bomb to explode? Where is the bomb located? What does the bomb look like? Did

Almor, Amit

196

Effects of the Level of Noise Interruptions on Temporary Threshold Shift  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermittency is a noise exposure variable which must be considered in proposing standard limits. The Committee on Healing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics (CHABA) defined a noise interruption as a period in the noise exposure when the level falls below 80?dBA for more than five minutes or for 20% of the duration of the preceding noise burst. Our previous study indicated that

MARK SCHMIDEK; BRUCE MARGOLIS; TERRY L. HENDERSON

1975-01-01

197

Mathematical Modeling of Current-Interrupt and Pulse Operation of Valve-Regulated Lead Acid Cells  

E-print Network

-regulated lead acid VRLA and the nickel-metal hydride Ni-MH battery are being actively consideredMathematical Modeling of Current-Interrupt and Pulse Operation of Valve-Regulated Lead Acid Cells Electric and hybrid electric vehicles use valve-regulated lead acid VRLA cells that are subjected

198

The Effects of Matched Stimulation and Response Interruption and Redirection on Vocal Stereotypy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stereotypy has been classified as repetitive behavior that does not serve any apparent function. Two procedures that have been found to reduce rates of vocal stereotypy effectively are response interruption and redirection (RIRD) and noncontingent access to matched stimulation (MS). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of

Love, Jessica J.; Miguel, Caio F.; Fernand, Jonathan K.; LaBrie, Jillian K.

2012-01-01

199

An Investigation of Interruptions and Resumptions in Multi-Tasking Dialogues  

E-print Network

these complex interactions. First, we examine task interruptions: switching from the ongoing task to a real to help users with task switching. For complex domains, the user might be confused about which task that the user and interface can follow in task switching. We propose to start with conventions that are actually

Heeman, Peter

200

The Behavior Chain Interruption Strategy: Generalization to Out-of-Routine Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The behavior chain interruption strategy was used to teach four students with mental retardation and severe communication disorders the skill of requesting. All students learned requesting with a routine using graphic symbols and generalized these skills to two untaught routines. All also generalized requesting to out-of-routine contexts involving

Grunsell, Julie; Carter, Mark

2002-01-01

201

Interrupting Gendered Discursive Practices in Classroom Talk about Texts: Easy to Think About, Difficult to Do  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on us a group of university and school-based teacher researchers and observers as we attempted to alter or interrupt certain gendered discursive practices that threatened to reproduce some of the same inequities in classroom talk about texts that we had noted in the past, but had not challenged. A feminist theoretical framework guided our

Donna E. Alvermann; Michelle Commeyras; Josephine P. Young; Sally Randall; David Hinson

1997-01-01

202

Contextual Cues Aid Recovery From Interruption: The Role of Associative Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments introduced interruptions to the execution phase of simple Tower of London problems and found that the opportunity for preparation before the break in task reduced the time cost at resumption. Retrieval of the suspended goal was facilitated when participants were given the opportunity to encode retrieval cues during an \\

Helen M. Hodgetts; Dylan M. Jones

2006-01-01

203

Discharge Properties and Emitted Electromagnetic Wave Spectrum in Low Vacuum Region of Vacuum Interrupter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study on reliability of vacuum interrupter (VI) such as detection method of the slow leak has been extensively carried out, while study on discharge properties in low vacuum of VI is still insufficient. In this report, we experimentally investigated discharge properties inside VI under closed contact and open contact conditions of main contactors in low vacuum of VI to simulate

Mohamad Kamarol; Shinya Ohtsuka; Hitoshi Saitou; Masayuki Sakaki; Masayuki Hikita

2005-01-01

204

The Effects of Response Interruption and Redirection and Sertraline on Vocal Stereotypy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although response interruption and redirection (RIRD) has been shown to be successful in reducing vocal stereotypy, recent reports have suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may also reduce these behaviors. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effects of RIRD with and without sertraline on

Miguel, Caio F.; Clark, Kathy; Tereshko, Lisa; Ahearn, William H.

2009-01-01

205

Aging correlation functions of the interrupted fractional Fokker-Planck propagator  

E-print Network

Aging correlation functions of the interrupted fractional Fokker-Planck propagator James B The authors explore aging in a general semi-Markov process with arbitrary waiting time distributions coordination, but one can generalize the construction to incorporate cutoffs in the aging of the system, i

Cao, Jianshu

206

Interruption of bispectral index monitoring by nerve integrity monitoring during tympanoplasty -A case report-  

PubMed Central

We report that intraoperative NIM-2 monitoring devices can interfere with bispectral index monitoring. A 45-year-old male with chronic otits media underwent tympanolasty under general anesthesia with NIM-2 monitoring and bispectral index monitoring at our institution. And then, bispectral index monitoring was severely interrupted by facial nerve monitoring. PMID:23459709

Kim, Jun Hyun; Kim, Ah Na; Kim, Kyung Woo; Lee, Sang-Il; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Park, Jang Su; Kim, Jung Won

2013-01-01

207

One-Cycle Fault Interruption at 500 kV: System Benefits and Breaker Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for ultra-rapid fault interruption is identified on the basis of improvements to generator stability and the power transmission capability of the BPA 500 kV system. The development of a modified 500 kV air blast circuit breaker and a special fault sensor, which in combination should reduce total fault duration to essentially one cycle, is then described.

R. O. Berglund; W. A. Mittelstadt; M. L. Shelton; P. Barkan; C. G. Dewey; K. M. Skreiner

1974-01-01

208

Design and Implementation of a Microprocessor-Based Interrupt-Driven Control for an Irrigation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and implementation of an interrupt-driven microprocessor-based irrigation system. It is targeted towards users of automated irrigation systems, in order to improve the irrigation water management and frost protection of crops. To achieve this goal, we developed a procedure integrating the agrohydrological aspect of irrigation with the microprocessing aspects. The system uses soil water potential measurements

A. Benzekri; L. Refoufi

2006-01-01

209

A gunner model for an AAA tracking task with interrupted observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of modeling a trained human operator's tracking performance in an anti-aircraft system under various display blanking conditions is discussed. The input to the gunner is the observable tracking error subjected to repeated interruptions (blanking). A simple and effective gunner model was developed. The effect of blanking on the gunner's tracking performance is approached via modeling the observer and controller gains.

Yu, C. F.; Wei, K. C.; Vikmanis, M.

1982-01-01

210

Timing for distribution and interrupt control for the TOPAZ Data Acquisition System  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide a standardized control for the data acquisition system for the TOPAZ detector, a Timing Server/Receiver scheme was developed. The entire system is under control of the Interrupt Control Section, which manages an integral operation of the data acquisition system in the FASTBUS environment.

Ikeda, H.; Enomoto, R.; Kawabata, S.; Yamauchi, M.; Imanishi, A.; Ishii, T.; Maruyama, K.; Masuda, H.; Okumo, H.; Ukai, K.

1987-02-01

211

Mitigation of Interruption Reimbursements by Periodic Network Reconfiguration: Risk-Based Versus Expected-Value Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reimbursement for violation of customer quality standards such as maximal interruption frequency and duration is at the basis of modern quality of service regulation. In order to satisfy quality standards, distribution operators periodically reconfigure the network so as to minimize the risk of reimbursement. Reconfiguration relies upon reliability analysis of an \\

Pedro M. S. Carvalho; Pedro F. Correia; Lus A. F. M. Ferreira

2007-01-01

212

1 Introduction White's effect is a striking lightness illusion in which targets that interrupt the dark  

E-print Network

1 Introduction White's effect is a striking lightness illusion in which targets that interrupt than white. The amount of the effect is not easily explained either. The lightness difference between explicitly devoted to lightness effects in double-increment and double-decrement White's displays. Spehar et

Ripamonti, Caterina

213

Two dimensional simulation of Post Arc phenomenon in Vacuum Interrupter with Axial Magnetic Field contacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Post Arc (PA) phase of Vacuum Interrupters (Vis) and the effects of dominant physical parameters of vacuum arc investigated in this paper. 2-D movement of PA plasma in the presence of Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) is simulated in a proper Finite Element Method (FEM). The residual plasma at Current Zero (CZ) crossing is assumed in the inter-electrode space. Due

Amir Hayati Soloot; Jouya Jadidian; Edris Agheb; Hans Kristian Hoidalen

2010-01-01

214

The Role of Interruptions in polyQ in the Pathology of SCA1  

PubMed Central

At least nine dominant neurodegenerative diseases are caused by expansion of CAG repeats in coding regions of specific genes that result in abnormal elongation of polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts in the corresponding gene products. When above a threshold that is specific for each disease the expanded polyQ repeats promote protein aggregation, misfolding and neuronal cell death. The length of the polyQ tract inversely correlates with the age at disease onset. It has been observed that interruption of the CAG tract by silent (CAA) or missense (CAT) mutations may strongly modulate the effect of the expansion and delay the onset age. We have carried out an extensive study in which we have complemented DNA sequence determination with cellular and biophysical models. By sequencing cloned normal and expanded SCA1 alleles taken from our cohort of ataxia patients we have determined sequence variations not detected by allele sizing and observed for the first time that repeat instability can occur even in the presence of CAG interruptions. We show that histidine interrupted pathogenic alleles occur with relatively high frequency (11%) and that the age at onset inversely correlates linearly with the longer uninterrupted CAG stretch. This could be reproduced in a cellular model to support the hypothesis of a linear behaviour of polyQ. We clarified by in vitro studies the mechanism by which polyQ interruption slows down aggregation. Our study contributes to the understanding of the role of polyQ interruption in the SCA1 phenotype with regards to age at disease onset, prognosis and transmission. PMID:23935513

Faggiano, Serena; Vannocci, Tommaso; Rezaei, Human; Pemble, Sally; Sweeney, Mary G.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Davis, Mary B.; Pastore, Annalisa; Giunti, Paola

2013-01-01

215

43 CFR 3481.4-1 - Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...3481.4-1 Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as...

2011-10-01

216

43 CFR 3481.4-1 - Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...3481.4-1 Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as...

2013-10-01

217

43 CFR 3481.4-1 - Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...3481.4-1 Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as...

2012-10-01

218

DC Current in 4-N-Pentyl-40 -Cyanobiphenyl  

E-print Network

. P. KORNIYCHUK,1 YU. A. REZNIKOV,1 K. SINGER,2 AND A. I. VOITENKO1 1 Institute of Physics, NAS emerged due to spontaneous dissociation of 5CB Address correspondence to A. I. Voitenko, Institute-044-5251589; E-mail: voitenko@iop.kiev.ua Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., Vol. 540: pp. 182­187, 2011 Copyright # Taylor

Reznikov, Yuri

219

Interrupted Sound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Article described a project in the electronic music idiom for use in the intermediate grades that was different, that involved no complicated or expensive apparatus, and that showed an interesting relationship between measurement and rhythm. (Author/RK)

DeWell, Robert

1973-01-01

220

Truncus arteriosus with interrupted aortic arch: successful repair using modified cardiopulmonary bypass and surgical techniques.  

PubMed

A neonate with truncus arteriosus (type 1) and interrupted aortic arch (type A) associated with an excessively large gap between interrupted aortic segments underwent successful reconstruction of the aortic arch with a partial subclavian flap aortoplasty plus bovine jugular patch (Contegra 200, Medtronic, Inc, Minneapolis, MN) using continuous selective low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass without circulatory arrest. The ventricular septal defect was closed with a Dacron (IMPRA, Inc, Tempe, AZ) patch, and a Contegra prosthesis was used to re-establish right ventricle to pulmonary artery continuity. At an 18-month follow-up, the patient was free of symptoms with normal development. Echocardiography revealed a widely patent aortic arch and an unobstructed right ventricle to pulmonary artery connection. PMID:17062266

Chen, Qiang; Modi, Paul; Caputo, Massimo; Pawade, Ash

2006-11-01

221

Cost of Power Interruptions to Electricity Consumers in the UnitedStates (U.S.)  

SciTech Connect

The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern U.S.and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 catalyzed discussions about modernizingthe U.S. electricity grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of$50 to $100 billion would be needed. This work seeks to better understandan important piece of information that has been missing from thesediscussions: What do power interruptions and fluctuations in powerquality (power-quality events) cost electricity consumers? We developed abottom-up approach for assessing the cost to U.S. electricity consumersof power interruptions and power-quality events (referred to collectivelyas "reliability events"). The approach can be used to help assess thepotential benefits of investments in improving the reliability of thegrid. We developed a new estimate based on publicly availableinformation, and assessed how uncertainties in these data affect thisestimate using sensitivity analysis.

Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Eto, Joseph H.

2006-02-16

222

43 CFR 3481.4-2 - What are some examples of circumstances that qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? 3481.4-2 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? (a) Movement,...

2013-10-01

223

43 CFR 3481.4-2 - What are some examples of circumstances that qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? 3481.4-2 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? (a) Movement,...

2012-10-01

224

43 CFR 3481.4-2 - What are some examples of circumstances that qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? 3481.4-2 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? (a) Movement,...

2011-10-01

225

Fabrication of InGaN quantum dots by periodically interrupted growth in MOCVD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-assembled InGaN quantum dots are fabricated in a two-flow horizontal MOCVD reactor maintained at the pressure of 200 torr. The precursors were trimethyl-gallium (TMG) and trimethyl-indium (TMI) and ammonia (NH3), and the carrier gas was N2 and H2. The optimum condition for periodically interrupted growth (PIG) mode was deduced to fabricate the InGaN quantum dots. NH3 was supplied in PIG

Seung-Kyu Choi; Jae-Min Jang; Sung-Hak Yi; Jung-A. Kim; Woo-Gwang Jung

2008-01-01

226

Effect of cyclic flow interruptions on performance of vertically directed miscible floods  

SciTech Connect

Spatial variation in permeability can result in a wide range of critical rates in heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs undergoing vertical miscible floods. Such situations provide an opportunity for new design strategies where gravity, viscosity, and forces are used to advantage to improve miscible flood performance. One such design strategy is use of cyclic interruptions in the from of well flow shut-in. Field observations and laboratory experiments are presented.

Adamache, I. (Adamache Petroeng Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Kantzas, A. (Novacor Research and Technology Corp., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); McIntyre, F.; Sigmund, P.

1994-02-01

227

Green leaf volatiles interrupt aggregation pheromone response in bark beetles infesting southern pines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Green leaf volatiles were shown to interrupt responses to aggregation pheromones of three species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) which infest pines in the southern United States [the southern pine beetle,Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.; the four-spined engraver,Ips avulsus (Eichhoff); and the five-spined engraver,Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff)]. The order of effectiveness of the compounds tested for each species was hexanal>hexanal+hexan-1-ol>hexan-1-ol. Neither hexanal,

J. C. Dickens; R. F. Billings; T. L. Payne

1992-01-01

228

Interrupting Sudden Death: Genes, Medicine, and the Healing Power of Love  

Microsoft Academic Search

This autobiographical account centers on a life-threatening medical crisisa sudden aortic dissectionand the dramatic story of how medical technology, the skill and care of medical professionals, and the support of family and friends all contributed to the interruption of sudden death and to the power of healing. Attention is given to the systemic nature of medical treatmentthe challenge of collaboration

Timothy Weber

2006-01-01

229

Sex-Related Wage Differentials and Women's Interrupted Labor Careers--The Chicken or the Egg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex-related wage differentials are almost universal. Economists traditionally tend to attribute a major fraction of the differential to the difference in on-the-job training. This difference is in turn often explained by the lower profitability of this investment for women who plan to interrupt their careers for family reasons. An alternative explanation that women do not invest because of lack of

Reuben Gronau

1982-01-01

230

Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and\\/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in:

Tadej Mezek; Ed Sverko; Martina D. Rudy; Donna Zaruk; Alfredo Capretta; Craig E. Hebert; Aaron T. Fisk; Daryl J. McGoldrick; Teresa J. Newton; Trent M. Sutton; Marten A. Koops; Andrew M. Muir; Timothy B. Johnson; Mark P. Ebener; Michael T. Arts

2011-01-01

231

Renal vascular response to interruption of the renin-angiotensin system in normal man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal vascular response to interruption of the renin-angiotensin system in normal man. We assessed the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the response of the renal circulation to restriction of sodium intake in 38 normal patients. Both saralasin (10 to 30 ng\\/kg\\/min), an angiotensin antagonist, and SQ 20881 (30 to 300g\\/kg), a converting enzyme inhibitor, induced a dose-related increase in

Norman K Hollenberg; Gordon H Williams; Kenneth J Taub; Isao Ishikawa; Colin Brown; Douglass F Adams

1977-01-01

232

Experimental research and computer simulation process of pulse heating high current contacts of vacuum interrupters  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major factors limiting magnitude of currents passing through the contacts of vacuum inter-rupters is the possibility of electrode melting and following welding of electrodes with pulse currents of high amplitude. Research of processes of melting is complicated because of their significant non-linearity and non-stationarity. In full formulation it is necessary to solve a joint thermoelectromechanical problem. Today

A. Chaly; V. Dmitriev; M. Pavleino; O. Pavleino

2010-01-01

233

Evaluation of Probiotic Survivability in Yogurt Exposed To Cold Chain Interruption  

PubMed Central

In this research, the survival of probiotic microorganisms in yogurts stored at room temperature (cold chain interruption conditions) was studied. Milk inoculated with yogurt bacteria (mixed culture of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus) and a single probiotic culture (L. acidophilus LA-5 or Bifidobacterium lactis Bb- 12 or L. rhamnosus HN001 or L. paracasei Lpc-37) were incubated till pH of 4.5 was reached. Probiotic yogurts were stored at two different temperatures including cold (control) and room temperatures (5 and 20C, respectively). Changes in pH decrease, titratable acidity increase and redox potential increase as well as the viability of probiotics per 6 h intervals during an assumptive interrupted cold storage (24 h) were monitored. The survival of probiotics was strongly dependent on the storage temperature and remarkable viability loss occurred in room temperature compared to refrigerated storage. In addition, the survivability was dependent on probiotic strain. Among our experimental strains, B. lactis Bb-12 showed the less resistance to be stored at 20C (24 h) and referring to the recommended minimum numbers of 107 cfu mL- 1, L. rhamnosus HN001 was the most suitable probiotic strain to be used in probiotic yogurts especially in countries having high possibility of cold chain interruption during storage. PMID:24250681

Ferdousi, Rohollah; Rouhi, Millad; Mohammadi, Reza; Mortazavian, Amir Mohamad; Khosravi-Darani, Kianosh; Homayouni Rad, Aziz

2013-01-01

234

Visual context due to speech-reading suppresses the auditory response to acoustic interruptions in speech  

PubMed Central

Speech reading enhances auditory perception in noise. One means by which this perceptual facilitation comes about is through information from visual networks reinforcing the encoding of the congruent speech signal by ignoring interfering acoustic signals. We tested this hypothesis neurophysiologically by acquiring EEG while individuals listened to words with a fixed portion of each word replaced by white noise. Congruent (meaningful) or incongruent (reversed frames) mouth movements accompanied the words. Individuals judged whether they heard the words as continuous (illusion) or interrupted (illusion failure) through the noise. We hypothesized that congruent, as opposed to incongruent, mouth movements should further enhance illusory perception by suppressing the auditory cortex's response to interruption onsets and offsets. Indeed, we found that the N1 auditory evoked potential (AEP) to noise onsets and offsets was reduced when individuals experienced the illusion during congruent, but not incongruent, audiovisual streams. This N1 inhibitory effect was most prominent at noise offsets, suggesting that visual influences on auditory perception are instigated to a greater extent during noisy periods. These findings suggest that visual context due to speech-reading disengages (inhibits) neural processes associated with interfering sounds (e.g., noisy interruptions) during speech perception. PMID:25053937

Bhat, Jyoti; Pitt, Mark A.; Shahin, Antoine J.

2014-01-01

235

Analysis of an optical energy interrupter for MEMS-based safety and arming systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an investigation into the development of a LIGA optical energy interrupter for use in a MEMS-based Safety and Arming (S&A) system. The energy interrupter acts as a switch to selectively couple optical power between input and output fiber optic waveguides using either a reflectance or direct coupling technique. This device is a critical component of the S&A system, which must perform its task in a zero-tolerance manner to ensure reliable and safe operation of naval ordnance. The union of fiber optic components with LIGA-based MEMS structures allows development of an energy interruption junction that will isolate the low and high voltage sections of an optical charging circuit. A movable LIGA barrier interacts with optical fibers in order to align or misalign the optical propagation path between the source and receiver in the circuit. The implementation of such a design allows for the `Safe' operational mode of an S&A system with the optic path broken, and an `Arm' mode during energy transfer. Effects such as fiber misalignment, light scattering, and multiple reflections are sources of potential failure modes for this micromachined optical system. This paper is concerned with the effects of fiber misalignment of system reliability. Three primary fiber/barrier topologies are discussed. Computer simulations used to establish the positioning and geometric tolerances in the MEMS structure to ensure maximum functional reliability are described, and experimental results are presented.

Beamesderfer, Michael A.; Chen, Steve; DeVoe, Don L.; Litcher, Edward; Johnson, Kenneth

1999-08-01

236

CAG repeats containing CAA interruptions form branched hairpin structures in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 transcripts.  

PubMed

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), one of the hereditary human neurodegenerative disorders, is caused by the expansion of the CAG tandem repeats in the translated sequence of the SCA2 gene. In a normal population the CAG repeat is polymorphic not only in length but also in the number and localization of its CAA interruptions. The aim of this study was to determine the structure of the repeat region in the normal and mutant SCA2 transcripts and to reveal the structural basis of its normal function and dysfunction. We show here that the properties of the CAA interruptions are major determinants of the CAG repeat folding in the normal SCA2 transcripts. We also show that the uninterrupted repeats in mutant transcripts form slippery hairpins, whose length is further reduced by the base pairing of the repeat portion with a specific flanking sequence. The structural organization of the repeat interruption systems present in other human transcripts, such as SCA1, TBP, FOXP2, and MAML2, are also discussed. PMID:15533937

Sobczak, Krzysztof; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J

2005-02-01

237

Interrupted versus uninterrupted flow: a safety propensity index for driver behavior.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to develop a quantitative safety propensity index (SPI) that captures the overall propensity of a given surrounding environment to cause unsafe driving. The study is conducted in two different flow conditions: interrupted and uninterrupted. Using structural modeling techniques, the index can be estimated from observed geometric, weather-related, vehicular, driver-related, and traffic-related characteristics. To illustrate the adopted approach, extensive effort was conducted to "sync" data from different sources including the Virginia Department of Transportation and the FARS/GES crash data libraries. The Virginia Department of Transportation provided traffic data for 10 freeway sections with interrupted flow and 9 highway sections with interrupted flow in the Northern Virginia area, USA. Two different structural equations models were found allowing insights to the safety impact of different surrounding elements/dimensions. The SPI provides (a) a basis for quantifying the effects of the aforementioned characteristics on safety, (b) a basis for comparing the differences between the factors affecting safety in different flow scenarios and (c) ranking the corresponding roadway sections/locations for improved safety performance. The framework and methodology used to develop this index have the potential to support safety policy analysis and decision making. PMID:23507432

Hamdar, Samer H; Schorr, Justin

2013-06-01

238

Patient-ventilator asynchrony during daily interruption of sedation versus no sedation protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Daily interruption of sedation could minimize the problem of sedatives accumulation. Nevertheless, whatever is the sedation strategy; sedation, particularly deep levels, has been associated with high frequency of patient-ventilator asynchrony. Extending these findings, one would expect that no sedation protocol could reduce the frequency of patient-ventilator asynchrony. Aim: To assess the effect of no sedation protocol compared with daily interruption of sedation on patient-ventilator asynchrony in surgical intensive care patients. Materials and Methods: The study included 230 patients who expected to require mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h. They were randomized to receive either continuous sedation (1 mg/mL midazolam) to achieve a Ramsay score of 3-4 with daily interruption until awake (group D; n = 115), or no sedation (group N; n = 115). Both groups received bolus doses of morphine (2.5-5 mg) as needed to achieve a score of ?2 on behavioral pain scale. Results: No sedation was associated with significantly lower ineffective triggering and asynchrony index but significantly higher double triggering. Patient's effort during triggering was significantly higher during no sedation. The respiratory rate increased and the PaCO2 decreased significantly in no sedation group. Conclusion: No sedation protocol reduces the asynchrony index and preserves the patient's effort during triggering.

Bassuoni, Ahmed Sobhy; Elgebaly, Ahmed Said; Eldabaa, Ahmed Ali; Elhafz, Ahmed Ali Abd

2012-01-01

239

Effects of Light Interruption on Sleep and Viability of Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Light is a very important regulator of the daily sleep rhythm. Here, we investigate the influence of nocturnal light stimulation on Drosophila sleep. Results showed that total daytime sleep was reduced due to a decrease in daytime sleep episode duration caused by discontinuous light stimulation, but sleep was not strongly impacted at nighttime although the discontinuous light stimulation occurred during the scotophase. During a subsequent recovery period without light interruption, the sleep quality of nighttime sleep was improved and of daytime sleep reduced, indicating flies have a persistent response to nocturnal light stimulation. Further studies showed that the discontinuous light stimulation damped the daily rhythm of a circadian light-sensitive protein cryptochrome both at the mRNA and protein levels, which subsequently caused disappearance of circadian rhythm of the core oscillator timeless and decrease of TIMLESS protein at nighttime. These data indicate that the nocturnal light interruption plays an important role in sleep through core proteins CRYTOCHROME and TIMLESS, Moreover, interruption of sleep further impacted reproduction and viability. PMID:25148297

Liu, Zhenxing; Zhao, Zhangwu

2014-01-01

240

41 CFR 301-30.3 - What should I do if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel? 301-30.3 Section 301-30.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES...

2011-07-01

241

41 CFR 301-30.3 - What should I do if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel? 301-30.3 Section 301-30.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES...

2010-07-01

242

41 CFR 301-30.3 - What should I do if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...if I have to interrupt or discontinue my TDY travel? 301-30.3 Section 301-30.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES...

2012-07-01

243

Accounting for Interrupts in Multiprocessor RealTime Systems # Bj orn B. Brandenburg, Hennadiy Leontyev, and James H. Anderson  

E-print Network

Accounting for Interrupts in Multiprocessor Real­Time Systems # Bj? orn B. Brandenburg, Hennadiy Leontyev, and James H. Anderson The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Abstract The importance

Anderson, James

244

[Influence of abortions and interruptions of pregnancies on subsequent deliveries. III. After-labor-period and puerperium].  

PubMed

In the third stage of labour we must expect an increase of blood lost and placental retentions after preceded interruption. An accumulation of manual detaching of placenta we ascertained for preceded abortion only. In the childbed we found an certained increase of disturbances in uterine involution. We think, that some consequences for medical care in pregnancies, following abortion and interruption, are very important. PMID:961165

Knorre, P

1976-01-01

245

Mitigating errors caused by interruptions during medication verification and administration: interventions in a simulated ambulatory chemotherapy setting  

PubMed Central

Background Nurses are frequently interrupted during medication verification and administration; however, few interventions exist to mitigate resulting errors, and the impact of these interventions on medication safety is poorly understood. Objective The study objectives were to (A) assess the effects of interruptions on medication verification and administration errors, and (B) design and test the effectiveness of targeted interventions at reducing these errors. Methods The study focused on medication verification and administration in an ambulatory chemotherapy setting. A simulation laboratory experiment was conducted to determine interruption-related error rates during specific medication verification and administration tasks. Interventions to reduce these errors were developed through a participatory design process, and their error reduction effectiveness was assessed through a postintervention experiment. Results Significantly more nurses committed medication errors when interrupted than when uninterrupted. With use of interventions when interrupted, significantly fewer nurses made errors in verifying medication volumes contained in syringes (16/18; 89% preintervention error rate vs 11/19; 58% postintervention error rate; p=0.038; Fisher's exact test) and programmed in ambulatory pumps (17/18; 94% preintervention vs 11/19; 58% postintervention; p=0.012). The rate of error commission significantly decreased with use of interventions when interrupted during intravenous push (16/18; 89% preintervention vs 6/19; 32% postintervention; p=0.017) and pump programming (7/18; 39% preintervention vs 1/19; 5% postintervention; p=0.017). No statistically significant differences were observed for other medication verification tasks. Conclusions Interruptions can lead to medication verification and administration errors. Interventions were highly effective at reducing unanticipated errors of commission in medication administration tasks, but showed mixed effectiveness at reducing predictable errors of detection in medication verification tasks. These findings can be generalised and adapted to mitigate interruption-related errors in other settings where medication verification and administration are required. PMID:24906806

Prakash, Varuna; Koczmara, Christine; Savage, Pamela; Trip, Katherine; Stewart, Janice; McCurdie, Tara; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Trbovich, Patricia

2014-01-01

246

PASADO - ICDP Deep Drilling at Laguna Potrok Aike (Argentina): A 50 ka Record of Increasing Environmental Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laguna Potrok Aike, located in the South-Patagonian province of Santa Cruz (5258'S, 7023'W), was formed by a volcanic (maar) eruption in the late Quaternary Pali Aike Volcanic Field several hundred thousand years ago. This archive holds a unique record of paleoclimatic and paleoecological variability from a region sensitive to variations in southern hemispheric wind and pressure systems, which provide a

Bernd Zolitschka; Flavio Anselmetti; Daniel Ariztegui; Pierre Francus; Catalina Gebhardt; Annette Hahn Pierre Kliem; Andreas Lcke; Christian Ohlendorf; Frank Schbitz; Stefan Wastegard

2010-01-01

247

Reconstructing paleoenvironmental conditions during the past 50 ka from the biogeochemical record of Laguna Potrok Aike, southern Patagonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC) and biogenic silica (BSi) assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) are used to reconstruct the environmental history during the past 50kyrs in high resolution from Laguna Potrok Aike. During the Holocene warmer conditions lead to an increased productivity reflected in higher TOC and BSi contents. Calcite precipitation initiated around 9 ka cal. BP probably due to supersaturation induced by lake level lowering. It is assumed that prior to this time period sediments are carbonate-free because high lake-level conditions prevailed. During the Glacial, increased runoff linked to permafrost, precipitation related to stronger cyclonic activity and reduced evaporation have caused higher lake levels. Moreover, during cold glacial conditions lake productivity was low and organic matter mainly of algal or cyanobacterial origin as indicated by generally low TOC and C/N values. During interstadials, such as the Antarctic A-events and the Younger Dryas, TOC contents appear to rise. The glacial C/N ratios and their correlation with TOC concentrations indicate that aquatic moss blooms probably induce these increases in TOC. Aquatic mosses grow if surface water temperatures rise due to warmer climatic conditions and/or development of a lake water stratification. The latter may occur if wind speeds are low and melt water inflow caused higher density gradients. Prevailing permafrost thawing during warmer periods could lead to considerable rises of lake levels, which would contribute to the preservation of organic material. This may explain why higher C/N and TOC values occur at the end of Antarctic A-events. For the uppermost 25 m, the BSi profile shows a high correlation with the TOC profile. In deeper horizons, however, there are indications that the BSi/TOC ratio increased. This part of the record is dominated by mass movement events, which may have supplied nutrients and thus triggered diatom blooms.

Hahn, A.; Rosn, P.; Kliem, P.; Ohlendorf, C.; Zolitschka, B.

2011-12-01

248

Therapeutic and prophylactic vena caval interruption for pulmonary embolism: caval and venous insertion site patency.  

PubMed

Although anticoagulation remains the treatment of choice for acute pulmonary embolism, vena caval interruption represents an alternative for patients with contraindications and complications or in whom anticoagulation fails. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of two types of caval interruption devices: the original stainless steel Greenfield filter and the Adams-DeWeese clip. Emphasis has been placed on maintaining caval patency with filters and clips and the patency of the femoral vein vs. the jugular vein after filter insertion. We retrospectively reviewed 161 patients who underwent caval interruption (92 filters and 69 clips) for both therapeutic and prophylactic reasons. The operative mortality and morbidity rates were 0% and 3.3% for filter patients and 8.7% and 2.9% for clip patients; no procedure-related mortalities occurred. The late caval patency rate as documented by duplex ultrasonography/venography was 100% for filter patients and 88% for clip patients (p = 0.011). Seven percent of the filter patients and 20% of the clip patients experienced late limb swelling postoperatively (p = 0.05). The incidence of recurrent late pulmonary embolism was 2.5% in the filter group and 1.9% in the clip group. In the filter group, 10% of patients experienced postoperative thrombosis at the femoral vein insertion site and 0% at the jugular vein insertion site. We found that both devices were effective in preventing pulmonary embolism, the filter provided better caval patency than the clip, and the jugular vein had a better patency than the femoral vein after filter insertion. PMID:8123459

AbuRahma, A F; Robinson, P A; Boland, J P; Cochran, R C; Conley, Y D; Snodgrass, K R; Witsberger, T A; Wood, D J

1993-11-01

249

Successful Interruption of Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Escuintla-Guatemala Focus, Guatemala  

PubMed Central

Background Elimination of onchocerciasis (river blindness) through mass administration of ivermectin in the six countries in Latin America where it is endemic is considered feasible due to the relatively small size and geographic isolation of endemic foci. We evaluated whether transmission of onchocerciasis has been interrupted in the endemic focus of Escuintla-Guatemala in Guatemala, based on World Health Organization criteria for the certification of elimination of onchocerciasis. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted evaluations of ocular morbidity and past exposure to Onchocerca volvulus in the human population, while potential vectors (Simulium ochraceum) were captured and tested for O. volvulus DNA; all of the evaluations were carried out in potentially endemic communities (PEC; those with a history of actual or suspected transmission or those currently under semiannual mass treatment with ivermectin) within the focus. The prevalence of microfilariae in the anterior segment of the eye in 329 individuals (?7 years old, resident in the PEC for at least 5 years) was 0% (one-sided 95% confidence interval [CI] 00.9%). The prevalence of antibodies to a recombinant O. volvulus antigen (Ov-16) in 6,432 school children (aged 6 to 12 years old) was 0% (one-sided 95% IC 00.05%). Out of a total of 14,099 S. ochraceum tested for O. volvulus DNA, none was positive (95% CI 00.01%). The seasonal transmission potential was, therefore, 0 infective stage larvae per person per season. Conclusions/Significance Based on these evaluations, transmission of onchocerciasis in the Escuintla-Guatemala focus has been successfully interrupted. Although this is the second onchocerciasis focus in Latin America to have demonstrated interruption of transmission, it is the first focus with a well-documented history of intense transmission to have eliminated O. volvulus. PMID:19333366

Gonzalez, Rodrigo J.; Cruz-Ortiz, Nancy; Rizzo, Nidia; Richards, Jane; Zea-Flores, Guillermo; Domnguez, Alfredo; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Cat, Eduardo; Oliva, Orlando; Richards, Frank O.; Lindblade, Kim A.

2009-01-01

250

New transplant technique with hemiazygos continuation and interrupted inferior vena cava.  

PubMed

In the presence of left superior vena cava, cardiac transplantation is performed at the risk of left superior vena cava flow obstruction. In patients with hemiazygos continuation with interrupted inferior vena cava, the patency of left superior vena cava is vital. We introduced a new surgical technique to use a Fontan connection including the native central pulmonary artery as the systemic venous return. The pulmonary artery anastomosis was performed distal to the superior vena cava anastomosis sites. We used this treatment approach successfully to perform cardiac transplantation in two patients who developed severe heart failure after Fontan completion. PMID:24182488

Imamura, Michiaki; Abraham, Boban; Garcia, Xiomara; Knecht, Kenneth R; Frazier, Elizabeth; Shinkawa, Takeshi

2013-11-01

251

Growth Interruption Effect on the Fabrication of GaAs Concentric Multiple Rings by Droplet Epitaxy  

PubMed Central

We present the molecular beam epitaxy fabrication and optical properties of complex GaAs nanostructures by droplet epitaxy: concentric triple quantum rings. A significant difference was found between the volumes of the original droplets and the final GaAs structures. By means of atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy, we found that a thin GaAs quantum well-like layer is developed all over the substrate during the growth interruption times, caused by the migration of Ga in a low As background. PMID:21170414

2010-01-01

252

Decreasing Beam Auto Tuning Interruption Events with In-Situ Chemical Cleaning on Axcelis GSD  

SciTech Connect

Ion beam auto tuning time and success rate are often major factors in the utilization and productivity of ion implanters. Tuning software frequently fails to meet specified setup times or recipe parameters, causing production stoppages and requiring manual intervention. Build-up of conductive deposits in the arc chamber and extraction gap can be one of the main causes of auto tuning problems. The deposits cause glitching and ion beam instabilities, which lead to errors in the software optimization routines. Infineon Regensburg has been testing use of XeF{sub 2}, an in-situ chemical cleaning reagent, with positive results in reducing auto tuning interruption events.

Fuchs, Dieter; Spreitzer, Stefan; Vogl, Josef [Infineon Technologies AG., Wernerwerkstr.2, 93049 Regensburg (Germany); Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Kaim, Robert [ATMI Inc., 7 Commerce Drive, Danbury, CT 06810 (United States)

2008-11-03

253

A comparison of two selective interrupted suture removal techniques for control of post keratoplasty astigmatism.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: Two selective interrupted suture removal techniques were compared to determine which technique resulted in earliest, best visual acuity and least postoperative astigmatism. METHODS: Sixty-five consecutive optical penetrating keratoplasties were performed using 12 interrupted 10-0 nylon sutures and a 12-bite continuous 10-0 nylon suture, and were alternately assigned to 1 of 2 selective suture removal groups. All patients had refraction, keratometry, and videokeratoscopy postoperatively, starting at 6 weeks. Six weeks postoperatively, Group I underwent simultaneous removal of six alternate sutures, with the first of the 6 sutures removed at the steepest meridian, while Group II had selective sutures removed only at the steepest meridian, if associated with greater than 2 diopters of astigmatism in that meridian. Subsequently, interrupted sutures were then selectively removed until the resultant astigmatism approached 3.0 diopters or less. Measurements of resultant astigmatism are reported prior to selective suture removal, following selective suture removal, at 6 months postoperatively, at the completion of all selective suture removal, and at the final visit. RESULTS: At 6 months, residual astigmatism after the 2 techniques of selective suture removal, as measured by refraction, keratometry, and computer-assisted videokeratoscopy, was 2.8, 3.0 and 3.4 diopters for Group I, and 2.2, 2.6 and 3.7 diopters for Group II. At 1 year, the average final visit, astigmatism was 2.5, 2.4 and 2.7 diopters for Group I, and 2.1, 2.0 and 2.3 diopters for Group II. By the final visit, a best corrected vision of 20/50 or better was achieved in 86% of eyes in Group I and in 65% of eyes in Group II, and there was a significant difference in average keratometry of 47.4 diopters in Group I compared to 46.0 diopters in Group II and, as measured by videokeratoscopy, 47.9 diopters in Group I compared to 45.8 diopters in Group II. CONCLUSIONS: Selective suture removal by either technique reduces keratoplasty astigmatism with residual interrupted and continuous sutures in place. The combined use of refraction, keratometry, and videokeratoscopy probably provides more reliable and reproducible quantitative measurements of astigmatism. Minimizing astigmatism by selective suture removal is a major factor in the attempt to achieve excellent and visual function in the majority of patients who have undergone penetrating keratoplasty. PMID:9440170

Forster, R K

1997-01-01

254

Measurement of ground-state decoherence via interruption of coherent population trapping  

E-print Network

Measurement of ground-state decoherence via interruption of coherent population trapping Anil K. Patnaik,1,2 Paul S. Hsu,1 Girish S. Agarwal,3 George R. Welch,1 and Marlan O. Scully1,2,4 1Institute for Quantum Studies and Department of Physics... on the implementation of this method, and to V. A. Sautenkov and Aihua Zhang for useful discussions and help on the experimental setup. We thank DARPA, ONR, and Robert A. Welch Foundation #1;Grant No. A-1261#2; for support. APPENDIX: OPEN SYSTEM MODEL TO DESCRIBE...

Patnaik, Anil K.; Hsu, Paul S.; Agarwal, Girish S.; Welch, George R.; Scully, Marlan O.

2007-01-01

255

Randomized, Controlled Trial of Therapy Interruption in Chronic HIV-1 Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Approaches to limiting exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs are an active area of HIV therapy research. Here we present longitudinal follow-up of a randomized, open-label, single-center study of the immune, viral, and safety outcomes of structured therapy interruptions (TIs) in patients with chronically suppressed HIV-1 infection as compared to equal follow-up of patients on continuous therapy and including a final therapy interruption in both arms. Methods and Findings Forty-two chronically HIV-infected patients on suppressive ART with CD4 counts higher than 400 were randomized 1:1 to either (1) three successive fixed TIs of 2, 4, and 6 wk, with intervening resumption of therapy with resuppression for 4 wk before subsequent interruption, or (2) 40 wk of continuous therapy, with a final open-ended TI in both treatment groups. Main outcome was analysis of the time to viral rebound (>5,000 copies/ml) during the open-ended TI. Secondary outcomes included study-defined safety criteria, viral resistance, therapy failure, and retention of immune reconstitution. There was no difference between the groups in time to viral rebound during the open-ended TI (continuous therapy/single TI, median [interquartile range] = 4 [18] wk, n = 21; repeated TI, median [interquartile range] = 5 [48] wk, n = 21; p = 0.36). No differences in study-related adverse events, viral set point at 12 or 20 wk of open-ended interruption, viral resistance or therapy failure, retention of CD4 T cell numbers on ART, or retention of lymphoproliferative recall antigen responses were noted between groups. Importantly, resistance detected shortly after initial viremia following the open-ended TI did not result in a lack of resuppression to less than 50 copies/ml after reinitiation of the same drug regimen. Conclusion Cycles of 2- to 6-wk time-fixed TIs in patients with suppressed HIV infection failed to confer a clinically significant benefit with regard to viral suppression off ART. Also, secondary analysis showed no difference between the two strategies in terms of safety, retention of immune reconstitution, and clinical therapy failure. Based on these findings, we suggest that further clinical research on the long-term consequences of TI strategies to decrease drug exposure is warranted. PMID:15630469

2004-01-01

256

Brief Therapy Based on Interrupting Ironic Processes: The Palo Alto Model  

PubMed Central

The model of brief therapy developed by Fisch, Weakland, Watzlawick, and colleagues in Palo Alto is based on identifying and interrupting ironic processes that occur when repeated attempts to solve a problem keep the problem going or make it worse. Formulations of ironic problem-solution loops provide a template for assessment and strategic intervention, indicating where to look to understand what keeps a problem going (look for more of the same solution) and what needs to happen for the complaint to be resolved (someone must apply less of the same solution). Supporting research is preliminary but suggests this approach may be well suited for change-resistant clients. PMID:19997533

Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Shoham, Varda

2009-01-01

257

Understanding the cost of power interruptions to U.S. electricity consumers  

SciTech Connect

The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern United States and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 resulted in the U.S. electricity system being called ''antiquated'' and catalyzed discussions about modernizing the grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of $50 to $100 billion would be needed. This report seeks to quantify an important piece of information that has been missing from these discussions: how much do power interruptions and fluctuations in power quality (power-quality events) cost U.S. electricity consumers? Accurately estimating this cost will help assess the potential benefits of investments in improving the reliability of the grid. We develop a comprehensive end-use framework for assessing the cost to U.S. electricity consumers of power interruptions and power-quality events (referred to collectively as ''reliability events''). The framework expresses these costs as a function of: (1) Number of customers by type in a region; (2) Frequency and type of reliability events experienced annually (including both power interruptions and power-quality events) by these customers; (3) Cost of reliability events; and (4) Vulnerability of customers to these events. The framework is designed so that its cost estimate can be improved as additional data become available. Using our framework, we estimate that the national cost of power interruptions is about $80 billion annually, based on the best information available in the public domain. However, there are large gaps in and significant uncertainties about the information currently available. Notably, we were not able to develop an estimate of power-quality events. Sensitivity analysis of some of these uncertainties suggests that the total annual cost could range from less than $30 billion to more than $130 billion. Because of this large range and the enormous cost of the decisions that may be based on this estimate, we encourage policy makers, regulators, and industry to jointly under take the comparatively modest-cost improvements needed in the information used to estimate the cost of reliability events. Specific areas for improvement include: coordinated, nationwide collection of updated information on the cost of reliability events; consistent definition and recording of the duration and frequency of reliability events, including power-quality events; and improved information on the costs of and efforts by consumers to reduce their vulnerability to reliability events.

LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Eto, Joseph H.

2004-09-01

258

On the role of resonance in drug failure under HIV treatment interruption  

PubMed Central

Background The application of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) against HIV can reduce and maintain viral load below detection limit in many patients. Continuous HAART, however, can have severe side effects. In this context, structured treatment interruptions (STI) were considered to be a promising strategy. However, using CD4 cell count to guide intermittent therapy starting and stopping points, the SMART study (strategies for management of antiretroviral therapy), revealed that STI were associated with increased risk of AIDS and other complications. Additionally, short-term periodic (e.g. one week on / one week off) interruption therapies have shown virus rebound exceeding a given failure threshold, without any evidence for the evolution of drug resistance. Currently, the only hypothesis explaining the failure of STI is the resonance hypothesis, which posits that treatment failure is due to a resonance effect between the drug treatment and the viral population. In the present study we used a mathematical model to analyse the parameters affecting the output of drug treatment interruption and the premises of the resonance hypothesis. Methods We used a population dynamic model of HIV infection. Simulations and analytical approximations of deterministic and stochastic versions of the model were studied. Results and Conclusion The present study examines the roles of the most important parameters affecting the viral rebound, responsible for drug failure. We related these findings to the resonance hypothesis, and showed that the degree of sustainability of damping oscillations present in the model after the acute phase is strongly linked to their amplitude, which determines the resonance level. Stochastic simulations of the same model even revealed sustained oscillations in virus population for small virus population sizes. Given that pronounced viral load oscillations have not been observed in HIV-1 patients, the link between oscillations and resonance level suggests that treatment failure due to a resonance effect is not plausible. Moreover, the failure threshold is attained before the virus population crosses the set point while growing. As the maximum virus population is reached even after the set point is crossed, the role of resonance effects in the context of treatment interruptions cannot explain drug failure. PMID:23844869

2013-01-01

259

Microsatellite interruptions stabilize primate genomes and exist as population-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms within individual human genomes.  

PubMed

Interruptions of microsatellite sequences impact genome evolution and can alter disease manifestation. However, human polymorphism levels at interrupted microsatellites (iMSs) are not known at a genome-wide scale, and the pathways for gaining interruptions are poorly understood. Using the 1000 Genomes Phase-1 variant call set, we interrogated mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats up to 10 units in length. We detected ?26,000-40,000 iMSs within each of four human population groups (African, European, East Asian, and American). We identified population-specific iMSs within exonic regions, and discovered that known disease-associated iMSs contain alleles present at differing frequencies among the populations. By analyzing longer microsatellites in primate genomes, we demonstrate that single interruptions result in a genome-wide average two- to six-fold reduction in microsatellite mutability, as compared with perfect microsatellites. Centrally located interruptions lowered mutability dramatically, by two to three orders of magnitude. Using a biochemical approach, we tested directly whether the mutability of a specific iMS is lower because of decreased DNA polymerase strand slippage errors. Modeling the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene sequence, we observed that a single base substitution interruption reduced strand slippage error rates five- to 50-fold, relative to a perfect repeat, during synthesis by DNA polymerases ?, ?, or ?. Computationally, we demonstrate that iMSs arise primarily by base substitution mutations within individual human genomes. Our biochemical survey of human DNA polymerase ?, ?, ?, ?, and ? error rates within certain microsatellites suggests that interruptions are created most frequently by low fidelity polymerases. Our combined computational and biochemical results demonstrate that iMSs are abundant in human genomes and are sources of population-specific genetic variation that may affect genome stability. The genome-wide identification of iMSs in human populations presented here has important implications for current models describing the impact of microsatellite polymorphisms on gene expression. PMID:25033203

Ananda, Guruprasad; Hile, Suzanne E; Breski, Amanda; Wang, Yanli; Kelkar, Yogeshwar; Makova, Kateryna D; Eckert, Kristin A

2014-07-01

260

Microsatellite Interruptions Stabilize Primate Genomes and Exist as Population-Specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms within Individual Human Genomes  

PubMed Central

Interruptions of microsatellite sequences impact genome evolution and can alter disease manifestation. However, human polymorphism levels at interrupted microsatellites (iMSs) are not known at a genome-wide scale, and the pathways for gaining interruptions are poorly understood. Using the 1000 Genomes Phase-1 variant call set, we interrogated mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats up to 10 units in length. We detected ?26,00040,000 iMSs within each of four human population groups (African, European, East Asian, and American). We identified population-specific iMSs within exonic regions, and discovered that known disease-associated iMSs contain alleles present at differing frequencies among the populations. By analyzing longer microsatellites in primate genomes, we demonstrate that single interruptions result in a genome-wide average two- to six-fold reduction in microsatellite mutability, as compared with perfect microsatellites. Centrally located interruptions lowered mutability dramatically, by two to three orders of magnitude. Using a biochemical approach, we tested directly whether the mutability of a specific iMS is lower because of decreased DNA polymerase strand slippage errors. Modeling the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene sequence, we observed that a single base substitution interruption reduced strand slippage error rates five- to 50-fold, relative to a perfect repeat, during synthesis by DNA polymerases ?, ?, or ?. Computationally, we demonstrate that iMSs arise primarily by base substitution mutations within individual human genomes. Our biochemical survey of human DNA polymerase ?, ?, ?, ?, and ? error rates within certain microsatellites suggests that interruptions are created most frequently by low fidelity polymerases. Our combined computational and biochemical results demonstrate that iMSs are abundant in human genomes and are sources of population-specific genetic variation that may affect genome stability. The genome-wide identification of iMSs in human populations presented here has important implications for current models describing the impact of microsatellite polymorphisms on gene expression. PMID:25033203

Ananda, Guruprasad; Hile, Suzanne E.; Breski, Amanda; Wang, Yanli; Kelkar, Yogeshwar; Makova, Kateryna D.; Eckert, Kristin A.

2014-01-01

261

Assessment of variable obstruction by forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced oscillometry, and interrupter technique.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and the degree of reversible airflow obstruction as detected by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced oscillometry (FOT), and interrupter technique (resistance measured by the interrupter technique [Rint]) in mild asthmatic children compared with controls. FOT, Rint, and FEV1 were evaluated before and after albuterol (200 microg) administered by metered-dose inhaler and spacer in 28 asthmatic children (mean age +/-SD, 9.1 +/- 1.9 years) and in 20 healthy children (mean age +/-SD, 8.5 +/- 2.1 years). No correlation was found between FEV1, FOT, and Rint values either before or after albuterol. FOT and Rint values were highly correlated pre- and postbronchodilatation. An improvement in FEV1 > or =12% after albuterol was observed in 11 (39%) asthmatic subjects. As suggested using the cutoff value at R6 > or =29%, significant bronchodilatation was observed in 20 (71%) children with FOT and using a reduction > or = 0.20 kPa or 2 cm of H2O, 22 (78%) subjects showed significant bronchodilatation with Rint. No significant changes were observed after albuterol in controls. FOT and Rint techniques showed a greater sensitivity in detecting reversibility of bronchoconstriction in mild asthmatic patients. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the possible advantages of these findings in mild-moderate asthmatic children. PMID:17619563

Boccaccino, Alfredo; Peroni, Diego G; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Piacentini, Giorgio; Bodini, Alessandro; Chatzimichail, Atanasio; Spinosa, Enrico; Boner, Attilio L

2007-01-01

262

A logistic delay differential equation model for Chagas disease with interrupted spraying schedules.  

PubMed

This work studies a mathematical model for the dynamics of Chagas disease, a parasitic disease that affects humans and domestic mammals throughout rural areas in Central and South America. It presents a modified version of the model found in Spagnuolo et al. [A model for Chagas disease with controlled spraying, J. Biol. Dyn. 5 (2011), pp. 299-317] with a delayed logistic growth term, which captures an overshoot, beyond the vector carrying capacity, in the total vector population when the blood meal supply is large. It studies the steady states of the system in the case of constant coefficients without spraying, and the analysis shows that for given-averaged parameters, the endemic equilibrium is stable and attracting. The numerical simulations of the model dynamics with time-dependent coefficients are shown when interruptions in the annual insecticide spraying cycles are taken into account. Simulations show that when there are spraying schedule interruptions, spraying may become ineffective when the blood meal supply is large. PMID:22873596

Spagnuolo, Anna Maria; Shillor, Meir; Kingsland, Lindsey; Thatcher, Andrea; Toeniskoetter, Matthew; Wood, Benjamin

2012-01-01

263

Microstructural development and mechanical properties of interrupted aged Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of a recently developed interrupted aging procedure on the microstructural development and mechanical properties of the commercial Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy 6061 have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and mechanical testing. This so-called T6I6 temper involves partially aging the alloy at a typical T6 temperature (the underaging stage), quenching, then holding at a reduced temperature (in this case 65 C) to facilitate further hardening (the secondary aging stage), prior to final aging to peak properties at, or close to, the initial aging (T6) temperature (the reaging stage). The T6I6 aging treatment produces simultaneous increases in tensile properties, hardness, and toughness, as compared with conventional T6. The overall improvement in the mechanical properties of 6061 T6I6 is associated with the formation of a greater number of finer, and more densely dispersed, ?? precipitates in the final microstructure. Secondary precipitation took place during the interrupted aging stage of the T6I6 temper, resulting in the formation of a large number of Guinier-Preston (GP) zones that served as precursors to the needlelike ?? precipitates when elevated temperature aging was resumed.

Buha, J.; Lumley, R. N.; Crosky, A. G.

2006-10-01

264

Customer response to interruptible and curtailable rates: Volume 1, Methodology and results: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Interruptible or curtailable (I/C) service, one of the fastest growing utility programs, provides the utility with both an innovative rate alternative as well as a demand side management tool. This project examines existing (I/C) programs with the objective of providing information that will enable utilities to plan for future I/C programs. First, the report summarizes the rate and customer characteristics of I/C programs at ten utilities. Second, the report presents a regression technique that can be used to assess load relief provided by customers on I/C rates. The report demonstrates the technique by assessing load relief for each of the ten utilities. Tests of the regression technique showed it to be significantly more accurate than other procedures that are sometimes used. Utilities can implement the regression technique using standard statistical software in conjunction with the RELIEF software that was developed as part of this project. Finally the project examined those customer and program factors that influence load relief. Important customer factors were type of industry and load factor. Important program characteristics were number of interruptions, length of size of credit. 12 refs., 44 figs., 35 tabs.

Caves, D.W.; Herriges, J.A.; Windle, R.J.

1988-03-01

265

Increasing the mand repertoire of children with autism through the use of an interrupted chain procedure.  

PubMed

Mand training is an essential component of verbal behavior training for any individual who lacks this skill. The current study replicates and extends, with some procedural differences, the work of Hall and Sundberg (1987) by using an interrupted chain procedure to teach mands for missing items to children with autism. The participants were 3 children with autism, ranging between 5 and 8 years of age, who would regularly mand for a wide variety of reinforcers when they were present but would rarely mand for items that were not in sight (i.e., missing items). Participants were first taught to complete 3 behavior chains. Subsequently, the chains were interrupted by removing 1 item needed to complete each chain to contrive motivating operations (MOs) as a means of teaching mands for missing items. Following mand training incorporating vocal prompt and prompt fading procedures, all participants emitted unprompted mands for the missing items within the context of the trained chains and within the context of novel, untrained chains. After teaching mands for missing items, probes were conducted to test for untrained tact acquisition. All participants also demonstrated tact responses relative to the missing items as a result of the mand training. PMID:23730468

Albert, Kristin M; Carbone, Vincent J; Murray, Danielle D; Hagerty, Margaret; Sweeney-Kerwin, Emily J

2012-01-01

266

Increasing the Mand Repertoire of Children With Autism Through the Use of an Interrupted Chain Procedure  

PubMed Central

Mand training is an essential component of verbal behavior training for any individual who lacks this skill. The current study replicates and extends, with some procedural differences, the work of Hall and Sundberg (1987) by using an interrupted chain procedure to teach mands for missing items to children with autism. The participants were 3 children with autism, ranging between 5 and 8 years of age, who would regularly mand for a wide variety of reinforcers when they were present but would rarely mand for items that were not in sight (i.e., missing items). Participants were first taught to complete 3 behavior chains. Subsequently, the chains were interrupted by removing 1 item needed to complete each chain to contrive motivating operations (MOs) as a means of teaching mands for missing items. Following mand training incorporating vocal prompt and prompt fading procedures, all participants emitted unprompted mands for the missing items within the context of the trained chains and within the context of novel, untrained chains. After teaching mands for missing items, probes were conducted to test for untrained tact acquisition. All participants also demonstrated tact responses relative to the missing items as a result of the mand training. PMID:23730468

Albert, Kristin M.; Carbone, Vincent J.; Murray, Danielle D.; Hagerty, Margaret; Sweeney-Kerwin, Emily J.

2012-01-01

267

Effects of Political Conflict Induced Treatment Interruptions on HIV Drug Resistance  

PubMed Central

34 million people worldwide were living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) by the end of 2010. Despite significant advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART), drug resistance remains a major deterrent to successful, enduring treatment. Unplanned interruptions in ART have negative effects on HIV treatment outcomes including increased morbidity and mortality, as well as development of drug resistance. Treatment interruptions due to political conflicts, not infrequent in resource-limited settings, result in disruptions in health care, infrastructure, or treatment facilities and patient displacement. Such circumstances are ideal bases for ART resistance development, however there is limited awareness of and data available on the association between political conflicts and the development of HIV drug resistance. In this review we identify and discuss this association and review how varying ART half-lives, genetic barriers, different HIV subtypes, and archived resistance can lead to lack of medication effectiveness upon post-conflict resumption of care. Optimized ART stopping strategies as well as infrastructural concerns and stable HIV treatment systems to ensure continuity of care and rapid resumption of care must be addressed in order to mitigate risks of HIV drug resistance development during and after political conflicts. Increased awareness of such associations by clinicians as well as politicians and stakeholders is essential. PMID:23449225

Mann, Marita; Lurie, Mark N.; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Kantor, Rami

2013-01-01

268

Feasibility of global measles eradication after interruption of transmission in the Americas.  

PubMed

Measles is one of the most infectious diseases. Before the introduction of the measles vaccine, nearly all children contracted measles. By the end of the 1980s, most countries of the world had incorporated the measles vaccine into their routine vaccination programs. Globally, some 345,000 deaths due to measles still occur every year. Eradication of measles would play an important role in improving child survival. The goal to eradicate measles from the Americas was set by the Pan-American Sanitary Conference in 1994. Progress to date has been remarkable. Measles is no longer an endemic disease in the Americas and interruption of transmission has been documented in most countries. As of December 2007, 5 years have elapsed since the detection of the last endemic case in Venezuela in November 2002. This experience demonstrates that interruption of measles transmission can be achieved and sustained over a long period of time. Global eradication should be feasible if the appropriate strategies are implemented. Even in a new paradigm in which eradication is not followed by the discontinuation of vaccination, eradication of measles should be a good investment to avoid expensive epidemics and save those children that would potentially die due to infection with the measles virus. It is not only a dream to think that we will see a world free of measles by the year 2015. PMID:18393605

de Quadros, Ciro A; Andrus, Jon Kim; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Castillo-Solrzano, Carlos

2008-04-01

269

Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Abu Hamed focus, Sudan.  

PubMed

Abu Hamed, Sudan, the northernmost location of onchocerciasis in the world, began community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in 1998, with annual treatments enhanced to semiannual in 2007. We assessed the status of the parasite transmission in 2011 entomologically, parasitologically, and serologically. O-150 pool screening showed no parasite DNA in 17,537 black flies collected in 2011 (95% confidence interval upper limit [95% CI UL] = 0.023). Skin microfilariae, nodules, and signs of skin disease were absent in 536 individuals in seven local communities. Similarly, no evidence of Onchocerca volvulus Ov16 antibodies was found in 6,756 school children ? 10 years (95% CI UL = 0.03%). Because this assessment of the focus meets the 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for interrupted transmission, treatment was halted in 2012, and a post-treatment surveillance period was initiated in anticipation of declaration of disease elimination in this area. We provide the first evidence in East Africa that long-term CDTI alone can interrupt transmission of onchocerciasis. PMID:23690554

Higazi, Tarig B; Zarroug, Isam M A; Mohamed, Hanan A; Elmubark, Wigdan A; Deran, Tong Chor M; Aziz, Nabil; Katabarwa, Moses; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R; Mackenzie, Charles D; Richards, Frank; Hashim, Kamal

2013-07-01

270

Influence of allowable interruption period on estimates of accelerometer wear time and sedentary time in older adults  

PubMed Central

The criteria one uses to reduce accelerometer data can profoundly influence the interpretation of research outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of three different interruption periods (i.e., 20, 30, and 60 minutes) on the amount of data retained for analyses and estimates of sedentary time among older adults. Older adults (N=311; Mage=71.1) wore an accelerometer for seven days and reported wear time on an accelerometer log. Accelerometer data were downloaded and scored using 20, 30, and 60-minute interruption periods. Estimates of wear time derived using each interruption period were compared to self-reported wear time, and descriptive statistics were used to compare estimates of sedentary time. Results showed a longer interruption period (i.e., 60 minutes) yields the largest sample size and the closest approximation of self-reported wear time. A short interruption period (i.e., 20 minutes) is likely to underestimate sedentary time among older adults. PMID:23752299

Mailey, Emily L.; Gothe, Neha P.; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Fanning, Jason T.; Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward

2013-01-01

271

Influence of allowable interruption period on estimates of accelerometer wear time and sedentary time in older adults.  

PubMed

The criteria one uses to reduce accelerometer data can profoundly influence the interpretation of research outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 3 different interruption periods (i.e., 20, 30, and 60 min) on the amount of data retained for analyses and estimates of sedentary time among older adults. Older adults (N = 311, M age = 71.1) wore an accelerometer for 7 d and reported wear time on an accelerometer log. Accelerometer data were downloaded and scored using 20-, 30-, and 60-min interruption periods. Estimates of wear time, derived using each interruption period, were compared with self-reported wear time, and descriptive statistics were used to compare estimates of sedentary time. Results showed a longer interruption period (i.e., 60 min) yields the largest sample size and the closest approximation of self-reported wear time. A short interruption period (i.e., 20 min) is likely to underestimate sedentary time among older adults. PMID:23752299

Mailey, Emily L; Gothe, Neha P; Wjcicki, Thomas R; Szabo, Amanda N; Olson, Erin A; Mullen, Sean P; Fanning, Jason T; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

2014-04-01

272

Distinctive Feature of Ripening During Growth Interruption of InGaAs Quantum Dot Epitaxy Using Bi as a Surfactant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ripening is a process in which some particles grow at the expense of others. In this study, a distinctive feature of ripening was observed for InGaAs quantum dots (QDs), which were grown using Bi as a surfactant. The uniformity of QDs was much improved during the growth interruption after QD growth by ripening. Another remarkable feature is that the QD size converged to a specific range after the ripening. This fact means that a partially stable condition of QD size appeared as a result of the QD growth sequence, which consists of Bi surfactant growth and growth interruption. It is also pointed out that proper control of the atmosphere during growth interruption is important for QD epitaxy with Bi surfactant.

Okamoto, Hiroshi; Tawara, Takehiko; Tateno, Kouta; Gotoh, Hideki; Kamada, Hidehiko; Sogawa, Tetsuomi

2011-06-01

273

Antiretroviral Therapy in Acute and Recent HIV Infection: A Prospective Multicenter Stratified Trial of Intentionally Interrupted Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early HIV infection may enhance outcome. ART during acute HIV-1 infection (AI) might better control HIV than ART in recent HIV-1 infection (RI) 24 weeks after treatment interruption. Methods A prospective ACTG trial of ART stratified by AI vs. RI. If HIV RNA plasma concentration <50 copies/mL) after >= 52 weeks, ART was interrupted. If viremia rebounded ART and interruption was repeated. The primary endpoint was maintaining plasma HIV RNA concentration < 5,000 copies/mL for 24 weeks following either treatment interruption. Results 121 subjects were enrolled at 15 sites. The trial was closed in mid-2007. 95% were men, median age was 34 years; 69% were white, 94% reported no injection drug use. Median baseline plasma HIV RNA concentration was higher in AI (210,000 copies/mL) than RI (43,000 copies/mL). The 73 primary endpoint subjects (28 AI, 45 RI) had significantly higher baseline CD4+ T cell counts (p=0.044) and lower HIV RNA plasma concentrations (p=0.016) but did not differ in acuity of infection from those not entering treatment interruption. The primary endpoint was achieved in 29 (40%) of the 73 and in 24% of the 121 enrolled overall. There was no significant outcome difference (p=0.81) between the AI (43%, 95% CI: 2463%) and RI (38%, 95% CI: 2453%) groups. Differences after longer follow up can not be ascertained by this trial. Baseline viral load <100,000/mL 22/46 (48%) compared with >100,000/mL, 7/27 (26%) and higher baseline CD4+ immune activation predicted success. Conclusion 40% of subjects treated during AI or RI sustained an HIV RNA plasma concentration <5,000 copies/mL after 24 weeks of treatment interruption. PMID:19696651

Volberding, Paul; Demeter, Lisa; Bosch, Ronald J.; Aga, Evgenia; Pettinelli, Carla; Hirsch, Martin; Vogler, Mary; Martinez, Ana; Little, Susan; Connick, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

274

Interrupted time series design: a useful approach for studying interventions targeting participation.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Comparative effectiveness research (CER) strives for evidence to inform clinical decisions for specific clients in typical health care settings. While the randomized controlled trial (RCT) is well-aligned with the objectives of CER, this design may not be feasible or applicable to all research questions, particularly those pertaining to clinical decision making and individually based change. It is important, therefore, to consider alternative approaches, especially when studying complex and subjective outcomes such as children's participation. We propose the use of interrupted time series (ITS) quasi-experimental design for its potential application in determining the effectiveness of participation-focused interventions. In this perspective, ITS design is described, ascertaining its advantages and limitations, and suggestions are provided to overcome challenges to implementation. Results of a case study using the ITS approach to evaluate changes in participation of an adolescent with physical disabilities are described. Finally, strategies to implement this design in practice are suggested. PMID:24328671

Anaby, Dana; Lal, Shalini; Huszczynski, Justine; Maich, Jana; Rogers, Jade; Law, Mary

2014-11-01

275

Driving Can Be Dangerous to Your Health An Interrupted Case Study in Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interrupted case study, students read about an older woman named Barbara who becomes ill after driving with her husband 19 hours from Florida to visit their son’s family. Barbara experiences an asthma attack and then more serious breathing problems, which result in her admission to the hospital. Students are presented with a variety of signs, symptoms, and medical data relating to Barbara’s health, which they must interpret to solve this case in circulatory and respiratory physiology. Developed for use in a one-semester animal physiology course taken by sophomore and junior science majors, it could also be used in a human anatomy and physiology course as well as a course in general biology.

Stephens, Phil

2008-01-01

276

High-frequency flow interruption in the rescue of preterm infants with severe RDS.  

PubMed

High-frequency flow interruption (HFFI) was used successfully to rescue three preterm infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) whose clinical condition continued to deteriorate while on the conventional mechanical ventilation. Had the HFFI not been used, the survival chances might have been 25 per cent for Case 1 and 2, and 45.5 per cent for Case 3. A dramatic, immediate, and sustained improvement in ventilation and oxygenation was demonstrated once the critical frequency and amplitude of HFFI were established. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia which was already evidenced in one infant before the HFFI attempt was detected in two infants. This study demonstrates that HFFI is capable of achieving adequate gas exchange and improving survival in infants with severe RDS. PMID:1307386

Jirapaet, K; Kolatat, T; Chavalitdhamrong, P O; Boonyaprakob, U

1992-11-01

277

Tafazzin knockdown interrupts cell cycle progression in cultured neonatal ventricular fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Mutation of the mitochondrial protein tafazzin causes dilated cardiomyopathy in Barth syndrome. Previous studies have shown that tafazzin knockdown promotes hypertrophy of neonatal cardiac myocytes. The current investigation was designed to show whether tafazzin knockdown affects cardiac fibroblast proliferation and collagen secretion, which contribute to fibrosis in dilated cardiomyopathy. In primary cultures of neonatal ventricular fibroblasts (NVFs) transduced with a tafazzin short hairpin RNA adenovirus, tafazzin knockdown increased production of reactive oxygen species and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and induced protein and DNA synthesis via cell cycle regulators. It also reduced intracellular ATP, activated AMPK, and caused multinucleation, hypertrophy, and enhanced collagen secretion. We concluded that tafazzin knockdown interrupts the NVF cell cycle and this in turn may contribute to fibrosis and dilated cardiomyopathy in Barth syndrome. PMID:23997105

He, Quan; Wang, Miao; Harris, Nicole; Han, Xianlin

2013-11-01

278

The Use of Interrupted Case Studies to Enhance Critical Thinking Skills in Biology  

PubMed Central

There has been a dramatic increase in the availability of case studies for use in the biology classroom, and perceptions of the effectiveness of case-study-based learning are overwhelmingly positive. Here we report the results of a study in which we evaluated the ability of interrupted case studies to improve critical thinking in the context of experimental design and the conventions of data interpretation. Students were assessed using further case studies designed to evaluate their ability to recognize and articulate problematic approaches to these elements of experimentation. Our work reveals that case studies have broad utility in the classroom. In addition to demonstrating a small but statistically significant increase in the number of students capable of critically evaluating selected aspects of experimental design, we also observed increased student engagement and documented widespread misconceptions regarding the conventions of data acquisition and analysis. PMID:23653687

White, Tracy K.; Whitaker, Paul; Gonya, Terri; Hein, Richard; Kroening, Dubear; Lee, Kevin; Lee, Laura; Lukowiak, Andrea; Hayes, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

279

Individual differences in top-down restoration of interrupted speech: Links to linguistic and cognitive abilities.  

PubMed

Top-down restoration mechanisms can enhance perception of degraded speech. Even in normal hearing, however, a large variability has been observed in how effectively individuals can benefit from these mechanisms. To investigate if this variability is partially caused by individuals' linguistic and cognitive skills, normal-hearing participants of varying ages were assessed for receptive vocabulary (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test; PPVT-III-NL), for full-scale intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale; WAIS-IV-NL), and for top-down restoration of interrupted speech (with silent or noise-filled gaps). Receptive vocabulary was significantly correlated with the other measures, suggesting linguistic skills to be highly involved in restoration of degraded speech. PMID:25234920

Benard, Michel Ruben; Susanne Mensink, Jorien; Ba?kent, Deniz

2014-02-01

280

A model predictive control strategy toward optimal structured treatment interruptions in anti-HIV therapy.  

PubMed

In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) strategies are applied to the control of human immunodeficiency virus infection, with the final goal of implementing an optimal structured treatment interruptions protocol. The MPC algorithms proposed in this paper use a dynamic model recently developed in order to mimic both transient responses and ultimate behavior, and to describe accordingly the different effect of commonly used drugs in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Simulation studies show that the proposed methods achieve the goal of reducing the drug consumption (thus minimizing the severe side effects of HAART drugs) while respecting the desired constraints on CD4+ cells and free virions concentration. Such promising results are obtained with realistic assumptions of infrequent (possibly noisy) measurements of a subset of model state variables. Furthermore, the control objectives are achieved even in the presence of mismatch between the dynamics of true patients and that of the MPC model. PMID:20172797

Pannocchia, Gabriele; Laurino, Marco; Landi, Alberto

2010-05-01

281

THE EFFECTS OF MATCHED STIMULATION AND RESPONSE INTERRUPTION AND REDIRECTION ON VOCAL STEREOTYPY  

PubMed Central

Stereotypy has been classified as repetitive behavior that does not serve any apparent function. Two procedures that have been found to reduce rates of vocal stereotypy effectively are response interruption and redirection (RIRD) and noncontingent access to matched stimulation (MS). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of RIRD alone, MS alone, and MS combined with RIRD. One participant's results suggested similar suppressive effects on vocal stereotypy across treatment conditions. For the second participant, a slightly greater suppression of stereotypy was associated with MS + RIRD. In addition, both participants emitted a greater frequency of appropriate vocalizations in conditions with RIRD. Data suggest that the addition of MS might facilitate the implementation of RIRD in applied settings. PMID:23060668

Love, Jessica J; Miguel, Caio F; Fernand, Jonathan K; LaBrie, Jillian K

2012-01-01

282

THE EFFECTS OF VERBAL OPERANT TRAINING AND RESPONSE INTERRUPTION AND REDIRECTION ON APPROPRIATE AND INAPPROPRIATE VOCALIZATIONS  

PubMed Central

Past research has shown that response interruption and redirection (RIRD) can effectively decrease automatically reinforced motor behavior (Hagopian & Adelinis, 2001). Ahearn, Clark, MacDonald, and Chung (2007) found that a procedural adaptation of RIRD reduced vocal stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for some children, although appropriate vocalizations were not targeted directly. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of directly targeting appropriate language (i.e., verbal operant training) on vocal stereotypy and appropriate speech in 3 children with an autism spectrum disorder. The effects of verbal operant (i.e., tact) training were evaluated in a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across participants. In addition, RIRD was implemented with 2 of the 3 participants to further decrease levels of vocal stereotypy. Verbal operant training alone produced slightly lower levels of stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for all 3 participants; however, RIRD was required to produce acceptably low levels of stereotypy for 2 of the 3 participants. PMID:22403453

Coln, Candice L; Ahearn, William H; Clark, Kathleen M; Masalsky, Jessica

2012-01-01

283

Interruption of vector transmission by native vectors and "the art of the possible"  

PubMed Central

In a recent article in the Readers Opinion, advantages and disadvantages of the certification processes of interrupted Chagas disease transmission (American trypanosomiasis) by native vector were discussed. Such concept, accepted by those authors for the case of endemic situations with introduced vectors, has been built on a long and laborious process by endemic countries and Subregional Initiatives for Prevention, Control and Treatment of Chagas, with Technical Secretariat of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, to create a horizon target and goal to concentrate priorities and resource allocation and actions. With varying degrees of sucess, which are not replaceable for a certificate of good practice, has allowed during 23 years to safeguard the effective control of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi not to hundreds of thousands, but millions of people at risk conditions, truly the art of the possible. PMID:24626310

Salvatella, Roberto; Irabedra, Pilar; Castellanos, Luis G

2013-01-01

284

Note: A compact three-axis optical force/torque sensor using photo-interrupters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By integrating four photo-interrupters in a cross-shaped structure, we developed a compact three-axis optical force/torque (F/T) sensor. The developed sensor has a diameter of 28 mm and a thickness of 7 mm. Despite simplicity and compactness, the experiments with a prototype of the proposed sensor demonstrate notably high accuracy. The RMS errors are 0.5% 0.1% of the maximum vertical force in z-axis, 1.9% 0.2% of the maximum torque in x-axis, and 2.0% 0.3% of the maximum torque in y-axis. It is expected that the proposed sensor allows cost-effective integration of robot systems requiring compact and multi-axis F/T sensors such as a walking assist robot.

Kim, Ji-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

2013-12-01

285

Treatment Interruptions and Non-Adherence with Imatinib and Associated Healthcare Costs: A Retrospective Analysis among Managed Care Patients with Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Identify treatment interruptions and non-adherence with imatinib; examine the clinical and patient characteristics related to treatment interruptions and non-adherence; and estimate the association between treatment interruptions and non-adherence with imatinib and healthcare costs for US managed care patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Methods: This retrospective analysis utilised electronic healthcare claims data from a US managed care provider. Adult

Theodore Darkow; Henry J. Henk; Simu K. Thomas; Weiwei Feng; Jean-Francois Baladi; George A. Goldberg; Alan Hatfield; Jorge Cortes

2007-01-01

286

The European Alps as an interrupter of the Earth's conductivity structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joint interpretation of magnetotelluric and geomagnetic depth sounding results in the period range of 10-105 s in the Western European Alps offer new insights into the conductivity structure of the Earth's crust and mantle. This first large scale electromagnetic study in the Alps covers a cross-section from Germany to northern Italy and shows the importance of the alpine mountain chain as an interrupter of continuous conductors. Poor data quality due to the highly crystalline underground is overcome by Remote Reference and Robust Processing techniques and the combination of both electromagnetic methods. 3-D forward modeling reveals on the one hand interrupted dipping crustal conductors with maximum conductances of 4960 S and on the other hand a lithosphere thickening up to 208 km beneath the central Western Alps. Graphite networks arising from Palaeozoic sedimentary deposits are considered to be accountable for the occurrence of high conductivity and the distribution pattern of crustal conductors. The influence of huge sedimentary Molasse basins on the electromagnetic data is suggested to be minor compared with the influence of crustal conductors. Dipping direction (S-SE) and maximum angle (10.1) of the northern crustal conductor reveal the main thrusting conditions beneath the Helvetic Alps whereas the existence of a crustal conductor in the Brianonnais supports theses about its belonging to the Iberian Peninsula. In conclusion the proposed model arisen from combined 3-D modeling of noise corrected electromagnetic data is able to explain the geophysical influence of various structural features in and around the Western European Alps and serves as a background for further upcoming studies.

Al-Halbouni, D.

2013-07-01

287

Estimating business and residential water supply interruption losses from catastrophic events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following man-made or natural catastrophes, widespread and long-lasting disruption of lifelines can lead to economic impacts for both business and residential lifeline users. As a result, the total economic losses caused by infrastructure damage may be much higher than the value of damage to infrastructure itself. In this paper, we consider the estimation of economic impacts on businesses and residential consumers resulting from water supply disruption. The methodology we present for estimating business interruption losses assumes that marginal losses are increasing in the severity of disruption and that there may be a critical water availability cutoff below which business activity ceases. To estimate residential losses from water supply interruption, we integrate consumers' demand curves, calibrated to water agency price and quantity data. Our methodologies are spatially disaggregated and explicitly account for the time profile of infrastructure repair and restoration. As an illustration, we estimate the economic losses to business and residential water users of one of the major water supply systems of the San Francisco Bay Area of California resulting from two potential earthquake scenarios, a magnitude 7.9 event on the San Andreas Fault and a magnitude 7.1 event on the Hayward Fault. For the business loss estimation, our modeling framework is general enough to calculate and compare losses using loss functions from several previous studies. Estimated business and residential losses for the San Andreas event are 14.4 billion and 279 million, respectively. For the Hayward event, estimated business and residential losses are 9.3 billion and 37 million, respectively.

Brozovi?, Nicholas; Sunding, David L.; Zilberman, David

2007-08-01

288

Interruptions of (CG)n sequences by GG, TG and CA need not prevent B to Z transition in solution.  

PubMed Central

Oligonucleotides containing alternating purines-pyrimidines with AT base pairs have been shown to exist in the Z-form preferably in solid state. We report that oligodeoxyribonucleotides with GG, TG and CA interruptions in their alternating CG sequences can undergo B to Z transition in solution in the absence of any chemical modification or topological constraint. The sequences, d(CGCGCGGCGCGC) and d(CGTGCGCACG) have been synthesised and shown to adopt Z- conformation in presence of millimolar concentrations of Ni2+ under low water activity conditions. Significance of GG, TG and CA interruptions in the B to Z transition is discussed. PMID:3380692

Mishra, R K; Latha, P K; Brahmachari, S K

1988-01-01

289

Patterns of CAG repeat interruptions in SCA1 and SCA2 genes in relation to repeat instability.  

PubMed

About 3% of the human genome is composed of simple sequence repeats and many of these sequences occur within genes. These repeats are often polymorphic in a normal population and their expansion in specific genes leads to a number of hereditary neurological diseases. Normal variants of disease-related genes contain either pure or interrupted repeats, and the postulated function of the interruptions is to prevent repeat expansions. Their structural role in the repeat tracts of genes and transcripts awaits detailed characterization. In this study, we have determined the SCA1 and SCA2 genotypes in a Polish population and found significant differences in allele spectra and frequencies from those reported for other populations. They are discussed in relation to the repeat expansion mechanism and disease incidence. We postulate that the dynamic mutation of the genes SCA1 (also ATX1 or ataxin 1) and SCA2 (also ATX2 or ataxin 2) may begin from the expansion of long pure repeat tracts without the prior loss of interruptions. A simple way of cost-effective allelotyping of CAG repeat regions in the SCA1 and SCA2genes is also shown. The reliable SSCP/duplex analysis presented here may be the method of choice for the systematic searching of genes for known and novel interrupted repeats. PMID:15300851

Sobczak, Krzysztof; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J

2004-09-01

290

How much does it cost to stay at home? Career interruptions and the gender wage gap in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childbearing and subsequent interruptions have from a long time been cited as one of the major causes of the gender wage gap. The time spent out of the labour market to raise children may result not only in women accumulating less professional experience than men on average, but also in a pay penalty. Children can also have indirect effects on

Dominique MEURS; Ariane PAILHE; Sophie PONTHIEUX

291

Perception of interrupted speech: Effects of dual-rate gating on the intelligibility of words and sentencesa  

PubMed Central

Perception of interrupted speech and the influence of speech materials and memory load were investigated using one or two concurrent square-wave gating functions. Sentences (Experiment 1) and random one-, three-, and five-word sequences (Experiment 2) were interrupted using either a primary gating rate alone (0.5?24 Hz) or a combined primary and faster secondary rate. The secondary rate interrupted only speech left intact after primary gating, reducing the original speech to 25%. In both experiments, intelligibility increased with primary rate, but varied with memory load and speech material (highest for sentences, lowest for five-word sequences). With dual-rate gating of sentences, intelligibility with fast secondary rates was superior to that with single rates and a 25% duty cycle, approaching that of single rates with a 50% duty cycle for some low and high rates. For dual-rate gating of words, the positive effect of fast secondary gating was smaller than for sentences, and the advantage of sentences over word-sequences was not obtained in many dual-rate conditions. These findings suggest that integration of interrupted speech fragments after gating depends on the duration of the gated speech interval and that sufficiently robust acoustic-phonetic word cues are needed to access higher-level contextual sentence information. PMID:21973362

Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Risley, Robert

2011-01-01

292

Placing the mad woman: troubling cultural representations of being a woman with mental illness in Girl Interrupted  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I examine cultural narratives about the lives and places of women with mental illness in the commercial Hollywood film: Girl Interrupted (1999). In contrast to most of the disability studies literature concerned with cultural representation, this article explicitly examines how the spatiality of mad women's lives is constructed through film. Drawing on post-structuralist, and feminist perspectives on

Vera Chouinard

2009-01-01

293

The impact of the introduction of critical care outreach services in England: a multicentre interrupted time-series analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Critical care outreach services (CCOS) have been widely introduced in England with little rigorous evaluation. We undertook a multicentre interrupted time-series analysis of the impact of CCOS, as characterised by the case mix, outcome and activity of admissions to adult, general critical care units in England. METHODS: Data from the Case Mix Programme Database (CMPD) were linked with the

Haiyan Gao; David A Harrison; Gareth J Parry; Kathleen Daly; Christian P Subbe; Kathy Rowan

2007-01-01

294

Improving the match between callers and receivers: A study on the effect of contextual information on cell phone interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A problem with the location-free nature of cell phones is that callers have difficulty predicting receivers' states, leading to inappropriate calls. One promising solution involves helping callers decide when to interrupt by providing them contextual information about receivers. We tested the effectiveness of different kinds of contextual information by measuring the degree of agreement between receivers' desires and callers' decisions.

Daniel Avrahami; D. Gergle; Scott E. Hudson; Sara B. Kiesler

2007-01-01

295

Working Guidelines for the granting of authorised interruption of study or extension to study for Postgraduate taught masters and diplomas  

E-print Network

the control of the student. Authorised interruptions to study can only be authorised by the College Learning of the student to the Academic Affairs Section (Lynda.M.Henderson@ed.ac.uk) at #12;the College Office. All & Teaching Committee and can not be authorised by Teaching Organisation or Programme Directors. A student

Edinburgh, University of

296

An interrupted vinylogous iso-Nazarov reaction: cycloisomerization of conjugated trienones to cyclopenta[b]furan derivatives.  

PubMed

Iron(III) chloride-catalyzed cyclopentannulation of ?-conjugated 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds is described. An interrupted vinylogous iso-Nazarov reaction of trienones was established in which cyclopenta[b]furan derivatives are obtained as single diastereomers. PMID:25075431

Riveira, Martn J; Mischne, Mirta P

2014-09-01

297

Examining the Internal Validity and Statistical Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time Series Design by Comparison with a Randomized Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although evaluators often use an interrupted time series (ITS) design to test hypotheses about program effects, there are few empirical tests of the design's validity. We take a randomized experiment on an educational topic and compare its effects to those from a comparative ITS (CITS) design that uses the same treatment group as the

St.Clair, Travis; Cook, Thomas D.; Hallberg, Kelly

2014-01-01

298

Increasing Requests Made by People with Developmental Disabilities and Deaf-Blindness through the Use of Behavior Interruption Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The staff of an apartment-based residential support program was taught to use behavior interruption strategies to elicit requesting functions from two women with deaf-blindness and developmental disabilities. Results found the strategies to be both quickly assimilated by the staff and effective in increasing request rates from the subjects.

Romer, Lyle T.; Schoenberg, Beth

1991-01-01

299

INTERRUPTED TIME SERIES DESIGNS IN HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: LESSONS FROM TWO SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE STRATEGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: In an interrupted time series (ITS) design, data are collected at multiple instances over time before and after an intervention to detect whether the intervention has an effect significantly greater than the underlying secular trend. We critically reviewed the methodological quality of ITS designs using studies included in two systematic reviews (a review of mass media interventions and a

Craig R. Ramsay; Lloyd Matowe; Roberto Grilli; Jeremy M. Grimshaw; Ruth E. Thomas

2003-01-01

300

Complicating Consent: A Study of the Rhetorical Strategies Employed to Interrupt Rape Myths in the Prosecutor v. Kunarac  

E-print Network

The justices in the trial of the Prosecutor v. Kunarac were able to interrupt the rape myths that generally exist in rape trials by complicating the notion of consent. In this paper I argue that the justices de-naturalize common myths about consent...

Shook, Lindsey

2010-08-31

301

Increase in nitrate uptake by soybean plants during interruption of the dark period with low intensity light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diurnal patterns of net NO3- uptake by nonnodulated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] plants growing in flowing hydroponic culture at 26 and 16 degrees C root temperatures were measured at hourly intervals during alternate days of a 12-day growth period. Ion chromatography was used to determine removal of NO3- from the culture solution. Day and night periods of 9 and 15 h were used during growth. The night period included two 6-h dark periods and an intervening 3-h period of night interruption by incandescent lamps to effect a long-day photoperiod and repress floral initiation. At both root temperatures, the average specific rates of NO3- uptake were twice as great during the night interruption period as during the day period; they were greater during the day period than during the dark periods; and they were greater during the dark period immediately following the day period than during the later dark period that followed the night interruption. While these average patterns were repetitious among days, measured rates of uptake varied hourly and included intervals of net efflux scattered through the day period and more frequently through the 2 dark periods. Root temperature did not affect the average daily specific rates of uptake or the qualitative relationships among day, dark and night interruption periods of the diurnal cycle.

Raper, C. D. Jr; Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.

1991-01-01

302

Delayed Locking Technique for Improving Real-Time Performance of Embedded Linux by Prediction of Timer Interrupt  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new technique, called a delayed locking technique, to improve the real-time performance of embedded Linux. The proposed technique employs the rule that entering a critical section is allowed only if the operation does not disturb the future execution of the real-time application. To execute this rule, we introduce the concepts of timer interrupt prediction

Jupyung Lee; Kyu-Ho Park

2005-01-01

303

Measuring the Impacts of Community Development Initiatives: A New Application of the Adjusted Interrupted Time-Series Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors contribute to the development of empirical methods for measuring the impacts of place-based local development strategies by introducing the adjusted interrupted time-series (AITS) approach. It estimates a more precise counterfactual scenario, thus offering a stronger basis for drawing causal inferences about impacts. The authors

Galster, George; Temkin, Kenneth; Walker, Chris; Sawyer, Noah

2004-01-01

304

The motion of vacuum arcs between spiral contacts with a fixed-polarity arc shield [in vacuum interrupters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framing camera was used to study drawn vacuum arcs between spiral-type contacts in vacuum interrupters. This design imposes a transverse (radially directed) magnetic field on the arc column. The fixed electrode was brazed to a cylindrical arc shield. With the fixed electrode and shield as cathode, cathode spots were observed to be produced on the shield by two mechanisms.

Michael Bruce Schulman

1998-01-01

305

Role of contact tracing and prevention strategies in the interruption of leprosy transmission.  

PubMed

The global prevalence of leprosy has declined from 5.2 million in the 1980 s to 200,000 today. However, the new case detection rate remains high: over the last 8 years, around 220,000-250,000 people have been diagnosed with leprosy each year. In June 2013, an international meeting was organised by the Novartis Foundation for Sustainable Development in Geneva, Switzerland,2 with the objective of discussing the feasibility of interrupting the transmission of leprosy. The group of physicians, epidemiologists and public health professionals concluded that a successful programme would require early diagnosis and prompt multidrug therapy (MDT) for all patients, tracing and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for contacts of patients newly diagnosed with leprosy, improvements in diagnostic tools, as well as strict epidemiological surveillance and response systems to monitor progress. As a follow-up, a second expert group meeting was convened by the Novartis Foundation in January 2014 in Zurich, Switzerland, with the objective of reviewing the evidence for chemoprophylaxis in contacts and high-risk communities. The meeting also considered the definitions of 'contacts' and 'contact tracing', discussed alternative prophylaxis regimens, preliminary findings of operational pilot projects on PEP in Indonesia, as well as the development of diagnostic tools, and identified the priority questions for operational research in leprosy transmission. The meeting outlined how contact tracing and chemoprophylaxis programmes can be implemented to interrupt leprosy transmission. The expert panel reached the following conclusions: Chemoprophylaxis with single-dose rifampicin (SDR) is efficacious in reducing the risk of developing leprosy, although the protective effect appears to be smaller in contacts closer to the index patient than in more distant contacts.3 SDR can be targeted to contacts or implemented as community mass prophylaxis in certain circumstances; the preferred approach depends on local factors, such as the case detection rate, the level of community stigma against leprosy, and the degree of access to healthcare for patients and contacts. Alternative prophylaxis regimens and the role of post-exposure immunoprophylaxis need to be further investigated. Contact tracing combined with PEP across very diverse settings offers protection rates similar to those reported in controlled trials. For high-incidence pockets ('hotspots') or remote or confined high-incidence populations ('hotpops'), blanket administration of PEP may be a better option. Implementation of contact-tracing programmes is feasible and cost-effective, particularly in high-risk groups, but it should be integrated into local healthcare services to ensure their long-term sustainability. Funding and support must be maintained after an initial pilot has finished. New programmes for contact tracing need effective surveillance systems to enable appropriate follow-up and outcome evaluation. The Novartis Foundation and Netherlands Leprosy Relief (NLR) are currently developing and implementing a large international programme to demonstrate the feasibility, acceptability, cost-effectiveness and real-world efficacy of PEP as a strategy to interrupt leprosy transmission, in six pilot projects in Asia, Africa and South America. These new pilot projects will be developed together with the local health authorities, healthcare workers, communities and patients, in order to create local ownership from the outset. The pilots should aim to be scalable and sustainable, and should therefore include an objective outcome assessment. Local ownership ensures that locally appropriate language and definitions of contacts are used in each of the pilots. A test to identify subclinical disease and distinguish M. leprae exposure from infection would facilitate early and appropriate therapy (with PEP or MDT). The identification and validation of new, sensitive biomarkers for M. leprae infection and exposure may allow better targeting of PEP to those contacts at highest risk of developing leprosy. PMID:249744

Smith, W Cairns S; Aerts, Ann

2014-03-01

306

43 CFR 3481.4-4 - What is the aggregate amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my lease...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my...

2012-10-01

307

43 CFR 3481.4-4 - What is the aggregate amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my lease...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my...

2011-10-01

308

43 CFR 3481.4-4 - What is the aggregate amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my lease...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my...

2013-10-01

309

Aortic arch augmentation using a pulmonary artery autograft patch and a reversed left subclavian artery flap for an interrupted aortic arch type B complex.  

PubMed

Adequate arch augmentation for interrupted aortic arch repair is quite important to avoid post-operative recoarctation and bronchial compression. We describe here two successful cases of aortic arch reconstruction using autologous materials such as a pulmonary artery patch and a reversed left subclavian artery flap in infants with an interrupted aortic arch type B complex. PMID:23803420

Hasegawa, Tomomi; Oshima, Yoshihiro; Kadowaki, Tasuku

2014-06-01

310

Common interruptions in the repeating tripeptide sequence of non-fibrillar collagens: Sequence analysis and structural studies on triple-helix peptide models  

PubMed Central

Interruptions in the repeating (Gly-X1-X2)n amino acid sequence pattern are found in the triple-helix domains of all non-fibrillar collagens, and perturbations to the triple-helix at such sites are likely to play a role in collagen higher order structure and function. This report defines the sequence features and structural consequences of the most common interruption, where one residue is missing in the tripeptide pattern, Gly-X1-X2-Gly-AA1-Gly-X1-X2, designated as G1G interruptions. Residues found within G1G interruptions are predominantly hydrophobic (70%), followed by a significant amount of charged residues (16%), and the Gly-X1-X2 triplets flanking the interruption are atypical. Studies on peptide models indicate the degree of destabilization is much greater when a Pro is in the interruption, GP, than when hydrophobic residues (GF, GY) are present, and a rigid Gly-Pro-Hyp tripeptide adjacent to the interruption leads to greater destabilization than a flexible Gly-Ala-Ala sequence. Modeling based on NMR data indicates the Phe residue within a GF interruption is located on the outside of the triple-helix. The G1G interruptions resemble a previously studied collagen interruption GPOGAAVMGPO, designated as a G4G type, in that both are destabilizing, but allow continuation of rod-like triple-helices and maintenance of the 1-residue stagger throughout the imperfection, with a loss of axial register of the superhelix on both sides. Both kinds of interruptions result in a highly localized perturbation in hydrogen bonding and dihedral angles, but the hydrophobic residue of a G4G interruption packs near the central axis of the superhelix while the hydrophobic residue of a G1G interruption is located on the triple-helix surface. The different structural consequences of G1G and G4G interruptions in the repeating tripeptide sequence pattern suggest a physical basis for their differential susceptibility to matrix metalloproteinases in type X collagen. PMID:18187152

Thiagarajan, Geetha; Li, Yingjie; Mohs, Angela; Strafaci, Christopher; Popiel, Magdalena; Baum, Jean; Brodsky, Barbara

2009-01-01

311

Morbidity in children and adolescents after surgical correction of interrupted aortic arch.  

PubMed

Previous studies of outcome after operative correction of interrupted aortic arch (IAA) have focused on mortality and rates of reintervention. We sought to investigate the clinical status of children and adolescents after surgery for IAA. A cross-sectional study of subjects with IAA between the ages of 8 and 18 years was performed with the subjects undergoing simultaneous genetic testing, electrocardiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and assessment of health status and health-related quality of life as well as concurrent retrospective cohort study reviewing their postoperative use of medical care, including operative and transcatheter reinterventions, noncardiac surgeries, and hospitalizations. Twenty-one subjects with IAA with median age of 9 years were studied. Reintervention rates were 38% for left-ventricular outflow tract, 33% for AA, and 24% for both. Rates of reintervention were highest in the first year of life and decreased in subsequent years. Left-ventricular ejection fraction was preserved (72 6%). Maximal oxygen consumption, maximal work, and forced vital capacity were both significantly decreased from age and sex norms (p < 0.0001). Health status and quality of life were both severely decreased. Subjects with IAA demonstrate a significant burden of operative and transcatheter intervention and large magnitude deficits in exercise performance, health status, and health-related quality of life. PMID:24036994

O'Byrne, Michael L; Mercer-Rosa, Laura; Zhao, Huaqing; Zhang, Xuemei; Yang, Wei; Tanel, Ronn E; Marino, Bradley S; Cassedy, Amy; Fogel, Mark A; Rychik, Jack; Paridon, Stephen; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth

2014-03-01

312

Simulating bistable perception with interrupted ambiguous stimulus using self-oscillator dynamics with percept choice bifurcation.  

PubMed

A behavioral stochastic self-oscillator model is used for simulating interrupted ambiguous stimulus-induced percept reversals. The results provide further support for a dynamical systems foundation of cognitive and psychological problems as discussed in detail within the context of Gestalt psychology by Wagemans et al. (Concept Theor Found Psychol Bull 138(6):1218-1252, 2012), and for coordination dynamics of the brain (Kelso in Philos Trans R Soc B 367:906-918, 2012). Statistical evaluation of simulated reversal time series predicts a maximum of the percept reversal rate that conforms with a number of results in the literature. The macroscopic model is based on two inhibitorily coupled sets of three coupled nonlinear equations, one triplet for each percept. The derivation of our specific dynamics equations is based on a drastically simplified field theoretical approach using well-known phase synchronization for explaining brain dynamics on the macroscopic EEG level. The degree of coherence (contrast ?, 0???1) of the superimposed fields required for onset of bistable dynamics is related to a phase synchronization index of EEG fields, and it is used in the present context as ambiguity control parameter. For quantitative agreement with the experimental data, the addition of a stochastic Langevin force term in the attention equation proved essential. Formal analysis leads to a quantification of well-known "cognitive inertia" and supports the interplay between percept choice (bifurcation) dynamics during stimulus onset and adaptive gain (attention fatigue) driven quasiperiodic percept reversals. PMID:25181991

Frstenau, Norbert

2014-11-01

313

Effectiveness of an improved road safety policy in Ethiopia: an interrupted time series study  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in implementing road safety policy by different low income countries. However; the evidence is scarce on its success in the reduction of crashes, injuries and deaths. This study was conducted to assess whether road crashes, injuries and fatalities was reduced following the road safety regulation introduced as of September 2007 by Oromia Regional State Transport Bureau. Methods Routine road traffic accident data for the year 2002-2011were collected from sixteen traffic police offices. Data on average daily vehicle flow was obtained from the Ethiopian Road Authority. Interrupted time series design using segmented linear regression model was applied to estimate the effect of an improved road safety policy. Results A total of 4,053 crashes occurred on Addis Ababa - Adama/Hawassa main road. Of these crashes, almost half 46.4% (1,880) were property damage, 29.4% (1,193) were fatal and 24.2% (980) injury crashes, resulting 1,392 fatalities and 1,749 injuries. There were statistically significant reductions in non-injury crashes and deaths. Non-injury crash was reduced by 19% and fatality by 12.4% in the first year of implementing the revised transport safety regulation. Conclusion Although revised road safety policy helped in reducing motor vehicle crashes and associated fatalities, the overall incidence rate is still very high. Further action is required to avoid unnecessary loss of lives. PMID:24886220

2014-01-01

314

Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplanktonzooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.

2011-01-01

315

Interruptions improve choice performance in gray jays: prolonged information processing versus minimization of costly errors.  

PubMed

Under the assumption that selection favors minimization of costly errors, erroneous choice may be common when its fitness cost is low. According to an adaptive-choice model, this cost depends on the rate at which an animal encounters the choice: the higher this rate, the smaller the cost of choosing a less valuable option. Errors should thus be more common when interruptions to foraging are shorter. A previous experiment supported this prediction: gray jays, Perisoreus canadensis, were more error prone when subjected to shorter delays to access to food rewards. This pattern, though, is also predicted by an attentional-constraints model. Because the subjects were able to inspect the rewards during delays, their improved performance when subjected to longer delays could have been a byproduct of the experimentally prolonged opportunity for information processing. To evaluate this possibility, a follow-up experiment manipulated both delay to access and whether rewards could be inspected during delays. Depriving jays of the opportunity to inspect rewards (using opaque lids) induced only a small, nonsignificant increase in error rate. This effect was independent of length of delay and so the jays' improved performance when subjected to longer delays was not simply a byproduct of prolonged information processing. More definitively, even when the jays were prevented from inspecting rewards during delays, their performance improved when subjected to longer delays. The findings are thus consistent with the adaptive-choice model. PMID:12461598

Waite, Thomas A

2002-12-01

316

Framework for evaluating the risks of paralytic poliomyelitis after global interruption of wild poliovirus transmission.  

PubMed

With the interruption of wild poliovirus transmission globally, the need for new policies to deal with the post-certification era will rapidly arise. New policies will be required in four areas: detection and notification of circulating polioviruses; biocontainment of wild, vaccine-derived and attenuated strains of poliovirus; vaccine stockpiles and response mechanisms; and routine immunization against polioviruses. A common understanding of the potential risks of paralytic poliomyelitis in the post-certification period is essential to the development of these policies. Since 2000, there has been increasing international consensus that the risks of paralytic poliomyelitis in the post-certification era fall into two categories: those due to the continued use of the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and those due to future improper handling of wild polioviruses. The specific risks within both categories have now been defined, and an understanding of the frequency and potential burden of disease associated with each is rapidly improving. This knowledge and clarity have provided a framework that is already proving valuable for identifying research priorities and discussing potential policy options with national authorities. However, this framework must be regarded as a dynamic tool, requiring regular updating as additional information on these risks becomes available through further scientific research, programmatic work, and policy decisions. PMID:15106299

Aylward, R Bruce; Cochi, Stephen L

2004-01-01

317

Cerebral Activations Related to Ballistic, Stepwise Interrupted and Gradually Modulated Movements in Parkinson Patients  

PubMed Central

Patients with Parkinsons disease (PD) experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG) contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N?=?12) and healthy subjects (N?=?18). In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN) and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static) model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account enhanced responsiveness to external stimuli in this disease and the effects of hyper-fluctuating cortical inputs to the striatum and STN in particular. PMID:22911738

Toxopeus, Carolien M.; Maurits, Natasha M.; Valsan, Gopal; Conway, Bernard A.; Leenders, Klaus L.; de Jong, Bauke M.

2012-01-01

318

Progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus transmission--worldwide, January 2010-March 2011.  

PubMed

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was launched in 1988. By 2006, transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) was interrupted in all but four countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nigeria). Subsequently, 39 previously polio-free countries experienced outbreaks following importation of WPV, and transmission became reestablished in Angola, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Sudan. This update summarizes progress toward polio eradication during 2010 and the first quarter of 2011. Worldwide, 1,291 WPV cases were reported in 2010, a 19% decrease from 2009; WPV type 3 (WPV3) cases decreased 92%, but WPV type 1 (WPV1) cases increased 145%. During 2010, 232 (18%) WPV cases were reported from the four polio-endemic countries; 159 (12%) cases were reported in Angola, Chad, and DRC; and 900 (70%) cases were reported in 13 countries, including two countries with outbreaks continuing from 2009 and 11 with new importations. During 2010, WPV cases in India and Nigeria decreased ?94% compared with 2009. Outbreaks in Tajikistan and the Republic of the Congo (Congo) accounted for two thirds of cases (842) in 2010. All new outbreaks in 11 polio-free countries in 2010 were stopped or were on track to being stopped within 6 months of outbreak confirmation. During January--March 2011, substantially more WPV cases occurred in Chad, DRC, and Pakistan than during the same period of 2010. To further progress toward polio eradication and achieve the 2012 target of ending all WPV transmission, significant increases in resources and political commitment are needed. PMID:21566559

2011-05-13

319

Chemical disinfection to interrupt transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from environmental surfaces to hands.  

PubMed

Rhinoviruses can survive on environmental surfaces for several hours under ambient conditions. Hands can readily become contaminated after contact with such surfaces, and self-inoculation may lead to infection. Whereas hand washing is crucial in preventing the spread of rhinovirus colds, proper disinfection of environmental surfaces may further reduce rhinovirus transmission. In this study, the capacities of Lysol Disinfectant Spray (0.1% o-phenylphenol and 79% ethanol), a domestic bleach (6% sodium hypochlorite diluted to give 800 ppm of free chlorine), a quaternary ammonium-based product (7.05% quaternary ammonium diluted 1:128 in tap water), and a phenol-based product (14.7% phenol diluted 1:256 in tap water) were compared in interrupting the transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from stainless steel disks to fingerpads of human volunteers upon a 10-s contact at a pressure of 1 kg/cm2. Ten microliters of the virus, suspended in bovine mucin (5 mg/ml), was placed on each disk, and the inoculum was dried under ambient conditions; the input number on each disk ranged from 0.5 x 10(5) to 2.1 x 10(6) PFU. The dried virus was exposed to 20 microliters of the test disinfectant. The Lysol spray was able to reduce virus infectivity by > 99.99% after a contact of either 1 or 10 min, and no detectable virus was transferred to fingerpads from Lysol-treated disks. The bleach (800 ppm of free chlorine) reduced the virus titer by 99.7% after a contact time of 10 min, and again no virus was transferred from the disks treated with it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8390817

Sattar, S A; Jacobsen, H; Springthorpe, V S; Cusack, T M; Rubino, J R

1993-05-01

320

Mechanism of Evenness Interrupted (Evi)-Exosome Release at Synaptic Boutons*  

PubMed Central

Wnt signaling plays critical roles during synaptic development and plasticity. However, the mechanisms by which Wnts are released and travel to target cells are unresolved. During synaptic development, the secretion of Drosophila Wnt1, Wingless, requires the function of Evenness Interrupted (Evi)/Wls, a Wingless-binding protein that is secreted along with Wingless at the neuromuscular junction. Given that Evi is a transmembrane protein, these studies suggested the presence of a novel vesicular mechanism of trans-synaptic communication, potentially in the form of exosomes. To establish the mechanisms for the release of Evi vesicles, we used a dsRNA assay in cultured cells to screen for genes that when down-regulated prevent the release of Evi vesicles. We identified two proteins, Rab11 and Syntaxin 1A (Syx1A), that were required for Evi vesicle release. To determine whether the same mechanisms were used in vivo at the neuromuscular junction, we altered the activity of Rab11 and Syx1A in motoneurons and determined the impact on Evi release. We found that Syx1A, Rab11, and its effector Myosin5 were required for proper Evi vesicle release. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis of synaptic boutons demonstrated the presence of multivesicular bodies, organelles involved in the production and release of exosomes, and these multivesicular bodies contained Evi. We also used mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and biochemical techniques to characterize the exosome fraction from cultured cells. Our studies revealed that secreted Evi vesicles show remarkable conservation with exosomes in other systems. In summary, our observations unravel some of the in vivo mechanisms required for Evi vesicle release. PMID:22437826

Koles, Kate; Nunnari, John; Korkut, Ceren; Barria, Romina; Brewer, Cassandra; Li, Yihang; Leszyk, John; Zhang, Bing; Budnik, Vivian

2012-01-01

321

Influence of safety warnings on ESA prescribing among dialysis patients using an interrupted time series  

PubMed Central

Background In March, 2007, a black box warning was issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to use the lowest possible erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) doses for treatment of anemia associated with renal disease. The goal is to determine if a change in ESA use was observed following the warning among US dialysis patients. Methods ESA therapy was examined from September 2004 through August 2009 (thirty months before and after the FDA black box warning) among adult Medicare hemodialysis patients. An interrupted time series model assessed the impact of the warnings. Results The FDA black box warning did not appear to influence ESA prescribing among the overall dialysis population. However, significant declines in ESA therapy after the FDA warnings were observed for selected populations. Patients with a hematocrit ?36% had a declining month-to-month trend before (?164 units/week, p?=?<0.0001) and after the warnings (?80 units/week, p?=?.001), and a large drop in ESA level immediately after the black box (?4,744 units/week, p?=?<.0001). Not-for-profit facilities had a declining month-to-month trend before the warnings (?90 units/week, p?=?.009) and a large drop in ESA dose immediately afterwards (?2,487 units/week, p?=?0.015). In contrast, for-profit facilities did not have a significant change in ESA prescribing. Conclusions ESA therapy had been both profitable for providers and controversial regarding benefits for nearly two decades. The extent to which a FDA black box warning highlighting important safety concerns influenced use of ESA therapy among nephrologists and dialysis providers was unknown. Our study found no evidence of changes in ESA prescribing for the overall dialysis population resulting from a FDA black box warning. PMID:23927675

2013-01-01

322

Within-season flowering interruptions are common in the water-limited Sky Islands.  

PubMed

Within-season breaks in flowering have been reported in a wide range of highly variable ecosystems including deserts, tropical forests and high-elevation meadows. A tendency for interruptions in flowering has also been documented in southwestern US "Sky Island" plant communities, which encompass xeric to mesic conditions. Seasonal breaks in flowering have implications for plant reproductive success, population structure, and gene flow as well as resource availability for pollinators and dependent animals. Most reports of multiple within-season flowering events describe only two distinct flowering episodes. In this study, we set out to better quantify distinct within-season flowering events in highly variable Sky Islands plant communities. Across a >1,200 m elevation gradient, we documented a strong tendency for multiple within-season flowering events. In both distinct spring and summer seasons, we observed greater than two distinct within-season flowering in more than 10 % of instances. Patterns were clearly mediated by the different climate factors at work in the two seasons. The spring season, which is influenced by both temperature and precipitation, showed a mixed response, with the greatest tendency for multiple flowering events occurring at mid-elevations and functional types varying in their responses across the gradient. In the summer season, during which flowering across the gradient is limited by localized precipitation, annual plants exhibited the fewest within-season flowering events and herbaceous perennial plants showed the greatest. Additionally, more distinct events occurred at lower elevations. The patterns documented here provide a baseline for comparison of system responses to changing climate conditions. PMID:24122340

Crimmins, Theresa M; Bertelsen, David C; Crimmins, Michael A

2014-05-01

323

The Psychosocial Impact of Interrupted Childbearing in Long-term Female Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Objective To understand the influence of cancer-related infertility on womens long-term distress and quality of life. Women diagnosed at age 40 or less with breast cancer, Hodgkin disease (HD), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), were interviewed an average of 10 years later. We predicted that women whose desire for a child at diagnosis remained unfulfilled would be significantly more distressed. Methods Participants completed a semi-structured phone interview, including the SF-12, Brief Symptom Inventory-18, Impact of Events Scale (IES), Reproductive Concerns Scale (RCS), brief measures of marital satisfaction or comfort with dating, sexual satisfaction, and menopause symptoms. Results Of 455 women contacted by phone, 240 (53%) participated. Seventy-seven women had wanted a child at diagnosis but did not conceive subsequently (38 remaining childless and 39 with secondary infertility). Even controlling for other psychosocial and health factors, this group had higher distress about infertility (RCS) (P < 0.001), had more intrusive thoughts about infertility, and used more avoidance strategies when reminded of infertility (IES) (P < 0.001). Childless women were the most distressed. Women with adopted or stepchildren were intermediate, and those with at least one biological child were least distressed. Infertility-related distress did not differ significantly by cancer site. Conclusions Even at long-term follow-up, distress about interrupted childbearing persists, particularly in childless women. Social parenthood buffers distress somewhat, but not completely. Not only is it important to offer fertility preservation before cancer treatment, but interventions should be developed for survivors to alleviate unresolved grief about cancer-related infertility. PMID:22271533

Canada, Andrea L.; Schover, Leslie R.

2010-01-01

324

Interruptions of fictive scratch motor rhythms by activation of cutaneous flexion reflex afferents in the turtle.  

PubMed

A low-spinal immobilized turtle displays a fictive scratch reflex in hindlimb muscle nerves in response to mechanical stimulation of specific regions of the shell (Robertson et al., 1985). There are 3 forms of the scratch reflex: the rostral, the pocket, and the caudal; each exhibits rhythmic activation of hindlimb motor neurons. Cutaneous stimulation of the distal hindlimb elicits a fictive flexion reflex that exhibits tonic excitation of hip protractor (flexor) motor neurons and tonic inhibition of knee extensor motor neurons (Stein et al., 1982). In the present study, we describe the motor pattern blends that resulted from transient activation of either the ipsilateral or the contralateral flexion reflex pathway during ongoing scratch motor patterns. Two types of blends were observed: (1) insertions of a flexion reflex synergy into an interrupted scratch cycle and (2) deletions of parts of a scratch cycle. Associated with each type of motor pattern blend was a permanent reset of the ongoing scratch rhythm. The sign of the reset (phase-advance or phase-delay) could be predicted for all forms of the scratch based on the location of the foot stimulus (ipsi- or contralateral) and its timing relative to the hip protractor/retractor cycle. The timing of knee extensor activity within the hip cycle is different for each form of the scratch (Robertson et al., 1985); thus, the sign of the reset cannot be predicted from the timing of the stimulus relative to the knee extensor cycle. These results indicate the importance of the hip rhythm in determining the overall timing of the scratch reflex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2918373

Currie, S N; Stein, P S

1989-02-01

325

Evaluating the Impact of Flexible Alcohol Trading Hours on Violence: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background On November 24th 2005, the Government of England and Wales removed regulatory restrictions on the times at which licensed premises could sell alcohol. This study tests availability theory by treating the implementation of Licensing Act (2003) as a natural experiment in alcohol policy. Methods An interrupted time series design was employed to estimate the Acts immediate and delayed impact on violence in the City of Manchester (Population 464,200). We collected police recorded rates of violence, robbery, and total crime between the 1st of February 2004 and the 31st of December 2007. Events were aggregated by week, yielding a total of 204 observations (95 pre-, and 109 post-intervention). Secondary analysis examined changes in daily patterns of violence. Pre- and post-intervention events were separated into four three-hour segments 18?0020?59, 21?0023.59, 00?0002?59, 03?0005?59. Results Analysis found no evidence that the Licensing Act (2003) affected the overall volume of violence. However, analyses of night-time violence found a gradual and permanent shift of weekend violence into later parts of the night. The results estimated an initial increase of 27.5% between 03?00 to 06?00 (??=?0.2433, 95% CI?=?0.06, 0.42), which increased to 36% by the end of the study period (??=??0.897, 95% CI?=??1.02, ?0.77). Conclusions This study found no evidence that a national policy increasing the physical availability of alcohol affected the overall volume of violence. There was, however, evidence suggesting that the policy may be associated with changes to patterns of violence in the early morning (3 a.m. to 6 a.m.). PMID:23457474

Humphreys, David K.; Eisner, Manuel P.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

2013-01-01

326

Interruptions of the ancient Shu Civilization: triggered by climate change or natural disaster?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental proxies of a stable carbon isotope, total organic carbon, free iron oxide, and particle size distribution in sediments as well as the stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in fossil human and animal teeth were used to reconstruct the history of climate change and natural disasters near the Jinsha Relic Site and to track their effect on the ancient Shu Civilization, which was established in the Chengdu Plain of southwest China during the late Holocene. In general, the late Holocene climate in the Chengdu Plain demonstrated a drying and cooling trend, with evident cooler events ~4100 and ~2700 a BP, which coincided with global climate changes. The ancient Shu Civilization was interrupted twice, and it included three stagesthe Baodun (4700-3700 a BP), the Sanxingdui (3700-3150 a BP), and the Shi'erqiao (3150-2600 a BP)that were slightly related to the abrupt climate changes that resulted from the collapse of the classic Sanxingdui Civilization, which was founded in a regional warm period. The abrupt increase in sand content in the sediment from the Jinsha Site coincided with the palaeoearthquake and palaeodam burst in the Longmen Mountains when the Baodun and Shi'erqiao desisted, indicating that a flood had occurred due to a dam burst and may likely have caused the ancient civilization's destruction. Although the warm and humid climate, flat terrain and rich water resources prompted the prosperity of the ancient towns of Sanxingdui and Jinsha, frequent natural disasters, such as powerful earthquakes, landslide dams, and outburst floods, consistently affected the ancient Shu inhabitants.

Wen, Xingyue; Bai, Song; Zeng, Na; Page Chamberlain, C.; Wang, Chengshan; Huang, Chengmin; Zhang, Qing

2013-04-01

327

Mediterranean Sapropel Formation and Redox-Controled Preservation: the s1 Formation and its Interruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposition of organic-rich units (sapropels) in Mediterraneran sediments is precession-related and associated with humid climate conditions. The last humid period from 11 - 5 ka 14C ago, occurred simultaneous with a sustained circum-Mediterranean wet period. The most recent sapropel (S1) formed synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ka BP at all water depths greater than a few hundred metres. As a consequence of increased fresh water (monsoon) input, surface waters had a reduced salinity and concomitantly the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea was devoid of oxygen during 4,000 years of S1. This has resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1 determined by water depth, as a result of different ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km. The end of this period is marked by a basin-wide high sedimentary manganese-oxide peak that represents an abrupt re-ventilation at 5.7 ka BP and remaining oxic conditions thereafter. Other short-term ventilation events appear to have occurred during sapropel S1, notably the 8.2 cal ka BP event. This potentially basin-wide event is particularly noticeable at relatively shallow near-coastal sites of high sedimentation rates. It marks a brief episode of not only re-oxygenated deep water thus reduced preservation, but also decreased primary productivity thus nutrient supply. This 8.2 cal ka BP interruption event is thought to be related to enhanced deep water formation in the Aegean due to a short period of sustained cold air fluxes from Polar regions. Sapropel formation mechanisms, therefore, seem related to a sensitive interplay between N-African monsoonal and northern climate systems.

De Lange, G. J.; Goudeau, M. S.; Hennekam, R.; Filippidi, A.

2013-12-01

328

Interruption of Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Southern Chiapas Focus, M?xico  

PubMed Central

Background The Southern Chiapas focus of onchocerciasis in Southern Mexico represents one of the major onchocerciasis foci in Latin America. All 559 endemic communities of this focus have undergone semi-annual mass treatment with ivermectin since 1998. In 50 communities of this focus, ivermectin frequency shifted from twice to four times a year in 2003; an additional 113 communities were added to the quarterly treatment regimen in 2009 to achieve a rapid suppression of transmission. Methodology/Principal findings In-depth epidemiologic and entomologic assessments were performed in six sentinel communities (which had undergone 2 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year) and three extra-sentinel communities (which had undergone 4 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year). None of the 67,924 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from this focus during the dry season of 2011 were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA), resulting in an upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI) of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.06/2,000 flies examined. Serological assays testing for Onchocerca volvulus exposure conducted on 4,230 children 5 years of age and under (of a total population of 10,280 in this age group) revealed that 2/4,230 individuals were exposed to O. volvulus (0.05%; one sided 95% confidence interval?=?0.08%). Conclusions/Significance The in-depth epidemiological and entomological findings from the Southern Chiapas focus meet the criteria for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. PMID:23556018

Rodriguez-Perez, Mario A.; Dominguez-Vazquez, Alfredo; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Arredondo-Jimenez, Juan I.; Orozco-Algarra, Maria Eugenia; Rodriguez-Morales, Kristel B.; Rodriguez-Luna, Isabel C.; Prado-Velasco, Francisco Gibert

2013-01-01

329

Effect of growth interrupt and growth rate on MOVPE-grown InGaN\\/GaN MQW structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

InGaN\\/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy to quantify the influence of various growth parameters on the optical properties and on the In incorporation. Decreasing the group III flux results in improved room temperature photoluminescence intensity. Introduction of 5 and 10s interrupts at the MQW interfaces gives rise to loss of In. High temperature capping

K. Jacobs; B. Van Daele; M. R. Leys; I. Moerman; G. Van Tendeloo

2003-01-01

330

Purification and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric characterization of non-methylene interrupted fatty acid incorporated in rat liver.  

PubMed

A C20 non-methylene interrupted trienoic acid detected in the liver of rat fed with a pine (Pinus koraiensis) seed oil diet was purified by two-step argentation thin-layer chromatography (AgTLC) and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). First, a C20 methyl trienoate fraction was obtained from fatty acid methyl esters prepared from rat liver by 5% AgTLC developed with petroleum ether-diethyl ether-acetic acid (70:20:2, v/v) as a solvent system. The fraction was then subjected to AgTLC developed with benzene-acetone-diethyl ether-acetic acid (65:15:15:5, v/v) which could separate non-methylene interrupted fatty acids (NMIFA) from usual MIFAs. The purified C20 NMIFA was partially hydrogenated, and the resulting three kinds of the C20 monoenoate were analyzed by GC-MS after conversion to their dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) adducts. The results revealed that the original C20 non-methylene interrupted trienoic acid detected in the liver of rats fed with a pine seed oil diet was delta-5,11,14/20:3, a minor component of pine seed oil. PMID:9390709

Tanaka, T; Shibata, K; Hino, H; Murashita, T; Kayama, M; Satouchi, K

1997-10-24

331

Differentiation of secreted and membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase activities based on substitutions and interruptions of triple-helical sequences.  

PubMed

The turnover of the collagen triple-helical structure (collagenolysis) is a tightly regulated process in normal physiology and has been ascribed to a small number of proteases. Several members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) family possess collagenolytic activity, and the mechanisms by which these enzymes process triple helices are beginning to be unraveled. The present study has utilized two triple-helical sequences to compare the cleavage-site specificities of 10 MMPs. One substrate featured a continuous Gly-Xxx-Yyy sequence (Pro-Leu-Gly approximately Met-Arg-Gly), while the other incorporated an interruption in the Gly-Xxx-Yyy repeat (Pro-Val-Asn approximately Phe-Arg-Gly). Both sequences were selectively cleaved by MMP-13 while in linear form, but neither proved to be selective within a triple helix. This suggests that the conformational presentation of substrate sequences to a MMP active site is critical for enzyme specificity, in that activities differ when sequences are presented from an unwound triple helix versus an independent single strand. Differences in specificity between secreted and membrane-type (MT) MMPs were also observed for both sequences, where MMP-2 and MT-MMPs showed an ability to hydrolyze a triple helix at an additional site (Gly-Gln bond). Interruption of the triple helix had different effects on secreted MMPs and MT-MMPs, because MT-MMPs could not hydrolyze the Asn-Phe bond but instead cleaved the triple helix closer to the C terminus at a Gly-Gln bond. It is possible that MT-MMPs have a requirement for Gly in the P1 subsite to be able to efficiently process a triple-helical molecule. Analysis of individual kinetic parameters and activation energies indicated different substrate preferences within secreted MMPs, because MMP-13 preferred the interrupted sequence, while MMP-8 showed little discrimination between non-interrupted and interrupted triple helices. On the basis of the present and prior studies, we can assign unique triple-helical peptidase behaviors to the collagenolytic MMPs. Such differences may be significant for understanding MMP mechanisms of action and aid in the development of selective MMP inhibitors. PMID:17338550

Minond, Dmitriy; Lauer-Fields, Janelle L; Cudic, Mare; Overall, Christopher M; Pei, Duanqing; Brew, Keith; Moss, Marcia L; Fields, Gregg B

2007-03-27

332

Differentiation of Secreted and Membrane-Type Matrix Metalloproteinase Activities Based on Substitutions and Interruptions of Triple-Helical Sequences  

PubMed Central

The turnover of collagen triple-helical structure (collagenolysis) is a tightly regulated process in normal physiology, and has been ascribed to small number of proteases. Several members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) family possess collagenolytic activity, and the mechanisms by which these enzymes process triple-helices are beginning to be unraveled. The present study has utilized 2 triple-helical sequences to compare the cleavage site specificities of 10 MMPs. One substrate featured a continuous Gly-Xxx-Yyy sequence (Pro-Leu-Gly~Met-Arg-Gly) while the other incorporated an interruption in the Gly-Xxx-Yyy repeat (Pro-Val-Asn~Phe-Arg-Gly). Both sequences were selectively cleaved by MMP-13 while in linear form, but neither proved to be selective within a triple-helix. This suggests that the conformational presentation of substrate sequences to an MMP active site is critical for enzyme specificity, in that activities differ when sequences are presented from an unwound triple-helix versus an independent single strand. Differences in specificity between secreted and membranetype (MT) MMPs were also observed for both sequences, where MMP-2 and MT-MMPs showed an ability to hydrolyze a triple-helix at an additional site (Gly-Gln bond). Interruption of the triple-helix had different effects on secreted MMPs and MT-MMPs, as MT-MMPs could not hydrolyze the Asn-Phe bond, but instead cleaved the triple-helix nearer the C-terminus at a Gly-Gln bond. It is possible that MT-MMPs have a requirement for Gly in the P1 subsite in order to be able to efficiently process a triple-helical molecule. Analysis of individual kinetic parameters and activation energies indicated different substrate preferences within secreted MMPs, as MMP-13 preferred the interrupted sequence while MMP-8 showed little discrimination between non-interrupted and interrupted triple-helices. Based on the present and prior studies, we can assign unique triple-helical peptidase behaviors to the collagenolytic MMPs. Such differences may be significant for understanding MMP mechanisms of action and aid in the development of selective MMP inhibitors. PMID:17338550

Minond, Dmitriy; Lauer-Fields, Janelle L.; Cudic, Mare; Overall, Christopher M.; Pei, Duanqing; Brew, Keith; Moss, Marcia L.; Fields, Gregg B.

2008-01-01

333

Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome in 53 Postpubertal Patients: Factors Influencing the Heterogeneity of Its Presentation  

PubMed Central

Background Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) may induce an isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency or multiple hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) deficiencies. Patients with multiple HP deficiencies, primarily those with adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) deficiency, are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Our objective was to identify the factors influencing each symptom and the MRI features of the syndrome to enhance its diagnosis and genetic analysis. Methods This study was a retrospective, single-center, case-cohort study of 53 patients with PSIS who had reached pubertal age. Results Patients were classified as having an isolated GH deficiency (n?=?24, Group 1) or HP deficiencies (n?=?29, Group 2); of these, 19 had complete HP deficiency, and 10 had GH deficiency associated with TSH (n?=?4), TSH and ACTH (n?=?3), TSH and gonadotropin (n?=?1) deficiencies or amenorrhea (n?=?2). The following features were less frequent in Group 1 than in Group 2: breech presentation (4% vs 35%, P?=?0.008), hypoglycemia (0% vs 59%, P<0.00001), micropenis (13% vs 69%, P<0.003), hypothalamic origin (0% vs 52%, P<0.000001), ophthalmic malformation (8% vs 38%, P<0.02) and psychomotor delay (0% vs 31%, P<0.004). The frequencies of all other malformations were similar in both groups (37% vs 59%). A visible pituitary stalk was characteristic of patients belonging to Group 1 (P<0.0002). The GH peak was greater in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P<0.0003), as was the anterior pituitary height (P?=?0.01). Conclusion The factors that best discriminate patients with multiple HP deficiencies from those with an isolated GH deficiency are breech presentation, hypoglycemia, and micropenis. No patient with an isolated GH deficiency had psychomotor delay, but associated malformations and/or syndromes, with the exception of ophthalmic disorders, occurred with similar frequencies in both groups. We have also shown that each of the above characteristics is associated with a given HP deficiency and/or malformation/syndrome in the majority of cases. PMID:23308160

Pham, Luu-Ly; Lemaire, Pierre; Harroche, Annie; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Brauner, Raja

2013-01-01

334

41 CFR 301-10.8 - What is my liability if, for personal convenience, I travel by an indirect route or interrupt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...my liability if, for personal convenience, I travel by an indirect route or interrupt travel by a direct route? 301-10.8 Section...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY)...

2012-07-01

335

41 CFR 301-70.506 - How do we define actual cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness...Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES...

2012-07-01

336

41 CFR 301-10.8 - What is my liability if, for personal convenience, I travel by an indirect route or interrupt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...my liability if, for personal convenience, I travel by an indirect route or interrupt travel by a direct route? 301-10.8 Section...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY)...

2010-07-01

337

41 CFR 301-70.506 - How do we define actual cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness...Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES...

2013-07-01

338

41 CFR 301-10.8 - What is my liability if, for personal convenience, I travel by an indirect route or interrupt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...my liability if, for personal convenience, I travel by an indirect route or interrupt travel by a direct route? 301-10.8 Section...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY)...

2011-07-01

339

41 CFR 301-10.8 - What is my liability if, for personal convenience, I travel by an indirect route or interrupt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...my liability if, for personal convenience, I travel by an indirect route or interrupt travel by a direct route? 301-10.8 Section...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY)...

2013-07-01

340

20 CFR 1002.152 - If employment is interrupted by a period of service in the uniformed services, are there any...  

... 2014-04-01 false If employment is interrupted by a period...THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...UNDER THE UNIFORMED SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS...

2014-04-01

341

The role of interruptible natural gas customers in New England heating oil markets: A preliminary examination of events in January-February 2000  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an analysis of data collected from gas service providers and end-use customers in the six New England States and offers a preliminary assessment of the impact of interruptible gas customers on the distillate fuel oil market this past winter. Based on information collected and analyzed as of October 2000, the main findings areas follows: (1) For interruptible gas customers with distillate fuel oil as a backup fuel, their volume of interruptions was equivalent to about 1 to 2 percent of the total sales of distillate fuel oil in New England during January-February 2000. For the two peak weeks of gas supply interruptions, however, the equivalent volume of distillate fuel oil amounted to an estimated 3 to 6 percent of total sales in New England. There were no interruptions of the natural gas service during the 2-month period. (2) Purchases of distillate fuel oil by interruptible gas customers may have contributed somewhat to the spike in the price of distillate fuel oil in January-February 2000, especially during the peak weeks of gas interruptions. Nevertheless, other factors--a sudden drop in temperatures, low regional stocks of distillate fuels, and weather-related supply problems during a period of high customer demand--appear to have played a significant role in this price spike, as they have in previous spikes. (3) While this preliminary analysis suggests that interruptible natural gas service does not threaten the stability of the home heating oil market, several steps might be taken-without undermining the benefits of interruptible service--to reduce the potential adverse impacts of gas supply interruptions in times of market stress. Regardless of the magnitude of the impact of distillate fuel oil purchases by interruptible gas customers on Northeast heating oil markets, the threat of future heating oil price spikes and supply problems still remains. To help counter the threat, President Clinton in July 2000 directed Secretary Richardson to establish a heating oil component of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in the Northeast, and 2 million barrels of heating oil are now stored in the reserve. Other possible policy options are outlined.

None

2000-11-01

342

Randomized Trial of Time-Limited Interruptions of Protease Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) vs. Continuous Therapy for HIV1 Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe clinical outcomes of short interruptions of PI-based ART regimens remains undefined.MethodsA 2-arm non-inferiority trial was conducted on 53 HIV-1 infected South African participants with viral load 450 cells\\/l on stavudine (or zidovudine), lamivudine and lopinavir\\/ritonavir. Subjects were randomized to a) sequential 2, 4 and 8-week ART interruptions or b) continuous ART (cART). Primary analysis was based on the proportion

Cynthia Firnhaber; Livio Azzoni; Andrea S. Foulkes; Robert Gross; Xiangfan Yin; Desiree van Amsterdam; Doreen Schulze; Deborah K. Glencross; Wendy Stevens; Gillian Hunt; Lynn Morris; Lawrence Fox; Ian Sanne; Luis J. Montaner; Clive M. Gray

2011-01-01

343

Effect of growth interrupt and growth rate on MOVPE-grown InGaN/GaN MQW structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy to quantify the influence of various growth parameters on the optical properties and on the In incorporation. Decreasing the group III flux results in improved room temperature photoluminescence intensity. Introduction of 5 and 10 s interrupts at the MQW interfaces gives rise to loss of In. High temperature capping of MQWs with GaN:Mg produces blackening of the layers for an In content exceeding 12%, due to formation of In platelets.

Jacobs, K.; Van Daele, B.; Leys, M. R.; Moerman, I.; Van Tendeloo, G.

2003-02-01

344

Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coating During Interrupted High-Heat Flux Laser Testing Using Upconversion Luminescence Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upconversion luminescence imaging of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has been shown to successfully monitor TBC delamination progression during interrupted furnace cycling. However, furnace cycling does not adequately model engine conditions where TBC-coated components are subjected to significant heat fluxes that produce through-thickness temperature gradients that may alter both the rate and path of delamination progression. Therefore, new measurements are presented based on luminescence imaging of TBC-coated specimens subjected to interrupted high-heat-flux laser cycling exposures that much better simulate the thermal gradients present in engine conditions. The TBCs tested were deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and were composed of 7wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) with an integrated delamination sensing layer composed of 7YSZ co-doped with erbium and ytterbium (7YSZ:Er,Yb). The high-heat-flux exposures that produce the desired through-thickness thermal gradients were performed using a high power CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 10.6 microns. Upconversion luminescence images revealed the debond progression produced by the cyclic high-heat-flux exposures and these results were compared to that observed for furnace cycling.

Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

2011-01-01

345

Virological failure of staggered and simultaneous treatment interruption in HIV patients who began Efavirenz-based regimens after allergic reactions to nevirapine  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this work was to study the virological outcomes associated with two different types of treatment interruption strategies in patients with allergic reactions to nevirapine (NVP). We compared the virological outcomes of (1) HIV-1-infected patients who discontinued an initial NVP-based regimen because of cutaneous allergic reactions to NVP; different types of interruption strategies were used, and second-line regimen was based on efavirenz (EFV); and (2) HIV-1-infected patients who began an EFV-based regimen as a first-line therapy (controls). Methods This retrospective cohort included patients who began an EFV-based regimen, between January 2002 and December 2008, as either an initial regimen or as a subsequent regimen after resolving a cutaneous allergic reaction against an initial NVP-based regimen. The study ended in March 2010. The primary outcome was virological failure, which was defined as either (a) two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA levels >400 copies/mL or (b) a plasma HIV-1 RNA level >1,000 copies/mL plus any genotypic resistance mutation. Results A total of 559 patients were stratified into three groups: (a) Simultaneous Interruption, in which the subjects simultaneously discontinued all the drugs in an NVP-based regimen following an allergic reaction (n=161); (b) Staggered Interruption, in which the subjects discontinued NVP treatment while continuing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone therapy for a median of 7 days (n=82); and (c) Control, in which the subjects were nave to antiretroviral therapy (n=316). The overall median follow-up time was 43 months. Incidence of virological failure in Simultaneous Interruption was 12.9 cases per 1,000 person-years, which trended toward being higher than the incidences in Staggered Interruption (5.4) and Control (6.6). However, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among the patients who had an acute allergic reaction to first-line NVP-based therapy and later began an EFV-based regimen, virological outcomes resulting from a staggered interruption of treatment (with a continuation of NRTI backbone therapy for 7 days after discontinuing NVP) did not differ from those of the patients who began an EFV-based regimen as their initial therapy (Control). However, the virological failure of Simultaneous Interruption was possibly higher than those of Control and Staggered Interruption. PMID:23347647

2013-01-01

346

Fabrication and characterization of self-assembled InGaN quantum dots by periodic interrupted growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-assembled InGaN quantum dots are fabricated in a two-flow horizontal MOCVD reactor maintained at the pressure of 200torr. The precursors were trimethyl-gallium (TMG) and trimethyl-indium (TMI) and ammonia (NH 3), and the carrier gas was N II and H II. The optimum condition was deduced to fabricate the InGaN quantum dots. GaN nucleation layer was grown at 500C with thickness of 25nm, and then 2~3 ?m thick GaN buffer-layer was deposited at 1050 C. InGaN quantum dots were grown on GaN buffer layer. Carrier gas was changed with N II instead of H II in QD growth. In the growth of InGaN quantum dots, NH 3 was supplied in cyclic periodic interrupted mode with the interval of 5 seconds. The influence of number of periodic interrupted NH3 on the structural and optical properties of InGaN quantum dots was investigated by AFM, FE-SEM and photoluminescence (PL). The InGaN quantum dots are grown by 2 periods growth and have 0.4nm in height and 31nm lateral size. The height of quantum dots was increased with increase of growth periods, and the lateral size was decreased after 3 periods and then increased in 4 periods. The density of InGaN quantum dots with 3 periods and 4 periods was measured to be 1.5110 11/cm2 and 8.9110 10/cm2. Density of InGaN quantum dots was decreased after 3 periods, and this is attributed to the coalescence. A strong peak at 362.2 nm (3.41eV) and broad emission peak in 532.9~663.9nm (2.33~1.86eV) were evolved in the photoluminescence measurement using Nd-YAG laser with wavelength of 266nm. Addition emission peak was found in the range 433.7nm~462.2nm (2.85eV~2.68eV) in the samples with 3 periods and 4 periods interruption, and this peak was identified as the InGaN quantum dots with low indium concentration.

Choi, Seung-Kyu; Jang, Jae-Min; Yi, Sung-Hak; Kim, Jung-A.; Jung, Woo-Gwang

2007-02-01

347

Locally Advanced Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Impact of Pre-Radiotherapy Hemoglobin Level and Interruptions During Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Stage IV head and neck cancer patients carry a poor prognosis. Clear understanding of prognostic factors can help to optimize care for the individual patient. This study investigated 11 potential prognostic factors including pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level and interruptions during radiotherapy for overall survival (OS), metastases-free survival (MFS), and locoregional control (LC) after radiochemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven factors were investigated in 153 patients receiving radiochemotherapy for Stage IV squamous cell head and neck cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor site, grading, T stage, N stage, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, surgery, chemotherapy type, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved OS was associated with KPS 90-100 (relative risk [RR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.93; p = .012), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.01-3.53; p = .048), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.15-5.78; p = .021). Improved LC was significantly associated with lower T stage (RR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.16-4.63; p = .013), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.92-9.09; p < .001), surgery (RR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.28-5.88; p = .008), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.26-8.79; p = .015). Improved MFS was associated with KPS 90-100 (RR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.46-8.85; p = .012). Conclusions: Significant predictors for outcome in Stage IV head and neck cancer were performance status, stage, surgery, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. It appears important to avoid anemia and radiotherapy interruptions to achieve the best treatment results.

Rades, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net; Stoehr, Monika [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Kazic, Nadja [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Sarajevo, Sarajevo(Bosnia and Herzegowina); Hakim, Samer G. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Walz, Annette [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Dunst, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany)

2008-03-15

348

Closed-loop optogenetic control of thalamus as a new tool to interrupt seizures after cortical injury  

PubMed Central

Cerebrocortical injuries, such as stroke, are a major source of disability. Maladaptive consequences can result from post-injury local reorganization of cortical circuits. For example, epilepsy is a common sequela of cortical stroke, yet mechanisms responsible for seizures following cortical injuries remain unknown. In addition to local reorganization, long-range, extra-cortical connections might be critical for seizure maintenance. Here we report in rats the first evidence that the thalamus a structure remote from but connected to the injured cortex is required to maintain cortical seizures. Thalamocortical neurons connected to the injured epileptic cortex undergo changes in HCN channel expression and become hyperexcitable. Targeting these neurons with a closed-loop optogenetic strategy demonstrates that reducing their activity in real-time is sufficient to immediately interrupt electrographic and behavioral seizures. This approach is of therapeutic interest for intractable epilepsy, since it spares cortical function between seizures, in contrast to existing treatments such as surgical lesioning or drugs. PMID:23143518

Paz, Jeanne T.; Davidson, Thomas J.; Frechette, Eric S.; Delord, Bruno; Parada, Isabel; Peng, Kathy; Deisseroth, Karl; Huguenard, John R.

2013-01-01

349

Ebselen and congeners inhibit NADPH-oxidase 2 (Nox2)-dependent superoxide generation by interrupting the binding of regulatory subunits  

PubMed Central

Summary NADPH-oxidases are a primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which function in normal physiology and, when overproduced, in pathophysiology. Recent studies using mice deficient in Nox2 identify this isoform as a novel target against Nox2-implicated inflammatory diseases. Nox2 activation depends on the binding of the proline rich domain of its heterodimeric partner p22phox to p47phox. A high-throughput screen that monitored this interaction via fluorescence polarization identified ebselen and several of its analogs as inhibitors. Medicinal chemistry was performed to explore structure-activity relationships and to optimize potency. Ebselen and analogs potently inhibited Nox1 and Nox2 activity but were less effective against other isoforms. Ebselen also blocked translocation of p47phox to neutrophil membranes. Thus, ebselen and its analogs represent a class of compounds that inhibit ROS generation by interrupting the assembly of Nox2-activating regulatory subunits. PMID:22726689

Smith, Susan M.E.; Min, Jaeki; Ganesh, Thota; Diebold, Becky; Kawahara, Tsukasa; Zhu, Yerun; McCoy, James; Sun, Aiming; Snyder, James P.; Fu, Haian; Du, Yuhong; Lewis, Iestyn; Lambeth, J. David

2012-01-01

350

Functional Expression of SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) Protects Retinal Dopaminergic Cells from Neurotoxin-induced Degeneration*  

PubMed Central

We previously isolated a dominant mutation, night blindness b (nbb), which causes a late onset of retinal dopaminergic cell degeneration in zebrafish. In this study, we cloned the zebrafish nbb locus. Sequencing results revealed that nbb is a homolog of the vertebrate SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil). The Stil gene has been shown to play important roles in the regulation of vertebrate embryonic neural development and human cancer cell proliferation. In this study, we demonstrate that functional expression of Stil is also required for neural survival. In zebrafish, decreased expression of Stil resulted in increased toxic susceptibility of retinal dopaminergic cells to 6-hydroxydopamine. Increases in Stil-mediated Shh signaling transduction (i.e. by knocking down the Shh repressor Sufu) prevented dopaminergic cell death induced by neurotoxic insult. The data suggest that the oncogene Stil also plays important roles in neural protection. PMID:23166330

Li, Jingling; Li, Ping; Carr, Aprell; Wang, Xiaokai; DeLaPaz, April; Sun, Lei; Lee, Eric; Tomei, Erika; Li, Lei

2013-01-01

351

Experimental and Computational Studies on Interrupted Nazarov Reactions: Exploration of Umpolung Reactivity at the ?-Carbon of Cyclopentanones.  

PubMed

A set of densely substituted, ?-functionalized cyclopentanones can be generated by a two-component, domino reaction sequence entailing the Nazarov electrocyclization of divinyl ketones and nucleophilic addition of the resulting 2-oxidocyclopentenyl cations by selected trapping modalities. Bypassing the typical eliminative termination, Nazarov oxyallyl species can react with carbon ?-nucleophiles through cycloadditions (or formal cycloadditions), in which bridged bicyclic systems are established, or nucleophilic trappings whereby one terminal carbon of the oxyallyl intermediate is subjected to carbon-carbon bond formation. A detailed investigation of reaction parameters to explicitly control the course of the "interrupted" Nazarov reactions is described. This methodology allows for facile installation of ?-quaternary centers bearing allyl, alkynyl, and heteroaryl groups in an umpolung fashion. In addition, the trapping event of a Nazarov intermediate with furan was studied by DFT computations, in conjunction with experimental data, offering a rationale for the observed reaction pattern and diastereoselectivity. PMID:25310874

Wu, Yen-Ku; Dunbar, Christine R; McDonald, Robert; Ferguson, Michael J; West, F G

2014-10-22

352

Correlates of Unstructured Antiretroviral Treatment Interruption in a Cohort of HIV-Positive Individuals in British Columbia.  

PubMed

Treatment interruptions (TIs) limit the therapeutic success of combination antiretroviral therapy and are associated with higher morbidity and mortality. HIV-positive individuals dealing with concurrent health issues, access challenges and competing life demands are hypothesized to be more likely to interrupt treatment. Individuals were included if they initiated cART ?1year prior to interview date and had a CD4 cell count and initial regimen recorded at initiation. Using pharmacy recording, aTI was defined as a patient-initiated gap in treatment ?90 consecutive days during the 12months preceding or following the study interview. 117 (15.2%) of 768 participants included in this study had a TI during the study window. 76.0% of participants were male, 27.5% were of Aboriginal ancestry and the median age was 46 (interquartile range 40-52). In multivariable logistic regression, TIs were significantly associated with current illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.68); <95% adherence in the first year of treatment (aOR 2.68, 95% CI 1.67-4.12); living with at least one person (aOR 1.95; 95% CI 1.22-3.14) or living on the street (aOR 5.08, 95% CI 1.72-14.99) compared to living alone; poor perception of overall health (aOR 1.64 95% CI 1.05-2.55); being unemployed (aOR: 2.22, 95% CI 1.16-4.23); and younger age at interview (aOR 0.57, 95% CI 0.44-0.75, per 10year increase). Addressing socioeconomic barriers to treatment retention is vital for supporting the continuous engagement of patients in care. PMID:24781638

Samji, Hasina; Chen, Yalin; Salters, Kate; Montaner, Julio S G; Hogg, Robert S

2014-11-01

353

Internet-based remote counseling to support stress management: preventing interruptions to regular exercise in elderly people  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our research showed that a high degree of life-stress has a negative mental health effect that may interrupt regular exercise. We used an internet based, remotely conducted, face to face, preventive counseling program using video monitors to reduce the source of life-stresses that interrupts regular exercise and evaluated the preventative effects of the program in elderly people. NTSC Video signals were converted to the IP protocol and facial images were transmitted to a PC display using the exclusive optical network lines of JGN2. Participants were 22 elderly people in Hokkaido, Japan, who regularly played table tennis. A survey was conducted before the intervention in August 2003. IT remote counseling was conducted on two occasions for one hour on each occasion. A post intervention survey was conducted in February 2004 and a follow-up survey was conducted in March 2005. Network quality was satisfactory with little data loss and high display quality. Results indicated that self-esteem increased significantly, trait anxiety decreased significantly, cognition of emotional support by people other than family members had a tendency to increase, and source of stress had a tendency to decrease after the intervention. Follow-up results indicated that cognition of emotional support by family increased significantly, and interpersonal dependency decreased significantly compared to before the intervention. These results suggest that face to face IT remote counseling using video monitors is useful to keep elderly people from feeling anxious and to make them confident to continue exercising regularly. Moreover, it has a stress management effect.

Hashimoto, Sayuri; Munakata, Tsunestugu; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Okunaka, Jyunzo; Koga, Tatsuzo

2006-01-01

354

Relationship between Regulatory T Cells and Immune Activation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients Interrupting Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Persistent immune activation plays a central role in driving Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease progression. Whether CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are harmful by suppressing HIV-specific immune responses and/or beneficial through a decrease in immune activation remains debatable. We analysed the relationship between proportion and number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and immune activation in HIV-infected patients interrupting an effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). Twenty-five patients were included in a substudy of a prospective multicenter trial of treatment interruption (TI) (ANRS 116). Proportions and numbers of Tregs and the proportion of activated CD4 and CD8 T cells were assessed at baseline and month 12 (M12) of TI. Specific anti-HIV CD4 and CD8 responses were investigated at baseline and M12. Non parametric univariate analyses and multivariate linear regression models were conducted. At baseline, the proportion of Tregs negatively correlated with the proportion of HLA-DR+CD8+T cells (r?=??0.519). Following TI, the proportion of Tregs increased from 6.3% to 7.2% (p?=?0.029); absolute numbers of Tregs decreased. The increase in the proportion of HLA-DR+CD38+CD8+T cells was significantly related to the increase in proportion of Tregs (p?=?0.031). At M12, the proportion of Tregs did not negatively correlate with CD8 T-cell activation. Nevertheless, Tregs retain a suppressive function since depletion of Treg-containing CD4+CD25+ cells led to an increase in lymphoproliferative responses in most patients studied. Our data suggest that Tregs are efficient in controlling residual immune activation in patients with ART-mediated viral suppression. However, the insufficient increase in the proportion and/or the decrease in the absolute number of Tregs result in a failure to control immune activation following TI. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00118677 PMID:20657770

Weiss, Laurence; Piketty, Christophe; Assoumou, Lambert; Didier, Celine; Caccavelli, Laure; Donkova-Petrini, Vladimira; Levy, Yves; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Burgard, Marianne; Viard, Jean-Paul; Rouzioux, Christine; Costagliola, Dominique

2010-01-01

355

Effect of source-supply interruptions on the interface abruptness in gas source molecular beam epitaxy grown InGaAs\\/InP heterostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of source-supply interruptions on the InGaAs?InP heterointerface abruptness in gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy grown lattice-matched InGaAs\\/InP has been investigated. It is confirmed by observing high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images and photoluminescence (PL) peak energy shifts that the thickness of the InGaAs well becomes narrower as the source-supply interruption (SSI) becomes longer. When the SSI is not optimized, an

Teruo Mozume; Hideo Kashima; Kazuhiko Hosomi; Kiyoshi Ouchi; Hiromi Sato; Hiroshi Masuda; Tomonori Tanoue

1995-01-01

356

A Study of the Effect of Proximally Autocorrelated Error on Tests of Significance for the Interrupted Time Series Quasi-Experimental Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the appropriateness of several tests of significance for use with interrupted time series data. The second purpose was to determine what effect the violation of the assumption of uncorrelated error would have on the three tests of significance. The three tests were the Mood test,

Sween, Joyce; Campbell, Donald T.

357

This number is still far more than I actually implemented. I reduced the number of transitions needed using several techniques. Interrupt  

E-print Network

needed using several techniques. Interrupt transitions do `double duty' by taking care of the transitions201 This number is still far more than I actually implemented. I reduced the number of transitions both into and out of a behavior. I cut out many transitions by writing several generic transitions

358

A Source-aware Interrupt Scheduling for Modern Parallel I/O Systems Hongbo Zou , Xian-He Sun , Siyuan Ma , and Xi Duan  

E-print Network

for the same I/O request together on the same core, and prove that data locality is more important than core processes did not issue the I/O request). This results in a transfer of data between the two cores localA Source-aware Interrupt Scheduling for Modern Parallel I/O Systems Hongbo Zou , Xian-He Sun

Sun, Xian-He

359

The Validity and Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time Series Design and the Difference-in-Difference Design in Educational Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we examine the validity and precision of two nonexperimental study designs (NXDs) that can be used in educational evaluation: the comparative interrupted time series (CITS) design and the difference-in-difference (DD) design. In a CITS design, program impacts are evaluated by looking at whether the treatment group deviates from its

Somers, Marie-Andre; Zhu, Pei; Jacob, Robin; Bloom, Howard

2013-01-01

360

Implementation of active surveillance cultures and associated infection control practices for the reduction of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the healthcare setting: An interrupted time series analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. To determine the effectiveness of active surveillance cultures and associated infection control practices on the incidence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the acute care setting. DESIGN. A historical analysis of existing clinical data utilizing an interrupted time series design. ^ SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS. Patients admitted to a 260-bed tertiary care facility in Houston, TX between January 2005

Shana Maureen OHeron

2012-01-01

361

[Diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ with interruption of the anterior border of the mammary gland by ultrasonography-a case report].  

PubMed

We report a case of ductal carcinoma in situ( DCIS) with interruption of the anterior border of the mammary gland by ultrasonography. The patient was a 41-year-old woman. The patient was identified by a focal asymmetric density on her left breast by screening mammography. Ultrasonography showed an ill-defined low echoic mass, 25 mm in diameter, in the A area of her left breast. The tumor had features consistent with the interruption of the anterior border of the mammary gland. Therefore, she was diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. We performed a modified radical mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy. A resected specimen led to a diagnosis of DCIS positive for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, and negative for HER2/neu protein expression. After surgery, she was administered tamoxifen. One year and 6 months after the operation, she is well without metastases. Ultrasonography is generally useful to differentiate between a DCIS lesion or an invasive ductal carcinoma lesion. However, in this case, we could not diagnose the tumor as DCIS by ultrasonography because the tumor was interrupted by the anterior border of the mammary gland. This case suggests that we should be cautious when diagnosing low echoic tumors with interruption of the anterior border of the mammary gland by ultrasonography. PMID:24394112

Sakurai, Kenichi; Fujisaki, Shigeru; Maeda, Tetsuyo; Nagashima, Saki; Hara, Yukiko; Tomita, Ryouichi; Suzuki, Shuhei; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao

2013-11-01

362

Peek-a-What? Infants' Response to the Still-Face Task after Normal and Interrupted Peek-a-Boo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants' sensitivity to the vitality or tension envelope within dyadic social exchanges was investigated by examining their responses following normal and interrupted games of peek-a-boo embedded in a Still-Face Task. Infants 5-6 months old engaged in two modified Still-Face Tasks with their mothers. In one task, the initial interaction ended

Bigelow, Ann E.; Best, Caitlin

2013-01-01

363

Understanding reasons for treatment interruption amongst patients on antiretroviral therapy - A qualitative study at the Lighthouse Clinic, Lilongwe, Malawi  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, scaling up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings moved impressively towards universal access. Along with these achievements, public health HIV programs are facing a number of challenges including the support of patients on lifelong therapy and the prevention of temporary/permanent loss of patients in care. Understanding reasons for treatment interruption (TI) can inform strategies for improving drug adherence and retention in care. Objective To evaluate key characteristics of patients resuming ART after TI at the Lighthouse Clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, and to identify their reasons for interrupting ART. Design This study uses a mixed methods design to evaluate patients resuming ART after TI. We analysed an assessment form for patients with TI using pre-defined categories and a comments field to identify frequently stated reasons for TI. Additionally, we conducted 26 in-depth interviews to deepen our understanding of common reasons for TI. In-depth interviews also included the patients knowledge about ART and presence of social support systems. Qualitative data analysis was based on a thematic framework approach. Results A total of 347 patients (58.2% female, average age 35.111.3 years) with TI were identified. Despite the presence of social support and sufficient knowledge of possible consequences of TI, all patients experienced situations that resulted in TI. Analysis of in-depth interviews led to new and distinct categories for TI. The most common reason for TI was travel (54.5%, n=80/147), which further differentiated into work- or family-related travel. Patients also stated transport costs and health-care-provider-related reasons, which included perceived/enacted discrimination by health care workers. Other drivers of TI were treatment fatigue/forgetfulness, the patients health status, adverse drug effects, pregnancy/delivery, religious belief or perceived/enacted stigma. Conclusions To adequately address patients needs on a lifelong therapy, adherence-counselling sessions require provision of problem-solving strategies for common barriers to continuous care. PMID:25280736

Tabatabai, Julia; Namakhoma, Ireen; Tweya, Hannock; Phiri, Sam; Schnitzler, Paul; Neuhann, Florian

2014-01-01

364

Peri-procedural interrupted oral anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation ablation: comparison of aspirin, warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban  

PubMed Central

Aims Atrial fibrillation ablation requires peri-procedural oral anticoagulation (OAC) to prevent thromboembolic events. There are several options for OAC. We evaluate peri-procedural AF ablation complications using a variety of peri-procedural OACs. Methods and results We examined peri-procedural OAC and groin, bleeding, and thromboembolic complications for 2334 consecutive AF ablations using open irrigated-tip radiofrequency (RF) catheters. Pre-ablation OAC was warfarin in 1113 (47.7%), dabigatran 426 (18.3%), rivaroxaban 187 (8.0%), aspirin 472 (20.2%), and none 136 (5.8%). Oral anticoagulation was always interrupted and intraprocedural anticoagulation was unfractionated heparin (activated clotting time, ACT = 237 26 s). Pre- and post-OAC drugs were the same for 1591 (68.2%) and were different for 743 (31.8%). Following ablation, 693 (29.7%) were treated with dabigatran and 291 (12.5%) were treated with rivaroxaban. There were no problems changing from one OAC pre-ablation to another post-ablation. Complications included 12 (0.51%) pericardial tamponades [no differences for dabigatran (P = 0.457) or rivaroxaban (P = 0.163) compared with warfarin], 12 (0.51%) groin complications [no differences for rivaroxaban (P = 0.709) and fewer for dabigatran (P = 0.041) compared with warfarin]. Only 5 of 2334 (0.21%) required blood transfusions. There were two strokes (0.086%) and no transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) in the first 48 h post-ablation. Three additional strokes (0.13%), and two TIAs (0.086%) occurred from 48 h to 30 days. Only one stroke had a residual deficit. Compared with warfarin, the neurologic event rate was not different for dabigatran (P = 0.684) or rivaroxaban (P = 0.612). Conclusion Using interrupted OAC, low target intraprocedural ACT, and irrigated-tip RF, the rate of peri-procedural groin, haemorrhagic, and thromboembolic complications was extremely low. There were only minimal differences between OACs. Low-risk patients may remain on aspirin/no OAC pre-ablation. There are no problems changing from one OAC pre-ablation to another post-ablation. PMID:25115168

Winkle, Roger A.; Mead, R. Hardwin; Engel, Gregory; Kong, Melissa H.; Patrawala, Rob A.

2014-01-01

365

An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Durkheim's Social Deregulation Thesis: The Case of the Russian Federation.  

PubMed

The dissolution of the Soviet Union resulted in sudden, widespread, and fundamental changes to Russian society. The former social welfare system-with its broad guarantees of employment, healthcare, education, and other forms of social support-was dismantled in the shift toward democracy, rule of law, and a free-market economy. This unique natural experiment provides a rare opportunity to examine the potentially disintegrative effects of rapid social change on deviance, and thus to evaluate one of Durkheim's core tenets. We took advantage of this opportunity by performing interrupted time-series analyses of annual age-adjusted homicide, suicide, and alcohol-related mortality rates for the Russian Federation using data from 1956 to 2002, with 1992-2002 as the postintervention time-frame. The ARIMA models indicate that, controlling for the long-term processes that generated these three time series, the breakup of the Soviet Union was associated with an appreciable increase in each of the cause-of-death rates. We interpret these findings as being consistent with the Durkheimian hypothesis that rapid social change disrupts social order, thereby increasing the level of crime and deviance. PMID:20165565

Pridemore, William Alex; Chamlin, Mitchell B; Cochran, John K

2007-06-01

366

Current interruption and particle beam generation by a plasma focus. Interim report (annual), 30 Sep 81-30 Sep 82  

SciTech Connect

Through collaboration with Dr. K. H. Schoenbach of Texas Tech University the plasma focus opening switch (PFOS) was revised to answer basic questions as to utility of the concept. To estimate the plasma temperature and classical resistivity a soft X-ray spectrometer and X-ray pinhole camera were developed. The temperature was estimated from a coronal model to range between 0.4 to 0.5 keV for either a nitrogen or neon impurity (1 to 2%) in deuterium at 3 torr. Strong pinches were observed in pure neon (0.6 torr) with an electron temperature in the same range. The corresponding classical resistance of the pinch is 9 m omega whereas 500 m omega is more consistent with output voltage pulse and current flow at interruption indicating anomalous resistivity is present. A one-dimensional two-fluid computer code has been developed to model anomalous resistivity in the pinch phase and preliminary results are consistent with the snowplow model. The final analysis of the plasma focus particle beam generation experiments was completed and a strong correlation was found for the beam-target model as the mechanism for neutron production in the Illinois plasma focus device.

Gerdin, G.; Venneri, F.

1982-11-30

367

Changes to the financial responsibility for juvenile court ordered psychiatric evaluations reduce inpatient services utilization: an interrupted time series study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a July 2008 Tennessee Court of Appeals opinion that shifted financial responsibility for juvenile court ordered psychiatric evaluations from the State to the County. Methods We used de-identified administrative data from the Tennessee Department of Mental Health and mid-year population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau from July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2010, and an interrupted time series design with segmented regression analysis to quantify the impact of the implementation of the Court opinion. Results In the study period, there were 2,176 referrals for juvenile court ordered psychiatric evaluations in Tennessee; of these, 74.1% were inpatient evaluations. The Court opinion was associated with a decrease of 9.4 (95%?C.I. = 7.910.8) inpatient and increase of 1.2 (95%?C.I. = 0.42.1) outpatient evaluations per 100,000 Tennessee youth aged 12 to 19?years per month. Conclusions The Court opinion that shifted financial responsibility for juvenile court ordered psychiatric evaluations from the State to the County was associated with a sudden and significant decrease in inpatient psychiatric evaluations, and more modest increase in outpatient evaluations. PMID:22646521

2012-01-01

368

An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Durkheim's Social Deregulation Thesis: The Case of the Russian Federation  

PubMed Central

The dissolution of the Soviet Union resulted in sudden, widespread, and fundamental changes to Russian society. The former social welfare system-with its broad guarantees of employment, healthcare, education, and other forms of social support-was dismantled in the shift toward democracy, rule of law, and a free-market economy. This unique natural experiment provides a rare opportunity to examine the potentially disintegrative effects of rapid social change on deviance, and thus to evaluate one of Durkheim's core tenets. We took advantage of this opportunity by performing interrupted time-series analyses of annual age-adjusted homicide, suicide, and alcohol-related mortality rates for the Russian Federation using data from 1956 to 2002, with 1992-2002 as the postintervention time-frame. The ARIMA models indicate that, controlling for the long-term processes that generated these three time series, the breakup of the Soviet Union was associated with an appreciable increase in each of the cause-of-death rates. We interpret these findings as being consistent with the Durkheimian hypothesis that rapid social change disrupts social order, thereby increasing the level of crime and deviance. PMID:20165565

Pridemore, William Alex; Chamlin, Mitchell B.; Cochran, John K.

2009-01-01

369

Reverse subclavian flap and aorto-pulmonary window technique for repair of interrupted aortic arch and truncus arteriosus.  

PubMed

We report a surgical strategy for repairing an interrupted aortic arch (IAA) with truncus arteriosus (TA) by using a reverse subclavian flap and an aorto-pulmonary (A-P) window technique for preserving the pulmonary artery architecture. A 10-day-old neonate with type B IAA and type I TA with echocardiographic evidence of a significant distance between the ascending and descending aorta underwent surgical repair at the Bristol Royal Hospital for Children. The superior part of the arch was reconstructed using a reverse subclavian flap and the undersurface with a pulmonary homograft patch. The ascending aorta was separated from the pulmonary arteries using a Gore-Tex patch (A-P window type of repair) without disconnecting the branch pulmonary arteries, in order to preserve their architecture. The continuity between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery bifurcation was established using a 12 mm Contegra conduit. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the neonate was discharged after 12 days. At follow-up, the patient remains well, gaining weight, with no echocardiographic evidences of obstruction. Reverse subclavian flap with homograft patch combined with and 'A-P window' technique for preservation of the pulmonary artery architecture is a useful and effective surgical strategy for neonates presenting with IAA associated with TA. PMID:21700591

de Siena, Paolo; Rajakaruna, Chanaka; Parry, Andrew J; Caputo, Massimo

2011-09-01

370

[Two-stage repair of the transposition of great arteries with interruption/coarctation of the aorta].  

PubMed

We report on 10 patients who underwent two-stage repair of transposition of the great arteries (TGA) with interruption (IAA) or coarctation (CoA) of the aorta. First, an operation for aortic arch reconstruction was performed: Blalock-Park with pulmonary artery banding (PAB) for IAA (5 patients), subclavian flap with PAB for CoA (4 patients) and end-to-end anastomosis without PAB (1 patient). All survived the first operation and had no significant pressure gradient with good growth of the ascending aorta, except for the 1 case without PAB. Half of the 8 patients who underwent PAB developed migration of the PAB. The arterial switch operation (ASO) was performed 0.7-12.6 (5.6+/-4.7) months after the first surgery. One patient with an abnormal coronary artery tract was lost after ASO. Five developed pulmonary artery stenosis and 1 developed supra-aortic stenosis late after ASO. Two patients need reoperation, 1 for supra-aortic stenosis, and the other for reCoA. Two-stage repair for TGA with IAA/CoA is still a useful method with a good operative result. However, strict follow-up is necessary because of the high frequency of late morbidity. PMID:15678969

Fukumura, Fumio; Sese, A; Ueno, Y; Imoto, Y; Sakamoto, M; Ochiai, Y; Iwai, T; Joho, K

2005-01-01

371

Electric Field in Bi2223 Tape Carrying DC Current and Exposed to AC Parallel Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the degradation of the critical current of Bi-2223 tapes under AC magnetic fields is of great importance for HTS power applications. In particular, in a common AC coil design, the field component parallel to plane of the tape is much stronger than the perpendicular component. In this work we present the results of electric field measurements of

S. Asulay; A. Friedman; Y. Wolfus; F. Kopansky; Y. Yeshurun

2006-01-01

372

Zeroing Transformer's DC Current in Resonant Converters with No Series Capacitors  

E-print Network

is facilitated by a signal obtained from a DC/AC current sensor which senses the transformer's primary, magnetization current, digital control, transformer saturation. I. INTRODUCTION Resonant converters [1- 4] can current (Fig. 2). In this exemplified case, the resonant current is fed to a digital circuit (Fig. 1

373

Formation of a 40 A DC Current Arc During the Opening of Silver Contacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The erosion of silver contacts due to break arcs with length proportional to time and of variable duration has been measured by weighing the contacts following 5000 openings at a constant current equal to 40 A. The experimental results show that, for arc durations shorter than 60 ?s, the transfer of metal from the anode to the cathode occurs, but after passing this stage, when the two electrodes are separated by greater distances, each will display erosion. This is the result of the diffusion of material outside the space between the two electrodes. In order to interpret these results, we have applied a classical model of the physical phenomena occurring at the root of the arc. Analysis of the experimental results shows that for an arc duration of less than 15 ?s, no distinct cathode root is seen to exist, but beyond this, several spots appear gradually on the cathode for arc duration up to 50 ?s, after which they merge into a single spot. The comparison between experiment results and theoretical interpretation is reasonable up to 60 ?s.

M'hammed, Abbaoui; Andr, Lefort; Erwann, Carvou; Damien, Sallais; James, Brian Alexander Mitchell; Noureddine Ben, Jemaa

2014-05-01

374

Iron deficiency interrupts energy transfer from a disconnected part of the antenna to the rest of Photosystem II.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency changed markedly the shape of the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics during a dark-light transition, the so-called Kautsky effect. Changes in chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime and yield were observed, increasing largely the minimal and the intermediate chlorophyll fluorescence levels, with a marked dip between the intermediate and the maximum levels and loss of the secondary peak after the maximum. During the slow changes, the lifetime-yield relationship was found to be linear and curvilinear (towards positive lifetime values) in control and Fe-deficient leaves, respectively. These results suggested that part of the Photosystem II antenna in Fe-deficient leaves emits fluorescence with a long lifetime. In dark-adapted Fe-deficient leaves, measurements in the picosecond-nanosecond time domain confirmed the presence of a 3.3-ns component, contributing to 15% of the total fluorescence. Computer simulations revealed that upon illumination such contribution is also present and remains constant, indicating that energy transfer is partially interrupted in Fe-deficient leaves. Photosystem II-enriched membrane fractions containing different pigment-protein complexes were isolated from control and Fe-deficient leaves and characterized spectrophotometrically. The photosynthetic pigment composition of the fractions was also determined. Data revealed the presence of a novel pigment-protein complex induced by Fe deficiency and an enrichment of internal relative to peripheral antenna complexes. The data suggest a partial disconnection between internal Photosystem II antenna complexes and the reaction center, which could lead to an underestimation of the Photosystem II efficiency in dark-adapted, low chlorophyll Fe-deficient leaves, using chlorophyll fluorescence. PMID:16228354

Morales, F; Moise, N; Qulez, R; Abada, A; Abada, J; Moya, I

2001-01-01

375

Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coatings During Interrupted High-Heat-Flux Laser Testing using Luminescence Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation showed progress made in extending luminescence-base delamination monitoring to TBCs exposed to high heat fluxes, which is an environment that much better simulates actual turbine engine conditions. This was done by performing upconversion luminescence imaging during interruptions in laser testing, where a high-power CO2 laser was employed to create the desired heat flux. Upconverison luminescence refers to luminescence where the emission is at a higher energy (shorter wavelength) than the excitation. Since there will be negligible background emission at higher energies than the excitation, this methods produces superb contrast. Delamination contrast is produced because both the excitation and emission wavelengths are reflected at delamination cracks so that substantially higher luminescence intensity is observed in regions containing delamination cracks. Erbium was selected as the dopant for luminescence specifically because it exhibits upconversion luminescence. The high power CO2 10.6 micron wavelength laser facility at NASA GRC was used to produce the heat flux in combination with forced air backside cooling. Testing was performed at a lower (95 W/sq cm) and higher (125 W/sq cm) heat flux as well as furnace cycling at 1163C for comparison. The lower heat flux showed the same general behavior as furnace cycling, a gradual, "spotty" increase in luminescence associated with debond progression; however, a significant difference was a pronounced incubation period followed by acceleration delamination progression. These results indicate that extrapolating behavior from furnace cycling measurements will grossly overestimate remaining life under high heat flux conditions. The higher heat flux results were not only accelerated, but much different in character. Extreme bond coat rumpling occurred, and delamination propagation extended over much larger areas before precipitating macroscopic TBC failure. This indicates that under the higher heat flux (and surface & interface temperatures), the TBC was more tolerant of damage. The main conclusions were that high heat flux conditions can not only accelerate TBC debond progression but can also grossly alter the pathway of delamination.

Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

2011-01-01

376

The impact of rural health system reform on hospitalization rates in the Islamic Republic of Iran: an interrupted time series  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess the effects on hospital utilization rates of a major health system reform a family physician programme and a social protection scheme undertaken in rural areas of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 2005. Methods A tracer province that was not a patient referral hub was selected for the collection of monthly hospitalization data over a period of about 10 years, beginning two years before the rural health system reform (the intervention) began. An interrupted time series analysis was conducted and segmented regression analysis was used to assess the immediate and gradual effects of the intervention on hospitalization rates in an intervention group composed of rural residents and a comparison group composed of urban residents primarily. Findings Before the intervention, the hospitalization rate in the rural population was significantly lower than in the comparison group. Although there was no significant increase or decline in hospitalization rates in the intervention or comparison group before the intervention, after the intervention a significant increase in the hospitalization rate of 4.6 hospitalizations per 100 000 insured persons per month on average was noted in the intervention group (P?

Rashidian, Arash; Joudaki, Hossein; Khodayari-Moez, Elham; Omranikhoo, Habib; Geraili, Bijan

2013-01-01

377

Pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy: A comparison between the two pancreaticojejunostomy methods for approximating the pancreatic parenchyma to the jejunal seromuscular layer: Interrupted vs continuous stitches  

PubMed Central

AIM: The purpose of this study is to find a better operative technique by comparing interrupted stitches with continuous stitches for the outer layer of the pancreaticojejunostomy, i.e., the stitches between the stump parenchyma of the pancreas and the jejunal seromuscular layer, and other risk factors for the incidence of pancreatic leakage. METHODS: During the period January 1997 to October 2004, 133 patients have undergone the end-to-side and duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy with interrupted suture for outer layer of the pancreaticojejunostomy and 170 patients with a continuous suture at our institution by one surgeon. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups in the diagnosis, texture of the pancreas, use of octreotide and pathologic stage. Pancreatic fistula occurred in 14 patients (11%) among the interrupted suture cases and in 10 (6%) among the continuous suture cases (P = 0.102). Major pancreatic leakage developed in three interrupted suture patients (2%) and zero continuous suture patients (P = 0.026). In multivariate analysis, soft pancreatic consistency (odds ratio, 5.5; 95% confidence interval 2.3-13.1) and common bile duct cancer (odds ratio, 3.7; 95% CI 1.6-8.5) were predictive of pancreatic leakage. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic texture and pathology are the most important factors in determining the fate of pancreaticojejunal anastomosis and our continuous suture method was performed with significantly decreased occurrence of major pancreatic fistula. In conclusion, the continuous suture method is more feasible and safer in performing duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy. PMID:17879405

Lee, Seung Eun; Yang, Sung Hoon; Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun-Whe

2007-01-01

378

Hybrid procedure of bilateral pulmonary artery banding and bilateral ductal stenting in an infant with aortic atresia and interrupted aortic arch.  

PubMed

We report an infant with aortic valve atresia, interrupted aortic arch, ventricular septal defect, confluent pulmonary arteries, bilateral arterial ducts, absent common carotid arteries, and anomalous coronary arteries arising from main pulmonary artery. Hybrid procedure consisting of bilateral pulmonary artery banding and bilateral arterial duct stenting was performed at 4 weeks of age. Hybrid procedure can be an alternative palliative approach in an infant with this complex cardiac anatomy. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24510548

Kobayashi, Daisuke; Turner, Daniel R; Delius, Ralph E; Aggarwal, Sanjeev

2014-12-01

379

Research Paper: The Influence that Electronic Prescribing Has on Medication Errors and Preventable Adverse Drug Events: an Interrupted Time-series Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study evaluated the effect of a Computerized Physician Order Entry system with basic Clinical Decision Support (CPOE\\/CDSS) on the incidence of medication errors (MEs) and preventable adverse drug events (pADEs).DesignInterrupted time-series design.MeasurementsThe primary outcome measurements comprised the percentage of medication orders with one or more MEs and the percentage of patients with one or more pADEs.ResultsPre-implementation, the mean percentage

Jasperien E. van Doormaal; Patricia M. L. A. van den Bemt; Rianne J. Zaal; Antoine C. G. Egberts; Bertil W. Lenderink; Jos G. W. Kosterink; Flora M. Haaijer-Ruskamp; Peter G. M. Mol

2009-01-01

380

Curcumin eliminates the effect of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on the divergent regulation of gene expression of receptors of AGEs by interrupting leptin signaling  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a major risk factor for hepatic fibrogenesis. NASH is often found in diabetic patients with hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia induces non-enzymatic glycation of proteins, yielding advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Effects of AGEs are mainly mediated by two categories of cytoplasmic membrane receptors. Receptor for AGEs (RAGE) is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation, whereas AGE receptor-1 (AGE-R1) is involved in detoxification and clearance of AGEs. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) is crucial to the development of hepatic fibrosis. We recently reported that AGEs stimulated HSC activation likely by inhibiting gene expression of AGE-R1 and inducing gene expression of RAGE in HSC, which were eliminated by the antioxidant curcumin. This study is to test our hypothesis that curcumin eliminates the effects of AGEs on the divergent regulation of the two receptors of AGEs in HSC by interrupting the AGEs-caused activation of leptin signaling, leading to the inhibition of HSC activation. We observed herein that AGEs activated leptin signaling by inducing gene expression of leptin and its receptor in HSC. Like AGEs, leptin differentially regulated gene expression of RAGE and AGE-R1. Curcumin eliminated the effects of AGEs in HSC by interrupting leptin signaling and activating transcription factor Nrf2, leading to the elevation of cellular glutathione and the attenuation of oxidative stress. In conclusions, curcumin eliminated the effects of AGEs on the divergent regulation of gene expression of RAGE and AGE-R1 in HSC by interrupting the AGEs-caused activation of leptin signaling, leading to the inhibition of HSC activation. PMID:24614199

Tang, Youcai; Chen, Anping

2014-01-01

381

Successful staged repair for a rare type of truncus arteriosus with interruption of the aortic arch and abnormal origin of the left coronary artery.  

PubMed

We report a successful staged repair for a quite rare combination of truncus arteriosus (TA), Van Praagh type A4, and abnormal origin of the left coronary artery (CA). Furthermore, the case was complicated by a variant of the chromosomal anomaly in cat-cry syndrome. The presence of interruption of the aortic arch (IAA) and abnormal CA origin has been previously reported to increase mortality. To decrease the risk of bronchomalacia in infants, bilateral pulmonary artery banding (PAB) was performed as the first stage procedure for adjusting the pulmonary flow. Staged repair is a useful strategy for infants with complex TA. PMID:23714656

Uchita, Shunji; Harada, Yorikazu; Honda, Kentaro; Toguchi, Koji; Nishimura, Yoshiharu; Suenaga, Tomohiro; Takeuchi, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Okamura, Yoshitaka

2013-01-01

382

[Conscientious objection of health personnel in the recent Organic Law 2/2010, about sexual and reproductive health and voluntary interruption of pregnancy].  

PubMed

The main goal of the paper is to analyse and evaluate the recent Organic Law 2/2010, and its prescriptions referring to the conscientious objection of health personnel in relation to the voluntary interruption of pregnancy. The paper starts studying conscientious objection: its raison d'tre, its delimitation, its recognition by the Spanish regulation. Further on, the paper focuses on the article 19.2 of the Organic Law 2/2010, underlining on the one hand the positive aspects (such as the formal requirements for the objection), and on the other hand the negative ones (such as suspicion over objectors). PMID:21090842

Martnez Otero, Juan Mara

2010-01-01

383

Identification of minor fatty acids and various nonmethylene-interrupted diene isomers in mantle, muscle, and viscera of the marine bivalve Megangulus zyonoensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the occurrence of nonmethylene-interrupted (NMI) FA in the marine bivalve Megangulus zyonoensis, methyl esters of unsaturated FA were fractionated according to the degree of their unsaturation by using argentation TLC.\\u000a Their structures were elucidated by using GC-MS of their FAME and 2-alkenyl-4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. Seventy-two\\u000a unsaturated FA, including the novel 7,1521 and 20?4n?1, were identified. The unusual tetraenoic acids

H. Kawashima; M. Ohnishi

2004-01-01

384

Amplified antigen-specific immune responses in HIV-1 infected individuals in a double blind DNA immunization and therapy interruption trial.  

PubMed

Immunotherapy in patients with HIV-1 infection aims to restore and broaden immunological competence, reduce viral load and thereby permit longer periods without combined antiretroviral treatment (cART). Twelve HIV-1-infected patients on cART were immunized on the skin with DNA plasmids containing genes of several HIV-1 subtypes with or without the addition of hydroxyurea (HU), or with placebo. The mean net gain of HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses were higher and broader in the HIV DNA vaccine groups compared to non-vaccinated individuals (p<0.05). The vaccine-induced immune responses per se had no direct effect on viral replication. In all patients combined, including placebo, the viral set point after a final structured therapy interruption (STI) was lower than prior to initiation of cART (p=0.003). Nadir CD4 levels appeared to strongly influence the post-STI viral titers. After the sixth immunization or placebo, patients could stay off cART for a median time of 15 months. The study shows that HIV DNA immunization induces broader and higher magnitudes of HIV-specific immune responses compared to structured therapy interruptions alone. Although compromised by small numbers of patients, the study also demonstrates that well-monitored STI may safely function as an immunological read out of HIV vaccine efficacy. PMID:21300092

Gudmundsdotter, L; Wahren, B; Haller, B K; Boberg, A; Edbck, U; Bernasconi, D; Butt, S; Gaines, H; Imami, N; Gotch, F; Lori, F; Lisziewicz, J; Sandstrm, E; Hejdeman, B

2011-07-26

385

Control of gene function in baceriophage T4. II. Synthes of messenger ribonucleiccid and proei after interrupting deoxyribonucleic acid replication and glucosylation.  

PubMed

Replication of T4 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is known to be required for the onset of transcription of late T4 genes. Once late gene transcription has been initiated, DNA replication is no longer required for maintaining synthesis of late or early T4 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). Late phage proteins (lysozyme and tail fibers) continue to be produced at constant rates after interrupting T4 DNA synthesis. The ability of the host cell to glucosylate the T4 progeny DNA has no demonstrable influence on the rates at which T4 mRNA and late proteins are synthesized after the interruption of DNA synthesis. To explain the requirement of T4 DNA replication for the onset of late gene transcription, we suggest that T4 DNA in a nascent state is mandatory for the initial late gene transcription, or perhaps for late gene transcription throughout the lytic cycle. T4 DNA in a nascent state could be segregated from the bulk of the replicating DNA, used only as template for RNA synthesis, and prevented from being modified by methylation, glucosylation, or maturation processes. The fact that no, or very little, nonglucosylated T4 DNA is extractable from T4LB3-infected CR63 after arresting DNA synthesis does not rule out this possibility. PMID:4910356

Sauerbier, W; rutigam, A R

1970-02-01

386

Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer Characteristics of The Fluid Flow through an Array of Interrupted, Parallel-Plate Heat Transfer Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scale-up modeling technique was used to examine the effect of the geometrical properties of interrupted surfaces on the heat transfer and pressure drop performance of compact heat exchangers having off-set-strip and slotted fins. The test cores, each consisting of a number of machined copper finns, were tested in a subsonic wind tunnel. The heat transfer and the pressure drop for each test core was measured for various fin lengths (in flow direction) and slot distances. Flow visualization and local turbulence intensity and pressure measurements within each test core were also performed to gain insight into the mechanisms of heat transfer augmentation in compact heat exchangers with interrupted surfaces. The effect of the geometrical properties of the fins as well as the Reynolds number on the heat transfer rate and the pressure drop were determined and those results were interpreted in terms of observed flow structure. Basic heat transfer and pressure drop data are presented in terms of Colburn j-factors and Fanning friction factors plotted versus Reynolds number. An empirical correlation for heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics for off-set-strip fins are presented.

Mochizuki, Sadanari; Yagi, Yoshinao

387

Wuchereria bancrofti infection in human and mosquito populations of a Polynesian village ten years after interruption of mass chemoprophylaxis with diethylcarbamazine.  

PubMed

In 1991, a study on Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae (mf) and infection rates was carried out in the human and mosquito populations of a Polynesian village where, 10 years before, the mf prevalence rate was 6.4% and twice-yearly mass treatment with 3 mg/kg of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was interrupted. Venous blood samples were collected from 575 (97%) individuals aged 15 years or more, of whom 122 (21.4%) were mf positive. The mf carrier prevalence rate was 27.4% in males, significantly higher than that of 14% in females; it increased from 7-12% in the youngest age group (15-19 years) to 40-50% in the oldest (> or = 60 years) for both males and females. 387 mosquito collections were performed and 1748 female Aedes polynesiensis were dissected, of which 1176 were parous. Among the latter, 114 (9.7%) were infected with Wuchereria bancrofti larvae at L1, L2 or L3 stages. The mean number of larvae per mosquito was 2.46 (range 1-15). Of the 114 infected mosquitoes, 30 harboured L3 larvae, giving a 2.55% infective rate; the mean number of L3 larvae per mosquito was 1.15 (range 1-2). Such findings indicate that the interruption of systematic twice-yearly mass treatment with DEC (3 mg/kg) has resulted, after 10 years, in a substantial increase of microfilarial prevalence in humans, and in high infection rates in mosquitoes. PMID:1440820

Cartel, J L; Nguyen, N L; Spiegel, A; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Plichart, R; Martin, P M; Manuellan, A B; Lardeux, F

1992-01-01

388

A DC-81-indole conjugate agent suppresses melanoma A375 cell migration partially via interrupting VEGF production and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha}-mediated signaling  

SciTech Connect

Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) chemicals are antitumor antibiotics inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis. An indole carboxylate-PBD hybrid with six-carbon spacer structure (IN6CPBD) has been previously demonstrated to induce melanoma cell apoptosis and reduce metastasis in mouse lungs. This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of the other hybrid compound with four-carbon spacer (IN4CPBD) and elucidating its anti-metastatic mechanism. Human melanoma A375 cells with IN4CPBD treatment underwent cytotoxicity and apoptosis-associated assays. Transwell migration assay, Western blotting, and ELISA were used for mechanistic study. IN4CPBD exhibited potent melanoma cytotoxicity through interrupting G1/S cell cycle progression, increasing DNA fragmentation and hypodipoidic DNA contents, and reducing mitochondrial membrane potential. Caspase activity elevation suggested that both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways were involved in IN4CPBD-induced melanoma apoptosis. IN4CPBD up-regulated p53 and p21, thereby concomitantly derailing the equilibrium between Bcl-2 and Bax levels. Transwell migration assay demonstrated that stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}) stimulated A375 cell motility, while kinase inhibitors treatment confirmed that Rho/ROCK, Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK pathways were involved in SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced melanoma migration. IN4CPBD not only abolished the SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced chemotactic motility but also suppressed constitutive MMP-9 and VEGF expression. Mechanistically, IN4CPBD down-regulated Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK total proteins and MYPT1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, beyond the fact that IN4CPBD induces melanoma cell apoptosis at cytotoxic dose, the interruption in the VEGF expression and the SDF-1{alpha}-related signaling at cytostatic dose may partially constitute the rationale for its in vivo anti-metastatic potency. - Research Highlights: > A novel carboxylate-PBD hybrid as anti-melanoma drug. > IN4CPBD interrupts melanoma cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis. > IN4CPBD suppresses SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced signaling and melanoma migration. > IN4CPBD abolishes angiogenic factor production and chemotactic effect of SDF-1{alpha}. > This drug is clinically applicable to melanoma therapy.

Hsieh, Ming-Chu [Graduate Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Hu, Wan-Ping [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Yu, Hsin-Su [Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Wu, Wen-Chuan [Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Long-Sen [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Kao, Ying-Hsien, E-mail: danyhkao@gmail.com [Department of Medical Research, E-DA Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jeh-Jeng, E-mail: jjwang@kmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

2011-09-01

389

Dependence of the electrical and optical properties on growth interruption in AlAs/In0.53Ga0.47As/InAs resonant tunneling diodes  

PubMed Central

The dependence of interface roughness of pseudomorphic AlAs/In0.53Ga0.47As/InAs resonant tunneling diodes [RTDs] grown by molecular beam epitaxy on interruption time was studied by current-voltage [I-V] characteristics, photoluminescence [PL] spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy [TEM]. We have observed that a splitting in the quantum-well PL due to island formation in the quantum well is sensitive to growth interruption at the AlAs/In0.53Ga0.47As interfaces. TEM images also show flatter interfaces with a few islands which only occur by applying an optimum value of interruption time. The symmetry of I-V characteristics of RTDs with PL and TEM results is consistent because tunneling current is highly dependent on barrier thickness and interface roughness. PMID:22112249

2011-01-01

390

Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis of Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis in the Lower Extremity of a Child with Interrupted Inferior Vena Cava  

SciTech Connect

We present the case of a 14-year-old girl who developed acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in her right lower extremity. Laboratory testing revealed protein S deficiency, and the patient's father also had this abnormality with a history of lower extremity DVT. Manual thromboaspiration followed by catheter-directed thrombolysis resulted in total clearance of all thrombi. Computed tomography and later venography revealed an interrupted inferior vena cava. Catheter-directed thrombolysis is an established treatment for adults with acute DVT. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe catheter-directed thrombolysis in a pediatric patient with lower extremity DVT. Our results suggest that catheter-directed thrombolysis is safe and effective for use in selected older children and adolescents with acute DVT in the lower extremity.

Oguzkurt, Levent, E-mail: loguzkurt@yahoo.com; Ozkan, Ugur; Tercan, Fahri; Koc, Zafer [Baskent University, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2007-04-15

391

How to Prepare for the Hurricane Season and Avoid Being Underinsured for Business Interruption Coverage, and a Special Section on What to Do If You Have Loss of Income from the BP Oil Spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most chief financial officers (CFOs) and risk managers have an understanding of their property and liability insurance needs and are comfortable purchasing coverage that protects their companies from a loss due to an insured peril. However, it has been our experience that their comfort level declines dramatically when it comes to business interruption coverage and limits. The uncertainty surrounding business

Robert Glasser

2010-01-01

392

Line-Charging Current Interruption by HV and EHV Circuit Breakers: Standard and Non-Standard Test Requirements as Determined by the Stresses Applied and by Breaker-Capability Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the reasons that frequently lead electrical utilities to issue specifications with above- standard requirements relative to the interruption of line - charging currents by HV and EHV circuit breakers. It shows by means of examples, digital simulations and a discussion of the withstand capabilities of modern breakers that these special requirements are many times unjustified and often

393

Evaluation of the impact of transient interruption of antiangiogenic treatment using ultrasound-based techniques in a murine model of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Development of escape pathways from antiangiogenic treatments was reported to be associated with enhanced tumor aggressiveness and rebound effect was suggested after treatment stop. Aim of the study was to evaluate tumor response simulating different conditions of administration of antiangiogenic treatment (transient or definitive treatment stop) in a mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods Subcutaneous tumors were created by inoculating 5106 Huh7 cells into the right flank of 14 nude mice. When tumor size reached 510mm, mice were divided in 3 groups: group 1 was treated with placebo, group 2 was treated with sorafenib (62mg/kg via gavage) but temporarily suspended from day +5 to +9, whereas in group 3 sorafenib was definitively stopped at day +5. At day +13 all mice were sacrificed, collecting masses for Western-Blot analyses. Volume was calculated with B-mode ultrasonography at day 0, +5, +9, +11 and +13. VEGFR2-targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound using BR55 (Bracco Imaging) was performed at day +5 and +13 and elastonosography (Esaote) at day +9 and +11 to assess tumor stiffness. Results Median growth percentage delta at day +13 versus day 0 was 197% (115329) in group 1, 81% (48144) in group 2 and 111% (27167) in group 3. Median growth delta at day +13 with respect to day +5 was 79% (48127), 37% (?14128) and 81% (1587) in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Quantification of targeted-CEUS at day +13 showed higher values in group 3 (509 Arbitrary Units AI, range 293652) than group 1 (275 AI, range 191494) and group 2 (181 AI, range 63318) (p?=?0.033). Western-Blot analysis demonstrated higher VEGFR2 expression in group 3 with respect to group 1 and 2. Conclusions A transient interruption of antiangiogenic treatment does not impede restoration of tumor response, while a definitive interruption tends to stimulate a rebound of angiogenesis to higher level than without treatment. PMID:24902850

2014-01-01

394

Prediction of unmet primary care needs for the medically vulnerable post-disaster: an interrupted time-series analysis of health system responses.  

PubMed

Disasters serve as shocks and precipitate unanticipated disturbances to the health care system. Public health surveillance is generally focused on monitoring latent health and environmental exposure effects, rather than health system performance in response to these local shocks. The following intervention study sought to determine the long-term effects of the 2005 chlorine spill in Graniteville, South Carolina on primary care access for vulnerable populations. We used an interrupted time-series approach to model monthly visits for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, an indicator of unmet primary care need, to quantify the impact of the disaster on unmet primary care need in Medicaid beneficiaries. The results showed Medicaid beneficiaries in the directly impacted service area experienced improved access to primary care in the 24 months post-disaster. We provide evidence that a health system serving the medically underserved can prove resilient and display improved adaptive capacity under adverse circumstances (i.e., technological disasters) to ensure access to primary care for vulnerable sub-groups. The results suggests a new application for ambulatory care sensitive conditions as a population-based metric to advance anecdotal evidence of secondary surge and evaluate pre- and post-health system surge capacity following a disaster. PMID:23202752

Runkle, Jennifer D; Zhang, Hongmei; Karmaus, Wilfried; Martin, Amy B; Svendsen, Erik R

2012-10-01

395

The parathyroid hormone-responsive B1 gene is interrupted by a t(1;7)(q42;p15) breakpoint associated with Wilms' tumour.  

PubMed

Wilms' tumour (WT) has a diverse and complex molecular aetiology, with several different loci identified by cytogenetic and molecular analyses. One such locus is on chromosome 7p, where cytogenetic abnormalities and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) indicate the presence of a Wilms' tumour suppressor gene. In order to isolate a candidate gene for this locus, we have characterized the breakpoint regions at a novel constitutional chromosome translocation (t(1;7)(q42;p15)), found in a child with WT and skeletal abnormalities. We identified two genes that were interrupted by the translocation: the parathyroid hormone-responsive B1 gene (PTH-B1) at 7p and obscurin at 1q. With no evidence for LOH at 1q42, we focused on the characterization of PTH-B1. We detected novel alternately spliced isoforms of PTH-B1, which were expressed in a wide range of adult and foetal tissues. Importantly, expression of two isoforms were disrupted in the WT of the t(1;7) patient. We also identified an additional splice isoform expressed only in 7p LOH tumours. The disruption of PTH-B1 by the t(1;7), together with aberrant splicing in sporadic WTs, suggests that PTH-B1 is a candidate for the 7p Wilms' tumour suppressor gene. PMID:12618763

Vernon, Ellen G; Malik, Karim; Reynolds, Paul; Powlesland, Rachel; Dallosso, Anthony R; Jackson, Sally; Henthorn, Karla; Green, Eric D; Brown, Keith W

2003-03-01

396

Should antiplatelet therapy be interrupted in drug eluting stent recipients throughout the periendoscopic period? A very late stent thrombosis case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

In-stent thrombosis after cessation of antiplatelet medications in patients with drug-eluting stents (DES) is a significant problem in medical practice, particularly in the perioperative period. We report a case of an 87-year-old man with a medical history of hypertension, coronary artery disease and chronic atrophic gastritis. Very late thrombosis of a sirolimus-eluting stent occurred 1207 days after implantation, seven months after discontinuation of clopidogrel, and the interruption of aspirin 13 days in preparation of an elective endoscopic gastrointestinal procedure presented with acute myocardial infarction. The patient was treated with thrombectomy and successfully revascularized with superimposition of two sirolimus-eluting stents. Medications administered in the catheterization laboratory included low molecular weight heparin and nitroglycerin. Flow was defined as grade 2 according to the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction scale. Electrocardiogram after the procedure revealed persistent, but decreased, ST-segment elevation in the anterolateral leads. The patient recovered and was discharged on aspirin and clopidogrel indefinitely. There was no cardiac event during the two year follow-up period. This case underlines the importance of maintaining the balance of thrombosis and bleeding during perioperation of non-cardiac procedure and the possible need for continuation of aspirin therapy during periendoscopic procedures among patients with low bleeding risks who received DES. PMID:25278977

Dong, Peng; Yang, Xin-Chun; Bian, Su-Yan

2014-01-01

397

Prediction of Unmet Primary Care Needs for the Medically Vulnerable Post-Disaster: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Health System Responses  

PubMed Central

Disasters serve as shocks and precipitate unanticipated disturbances to the health care system. Public health surveillance is generally focused on monitoring latent health and environmental exposure effects, rather than health system performance in response to these local shocks. The following intervention study sought to determine the long-term effects of the 2005 chlorine spill in Graniteville, South Carolina on primary care access for vulnerable populations. We used an interrupted time-series approach to model monthly visits for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, an indicator of unmet primary care need, to quantify the impact of the disaster on unmet primary care need in Medicaid beneficiaries. The results showed Medicaid beneficiaries in the directly impacted service area experienced improved access to primary care in the 24 months post-disaster. We provide evidence that a health system serving the medically underserved can prove resilient and display improved adaptive capacity under adverse circumstances (i.e., technological disasters) to ensure access to primary care for vulnerable sub-groups. The results suggests a new application for ambulatory care sensitive conditions as a population-based metric to advance anecdotal evidence of secondary surge and evaluate pre- and post-health system surge capacity following a disaster. PMID:23202752

Runkle, Jennifer D.; Zhang, Hongmei; Karmaus, Wilfried; Brock-Martin, Amy; Svendsen, Erik R.

2012-01-01

398

Impact of Pay for Performance on Prescribing of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in Primary Care: An Interrupted Time Series Study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), a major pay-for-performance programme in the United Kingdom, on prescribing of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) in primary care. Methods Negative binomial interrupted time series analysis using practice level prescribing data from April 2007 to March 2012. The main outcome measure was the prescribing rate of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), including hormonal and non hormonal intrauterine devices and systems (IUDs and IUSs), injectable contraceptives and hormonal implants. Results Prescribing rates of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) were stable before the introduction of contraceptive targets to the QOF and increased afterwards by 4% annually (rate ratios ?=?1.04, 95% CI?=?1.03, 1.06). The increase in LARC prescribing was mainly driven by increases in injectables (increased by 6% annually), which was the most commonly prescribed LARC method. Of other types of LARC, the QOF indicator was associated with a step increase of 20% in implant prescribing (RR?=? 1.20, 95% CI?=? 1.09, 1.32). This change is equivalent to an additional 110 thousand women being prescribed with LARC had QOF points not been introduced. Conclusions Pay for performance incentives for contraceptive counselling in primary care with women seeking contraceptive advice has increased uptake of LARC methods. PMID:24694949

Arrowsmith, Myat E.; Majeed, Azeem; Lee, John Tayu; Saxena, Sonia

2014-01-01

399

Usefulness of preoperative echocardiography in predicting left ventricular outflow obstruction after primary repair of interrupted aortic arch with ventricular septal defect.  

PubMed

Residual left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is a significant problem after repair of interrupted aortic arch (IAA) and ventricular septal defect. Resection of subaortic tissue at the time of primary repair, however, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We reviewed the preoperative echocardiograms and the postoperative clinical course and echocardiograms of 23 consecutive patients who underwent primary repair of IAA without widening of the subaortic region. Nine patients (39%) developed significant LVOT obstruction (pressure gradient >40 mm Hg). LVOT obstruction was noted postoperatively in 7 of 9 patients by 1 month, 8 of 9 by 2 months, and 9 of 9 by 1 year. On retrospective analysis of the preoperative echocardiograms, the indexed cross-sectional area of the LVOT, the subaortic diameter index, and the subaortic diameter Z score were all significantly smaller in those requiring reintervention (p <0.04, p <0.05, p <0.05, respectively). Of these, indexed cross-sectional area had the least reproducibility and subaortic diameter index the most (coefficient of variation of 26.3% vs 11.2%). In conclusion, most patients who develop significant LVOT obstruction after repair of IAA do so within 1 month of operation. Although subaortic indexed cross-sectional area is the most sensitive predictor of LVOT obstruction after primary repair of IAA, other more simple standardized measurements of the subaortic diameter were comparably predictive and had better reproducibility. PMID:9723635

Apfel, H D; Levenbraun, J; Quaegebeur, J M; Allan, L D

1998-08-15

400

Low human immunodeficiency virus envelope diversity correlates with low in vitro replication capacity and predicts spontaneous control of plasma viremia after treatment interruptions.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity of viral isolates in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals varies substantially. However, it remains unclear whether HIV-related disease progresses more rapidly in patients harboring virus swarms with low or high diversity and, in the same context, whether high or low diversity is required to induce potent humoral and cellular immune responses. To explore whether viral diversity predicts virologic control, we studied HIV-infected patients who received antiretroviral therapy (ART) for years before undergoing structured treatment interruptions (STI). Viral diversity before initiation of ART and the ability of the patients to contain viremia after STI and final cessation of treatment was evaluated. Seven out of 21 patients contained plasma viremia at low levels after the final treatment cessation. Clonal sequences encompassing the envelope C2V3C3 domain derived from plasma prior to treatment, exhibited significantly lower diversity in these patients compared to those derived from patients with poor control of viremia. Viral diversity pre-ART correlated with the viral replication capacity of rebounding virus isolates during STI. Neutralizing antibody activity against autologous virus was significantly higher in patients who controlled viremia and was associated with lower pretreatment diversity. No such association was found with binding antibodies directed to gp120. In summary, lower pretreatment viral diversity was associated with spontaneous control of viremia, reduced viral replication capacity and higher neutralizing antibody titers, suggesting a link between viral diversity, replication capacity, and neutralizing antibody activity. PMID:15994796

Joos, Beda; Trkola, Alexandra; Fischer, Marek; Kuster, Herbert; Rusert, Peter; Leemann, Christine; Bni, Jrg; Oxenius, Annette; Price, David A; Phillips, Rodney E; Wong, Joseph K; Hirschel, Bernard; Weber, Rainer; Gnthard, Huldrych F

2005-07-01

401

Effects of Transitional Layer of Gate Insulator on Recombination DC Current-Voltage Lineshape in Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industry is seeking for new materials and technologies to replace SiO2 in order to suppress leakage current, improve device performance, and keep scaling without major changes in the fabrication process. The major problem of high-k dielectric implementation is the fabrication challenge to integrate high-k materials into the manufacturing processes. In this paper, the effects of transitional layer of high-k gate insulator on the electron-hole recombination direct-current current-voltage (R-DCIV) properties are theoretically analyzed using the steady-state Shockley-Read-Hall kinetics. It shows that the gate transitional layer has negligible effect on the R-DCIV lineshape due to the small change of gate capacitance induced by the transitional layer. The transitional layer of gate insulator could offer an alternative way for industry to implement high-k dielectric since the transitional layer can alleviate the fabrication challenge in the manufacturing processes of modern very-large-scale integration (VLSI) technology.

Chen, Zuhui; Zhou, Xing; Zhu, Guojun

2009-09-01

402

Analysis of DC current accelerated life tests of GaN LEDs using a Weibull-based statistical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diode (LED) accelerated life tests were carried out over devices adopting two different packaging schemes (i.e., with plastic transparent encapsulation or with pure metallic package). Data analyses were done using a Weibull-based statistical description with the aim of estimating the effect of high current on device performance. A consistent statistical model was found with the capability to estimate

S. Levada; M. Meneghini; G. Meneghesso; E. Zanoni

2005-01-01

403

Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that electrons in a ballistic field effect transistor behave as a fluid similar to shallow water. Phenomena similar to wave and soliton propagation, hydraulic jump, and others should take place in this electron fluid. We show that a relatively slow electron flow should be unstable because of plasma wave amplification due to the reflection from the device boundaries.

Michael Dyakonov; Michael Shur

1993-01-01

404

Timing During Interruptions in Timing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Duration and location of breaks in time interval production were manipulated in various conditions of stimulus presentation (Experiments 1-4). Produced intervals shortened and then stabilized as break duration lengthened, suggesting that participants used the break as a preparatory period to restart timing as quickly as possible at the end of the

Fortin, Claudette; Bedard, Marie-Claude; Champagne, Julie

2005-01-01

405

Your Career Without Interrupting It  

E-print Network

, Lockheed Martin Online Master's Degree Graduate, Summer 2013 · Aerospace Engineering · Computational@cc.gatech.edu www.omscs.gatech.edu Electrical and Computer Engineering Jacqueline Trappier George Riley jtrapp@ece.gatech.edu Associate Chair, Graduate Program 404-385-1141 george.riley@ece.gatech.edu 404-894-2904 Graduate Affairs

406

Impact of universal health insurance coverage in Thailand on sales and market share of medicines for non-communicable diseases: an interrupted time series study  

PubMed Central

Objective In 2001, Thailand implemented the Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS), a public insurance system that aimed to achieve universal access to healthcare, including essential medicines, and to influence primary care centres and hospitals to use resources efficiently, via capitated payment for outpatient services and other payment policies for inpatient care. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of the UCS on utilisation of medicines in Thailand for three non-communicable diseases: cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Design Interrupted time-series design, with a non-equivalent comparison group. Setting Thailand, 19982006. Data Quarterly purchases of medicines from hospital and retail pharmacies collected by IMS Health between 1998 and 2006. Intervention UCS implementation, AprilOctober 2001. Outcome measures Total pharmaceutical sales volume and percent market share by licensing status and National Essential Medicine List status. Results The UCS was associated with long-term increases in sales of medicines for conditions that are typically treated in outpatient primary care settings, such as diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure, but not for medicines for diseases that are typically treated in secondary or tertiary care settings, such as heart failure, arrhythmias and cancer. Although the majority of increases in sales were for essential medicines, there were also postpolicy increases in sales of non-essential medicines. Immediately following the reform, there was a significant shift in hospital sector market share by licensing status for most classes of medicines. Government-produced products often replaced branded generic or generic competitors. Conclusions Our results suggest that expanding health insurance coverage with a medicine benefit to the entire Thai population increased access to medicines in primary care. However, our study also suggests that the UCS may have had potentially undesirable effects. Evaluations of the long-term impacts of universal health coverage on medicine utilisation are urgently needed. PMID:23192243

Garabedian, Laura Faden; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Ratanawijitrasin, Sauwakon; Stephens, Peter; Wagner, Anita Katharina

2012-01-01

407

Interrupted incubation and short-term storage of the alfalfa pollinator Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): a potential tool for synchronizing bees with bloom.  

PubMed

A useful technique for synchronizing pollinators with the alfalfa, Medicago savita L. (Fabaceae), bloom is to interrupt the late spring incubation of developing bee pupae and pharate adults of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) with short-term low-temperature storage. However, low-temperature exposure can be stressful depending on the temperature, duration of exposure, and the developmental stage exposed. To evaluate the effect of low-temperature storage after development had already been initiated by exposure to 29 degrees C, three developmental stages (eye pigment pupae, body pigment pupae, and pharate adults ready to emerge) were exposed to 6, 12, or 18 degrees C for durations up to 28 d. The effect of delaying the termination of overwintering storage (6 degrees C) from April to July ("April bees" and "July bees," respectively) also was examined. The following observations were made: (1) All developmental stages of the April bees and July bees examined can be stored without harmful effects, as measured by percentage of survival, for 14 d at 12 degrees C and above. (2) Postponing the termination of overwintering storage at 6 degrees C from April until July significantly decreased the mean number of days to 95% adult emergence in the July ready-to-emerge bees across the three temperatures tested. (3) The increase of overwintering duration also caused a decrease in the postemergence longevity of the ready-to-emerge adults stored at 6 degrees C for 14 d. (4) Of the three storage temperatures examined, 18 degrees C seems to be the optimal storage temperature for short-term storage of developing bees because of their slow but continuing development without increased mortality either during storage or after emergence. PMID:20429433

Yocum, George D; Rinehart, Joseph P; West, Mark; Kemp, William P

2010-04-01

408

Small tyrosine kinase inhibitors interrupt EGFR signaling by interacting with erbB3 and erbB4 in glioblastoma cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is relevant in glioblastoma. We have determined the effects of the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 in glioblastoma cell lines and found that U87 and LN-229 cells were very sensitive to this drug, since their proliferation diminished and underwent a marked G{sub 1} arrest. T98 cells were a little more refractory to growth inhibition and A172 cells did not undergo a G{sub 1} arrest. This G{sub 1} arrest was associated with up-regulation of p27{sup kip1}, whose protein turnover was stabilized. EGFR autophosphorylation was blocked with AG1478 to the same extent in all the cell lines. Other small-molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors employed in the clinic, such as gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib, were able to abrogate proliferation of glioblastoma cell lines, which underwent a G{sub 1} arrest. However, the EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab had no effect on cell proliferation and consistently, had no effect on cell cycle either. Similarly, cetuximab did not inhibit proliferation of U87 {Delta}EGFR cells or primary glioblastoma cell cultures, whereas small-molecule EGFR inhibitors did. Activity of downstream signaling molecules of EGFR such as Akt and especially ERK1/2 was interrupted with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, whereas cetuximab treatment could not sustain this blockade over time. Small-molecule EGFR inhibitors were able to prevent phosphorylation of erbB3 and erbB4, whereas cetuximab only hindered EGFR phosphorylation, suggesting that EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors may mediate their anti-proliferative effects through other erbB family members. We can conclude that small-molecule EGFR inhibitors may be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of glioblastoma patients.

Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Saceda, Miguel [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain) [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, 03203 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Grasso, Silvina; Rocamora-Reverte, Lourdes; Conde, Mariano; Gomez-Martinez, Angeles [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain)] [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Garcia-Morales, Pilar [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain) [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, 03203 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Ferragut, Jose A. [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain)] [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Martinez-Lacaci, Isabel, E-mail: imlacaci@umh.es [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain) [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad AECC de Investigacion Traslacional en Cancer, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 Murcia (Spain)

2011-06-10

409

Augmented HIV-specific Interferon-gamma Responses, but Impaired Lymphoproliferation During Interruption of Antiretroviral Treatment Initiated in Primary HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) introduced during primary HIV infection followed by treatment interruption (TI) is postulated to enhance virologic control through induction of HIV-specific CD4+ T-cells, which foster virus-specific CD8+ T-cells that suppress virus replication. This hypothesis was evaluated in 21 subjects enrolled in ACTG 709, a substudy of ACTG 371, which prospectively evaluated subjects who received ?1 year of ART initiated in acute or recent HIV infection followed by TI. Methods Lymphoproliferation was assessed by [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation and HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell interferon-gamma responses by enzyme-linked immunospot-forming (ELISPOT) assays. Virologic success was defined as sustained viral load <5,000 copies/mL for 24 weeks after TI. Results HIV-specific lymphoproliferative responses were detected at least once in 5 (24%) of 21 subjects, were generally transient, and were unrelated to HIV-specific interferon-gamma responses (p>0.4). HIV-specific CD8+ interferon-gamma responses increased after 48 weeks of ART (p=0.03), but failed to predict virologic success (p=0.18). Compared to seronegative subjects, lymphoproliferation to Candida, cytomegalovirus, and alloantigens was similar in HIV-infected subjects during ART, but lower during TI (p?0.04). Conclusion HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell interferon-gamma responses expand during ART following primary HIV infection, but are not related to HIV-specific lymphoproliferative responses nor virologic success. Impaired non-HIV antigen-specific lymphoproliferation associated with TI suggests this strategy could be deleterious. PMID:21637110

Connick, Elizabeth; Bosch, Ronald J.; Aga, Evgenia; Schlichtemeier, Rick; Demeter, Lisa M.; Volberding, Paul

2011-01-01

410

Interruption of Macrophage-Derived IL-27(p28) Production by IL-10 during Sepsis Requires STAT3 but Not SOCS3.  

PubMed

Severe sepsis and septic shock are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Infection-associated inflammation promotes the development and progression of adverse outcomes in sepsis. The effects of heterodimeric IL-27 (p28/EBI3) have been implicated in the natural course of sepsis, whereas the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of gene expression and release of IL-27 in sepsis are poorly understood. We studied the events regulating the p28 subunit of IL-27 in endotoxic shock and polymicrobial sepsis following cecal ligation and puncture. Neutralizing Abs to IL-27(p28) improved survival rates, restricted cytokine release, and reduced bacterial burden in C57BL/6 mice during sepsis. Genetic disruption of IL-27 signaling enhanced the respiratory burst of macrophages. Experiments using splenectomized mice or treatment with clodronate liposomes suggested that macrophages in the spleen may be a significant source of IL-27(p28) during sepsis. In cultures of TLR4-activated macrophages, the frequency of F4/80(+)CD11b(+)IL-27(p28)(+) cells was reduced by the addition of IL-10. IL-10 antagonized both MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent release of IL-27(p28). Genetic deletion of STAT3 in Tie2-Cre/STAT3flox macrophages completely interrupted the inhibition of IL-27(p28) by IL-10 after TLR4 activation. In contrast, IL-10 remained fully active to suppress IL-27(p28) with deletion of SOCS3 in Tie2-Cre/SOCS3flox macrophages. Blockade of IL-10R by Ab or genetic deficiency of IL-10 resulted in 3-5-fold higher concentrations of IL-27(p28) in endotoxic shock and polymicrobial sepsis. Our studies identify IL-10 as a critical suppressing factor for IL-27(p28) production during infection-associated inflammation. These findings may be helpful for a beneficial manipulation of adverse IL-27(p28) release during sepsis. PMID:25348624

Bosmann, Markus; Russkamp, Norman F; Strobl, Birgit; Roewe, Julian; Balouzian, Liza; Pache, Florence; Radsak, Markus P; van Rooijen, Nico; Zetoune, Firas S; Sarma, J Vidya; Nez, Gabriel; Mller, Mathias; Murray, Peter J; Ward, Peter A

2014-12-01

411

Impact of pharmaceutical policy interventions on utilization of antipsychotic medicines in Finland and Portugal in times of economic recession: interrupted time series analyses  

PubMed Central

Objectives To analyze the impacts of pharmaceutical sector policies implemented to contain country spending during the economic recession a reference price system in Finland and a mix of policies including changes in reimbursement rates, a generic promotion campaign and discounts granted to the public payer in Portugal on utilization of, as a proxy for access to, antipsychotic medicines. Methodology We obtained monthly IMS Health sales data in standard units of antipsychotic medicines in Portugal and Finland for the period January 2007 to December 2011. We used an interrupted time series design to estimate changes in overall use and generic market shares by comparing pre-policy and post-policy levels and trends. Results Both countries policy approaches were associated with slight, likely unintended, decreases in overall use of antipsychotic medicines and with increases in generic market shares of major antipsychotic products. In Finland, quetiapine and risperidone generic market shares increased substantially (estimates one year post-policy compared to before, quetiapine: 6.80% [3.92%, 9.68%]; risperidone: 11.13% [6.79%, 15.48%]. The policy interventions in Portugal resulted in a substantially increased generic market share for amisulpride (estimate one year post-policy compared to before: 22.95% [21.01%, 24.90%]; generic risperidone already dominated the market prior to the policy interventions. Conclusions Different policy approaches to contain pharmaceutical expenditures in times of the economic recession in Finland and Portugal had intended increased use of generics and likely unintended slightly decreased overall sales, possibly consistent with decreased access to needed medicines impacts. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring and evaluating the effects of pharmaceutical policy interventions on use of medicines and health outcomes. PMID:25062657

2014-01-01

412

Influence of gas source supply interruption on quantum well structure of few monolayer InP\\/In0.53Ga0.47As\\/InP grown by OMVPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of asymmetric stepped quantum well affected by gas source supply interruption at the interface of extremely thin InP\\/In0.53Ga0.47As\\/InP single quantum well grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) is developed. The energy levels in the well and the intersubband transition energies are carried out and compared to experimental data from photoreflectance spectroscopy.

W. Pecharapa; J. Nukeaw

2002-01-01

413

The impact of Regional co-payment and National reimbursement criteria on statins use in Italy: an interrupted time-series analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Statins are among the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and their effectiveness is largely acknowledged. The consumption of statins increased four-fold during the 20002010 decade in Italy and national and regional control policies were developed. Restrictions to reimbursement were fixed at the national level, whereas co-payment was introduced in some, but not all, regions. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of such policies on the consumption of statins in Italy between 20012007 among outpatients. Methods The statin use was measured in terms of defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DDD/1000 inh. day) from May 2001 to December 2007. The study was conducted in 17 out of 21 regions, nine of which had implemented a co-payment policy. Time trends in consumption before and after the introduction of co-payment policies and reimbursement criteria were examined using segmented regression analysis of interrupted time-series, adjusting for seasonal components. Results The consumption of statins increased by 22.9 DDD/1000 inh. day in May 2001 to 54.7 DDD/1000 inh. day in December 2007. On average, there was a 1.7% increase in statin use each month before the national guideline changed while the increase was about 0.5% afterwards. The revision of the reimbursement criteria was associated with a significant decrease in level (coefficient?=??2.80, 95% CI ?3.70 to ?1.90 p-value <0.001) and trend (coefficient?=??0.33, 95% CI ?0.37 to ?0.29 p-value <0.001). The introduction of co-payment was associated with a significant change in trend of consumption so that the overall use of the drug increased by 0.04 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.07, p-value?

2014-01-01

414

Use of Interrupted Time-Series Method to Evaluate the Impact of Cigarette Excise Tax Increases in Pennsylvania, 2000-2009  

PubMed Central

Introduction Scientific evidence shows that cigarette price increases can significantly reduce smoking prevalence and smoking initiation among adolescents and young adults. However, data are lacking regarding the effectiveness of increasing Pennsylvanias cigarette tax to reduce smoking and/or adverse health effects of smoking. The objective of our study was to assess the impact of cigarette tax increases and resulting price increases on smoking prevalence, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and asthma hospitalization rates, and sudden cardiac death (SCD) rates in Pennsylvania. Methods We used segmented regression analyses of interrupted time series to evaluate the level and trend changes in Pennsylvania adults current smoking prevalence, age-adjusted AMI and asthma hospitalization rates, age-specific asthma hospitalization rates, and age-adjusted SCD rates following 2 cigarette excise tax increases. Results After the first excise tax increase, no beneficial effects were noted on the outcomes of interest. The second tax increase was associated with significant declines in smoking prevalence for people aged 18 to 39, age-adjusted AMI hospitalization rates for men, age-adjusted asthma hospitalizations rates, and SCD rates among men. Overall smoking prevalence declined by 5.2% (P = .01), with a quarterly decrease of 1.4% (P = .01) for people aged 18 to 39 years. The age-adjusted AMI hospitalization rate for men showed a decline of 3.87/100,000 population (P = .04). The rate of age-adjusted asthma hospitalizations decreased by 10.05/100,000 population (P < .001), and the quarterly trend decreased by 3.21/100,000 population (P < .001). Quarterly SCD rates for men decreased by 1.34/100,000 population (P < .001). Conclusion An increase in the price of cigarettes to more than $4 per 20-cigarette pack was associated with a significant decrease in smoking among younger people (aged 1839). Decreases were also seen in asthma hospitalizations and mens age-adjusted AMI hospitalization and SCD rates. Further research and policy development regarding the effect of cigarette taxes on tobacco consumption should be cognizant of the psychological tipping points at which overall price affects smoking patterns. PMID:24135393

Kuller, Lewis H.; Fisher, Monica A.; Ostroff, Stephen M.

2013-01-01

415

Long term effect of reduced pack sizes of paracetamol on poisoning deaths and liver transplant activity in England and Wales: interrupted time series analyses  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the long term effect of United Kingdom legislation introduced in September 1998 to restrict pack sizes of paracetamol on deaths from paracetamol poisoning and liver unit activity. Design Interrupted time series analyses to assess mean quarterly changes from October 1998 to the end of 2009 relative to projected deaths without the legislation based on pre-legislation trends. Setting Mortality (1993-2009) and liver unit activity (1995-2009) in England and Wales, using information from the Office for National Statistics and NHS Blood and Transplant, respectively. Participants Residents of England and Wales. Main outcome measures Suicide, deaths of undetermined intent, and accidental poisoning deaths involving single drug ingestion of paracetamol and paracetamol compounds in people aged 10 years and over, and liver unit registrations and transplantations for paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Results Compared with the pre-legislation level, following the legislation there was an estimated average reduction of 17 (95% confidence interval ?25 to ?9) deaths per quarter in England and Wales involving paracetamol alone (with or without alcohol) that received suicide or undetermined verdicts. This decrease represented a 43% reduction or an estimated 765 fewer deaths over the 11 years after the legislation. A similar effect was found when accidental poisoning deaths were included, and when a conservative method of analysis was used. This decrease was largely unaltered after controlling for a non-significant reduction in deaths involving other methods of poisoning and also suicides by all methods. There was a 61% reduction in registrations for liver transplantation for paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity (?11 (?20 to ?1) registrations per quarter). But no reduction was seen in actual transplantations (?3 (?12 to 6)), nor in registrations after a conservative method of analysis was used. Conclusions UK legislation to reduce pack sizes of paracetamol was followed by significant reductions in deaths due to paracetamol overdose, with some indication of fewer registrations for transplantation at liver units during the 11 years after the legislation. The continuing toll of deaths suggests, however, that further preventive measures should be sought. PMID:23393081

2013-01-01

416

The anesthetic eye: an investigation of changes in the anterior ocular segment of the monkey caused by interrupting the trigeminal nerve at various levels along its course.  

PubMed Central

Operations were performed at four different levels on the fifth nerve of the monkey to determine which procedure offers the best chance of avoiding ocular complications after surgical treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (Figure 18). (1) Section of the ophthalmic branch of N V results in immediate corneal anesthesia. After one week, chromatolysis of the unipolar gasserian ganglion cells subserving the first division occurs and Wallerian degeneration of the corneal nerves of the ipsilateral eye is seen. This is associated with perilimbal round cell invasion of the superficial cornea and subconjunctival area. In addition, iritis develops de novo or becomes worse if it pre-exists. Miosis occurs, but the chemodiagnostic tests of cocaine and adrenalin indicate an intact sympathetic system. The cause for this inflammatory reaction and pupillary change is unexplained by this study. The intraocular pressure is slightly lower on the side of the section than in the normal fellow control eye after surgery, but the difference is not statistically significant. (2) Section of the posterior sensory root of N V in the middle cranial fossa at a point between the gasserian glanglion and the tentorium results in similar ocular changes as is seen after interrupting the ophthalmic division alone. Wallerian degeneration of the corneal nerves, however, is not seen after seven, twelve or twenty-one days. (3) Transtentorial section of the trigeminal posterior sensory root performed in the middle cranial fossa, results in immediate corneal anesthesia. The gasserian ganglion cells, however, remain healthy and there is no perilimbal round cell invasion of the superficial cornea or subconjunctival tissue. Miosis occurs but the chemodiagnostic tests of cocaine and adrenalin indicate an intact sympathetic system. The intraocular pressure is only slightly lower on the side of section than in the control eye, but the difference is not statistically significant. (4) Suboccipital rhizotomy of the posterior sensory root of NV at the pons results in immediate corneal anesthesia. The gasserian ganglion cells remain healthy and there is no perilimbal round cell invasion of the superficial cornea or subconjunctival tissue. Miosis occurs in most animals (2 of 3) and is associated with an intact sympathetic system as indicated by the chemodiagnostic tests of cocaine and adrenalin. Intraocular pressure is very slightly lower on the side of section than in the control eye, but the difference is not statistically significant. (5) Thinning of the corneal epithelium occurs in an anesthetic eye regardless of the location of the section of N V and is not adversely affected by tarsorrhaphy. The corneal stroma, however, remains unchanged. (6) The experimental data demonstrate that to decrease ocular complications, operations on the trigeminal nerve should be performed on the caudal end of the sensory root as far from the gasserian ganglion as is techanically feasible. Images FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 15 A FIGURE 15 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 13 A FIGURE 13 B FIGURE 14 A FIGURE 14 B FIGURE 16 A FIGURE 16 B FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 17 A FIGURE 17 B PMID:813349

Alper, M G

1975-01-01

417

After 66 years, the University of Washington will confer honorary degrees upon Japanese Americans whose studies were interrupted by time in internment camps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Man who helped inspire ceremony may not attendhttp://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2004391404_uwjapaneseryo24m.htmlJapanese American Exhibit and Access Projecthttp://www.lib.washington.edu/exhibits/harmony/Densho: The Japanese American Legacy Project [Real Player, Quick Time]http://www.densho.org/U.S. Office of War Information: Japanese Relocationhttp://www.archive.org/details/Japanese1943Ansel Adams's Photographs of Japanese-American Internment at Manzanarhttp://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/anseladams/Ryo Kumasaka is set to receive an honorary degree from the University of Washington in a few days, but he's not sure whether or not he'll show up to receive it. Kumasaka's situation is a bit different than most students today, as his studies were interrupted by a decision by the United States government to move thousands of Japanese Americans to internment camps several months after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. A number of people moved to these camps happened to be students at the University of Washington, and after the war was over, some were able to return to finish their degrees and some were not. Several faculty members at the University of Washington have been working to make the degrees a reality, including Gail Nomura, who recently commented, "We don't want this story to be forgotten. Civil liberties are a special thing. Only when we lose them do we realize how important it is to protect and defend them all." While a number of Kumasaka's former classmates will be at the commencement ceremony on May 18th in Seattle, he remains a bit ambivalent about the honor, "I can take it or leave it. It doesn't matter one way or the other. It's too late for that to have any effect on my life." The first link will take visitors to a news article from this Monday's Seattle Times about the upcoming honorary degree ceremony at the University of Washington. The second link leads to another article from the Seattle Times about Kumasaka, complete with an audio clip of him talking about his experiences on the way to the internment camp. Moving on, the third link leads to the Japanese American Exhibit and Access Project at the University of Washington Libraries. Here visitors can view images from the camps, read oral histories of the students who were moved to the camps, and also look over a number of historical documents from the period. The fourth link takes users to the Densho Digital Archives site, which provides access to many hours of interviews with Japanese Americans who spent time in the internment camps and a wide range of related educational resources. The fifth link leads to a film created by the U.S. Office of War Information in 1943 that attempts to offer a justification for the relocation of thousands of Japanese Americans into the internment campus. Finally, the last link will take users to a moving exhibit of photographs taken by Ansel Adams at the internment camp in Manzanar, California in 1943 offered by the American Memory project at the Library of Congress.

418

Sex Discrimination and Women's Labor Market Interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human capital explanation of sex differences in wages is that women intend to work in the labor market more intermittently than men, and therefore invest less. This lower investment leads to lower wages and wage growth. The alternative \\

David Neumark

1993-01-01

419

[Pregnancy interruption from the pediatric viewpoint].  

PubMed

Therapeutic abortion is foremost a biological problem. The abrupt termination of the physiologic phenomenon of pregnancy is a sudden interference with the biology of the interaction between mother and fetus. Therapeutic abortion is also a psychological, a sociological and a political problem. Today therapeutic abortion is legal under certain condition and done by physicians. This review supports therapeutic abortion for prenatally determined abnormalities which have a scientifically high risk of defective offspring especially trisomy 21. Intensive genetic counselling prior to the therapeutic abortion is necessary. The last decision for the therapeutic abortion rests with the pregnant mother. The genetic medical problem is only part of the decision making since a number of familial, personal, religious and human factors are involved in the decision. The experience of the physician, his world view, his medical education, his knowledge of the psychological and physical and social anxieties of the pregnant patient also modify the decision making. The gynaecologist who carried out the therapeutic abortion needs to take these factors into account. Considering how difficult and depressing the development of severely mentally retarded persons is especially when they reach adulthood and how limited there life is by suffering, limitations and isolation therapeutic abortion is a valuable method to spare parents the stress of caring for severely mentally retarded offspring for years and decades. PMID:6223850

Rett, A

1983-04-01

420

Interrupting the Public Realm: Performative Excursions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of debates on place, space, and identity in a period of globalisation, this article asks whether collaborative arts projects are a means to identity formation for participants. This is of interest, not least, because such projects are outside consumption, the latter more often discussed in work on identity in sociology. Situated

Miles, Malcolm

2007-01-01

421

THE EFFECTS OF RESPONSE INTERRUPTION AND REDIRECTION  

E-print Network

& Schreibman, 2008). Commonly seen stereotypic behaviors among individuals with autism include hand flapping, body rocking, toe walking, spinning objects, sniffing, immediate and delayed echolalia (Cunningham & Schreibman, 2008). As a whole, a behavior can... inappropriate (Cunningham & Schreibman, 2008). Stereotypic behaviors can be displayed in several different ways ranging from simple to complex forms. Simple forms of stereotypic behavior may include hand flapping, body rocking, toe walking, spinning objects...

Joung, Eun Gi

2011-07-15

422

The interruptive effect of pain on attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain is known to disrupt attentional performance in both healthy adults and patients with chronic pain. Exactly which aspects of attentional function are affected are, however, still to be determined. The primary aim of this investigation was to systematically examine the effects of experimentally induced pain on a range of attentional performance tasks. Following a review of tests of attentional

David J. Moore; Edmund Keogh; Christopher Eccleston

2012-01-01

423

The interruptive effect of pain on attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain is known to disrupt attentional performance in both healthy adults and patients with chronic pain. Exactly which aspects of attentional function are affected are, however, still to be determined. The primary aim of this investigation was to systematically examine the effects of experimentally induced pain on a range of attentional performance tasks. Following a review of tests of attentional

David J. Moore; Edmund Keogh; Christopher Eccleston

2011-01-01

424

Maslow: man interrupted: reading management theory in  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - This paper aims to build on recent work in the field of management and historiography that argues that management theorizing needs to be understood in its historical context. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - First, the paper attempts to show how a steady filtering of management theory and of the selection and work of management theorists lends itself to a narrowly focused,

Albert J. Mills

425

Interrupting Extremism by Creating Educative Turbulence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article begins from the premise that it is important to explore how people unlearn, as well as learn, specifically in terms of extremist or violent attitudes. It shows the implications of two aspects of complexity theory--turbulence and self-organisation--for educational practice and the fostering of a complex adaptive school, which can aid

Davies, Lynn

2014-01-01

426

Inactive Brains An Interrupted Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two speakers have been invited to a town hall meeting to help decide a hotly contested issue. A grant has been awarded to the school district with the stipulation that the money be dedicated to only one program. School officials wish to use the funds to improve the science curriculum, but district parents favor an investment in physical education to improve the health of their children. Since the grant money cannot be divided, students are forced to grapple with the role of science in education, the growing problem of childhood obesity, and related issues of public policy.

Spierer, David K.; Williams, Sandra; Lyttle, Jim

2007-01-01

427

Changes in alcohol-related harm in Sweden after increasing alcohol import quotas and a Danish tax decrease--an interrupted time-series analysis for 2000-2007  

PubMed Central

Background Denmark decreased its tax on spirits by 45% on 1 October 2003. Shortly thereafter, on 1 January 2004, Sweden increased its import quotas of privately imported alcohol, allowing travellers to bring in much larger amounts of alcohol from other European Union countries. Although these changes were assumed to increase alcohol-related harm in Sweden, particularly among people living close to Denmark, analyses based on survey data collected before and after these changes have not supported this assumption. The present article tests whether alcohol-related harm in southern Sweden was affected by these changes by analysing other indicators of alcohol-related harm, e.g. harm recorded in different kinds of registers. Methods Interrupted time-series analysis was performed with monthly data on cases of hospitalization due to acute alcohol poisoning, number of reported violent assaults and drunk driving for the years 200007 in southern Sweden using the northern parts of Sweden as a control and additionally controlling for two earlier major changes in quotas. Results The findings were not consistent with respect to whether alcohol-related harm increased in southern Sweden after the decrease in Danish spirits tax and the increase in Swedish alcohol import quotas. On the one hand, an increase in acute alcohol poisonings was found, particularly in the 5069 years age group, on the other hand, no increase was found in violent assaults and drunk driving. Conclusions The present results raise important questions about the association between changes in availability and alcohol-related harms. More research using other methodological approaches and data is needed to obtain a comprehensive picture of what actually happened in southern Sweden. PMID:20841327

Gustafsson, Nina-Katri J; Ramstedt, Mats R

2011-01-01

428

Prenatal diagnosis of de novo interstitial deletions involving 5q23.1-q23.3 and 18q12.1-q12.3 by array CGH using uncultured amniocytes in a pregnancy with fetal interrupted aortic arch and atrial septal defect.  

PubMed

We present prenatal diagnosis of de novo interstitial deletions involving 5q23.1-q23.3 and 18q12.1-q12.3 by aCGH using uncultured amniocytes in pregnancy with interrupted aortic arch and atrial septal defect in a fetus. The fetus postnatally manifested facial dysmorphisms and long slender fingers. We discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation and the consequence of haploinsufficiency of FBN2, DTNA and CELF4 in this case. PMID:24036431

Chen, Chih-Ping; Huang, Ming-Chao; Chen, Yi-Yung; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Chen, Yu-Ting; Su, Jun-Wei; Wang, Wayseen

2013-12-01

429

Quenching of an electric arc in a vacuum gap with a uniform transverse magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The breaking ability of a vacuum arc interrupter with a uniform transverse magnetic field formed by a system of permanent magnets was investigated experimentally. The vacuum interrupter with a 0.5-{mu}F shunting capacitor switched off a dc current of up to 150 A at magnetic fields of 100-180 mT. At magnetic fields of 120-160 mT, the breaking ability of the vacuum interrupter was increased to 300 A by introducing a nonuniformity in the magnetic field distribution near the contact surface.

Alferov, D. F.; Ahmetgareev, M. R.; Yevsin, D. V.; Ivanov, V. P. [All-Russia Electrotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

2010-12-15

430

Rapid movement of axonal neurofilaments interrupted by prolonged pauses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axonal cytoskeletal and cytosolic proteins are synthesized in the neuronal cell body and transported along axons by slow axonal transport, but attempts to observe this movement directly in living cells have yielded conflicting results. Here we report the direct observation of the axonal transport of neurofilament protein tagged with green fluorescent protein in cultured nerve cells. Live-cell imaging of naturally

Lei Wang; Chung-liang Ho; Dongming Sun; Ronald K. H. Liem; Anthony Brown

2000-01-01

431

Citizen, interrupted: the 2011 English riots from a psychosocial perspective.  

PubMed

Aims. This is a contribution to the debate over the 2011 English riots from a psychosocial perspective. Methods. We compare the impulsive and 'mindless' behaviour of rioters with the impulsive, violent and contradictory behaviour of people affected by severe personality disorders. Results. We propose that the lack of a sense of social identity and of mentalization skills is a common feature of the two conditions - the lack of social identity, leading to frustration and anger, coupled with a lack of mentalization, leading to the impulsive and violent expression. Furthermore, we highlight the confusing impact that the social marginalization and consumerism can have on young generations from lower classes in cities from the Western world. Conclusions. By building a parallel with the therapeutic intervention offered to severe personality disorders, we speculate on how the community, by modifying its communication's style and actively intervene in deprived socio-economic contexts, could inspire more confidence, trust and sense of belonging in its marginalized members. PMID:23088997

Aiello, G; Pariante, C M

2013-03-01

432

Interrupting Privilege: White Student Affairs Educators as Racial Justice Allies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the ally development process and behaviors of ten white student affairs educators at four-year institutions in the Bay Area region of Northern California who were identified as racial justice allies by a colleague of color. The methods of this study included a survey to understand the context of multicultural competency in

Young-Law, Courtney

2012-01-01

433

Self-poisoning of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by interrupting siderophore recycling  

PubMed Central

Siderophores are small iron-binding molecules secreted by bacteria to scavenge iron. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiologic agent of tuberculosis, produces the siderophores mycobactin and carboxymycobactin. Complexes of the mycobacterial membrane proteins MmpS4 and MmpS5 with the transporters MmpL4 and MmpL5 are required for siderophore export and virulence in Mtb. Here we show that, surprisingly, mycobactin or carboxymycobactin did not rescue the low-iron growth defect of the export mutant but severely impaired growth. Exogenous siderophores were taken up by the export mutant, and siderophore-delivered iron was used, but the deferrated siderophores accumulated intracellularly, indicating a blockade of siderophore recycling. This hypothesis was confirmed by the observation that radiolabeled carboxymycobactin was taken up and secreted again by Mtb. Addition of iron salts to an Mtb siderophore biosynthesis mutant stimulated more growth in the presence of a limiting amount of siderophores than iron-loaded siderophores alone. Thus, recycling enables Mtb to acquire iron at lower metabolic cost because Mtb cannot use iron salts without siderophores. Exogenous siderophores were bactericidal for the export mutant in submicromolar quantities. High-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that endogenous carboxymycobactin also accumulated in the export mutant. Toxic siderophore accumulation is prevented by a drug that inhibits siderophore biosynthesis. Intracellular accumulation of siderophores was toxic despite the use of an alternative iron source such as hemin, suggesting an additional inhibitory mechanism independent of iron availability. This study indicates that targeting siderophore export/recycling would deliver a one-two punch to Mtb: restricting access to iron and causing toxic intracellular siderophore accumulation. PMID:24497493

Jones, Christopher M.; Wells, Ryan M.; Madduri, Ashoka V. R.; Renfrow, Matthew B.; Ratledge, Colin; Moody, D. Branch; Niederweis, Michael

2014-01-01

434

Possible Interruption of Measles Virus Transmission, Uganda, 2006-2009  

PubMed Central

To determine what measles virus genotype(s) circulated in Uganda after strategic interventions aimed at controlling/eliminating measles, we examined samples obtained during 20062009 and found only genotype B3.1, which had not been previously detected. Kenya was the likely source, but other countries cannot be excluded. PMID:21192868

Bwogi, Josephine; Bukenya, Henry; Seguya, Ronald; Kabaliisa, Theopista; Kisakye, Annet; Mbabazi, William B.; Smit, Sheilagh B.

2011-01-01

435

Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds  

E-print Network

Introduction: The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive ...

Grunwald, Martin

436

Interrupted fluorescence, quantum jumps and wavefunction collapse. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt.I see Phys. Rev. A, vol.37, p.4303 (1988). The principle of wavefunction collapse by non-detection of photons leads to simple but rigorous expressions for the average dark and bright periods, TD and TB, of intermittent quantum jump fluorescence from a V-configuration three-level atom. Here further consequences of this principle are explored, including: the derivation of some new correlation functions

D. T. Pegg; P. L. Knight

1988-01-01

437

InterruptMe: Designing Intelligent Prompting Mechanisms for Pervasive Applications  

E-print Network

.musolesi@cs.bham.ac.uk ABSTRACT The mobile phone represents a unique platform for interac- tive applications that can harness and Principles: User/Machine Systems INTRODUCTION Mobile phones are ubiquitous, highly personal devices], and the phones are, for most of the day, with their owners as they go about their daily routine. Moreover, mobile

Musolesi, Mirco

438

Multimodal Estimation of User Interruptibility for Smart Mobile Telephones  

E-print Network

factors (i.e. the contactee's current locale and activity) when deciding how to handle an incoming request.e. the contactee's current locale and activity) when deciding how to handle an incoming request for communication. Pittsburgh PA USA 15213 [rgmalkin,datong,yang+,ahw]@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT Context-aware computer systems

Chen, Datong

439

Development of structured treatment interruption strategies for HIV infection  

E-print Network

active antiretroviral therapies, whose goals are to effect sustained suppression of measurable levels the considerations underlying HIV therapy, describe the biological and clinical rationale for STI, discuss challenges involved in specifying STI strategies, and describe how design of STI strategies may be assisted

440

Measuring malaria endemicity from intense to interrupted transmission  

PubMed Central

Summary The quantification of malaria transmission for the classification of malaria risk has long been a concern for epidemiologists. During the era of the Global Malaria Eradication Programme, measurements of malaria endemicity were institutionalised by their incorporation into rules outlining defined action points for malaria control programmes. We review the historical development of these indices and their contemporary relevance. This is at a time when many malaria-endemic countries are scaling-up their malaria control activities and reconsidering their prospects for elimination. These considerations are also important to an international community that has recently been challenged to revaluate the prospects for malaria eradication. PMID:18387849

Hay, Simon I; Smith, David L; Snow, Robert W

2008-01-01

441

Grief interrupted: the experience of loss among incarcerated women.  

PubMed

Incarcerated women face a number of stressors apart from the actual incarceration. Nearly half of all women in prison experience the death of a loved one during their incarceration. Our purpose for this study was to explore the experience of grief and loss among incarcerated women using a phenomenological method. Our study approach followed van Manen's method of phenomenology and Munhall's description of existential lifeworlds. Our analysis revealed four existential lifeworlds: temporality: frozen in time; spatiality: no place, no space to grieve; corporeality: buried emotions; and relationality: never alone, yet feeling so lonely. The findings generated from this study can help mental health providers as well as correctional professionals develop policies and programs that facilitate the grief process of incarcerated women within the confines of imprisonment. PMID:20581074

Harner, Holly M; Hentz, Patricia M; Evangelista, Maria Carmela

2011-04-01

442

Grief Interrupted: The Experience of Loss Among Incarcerated Women  

PubMed Central

Incarcerated women face a number of stressors apart from the actual incarceration. Nearly half of all women in prison experience the death of a loved one during their incarceration. Our purpose for this study was to explore the experience of grief and loss among incarcerated women using a phenomenological method. Our study approach followed van Manen's method of phenomenology and Munhall's description of existential lifeworlds. Our analysis revealed four existential lifeworlds: temporality: frozen in time; spatiality: no place, no space to grieve; corporeality: buried emotions; and relationality: never alone, yet feeling so lonely. The findings generated from this study can help mental health providers as well as correctional professionals develop policies and programs that facilitate the grief process of incarcerated women within the confines of imprisonment. PMID:20581074

Harner, Holly M.; Hentz, Patricia M.; Evangelista, Maria Carmela

2011-01-01

443

Interrupting the Gaze: On Reconsidering Authority in the Museum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thinking about the museum's engagement in educational programmes is increasingly adopting a more critical perspective on the implications of a programme in authorizing and defining particular knowledge. While objects are still invoked to define history and culture and to underscore their authority, the museum's claim to educational purposes is

Trofanenko, B.

2006-01-01

444

Expansion, Interruption, Autoethnography: Toward Disorienting Fiction, Part 2  

E-print Network

The thesis of my 2005 book Disorienting Fiction: The Autoethnographic Work of Nineteenth-Century British Novels is gestured at by the three words of this essay's main title: nineteenth-century Britain's imperial expansion ...

Buzard, James

445

Planes, trains, and other interruptions: such is life!  

PubMed

Nurse leaders can spend a significant part of their careers traveling. Self-care and personal mindfulness need not suffer when we are away from home and our normal routine. Personal health plans can be adapted in practical ways to travel with you. So pack your bags with whatever feeds your self-nurturing needs, grab some kale chips and comfortable shoes, and let's get going! PMID:25137814

Richards, Kim

2014-01-01

446

Off Peak Power - An Alternative to Interruptible Service  

E-print Network

peak demand as well as to increase sales during the off-peak period. Olin Corporation has a plant in Augusta, Georgia that uses up to 50,000 Kilowatts of electrical power and is capable of operating at load factors approaching 100%. Olin signea... available to the utility for purposes of load management. This paper will lOOK at off-peak service from the user's perspective. TYPICAL CANDIDA,E - OLIN'S AUGUSTA PLANT Olin's plant at Augusta, Georgia produces chlorine and caustic soda...

Nordyke, H. G., Jr.

1984-01-01

447

Model Fitting and Prediction with HIV Treatment Interruption Data  

E-print Network

) is a retrovirus that infects T-helper cells of the immune sys- tem and is the causative agent for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV and AIDS are among the world's most serious public health concerns, affecting and immune system pathways depends on knowledge from various biological areas including physiology

448

Reminiscences - Interrupted: A solar modulation theory once lost, now found?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the course of reminiscing about the first studies of the newly discovered galactic proton and helium nuclei and their modulation in the 1950's, we recognized that this field has actually come full circle with the Voyager studies of these same nuclei out to beyond 120 AU in 2012. In the 1950's the first models of the heliospheric modulation postulated a "ring current" or something equivalent, which produced a modulation potential of up to 1 to 3 GV as a source of solar modulation. This potential difference was needed to explain the relative modulation of protons and helium nuclei. Later this modulation was explained as a force field potential by Gleeson and Axford in a Parker description of cosmic ray transport. Recent Voyager measurements of the proton, helium and carbon spectra in the outer heliosphere beyond the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) up to the beginning of 2012 are in accordance with this same earlier picture describing the modulation as due to a modulation potential. However, there is no longer a solar wind in the outermost heliosphere so Parker's original description is no longer complete. So our reminiscences have led us back to a modern picture of solar modulation in the heliosphere that is very similar to that existing in the 50's and 60's, searching for a cause for the modulation. Since Voyager 1 now appears to be at a location where this modulation potential is approaching zero, a whole new field of study of the unmodulated spectra of the charged species of galactic cosmic rays at lower energies down to perhaps as low as 10-20 MeV also is being opened up, similar in development to the original studies of these individual nuclei in the 1950's that were the result of newly developed high altitude balloons and also new experimental techniques that separated the individual charges.

Webber, William R.

2013-02-01

449

Interrupting Life History: The Evolution of Relationship within Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the author explores how relationships are defined within the context of constructing a life history. The life history of Benjamin, a homeless young man transitioning to adulthood, is used to illustrate how difficult it is to define the parameters of the research environment. During an "ethically important moment" in the research

Hallett, Ronald E.

2013-01-01

450

Baby Boomers in an Active Adult Retirement Community: Comity Interrupted  

PubMed Central

Purpose of the Study: This article explores a clash between incoming Baby Boomers and older residents in an active adult retirement community (AARC). We examine issues of social identity and attitudes as these groups encounter each other. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from a multiyear ethnographic study of social relations in senior housing. Research at this site included in-depth, open-ended interviews (47), field notes (25), and participant observation in the field (500 hr). Research team biweekly discussions and Atlas.ti software program facilitated analysis. Findings: We begin with a poignant incident that has continued to engender feelings of rejection by elders with each retelling and suggests the power and prevalence of ageism in this AARC. We identify three pervasive themes: (a) social identity and image matter, (b) significant cultural