Science.gov

Sample records for 50ka dc-current interruption

  1. DC Current in Nanosilica-based Polyethylene Nanocomposites

    E-print Network

    DC Current in Nanosilica-based Polyethylene Nanocomposites Yan Wang, Zhiqiang Xu, George Chen Kingdom yw14g13@soton.ac.uk Abstract ­ In the present paper, DC current of polyethylene nanocomposites the nanometer-sized particles, which is currently termed as nanodielectrics or nanocomposites. During past 20

  2. A ˜50 ka record of monsoonal variability in the Darjeeling foothill region, eastern Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Ruby; Bera, Subir; Sarkar, Anindya; Paruya, Dipak Kumar; Yao, Yi-Feng; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2015-04-01

    Pollen, phytoliths and ? 13C signatures of soil organic matter from two fluvial sedimentary sequences of the Darjeeling foothill region, eastern Himalayas are used to portray palaeoclimatic oscillations and their impact on regional plant communities over the last ˜50 ka. Quantitative palaeoclimate estimation using coexistence approach on pollen data and other proxies indicate significant oscillations in precipitation during the late part of MIS 3 (46.4-25.9 ka), early and middle part of MIS 2 (25.9-15.6 ka), and 5.4 to 3.5 ka. Middle to late MIS 3 (ca 46.4-31 ka.) was characterized by a comparatively low monsoonal activity and slightly higher temperature than that during ca 31 ka onwards. Simultaneous expansion of deciduous trees and chloridoid grasses also imply a drier and warmer phase. Between 31 and 22.3 ka (late MIS 3 to mid-MIS 2), higher precipitation and a slightly cooler temperature led to an increase in evergreen elements over deciduous taxa and wet-loving panicoid grasses over dry-loving chloridoid grasses than earlier. After ca 22.3 ka, shrinking of forest cover, expansion of C4 chloridoid grasses, Asteraceae and Cheno-ams in the vegetation with lowering of temperature and precipitation characterized the onset of the LGM which continued till 18.3 ka. End of the LGM is manifested by a restoration in the forest cover and in the temperature and precipitation regime. Later, during 5.4 to 4.3 ka, a strong monsoonal activity supported a dense moist evergreen forest cover that subsequently declined during 4.3 to 3.5 ka. A further increase in deciduous elements and non-arboreals might be a consequence of reduced precipitation and higher temperature during this phase. A comparison between monsoonal rainfall, MAT and palaeoatmospheric CO2 with floral dynamics since last ˜50 ka indicates that these fluctuations in plant succession were mainly driven by monsoonal variations.

  3. 14C ages and activity for the past 50 ka at Volcán Galeras, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, N.G.; Calvache, V.M.L.; Williams, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    Volcán Galeras is the southernmost Colombian volcano with well-recorded historic activity. The volcano is part of a large and complex volcanic center upon which 400,000 people live. Historic activity has centered on a small-volume cone inside the youngest of several large amphitheaters that breach the west flank of the volcano, away from the city of Pasto (population 300,000). Lava flows (SiO2 between 54.6 and 64.7 wt.%) have dominated activity for more than 1 Ma, but explosive events have also occurred. Joint studies by volcanologists from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and the United States produced 24 new14C ages and more than 100 stratigraphic sections to interpret the past 50 ka of activity at Galeras, including sector collapse events. The youngest collapse event truncated 12.8 ka lava flows and may have occurred as recently as 8 to 10 ka. Tephra-fall material rapidly thins and becomes finer away from the vent area. The only widespread marker in the < 10 ka section is a biotite-bearing tephra deposited between 4.1 and 4.5 ka from a source south of Galeras. It separates cryoturbated from largely undisturbed layers on Galeras, and thus dates a stratigraphic horizon which is useful in the interpretation of other volcanoes and geotectonics in the equatorial Andes. Pyroclastic flows during the past 50 ka have been small to moderate in volume, but they have left numerous thin deposits on the north and east flanks where lava flows have been impeded by crater and amphitheater walls. Many of the pyroclastic-flow deposits are lithic rich, with fines and clasts so strongly altered by hydrothermal action before eruption that they, as well as the sector collapse deposits, resemble waste dumps of leached cappings from disseminated sulfide deposits more than volcanogenic deposits. This evidence of a long-lived hydrothermal system indicates susceptibility to mass failure and explosive events higher than expected for a volcano built largely by lava flows and modest Vulcanian eruptions. Photographs, written accounts, and our study document historic north and east flank pyroclastic flows as far as 10 km from the summit; however, none have left recognizable deposits in Pasto for more than 40 ka.

  4. Linking the10Be continental record of Lake Baikal to marine and ice archives of the last 50 ka: Implication for the global dust-aerosol input

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.; Peck, J.; King, J.; Colman, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present here a 10Be profile from the continental sediments of Lake Baikal (the world's largest fresh water lake), which, for the first time, shows the ??? 40 ka 10Be enhancement and a pattern that strongly matches those from the marine and ice records for the last 50 ka. This finding provides a new horizon for global and regional correlation of continental archives. Additionally, our VADM-predicted 10Be production confirms and further strengthens a common global cause (geomagnetic field intensity) for the change in atmospheric 10Be over the last 50 ka. We also show that most of the 10Be inventory to the lake has been provided by riverine input, but with a significant addition from direct precipitation and dust-aerosol fallout. We estimate a higher dust-aerosol contribution of 10Be during the Holocene and interstadial stage 3 (22-50 ka) as compared with the glacial period (12-22 ka). Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Marine sediments and Beryllium-10 record of the geomagnetic moment variations of the 20-50ka interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménabréaz, L.; Thouveny, N.; Bourles, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    To better constrain the Earth's dipole moment changes at the time of the Laschamp and Mono Lake excursions, we reconstructed the cosmogenic nuclide 10Be production variations in the atmosphere using authigenic 10Be/9Be records measured along two marine sediment sequences from the north-east Atlantic (Portuguese margin) and west-equatorial Pacific (Papua-New Guinea margin) oceans. These two records evidence an almost doubling of the 10Be production at ~41 ka, thus assignable to the geomagnetic dipole low associated to the Laschamp excursion. The compilation of authigenic 10Be/9Be marine records provides a stack which indicates that the global 10Be production rates at 41 ka were enhanced by a ~1.5 factor compared to the average over the 20-50 ka interval. The comparison of this authigenic 10Be/9Be marine stack with the Greenland 10Be flux record (smoothed by 1000-year averaging) evidences a good coherency of the timing and amplitude of 10Be production recorded at high, mid and low latitudes. This confirms that the 10Be overproduction signal has a global significance, as expected from a geomagnetic dipole moment loss. The calibration of the 10Be/9Be stack using absolute virtual dipole moment values provides an independent tool to reconstruct geomagnetic dipole moment variations. This allows computing the loss rate leading to the Laschamp dipole minimum (~ -1.5 x 1022 A.m2.ka-1), which constitutes an interesting criterion to assess the loss rate of the historical field. In constrast with relative paleointensity records and absolute paleointensity data sets, the absence of significant cosmogenic enhancement at the age of 34 ka suggests that the Mono Lake dipole low was not sufficient to trigger a significant cosmogenic overproduction. This demonstrates that if the Mono lake excursion really occurred at that time, the duration and amplitude of the dipole weakening were very limited compared to that of the Laschamp. The 10Be overproduction quantified in this study constitutes a reliable basis to calibrate radiocarbon production and in situ cosmogenic nuclides production. For example, it can help to understand the atmospheric 14C concentration variations, recorded near 41 ka and near 34 ka in ? 14C series. The 10Be production peak linked to the Laschamp dipole low can be used as a global tie point for correlation of high-resolution paleoclimatic series obtained from high quality archives. This study is funded through the MAG-ORB project ANR- 09-BLAN-0053-01.

  6. Variability of Western Pacific Warm Pool Rainfall since 50 ka BP: Lithologic and Isotopic Perspectives from Lake Matano, Central Sulawesi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicaksono, S. A.; Russell, J. M.; Bijaksana, S.; Noren, A. J.; Wattrus, N. J.; Vogel, H.

    2012-12-01

    We use multiple paleohydrological proxies applied to the sedimentary record of Lake Matano (2°29.1'S 121°20'E), central Sulawesi, Indonesia, to understand the mechanisms controlling long-term variations of the Australian-Indonesian Monsoon (AIM) and Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) convection during the past 50 ka. Lithogenic tracers of surface runoff, including magnetic susceptibility and XRF-derived iron counts, are high during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2/Last Glacial Maximum as well as during millennial-scale northern hemisphere cold events (e.g. the Younger Dryas and Heinrich events), indicating a wetter climate during these northern hemisphere stadials. These events appear in antiphase to dry conditions in mainland Asia, reconstructed by oxygen isotopic analyses of Chinese speleothems, demonstrating antiphasing between the AIM (our record) and the East Asian Summer Monsoon (Chinese speleothems) at both orbital and millennial timescales. At the orbital band, this antiphasing is likely due to the influence of changing seasonal insolation on the global summer monsoons, northern hemisphere ice sheet expansion, and associated shifts in the mean latitudinal position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Interestingly, our data indicates that MIS2 was far wetter than the late Holocene, despite similar austral summer insolation at these times. The strikingly wet MIS2 signal in our proxy data compared to MIS1 and MIS3 suggests that the climate in this region is strongly sensitive to glacial forcings, likely related to changes in WPWP convection driven by greenhouse gas forcing and ice-volume induced atmospheric circulation changes. To better understand the connection between WPWP convection, water vapor transport, and AIM strength at orbital timescales, we also investigate hydrogen isotopic ratios of terrestrial higher plant leaf waxes (?Dwax) in Lake Matano's sediments. Assuming that ?Dwax records the ?D of past precipitation, which may be related to the intensity of WPWP convection, we hypothesize that periods of strong convection covary with intervals of high surface runoff. Comparison of our lithologic and isotopic proxies of terrestrial paleohydrology, including nearby Lake Towuti, with regional proxy data will also help constrain the boundary between wet and dry events in the WPWP during the northern hemisphere stadials.

  7. Operation of the DC current transformer intensity monitors at FNAL during run II

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Meyer, T.; Vogel, G.; /Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Circulating beam intensity measurements at FNAL are provided by five DC current transformers (DCCT), one per machine. With the exception of the DCCT in the Recycler, all DCCT systems were designed and built at FNAL. This paper presents an overview of both DCCT systems, including the sensor, the electronics, and the front-end instrumentation software, as well as their performance during Run II.

  8. Zeroing Transformer's DC Current in Resonant Converters with No Series Capacitors

    E-print Network

    Zeroing Transformer's DC Current in Resonant Converters with No Series Capacitors Alexander in a transformer coupled resonant converter that does not include a series capacitor. This issue was explored capacitors which could lead to a significant cost and size reduction. Index Terms - Resonant power conversion

  9. Flight Checklists And Interruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, C.; Goguen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Report examines relation between performances of flight checklists and interruptions. Based on study of simulated flights of Boeing 707 Airplane. During each flight series of overlapping problems introduced. Study investigated patterns of communication that in carrying out checklists, may contribute to accidents. Showed good crews had high continuity in following checklists and it is not number of interruptions but rather duration of interruptions associated with quality of performance. Suggests greater burden placed on memory by one long interruption than by several short ones.

  10. SIM regional comparison of ac-dc current transfer difference SIM.EM-K12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lillo, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The ac-dc current transfer difference identified as SIM.EM.K-12 began in July 2010 and was completed in September 2012. Six NMIs in the SIM region and one NMI in the AFRIMET region took part: NRC (Canada), NIST (United States of America), CENAM (Mexico), INTI (Argentina), UTE (Uruguay), INMETRO (Brazil) and NIS (Egypt). The comparisons were proposed to assess the measurement capabilities in ac-dc current transfer difference of the participants NMIs. The ac-dc current transfer differences of the travelling standard had been measured at 10 mA and 5 A at 10 Hz, 55 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz, 20 kHz, 50 kHz and 100 kHz. The test points were selected to link the results with the equivalent CCEM Key Comparisons (CCEM-K12), through three NMIs participating in both SIM and CCEM key comparisons (INTI, NRC and NIST). The report shows the degree of equivalence in the SIM region and also the degree of equivalence with the corresponding CCEM reference value. The results of all participants support the values and uncertainties of the applicable CMC entries for ac-dc current transfer difference in the Key Comparison Database held at the BIPM. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. The California Current System as a transmitter of millennial scale climate change on the northeastern Pacific margin from 10 to 50 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. A.; Hendy, I. L.; Pak, D. K.

    2015-09-01

    A high-resolution record of ?18O and Mg/Ca-based temperatures spanning 10-50 ka has been reconstructed from the Vancouver margin of the northeastern Pacific Ocean (MD02-2496) from two planktonic foraminiferal species, Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (s.) and Globigerina bulloides. While ?18Ocalcite appears synchronous with Dansgaard-Oeschger Interstadials throughout the record, millennial scale variability in sea surface temperatures and reconstructed ?18Oseawater are frequently out of phase with Greenland climate. Changes in water mass characteristics such as ?18Ocalcite and enriched ?15N events apparently responded to millennial-scale climate change during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3), such that negative ?18Ocalcite excursions coincided with heavier ?15N. These water mass characteristic shifts are suggestive of the presence of surface water advected from the Eastern Tropical North Pacific by relative strengthening of the California Undercurrent (CUC) bringing warm, salty tropical waters poleward. The linkage between the strength of the CUC on the NE Pacific margin and millennial-scale climate change may be related to increased sea surface heights off Central America as the Intertropical Convergence Zone shifted northward in response to changes in North Atlantic Ocean circulation. Poor correlations between proxies exist through late MIS 3 into MIS 2. Ice sheet growth could have disrupted the linkage between CUC and the NE Pacific margin as the Laurentide Ice sheet disrupted atmospheric circulation and the Cordilleran Ice Sheet increasingly influenced regional paleoceanography.

  12. Miscarriage: A Dream Interrupted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepal, Heather C.; Semivan, Suzanne Gibson; Caley-Bruce, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy is a developmental task that requires women to become accustomed to inherent and sometimes profound biological, somatic, and psychological changes. When pregnancy is interrupted by miscarriage, it may become a pivotal crisis point in the development of a woman's maternal identity as well as an issue in family development. This manuscript…

  13. ABBGroup-1-Thermal interruption

    E-print Network

    Basse, Nils Plesner

    and breaking currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions such as those of a short circuit. A circuit above diagram: · Top: System voltage · Center: Rated current · Bottom: Maximal short-circuit current #12©ABBGroup-1- 2-Jun-06 Thermal interruption performance and fluctuations in high voltage gas circuit

  14. Radiolaria and pollen records from 0 to 50 ka at ODP Site 1233: Continental and marine climate records from the Southeast Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pisias, N.G.; Heusser, L.; Heusser, C.; Hostetler, S.W.; Mix, A.C.; Weber, M.

    2006-01-01

    Site 1233 drilled during Leg 202 of the Ocean Drilling Program provides a detailed record of marine and continental climate change in the Southeast Pacific and South American continent. Splits from over 500 samples taken at 20 cm intervals for quantitative analysis of radiolarian and pollen populations yield a temporal resolution of 200-400 years. In each sample, 39 pollen taxa and 40 radiolarian species and genera were evaluated. Age control is provided by 25 AMS 14C dates [Lamy, F., Kaiser, J., Ninnemann, U., Hebbeln, D., Arz, H.W., Stoner, J., 2004. Science 304, 1959-1962]. Multivariate statistical analyses of these data allow us to conclude the following: (1) During the past 50 ka, the region of the central Chile coast is not directly influenced by polar water from the Antarctic region. (2) Changes in ocean conditions off central Chile during this time interval primarily reflect north-south shifts in the position of the South Pacific transition zone. (3) Changes in Chilean vegetation reflect comparable latitudinal shifts in precipitation and the position of the southern westerlies. (4) The first canonical variate of radiolarian and pollen records extracted from Site 1233 are remarkably similar to each other as well as to temperature records from the Antarctic, which suggests that marine and continental climate variability in the region is tightly coupled at periods longer than 3000 years. (5) The phase coupling of these climate records, which lead variations of continental erosion based on iron abundance at the same site, are consistent with a hypothesis that erosion is linked to relatively long (i.e, few thousand years) response times of the Patagonian ice sheet, and thus is not a direct indicator of regional climate. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adversary Sequence Interruption Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1985-11-15

    PC EASI is an IBM personal computer or PC-compatible version of an analytical technique for measuring the effectiveness of physical protection systems. PC EASI utilizes a methodology called Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption (EASI) which evaluates the probability of interruption (PI) for a given sequence of adversary tasks. Probability of interruption is defined as the probability that the response force will arrive before the adversary force has completed its task. The EASI methodology is amore »probabilistic approach that analytically evaluates basic functions of the physical security system (detection, assessment, communications, and delay) with respect to response time along a single adversary path. It is important that the most critical scenarios for each target be identified to ensure that vulnerabilities have not been overlooked. If the facility is not overly complex, this can be accomplished by examining all paths. If the facility is complex, a global model such as Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) may be used to identify the most vulnerable paths. PC EASI is menu-driven with screen forms for entering and editing the basic scenarios. In addition to evaluating PI for the basic scenario, the sensitivities of many of the parameters chosen in the scenario can be analyzed. These sensitivities provide information to aid the analyst in determining the tradeoffs for reducing the probability of interruption. PC EASI runs under the Micro Data Base Systems'' proprietary database management system Knowledgeman. KMAN provides the user environment and file management for the specified basic scenarios, and KGRAPH the graphical output of the sensitivity calculations. This software is not included. Due to errors in release 2 of KMAN, PC EASI will not execute properly; release 1.07 of KMAN is required.« less

  16. A regional overview of the last glacial period in the temperate NE Atlantic: varying paleoproductivity centers over the last 50 ka BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penaud, Aurélie; Eynaud, Frédérique; Ganne, Axelle

    2015-04-01

    Recent palynological investigations carried out in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz (MD99-2339 core) over MIS 3 enable to consider dinoflagellate cyst assemblage patterns over the last 50 ka BP through a compilation of 6 cores from the NE subtropical Atlantic to the Northern Bay of Biscay (also including cores MD95-2042, MD95-2043, MD04-2805CQ, VK03-58bis). Dinocyst signals depict hydrological front latitudinal shifts over the last glacial and associated sea-surface consequences regarding past regimes of primary productivity. We show here new data clearly evidencing subtropical latitudes of Cadiz as being as productive areas over the last glacial as recorded today in the septentrional part of the Bay of Biscay, especially between GI 8 and GI 12. We especially focus on dinocyst-species Lingulodinium machaerophorum relative abundances and absolute concentrations that we first evidence as a powerful tool to reconstruct and discuss productivity shifts through time in the temperate North Atlantic. This spatio-temporal synthesis bring important evidences of fast migrating paleoproductiviy centers from the last glacial period to present, implying also large consequences on the biological pump through time. Regarding this specific session, 5 of the 6 cores discussed here were retrieved by the R/V Marion Dufresne through 3 different cruises: Core MD99-2339 (35.89°N, 7.53°W, 1170m water depth, 18.54m long) was retrieved in a contouritic field in the oriental part of the Gulf of Cadiz by the oceanographic R/V Marion Dufresne during the 1999 International Marine Global Change Studies V (IMAGES V) cruise (Labeyrie, Jansen and Cortijo, 2003). Cores MD95-2042 (37°48'N, 10°10'W, 3146m water depth, 39.56m long) and MD95-2043 (36°8.6'N, 2°37.3'W, 1841m water depth, 36m long) were retrieved from the SW Iberian margin and the central Alboran Sea, respectively, by the oceanographic R/V Marion Dufresne during the 1995 IMAGES I cruise (Bassinot and Labeyrie, 1996). Core MD04-2805 CQ (34.52°N, 7.02°W, 859m water depth, 7.72m long) was retrieved 40 km off the Moroccan coast by the oceanographic R/V Marion Dufresne during the 2004 PRIVILEGE cruise.

  17. Surgical Repair of Interrupted Aortic Arch and Interrupted Pulmonary Artery.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Roy; Saheed, Sanni Babatunde; Omoregbee, Benjamin; Ninan, Benjamin; Pavithran, Sreeja; Kothandam, Sivakumar

    2015-12-01

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is usually associated with ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus. We report surgical repair in a case of IAA, ventricular septal defect, and interruption of the pulmonary artery with the right pulmonary artery arising from the innominate artery through a separate ductus arteriosus. PMID:26652572

  18. Phase textures induced by dc-current pair breaking in weakly coupled multilayer structures and two-gap superconductors.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, A; Vinokur, V M

    2006-09-29

    We predict the current-induced formation of equilibrium phase textures for a multicomponent superconducting order parameter. Using the two-component Ginzburg-Landau and Usadel equations, we show that, for weakly coupled comoving superconducting condensates, the dc current I first causes the breakdown of the phase-locked state at I>I{c1} followed by the formation of intrinsic phase textures well below the depairing current I{d}. These phase textures can manifest themselves in multilayer structures, atomic Bose condensate mixtures in optical lattices, and two-gap superconductors, particularly MgB(2), where they can result in oscillating and resistive switching effects. PMID:17026065

  19. Global interrupt and barrier networks

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton-On-Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kopcsay, Gerard V. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY)

    2008-10-28

    A system and method for generating global asynchronous signals in a computing structure. Particularly, a global interrupt and barrier network is implemented that implements logic for generating global interrupt and barrier signals for controlling global asynchronous operations performed by processing elements at selected processing nodes of a computing structure in accordance with a processing algorithm; and includes the physical interconnecting of the processing nodes for communicating the global interrupt and barrier signals to the elements via low-latency paths. The global asynchronous signals respectively initiate interrupt and barrier operations at the processing nodes at times selected for optimizing performance of the processing algorithms. In one embodiment, the global interrupt and barrier network is implemented in a scalable, massively parallel supercomputing device structure comprising a plurality of processing nodes interconnected by multiple independent networks, with each node including one or more processing elements for performing computation or communication activity as required when performing parallel algorithm operations. One multiple independent network includes a global tree network for enabling high-speed global tree communications among global tree network nodes or sub-trees thereof. The global interrupt and barrier network may operate in parallel with the global tree network for providing global asynchronous sideband signals.

  20. An architecture for intelligent task interruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, D. D.; Narayan, Srini

    1990-01-01

    In the design of real time systems the capability for task interruption is often considered essential. The problem of task interruption in knowledge-based domains is examined. It is proposed that task interruption can be often avoided by using appropriate functional architectures and knowledge engineering principles. Situations for which task interruption is indispensable, a preliminary architecture based on priority hierarchies is described.

  1. Perceptual Learning of Interrupted Speech

    PubMed Central

    Benard, Michel Ruben; Ba?kent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    The intelligibility of periodically interrupted speech improves once the silent gaps are filled with noise bursts. This improvement has been attributed to phonemic restoration, a top-down repair mechanism that helps intelligibility of degraded speech in daily life. Two hypotheses were investigated using perceptual learning of interrupted speech. If different cognitive processes played a role in restoring interrupted speech with and without filler noise, the two forms of speech would be learned at different rates and with different perceived mental effort. If the restoration benefit were an artificial outcome of using the ecologically invalid stimulus of speech with silent gaps, this benefit would diminish with training. Two groups of normal-hearing listeners were trained, one with interrupted sentences with the filler noise, and the other without. Feedback was provided with the auditory playback of the unprocessed and processed sentences, as well as the visual display of the sentence text. Training increased the overall performance significantly, however restoration benefit did not diminish. The increase in intelligibility and the decrease in perceived mental effort were relatively similar between the groups, implying similar cognitive mechanisms for the restoration of the two types of interruptions. Training effects were generalizable, as both groups improved their performance also with the other form of speech than that they were trained with, and retainable. Due to null results and relatively small number of participants (10 per group), further research is needed to more confidently draw conclusions. Nevertheless, training with interrupted speech seems to be effective, stimulating participants to more actively and efficiently use the top-down restoration. This finding further implies the potential of this training approach as a rehabilitative tool for hearing-impaired/elderly populations. PMID:23469266

  2. Assisting interruption recovery in mission control operations

    E-print Network

    Wan, Jordan (Jordan X.)

    2007-01-01

    Frequent interruptions are commonplace in modem work environments. The negative impacts of interruptions are well documented and include increased task completion and error rates in individual task activities, as well as ...

  3. 38 CFR 21.197 - “Interrupted” status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âInterruptedâ status. 21... Case Status § 21.197 “Interrupted” status. (a) Purpose. The purpose of interrupted status is to... record. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3117) (b) Assignment to “interrupted” status. A veteran's case will...

  4. 38 CFR 21.197 - “Interrupted” status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âInterruptedâ status. 21... Case Status § 21.197 “Interrupted” status. (a) Purpose. The purpose of interrupted status is to... record. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3117) (b) Assignment to “interrupted” status. A veteran's case will...

  5. Investigating Interruptions: Implications for Flightdeck Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorella, Kara A.

    1999-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of multiple task management is attending to new stimuli and integrating associated task requirements into an ongoing task set; this is "interruption management" (IM). Anecdotal evidence and field studies indicate the frequency and consequences of interruptions, however experimental investigations of mechanisms influencing IM are scarce. Interruptions on commercial flightdecks are numerous, of various forms, and have been cited as contributing factors in many aviation incident and accident reports. This research grounds an experimental investigation of flightdeck interruptions in a proposed IM stage model. This model organizes basic research, identifies influencing mechanisms, and suggests appropriate dependent measures for IM. Fourteen airline pilots participated in a flightdeck simulation experiment to investigate the general effects of performing an interrupting task and interrupted procedure, and the effects of specific task factors: (1) modality; (2) embeddedness, or goal-level, of an interruption; (3) strength of association, or coupling-strength, between interrupted tasks; (4) semantic similarity; and (5) environmental stress. General effects of interruptions were extremely robust. All individual task factors significantly affected interruption management, except "similarity." Results extend the Interruption Management model, and are interpreted for their implications for interrupted flightdeck performance and intervention strategies for mitigating their effects on the flightdeck.

  6. Executing application function calls in response to an interrupt

    DOEpatents

    Almasi, Gheorghe; Archer, Charles J.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Heidelberger, Philip; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2010-05-11

    Executing application function calls in response to an interrupt including creating a thread; receiving an interrupt having an interrupt type; determining whether a value of a semaphore represents that interrupts are disabled; if the value of the semaphore represents that interrupts are not disabled: calling, by the thread, one or more preconfigured functions in dependence upon the interrupt type of the interrupt; yielding the thread; and if the value of the semaphore represents that interrupts are disabled: setting the value of the semaphore to represent to a kernel that interrupts are hard-disabled; and hard-disabling interrupts at the kernel.

  7. Axial magnetic field interrupters in autorecloser applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bestel, E.F.; Stoving, P.N.

    1996-12-31

    Application of vacuum interruption in distribution switchgear, especially in autoreclosers, which have uniquely high demands on vacuum fault interrupters, will be discussed. The fast open-close-open sequence and its associated highly asymmetrical waveforms are some of the difficulties encountered. The authors will present their solution to these problems in the form of an economical axial magnetic field interrupter that realizes current densities of up to 1.68 kA/cm{sup 2} - the most efficient axial magnetic interrupter that is in production today. Actual design test data per ANSI C37.60 will be shown.

  8. EXOTIC OPTIONS FOR INTERRUPTIBLE ELECTRICITY SUPPLY CONTRACTS

    E-print Network

    EXOTIC OPTIONS FOR INTERRUPTIBLE ELECTRICITY SUPPLY CONTRACTS RAJNISH KAMAT and SHMUEL S. OREN of financial contracts for the supply and procurement of interruptible electricity service. While the contract forms and pricing methodology have broader applications, the focus of this work is on electricity market

  9. Power links with Ireland -- Excitation of turbine-generator shaft torsional vibrations by variable frequency currents superimposed on DC currents in asynchronous HVDC links

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J.; Tay, B.W.; Kok, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    The paper describes an in-depth analysis of excitation of shaft torsional vibrations in steam-turbine-generator-exciter shafts in close proximity to HVDC converter stations by variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on the DC currents in asynchronous Links. It extends earlier work to include an in depth analysis of system scaling factors for harmonic currents impressed on generators in Northern Ireland by an inverter and to investigate the phenomena for possible torsional vibrations in the generators by the Link. Frequencies at which shaft torsional vibrations would be excited by modulation product harmonics in 50Hz/50Hz asynchronous Links as a function of deviation in system frequency is reviewed. Relative noncharacteristic current levels for 50Hz/50Hz connectors are illustrated assuming ripple currents at the inverter which gives realistic harmonic voltages in a twelve-pulse bridge. The paper then shows that torques in machines in multi-machine networks may be estimated by proportioning HVDC link harmonic disturbance current appropriately to each machine at risk. It is concluded that variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on the DC current in asynchronous links can excite sympathetic torsional vibrations in turbine-generator-exciter shafts.

  10. Checklist interruption and resumption: A linguistic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    This study forms part of a project investigating the relationships among the formal structure of aviation procedures, the ways in which the crew members are taught to execute them, and the ways in which thet are actually performed in flight. Specifically, this report examines the interactions between the performance of checklists and interruptions, considering both interruptions by radio communications and by other crew members. The data consists of 14 crews' performance of a full mission simulation of a higher ratio of checklist speech acts to all speech acts within the span of the performance of the checklist. Further, it is not number of interruptions but length of interruptions which is associated with crew performance quality. Use of explicit holds is also associated with crew performance.

  11. THE EFFECTS OF RESPONSE INTERRUPTION AND REDIRECTION

    E-print Network

    Joung, Eun Gi

    2011-07-15

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of Response Interruption and Redirection on automatically maintained vocal stereotypy of a ten year old boy with autism. The researcher hypothesized that RIRD ...

  12. Compiling and Reasoning Exceptions and Interrupts

    E-print Network

    Hutton, Graham

    Compiling and Reasoning about Exceptions and Interrupts by Joel J Wright, BSc (Hons) Thesis and grandparents, for their unwavering support throughout my time at university, and to my fiancee Katherine

  13. dc arc interruption in pressurized gasses

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhuri,P.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the possibility of achieving (1) short interruption time and (2) minimum contact erosion in a dc circuit interrupter. Arc interruption tests were performed on a 100-A, 600-V dc contactor under atmospheres of argon dry air, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen, each at four pressures 0.17, 0.34, 0.52, and 0.69 MPa (25, 50, 75 and 100 psig). It was found that the average arcing time in helium and hydrogen was the shortest, and that in argon the longest for the circuit conditions used. The contact erosion in hydrogen was the worst, and that in argon the best for the contact materials used in the tests. The static pressure in the chamber did not appear to have much effect on the arc interruption phenomenon for the contactor and gas pressures used.

  14. Interruptible Electric Rates: Where We Are Today 

    E-print Network

    Frees, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Interruptible electric rates are as far from being a widespread method of load management today as they were almost nine years ago at the height of the Arab Oil Embargo. Utilities and industrial consumers have been 'cooperating' to reduce overall...

  15. 38 CFR 21.197 - “Interrupted” status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...satisfactory reason, the veteran's case will be discontinued and assigned to discontinued status. (e) Case management responsibility during a period of interruption. The case manager shall maintain contact with...

  16. Fast interrupt platform for extended DOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duryea, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    Extended DOS offers the unique combination of a simple operating system which allows direct access to the interrupt tables, 32 bit protected mode access to 4096 MByte address space, and the use of industry standard C compilers. The drawback is that fast interrupt handling requires both 32 bit and 16 bit versions of each real-time process interrupt handler to avoid mode switches on the interrupts. A set of tools has been developed which automates the process of transforming the output of a standard 32 bit C compiler to 16 bit interrupt code which directly handles the real mode interrupts. The entire process compiles one set of source code via a make file, which boosts productivity by making the management of the compile-link cycle very simple. The software components are in the form of classes written mostly in C. A foreground process written as a conventional application which can use the standard C libraries can communicate with the background real-time classes via a message passing mechanism. The platform thus enables the integration of high performance real-time processing into a conventional application framework.

  17. Control algorithm for the inverter fed induction motor drive with DC current feedback loop based on principles of the vector control

    SciTech Connect

    Vuckovic, V.; Vukosavic, S. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper brings out a control algorithm for VSI fed induction motor drives based on the converter DC link current feedback. It is shown that the speed and flux can be controlled over the wide speed and load range quite satisfactorily for simpler drives. The base commands of both the inverter voltage and frequency are proportional to the reference speed, but each of them is further modified by the signals derived from the DC current sensor. The algorithm is based on the equations well known from the vector control theory, and is aimed to obtain the constant rotor flux and proportionality between the electrical torque, the slip frequency and the active component of the stator current. In this way, the problems of slip compensation, Ri compensation and correction of U/f characteristics are solved in the same time. Analytical considerations and computer simulations of the proposed control structure are in close agreement with the experimental results measured on a prototype drive.

  18. DC current induced metal-insulator transition in epitaxial Sm{sub 0.6}Nd{sub 0.4}NiO{sub 3}/LaAlO{sub 3} thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Haoliang; CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 ; Luo, Zhenlin Yang, Yuanjun; Yang, Mengmeng; Wang, Haibo; Hu, Sixia; Bao, Jun; National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 ; Yun, Yu; Meng, Dechao; Lu, Yalin; Gao, Chen; CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026; National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026

    2014-05-15

    The metal-insulator transition (MIT) in strong correlated electron materials can be induced by external perturbation in forms of thermal, electrical, optical, or magnetic fields. We report on the DC current induced MIT in epitaxial Sm{sub 0.6}Nd{sub 0.4}NiO{sub 3} (SNNO) thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition on (001)-LaAlO{sub 3} substrate. It was found that the MIT in SNNO film not only can be triggered by thermal, but also can be induced by DC current. The T{sub MI} of SNNO film decreases from 282 K to 200 K with the DC current density increasing from 0.003 × 10{sup 9} A•m{sup ?2} to 4.9 × 10{sup 9} A•m{sup ?2}. Based on the resistivity curves measured at different temperatures, the MIT phase diagram has been successfully constructed.

  19. 38 CFR 21.3305 - “Interrupted” status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âInterruptedâ status. 21.3305 Section 21.3305 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED.... Chapter 35 Special Restorative Training § 21.3305 “Interrupted” status. (a) Special restorative...

  20. 38 CFR 21.3305 - “Interrupted” status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âInterruptedâ status. 21.3305 Section 21.3305 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED.... Chapter 35 Special Restorative Training § 21.3305 “Interrupted” status. (a) Special restorative...

  1. Interruptions in the wild: Development of a sociotechnical systems model of interruptions in the emergency department through a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Werner, Nicole E; Holden, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Interruptions are unavoidable in the "interrupt driven" Emergency Department (ED). A critical review and synthesis of the literature on interruptions in the ED can offer insight into the nature of interruptions in complex real-world environments. Fifteen empirical articles on interruptions in the ED were identified through database searches. Articles were reviewed, critiqued, and synthesized. There was little agreement and several gaps in conceptualizing sociotechnical system factors, process characteristics, and interruption outcomes. While multiple outcomes of interruptions were mentioned, few were measured, and the relationship between multiple outcomes was rarely assessed. Synthesizing the literature and drawing on ergonomic concepts, we present a sociotechnical model of interruptions in complex settings that motivates new directions in research and design. The model conceptualizes interruptions as a process, not a single event, that occurs within and is shaped by an interacting socio-technical system and that results in a variety of interrelated outcomes. PMID:26154223

  2. The Effects of Interruption Task Complexity and Interruptions on Student Multitasking 

    E-print Network

    Tan, Jiun Yi

    2013-07-02

    Students commonly multitask while studying. The ubiquitous use of laptops and computers has facilitated this phenomenon and even changed the nature of multitasking in studying environments. Interruptions have an undeniable ...

  3. Testing of a 50 kA, 50 kV current interrupter with I sup 2 t preheating and long recovery voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Reass, W.A.; Boenig, H.J.; Melton, J.G. )

    1989-01-01

    The Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) presently being constructed at Los Alamos in a next generation Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) plasma experiment. An inductive energy transfer system, employing a 50 kA, 50 kV dc current interrupter, is being utilized for initiating the plasma current. These performance requirements (50 kA, 50 kV) had yet to be realized in a reliable switching system, development of this current interrupter system was initiated. A switch test bay with a 50 kA battery bank has been built at Los Alamos to test the interrupter in conditions which will exist in the CPRF experiment. Many switch parameters were measured to provide information on the current interrupting characteristics and reliability. Some of these diagnostics include voltage, current, pre and post I{sup 2}t contact resistance, opening speed and position, arc voltage, and stem temperature. To determine any long term changes, all shots and data channels are computer indexed, and may be easily recalled for review. Extensive testing was performed on Siemens D-10 vacuum interrupter. Test parameter space included 55 kA, 40 kV (per bottle); di/dt of 2250 A/{mu}s, I{sup 2}t of 5 {times} 10{sup 9} amp{sup 2} sec; and 20 kV-200 msec RC recovery decay. Circuit parameters effect opening reliability. Circuit data and the associated testing results will be presented along with long term trends of switch performance under normal'' conditions. 12 figs.

  4. Design, Assembly, and Commissioning of a Cryogenic DC Current Transformer Designed for Measuring Currents of up to 80 kA

    E-print Network

    Montenero, G; Bottura, L; Arpaia, P

    2015-01-01

    A new cryogenic dc current transformer (Cryo-DCCT) has recently been designed and assembled at CERN. The device, whose design is based on that of a high-accuracy 600 A market solution suitable for room temperature applications, is optimized for measuring currents of up to 80 kA and for operation at 4.2 K. The CryoDCCT has been conceived with the objective of preserving the metrological performance of the original commercial device in the new extended range of operation. For reducing the effect of interfering magnetic fields arising from test conditions, it incorporates ferromagnetic and MgB2 superconducting shields. In this paper, the design of the CryoDCCT and the results of the commissioning of the device at CERN are reported. The effectiveness of the current transducer is analysed and discussed. This new device will be used for measuring the secondary current of a 80 kA superconducting transformer feeding a sample of NbSn3 cable at the Facility for Research on Superconducting Cables (FRESCA) at CERN.

  5. Development of an in situ calibration method for current-to-voltage converters for high-accuracy SI-traceable low dc current measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppeldauer, George P.; Yoon, Howard W.; Jarrett, Dean G.; Larason, Thomas C.

    2013-10-01

    For photocurrent measurements with low uncertainties, wide dynamic range reference current-to-voltage converters and a new converter calibration method have been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The high-feedback resistors of a reference converter were in situ calibrated on a high-resistivity, printed circuit board placed in an electrically shielded box electrically isolated from the operational amplifier using jumpers. The feedback resistors, prior to their installation, were characterized, selected and heat treated. The circuit board was cleaned with solvents, and the in situ resistors were calibrated using measurement systems for 10 k? to 10 G? standard resistors. We demonstrate that dc currents from 1 nA to 100 µA can be measured with uncertainties of 55 × 10-6 (k = 2) or lower, which are lower in uncertainties than any commercial device by factors of 10 to 30 at the same current setting. The internal (NIST) validations of the reference converter are described.

  6. Using Turf to Understand the Functions of Interruptions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Vickie; Okafor, Nnaemeka; Zhang, Jiajie; Franklin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Interruptions are an often lamented and frequently studied aspect of clinical practice. However, some interruptions, such as updates on patient care decisions and notifications of detrimental patient lab values, are in fact necessary to the work process. In this paper, we explore the interruptions as an emergent feature of communication in teams. Looking beyond the frequency of interruptions, we consider the source and intent of interruptions with the goal of discovering the functions served by such communications. Furthermore, in this study of an emergency department, we classify interruptions into those activities that support required work and those interruptions that create unnecessary breaks in workflow. The intent of our larger body of work is to develop health information technology systems that support team efforts including the functions currently served by interruptions. PMID:25954399

  7. Interruptions : using activity transitions to trigger proactive messages

    E-print Network

    Ho, Joyce (Joyce Carmen)

    2004-01-01

    The proliferation of mobile devices and their tendency to present information proactively has led to an increase in device generated interruptions experienced by users. These interruptions are not confined to a particular ...

  8. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

  9. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuit-interrupting devices. 18.48 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. (a) Each machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device by means of which all power conductors can be deenergized at the machine....

  10. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Circuit-interrupting devices. 18.48 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. (a) Each machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device by means of which all power conductors can be deenergized at the machine....

  11. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Circuit-interrupting devices. 18.48 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. (a) Each machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device by means of which all power conductors can be deenergized at the machine....

  12. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Circuit-interrupting devices. 18.48 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. (a) Each machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device by means of which all power conductors can be deenergized at the machine....

  13. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Circuit-interrupting devices. 18.48 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. (a) Each machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device by means of which all power conductors can be deenergized at the machine....

  14. A Personal, Mobile System for Understanding Stress and Interruptions

    E-print Network

    by using: 1) affect-sensitive strategies though social-emotional dialogue, and 2) interruption system to continue interacting with for the last four days. The affect and interruption responsive systemA Personal, Mobile System for Understanding Stress and Interruptions by Karen Kay-Lynn Liu B

  15. Interrupted aortic arch with retrograde subclavian perfusion.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sok-Leng; Forsey, Jonathan; Walsh, Mark A

    2014-06-01

    Type B interrupted aortic arch results in the left subclavian artery being perfused by a patent ductus arteriosus and antegrade flow is usually seen in the left subclavian artery. We describe a case of retrograde perfusion of the left subclavian artery through the circle of Willis in the presence of interrupted aortic arch type B and a restrictive patent ductus arteriosus. This is similar to subclavian steal syndrome when the perfusion pressure from the cerebral circuit is greater than that from the left subclavian artery. Early recognition of this phenomenon may alter management by indicating restriction at ductal level. This case highlights the need for a comprehensive review of both ventricular systolic function and ductal haemodynamics when retrograde flow is seen in the subclavian artery. PMID:25029884

  16. Workflow Interruptions and Failed Action Regulation in Surgery Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Elfering, Achim; Nützi, Marina; Koch, Patricia; Baur, Heiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Workflow interruptions during surgery may cause a threat to patient's safety. Workflow interruptions were tested to predict failure in action regulation that in turn predicts near-accidents in surgery and related health care. Methods One-hundred-and-thirty-three theater nurses and physicians from eight Swiss hospitals participated in a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The study participation rate was 43%. Results Structural equation modeling confirmed an indirect path from workflow interruptions through cognitive failure in action regulation on near-accidents (p < 0.05). The indirect path was stronger for workflow interruptions by malfunctions and task organizational blockages compared with workflow interruptions that were caused by persons. The indirect path remained meaningful when individual differences in conscientiousness and compliance with safety regulations were controlled. Conclusion Task interruptions caused by malfunction and organizational constraints are likely to trigger errors in surgery. Work redesign is recommended to reduce workflow interruptions by malfunction and regulatory constraints. PMID:24932412

  17. Assembly interruptability robustness model with applications to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, James William

    1991-02-01

    Interruptability robustness of a construction project together with its assembly sequence may be measured by calculating the probability of its survival and successful completion in the face of unplanned interruptions of the assembly process. Such an interruption may jeopardize the survival of the structure being assembled, the survival of the support equipment, and/or the safety of the members of the construction crew, depending upon the stage in the assembly sequence when the interruption occurs. The interruption may be due to a number of actors such as: machinery break-downs, environmental damage, worker emergency illness or injury, etc. Each source of interruption has a probability of occurring, and adds an associated probability of loss, schedule delay, and cost to the project. Several options may exist for reducing the consequences of an interruption at a given point in the assembly sequence, including altering the assembly sequence, adding extra components or equipment as interruptability 'insurance', increasing the capability of support facilities, etc. Each option may provide a different overall performance of the project as it relates to success, assembly time, and project cost. The Interruptability Robustness Model was devised and provides a method which allows the overall interruptability robustness of construction of a project design and its assembly sequence to be quantified. In addition, it identifies the susceptibility to interruptions for the assembly sequence at all points within the assembly sequence. The model is applied to the present problem of quantifying and improving interruptability robustness during the construction of Space Station Freedom. This application was used as a touchstone for devising the Interruptability Robustness Model. However, the model may be utilized to assist in the analysis of interruptability robustness for other space-related construction projects such as the lunar base and orbital assembly of the manned Mars spacecraft, as well as complex terrestrial construction projects such as undersea laboratories, Antarctic bases, skyscrapers, etc.

  18. Single screw interrupted thread positive displacement mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boblitt, Wayne W.

    1992-07-01

    A single screw positive displacement compressor mechanism employing shallow gate rotor tooth penetration of the main rotor for purposes of reducing internal leakage and consequent compressor inefficiencies is presented. The invention is provided with an interrupted main rotor thread for purposes of insuring multiple gate rotor teeth meshing with the drive portion of the main rotor thread, thereby reducing gate rotor tooth flank loads in the compressor section of the device. Provision is also made for main rotor thread baffling between the main rotor chamber section and the mechanism inlet.

  19. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOEpatents

    Rockot, J.H.; Mikesell, H.E.; Jha, K.N.

    1998-08-11

    A device and a method are disclosed for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens. 7 figs.

  20. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOEpatents

    Rockot, Joseph H. (N. Huntingdon, PA); Mikesell, Harvey E. (McMurray, PA); Jha, Kamal N. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A device and a method for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens.

  1. Interrupting the Interruption: Neoliberalism and the Challenges of an Antiracist School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meshulam, Assaf; Apple, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    The article examines a US public elementary bilingual, multicultural school that attempts to interrupt the reproduction of existing relations of dominance and subordination across a variety of differences. The school's experiences illuminate the complex reality of schools as a site of struggle and compromise between at times contradictory…

  2. Interrupted Stellar Encounters in Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Aaron M.; Leigh, Nathan W. C.

    2015-07-01

    Strong encounters between single stars and binaries play a pivotal role in the evolution of star clusters. Such encounters can also dramatically modify the orbital parameters of binaries, exchange partners in and out of binaries, and are a primary contributor to the rate of physical stellar collisions in star clusters. Often, these encounters are studied under the approximation that they happen quickly enough and within a small enough volume to be considered isolated from the rest of the cluster. In this paper, we study the validity of this assumption through the analysis of a large grid of single-binary and binary-binary scattering experiments. For each encounter we evaluate the encounter duration, and compare this with the expected time until another single or binary star will join the encounter. We find that for lower-mass clusters, similar to typical open clusters in our Galaxy, the percent of encounters that will be “interrupted” by an interloping star or binary may be 20%-40% (or higher) in the core, though for typical globular clusters we expect ?1% of encounters to be interrupted. Thus, the assumption that strong encounters occur in relative isolation breaks down for certain clusters. Instead, many strong encounters develop into more complex “mini-clusters,” which must be accounted for in studying, for example, the internal dynamics of star clusters, and the physical stellar collision rate.

  3. Nanosecond photolytic interruption of bacteriorhodopsin photocycle

    PubMed Central

    Bazhenov, V.; Schmidt, P.; Atkinson, G. H.

    1992-01-01

    The molecular processes comprising the room temperature bacteriorhodopsin (BR) photocycle are examined through the properties of the photo-induced reverse reaction, K-590 + h? ? BR-570 (K ? BR). Two sequential pumping pulses, each of 10-ns duration, are used, respectively, to initiate the photocycle via the forward BR-570 + h? ? K-590 (BR ? K) reaction (532 nm) and to photolytically interrupt the thermal BR photocycle after a 20-ns delay via K ? BR (620-700 nm). The ground-state BR-570 population, monitored by 633-nm absorption 200 ?s after the photocycle begins, provides a quantitative measure of the efficiency with which K ? BR interrupts the photocycle to reform BR-570. The quantum yield (?) for K ? BR is found to be 1.6 ± 0.1 times larger than that for BR ? K which, when compared to a ? of 0.64 for BR ? K, suggests that ? for K ? BR is ? 1.0. The significance of such a high efficiency K ? BR reaction with respect to mechanistic descriptions of the BR photocycle is discussed. PMID:19431837

  4. Space assembly interruptability with applications to Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, James W.

    1990-01-01

    The task of assembling large structures in space creates the possibility of construction interruptions. The unscheduled interruption of the assembly process may require abandoning the Station and returning to Earth. This interruption may be due to: crew illness/injury, Shuttle Orbiter mechanical failure, Orbiter or Station pressure loss, space debris damage, etc. If not handled properly these interruptions may jeopardize crew safety, Orbiter operations and the recoverability of the structure being assembled. The problem of space assembly interruptability was first addressed in January 1989 by astronaut Vance Brand (NASA-JSC) to Dr. George Morgenthaler at the University of Colorado - Boulder, at which time an Interruptability Team was organized at the University to study the problem of Space Station Freedom assembly interruptability. The approach which is being undertaken at the University of Colorado is to create a methodology capable of analyzing generic structures. This is being accomplished by developing a software tool, DYCA, to plan assembly sequences, and will be used in conjunction with INTERPRO, the INTERrupatbility PROgram, to analyze the Space Station Freedom assembly interruptability problem. Using an automated networking approach with some human interaction, the most favorable near-term safing plus options will be calculated in the event of an interruption. PERT network techniques are employed to analyze which of these near-term improvements provide the optimal long-term response, as far as impact on the time and cost of the overall project are concerned.

  5. Pulsed interrupter and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Drake, Joel Lawton; Kratz, Robert

    2015-06-09

    Some embodiments provide interrupter systems comprising: a first electrode; a second electrode; a piston movably located at a first position and electrically coupled with the first and second electrodes establishing a closed state, the piston comprises an electrical conductor that couples with the first and second electrodes providing a conductive path; an electromagnetic launcher configured to, when activated, induce a magnetic field pulse causing the piston to move away from the electrical coupling with the first and second electrodes establishing an open circuit between the first and second electrodes; and a piston control system comprising a piston arresting system configured to control a deceleration of the piston following the movement of the piston induced by the electromagnetic launcher such that the piston is not in electrical contact with at least one of the first electrode and the second electrode when in the open state.

  6. Enzymes acting at strand interruptions in DNA.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, T; Satoh, M S; Dianov, G

    1995-01-30

    Endogenous and environmental DNA-damaging agents often generate single-strand interruptions in DNA. The lesions trigger a complex set of cellular reactions. In most eukaryotic cells, cellular poly(ADP-ribose) formation is the most acute response to such damage. Recently, such events have been amenable to study with soluble cell-free extracts of human cells. These investigations clarify the modulating role on DNA repair by poly (ADP-ribose), and suggest that the primary function of this unusual polymer is to act as an antirecombinant agent. Similar biochemical studies of subsequent repair events have revealed a branched pathway for the ubiquitous DNA base excision-repair process. The alternative pathway provides the cell with back-up functions for individual steps in this essential form of DNA repair. PMID:7746855

  7. Operational Failures and Interruptions in Hospital Nursing

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Anita L; Spear, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the work environment of hospital nurses with particular focus on the performance of work systems supplying information, materials, and equipment for patient care. Data Sources Primary observation, semistructured interviews, and surveys of hospital nurses. Study Design We sampled a cross-sectional group of six U.S. hospitals to examine the frequency of work system failures and their impact on nurse productivity. Data Collection We collected minute-by-minute data on the activities of 11 nurses. In addition, we conducted interviews with six of these nurses using questions related to obstacles to care. Finally, we created and administered two surveys in 48 nursing units, one for nurses and one for managers, asking about the frequency of specific work system failures. Principal Findings Nurses we observed experienced an average of 8.4 work system failures per 8-hour shift. The five most frequent types of failures, accounting for 6.4 of these obstacles, involved medications, orders, supplies, staffing, and equipment. Survey questions asking nurses how frequently they experienced these five categories of obstacles yielded similar frequencies. For an average 8-hour shift, the average task time was only 3.1 minutes, and in spite of this, nurses were interrupted mid-task an average of eight times per shift. Conclusions Our findings suggest that nurse effectiveness can be increased by creating improvement processes triggered by the occurrence of work system failures, with the goal of reducing future occurrences. Second, given that nursing work is fragmented and unpredictable, designing processes that are robust to interruption can help prevent errors. PMID:16704505

  8. Career Interruptions and Subsequent Earnings: A Reexamination Using Swedish Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, James W.; Edin, Per-Anders; Sundstrom, Marianne; Vroman, Susan B.

    1999-01-01

    Cross-sectional and panel estimations of Swedish data reveal that different types of career interruptions have different effects on wages, varying by gender. Therefore, human capital depreciation does not entirely account for the negative effect of career interruptions on subsequent wages. (SK)

  9. 14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135... Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. Each... unscheduled stop or diversion from a route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties...

  10. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. Each program... route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to...

  11. 14 CFR 135.417 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 135... Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.417 Mechanical interruption summary report. Each... unscheduled stop or diversion from a route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties...

  12. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. Each program... route, caused by known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to...

  13. 42 CFR 412.618 - Assessment process for interrupted stays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment process for interrupted stays. 412.618... for Inpatient Rehabilitation Hospitals and Rehabilitation Units § 412.618 Assessment process for interrupted stays. For purposes of the patient assessment process, if a Medicare Part A fee-for-service...

  14. 34 CFR 650.35 - May fellowship tenure be interrupted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May fellowship tenure be interrupted? 650.35 Section... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION JACOB K. JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be Met By Fellows? § 650.35 May fellowship tenure be interrupted? (a) An institution of higher education...

  15. 34 CFR 650.35 - May fellowship tenure be interrupted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May fellowship tenure be interrupted? 650.35 Section... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION JACOB K. JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be Met By Fellows? § 650.35 May fellowship tenure be interrupted? (a) An institution of higher education...

  16. 34 CFR 650.35 - May fellowship tenure be interrupted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May fellowship tenure be interrupted? 650.35 Section... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION JACOB K. JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be Met By Fellows? § 650.35 May fellowship tenure be interrupted? (a) An institution of higher education...

  17. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...to mount the main-circuit-interrupting device...are used as a main-circuit-interrupting device...means for opening the circuit shall be provided at...the “dead-man-control” type that must be held closed by hand and will...

  18. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES General Provisions § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal severance....

  19. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES General Provisions § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal severance....

  20. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES General Provisions § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal severance....

  1. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES General Provisions § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal severance....

  2. Servicing a globally broadcast interrupt signal in a multi-threaded computer

    SciTech Connect

    Attinella, John E.; Davis, Kristan D.; Musselman, Roy G.; Satterfield, David L.

    2015-12-29

    Methods, apparatuses, and computer program products for servicing a globally broadcast interrupt signal in a multi-threaded computer comprising a plurality of processor threads. Embodiments include an interrupt controller indicating in a plurality of local interrupt status locations that a globally broadcast interrupt signal has been received by the interrupt controller. Embodiments also include a thread determining that a local interrupt status location corresponding to the thread indicates that the globally broadcast interrupt signal has been received by the interrupt controller. Embodiments also include the thread processing one or more entries in a global interrupt status bit queue based on whether global interrupt status bits associated with the globally broadcast interrupt signal are locked. Each entry in the global interrupt status bit queue corresponds to a queued global interrupt.

  3. The Effect of Interruptions on Part 121 Air Carrier Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damos, Diane L.

    1998-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the relative priorities of various events and activities by examining the probability that a given activity was interrupted by a given event. The analysis will begin by providing frequency of interruption data by crew position (captain versus first officer) and event type. Any differences in the pattern of interruptions between the first officers and the captains will be explored and interpreted in terms of standard operating procedures. Subsequent data analyses will focus on comparing the frequency of interruptions for different types of activities and for the same activities under normal versus emergency conditions. Briefings and checklists will receive particular attention. The frequency with which specific activities are interrupted under multiple- versus single-task conditions also will be examined; because the majority of multiple-task data were obtained under laboratory conditions, LOFT-type tapes offer a unique opportunity to examine concurrent task performance under 'real-world' conditions. A second purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the interruptions on performance. More specifically, when possible, the time to resume specific activities will be compared to determine if pilots are slower to resume certain types of activities. Errors in resumption or failures to resume specific activities will be noted and any patterns in these errors will be identified. Again, particular attention will be given to the effects of interruptions on the completion of checklists and briefings. Other types of errors and missed events (i.e., the crew should have responded to the event but did not) will be examined. Any methodology using interruptions to examine task prioritization must be able to identify when an interruption has occurred and describe the ongoing activities that were interrupted. Both of these methodological problems are discussed In detail in the following section,

  4. Perceptual learning of temporally interrupted spectrally degraded speech.

    PubMed

    Benard, Michel Ruben; Ba?kent, Deniz

    2014-09-01

    Normal-hearing (NH) listeners make use of context, speech redundancy and top-down linguistic processes to perceptually restore inaudible or masked portions of speech. Previous research has shown poorer perception and restoration of interrupted speech in CI users and NH listeners tested with acoustic simulations of CIs. Three hypotheses were investigated: (1) training with CI simulations of interrupted sentences can teach listeners to use the high-level restoration mechanisms more effectively, (2) phonemic restoration benefit, an increase in intelligibility of interrupted sentences once its silent gaps are filled with noise, can be induced with training, and (3) perceptual learning of interrupted sentences can be reflected in clinical speech audiometry. To test these hypotheses, NH listeners were trained using periodically interrupted sentences, also spectrally degraded with a noiseband vocoder as CI simulation. Feedback was presented by displaying the sentence text and playing back both the intact and the interrupted CI simulation of the sentence. Training induced no phonemic restoration benefit, and learning was not transferred to speech audiometry measured with words. However, a significant improvement was observed in overall intelligibility of interrupted spectrally degraded sentences, with or without filler noise, suggesting possibly better use of restoration mechanisms as a result of training. PMID:25190407

  5. A case of neonatal arterial thrombosis mimicking interrupted aortic arch

    PubMed Central

    Gürsu, Haz?m Alper; Varan, Birgül; Oktay, Ayla; Özkan, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal arterial thrombosis is a very rare entity with clinical findings resembling coarctation of aorta or interrupted aortic arch. A two day-old male newborn was admitted to a different hospital with difficulty in sucking and sleepiness. On echocardiographic examination, a diagnosis of interrupted aortic arch was made and he was treated with prostoglandin E2. When the patient presented to our center, physical examination revealed that his feet were bilaterally cold. The pulses were not palpable and there were ecchymotic regions in the lower extremities. Echocardiography ruled out interrupted aortic arch. Computerized tomographic angiography revealed a large thrombosis and total occlusion of the abdominal aorta. Since there was no response to treatment with tissue plasminogen activator, we performed thrombectomy. Homozygous Factor V Leiden and Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutations were found in this patient. Neonatal aortic thrombosis which is observed very rarely and fatal should be considered in the differential diagnosis of coarctation of aorta and interrupted aortic arch. PMID:26265897

  6. Giving the Caller the Finger: Collaborative Responsibility for Cellphone Interruptions

    E-print Network

    Madiraju, Praveen

    ; Haptic I/O. INTRODUCTION In the midst of a quiet romantic dinner with your spouse, your mobile phone is a device we love to hate; yet we cannot live without it. Its interruption is important to our productivity

  7. 38 CFR 21.3306 - Reentrance after interruption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... was interrupted— (i) By reason of failure to maintain satisfactory conduct or progress, or (ii) For... (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Survivors' and Dependents' Educational Assistance Under... corrective action. A counseling psychologist or vocational rehabilitation counselor will approve...

  8. 38 CFR 21.3306 - Reentrance after interruption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... was interrupted— (i) By reason of failure to maintain satisfactory conduct or progress, or (ii) For... (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Survivors' and Dependents' Educational Assistance Under... corrective action. A counseling psychologist or vocational rehabilitation counselor will approve...

  9. Field calculations on epoxy resin insulated vacuum interrupters

    SciTech Connect

    Leusenkamp, M.B.J.; Hilderink, J.H.L.A.; Lenstra, K.

    1996-12-31

    Electrical components in medium voltage switchgear systems, which were up to now mainly gas (SF6), oil or air-insulated, can nowadays also be insulated by epoxy resin. Encapsulating e.g. vacuum interrupters with epoxy resin, allows shorter interrupters by increased external flashover voltage and by doing so decreasing the overall switchgear size. The latest development is to encapsulate all main components, i.e. busbars, vacuum interrupters and cable terminations, in such a way that a uniform insulation level is maintained over the entire assembly, thus preventing the development of open arcs. It will be shown that the geometry of the epoxy resin is designed in such a way that an optimal field distribution is achieved around the vacuum interrupter. This will be done by presenting results of numerical calculations. These calculations will show the positive influence that epoxy resin can have on the electrical field distribution, especially along the aluminum oxide ceramic of the vacuum interrupter and at triple-junctions. Some discussion will be made concerning the manufacturing methods of the epoxy resin insulated components, which ensure that there are no inhomogeneities in the solid insulating material, so all primary insulation parts are free of partial discharge. Due to the progress made in the fundamental understanding of materials and newly developed processes, a high reproducibility and continuous quality can be ensured. Some typical applications of epoxy resin insulated vacuum interrupters are given as an example.

  10. Endovascular reconstruction of an interrupted inferior vena cava?

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Shannon D.; Ofri, Adam; Tang, Tjun; Englund, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Inferior vena cava (IVC) interruption was established as a procedure to treat refractory venous thromboembolism (VTE) complicated by pulmonary embolism. Ilio-caval thrombosis and lower limb chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) are well known long-term complications of IVC interruption, where subsequent treatments may carry significant morbidity and mortality. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present here a case of chronic venous insufficiency resulting from IVC interruption with a vascular clip placed forty years previously. A novel approach utilising endovascular stents was used to reconstruct the iliocaval confluence and interrupted distal IVC without the need for laparotomy to remove the plicating clip. This procedure was associated with minimal morbidity and resulted with a quick resolution of the patient's CVI symptoms. DISCUSSION Endovascular angioplasty and stenting is an alternative to open reconstruction of the interrupted inferior vena cava. We have demonstrated successful opening of a plication vascular clip using only endovascular utilities. Advantages include a shorter hospital stay, and reduced morbidity and mortality when compared to a re-do laparotomy. CONCLUSION Endovascular stents may be used safely and effectively to reconstruct the surgically interrupted inferior vena cava in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. PMID:24441437

  11. The Effect of Interruption Duration and Demand on Resuming Suspended Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Christopher A.; Trafton, J. Gregory; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    The time to resume task goals after an interruption varied depending on the duration and cognitive demand of interruptions, as predicted by the memory for goals model (Altmann & Trafton, 2002). Three experiments using an interleaved tasks interruption paradigm showed that longer and more demanding interruptions led to longer resumption times in a…

  12. Modeling and Analysis of Interrupt Disable-Enable Scheme K. Salah K. Elbadawi

    E-print Network

    Salah, Khaled Hamed

    Modeling and Analysis of Interrupt Disable-Enable Scheme K. Salah K. Elbadawi Department to mitigate such overhead is interrupt disabling and then enabling. In this solution, interrupt overhead is significantly reduced by disabling interrupts and only re-enabling them after processing all queued packets

  13. Timecourse of recovery from task interruption: data and a model.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Erik M; Trafton, J Gregory

    2007-12-01

    Interruption of a complex cognitive task can entail, for the "interruptee", a sense of having to recover afterward. We examined this recovery process by measuring the timecourse of responses following an interruption, sampling over 13,000 interruptions to obtain stable data. Response times dropped in a smooth curvilinear pattern for the first 10 responses (15 sec or so) of postinterruption performance. We explain this pattern in terms of the cognitive system retrieving a displaced mental context from memory incrementally, with each retrieved element adding to the set of primes facilitating the next retrieval. The model explains a learning effect in our data in which the timecourse of recovery changes over blocks, and is generally consistent with current representational theories of expertise. PMID:18229478

  14. Transitions as Interrupts: A New Semantics for Timed Statecharts ?

    E-print Network

    Peron, Adriano

    Transitions as Interrupts: A New Semantics for Timed Statecharts ? Adriano Peron 1 and Andrea for the specification of reac­ tive systems. The formalism has been endowed with a ``step­semantics'' which heavily been originally endowed with a ``step­semantics'' which enforces a ``synchrony hypothesis'' like

  15. December 1988 Order Number 231468-003 PROGRAMMABLE INTERRUPT CONTROLLER

    E-print Network

    Butt, Ali R.

    Interrupts in Microcomputer Systems Microcomputer system design requires that I O de- vices such as keyboards of the total system tasks can be assumed by the microcomputer with little or no effect on throughput The most be assumed by the microcomputer and reducing the cost effectiveness of using such devices A more

  16. 34 CFR 650.35 - May fellowship tenure be interrupted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May fellowship tenure be interrupted? 650.35 Section 650.35 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION JACOB K. JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be...

  17. 34 CFR 650.35 - May fellowship tenure be interrupted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May fellowship tenure be interrupted? 650.35 Section 650.35 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION JACOB K. JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be...

  18. Bisimilarity is not Finitely Based over BPA with Interrupt

    E-print Network

    Fokkink, Wan

    Bisimilarity is not Finitely Based over BPA with Interrupt Luca Aceto1,3 , Wan Fokkink4 , Anna Ingolfsdottir1,2 , and Sumit Nain1 1 BRICS (Basic Research in Computer Science), Centre of the Danish National Research Foundation, Department of Computer Science, Aalborg University, Fr. Bajersvej 7B, 9220 Aalborg Ã?

  19. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    43 ? Public Lands: Interior ? 2 ? 2013-10-01 ? 2013-10-01 ? false ? Temporary interruption in coal severance. ? 3481.4 ? Section 3481.4 ? Public Lands: Interior ? Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) ? BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  20. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    43 ? Public Lands: Interior ? 2 ? 2012-10-01 ? 2012-10-01 ? false ? Temporary interruption in coal severance. ? 3481.4 ? Section 3481.4 ? Public Lands: Interior ? Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) ? BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  1. Development of structured treatment interruption strategies for HIV infection

    E-print Network

    1 Development of structured treatment interruption strategies for HIV infection Eric S. Rosenberga-8205, USA Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus Type-1 (HIV) progressively destroys the body's ability. Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of HIV infection through the development of potent, highly

  2. 14 CFR 121.705 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.705 Mechanical... known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to be reported...

  3. 14 CFR 121.705 - Mechanical interruption summary report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mechanical interruption summary report. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.705 Mechanical... known or suspected mechanical difficulties or malfunctions that are not required to be reported...

  4. Effect of unloading time on interrupted creep in copper

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, H.D. . School of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    The effect of unloading time on the interrupted creep behavior of polycrystalline copper specimens was investigated over the temperature range 298--773 K. Up to 553 K, cyclic creep acceleration could be explained in terms of deformation and hardening using a dislocation glide model with recovery during unloading being due to dislocation climb. At higher temperatures, recrystallization effects probably influence behavior.

  5. Interruptible Power: An Economic Advantage to Industrial Users 

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, S. D.; Gardner, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    flexibility in operating its power system. Interruptible power is a take-it-or-leave-it option for industry, but if it can be determined to be economical and technically feasible for specific industrial operations, TVA will work closely with the industry...

  6. Institutional Narcissism, Arrogant Organization Disorder and Interruptions in Organizational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, Lynn; Allcorn, Seth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to present an alternative approach to diagnosing behavioral barriers to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper juxtaposes interruptions in organizational learning with characteristics of narcissism and arrogant organization disorder. Psychoanalytically informed theory and DSM-IV criteria are…

  7. Toy Modification Note: Build It Yourself Battery Interrupter. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderheiden, Gregg C.; Brandenburg, S.

    This toy modification note presents illustrated instructions on how to build a battery interrupter that permits on/off control of battery-operated toys without modification of the toys themselves. The device allows for a separate control switch which can be custom designed to fit a handicapped user's needs. Information on the construction and use…

  8. Prediction of DC current flow between the Otjiwarongo and Katima Mulilo regions, using 3D DC resistivity forward modelling and magnetotelluric and audio-magnetotelluric data recorded during SAMTEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Share, P.; Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Miensopust, M. P.; Khoza, D. T.; Fourie, S.; Webb, S. J.; Thunehed, H.

    2009-12-01

    SAMTEX (Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment) is a multinational project initiated in 2003 to study the regional-scale electrical conductivity substructure of southern Africa and to infer from it the tectonic processes involved in the formation and deformation of the southern African subcontinental lithosphere. As an additional opportunistic component to SAMTEX, audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data were acquired during the most recent phase of the experiment (Phase IV) to investigate the local-scale conductivity substructure in the Otjiwarongo and Katima Mulilo regions (northern and north-eastern Namibia), where in future the installation of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) earth electrodes will commence. Both of the AMT surveys are situated close to the edge of the orogenic Neo-Proterozoic Ghanzi-Chobe/Damara belts (collectively termed the Damara Mobile Belt, DMB), which represents in part the collision between the Congo and Kalahari cratons during the amalgamation of South Gondwana. Previous studies using magnetotellurics (MT), magnetometer arrays and geomagnetic observatory data all point to the existence of a highly conductive mid-crustal zone which correlates well with the spatial location of the DMB. Preliminary modelling of the Otjiwarongo AMT data confirms the existence of a high conductive zone at mid-crustal depths (10-15 km), whereas in Katima Mulilo insufficient penetration of electromagnetic energy in the AMT frequency band, due to conductive sediment cover, prevents information being obtained of the conductivity at mid-crustal depths. However, at Katima Mulilo there are sparser broadband MT (BBMT) and long period MT (LMT) measurements that can be incorporated. The high conductivity of the DMB is explained by the presence of conductive materials (graphites, sulphides). In contrast, the lithospheric structure of the neighbouring Archaean cratons, the Congo and Kalahari, are generally found to be electrically resistive and therefore it is hypothesized that the return path of DC current, flowing along the path of least resistance between the two electrodes, is most likely to lie somewhere within, or in the vicinity of, the DMB. To obtain a better understanding of the current flow we propose using geological information, previous results of studies of the conductivity of the DMB and surrounding regions and 2D and 3D inversion results from the AMT and MT data recorded during SAMTEX in northern Botswana and Namibia, as input to a 3D DC resistivity forward modelling code, and to try to predict the return path that the DC current will follow.

  9. 75 FR 62420 - In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ...337-TA-739] In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing...States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing...States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products...

  10. An Investigation into the Affects of Healthy Adult Aging and Interruptions on Multitasking Abilities 

    E-print Network

    James, Vairi A. W.

    2009-07-03

    of the participants in the old group were interrupted 7 minutes into the test. There was no significant effect of the interruption on the multitasking scores. In the older adults there was a pattern in the means of the interruption group (M=112.40, SD=17.126) having...

  11. Interruption Management in the Intensive Care Unit: Predicting Resumption Times and Assessing Distributed Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundgeiger, Tobias; Sanderson, Penelope; MacDougall, Hamish G.; Venkatesh, Balasubramanian

    2010-01-01

    Interruptions are frequent in many work domains. Researchers in health care have started to study interruptions extensively, but their studies usually do not use a theoretically guided approach. Conversely, researchers conducting theoretically rich laboratory studies on interruptions have not usually investigated how effectively their findings…

  12. Exploring Interruption in HRI using Wizard of Oz Paul Saulnier, Ehud Sharlin, Saul Greenberg

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Saul

    experiments and should call for future research of interruption in human-robot interaction. II. DESCRIPTION of Oz (WoO) should interrupt humans in various social settings. While there is considerable work social HRI experiments as well as reflections on our future interruption HRI research Keywords

  13. Modification of seizure disorders: the interruption of behavioral chains.

    PubMed Central

    Zlutnick, S; Mayville, W J; Moffat, S

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of interruption and differential reinforcement on seizures in children. Seizures were conceptualized as the terminal link in a behavioral chain, resulting in a strategy aimed at identifying and modifying behaviors that reliably preceded the seizure climax. Seizure frequency was reduced in four of five subjects, whereas the frequency of preseizure behavior was reduced in only three subjects. Parents and school personnel were successfully used as change agents. PMID:1141076

  14. Interrupted aortic arch with post-interruption aneurysm and bicuspid aortic valve in an adult: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dhruv M.; Maldjian, Pierre D.; Lovoulos, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    Interrupted aortic arch in adults is rare with a limited number of reported cases. We describe a case of a 53-year-old woman with interrupted aortic arch, bicuspid aortic valve, and post-interruption saccular aneurysm of the aorta. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of an adult patient with all 3 abnormalities. We also review the literature on this unusual condition and discuss its relationship with coarctation of the aorta. PMID:26649108

  15. Dental surgery in anticoagulated patients--stop the interruption.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Michael J; Pinto, Andres; Kilham, Jessica; Lalla, Rajesh V

    2015-02-01

    In a literature review, the incidence and morbidity of bleeding complications after dental surgery in anticoagulated patients was compared with embolic complications when anticoagulation was interrupted. Over 99% of anticoagulated patients had no postoperative bleeding that required more than local hemostatic measures. Of more than 5431 patients undergoing more than 11,381 surgical procedures, with many patients at higher than present therapeutic intenational normalized ratio (INR) levels, only 31 (?0.6% of patients) required more than local hemostasis to control the hemorrhage; none died due to hemorrhage. Among at least 2673 patients whose warfarin dose was reduced or withdrawn for at least 2775 visits for dental procedures, there were 22 embolic complications (0.8% of cessations), including 6 fatal events (0.2% of cessations). The embolic morbidity risk in patients whose anticoagulation is interrupted for dental surgery exceeds that of significant bleeding complications in patients whose anticoagulation is continued, even when surgery is extensive. Warfarin anticoagulation, therefore, should not be interrupted for most dental surgery. PMID:25577414

  16. Interrupted aortic arch--anatomical features of surgical significance.

    PubMed

    Ho, S Y; Wilcox, B R; Anderson, R H; Lincoln, J C

    1983-08-01

    Analysis of 26 autopsy specimens with interruption of the aortic arch has led to a clearer understanding of the vital importance of associated cardiovascular abnormalities. In all cases there was an associated patent ductus arteriosus "supporting" the distal systemic circulation. "Proximal" septal defects, 22 ventricular septal defects and 3 aorto-pulmonary windows, were found in all but one specimen. The infundibular component of the ventricular septum was displaced posteriorly and leftward in 9 hearts resulting in significant left ventricular outflow obstruction in 8. In one specimen the infundibular septum was displaced anteriorly giving the effect of a "Fallot type" obstruction to the right ventricular outflow tract. Abnormal ventriculo-arterial connections were found in 7 hearts; 2 with discordant connection, 2 with double outlet, and 3 with single outlet of the heart. In 6 specimens there was an aberrant origin of the right subclavian from the distal aorta passing behind the esophagus to the right side. Various other arterial abnormalities were identified including a truncus arteriosus with separate but "transposed" origins of the pulmonary arteries. In short, in these hearts there were no examples of the rare situation where aortic arch interruption exists in isolation. This study therefore makes it very clear that a detailed understanding of associated anatomical abnormalities must accompany any attempt at surgical correction. Certainly in many of these cases management of the associated lesion will present more of a challenge than the difficult problem of dealing with the interrupted arch itself. PMID:6195754

  17. Interruption of Tidal Disruption Flares By Supermassive Black Hole Binaries

    E-print Network

    F. K. Liu; S. Li; Xian Chen

    2009-11-04

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are products of galaxy mergers, and are important in testing Lambda cold dark matter cosmology and locating gravitational-wave-radiation sources. A unique electromagnetic signature of SMBHBs in galactic nuclei is essential in identifying the binaries in observations from the IR band through optical to X-ray. Recently, the flares in optical, UV, and X-ray caused by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) tidally disrupting nearby stars have been successfully used to observationally probe single SMBHs in normal galaxies. In this Letter, we investigate the accretion of the gaseous debris of a tidally disrupted star by a SMBHB. Using both stability analysis of three-body systems and numerical scattering experiments, we show that the accretion of stellar debris gas, which initially decays with time $\\propto t^{-5/3}$, would stop at a time $T_{\\rm tr} \\simeq \\eta T_{\\rm b}$. Here, $\\eta \\sim0.25$ and $T_{\\rm b}$ is the orbital period of the SMBHB. After a period of interruption, the accretion recurs discretely at time $T_{\\rm r} \\simeq \\xi T_b$, where $\\xi \\sim 1$. Both $\\eta$ and $\\xi$ sensitively depend on the orbital parameters of the tidally disrupted star at the tidal radius and the orbit eccentricity of SMBHB. The interrupted accretion of the stellar debris gas gives rise to an interrupted tidal flare, which could be used to identify SMBHBs in non-active galaxies in the upcoming transient surveys.

  18. High-capacity single-pressure SF/sub 6/ interrupters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rostron, J R; Berkebile, L E; Spindle, H E

    1983-05-01

    The object of this project was to design and develop a high-voltage, single-pressure, SF/sub 6/ interrupter with an interrupting capability of 120 kA at 145 kV with a continuous current rating of 5000 A and an interrupting time of 1.5 cycles or less. A second objective of 100 kA at 242 kV was added during the project. Mathematical models were used to extrapolate design requirements from existing data for 63 and 80 kA. Two model puffers, one liquid and the other gas, were designed and tested to obtain data at 100 kA. An interrupter, optimized on the basis of total prospective breaker cost, was designed using the mathematical models. A study was made of the construction materials to operate under the high-stress conditions in this interrupter. Existing high-speed movies of high-current arcs under double-flow conditions were analyzed to obtain more information for modeling the interrupter. The optimized interrupter design was built and tested. The interrupting capability confirmed calculations of predicted performance near current zero; however, the dielectric strength after interrupting these high-current arcs was not adequate for the 145-kV or the 242-kV ratings. The dielectric strength was reduced by hot gases flowing out of the interrupter. Valuable data have been obtained for modeling the SF/sub 6/ puffer interrupter for high currents.

  19. Interruptions of nurses' activities and patient safety: an integrative literature review1

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Cintia; Avelar, Ariane Ferreira Machado; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to identify characteristics related to the interruption of nurses in professional practice, as well as to assess the implications of interruptions for patient safety. METHOD: integrative literature review. The following databases were searched: Pubmed/Medline, LILACS, SciELO and Cochrane Library, using the descriptors interruptions and patient safety. An initial date was not established, but the final date was December 31, 2013. A total of 29 papers met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: all the papers included describe interruptions as a harmful factor for patient safety. Data analysis revealed three relevant categories: characteristics of interruptions, implications for patient safety, and interventions to minimize interruptions. CONCLUSION: interruptions favor the occurrence of errors in the health field. Therefore, there is a need for further studies to understand such a phenomenon and its effects on clinical practice. PMID:25806646

  20. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Player, Michael J.; Proudfoot, Judy; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Spurrier, Michael; Shand, Fiona; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Wilhelm, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men’s specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1) development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors), (2) men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3) understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4) distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5) suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals’ preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk. PMID:26090794

  1. Efficient system interrupt concept design at the microprogramming level

    SciTech Connect

    Fakharzadeh, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past decade the demand for high speed super microcomputers has been tremendously increased. To satisfy this demand many high speed 32-bit microcomputers have been designed. However, the currently available 32-bit systems do not provide an adequate solution to many highly demanding problems such as in multitasking, and in interrupt driven applications, which both require context switching. Systems for these purposes usually incorporate sophisticated software. In order to be efficient, a high end microprocessor based system must satisfy stringent software demands. Although these microprocessors use the latest technology in the fabrication design and run at a very high speed, they still suffer from insufficient hardware support for such applications. All too often, this lack also is the premier cause of execution inefficiency. In this dissertation a micro-programmable control unit and operation unit is considered in an advanced design. An automaton controller is designed for high speed micro-level interrupt handling. Different stack models are designed for the single task and multitasking environment. The stacks are used for storage of various components of the processor during the interrupt calls, procedure calls, and task switching. A universal (as an example seven port) register file is designed for high speed parameter passing, and intertask communication in the multitasking environment. In addition, the register file provides a direct path between ALU and the peripheral data which is important in real-time control applications. The overall system is a highly parallel architecture, with no pipeline and internal cache memory, which allows the designer to be able to predict the processor's behavior during the critical times.

  2. Interrupted pulse electromagnetic expanding ring test for sheet metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbert, José; Rahmaan, Taamjeed; Worswick, Michael

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the development of an interrupted pulse electromagnetic (EM) expanding ring experiment to study the high rate properties of AA5182 aluminum commercial sheet alloys at strain rates in excess of 5,000 s-1. Experiments are performed to compare two commonly adopted methods of driving the expanding ring: EM expansion versus an exploding wire. After studying and testing both methods, it was determined that EM expansion had the greatest potential for being developed into a test that would result in free-flight of the samples. By interrupting the current pulse in the EM expanding ring test, the ring is allowed to achieve free-flight, thus eliminating the need to determine the induced EM forces and significantly reducing the uncertainty of the stress-strain behaviour determined from the test. Once the free-flight condition is established, the stress-strain behaviour of the material is determined from the free-flight deceleration of the sample, as calculated from the velocity measured using a Photon Doppler Velocimeter (PDV). Results are presented for AA5182 at strains rates between 1,000 to 5,500 s-1 and exhibit low strain rate sensitivity, are comparable to tensile split-Hopkinson bar results at strain rates of 1,000 s-1.

  3. Series and parallel arc-fault circuit interrupter tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay; Fresquez, Armando J.; Gudgel, Bob; Meares, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    While the 2011 National Electrical Code%C2%AE (NEC) only requires series arc-fault protection, some arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) manufacturers are designing products to detect and mitigate both series and parallel arc-faults. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has extensively investigated the electrical differences of series and parallel arc-faults and has offered possible classification and mitigation solutions. As part of this effort, Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with MidNite Solar to create and test a 24-string combiner box with an AFCI which detects, differentiates, and de-energizes series and parallel arc-faults. In the case of the MidNite AFCI prototype, series arc-faults are mitigated by opening the PV strings, whereas parallel arc-faults are mitigated by shorting the array. A range of different experimental series and parallel arc-fault tests with the MidNite combiner box were performed at the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) at SNL in Albuquerque, NM. In all the tests, the prototype de-energized the arc-faults in the time period required by the arc-fault circuit interrupt testing standard, UL 1699B. The experimental tests confirm series and parallel arc-faults can be successfully mitigated with a combiner box-integrated solution.

  4. The interrupted power law and the size of shadow banking.

    PubMed

    Fiaschi, Davide; Kondor, Imre; Marsili, Matteo; Volpati, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Using public data (Forbes Global 2000) we show that the asset sizes for the largest global firms follow a Pareto distribution in an intermediate range, that is "interrupted" by a sharp cut-off in its upper tail, where it is totally dominated by financial firms. This flattening of the distribution contrasts with a large body of empirical literature which finds a Pareto distribution for firm sizes both across countries and over time. Pareto distributions are generally traced back to a mechanism of proportional random growth, based on a regime of constant returns to scale. This makes our findings of an "interrupted" Pareto distribution all the more puzzling, because we provide evidence that financial firms in our sample should operate in such a regime. We claim that the missing mass from the upper tail of the asset size distribution is a consequence of shadow banking activity and that it provides an (upper) estimate of the size of the shadow banking system. This estimate-which we propose as a shadow banking index-compares well with estimates of the Financial Stability Board until 2009, but it shows a sharper rise in shadow banking activity after 2010. Finally, we propose a proportional random growth model that reproduces the observed distribution, thereby providing a quantitative estimate of the intensity of shadow banking activity. PMID:24728096

  5. The Interrupted Power Law and the Size of Shadow Banking

    PubMed Central

    Fiaschi, Davide; Kondor, Imre; Marsili, Matteo; Volpati, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Using public data (Forbes Global 2000) we show that the asset sizes for the largest global firms follow a Pareto distribution in an intermediate range, that is “interrupted” by a sharp cut-off in its upper tail, where it is totally dominated by financial firms. This flattening of the distribution contrasts with a large body of empirical literature which finds a Pareto distribution for firm sizes both across countries and over time. Pareto distributions are generally traced back to a mechanism of proportional random growth, based on a regime of constant returns to scale. This makes our findings of an “interrupted” Pareto distribution all the more puzzling, because we provide evidence that financial firms in our sample should operate in such a regime. We claim that the missing mass from the upper tail of the asset size distribution is a consequence of shadow banking activity and that it provides an (upper) estimate of the size of the shadow banking system. This estimate–which we propose as a shadow banking index–compares well with estimates of the Financial Stability Board until 2009, but it shows a sharper rise in shadow banking activity after 2010. Finally, we propose a proportional random growth model that reproduces the observed distribution, thereby providing a quantitative estimate of the intensity of shadow banking activity. PMID:24728096

  6. Interrupted Aortic Arch Associated with AP Window and Complex Cardiac Anomalies: Multi Detector Computed Tomography Findings

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kantarci, Mecit; Ceviz, Naci; Yuce, Ihsan; Ogul, Hayri; Sagsoz, M. Erdem; Kaya, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Interrupted aortic arch is a rare congenital malformation of the aortic arch defined as a loss of luminal continuity between the ascending and descending portions of the aorta. In a simple interrupted aortic arch, only a ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus are observed. We present a rare complex form of type A interrupted aorta with an aortopulmonary window, an atrial septal defect, a ventricular septal defect, and a patent ductus arteriosus on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) imaging. PMID:25610252

  7. Interrupted Aortic Arch Associated with AP Window and Complex Cardiac Anomalies: Multi Detector Computed Tomography Findings.

    PubMed

    Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kantarci, Mecit; Ceviz, Naci; Yuce, Ihsan; Ogul, Hayri; Sagsoz, M Erdem; Kaya, Idris

    2013-02-01

    Interrupted aortic arch is a rare congenital malformation of the aortic arch defined as a loss of luminal continuity between the ascending and descending portions of the aorta. In a simple interrupted aortic arch, only a ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus are observed. We present a rare complex form of type A interrupted aorta with an aortopulmonary window, an atrial septal defect, a ventricular septal defect, and a patent ductus arteriosus on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) imaging. PMID:25610252

  8. Basal plane dislocation reduction in 4H-SiC epitaxy by growth interruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahlbush, R. E.; VanMil, B. L.; Myers-Ward, R. L.; Lew, K.-K.; Gaskill, D. K.; Eddy, C. R.

    2009-01-01

    The paths of basal plane dislocations (BPDs) through 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown on wafers with an 8° offcut were tracked using ultraviolet photoluminescence imaging. The reduction of BPDs by conversion to threading edge dislocations was investigated at ex situ and in situ growth interrupts. For ex situ interrupts, BPDs are imaged after each of several growths. The wafer remains in the reactor for in situ interrupts and BPDs are imaged after the growth is finished. For in situ interrupts, a combination of temperature, propane flow, and duration has been determined, which achieve a BPD reduction of 98%.

  9. Immunological biomarkers predict HIV-1 viral rebound after treatment interruption

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Jacob; Hoffmann, Matthias; Pace, Matthew; Williams, James P.; Thornhill, John; Hamlyn, Elizabeth; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Willberg, Chris; Koelsch, Kersten K.; Robinson, Nicola; Brown, Helen; Fisher, Martin; Kinloch, Sabine; Cooper, David A.; Schechter, Mauro; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Fidler, Sarah; Babiker, Abdel; Weber, Jonathan; Kelleher, Anthony D.; Phillips, Rodney E.; Frater, John

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of HIV-1 infection with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the weeks following transmission may induce a state of ‘post-treatment control' (PTC) in some patients, in whom viraemia remains undetectable when ART is stopped. Explaining PTC could help our understanding of the processes that maintain viral persistence. Here we show that immunological biomarkers can predict time to viral rebound after stopping ART by analysing data from a randomized study of primary HIV-1 infection incorporating a treatment interruption (TI) after 48 weeks of ART (the SPARTAC trial). T-cell exhaustion markers PD-1, Tim-3 and Lag-3 measured prior to ART strongly predict time to the return of viraemia. These data indicate that T-cell exhaustion markers may identify those latently infected cells with a higher proclivity to viral transcription. Our results may open new avenues for understanding the mechanisms underlying PTC, and eventually HIV-1 eradication. PMID:26449164

  10. Immunological biomarkers predict HIV-1 viral rebound after treatment interruption.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Jacob; Hoffmann, Matthias; Pace, Matthew; Williams, James P; Thornhill, John; Hamlyn, Elizabeth; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Willberg, Chris; Koelsch, Kersten K; Robinson, Nicola; Brown, Helen; Fisher, Martin; Kinloch, Sabine; Cooper, David A; Schechter, Mauro; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Fidler, Sarah; Babiker, Abdel; Weber, Jonathan; Kelleher, Anthony D; Phillips, Rodney E; Frater, John

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of HIV-1 infection with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the weeks following transmission may induce a state of 'post-treatment control' (PTC) in some patients, in whom viraemia remains undetectable when ART is stopped. Explaining PTC could help our understanding of the processes that maintain viral persistence. Here we show that immunological biomarkers can predict time to viral rebound after stopping ART by analysing data from a randomized study of primary HIV-1 infection incorporating a treatment interruption (TI) after 48 weeks of ART (the SPARTAC trial). T-cell exhaustion markers PD-1, Tim-3 and Lag-3 measured prior to ART strongly predict time to the return of viraemia. These data indicate that T-cell exhaustion markers may identify those latently infected cells with a higher proclivity to viral transcription. Our results may open new avenues for understanding the mechanisms underlying PTC, and eventually HIV-1 eradication. PMID:26449164

  11. Landmarks and ant search strategies after interrupted tandem runs.

    PubMed

    Basari, Norasmah; Bruendl, Aisha C; Hemingway, Charlotte E; Roberts, Nicholas W; Sendova-Franks, Ana B; Franks, Nigel R

    2014-03-15

    During a tandem run, a single leading ant recruits a single follower to an important resource such as a new nest. To examine this process, we used a motorized gantry, which has not previously been used in ant studies, to track tandem running ants accurately in a large arena and we compared their performance in the presence of different types of landmark. We interrupted tandem runs by taking away the leader and moved a large distant landmark behind the new nest just at the time of this separation. Our aim was to determine what information followers might have obtained from the incomplete tandem run they had followed, and how they behaved after the tandem run had been interrupted. Our results show that former followers search by using composite random strategies with elements of sub-diffusive and diffusive movements. Furthermore, when we provided more landmarks former followers searched for longer. However, when all landmarks were removed completely from the arena, the ants' search duration lasted up to four times longer. Hence, their search strategy changes in the presence or absence of landmarks. Even after extensive search of this kind, former followers headed back to their old nest but did not return along the path of the tandem run they had followed. The combination of the position to which the large distant landmark behind the new nest was moved and the presence or absence of additional landmarks influenced the orientation of the former followers' paths back to the old nest. We also found that these ants exhibit behavioural lateralization in which they possibly use their right eye more than their left eye to recognize landmarks for navigation. Our results suggest that former follower ants learn landmarks during tandem running and use this information to make strategic decisions. PMID:24198259

  12. Exploring Minimal Nonverbal Interruption in Social HRI Paul Saulnier, Ehud Sharlin and Saul Greenberg

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Saul

    communication to interrupting users. Yet many robots will be non-verbal, and there are likely many situationsExploring Minimal Nonverbal Interruption in Social HRI Paul Saulnier, Ehud Sharlin and Saul evaluate a minimal set of physical and nonverbal cues that can be exhibited by a robot to initiate robot

  13. Effects of Modality on Interrupted Flight Deck Performance: Implications for Data Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorella, Kara A.

    1997-01-01

    Externally-imposed tasks frequently interrupt ongoing task performance in the commercial flight deck. While normally managed without consequence, basic research as well as aviation accident and incident investigations show that interruptions can negatively affect performance and safety. This research investigates the influence of interruption and interrupted task modality on pilot performance in a simulated commercial flight deck. Fourteen current commercial airline pilots performed approach scenarios in a fixed-base flight simulator. Air traffic control instructions, conveyed either aurally or visually (via a data link system) interrupted a visual task (obtaining information from the Flight Management System) and an auditory task (listening to the automated terminal information service recording). Some results confirm the hypothesized performance advantage of cross-modality conditions, more compelling nature of auditory interruptions, and interruption-resistance of auditory ongoing tasks. However, taken together, results suggest the four interaction conditions had different effects on pilot performance. These results have implications for the design of data link systems, and for facilitating interruption management through interface design, aiding, and training programs.

  14. Natural convection from rectangular interrupted fins Mehran Ahmadi, Golnoosh Mostafavi, Majid Bahrami*

    E-print Network

    Bahrami, Majid

    Natural convection from rectangular interrupted fins Mehran Ahmadi, Golnoosh Mostafavi, Majid: Heat transfer Natural convection Interrupted fins Optimum gap Experimental study Numerical simulation a b s t r a c t Steady-state external natural convection heat transfer from vertically

  15. 46 CFR 401.420 - Cancellation, delay or interruption in rendition of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cancellation, delay or interruption in rendition of services. 401.420 Section 401.420 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage Services § 401.420 Cancellation, delay or interruption...

  16. 46 CFR 401.420 - Cancellation, delay or interruption in rendition of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 401.420, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... of the interruption or when a U.S. pilot is detained on board a ship after the end of an assignment... continues. There is no charge for an interruption or detention caused by ice, weather or traffic,...

  17. 46 CFR 401.420 - Cancellation, delay or interruption in rendition of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 401.420, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... of the interruption or when a U.S. pilot is detained on board a ship after the end of an assignment... continues. There is no charge for an interruption or detention caused by ice, weather or traffic,...

  18. 46 CFR 401.420 - Cancellation, delay or interruption in rendition of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 401.420, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... of the interruption or when a U.S. pilot is detained on board a ship after the end of an assignment... continues. There is no charge for an interruption or detention caused by ice, weather or traffic,...

  19. Multitasking and Interruptions: A SIG on bridging the gap between research

    E-print Network

    Salvucci, Dario D.

    Multitasking and Interruptions: A SIG on bridging the gap between research on the micro and macro and multitasking behaviour. Research in the area falls into two broad categories: the micro world of perception effectively incommensurable. Designing safer and more efficient interactions in interrupted and multitasking

  20. 77 FR 66080 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ...''). 75 FR 62420 (Oct. 8, 2010). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930... COMMISSION Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same AGENCY: U.S. International... the sale within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters...

  1. 76 FR 35014 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Leviton Manufacturing Co. (``Leviton'') of Melville, New York. 75 FR 62420 (Oct. 8, 2010). The complaint... Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Determination... importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by reason...

  2. 77 FR 26579 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Leviton Manufacturing Co., of Melville, New York (``Leviton''). 75 FR 62420 (Oct. 8, 2010). The complaint... COMMISSION Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Final... the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and...

  3. Discourse Markers in Turn-Initial Positions in Interruptive Speech in a Malaysian Radio Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nor, Siti Nurbaya Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Discourse markers play significant roles in any spoken interaction. This research examines the functions of the discourse markers (DMs) well, now and and used as turn-initial interruptive devices in a Malaysian radio discourse. Using Schegloff's (2002) framework of what constitutes an interruption in turn-taking and previous studies on the…

  4. Observation and Modeling of Interrupted Pattern Coarsening: Surface Nanostructuring by Ion Erosion

    E-print Network

    Cuerno, Rodolfo

    Observation and Modeling of Interrupted Pattern Coarsening: Surface Nanostructuring by Ion Erosion the experimental observation of interrupted coarsening for surface self-organized nano- structuring by ion erosion systems, from colloids [4] to social dynamics [5], to ion- beam erosion of solid targets [6,7]. Actually

  5. A Model for Human Interruptability: Experimental Evaluation and Automatic Estimation from Wearable Sensors

    E-print Network

    A Model for Human Interruptability: Experimental Evaluation and Automatic Estimation from Wearable interruptability in wearable and mobile settings, we propose in [8] to distinguish be- tween the users' personal present a novel approach to estimate the social and personal inter- ruptability of a user from wearable

  6. 33 CFR 159.89 - Power interruption: Type I and II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01...false Power interruption: Type I and II devices. 159.89...89 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...89 Power interruption: Type I and II devices. A...

  7. Interruptions in the collagen repeating tripeptide pattern can promote supramolecular association

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eileen S; Thiagarajan, Geetha; Parmar, Avanish S; Brodsky, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The standard collagen triple-helix requires a perfect (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)n sequence, yet all nonfibrillar collagens contain interruptions in this tripeptide repeating pattern. Defining the structural consequences of disruptions in the sequence pattern may shed light on the biological role of sequence interruptions, which have been suggested to play a role in molecular flexibility, collagen degradation, and ligand binding. Previous studies on model peptides with 1- and 4-residue interruptions showed a localized perturbation within the triple-helix, and this work is extended to introduce natural collagen interruptions up to nine residue in length within a fixed (Gly-Pro-Hyp)n peptide context. All peptides in this set show decreases in triple-helix content and stability, with greater conformational perturbations for the interruptions longer than five residue. The most stable and least perturbed structure is seen for the 5-residue interruption peptide, whose sequence corresponds to a Gly to Ala missense mutation, such as those leading to collagen genetic diseases. The triple-helix peptides containing 8- and 9-residue interruptions exhibit a strong propensity for self-association to fibrous structures. In addition, a small peptide modeling only the 9-residue sequence within the interruption aggregates to form amyloid-like fibrils with antiparallel ?-sheet structure. The 8- and 9-residue interruption sequences studied here are predicted to have significant cross-? aggregation potential, and a similar propensity is reported for ?10% of other naturally occurring interruptions. The presence of amyloidogenic sequences within or between triple-helix domains may play a role in molecular association to normal tissue structures and could participate in observed interactions between collagen and amyloid. PMID:20340134

  8. ICE System: Interruptible control expert system. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vezina, James M.

    1990-01-01

    The Interruptible Control Expert (ICE) System is based on an architecture designed to provide a strong foundation for real-time production rule expert systems. Three principles are adopted to guide the development of ICE. A practical delivery platform must be provided, no specialized hardware can be used to solve deficiencies in the software design. Knowledge of the environment and the rule-base is exploited to improve the performance of a delivered system. The third principle of ICE is to respond to the most critical event, at the expense of the more trivial tasks. Minimal time is spent on classifying the potential importance of environmental events with the majority of the time used for finding the responses. A feature of the system, derived from all three principles, is the lack of working memory. By using a priori information, a fixed amount of memory can be specified for the hardware platform. The absence of working memory removes the dangers of garbage collection during the continuous operation of the controller.

  9. Interruption of malaria transmission by chloroquinized salt in Guyana

    PubMed Central

    Giglioli, George; Rutten, Frans J.; Ramjattan, S.

    1967-01-01

    Malaria and its local vector, Anopheles darlingi, were eradicated from the coastlands and near interior of Guyana by DDT house-spraying in 1945-51. In the remote interior, where 10% of the population live, only partial control could be achieved, owing to the semi-silvatic habits of A. darlingi and the considerable movement of the sparse population; low malaria endemicity persisted in these areas with occasional localized outbreaks. In the south-west the problem was further complicated by the presence of malaria across the frontier. During the years 1961-65, the use of chloroquinized salt was made compulsory over an area of some 109 000 km2, covering a population of 48 500. Satisfactory results were obtained over 84% of this area within 6 months of the start of the campaign; only four cases of malaria were seen in four years. In the south-west, however, an initially favourable trend was reversed in 1962 with the introduction of a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum from Brazil. The situation was brought under control by house-spraying with DDT and interruption of transmission is expected. PMID:4864651

  10. Progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus transmission - worldwide, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-05-14

    In 1988, an estimated 350,000 cases of poliomyelitis were occurring annually worldwide. By 2005, because of global vaccination efforts, indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) types 1 and 3 (WPV1 and WPV3) had been eliminated from all but four countries (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan). No cases of WPV type 2 have been reported since 1999. This report describes progress toward global WPV eradication during 2009 and updates previous reports. During 2009 a total of 1,606 cases of WPV infection were reported, compared with 1,651 in 2008. WPV3 incidence increased 67%, to 1,124 cases, compared with 675 in 2008. However, WPV1 incidence decreased 51%, to 482 cases in 2009, compared with 976 cases in 2008. In India, nearly all polio cases in 2009 were reported in high-risk districts in western Uttar Pradesh and central Bihar. In Afghanistan and Pakistan, WPV circulation in high-risk districts continued because of difficulties vaccinating children in conflict-affected areas and operational limitations in parts of Pakistan. In Nigeria, cases decreased by 51%, to 388 cases in 2009, compared with 798 in 2008. During 2009, outbreaks from importation of WPV affected 19 previously polio-free African countries. Two key steps are needed to make further progress in polio eradication: 1) addressing local barriers to interrupting transmission, and 2) using bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) broadly for WPV 1 and 3 in supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). PMID:20467412

  11. Interrupted time-series analysis: studying trends in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ricky H; Smieliauskas, Fabrice; Pan, I-Wen; Lam, Sandi K

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Neurosurgery studies traditionally have evaluated the effects of interventions on health care outcomes by studying overall changes in measured outcomes over time. Yet, this type of linear analysis is limited due to lack of consideration of the trend's effects both pre- and postintervention and the potential for confounding influences. The aim of this study was to illustrate interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA) as applied to an example in the neurosurgical literature and highlight ITSA's potential for future applications. METHODS The methods used in previous neurosurgical studies were analyzed and then compared with the methodology of ITSA. RESULTS The ITSA method was identified in the neurosurgical literature as an important technique for isolating the effect of an intervention (such as a policy change or a quality and safety initiative) on a health outcome independent of other factors driving trends in the outcome. The authors determined that ITSA allows for analysis of the intervention's immediate impact on outcome level and on subsequent trends and enables a more careful measure of the causal effects of interventions on health care outcomes. CONCLUSIONS ITSA represents a significant improvement over traditional observational study designs in quantifying the impact of an intervention. ITSA is a useful statistical procedure to understand, consider, and implement as the field of neurosurgery evolves in sophistication in big-data analytics, economics, and health services research. PMID:26621420

  12. Execution-Based Model Checking of Interrupt-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drusinsky, Doron; Havelund, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Execution-based model checking (EMC) is a verification technique based on executing a multi-threaded/multiprocess program repeatedly in a systematic manner in order to explore the different interleavings of the program. This is in contrast to traditional model checking, where a model of a system is analyzed Several execution-based model-checking tools exist at this point, such as for example Verisoft and Java PathFinder. The most common formal specification languages used by EMC tools are un- timed, either just assertions, or linear-time temporal logic (LTL). An alternative verification technique is Runtime Execution Monitoring (REM), which is based on monitor- ing the execution of a program, checking that the execution trace conforms to a requirement specification. The Temporal Rover and DBRover are such tools. They provide a very rich specification language, being an extension of LTL with real-time constraints and time-series. We show how execution-based model checking, combined with runtime execution monitoring, can be used for the verification of a large class of safety critical systems commonly known as interrupt-based systems. The proposed approach is novel in that: (i) it supports model checking of a large class of applications not practically verifiable using conventional EMC tools, (ii) it supports verification of LTL assertions extended with real-time and time-series constraints, and (iii) it supports the verification of custom schedulers.

  13. Ocular motor anatomy in a case of interrupted saccades.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Janet C; Leigh, R John; Optican, Lance M; Keller, Edward L; Bu Ttner-Ennever, Jean A

    2008-01-01

    Saccades normally place the eye on target with one smooth movement. In late-onset Tay-Sachs (LOTS), intrasaccadic transient decelerations occur that may result from (1) premature omnipause neuron (OPN) re-activation due to malfunction of the latch circuit that inhibits OPNs for the duration of the saccade or (2) premature inhibitory burst neuron (IBN) activation due to fastigial nucleus (FN) dysregulation by the dorsal cerebellar vermis. Neuroanatomic analysis of a LOTS brain was performed. Purkinje cells were absent and gliosis of the granular cell layer was present in the dorsal cerebellar vermis. Deep cerebellar nuclei contained large inclusions. IBNs were present with small inclusions. The sample did not contain the complete OPN region; however, neurons in the OPN region contained massive inclusions. Pathologic findings suggest that premature OPN re-activation and/or inappropriate firing of IBNs may be responsible for interrupted saccades in LOTS. Cerebellar clinical dysfunction, lack of saccadic slowing, and significant loss of cerebellar cells suggest that the second cause is more likely. PMID:18718354

  14. 75 FR 70289 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ...Investigation No. 337-TA-739] In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of...within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same....

  15. 43 CFR 3481.4-3 - Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements applicable to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...4-3 Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence...

  16. 75 FR 62420 - In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice... United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing same... after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing same...

  17. Electric Power Interruption Cost Estimates for Individual Industries, Sectors, and the U.S. Economy 

    E-print Network

    Balducci, P. J.; Roop, J. M.; Schienbein, L. A.; DeSteese, J. G.; Weimar, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    interruption cost estimates by industry and sector. When properly designed and executed, this approach can generate reliable cost estimates based on data provided directly by end users. The primary problem with this method is the time and high cost... (Ontario Hydro 1977) Canada 1977 C$15/kW - 15-Minute Interruption C$91/kW - I-Hour Interruption Shipley (Shipley et at. 1972) United States 1972 US$0.60/kWh Stoll (Stoll 1989) United States 1989 IndustrialJCommercial - US$7/kWh Train and Woo (Train...

  18. Progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus transmission--worldwide, 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-04-01

    Since 1988, when the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was established, the incidence of polio has decreased from an estimated 350,000 cases annually to 1,655 reported in 2008. Cases of wild poliovirus (WPV) type 2 were last reported in October 1999, and indigenous WPV types 1 and 3 (WPV1 and WPV3) have been eliminated from all but four countries worldwide (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan). This report updates previous reports and describes overall progress toward global eradication in 2008. Despite accelerated efforts, polio cases increased 26%, from 1,315 cases in 2007 to 1,655 in 2008. This increase primarily resulted from an increase in Nigeria from 285 cases in 2007 to 801 cases in 2008. Resurgent WPV1 transmission in northern states of Nigeria spread to polio-free southern states and eight neighboring countries in 2008. In India, repeated use of monovalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) type 1 (mOPV1) during 2005--2008 interrupted WPV1 transmission in the western districts of the northern state of Uttar Pradesh for >12 months during 2007--2008; however, in mid-2008, WPV1 imported from the neighboring state of Bihar caused renewed transmission. In Afghanistan and Pakistan, problems in accessing children in conflict-affected areas increased, and an upsurge in WPV1 and WPV3 cases occurred, including an outbreak of WPV1 in Punjab Province, Pakistan. In Africa, during 2008, sustained WPV transmission for >12 months after importation continued in Angola, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Niger, and southern Sudan. Increased political oversight and accountability and improved vaccination outreach to insecure areas are needed to achieve the eradication goal. PMID:19343011

  19. SOHO Mission Interruption Joint NASA/ESA Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Contact with the SOlar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft was lost in the early morning hours of June 25, 1998, Eastern Daylight Time (EDT), during a planned period of calibrations, maneuvers, and spacecraft reconfigurations. Prior to this the SOHO operations team had concluded two years of extremely successful science operations. A joint European Space Agency (ESA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engineering team has been planning and executing recovery efforts since loss of contact with some success to date. ESA and NASA management established the SOHO Mission Interruption Joint Investigation Board to determine the actual or probable cause(s) of the SOHO spacecraft mishap. The Board has concluded that there were no anomalies on-board the SOHO spacecraft but that a number of ground errors led to the major loss of attitude experienced by the spacecraft. The Board finds that the loss of the SOHO spacecraft was a direct result of operational errors, a failure to adequately monitor spacecraft status, and an erroneous decision which disabled part of the on-board autonomous failure detection. Further, following the occurrence of the emergency situation, the Board finds that insufficient time was taken by the operations team to fully assess the spacecraft status prior to initiating recovery operations. The Board discovered that a number of factors contributed to the circumstances that allowed the direct causes to occur. The Board strongly recommends that the two Agencies proceed immediately with a comprehensive review of SOHO operations addressing issues in the ground procedures, procedure implementation, management structure and process, and ground systems. This review process should be completed and process improvements initiated prior to the resumption of SOHO normal operations.

  20. 78 FR 65904 - Permanent Discontinuance or Interruption in Manufacturing of Certain Drug or Biological Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 20, 310, 314...Discontinuance or Interruption in Manufacturing of Certain Drug or Biological Products AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed...

  1. Functional Interrupts and Destructive Failures from Single Event Effect Testing of Point-Of-Load Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Dakai; Phan, Anthony; Kim, Hak; Swonger, James; Musil, Paul; LaBel, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    We show examples of single event functional interrupt and destructive failure in modern POL devices. The increasing complexity and diversity of the design and process introduce hard SEE modes that are triggered by various mechanisms.

  2. Nested Interrupt Analysis of Low Cost and High Performance Embedded Systems Using GSPN Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-Min

    Interrupt service routines are a key technology for embedded systems. In this paper, we introduce the standard approach for using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPNs) as a high-level model for generating CTMC Continuous-Time Markov Chains (CTMCs) and then use Markov Reward Models (MRMs) to compute the performance for embedded systems. This framework is employed to analyze two embedded controllers with low cost and high performance, ARM7 and Cortex-M3. Cortex-M3 is designed with a tail-chaining mechanism to improve the performance of ARM7 when a nested interrupt occurs on an embedded controller. The Platform Independent Petri net Editor 2 (PIPE2) tool is used to model and evaluate the controllers in terms of power consumption and interrupt overhead performance. Using numerical results, in spite of the power consumption or interrupt overhead, Cortex-M3 performs better than ARM7.

  3. Safe and Structured Use of Interrupts in Real-Time and Embedded Software

    E-print Network

    Regehr, John

    to polling. Furthermore, modern embedded processor cores can save energy by shutting down when idle, leaving to track down since they manifest only rarely. These problems give interrupts a bad reputation for leading

  4. Investigating membrane and mitochondrial cryobiological responses of HUVEC using interrupted cooling protocols.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Anthony J F; Elliott, Janet A W; McGann, Locksley E

    2015-10-01

    The success of cryopreservation protocols is largely based on membrane integrity assessments after thawing, since membrane integrity can be considered to give an upper limit in assessment of cell viability and the plasma membrane is considered to be a primary site of cryoinjury. However, the exposure of cells to conditions associated with low temperatures can induce injury to cellular structure and function that may not be readily identified by membrane integrity alone. Interrupted cooling protocols (including interrupted slow cooling without a hold time (graded freezing), and interrupted rapid cooling with a hold time (two-step freezing)), can yield important information about cryoinjury by separating the damage that occurs upon cooling to (and possibly holding at) a critical intermediate temperature range from the damage that occurs upon plunging to the storage temperature (liquid nitrogen). In this study, we used interrupted cooling protocols in the absence of cryoprotectant to investigate the progression of damage to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), comparing an assessment of membrane integrity with a mitochondrial polarization assay. Additionally, the membrane integrity response of HUVEC to interrupted cooling was investigated as a function of cooling rate (for interrupted slow cooling) and hold time (for interrupted rapid cooling). A key finding of this work was that under slow cooling conditions which resulted in a large number of membrane intact cells immediately post thaw, mitochondria are predominantly in a non-functional depolarized state. This study, the first to look directly at mitochondrial polarization throughout interrupted cooling profiles and a detailed study of HUVEC response, highlights the complexity of the progression of cell damage, as the pattern and extent of cell injury throughout the preservation process differs by injury site. PMID:26254036

  5. Interrupted Time Series Versus Statistical Process Control in Quality Improvement Projects.

    PubMed

    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus; Andersson Gäre, Boel; Elg, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    To measure the effect of quality improvement interventions, it is appropriate to use analysis methods that measure data over time. Examples of such methods include statistical process control analysis and interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis. This article compares the use of statistical process control analysis and interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis for evaluating the longitudinal effects of quality improvement interventions, using an example study on an evaluation of a computerized decision support system. PMID:26018566

  6. Differential effects of traffic sign stimuli upon speeding in school zones following a traffic light interruption.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Bree; Irwin, Julia D; Faulks, Ian J; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Motorists whose journey has been interrupted by signalized traffic intersections in school zones resume their journey at a faster vehicle speed than motorists who have not been required to stop. Introducing a flashing "check speed" sign 70m after the traffic intersections counteracts this interruptive effect. The present study examined which aspects of a reminder sign are responsible for reducing the speeding behavior of interrupted motorists. When a sign that combines both written text and flashing lights was introduced, interrupted motorists did not speed, traveling on average 0.82km/h below the 40km/h speed limit when measured 100m from traffic intersections. Alternatively, when only the flashing lights were visible the interrupted motorists sped 3.36km/h over the 40km/h speed limit. Similar vehicular speeds were observed when only the written text was visible and when no sign was present (7.67 and 7.49km/h over the 40km/h speed limit, respectively). This indicates that static reminder signs add little value over the absence of a school zone reminder sign; the presence of both cues is necessary to fully offset the interruptive effect. This study also highlights the benefit of using exogenous visual cues in traffic signs to capture drivers' attention. These findings have practical implications for the design and use of traffic signs to increase compliance with posted speed limits. PMID:26545011

  7. Discharge Properties in Low Vacuum Region of Vacuum Interrupter Filled with SF6 Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarol, Mohamad; Ohtsuka, Shinya; Saitoh, Hitoshi; Sakaki, Masayuki; Hikita, Masayuki

    This paper deals with the discharge properties in low vacuum region of practical vacuum interrupter filled with SF6 gas. In field, the vacuum interrupter inside the cubicle-gas insulated switchgear is surrounded by SF6 gas. If the leakages occur, the surrounding gas may invade the vacuum interrupter and increase the internal pressure. Thus, the pressures are set at 1.3 Pa to 2.6 kPa to simulate the leakage. The measurement of discharge occurring inside the vacuum interrupter was performed with a photomultiplier tube. From the result of the experiment, it is found that the pressure of vacuum interrupter below and above 50 Pa can be distinguished on the basis of the rise time, peak intensity and width of the discharge light pulse. The result reveals that the discharge pulses at pressures below 50 Pa have the relatively larger rise time of 100ns order, and larger pulse width of 2?s order. While, for pressures above 50 Pa, the rise time have relatively smaller value of 10 ns and pulse width of 0.1?s order. The result also shows significant difference in discharge characteristics compared with those in low vacuum of vacuum interrupter filled with air that we have investigated previously.

  8. Repeat interruptions in spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 expansions are strongly associated with epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Karen N; Liu, Jilin; Landrian, Ivette; Zeng, Desmond; Raskin, Salmo; Moscovich, Mariana; Gatto, Emilia M; Ochoa, Adriana; Teive, Hélio A G; Rasmussen, Astrid; Ashizawa, Tetsuo

    2014-03-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, is the result of a non-coding, pentanucleotide repeat expansion within intron 9 of the Ataxin 10 gene. SCA10 patients present with pure cerebellar ataxia; yet, some families also have a high incidence of epilepsy. SCA10 expansions containing penta- and heptanucleotide interruption motifs, termed "ATCCT interruptions," experience large contractions during germline transmission, particularly in paternal lineages. At the same time, these alleles confer an earlier age at onset which contradicts traditional rules of genetic anticipation in repeat expansions. Previously, ATCCT interruptions have been associated with a higher prevalence of epileptic seizures in one Mexican-American SCA10 family. In a large cohort of SCA10 families, we analyzed whether ATCCT interruptions confer a greater risk for developing seizures in these families. Notably, we find that the presence of repeat interruptions within the SCA10 expansion confers a 6.3-fold increase in the risk of an SCA10 patient developing epilepsy (6.2-fold when considering patients of Mexican ancestry only) and a 13.7-fold increase in having a positive family history of epilepsy (10.5-fold when considering patients of Mexican ancestry only). We conclude that the presence of repeat interruptions in SCA10 repeat expansion indicates a significant risk for the epilepsy phenotype and should be considered during genetic counseling. PMID:24318420

  9. Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, L.B.

    1998-08-18

    An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined. 17 figs.

  10. Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, Lowell B. (2181-13th Ave. SW., Largo, FL 34640)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined.

  11. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Northern Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis is caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium species (black flies). In the Americas, the infection has been previously described in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela) where more than 370,000 people are currently considered at risk. Since 2001, disease control in Venezuela has relied on the mass drug administration to the at-risk communities. This report provides empirical evidence of interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium metallicum in 510 endemic communities from two Northern foci of Venezuela, after 10–12 years of 6-monthly Mectizan® (ivermectin) treatment to all the eligible residents. Methods In-depth entomologic and epidemiologic surveys were serially conducted from 2001–2012 in selected (sentinel and extra-sentinel) communities from the North-central (NC) and North-east (NE) onchocerciasis foci of Venezuela in order to monitor the impact of ivermectin treatment. Results From 2007–2009, entomological indicators in both foci confirmed that 0 out of 112,637 S. metallicum females examined by PCR contained L3 infection in insect heads. The upper bound of the 95% confidence intervals of the infective rate of the vector reached values below 1% by 2009 (NC) and 2012 (NE). Additionally, after 14 (NC) and 22 (NE) rounds of treatment, the seasonal transmission potential (±UL CIs) of S. metallicum was under the critical threshold of 20 L3 per person per season. Serological analysis in school children < 15 years-old demonstrated that 0 out of 6,590 individuals were harboring antibodies to Ov-16. Finally, epidemiological surveys made during 2010 (NC) and 2012 (NE) showed no evidence of microfilariae in the skin and eyes of the population. Conclusions These results meet the WHO criteria for absence of parasite transmission and disease morbidity in these endemic areas which represent 91% of the population previously at-risk in the country. Consequently, the two Northern foci are currently under post-treatment onchocerciasis surveillance status in Venezuela. PMID:24499653

  12. Errors and electronic prescribing: a controlled laboratory study to examine task complexity and interruption effects

    PubMed Central

    Li, Simon Y W; Day, Richard O; Coiera, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of interruptions and task complexity on error rates when prescribing with computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems, and to categorize the types of prescribing errors. Design Two within-subject factors: task complexity (complex vs simple) and interruption (interruption vs no interruption). Thirty-two hospital doctors used a CPOE system in a computer laboratory to complete four prescribing tasks, half of which were interrupted using a counterbalanced design. Measurements Types of prescribing errors, error rate, resumption lag, and task completion time. Results Errors in creating and updating electronic medication charts that were measured included failure to enter allergy information; selection of incorrect medication, dose, route, formulation, or frequency of administration from lists and drop-down menus presented by the CPOE system; incorrect entry or omission in entering administration times, start date, and free-text qualifiers; and omissions in prescribing and ceasing medications. When errors occurred, the error rates across the four prescribing tasks ranged from 0.5% (1 incorrect medication selected out of 192 chances for selecting a medication or error opportunities) to 16% (5 failures to enter allergy information out of 32 error opportunities). Any impact of interruptions on prescribing error rates and task completion times was not detected in our experiment. However, complex tasks took significantly longer to complete (F(1, 27)=137.9; p<0.001) and when execution was interrupted they required almost three times longer to resume compared to simple tasks (resumption lag complex=9.6?seconds, SD=5.6; resumption lag simple=3.4?seconds, SD=1.7; t(28)=6.186; p<0.001). Conclusion Most electronic prescribing errors found in this study could be described as slips in using the CPOE system to create and update electronic medication charts. Cues available within the user interface may have aided resumption of interrupted tasks making CPOE systems robust to some interruption effects. Further experiments are required to rule out any effect interruption might have on CPOE error rates. PMID:20819867

  13. Effect of Radiotherapy Interruptions on Survival in Medicare Enrollees With Local and Regional Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fesinmeyer, Megan Dann; Mehta, Vivek; Blough, David; Tock, Lauri; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether interruptions in radiotherapy are associated with decreased survival in a population-based sample of head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database we identified Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years and older diagnosed with local-regional head-and-neck cancer during the period 1997-2003. We examined claims records of 3864 patients completing radiotherapy for the presence of one or more 5-30-day interruption(s) in therapy. We then performed Cox regression analyses to estimate the association between therapy interruptions and survival. Results: Patients with laryngeal tumors who experienced an interruption in radiotherapy had a 68% (95% confidence interval, 41-200%) increased risk of death, compared with patients with no interruptions. Patients with nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oral, salivary gland, and sinus tumors had similar associations between interruptions and increased risk of death, but these did not reach statistical significance because of small sample sizes. Conclusions: Treatment interruptions seem to influence survival time among patients with laryngeal tumors completing a full course of radiotherapy. At all head-and-neck sites, the association between interruptions and survival is sensitive to confounding by stage and other treatments. Further research is needed to develop methods to identify patients most susceptible to interruption-induced mortality.

  14. Workflow interruptions, social stressors from supervisor(s) and attention failure in surgery personnel

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Diana; MÜLLER, Patrick; ELFERING, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Workflow interruptions and social stressors among surgery personnel may cause attention failure at work that may increase rumination about work issues during leisure time. The test of these assumptions should contribute to the understanding of exhaustion in surgery personnel and patient safety. Workflow interruptions and supervisor-related social stressors were tested to predict attention failure that predicts work-related rumination during leisure time. One hundred ninety-four theatre nurses, anaesthetists and surgeons from a Swiss University hospital participated in a cross-sectional survey. The participation rate was 58%. Structural equation modelling confirmed both indirect paths from workflow interruptions and social stressors via attention failure on rumination (both p<0.05). An alternative model, assuming the reversed indirect causation—from attention failure via workflow interruptions and social stressors on rumination—could not be empirically supported. Workflow interruptions and social stressors at work are likely to trigger attention failure in surgery personnel. Work redesign and team intervention could help surgery personnel to maintain a high level of quality and patient safety and detach from work related issues to recover during leisure time. PMID:26027706

  15. Workflow interruptions, social stressors from supervisor(s) and attention failure in surgery personnel.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Diana; Müller, Patrick; Elfering, Achim

    2015-10-01

    Workflow interruptions and social stressors among surgery personnel may cause attention failure at work that may increase rumination about work issues during leisure time. The test of these assumptions should contribute to the understanding of exhaustion in surgery personnel and patient safety. Workflow interruptions and supervisor-related social stressors were tested to predict attention failure that predicts work-related rumination during leisure time. One hundred ninety-four theatre nurses, anaesthetists and surgeons from a Swiss University hospital participated in a cross-sectional survey. The participation rate was 58%. Structural equation modelling confirmed both indirect paths from workflow interruptions and social stressors via attention failure on rumination (both p<0.05). An alternative model, assuming the reversed indirect causation-from attention failure via workflow interruptions and social stressors on rumination-could not be empirically supported. Workflow interruptions and social stressors at work are likely to trigger attention failure in surgery personnel. Work redesign and team intervention could help surgery personnel to maintain a high level of quality and patient safety and detach from work related issues to recover during leisure time. PMID:26027706

  16. Arcing and interruption phenomena in ac vacuum switchgear and in dc switches subjected to magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kimblin, C.W.

    1983-09-01

    Vacuum interrupters are extensively used in contactors, motor starters, tap-changers, distribution apparatus, and metalclad switchgear. The present paper reviews this growing technology with descriptions of the internal components of a vacuum interrupter, a brief history of the development steps, and a discussion of the range of application of these devices. The basic physical properties of cathode and anode spots are described, together with a discussion of the arcing and interruption phenomena which occur in vacuum interrupters during an ac wave. This includes a description of arc initiation, the high current arc mode, current zero phenomena, and dielectric recovery plus voltage withstand. The influence of electrode material and electrode configuration is included. The paper concludes with a brief description of dc applications for vacuum interrupters, where axial magnetic fields have been used in conjunction with current counterpulse in tokamak circuits, and transverse magnetic fields have been used to commutate current from vacuum arcs to parallel circuits. The extensive references have been selected to give the reader a broader overview of vacuum switching technology.

  17. Supervisory-level interruption recovery in time-critical control tasks.

    PubMed

    Sasangohar, Farzan; Scott, Stacey D; Cummings, M L

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of providing interruption recovery assistance in the form of an interactive visual timeline of historical events on a peripheral display in support of team supervision in time-critical settings. As interruptions can have detrimental effects on task performance, particularly in time-critical work environments, there is growing interest in the design of tools to assist people in resuming their pre-interruption activity. A user study was conducted to evaluate the use of an interactive event timeline that provides assistance to human supervisors in time-critical settings. The study was conducted in an experimental platform that emulated a team of operators and a mission commander performing a time-critical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mission. The study results showed that providing interruption assistance enabled people to recover from interruptions faster and more accurately. These results have implications for interface design that could be adopted in similar time-critical environments such as air-traffic control, process control, and first responders. PMID:24581931

  18. Activation and inhibition of posterior parietal cortex have bi-directional effects on spatial errors following interruptions

    PubMed Central

    Foroughi, Cyrus K.; Blumberg, Eric J.; Parasuraman, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Interruptions to ongoing mental activities are omnipresent in our modern digital world, but the brain networks involved in interrupted performance are not known, nor have the activation of those networks been modulated. Errors following interruptions reflect failures in spatial memory, whose maintenance is supported by a brain network including the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC). The present study therefore used bi-directional transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) of right PPC to examine the neuromodulation of spatial errors following interruptions, as well as performance on another PPC-dependent task, mental rotation. Anodal stimulation significantly reduced the number of interruption-based errors and increased mental rotation accuracy whereas cathodal stimulation significantly increased errors and reduced mental rotation accuracy. The results provide evidence for a causal role of the PPC in the maintenance of spatial representations during interrupted task performance. PMID:25628543

  19. The role of AGG interruptions in fragile X repeat expansions: a twenty-year perspective

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Gary J.; Coppinger, Justine; Hadd, Andrew G.; Nolin, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, it was suggested that AGG interruptions affect the stability of the fragile X triplet repeat. Until recently, however, this hypothesis was not explored on a large scale due primarily to the technical difficulty of determining AGG interruption patterns of the two alleles in females. The recent development of a PCR technology that overcomes this difficulty and accurately identifies the number and position of AGGs has led to several studies that examine their influence on repeat stability. Here, we present a historical perspective of relevant studies published during the last 20 years on AGG interruptions and examine those recent publications that have refined risk estimates for repeat instability and full-mutation expansions. PMID:25120560

  20. Influence of the traffic interruption probability on traffic stability in lattice model for two-lane freeway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Guanghan; Liu, Changqing; Tuo, Manxian

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a new lattice model is proposed with the traffic interruption probability term in two-lane traffic system. The linear stability condition and the mKdV equation are derived from linear stability analysis and nonlinear analysis by introducing the traffic interruption probability of optimal current for two-lane traffic freeway, respectively. Numerical simulation shows that the traffic interruption probability corresponding to high reaction coefficient can efficiently improve the stability of two-lane traffic flow as traffic interruption occurs with lane changing.

  1. How interruptions in students' medical education affect their clinical performance evaluations.

    PubMed

    Kalishman, S; Santo-Gomez, L

    1990-11-01

    The enrollment records of 380 medical students from the graduating class of 1983-1988 at a four-year medical school were compared with the students' performances on two measures, third-year clinical rotation grades and National Board of Medical Examiners Part II examination (NBME-II) scores. Thirty-seven students (9.7%) interrupted their progress through medical school for negative (school-initiated, academic) reasons or neutral (student-initiated, nonacademic, or personal) reasons. On both performance measures, the students in the neutral group performed similarly to regular-progress students and significantly better than students who interrupted their attendance in medical school for negative reasons. PMID:2102102

  2. Interrupted Aortic Arch Type B in A Patient with Cat Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Belangero, Sintia Iole Nogueira; Bellucco, Fernanda Teixeira da Silva; Cernach, Mirlene C. S. P.; Hacker, April M.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2010-01-01

    We report a patient with cat eye syndrome and interrupted aortic arch type B, a typical finding in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Chromosomal analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed a supernumerary bisatellited isodicentric marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22. The segment from 22pter to 22q11.2 in the supernumerary chromosome found in our patient does not overlap with the region deleted in patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. However, the finding of an interrupted aortic arch type B is unusual in CES, although it is a frequent heart defect in the 22q11 deletion syndrome. PMID:19629279

  3. The effect of interrupted alcohol supply on spontaneous alcohol consumption by rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kornet, M; Goosen, C; Van Ree, J M

    1990-01-01

    The alcohol supply (a 16% and a 32%, v/v, ethanol-in-water solution) for eight male rhesus monkeys, who already have had free access to water and ethanol solutions concurrently for about one year, was interrupted for 1, 2 or 7 days. The previously acquired ethanol consuming behaviour appeared very resistant to extinction, because ethanol consumption was immediately resumed after renewed access, even at a temporarily increased level. Since physical withdrawal distress was not observed and the increase was higher when interruption lasted longer, the observed behaviour could be attributed to the reinforcing effects of ethanol, leading to specific ethanol-directed behaviour. PMID:2222574

  4. Teaching Refugee Learners with Interrupted Education in Science: Vocabulary, Literacy and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    With the globalisation of education, large numbers of students with interrupted schooling and low English literacy levels represent both a quantitative and qualitative shift in the kinds of students faced by teachers in classrooms. In Australia, after a year in an intensive English language programme, immigrant and refugee students are placed in…

  5. QUANTIFYING PHOTOVOLTAIC FIRE DANGER REDUCTION WITH ARC-FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTERS

    E-print Network

    , shock hazards, and cause system downtime in photovoltaic (PV) systems. The 2011 National Electrical Code installation and rooftop fires [1-4]. To address the hazards associated with PV arc-faults, the US National Electrical Code® (NEC) [5] has required arc-fault circuit interrupters (AFCIs), for PV systems greater than

  6. Response Interruption and Redirection for Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism: A Systematic Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassella, Megan Duffy; Sidener, Tina M.; Sidener, David W.; Progar, Patrick R.

    2011-01-01

    This study systematically replicated and extended previous research on response interruption and redirection (RIRD) by assessing instructed responses of a different topography than the target behavior, percentage of session spent in treatment, generalization of behavior reduction, and social validity of the intervention. Results showed that RIRD…

  7. Aging correlation functions of the interrupted fractional Fokker-Planck propagator

    E-print Network

    Cao, Jianshu

    Aging correlation functions of the interrupted fractional Fokker-Planck propagator James B The authors explore aging in a general semi-Markov process with arbitrary waiting time distributions coordination, but one can generalize the construction to incorporate cutoffs in the aging of the system, i

  8. Assigning Student Leaders: Decreasing Interruptions during Teacher-Led Small-Group Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Jeremy T.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Best, Tiffany L.; Wood, Allison; Luna, Elisa; Adcock, Wes

    2013-01-01

    The authors used a withdrawal design to evaluate an intervention designed to decrease interruptions during small-group instruction in a Kindergarten class. A new rule was put into place; during teacher-led small-group instruction, those not in the small group were required to address questions to designated student leaders, as opposed to…

  9. Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior Occasioned by Interruption of Free-Operant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagopian, Louis P.; Bruzek, Jennifer L.; Bowman, Lynn G.; Jennett, Heather K.

    2007-01-01

    The current study describes the assessment and treatment of the problem behavior of 3 individuals with autism for whom initial functional analysis results were inconclusive. Subsequent analyses revealed that the interruption of free-operant behavior using "do" requests (Study 1) as well as "do" and "don't" requests (Study 2) occasioned problem…

  10. IDTchecker: Rule-based Integrity Checking of Interrupt Descriptor Tables in Cloud Environments

    E-print Network

    Richard III, Golden G.

    of Computer Science, University of New Orleans, Lakefront Campus, New Orleans, LA 70148, United States (irfan, Virtualization, Malware, Interrupt Descriptor Table, Forensic Analysis 1. Introduction Memory forensics involves, they still suffer at least two major limitations: · They require an initialization phase where it is assumed

  11. IMR-Pathload: Robust Available Bandwidth Estimation under End-Host Interrupt Delay

    E-print Network

    Loguinov, Dmitri

    . Many paths in PlanetLab cannot be measured by Pathload. One of the main reasons for this is timing in detail under various end-host interrupt delays and find that its trend detection mechanism be- comes experiments in Emulab and Internet, we find that IMR-Pathload sub- stantially improves Pathload's measurement

  12. Influence of Gap Distance on Vacuum Arc Characteristics of Cup Type AMF Electrode in Vacuum Interrupters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shaoyong; Xiu, Shixin; Wang, Jimei; Shen, Zhengchao

    2006-11-01

    The greenhouse effect of SF6 is a great concern today. The development of high voltage vacuum circuit breakers becomes more important. The vacuum circuit breaker has minimum pollution to the environment. The vacuum interrupter is the key part of a vacuum circuit breaker. The interrupting characteristics in vacuum and arc-controlling technique are the main problems to be solved for a longer gap distance in developing high voltage vacuum interrupters. To understand the vacuum arc characteristics and provide effective technique to control vacuum arc in a long gap distance, the arc mode transition of a cup-type axial magnetic field electrode is observed by a high-speed charge coupled device (CCD) video camera under different gap distances while the arc voltage and arc current are recorded. The controlling ability of the axial magnetic field on vacuum arc obviously decreases when the gap distance is longer than 40 mm. The noise components and mean value of the arc voltage significantly increase. The effective method for controlling the vacuum arc characteristics is provided by long gap distances based on the test results. The test results can be used as a reference to develop high voltage and large capacity vacuum interrupters.

  13. The Effects of Response Interruption and Redirection and Sertraline on Vocal Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Caio F.; Clark, Kathy; Tereshko, Lisa; Ahearn, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Although response interruption and redirection (RIRD) has been shown to be successful in reducing vocal stereotypy, recent reports have suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may also reduce these behaviors. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effects of RIRD with and without sertraline on…

  14. Relational Identity Making on the Professional Landscape as a Substitute Teacher: Interruptions and Continuities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driedger-Enns, Lynnette M.

    2014-01-01

    This article, which comes out of a research project exploring teaching as intellectual work, focuses specifically on a young woman who worked as a substitute teacher after she graduated from a two-year teacher education program at her local university. For Penny, substitute teaching was an interruption as she shaped a professional life moving…

  15. 78 FR 73562 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same Final Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... (``Leviton''). 75 FR 62420 (Oct. 8, 2010). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the Tariff Act... Leviton. 77 FR 66080 (Nov. 1, 2012). The enforcement complaint alleged that domestic respondent American... COMMISSION Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same Final...

  16. 77 FR 11591 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same, Investigations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Melville, New York (``Leviton''). 75 FR 62420 (Oct. 8, 2010). The complaint and amended complaint alleged... Presidential Memorandum of July 21, 2005, 70 FR 43251 (July 26, 2005). During this period, the subject articles... Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same, Investigations:...

  17. 78 FR 47749 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ...., Inc., of Melville, New York (``Leviton''). 75 FR 62420 (Oct. 8, 2010). The complaint alleged... orders based on an enforcement complaint filed by Leviton. 77 FR 66080 (Nov. 1, 2012). The enforcement... COMMISSION Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same AGENCY: U.S....

  18. Further Evaluation of Response Interruption and Redirection as Treatment for Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Erin N.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Kodak, Tiffany; Worsdell, April S.; Keegan, Courtney

    2011-01-01

    The effects of 2 forms of response interruption and redirection (RIRD)--motor RIRD and vocal RIRD--were examined with 4 boys with autism to evaluate further the effects of this intervention and its potential underlying mechanisms. In Experiment 1, the effects of motor RIRD and vocal RIRD on vocal stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were…

  19. Interrupted speech perception: The effects of hearing sensitivity and frequency resolution

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Nelson, Peggy B.

    2010-01-01

    Jin & Nelson (2006) found that although amplified speech recognition performance of hearing-impaired (HI) listeners was equal to that of normal-hearing (NH) listeners in quiet and in steady noise, nevertheless HI listeners' performance was significantly poorer in modulated noise. As a follow-up, the current study investigated whether three factors, auditory integration, low-mid frequency audibility and auditory filter bandwidths, might contribute to reduced sentence recognition of HI listeners in the presence of modulated interference. Three findings emerged. First, sentence recognition in modulated noise found in Jin & Nelson (2006) was highly correlated with perception of sentences interrupted by silent gaps. This suggests that understanding speech interrupted by either noise or silent gaps require similar perceptual integration of speech fragments available either in the dips of a gated noise or across silent gaps of an interrupted speech signal. Second, those listeners with greatest hearing losses in the low frequencies were poorest at understanding interrupted sentences. Third, low-to mid-frequency hearing thresholds accounted for most of the variability in Masking Release (MR) for HI listeners. As suggested by Oxenham and his colleagues (2003 and 2009), low-frequency information within speech plays an important role in the perceptual segregation of speech from competing background noise. PMID:20707457

  20. The Behavior Chain Interruption Strategy: Generalization to Out-of-Routine Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunsell, Julie; Carter, Mark

    2002-01-01

    The behavior chain interruption strategy was used to teach four students with mental retardation and severe communication disorders the skill of requesting. All students learned requesting with a routine using graphic symbols and generalized these skills to two untaught routines. All also generalized requesting to out-of-routine contexts involving…

  1. Timing for distribution and interrupt control for the TOPAZ Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, H.; Enomoto, R.; Kawabata, S.; Yamauchi, M.; Imanishi, A.; Ishii, T.; Maruyama, K.; Masuda, H.; Okumo, H.; Ukai, K.

    1987-02-01

    In order to provide a standardized control for the data acquisition system for the TOPAZ detector, a Timing Server/Receiver scheme was developed. The entire system is under control of the Interrupt Control Section, which manages an integral operation of the data acquisition system in the FASTBUS environment.

  2. Improving Memory after Interruption: Exploiting Soft Constraints and Manipulating Information Access Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Phillip L.; Patrick, John; Waldron, Samuel M.; King, Sophia L.; Patrick, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    Forgetting what one was doing prior to interruption is an everyday problem. The recent soft constraints hypothesis (Gray, Sims, Fu, & Schoelles, 2006) emphasizes the strategic adaptation of information processing strategy to the task environment. It predicts that increasing information access cost (IAC: the time, and physical and mental effort…

  3. Mitigating Disruptive Effects of Interruptions through Training: What Needs to Be Practiced?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cades, David M.; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A.; Trafton, J. Gregory; Monk, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    It is generally accepted that, with practice, people improve on most tasks. However, when tasks have multiple parts, it is not always clear what aspects of the tasks practice or training should focus on. This research explores the features that allow training to improve the ability to resume a task after an interruption, specifically focusing on…

  4. The basolateral amygdala mediates the effects of cues associated with meal interruption on feeding behavior

    PubMed Central

    Galarce, Ezequiel M.; McDannald, Michael A.; Holland, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Considerable evidence shows that environmental cues that signal food delivery when rats are food-deprived can substantially potentiate feeding later when rats are food-sated. Similarly, cues associated with meal interruption, food removal or impending food scarcity may also induce increased eating. For example, after learning the association between a discrete “interruption” stimulus and the unexpected termination of food trials, sated rats show enhanced food consumption when exposed to that stimulus. In Experiment 1, unlike sham-lesioned controls, rats with bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) failed to display such cue-potentiated feeding. In Experiment 2, potentiation of feeding by an interruption signal was found to be food-specific. That is, a stimulus that signaled interruption of trials with one food but not trials with a second food later only facilitated consumption of the first food. These studies extend our knowledge of the psychological and neural processes underlying cue-induced feeding. Understanding these mechanisms may contribute our understanding of the etiology and treatment of binge eating disorders. PMID:20171956

  5. 76 FR 17670 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of... importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by reason...

  6. 75 FR 70289 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of... importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same. The...

  7. 76 FR 2708 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of... importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same. The...

  8. 43 CFR 3481.4-1 - Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...3481.4-1 Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as...

  9. Impacts of interruption of the Agulhas leakage on the tropical Atlantic in coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations

    E-print Network

    Drijfhout, Sybren

    1 Impacts of interruption of the Agulhas leakage on the tropical Atlantic in coupled ocean to investigate the impact of the interruption of Agulhas leakage of Indian ocean water on the Tropical Atlantic to no interocean exchange of Indian ocean water into the Atlantic. The southern boundary condition is taken from

  10. 41 CFR 301-70.501 - Does per diem continue when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70... Policies and Procedures for Emergency Travel of Employee Due to Illness or Injury § 301-70.501 Does per diem continue when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness...

  11. 41 CFR 301-70.501 - Does per diem continue when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70... Policies and Procedures for Emergency Travel of Employee Due to Illness or Injury § 301-70.501 Does per diem continue when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness...

  12. 41 CFR 301-70.501 - Does per diem continue when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70... Policies and Procedures for Emergency Travel of Employee Due to Illness or Injury § 301-70.501 Does per diem continue when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness...

  13. 41 CFR 301-70.501 - Does per diem continue when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70... Policies and Procedures for Emergency Travel of Employee Due to Illness or Injury § 301-70.501 Does per diem continue when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness...

  14. 41 CFR 301-70.501 - Does per diem continue when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70... Policies and Procedures for Emergency Travel of Employee Due to Illness or Injury § 301-70.501 Does per diem continue when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness...

  15. Measuring the relationship between interruptions, multitasking and prescribing errors in an emergency department: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Raban, Magdalena Z; Walter, Scott R; Douglas, Heather E; Strumpman, Dana; Mackenzie, John; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Interruptions and multitasking are frequent in clinical settings, and have been shown in the cognitive psychology literature to affect performance, increasing the risk of error. However, comparatively less is known about their impact on errors in clinical work. This study will assess the relationship between prescribing errors, interruptions and multitasking in an emergency department (ED) using direct observations and chart review. Methods and analysis The study will be conducted in an ED of a 440-bed teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. Doctors will be shadowed at proximity by observers for 2?h time intervals while they are working on day shift (between 0800 and 1800). Time stamped data on tasks, interruptions and multitasking will be recorded on a handheld computer using the validated Work Observation Method by Activity Timing (WOMBAT) tool. The prompts leading to interruptions and multitasking will also be recorded. When doctors prescribe medication, type of chart and chart sections written on, along with the patient's medical record number (MRN) will be recorded. A clinical pharmacist will access patient records and assess the medication orders for prescribing errors. The prescribing error rate will be calculated per prescribing task and is defined as the number of errors divided by the number of medication orders written during the prescribing task. The association between prescribing error rates, and rates of prompts, interruptions and multitasking will be assessed using statistical modelling. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained from the hospital research ethics committee. Eligible doctors will be provided with written information sheets and written consent will be obtained if they agree to participate. Doctor details and MRNs will be kept separate from the data on prescribing errors, and will not appear in the final data set for analysis. Study results will be disseminated in publications and feedback to the ED. PMID:26463224

  16. The Role of Interruptions in polyQ in the Pathology of SCA1

    PubMed Central

    Faggiano, Serena; Vannocci, Tommaso; Rezaei, Human; Pemble, Sally; Sweeney, Mary G.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Davis, Mary B.; Pastore, Annalisa; Giunti, Paola

    2013-01-01

    At least nine dominant neurodegenerative diseases are caused by expansion of CAG repeats in coding regions of specific genes that result in abnormal elongation of polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts in the corresponding gene products. When above a threshold that is specific for each disease the expanded polyQ repeats promote protein aggregation, misfolding and neuronal cell death. The length of the polyQ tract inversely correlates with the age at disease onset. It has been observed that interruption of the CAG tract by silent (CAA) or missense (CAT) mutations may strongly modulate the effect of the expansion and delay the onset age. We have carried out an extensive study in which we have complemented DNA sequence determination with cellular and biophysical models. By sequencing cloned normal and expanded SCA1 alleles taken from our cohort of ataxia patients we have determined sequence variations not detected by allele sizing and observed for the first time that repeat instability can occur even in the presence of CAG interruptions. We show that histidine interrupted pathogenic alleles occur with relatively high frequency (11%) and that the age at onset inversely correlates linearly with the longer uninterrupted CAG stretch. This could be reproduced in a cellular model to support the hypothesis of a linear behaviour of polyQ. We clarified by in vitro studies the mechanism by which polyQ interruption slows down aggregation. Our study contributes to the understanding of the role of polyQ interruption in the SCA1 phenotype with regards to age at disease onset, prognosis and transmission. PMID:23935513

  17. 43 CFR 3481.4-2 - What are some examples of circumstances that qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? 3481.4-2 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? (a) Movement,...

  18. Load flows and faults considering dc current injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusic, G. L.; Beach, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present novel methods for incorporating current injection sources into dc power flow computations and determining network fault currents when electronic devices limit fault currents. Combinations of current and voltage sources into a single network are considered in a general formulation. An example of relay coordination is presented. The present study is pertinent to the development of the Space Station Freedom electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system.

  19. DC Current in 4-N-Pentyl-40 -Cyanobiphenyl

    E-print Network

    Reznikov, Yuri

    conductivity obeys the Arrhenius law typical of organic materials. However, various impurities, polarization to be responsible for this phenomenon. Those impurities might arise either due to LC contamination from require materials with an extremely low conductivity (emerged in the marketplace in 1980s

  20. Thermal fatigue due to beam interruptions in a Lead-Bismuth cooled ATW blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F.

    2000-11-15

    Thermal fatigue consequences of frequent accelerator beam interruptions are quantified for both sodium and lead-bismuth cooled blankets in current designs for accelerator transmutation of waste devices. Temperature response was calculated using the SASSYS-1 systems analysis code for an immediate drop in beam current from full power to zero. Coolant temperatures from SASSYS-1 were fed into a multi-node structure temperature calculation to obtain thermal strains for various structural components. Fatigue curves from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code were used to determine the number of cycles that these components could endure, based on these thermal strains. Beam interruption frequency data from a current accelerator were used to estimate design lifetimes for components. Mitigation options for reducing thermal fatigue are discussed.

  1. Switch contact device for interrupting high current, high voltage, AC and DC circuits

    DOEpatents

    Via, Lester C.; Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Ryan, John M.

    2005-01-04

    A high voltage switch contact structure capable of interrupting high voltage, high current AC and DC circuits. The contact structure confines the arc created when contacts open to the thin area between two insulating surfaces in intimate contact. This forces the arc into the shape of a thin sheet which loses heat energy far more rapidly than an arc column having a circular cross-section. These high heat losses require a dramatic increase in the voltage required to maintain the arc, thus extinguishing it when the required voltage exceeds the available voltage. The arc extinguishing process with this invention is not dependent on the occurrence of a current zero crossing and, consequently, is capable of rapidly interrupting both AC and DC circuits. The contact structure achieves its high performance without the use of sulfur hexafluoride.

  2. Cost of Power Interruptions to Electricity Consumers in the UnitedStates (U.S.)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Eto, Joseph H.

    2006-02-16

    The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern U.S.and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 catalyzed discussions about modernizingthe U.S. electricity grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of$50 to $100 billion would be needed. This work seeks to better understandan important piece of information that has been missing from thesediscussions: What do power interruptions and fluctuations in powerquality (power-quality events) cost electricity consumers? We developed abottom-up approach for assessing the cost to U.S. electricity consumersof power interruptions and power-quality events (referred to collectivelyas "reliability events"). The approach can be used to help assess thepotential benefits of investments in improving the reliability of thegrid. We developed a new estimate based on publicly availableinformation, and assessed how uncertainties in these data affect thisestimate using sensitivity analysis.

  3. Voluntary interruption of pregnancy in Europe: medico-legal issues and ethical approach to the regulation.

    PubMed

    Molinelli, A; Picchioni, D M; Celesti, R

    2005-04-01

    The legislative criteria of the various European countries, as far as voluntary interruption of pregnancy is concerned, differ in the levels of severity employed by the law of the single nations. The authors analyze the legislation of some of European countries and, as a result, they identify countries that may be defined as more tolerant and others where the law is more restrictive. Italy is to be dealt with separately, because its legislation as regards this subject presents a greater interpretative ambiguity. In the end they analyze religious attitudes underlying the laws on voluntary interruption of pregnancy, because of the suspicion that the teachings of both Catholic and Protestant theology have influenced the differences in the quality of the law in force as regards termination of pregnancy is certainly well-grounded, and on the other hand the philosophy of law certainly owes its meditation both to theology and to the teachings of the Catholic Church. PMID:15940085

  4. Avoiding Interruptions - QoE Trade-offs in Block-coded Streaming Media Applications

    E-print Network

    Parandehgheibi, Ali; Shakkottai, Srinivas; Ozdaglar, Asu

    2010-01-01

    We take an analytical approach to study Quality of user Experience (QoE) for video streaming applications. First, we show that random linear network coding applied to blocks of video frames can significantly simplify the packet requests at the network layer and save resources by avoiding duplicate packet reception. Network coding allows us to model the receiver's buffer as a queue with Poisson arrivals and deterministic departures. We consider the probability of interruption in video playback as well as the number of initially buffered packets (initial waiting time) as the QoE metrics. We characterize the optimal trade-off between these metrics by providing upper and lower bounds on the minimum initial buffer size, required to achieve certain level of interruption probability for different regimes of the system parameters. Our bounds are asymptotically tight as the file size goes to infinity.

  5. Design and testing of a phototype water-cooled vacuum interrupter for use in superconducting magnet protection circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    A water-cooled vacuum interrupter was designed and tested for use at 25 kA and 10 kV. This device is expected to have a lifetime approximately one order of magnitude greater than commercial dc circuit breakers. Testing showed that, although the device could successfully carry and interrupt 25 kA, interruption reliabililty was only about 95% with a 10 kV recovery voltage. In addition, a structural crack developed in one electrode from either thermal or mechanical stresses or a combination thereof. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Design considerations for 38kV metal-clad switchgear using vacuum interrupting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bridger, B. Jr.; Burse, T.A.; Wactor, M.W.

    1994-12-31

    There is an increasing demand for metal-clad switchgear for use on systems rated up to 38kV. This paper addresses some of the design problems, and solutions to those problems, encountered in designing and testing a 38kV vacuum circuit breaker and associated metal-clad switchgear. Subjects covered include ratings, the effect of two differing sets of standards (ANSI and IEG), vacuum interrupter selection, testing procedures, and designing to control electrical stresses.

  7. Resettable economic fault current interrupter for taps of a padmounted switchgear package

    SciTech Connect

    Mikulecky, H.W. )

    1990-04-01

    A resettable overcurrent protective device has been developed for padmounted switchgear packages. A low curie temperature alloy and permanent magnet latch provide a simple, direct sensing and tripping means. Electromagnetic trip action at high fault currents causes 2 cycle interruption to be attainable with the vacuum bottle and spring actuated mechanism. Linkage can be incorporated to provide 3 phase tripping with single phase fault detection.

  8. Safety Profile of Nifurtimox and Treatment Interruption for Chronic Chagas Disease in Colombian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Olivera, Mario Javier; Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Álvarez, Carlos Arturo; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Nifurtimox (NFX) is one of the approved drugs used to treat Chagas disease. Safety profile studies and models on risk factors for treatment interruption in adults are scarce in Latin America. This study evaluated retrospectively the medical records of adult Chagas disease patients treated with NFX between 2007 and 2012 in Bogotá, Colombia. An accelerated failure time model was used, and associations were expressed as time ratio (TR). In total, 76 adult patients with NFX were included: 60 (79.0%) completed 60 days of treatment, 61 (80.3%) presented adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and 16 (21.0%) required treatment interruption. The predominant symptoms were epigastric pain (23.7%), nauseas (18.4%), sleep disturbances (18.4%), loss of appetite (17.1%), and temporary loss of memory (15.2%). ADRs were classified as mild (64.5%), moderate (30.4%), and severe (5.1%). Time of treatment was significantly longer when presenting ? 3 ADRs (TR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.04–3.03), presence of non-severe ADRs (TR: 6.52; 95% CI: 3.24–13.1), doses of NFX ? 8 mg/kg/day (TR: 1.78; 95% CI: 0.90–3.49), and age < 48 years (TR: 1.57; 95% CI: 0.90–2.74). Treatment with NFX in adults caused a high frequency of ADRs, but most of the cases were mild and did not require treatment interruption. Severity and number of ADRs were the main predictors for treatment interruption. PMID:26392162

  9. Safety Profile of Nifurtimox and Treatment Interruption for Chronic Chagas Disease in Colombian Adults.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Mario Javier; Cucunubá, Zulma M; Álvarez, Carlos Arturo; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago

    2015-12-01

    Nifurtimox (NFX) is one of the approved drugs used to treat Chagas disease. Safety profile studies and models on risk factors for treatment interruption in adults are scarce in Latin America. This study evaluated retrospectively the medical records of adult Chagas disease patients treated with NFX between 2007 and 2012 in Bogotá, Colombia. An accelerated failure time model was used, and associations were expressed as time ratio (TR). In total, 76 adult patients with NFX were included: 60 (79.0%) completed 60 days of treatment, 61 (80.3%) presented adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and 16 (21.0%) required treatment interruption. The predominant symptoms were epigastric pain (23.7%), nauseas (18.4%), sleep disturbances (18.4%), loss of appetite (17.1%), and temporary loss of memory (15.2%). ADRs were classified as mild (64.5%), moderate (30.4%), and severe (5.1%). Time of treatment was significantly longer when presenting ? 3 ADRs (TR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.04-3.03), presence of non-severe ADRs (TR: 6.52; 95% CI: 3.24-13.1), doses of NFX ? 8 mg/kg/day (TR: 1.78; 95% CI: 0.90-3.49), and age < 48 years (TR: 1.57; 95% CI: 0.90-2.74). Treatment with NFX in adults caused a high frequency of ADRs, but most of the cases were mild and did not require treatment interruption. Severity and number of ADRs were the main predictors for treatment interruption. PMID:26392162

  10. Interrupted Aortic Arch Associated with Absence of Left Common Carotid Artery: Imaging with MDCT

    SciTech Connect

    Onbas, Omer Olgun, Hasim; Ceviz, Naci; Ors, Rahmi; Okur, Adnan

    2006-06-15

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare severe congenital heart defect defined as complete luminal and anatomic discontinuity between ascending and descending aorta. Although its association with various congenital heart defects has been reported, absence of left common carotid artery (CCA) in patients with IAA has not been reported previously. We report a case of IAA associated with the absence of left CCA which was clearly shown on multidetector-row spiral CT.

  11. Factors associated with interruption of treatment among Pulmonary Tuberculosis patients in Plateau State, Nigeria. 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Luka Mangveep; Hadejia, Idris Suleiman; Nguku, Patrick; Dankoli, Raymond; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Akhimien, Moses Obiemen; Ogiri, Samuel; Oyemakinde, Akin; Dalhatu, Ibrahim; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nigeria has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens in the world with estimated incidence of 133 per 100,000 populations. Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) is an emerging threat of the TB control in Nigeria caused mainly by incomplete treatment. This study explored factors that affect adherence to treatment among patients undergoing direct observation of TB treatment in Plateau state, Nigeria. Methods Between June and July 2011, we reviewed medical records and interviewed randomly selected pulmonary TB patients in their eighth month of treatment. Information on patients? clinical, socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics was collected using checklist and structured questionnaire for knowledge of treatment duration and reasons for interruption of treatment. We conducted focus group discussions with patients about barriers to treatment adherence. Data were analyzed with Epi Info software. Results Of 378 records reviewed, 229 (61%) patients were male; mean age 37.6 ±13.5 years and 71 (19%) interrupted their treatment. Interruption of treatment was associated with living > 5 km from TB treatment site (AOR: 11.3; CI 95%: 5.7-22.2), lack of knowledge of duration of treatment (AOR: 6.1; CI 95%: 2.8-13.2) and cigarette smoking (AOR: 3.4; CI 95%: 1.5- 8.0). Major reasons for the interruption were lack of transport fare (40%) and feeling well (25%). Focused group discussions revealed unfriendly attitudes of health care workers as barriers to adherence to treatment. Conclusion This study revealed knowledge of the patients on the duration of treatment, distance and health workers attitude as the major determinants of adherent to TB treatment. Training for health care workers on patient education was conducted during routine supportive supervision. PMID:24711884

  12. Visual context due to speech-reading suppresses the auditory response to acoustic interruptions in speech

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Jyoti; Pitt, Mark A.; Shahin, Antoine J.

    2014-01-01

    Speech reading enhances auditory perception in noise. One means by which this perceptual facilitation comes about is through information from visual networks reinforcing the encoding of the congruent speech signal by ignoring interfering acoustic signals. We tested this hypothesis neurophysiologically by acquiring EEG while individuals listened to words with a fixed portion of each word replaced by white noise. Congruent (meaningful) or incongruent (reversed frames) mouth movements accompanied the words. Individuals judged whether they heard the words as continuous (illusion) or interrupted (illusion failure) through the noise. We hypothesized that congruent, as opposed to incongruent, mouth movements should further enhance illusory perception by suppressing the auditory cortex's response to interruption onsets and offsets. Indeed, we found that the N1 auditory evoked potential (AEP) to noise onsets and offsets was reduced when individuals experienced the illusion during congruent, but not incongruent, audiovisual streams. This N1 inhibitory effect was most prominent at noise offsets, suggesting that visual influences on auditory perception are instigated to a greater extent during noisy periods. These findings suggest that visual context due to speech-reading disengages (inhibits) neural processes associated with interfering sounds (e.g., noisy interruptions) during speech perception. PMID:25053937

  13. Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus in interrupted inferior caval vein through femoral vein approach.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Endale; Bermudez-Cañete, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous closure of the patent arterial duct in patients with interrupted inferior caval vein poses a technical challenge. A 12-year-old girl with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and interrupted inferior caval vein is described in this report. The diagnosis of interrupted inferior caval vein and azygos continuation was made in the catheterization laboratory. A catheter was advanced and snared in the descending aorta. An exchange wire was advanced through the catheter and snared in the descending aorta. Then, an Amplatzer TorqVue 2 delivery sheath was advanced over the wire from the venous side and again snared in the descending aorta. An Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO) size 8/6 was advanced through the sheath while still holding the sheath with a snare. The device was opened. The sheath was then unsnared once the aortic disc was completely out. The sheath and the device were pulled back into the duct and the device was successfully implanted. The device was then released and it attained a stable position. An aortic angiogram was performed which showed complete occlusion. PMID:24701089

  14. Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus in interrupted inferior caval vein through femoral vein approach

    PubMed Central

    Tefera, Endale; Bermudez-Cañete, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous closure of the patent arterial duct in patients with interrupted inferior caval vein poses a technical challenge. A 12-year-old girl with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and interrupted inferior caval vein is described in this report. The diagnosis of interrupted inferior caval vein and azygos continuation was made in the catheterization laboratory. A catheter was advanced and snared in the descending aorta. An exchange wire was advanced through the catheter and snared in the descending aorta. Then, an Amplatzer TorqVue 2 delivery sheath was advanced over the wire from the venous side and again snared in the descending aorta. An Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO) size 8/6 was advanced through the sheath while still holding the sheath with a snare. The device was opened. The sheath was then unsnared once the aortic disc was completely out. The sheath and the device were pulled back into the duct and the device was successfully implanted. The device was then released and it attained a stable position. An aortic angiogram was performed which showed complete occlusion. PMID:24701089

  15. An algorithm used for ventricular fibrillation detection without interrupting chest compression.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongqin; Bisera, Joe; Weil, Max Harry; Tang, Wanchun

    2012-01-01

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is the primary arrhythmic event in the majority of patients suffering from sudden cardiac arrest. Attention has been focused on this particular rhythm since it is recognized that prompt therapy, especially electrical defibrillation, may lead to a successful outcome. However, current versions of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) mandate repetitive interruptions of chest compression for rhythm analyses since artifacts produced by chest compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) preclude reliable electrocardiographic (ECG) rhythm analysis. Yet, repetitive interruptions in chest compression are detrimental to the success of defibrillation. The capability for rhythm analysis without requiring "hands-off" intervals will allow for more effective resuscitation. In this paper, a novel continuous-wavelet-transformation-based morphology consistency evaluation algorithm was developed for the detection of disorganized VF from organized sinus rhythm (SR) without interrupting the ongoing chest compression. The performance of this method was evaluated on both uncorrupted and corrupted ECG signals recorded from AEDs obtained from out-of-hospital victims of cardiac arrest. A total of 232 patients and 31,092 episodes of either VF or SR were accessed, in which 8195 episodes were corrupted by artifacts produced by chest compressions. We also compared the performance of this method with three other established algorithms, including VF filter, spectrum analysis, and complexity measurement. Even though there was a modest decrease in specificity and accuracy when chest compression artifact was present, the performance of this method was still superior to other reported methods for VF detection during uninterrupted CPR. PMID:21342836

  16. 'Inc-miRs': functional intron-interrupted miRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huibin; Maniar, Jay M; Fire, Andrew Z

    2011-08-01

    The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) lin-4 and let-7 as temporal regulators in Caenorhabditis elegans led to broader searches for novel miRNAs and their biological roles. Unlike protein-coding genes and some long noncoding RNAs, canonical metazoan miRNAs are not known to contain introns within their genomic precursor sequences. Because the short length of miRNAs complicates a statistically definitive assignment of split genes in RNA sequencing data sets, we took an experimental approach toward testing the compatibility of splicing and functional miRNA biogenesis. To definitively evaluate the possibility that miRNAs could derive from interrupted genes, we constructed intron-interrupted variants of C. elegans lin-4 and assayed for their miRNA-encoding capability and biological activity in the developing organism. Our studies indicate that (1) intron-containing miRNAs (inc-miRs) can be efficiently spliced and processed to produce miRNAs with normal termini, and (2) these miRNAs can be functional in full rescue of developmental phenotypes in null mutants lacking endogenous lin-4. This study provides the first evidence to support the ability of intron-interrupted miRNA precursors to produce functional regulators and identifies an additional modality available for metazoan miRNA production. PMID:21828269

  17. Mosaic partial deletion of PTPN12 in a child with interrupted aortic arch type A.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Elizabeth A; Pretorius, Pamela R; Lerach, Stephanie; Lohr, Jamie L; Hirsch, Betsy; Souza, Cleiton M; Veillette, André; Schimmenti, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    Congenital heart malformations, including those of the great vessels, are among the most common human birth defects. The goal of this study was to identify the significance of a de novo mosaic PTPN12 partial deletion identified in a newborn with an interrupted aortic arch type A, ventricular septal defect, and pyloric stenosis. PTPN12, a downstream target of the RAS pathway, has a known role in endothelial cell adhesion and migration. Neither genetic nor genomic variants in PTPN12 have been described in a human patient; therefore, we evaluated the effect of ptpn12 in a mouse conditional knockout and zebrafish knockdown model to determine the significance of a loss in gene expression. Observed loss of ptpn12 expression in zebrafish resulted in abnormal branchial arch and tail vasculature patterns, with reduced blood flow throughout the animal. This phenotype was supported by anomalous vasculature in a conditional Ptpn12 mouse knockout. Given the novel co-occurrence of interrupted aortic arch type A, ventricular septal defect, and partial deletion of PTPN12 in the patient, as well as vascular phenotypes in Ptpn12 mouse and ptpn12 zebrafish models, it is likely that PTPN12 has a significant role in cardiovascular development and vessel formation during human embryonic development. Furthermore, the partial deletion of PTPN12 lead to interrupted aortic arch type A in this child and may represent a novel condition caused by a null mutation in the RAS pathway. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26250342

  18. INTERRUPTION OF TIDAL-DISRUPTION FLARES BY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F. K.; Li, S.; Chen Xian E-mail: lis@bac.pku.edu.c

    2009-11-20

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are products of galaxy mergers, and are important in testing LAMBDA cold dark matter cosmology and locating gravitational-wave-radiation sources. A unique electromagnetic signature of SMBHBs in galactic nuclei is essential in identifying the binaries in observations from the IR band through optical to X-ray. Recently, the flares in optical, UV, and X-ray caused by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) tidally disrupting nearby stars have been successfully used to observationally probe single SMBHs in normal galaxies. In this Letter, we investigate the accretion of the gaseous debris of a tidally disrupted star by a SMBHB. Using both stability analysis of three-body systems and numerical scattering experiments, we show that the accretion of stellar debris gas, which initially decays with time propor tot {sup -5/3}, would stop at a time T{sub tr} approx = etaT{sub b}. Here, eta approx 0.25 and T{sub b} is the orbital period of the SMBHB. After a period of interruption, the accretion recurs discretely at time T{sub r} approx = xi{sub b}, where xi approx 1. Both eta and xi sensitively depend on the orbital parameters of the tidally disrupted star at the tidal radius and the orbit eccentricity of SMBHB. The interrupted accretion of the stellar debris gas gives rise to an interrupted tidal flare, which could be used to identify SMBHBs in non-active galaxies in the upcoming transient surveys.

  19. Enhancing the Simulation Speed of Sensor Network Applications by Asynchronization of Interrupt Service Routines

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Hyunwoo; Woo, Duk-Kyun; Kim, Hyungshin

    2013-01-01

    Sensor network simulations require high fidelity and timing accuracy to be used as an implementation and evaluation tool. The cycle-accurate and instruction-level simulator is the known solution for these purposes. However, this type of simulation incurs a high computation cost since it has to model not only the instruction level behavior but also the synchronization between multiple sensors for their causality. This paper presents a novel technique that exploits asynchronous simulations of interrupt service routines (ISR). We can avoid the synchronization overheads when the interrupt service routines are simulated without preemption. If the causality errors occur, we devise a rollback procedure to restore the original synchronized simulation. This concept can be extended to any instruction-level sensor network simulator. Evaluation results show our method can enhance the simulation speed up to 52% in the case of our experiments. For applications with longer interrupt service routines and smaller number of preemptions, the speedup becomes greater. In addition, our simulator is 2 to 11 times faster than the well-known sensor network simulator. PMID:23966200

  20. Interrupted Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWell, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Article described a project in the electronic music idiom for use in the intermediate grades that was different, that involved no complicated or expensive apparatus, and that showed an interesting relationship between measurement and rhythm. (Author/RK)

  1. Correlation of shape changes of grain surfaces and reversible stress evolution during interruptions of polycrystalline film growth

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hang Z.; Thompson, Carl V.

    2014-04-07

    Short interruptions of the growth of polycrystalline films often lead to stress evolution that is reversed when growth is resumed. Correlated in situ stress measurements and ex situ transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy characterizations of grain boundary surface grooves as a function of the interruption time are reported for films deposited at different temperatures and held for different times before quenching to room temperature. These studies suggest that during film deposition surface grooves at grain boundaries are kinetically constrained to be shallow, while during a growth interruption surface diffusion allows grain boundary grooves to deepen and approach their equilibrium depth. The latter relieves a component of the compressive stress associated with trapped atoms in the grain boundaries. When growth is resumed, the non-equilibrium surface morphology is reestablished and the compressive stress increases to its pre-interruption value.

  2. 43 CFR 3481.4-1 - Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    Yes, a temporary interruption in coal severance allows you (the lessee/operator) to halt the extraction of coal for a limited period of time without jeopardizing your qualifications under section (2)(a)(2)(A) of MLA to receive additional...

  3. Multitasking and prospective memory: Resistance to the effect of interruptions in a computer-based student study setting 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jining

    2013-07-02

    The present experiment examined the effect of frequent, complex and dissimilar interruptions on multitasking and prospective memory (PM) performance in a computer-based student study setting. Participants were either ...

  4. Mitigating errors caused by interruptions during medication verification and administration: interventions in a simulated ambulatory chemotherapy setting

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Varuna; Koczmara, Christine; Savage, Pamela; Trip, Katherine; Stewart, Janice; McCurdie, Tara; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Trbovich, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background Nurses are frequently interrupted during medication verification and administration; however, few interventions exist to mitigate resulting errors, and the impact of these interventions on medication safety is poorly understood. Objective The study objectives were to (A) assess the effects of interruptions on medication verification and administration errors, and (B) design and test the effectiveness of targeted interventions at reducing these errors. Methods The study focused on medication verification and administration in an ambulatory chemotherapy setting. A simulation laboratory experiment was conducted to determine interruption-related error rates during specific medication verification and administration tasks. Interventions to reduce these errors were developed through a participatory design process, and their error reduction effectiveness was assessed through a postintervention experiment. Results Significantly more nurses committed medication errors when interrupted than when uninterrupted. With use of interventions when interrupted, significantly fewer nurses made errors in verifying medication volumes contained in syringes (16/18; 89% preintervention error rate vs 11/19; 58% postintervention error rate; p=0.038; Fisher's exact test) and programmed in ambulatory pumps (17/18; 94% preintervention vs 11/19; 58% postintervention; p=0.012). The rate of error commission significantly decreased with use of interventions when interrupted during intravenous push (16/18; 89% preintervention vs 6/19; 32% postintervention; p=0.017) and pump programming (7/18; 39% preintervention vs 1/19; 5% postintervention; p=0.017). No statistically significant differences were observed for other medication verification tasks. Conclusions Interruptions can lead to medication verification and administration errors. Interventions were highly effective at reducing unanticipated errors of commission in medication administration tasks, but showed mixed effectiveness at reducing predictable errors of detection in medication verification tasks. These findings can be generalised and adapted to mitigate interruption-related errors in other settings where medication verification and administration are required. PMID:24906806

  5. Recovery from prior stimulation: Masking of speech by interrupted noise for younger and older adults with normal hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubno, Judy R.; Horwitz, Amy R.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.

    2003-04-01

    In a previous study [Dubno et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 2897-2907 (2002)], older subjects benefitted less than younger subjects from momentary improvements in signal-to-noise ratio when listening to speech in interrupted maskers. It has been hypothesized that the benefit derived from interrupted maskers may be related to recovery from forward masking, i.e., the recovery of a response to a suprathreshold signal from prior stimulation by a masker. The effect of interrupted maskers on speech recognition may be well suited to test hypotheses regarding recovery from prior stimulation, given that both involve the perception of signals following a masker. Here, younger and older adults with normal but not identical audiograms listened to nonsense syllables at moderate and high levels in a speech-shaped noise that was modulated by a 2-, 10-, 25-, or 50-Hz square wave. An additional low-level noise was always present that was shaped to produce equivalent masked thresholds for all subjects. To assess recovery from forward masking, forward-masked thresholds were measured at 0.5 and 4.0 kHz as a function of the delay between the speech-shaped masker and the signal. Speech recognition in interrupted noise was poorer for older than younger subjects. Small but consistent age-related differences were observed in the decrease in score with interrupted noise relative to the score without interrupted noise. Forward-masked thresholds of older subjects were higher than those of younger subjects, but there were no age-related differences in the amount of forward masking or in simultaneous masking. Negative correlations were observed between speech-recognition scores in interrupted noise and forward-masked thresholds. That is, the benefit derived from momentary improvements in speech audibility in an interrupted noise decreased as forward-masked thresholds increased. Stronger correlations with forward masking were observed for the higher frequency signal, for higher noise interruption rates, and when the signal-to-noise ratio was poor. Comparisons of speech-recognition scores at moderate and high levels for younger and older subjects were not consistent with the hypothesis of an age-related difference in the contribution of low-spontaneous-rate fibers to speech recognition in interrupted noise.

  6. What might interrupt men's suicide? Results from an online survey of men

    PubMed Central

    Shand, Fiona L; Proudfoot, Judy; Player, Michael J; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Wilhelm, Kay; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; McTigue, Isabel; Spurrier, Michael; Christensen, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Men are almost two times more likely to die by suicide than women, yet little research has focused on what is required to prevent suicide among men. This paper aims to investigate what factors interrupt suicidal behaviour in men, and to examine differences according to known suicide risk factors. Setting Australia. Participants 251 Australian men aged 18?years and over who had made a suicide attempt 6–18?months prior to completing the survey. Outcomes The survey canvassed the language men use to describe their depression and suicidality, warning signs, barriers to accessing help and what is needed to interrupt a suicide attempt. ORs and ?2 were used to test for differences by age, geographic location and current depression severity. Results Of 299 men screened and eligible to participate, 251 completed all or part of the survey. Participants identified different words and warning signs for depression compared with suicidality. The most commonly endorsed barriers to accessing help were not wanting to burden others (66%) and having isolated themselves (63%). Men overwhelmingly endorsed ‘I thought about the consequences for my family’ as the factor which stopped a suicide attempt (67%). ‘I need support from someone I really trust and respect’ was also strongly endorsed. There were few differences by age, region or depression severity. Conclusions Participants were able to identify signs, albeit often subtle ones, that they were becoming depressed or suicidal. Similarly, most were able to identify active strategies to interrupt this downward spiral. Men wanted others to notice changes in their behaviour, and to approach them without judgement. PMID:26474936

  7. Realistic distractions and interruptions that impair simulated surgical performance by novice surgeons.

    PubMed

    Feuerbacher, Robin L; Funk, Kenneth H; Spight, Donn H; Diggs, Brian S; Hunter, John G

    2012-11-01

    HYPOTHESIS Although the risks for operating room distractions and interruptions (ORDIs) are acknowledged, most research on this topic is unrealistic, inconclusive, or methodologically unsound. We hypothesized that realistic ORDIs induce errors in a simulated surgical procedure performed by novice surgeons. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Eighteen second-year, third-year, and research-year surgical residents completed a within-subjects experiment on a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator. Based on 9 months of operating room observations, 4 distractions and 2 interruptions were designed and timed to occur during critical stages in simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The control factor was the absence or presence of ORDIs, with order randomly counterbalanced across the subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome measure was surgical errors measured by the simulator as damage to arteries, bile duct, or other organs. The second outcome measure was whether the participants remembered a prospective memory task assigned prior to the procedure and important to operative conduct. RESULTS Major surgical errors were committed in 8 of 18 simulated procedures (44%) with ORDIs vs only 1 of 18 (6%) without ORDIs (P = .02). Interrupting questions caused the most errors. Sidebar conversations were the next most likely distraction to lead to errors. Ten of 18 participants (56%) forgot the prospective memory task with ORDIs, while 4 of 18 (22%) forgot the task without ORDI (P = .04). All 8 surgical errors with ORDIs occurred after 1 PM (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS Typical ORDIs have the potential to cause operative errors in surgical trainees. This performance deficit was prevalent in the afternoon. PMID:22801787

  8. Brief Therapy Based on Interrupting Ironic Processes: The Palo Alto Model

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Shoham, Varda

    2009-01-01

    The model of brief therapy developed by Fisch, Weakland, Watzlawick, and colleagues in Palo Alto is based on identifying and interrupting ironic processes that occur when repeated attempts to solve a problem keep the problem going or make it worse. Formulations of ironic problem-solution loops provide a template for assessment and strategic intervention, indicating where to look to understand what keeps a problem going (look for “more of the same” solution) and what needs to happen for the complaint to be resolved (someone must apply “less of the same” solution). Supporting research is preliminary but suggests this approach may be well suited for change-resistant clients. PMID:19997533

  9. Interrupted genes in extremophilic archaea: mechanisms of gene expression in early organisms.

    PubMed

    Cobucci-Ponzano, Beatrice; Rossi, Mosè; Moracci, Marco

    2006-12-01

    Extremophilic Archaea populate biotopes previously considered inaccessible for life. This feature, and the possibility that they are the extant forms of life closest to the last common ancestor, make these organisms excellent candidates for the study of evolution on Earth and stimulate the exobiological research in planets previously considered totally inhospitable. Among the other aspects of the physiology of these organisms, the study of the molecular genetics of extremophilic Archaea can give hints on how the genetic information is transmitted and propagated in ancient forms of life. We review here the expression of interrupted genes in a recently discovered nanoarchaeon and the mechanisms of reprogrammed genetic decoding in Archaea. PMID:17120127

  10. Decreasing Beam Auto Tuning Interruption Events with In-Situ Chemical Cleaning on Axcelis GSD

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Dieter; Spreitzer, Stefan; Vogl, Josef; Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Kaim, Robert

    2008-11-03

    Ion beam auto tuning time and success rate are often major factors in the utilization and productivity of ion implanters. Tuning software frequently fails to meet specified setup times or recipe parameters, causing production stoppages and requiring manual intervention. Build-up of conductive deposits in the arc chamber and extraction gap can be one of the main causes of auto tuning problems. The deposits cause glitching and ion beam instabilities, which lead to errors in the software optimization routines. Infineon Regensburg has been testing use of XeF{sub 2}, an in-situ chemical cleaning reagent, with positive results in reducing auto tuning interruption events.

  11. MTOR overactivation and interrupted autophagy flux in obese hearts: a dicey assembly?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingmei; Xu, Xihui; Ren, Jun

    2013-06-01

    As a central controller of cell growth, mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) affects an array of biological processes, in particular protein synthesis, autophagy and cardiac homeostasis. Conflicting findings have been seen with regard to the role of MTOR signaling and autophagy in cardiac and adipocyte function under metabolic syndrome. AKT, an essential insulin-signaling molecule upstream of MTOR, participates in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and cardiac metabolism. Akt2 knockout may rescue against high-fat diet-disrupted autophagy flux, en route to cardioprotection. Thus, inhibition of MTOR may serve as a possible avenue to retard pathological cardiac hypertrophy via rescuing interrupted autophagic flux. PMID:23529215

  12. A Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Model Demonstrates That Nocturnal Hot Flashes Interrupt Objective Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Hadine; Crawford, Sybil; Economou, Nicole; Kim, Semmie; Regan, Susan; Hall, Janet E.; White, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Sleep interruption is often reported by women with hot flashes and night sweats (or vasomotor symptoms, VMS). Although women report that VMS awaken them, polysomnography (PSG) studies have not consistently supported this contention. Design: We mimicked menopause using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) to investigate whether VMS increase awakenings and wake after sleep onset (WASO). VMS, serum estradiol, and at-home PSGs (two pretreatment, two posttreatment) were measured before and after 4 weeks on GnRHa. Regression models were used to determine the effect of increasing VMS frequency on awakenings and WASO, as measured objectively and subjectively. Participants: Twenty-nine healthy women (mean 27.3 y). Setting: Academic medical center. Interventions: Depot GnRHa (leuprolide 3.75-mg). Results: Serum estradiol was rapidly and uniformly suppressed on GnRHa. Persistent VMS were reported by 69% of women. The number of nighttime VMS correlated directly with the degree of sleep disturbance. Each additional reported nighttime VMS was associated with a 62% increase from baseline in PSG-measured WASO (P = 0.007), a 3% increase in awakenings (P = 0.05), and 6% increase in %N1 sleep (P = 0.02). Nighttime VMS were also associated with increased perceived WASO (312%; P = 0.02), awakenings (16%; P = 0.007), Insomnia Severity Index (P = 0.03), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (P = 0.03) scores, and decreased perceived sleep efficiency (P = 0.01). Objectively recorded nighttime VMS correlated with PSG-measured WASO (rs = 0.45, P = 0.02). Conclusions: This menopause model demonstrates that nighttime vasomotor symptoms correlate with increased sleep fragmentation. These findings are consistent with a specific contribution of vasomotor symptoms to polysomnography-measured sleep interruption suggesting that nighttime vasomotor symptoms interrupt sleep in the setting of menopause. Citation: Joffe H; Crawford S; Economou N; Kim S; Regan S; Hall JE; White D. A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist model demonstrates that nocturnal hot flashes interrupt objective sleep. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1977-1985. PMID:24293774

  13. Differential radiosensitivity in cultured B-16 melanoma cells following interrupted melanogenesis induced by glucosamine

    SciTech Connect

    Mileo, A.M.; Mattei, E.; Fanuele, M.; Delpino, A.; Ferrini, U. )

    1989-05-01

    The relationship between cell pigmentation and radiosensitivity was investigated in a cell model in which melanogenesis was suppressed by a glycosylation inhibitor. It was found that X-irradiation of melanotic B-16 melanoma cells and their amelanotic counterparts, obtained by glucosamine treatment, showed an inverse correlation between radiosensitivity and melanin contents. Since melanogenesis interruption by glucosamine does not affect the DNA repair capacity of nonpigmented cells, it is likely that intracellular melanins play a role in the relative resistance of pigmented cells to X-irradiation.

  14. Interrupted interface growth and periodic boundary layer trapping in dendrite growth of steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoping; Li, Dianzhong

    2013-06-01

    The time continuity, spatial continuity, and segregation are investigated in the directional solidified columnar dendrite with pulling velocity 40 ?m/s and quenching solidified columnar dendrite of 20SiMn and 20SiMnMo steel. The results show that the growth of columnar dendrite is a dynamic discrete process with interrupted interface growth and periodic trapping of solute enriched boundary layer in growing austenite dendrite matrix. Theoretical analysis shows that the non-equilibrium solute partition at the growing interface and actual temperature gradient accounts for above phenomena. Such growth style results in the segregationless dendrite in the mesoscale.

  15. Electric Power Interruption Cost Estimates for Individual Industries, Sectors, and U.S. Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; DeSteese, John G.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2002-02-27

    During the last 20 years, utilities and researchers have begun to understand the value in the collection and analysis of interruption cost data. The continued investigation of the monetary impact of power outages will facilitate the advancement of the analytical methods used to measure the costs and benefits from the perspective of the energy consumer. More in-depth analysis may be warranted because of the privatization and deregulation of power utilities, price instability in certain regions of the U.S. and the continued evolution of alternative auxiliary power systems.

  16. Mechanism of interrupted saccades in patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease.

    PubMed

    Optican, Lance M; Rucker, Janet C; Keller, Edward L; Leigh, R John

    2008-01-01

    In late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS), saccades are interrupted by one or more transient decelerations. Some saccades reaccelerate and continue on before eye velocity reaches zero, even in darkness. Intervals between successive decelerations are not regularly spaced. Peak decelerations of horizontal and vertical components of oblique saccades in LOTS is more synchronous than those in control subjects. We hypothesize that these decelerations are caused by dysregulation of the fastigial nuclei (FN) of the cerebellum, which fire brain stem inhibitory burst neurons (IBNs). PMID:18718355

  17. Decreasing Beam Auto Tuning Interruption Events with In-Situ Chemical Cleaning on Axcelis GSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Dieter; Spreitzer, Stefan; Vogl, Josef; Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Kaim, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Ion beam auto tuning time and success rate are often major factors in the utilization and productivity of ion implanters. Tuning software frequently fails to meet specified setup times or recipe parameters, causing production stoppages and requiring manual intervention. Build-up of conductive deposits in the arc chamber and extraction gap can be one of the main causes of auto tuning problems. The deposits cause glitching and ion beam instabilities, which lead to errors in the software optimization routines. Infineon Regensburg has been testing use of XeF2, an in-situ chemical cleaning reagent, with positive results in reducing auto tuning interruption events.

  18. Understanding best practice regarding interruptible connections for wind generation: lessons from national and international experience

    E-print Network

    Anaya, Karim L.; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2013-05-01

     measuring the respective parameters for ranking them (e.g.  the carbon footprint per type of technology).     4     EPRG1309      2.3 Risk Allocation among generators    The  risk allocation of being curtailed will depend on  the  type of curtailment allocation  to which a  generator  is subject.   In... Carbon Networks Fund’s Flexible Plug and Play Project EPRG1309      Understanding best practice regarding interruptible  connections for wind generation: lessons from national and  international experience    By  Karim L. Anaya and Michael G. Pollitt1...

  19. Understanding the cost of power interruptions to U.S. electricity consumers

    SciTech Connect

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Eto, Joseph H.

    2004-09-01

    The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern United States and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 resulted in the U.S. electricity system being called ''antiquated'' and catalyzed discussions about modernizing the grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of $50 to $100 billion would be needed. This report seeks to quantify an important piece of information that has been missing from these discussions: how much do power interruptions and fluctuations in power quality (power-quality events) cost U.S. electricity consumers? Accurately estimating this cost will help assess the potential benefits of investments in improving the reliability of the grid. We develop a comprehensive end-use framework for assessing the cost to U.S. electricity consumers of power interruptions and power-quality events (referred to collectively as ''reliability events''). The framework expresses these costs as a function of: (1) Number of customers by type in a region; (2) Frequency and type of reliability events experienced annually (including both power interruptions and power-quality events) by these customers; (3) Cost of reliability events; and (4) Vulnerability of customers to these events. The framework is designed so that its cost estimate can be improved as additional data become available. Using our framework, we estimate that the national cost of power interruptions is about $80 billion annually, based on the best information available in the public domain. However, there are large gaps in and significant uncertainties about the information currently available. Notably, we were not able to develop an estimate of power-quality events. Sensitivity analysis of some of these uncertainties suggests that the total annual cost could range from less than $30 billion to more than $130 billion. Because of this large range and the enormous cost of the decisions that may be based on this estimate, we encourage policy makers, regulators, and industry to jointly under take the comparatively modest-cost improvements needed in the information used to estimate the cost of reliability events. Specific areas for improvement include: coordinated, nationwide collection of updated information on the cost of reliability events; consistent definition and recording of the duration and frequency of reliability events, including power-quality events; and improved information on the costs of and efforts by consumers to reduce their vulnerability to reliability events.

  20. Microsatellite Interruptions Stabilize Primate Genomes and Exist as Population-Specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms within Individual Human Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ananda, Guruprasad; Hile, Suzanne E.; Breski, Amanda; Wang, Yanli; Kelkar, Yogeshwar; Makova, Kateryna D.; Eckert, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Interruptions of microsatellite sequences impact genome evolution and can alter disease manifestation. However, human polymorphism levels at interrupted microsatellites (iMSs) are not known at a genome-wide scale, and the pathways for gaining interruptions are poorly understood. Using the 1000 Genomes Phase-1 variant call set, we interrogated mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats up to 10 units in length. We detected ?26,000–40,000 iMSs within each of four human population groups (African, European, East Asian, and American). We identified population-specific iMSs within exonic regions, and discovered that known disease-associated iMSs contain alleles present at differing frequencies among the populations. By analyzing longer microsatellites in primate genomes, we demonstrate that single interruptions result in a genome-wide average two- to six-fold reduction in microsatellite mutability, as compared with perfect microsatellites. Centrally located interruptions lowered mutability dramatically, by two to three orders of magnitude. Using a biochemical approach, we tested directly whether the mutability of a specific iMS is lower because of decreased DNA polymerase strand slippage errors. Modeling the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene sequence, we observed that a single base substitution interruption reduced strand slippage error rates five- to 50-fold, relative to a perfect repeat, during synthesis by DNA polymerases ?, ?, or ?. Computationally, we demonstrate that iMSs arise primarily by base substitution mutations within individual human genomes. Our biochemical survey of human DNA polymerase ?, ?, ?, ?, and ? error rates within certain microsatellites suggests that interruptions are created most frequently by low fidelity polymerases. Our combined computational and biochemical results demonstrate that iMSs are abundant in human genomes and are sources of population-specific genetic variation that may affect genome stability. The genome-wide identification of iMSs in human populations presented here has important implications for current models describing the impact of microsatellite polymorphisms on gene expression. PMID:25033203

  1. Progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus transmission--worldwide, January 2007-April 2008.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis. Subsequently, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative reduced the global incidence of polio associated with wild polioviruses (WPVs) from an estimated 350,000 cases in 1988 to 1,997 reported cases in 2006 and reduced the number of countries that have never succeeded in interrupting WPV transmission from 125 to four (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan). Type 2 WPV (WPV2) circulation was last observed in October 1999. In February 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a stakeholders meeting to agree on an accelerated polio-eradication effort to be used during 2007-2008 and establish milestones to monitor progress. Programmatic strategies implemented in 2007 included expanded use of type 1 monovalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) (mOPV1) to eliminate type 1 WPV (WPV1) transmission before type 3 WPV (WPV3) and targeted use of type 3 monovalent OPV (mOPV3) in selected areas. This report summarizes these strategies and overall progress toward reaching the milestones, including a decline in the overall number of WPV cases to 1,310 in 2007 and substantial progress toward interruption of WPV1 circulation in India in 2008. PMID:18463607

  2. Enantiodivergent Synthesis of Bis-Spiropyrrolidines via Sequential Interrupted and Completed (3 + 2) Cycloadditions.

    PubMed

    Conde, Egoitz; Rivilla, Iván; Larumbe, Amaia; Cossío, Fernando P

    2015-12-01

    Both (5R)- and (5S)-1,7-diazaspiro[4.4]nonan-6-ones are obtained via a sequence of interrupted and completed stepwise (3 + 2) cycloadditions between azomethine ylides and ?-deficient alkenes. The only source of chirality along the whole process is an enantiopure ferrocenyl pyrrolidine catalytic ligand. When the starting imine incorporates two aryl groups or one aryl group with one electron-releasing substituent, the reaction between the azomethine ylide and the alkene stops at the first step, leading to the corresponding Michael adduct. When imines derived from p-methoxybenzaldehyde are used, the corresponding syn-?-amino-?-nitro ester is obtained with almost complete enantiocontrol. In contrast, imines derived from benzophenone lead to the corresponding anti analogue. From this interrupted (3 + 2) cycloaddition, cis- and trans-?-amino-?-lactams can be obtained via hydrogenation of the nitro group followed by in situ cyclization. Imines derived from these latter compounds are the precursors of N-metalated azomethine ylides from which up to four new chiral centers can be generated via completed (3 + 2) cycloaddition reactions with full regio- and diastereocontrol. Cis- and trans-?-lactams lead to opposite bis-spiropyrrolidine enantiomers. Therefore, both enantiomeric series of spiro compounds can be obtained by means of the same catalytic system. The potential of these rigid, densely substituted homochiral compounds in medicinal chemistry is briefly described. PMID:26439974

  3. Phasic and Tonic Pain Differentially Impact the Interruptive Function of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sinke, Christopher; Schmidt, Katharina; Forkmann, Katarina; Bingel, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    The interruptive effect of painful experimental stimulation on cognitive processes is a well-known phenomenon. This study investigated the influence of pain duration on the negative effects of pain on cognition. Thirty-four healthy volunteers performed a rapid serial visual presentation task (RSVP) in which subjects had to detect (visual detection task) and count the occurrence of a target letter (working memory task) in two separate sessions while being stimulated on the left volar forearm with either short (2 sec) or long (18 sec) painful heat stimuli of equal subjective intensity. The results show that subjects performed significantly worse in the long pain session as indexed by decreased detection and counting performance. Interestingly, this effect on performance was also observed during control trials of the long pain session in which participants did not receive any painful stimulation. Moreover, subjects expected long painful stimulation to have a greater impact on their performance and individual expectation correlated with working memory performance. These findings suggest that not only the length of painful stimulation but also its expected ability to impair cognitive functioning might influence the interruptive function of pain. The exact relevance of expectation for the detrimental effects of pain on cognitive processes needs to be explored in more detail in future studies. PMID:25695254

  4. Transgastric endoscopic gastrojejunostomy using holing followed by interrupted suture technique in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Su-Yu; Shi, Hong; Jiang, Sheng-Jun; Wang, Yong-Guang; Lin, Kai; Xie, Zhao-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Jing

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate the feasibility and reproducibility of a pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) gastrojejunostomy using holing followed by interrupted suture technique using a single endoloop matched with a pair of clips in a non-survival porcine model. METHODS: NOTES gastrojejunostomy was performed on three female domestic pigs as follows: Gastrostomy, selection and retrieval of a free-floating loop of the small bowel into the stomach pouch, hold and exposure of the loop in the gastric cavity using a submucosal inflation technique, execution of a gastro-jejunal mucosal-seromuscular layer approximation using holing followed by interrupted suture technique with endoloop/clips, and full-thickness incision of the loop with a Dual knife. RESULTS: Pure NOTES side-to-side gastrojejunostomy was successfully performed in all three animals. No leakage was identi?ed via methylene blue evaluation following surgery. CONCLUSION: This novel technique for preforming a gastrointestinal anastomosis exclusively by NOTES is technically feasible and reproducible in an animal model but warrants further improvement. PMID:26504508

  5. Interrupting violence: how the CeaseFire Program prevents imminent gun violence through conflict mediation.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Parker, Elizabeth M

    2014-02-01

    Cities are increasingly adopting CeaseFire, an evidence-based public health program that uses specialized outreach workers, called violence interrupters (VIs), to mediate potentially violent conflicts before they lead to a shooting. Prior research has linked conflict mediation with program-related reductions in homicides, but the specific conflict mediation practices used by effective programs to prevent imminent gun violence have not been identified. We conducted case studies of CeaseFire programs in two inner cities using qualitative data from focus groups with 24 VIs and interviews with eight program managers. Study sites were purposively sampled to represent programs with more than 1 year of implementation and evidence of program effectiveness. Staff with more than 6 months of job experience were recruited for participation. Successful mediation efforts were built on trust and respect between VIs and the community, especially high-risk individuals. In conflict mediation, immediate priorities included separating the potential shooter from the intended victim and from peers who may encourage violence, followed by persuading the parties to resolve the conflict peacefully. Tactics for brokering peace included arranging the return of stolen property and emphasizing negative consequences of violence such as jail, death, or increased police attention. Utilizing these approaches, VIs are capable of preventing gun violence and interrupting cycles of retaliation. PMID:23440488

  6. An interrupted tensile testing at high strain rates for pure copper bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongfang, Ma; Danian, Chen; Shanxing, Wu; Huanran, Wang; Yanjun, Hou; Canyuan, Cai

    2010-12-01

    A high-speed tensile facility (HSTF) invented by us was applied to interrupting the tests for pure copper specimen bars controlled locally at different levels of elongation. It was realized to isolate and identify the different stages of the dynamic fracture process of the pure copper specimen bar under impact tension. The results of scanning electron microscopical (SEM) investigation of the recovered pure copper specimens show that the void evolution near the surface of the minimum cross-section of the necking area is more severe than that at the middle of the necking area, which may be connected with the findings discussed by Alves and Jones [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 47, 643 (1999)]. The constitutive models in a certain range of strain determined from the tensile split Hopkinson bar optimized by us were employed and adjusted in numerically simulating the large deformation of the pure copper specimen in the interrupted tensile tests on HSTF. The dependence of the instability strain of thermoviscoplastic materials in simple tension on material parameters delineated by Batra and Wei [Int. J. Impact Eng. 34, 448 (2007)] was inspected in predicting the diffuse necking of the specimen bar. The axisymmetric necking rod model with a central void under static tension presented by Ragab [Eng. Fract. Mech. 71, 1515 (2004)] was extended to predicting the local necking and fracture of the specimen bar under impact tension.

  7. Increasing the Mand Repertoire of Children With Autism Through the Use of an Interrupted Chain Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Kristin M.; Carbone, Vincent J.; Murray, Danielle D.; Hagerty, Margaret; Sweeney-Kerwin, Emily J.

    2012-01-01

    Mand training is an essential component of verbal behavior training for any individual who lacks this skill. The current study replicates and extends, with some procedural differences, the work of Hall and Sundberg (1987) by using an interrupted chain procedure to teach mands for missing items to children with autism. The participants were 3 children with autism, ranging between 5 and 8 years of age, who would regularly mand for a wide variety of reinforcers when they were present but would rarely mand for items that were not in sight (i.e., missing items). Participants were first taught to complete 3 behavior chains. Subsequently, the chains were interrupted by removing 1 item needed to complete each chain to contrive motivating operations (MOs) as a means of teaching mands for missing items. Following mand training incorporating vocal prompt and prompt fading procedures, all participants emitted unprompted mands for the missing items within the context of the trained chains and within the context of novel, untrained chains. After teaching mands for missing items, probes were conducted to test for untrained tact acquisition. All participants also demonstrated tact responses relative to the missing items as a result of the mand training. PMID:23730468

  8. Learning from Accident and Error: Avoiding the Hazards of Workload, Stress, and Routine Interruptions in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, J. Bradley; Rudolph, Jenny W.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a model of how a build-up of interruptions can shift the dynamics of the emergency department (ED) from an adaptive, self-regulating system into a fragile, crisis-prone one. Drawing on case studies of organizational disasters and insights from the theory of high-reliability organizations, the authors use computer simulations to show how the accumulation of small interruptions could have disproportionately large effects in the ED. In the face of a mounting workload created by interruptions, EDs, like other organizational systems, have tipping points, thresholds beyond which a vicious cycle can lead rather quickly to the collapse of normal operating routines and in the extreme to a crisis of organizational paralysis. The authors discuss some possible implications for emergency medicine, emphasizing the potential threat from routine, non-novel demands on EDs and raising the concern that EDs are operating closer to the precipitous edge of crisis as ED crowding exacerbates the problem. PMID:22168187

  9. Enhancing the quantum efficiency of InGaN yellow-green light-emitting diodes by growth interruption

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Chunhua; Ma, Ziguang; Zhou, Junming; Lu, Taiping; Jiang, Yang; Zuo, Peng; Jia, Haiqiang; Chen, Hong

    2014-08-18

    We studied the effect of multiple interruptions during the quantum well growth on emission-efficiency enhancement of InGaN-based yellow-green light emitting diodes on c-plane sapphire substrate. The output power and dominant wavelength at 20?mA are 0.24 mW and 556.3?nm. High resolution x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and electroluminescence measurements demonstrate that efficiency enhancement could be partially attributed to crystal quality improvement of the active region resulted from reduced In clusters and relevant defects on the surface of InGaN layer by introducing interruptions. The less tilted energy band in the quantum well is also caused by the decrease of In-content gradient along c-axis resulted from In segregation during the interruptions, which increases spatial overlap of electron-hole wavefunction and thus the internal quantum efficiency. The latter also leads to smaller blueshift of dominant wavelength with current increasing.

  10. HIV Reactivation from Latency after Treatment Interruption Occurs on Average Every 5-8 Days—Implications for HIV Remission

    PubMed Central

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Cromer, Deborah; Tolstrup, Martin; Grimm, Andrew J.; Cooper, David A.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Søgaard, Ole S.; Rasmussen, Thomas A.; Kent, Stephen J.; Kelleher, Anthony D.; Davenport, Miles P.

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection can be effectively controlled by anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in most patients. However therapy must be continued for life, because interruption of ART leads to rapid recrudescence of infection from long-lived latently infected cells. A number of approaches are currently being developed to ‘purge’ the reservoir of latently infected cells in order to either eliminate infection completely, or significantly delay the time to viral recrudescence after therapy interruption. A fundamental question in HIV research is how frequently the virus reactivates from latency, and thus how much the reservoir might need to be reduced to produce a prolonged antiretroviral-free HIV remission. Here we provide the first direct estimates of the frequency of viral recrudescence after ART interruption, combining data from four independent cohorts of patients undergoing treatment interruption, comprising 100 patients in total. We estimate that viral replication is initiated on average once every ?6 days (range 5.1- 7.6 days). This rate is around 24 times lower than previous thought, and is very similar across the cohorts. In addition, we analyse data on the ratios of different ‘reactivation founder’ viruses in a separate cohort of patients undergoing ART-interruption, and estimate the frequency of successful reactivation to be once every 3.6 days. This suggests that a reduction in the reservoir size of around 50-70-fold would be required to increase the average time-to-recrudescence to about one year, and thus achieve at least a short period of anti-retroviral free HIV remission. Our analyses suggests that time-to-recrudescence studies will need to be large in order to detect modest changes in the reservoir, and that macaque models of SIV latency may have much higher frequencies of viral recrudescence after ART interruption than seen in human HIV infection. Understanding the mean frequency of recrudescence from latency is an important first step in approaches to prolong antiretroviral-free viral remission in HIV. PMID:26133551

  11. HIV Reactivation from Latency after Treatment Interruption Occurs on Average Every 5-8 Days--Implications for HIV Remission.

    PubMed

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Cromer, Deborah; Tolstrup, Martin; Grimm, Andrew J; Cooper, David A; Lewin, Sharon R; Søgaard, Ole S; Rasmussen, Thomas A; Kent, Stephen J; Kelleher, Anthony D; Davenport, Miles P

    2015-07-01

    HIV infection can be effectively controlled by anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in most patients. However therapy must be continued for life, because interruption of ART leads to rapid recrudescence of infection from long-lived latently infected cells. A number of approaches are currently being developed to 'purge' the reservoir of latently infected cells in order to either eliminate infection completely, or significantly delay the time to viral recrudescence after therapy interruption. A fundamental question in HIV research is how frequently the virus reactivates from latency, and thus how much the reservoir might need to be reduced to produce a prolonged antiretroviral-free HIV remission. Here we provide the first direct estimates of the frequency of viral recrudescence after ART interruption, combining data from four independent cohorts of patients undergoing treatment interruption, comprising 100 patients in total. We estimate that viral replication is initiated on average once every ?6 days (range 5.1- 7.6 days). This rate is around 24 times lower than previous thought, and is very similar across the cohorts. In addition, we analyse data on the ratios of different 'reactivation founder' viruses in a separate cohort of patients undergoing ART-interruption, and estimate the frequency of successful reactivation to be once every 3.6 days. This suggests that a reduction in the reservoir size of around 50-70-fold would be required to increase the average time-to-recrudescence to about one year, and thus achieve at least a short period of anti-retroviral free HIV remission. Our analyses suggests that time-to-recrudescence studies will need to be large in order to detect modest changes in the reservoir, and that macaque models of SIV latency may have much higher frequencies of viral recrudescence after ART interruption than seen in human HIV infection. Understanding the mean frequency of recrudescence from latency is an important first step in approaches to prolong antiretroviral-free viral remission in HIV. PMID:26133551

  12. Percutaneous atrial septal defect closure by using jugular venous access in a case with interrupted inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Narin, Nazmi; Pamukcu, Ozge; Baykan, Ali; Argun, Mustafa; Ozyurt, Abdullah; Uzum, Kazim

    2014-01-01

    Femoral venous approach is the classical route of percutaneous atrial septal defect (ASD) closure. But in certain circumstances alternative routes are used. In this report percutaneous ASD closure in a case with interrupted vena cava by jugular venous approach is discussed. Percutaneous closure through femoral venous route was planned in a 6-year-old girl with ASD. Because of interrupted vena cava the jugular venous route was used. Having knowledge of this anatomical variation is important for interventionalists before performing femoral venous approach. Percutaneous transjugular venous access is a feasible alternative route in paediatric population for ASD closure. PMID:25489321

  13. One-Stage Repair of an Interrupted Aortic Arch with an Aortopulmonary Window in a Premature Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Bobos, Dimitrios; Kanakis, Meletios A.; Koulouri, Sofia; Giannopoulos, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    Interrupted aortic arch with an aortopulmonary window is a rare congenital entity that is associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially in premature low-birth-weight infants, and the proper timing of surgical correction remains a matter of debate. We present the case of a premature infant weighing 1.6 kg who successfully underwent one stage surgical repair to treat interrupted aortic arch with an aortopulmonary window. The therapeutic management of this patient is described below, and a review of the literature is presented. PMID:26665109

  14. Estimates of thermal fatigue due to beam interruptions for an ALMR-type ATW

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F. E.; Wade, D. C.

    1999-11-12

    Thermal fatigue due to beam interruptions has been investigated in a sodium cooled ATW using the Advanced Liquid Metal mod B design as a basis for the subcritical source driven reactor. A k{sub eff} of 0.975 was used for the reactor. Temperature response in the primary coolant system was calculated, using the SASSYS- 1 code, for a drop in beam current from full power to zero in 1 microsecond.. Temperature differences were used to calculate thermal stresses. Fatigue curves from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code were used to determine the number of cycles various components should be designed for, based on these thermal stresses.

  15. Unplanned antiretroviral treatment interruptions in southern Africa: how should we be managing these?

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Nina; Whiteside, Alan; Lalloo, David; Gibbs, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is essential for maximising individual treatment outcomes and preventing the development of drug resistance. It is, however, frequently compromised due to predictable, but adverse, scenarios in the countries most severely affected by HIV/AIDS. This paper looks at lessons from three specific crises in southern Africa: the 2008 floods in Mozambique, the ongoing political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe, and the 2007 public sector strike in South Africa. It considers how these crises impacted on the delivery of antiretroviral therapy and looks at some of the strategies employed to mitigate any adverse effects. Based on this it makes recommendations for keeping patients on treatment and limiting the development of drug resistance where treatment interruptions are inevitable. PMID:20356383

  16. Biomechanical properties in corneal refractive therapy during adaptation period and after treatment interruption: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Bona, Amelia; González-Mesa, Ana; Villa-Collar, César; Lorente-Velázquez, Amalia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the potential influence and treatment-related changes of the corneal biomechanical properties (BMP) measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA, Reichert, Depew, NY) 15-days and 1-month after the initiation and cessation of corneal refractive therapy (CRT). Methods Twenty-four young healthy subjects (24.04 ± 3.19 years) participated in two different experiments. In the first one (#1), twelve right eyes from 12 subjects who were fitted with CRT lenses were evaluated after 15 days and 1 month of lens wear. In the second trial (#2) 12 subjects who had been wearing CRT lenses for a period of 1 year were evaluated at 15 days and 1 month after treatment interruption. Results There was no statistically significant correlation between baseline BMP and absolute values of structural corneal parameters at 15 and 30 days treatment, and also when these variables were normalized according to the targeted refraction. In experiment #1, Corneal hysteresis (CH) reduction was observed over the time of treatment (p = 0.019), but no significant differences were observed in the Corneal Resistance Factor (CRF) values. In addition, CRF reduction significantly correlated with spherical equivalent refraction (r = 0.597; p = 0.044), but no correlation was observed between CH or CRF reduction and the spherical component of the refraction. In experiment #2, no significant changes in CH or CRF were found initially after lens wear interruption, but a trend to increase was observed thereafter. Conclusion CH decreases during onset of the CRT after 30 days of lens wear. Such changes seem to be reversible after cessation of contact lens wear following 1 year of treatment. Corneal biomechanics, however, do not predict the outcomes of CRT in clinical setting although with the data obtained some correlative tendencies were observed that may merit further investigation.

  17. Activation and interruption of the reproduction of Varroa destructor is triggered by host signals (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Frey, Eva; Odemer, Richard; Blum, Thomas; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2013-05-01

    The reproductive cycle of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor is closely linked to the development of the honey bee host larvae. Using a within colony approach we introduced phoretic Varroa females into brood cells of different age in order to analyze the capacity of certain stages of the honey bee larva to either activate or interrupt the reproduction of Varroa females. Only larvae within 18 h (worker) and 36 h (drones), respectively, after cell capping were able to stimulate the mite's oogenesis. Therewith we could specify for the first time the short time window where honey bee larvae provide the signals for the activation of the Varroa reproduction. Stage specific volatiles of the larval cuticle are at least part of these activation signals. This is confirmed by the successful stimulation of presumably non-reproducing mites to oviposition by the application of a larval extract into the sealed brood cells. According to preliminary quantitative GC-MS analysis we suggest certain fatty acid ethyl esters as candidate compounds. If Varroa females that have just started with egg formation are transferred to brood cells containing host larvae of an elder stage two-thirds of these mites stopped their oogenesis. This confirms the presence of an additional signal in the host larvae allowing the reproducing mites to adjust their own reproductive cycle to the ontogenetic development of the host. From an adaptive point of view that sort of a stop signal enables the female mite to save resources for a next reproductive cycle if the own egg development is not sufficiently synchronized with the development of the host. The results presented here offer the opportunity to analyze exactly those host stages that have the capacity to activate or interrupt the Varroa reproduction in order to identify the crucial host signals. PMID:23376006

  18. Exploring Relationships between Teachers' Philosophical Beliefs and Practices Relative to Unforeseen Interruptions in Elementary Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Faye Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' knowledge, goals, beliefs, and decision-making activities were explored individually and combined relative to their philosophical beliefs and practices in the elementary classroom setting in response to unforeseen interruptions. Schoenfeld's Theory of Teaching-in-Context and Brown's "The Experimental Mind in…

  19. The ESA/NASA SOHO Mission Interruption: Using the STAMP Accident Analysis Technique for a Software Related `Mishap'

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Chris

    -1- The ESA/NASA SOHO Mission Interruption: Using the STAMP Accident Analysis Technique, University of Glasgow, Scotland. johnson@dcs.gla.ac.uk (b) NASA Langley Research Center, MS 130 / 100 NASA Road, Hampton, VA 23681-2199, USA c.m.holloway@larc.nasa.gov Abstract: Mishap investigations provide

  20. The impact of sleep interruptions on vital measurements and chronic fatigue of female caregivers providing home care in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukasaki, Keiko; Kido, Teruhiko; Makimoto, Kiyoko; Naganuma, Rie; Ohno, Masami; Sunaga, Kyoko

    2006-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the impact of sleep interruptions on diurnal changes in blood pressure and chronic fatigue in middle-aged and elderly caregivers by using a cross-sectional quantitative method. Thirty-five female caregivers who were not taking antihypertensive and/or sleeping drugs were recruited for this study. Blood pressure was monitored over a 24 h period. Sleeping or waking periods were monitored with an actigraph. Fatigue was determined from a self-administered questionnaire. Participants were classified into four groups by cause of sleep interruption. One-way analysis of variance showed no differences in blood pressure, but hypertension was prevalent (40%). Sleep duration differed significantly, with the longest duration for those scheduled to wake up for care. Substantial variations were identified in the eight subcategories of chronic fatigue, with those without sleep interruption having the worst profile. This suggests that multiple factors in addition to sleep interruption affect the care burden. PMID:16451423

  1. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. 260.9 Section 260.9 Conservation of..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on... Director, Division of Pipeline Certificates, at the earliest feasible time: (i) Damage to...

  2. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reports by natural gas..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. (a)(1) Every natural gas company must report to...

  3. Increase in nitrate uptake by soybean plants during interruption of the dark period with low intensity light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, C. D. Jr; Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.

    1991-01-01

    Diurnal patterns of net NO3- uptake by nonnodulated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] plants growing in flowing hydroponic culture at 26 and 16 degrees C root temperatures were measured at hourly intervals during alternate days of a 12-day growth period. Ion chromatography was used to determine removal of NO3- from the culture solution. Day and night periods of 9 and 15 h were used during growth. The night period included two 6-h dark periods and an intervening 3-h period of night interruption by incandescent lamps to effect a long-day photoperiod and repress floral initiation. At both root temperatures, the average specific rates of NO3- uptake were twice as great during the night interruption period as during the day period; they were greater during the day period than during the dark periods; and they were greater during the dark period immediately following the day period than during the later dark period that followed the night interruption. While these average patterns were repetitious among days, measured rates of uptake varied hourly and included intervals of net efflux scattered through the day period and more frequently through the 2 dark periods. Root temperature did not affect the average daily specific rates of uptake or the qualitative relationships among day, dark and night interruption periods of the diurnal cycle.

  4. Technical Note: The use of an interrupted-flow centrifugation method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, R. A.; Cuthbert, M. O.; Timms, W.

    2015-09-01

    We present an interrupted-flow centrifugation technique to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media. The method entails a minimum of three phases: centrifuge-induced flow, no flow and centrifuge-induced flow, which may be repeated several times in order to most effectively characterise multi-rate mass transfer behaviour. In addition, the method enables accurate simulation of relevant in situ total stress conditions during flow by selecting an appropriate centrifugal force. We demonstrate the utility of the technique for characterising the hydraulic properties of smectite-clay-dominated core samples. All core samples exhibited a non-Fickian tracer breakthrough (early tracer arrival), combined with a decrease in tracer concentration immediately after each period of interrupted flow. This is indicative of dual (or multi-)porosity behaviour, with solute migration predominately via advection during induced flow, and via molecular diffusion (between the preferential flow network(s) and the low hydraulic conductivity domain) during interrupted flow. Tracer breakthrough curves were simulated using a bespoke dual porosity model with excellent agreement between the data and model output (Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient was > 0.97 for all samples). In combination, interrupted-flow centrifuge experiments and dual porosity transport modelling are shown to be a powerful method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media.

  5. Complicating Consent: A Study of the Rhetorical Strategies Employed to Interrupt Rape Myths in the Prosecutor v. Kunarac

    E-print Network

    Shook, Lindsey

    2010-08-31

    The justices in the trial of the Prosecutor v. Kunarac were able to interrupt the rape myths that generally exist in rape trials by complicating the notion of consent. In this paper I argue that the justices de-naturalize common myths about consent...

  6. Synchronizing Bees With Bloom: Interrupted Incubation and Short-Term Storage of the Alfalfa Pollinator, Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interrupting the spring incubation with short-term low-temperature storage of the developing pupae and pharate adult stage of Megachile rotundata (F.) is a useful technique for synchronizing the emergence of these bees with the peak alfalfa bloom. However, low-temperature exposure can be stressful d...

  7. Paying the price works: increasing goal-state access cost improves problem solving and mitigates the effect of interruption.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Phillip L; Patrick, John

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate whether it was possible to induce more internal planning in the four-disk Tower of Hanoi (ToH) in order not only to produce more efficient problem solving but also to make it more resistant to the negative effect of interruption. The theoretical frameworks of soft constraints and the memory for goals model underpinned Experiments 1 and 2. In both experiments, three goal-state access cost conditions were used: high (mouse movements and 2.5-s delay), medium (mouse movements) and low (goal state always available). In Experiment 1, more memory-based planning was induced by the high cost condition, which resulted in fewer moves to solution and the gradual development of an efficient subgoaling strategy, resulting in more perfect solutions. In Experiment 2, the same condition protected performance against a 10-s interruption irrespective of the interrupting task (blank screen, mental arithmetic, or three-disk ToH). The more memory-based planning strategy, induced by high access cost, presumably strengthened participants' goals during planning and problem solving, making them less susceptible to decay and interference from interruption. These novel results are discussed in the context of other recent studies. PMID:22928975

  8. Protective Factors Interrupting the Continuity from School Bullying to Later Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: A Systematic Review of Prospective Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ttofi, Maria M.; Bowes, Lucy; Farrington, David P.; Lösel, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review is presented, based on prospective longitudinal studies, on protective factors that interrupt the continuity from bullying perpetration at school to externalizing problem behaviors later in life; and from bullying victimization to later internalizing problems. Some common factors were established, which seem to interrupt the…

  9. 43 CFR 3481.4-4 - What is the aggregate amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my lease...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my...

  10. Reappearance of Minority K103N HIV-1 Variants after Interruption of ART Initiated during Primary HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Metzner, Karin J.; Leemann, Christine; Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Grube, Christina; Scherrer, Alexandra U.; Braun, Dominique; Kuster, Herbert; Weber, Rainer; Guenthard, Huldrych F.

    2011-01-01

    Background In the Zurich Primary HIV infection study (ZPHI), minority drug-resistant HIV-1 variants were detected in some acutely HIV-1-infected patients prior to initiation of early antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here, we investigated the reappearance of minority K103N and M184V HIV-1 variants in these patients who interrupted efficient early ART after 8–27 months according to the study protocol. These mutations are key mutations conferring drug resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors and they belong to the most commonly transmitted drug resistance mutations. Methodology/Principal Findings Early ART was offered to acutely HIV-1-infected patients enrolled in the longitudinal prospective ZPHI study. Six patients harboring and eleven patients not harboring drug-resistant viruses at low frequencies prior to ART were included in this substudy. Minority K103N and M184V HIV-1 variants were quantified in longitudinal plasma samples after treatment interruption by allele-specific real-time PCR. All 17 patients were infected with HIV-1 subtype B between 04/2003 and 09/2005 and received LPV/r+AZT+3TC during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI). Minority K103N HIV-1 variants reappeared after cessation of ART in two of four patients harboring this variant during PHI and even persisted in one of those patients at frequencies similar to the frequency observed prior to ART (<1%). The K103N mutation did not appear during treatment interruption in any other patient. Minority M184V HIV-1 variants were detected in two patients after ART interruption, one harboring and one not harboring these variants prior to ART. Conclusion Minority K103N HIV-1 variants, present in acutely HIV-1 infected patients prior to early ART, can reappear and persist after interruption of suppressive ART containing two nucleoside/nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors and a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00537966 PMID:21754996

  11. Role of contact tracing and prevention strategies in the interruption of leprosy transmission.

    PubMed

    Smith, W Cairns S; Aerts, Ann

    2014-03-01

    The global prevalence of leprosy has declined from 5.2 million in the 1980 s to 200,000 today. However, the new case detection rate remains high: over the last 8 years, around 220,000-250,000 people have been diagnosed with leprosy each year. In June 2013, an international meeting was organised by the Novartis Foundation for Sustainable Development in Geneva, Switzerland,2 with the objective of discussing the feasibility of interrupting the transmission of leprosy. The group of physicians, epidemiologists and public health professionals concluded that a successful programme would require early diagnosis and prompt multidrug therapy (MDT) for all patients, tracing and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for contacts of patients newly diagnosed with leprosy, improvements in diagnostic tools, as well as strict epidemiological surveillance and response systems to monitor progress. As a follow-up, a second expert group meeting was convened by the Novartis Foundation in January 2014 in Zurich, Switzerland, with the objective of reviewing the evidence for chemoprophylaxis in contacts and high-risk communities. The meeting also considered the definitions of 'contacts' and 'contact tracing', discussed alternative prophylaxis regimens, preliminary findings of operational pilot projects on PEP in Indonesia, as well as the development of diagnostic tools, and identified the priority questions for operational research in leprosy transmission. The meeting outlined how contact tracing and chemoprophylaxis programmes can be implemented to interrupt leprosy transmission. The expert panel reached the following conclusions: Chemoprophylaxis with single-dose rifampicin (SDR) is efficacious in reducing the risk of developing leprosy, although the protective effect appears to be smaller in contacts closer to the index patient than in more distant contacts.3 SDR can be targeted to contacts or implemented as community mass prophylaxis in certain circumstances; the preferred approach depends on local factors, such as the case detection rate, the level of community stigma against leprosy, and the degree of access to healthcare for patients and contacts. Alternative prophylaxis regimens and the role of post-exposure immunoprophylaxis need to be further investigated. Contact tracing combined with PEP across very diverse settings offers protection rates similar to those reported in controlled trials. For high-incidence pockets ('hotspots') or remote or confined high-incidence populations ('hotpops'), blanket administration of PEP may be a better option. Implementation of contact-tracing programmes is feasible and cost-effective, particularly in high-risk groups, but it should be integrated into local healthcare services to ensure their long-term sustainability. Funding and support must be maintained after an initial pilot has finished. New programmes for contact tracing need effective surveillance systems to enable appropriate follow-up and outcome evaluation. The Novartis Foundation and Netherlands Leprosy Relief (NLR) are currently developing and implementing a large international programme to demonstrate the feasibility, acceptability, cost-effectiveness and real-world efficacy of PEP as a strategy to interrupt leprosy transmission, in six pilot projects in Asia, Africa and South America. These new pilot projects will be developed together with the local health authorities, healthcare workers, communities and patients, in order to create local ownership from the outset. The pilots should aim to be scalable and sustainable, and should therefore include an objective outcome assessment. Local ownership ensures that locally appropriate language and definitions of contacts are used in each of the pilots. A test to identify subclinical disease and distinguish M. leprae exposure from infection would facilitate early and appropriate therapy (with PEP or MDT). The identification and validation of new, sensitive biomarkers for M. leprae infection and exposure may allow better targeting of PEP to those contacts at highest risk of developing leprosy. PMID:249744

  12. Reconstructing paleoenvironmental conditions during the past 50 ka from the biogeochemical record of Laguna Potrok Aike, southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, A.; Rosén, P.; Kliem, P.; Ohlendorf, C.; Zolitschka, B.

    2011-12-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC) and biogenic silica (BSi) assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) are used to reconstruct the environmental history during the past 50kyrs in high resolution from Laguna Potrok Aike. During the Holocene warmer conditions lead to an increased productivity reflected in higher TOC and BSi contents. Calcite precipitation initiated around 9 ka cal. BP probably due to supersaturation induced by lake level lowering. It is assumed that prior to this time period sediments are carbonate-free because high lake-level conditions prevailed. During the Glacial, increased runoff linked to permafrost, precipitation related to stronger cyclonic activity and reduced evaporation have caused higher lake levels. Moreover, during cold glacial conditions lake productivity was low and organic matter mainly of algal or cyanobacterial origin as indicated by generally low TOC and C/N values. During interstadials, such as the Antarctic A-events and the Younger Dryas, TOC contents appear to rise. The glacial C/N ratios and their correlation with TOC concentrations indicate that aquatic moss blooms probably induce these increases in TOC. Aquatic mosses grow if surface water temperatures rise due to warmer climatic conditions and/or development of a lake water stratification. The latter may occur if wind speeds are low and melt water inflow caused higher density gradients. Prevailing permafrost thawing during warmer periods could lead to considerable rises of lake levels, which would contribute to the preservation of organic material. This may explain why higher C/N and TOC values occur at the end of Antarctic A-events. For the uppermost 25 m, the BSi profile shows a high correlation with the TOC profile. In deeper horizons, however, there are indications that the BSi/TOC ratio increased. This part of the record is dominated by mass movement events, which may have supplied nutrients and thus triggered diatom blooms.

  13. 50 Ka Till-Filled Pleistocene Plunge Pools and Potholes Found Beneath the World Trade Center Site, New York, NY

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    of pegmatite are scattered across the site, with concentrations in the NW corner (Tower 1), seen above, and SE of massive granitic pegmatite was concentrated primarily in the northwest (Tower 1 area) and southeast (Tower

  14. Predictors of unstructured antiretroviral treatment interruption and resumption among HIV-positive individuals in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Samji, Hasina; Taha, Taha E; Moore, David; Burchell, Ann N; Cescon, Angela; Cooper, Curtis; Raboud, Janet M; Klein, Marina; Loutfy, Mona R; Machouf, Nima; Tsoukas, Chris M; Montaner, Julio SG; Hogg, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Background Sustained optimal use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) has been shown to decrease morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. However, incomplete adherence and treatment interruption (TI) remain challenges to the full realization of the promise of cART. We estimated trends and predictors of treatment interruption and resumption among individuals in the Canadian Observational Cohort (CANOC) collaboration. Methods cART-naïve individuals ?18 years of age who initiated cART between 2000–2011 were included. We defined TIs as ?90 consecutive days off cART. We used descriptive analyses to study TI trends over time and Cox regression to identify factors predicting time to first TI and time to treatment resumption after a first TI. Results 7,633 participants were eligible, of whom 1,860 (24.5%) experienced a TI. The prevalence of TI in the first calendar year of cART decreased by half over the study period. Our analyses highlighted a higher risk of TI among women (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.59, 95%CI: 1.33–1.92), younger individuals (aHR: 1.27, 95%CI: 1.15–1.37 per decade increase), earlier treatment initiators (CD4 count ?350 versus <200 mm3, aHR: 1.46, 95%CI: 1.17–1.81), Aboriginal participants (aHR: 1.67, 95%CI: 1.27–2.20), injecting drug users (aHR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.09–1.89), and users of zidovudine versus tenofovir in the initial cART regimen (aHR: 2.47, 95%CI: 1.92–3.20). Conversely, factors predicting treatment resumption were male sex, older age, and a CD4 cell count <200 mm3 at cART initiation. Conclusion Despite significant improvements in cART since its advent, our results demonstrate that TIs remain relatively prevalent. Strategies to support continuous HIV treatment are needed to maximize the benefits of cART. PMID:25174373

  15. Cessation of Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis in Zanzibar in 2006: Was Transmission Interrupted?

    PubMed Central

    Rebollo, Maria P.; Mohammed, Khalfan A.; Thomas, Brent; Ame, Shaali; Ali, Said Mohammed; Cano, Jorge; Escalada, Alba Gonzalez; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination through annual mass drug administration (MDA) for 4–6 years. In 2006, Zanzibar stopped MDA against LF after five rounds of MDA revealed no microfilaraemic individuals during surveys at selected sentinel sites. We asked the question if LF transmission was truly interrupted in 2006 when MDA was stopped. Methodology/Principal Findings In line with ongoing efforts to shrink the LF map, we performed the WHO recommended transmission assessment surveys (TAS) in January 2012 to verify the absence of LF transmission on the main Zanzibar islands of Unguja and Pemba. Altogether, 3275 children were tested on both islands and 89 were found to be CFA positive; 70 in Pemba and 19 in Unguja. The distribution of schools with positive children was heterogeneous with pronounced spatial variation on both islands. Based on the calculated TAS cut-offs of 18 and 20 CFA positive children for Pemba and Unguja respectively, we demonstrated that transmission was still ongoing in Pemba where the cut-off was exceeded. Conclusions Our findings indicated ongoing transmission of LF on Pemba in 2012. Moreover, we presented evidence from previous studies that LF transmission was also active on Unguja shortly after stopping MDA in 2006. Based on these observations the government of Zanzibar decided to resume MDA against LF on both islands in 2013. PMID:25816287

  16. Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplankton–zooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

  17. Improving Malaria Control in West Africa: Interruption of Transmission as a Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Doumbia, Seydou O.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Koita, Ousmane A.; Diakité, Mahamadou; Nwakanma, Davis; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Traoré, Sekou F.; Keating, Joseph; Milner, Danny A.; Ndiaye, Jean-Louis; Sene, Papa Diogoye; Ahouidi, Ambroise; Dieye, Tandakha N.; Gaye, Oumar; Okebe, Joseph; Ceesay, Serign J.; Ngwa, Alfred; Oriero, Eniyou C.; Konaté, Lassana; Sy, Ngayo; Jawara, Musa; Faye, Ousmane; Kéita, Moussa; Cissé, Moussa; Sogoba, Nafomon; Poudiougou, Belco; Diawara, Sory; Sangaré, Lansana; Coulibaly, Tinzana; Seck, Ibrahima; Abubakar, Ismaela; Gomis, Jules; Mather, Frances J.; Sissako, Aliou; Diarra, Ayouba; Kandeh, Balla; Whalen, Christopher; Moyer, Brian; Nnedu, Obinna; Thiero, Oumar; Bei, Amy K.; Daniels, Rachel; Miura, Kazutoyo; Long, Carole A.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Duraisingh, Manoj; Muskavitch, Marc A.T.; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Conway, David J.; Volkman, Sarah K.; Valim, Clarissa; Wirth, Dyann F.; Krogstad, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    With the paradigm shift from the reduction of morbidity and mortality to the interruption of transmission, the focus of malaria control broadens from symptomatic infections in children ? 5 years of age to include asymptomatic infections in older children and adults. In addition, as control efforts intensify and the number of interventions increases, there will be decreases in prevalence, incidence and transmission with additional decreases in morbidity and mortality. Expected secondary consequences of these changes include upward shifts in the peak ages for infection (parasitemia) and disease, increases in the ages for acquisition of antiparasite humoral and cellular immune responses and increases in false-negative blood smears and rapid diagnostic tests. Strategies to monitor these changes must include: 1] studies of the entire population (that are not restricted to children ? 5 or ? 10 years of age), 2] study sites in both cities and rural areas (because of increasing urbanization across sub-Saharan Africa) and 3] innovative strategies for surveillance as the prevalence of infection decreases and the frequency of false-negative smears and rapid diagnostic tests increases. PMID:22142790

  18. Interruption of Electrical Conductivity of Titanium Dental Implants Suggests a Path Towards Elimination Of Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Pozhitkov, Alex E; Daubert, Diane; Brochwicz Donimirski, Ashley; Goodgion, Douglas; Vagin, Mikhail Y; Leroux, Brian G; Hunter, Colby M; Flemmig, Thomas F; Noble, Peter A; Bryers, James D

    2015-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of soft tissue and bone around the implant. Titanium implant corrosion has been attributed to the implant failure and cytotoxic effects to the alveolar bone. We have documented the extent of titanium release into surrounding plaque in patients with and without peri-implantitis. An in vitro model was designed to represent the actual environment of an implant in a patient's mouth. The model uses actual oral microbiota from a volunteer, allows monitoring electrochemical processes generated by biofilms growing on implants and permits control of biocorrosion electrical current. As determined by next generation DNA sequencing, microbial compositions in experiments with the in vitro model were comparable with the compositions found in patients with implants. It was determined that the electrical conductivity of titanium implants was the key factor responsible for the biocorrosion process. The interruption of the biocorrosion current resulted in a 4-5 fold reduction of corrosion. We propose a new design of dental implant that combines titanium in zero oxidation state for osseointegration and strength, interlaid with a nonconductive ceramic. In addition, we propose electrotherapy for manipulation of microbial biofilms and to induce bone healing in peri-implantitis patients. PMID:26461491

  19. Data analysis of response interruption and redirection as a treatment for vocal stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Kara L; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2015-12-01

    Vocal stereotypy, or repetitive, noncontextual vocalizations, is a problematic form of behavior exhibited by many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has evaluated the efficacy of response interruption and redirection (RIRD) in the reduction of vocal stereotypy. Research has indicated that RIRD often results in reductions in the level of vocal stereotypy; however, many previous studies have only presented data on vocal stereotypy that occurred outside RIRD implementation. The current study replicated the procedures of previous studies that have evaluated the efficacy of RIRD and compared 2 data-presentation methods: inclusion of only data collected outside RIRD implementation and inclusion of all vocal stereotypy data from the entirety of each session. Subjects were 7 children who had been diagnosed with ASD. Results indicated that RIRD appeared to be effective when we evaluated the level of vocal stereotypy outside RIRD implementation, but either no reductions or more modest reductions in the level of vocal stereotypy during the entirety of sessions were obtained for all subjects. Results suggest that data-analysis methods used in previous research may overestimate the efficacy of RIRD. PMID:26173813

  20. Interruption of Electrical Conductivity of Titanium Dental Implants Suggests a Path Towards Elimination Of Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Pozhitkov, Alex E.; Daubert, Diane; Brochwicz Donimirski, Ashley; Goodgion, Douglas; Vagin, Mikhail Y.; Leroux, Brian G.; Hunter, Colby M.; Flemmig, Thomas F.; Noble, Peter A.; Bryers, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of soft tissue and bone around the implant. Titanium implant corrosion has been attributed to the implant failure and cytotoxic effects to the alveolar bone. We have documented the extent of titanium release into surrounding plaque in patients with and without peri-implantitis. An in vitro model was designed to represent the actual environment of an implant in a patient’s mouth. The model uses actual oral microbiota from a volunteer, allows monitoring electrochemical processes generated by biofilms growing on implants and permits control of biocorrosion electrical current. As determined by next generation DNA sequencing, microbial compositions in experiments with the in vitro model were comparable with the compositions found in patients with implants. It was determined that the electrical conductivity of titanium implants was the key factor responsible for the biocorrosion process. The interruption of the biocorrosion current resulted in a 4–5 fold reduction of corrosion. We propose a new design of dental implant that combines titanium in zero oxidation state for osseointegration and strength, interlaid with a nonconductive ceramic. In addition, we propose electrotherapy for manipulation of microbial biofilms and to induce bone healing in peri-implantitis patients. PMID:26461491

  1. Reduction in Male Suicide Mortality Following the 2006 Russian Alcohol Policy: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chamlin, Mitchell B.; Andreev, Evgeny

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We took advantage of a natural experiment to assess the impact on suicide mortality of a suite of Russian alcohol policies. Methods. We obtained suicide counts from anonymous death records collected by the Russian Federal State Statistics Service. We used autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) interrupted time series techniques to model the effect of the alcohol policy (implemented in January 2006) on monthly male and female suicide counts between January 2000 and December 2010. Results. Monthly male and female suicide counts decreased during the period under study. Although the ARIMA analysis showed no impact of the policy on female suicide mortality, the results revealed an immediate and permanent reduction of about 9% in male suicides (Ln ?0?=??0.096; P?=?.01). Conclusions. Despite a recent decrease in mortality, rates of alcohol consumption and suicide in Russia remain among the highest in the world. Our analysis revealed that the 2006 alcohol policy in Russia led to a 9% reduction in male suicide mortality, meaning the policy was responsible for saving 4000 male lives annually that would otherwise have been lost to suicide. Together with recent similar findings elsewhere, our results suggest an important role for public health and other population level interventions, including alcohol policy, in reducing alcohol-related harm. PMID:24028249

  2. Realistic heterointerface model for excitonic states in growth-interrupted GaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savona, Vincenzo; Langbein, Wolfgang

    2006-08-01

    We present a model for the disorder of the heterointerfaces in GaAs quantum wells including long-range components like monolayer island formation induced by the surface diffusion during the epitaxial growth process. Taking into account both interfaces, a disorder potential for the exciton motion in the quantum well plane is derived. The excitonic optical properties are calculated using either a time propagation of the excitonic polarization with a phenomenological dephasing, or a full exciton eigenstate model including microscopic radiative decay and phonon scattering rates. While the results of the two methods are generally similar, the eigenstate model does predict a distribution of dephasing rates and a somewhat modified spectral response. Comparing the results with measured absorption and resonant Rayleigh scattering in GaAs/AlAs quantum wells subjected to growth interrupts, their specific disorder parameters like correlation lengths and interface flatness are determined. We find that the long-range disorder in the two heterointerfaces is highly correlated, having rather similar average in-plane correlation lengths of about 60 and 90nm . The distribution of dephasing rates observed in the experiment is in agreement with the results of the eigenstate model. Finally, we simulate highly spatially resolved optical experiments resolving individual exciton states in the deduced interface structure.

  3. Application of padmounted fault interrupters to single-phase URD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Israel, W.F.

    1995-12-31

    Underground distribution has proven itself to be a highly effective means of eliminating the temporary faults that plague overhead distribution, however, the permanent faults that do occur are often cable or splice failures which are unpredictable, difficult to locate and require a lot of time and expense to repair. One of the ways that the designer seeks to minimize the impact of such events on service reliability is by incorporating an overcurrent protection scheme which removes the faulted section from the rest of the system and contingency scheme which allows isolation of the faulted section and restoration of service in the shortest possible time with a minimal number of switching operations. As a result there has been a continuing interest in the development of devices, equipment, and methods which help to realize the ideals of rapid service restoration and isolation of faults to the smallest segment of the system. Overcurrent protection of the single-phase URD system has, traditionally, been the province of fused cutouts and fused padmounted sectionalizing terminals and switchgear. Recently however, padmounted vacuum fault interrupters, that utilize electronic controls for tripping, have become available from several manufacturers and are beginning to make inroads into this portion of the distribution system. This paper will discuss the characteristics and potential applications of a new product offered by Cooper Power Systems, the Shrubline VFI, which was designed specifically for use in single phase residential underground distribution.

  4. Life interrupted and life regained? Coping with stroke at a young age

    PubMed Central

    Dow, Clare; Locock, Louise; Lyons, Renee F.; Lasserson, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability across the developed world, affecting an increasing number of younger people. In this article, we seek to understand the experience of stroke as a disabling life situation among young people and the strategies that they use to recover and cope. Directed content analysis was conducted from interviews with 17 community-dwelling stroke survivors aged 55 years and younger across the United Kingdom. The sample was drawn from a larger maximum variation sample of stroke survivors. Using the sociological concepts of biographical disruption and biographical repair as a guide, excerpts from the interviews pertaining to aspects of the patients’ life that were interrupted, in addition to how they coped with the changes, were selected and analysed. All individuals described an “altered sense of self,” a theme that included loss of identity, family disruption, and/or loss of valued activities. Individuals sought to adapt their sense of self by seeking external support, by restoring normality, and/or through positive reflection. Despite the adapted self that emerged, most individuals continued to experience impairments. While young stroke survivors adapt to their illness over time, they continue to experience impairments and disruptions in their personal and work lives. A holistic model of rehabilitation that helps individuals regain the capacity for everyday activities related to work, family life, and leisure can begin to address the emotional ramifications of diseases such as stroke, restore wellness, and work towards minimizing the burden felt by family caregivers and children. PMID:24461569

  5. Using mathematical modeling and control to develop structured treatment interruption strategies for HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Eric S.; Davidian, Marie; Banks, H. Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this article is to suggest that mathematical models describing biological processes taking place within a patient over time can be used to design adaptive treatment strategies. We demonstrate using the key example of treatment strategies for human immunodeficiency virus Type-1 (HIV) infection. Although there has been considerable progress in management of HIV infection using highly active antiretroviral therapies, continuous treatment with these agents involves significant cost and burden, toxicities, development of drug resistance, and problems with adherence; these latter complications are of particular concern in substanceabusing individuals. This has inspired interest in structured or supervised treatment interruption (STI) strategies, which involve cycles of treatment withdrawal and re-initiation. We argue that the most promising STI strategies are adaptive treatment strategies. We then describe how biological mechanisms governing the interaction over time between HIV and a patient’s immune system may be represented by mathematical models and how control methods applied to these models can be used to design adaptive STI strategies seeking to maintain long-term suppression of the virus. We advocate that, when such mathematical representations of processes underlying a disease or disorder are available, they can be an important tool for suggesting adaptive treatment strategies for clinical study. PMID:17276624

  6. Dolphins Can Maintain Vigilant Behavior through Echolocation for 15 Days without Interruption or Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Branstetter, Brian K.; Finneran, James J.; Fletcher, Elizabeth A.; Weisman, Brian C.; Ridgway, Sam H.

    2012-01-01

    In dolphins, natural selection has developed unihemispheric sleep where alternating hemispheres of their brain stay awake. This allows dolphins to maintain consciousness in response to respiratory demands of the ocean. Unihemispheric sleep may also allow dolphins to maintain vigilant states over long periods of time. Because of the relatively poor visibility in the ocean, dolphins use echolocation to interrogate their environment. During echolocation, dolphin produce clicks and listen to returning echoes to determine the location and identity of objects. The extent to which individual dolphins are able to maintain continuous vigilance through this active sense is unknown. Here we show that dolphins may continuously echolocate and accurately report the presence of targets for at least 15 days without interruption. During a total of three sessions, each lasting five days, two dolphins maintained echolocation behaviors while successfully detecting and reporting targets. Overall performance was between 75 to 86% correct for one dolphin and 97 to 99% correct for a second dolphin. Both animals demonstrated diel patterns in echolocation behavior. A 15-day testing session with one dolphin resulted in near perfect performance with no significant decrement over time. Our results demonstrate that dolphins can continuously monitor their environment and maintain long-term vigilant behavior through echolocation. PMID:23082170

  7. [Study on the efficacy of genetically engineered vaccines against hepatitis B for interruption of perinatal transmission].

    PubMed

    Kang, P; Shen, X M; Yu, H M

    1995-07-01

    The infectivity rate of newborn babies who had been borne from HBsAG(+), HBeAg(+) and anti-HBc(+) mothers was very high (85%). 142 babies born in the hospital were divided into three groups, in this study. In the group 1, 57 babies were inoculated with 20 micrograms recombinant DNA vaccinia vaccines against hepatitis B. The injections were given at newborn, 1 month, and 6 months, respectively. In group 2, 41 babies were inoculated with 20 micrograms genetic engineering vaccines against hepatitis B at same time were intervals as group 1. In group 3, 44 newborn babies were inoculated with 10 micrograms as same vaccines as group 2 HBIG plus 1ml (200 U/ml), at same time intervals as group 1. The immune pretection rates of newborn babies in three groups were 88.2%, 85.9% and 100%, respectively. The anti-HBs pasitive conversion rates were 82%, 86% and 98%, respectively. The group 3 was compared with group 1 and 2. Statistical analysis showed the significant differences (P < 0.05). The result showed the immune program of group 3 was superior to that of group 1 and 2, and none of the 44 babies in group 3 were infected. The efficacy of immunization by genetic engineering vaccines were superior to that of blood-derived vaccine. The genetic engineering vaccines against hepatitis B would be more useful for interruption of perinatal transmission of HBV. PMID:8631089

  8. Describing interruptions, multi-tasking and task-switching in community pharmacy: a qualitative study in England.

    PubMed

    Lea, Victoria M; Corlett, Sarah A; Rodgers, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    Background There is growing evidence around interruptions, multi-tasking and task-switching in the community pharmacy setting. There is also evidence to suggest some of these practices may be associated with dispensing errors. Up to date, qualitative research on this subject is limited. Objective To explore interruptions, multi-tasking and task-switching in the community setting; utilising an ethnographic approach to provide a detailed description of the circumstances surrounding such practices.Setting Community pharmacies in England, July-October 2011. Method An ethnographic approach was taken. Non participant, unstructured observations were utilised to make records of pharmacists' every activity. Case studies were formed by combining field notes with detailed information on pharmacists and their respective pharmacy businesses. Content analysis was undertaken both manually and electronically, using NVivo 10. Main outcome measure To determine the factors influencing interruptions, multitasking and task-switching in the community pharmacy setting. Results Response rate was 12 % (n = 11). Over fifteen days, a total of 123 h and 58 min of observations were recorded in 11 separate pharmacies of 11 individual pharmacists. The sample was evenly split by gender (female n = 6; male n = 5) and pharmacy ownership (independent n = 5; multiple n = 6). Employment statuses included employee pharmacists (n = 6), owners (n = 4) and a locum (n = 1). Average period of registration as a pharmacist was 19 years (range 5-39 years). Average prescription busyness of pharmacies ranged from 2600 to 24,000 items dispensed per month. All observed pharmacists' work was dominated by interruptions, task-switches, distractions and multi-tasking, often to manage a barrage of conflicting demands. These practices were observed to be part of a deep-rooted culture in the community setting. In particular, support staff regularly contributed to interruptions and distractions for pharmacists; pharmacists in turn continued to permit these. Novel directional work maps illustrated the extent and direction of task-switching and multi-tasking employed by pharmacists. Conclusions In this study pharmacists' working practices were permeated by interruptions, distractions and multi-tasking. Task-switching was also frequently employed by pharmacists. Changes to working practices by both pharmacists and support staff would help to minimise these which in turn has the potential to lead to safer and more efficient methods of working. PMID:26173938

  9. Development of a Discharge Channel upon Electric Explosion of a Wire in Interrupted- and Uninterrupted-Current Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Romanova, Vera; Tkachenko, Svetlana; Mingaleev, Albert; Agafonov, Alexey; Ter-Oganesyan, Alexey; Shelkovenko, Tatiana; Pikuz, Sergey

    2009-01-21

    Experimental results on the electrical explosion of thin W, Cu and Ni wires with a current density of {approx}10{sup 12} A/m{sup 2}, a current rise rate (dI/dt){approx}40 A/ns and a current pulse with amplitude 9 kA are presented. The structures of the discharge channels developed in single wire explosions in air and vacuum using laser shadow and schlieren imaging have been studied under the condition that the current in the circuit was interrupted. A difference in the shock wave propagation in air and the expansion of the exploded wire dense core in interrupted- and uninterrupted-current regimes has been observed. Analysis of the optical images has been performed in a shunting breakdown scenario.

  10. Successful surgical treatment of descending aorta interruption in a 29-year-old woman with acute paraplegia and subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shutang; Wang, Zhiheng; Zhang, Liang; Fu, Hongdu; Zhuang, Huanwei; Cao, Xianjun; Liang, Liming; Yang, Yanqi

    2015-01-01

    Interruption of the descending aorta is an extremely rare great vessel malformation. In this report, we describe a very unusual case of a 29-year-old female with a 13-year history of hypertension who was found to have an interruption of the descending aorta when she was hospitalized with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and symptoms of acute paraplegia. We successfully surgically corrected the defect using a Gore-Tex® graft to bypass the aortic interruption. The patient's blood pressure postoperatively returned to normal, and the patient recovered completely from her paraplegia by the time of her 5-month follow-up visit. PMID:26045082

  11. Medium voltage breaker rehabilitation: A life-cycle cost analysis of replacement, retrofit and interrupter technology options

    SciTech Connect

    Rinck, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Upgrading of obsolete, medium voltage, air-magnetic, metal-clad switchgear to vacuum or SF{sub 6} circuit breakers may be accomplished by replacement or retrofit. This paper represents a case study for upgrading the Station Service switchgear at The Dalles Lock & Dam. The life-cycle costs associated with the options of breaker replacement and retrofit, as well as costs resulting from the choice of interrupter, will be examined and compared.

  12. Temporal trends of time to antiretroviral treatment initiation, interruption and modification: examination of patients diagnosed with advanced HIV in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Stephen T; Law, Matthew G; Cooper, David A; Keen, Phillip; McDonald, Ann; Middleton, Melanie; Woolley, Ian; Kelly, Mark; Petoumenos, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV prevention strategies are moving towards reducing plasma HIV RNA viral load in all HIV-positive persons, including those undiagnosed, treatment naïve, on or off antiretroviral therapy. A proxy population for those undiagnosed are patients that present late to care with advanced HIV. The objectives of this analysis are to examine factors associated with patients presenting with advanced HIV, and establish rates of treatment interruption and modification after initiating ART. Methods We deterministically linked records from the Australian HIV Observational Database to the Australian National HIV Registry to obtain information related to HIV diagnosis. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with advanced HIV diagnosis. We used survival methods to evaluate rates of ART initiation by diagnosis CD4 count strata and by calendar year of HIV diagnosis. Cox models were used to determine hazard of first ART treatment interruption (duration >30 days) and time to first major ART modification. Results Factors associated (p<0.05) with increased odds of advanced HIV diagnosis were sex, older age, heterosexual mode of HIV exposure, born overseas and rural–regional care setting. Earlier initiation of ART occurred at higher rates in later periods (2007–2012) in all diagnosis CD4 count groups. We found an 83% (69, 91%) reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption comparing 2007–2012 versus 1996–2001 (p<0.001), and no difference in ART modification for patients diagnosed with advanced HIV. Conclusions Recent HIV diagnoses are initiating therapy earlier in all diagnosis CD4 cell count groups, potentially lowering community viral load compared to earlier time periods. We found a marked reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption, and found no difference in rates of major modification to ART by HIV presentation status in recent periods. PMID:25865372

  13. Interruption in the supply of breathing gas during general anesthesia due to malposition of the vaporizer -A case report-

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo Jin

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of interruption in the supply of breathing gas during general anesthesia caused by malposition of the Drager Vapor 2000® vaporizer, which was accidentally tilted and lifted off the Selectatec manifold of the anesthesia machine. Because the patient was an 1-month-old infant, we couldn't check if he had experienced awareness with recall. We emphasize the importance of checking the anesthetic vaporizer after mounting it on the back bar of the anesthesia machine. PMID:21057618

  14. Probability risk transmission matrix as a decision tool for assessing methods of transmission interruption of Wuchereria bancrofti infection

    PubMed Central

    DAS, P. K.; VANAMAIL, P.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Lymphatic filariasis continues to cause severe morbidity and economic loss. The World Health Assembly (WHA) has passed a resolution to eliminate this disease by 2020. The major thrust of the elimination strategy is interrupting transmission by anti-parasitic treatment of entire communities. However, both vector density and community microfilaria load (CMFL) influence the intensity of transmission. Therefore, using a logistic regression approach a relationship has been established between the Risk of Infection Index (RII), vector density and CMFL. The present analysis indicates that there is no risk of transmission as long as the CMFL is maintained below 5 microfilaria (mf)/60 mm3 and the vector density per man-hour (MHD) is <25. However, transmission may continue when vector density is >25 and CMFL is <5 mf/60 mm3. In situations where CMFL is very high, parasitic control by mass administration may be cost effective in interrupting transmission. But at lower level of CMFL (<4 mf) and higher level of vector density it might be more cost effective to use vector control methods. A RII value <0·2 is considered to be the threshold for confirming interruption of transmission. Thus, the relationship has been depicted in the form of a probability matrix, which could be used for selecting an appropriate control strategy. PMID:17579929

  15. Evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic HIV vaccines through analytical treatment interruptions

    PubMed Central

    Graziani, Gina M; Angel, Jonathan B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The development of an effective therapeutic HIV vaccine that induces immunologic control of viral replication, thereby eliminating or reducing the need for antiretroviral therapy (ART), would be of great value. Besides the obvious challenges of developing a therapeutic vaccine that would generate effective, sustained anti-HIV immunity in infected individuals is the issue of how to best assess the efficacy of vaccine candidates. Discussion This review discusses the various outcome measures assessed in therapeutic HIV vaccine clinical trials involving individuals receiving suppressive ART, with a particular focus on the role of analytical treatment interruption (ATI) as a way to assess the virologic control induced by an immunotherapy. This strategy is critical given that there are otherwise no readily available measures to determine the ability of a vaccine-induced immune response to effectively control HIV replication. The various outcome measures that have been used to assess vaccine efficacy in published therapeutic HIV vaccine clinical trials will also be discussed. Outcome measures have included the kinetics of viral rebound, the new viral set point and changes in the size of the viral reservoir. Clinically relevant outcomes such as the CD4 decline, the time to resume therapy or the time to meet the criterion to resume therapy, the proportion of participants who resume therapy and/or the development of clinical symptoms such as acute retroviral syndrome are also measures of vaccine efficacy. Conclusions Given the lack of consistency between therapeutic HIV vaccine trials in how efficacy is assessed, comparing vaccines has been difficult. It would, therefore, be beneficial to determine the most clinically relevant measure for use in future studies. Other recommendations for future clinical trials also include studying compartments in addition to blood and replacing ATIs with single-copy assays in situations in which the use of an ATI is not ideal. PMID:26561337

  16. Cognitive functioning during highly active antiretroviral therapy interruption in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Meredith E; Woods, Steven Paul; Letendre, Scott; McCutchan, J Allen; Rosario, Debralee; Grant, Igor; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Ellis, Ronald J

    2015-01-01

    Although no longer considered therapeutically beneficial, antiretroviral treatment interruptions (TIs) still occur frequently among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection for a variety of reasons. TIs typically result in viral rebound and worsening immunosuppression, which in turn are risk factors for neurocognitive decline and dementia. We sought to determine the extent of neurocognitive risk with TIs and subsequent reintroduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by using a comprehensive, sensitive neuropsychological assessment and by concurrently determining changes in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral load and CD4 counts. Prospective, serial, clinical evaluations including neuropsychological (NP) testing and measurement of plasma HIV RNA and CD4 count and mood state were performed on HIV-1–infected individuals (N=11) at three time points: (1) prior to a TI, while on HAART; (2) after TIs averaging 6 months; and (3) after reinitiating HAART therapy. During TI, plasma HIV RNA increased and CD4 counts declined significantly, but NP performance did not change. Following reinitiation of HAART, viral loads fell below pre-TI levels, and CD4 counts rose. Improved viral suppression and immune restoration with reinitiation of HAART resulted in significant improvement in neurocognitive performance. No changes on comprehensive questionnaires of mood state were observed in relation to TI. NP performance and mood state remained stable during TIs despite worsened viral loads and CD4 counts. Because “practice effects” are generally greatest between the first and second NP testing sessions, improvement at the third, post-TI time point was unlikely to be accounted for by practice. TIs of up to 6 months appear to be neurocognitively and psychiatrically safe for most patients. PMID:19016380

  17. Chemical disinfection to interrupt transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from environmental surfaces to hands.

    PubMed Central

    Sattar, S A; Jacobsen, H; Springthorpe, V S; Cusack, T M; Rubino, J R

    1993-01-01

    Rhinoviruses can survive on environmental surfaces for several hours under ambient conditions. Hands can readily become contaminated after contact with such surfaces, and self-inoculation may lead to infection. Whereas hand washing is crucial in preventing the spread of rhinovirus colds, proper disinfection of environmental surfaces may further reduce rhinovirus transmission. In this study, the capacities of Lysol Disinfectant Spray (0.1% o-phenylphenol and 79% ethanol), a domestic bleach (6% sodium hypochlorite diluted to give 800 ppm of free chlorine), a quaternary ammonium-based product (7.05% quaternary ammonium diluted 1:128 in tap water), and a phenol-based product (14.7% phenol diluted 1:256 in tap water) were compared in interrupting the transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from stainless steel disks to fingerpads of human volunteers upon a 10-s contact at a pressure of 1 kg/cm2. Ten microliters of the virus, suspended in bovine mucin (5 mg/ml), was placed on each disk, and the inoculum was dried under ambient conditions; the input number on each disk ranged from 0.5 x 10(5) to 2.1 x 10(6) PFU. The dried virus was exposed to 20 microliters of the test disinfectant. The Lysol spray was able to reduce virus infectivity by > 99.99% after a contact of either 1 or 10 min, and no detectable virus was transferred to fingerpads from Lysol-treated disks. The bleach (800 ppm of free chlorine) reduced the virus titer by 99.7% after a contact time of 10 min, and again no virus was transferred from the disks treated with it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8390817

  18. Interruptions of the ancient Shu Civilization: triggered by climate change or natural disaster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xingyue; Bai, Song; Zeng, Na; Page Chamberlain, C.; Wang, Chengshan; Huang, Chengmin; Zhang, Qing

    2013-04-01

    Environmental proxies of a stable carbon isotope, total organic carbon, free iron oxide, and particle size distribution in sediments as well as the stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in fossil human and animal teeth were used to reconstruct the history of climate change and natural disasters near the Jinsha Relic Site and to track their effect on the ancient Shu Civilization, which was established in the Chengdu Plain of southwest China during the late Holocene. In general, the late Holocene climate in the Chengdu Plain demonstrated a drying and cooling trend, with evident cooler events ~4100 and ~2700 a BP, which coincided with global climate changes. The ancient Shu Civilization was interrupted twice, and it included three stages—the Baodun (4700-3700 a BP), the Sanxingdui (3700-3150 a BP), and the Shi'erqiao (3150-2600 a BP)—that were slightly related to the abrupt climate changes that resulted from the collapse of the classic Sanxingdui Civilization, which was founded in a regional warm period. The abrupt increase in sand content in the sediment from the Jinsha Site coincided with the palaeoearthquake and palaeodam burst in the Longmen Mountains when the Baodun and Shi'erqiao desisted, indicating that a flood had occurred due to a dam burst and may likely have caused the ancient civilization's destruction. Although the warm and humid climate, flat terrain and rich water resources prompted the prosperity of the ancient towns of Sanxingdui and Jinsha, frequent natural disasters, such as powerful earthquakes, landslide dams, and outburst floods, consistently affected the ancient Shu inhabitants.

  19. Do Active Surveillance and Contact Precautions Reduce MRSA Acquisition? A Prospective Interrupted Time Series

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Caroline; Richards, Michael; McBryde, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Background Consensus for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) control has still not been reached. We hypothesised that use of rapid MRSA detection followed by contact precautions and single room isolation would reduce MRSA acquisition. Methods This study was a pre-planned prospective interrupted time series comparing rapid PCR detection and use of long sleeved gowns and gloves (contact precautions) plus single room isolation or cohorting of MRSA colonised patients with a control group. The study took place in a medical-surgical intensive care unit of a tertiary adult hospital between May 21st 2007 and September 21st 2009. The primary outcome was the rate of MRSA acquisition. A segmented regression analysis was performed to determine the trend in MRSA acquisition rates before and after the intervention. Findings The rate of MRSA acquisition was 18.5 per 1000 at risk patient days in the control phase and 7.9 per 1000 at-risk patient days in the intervention phase, with an adjusted hazard ratio 0.39 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.62). Segmented regression analysis showed a decline in MRSA acquisition of 7% per month in the intervention phase, (95%CI 1.9% to 12.8% reduction) which was a significant change in slope compared with the control phase. Secondary analysis found prior exposure to anaerobically active antibiotics and colonization pressure were associated with increased acquisition risk. Conclusion Contact precautions with single room isolation or cohorting were associated with a 60% reduction in MRSA acquisition. While this study was a quasi-experimental design, many measures were taken to strengthen the study, such as accounting for differences in colonisation pressure, hand hygiene compliance and individual risk factors across the groups, and confining the study to one centre to reduce variation in transmission. Use of two research nurses may limit its generalisability to units in which this level of support is available. PMID:23555568

  20. Closing of interrupted vascular segmentations: an automatic approach based on shortest paths and level sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkert, Nils Daniel; Schmidt-Richberg, Alexander; Säring, Dennis; Illies, Till; Fiehler, Jens; Handels, Heinz

    2010-03-01

    Exact segmentations of the cerebrovascular system are the basis for several medical applications, like preoperation planning, postoperative monitoring and medical research. Several automatic methods for the extraction of the vascular system have been proposed. These automatic approaches suffer from several problems. One of the major problems are interruptions in the vascular segmentation, especially in case of small vessels represented by low intensities. These breaks are problematic for the outcome of several applications e.g. FEM-simulations and quantitative vessel analysis. In this paper we propose an automatic post-processing method to connect broken vessel segmentations. The approach proposed consists of four steps. Based on an existing vessel segmentation the 3D-skeleton is computed first and used to detect the dead ends of the segmentation. In a following step possible connections between these dead ends are computed using a graph based approach based on the vesselness parameter image. After a consistency check is performed, the detected paths are used to obtain the final segmentation using a level set approach. The method proposed was validated using a synthetic dataset as well as two clinical datasets. The evaluation of the results yielded by the method proposed based on two Time-of-Flight MRA datasets showed that in mean 45 connections between dead ends per dataset were found. A quantitative comparison with semi-automatic segmentations by medical experts using the Dice coefficient revealed that a mean improvement of 0.0229 per dataset was achieved. In summary the approach presented can considerably improve the accuracy of vascular segmentations needed for following analysis steps.

  1. [Percutaneous electric interruption of normal auriculoventricular conduction. Analysis of French cases].

    PubMed

    Lévy, S; Bru, P

    1986-07-01

    Since 1982, 85 patients (aged 18 to 81 years) with supraventricular arrhythmias resistant to an average of 3.8 +/- 1.2 classes of antiarrhythmic drugs, 53 of whom had underlying cardiac disease (62.3%), underwent attempted catheter ablation of the normal AV conduction pathway in 8 different French centers. The indication was atrial fibrillation and flutter in 51 cases (60%) and intranodal reentry in 16 cases (18.8%). An average of 2.5 +/- 2.3 electrical shocks of 130 to 400 joules delivered in 1 to 3 sessions successfully induced high degree AV block in 79 patients, present at the time of discharge from hospital in 43 patients (50.5%). There were 3 cases immediately complicated by non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Late complications (1 day to 1 month) included ventricular tachycardia (2 patients) septicaemia (3 patients) and pericarditis (1 patient). Sixty nine patients were followed up for an average of 12.9 +/- 10.0 months. There was one death from septicaemia due to infection of the pacemaker and two deaths at 5 and 6 months due to cardiac failure which had been present before the procedure. Fifty six patients were asymptomatic (81.1%), 27 with high degree AV block and 29 patients with (N = 19) or without (N = 10) antiarrhythmic therapy. There were 10 failures. This study shows that closed chest interruption of the normal AV conduction pathway is an effective and relatively safe alternative method of treating supraventricular tachycardias resistant to antiarrhythmic therapy. PMID:3096238

  2. Safety of thoracoscopic surgery for lung cancer without interruption of anti-platelet agents

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Woo Sik; Jung, Hee Suk; Lee, Jin Gu; Kim, Dae Joon; Chung, Kyung Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Perioperative bleeding concerns have led to the general recommendation that antiplatelet agents (APAs) be discontinued 7-10 days preoperatively, but this could increase the risk of perioperative cardiovascular events. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the safety of APA continuation during thoracoscopic surgery for lung cancer. Methods Between January 2009 and February 2015, 164 patients taking APAs underwent curative resection. Comparisons were conducted between two groups: preoperatively interrupted APA administration (group I, n=106) and continued APA administration (group N, n=58). Results Group N had a significantly higher revised cardiac risk index (rCRI) (P=0.001). Lobectomy was performed in the majority of patients [95 (89.6%) in group I; 52 (89.7%) in group N]. There were no significant differences in intraoperative outcomes, such as the thoracotomy conversion rate, operating time, intraoperative transfusion, and amount of blood loss during the operation, or postoperative outcomes, such as postoperative bleeding and thrombotic complications, postoperative transfusions, and operative mortality. Within group N, the patients taking aspirin + clopidogrel (n=11) had significantly greater postoperative bleeding (P=0.005), and more postoperative transfusions (P=0.003) and chest tube drainage over a 3-day period (P=0.049) compared with other antiplatelet regimens. Conclusions Continued use of APAs during thoracoscopic surgery for lung cancer could be safely done in patients at high risk of cardiac or thrombotic events. However, in patients administered aspirin + clopidogrel, it may be the best to continue aspirin only because of an increased risk of postoperative bleeding and transfusion requirements. PMID:26716042

  3. Development of Vacuum Insulation Technology for a Multifunctional VacuumInterrupter Loaded into an SF6 Gas Free 24 kV Switchgear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shinji; Koyama, Kenichi; Itotani, Takayuki; Miyamoto, Seiichi; Maruyama, Toshimasa

    We developed a multifunctional vacuum interrupter that has three functions: current interruption, disconnection, and earth operation in a vacuum vessel. Using the multifunctional vacuum interrupter, we realized 24 kV, 630 A, 25 kA rated switchgear that do not use SF6 gas. In addition, we could downsize the switchgear greatly compared with conventional switchgear by applying excellent vacuum insulation characteristics. In this paper, we report the backgrounds and the solutions of the following technical problems regarding vacuum insulation inside the multifunctional vacuum interrupter: (1) Improvement of breakdown voltage between the vacuum vessel and high voltage flexible conductors, (2) optimization on the shape of shielding electrodes set at both ends of an insulating rod, (3) removal of conductive micro particles and improvement of breakdown voltage between contacts by using AC working voltage, and (4) identification of long-term reliability of vacuum insulation under the continuous application of AC working voltage.

  4. 41 CFR 301-70.506 - How do we define actual cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness...Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES...

  5. 41 CFR 301-10.8 - What is my liability if, for personal convenience, I travel by an indirect route or interrupt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...my liability if, for personal convenience, I travel by an indirect route or interrupt travel by a direct route? 301-10.8 Section...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY)...

  6. 41 CFR 301-10.8 - What is my liability if, for personal convenience, I travel by an indirect route or interrupt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...my liability if, for personal convenience, I travel by an indirect route or interrupt travel by a direct route? 301-10.8 Section...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY)...

  7. The role of interruptible natural gas customers in New England heating oil markets: A preliminary examination of events in January-February 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-01

    This report provides an analysis of data collected from gas service providers and end-use customers in the six New England States and offers a preliminary assessment of the impact of interruptible gas customers on the distillate fuel oil market this past winter. Based on information collected and analyzed as of October 2000, the main findings areas follows: (1) For interruptible gas customers with distillate fuel oil as a backup fuel, their volume of interruptions was equivalent to about 1 to 2 percent of the total sales of distillate fuel oil in New England during January-February 2000. For the two peak weeks of gas supply interruptions, however, the equivalent volume of distillate fuel oil amounted to an estimated 3 to 6 percent of total sales in New England. There were no interruptions of the natural gas service during the 2-month period. (2) Purchases of distillate fuel oil by interruptible gas customers may have contributed somewhat to the spike in the price of distillate fuel oil in January-February 2000, especially during the peak weeks of gas interruptions. Nevertheless, other factors--a sudden drop in temperatures, low regional stocks of distillate fuels, and weather-related supply problems during a period of high customer demand--appear to have played a significant role in this price spike, as they have in previous spikes. (3) While this preliminary analysis suggests that interruptible natural gas service does not threaten the stability of the home heating oil market, several steps might be taken-without undermining the benefits of interruptible service--to reduce the potential adverse impacts of gas supply interruptions in times of market stress. Regardless of the magnitude of the impact of distillate fuel oil purchases by interruptible gas customers on Northeast heating oil markets, the threat of future heating oil price spikes and supply problems still remains. To help counter the threat, President Clinton in July 2000 directed Secretary Richardson to establish a heating oil component of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in the Northeast, and 2 million barrels of heating oil are now stored in the reserve. Other possible policy options are outlined.

  8. Cockpit Interruptions and Distractions: Effective Management Requires a Careful Balancing Act

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. K.; Young, Grant E.; Sumwalt, Robert L., III; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Managing several tasks concurrently is an everyday part of cockpit operations. For the most part, crews handle concurrent task demands efficiently, yet crew preoccupation with one task to the detriment of performing other tasks is one of the more common forms of error in the cockpit. Most pilots are familiar with the December 1972 L1011 crash that occurred when the crew became preoccupied with a landing gear light malfunction and failed to notice that someone had inadvertently bumped off the autopilot. More recently a DC-9 landed gear-up in Houston when the crew, preoccupied with an stabilized approach, failed to recognize that the gear was not down because they had not switched the hydraulic pumps to high. We have recently started a research project to study why crews are vulnerable to these sorts of errors. As part of that project we reviewed NTSB reports of accidents attributed to crew error; we concluded that nearly half of these accidents involved lapses of attention associated with interruptions, distractions, or preoccupation with one task to the exclusion of another task. We have also analyzed 107 ASRS reports involving competing tasks; we present here some of our conclusions from those ASRS reports. These 107 reports involved 21 different types of routine tasks crews neglected at a critical moment while attending to another task. Sixty-nine percent of the neglected tasks involved either failure to monitor the current status or position of the aircraft or failure to monitor the actions of the pilot flying or taxiing. Thirty-four different types of competing activities distracted or preoccupied the pilots. Ninety percent of these competing activities fell into one of four broad categories: communication (e.g., discussion among crew or radio communication), heads-down work (e.g., programming the FMS or reviewing approach plates), responding to abnormals, or searching for VMC traffic. We will discuss examples of each of these four categories and suggest things crews can do to reduce their vulnerability to these and similar situations.

  9. Chiral Phosphine-Silver(I) Complex Catalyzed Enantioselective Interrupted Feist-Bénary Reaction with Ynones: The Aldol-Cycloisomerization Cascade.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Debarshi; Biswas, Arnab; Singh, Vinod K

    2015-07-01

    Silver-catalyzed interrupted Feist-Bénary reaction is described for the efficient enantioselective synthesis of dihydrofuran heterocycles. A new method has been developed for the silver(I)-(R)-BINAP complex mediated aldol-cycloisomerization cascade reaction between ynones and 1,3-diketones to provide functionalized dihydrofurans with moderate to good yields (up to 95%) and good to excellent enantiomeric excess (up to 98%). The presence of an exocyclic double bond and hydroxy group in the dihydrofuran products provides wide scope for further structural manipulation. PMID:26106952

  10. Effect of Relative Humidity and Interrupted Wetness Periods on Brown Spot Severity of Pear Caused by Stemphylium vesicarium.

    PubMed

    Llorente, I; Montesinos, E

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT Field observations in four pear orchards during 5 years from April to October indicated that days with uninterrupted wetness of variable length represented 83.9% of the total days studied. However, days with surface wetness interruptions and with high relative humidity (RH) (>/=90%) without wetness occurred with a frequency of 7.1 and 6.2%, respectively. Accordingly, the effect of interruption of 24-h wetness periods by dry periods of high or low RH on infections caused by Stemphylium vesicarium on pear was determined. Pear plants inoculated with conidia of S. vesicarium were exposed to a 12-h wet period followed by a dry period of variable length (0, 3, 6, 12, 18, or 24 h) and a second wet period of 12 h. The dry period consisted either of low (60%) or high (96%) RH. The infection process was irreversibly stopped under low RH during dry periods between wetness, but continued at high RH. The effect of high RH on disease severity in the absence of wetness was also determined. Pear plants inoculated with S. vesicarium were exposed to periods of variable length (3 to 24 h) either at high RH (96%) in the presence of wetness or at high RH (96%) without wetness. No infections were observed on plants incubated under high RH without wetness, indicating that conidia of S. vesicarium require the presence of a water film in the plant surface to develop infections on pear. PMID:18944145

  11. Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coating During Interrupted High-Heat Flux Laser Testing Using Upconversion Luminescence Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    Upconversion luminescence imaging of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has been shown to successfully monitor TBC delamination progression during interrupted furnace cycling. However, furnace cycling does not adequately model engine conditions where TBC-coated components are subjected to significant heat fluxes that produce through-thickness temperature gradients that may alter both the rate and path of delamination progression. Therefore, new measurements are presented based on luminescence imaging of TBC-coated specimens subjected to interrupted high-heat-flux laser cycling exposures that much better simulate the thermal gradients present in engine conditions. The TBCs tested were deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and were composed of 7wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) with an integrated delamination sensing layer composed of 7YSZ co-doped with erbium and ytterbium (7YSZ:Er,Yb). The high-heat-flux exposures that produce the desired through-thickness thermal gradients were performed using a high power CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 10.6 microns. Upconversion luminescence images revealed the debond progression produced by the cyclic high-heat-flux exposures and these results were compared to that observed for furnace cycling.

  12. Neglect in Human Communication: Quantifying the Cost of Cell-Phone Interruptions in Face to Face Dialogs

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I.; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them. PMID:26039326

  13. Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus by Simulium neavei in Mount Elgon Focus of Eastern Uganda Has Been Interrupted

    PubMed Central

    Katabarwa, Moses; Lakwo, Tom; Habomugisha, Peace; Agunyo, Stella; Byamukama, Edson; Oguttu, David; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Ochieng, Galex Orukan; Abwaimo, Francis; Onapa, Ambrose; Lwamafa, Dennis W. K.; Walsh, Frank; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Richards, Frank O.

    2014-01-01

    The study determined that Simulium neavei-transmitted onchocerciasis in Mount Elgon onchocerciasis focus had been interrupted. Annual mass treatment with ivermectin changed to two times per year along with vector elimination in 2007. Then, baseline microfilaria (mf) prevalence data of 1994 in five sentinel communities were compared with follow-up data in 2005 and 2011. Blood spots from 3,051 children obtained in 2009 were analyzed for Onchocerca volvulus immunoglobulin G4 antibodies. Fresh water crab host captures and blackflies collected indicated their infestation with larval stages of S. neavei and presence or absence of the vector, respectively. Mf rates dropped from 62.2% to 0.5%, and 1 (0.03%) of 3,051 children was positive for O. volvulus antibodies. Crab infestation dropped from 41.9% in 2007 to 0%, and S. neavei biting reduced to zero. Both remained zero for the next 3 years, confirming interruption of onchocerciasis transmission, and interventions were halted. PMID:24686740

  14. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them. PMID:26039326

  15. Locally Advanced Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Impact of Pre-Radiotherapy Hemoglobin Level and Interruptions During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk Stoehr, Monika; Kazic, Nadja; Hakim, Samer G.; Walz, Annette; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Stage IV head and neck cancer patients carry a poor prognosis. Clear understanding of prognostic factors can help to optimize care for the individual patient. This study investigated 11 potential prognostic factors including pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level and interruptions during radiotherapy for overall survival (OS), metastases-free survival (MFS), and locoregional control (LC) after radiochemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven factors were investigated in 153 patients receiving radiochemotherapy for Stage IV squamous cell head and neck cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor site, grading, T stage, N stage, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, surgery, chemotherapy type, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved OS was associated with KPS 90-100 (relative risk [RR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.93; p = .012), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.01-3.53; p = .048), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.15-5.78; p = .021). Improved LC was significantly associated with lower T stage (RR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.16-4.63; p = .013), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.92-9.09; p < .001), surgery (RR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.28-5.88; p = .008), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.26-8.79; p = .015). Improved MFS was associated with KPS 90-100 (RR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.46-8.85; p = .012). Conclusions: Significant predictors for outcome in Stage IV head and neck cancer were performance status, stage, surgery, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. It appears important to avoid anemia and radiotherapy interruptions to achieve the best treatment results.

  16. Renal lymphangiomatosis, interrupted IVC with persistent primitive hepatic venous plexus and multiple anomalous venous channels: parts of an overlap syndrome?

    PubMed

    Watson, Tom; Martinez, Ester; Crabbe, David; Chetcuti, Phillip; Kraft, Jeannette K

    2012-02-01

    A 5-year-old girl with cutis marmorata telangiectasia congenita (CMTC) and congenital glaucoma, who had previously presented with seizures, transient hemiplegia, upper gastrointestinal bleeding and hemihypertrophy, developed a large pleural effusion. Subsequent imaging revealed renal lymphangiomatosis, multiple anomalous intra-abdominal venous channels, an interrupted inferior vena cava with a persistent primitive hepatic venous plexus (PPHVP) and meningeal angiomas. To the best of our knowledge, the CT findings of PPHVP and the combination of the demonstrated abnormalities have not been previously reported. They may represent an overlap syndrome of CMTC, Sturge-Weber syndrome and Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. The complexity and degree of overlap highlights the importance of an accurate clinical and anatomical description and good communication among clinicians. PMID:21773796

  17. Internet-based remote counseling to support stress management: preventing interruptions to regular exercise in elderly people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Sayuri; Munakata, Tsunestugu; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Okunaka, Jyunzo; Koga, Tatsuzo

    2006-01-01

    Our research showed that a high degree of life-stress has a negative mental health effect that may interrupt regular exercise. We used an internet based, remotely conducted, face to face, preventive counseling program using video monitors to reduce the source of life-stresses that interrupts regular exercise and evaluated the preventative effects of the program in elderly people. NTSC Video signals were converted to the IP protocol and facial images were transmitted to a PC display using the exclusive optical network lines of JGN2. Participants were 22 elderly people in Hokkaido, Japan, who regularly played table tennis. A survey was conducted before the intervention in August 2003. IT remote counseling was conducted on two occasions for one hour on each occasion. A post intervention survey was conducted in February 2004 and a follow-up survey was conducted in March 2005. Network quality was satisfactory with little data loss and high display quality. Results indicated that self-esteem increased significantly, trait anxiety decreased significantly, cognition of emotional support by people other than family members had a tendency to increase, and source of stress had a tendency to decrease after the intervention. Follow-up results indicated that cognition of emotional support by family increased significantly, and interpersonal dependency decreased significantly compared to before the intervention. These results suggest that face to face IT remote counseling using video monitors is useful to keep elderly people from feeling anxious and to make them confident to continue exercising regularly. Moreover, it has a stress management effect.

  18. The Validity and Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time Series Design and the Difference-in-Difference Design in Educational Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Marie-Andrée; Zhu, Pei; Jacob, Robin; Bloom, Howard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the validity and precision of two nonexperimental study designs (NXDs) that can be used in educational evaluation: the comparative interrupted time series (CITS) design and the difference-in-difference (DD) design. In a CITS design, program impacts are evaluated by looking at whether the treatment group deviates from its…

  19. Peek-a-What? Infants' Response to the Still-Face Task after Normal and Interrupted Peek-a-Boo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Best, Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    Infants' sensitivity to the vitality or tension envelope within dyadic social exchanges was investigated by examining their responses following normal and interrupted games of peek-a-boo embedded in a Still-Face Task. Infants 5-6 months old engaged in two modified Still-Face Tasks with their mothers. In one task, the initial interaction ended…

  20. The effect of high temperature interruptions during inductive period on the extent of flowering and on metabolic responses in olives (Olea europaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of the duration of high temperature interruption and the timing of it’s occurrence during inductive period on the extent of inhibition of inflorescence production in ‘Arbequina’ olive trees was investigated. Trees kept under inductive conditions in different growth chambers were subjected...

  1. Resits and Interruptions of Studies If you hold a Tier 4 (Student) visa, then Imperial College London is your immigration sponsor whilst you are in

    E-print Network

    Resits and Interruptions of Studies If you hold a Tier 4 (Student) visa, then Imperial College-time attendance. This information sheet explains how your Tier 4 visa status will be affected if you to take some resits after their course end date and after their Tier 4 student visa has expired

  2. 43 CFR 3481.4-2 - What are some examples of circumstances that qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    43 ? Public Lands: Interior ? 2 ? 2013-10-01 ? 2013-10-01 ? false ? What are some examples of circumstances that qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? ? 3481.4-2 ? Section 3481.4-2 ? Public Lands: Interior ? Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) ? BUREAU OF...

  3. 43 CFR 3481.4-2 - What are some examples of circumstances that qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    43 ? Public Lands: Interior ? 2 ? 2014-10-01 ? 2014-10-01 ? false ? What are some examples of circumstances that qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? ? 3481.4-2 ? Section 3481.4-2 ? Public Lands: Interior ? Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) ? BUREAU OF...

  4. Interruption of the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles to ethanol-baited traps and ethanol-injected trap trees by Verbenone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the ability of verbenone, a bark beetle anti-aggregation pheromone, to interrupt the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles. Field trapping studies conducted in Ohio showed that a verbenone dispenser with a release rate of 50 mg / d at 25 oC reduced the attraction of Anisandr...

  5. Interrupted Incubation and Short-Term Storage of the Alfalfa Pollinator, Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): A Potential Tool for Synchronizing Bees With Bloom

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interrupting the spring incubation with short-term low temperature storage of the developing pupae and pharate adult stage of Megachile rotundata (F.) is a useful technique for synchronizing the emergence of this bee species with the peak alfalfa bloom. However, low temperature exposure can be stres...

  6. Chagas disease: current epidemiological trends after the interruption of vectorial and transfusional transmission in the Southern Cone countries.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Alvaro

    2003-07-01

    Chagas disease, named after Carlos Chagas who first described it in 1909, exists only on the American Continent. It is caused by a parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs and by blood transfusion. Chagas disease has two successive phases, acute and chronic. The acute phase lasts 6 to 8 weeks. After several years of starting the chronic phase, 20% to 35% of the infected individuals, depending on the geographical area will develop irreversible lesions of the autonomous nervous system in the heart, esophagus, colon and the peripheral nervous system. Data on the prevalence and distribution of Chagas disease improved in quality during the 1980's as a result of the demographically representative cross-sectional studies carried out in countries where accurate information was not available. A group of experts met in Bras lia in 1979 and devised standard protocols to carry out countrywide prevalence studies on human T. cruzi infection and triatomine house infestation. Thanks to a coordinated multi-country program in the Southern Cone countries the transmission of Chagas disease by vectors and by blood transfusion has been interrupted in Uruguay in1997, in Chile in 1999, and in 8 of the 12 endemic states of Brazil in 2000 and so the incidence of new infections by T. cruzi in the whole continent has decreased by 70%. Similar control multi-country initiatives have been launched in the Andean countries and in Central America and rapid progress has been recorded to ensure the interruption of the transmission of Chagas disease by 2005 as requested by a Resolution of the World Health Assembly approved in 1998. The cost-benefit analysis of the investments of the vector control program in Brazil indicate that there are savings of US$17 in medical care and disabilities for each dollar spent on prevention, showing that the program is a health investment with good return. Since the inception in 1979 of the Steering Committee on Chagas Disease of the Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases of the World Health Organization (TDR), the objective was set to promote and finance research aimed at the development of new methods and tools to control this disease. The well known research institutions in Latin America were the key elements of a world wide network of laboratories that received - on a competitive basis - financial support for projects in line with the priorities established. It is presented the time line of the different milestones that were answering successively and logically the outstanding scientific questions identified by the Scientific Working Group in 1978 and that influenced the development and industrial production of practical solutions for diagnosis of the infection and disease control. PMID:12973523

  7. Peri-procedural interrupted oral anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation ablation: comparison of aspirin, warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban

    PubMed Central

    Winkle, Roger A.; Mead, R. Hardwin; Engel, Gregory; Kong, Melissa H.; Patrawala, Rob A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Atrial fibrillation ablation requires peri-procedural oral anticoagulation (OAC) to prevent thromboembolic events. There are several options for OAC. We evaluate peri-procedural AF ablation complications using a variety of peri-procedural OACs. Methods and results We examined peri-procedural OAC and groin, bleeding, and thromboembolic complications for 2334 consecutive AF ablations using open irrigated-tip radiofrequency (RF) catheters. Pre-ablation OAC was warfarin in 1113 (47.7%), dabigatran 426 (18.3%), rivaroxaban 187 (8.0%), aspirin 472 (20.2%), and none 136 (5.8%). Oral anticoagulation was always interrupted and intraprocedural anticoagulation was unfractionated heparin (activated clotting time, ACT = 237 ± 26 s). Pre- and post-OAC drugs were the same for 1591 (68.2%) and were different for 743 (31.8%). Following ablation, 693 (29.7%) were treated with dabigatran and 291 (12.5%) were treated with rivaroxaban. There were no problems changing from one OAC pre-ablation to another post-ablation. Complications included 12 (0.51%) pericardial tamponades [no differences for dabigatran (P = 0.457) or rivaroxaban (P = 0.163) compared with warfarin], 12 (0.51%) groin complications [no differences for rivaroxaban (P = 0.709) and fewer for dabigatran (P = 0.041) compared with warfarin]. Only 5 of 2334 (0.21%) required blood transfusions. There were two strokes (0.086%) and no transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) in the first 48 h post-ablation. Three additional strokes (0.13%), and two TIAs (0.086%) occurred from 48 h to 30 days. Only one stroke had a residual deficit. Compared with warfarin, the neurologic event rate was not different for dabigatran (P = 0.684) or rivaroxaban (P = 0.612). Conclusion Using interrupted OAC, low target intraprocedural ACT, and irrigated-tip RF, the rate of peri-procedural groin, haemorrhagic, and thromboembolic complications was extremely low. There were only minimal differences between OACs. Low-risk patients may remain on aspirin/no OAC pre-ablation. There are no problems changing from one OAC pre-ablation to another post-ablation. PMID:25115168

  8. Morphogenesis, Flowering, and Gene Expression of Dendranthema grandiflorum in Response to Shift in Light Quality of Night Interruption.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Gyeong; Muneer, Sowbiya; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2015-01-01

    The impact of shifts in the spectral quality of light on morphogenesis, flowering, and photoperiodic gene expression during exposure to light quality of night interruption (NI) was investigated in Dendranthema grandiflorum. The circadian rhythms of plants grown in a closed walk-in growth chamber were interrupted at night for a total of 4 h, using light-emitting diodes with an intensity of 10 ?mol·m?²·s?¹ PPF. The light quality of the NI was shifted from one wavelength to another after the first 2 h. Light treatments consisting of all possible pairings of blue (B), red (R), far-red (Fr), and white (W) light were tested. Plants in the NI treatment groups exposed to Fr light grew larger than plants in other treatment groups. Of plants in NI treatment groups, those in the NI-WB treatment grew the least. In addition, the impact of shifts in the light quality of NI on leaf expansion was greater in treatment groups exposed to a combination of either B and R or R and W light, regardless of their order of supply. Flowering was observed in the NI-RB, NI-FrR, NI-BFr, NI-FrB, NI-WB, NI-FrW, NI-WFr, NI-WR, and SD (short-day) treatments, and was especially promoted in the NI-BFr and NI-FrB treatments. In a combined shift treatment of B and R or B and W light, the NI concluded with B light (NI-RB and NI-WB) treatment induced flowering. The transcriptional factors phyA, cry1 and FTL (FLOWERING LOCUS T) were positively affected, while phyB and AFT were negatively affected. In conclusion, morphogenesis, flowering, and transcriptional factors were all significantly affected either positively or negatively by shifts in the light quality of NI. The light quality of the first 2 h of NI affected neither morphogenesis nor flowering, while the light quality of the last 2 h of NI significantly affected both morphogenesis and flowering. PMID:26197314

  9. Morphogenesis, Flowering, and Gene Expression of Dendranthema grandiflorum in Response to Shift in Light Quality of Night Interruption

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoo Gyeong; Muneer, Sowbiya; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2015-01-01

    The impact of shifts in the spectral quality of light on morphogenesis, flowering, and photoperiodic gene expression during exposure to light quality of night interruption (NI) was investigated in Dendranthema grandiflorum. The circadian rhythms of plants grown in a closed walk-in growth chamber were interrupted at night for a total of 4 h, using light-emitting diodes with an intensity of 10 ?mol·m?2·s?1 PPF. The light quality of the NI was shifted from one wavelength to another after the first 2 h. Light treatments consisting of all possible pairings of blue (B), red (R), far-red (Fr), and white (W) light were tested. Plants in the NI treatment groups exposed to Fr light grew larger than plants in other treatment groups. Of plants in NI treatment groups, those in the NI-WB treatment grew the least. In addition, the impact of shifts in the light quality of NI on leaf expansion was greater in treatment groups exposed to a combination of either B and R or R and W light, regardless of their order of supply. Flowering was observed in the NI-RB, NI-FrR, NI-BFr, NI-FrB, NI-WB, NI-FrW, NI-WFr, NI-WR, and SD (short-day) treatments, and was especially promoted in the NI-BFr and NI-FrB treatments. In a combined shift treatment of B and R or B and W light, the NI concluded with B light (NI-RB and NI-WB) treatment induced flowering. The transcriptional factors phyA, cry1 and FTL (FLOWERING LOCUS T) were positively affected, while phyB and AFT were negatively affected. In conclusion, morphogenesis, flowering, and transcriptional factors were all significantly affected either positively or negatively by shifts in the light quality of NI. The light quality of the first 2 h of NI affected neither morphogenesis nor flowering, while the light quality of the last 2 h of NI significantly affected both morphogenesis and flowering. PMID:26197314

  10. Understanding reasons for treatment interruption amongst patients on antiretroviral therapy – A qualitative study at the Lighthouse Clinic, Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Julia; Namakhoma, Ireen; Tweya, Hannock; Phiri, Sam; Schnitzler, Paul; Neuhann, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, scaling up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings moved impressively towards universal access. Along with these achievements, public health HIV programs are facing a number of challenges including the support of patients on lifelong therapy and the prevention of temporary/permanent loss of patients in care. Understanding reasons for treatment interruption (TI) can inform strategies for improving drug adherence and retention in care. Objective To evaluate key characteristics of patients resuming ART after TI at the Lighthouse Clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, and to identify their reasons for interrupting ART. Design This study uses a mixed methods design to evaluate patients resuming ART after TI. We analysed an assessment form for patients with TI using pre-defined categories and a comments field to identify frequently stated reasons for TI. Additionally, we conducted 26 in-depth interviews to deepen our understanding of common reasons for TI. In-depth interviews also included the patients’ knowledge about ART and presence of social support systems. Qualitative data analysis was based on a thematic framework approach. Results A total of 347 patients (58.2% female, average age 35.1±11.3 years) with TI were identified. Despite the presence of social support and sufficient knowledge of possible consequences of TI, all patients experienced situations that resulted in TI. Analysis of in-depth interviews led to new and distinct categories for TI. The most common reason for TI was travel (54.5%, n=80/147), which further differentiated into work- or family-related travel. Patients also stated transport costs and health-care-provider-related reasons, which included perceived/enacted discrimination by health care workers. Other drivers of TI were treatment fatigue/forgetfulness, the patients’ health status, adverse drug effects, pregnancy/delivery, religious belief or perceived/enacted stigma. Conclusions To adequately address patients’ needs on a lifelong therapy, adherence-counselling sessions require provision of problem-solving strategies for common barriers to continuous care. PMID:25280736

  11. Enabling claims-based decision support through non-interruptive capture of admission diagnoses and provider billing codes

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Colin G.; Vawdrey, David K.; Stetson, Peter D.; Fred, Matthew R.; Hripcsak, George

    2014-01-01

    The patient problem list, like administrative claims data, has become an important source of data for decision support, patient cohort identification, and alerting systems. A two-fold intervention to increase capture of problems on the problem list automatically – with minimal disruption to admitting and provider billing workflows – is described. For new patients with no prior data in the electronic health record, the intervention resulted in a statistically significant increase in the number of problems recorded to the problem list (3.8 vs 2.9 problems post-and pre-intervention respectively, p value 2×10?16). The majority of problems were recorded in the first 24 hours of admission. The proportion of patients with at least one problem coded to the problem list within the first 24 hours increased from 94% to 98% before and after intervention (chi square 344, p value 2×10?16). ICD9 “V codes” connoting circumstances beyond disease were captured at a higher rate post intervention than before. Deyo/Charlson comorbidities derived from problem list data were more similar to those derived from claims data after the intervention than before (Jaccard similarity 0.3 post- vs 0.21 pre-intervention, p value 2×10?16). A workflow-sensitive, non-interruptive means of capturing provider-entered codes early in admission can improve both the quantity and content of problems on the patient problem list. PMID:25954468

  12. Hosed vs. unhosed: global response to interruptions of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning, with and without freshwater forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, N.; Galbraith, E. D.

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that glacial periods were punctuated by abrupt climate changes, with large impacts on air temperature, precipitation, and ocean circulation across the globe. However, the long-held idea that freshwater forcing, caused by massive iceberg discharges, was the driving force behind these changes has been questioned in recent years. This throws into doubt the abundant literature on modelling abrupt climate change through "hosing" experiments, whereby the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is interrupted by an injection of freshwater to the North Atlantic: if some, or all, abrupt climate change was not driven by freshwater input, could its character have been very different than the typical hosed experiments? Here, we take advantage of a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model that exhibits spontaneous, unhosed oscillations in AMOC strength, in order to examine how the global imprint of AMOC variations depends on whether or not it is the result of external freshwater input. The results imply that, to first order, the ocean-ice-atmosphere dynamics associated with an AMOC weakening dominate the global response, regardless of whether or not freshwater input is the cause. The exception lies in the impact freshwater inputs can have on the strength of other polar haloclines, particularly the Southern Ocean, to which freshwater can be transported relatively quickly after injection in the North Atlantic.

  13. Research Designs for Intervention Research with Small Samples II: Stepped Wedge and Interrupted Time-Series Designs.

    PubMed

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2015-10-01

    The stepped wedge design (SWD) and the interrupted time-series design (ITSD) are two alternative research designs that maximize efficiency and statistical power with small samples when contrasted to the operating characteristics of conventional randomized controlled trials (RCT). This paper provides an overview and introduction to previous work with these designs and compares and contrasts them with the dynamic wait-list design (DWLD) and the regression point displacement design (RPDD), which were presented in a previous article (Wyman, Henry, Knoblauch, and Brown, Prevention Science. 2015) in this special section. The SWD and the DWLD are similar in that both are intervention implementation roll-out designs. We discuss similarities and differences between the SWD and DWLD in their historical origin and application, along with differences in the statistical modeling of each design. Next, we describe the main design characteristics of the ITSD, along with some of its strengths and limitations. We provide a critical comparative review of strengths and weaknesses in application of the ITSD, SWD, DWLD, and RPDD as small sample alternatives to application of the RCT, concluding with a discussion of the types of contextual factors that influence selection of an optimal research design by prevention researchers working with small samples. PMID:26017633

  14. Teenage smoking behaviour following a high-school smoking ban in Chile: interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Joshua A; Danaei, Goodarz; Ding, Eric L; Calvo, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of a smoking ban in high schools on smoking behaviour among Chilean students. Methods We conducted an interrupted time-series analysis, using repeated cross-sectional data from Chile’s school population survey (2000–2011) for high-school students aged 12–18 years and a control group of persons aged 19–24 years. Poisson regression models were used to assess trends in smoking behaviour before and after the policy changes. The outcome measures were self-reported smoking prevalence (any smoking in the past month) and high frequency of smoking (smoking 15 days or more per month). Findings From 2005 to 2011, the prevalence of smoking declined among high-school students by 6.8% per year compared with 3.6% decline per year in the control group. The decline in the target group was 2.9% (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.18 to 5.00) greater. We estimated that 5–6 years after enforcing the law, smoking prevalence among high-school students was 13.7% lower as a result of the ban. The impact of the smoking ban was primarily driven by declines in smoking prevalence among students in grades 8 to 10. The smoking ban did not significantly alter the frequency of smoking. Conclusion The 2005 school smoking ban reduced smoking prevalence among younger high-school students in Chile. Further interventions targeting older individuals and frequent smokers may be needed. PMID:26170504

  15. An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Durkheim's Social Deregulation Thesis: The Case of the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex; Chamlin, Mitchell B; Cochran, John K

    2007-06-01

    The dissolution of the Soviet Union resulted in sudden, widespread, and fundamental changes to Russian society. The former social welfare system-with its broad guarantees of employment, healthcare, education, and other forms of social support-was dismantled in the shift toward democracy, rule of law, and a free-market economy. This unique natural experiment provides a rare opportunity to examine the potentially disintegrative effects of rapid social change on deviance, and thus to evaluate one of Durkheim's core tenets. We took advantage of this opportunity by performing interrupted time-series analyses of annual age-adjusted homicide, suicide, and alcohol-related mortality rates for the Russian Federation using data from 1956 to 2002, with 1992-2002 as the postintervention time-frame. The ARIMA models indicate that, controlling for the long-term processes that generated these three time series, the breakup of the Soviet Union was associated with an appreciable increase in each of the cause-of-death rates. We interpret these findings as being consistent with the Durkheimian hypothesis that rapid social change disrupts social order, thereby increasing the level of crime and deviance. PMID:20165565

  16. Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome from Infancy to Adulthood: Clinical, Hormonal, and Radiological Assessment According to the Initial Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Céline; Zadro, Charline; Diene, Gwenaelle; Oliver, Isabelle; Pienkowski, Catherine; Jouret, Béatrice; Cartault, Audrey; Ajaltouni, Zeina; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Sevely, Annick; Tauber, Maithé; Edouard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) are initially referred for hypoglycemia during the neonatal period or growth retardation during childhood. PSIS is either isolated (nonsyndromic) or associated with extra-pituitary malformations (syndromic). Objective To compare baseline characteristics and long-term evolution in patients with PSIS according to the initial presentation. Study Design Sixty-seven patients with PSIS were included. Data from subgroups were compared: neonates (n = 10) versus growth retardation patients (n = 47), and syndromic (n = 32) versus nonsyndromic patients (n = 35). Results Neonates displayed a more severe hormonal and radiological phenotype than children referred for growth retardation, with a higher incidence of multiple hormonal deficiencies (100% versus 34%; P = 0.0005) and a nonvisible anterior pituitary lobe (33% versus 2%; P = 0.0017). Regular follow-up of growth might have allowed earlier diagnosis in the children with growth retardation, as decreased growth velocity and growth retardation were present respectively 3 and 2 years before referral. We documented a progressive worsening of endocrine impairment throughout childhood in these patients. Presence of extra-pituitary malformations (found in 48%) was not associated with more severe hormonal and radiological characteristics. Growth under GH treatment was similar in the patient groups and did not vary according to the pituitary MRI findings. Conclusions PSIS diagnosed in the neonatal period has a particularly severe hormonal and radiological phenotype. The progressive worsening of endocrine impairment throughout childhood justifies periodic follow-up to check for additional hormonal deficiencies. PMID:26562670

  17. Effects of beam interruption time on tumor control probability in single-fractionated carbon-ion radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaniwa, T.; Kanematsu, N.; Suzuki, M.; Hawkins, R. B.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment plans are designed on the assumption that the beams are delivered instantaneously, irrespective of actual dose-delivery time structure in a treatment session. As the beam lines are fixed in the vertical and horizontal directions at our facility, beam delivery is interrupted in multi-field treatment due to the necessity of patient repositioning within the fields. Single-fractionated treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is such a case, in which four treatment fields in multiple directions are delivered in one session with patient repositioning during the session. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the period of dose delivery, including interruptions due to patient repositioning, on tumor control probability (TCP) of NSCLC. All clinical doses were weighted by relative biological effectiveness (RBE) evaluated for instantaneous irradiation. The rate equations defined in the microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) for primary lesions induced in DNA were applied to the single-fractionated treatment of NSCLC. Treatment plans were made for an NSCLC case for various prescribed doses ranging from 25 to 50?Gy (RBE), on the assumption of instantaneous beam delivery. These plans were recalculated by varying the interruption time ? ranging from 0 to 120?min between the second and third fields for continuous irradiations of 3?min per field based on the MKM. The curative doses that would result in a TCP of 90% were deduced for the respective interruption times. The curative dose was 34.5?Gy (RBE) for instantaneous irradiation and 36.6?Gy (RBE), 39.2?Gy (RBE), 41.2?Gy (RBE), 43.3?Gy (RBE) and 44.4?Gy (RBE) for ? = 0?min, 15?min, 30?min, 60?min and 120?min, respectively. The realistic biological effectiveness of therapeutic carbon-ion beam decreased with increasing interruption time. These data suggest that the curative dose can increase by 20% or more compared to the planned dose if the interruption time extends to 30?min or longer. These effects should be considered in carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment planning if a longer dose-delivery procedure time is anticipated.

  18. A series on optimizing satellite systems. I - Restoring interruptions of communications sattelite service: Logistical and cost comparisons of mature and newly operational systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Marcellus S.

    1989-09-01

    A mathematical model is presented of costs and operational factors involved in provision for service interruptions of both a mature and typically large incumbent satellite system and of a smaller, more recently operational system. The equation expresses the required launch frequency for the new system as a function of the launch spacing of the mature system; the time disparity between the inauguration of the two systems; and the rate of capacity depreciation. In addition, a technique is presented to compare the relative extent to which the discounted costs of the new system exceed those of the mature system in furnishing the same effective capacity in orbit, and thus the same service liability, at a given point in time. It is determined that a mature incumbent communications satellite system, having more capacity in orbit, will on balance have a lower probability of service interruption than a newer, smaller system.

  19. Effect of periodic interruption of the atmospheric-pressure MOVPE growth of InAs/GaAs quantum dots on their morphology and optoelectronic spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdoroveishchev, A. V.; Demina, P. B.; Zvonkov, B. N.

    2009-01-01

    A modified regime of growing InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) at atmospheric pressure is described. In contrast to the standard growth regime, the time of periodic interruption of the supply of trimethylindium and arsin to the reactor was increased and varied from 4 to 18 s. It is shown that optimization of the interruption time leads to the formation of dense, homogeneous (with respect to dimensions) QD arrays and to a decrease in the concentration of coarse relaxed clusters without using additional treatments (e.g., doping with surfactants, chemical etching). In particular, the surface concentration of QDs increases up to 6 × 1010 cm-2, that is, by almost an order of magnitude as compared to the standard growth regime. QD structures grown using the modified MOVPE method are characterized by high thermal stability and ensure high intensity of room-temperature electroluminescence of the related edge-emitting Schottky diodes.

  20. Pseudo interruption of the inferior vena cava complicating the device closure of patent ductus arteriosus: Case report and short review of venous system embryology

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Venkateshwaran; Mahadevan, Krishnamoorthy Kavassery; Sivasubramonian, Sivasankaran; Tharakan, Jaganmohan

    2014-01-01

    A nineteen-month-old girl was taken up for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) device closure. A diagnostic catheter from the right femoral venous access entered the superior vena cava (SVC), through the azygos vein suggesting interruption of inferior vena caval with azygos continuity. Therefore, the PDA device was closed from the right jugular venous access. However, a postprocedure echocardiogram (echo) showed a patent inferior vena caval connection into the right atrium. An angiogram from femoral veins showed communication between the iliac veins and the azygos system, in addition to normal drainage into the inferior vena cava (IVC). Congenital communication between the iliac veins and the azygos system can mimic IVC interruption. An attempt to theoretically explain the embryological origin of the communication has been made. PMID:24701092

  1. Water Supply Interruptions and Suspected Cholera Incidence: A Time-Series Regression in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Jeandron, Aurélie; Saidi, Jaime Mufitini; Kapama, Alois; Burhole, Manu; Birembano, Freddy; Vandevelde, Thierry; Gasparrini, Antonio; Armstrong, Ben; Cairncross, Sandy; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo have been identified as endemic areas for cholera transmission, and despite continuous control efforts, they continue to experience regular cholera outbreaks that occasionally spread to the rest of the country. In a region where access to improved water sources is particularly poor, the question of which improvements in water access should be prioritized to address cholera transmission remains unresolved. This study aimed at investigating the temporal association between water supply interruptions and Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC) admissions in a medium-sized town. Methods and Findings Time-series patterns of daily incidence of suspected cholera cases admitted to the Cholera Treatment Centre in Uvira in South Kivu Province between 2009 and 2014 were examined in relation to the daily variations in volume of water supplied by the town water treatment plant. Quasi-poisson regression and distributed lag nonlinear models up to 12 d were used, adjusting for daily precipitation rates, day of the week, and seasonal variations. A total of 5,745 patients over 5 y of age with acute watery diarrhoea symptoms were admitted to the CTC over the study period of 1,946 d. Following a day without tap water supply, the suspected cholera incidence rate increased on average by 155% over the next 12 d, corresponding to a rate ratio of 2.55 (95% CI: 1.54–4.24), compared to the incidence experienced after a day with optimal production (defined as the 95th percentile—4,794 m3). Suspected cholera cases attributable to a suboptimal tap water supply reached 23.2% of total admissions (95% CI 11.4%–33.2%). Although generally reporting less admissions to the CTC, neighbourhoods with a higher consumption of tap water were more affected by water supply interruptions, with a rate ratio of 3.71 (95% CI: 1.91–7.20) and an attributable fraction of cases of 31.4% (95% CI: 17.3%–42.5%). The analysis did not suggest any association between levels of residual chlorine in the water fed to the distribution network and suspected cholera incidence. Laboratory confirmation of cholera was not available for this analysis. Conclusions A clear association is observed between reduced availability of tap water and increased incidence of suspected cholera in the entire town of Uvira in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Even though access to piped water supplies is low in Uvira, improving the reliability of tap water supply may substantially reduce the incidence of suspected cholera, in particular in neighbourhoods having a higher access to tap water. These results argue in favour of water supply investments that focus on the delivery of a reliable and sustainable water supply, and not only on point-of-use water quality improvements, as is often seen during cholera outbreaks. PMID:26506001

  2. Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coatings During Interrupted High-Heat-Flux Laser Testing using Luminescence Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation showed progress made in extending luminescence-base delamination monitoring to TBCs exposed to high heat fluxes, which is an environment that much better simulates actual turbine engine conditions. This was done by performing upconversion luminescence imaging during interruptions in laser testing, where a high-power CO2 laser was employed to create the desired heat flux. Upconverison luminescence refers to luminescence where the emission is at a higher energy (shorter wavelength) than the excitation. Since there will be negligible background emission at higher energies than the excitation, this methods produces superb contrast. Delamination contrast is produced because both the excitation and emission wavelengths are reflected at delamination cracks so that substantially higher luminescence intensity is observed in regions containing delamination cracks. Erbium was selected as the dopant for luminescence specifically because it exhibits upconversion luminescence. The high power CO2 10.6 micron wavelength laser facility at NASA GRC was used to produce the heat flux in combination with forced air backside cooling. Testing was performed at a lower (95 W/sq cm) and higher (125 W/sq cm) heat flux as well as furnace cycling at 1163C for comparison. The lower heat flux showed the same general behavior as furnace cycling, a gradual, "spotty" increase in luminescence associated with debond progression; however, a significant difference was a pronounced incubation period followed by acceleration delamination progression. These results indicate that extrapolating behavior from furnace cycling measurements will grossly overestimate remaining life under high heat flux conditions. The higher heat flux results were not only accelerated, but much different in character. Extreme bond coat rumpling occurred, and delamination propagation extended over much larger areas before precipitating macroscopic TBC failure. This indicates that under the higher heat flux (and surface & interface temperatures), the TBC was more tolerant of damage. The main conclusions were that high heat flux conditions can not only accelerate TBC debond progression but can also grossly alter the pathway of delamination.

  3. Early Antiretroviral Therapy During Primary HIV-1 Infection Results in a Transient Reduction of the Viral Setpoint upon Treatment Interruption

    PubMed Central

    Niederoest, Barbara; Kuster, Herbert; Battegay, Manuel; Bernasconi, Enos; Cavassini, Matthias; Rauch, Andri; Hirschel, Bernard; Vernazza, Pietro; Weber, Rainer; Joos, Beda; Günthard, Huldrych F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Long-term benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation during primary HIV-1 infection are debated. Methods The evolution of plasma HIV-RNA (432 measurements) and cell-associated HIV-DNA (325 measurements) after cessation of cART (median exposure 18 months) was described for 33 participants from the Zurich Primary HIV Infection Study using linear regression and compared with 545 measurements from 79 untreated controls with clinically diagnosed primary HIV infection, respectively a known date for seroconversion. Results On average, early treated individuals were followed for 37 months (median) after cART cessation; controls had 34 months of pre-cART follow-up. HIV-RNA levels one year after cART interruption were ?0.8 log10 copies/mL [95% confidence interval ?1.2;?0.4] lower in early treated patients compared with controls, but this difference was no longer statistically significant by year three of follow-up (?0.3 [?0.9; 0.3]). Mean HIV-DNA levels rebounded from 2 log10 copies [1.8; 2.3] on cART to a stable plateau of 2.7 log10 copies [2.5; 3.0] attained 1 year after therapy stop, which was not significantly different from cross-sectional measurements of 9 untreated members of the control group (2.8 log10 copies [2.5; 3.1]). Conclusions The rebound dynamics of viral markers after therapy cessation suggest that early cART may indeed limit reservoir size of latently infected cells, but that much of the initial benefits are only transient. Owing to the non-randomized study design the observed treatment effects must be interpreted with caution. PMID:22102898

  4. Targeted deletion of PTEN in cardiomyocytes renders cardiac contractile dysfunction through interruption of Pink1-AMPK signaling and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Roe, Nathan D; Xu, Xihui; Kandadi, Machender R; Hu, Nan; Pang, Jiaojiao; Weiser-Evans, Mary C M; Ren, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deleted from chromosome 10 has been implicated in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis although the underlying mechanism(s) remains elusive. We generated a murine model of cardiomyocyte-specific knockout of PTEN to evaluate cardiac geometry and contractile function, as well as the effect of metformin on PTEN deficiency-induced cardiac anomalies, if any. Cardiac histology, autophagy and related signaling molecules were evaluated. Cardiomyocyte-specific PTEN deletion elicited cardiac hypertrophy and contractile anomalies (echocardiographic and cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction) associated with compromised intracellular Ca(2+) handling. PTEN deletion-induced cardiac hypertrophy and contractile anomalies were associated with dampened phosphorylation of PTEN-inducible kinase 1 (Pink1) and AMPK. Interestingly, administration of AMPK activator metformin (200mg/kg/d, in drinking H2O for 4weeks) rescued against PTEN deletion-induced geometric and functional defects as well as interrupted autophagy and autophagic flux in the heart. Moreover, metformin administration partially although significantly attenuated PTEN deletion-induced accumulation of superoxide. RNA interference against Pink1 in H9C2 myoblasts overtly increased intracellular ATP levels and suppressed AMPK phosphorylation, confirming the role of AMPK as a downstream target for PTEN-Pink1. Further scrutiny revealed that activation of AMPK and autophagy using metformin and rapamycin, respectively, rescued against PTEN deletion-induced mechanical anomalies with little additive effect. These data demonstrated that cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of PTEN leads to the loss of Pink1-AMPK signaling, development of cardiac hypertrophy and contractile defect. Activation of AMPK rescued against PTEN deletion-induced cardiac anomalies associated with restoration of autophagy and autophagic flux. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Autophagy and protein quality control in cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:25229693

  5. The Free Caesareans Policy in Low-Income Settings: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis in Mali (2003–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Pierre; Dumont, Alexandre; Tourigny, Caroline; Philibert, Aline; Coulibaly, Aliou; Traoré, Mamadou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several countries have instituted fee exemptions for caesareans to reduce maternal and newborn mortality. Objectives To evaluate the effect of fee exemptions for caesareans on population caesarean rates taking into account different levels of accessibility. Methods The observation period was from January 2003 to May 2012 in one Region and covered 11.7 million person-years. Exemption fees for caesareans were adopted on June 26, 2005. Data were obtained from a registration system implemented in 2003 that tracks all obstetrical emergencies and interventions including caesareans. The pre-intervention period was 30 months and the post-intervention period was 83 months. We used an interrupted time series to evaluate the trend before and after the policy adoption and the overall tendency. Findings During the study period, the caesarean rate increased from 0.25 to 1.5% for the entire population. For women living in cities with district hospitals that provided caesareans, the rate increased from 1.7% before the policy was enforced to 5.7% 83 months later. No significant change in trends was observed among women living in villages with a healthcare centre or those in villages with no healthcare facility. For the latter, the caesarean rate increased from 0.4 to 1%. Conclusions After nine years of implementation policy in Mali, the caesarean rate achieved in cities with a district hospital reached the full beneficial effect of this measure, whereas for women living elsewhere this policy did not increase the caesarean rate to a level that could contribute effectively to reduce their risk of maternal death. Only universal access to this essential intervention could reduce the inequities and increase the effectiveness of this policy. PMID:25137072

  6. Impact of a COPD Discharge Care Bundle on Readmissions following Admission with Acute Exacerbation: Interrupted Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Laverty, Anthony A.; Elkin, Sarah L.; Watt, Hilary C.; Millett, Christopher; Restrick, Louise J.; Williams, Sian; Bell, Derek; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated the impact of a COPD discharge care bundle on readmission rates following hospitalisation with an acute exacerbation. Design Interrupted time series analysis, comparing readmission rates for COPD exacerbations at nine trusts that introduced the bundle, to two comparison groups; (1) other NHS trusts in London and (2) all other NHS trusts in England. Care bundles were implemented at different times for different NHS trusts, ranging from October 2009 to April 2011. Setting Nine NHS acute trusts in the London, England. Participants Patients aged 45 years and older admitted to an NHS acute hospital in England for acute exacerbation of COPD. Data come from Hospital Episode Statistics, April 2002 to March 2012. Main Outcome Measures Annual trend readmission rates (and in total bed days) within 7, 28 and 90 days, before and after implementation. Results In hospitals introducing the bundle readmission rates were rising before implementation and falling afterwards (e.g. readmissions within 28 days +2.13% per annum (pa) pre and -5.32% pa post (p for difference in trends = 0.012)). Following implementation, readmission rates within 7 and 28 day were falling faster than among other trusts in London, although this was not statistically significant (e.g. readmissions within 28 days -4.6% pa vs. -3.2% pa, p = 0.44). Comparisons with a national control group were similar. Conclusions The COPD discharge care bundle appeared to be associated with a reduction in readmission rate among hospitals using it. The significance of this is unclear because of changes to background trends in London and nationally. PMID:25679218

  7. Helmet legislation and admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries in Canadian provinces and territories: interrupted time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between helmet legislation and admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries among young people and adults in Canada. Design Interrupted time series analysis using data from the National Trauma Registry Minimum Data Set. Setting Canadian provinces and territories; between 1994 and 2003, six of 10 provinces implemented helmet legislation. Participants All admissions (n=66?716) to acute care hospitals in Canada owing to cycling related injury between 1994 and 2008. Main outcome measure Rate of admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries before and after the implementation of provincial helmet legislation. Results Between 1994 and 2008, 66?716 hospital admissions were for cycling related injuries in Canada. Between 1994 and 2003, the rate of head injuries among young people decreased by 54.0% (95% confidence interval 48.2% to 59.8%) in provinces with helmet legislation compared with 33.1% (23.3% to 42.9%) in provinces and territories without legislation. Among adults, the rate of head injuries decreased by 26.0% (16.0% to 36.3%) in provinces with legislation but remained constant in provinces and territories without legislation. After taking baseline trends into consideration, however, we were unable to detect an independent effect of legislation on the rate of hospital admissions for cycling related head injuries. Conclusions Reductions in the rates of admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries were greater in provinces with helmet legislation, but injury rates were already decreasing before the implementation of legislation and the rate of decline was not appreciably altered on introduction of legislation. While helmets reduce the risk of head injuries and we encourage their use, in the Canadian context of existing safety campaigns, improvements to the cycling infrastructure, and the passive uptake of helmets, the incremental contribution of provincial helmet legislation to reduce hospital admissions for head injuries seems to have been minimal. PMID:23674137

  8. The effect of interruption to propofol sedation on auditory event-related potentials and electroencephalogram in intensive care patients

    PubMed Central

    Yppärilä, Heidi; Nunes, Silvia; Korhonen, Ilkka; Partanen, Juhani; Ruokonen, Esko

    2004-01-01

    Introduction In this observational pilot study we evaluated the electroencephalogram (EEG) and auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) before and after discontinuation of propofol sedation in neurologically intact intensive care patients. Methods Nineteen intensive care unit patients received a propofol infusion in accordance with a sedation protocol. The EEG signal and the ERPs were measured at the frontal region (Fz) and central region (Cz), both during propofol sedation and after cessation of infusion when the sedative effects had subsided. The EEG signal was subjected to power spectral estimation, and the total root mean squared power and spectral edge frequency 95% were computed. For ERPs, we used an oddball paradigm to obtain the N100 and the mismatch negativity components. Results Despite considerable individual variability, the root mean squared power at Cz and Fz (P = 0.004 and P = 0.005, respectively) and the amplitude of the N100 component in response to the standard stimulus at Fz (P = 0.022) increased significantly after interruption to sedation. The amplitude of the N100 component (at Cz and Fz) was the only parameter that differed between sedation levels during propofol sedation (deep versus moderate versus light sedation: P = 0.016 and P = 0.008 for Cz and Fz, respectively). None of the computed parameters correlated with duration of propofol infusion. Conclusion Our findings suggest that use of ERPs, especially the N100 potential, may help to differentiate between levels of sedation. Thus, they may represent a useful complement to clinical sedation scales in the monitoring of sedation status over time in a heterogeneous group of neurologically intact intensive care patients. PMID:15566595

  9. The Impact of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy and its Interruption on Anxiety, Stress, Depression and Quality of Life in Thai Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nüesch, Reto; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Prasithsirikul, Wisit; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Munsakul, Warangkana; Raksakulkarn, Phitsanu; Tansuphasawasdikul, Somboon; Chautrakarn, Sineenart; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Hirschel, Bernard; Anaworanich, Jintanat

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Investigation on anxiety, stress, depression, and quality of life (QoL) within STACCATO, a randomised trial of two treatment strategies: CD4 guided scheduled treatment interruption (STI) compared to continuous treatment (CT). Participants: Thai patients with HIV-infection enrolled in the STACCATO trial. Methods: Anxiety, depression assessed by the questionnaires Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and DASS, stress assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), and QoL evaluated by the HIV Medical Outcome Study (MOS-HIV) questionnaires. Answers to questionnaires were evaluated at 4 time-points: baseline, 24 weeks, 48 weeks and at the end of STACCATO. Results: A total of 251 patients answered the HADS/DASS and 241 answered the MOS-HIV of the 379 Thai patients enrolled into STACCATO (66.2 and 63.6% respectively). At baseline 16.3% and 7.2% of patients reported anxiety and depression using HADS scale. Using the DASS scale, 35.1% reported mild to moderate and 9.6% reported severe anxiety; 8.8% reported mild to moderate and 2.0% reported severe depression; 42.6% reported mild to moderate and 4.8% reported severe stress. We showed a significant improvement of the MHS across time (p=0.001), but no difference between arms (p=0.17). The summarized physical health status score (PHS) did not change during the trial (p=0.15) nor between arm (p=0.45). There was no change of MHS or PHS in the STI arm, taking into account the number of STI cycle (p=0.30 and 0.57) but MHS significant increased across time-points (p=0.007). Conclusion: Antiretroviral therapy improved mental health and QOL, irrespective of the treatment strategy. PMID:19812705

  10. Interruption of Infection Transmission in the Onchocerciasis Focus of Ecuador Leading to the Cessation of Ivermectin Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Lovato, Raquel; Guevara, Angel; Guderian, Ronald; Proaño, Roberto; Unnasch, Thomas; Criollo, Hipatia; Hassan, Hassan K.; Mackenzie, Charles D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A clinically significant endemic focus of onchocerciasis existing in Esmeraldas Province, coastal Ecuador has been under an ivermectin mass drug administration program since 1991. The main transmitting vector in this area is the voracious blackfly, Simulium exiguum. This paper describes the assessments made that support the decision to cease mass treatment. Methodology and Principle Findings: Thirty-five rounds of ivermectin treatment occurred between 1991–2009 with 29 of these carrying >85% coverage. Following the guidelines set by WHO for ceasing ivermectin distribution the impact on parasite transmission was measured in the two vector species by an O-150 PCR technique standard for assessing for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus. Up to seven collection sites in three major river systems were tested on four occasions between 1995 and 2008. The infectivity rates of 65.0 (CI 39–101) and 72.7 (CI 42–116) in 1995 dropped to zero at all seven collection sites by 2008. Assessment for the presence of antibodies against O. volvulus was made in 2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008 using standard ELISA assays for detecting anti-Ov16 antibodies. None of total of 1810 children aged 1–15 years (between 82 and 98% of children present in the surveyed villages) tested in the above years were found to be carrying antibodies to this antigen. These findings were the basis for the cessation of mass drug treatment with ivermectin in 2009. Significance: This fulfillment of the criteria for cessation of mass distribution of ivermectin in the only known endemic zone of onchocerciasis in Ecuador moves the country into the surveillance phase of official verification for national elimination of transmission of infection. These findings indicate that ivermectin given twice a year with greater than 85% of the community can move a program to the final stages of verification of transmission interruption. PMID:24853587

  11. Correlation Between Aerial Insecticide Spraying to Interrupt West Nile Virus Transmission and Emergency Department Visits in Sacramento County, California

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Helene G.; Kjemtrup, Anne; Reisen, William; Franks, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Insecticides reduce vector-borne pathogen transmission but also pose health risks. In August 2005, Sacramento County, California, underwent emergency aerial ultralow-volume (ULV) application of pyrethrin insecticide to reduce the population of West Nile virus (WNV)-infected mosquitoes and thereby interrupt enzootic and tangential transmission. We assessed the association between aerially applied pyrethrin insecticide and patterns of emergency department (ED) visit diagnoses. Methods We used geographic information systems software to determine ZIP Code-level exposure to pyrethrin. We used logistic regression models to examine the relationship between exposure status and three-digit International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes (785 in total) for all ED visits (n=253,648) within Sacramento County in 2005 and for specific diagnostic clusters (e.g., respiratory, gastrointestinal, skin, eye, and neurologic). All models were adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity (individual level), median income, ozone, and temperature (ZIP Code level). Results Exposure to aerially applied insecticide was not associated with clusters of respiratory, gastrointestinal, skin, eye, and neurologic complaints in adjusted models but was inversely associated with ICD-9-CM code 799 (“other ill-defined morbidity and mortality”), with adjusted odds ratios (AORs) ranging from 0.31 to 0.36 for 0–3 lag days (95% confidence interval 0.17, 0.68). Spraying was also directly associated with ICD-9-CM code 553 (“other abdominal hernia”), with AORs ranging from 2.34 to 2.96 for 2–3 lag days. Conclusions The observed significant ICD-9-CM code associations likely represented chance findings. Aerial ULV pyrethrin applications were not associated with ED visits for specific diagnoses or clusters of diagnoses. PMID:23633737

  12. An Interrupted Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michell, Dee

    2011-01-01

    It took the author 22 years to get her first undergraduate degree. Not that she studied for all that time, of course, but she first enrolled in 1976 and she didn't graduate with her BA until April 1998. Why did it take so long? Was there something wrong with her? Was there anything anyone else could have done to help her get through university…

  13. The impact of economic austerity and prosperity events on suicide in Greece: a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C; Kastanaki, Anastasia E; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Tzougas, John; Kranioti, Elena F; Theodorakis, Pavlos N; Carr, Brendan G; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To complete a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis of the impact of austerity-related and prosperity-related events on the occurrence of suicide across Greece. Setting Greece from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 2012. Participants A total of 11?505 suicides, 9079 by men and 2426 by women, occurring in Greece over the study period. Primary and secondary outcomes National data from the Hellenic Statistical Authority assembled as 360 monthly counts of: all suicides, male suicides, female suicides and all suicides plus potentially misclassified suicides. Results In 30?years, the highest months of suicide in Greece occurred in 2012. The passage of new austerity measures in June 2011 marked the beginning of significant, abrupt and sustained increases in total suicides (+35.7%, p<0.001) and male suicides (+18.5%, p<0.01). Sensitivity analyses that figured in undercounting of suicides also found a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in June 2011 (+20.5%, p<0.001). Suicides by men in Greece also underwent a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in October 2008 when the Greek recession began (+13.1%, p<0.01), and an abrupt but temporary increase in April 2012 following a public suicide committed in response to austerity conditions (+29.7%, p<0.05). Suicides by women in Greece also underwent an abrupt and sustained increase in May 2011 following austerity-related events (+35.8%, p<0.05). One prosperity-related event, the January 2002 launch of the Euro in Greece, marked an abrupt but temporary decrease in male suicides (?27.1%, p<0.05). Conclusions This is the first multidecade, national analysis of suicide in Greece using monthly data. Select austerity-related events in Greece corresponded to statistically significant increases for suicides overall, as well as for suicides among men and women. The consideration of future austerity measures should give greater weight to the unintended mental health consequences that may follow and the public messaging of these policies and related events. PMID:25643700

  14. Andes Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Interrupts Protein Kinase R Dimerization To Counteract Host Interference in Viral Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zekun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pathogenic hantaviruses delay the type I interferon response during early stages of viral infection. However, the robust interferon response and induction of interferon-stimulated genes observed during later stages of hantavirus infection fail to combat the virus replication in infected cells. Protein kinase R (PKR), a classical interferon-stimulated gene product, phosphorylates the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2? and causes translational shutdown to create roadblocks for the synthesis of viral proteins. The PKR-induced translational shutdown helps host cells to establish an antiviral state to interrupt virus replication. However, hantavirus-infected cells do not undergo translational shutdown and fail to establish an antiviral state during the course of viral infection. In this study, we showed for the first time that Andes virus infection induced PKR overexpression. However, the overexpressed PKR was not active due to a significant inhibition of autophosphorylation. Further studies revealed that Andes virus nucleocapsid protein inhibited PKR dimerization, a critical step required for PKR autophosphorylation to attain activity. The studies reported here establish a hantavirus nucleocapsid protein as a new PKR inhibitor. These studies provide mechanistic insights into hantavirus resistance to the host interferon response and solve the puzzle of the lack of translational shutdown observed in hantavirus-infected cells. The sensitivity of hantavirus replication to PKR has likely imposed a selective evolutionary pressure on hantaviruses to evade the PKR antiviral response for survival. We envision that evasion of the PKR antiviral response by NP has likely helped hantaviruses to exist during evolution and to survive in infected hosts with a multifaceted antiviral defense. IMPORTANCE Protein kinase R (PKR), a versatile antiviral host factor, shuts down the translation machinery upon activation in virus-infected cells to create hurdles for the manufacture of viral proteins. The studies reported here reveal that the hantavirus nucleocapsid protein counteracts the PKR antiviral response by inhibiting PKR dimerization, which is required for its activation. We report the discovery of a new PKR inhibitor whose expression in hantavirus-infected cells prevents the PKR-induced host translational shutdown to ensure the continuous synthesis of viral proteins required for efficient virus replication. PMID:25410857

  15. The interruption of the PDGF and EGF signaling pathways by curcumin stimulates gene expression of PPARgamma in rat activated hepatic stellate cell in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yajun; Zheng, Shizhong; Lin, Jianguo; Zhang, Qian-Jin; Chen, Anping

    2007-05-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), the major effector in hepatic fibrogenesis, is coupled with sequential alterations in expression of genes, including the upregulation of platelet-derived growth factor-beta receptor (PDGF-betaR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), as well as the down-regulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). However, the relationship among the alterations in expression of the genes and the activation of their signaling in activated HSC remains obscure. We recently showed that curcumin, the yellow pigment in curry, inhibited cell growth and induced gene expression of endogenous PPARgamma in activated HSC in vitro. The present study is to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, focusing on the impacts of PDGF and EGF signaling. It is hypothesized that the interruption of the PDGF and EGF signaling pathways by curcumin might stimulate gene expression of PPARgamma in activated HSC. Our results in this report indicate that the activation of PDGF or EGF signaling by exogenous PDGF or EGF inhibits PPARgamma gene expression in passaged HSC. Curcumin interrupts PDGF and EGF signaling demonstrated by inhibiting tyrosine phosphorylation of PDGF-betaR and EGFR and by reducing the levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K/AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The blockade of PI-3K/AKT, ERK or JNK signaling negatively regulates PPARgamma gene expression in activated HSC, leading to the reduction in cell growth, including inducing cell arrest and apoptosis. Our results collectively demonstrate that the interruption of the PDGF and EGF signaling pathways by curcumin stimulates gene expression of PPARgamma in activated HSC. These results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of curcumin in the induction of PPARgamma gene expression in activated HSC. PMID:17372590

  16. Hepatic venous reconstruction using the superficial femoral vein in a right-lobe living donor liver transplant patient with interrupted inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazushige; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Kawagishi, Naoki; Akamatsu, Yorihiro; Miyagi, Shigeto; Yamaya, Hideyuki; Takeda, Ikuo; Fukushima, Daizo; Sato, Akira; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Satomi, Susumu

    2014-02-01

    Anatomical abnormalities in patients with BA often include polysplenia, preduodenal portal vein, interrupted retrohepatic IVC, cardiac abnormalities, and situs inversus. In LDLT patients who had congenital vascular anomalies, additional surgical modifications for the reconstruction of hepatic venous branches are sometimes necessary to prevent venous parenchymal congestion. We report a 12-yr-old female with post-Kasai BA with interrupted retrohepatic IVC who underwent right-lobe LDLT because the left liver graft volume was insufficient. The donor right liver graft had three major hepatic branches, including the RHV, IRHV, and MHV tributary (V8). We performed hepatic venous reconstruction by creating a large, wide triple orifice consisting of the RHV and two SFVs, which were anastomosed to the V8 and IRHV using the donor's SFV as an interposition graft. In conclusion, the reconstruction of venous orifices for right-lobe LDLT patients with the absent retrohepatic IVC is can be carried out using an SFV graft derived from the living donor or the recipient. PMID:24384053

  17. Importance of low-frequency on understanding interrupted speech: Sentence recognition of hearing-impaired (HI) and normal-hearing (NH) listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Nelson, Peggy

    2005-09-01

    In a recent study of HI listeners' speech perception in noise (Jin and Nelson, 2004), two main factors, low-frequency audibility and auditory filter bandwidths, were highly related to amplified sentence recognition in modulated noise. Nine young adult listeners with sensorineural hearing loss and eight young NH listeners as controls participated in the series of experiments. Amplified speech recognition of the HI listeners was equal to that of the NH listeners in quiet and in steady noise, but was significantly poorer in modulated noise. Thus, even with adequate amount of amplification, HI listeners experienced significantly less masking release from the modulated maskers. The results indicated that those listeners with greatest hearing losses in the low frequencies were poorest at speech recognition in modulated noise. Additional results from HI and NH listeners will be presented, in which we systematically vary the audibility of different frequency regions of speech by filtering. Sentences are interrupted by either speech-shaped noise or silence gap while measuring the percent of sentence recognition. The purpose of the current study is to examine the importance of low-frequency audibility for auditory segregation/integration of interrupted speech.

  18. A DC-81-indole conjugate agent suppresses melanoma A375 cell migration partially via interrupting VEGF production and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha}-mediated signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Ming-Chu; Hu, Wan-Ping; Yu, Hsin-Su; Wu, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Long-Sen; Kao, Ying-Hsien; Wang, Jeh-Jeng

    2011-09-01

    Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) chemicals are antitumor antibiotics inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis. An indole carboxylate-PBD hybrid with six-carbon spacer structure (IN6CPBD) has been previously demonstrated to induce melanoma cell apoptosis and reduce metastasis in mouse lungs. This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of the other hybrid compound with four-carbon spacer (IN4CPBD) and elucidating its anti-metastatic mechanism. Human melanoma A375 cells with IN4CPBD treatment underwent cytotoxicity and apoptosis-associated assays. Transwell migration assay, Western blotting, and ELISA were used for mechanistic study. IN4CPBD exhibited potent melanoma cytotoxicity through interrupting G1/S cell cycle progression, increasing DNA fragmentation and hypodipoidic DNA contents, and reducing mitochondrial membrane potential. Caspase activity elevation suggested that both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways were involved in IN4CPBD-induced melanoma apoptosis. IN4CPBD up-regulated p53 and p21, thereby concomitantly derailing the equilibrium between Bcl-2 and Bax levels. Transwell migration assay demonstrated that stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}) stimulated A375 cell motility, while kinase inhibitors treatment confirmed that Rho/ROCK, Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK pathways were involved in SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced melanoma migration. IN4CPBD not only abolished the SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced chemotactic motility but also suppressed constitutive MMP-9 and VEGF expression. Mechanistically, IN4CPBD down-regulated Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK total proteins and MYPT1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, beyond the fact that IN4CPBD induces melanoma cell apoptosis at cytotoxic dose, the interruption in the VEGF expression and the SDF-1{alpha}-related signaling at cytostatic dose may partially constitute the rationale for its in vivo anti-metastatic potency. - Research Highlights: > A novel carboxylate-PBD hybrid as anti-melanoma drug. > IN4CPBD interrupts melanoma cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis. > IN4CPBD suppresses SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced signaling and melanoma migration. > IN4CPBD abolishes angiogenic factor production and chemotactic effect of SDF-1{alpha}. > This drug is clinically applicable to melanoma therapy.

  19. Improved Atomistic Monte Carlo Simulations Demonstrate that Poly-L-Proline Adopts Heterogeneous Ensembles of Conformations of Semi-Rigid Segments Interrupted by Kinks

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Aditya; Vitalis, Andreas; Mao, Albert H.; Steffen, Adam T.; Pappu, Rohit V.

    2012-01-01

    Poly-L-proline (PLP) polymers are useful mimics of biologically relevant proline-rich sequences. Biophysical and computational studies of PLP polymers in aqueous solutions are challenging because of the diversity of length scales and the slow time scales for conformational conversions. We describe an atomistic simulation approach that combines an improved ABSINTH implicit solvation model, with conformational sampling based on standard and novel Metropolis Monte Carlo moves. Refinements to forcefield parameters were guided by published experimental data for proline-rich systems. We assessed the validity of our simulation results through quantitative comparisons to experimental data that were not used in refining the forcefield parameters. Our analysis shows that PLP polymers form heterogeneous ensembles of conformations characterized by semi-rigid, rod-like segments interrupted by kinks, which result from a combination of internal cis peptide bonds, flexible backbone ?-angles, and the coupling between ring puckering and backbone degrees of freedom. PMID:22329658

  20. Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis of Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis in the Lower Extremity of a Child with Interrupted Inferior Vena Cava

    SciTech Connect

    Oguzkurt, Levent Ozkan, Ugur; Tercan, Fahri; Koc, Zafer

    2007-04-15

    We present the case of a 14-year-old girl who developed acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in her right lower extremity. Laboratory testing revealed protein S deficiency, and the patient's father also had this abnormality with a history of lower extremity DVT. Manual thromboaspiration followed by catheter-directed thrombolysis resulted in total clearance of all thrombi. Computed tomography and later venography revealed an interrupted inferior vena cava. Catheter-directed thrombolysis is an established treatment for adults with acute DVT. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe catheter-directed thrombolysis in a pediatric patient with lower extremity DVT. Our results suggest that catheter-directed thrombolysis is safe and effective for use in selected older children and adolescents with acute DVT in the lower extremity.

  1. Improved atomistic Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that poly-L-proline adopts heterogeneous ensembles of conformations of semi-rigid segments interrupted by kinks.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Aditya; Vitalis, Andreas; Mao, Albert H; Steffen, Adam T; Pappu, Rohit V

    2012-06-14

    Poly-L-proline (PLP) polymers are useful mimics of biologically relevant proline-rich sequences. Biophysical and computational studies of PLP polymers in aqueous solutions are challenging because of the diversity of length scales and the slow time scales for conformational conversions. We describe an atomistic simulation approach that combines an improved ABSINTH implicit solvation model, with conformational sampling based on standard and novel Metropolis Monte Carlo moves. Refinements to forcefield parameters were guided by published experimental data for proline-rich systems. We assessed the validity of our simulation results through quantitative comparisons to experimental data that were not used in refining the forcefield parameters. Our analysis shows that PLP polymers form heterogeneous ensembles of conformations characterized by semirigid, rod-like segments interrupted by kinks, which result from a combination of internal cis peptide bonds, flexible backbone ? angles, and the coupling between ring puckering and backbone degrees of freedom. PMID:22329658

  2. Interrupting transmission of soil-transmitted helminths: a study protocol for cluster randomised trials evaluating alternative treatment strategies and delivery systems in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Simon J; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Halliday, Katherine E; Njenga, Sammy M; Mcharo, Carlos; Gichuki, Paul M; Wasunna, Beatrice; Kihara, Jimmy H; Njomo, Doris; Alusala, Dorcas; Chiguzo, Athuman; Turner, Hugo C; Teti, Caroline; Gwayi-Chore, Claire; Nikolay, Birgit; Truscott, James E; Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Balabanova, Dina; Griffiths, Ulla K; Freeman, Matthew C; Allen, Elizabeth; Pullan, Rachel L; Anderson, Roy M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, an unprecedented emphasis has been given to the control of neglected tropical diseases, including soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). The mainstay of STH control is school-based deworming (SBD), but mathematical modelling has shown that in all but very low transmission settings, SBD is unlikely to interrupt transmission, and that new treatment strategies are required. This study seeks to answer the question: is it possible to interrupt the transmission of STH, and, if so, what is the most cost-effective treatment strategy and delivery system to achieve this goal? Methods and analysis Two cluster randomised trials are being implemented in contrasting settings in Kenya. The interventions are annual mass anthelmintic treatment delivered to preschool- and school-aged children, as part of a national SBD programme, or to entire communities, delivered by community health workers. Allocation to study group is by cluster, using predefined units used in public health provision—termed community units (CUs). CUs are randomised to one of three groups: receiving either (1) annual SBD; (2) annual community-based deworming (CBD); or (3) biannual CBD. The primary outcome measure is the prevalence of hookworm infection, assessed by four cross-sectional surveys. Secondary outcomes are prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, intensity of species infections and treatment coverage. Costs and cost-effectiveness will be evaluated. Among a random subsample of participants, worm burden and proportion of unfertilised eggs will be assessed longitudinally. A nested process evaluation, using semistructured interviews, focus group discussions and a stakeholder analysis, will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and scale-up of each delivery system. Ethics and dissemination Study protocols have been reviewed and approved by the ethics committees of the Kenya Medical Research Institute and National Ethics Review Committee, and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The study has a dedicated web site. Trial registration number NCT02397772. PMID:26482774

  3. Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of digitoxin by cholestyramine. II. Effect on metabolic disposition of tritium-labeled digitoxin and cardiac systolic intervals in man.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J H; Bush, C A; Greenberger, N J

    1971-12-01

    Previous studies of digitalis glycoside metabolism and excretion have indicated that these compounds undergo a significant enterohepatic cycle in some species. It has been suggested that the existence of such a cycle in man contributes to the prolonged action of certain cardiac glycosides. Previous studies have demonstrated that cholestyramine binds digitoxin and digoxin in vitro and accelerates the metabolic disposition of digitoxin in rats and guinea pigs, presumably by interrupting the enterohepatic circulation. In order to assess the role of the enterohepatic circulation in the metabolism of digitalis glycosides in humans, maintenance doses of cholestyramine were administered to 7 of 15 normal human subjects beginning 8 hr after digitalization with 1.2 mg of digitoxin-(3)H. All subjects had frequent measurements of serum radioactivity, left ventricular ejection time (LVET), and electromechanical systole (QS(2)), the latter recorded as the interval from onset of Q wave to first major component of second heart sound. Measurement of the LVET and QS(2) intervals affords a sensitive index of the cardiac response to digitalis. In addition, chloroform extraction of serum was performed to separate unchanged digitoxin and active metabolites from cardioinactive metabolites of digitoxin. Cholestyramine treatment resulted in reduction in half-life to total serum radioactivity from 11.5 to 6.6 days, and in chloroform-extractable radioactivity from 6.0 to 4.5 days, as compared to controls. In addition, cholestyramine treatment was accompanied by more rapid return to base line values of digitoxin-induced changes in the LVET and QS(2) intervals. A significant positive correlation was found between QS(2) values and chloroform-extractable radioactivity, the latter reflecting unchanged digitoxin-H(3) (r=0.64; P=<0.01). The results indicate that administration of cholestyramine to digitalized human subjects accelerates the metabolic disposition of digitoxin and abbreviates the physiologic response to the glycoside. This effect is presumably mediated by interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of digitoxin by cholestyramine. PMID:5129315

  4. Development of a composite line source emission model for traffic interrupted microenvironments and its application in particle number emissions at a bus station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lina; Jayaratne, Rohan; Heuff, Darlene; Morawska, Lidia

    A composite line source emission (CLSE) model was developed to specifically quantify exposure levels and describe the spatial variability of vehicle emissions in traffic interrupted microenvironments. This model took into account the complexity of vehicle movements in the queue, as well as different emission rates relevant to various driving conditions (cruise, decelerate, idle and accelerate), and it utilised multi-representative segments to capture the accurate emission distribution for real vehicle flow. Hence, this model was able to quickly quantify the time spent in each segment within the considered zone, as well as the composition and position of the requisite segments based on the vehicle fleet information, which not only helped to quantify the enhanced emissions at critical locations, but it also helped to define the emission source distribution of the disrupted steady flow for further dispersion modelling. The model then was applied to estimate particle number emissions at a bi-directional bus station used by diesel and compressed natural gas fuelled buses. It was found that the acceleration distance was of critical importance when estimating particle number emission, since the highest emissions occurred in sections where most of the buses were accelerating and no significant increases were observed at locations where they idled. It was also shown that emissions at the front end of the platform were 43 times greater than at the rear of the platform. Although the CLSE model is intended to be applied in traffic management and transport analysis systems for the evaluation of exposure, as well as the simulation of vehicle emissions in traffic interrupted microenvironments, the bus station model can also be used for the input of initial source definitions in future dispersion models.

  5. Sleeping soundly should come easy after a hard day at school or work. But, for many of us, nighttime slumber is disrupted by thoughts of our "to-do" list, worries about our studies or workload, or interruptions

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Sleep Sleeping soundly should come easy after a hard day at school or work. But, for many of us, or interruptions from roommates, children or snoring partners. One third of all American adults experience that sleeplessness may compromise the immune system. Sleep Quantity vs. Quality The amount of sleep each of us

  6. Prediction of Unmet Primary Care Needs for the Medically Vulnerable Post-Disaster: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Health System Responses

    PubMed Central

    Runkle, Jennifer D.; Zhang, Hongmei; Karmaus, Wilfried; Brock-Martin, Amy; Svendsen, Erik R.

    2012-01-01

    Disasters serve as shocks and precipitate unanticipated disturbances to the health care system. Public health surveillance is generally focused on monitoring latent health and environmental exposure effects, rather than health system performance in response to these local shocks. The following intervention study sought to determine the long-term effects of the 2005 chlorine spill in Graniteville, South Carolina on primary care access for vulnerable populations. We used an interrupted time-series approach to model monthly visits for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, an indicator of unmet primary care need, to quantify the impact of the disaster on unmet primary care need in Medicaid beneficiaries. The results showed Medicaid beneficiaries in the directly impacted service area experienced improved access to primary care in the 24 months post-disaster. We provide evidence that a health system serving the medically underserved can prove resilient and display improved adaptive capacity under adverse circumstances (i.e., technological disasters) to ensure access to primary care for vulnerable sub-groups. The results suggests a new application for ambulatory care sensitive conditions as a population-based metric to advance anecdotal evidence of secondary surge and evaluate pre- and post-health system surge capacity following a disaster. PMID:23202752

  7. Sequential depletion of rat testicular lipids with long-chain and very long-chain polyenoic fatty acids after X-ray-induced interruption of spermatogenesis[S

    PubMed Central

    Oresti, Gerardo M.; Ayuza Aresti, Pablo L.; Gigola, Graciela; Reyes, Luis E.; Aveldaño, Marta I.

    2010-01-01

    When a single dose of X-rays is applied to the adult rat testis, stem spermatogonia are damaged, and spermatogenesis is interrupted. Supported by Sertoli cells, spermatogenic cells that endure irradiation complete their differentiation and gradually leave the testis as spermatozoa. In this study, the in vivo changes taking place a number of weeks after irradiation revealed cell-specific features of testicular lipid classes. A linear drop, taking about six weeks, in testis weight, nonlipid materials, free cholesterol, and 22:5n-6-rich glycerophospholipids took place with germ cell depletion. Sphingomyelins and ceramides with nonhydroxy very long-chain polyenoic fatty acids (n-VLCPUFA) disappeared in four weeks, together with the last spermatocytes, whereas species with 2-hydroxy VLCPUFA lasted for six weeks, disappearing with the last spermatids and spermatozoa. The amount per testis of 22:5n-6-rich triacylglycerols, unchanged for four weeks, fell between weeks 4 and 6, associating these lipids with spermatids and their residual bodies, detected as small, bright lipid droplets. In contrast, 22:5n-6-rich species of cholesterol esters and large lipid droplets increased in seminiferous tubules up to week 6, revealing they are Sertoli cell products. At week 30, the lipid and fatty acid profiles reflected the resulting permanent testicular involution. Our data highlight the importance of Sertoli cells in maintaining lipid homeostasis during normal spermatogenesis. PMID:20529883

  8. Phospholipid Incorporation of Non-Methylene-Interrupted Fatty Acids (NMIFA) in Murine Microglial BV-2 Cells Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Mediator Production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szu-Jung; Chuang, Lu-Te; Liao, Jia-Siang; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Hong-Hsin

    2015-12-01

    Sciadonic acid (SCA), pinolenic acid (PNA), and ?7-eicosatrienoic acid (?7-ETrA) are three non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMIFA). Using murine microglial BV-2 cells, this study determined how NMIFA incorporation modulated phospholipid fatty acid composition and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Each NMIFA was rapidly taken up and incorporated in BV-2 cells, resulting in the differential redistribution of total lipids. The cellular phospholipid fatty acid compositions were altered, and a significant decrease in the proportions of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was observed while the proportions of NMIFA and its metabolites accounted for 38 % of the fatty acid total. Incubation of microglial cells with NMIFA suppressed production of LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), as well as the over-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and type 2 cyclooxygenase (COX-2). These inhibitory effects could be accounted for, in part, by the inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling. In conclusion, ?7-ETrA, PNA, and SCA are anti-inflammatory NMIFA that may be useful in suppressing in vitro immune responses involved in neural inflammation. PMID:26111478

  9. Transhepatic approach to create stent fenestration in the extracardiac Fontan conduit in a child with dextrocardia and interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Turner, Daniel R; Forbes, Thomas J

    2013-04-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare life-threatening complication of Fontan operation. When medical treatment is ineffective in the setting of high systemic venous pressures, Fontan fenestration may be considered to decompress venous pressures and improve cardiac output by creation of the right-to-left shunting. However, transcatheter approach can be difficult in patients with complex venous anatomy. We report a 4-year-old girl born with hypoplastic left ventricle and heterotaxy syndrome, who developed plastic bronchitis following extracardiac Fontan procedure. Her venous anatomy was complex with dextrocardia and interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation. Stent fenestration was successfully performed via transhepatic approach, which was selected based on the anatomical relationship (between extracardiac conduit, left atrium, and hepatic veins) delineated by pre-catheterization cardiac MRI. Simultaneous transesophageal echocardiography guided the intervention. Her plastic bronchitis improved significantly in 3 months but slowly progressed after the stent fenestration. At her 8-month follow-up, stent fenestration remains open and she is currently under heart transplantation evaluation due to persistent plastic bronchitis. Treatment of plastic bronchitis can be undertaken with Fontan fenestration, with pre-procedural MRI playing an essential role in patients with complex venous anatomy. PMID:22777721

  10. Design and current status of CONTINT: continuous versus interrupted abdominal wall closure after emergency midline laparotomy - a randomized controlled multicenter trial [NCT00544583

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The optimal strategy for abdominal wall closure has been an issue of ongoing debate. Available studies do not specifically enroll patients who undergo emergency laparotomy and thus do not consider the distinct biological characteristics of these patients. The present randomized controlled trial evaluates the efficacy and safety of two commonly applied abdominal wall closure strategies in patients undergoing primary emergency midline laparotomy. Methods/design The CONTINT trial is a multicenter, open label, randomized controlled trial with a two-group parallel design. Patients undergoing a primary emergency midline laparotomy are enrolled in the trial. The two most commonly applied strategies of abdominal wall closure after midline laparotomy are compared: the continuous, all-layer suture technique using slowly absorbable monofilament material (two Monoplus® loops) and the interrupted suture technique using rapidly absorbable braided material (Vicryl® sutures). The primary endpoint within the CONTINT trial is an incisional hernia within 12 months or a burst abdomen within 30 days after surgery. As reliable data on this primary endpoint is not available for patients undergoing emergency surgery, an adaptive interim analysis will be conducted after the inclusion of 80 patients, allowing early termination of the trial if necessary or modification of design characteristics such as recalculation of sample size. Discussion This is a randomized controlled multicenter trial with a two-group parallel design to assess the efficacy and safety of two commonly applied abdominal wall closure strategies in patients undergoing primary emergency midline laparotomy. Trial registration NCT00544583 PMID:22647387

  11. Characterization of the human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) mediated Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling transduction in proliferating mammalian dopaminergic neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Lei; Carr, Aprell L.; Li, Ping; Lee, Jessica; McGregor, Mary; Li, Lei

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Stil is a human oncogene that is conserved in vertebrate species. • Stil functions in the Shh pathway in mammalian cells. • The expression of Stil is required for mammalian dopaminergic cell proliferation. - Abstract: The human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) is highly conserved in all vertebrate species. In humans, the expression of Stil is involved in cancer cell survival, apoptosis and proliferation. In this research, we investigated the roles of Stil expression in cell proliferation of mammalian dopaminergic (DA) PC12 cells. Stil functions through the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal transduction pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation tests revealed that STIL interacts with Shh downstream components, which include SUFU and GLI1. By examining the expression of Stil, Gli1, CyclinD2 (cell-cycle marker) and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), we found that up-regulation of Stil expression (transfection with overexpression plasmids) increased Shh signaling transduction and PC12 cell proliferation, whereas down-regulation of Stil expression (by shRNA) inhibited Shh signaling transduction, and thereby decreased PC12 cell proliferation. Transient transfection of PC12 cells with Stil knockdown or overexpression plasmids did not affect PC12 cell neural differentiation, further indicating the specific roles of Stil in cell proliferation. The results from this research suggest that Stil may serve as a bio-marker for neurological diseases involved in DA neurons, such as Parkinson’s disease.

  12. Cancer-specific interruption of glucose metabolism by resveratrol is mediated through inhibition of Akt/GLUT1 axis in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gwak, HyeRan; Haegeman, Guy; Tsang, Benjamin K; Song, Yong Sang

    2015-12-01

    The metabolic phenotype of cancer is considered an ideal target for anticancer therapy. In ovarian cancer, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) is overexpressed and positron emission tomography (PET) using [18(F) ] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), as a metabolic tumor parameter, has been found to be an effective diagnostic tool. In this study, we have characterized the selective cytotoxicity of resveratrol (RSV) in ovarian cancer cells through glucose metabolism regulation via GLUT1 modulation. We have demonstrated that, in contrast to primary normal ovarian epithelial cells, RSV selectively inhibited glucose uptake and induced apoptosis irrespective of p53 status in vitro. RSV had no affect on GLUT1 mRNA and protein expressions but interrupted intracellular GLUT1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. Suppressed plasma membrane GLUT1 localization in ovarian cancer was found to be associated with the inhibition of Akt activity by RSV, as confirmed by the action of the Akt inhibitors (LY294002 and Akt inhibitor IV), as well as overexpression of a constitutive active form of Akt. Taken together, these findings suggested that RSV induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells by impairing glucose uptake, a process involving Akt-regulated plasma membrane GLUT1 trafficking. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25307508

  13. Performance Evaluation of a Multi-Port DC-DC Current Source Converter for High Power Applications 

    E-print Network

    Yancey, Billy Ferrall

    2011-08-08

    the voltage source doesn?t change polarity, current direction does not change, and a resistive load cannot generate power. Scenario?s 3 ? 6 also do not 36? ? make sense and this will be shown during the explanation of Scenario 2. Therefore only... earlier power transfer between source converters cannot occur because the voltage or current cannot change directions. In order to observe the behavior of this scenario the firing angle of the load was set at ?314 = 0?/180 ? and ?323 = 180...

  14. Implementation and Evaluation of a Wiki Involving Multiple Stakeholders Including Patients in the Promotion of Best Practices in Trauma Care: The WikiTrauma Interrupted Time Series Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Alexis F; Witteman, Holly O; Lauzier, François; Moore, Lynne; Lamontagne, François; Horsley, Tanya; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Droit, Arnaud; Weiss, Matthew; Tremblay, Sébastien; Lachaine, Jean; Le Sage, Natalie; Émond, Marcel; Berthelot, Simon; Plaisance, Ariane; Lapointe, Jean; Razek, Tarek; van de Belt, Tom H; Brand, Kevin; Bérubé, Mélanie; Clément, Julien; Grajales III, Francisco Jose; Eysenbach, Gunther; Kuziemsky, Craig; Friedman, Debbie; Lang, Eddy; Muscedere, John; Rizoli, Sandro; Roberts, Derek J; Scales, Damon C; Sinuff, Tasnim; Stelfox, Henry T; Gagnon, Isabelle; Chabot, Christian; Grenier, Richard; Légaré, France

    2015-01-01

    Background Trauma is the most common cause of mortality among people between the ages of 1 and 45 years, costing Canadians 19.8 billion dollars a year (2004 data), yet half of all patients with major traumatic injuries do not receive evidence-based care, and significant regional variation in the quality of care across Canada exists. Accordingly, our goal is to lead a research project in which stakeholders themselves will adapt evidence-based trauma care knowledge tools to their own varied institutional contexts and cultures. We will do this by developing and assessing the combined impact of WikiTrauma, a free collaborative database of clinical decision support tools, and Wiki101, a training course teaching participants how to use WikiTrauma. WikiTrauma has the potential to ensure that all stakeholders (eg, patients, clinicians, and decision makers) can all contribute to, and benefit from, evidence-based clinical knowledge about trauma care that is tailored to their own needs and clinical setting. Objective Our main objective will be to study the combined effect of WikiTrauma and Wiki101 on the quality of care in four trauma centers in Quebec. Methods First, we will pilot-test the wiki with potential users to create a version ready to test in practice. A rapid, iterative prototyping process with 15 health professionals from nonparticipating centers will allow us to identify and resolve usability issues prior to finalizing the definitive version for the interrupted time series. Second, we will conduct an interrupted time series to measure the impact of our combined intervention on the quality of care in four trauma centers that will be selected—one level I, one level II, and two level III centers. Participants will be health care professionals working in the selected trauma centers. Also, five patient representatives will be recruited to participate in the creation of knowledge tools destined for their use (eg, handouts). All participants will be invited to complete the Wiki101 training and then use, and contribute to, WikiTrauma for 12 months. The primary outcome will be the change over time of a validated, composite, performance indicator score based on 15 process performance indicators found in the Quebec Trauma Registry. Results This project was funded in November 2014 by the Canadian Medical Protective Association. We expect to start this trial in early 2015 and preliminary results should be available in June 2016. Two trauma centers have already agreed to participate and two more will be recruited in the next months. Conclusions We expect that this study will add important and unique evidence about the effectiveness, safety, and cost savings of using collaborative platforms to adapt knowledge implementation tools across jurisdictions. PMID:25699546

  15. Schistosoma haematobium detection in snails by DraI PCR and Sh110/Sm-Sl PCR: further evidence of the interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This is the first study in Morocco to estimate snail infection rates at the last historic transmission sites of schistosomiasis, known to be free from new infection among humans since 2004. Screening of large numbers of snails for infection is one way to confirm that Schistosoma haematobium transmission has stopped and does not resurge. Methods A total of 2703 Bulinus truncatus snails were collected from 24 snail habitats in five provinces of Morocco: Errachidia, El Kelaa des Sraghna, Tata, Beni Mellal, and Chtouka Ait Baha. All visible snails were collected with a scoop net or by hand. We used waders and gloves as simple precautions. Snails were morphologically identified according to Moroccan Health Ministry guide of schistosomiasis (1982). All snails were analyzed in pools by molecular tool, using primers from the newly identified repeated DNA sequence, termed DraI, in the S. haematobium group. To distinguish S. bovis and S. haematobium, the snails were analyzed by Sh110/Sm-Sl PCR that was specific of S. haematobium. Results The results showed that snails from Errachidia, Chtouka Ait Baha, sector of Agoujgal in Tata and sector of Mbarkiya in El kelaa des Sraghna were negative for DraI PCR; but, snails from remaining snail habitats of El Kelaa des Sraghna, Tata and Beni Mellal were positive. This led to suggest the presence of circulating schistosome species (S. haematobium, S. bovis or others) within these positive snail habitats. Subsequently, confirmation with S. haematobium species specific molecular assay, Sh110/Sm-Sl PCR, showed that none of the collected snails were infected by S. haematobium in all historic endemic areas. Conclusion The absence of S. haematobium infection in snails supports the argument of S. haematobium transmission interruption in Morocco. PMID:24962624

  16. Interruption of the Ras/MEK/ERK signaling cascade enhances Chk1 inhibitor–induced DNA damage in vitro and in vivo in human multiple myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yun; Chen, Shuang; Pei, Xin-Yan; Almenara, Jorge A.; Kramer, Lora B.; Venditti, Charis A.; Dent, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The role of the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway was examined in relation to DNA damage in human multiple myeloma (MM) cells exposed to Chk1 inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. Exposure of various MM cells to marginally toxic concentrations of the Chk1 inhibitors UCN-01 or Chk1i modestly induced DNA damage, accompanied by Ras and ERK1/2 activation. Interruption of these events by pharmacologic (eg, the farnesyltransferase inhibitor R115777 or the MEK1/2 inhibitor PD184352) or genetic (eg, transfection with dominant-negative Ras or MEK1 shRNA) means induced pronounced DNA damage, reflected by increased ?H2A.X expression/foci formation and by comet assay. Increased DNA damage preceded extensive apoptosis. Notably, similar phenomena were observed in primary CD138+ MM cells. Enforced MEK1/2 activation by B-Raf transfection prevented R115777 but not PD184352 from inactivating ERK1/2 and promoting Chk1 inhibitor–induced ?H2A.X expression. Finally, coadministration of R115777 diminished UCN-01–mediated ERK1/2 activation and markedly potentiated ?H2A.X expression in a MM xenograft model, associated with a striking increase in tumor cell apoptosis and growth suppression. Such findings suggest that Ras/MEK/ERK activation opposes whereas its inhibition dramatically promotes Chk1 antagonist–mediated DNA damage. Together, these findings identify a novel mechanism by which agents targeting the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway potentiate Chk1 inhibitor lethality in MM. PMID:18614762

  17. Smoke-free legislation and the incidence of paediatric respiratory infections and wheezing/asthma: interrupted time series analyses in the four UK nations

    PubMed Central

    Been, Jasper V.; Szatkowski, Lisa; van Staa, Tjeerd-Pieter; Leufkens, Hubert G.; van Schayck, Onno C.; Sheikh, Aziz; de Vries, Frank; Souverein, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between introduction of smoke-free legislation in the UK (March 2006 for Scotland, April 2007 for Wales and Northern Ireland, and July 2007 for England) and the incidence of respiratory diseases among children. We extracted monthly counts of new diagnoses of wheezing/asthma and RTIs among children aged 0–12 years from all general practices in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink during 1997–2012. Interrupted time series analyses were performed using generalised additive mixed models, adjusting for underlying incidence trends, population size changes, seasonal factors, and pandemic influenza, as appropriate. 366,642 new wheezing/asthma diagnoses and 4,324,789 RTIs were observed over 9,536,003 patient-years. There was no statistically significant change in the incidence of wheezing/asthma after introduction of smoke-free legislation in England (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.94, 95% CI 0.81–1.09) or any other UK country (Scotland: IRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.83–1.19; Wales: IRR 1.09, 95% CI 0.89–1.35; Northern Ireland: IRR 0.96, 95% CI 0.76–1.22). Similarly no statistically significant changes in RTI incidence were demonstrated (England: IRR 0.95, 95% CI 0.86–1.06; Scotland: IRR 0.96, 95% CI 0.83–1.11; Wales: IRR 0.97, 95% CI 0.86–1.09; Northern Ireland: IRR 0.90, 95% CI 0.79–1.03). There were no demonstrable reductions in the incidence of paediatric wheezing/asthma or RTIs following introduction of smoke-free legislation in the UK. PMID:26463498

  18. Ligustrazine attenuates oxidative stress-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells by interrupting platelet-derived growth factor-? receptor-mediated ERK and p38 pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; Ni, Chunyan; The First People's Hospital of Changzhou, Changzhou 213003 ; Kong, Desong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhu, Xiaojing; Chen, Li; Lu, Yin; Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046; National First-Class Key Discipline for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 ; Zheng, Shizhong; Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046; National First-Class Key Discipline for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046

    2012-11-15

    Hepatic fibrosis represents a frequent event following chronic insult to trigger wound healing reactions with accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the liver. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the pivotal event during liver fibrogenesis. Compelling evidence indicates that oxidative stress is concomitant with liver fibrosis irrespective of the underlying etiology. Natural antioxidant ligustrazine exhibits potent antifibrotic activities, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Our studies were to investigate the ligustrazine effects on HSC activation stimulated by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), an in vitro model mimicking the oxidative stress in liver fibrogenesis, and to elucidate the possible mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at 5 ?M significantly stimulated HSC proliferation and expression of marker genes of HSC activation; whereas ligustrazine dose-dependently suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-activated HSCs, and attenuated expression of fibrotic marker genes. Mechanistic investigations revealed that ligustrazine reduced platelet-derived growth factor-? receptor (PDGF-?R) expression and blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase, two downstream effectors of PDGF-?R. Further molecular evidence suggested that ligustrazine interruption of ERK and p38 pathways was dependent on the blockade of PDGF-?R and might be involved in ligustrazine reduction of fibrotic marker gene expression under H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stimulation. Furthermore, ligustrazine modulated some proteins critical for HSC activation and ECM homeostasis in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-stimulated HSCs. These data collectively indicated that ligustrazine could attenuate HSC activation caused by oxidative stress, providing novel insights into ligustrazine as a therapeutic option for hepatic fibrosis. Highlights: ? Ligustrazine inhibits oxidative stress-induced HSC activation. ? Ligustrazine reduces fibrotic marker genes in HSCs under oxidative stress. ? Disruption of PDGF-?R-mediated ERK and p38 pathways was involved. ? Ligustrazine could be a promising antifibrotic candidate.

  19. Small tyrosine kinase inhibitors interrupt EGFR signaling by interacting with erbB3 and erbB4 in glioblastoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Saceda, Miguel; Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, 03203 Elche ; Grasso, Silvina; Rocamora-Reverte, Lourdes; Conde, Mariano; Gomez-Martinez, Angeles; Garcia-Morales, Pilar; Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, 03203 Elche ; Ferragut, Jose A.; Martinez-Lacaci, Isabel; Unidad AECC de Investigacion Traslacional en Cancer, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 Murcia

    2011-06-10

    Signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is relevant in glioblastoma. We have determined the effects of the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 in glioblastoma cell lines and found that U87 and LN-229 cells were very sensitive to this drug, since their proliferation diminished and underwent a marked G{sub 1} arrest. T98 cells were a little more refractory to growth inhibition and A172 cells did not undergo a G{sub 1} arrest. This G{sub 1} arrest was associated with up-regulation of p27{sup kip1}, whose protein turnover was stabilized. EGFR autophosphorylation was blocked with AG1478 to the same extent in all the cell lines. Other small-molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors employed in the clinic, such as gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib, were able to abrogate proliferation of glioblastoma cell lines, which underwent a G{sub 1} arrest. However, the EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab had no effect on cell proliferation and consistently, had no effect on cell cycle either. Similarly, cetuximab did not inhibit proliferation of U87 {Delta}EGFR cells or primary glioblastoma cell cultures, whereas small-molecule EGFR inhibitors did. Activity of downstream signaling molecules of EGFR such as Akt and especially ERK1/2 was interrupted with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, whereas cetuximab treatment could not sustain this blockade over time. Small-molecule EGFR inhibitors were able to prevent phosphorylation of erbB3 and erbB4, whereas cetuximab only hindered EGFR phosphorylation, suggesting that EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors may mediate their anti-proliferative effects through other erbB family members. We can conclude that small-molecule EGFR inhibitors may be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of glioblastoma patients.

  20. Compromised local control due to treatment interruptions and late treatment breaks in early glottic cancer: Population-based outcomes study supporting need for intensified treatment schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Groome, Patti A. . E-mail: patti.groome@krcc.on.ca; O'Sullivan, Brian; Mackillop, William J.; Jackson, Lynda D.; Schulze, Karleen M.Math.; Irish, Jonathan C.; Warde, Padraig R.; Schneider, Ken M.; Mackenzie, Robert G.; Hodson, D. Ian; Hammond, J. Alex; Gulavita, Sunil P.P.; Eapen, Libni J.; Dixon, Peter F. M.B.; Bissett, Randy J.

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: This population-based study describes the treatment of early glottic cancer in Ontario, Canada and assesses whether treatment variations were associated with treatment effectiveness. Methods and Materials: We studied 491 T1N0 and 213 T2N0 patients. Data abstracted from charts included age, sex, stage, treatment details, disease control, and survival. Results: The total dose ranged from 50 to 70 Gy, and the daily dose ranged from 1.9 to 2.8 Gy. In 90%, treatment duration was between 25 and 50 days. Field sizes, field reductions, beam arrangement, and beam energy varied. Late treatment breaks occurred in 13.6% of T1N0 and 27.1% of T2N0 cases. Local control was comparable to other reports for T1N0 (82% at 5 years), but was only 63.2% in T2N0. Variables associated with local failure in T1N0 were age less than 49 years (relative risk [RR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-6.90) and >3 treatment interruption days (RR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.00-5.91). In T2N0, these were field reduction (RR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.23-4.42) and late treatment breaks (RR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.09-4.41). Conclusion: Some aspects of treatment for early glottic cancer were associated with worse local control. Problems with protracted treatment are of particular concern, underscoring the need for randomized studies to intensify radiotherapy.

  1. Curricula as Spaces of Interruption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests that there has been a move away from teaching as a means of transmitting information, towards supporting learning as a student-generated activity. There has been much work relating to this in the arena of problem-based learning, which to date has been seen as a relatively stable approach to learning, delineated by particular…

  2. Health Facility Utilisation Changes during the Introduction of Community Case Management of Malaria in South Western Uganda: An Interrupted Time Series Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Alexander, Neal D.; Lagarde, Mylene; Paintain, Lucy; Magnussen, Pascal; Chandramohan, Daniel; Clarke, Siân E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria endemic countries have scaled-up community health worker (CHW) interventions, to diagnose and treat malaria in communities with limited access to public health systems. The evaluations of these programmes have centred on CHW’s compliance to guidelines, but the broader changes at public health centres including utilisation and diagnoses made, has received limited attention. Methods This analysis was conducted during a CHW–intervention for malaria in Rukungiri District, Western Uganda. Outpatient department (OPD) visit data were collected for children under-5 attending three health centres one year before the CHW-intervention started (pre-intervention period) and for 20 months during the intervention (intervention-period). An interrupted time series analysis with segmented regression models was used to compare the trends in malaria, non-malaria and overall OPD visits during the pre-intervention and intervention-period. Results The introduction of a CHW-intervention suggested the frequency of diagnoses of diarrhoeal diseases, pneumonia and helminths increased, whilst the frequency of malaria diagnoses declined at health centres. In May 2010 when the intervention began, overall health centre utilisation decreased by 63% compared to the pre-intervention period and the health centres saw 32 fewer overall visits per month compared to the pre-intervention period (p<0.001). Malaria visits also declined shortly after the intervention began and there were 27 fewer visits per month during the intervention-period compared with the pre-intervention period (p<0.05). The declines in overall and malaria visits were sustained for the entire intervention-period. In contrast, there were no observable changes in trends of non-malarial visits between the pre-intervention and intervention-period. Conclusions This analysis suggests introducing a CHW-intervention can reduce the number of child malaria visits and change the profile of cases presenting at health centres. The reduction in workload of health workers may allow them to spend more time with patients or undertake additional curative or preventative roles. PMID:26356099

  3. The impact of Regional co-payment and National reimbursement criteria on statins use in Italy: an interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Statins are among the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and their effectiveness is largely acknowledged. The consumption of statins increased four-fold during the 2000–2010 decade in Italy and national and regional control policies were developed. Restrictions to reimbursement were fixed at the national level, whereas co-payment was introduced in some, but not all, regions. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of such policies on the consumption of statins in Italy between 2001–2007 among outpatients. Methods The statin use was measured in terms of defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DDD/1000 inh. day) from May 2001 to December 2007. The study was conducted in 17 out of 21 regions, nine of which had implemented a co-payment policy. Time trends in consumption before and after the introduction of co-payment policies and reimbursement criteria were examined using segmented regression analysis of interrupted time-series, adjusting for seasonal components. Results The consumption of statins increased by 22.9 DDD/1000 inh. day in May 2001 to 54.7 DDD/1000 inh. day in December 2007. On average, there was a 1.7% increase in statin use each month before the national guideline changed while the increase was about 0.5% afterwards. The revision of the reimbursement criteria was associated with a significant decrease in level (coefficient?=??2.80, 95% CI ?3.70 to ?1.90 p-value <0.001) and trend (coefficient?=??0.33, 95% CI ?0.37 to ?0.29 p-value <0.001). The introduction of co-payment was associated with a significant change in trend of consumption so that the overall use of the drug increased by 0.04 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.07, p-value?

  4. Errors on interrupter tasks presented during spatial and verbal working memory performance are linearly linked to large-scale functional network connectivity in high temporal resolution resting state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Matthew Evan; Thompson, Garth John; Schwarb, Hillary; Pan, Wen-Ju; McKinley, Andy; Schumacher, Eric H; Keilholz, Shella Dawn

    2015-12-01

    The brain is organized into networks composed of spatially separated anatomical regions exhibiting coherent functional activity over time. Two of these networks (the default mode network, DMN, and the task positive network, TPN) have been implicated in the performance of a number of cognitive tasks. To directly examine the stable relationship between network connectivity and behavioral performance, high temporal resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected during the resting state, and behavioral data were collected from 15 subjects on different days, exploring verbal working memory, spatial working memory, and fluid intelligence. Sustained attention performance was also evaluated in a task interleaved between resting state scans. Functional connectivity within and between the DMN and TPN was related to performance on these tasks. Decreased TPN resting state connectivity was found to significantly correlate with fewer errors on an interrupter task presented during a spatial working memory paradigm and decreased DMN/TPN anti-correlation was significantly correlated with fewer errors on an interrupter task presented during a verbal working memory paradigm. A trend for increased DMN resting state connectivity to correlate to measures of fluid intelligence was also observed. These results provide additional evidence of the relationship between resting state networks and behavioral performance, and show that such results can be observed with high temporal resolution fMRI. Because cognitive scores and functional connectivity were collected on nonconsecutive days, these results highlight the stability of functional connectivity/cognitive performance coupling. PMID:25563228

  5. Case report: airway and concurrent hemodynamic management in a neonate with oculo-auriculo-vertebral (Goldenhar) syndrome, severe cervical scoliosis, interrupted aortic arch, multiple ventricular septal defects, and an unstable cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Char, Danton S; Gipp, Melanie; Boltz, M Gail; Williams, Glyn D

    2012-09-01

    We report the challenging case of a 1-week-old, term, 2.4 kg neonate with Goldenhar syndrome (including microcephaly, left microtia, left facial palsy, dextro-scoliosis of the cervical spine, and cervico-thoracic levoscoliosis), multiple ventricular septal defects, a type B interrupted aortic arch, a large patent ductus arteriosis, and radiographic and clinical signs concerning for an unstable cervical spine. Our anesthesia team was consulted for perioperative management of this patient during her surgical repair. This case report describes the use of the Air-Q size 1 laryngeal airway (LA) to assist fiberoptic intubation in an ASA 4 neonate with cardiac disease, an anticipated difficult airway with the addition of an unstable cervical spine, as well as the anesthetic techniques used to maintain hemodynamic stability while the airway was secured. PMID:22834469

  6. The crystal structure of the interrupted framework silicate K{sub 9.6}Ca{sub 1.2}Si{sub 12}O{sub 30} determined from laboratory X-ray diffraction data

    SciTech Connect

    Kahlenberg, V. . E-mail: volker.kahlenberg@uibk.ac.at; Kaindl, R.; Toebbens, D.M.

    2006-07-15

    The crystal structure of a potassium calcium silicate with composition K{sub 9.6}Ca{sub 1.2}Si{sub 12}O{sub 30} (or K{sub 8}CaSi{sub 10}O{sub 25}) has been solved by direct methods aided by distance least squares optimization from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data. The trigonal compound adopts the non-centrosymmetric space group R3c with the following basic crystallographic data: a=11.13623(5)A, c=21.9890(2)A, V=2361.63(2)A{sup 3}, Z=3, D{sub calc}=2.617gcm{sup -3}. The crystal structure can be classified as an interrupted framework with exclusively Q{sup 3}-units. It can be thought of as being built from layers parallel to (001) containing isolated six-membered tetrahedral rings in UDUDUD conformation. Corner sharing of tetrahedra belonging to adjacent sheets results in a tetrahedral framework. The framework density of the structure is 15.2 T-atoms/1000A{sup 3}. The coordination sequences are identical for both silicon atoms in the asymmetric unit: 3-6-11-20-32-46-60-80-102-122. The vertex symbols for the two tetrahedral centers are 10{sub 2}.10{sub 2}.6{sub 1}. Topologically, the structure can be described as an Archimedean three-dimensional 3-connected net. It can be derived from the diamond or cristobalite net by removing 20% of the knots. Charge compensation in the structure is achieved by the incorporation of mono- and divalent M-cations (M: K, Ca). These extra-framework ions are coordinated by six to nine oxygen ligands. Ca/K distributions for the five symmetrically independent M-sites were obtained from a combination of bond distance considerations, site occupancy refinements and the bulk chemical composition. The structural characterization is completed by a detailed Raman spectroscopic study. Furthermore, possible implications of the structural chemistry of interrupted framework silicates for the field of silicate glass research are addressed.

  7. Role of amygdala central nucleus in the potentiation of consuming and instrumental lever-pressing for sucrose by cues for the presentation or interruption of sucrose delivery in rats

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Peter C.; Hsu, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Initially neutral conditioned stimuli (CSs) paired with food often acquire motivating properties. For example, CS presentations may enhance the rate of instrumental responding that normally earns that food reward (Pavlovian-instrumental transfer), or potentiate consumption of that food when the animal is food-sated. Recent evidence suggests that cues associated with the withdrawal of food and food cues (interruption stimuli or ISs) may also potentiate feeding, despite exhibiting some characteristics of conditioned inhibition. Here, we compared the ability of CSs and ISs to modulate both eating food and working for it. If CSs and ISs potentiate eating food by controlling a similar incentive state, both types of cues might also be expected to enhance instrumental responding for food. Although we found substantial potentiation of feeding by both CSs and ISs, and powerful enhancement of instrumental responding by a CS, we found no evidence for such instrumental enhancement by an IS. Furthermore, although an IS produced more FOS expression in the amygdala central nucleus (CeA) than either a previously reinforced CS or a control stimulus after a test for potentiated feeding, an intact CeA was unnecessary for potentiation of feeding by either a CS or an IS. Nevertheless, as in previous studies, CeA was critical to the ability of a CS to enhance instrumental responding. Implications for understanding the nature and basis for incentive learning are discussed. PMID:24512067

  8. Space-charge recombination currents and their influence on the dc current gain of AlGaAs/GaAs Pnp heterojunction bipolar transistors

    E-print Network

    Cahay, Marc

    -speed, complementary heterojunction bipo- lar transistor HBT -based, integrated injection logic (I2 L) with 65 ps and experiment is found for the current gain variation versus collector current density for a Pnp device recently

  9. Cytotoxicity of diacetoxyscirpenol is associated with apoptosis by activation of caspase-8 and interruption of cell cycle progression by down-regulation of cdk4 and cyclin B1 in human Jurkat T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Do Youn; Kim, Jun Seok; Park, Hae Sun; Song, Woo Sun; Bae, Young Seuk; Kim, Young Ho . E-mail: ykim@knu.ac.kr

    2007-07-15

    To understand the mechanism underlying T-cell toxicity of diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) from Fusarium sambucinum, its apoptogenic as well as growth retardation activity was investigated in human Jurkat T cells. Exposure to DAS (0.01-0.15 {mu}M) caused apoptotic DNA fragmentation along with caspase-8 activation, Bid cleavage, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and PARP degradation, without any alteration in the levels of Fas or FasL. Under these conditions, necrosis was not accompanied. The cytotoxicity of DAS was not blocked by the anti-Fas neutralizing antibody ZB-4. Although the DAS-induced apoptotic events were completely prevented by overexpression of Bcl-xL, the cells overexpressing Bcl-xL were unable to divide in the presence of DAS, resulting from the failure of cell cycle progression possibly due to down-regulation in the protein levels of cdk4 and cyclin B1. The DAS-mediated apoptosis and activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 were abrogated by either pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) or caspase-8 inhibitor (z-IETD-fmk). While the DAS-mediated apoptosis and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 were slightly suppressed by the mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor (CsA), both caspase-8 activation and Bid cleavage were not affected by CsA. The activated normal peripheral T cells possessed a similar susceptibility to the cytotoxicity of DAS. These results demonstrate that the T-cell toxicity of DAS is attributable to not only apoptosis initiated by caspase-8 activation and subsequent mitochondrion-dependent or -independent activation of caspase cascades, which can be regulated by Bcl-xL, but also interruption of cell cycle progression caused by down-regulation of cdk4 and cyclin B1 proteins.

  10. Interrupting Extremism by Creating Educative Turbulence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    This article begins from the premise that it is important to explore how people unlearn, as well as learn, specifically in terms of extremist or violent attitudes. It shows the implications of two aspects of complexity theory--turbulence and self-organisation--for educational practice and the fostering of a complex adaptive school, which can aid…

  11. [Voluntary interruption of pregnancy: anesthesia or sophrology].

    PubMed

    Ferragut, E

    1979-10-01

    General anesthesia during induced abortion has the great advantage of eliminating any physical pain; it does not do anything, however, for anxiety, guilt feeling, emotional upheaval, and postoperative depression. This study investigate sophrology, a form of anesthesia without medication, which diminishes psychic tension through comforting and sympathetic words, and corporal tension through relaxation. At the beginning of the study, which observed 7547 patients, general anesthesia was routinely used for all induced abortion patients; after 4 years of observation, general anesthesia was used on about 1.9% of patients. Judging from a questionnaire given to patients after intervention 75% of patients were completely satisfied from an emotional point of view; the same percentage judged the procedure a bit painful, but bearable; only 3.5% of patients regretted not to have opted for general anesthesia. PMID:12158285

  12. Industrial Interruptible Power: An Economical Alternative 

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, S. D.; Gardner, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Prevailing utility cost forecasts project that long-term energy costs will rise in real terms. With the addition of capacity construction costs into electric utility rate bases, electric power costs for some utilities will rise sharply...

  13. Top-Ranked MBA Without Interrupting

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    Moore School of Business University of South Carolina #12;Why the Professional MBA Program at the Moore in Business Analytics as part of the program's elective offerings. This certificate is designed to complement in business analytics. The certificate requires 12 credit hours earned in the following three business

  14. Avoiding and Managing Interruptions of Electric Service Under an Interruptible Contract or Tariff 

    E-print Network

    Evans, G. W.

    1995-01-01

    when one or more generating units are out of service, due to malfunctions or planned outages, when severe weather causes unusually high demands and under other contingencies. Competition and Planning Reserves Only a few years ago, the accepted... units shown in Table 1. TABLE I - Example Generating System Unit Capability Unit I 60 MW Unit 2 30 Unit 3 30 Total 120 MW Ignoring the possibility of purchases under buy through, and partial outages of generating units, there are eight (2Nl...

  15. Feasibility analysis of a novel hybrid-type superconducting circuit breaker in multi-terminal HVDC networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Umer Amir; Lee, Jong-Geon; Seo, In-Jin; Amir, Faisal; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2015-11-01

    Voltage source converter-based HVDC systems (VSC-HVDC) are a better alternative than conventional thyristor-based HVDC systems, especially for developing multi-terminal HVDC systems (MTDC). However, one of the key obstacles in developing MTDC is the absence of an adequate protection system that can quickly detect faults, locate the faulty line and trip the HVDC circuit breakers (DCCBs) to interrupt the DC fault current. In this paper, a novel hybrid-type superconducting circuit breaker (SDCCB) is proposed and feasibility analyses of its application in MTDC are presented. The SDCCB has a superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) located in the main current path to limit fault currents until the final trip signal is received. After the trip signal the IGBT located in the main line commutates the current into a parallel line where DC current is forced to zero by the combination of IGBTs and surge arresters. Fault simulations for three-, four- and five-terminal MTDC were performed and SDCCB performance was evaluated in these MTDC. Passive current limitation by SFCL caused a significant reduction of fault current interruption stress in the SDCCB. It was observed that the DC current could change direction in MTDC after a fault and the SDCCB was modified to break the DC current in both the forward and reverse directions. The simulation results suggest that the proposed SDCCB could successfully suppress the DC fault current, cause a timely interruption, and isolate the faulty HVDC line in MTDC.

  16. Study of DC Circuit Breaker of H2-N2 Mixture Gas for High Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiba, Yuji; Morishita, Yukinaga; Kaneko, Shuhei; Okabe, Shigemitsu; Mizoguchi, Hitoshi; Yanabu, Satoru

    Global warming caused by CO2 etc. is a field where the concern is very high. Especially, automobile emissions are problem for it. Therefore, the hybrid car is widely development and used recently. Hybrid car used electric power and gasoline. So, the car reduces CO2. Hybrid car has engine and motor. To rotate the motor, hybrid car has battery. This battery is large capacity. Therefore, the relay should interrupt high DC current for the switch of the motor and the engine. So, hybrid car used hydrogen gas filling relay We studied interruption test for the research of a basic characteristic of hydrogen gas. DC current has not current zero point. So, it is necessary to make the current zero by high arc voltage and forcible current zero point. The loss coefficient and arc voltage of hydrogen is high. Therefore, we studied interruption test for used high arc voltage. We studied interruption test and dielectric breakdown test of air, pure Hydrogen, and Hydrogen- nitrogen mixture gas. As a result, we realized H2-N2(80%-20%) is the best gas.

  17. UVB Stimulates the Expression of Endothelin B Receptor in Human Melanocytes via a Sequential Activation of the p38/MSK1/CREB/MITF Pathway Which Can Be Interrupted by a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract through a Direct Inactivation of MSK1

    PubMed Central

    Tagashira, Hideki; Miyamoto, Aki; Kitamura, Sei-ichi; Tsubata, Masahito; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Takagaki, Kinya; Imokawa, Genji

    2015-01-01

    Melanogenesis is the physiological process by which melanin is synthesized to protect the skin from UV damage. While paracrine interactions between keratinocytes and melanocytes are crucial for regulating epidermal pigmentation, the endothelin (EDN)-endothelin B-receptor (EDNRB) interaction is one of the key linkages. In this study, we found that a single exposure of normal human melanocytes (NHMs) with UVB stimulates the expression of EDNRB and its upstream transcription factor microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) at the transcriptional and translational levels. That stimulation can be abrogated by post-irradiation treatment with a French maritime pine bark extract (PBE). UVB stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not ERK, followed by the increased phosphorylation of MSK1 and CREB. The post-irradiation treatment with PBE did not affect the increased phosphorylation of p38 and JNK, but distinctly abrogated the phosphorylation of MSK1 and CREB. Post-irradiation treatment with the MSK1 inhibitor H89 significantly down-regulated the increased gene expression of MITF and EDNRB in UVB-exposed NHMs. Our findings indicate for the first time that the increased expression of MITF that leads to the up-regulation of melanocyte-specific proteins in UVB-exposed NHMs is mediated via activation of the p38/MSK1/CREB pathway but not the ERK/RSK/CREB pathway. The mode of action by PBE demonstrates that interrupting MSK1 activation is a new target for antioxidants including PBE which can serve as anti-pigmenting agents in a reactive oxygen species-depletion-independent manner. PMID:26030901

  18. The UVB-Stimulated Expression of Transglutaminase 1 Is Mediated Predominantly via the NF?B Signaling Pathway: New Evidence of Its Significant Attenuation through the Specific Interruption of the p38/MSK1/NF?Bp65 Ser276 Axis

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Hiroaki; Yasuda, Michitaka; Imokawa, Genji

    2015-01-01

    The influence of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on transglutaminase 1 (TGase 1), a major factor that regulates skin keratinization, has not been sufficiently characterized especially at the gene or protein level. Thus, we determined whether UVB affects the expression of TGase 1 in human keratinocytes and clarified the intracellular stress signaling mechanism(s) involved. Exposure of human keratinocytes to UVB significantly up-regulated the expression of TGase 1 at the gene and protein levels. Treatment with inhibitors of p38, MEK, JNK or NF?B significantly abolished the UVB-stimulated protein expression of TGase 1. Treatment with astaxanthin immediately after UVB irradiation did not attenuate the increased phosphorylation of Ser536/Ser468NF?Bp65, c-Jun, ATK-2 and CK2, and did not abrogate the increased or diminished protein levels of c-Jun/c-Fos or I-?B?, respectively. However, the same treatment with astaxanthin significantly abolished the UVB-stimulated expression of TGase 1 protein, which was accompanied by the attenuated phosphorylation of Thr565/Ser376/Ser360MSK1, Ser276NF?Bp65 and Ser133CREB. The MSK1 inhibitor H89 significantly down-regulated the increased protein expression of TGase 1 in UVB-exposed human keratinocytes, which was accompanied by an abrogating effect on the increased phosphorylation of Ser276NF?Bp65 and Ser133CREB but not Thr565/Ser376/Ser360MSK1. Transfection of human keratinocytes with MSK1 siRNA suppressed the UVB-stimulated protein expression of TGase 1. These findings suggest that the UVB-stimulated expression of TGase 1 is mediated predominantly via the NF?B pathway and can be attenuated through a specific interruption of the p38/MSK1/NF?Bp65Ser276 axis. PMID:26305102

  19. Interrupting the Usual: Successful Strategies for Hiring Diverse Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daryl G.; Turner, Caroline S.; Osei-Kofi, Nana; Richards, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    This study examines whether specific interventions account for the hiring of diverse faculty above and beyond hiring done in academic areas specifically focused on race and ethnicity. Using data from approximately 700 searches, the authors investigated the hypothesis that at institutions with predominantly White populations, hiring of faculty from…

  20. Listening to a Challenging Perspective: The Role of Interruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroutunian-Gordon, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: Taking up an issue explored by John Dewey, Austin Sarat, and Walter Parker, as well as many others, I continue my study of the conditions under which people choose to listen to a perspective that challenges their own beliefs. Research Question: In my book, "Learning to Teach Through Discussion: The Art of Turning the Soul"…

  1. Mycofabricated biosilver nanoparticles interrupt Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Singh, Braj R; Singh, Brahma N; Singh, Akanksha; Khan, Wasi; Naqvi, Alim H; Singh, Harikesh B

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a chemical communication process that Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses to regulate virulence and biofilm formation. Disabling of QS is an emerging approach for combating its pathogenicity. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely applied as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi, but not for the attenuation of bacterial QS. Here we mycofabricated AgNPs (mfAgNPs) using metabolites of soil fungus Rhizopus arrhizus BRS-07 and tested their effect on QS-regulated virulence and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. Transcriptional studies demonstrated that mfAgNPs reduced the levels of LasIR-RhlIR. Treatment of mfAgNPs inhibited biofilm formation, production of several virulence factors (e.g. LasA protease, LasB elastrase, pyocyanin, pyoverdin, pyochelin, rhamnolipid, and alginate) and reduced AHLs production. Further genes quantification analyses revealed that mfAgNPs significantly down-regulated QS-regulated genes, specifically those encoded to the secretion of virulence factors. The results clearly indicated the anti-virulence property of mfAgNPs by inhibiting P. aeruginosa QS signaling. PMID:26347993

  2. Handling User Interruptions in an Embodied Conversational Agent

    E-print Network

    Boye, Johan

    Portobello Street, Sheffield, United Kingdom r.k.moore@dcs.shef.ac.uk Johan Boye School of Computer Science and Communications KTH Royal Institute of Technology 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden johan.boye@speechact.se ABSTRACT We- eration of long utterances from the ECA creates opportuni- ties for the user to barge-in whilst the ECA

  3. Baby Boomers in an Active Adult Retirement Community: Comity Interrupted

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Erin G.; Keimig, Lynn; Rubinstein, Robert L.; Morgan, Leslie; Eckert, J. Kevin; Goldman, Susan; Peeples, Amanda D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This article explores a clash between incoming Baby Boomers and older residents in an active adult retirement community (AARC). We examine issues of social identity and attitudes as these groups encounter each other. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from a multiyear ethnographic study of social relations in senior housing. Research at this site included in-depth, open-ended interviews (47), field notes (25), and participant observation in the field (500 hr). Research team biweekly discussions and Atlas.ti software program facilitated analysis. Findings: We begin with a poignant incident that has continued to engender feelings of rejection by elders with each retelling and suggests the power and prevalence of ageism in this AARC. We identify three pervasive themes: (a) social identity and image matter, (b) significant cultural and attitudinal differences exist between Boomers and older residents, and (c) shared age matters less than shared interests. Implications: Our data clearly show the operation of ageism in this community and an equating of being old with being sick. The conflict between these two age cohorts suggests that cohort consciousness among Boomers carries elements of age denial, shared by the older old. It also challenges the Third Age concept as a generational phenomenon. PMID:22391870

  4. Grief Interrupted: The Experience of Loss Among Incarcerated Women

    PubMed Central

    Harner, Holly M.; Hentz, Patricia M.; Evangelista, Maria Carmela

    2011-01-01

    Incarcerated women face a number of stressors apart from the actual incarceration. Nearly half of all women in prison experience the death of a loved one during their incarceration. Our purpose for this study was to explore the experience of grief and loss among incarcerated women using a phenomenological method. Our study approach followed van Manen's method of phenomenology and Munhall's description of existential lifeworlds. Our analysis revealed four existential lifeworlds: temporality: frozen in time; spatiality: no place, no space to grieve; corporeality: buried emotions; and relationality: never alone, yet feeling so lonely. The findings generated from this study can help mental health providers as well as correctional professionals develop policies and programs that facilitate the grief process of incarcerated women within the confines of imprisonment. PMID:20581074

  5. Integration Interrupted: Tracking, Black Students, and Acting White after "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Karolyn, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    An all-too-popular explanation for why black students aren't doing better in school is their own use of the "acting white" slur to ridicule fellow blacks for taking advanced classes, doing schoolwork, and striving to earn high grades. Carefully reconsidering how and why black students have come to equate school success with whiteness, "Integration…

  6. Interrupting Privilege: White Student Affairs Educators as Racial Justice Allies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Law, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the ally development process and behaviors of ten white student affairs educators at four-year institutions in the Bay Area region of Northern California who were identified as racial justice allies by a colleague of color. The methods of this study included a survey to understand the context of multicultural competency in…

  7. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, Martin; Muniyandi, Manivannan; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Jung; Krause, Frank; Mueller, Stephanie; Srinivasan, Mandayam A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these “explorative stops” (ES) during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: (a) between mean exploration time and duration of ES, (b) between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and (c) the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Methods: Five different Experiments were used. The first two Experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A) and of common objects (B). In Experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For Experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D) and real (E) sunken reliefs. Results: In each Experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For Experiment A: 329.50 ms, Experiment B: 67.47 ms, Experiment C: 189.92 ms, Experiment D: 186.17 ms and Experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. Conclusions: We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory. PMID:24782797

  8. Small Differences Matter: Interrupting Certainty about Identity in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    This article offers a theory of identity that explicates how biological, experiential, and contextual influences contribute to the ongoing development of the human sense of self--what I describe as an ecological understanding of identity. My primary goal in developing this argument is not so much to create certainty about what it means to occupy a…

  9. Expansion, Interruption, Autoethnography: Toward Disorienting Fiction, Part 2

    E-print Network

    Buzard, James

    The thesis of my 2005 book Disorienting Fiction: The Autoethnographic Work of Nineteenth-Century British Novels is gestured at by the three words of this essay's main title: nineteenth-century Britain's imperial expansion ...

  10. 18 CFR 284.9 - Interruptible transportation service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... guaranteeing revenue. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 284.9, see the List of CFR... transportation service. 284.9 Section 284.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978...

  11. 18 CFR 284.9 - Interruptible transportation service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... guaranteeing revenue. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 284.9, see the List of CFR... transportation service. 284.9 Section 284.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978...

  12. 18 CFR 284.9 - Interruptible transportation service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... guaranteeing revenue. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 284.9, see the List of CFR... transportation service. 284.9 Section 284.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978...

  13. 18 CFR 284.9 - Interruptible transportation service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... guaranteeing revenue. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 284.9, see the List of CFR... transportation service. 284.9 Section 284.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978...

  14. 18 CFR 284.9 - Interruptible transportation service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... guaranteeing revenue. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 284.9, see the List of CFR... transportation service. 284.9 Section 284.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978...

  15. Engagement beyond Interruption: A Performative Perspective on Listening and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Chris; Nainby, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an understanding of listening as a performative and pedagogical act. Moving beyond existing theories of listening in communication and education studies that frame listening as a selective and incremental act, this article considers listening in terms of a performance studies and critical education studies perspective. An…

  16. Chasing vs. Stalking: Interrupting the Perception of Animacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Tao; Scholl, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Visual experience involves not only physical features such as color and shape, but also higher-level properties such as animacy and goal-directedness. Perceiving animacy is an inherently dynamic experience, in part because agents' goal-directed behavior may be frequently in flux--unlike many of their physical properties. How does the visual system…

  17. Healthy Adult Ageing: Multitasking Abilities and the Impact of Interruptions 

    E-print Network

    Nevay, Robyn

    2013-07-02

    The ability to multitask plays a significant role within everyday life. This experiment investigated whether multitasking abilities are impaired in healthy adult ageing. Neuropsychological literature has shown that patients with frontal lobe damage...

  18. Rearranging Pigeonholes: Interrupting the Ethnic Hierarchy of a School's Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the cultural and linguistic diversity of the teaching workforce in Australia was a key recommendation of the House of Representatives Standing Committee Inquiry into Teacher Education in their report, "Top of the Class" (written by L. Hartsuyker). The report reflects findings from national and international research that support the…

  19. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds

    E-print Network

    Grunwald, Martin

    Introduction: The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive ...

  20. Generating functionals and Gaussian approximations for interruptible delay reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brett, Tobias; Galla, Tobias

    2015-10-01

    We develop a generating functional description of the dynamics of non-Markovian individual-based systems in which delay reactions can be terminated before completion. This generalizes previous work in which a path-integral approach was applied to dynamics in which delay reactions complete with certainty. We construct a more widely applicable theory, and from it we derive Gaussian approximations of the dynamics, valid in the limit of large, but finite, population sizes. As an application of our theory we study predator-prey models with delay dynamics due to gestation or lag periods to reach the reproductive age. In particular, we focus on the effects of delay on noise-induced cycles.

  1. Mycofabricated biosilver nanoparticles interrupt Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing systems

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Braj R.; Singh, Brahma N.; Singh, Akanksha; Khan, Wasi; Naqvi, Alim H.; Singh, Harikesh B.

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a chemical communication process that Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses to regulate virulence and biofilm formation. Disabling of QS is an emerging approach for combating its pathogenicity. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely applied as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi, but not for the attenuation of bacterial QS. Here we mycofabricated AgNPs (mfAgNPs) using metabolites of soil fungus Rhizopus arrhizus BRS-07 and tested their effect on QS-regulated virulence and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. Transcriptional studies demonstrated that mfAgNPs reduced the levels of LasIR-RhlIR. Treatment of mfAgNPs inhibited biofilm formation, production of several virulence factors (e.g. LasA protease, LasB elastrase, pyocyanin, pyoverdin, pyochelin, rhamnolipid, and alginate) and reduced AHLs production. Further genes quantification analyses revealed that mfAgNPs significantly down-regulated QS-regulated genes, specifically those encoded to the secretion of virulence factors. The results clearly indicated the anti-virulence property of mfAgNPs by inhibiting P. aeruginosa QS signaling. PMID:26347993

  2. A Smart Break? College Tenure Interruption and Graduating Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routon, P. Wesley; Walker, Jay K.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from a longitudinal survey of college students from over 400 institutions, we examine the impacts of occupational internship programs and voluntary academic leave on returning academic achievement, post-college ambitions, and general facets of the college experience. Previous literature on college internships has focused on labor market…

  3. INTERRUPTION IMPOSSIBLE Mattias Heldner, Jens Edlund and Rolf Carlson

    E-print Network

    Carlson, Rolf

    in a group of humans, for example within the CHIL-project1 and elsewhere (e.g. Kirchhoff & Ostendorf, 2003 speakers is minimized. This observation in turn has 1 CHIL "Computers in the Human Interaction Loop" is an Integrated Project under the European Commission's Sixth Framework Program. See also http://chil

  4. Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Interrupted Rectangular Fins

    E-print Network

    Bahrami, Majid

    OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in the School of Engineering Science Faculty of Applied Sciences © Golnoosh with the Copyright Act of Canada, this work may be reproduced, without authorization, under the conditions for "Fair appropriately. #12;ii Approval Name: Golnoosh Mostafavi Degree: Master of Applied Science Title of Thesis

  5. Interrupting Life History: The Evolution of Relationship within Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the author explores how relationships are defined within the context of constructing a life history. The life history of Benjamin, a homeless young man transitioning to adulthood, is used to illustrate how difficult it is to define the parameters of the research environment. During an "ethically important moment" in the research…

  6. Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming

    E-print Network

    Liang, Ben

    the jitter-free probability for an entire video segment. In this work, we present a novel analytical framework, which requires only a Markov Variable Bit Rate (VBR) channel model, to study the frequency to investigate streaming over a wireless system modeled by an extended Gilbert channel with ARQ transmission

  7. Off Peak Power - An Alternative to Interruptible Service 

    E-print Network

    Nordyke, H. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    for purposes of load management. This paper will lOOK at off-peak service from the user's perspective. TYPICAL CANDIDA,E - OLIN'S AUGUSTA PLANT Olin's plant at Augusta, Georgia produces chlorine and caustic soda by an electrolytic process. It is one...

  8. Measuring malaria endemicity from intense to interrupted transmission

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon I; Smith, David L; Snow, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Summary The quantification of malaria transmission for the classification of malaria risk has long been a concern for epidemiologists. During the era of the Global Malaria Eradication Programme, measurements of malaria endemicity were institutionalised by their incorporation into rules outlining defined action points for malaria control programmes. We review the historical development of these indices and their contemporary relevance. This is at a time when many malaria-endemic countries are scaling-up their malaria control activities and reconsidering their prospects for elimination. These considerations are also important to an international community that has recently been challenged to revaluate the prospects for malaria eradication. PMID:18387849

  9. Planes, trains, and other interruptions: such is life!

    PubMed

    Richards, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Nurse leaders can spend a significant part of their careers traveling. Self-care and personal mindfulness need not suffer when we are away from home and our normal routine. Personal health plans can be adapted in practical ways to travel with you. So pack your bags with whatever feeds your self-nurturing needs, grab some kale chips and comfortable shoes, and let's get going! PMID:25137814

  10. The discounting-by-interruptions hypothesis: model and experiment

    E-print Network

    Stephens, David W.

    .g., Bickel and Marsch 2001; Heyman and Dunn 2002), and impulsivity is a key symptom of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (King et al. 2003). Students of nonhuman impulsivity have emphasized ``dis- counting

  11. Interrupted extra-ovular infusion may not be reversible.

    PubMed

    Blickstein, I; Goldchmit, R; Ben-Hur, H

    1992-12-01

    Late abortion ensued 9 days after discontinuation of extra-ovular PGE2 infusion for mid-trimester termination of pregnancy in a 15-year-old unmarried primigravida. This observation, which has no precedent in the literature, may suggest that once extra-ovular PG infusion has been started, its discontinuation may not be considered reversible. PMID:1290336

  12. A personal, mobile system for understanding stress and interruptions

    E-print Network

    Liu, Karen Kay-Lynn, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    A variety of legacy and emerging health applications are designed to monitor sensed information about a person's physiological signals over time. Such applications include systems for tracking heart conditions that have ...

  13. Model Fitting and Prediction with HIV Treatment Interruption Data

    E-print Network

    observations to the full longitudinal data sets. 1 Introduction Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that infects T-helper cells of the immune sys- tem and is the causative agent for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV and AIDS are among the world's most serious public health concerns, affecting

  14. Genomic Data from Extinct North American Camelops Revise Camel Evolutionary History

    E-print Network

    Heintzman, PD; Zazula, GD; Cahill, JA; Reyes, AV; MacPhee, RDE; Shapiro, B

    2015-01-01

    Material online. Radiocarbon Dating To generate radiocarbondating of the camel specimens yielded nonfinite ( 4 50 ka) dates (table 1, but see supplementary information, Supplementary Material online).

  15. Desynchronizing effect of high-frequency stimulation in a generic cortical network model

    E-print Network

    Markus Schütt; Jens Christian Claussen

    2012-03-21

    Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (TCES) and Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) are two different applications of electrical current to the brain used in different areas of medicine. Both have a similar frequency dependence of their efficiency, with the most pronounced effects around 100Hz. We apply superthreshold electrical stimulation, specifically depolarizing DC current, interrupted at different frequencies, to a simple model of a population of cortical neurons which uses phenomenological descriptions of neurons by Izhikevich and synaptic connections on a similar level of sophistication. With this model, we are able to reproduce the optimal desynchronization around 100Hz, as well as to predict the full frequency dependence of the efficiency of desynchronization, and thereby to give a possible explanation for the action mechanism of TCES.

  16. Energy prices: Gasoline price increases in early 1985 interrupted previous trend

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    In 1985, wholesale gasoline prices did not continue the downward trend begun in 1981 despite a continuing decline in crude oil prices. As a result, the spread between these two prices increased in 1985, but only to a level approximating what existed in 1981 and 1982. The Federal Trade Commission investigated two proposed mergers between Texaco, Inc., with Getty Oil Company and Chevron Corporation with Gulf Corporation that had the potential for anticompetitive effects. Using a regression analysis, GAO suggests that increases in concentration at the state level have a positive association with gasoline prices. Because the required divestitures eliminated the increases in concentration exceeding the merger guidelines, GAO believes the two mergers would have had only a small effect on prices.

  17. Interneuron, interrupted: molecular pathogenesis of ARX mutations and X-linked infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Olivetti, Pedro R; Noebels, Jeffrey L

    2012-10-01

    X-linked Infantile Spasms Syndrome (ISSX) is a catastrophic epilepsy of early childhood with intractable seizures, intellectual disability, and poor prognosis. A spectrum of mutations in the Aristaless-Related Homeobox gene (ARX) has been linked to ISSX, and downstream targets of this interneuron-expressed transcription factor are being defined. Recent advances combining in vitro and in vivo methods have unveiled complex interactions between Arx and its binding partners and their effects on cell migration and maturation that can help explain the diversity of ARX phenotypes. New mutant mouse models of Arx-induced pathology, including a recent human triplet-repeat expansion mutation with a phenotype of infantile spasms and electrographic seizures, provide valuable tools for exploring the pathophysiology of Arx and substrates for testing novel therapies. PMID:22565167

  18. Interneuron, Interrupted: Molecular Pathogenesis of ARX Mutations and X-linked Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Olivetti, Pedro R.; Noebels, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    X-linked Infantile Spasms Syndrome (ISSX) is a catastrophic epilepsy of early childhood with intractable seizures, intellectual disability, and poor prognosis. A spectrum of mutations in the Aristaless-Related Homeobox gene (ARX) has been linked to ISSX, and downstream targets of this interneuron-expressed transcription factor are being defined. Recent advances combining in vitro and in vivo methods have unveiled complex interactions between Arx and its binding partners and their effects on cell migration and maturation that can help explain the diversity of ARX phenotypes. New mutant mouse models of Arx-induced pathology, including a recent human triplet-repeat expansion mutation with a phenotype of infantile spasms and electrographic seizures, provide valuable tools for exploring the pathophysiology of Arx and substrates for testing novel therapies. PMID:22565167

  19. Measurement of ground-state decoherence via interruption of coherent population trapping 

    E-print Network

    Patnaik, Anil K.; Hsu, Paul S.; Agarwal, Girish S.; Welch, George R.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2007-01-01

    of high spectral resolution. However, it is limited by a stringent phase matching requirement. In what follows, we show how coherent population trapping ?CPT? ?5? can be used for the determination of the dephasing rates. Further, the method we propose... is tuned to a dark fringe. It has been observed in an earlier study that CPT is also very sensitive to internal parameters of the atom such as spontaneous emission linewidths ?8?. The outline of this paper is as follows: we describe the system...

  20. Randomly curved runs interrupted by tumbling: A model for bacterial motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condat, C. A.; Jäckle, J.; Menchón, S. A.

    2005-08-01

    Small bacteria are strongly buffeted by Brownian forces that make completely straight runs impossible. A model for bacterial motion is formulated in which the effects of fluctuational forces and torques on the run phase are taken into account by using coupled Langevin equations. An integrated description of the motion, including runs and tumbles, is then obtained by the use of convolution and Laplace transforms. The properties of the velocity-velocity correlation function, of the mean displacement, and of the two relevant diffusion coefficients are examined in terms of the bacterial sizes and of the magnitude of the propelling forces. For bacteria smaller than E. coli, the integrated diffusion coefficient crosses over from a jump-dominated to a rotational-diffusion-dominated form.

  1. Service Interruption Notices Between 11/13/15 and 12/19/15

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    : 545-6453 WO#: 12-00051001 Shop/Crew: Air Conditioning Autoclaves Cold Water Cold Storage Compressed Cold Storage Compressed Air Computers Condenser Pumps Distilled Water Electric Lights Electric Power Conditioning Autoclaves Cold Water Cold Storage Compressed Air Computers Condenser Pumps Distilled Water

  2. Service Interruption Notices Between 6/10/15 and 7/11/15

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    /Crew: Air Conditioning Autoclaves Cold Water Cold Storage Compressed Air Computers Condenser Pumps Distilled: 577-0909 WO#: 13-00146201 Shop/Crew: Air Conditioning Autoclaves Cold Water Cold Storage Compressed-001495-01 Shop/Crew: Air Conditioning Autoclaves Cold Water Cold Storage Compressed Air Computers Condenser Pumps

  3. Decolonizing Constructions of Childhood and History: Interrupting Narratives of Avoidance to Children's Questions about Social Injustice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diversi, Marcelo; Moreira, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Together, we the authors, wonder, write, imagine, suffer, and criticize the support of the Belo Monte Monster Dam in the Rio Xingu, in the heart of the Amazon, by two of our personal heroes and fellow Brazilians: Lula, former president and iconic founder of the Workers' Party, and, Dilma Rousseff, our presidenta guerilheira. Using our…

  4. A Study of Memory for Completed and Interrupted Tasks Under Varying Degrees of Motivation

    E-print Network

    Varvel, Walter A.

    1933-01-01

    -saw pussies* (a) circus scene with 14 pieces* (b) old man of (Hester with 24 pieces* 2) Modelling an animal from clay* No suggestion was so* given ft* to tho particular animal to bo modelled. 3) Sorting colore* heads into a number of compartments* 4...

  5. Interrupting Commemoration: Thinking with Art, Thinking through the Strictures of Argentina's "Espacio para la memoria"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolantonio, Mario Di

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a few buildings within the "Espacio para la memoria" in Buenos Aires have been designated as a UNESCO Centre where, amongst other educational activities, evidentiary materials of the past repression are to be stored and displayed. Another building in the complex houses a Community Centre operated by the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo,…

  6. Understanding and Interrupting Hegemonic Projects in Education: Learning from Stuart Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Stuart Hall had a significant impact on critical analyses of rightist mobilizations in education. This is very visible in my own work, for example, in such volumes as "Official Knowledge" (2014) and "Educating the 'Right' Way" (2006). After describing an important series of lectures that Stuart Hall gave at the Havens Center…

  7. 78 FR 65904 - Permanent Discontinuance or Interruption in Manufacturing of Certain Drug or Biological Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ...), modifying the regulation at Sec. 314.81 related to drug shortages (76 FR 78530). As a result of the...: Mail/Hand delivery/Courier (for paper or CD-ROM submissions): Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305... labor resources, is estimated to cost FDA between $2.44 and $7.84 million, and industry between...

  8. Cautionary Tales on Interrupting Children's Play: A Study from Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weldemariam, Kassahun Tigistu

    2014-01-01

    Play is a natural and significant aspect of children's learning and development. Adults can be important to children's play, as they act as "play agents." Their involvement significantly influences the quality of the play activities in which children engage. The author briefly reviews the theoretical assumptions about…

  9. Jordanian National Football "Muslimat" Players: Interrupting Islamophobia in FIFA's "Hijab" Ban

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamzeh, Manal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Though "muslim" females exclusion from physical activities and sports has concerned scholars for years, they are still being theorized out of context and out of history and not as agents in their own lives. Within the prevailing context of the "War on Terror," "muslim" females are becoming more racialized…

  10. Rationale for short course primaquine in Africa to interrupt malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Following the recent successes of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa, the gametocytocidal drug primaquine needs evaluation as a tool to further reduce the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The drug has scarcely been used in Africa because of concerns about its safety in people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. The evidence base for the use of primaquine as a transmission blocker is limited by a lack of comparable clinical and parasitological endpoints between trials. In March 2012, a group of experts met in London to discuss the existing evidence on the ability of primaquine to block malaria transmission, to define the roadblocks to the use of primaquine in Africa and to develop a roadmap to enable its rapid, safe and effective deployment. The output of this meeting is a strategic plan to optimize trial design to reach desired goals efficiently. The roadmap includes suggestions for a series of phase 1, 2, 3 and 4 studies to address specific hurdles to primaquine’s deployment. These include ex-vivo studies on efficacy, primaquine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and dose escalation studies for safety in high-risk groups. Phase 3 community trials are proposed, along with Phase 4 studies to evaluate safety, particularly in pregnancy, through pharmacovigilance in areas where primaquine is already deployed. In parallel, efforts need to be made to address issues in drug supply and regulation, to map G6PD deficiency and to support the evaluation of alternative gametocytocidal compounds. PMID:23130957

  11. High Antibody Responses against Plasmodium falciparum in Immigrants after Extended Periods of Interrupted Exposure to Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Alfons; Nhabomba, Augusto; Casas-Vila, Núria; Puyol, Laura; Campo, Joseph J.; Manaca, Maria Nelia; Aguilar, Ruth; Pinazo, María-Jesús; Almirall, Mercè; Soler, Cristina; Muñoz, José; Bardají, Azucena; Angov, Evelina; Dutta, Sheetij; Chitnis, Chetan E.; Alonso, Pedro L.; Gascón, Joaquim; Dobaño, Carlota

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria immunity is commonly believed to wane in the absence of Plasmodium falciparum exposure, based on limited epidemiological data and short-lived antibody responses in some longitudinal studies in endemic areas. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among sub-Saharan African adults residing in Spain for 1 up to 38 years (immigrants) with clinical malaria (n=55) or without malaria (n=37), naïve adults (travelers) with a first clinical malaria episode (n=20) and life-long malaria exposed adults from Mozambique (semi-immune adults) without malaria (n=27) or with clinical malaria (n=50). Blood samples were collected and IgG levels against the erythrocytic antigens AMA-1 and MSP-142 (3D7 and FVO strains), EBA-175 and DBL-? were determined by Luminex. IgG levels against antigens on the surface of infected erythrocytes (IEs) were measured by flow cytometry. Results Immigrants without malaria had lower IgG levels than healthy semi-immune adults regardless of the antigen tested (P?0.026), but no correlation was found between IgG levels and time since migration. Upon reinfection, immigrants with malaria had higher levels of IgG against all antigens than immigrants without malaria. However, the magnitude of the response compared to semi-immune adults with malaria depended on the antigen tested. Thus, immigrants had higher IgG levels against AMA-1 and MSP-142 (P?0.015), similar levels against EBA-175 and DBL-?, and lower levels against IEs (P?0.016). Immigrants had higher IgG levels against all antigens tested compared to travelers (P?0.001), both with malaria. Conclusions Upon cessation of malaria exposure, IgG responses to malaria-specific antigens were maintained to a large extent, although the conservation and the magnitude of the recall response depended on the nature of the antigen. Studies on immigrant populations can shed light on the factors that determine the duration of malaria specific antibody responses and its effect on protection, with important implications for future vaccine design and public health control measures. PMID:23967347

  12. 41 CFR 302-6.106 - May I interrupt occupancy of temporary quarters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES PERMANENT...reimbursement in the following instances: (a) For the time allowed for en route travel between the old and new official stations;...

  13. 41 CFR 302-6.106 - May I interrupt occupancy of temporary quarters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES PERMANENT...reimbursement in the following instances: (a) For the time allowed for en route travel between the old and new official stations;...

  14. 41 CFR 302-6.106 - May I interrupt occupancy of temporary quarters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES PERMANENT...reimbursement in the following instances: (a) For the time allowed for en route travel between the old and new official stations;...

  15. 41 CFR 302-6.106 - May I interrupt occupancy of temporary quarters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES PERMANENT...reimbursement in the following instances: (a) For the time allowed for en route travel between the old and new official stations;...

  16. Malignant Drosophila tumors interrupt insulin signaling to induce cachexia-like wasting.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Clarevega, Alejandra; Bilder, David

    2015-04-01

    Tumors kill patients not only through well-characterized perturbations to their local environment but also through poorly understood pathophysiological interactions with distant tissues. Here, we use a Drosophila tumor model to investigate the elusive mechanisms underlying such long-range interactions. Transplantation of tumors into adults induces robust wasting of adipose, muscle, and gonadal tissues that are distant from the tumor, phenotypes that resemble the cancer cachexia seen in human patients. Notably, malignant, but not benign, tumors induce peripheral wasting. We identify the insulin growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) homolog ImpL2, an antagonist of insulin signaling, as a secreted factor mediating wasting. ImpL2 is sufficient to drive tissue loss, and insulin activity is reduced in peripheral tissues of tumor-bearing hosts. Importantly, knocking down ImpL2, specifically in the tumor, ameliorates wasting phenotypes. We propose that the tumor-secreted IGFBP creates insulin resistance in distant tissues, thus driving a systemic wasting response. PMID:25850672

  17. Instructional Television: Higher Education Without Commercial Interruption. AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Currents, May 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Carol Herrnstadt

    The history of instructional television, the development of the telecourse concept, current uses of instructional television, economic factors, and cooperative arrangements are considered. After the initial approach of presenting a professor lecturing as if before a class, producers of instructional television began to dramatize the subject, adopt…

  18. Interrupting "Truths," Engaging Perspectives, and Enlarging the Concept of "Human" in Classroom Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Kathleen

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes the author's doctoral dissertation research--a longitudinal, multi-case study of drama practices at the tenth-grade level in a Catholic secondary school for girls. Examines the ways drama education engages girls' experiences and personal/cultural knowledge and expands the perspectives and discourses available to them. Offers strong…

  19. Retrotransposable elements R1 and R2 interrupt the rRNA genes of most insects.

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczak, J L; Burke, W D; Eickbush, T H

    1991-01-01

    A large number of insect species have been screened for the presence of the retrotransposable elements R1 and R2. These elements integrate independently at specific sites in the 28S rRNA genes. Genomic blots indicated that 43 of 47 insect species from nine orders contained insertions, ranging in frequency from a few percent to greater than 50% of the 28S genes. Sequence analysis of these insertions from 8 species revealed 22 elements, 21 of which corresponded to R1 or R2 elements. Surprisingly, many species appeared to contain highly divergent copies of R1 and R2 elements. For example, a parasitic wasp contained at least four families of R1 elements; the Japanese beetle contained at least five families of R2 elements. The presence of these retrotransposable elements throughout Insecta and the observation that single species can harbor divergent families within its rRNA-encoding DNA loci present interesting questions concerning the age of these elements and the possibility of cross-species transfer. Images PMID:1849649

  20. Migrated Avalon Veno-Venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Cannula: How to Adjust Without Interruption of Flow.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Daizo; Pitcher, Harrison T; Cavarocchi, Nicholas; Hirose, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    The Avalon dual lumen cannula is presently the cannula of choice for veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) via right internal jugular cannulation. This cannula establishes VV-ECMO with a single cannulation; however, it requires appropriate positioning to gain adequate oxygenation. Malposition of this cannula can cause inadequate ECMO flow, hypoxia, and structural injury. We have experienced two cases of migration: one into the hepatic vein and the other into the right ventricle. The former was repositioned using echocardiographic guidance without using a guidewire. The latter was repositioned using a guidewire from the femoral vein under fluoroscopy, without antegrade wire placement into the Avalon cannula, discontinuation of ECMO, or bleeding. PMID:26358888

  1. Interferon alpha (IFN?)-induced TRIM22 interrupts HCV replication by ubiquitinating NS5A.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Zhao, Xinhao; Sun, Dakang; Yang, Leilei; Chong, Chang; Pan, Yu; Chi, Xiumei; Gao, Yanhang; Wang, Moli; Shi, Xiaodong; Sun, Haibo; Lv, Juan; Gao, Yuanda; Zhong, Jin; Niu, Junqi; Sun, Bing

    2016-01-01

    TRIM22, a tripartite-motif (TRIM) protein, is upregulated upon interferon alpha (IFN?) administration to hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. However, the physiological role of TRIM22 upregulation remains unclear. Here, we describe a potential antiviral function of TRIM22's targeting of the HCV NS5A protein. NS5A is important for HCV replication and for resistance to IFN? therapy. During the first 24 h following the initiation of IFN? treatment, upregulation of TRIM22 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HCV patients correlated with a decrease in viral titer. This phenomenon was confirmed in the hepatocyte-derived cell line Huh-7, which is highly permissive for HCV infection. TRIM22 over-expression inhibited HCV replication, and Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of TRIM22 diminished IFN?-induced anti-HCV function. Furthermore, we determined that TRIM22 ubiquitinates NS5A in a concentration-dependent manner. In summary, our results suggest that TRIM22 upregulation is associated with HCV decline during IFN? treatment and plays an important role in controlling HCV replication in vitro. PMID:25683609

  2. Rationale for short course primaquine in Africa to interrupt malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Eziefula, Alice C; Gosling, Roly; Hwang, Jimee; Hsiang, Michelle S; Bousema, Teun; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Drakeley, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Following the recent successes of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa, the gametocytocidal drug primaquine needs evaluation as a tool to further reduce the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The drug has scarcely been used in Africa because of concerns about its safety in people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. The evidence base for the use of primaquine as a transmission blocker is limited by a lack of comparable clinical and parasitological endpoints between trials. In March 2012, a group of experts met in London to discuss the existing evidence on the ability of primaquine to block malaria transmission, to define the roadblocks to the use of primaquine in Africa and to develop a roadmap to enable its rapid, safe and effective deployment. The output of this meeting is a strategic plan to optimize trial design to reach desired goals efficiently. The roadmap includes suggestions for a series of phase 1, 2, 3 and 4 studies to address specific hurdles to primaquine's deployment. These include ex-vivo studies on efficacy, primaquine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and dose escalation studies for safety in high-risk groups. Phase 3 community trials are proposed, along with Phase 4 studies to evaluate safety, particularly in pregnancy, through pharmacovigilance in areas where primaquine is already deployed. In parallel, efforts need to be made to address issues in drug supply and regulation, to map G6PD deficiency and to support the evaluation of alternative gametocytocidal compounds. PMID:23130957

  3. 78 FR 65904 - Permanent Discontinuance or Interruption in Manufacturing of Certain Drug or Biological Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ...), modifying the regulation at Sec. 314.81 related to drug shortages (76 FR 78530). As a result of the... implementing the pre-FDASIA section 506C (72 FR 58993 at 58994 (October 18, 2007)), and in medical device... pre-FDASIA section 506C (65 FR 66665 at 66666 (November 7, 2000)). When defining these terms, we...

  4. 40 CFR 53.54 - Test for proper sampler operation following power interruptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... minutes. (4) Flow measurement adaptor (40 CFR part 50, appendix L, figure L-30) or equivalent adaptor to... the flow path near the filter. (6) Teflon sample filter, as specified in section 6 of 40 CFR part 50..., ambient pressure, and flow measurement systems shall all be calibrated per the sampler's operating...

  5. 40 CFR 53.54 - Test for proper sampler operation following power interruptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... minutes. (4) Flow measurement adaptor (40 CFR part 50, appendix L, figure L-30) or equivalent adaptor to... the flow path near the filter. (6) Teflon sample filter, as specified in section 6 of 40 CFR part 50..., ambient pressure, and flow measurement systems shall all be calibrated per the sampler's operating...

  6. 40 CFR 53.54 - Test for proper sampler operation following power interruptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... minutes. (4) Flow measurement adaptor (40 CFR part 50, appendix L, figure L-30) or equivalent adaptor to... the flow path near the filter. (6) Teflon sample filter, as specified in section 6 of 40 CFR part 50..., ambient pressure, and flow measurement systems shall all be calibrated per the sampler's operating...

  7. 40 CFR 53.54 - Test for proper sampler operation following power interruptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... minutes. (4) Flow measurement adaptor (40 CFR part 50, appendix L, figure L-30) or equivalent adaptor to... the flow path near the filter. (6) Teflon sample filter, as specified in section 6 of 40 CFR part 50..., ambient pressure, and flow measurement systems shall all be calibrated per the sampler's operating...

  8. 40 CFR 53.54 - Test for proper sampler operation following power interruptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... minutes. (4) Flow measurement adaptor (40 CFR part 50, appendix L, figure L-30) or equivalent adaptor to... the flow path near the filter. (6) Teflon sample filter, as specified in section 6 of 40 CFR part 50..., ambient pressure, and flow measurement systems shall all be calibrated per the sampler's operating...

  9. The Interruption of Alpine Foehn by a Cold Front. Part I: Observations

    E-print Network

    Gohm, Alexander

    ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ??? #12;5 of 13 Methodology Cold front in complex terrain Case study of MAP event 06 Nov 1999: AWS network Inn Valley: AWS network Pot. Temp. and Wind ­ Hovmoeller diagram west east west east foehn foehn study Wipp Valley: AWS network Pot. Temp. and Wind ­ Hovmoeller diagram Strong and warm foehn

  10. Classroom Currents: Interrupting the Single Story: LGBT Issues in the Language Arts Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann-Wilmarth, Jill; Ryan, Caitlin L.

    2013-01-01

    Two literacy leaders acknowledge the challenges of teaching LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) issues in the classroom. While children come from a variety of family structures, it is necessary to acknowledge that a gay individual was once a child sitting in a classroom. An argument against marginalization and an advocacy for inclusion of…

  11. Interrupted Energy Transfer: Highly Selective Detection of Cyclic Ketones in the Vapor Phase

    E-print Network

    Swager, Timothy Manning

    We detail our efforts toward the selective detection of cyclic ketones, e.g. cyclohexanone, a component of plasticized explosives. Thin films comprised of a conjugated polymer are used to amplify the emission of an emissive ...

  12. The Effects of Time Constraints on User Behavior for Deferrable Interruptions

    E-print Network

    Salvucci, Dario D.

    Science Drexel University salvucci@cs.drexel.edu ABSTRACT Previous studies of multitasking have that while cognitive load did influence multitasking as expected, the time con- straints placed on the user strategies strongly suggests that users can adapt their multitasking behavior with respect to the time

  13. Interrupting the Frame: Reflective Practice in the Classroom and the Consulting Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I consider some of the affinities between the teacher-student dynamic in academic supervision, and the therapist-patient dynamic in the therapeutic relation. Drawing on my own experiences, I identify several difficulties that pertain to these two settings. First, in the context of the classroom, I consider how the requirement to…

  14. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer without interruption of warfarin and aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Tounou, Shigetaka; Morita, Yasushi; Hosono, Tomohiro; Harada, Hideaki; Hayasaka, Kenji; Katsuyama, Yasushi; Suehiro, Satoshi; Nagano, Seishi; Shimizu, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Many guidelines for the management of antithrombotic therapy in endoscopic procedures state that warfarin should be replaced by heparin in high risk endoscopic procedures. However, heparin bridging therapy is costly, requires a long hospital stay, and is indicated as a risk factor for bleeding after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). It is not yet clear whether it is better to perform gastric ESD on continuous warfarin therapy or heparin bridging therapy. We report the case of a 65-year-old Japanese man who had been diagnosed with early gastric cancer. He had a past medical history of metallic valve replacement for mitral valve regurgitation, coronary artery disease with bare metal stent, and coronary artery bypass graft. Warfarin and low dose aspirin had been used to prevent thromboembolic events in the metallic mitral valve and coronary artery stent. We performed gastric ESD safely on continuous warfarin and low dose aspirin without any complications. PMID:26357675

  15. Impact of Aspirin and Clopidogrel Interruption on Platelet Function in Patients Undergoing Major Vascular Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Le Manach, Yannick; Kahn, David; Bachelot-Loza, Christilla; Le Sache, Frederic; Smadja, David M.; Remones, Veronique; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Coriat, Pierre; Gaussem, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Aims To investigate functional platelet recovery after preoperative withdrawal of aspirin and clopidogrel and platelet function 5 days after treatment resumption. Methods/Results We conducted an observational study, which prospectively included consecutive patients taking aspirin, taking clopidogrel, and untreated controls (15 patients in each group). The antiplatelet drugs were withdrawn five days before surgery (baseline) and were reintroduced two days after surgery. Platelet function was evaluated by optical aggregation in the presence of collagen, arachidonic acid (aspirin) and ADP (clopidogrel) and by VASP assay (clopidogrel). Platelet-leukocyte complex (PLC) level was quantified at each time-point. At baseline, platelet function was efficiently inhibited by aspirin and had recovered fully in most patients 5 days after drug withdrawal. PLC levels five days after aspirin reintroduction were similar to baseline (+4±10%; p?=?0.16), in line with an effective platelet inhibition. Chronic clopidogrel treatment was associated with variable platelet inhibition and its withdrawal led to variable functional recovery. PLC levels were significantly increased five days after clopidogrel reintroduction (+10±15%; p?=?0.02), compared to baseline. Conclusions Aspirin withdrawal 5 days before high-bleeding-risk procedures was associated with functional platelet recovery, and its reintroduction two days after surgery restored antiplaletet efficacy five days later. This was not the case of clopidogrel, and further work is therefore needed to define its optimal perioperative management. PMID:25141121

  16. Maleic Acid – but Not Structurally Related Methylmalonic Acid – Interrupts Energy Metabolism by Impaired Calcium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bei-Tzu; Okun, Jürgen Günther; Kölker, Stefan; Morath, Marina Alexandra; Sauer, Sven Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Maleic acid (MA) has been shown to induce Fanconi syndrome via disturbance of renal energy homeostasis, though the underlying pathomechanism is still under debate. Our study aimed to examine the pathomechanism underlying maleic acid-induced nephrotoxicity. Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is structurally similar to MA and accumulates in patients affected with methymalonic aciduria, a defect in the degradation of branched-chain amino acids, odd-chain fatty acids and cholesterol, which is associated with the development of tubulointerstitial nephritis resulting in chronic renal failure. We therefore used MMA application as a control experiment in our study and stressed hPTECs with MA and MMA to further validate the specificity of our findings. MMA did not show any toxic effects on proximal tubule cells, whereas maleic acid induced concentration-dependent and time-dependent cell death shown by increased lactate dehydrogenase release as well as ethidium homodimer and calcein acetoxymethyl ester staining. The toxic effect of MA was blocked by administration of single amino acids, in particular L-alanine and L-glutamate. MA application further resulted in severe impairment of cellular energy homeostasis on the level of glycolysis, respiratory chain, and citric acid cycle resulting in ATP depletion. As underlying mechanism we could identify disturbance of calcium homeostasis. MA toxicity was critically dependent on calcium levels in culture medium and blocked by the extra- and intracellular calcium chelators EGTA and BAPTA-AM respectively. Moreover, MA-induced cell death was associated with activation of calcium-dependent calpain proteases. In summary, our study shows a comprehensive pathomechanistic concept for MA-induced dysfunction and damage of human proximal tubule cells. PMID:26086473

  17. Discontinuous transcription in Leptomonas seymouri: presence of intact and interrupted mini-exon gene families.

    PubMed Central

    Bellofatto, V; Cooper, R; Cross, G A

    1988-01-01

    Mature mRNAs of trypanosomatid protozoa result from the joining of at least two exons, which are initially transcribed as separate RNAs. In all trypanosomatids examined to date, the first exon (mini-exon) is encoded by approximately 200 tandemly reiterated genes. In characterizing the mini-exon genes of Leptomonas seymouri, we identified two predominant size classes of repetitive sequences that hybridized strongly to the L. seymouri mini-exon sequence. These two sequences are arranged as interspersed clusters. DNA sequence analysis of a clone representing the smaller size class demonstrated that these sequences have the capacity to encode a mini-exon donor (med)RNA corresponding to the 86 nt component seen in Northern blots of L. seymouri RNA. The larger size class comprises a family of related sequences, some of which contain DNA inserted into the mini-exon portion of the medRNA gene. The specific insert identified here (LINS 1) is exclusively associated with medRNA sequences, and is present in approximately 20% of the larger size class of L. seymouri medRNA genes. Disregarding the insertion, the sequences of the smaller bona fide mini-exon genes and the gene copy containing the insert were almost identical. The insert sequence is transcribed in the same direction as medRNA to yield at least four small non-polyadenylated RNAs, which appeared not to be linked to medRNA sequences. Images PMID:3137527

  18. Did the Karakoram fault interrupt mid-crustal channel flow in the western Himalaya?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leech, M. L.

    2007-12-01

    There is a marked change in the volume and age of granitoids from west to east across the Himalaya; that change occurs at the southeastern termination of the Karakoram fault where it merges with the Indus-Yarlung suture zone, near the Gurla Mandhata gneiss dome. These granitoids are derived from a ductile mid-crustal channel formed when anatectic melts from the mid-crust beneath the Tibetan plateau were driven south by erosion at the Himalayan topographic front. The "channel flow" model predicts upwellings of these granites within the Tethyan Himalaya Sequence as part of a chain of gneiss domes and exposure of the channel at its southern termination in the Greater Himalaya Sequence (GHS) as evidenced by widespread migmatites and leucogranite bodies at the top of the GHS in the footwall of the South Tibetan Detachment. Leo Pargil is the westernmost gneiss dome in a chain of domes formed within the Tethyan Himalaya Sequence that extends eastward 1600 km through the North Himalayan gneiss domes (that includes the better known Kangmar dome). New U-Pb SHRIMP dating of zircons show leucogranite bodies from the Leo Pargil gneiss dome are Early Miocene (22-20 Ma) corresponding to some of the older granites dated from across the Himalaya. Transects through the GHS along the Beas and Sutlej River valleys in the western Himalaya near Leo Pargil reveal rare to minimal amounts of migmatites and leucogranite, whereas there are abundant migmatites and large leucogranite bodies in a transect along the Friendship Highway from Lhasa to Kathmandu in the area of the North Himalayan gneiss domes. The timing of the initiation of slip on the Karakoram fault is dated from syn- kinematic rocks in the shear zone at Tangste/Pangong Tso at c. 25-21 Ma. If the Karakoram fault acted as a barrier the flow of granitoid melts in a mid-crustal channel, one would expect more abundant and younger granites east of the Karakoram fault as the channel continued to flow south after c. 20 Ma; the youngest granites reported from the eastern Himalaya are 7 Ma from the Renbu dome and there are also abundant leucogranite bodies from 20-12 Ma. This model also predicts that granitoids would leak up the Karakoram fault and this is demonstrated by 20-16 Ma leucogranites along the Karakoram fault in the Tangste/Pangong Tso area. If the Karakoram fault is indeed a barrier to ductile flow and melt migration, then future tectonic models for the Himalaya should recognize the differences between the western and eastern segments of the orogen, rather than emphasizing along-strike uniformity.

  19. Sex Education in Modern and Contemporary China: Interrupted Debates across the Last Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aresu, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    Since the late 1980s sex education has been widely promoted in the PRC, but this is not the first time in China's modern history that attempts to develop sex education have been made. The present essay traces the development of sex education debates over the last century, identifying the historical, political and social contexts in which they…

  20. 41 CFR 302-6.106 - May I interrupt occupancy of temporary quarters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES PERMANENT...reimbursement in the following instances: (a) For the time allowed for en route travel between the old and new official stations;...