Sample records for 50ka dc-current interruption

  1. Current Zero Missing Phenomena caused by D.C. Current which Flows from Shunt Reactor at the Ground Fault and its Interruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Takayuki; Eto, Atsushi; Koshizuka, Tadashi; Nishiwaki, Susumu; Kudo, Kietsu; Matsushita, Kozo; Hosokawa, Osamu

    At substations where shunt reactors are installed, when a ground fault occurs near the reactor, d.c. current flows from the reactor to the fault point. There are cases where circuit breakers installed near the reactor interrupt only the d.c. current from the reactor with long arcing times. In those cases, attention should be paid to the damage of the contacts. This paper shows the investigation of the d.c. current interrupting performance for the 550kV one-break SF6 gas circuit breaker. In the range of some hundreds amperes, the d.c. arc voltages with long arcing times of the 550kV one-break circuit breaker were measured. The d.c. current waveform and arcing time at the d.c. current interruption by 550kV one-break circuit breaker in the 500kV cable system were calculated. Interrupting test circuit for the d.c. current interruption was constructed in the high power laboratory. From the interrupting test results, it was made clear that the circuit breaker had a good interrupting performance after the d.c. current interruptions.

  2. Precise DC current sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ripka; P. Kejik; P. Kaspar; K. Draxler

    1996-01-01

    Three novel DC current sensors are described. Portable 40 A DC current clamps have resolution of 1 mA and high immunity to unclamped currents and external fields. AC\\/DC comparator with amorphous core may serve for precise measurement of DC currents with AC component up to 1 kHz. Magnetoresistive sensor field has limited accuracy but potential bandwidth from DC to 1

  3. A ?50 ka record of monsoonal variability in the Darjeeling foothill region, eastern Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Ruby; Bera, Subir; Sarkar, Anindya; Paruya, Dipak Kumar; Yao, Yi-Feng; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2015-04-01

    Pollen, phytoliths and ? 13C signatures of soil organic matter from two fluvial sedimentary sequences of the Darjeeling foothill region, eastern Himalayas are used to portray palaeoclimatic oscillations and their impact on regional plant communities over the last ?50 ka. Quantitative palaeoclimate estimation using coexistence approach on pollen data and other proxies indicate significant oscillations in precipitation during the late part of MIS 3 (46.4-25.9 ka), early and middle part of MIS 2 (25.9-15.6 ka), and 5.4 to 3.5 ka. Middle to late MIS 3 (ca 46.4-31 ka.) was characterized by a comparatively low monsoonal activity and slightly higher temperature than that during ca 31 ka onwards. Simultaneous expansion of deciduous trees and chloridoid grasses also imply a drier and warmer phase. Between 31 and 22.3 ka (late MIS 3 to mid-MIS 2), higher precipitation and a slightly cooler temperature led to an increase in evergreen elements over deciduous taxa and wet-loving panicoid grasses over dry-loving chloridoid grasses than earlier. After ca 22.3 ka, shrinking of forest cover, expansion of C4 chloridoid grasses, Asteraceae and Cheno-ams in the vegetation with lowering of temperature and precipitation characterized the onset of the LGM which continued till 18.3 ka. End of the LGM is manifested by a restoration in the forest cover and in the temperature and precipitation regime. Later, during 5.4 to 4.3 ka, a strong monsoonal activity supported a dense moist evergreen forest cover that subsequently declined during 4.3 to 3.5 ka. A further increase in deciduous elements and non-arboreals might be a consequence of reduced precipitation and higher temperature during this phase. A comparison between monsoonal rainfall, MAT and palaeoatmospheric CO2 with floral dynamics since last ?50 ka indicates that these fluctuations in plant succession were mainly driven by monsoonal variations.

  4. 14C ages and activity for the past 50 ka at Volca??n Galeras, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, N.G.; Calvache, V.M.L.; Williams, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    Volca??n Galeras is the southernmost Colombian volcano with well-recorded historic activity. The volcano is part of a large and complex volcanic center upon which 400,000 people live. Historic activity has centered on a small-volume cone inside the youngest of several large amphitheaters that breach the west flank of the volcano, away from the city of Pasto (population 300,000). Lava flows (SiO2 between 54.6 and 64.7 wt.%) have dominated activity for more than 1 Ma, but explosive events have also occurred. Joint studies by volcanologists from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and the United States produced 24 new 14C ages and more than 100 stratigraphic sections to interpret the past 50 ka of activity at Galeras, including sector collapse events. The youngest collapse event truncated 12.8 ka lava flows and may have occurred as recently as 8 to 10 ka. Tephra-fall material rapidly thins and becomes finer away from the vent area. The only widespread marker in the < 10 ka section is a biotite-bearing tephra deposited between 4.1 and 4.5 ka from a source south of Galeras. It separates cryoturbated from largely undisturbed layers on Galeras, and thus dates a stratigraphic horizon which is useful in the interpretation of other volcanoes and geotectonics in the equatorial Andes. Pyroclastic flows during the past 50 ka have been small to moderate in volume, but they have left numerous thin deposits on the north and east flanks where lava flows have been impeded by crater and amphitheater walls. Many of the pyroclastic-flow deposits are lithic rich, with fines and clasts so strongly altered by hydrothermal action before eruption that they, as well as the sector collapse deposits, resemble waste dumps of leached cappings from disseminated sulfide deposits more than volcanogenic deposits. This evidence of a long-lived hydrothermal system indicates susceptibility to mass failure and explosive events higher than expected for a volcano built largely by lava flows and modest Vulcanian eruptions. Photographs, written accounts, and our study document historic north and east flank pyroclastic flows as far as 10 km from the summit; however, none have left recognizable deposits in Pasto for more than 40 ka.

  5. Schooling, Interrupted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCapua, Andrea; Smathers, Will; Tang, Lixing Frank

    2007-01-01

    As the ranks of English language learners swell in the United States, the number of students with interrupted formal education (SIFE) is on the rise. In 2004-05, New York City schools estimated that 10 percent of their English language learners were students with interrupted schooling. According to the New York State Department of Education,…

  6. DC current induced second order optical nonlinearity in graphene.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J L; Vermeulen, N; Sipe, J E

    2014-06-30

    We calculate the dc current induced second harmonic generation in doped graphene using the semiconductor Bloch equations under relaxation time approximations. We find that the maximum value of the effective second order susceptibility appears when the fundamental photon energy matches the chemical potential. For a surface current density 1.1 × 10(3) A/m and a relaxation time at optical frequencies of 13 fs, the effective second order susceptibility ?eff(2);xxx can be as large as 10(-7)m/V for h?? = 0.2 eV or 10(-8) m/V for h?? = 0.53 eV. PMID:24977842

  7. Ghost Interruption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lien Fan Shen; Satu Hummasti; H. James de St. Germain

    2008-01-01

    Ghost Interruption combines animation, contemporary dance choreography, and computer engineering to create an installation-type performance in which real-time interaction among animation, dancers, and viewers becomes a central part of the progression of the piece.

  8. Interrupted Reading

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cathy Edwins

    2012-09-01

    Interrupted reading is a close reading technique that consists of dividing a passage of text into short chunks and pausing the reading after each section in order for the student to consider possible responses. This type of reading helps students connect with the text by requiring that they summarize, look for devices, make predictions, etc., as they are reading. This technique helps students to build confidence as they are forced to slow down and notice detail, and it is a tool to help build analysis and commentary skills. Passages from Annie Dillard, The Things They Carried and Cold Mountain are utilized in this lesson.

  9. DC Current-Induced Rollover of Illumination Efficiency of GaN-Based Power LEDs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Liao

    2007-01-01

    Pulse drive currents were utilized to investigate dc current-induced rollover of illumination efficiency of GaN-based power light-emitting diodes (LEDs). By using the pulse drive currents, we can separate the effects that junction temperature and current injection have on dc current-induced rollover of illumination efficiency of GaN-based power LEDs. Comparing the measurement results obtained from pulse and dc drive currents, we

  10. Linking the10Be continental record of Lake Baikal to marine and ice archives of the last 50 ka: Implication for the global dust-aerosol input

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.; Peck, J.; King, J.; Colman, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present here a 10Be profile from the continental sediments of Lake Baikal (the world's largest fresh water lake), which, for the first time, shows the ??? 40 ka 10Be enhancement and a pattern that strongly matches those from the marine and ice records for the last 50 ka. This finding provides a new horizon for global and regional correlation of continental archives. Additionally, our VADM-predicted 10Be production confirms and further strengthens a common global cause (geomagnetic field intensity) for the change in atmospheric 10Be over the last 50 ka. We also show that most of the 10Be inventory to the lake has been provided by riverine input, but with a significant addition from direct precipitation and dust-aerosol fallout. We estimate a higher dust-aerosol contribution of 10Be during the Holocene and interstadial stage 3 (22-50 ka) as compared with the glacial period (12-22 ka). Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Five Earthquakes In The Last 50 Ka In The Northwestern Yakima Fold And Thrust Belt, Central Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Blakely, R. J.; Barnett, E. A.; Foit, F. F.; Weaver, C. S.

    2011-12-01

    Stratigraphic and structural relationships revealed in paleoseismic trenches suggest at least five earthquakes occurred in the last 50 ka along two prominent anticlines of the Yakima fold and thrust belt (YFTB). The YFTB is a series of northwest- and west-trending anticlinal ridges and synclinal valleys formed during and after emplacement of Miocene flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). Here we focus on scarps along Umtanum and Boylston Ridges. Air photos and LiDAR show an E-W trending, up-to-the-north scarp (~8 m high, ~11 km long) lying at the base of the southern limb of the Umtanum Ridge anticline at Wenas Valley, near the city of Yakima. A trench across the scarp exposed volcaniclastic deposits overlain by buried soils and colluvial deposits. Electron microprobe analysis of tephra from the uppermost volcaniclastic layers indicates correlation with Mt. St. Helens Set C (possibly Cy), erupted ~47 ka. Eight normal faults and one possible reverse fault deform the tephra, buried soils, and colluvial deposits above the tephra. Cross cutting relations require at least three earthquakes over the last ~47 ka. We infer bending moment deformation above a buried reverse fault as the most likely cause of surface faulting observed along the Wenas Valley scarp. LiDAR images at Boylston Ridge east of Ellensburg, WA reveal a ~4-km-long, NE-trending, up-to-the-west scarp. Trenches across this scarp showed Miocene basalt overlain by a thin, cobble-rich, colluvial soil at the surface. A single high-angle reverse fault offsets the basalt, and a fissure filled with colluvium separates the fault blocks. Older colluvium and a soil formed in the colluvium are both offset by the fault, suggesting at least two episodes of movement. Inclined striae on the fault plane hint at right-lateral oblique offset. About 1 km to the NE, a 700-m-long stretch of stream floodplain is incised as much as 7 m. Electron microprobe analysis of a tephra layer in the incised floodplain sediments indicates correlation with Mazama O, erupted ~7,600 yrs BP. We infer that the incision is the result of hanging wall uplift along the fault, probably from at least two earthquakes in the last 7,600 yrs. We incorporate aeromagnetic data, geologic mapping, scarps identified from LiDAR and air photos, and paleoseismology in a conceptual model of an oblique right-lateral stepover system for faults in the northwestern YFTB. Magnetic lineaments correspond with mapped Quaternary faults and scarps identified in LiDAR images and aerial photography. We observe that magnetic lineaments and faults associated with three anticlines (Cleman Mountain, Umtanum Ridge, and Manastash Ridge) combine to form a pattern similar to a restraining stepover seen in sandbox models of strike-slip faults and found above similar restraining stepovers in real-world fault systems. The Boylston reverse-fault trend is almost parallel to the geodetically determined N-S shortening direction for the region. This quandary of contradictory trends is resolved in our model by adding a component of right lateral movement to the fault system.

  12. DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a HTS-SQUID gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Shingo; Kasuya, Syohei; Mawardi Saari, Mohd; Sakai, Kenji; Kiwa, Toshihiko; Tsukamoto, Akira; Adachi, Seiji; Tanabe, Keiichi; Tsukada, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    Solar panels are expected to play a major role as a source of sustainable energy. In order to evaluate solar panels, non-destructive tests, such as defect inspections and response property evaluations, are necessary. We developed a DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a High Critical Temperature Superconductor Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (HTS-SQUID) gradiometer with ramp edge type Josephson junctions. Two independent components of the magnetic fields perpendicular to the panel surface (?Bz/?x, ?Bz/?y) were detected. The direct current of the solar panel is visualized by calculating the composition of the two signal components, the phase angle, and mapping the DC current vector. The developed system can evaluate the uniformity of DC current distributions precisely and may be applicable for defect detection of solar panels.

  13. Degradation mechanisms of GaN-based LEDs after accelerated DC current aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Meneghesso; S. Levada; R. Pierobon; F. Rampazzo; E. Zanoni; A. Cavallini; A. Castaldini; G. Scamarcio; S. Du; I. Eliashevich

    2002-01-01

    This work presents the results of an extensive DC current aging and failure analysis carried out on blue InGaN\\/GaN LEDs which identify failure mechanisms related to package degradation, changes in effective doping profile, and generation of deep levels. DLTS and photocurrent spectra indicate the creation of extended defects in devices aged at very high current density.

  14. Operation of the DC current transformer intensity monitors at FNAL during run II

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Meyer, T.; Vogel, G.; /Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Circulating beam intensity measurements at FNAL are provided by five DC current transformers (DCCT), one per machine. With the exception of the DCCT in the Recycler, all DCCT systems were designed and built at FNAL. This paper presents an overview of both DCCT systems, including the sensor, the electronics, and the front-end instrumentation software, as well as their performance during Run II.

  15. Performance Evaluation of a Multi-Port DC-DC Current Source Converter for High Power Applications

    E-print Network

    Yancey, Billy Ferrall

    2011-08-08

    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A MULTI-PORT DC-DC CURRENT SOURCE CONVERTER FOR HIGH POWER APPLICATIONS A Thesis by BILLY FERRALL YANCEY III Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2010 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A MULTI-PORT DC-DC CURRENT SOURCE CONVERTER FOR HIGH POWER APPLICATIONS A Thesis by BILLY FERRALL YANCEY III...

  16. Testing of a 50 kA, 50 kV current interrupter with I2t preheating and long recovery voltage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Reass; H. J. Boenig; J. G. Melton

    1989-01-01

    The Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) is a reversed field pinch (RFP) plasma experiment. An inductive energy transfer system using a 50-kA, 50-kV DC current interrupter is being utilized for initiating the plasma current. The performance requirements had yet to be realized in a reliable switching system, so development of this current-interrupter system was initiated. A switch test bay with

  17. Millennial-scale variability of diatom paleoproductivity during the last 50 ka: an equator-to-subtropics comparison along western Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, O.; Crosta, X.

    2012-04-01

    Coastal upwelling accounts for ~50% of the global export production in eastern boundary current systems. In these areas, diatoms deliver a substantial part of the ocean's primary productivity. Although productivity variations in coastal areas are usually attributed to wind stress-forced changes in upwelling intensity, the dynamics of primary production along the western African coast is less straightforward due to the complex atmospheric and hydrographic settings. In this study, we compare high-resolution diatom records encompassing the last 50 ka, which were generated at three hemipelagic sites drilled along the western African coast between 20°N and 25°S. The studied cores are: GeoB3606-1 (SE Atlantic, off Namibia), GeoB4905 (Guinea Basin), and GeoB7926-2 (NE Atlantic, off Mauritania). Though the three sites are coastal in location, the processes and mechanisms behind the preserved signal differ. This is clearly mirrored in both the variations of total diatom concentration and the qualitative composition of the community at each core site. While the inflow of silica-rich waters of Southern Ocean origin played a significant role off Namibia, precipitation-controlled riverine input of dissolved silica was decisive in the Guinea Basin. Off northwestern Africa, changes in wind intensity, the subsequent upwelling of dissolved silica and the seaward extension of the chlorophyll filament were responsible for diatom production. The implications of our observations for the late Quaternary productivity and the nutrient dynamics from low-latitude ocean areas, the possible effect of abrupt climate changes as well as interhemispheric teleconnections at both Milankovitch and millennial time-scales are discussed.

  18. Radiolaria and pollen records from 0 to 50 ka at ODP Site 1233: Continental and marine climate records from the Southeast Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pisias, N.G.; Heusser, L.; Heusser, C.; Hostetler, S.W.; Mix, A.C.; Weber, M.

    2006-01-01

    Site 1233 drilled during Leg 202 of the Ocean Drilling Program provides a detailed record of marine and continental climate change in the Southeast Pacific and South American continent. Splits from over 500 samples taken at 20 cm intervals for quantitative analysis of radiolarian and pollen populations yield a temporal resolution of 200-400 years. In each sample, 39 pollen taxa and 40 radiolarian species and genera were evaluated. Age control is provided by 25 AMS 14C dates [Lamy, F., Kaiser, J., Ninnemann, U., Hebbeln, D., Arz, H.W., Stoner, J., 2004. Science 304, 1959-1962]. Multivariate statistical analyses of these data allow us to conclude the following: (1) During the past 50 ka, the region of the central Chile coast is not directly influenced by polar water from the Antarctic region. (2) Changes in ocean conditions off central Chile during this time interval primarily reflect north-south shifts in the position of the South Pacific transition zone. (3) Changes in Chilean vegetation reflect comparable latitudinal shifts in precipitation and the position of the southern westerlies. (4) The first canonical variate of radiolarian and pollen records extracted from Site 1233 are remarkably similar to each other as well as to temperature records from the Antarctic, which suggests that marine and continental climate variability in the region is tightly coupled at periods longer than 3000 years. (5) The phase coupling of these climate records, which lead variations of continental erosion based on iron abundance at the same site, are consistent with a hypothesis that erosion is linked to relatively long (i.e, few thousand years) response times of the Patagonian ice sheet, and thus is not a direct indicator of regional climate. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Miscarriage: A Dream Interrupted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepal, Heather C.; Semivan, Suzanne Gibson; Caley-Bruce, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy is a developmental task that requires women to become accustomed to inherent and sometimes profound biological, somatic, and psychological changes. When pregnancy is interrupted by miscarriage, it may become a pivotal crisis point in the development of a woman's maternal identity as well as an issue in family development. This manuscript…

  20. Superconducting NbN Coplanar Switch Driven by DC Current for CMB Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordier, G.; Cammilleri, V. D.; Bélier, B.; Bleurvacq, N.; Ghribi, A.; Piat, M.; Tartari, A.; Zannoni, M.

    2014-09-01

    The next generations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) instruments will be dedicated to the detection and characterisation of CMB B-modes. To measure this tiny signal, instruments need to control and minimise systematics. Signal modulation is one way to achieve such a control. New generation of focal planes will include the entire detection chain on chip. In this context, we present a superconducting coplanar switch driven by DC current. It consists of a superconducting micro-bridge which commutes between its on (superconducting) and off (normal metal) states, depending on the amplitude of the current injection. To be effective, we have to use a high normal state resistivity superconducting material with a gap frequency higher than the frequencies of operation (millimeter waves). Several measurements were made at low temperature on NbN and yielded very high resistivities. Preliminary results of components dc behavior is shown. Thanks to its low power consumption, fast modulation and low weight, this component is a perfect candidate for future CMB space missions.

  1. Impact of quasi-dc currents on three-phase distribution transformer installations

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, B.W.; Barnes, P.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Tesche, F.M. (Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States)); Schafer, D.A. (Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes a series of tests designed to determine the response of quasi-dc currents on three-phase power distribution transformers for electric power systems. In general, if the dc injection is limited to the primary side of a step-down transformer, significant harmonic distortion is noted and an increase in the reactive power demand results. For dc injection on the secondary (load) side of the step-down transformer the harmonic content at the secondary side is quite high and saturation occurs with a relatively low level of dc injection; however, the reactive power demand is significantly lower. These tests produced no apparent damage to the transformers. Transformer damage is dependent on the duration of the dc excitation, the level of the excitation, and on thermal characteristics of the transfer. The transformer response time is found to be much shorter than seen in power transformer tests at lower dc injection levels. This shorter response time suggests that the response time is strongly dependent on the injected current levels, and that higher levels of dc injection for shorter durations could produce very high reactive power demands and harmonic distortion within a few tenths of a second. The added reactive power load could result in the blowing of fuses on the primary side of the transformer for even moderate dc injection levels, and neutral currents are quite large under even low-level dc injection. This smoking neutral'' results in high-level harmonic injection into equipment via the neutral and in possible equipment failure.

  2. Frontline: The Interrupters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-03-02

    Many organizations and individuals are working to transform some of America's most violent inner city neighborhoods by forming a series of coalitions with local residents, religious organizations, and schools. This engaging documentary from PBS's Frontline takes a look into "the violent landscape of our cities through the eyes of those fighting to sow peace and security." First-time visitors should click on "Meet the Interrupters" to learn about the unique individuals working on projects such as CeaseFire in Chicago and the Al Hafeez Initiative, which is designed to find resources for young boys and girls to utilize in after-school programs. Visitors can watch the entire program (one version that contains graphic language), move on to explore an online digital memorial for victims of violence, and also listen to profiles from National Public Radio and Chicago Tonight. Finally, visitors can click on the "Where Are They Now?" area to learn about what has happened to each "interrupter" since the documentary was released.

  3. A single-inductor dual-output pseudo-DCM\\/CCM buck and boost converter with adaptive DC current compensation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingbin Jia; Ka Nang Leung

    2009-01-01

    The proposed single-inductor dual-output (SIDO) buck-boost DC-DC converter operating in pseudo-DCM\\/CCM mode can adaptively increase the pseudo DC inductor current to improve the transient load response and the load driving capability in terms of the load change. A maximum duty cycle limiter is used to remove cross regulation and determine the compensation current on the set pseudo DC current. A

  4. Oceanic density fronts steering bottom-current induced sedimentation deduced from a 50 ka contourite-drift record and numerical modeling (off NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Zhang, Wenyan; Hofmann, Antonia L.; Löwemark, Ludvig A.; Schwenk, Tilmann

    2015-03-01

    How the various bottom-near hydrographic and sedimentary processes control the formation of contourite drifts, i.e. of bottom-current related confined deep-sea depocenters, usually remains widely speculative. This study uses a transect of six sediment cores and a sediment echosounder profile across a whole contourite system off NW Spain to address the sediment dynamics responsible for the depositional pattern. This "mounded patch"-type contourite drift (18 km long, 20 km wide) with a 150-m deep channel (moat) has formed around an 800-m high structural obstacle. Deposition on the contourite drift in the past was characterized by alternating calm and high-energy bottom-flow conditions. Calm conditions (Last Glacial period: 27-17 cal ka BP; late Holocene times: <4 cal ka BP) led to slightly current-influenced deposition of fine-grained sediments (10 ?m) in the entire basin. This regime was interrupted by periods of short-lasting waxing-and-waning high-energy conditions (D/O events during Marine Isotope Stage 3; the Deglacial/early Holocene time interval at 17-4 cal ka BP), resulting in the deposition of coarse sediments (70 ?m). Process-based numerical modeling demonstrates that pulse-like oceanic density fronts traveling within the transition zone of two water masses (Labrador Sea Water, Mediterranean Outflow Water) provide a powerful mechanism for contouritic deposition, rather than the core of a water mass itself. These gravity-driven density fronts lead to local re-suspension of sands stored inside the drift's moat and to subsequent upward transport towards the drift's crest. Here, the oceanic density fronts produce additional km-scale eddies. These migrating eddies provide an efficient mechanism for further widespread sediment re-distribution. In comparison with paleoceanographic reconstructions, a downward migration or expansion of the Mediterranean Outflow Water by about 300 m led most probably to such temporary contouritic sand deposition. We finally propose a conceptual model to explain how seafloor obstacles redirect and perturbate bottom currents. This model proposes not only a sharp contact between two water masses but also the transition zone between those as an important high-energy regime, offering oceanic density fronts a travel medium. These fronts are strong enough to distribute fine sands across highly pronounced seabed topography. On the respective time scale, the moat itself seems to act as the main source for those sands, making a remote source and a long-distance sediment transport unnecessary.

  5. Interruptions and nonverbal gender differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol W. Kennedy; Carl Camden

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in selected nonverbal behaviors associated with interruptions. Six graduate student groups involving 18 female and 17 male subjects were videotaped. The data for the study were 140 cross-sex interruption sequences and a matched, randomly selected sample of noninterruption sequences. A category system using self-related activity, gestures, body lean, facial expression

  6. Large reduction of the depinning field for a transverse domain wall under application of rf and dc currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, P. J.; Anane, A.; Cros, V.; Grollier, J.; Deranlot, C.; Petroff, F.; Fert, A.; Ulysse, C.; Faini, G.

    2010-03-01

    A new generation of proposed spintronic devices are based on domain wall (DW) motion (DW-MRAM, DW logic, racetrack memory...). However, reliable depinning of domain walls remains elusive, especially in zero field. Here, we have studied the combined effect of rf and dc currents on the depinning of transverse walls in the soft NiFe layer of a 100 nm wide Co/Cu/NiFe spin valve wire. Using the GMR effect, we ensure that the domain wall is always prepared at the same intrinsic defect and then measure the depinning field for different applied dc and rf currents. Notably, for a narrow range of rf frequencies at around 3GHz, we evidence a strong reduction in the depinning field (from ˜80 Oe to ˜30 Oe). Our results are suggestive of a very efficient resonant depinning effect in our spin valve wire which depends not only on the rf power but also on the polarity and amplitude of the accompanying dc current.

  7. Global interrupt and barrier networks

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton-On-Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kopcsay, Gerard V. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY)

    2008-10-28

    A system and method for generating global asynchronous signals in a computing structure. Particularly, a global interrupt and barrier network is implemented that implements logic for generating global interrupt and barrier signals for controlling global asynchronous operations performed by processing elements at selected processing nodes of a computing structure in accordance with a processing algorithm; and includes the physical interconnecting of the processing nodes for communicating the global interrupt and barrier signals to the elements via low-latency paths. The global asynchronous signals respectively initiate interrupt and barrier operations at the processing nodes at times selected for optimizing performance of the processing algorithms. In one embodiment, the global interrupt and barrier network is implemented in a scalable, massively parallel supercomputing device structure comprising a plurality of processing nodes interconnected by multiple independent networks, with each node including one or more processing elements for performing computation or communication activity as required when performing parallel algorithm operations. One multiple independent network includes a global tree network for enabling high-speed global tree communications among global tree network nodes or sub-trees thereof. The global interrupt and barrier network may operate in parallel with the global tree network for providing global asynchronous sideband signals.

  8. An architecture for intelligent task interruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, D. D.; Narayan, Srini

    1990-01-01

    In the design of real time systems the capability for task interruption is often considered essential. The problem of task interruption in knowledge-based domains is examined. It is proposed that task interruption can be often avoided by using appropriate functional architectures and knowledge engineering principles. Situations for which task interruption is indispensable, a preliminary architecture based on priority hierarchies is described.

  9. Longitudinal inhomogeneity of DC current transport properties in Gd-system HTS tapes - Statistical approach for system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Takamura, Y.; Amemiya, N.; Nakao, K.; Izumi, T.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we studied the DC current transport properties of GdBCO-coated conductors, including the longitudinal distribution of critical current. Inhomogeneity of the local critical current was firstly measured by means of TapeStar™ at 77 K, and then characterized based on a statistical method. Current transport properties were also measured for different positions and/or distances of potential taps using a four-probe method. It was shown that the longitudinal inhomogeneity of the conductor was described by use of a simplified percolation depinning model that takes account of Gaussian distribution. We further distinguished the above-mentioned inhomogeneity between statistical distribution and random failure. Influence of the aforementioned statistically distributed current transport properties on the magnet performance was also elucidated for simple pancake coils. This information is important as it provides guidance for practical system design.

  10. Radio dispatchers' interruption recovery strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela Mancero; B. L. William Wong; Martin Loomes

    2009-01-01

    A field study was conducted at the British Transport Police Control Room in London. We used The Critical Decision Method (CDM) to explore radio dispatchers' cue identification, situation awareness and integration of information, particularly when following an interruption. The data from the CDM interviews was also analysed using the Emergent Themes Analysis (ETA) approach. The ETA resulted in categorizing difficulties

  11. Experiments with Mercury Jet Interrupters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C E S Phillips

    1915-01-01

    The Paper describes an experimental attempt to ascertain the form of the mercury column issuing from a hole in the side of a rotating drum, that is continuously supplied with mercury by centrifugal action.Incidentally a new form of interrupter is introduced, in which the interior is visible through a window in the lid. The arrangement forms a suitable apparatus for

  12. Assisting interruption recovery in mission control operations

    E-print Network

    Wan, Jordan (Jordan X.)

    2007-01-01

    Frequent interruptions are commonplace in modem work environments. The negative impacts of interruptions are well documented and include increased task completion and error rates in individual task activities, as well as ...

  13. ASSISTING INTERRUPTION RECOVERY IN MISSION CONTROL OPERATIONS

    E-print Network

    Cummings, Mary "Missy"

    be particularly costly due to the time and life-critical nature of these operations. The negative impacts of interruptions have motivated recent developments in software tools, called interruption recovery tools, which

  14. Current interruption by density depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J. S.; Tajima, T.; Akasofu, S. I.

    1985-04-01

    Using a one dimensional electrostatic particle code, processes associated with current interruption in a collisionless plasma when a density depression is present along the current channel is examined. Current interruption due to double layers was suggested by Alfven and Carlqvist (1967) as a cause of solar flares. At a local density depression, plasma instabilities caused by an electron current flow are accentuated, leading to current disruption. The simulation study encompasses a wide range of the parameters in such a way that under appropriate conditions, both the Alfven and Carlqvist (1967) regime and the Smith and Priest (1972) regime take place. In the latter regime the density depression decays into a stationary structure (ion acoustic layer) which spaws a series of ion acoustic solutions and ion phase space holes travelling upstream. A large inductance of the current circuit tends to enhance the plasma instabilities.

  15. Current interruption by density depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J. S.; Tajima, T.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1985-08-01

    Using a one-dimensional electrostatic particle code, processes associated with current interruption in a collisionless plasma when a density depression is present along the current channel are examined. Current interruption due to double layers was suggested by Alfven and Carlqvist (1967) as a cause of solar flares. At a local density depression, plasma instabilities caused by an electron current flow are accentuated, leading to current disruption. This simulation study encompasses a wide range of the parameters in such a way that under appropriate conditions, both the Alfven and Carlqvist (1967) regime and the Smith and Priest (1972) regime take place. In the latter regime the density depression decays into a stationary structure ('ion-acoustic layer') which spawns a series of ion-acoustic 'solitons' and ion phase space holes travelling upstream. A large inductance of the current circuit tends to enhance the plasma instabilities.

  16. Investigating Interruptions: Implications for Flightdeck Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorella, Kara A.

    1999-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of multiple task management is attending to new stimuli and integrating associated task requirements into an ongoing task set; this is "interruption management" (IM). Anecdotal evidence and field studies indicate the frequency and consequences of interruptions, however experimental investigations of mechanisms influencing IM are scarce. Interruptions on commercial flightdecks are numerous, of various forms, and have been cited as contributing factors in many aviation incident and accident reports. This research grounds an experimental investigation of flightdeck interruptions in a proposed IM stage model. This model organizes basic research, identifies influencing mechanisms, and suggests appropriate dependent measures for IM. Fourteen airline pilots participated in a flightdeck simulation experiment to investigate the general effects of performing an interrupting task and interrupted procedure, and the effects of specific task factors: (1) modality; (2) embeddedness, or goal-level, of an interruption; (3) strength of association, or coupling-strength, between interrupted tasks; (4) semantic similarity; and (5) environmental stress. General effects of interruptions were extremely robust. All individual task factors significantly affected interruption management, except "similarity." Results extend the Interruption Management model, and are interpreted for their implications for interrupted flightdeck performance and intervention strategies for mitigating their effects on the flightdeck.

  17. Implementing Precise Interrupts in Pipelined Processors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Smith; Andrew R. Pleszkun

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates solutions to the precise interrupt problem in pipelined processors. An interrupt is precise if the saved process state corresponds with a sequential model of program execution where one instruction completes before the next begins. In a pipelined processor, precise interrupts are difficult to implement because an instruction may be initiated before its predecessors have completed.

  18. Implementation of precise interrupts in pipelined processors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Smith; Andrew R. Pleszkun

    1985-01-01

    An interrupt is precise if the saved process state corresponds with the sequential model of program execution where one instruction completes before the next begins. In a pipelined processor, precise interrupts are difficult to achieve because an instruction may be initiated before its predecessors have been completed. This paper describes and evaluates solutions to the precise interrupt problem in pipelined

  19. Impact of quasi-dc currents on three-phase distribution transformer installations. Power Systems Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, B.W.; Barnes, P.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tesche, F.M. [Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States); Schafer, D.A. [Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes a series of tests designed to determine the response of quasi-dc currents on three-phase power distribution transformers for electric power systems. In general, if the dc injection is limited to the primary side of a step-down transformer, significant harmonic distortion is noted and an increase in the reactive power demand results. For dc injection on the secondary (load) side of the step-down transformer the harmonic content at the secondary side is quite high and saturation occurs with a relatively low level of dc injection; however, the reactive power demand is significantly lower. These tests produced no apparent damage to the transformers. Transformer damage is dependent on the duration of the dc excitation, the level of the excitation, and on thermal characteristics of the transfer. The transformer response time is found to be much shorter than seen in power transformer tests at lower dc injection levels. This shorter response time suggests that the response time is strongly dependent on the injected current levels, and that higher levels of dc injection for shorter durations could produce very high reactive power demands and harmonic distortion within a few tenths of a second. The added reactive power load could result in the blowing of fuses on the primary side of the transformer for even moderate dc injection levels, and neutral currents are quite large under even low-level dc injection. This ``smoking neutral`` results in high-level harmonic injection into equipment via the neutral and in possible equipment failure.

  20. Improved Stability of Pd/Ti Contacts to p-Type SiC Under Continuous DC and Pulsed DC Current Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, B. P.; Mohney, S. E.; Flemish, J. R.

    2011-04-01

    The enhanced stability of Pd/Ti contacts to p-type SiC under high-current-density continuous direct-current (DC) stressing is investigated and compared with previous work on Ti/Al contacts. Additionally, differing failure modes were observed for the Pd/Ti contacts under continuous DC and pulsed DC stress. The improved stability of the Pd/Ti contacts is demonstrated through a 29% increase in the applied continuous DC current required to cause electrical failure during a 1 h test compared with the Ti/Al contacts. The metallization scheme includes a TiW barrier and a thick electroplated Au overlayer. While severe intermixing and voiding in the ohmic contact layer caused the Pd/Ti contacts to fail under continuous DC stress, electromigration of the Au overlayer degraded the contacts under pulsed DC stress. The temperature of the surface of the contacts was reduced from over 649°C for contacts that failed under continuous DC current to between 316°C and 371°C for pulsed DC current. The difference in temperature and failure modes of the continuous and pulsed DC stressed contacts indicates different failure mechanisms.

  1. DC Interruption Characteristic on Vacuum Circuit Breaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odaka, Hiromi; Yamada, Masataka; Sakuma, Ryohei; Ding, Cuie; Kaneko, Eiji; Yanabu, Satoru

    A high speed vacuum circuit breaker (HSVCB) has been investigated. HSVCB makes high frequency current superimposed on a fault current so that the current is forced to be zero and is interrupted. Its interruption performance is considered to be dependent on a rate of change of the current (di/dt). As a fundamental research, we investigated the di/dt-dv/dt characteristics and the insulation recovery characteristic after interrupting the counter-pulse current for various contact materials of AgWC, CuW, and CuCr. The results revealed that the case where gap length is larger is better in a current interruption performance. Moreover, it was found that di/dt is not dependent on the insulation recovery characteristics, but the magnitude of interruption current influences greatly.

  2. INTERRUPTIONS AMONG EQUALS:Power Plays That Fail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARY GLENN WILEY; DALE E. WOOLLEY

    1988-01-01

    In a corporate context, would interrupting affect the perceived power, identity traits, job performance, and interpersonal relationships of equally situated male and female speakers? The gender of both the interrupter and the interrupted speaker was varied in hypothetical transcripts of conversations between two corporate vice-presidents. There were no significant effects of interrupting or being interrupted on perceptions of the relative

  3. ATmega128 Interrupt Jee-Hwan Ryu

    E-print Network

    Ryu, Jee-Hwan

    of Technology and Education Korea University of Technology and Education (Interrupt, ) CPU of Technology and Education CPU Zero ATmega128 . #12;Korea University of Technology and Education A/D DMA Korea University of Technology and Education

  4. Interruptible Electric Rates: Where We Are Today

    E-print Network

    Frees, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Interruptible electric rates are as far from being a widespread method of load management today as they were almost nine years ago at the height of the Arab Oil Embargo. Utilities and industrial consumers have been 'cooperating' to reduce overall...

  5. THE EFFECTS OF RESPONSE INTERRUPTION AND REDIRECTION

    E-print Network

    Joung, Eun Gi

    2011-07-15

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of Response Interruption and Redirection on automatically maintained vocal stereotypy of a ten year old boy with autism. The researcher hypothesized that RIRD strategy would decrease...

  6. Towards a Physiological Model of User Interruptability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Chen; Jamie Hart; Roel Vertegaal

    2007-01-01

    User interruptability has become an important topic of study in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). However, automatically determining\\u000a the availability of users is still problematic. In this paper, we present a preliminary study of the use of physiological\\u000a measurements for predicting user interruptability status. We measured Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and Electromyogram (EMG)\\u000a signals whilst users performed a variety of tasks; including

  7. Losing the moment: understanding interruptions to nurses' work.

    PubMed

    McGillis Hall, Linda; Pedersen, Cheryl; Fairley, Laura

    2010-04-01

    Interruptions in the nursing work environment can have significant, detrimental effects on patient safety. This mixed-method study used work observation and focus groups to explore interruptions in nursing work. A large number of interruptions were reported. Causes of interruptions are analyzed, and systems processes for reducing these in the future are discussed. PMID:20305462

  8. Interruption as a test of the user-computer interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Mccarthy, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    In order to study the effects different logic systems might have on interrupted operation, an algebraic calculator and a reverse polish notation calculator were compared when trained users were interrupted during problem entry. The RPN calculator showed markedly superior resistance to interruption effects compared to the AN calculator although no significant differences were found when the users were not interrupted. Causes and possible remedies for interruption effects are speculated. It is proposed that because interruption is such a common occurrence, it be incorporated into comparative evaluation tests of different logic system and control/display system and that interruption resistance be adopted as a specific design criteria for such design.

  9. Vacuum interrupters and thyratrons as opening switches

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    The clear advantages of inductive storage for large scale energy storage applications are creating an increasing interest in the research and development of the opening switches required. Opening switches for single-shot inductive transfers have received considerable attention and are fairly well advanced. The problem addressed by this workshop of high power opening switches for high repetition rate applications is much more severe, however, and may well require a major research and development effort. Two candidates for such an opening switch, the triggered vacuum interrupter and the magnetically quenched thyratron, are discussed. By electrically retriggering the discharge in the vacuum interrupter between pulses, the dependence on mechanical motion is eliminated. This should enable repetition rate operation at 10 to 15 kHz while still maintaining the vacuum interrupter's proven interrupting performance of tens of kiloamps at tens of kilovolts. The magnetically quenched thyratron, on the other hand, uses a cross magnetic field to raise the switch impedance by decreasing the electron mobility and driving the discharge into an arc chute wall where it is quenched. Successful interruptions of 1 kA at 15 kV and 100 A at 50 kV after conduction for 10 ..mu..s have been demonstrated by previous researchers. Work at Los Alamos is directed toward understanding the basic mechanisms involved and increasing the switch ratings, particularly the conduction time.

  10. Control algorithm for the inverter fed induction motor drive with DC current feedback loop based on principles of the vector control

    SciTech Connect

    Vuckovic, V.; Vukosavic, S. (Electrical Engineering Inst. Nikola Tesla, Viktora Igoa 3, Belgrade, 11000 (Yugoslavia))

    1992-01-01

    This paper brings out a control algorithm for VSI fed induction motor drives based on the converter DC link current feedback. It is shown that the speed and flux can be controlled over the wide speed and load range quite satisfactorily for simpler drives. The base commands of both the inverter voltage and frequency are proportional to the reference speed, but each of them is further modified by the signals derived from the DC current sensor. The algorithm is based on the equations well known from the vector control theory, and is aimed to obtain the constant rotor flux and proportionality between the electrical torque, the slip frequency and the active component of the stator current. In this way, the problems of slip compensation, Ri compensation and correction of U/f characteristics are solved in the same time. Analytical considerations and computer simulations of the proposed control structure are in close agreement with the experimental results measured on a prototype drive.

  11. DC current induced metal-insulator transition in epitaxial Sm{sub 0.6}Nd{sub 0.4}NiO{sub 3}/LaAlO{sub 3} thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Haoliang [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China) [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Luo, Zhenlin, E-mail: zlluo@ustc.edu.cn; Yang, Yuanjun; Yang, Mengmeng; Wang, Haibo; Hu, Sixia; Bao, Jun [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China) [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Yun, Yu; Meng, Dechao; Lu, Yalin [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)] [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Gao, Chen, E-mail: cgao@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China) [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-05-15

    The metal-insulator transition (MIT) in strong correlated electron materials can be induced by external perturbation in forms of thermal, electrical, optical, or magnetic fields. We report on the DC current induced MIT in epitaxial Sm{sub 0.6}Nd{sub 0.4}NiO{sub 3} (SNNO) thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition on (001)-LaAlO{sub 3} substrate. It was found that the MIT in SNNO film not only can be triggered by thermal, but also can be induced by DC current. The T{sub MI} of SNNO film decreases from 282 K to 200 K with the DC current density increasing from 0.003 × 10{sup 9} A•m{sup ?2} to 4.9 × 10{sup 9} A•m{sup ?2}. Based on the resistivity curves measured at different temperatures, the MIT phase diagram has been successfully constructed.

  12. EXOTIC OPTIONS FOR INTERRUPTIBLE ELECTRICITY SUPPLY CONTRACTS

    E-print Network

    responsiveness to the forefront to make these markets workable. Failures of markets for reserves (that are needed to the lack of demand side response and spurred renewed interest in "load as a resource". Two key elements with notification time and duration of an interruption. For example, heating and cooling applications with some form

  13. Volcanic eruption induced WWVB transmission path interruption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Buckmaster; C. H. Hansen

    1985-01-01

    It is reported that the 60 kHz transmission of WWVB from Fort Collins, Colorado, was not received in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, for about 11 h from 1109 UT to 2153 UT on July 23, 1980. It is suggested that this transmission path interruption is correlated with the 15 km height ash cloud due to the July 22, 1980 volcanic eruption

  14. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

  15. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

  16. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

  17. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

  18. Replicating interruptible supply contracts for security constrained transmission management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Bruno; Massimo La Scala; Roberto Sbrizzai; Giuliano Vimercati

    2003-01-01

    The authors introduce an exotic financial hedging tool in order to replicate interruptible load supply contracts. This derivative tool should guarantee the ISO the possibility of using interruptible resources \\

  19. Interruptions : using activity transitions to trigger proactive messages

    E-print Network

    Ho, Joyce (Joyce Carmen)

    2004-01-01

    The proliferation of mobile devices and their tendency to present information proactively has led to an increase in device generated interruptions experienced by users. These interruptions are not confined to a particular ...

  20. Handling CAMAC Interrupts in Alpha OpenVMS\\/PCI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. s. Lee; S. g. Kadantsev; E. Klassen; M. m. Mouat; P. w. Wilmshurst

    Software for Alpha\\/OpenVMS systems has beendeveloped to support CAMAC interrupts (LAMs) via PCIbus. A number of devices in TRIUMF's Central ControlSystem generate interrupts that are delivered via CAMACsystems. These interrupts arrive using previously existingCAMAC executive crates and system crate interfaces.Until this development, these interrupts were only beingserviced by VAX\\/OpenVMS computers using Qbus but thetendency to replace VAXes by Alphas has

  1. Development of an in situ calibration method for current-to-voltage converters for high-accuracy SI-traceable low dc current measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppeldauer, George P.; Yoon, Howard W.; Jarrett, Dean G.; Larason, Thomas C.

    2013-10-01

    For photocurrent measurements with low uncertainties, wide dynamic range reference current-to-voltage converters and a new converter calibration method have been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The high-feedback resistors of a reference converter were in situ calibrated on a high-resistivity, printed circuit board placed in an electrically shielded box electrically isolated from the operational amplifier using jumpers. The feedback resistors, prior to their installation, were characterized, selected and heat treated. The circuit board was cleaned with solvents, and the in situ resistors were calibrated using measurement systems for 10 k? to 10 G? standard resistors. We demonstrate that dc currents from 1 nA to 100 µA can be measured with uncertainties of 55 × 10-6 (k = 2) or lower, which are lower in uncertainties than any commercial device by factors of 10 to 30 at the same current setting. The internal (NIST) validations of the reference converter are described.

  2. Resumption strategies for interrupted programming tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Parnin; Spencer Rugaber

    2011-01-01

    Interrupted and blocked tasks are a daily reality for professional programmers. Unfortunately, the strategies programmers\\u000a use to recover lost knowledge and rebuild context when resuming work have not yet been well studied. In this paper, we describe\\u000a an exploratory analysis performed on 10,000 recorded sessions of 86 programmers and a survey of 414 programmers to understand\\u000a the various strategies and

  3. Interruption and patient satisfaction in resident-patient

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Interruption and patient satisfaction in resident-patient consultations Han Z. Li University categories of interruptions and patient satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach ­ A total of 40 resident/patient of interruptions, providing unequivocal support for communication accommodation theory. Patient satisfaction

  4. Semiconductors 4-channel I2C multiplexer with interrupt logic

    E-print Network

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    Philips Semiconductors PCA9544A 4-channel I2C multiplexer with interrupt logic 2004 Sep 29 sheet PCA9544A4-channel I2C multiplexer with interrupt logic 22004 Sep 29 FEATURES · 1-of-4 bi-directional translating multiplexer · I2C interface logic; compatible with SMBus · 4 Active-LOW Interrupt Inputs · Active

  5. Assessing Individual-Level Impact of Interruptions during Online Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Wan, Ping; Choi, Seung W.; Kim, Dong-In

    2015-01-01

    With an increase in the number of online tests, the number of interruptions during testing due to unexpected technical issues seems to be on the rise. For example, interruptions occurred during several recent state tests. When interruptions occur, it is important to determine the extent of their impact on the examinees' scores. Researchers…

  6. Workflow Interruptions and Failed Action Regulation in Surgery Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Elfering, Achim; Nützi, Marina; Koch, Patricia; Baur, Heiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Workflow interruptions during surgery may cause a threat to patient's safety. Workflow interruptions were tested to predict failure in action regulation that in turn predicts near-accidents in surgery and related health care. Methods One-hundred-and-thirty-three theater nurses and physicians from eight Swiss hospitals participated in a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The study participation rate was 43%. Results Structural equation modeling confirmed an indirect path from workflow interruptions through cognitive failure in action regulation on near-accidents (p < 0.05). The indirect path was stronger for workflow interruptions by malfunctions and task organizational blockages compared with workflow interruptions that were caused by persons. The indirect path remained meaningful when individual differences in conscientiousness and compliance with safety regulations were controlled. Conclusion Task interruptions caused by malfunction and organizational constraints are likely to trigger errors in surgery. Work redesign is recommended to reduce workflow interruptions by malfunction and regulatory constraints. PMID:24932412

  7. Avoiding and Managing Interruptions of Electric Service Under an Interruptible Contract or Tariff

    E-print Network

    Evans, G. W.

    . This situation is largely due to the glut of electric generating capacity that exists today in the United States - generally speaking, there is enough generation available to serve all firm customers and all interruptible customers most of the time. However... for large industrial customers and tariffs that require curtailments of usage have been commonplace in the electric industry for many years. According to NERC (4), approximately 2.5% (over 14,000 megawatts) of total U.S. demand in 1994 was interruptible...

  8. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOEpatents

    Rockot, J.H.; Mikesell, H.E.; Jha, K.N.

    1998-08-11

    A device and a method are disclosed for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens. 7 figs.

  9. Gentle interruptions: transformative approaches to clinical teaching.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Margaret; Tower, Marion; Walker, Rachel

    2007-07-01

    This conceptual article, drawn from the authors' shared teaching experiences and recent student and clinician evaluation data, set out to reveal and then address some common problems faced by clinical educators and nursing students in the time-constrained, complex, specialized field of clinical learning. We explain and argue the benefits of transformative learning and outline specific strategies for building skills in transformative education, such as interrogating clinical routines and habits, teaching diplomacy skills, and using a process of interruption. Clinical educators can use these strategies to move beyond unwittingly serving the status quo toward consciously contributing to change. PMID:17711067

  10. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOEpatents

    Rockot, Joseph H. (N. Huntingdon, PA); Mikesell, Harvey E. (McMurray, PA); Jha, Kamal N. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A device and a method for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens.

  11. Interrupt Timed Automata: verification and expressiveness

    E-print Network

    Bérard, Béatrice; Sassolas, Mathieu; 10.1007/s10703-011-0140-2

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the class of Interrupt Timed Automata (ITA), a subclass of hybrid automata well suited to the description of timed multi-task systems with interruptions in a single processor environment. While the reachability problem is undecidable for hybrid automata we show that it is decidable for ITA. More precisely we prove that the untimed language of an ITA is regular, by building a finite automaton as a generalized class graph. We then establish that the reachability problem for ITA is in NEXPTIME and in PTIME when the number of clocks is fixed. To prove the first result, we define a subclass ITA- of ITA, and show that (1) any ITA can be reduced to a language-equivalent automaton in ITA- and (2) the reachability problem in this subclass is in NEXPTIME (without any class graph). In the next step, we investigate the verification of real time properties over ITA. We prove that model checking SCL, a fragment of a timed linear time logic, is undecidable. On the other hand, we give model checking procedures f...

  12. Interrupting the Interruption: Neoliberalism and the Challenges of an Antiracist School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meshulam, Assaf; Apple, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    The article examines a US public elementary bilingual, multicultural school that attempts to interrupt the reproduction of existing relations of dominance and subordination across a variety of differences. The school's experiences illuminate the complex reality of schools as a site of struggle and compromise between at times contradictory…

  13. Physics of high-current interruption of vacuum circuit breakers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ekkehard Schade

    2005-01-01

    The present state of knowledge concerning the physical phenomena of high-current interruption with vacuum interrupters (VI) is reviewed. Two arc control methods, application of externally applied axial magnetic field (AMF) or transverse magnetic field (TMF), are available to distribute the heat flux from arc to contacts homogeneously over contact surface, to avoid local overheating. AMF spreads the arc at fixed

  14. Lean manufacturing in temperature dependent processes with interruptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wee Leong LEE; J. M. Allwood

    2003-01-01

    A particular difficulty arises when lean manufacturing principles are applied to temperature dependent processes. Specifically, when an interruption occurs, lean manufacturing advocates stopping the production line to find the “root cause” of the problem. However, interruptions in temperature dependent processes will cause work-in-progress and process equipment to cool down and quality problems are likely when production restarts. This difficulty could

  15. 30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...When impracticable to mount the main-circuit-interrupting device on a machine, a remote enclosure will be...When contacts are used as a main-circuit-interrupting device...circuit shall be provided at the machine and at the remote...

  16. The Effect of Interruptions on Part 121 Air Carrier Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damos, Diane L.

    1998-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the relative priorities of various events and activities by examining the probability that a given activity was interrupted by a given event. The analysis will begin by providing frequency of interruption data by crew position (captain versus first officer) and event type. Any differences in the pattern of interruptions between the first officers and the captains will be explored and interpreted in terms of standard operating procedures. Subsequent data analyses will focus on comparing the frequency of interruptions for different types of activities and for the same activities under normal versus emergency conditions. Briefings and checklists will receive particular attention. The frequency with which specific activities are interrupted under multiple- versus single-task conditions also will be examined; because the majority of multiple-task data were obtained under laboratory conditions, LOFT-type tapes offer a unique opportunity to examine concurrent task performance under 'real-world' conditions. A second purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the interruptions on performance. More specifically, when possible, the time to resume specific activities will be compared to determine if pilots are slower to resume certain types of activities. Errors in resumption or failures to resume specific activities will be noted and any patterns in these errors will be identified. Again, particular attention will be given to the effects of interruptions on the completion of checklists and briefings. Other types of errors and missed events (i.e., the crew should have responded to the event but did not) will be examined. Any methodology using interruptions to examine task prioritization must be able to identify when an interruption has occurred and describe the ongoing activities that were interrupted. Both of these methodological problems are discussed In detail in the following section,

  17. 78 FR 47749 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ...Enforcement Proceeding)] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing...States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing...exclusion order barring entry of ground fault circuit interrupters that infringe...

  18. 77 FR 26579 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ...Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing...States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing...prohibiting the unlicensed entry of ground fault circuit interrupters and products...

  19. 77 FR 66080 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ...Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing...States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing...exclusion order barring entry of ground fault circuit interrupters that infringe the...

  20. 78 FR 73562 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same Final Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ...Enforcement Proceeding)] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing...States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing...exclusion order barring entry of ground fault circuit interrupters [[Page...

  1. Railgun power supply system utilizing traction motors and vacuum interrupters

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, W.M.; Parker, J.V.; Thullen, P.

    1985-01-01

    A railgun power supply has been designed that utilizes traction motors, vacuum interrupters and pulse transformers. An assembly of 28 traction motors, which store approximately 75 MJ, energize the primary windings of three pulse transformers at a peak current of 50 kA. At peak current an array of vacuum interrupters disconnects the transformer primary windings and forces the current to flow in the secondary windings. The secondary windings are connected directly to the railgun and require no opening switches. By staging the vacuum interrupter openings, a 1 MA to 1.3 MA ramped current waveform can be delivered to the railgun.

  2. 18 CFR 284.9 - Interruptible transportation service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED...availability. (1) An interstate pipeline that provides firm transportation...interruptible basis means that the capacity used to provide the...

  3. Giving the Caller the Finger: Collaborative Responsibility for Cellphone Interruptions

    E-print Network

    Madiraju, Praveen

    determines who is in the conversation by using a decentralized network of autonomous body-worn sensor nodes (including the owner of the cellphone) in order to assess the appropriateness of a cellphone interruption

  4. Denitrogenation interruptions with air. [resulting in decompression sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A 3-h denitrogenation period at ground-level pressure with 95% O2-5% N2, with an air interruption of 5 min or more and matched with additional denitrogenation time equal to the interruption, will later result occasionally in altitude decompression sickness ('bends') during a 2-h decompression exposure at 3.8 psia (10,058 m equivalent) with 92% O2- 8% N2. Thus the equal time or 'mirror-image' make-up time for loss of denitrogenation did not prevent bends 7 times in 17 subjects during 71 exposures with air interruptions; on the other hand, no case of bends was reported after uninterrupted denitrogenation periods. Nitrogen-loading during the interruptive period is believed to resupply the bends sites with additional nitrogen, which re-establishes conditions favoring a return to a high incidence of bends.

  5. An interrupt based organization for management information systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard Lee Morgan

    1970-01-01

    A programming structure, language constructs, and a supervisory system organization are proposed for the design and coding of large shared data base systems. The bases for this organization are a generalized interrupt structure and the newly introduced concept of \\

  6. 38 CFR 21.5078 - Interruption to conserve entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Entitlement § 21.5078 Interruption to...

  7. 38 CFR 21.5078 - Interruption to conserve entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Entitlement § 21.5078 Interruption to...

  8. 38 CFR 21.5078 - Interruption to conserve entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Entitlement § 21.5078 Interruption to...

  9. 38 CFR 21.5078 - Interruption to conserve entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Entitlement § 21.5078 Interruption to...

  10. 38 CFR 21.5078 - Interruption to conserve entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Entitlement § 21.5078 Interruption to...

  11. Strategies for preventing distractions and interruptions in the OR.

    PubMed

    Clark, Gregory J

    2013-06-01

    Stakeholders in the automotive industry, airline industry, and anesthesia profession have identified critical periods of time in which distractions and interruptions of normal processes can have devastating effects. Just as reducing distractions improves safety in an automobile or airplane cockpit, limiting distractions and interruptions during critical times in the perioperative setting can increase patient safety. We assessed perioperative nurses and identified what they perceived as critical phases of nursing care. We also worked with our anesthesia partners to address their concerns about interruptions during the administration of nerve blocks. The perioperative nurses at our hospital initiated strategies to reduce distractions or interruptions to their practice at critical points, and, in collaboration with surgical committee members, we developed strategies to reduce or eliminate distractions for anesthesia professionals during the preoperative administration of nerve blocks and to eliminate distractions for the RN circulator and scrub person during the final counts. PMID:23722034

  12. Antiretroviral treatment interruptions and risk of non-opportunistic diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth A. Lichtenstein

    2009-01-01

    Structured treatment interruptions have been studied as a strategy to reduce antiretroviral toxicities and expenditures in\\u000a the treatment of HIV-infected individuals. Paradoxically, in addition to the increased incidence of death and opportunistic\\u000a infections, these interruptions in therapy have resulted in the development of a number of non-opportunistic diseases, including\\u000a cardiovascular events, renal insufficiency, hepatic failure, and non-AIDS-defining malignancies. Hypotheses regarding

  13. Critical care 24 × 7: But, why is critical nutrition interrupted?

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan; Daphnee, D. K.; Ranganathan, Lakshmi; Bhuvaneshwari, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Adequate nutritional support is crucial in prevention and treatment of malnutrition in critically ill-patients. Despite the intention to provide appropriate enteral nutrition (EN), meeting the full nutritional requirements can be a challenge due to interruptions. This study was undertaken to determine the cause and duration of interruptions in EN. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to a multidisciplinary critical care unit (CCU) of a tertiary care hospital from September 2010 to January 2011 and who received EN for a period >24 h were included in this observational, prospective study. A total of 327 patients were included, for a total of 857 patient-days. Reasons and duration of EN interruptions were recorded and categorized under four groups-procedures inside CCU, procedures outside CCU, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and others. Results: Procedure inside CCU accounted for 55.9% of the interruptions while GI symptoms for 24.2%. Although it is commonly perceived that procedures outside CCU are the most common reason for interruption, this contributed only to 18.4% individually; ventilation-related procedures were the most frequent cause (40.25%), followed by nasogastric tube aspirations (15.28%). Although GI bleed is often considered a reason to hold enteral feed, it was one of the least common reasons (1%) in our study. Interruption of 2-6 h was more frequent (43%) and most of this (67.1%) was related to “procedures inside CCU”. Conclusion: Awareness of reasons for EN interruptions will aid to modify protocol and minimize interruptions during procedures in CCU to reach nutrition goals. PMID:24701064

  14. Cubic boron nitride tool wear in interrupted hard cutting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kevin Chou; Chris J Evans

    1999-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (CBN) tool wear in interrupted turning of hardened M50 steel has been investigated. The goal was to identify the dominant wear mechanism during interrupted cutting, and in particular, to study the effect of CBN content. Results show significantly different wear characteristics between high (CBN-H) and low (CBN-L) CBN content tools. Contrary to Taylor's tool life equation, tool

  15. Interrupted aortic arch in a adult: diagnosis with MSCT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Polat Ko?ucu; Müge Ko?ucu; Hasan Dinç; Levent Korkmaz

    2006-01-01

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare severe congenital heart defect defined as a complete loss of luminal and anatomic continuity between ascending and descending aorta. It is important that we made a good diagnosis and accurate evaluation of their morphologic conditions before a heart operation. We presented an 18-year-old girl of interrupted IAA diagnosed by multi-slice computed tomography angiography.

  16. Endovascular reconstruction of an interrupted inferior vena cava?

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Shannon D.; Ofri, Adam; Tang, Tjun; Englund, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Inferior vena cava (IVC) interruption was established as a procedure to treat refractory venous thromboembolism (VTE) complicated by pulmonary embolism. Ilio-caval thrombosis and lower limb chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) are well known long-term complications of IVC interruption, where subsequent treatments may carry significant morbidity and mortality. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present here a case of chronic venous insufficiency resulting from IVC interruption with a vascular clip placed forty years previously. A novel approach utilising endovascular stents was used to reconstruct the iliocaval confluence and interrupted distal IVC without the need for laparotomy to remove the plicating clip. This procedure was associated with minimal morbidity and resulted with a quick resolution of the patient's CVI symptoms. DISCUSSION Endovascular angioplasty and stenting is an alternative to open reconstruction of the interrupted inferior vena cava. We have demonstrated successful opening of a plication vascular clip using only endovascular utilities. Advantages include a shorter hospital stay, and reduced morbidity and mortality when compared to a re-do laparotomy. CONCLUSION Endovascular stents may be used safely and effectively to reconstruct the surgically interrupted inferior vena cava in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. PMID:24441437

  17. The discounting-by-interruptions hypothesis: model and experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel E. Henly; Allison Ostdiek; Erika Blackwell; Sarah Knutie; Aimee S. Dunlap; David W. Stephens

    2008-01-01

    Experimental animals often prefer small but immediate rewards even when larger-delayed rewards provide a higher rate of intake. This impulsivity has important implications for models of foraging and cooperation. Behavioral ecologists have hypothesized that animals discount delayed rewards because delay imposes a collection risk. According to this long-standing hypothesis, delay reduces value because an interruption that occurs while an animal

  18. The discounting-by-interruptions hypothesis: model and experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel E. Henly; Allison Ostdiek; Erika Blackwell; Sarah Knutie; Aimee S. Dunlap; David W. Stephens

    2007-01-01

    Experimental animals often prefer small but immediate rewards even when larger-delayed rewards provide a higher rate of intake. This impulsivity has important implications for models of foraging and cooperation. Behavioral ecologists have hypoth- esized that animals discount delayed rewards because delay imposes a collection risk. According to this long-standing hypothesis, delay reduces value because an interruption that occurs while an

  19. Negotiating Task Interruptions with Virtual Agents for Health Behavior Change

    E-print Network

    Bickmore, Timothy

    it is time for them to engage in healthy behaviors, such as scheduled medication taking or exercise. However, these real-time reminders often represent task interruptions for individuals who are engaged in work -- such as medication regimens -- is estimated to average only 50%, and represents another significant source

  20. Interruption of Pregnancy: Motives, Attitudes and Contraceptive Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bengtsson Agostino; V. Wahlberg

    1991-01-01

    Since 1978 when the law on legal abortion came into force, approximately 35% of all pregnancies in Italy have ended in abortion (illegal abortions excluded). Presently about 25% (national average) of the women who interrupt pregnancy get their medical certificate at a family planning clinic. The general aim of the present study was to describe women’s situation on the occasion

  1. Distribution of AGG interruption patterns within nine world populations

    PubMed Central

    Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Sweha, Stefan; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Zhou, Lili; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Fernandez-Carvajal, Isabel; Faradz, Sultana MH; Amiri, Khaled; Shaheen, Huda; Polli, Roberta; Murillo-Bonilla, Luis; Silva Arevalo, Gabriel de Jesus; Cogram, Patricia; Murgia, Alessandra; Tassone, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Summary The CGG trinucleotide repeat within the FMR1 gene is associated with multiple clinical disorders, including fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency, and fragile X syndrome. Differences in the distribution and prevalence of CGG repeat length and of AGG interruption patterns have been reported among different populations and ethnicities. In this study we characterized the AGG interruption patterns within 3,065 normal CGG repeat alleles from nine world populations including Australia, Chile, United Arab Emirates, Guatemala, Indonesia, Italy, Mexico, Spain, and United States. Additionally, we compared these populations with those previously reported, and summarized the similarities and differences. We observed significant differences in AGG interruption patterns. Frequencies of longer alleles, longer uninterrupted CGG repeat segments and alleles with greater than 2 AGG interruptions varied between cohorts. The prevalence of fragile X syndrome and FMR1 associated disorders in various populations is thought to be affected by the total length of the CGG repeat and may also be influenced by the AGG distribution pattern. Thus, the results of this study may be important in considering the risk of fragile X-related conditions in various populations. PMID:25606365

  2. ASSISTING INTERRUPTION RECOVERY IN SUPERVISORY CONTROL OF MULTIPLE UAVS

    E-print Network

    Cummings, Mary "Missy"

    of past events. In contrast, the event history list provided a concise summary of critical events Mercier2 , M. L. Cummings1 , Enlie Wang1 1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA 2 to interruptions is a critical issue, particularly when people are supervising highly autonomous systems in time

  3. Institutional Narcissism, Arrogant Organization Disorder and Interruptions in Organizational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, Lynn; Allcorn, Seth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to present an alternative approach to diagnosing behavioral barriers to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper juxtaposes interruptions in organizational learning with characteristics of narcissism and arrogant organization disorder. Psychoanalytically informed theory and DSM-IV criteria are…

  4. Comparison between an SCR and a vacuum interrupter system for repetitive opening

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Two conceptual systems are analyzed for repetitive interruption of current from an inductive energy storage source. The interruption level for both systems is 25 kA at 25 kV. Factors such as interruption frequency, power dissipation, reliability, maintenance, developmental time, and cost are compared. The vacuum interrupter system is considered feasible for an interruption frequency of 25 Hz and a 10 to 20% duty cycle. The SCR system is considered feasible for an interruption frequency of up to 10 kHz.

  5. 77 FR 11591 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same, Investigations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ...COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same, Investigations...within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by...

  6. 76 FR 35014 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ...COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-739] Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of...within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by...

  7. Attaining Status at the Expense of Likeability: Pilfering Power Through Conversational Interruption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally D. Farley

    2008-01-01

    Do status expectations affect how we interpret interruption in conversation? Two experiments examined how interrupters and\\u000a their targets are perceived in same- and mixed-gender dyads. In Experiment 1, participants listened to a brief audiotaped\\u000a conversation in which one person interrupted the other five times. In Experiment 2, four confederates (two men and two women)\\u000a systematically interrupted naïve participants while discussing

  8. 75 FR 62420 - In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ...337-TA-739] In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing...States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing...States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products...

  9. Alternative vacuum interrupter envelopes using glass-ceramic materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Parashar; P. J. Howard

    2010-01-01

    The envelopes for vacuum interrupters may be made of any suitable materials such as glass, glass-ceramic, porcelain or alumina ceramic. Glass-ceramic materials offer superior dielectric properties over alumina ceramic envelopes in addition to their ability to join successfully with many different metals and alloys. In this study many new glass-ceramic compositions have been investigated which offer the required refractory behaviour

  10. A Context Aware Interruption Management System for Mobile Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sina Zulkernain; Praveen Madiraju; Sheikh Iqbal Ahamed

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a To prevent unwanted interruptions from cell phones, this paper proposes a system solution considering user’s unavailability.\\u000a We first look at desirable characteristics of the system, then design a system architecture which takes as input user preferences,\\u000a relevant context information and then produces as output if an incoming call should be allowed to ring. We also present a\\u000a case study application

  11. Some effects of magnetic blowouts on arc interruption

    E-print Network

    Benish, Joe

    1949-01-01

    ~ 5 SOME EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC BLOWOUTS ON , ' ARC INTEHHVPTION A Thes1s J'oe Ben1sh 1949 Approved. as bo sty1e and content by Chairtaan of Comrade t tee SOME EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC BLONOUTS ON ARC INTERRUPTION Joe Benish A Thesis Subnitted... ON A Thesis By Joe Banish In4 COMMENTS Synopsis Introduction- The "Statistical Method" Equipment Vsed. - Tests Made- Analytical Approach to the Mechanism of Blowout-?-ID Bibliography---- 26 Appendix I& Summary of Experimental Data...

  12. Estimating subglottal pressure via airflow interruption with auditory masking.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Matthew R; Jiang, Jack J

    2009-11-01

    Current noninvasive measurement of subglottal pressure using airflow interruption often produces inconsistent results due to the elicitation of audio-laryngeal reflexes. Auditory feedback could be considered as a means of ensuring measurement accuracy and precision. The purpose of this study was to determine if auditory masking could be used with the airflow interruption system to improve intrasubject consistency. A prerecorded sample of subject phonation was played on a loop over headphones during the trials with auditory masking. This provided subjects with a target pitch and blocked out distracting ambient noise created by the airflow interrupter. Subglottal pressure was noninvasively measured using the airflow interruption system. Thirty subjects, divided into two equal groups, performed 10 trials without auditory masking and 10 trials with auditory masking. Group one performed the normal trials first, followed by the trials with auditory masking. Group two performed the auditory masking trials first, followed by the normal trials. Intrasubject consistency was improved by adding auditory masking, resulting in a decrease in average intrasubject standard deviation from 0.93+/-0.51 to 0.47+/-0.22 cm H(2)O (P < 0.001). Auditory masking can be used effectively to combat audio-laryngeal reflexes and aid subjects in maintaining constant glottal configuration and frequency, thereby increasing intrasubject consistency when measuring subglottal pressure. By considering auditory feedback, a more reliable method of measurement was developed. This method could be used by clinicians, as reliable, immediately available values of subglottal pressure are useful in evaluating laryngeal health and monitoring treatment progress. PMID:18538988

  13. Repair of interrupted aortic arch: A ten-year experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Serraf; François Lacour-Gayet; Monica Robotin; Jacqueline Bruniaux; Miguel Sousa-Uva; Régine Roussin; Claude Planché

    1996-01-01

    Eighty-two consecutive patients with interrupted aortic arch were referred to our institution between 1985 and 1995. Three died before any attempt at operation and 79 underwent surgical repair. Median age at operation was 9 days (range 1 day to 6 years) and median weight was 3.0 kg (range 1.8 to 20 kg). All but one were in severe congestive heart

  14. Exotic Options for Interruptible Electricity Supply Rajnish Kamat and Shmuel S. Oren

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley. University of

    PWP-071 Exotic Options for Interruptible Electricity Supply Contracts Rajnish Kamat and Shmuel S Options for Interruptible Electricity Supply Contracts Rajnish Kamat and Shmuel S. Oren Department #12;1 Exotic Options for Interruptible Electricity Supply Contracts Rajnish Kamat and Shmuel S. Oren1

  15. Interruption Management in the Intensive Care Unit: Predicting Resumption Times and Assessing Distributed Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundgeiger, Tobias; Sanderson, Penelope; MacDougall, Hamish G.; Venkatesh, Balasubramanian

    2010-01-01

    Interruptions are frequent in many work domains. Researchers in health care have started to study interruptions extensively, but their studies usually do not use a theoretically guided approach. Conversely, researchers conducting theoretically rich laboratory studies on interruptions have not usually investigated how effectively their findings…

  16. Exploring Interruption in HRI using Wizard of Oz Paul Saulnier, Ehud Sharlin, Saul Greenberg

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Saul

    @cpsc.ucalgary.ca, saul.greenberg@ucalgary.ca Abstract--We are interested in exploring how robots controlled using Wizard on interruption and interruptibility in HCI, little has been done to explore how these concepts will map roboticO-based methodology to investigate robot behaviours in a simple interruption scenario. In this report we contribute

  17. Dental surgery in anticoagulated patients--stop the interruption.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Michael J; Pinto, Andres; Kilham, Jessica; Lalla, Rajesh V

    2015-02-01

    In a literature review, the incidence and morbidity of bleeding complications after dental surgery in anticoagulated patients was compared with embolic complications when anticoagulation was interrupted. Over 99% of anticoagulated patients had no postoperative bleeding that required more than local hemostatic measures. Of more than 5431 patients undergoing more than 11,381 surgical procedures, with many patients at higher than present therapeutic intenational normalized ratio (INR) levels, only 31 (?0.6% of patients) required more than local hemostasis to control the hemorrhage; none died due to hemorrhage. Among at least 2673 patients whose warfarin dose was reduced or withdrawn for at least 2775 visits for dental procedures, there were 22 embolic complications (0.8% of cessations), including 6 fatal events (0.2% of cessations). The embolic morbidity risk in patients whose anticoagulation is interrupted for dental surgery exceeds that of significant bleeding complications in patients whose anticoagulation is continued, even when surgery is extensive. Warfarin anticoagulation, therefore, should not be interrupted for most dental surgery. PMID:25577414

  18. Interruption of Tidal Disruption Flares By Supermassive Black Hole Binaries

    E-print Network

    F. K. Liu; S. Li; Xian Chen

    2009-11-04

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are products of galaxy mergers, and are important in testing Lambda cold dark matter cosmology and locating gravitational-wave-radiation sources. A unique electromagnetic signature of SMBHBs in galactic nuclei is essential in identifying the binaries in observations from the IR band through optical to X-ray. Recently, the flares in optical, UV, and X-ray caused by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) tidally disrupting nearby stars have been successfully used to observationally probe single SMBHs in normal galaxies. In this Letter, we investigate the accretion of the gaseous debris of a tidally disrupted star by a SMBHB. Using both stability analysis of three-body systems and numerical scattering experiments, we show that the accretion of stellar debris gas, which initially decays with time $\\propto t^{-5/3}$, would stop at a time $T_{\\rm tr} \\simeq \\eta T_{\\rm b}$. Here, $\\eta \\sim0.25$ and $T_{\\rm b}$ is the orbital period of the SMBHB. After a period of interruption, the accretion recurs discretely at time $T_{\\rm r} \\simeq \\xi T_b$, where $\\xi \\sim 1$. Both $\\eta$ and $\\xi$ sensitively depend on the orbital parameters of the tidally disrupted star at the tidal radius and the orbit eccentricity of SMBHB. The interrupted accretion of the stellar debris gas gives rise to an interrupted tidal flare, which could be used to identify SMBHBs in non-active galaxies in the upcoming transient surveys.

  19. Superconducting dc Current Limiting Vacuum Circuit Breaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Bunin, R. A.; Voloshin, I. F.; Degtyarenko, P. N.; Yevsin, D. V.; Ivanov, V. P.; Sidorov, V. A.; Fisher, L. M.; Tshai, E. V.

    Acircuitofadc superconductingfault current limiter witha direct current circuit-breaker fora nominal current 300A is proposed. It includes the 2G high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes and the high-speed dc vacuum circuit breaker.Thetestresultsof current-limitingcapacityandrecoverytimeof superconductivityafter currentfaultatvoltage upto3 kV are presented.

  20. DC current sensor for PWM converters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur W. Kelley; John E. Titus

    1991-01-01

    A sensor for inductor current in PWM converters which offers improved performance over presently available sensors is presented. The sensor is based on a saturable transformer, derives power from existing converter waveforms, provides DC isolation, and has inherently wide bandwidth. The sensor is compared to available current sensors. A theory of operation for the sensor is presented, the results of

  1. The Voltage Distribution Characteristics of a Hybrid Circuit Breaker During High Current Interruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xian; Duan, Xiongying; Liao, Minfu; Huang, Zhihui; Luo, Yan; Zou, Jiyan

    2013-08-01

    Hybrid circuit breaker (HCB) technology based on a vacuum interrupter and a SF6 interrupter in series has become a new research direction because of the low-carbon requirements for high voltage switches. The vacuum interrupter has an excellent ability to deal with the steep rising part of the transient recovery voltage (TRV), while the SF6 interrupter can withstand the peak part of the voltage easily. An HCB can take advantage of the interrupters in the current interruption process. In this study, an HCB model based on the vacuum ion diffusion equations, ion density equation, and modified Cassie-Mayr arc equation is explored. A simulation platform is constructed by using a set of software called the alternative transient program (ATP). An HCB prototype is also designed, and the short circuit current is interrupted by the HCB under different action sequences of contacts. The voltage distribution of the HCB is analyzed through simulations and tests. The results demonstrate that if the vacuum interrupter withstands the initial TRV and interrupts the post-arc current first, then the recovery speed of the dielectric strength of the SF6 interrupter will be fast. The voltage distribution between two interrupters is determined by their post-arc resistance, which happens after current-zero, and subsequently, it is determined by the capacitive impedance after the post-arc current decays to zero.

  2. High-capacity single-pressure SF/sub 6/ interrupters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rostron, J R; Berkebile, L E; Spindle, H E

    1983-05-01

    The object of this project was to design and develop a high-voltage, single-pressure, SF/sub 6/ interrupter with an interrupting capability of 120 kA at 145 kV with a continuous current rating of 5000 A and an interrupting time of 1.5 cycles or less. A second objective of 100 kA at 242 kV was added during the project. Mathematical models were used to extrapolate design requirements from existing data for 63 and 80 kA. Two model puffers, one liquid and the other gas, were designed and tested to obtain data at 100 kA. An interrupter, optimized on the basis of total prospective breaker cost, was designed using the mathematical models. A study was made of the construction materials to operate under the high-stress conditions in this interrupter. Existing high-speed movies of high-current arcs under double-flow conditions were analyzed to obtain more information for modeling the interrupter. The optimized interrupter design was built and tested. The interrupting capability confirmed calculations of predicted performance near current zero; however, the dielectric strength after interrupting these high-current arcs was not adequate for the 145-kV or the 242-kV ratings. The dielectric strength was reduced by hot gases flowing out of the interrupter. Valuable data have been obtained for modeling the SF/sub 6/ puffer interrupter for high currents.

  3. Interruptions of nurses' activities and patient safety: an integrative literature review1

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Cintia; Avelar, Ariane Ferreira Machado; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to identify characteristics related to the interruption of nurses in professional practice, as well as to assess the implications of interruptions for patient safety. METHOD: integrative literature review. The following databases were searched: Pubmed/Medline, LILACS, SciELO and Cochrane Library, using the descriptors interruptions and patient safety. An initial date was not established, but the final date was December 31, 2013. A total of 29 papers met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: all the papers included describe interruptions as a harmful factor for patient safety. Data analysis revealed three relevant categories: characteristics of interruptions, implications for patient safety, and interventions to minimize interruptions. CONCLUSION: interruptions favor the occurrence of errors in the health field. Therefore, there is a need for further studies to understand such a phenomenon and its effects on clinical practice. PMID:25806646

  4. The Interrupted Power Law and the Size of Shadow Banking

    PubMed Central

    Fiaschi, Davide; Kondor, Imre; Marsili, Matteo; Volpati, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Using public data (Forbes Global 2000) we show that the asset sizes for the largest global firms follow a Pareto distribution in an intermediate range, that is “interrupted” by a sharp cut-off in its upper tail, where it is totally dominated by financial firms. This flattening of the distribution contrasts with a large body of empirical literature which finds a Pareto distribution for firm sizes both across countries and over time. Pareto distributions are generally traced back to a mechanism of proportional random growth, based on a regime of constant returns to scale. This makes our findings of an “interrupted” Pareto distribution all the more puzzling, because we provide evidence that financial firms in our sample should operate in such a regime. We claim that the missing mass from the upper tail of the asset size distribution is a consequence of shadow banking activity and that it provides an (upper) estimate of the size of the shadow banking system. This estimate–which we propose as a shadow banking index–compares well with estimates of the Financial Stability Board until 2009, but it shows a sharper rise in shadow banking activity after 2010. Finally, we propose a proportional random growth model that reproduces the observed distribution, thereby providing a quantitative estimate of the intensity of shadow banking activity. PMID:24728096

  5. The interrupted power law and the size of shadow banking.

    PubMed

    Fiaschi, Davide; Kondor, Imre; Marsili, Matteo; Volpati, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Using public data (Forbes Global 2000) we show that the asset sizes for the largest global firms follow a Pareto distribution in an intermediate range, that is "interrupted" by a sharp cut-off in its upper tail, where it is totally dominated by financial firms. This flattening of the distribution contrasts with a large body of empirical literature which finds a Pareto distribution for firm sizes both across countries and over time. Pareto distributions are generally traced back to a mechanism of proportional random growth, based on a regime of constant returns to scale. This makes our findings of an "interrupted" Pareto distribution all the more puzzling, because we provide evidence that financial firms in our sample should operate in such a regime. We claim that the missing mass from the upper tail of the asset size distribution is a consequence of shadow banking activity and that it provides an (upper) estimate of the size of the shadow banking system. This estimate-which we propose as a shadow banking index-compares well with estimates of the Financial Stability Board until 2009, but it shows a sharper rise in shadow banking activity after 2010. Finally, we propose a proportional random growth model that reproduces the observed distribution, thereby providing a quantitative estimate of the intensity of shadow banking activity. PMID:24728096

  6. Series and parallel arc-fault circuit interrupter tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay; Fresquez, Armando J.; Gudgel, Bob [MidNite Solar, Arlington, WA; Meares, Andrew [MidNite Solar, Arlington, WA

    2013-07-01

    While the 2011 National Electrical Code%C2%AE (NEC) only requires series arc-fault protection, some arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) manufacturers are designing products to detect and mitigate both series and parallel arc-faults. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has extensively investigated the electrical differences of series and parallel arc-faults and has offered possible classification and mitigation solutions. As part of this effort, Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with MidNite Solar to create and test a 24-string combiner box with an AFCI which detects, differentiates, and de-energizes series and parallel arc-faults. In the case of the MidNite AFCI prototype, series arc-faults are mitigated by opening the PV strings, whereas parallel arc-faults are mitigated by shorting the array. A range of different experimental series and parallel arc-fault tests with the MidNite combiner box were performed at the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) at SNL in Albuquerque, NM. In all the tests, the prototype de-energized the arc-faults in the time period required by the arc-fault circuit interrupt testing standard, UL 1699B. The experimental tests confirm series and parallel arc-faults can be successfully mitigated with a combiner box-integrated solution.

  7. Effects of cues associated with meal interruption on feeding behavior

    PubMed Central

    Galarce, Ezequiel M.; Holland, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Food consumption is controlled by both internal and external factors. Environmental signals associated with food may prepare an animal to forage, consume and digest more effectively. Furthermore, environmental cues that provide information about food availability enable animals to make predictions about future food resources and act upon that knowledge in appropriate fashion. For example, when exposed to a cue that signals the presence of food, animals can eat beyond their present needs to cope with predicted future famine. Interestingly, cues previously paired with meal interruption have a similar effect. In two experiments, food-deprived rats learned to associate one conditioned stimulus (CS+) with delivery of a food unconditioned stimulus (US), and another stimulus (IS) with an unexpected termination of CS-US trials. Subsequently, both CS+ and IS enhanced consumption of the US food by sated rats. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that IS's ability to potentiate feeding of sated rats in test depended more on its accompanying CS+ termination in training than on its signaling reductions in US frequency. These experiments may provide a novel animal model of binge-like behaviors in sated rats induced by external cues paired with meal interruption. PMID:19501768

  8. Jamming transitions and the effect of interruption probability in a lattice traffic flow model with passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redhu, Poonam; Gupta, Arvind Kumar

    2015-03-01

    A new lattice hydrodynamic model is proposed by considering the interruption probability effect on traffic flow with passing and analyzed both theoretically and numerically. From linear and non-linear stability analysis, the effect of interruption probability on the phase diagram is investigated and the condition of existence for kink-antikink soliton solution of mKdV equation is derived. The stable region is enhanced with interruption probability and the jamming transition occurs from uniform flow to kink flow through chaotic flow for higher and intermediate values of non-interruption effect of passing. It is also observed that there exists conventional jamming transition between uniform flow and kink flow for lower values of non-interruption effect of passing. Numerical simulations are carried out and found in accordance with the theoretical findings which confirm that the effect of interruption probability plays an important role in stabilizing traffic flow when passing is allowed.

  9. Nonverbal Reactions to Conversational Interruption: A Test of Complementarity Theory and the Status\\/Gender Parallel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally D. FarleyAmie; Amie M. Ashcraft; Mark F. Stasson; Rebecca L. Nusbaum

    2010-01-01

    The present research examined nonverbal reactions to conversational interruption (a status-organizing cue). We predicted that\\u000a the nonverbal reactions to interruption (versus a control condition) would show a different pattern of results than gender\\u000a differences. Participants (N = 150) were paired with one of four confederates and randomly assigned to either an interruption or control condition. Nine\\u000a nonverbal behavioral reactions were coded by

  10. Interrupted Aortic Arch Associated with AP Window and Complex Cardiac Anomalies: Multi Detector Computed Tomography Findings

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kantarci, Mecit; Ceviz, Naci; Yuce, Ihsan; Ogul, Hayri; Sagsoz, M. Erdem; Kaya, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Interrupted aortic arch is a rare congenital malformation of the aortic arch defined as a loss of luminal continuity between the ascending and descending portions of the aorta. In a simple interrupted aortic arch, only a ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus are observed. We present a rare complex form of type A interrupted aorta with an aortopulmonary window, an atrial septal defect, a ventricular septal defect, and a patent ductus arteriosus on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) imaging. PMID:25610252

  11. A Formal Model-Based Approach for Designing Interruptions-Tolerant Advanced User Interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Palanque; Marco Winckler; Célia Martinie

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a Due to the omnipresence of multitasking features in modern working environments, interruptions become commonplace as users\\u000a must temporarily suspend a task to complete unexpected intervening activities. Interruptions are unpredictable and cannot\\u000a be usually disregarded by users. They are quite often associated with negative effects (e.g. resuming to task after interruptions\\u000a is difficult and is time consuming) but also with positive

  12. An approach to identifying the conditions under which response interruption will reduce automatically reinforced problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Kliebert, Megan L; Tiger, Jeffrey H; Toussaint, Karen A

    2011-01-01

    Response interruption is a common intervention for problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement, but this intervention is challenging for caregivers to implement with consistent fidelity. In the current study, we challenged the integrity of response interruption across two participants by examining carry over into conditions in which the procedure was not implemented, by removing the presence of an interventionist, and by introducing delays to implementation. The results indicated that these challenges severely compromised treatment efficacy. Conditions under which response interruption procedures are likely to be effective and possible strategies to increase the effectiveness of response interruption are discussed. PMID:22532900

  13. 46 CFR 401.420 - Cancellation, delay or interruption in rendition of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...420 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges...interruption or detention caused by ice, weather or traffic, except...

  14. 46 CFR 401.420 - Cancellation, delay or interruption in rendition of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...420 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges...interruption or detention caused by ice, weather or traffic, except...

  15. 46 CFR 401.420 - Cancellation, delay or interruption in rendition of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...420 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges...interruption or detention caused by ice, weather or traffic, except...

  16. Facing the Pain An Interrupted Case Study in Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Phil Stephens

    2009-01-01

    This interrupted case study in cardiovascular and nerve physiology focuses on Lynn, a married woman with a young child whose husband is often away from home traveling on business. Lynn is anxious and short-tempered. She is also overweight and appears frustrated with her life. Recently, she has been experiencing intense pain on the right side of her face. One day she becomes disoriented while driving and crashes into a tree. Students research and analyze a variety of signs, symptoms, and medical data to solve the case. Developed for an animal physiology course taken by sophomore and junior science majors, the case could also be used in an anatomy and physiology course or general biology course.

  17. Possible Interruption of Malaria Transmission, Highland Kenya, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Riedesel, Melissa A.; Magak, Ng’wena G.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Menge, David M.; Hodges, James S.; Vulule, John M.; Akhwale, Willis

    2009-01-01

    Highland areas where malaria transmission is unstable are targets for malaria elimination because transmission decreases to low levels during the dry season. In highland areas of Kipsamoite and Kapsisiywa, Kenya (population ?7,400 persons), annual household indoor residual spraying with a synthetic pyrethroid was performed starting in 2005, and artemether/lumefantrine was implemented as first-line malaria treatment in October 2006. During April 2007–March 2008, no microscopy-confirmed cases of malaria occurred at the sites. In 4 assessments of asymptomatic persons during May 2007–April 2008, a total of <0.3% of persons were positive for asexual Plasmodium falciparum by microscopy or PCR at any time, and none were positive by PCR at the last 2 sample collections. Our findings show that in such areas, interruption and eventual elimination of malaria transmission may be achievable with widespread annual indoor residual spraying of households and artemisinin combination therapy. PMID:19961670

  18. Surgical repair of truncus arteriosus associated with interrupted aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Lacour-Gayet, François; Goldberg, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The surgical repair of truncus arteriosus associated with an interrupted aortic arch (TAC-IAA) requires performing two major procedures at the same time. Due to the small number of patients, there is nearly no surgical learning curve. The surgical technique has greatly improved since the introduction of a homograft patch enlargement of the small ascending aorta. The association with a severe truncal regurgitation is a major risk factor as well as the presence of preoperative multiple organs failure. The series published by single centers are ?10 patients, which make statistical analysis troublesome. The mortality varies from 0% to 50%. The multicentric study published in 2006 by the Congenital Heart Surgeons Society (CHSS) reports a 68% mortality (34/50). Nevertheless, the results can be excellent in experienced centers using a modern one stage surgical technique, undertaken in the first week of life. PMID:24415448

  19. Interruptions in Workflow for RNs in a Level One Trauma Center

    PubMed Central

    Brixey, Juliana J.; Robinson, David J.; Tang, Zhihua; Johnson, Todd R.; Zhang, Jiajie; Turley, James P.

    2005-01-01

    An understanding of interruptions in healthcare is important for the design, implementation, and evaluation of health information systems and for the management of clinical workflow and medical errors. The purpose of this study is to identify and classify the types of interruptions experienced by Emergency Department(ED) nurses working in a Level One Trauma Center. This was an observational field study of Registered Nurses (RNs) employed in a Level One Trauma Center using the shadowing method. Results of the study indicate that nurses were both recipients and initiators of interruptions. Telephones, pagers, and face-to-face conversations were the most common sources of interruptions. Unlike other industries, the healthcare community has not systematically studied interruptions in clinical settings to determine and weigh the necessity of the interruption against their sometimes negative results such as medical errors, decreased efficiency, and increased costs. Our study presented here is an initial step to understand the nature, causes, and effects of interruptions, thereby improving both the quality of healthcare and patient safety. We developed an ethnographic data collection technique and a data coding method for the capturing and analysis of interruptions. The interruption data we collected are systematic, comprehensive, and close to exhaustive. They confirmed the findings from earlier studies by other researchers that interruptions are frequent events in critical care and other healthcare settings. We are currently using these data to analyze the workflow dynamics of ED clinicians, to identify the bottlenecks of information flow, and to develop interventions to improve the efficiency of emergency care through the management of interruptions. PMID:16779007

  20. Career Interruptions: how do they impact pension rights? Karine Briard1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Career Interruptions: how do they impact pension rights? Karine Briard1 Cindy Duc2 Najat El appear to be more exposed to career interruptions. Second, we determine how pension rights for French. The literature dealing with this subject highlights the specific situation of women. A lot of studies provide

  1. Resilience of Interaction Techniques to Interrupts? A Formal Model-based Approach FULL VERSION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice H. ter Beek; Giorgio P. Faconti; Mieke Massink; Philippe A. Palanque; Marco Winckler

    In many modern working environments interruptions are commonplace as users must temporarily suspend their current task in order to complete an unexpected intervening activity. As users are faced with more and more sources of information competing for users' attention at any time, it is becoming increasingly important to understand how interruptions aect our abilities to complete tasks. The present work

  2. When do Students Interrupt Help? Effects of Time, Help Type, and

    E-print Network

    Mostow, Jack

    When do Students Interrupt Help? Effects of Time, Help Type, and Individual Differences Cecily and individual differences. Finally, we report small but significant correlations between a student parameter]. In this paper, we present an experiment and series of analyses that examines interruption and user

  3. The basolateral amygdala mediates the effects of cues associated with meal interruption on feeding behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ezequiel M. Galarce; Michael A. McDannald; Peter C. Holland

    2010-01-01

    Considerable evidence shows that environmental cues that signal food delivery when rats are food-deprived can substantially potentiate feeding later when rats are food-sated. Similarly, cues associated with meal interruption, food removal or impending food scarcity may also induce increased eating. For example, after learning the association between a discrete “interruption” stimulus and the unexpected termination of food trials, sated rats

  4. Predicting Human Interruptibility with Sensors: A Wizard of Oz Feasibility Study

    E-print Network

    Fogarty, James A.

    they are. This assessment allows for behavior we perceive as natural, socially appropriate, or simply early socialization, human beings normally learn when it is appropriate to interrupt someone. As adults not intrude on the person. This assessment allows us to balance the benefits of an interruption with its cost

  5. Auditory training of speech recognition with interrupted and continuous noise maskers by children with hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Jessica R.; Thibodeau, Linda M.; Assmann, Peter F.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that individuals with normal hearing (NH) experience a perceptual advantage for speech recognition in interrupted noise compared to continuous noise. In contrast, adults with hearing impairment (HI) and younger children with NH receive a minimal benefit. The objective of this investigation was to assess whether auditory training in interrupted noise would improve speech recognition in noise for children with HI and perhaps enhance their utilization of glimpsing skills. A partially-repeated measures design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of seven 1-h sessions of auditory training in interrupted and continuous noise. Speech recognition scores in interrupted and continuous noise were obtained from pre-, post-, and 3 months post-training from 24 children with moderate-to-severe hearing loss. Children who participated in auditory training in interrupted noise demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in speech recognition compared to those who trained in continuous noise. Those who trained in interrupted noise demonstrated similar improvements in both noise conditions while those who trained in continuous noise only showed modest improvements in the interrupted noise condition. This study presents direct evidence that auditory training in interrupted noise can be beneficial in improving speech recognition in noise for children with HI. PMID:23297921

  6. Interruptions and Failure in Higher Education: Evidence from ISEG-UTL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chagas, Margarida; Fernandaes, Graca Leao

    2011-01-01

    Failure in higher education (HE) is the outcome of multiple time-dependent determinants. Interruptions in students' individual school trajectories are one of them, and that is why research on this topic has been attracting much attention these days. From an individual point of view, it is expected that interruptions in school trajectory, whatever…

  7. Evolution of Drug-resistant Viral Populations during Interruption of Antiretroviral Therapy

    E-print Network

    Ahlers, Guenter

    therapy (ART), some HIV-2 infected patients still fail treatment due to drug resistance, poor adherence1 Evolution of Drug-resistant Viral Populations during Interruption of Antiretroviral Therapy antiretroviral treatment (ART) interruption allows determination of the evolution of3 drug-resistant viruses

  8. Using Informative Peripheral Visual and Tactile Cues to Support Task and Interruption Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shameem Hameed; Thomas K. Ferris; Swapnaa Jayaraman; Nadine B. Sarter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of using informative peripheral visual and tactile cues to support task switching and interruption management. Background: Effective support for the allocation of limited attentional resources is needed for operators who must cope with numerous competing task demands and frequent interruptions in data-rich, event-driven domains. One prerequisite for meeting this need is to provide information

  9. Expected Interruptions in Labor Force Participation and Sex Related Differences in Earnings Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoram Weiss; Reuben Gronau

    1981-01-01

    The paper analyzes the joint determination of wives' earnings and labor force participation over the life cycle given the interruptions in wives' work careers. The interruptions affect the profitability of the investment in human capital, which in turn determines earnings. The earnings prospects feed back into the participation decision, namely, the decision whether and for how long to drop out

  10. Discourse Markers in Turn-Initial Positions in Interruptive Speech in a Malaysian Radio Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nor, Siti Nurbaya Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Discourse markers play significant roles in any spoken interaction. This research examines the functions of the discourse markers (DMs) well, now and and used as turn-initial interruptive devices in a Malaysian radio discourse. Using Schegloff's (2002) framework of what constitutes an interruption in turn-taking and previous studies on the…

  11. Compensating for Interrupt Process Times in Real-Time Multimedia Systems

    E-print Network

    Abeni, Luca

    of effort has been spent in pro- viding open source OSs such as Linux with real-time capabilities. One influence the performance of a real-time version of Linux. In particular, interrupts are mainly man- agedCompensating for Interrupt Process Times in Real-Time Multimedia Systems Luca Abeni and Giuseppe

  12. Measuring and minimizing interrupt latency in Linux-based embedded systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybaniec, Rados?aw; Wieczorek, Piotr Z.

    2012-05-01

    Paper describes performance of embedded real-time system controlled by Linux. Interrupt latency is taken into account as a main measured parameter in further considerations. To improve and minimize system's interrupt latency two separate approaches were evaluated. Obtained results proved that its possible to build a hard real-time system based on a modified Linux kernel.

  13. Towards a Hybrid Method to Categorize Interruptions and Activities in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Brixey, Juliana J.; Robinson, David J.; Johnson, Craig W.; Johnson, Todd R.; Turley, James P.; Patel, Vimla L.; Zhang, Jiajie

    2007-01-01

    Summary Objective Interruptions are known to have a negative impact on activity performance. Understanding how an interruption contributes to human error is limited because there is not a standard method for analyzing and classifying interruptions. Qualitative data are typically analyzed by either a deductive or an inductive method. Both methods have limitations. In this paper a hybrid method was developed that integrates deductive and inductive methods for the categorization of activities and interruptions recorded during an ethnographic study of physicians and registered nurses in a Level One Trauma Center. Understanding the effects of interruptions is important for designing and evaluating informatics tools in particular and for improving healthcare quality and patient safety in general. Method The hybrid method was developed using a deductive a priori classification framework with the provision of adding new categories discovered inductively in the data. The inductive process utilized line-by-line coding and constant comparison as stated in Grounded Theory. Results The categories of activities and interruptions were organized into a three-tiered hierarchy of activity. Validity and reliability of the categories were tested by categorizing a medical error case external to the study. No new categories of interruptions were identified during analysis of the medical error case. Conclusions Findings from this study provide evidence that the hybrid model of categorization is more complete than either a deductive or an inductive method alone. The hybrid method developed in this study provides the methodical support for understanding, analyzing, and managing interruptions and workflow. PMID:17110161

  14. Dove Coos and Flashed Lights: Interruptibility of Song in a Nonsongbird

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carel Ten Cate; Mechteld R. Ballintijn

    1996-01-01

    The vocal control mechanism of the collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto) was examined by analyzing the effect of a light flash on the interruptibility of the perch coo. Flashes sometimes resulted in an immediate startle response, which often coincided with a distortion of the ongoing vocalization. Some flashes led to an interruption of cooing, usually some time after the flash and

  15. Instruction Issue Logic for High-Performance Interruptible, Multiple Functional Unit, Pipelines Computers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gurindar S. Sohi

    1990-01-01

    The problems of data dependency resolution and precise interrupt implementation in pipelined processors are combined. A design for a hardware mechanism that resolves dependencies dynamically and, at the same time, guarantees precise interrupts is presented. Simulation studies show that by resolving dependencies the proposed mechanism is able to obtain a significant speedup over a simple instruction issue mechanism as well

  16. The Long-term Psychological Effects of Daily Sedative Interruption on Critically Ill Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Kress; Brian Gehlbach; Maureen Lacy; Neil Pliskin; Anne S. Pohlman; Jesse B. Hall

    2003-01-01

    Critically ill patients often receive sedatives, which may delay libera- tion from mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit discharge. Daily interruption of sedatives alleviates these problems, but the impact of this practice on long-term psychological outcomes is un- known. We compared psychological outcomes of intensive care unit patients undergoing daily sedative interruption (intervention) with those without this protocol (control). Assessments

  17. Investigating Interruptions in the Context of Computerised Cognitive Testing for Older Adults

    E-print Network

    McGrenere, Joanna

    . This finding is reassuring with respect to the success of a self-administered computerised cognitive assessment Interruptions, experiment, task resumption, computerised cognitive assessment, older adults. ACM Classification. Notification of a pending interruption in a verbal memory task, adapted from a cognitive assessment task

  18. Examining the Qualitative Gains of Mediating Human Interruptions during Sonja Gievska, Rob Lindeman, John Sibert

    E-print Network

    Lindeman, Robert W.

    , 1998), etc. have proven to affect task performance and user's emotional state in contextExamining the Qualitative Gains of Mediating Human Interruptions during HCI Sonja Gievska, Rob and social encounters. Given that interruptions typically degrade user performance, and they are natural

  19. Response to Interrupted Hyperopia after Restraint of Axial Elongation in Tree Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Siegwart, John T.; Norton, Thomas T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine if early restraint of axial elongation in response to plus lenses increases the subsequent response to interrupted hyperopia. Methods The normal, interrupted hyperopia group (n=5) had normal visual exposure until 24 days of visual experience (VE). Then, from 24 to 45 days of VE, the animals wore binocular ?4 D lenses which shifted the refractive state of the eyes in the direction of hyperopia. Interrupted hyperopia was produced by removing the lenses for 2 hours per day. The early restraint, interrupted hyperopia group (n=5) wore binocular +4 D lenses continuously from 11 to 24 days of VE, becoming emmetropic with the lenses in place and hyperopic when they were removed. Then, from 24 to 45 days of VE, the lenses were removed 22 hours per day and replaced for 2 hours per day. This created the same initial regimen of interrupted hyperopia as in the normal, interrupted hyperopia group. A plus-lens control group wore binocular +4 D lenses (n=5) continuously from 11 to 45 Days of VE to assess the stability of the refractive compensation. Results In the normal, interrupted hyperopia animals, 2 hours of relief from the imposed hyperopia was sufficient to prevent myopia development. In the early restraint, interrupted hyperopia animals, 2 hours of relief from the hyperopia did not prevent myopia development; the eyes became myopic while wearing the lens. The control animals compensated for the +4 D lenses and maintained a stable with-the-lens emmetropia through 45 days of VE, demonstrating that the myopic shift in the early-restraint group was due to the interrupted hyperopia. Conclusions Compensation for plus lenses, involving slowed axial elongation, increases the response to subsequent interrupted hyperopia. Similar to previous reports of an eye-size factor in elongated eyes, these data provide evidence for an eye-size mechanism operating, in this case, in eyes that have restrained their axial length. PMID:23314128

  20. Ocular motor anatomy in a case of interrupted saccades.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Janet C; Leigh, R John; Optican, Lance M; Keller, Edward L; Bu Ttner-Ennever, Jean A

    2008-01-01

    Saccades normally place the eye on target with one smooth movement. In late-onset Tay-Sachs (LOTS), intrasaccadic transient decelerations occur that may result from (1) premature omnipause neuron (OPN) re-activation due to malfunction of the latch circuit that inhibits OPNs for the duration of the saccade or (2) premature inhibitory burst neuron (IBN) activation due to fastigial nucleus (FN) dysregulation by the dorsal cerebellar vermis. Neuroanatomic analysis of a LOTS brain was performed. Purkinje cells were absent and gliosis of the granular cell layer was present in the dorsal cerebellar vermis. Deep cerebellar nuclei contained large inclusions. IBNs were present with small inclusions. The sample did not contain the complete OPN region; however, neurons in the OPN region contained massive inclusions. Pathologic findings suggest that premature OPN re-activation and/or inappropriate firing of IBNs may be responsible for interrupted saccades in LOTS. Cerebellar clinical dysfunction, lack of saccadic slowing, and significant loss of cerebellar cells suggest that the second cause is more likely. PMID:18718354

  1. 75 FR 70289 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ...Investigation No. 337-TA-739] In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of...within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same....

  2. 76 FR 2708 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ...Investigation No. 337-TA-739] In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of...within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same....

  3. 76 FR 17670 - In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ...Investigation No. 337-TA-615] In the Matter of Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of...within the United States after importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing the same by...

  4. 43 CFR 3481.4-3 - Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements applicable to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...4-3 Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence...

  5. 43 CFR 3481.4-3 - Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements applicable to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...4-3 Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence...

  6. 43 CFR 3481.4-3 - Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements applicable to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...4-3 Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence...

  7. 43 CFR 3481.4-3 - Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements applicable to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence requirements...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...4-3 Does a temporary interruption in coal severance affect the diligence...

  8. Management of antipsychotic treatment discontinuation and interruptions using model-based simulations

    PubMed Central

    Samtani, Mahesh N; Sheehan, John J; Fu, Dong-Jing; Remmerie, Bart; Sliwa, Jennifer Kern; Alphs, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Background Medication nonadherence is a well described and prevalent clinical occurrence in schizophrenia. These pharmacokinetic model-based simulations analyze predicted antipsychotic plasma concentrations in nonadherence and treatment interruption scenarios and with treatment reinitiation. Methods Starting from steady state, pharmacokinetic model-based simulations of active moiety plasma concentrations of oral, immediate-release risperidone 3 mg/day, risperidone long-acting injection 37.5 mg/14 days, oral paliperidone extended-release 6 mg/day, and paliperidone palmitate 117 mg (75 mg equivalents)/28 days were assessed under three treatment discontinuation/interruption scenarios, ie, complete discontinuation, one week of interruption, and four weeks of interruption. In the treatment interruption scenarios, pharmacokinetic simulations were performed using medication-specific reinitiation strategies. Results Following complete treatment discontinuation, plasma concentrations persisted longest with paliperidone palmitate, followed by risperidone long-acting injection, while oral formulations exhibited the most rapid decrease. One week of oral paliperidone or risperidone interruption resulted in near complete elimination from the systemic circulation within that timeframe, reflecting the rapid elimination rate of the active moiety. After 1 and 4 weeks of interruption, minimum plasma concentrations were higher with paliperidone palmitate than risperidone long-acting injection over the simulated period. Four weeks of treatment interruption followed by reinitiation resulted in plasma levels returning to predicted therapeutic levels within 1 week. Conclusion Due to the long half-life of paliperidone palmitate (25–49 days), putative therapeutic plasma concentrations persisted longest in simulated cases of complete discontinuation or treatment interruption. These simulations may help clinicians better conceptualize the impact of antipsychotic nonadherence on plasma concentrations, and the impact of medication-specific reinitiation strategies after intermittent nonadherence. PMID:22888277

  9. An Assessment of Instant Messaging Interruptions on Knowledge Workers' Task Performance in E-Learning-Based Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansi, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    The modern workplace environment is filled with interruptions due to the necessity of coworkers to communicate with each other. Studies have revealed that interruptions can disrupt the ability of a knowledge worker to concentrate on a task, which can impact task performance (TP). Communication interruptions are due, in part, to the unavoidable…

  10. SOHO Mission Interruption Joint NASA/ESA Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Contact with the SOlar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft was lost in the early morning hours of June 25, 1998, Eastern Daylight Time (EDT), during a planned period of calibrations, maneuvers, and spacecraft reconfigurations. Prior to this the SOHO operations team had concluded two years of extremely successful science operations. A joint European Space Agency (ESA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engineering team has been planning and executing recovery efforts since loss of contact with some success to date. ESA and NASA management established the SOHO Mission Interruption Joint Investigation Board to determine the actual or probable cause(s) of the SOHO spacecraft mishap. The Board has concluded that there were no anomalies on-board the SOHO spacecraft but that a number of ground errors led to the major loss of attitude experienced by the spacecraft. The Board finds that the loss of the SOHO spacecraft was a direct result of operational errors, a failure to adequately monitor spacecraft status, and an erroneous decision which disabled part of the on-board autonomous failure detection. Further, following the occurrence of the emergency situation, the Board finds that insufficient time was taken by the operations team to fully assess the spacecraft status prior to initiating recovery operations. The Board discovered that a number of factors contributed to the circumstances that allowed the direct causes to occur. The Board strongly recommends that the two Agencies proceed immediately with a comprehensive review of SOHO operations addressing issues in the ground procedures, procedure implementation, management structure and process, and ground systems. This review process should be completed and process improvements initiated prior to the resumption of SOHO normal operations.

  11. Interrupting Anticoagulation in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    Three target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs)—dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban—have been approved by the FDA to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation; however, no agents are currently approved to reverse the anticoagulant effects of these TSOACs in cases of active bleeding. This review discusses the benefits and risks of these TSOACs from a clinician’s perspective, with a focus on the interruption of treatment for either elective or emergent surgery, monitoring, and reversal of anticoagulation. Available coagulation assays are not ideal for monitoring the effects of TSOACs and do not provide reliable quantitative measurement of their anticoagulant effects. When necessary, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) may provide qualitative information on dabigatran, and prothrombin time (PT) may provide qualitative assessment of the presence of the factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban and apixaban. Current recommendations for reversal of TSOACs are based largely on limited and sometimes conflicting data from in vitro or in vivo animal models, and clinical experience with these recommendations is also limited. Methods that have been investigated for effectiveness for reversal of the pharmacodynamic effects of the TSOACs include dialysis, activated charcoal, prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), and recombinant activated factor VII. It is important to note that even within a class of anticoagulant drugs, compounds respond differently to reversal agents; therefore, recommendations for one agent should not be extrapolated to another, even if they are from the same therapeutic class. New antidotes are being explored, including a mouse monoclonal antibody to dabigatran; andexanet alfa, a potential universal factor Xa inhibitor reversal agent; and a synthetic small molecule (PER977) that may be effective for the reversal of factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors. Given the short half-lives of TSOACs, watchful waiting, rather than reversal, may be the best approach in some circumstances. PMID:25516695

  12. Functional Interrupts and Destructive Failures from Single Event Effect Testing of Point-Of-Load Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Dakai; Phan, Anthony; Kim, Hak; Swonger, James; Musil, Paul; LaBel, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    We show examples of single event functional interrupt and destructive failure in modern POL devices. The increasing complexity and diversity of the design and process introduce hard SEE modes that are triggered by various mechanisms.

  13. Treatment interruption: experts sound cautious note at San Francisco forum; meeting proceeds despite disruption.

    PubMed

    Mirken, B

    2000-04-21

    Doctors researching "strategic treatment interruption" in San Francisco told a large and interested audience what is and is not known--despite violent disruption of the meeting by a "dissident" organization. PMID:12870453

  14. 46 CFR 401.420 - Cancellation, delay or interruption in rendition of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...interruption in rendition of services. 401.420 Section 401.420 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage Services §...

  15. 46 CFR 401.420 - Cancellation, delay or interruption in rendition of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...interruption in rendition of services. 401.420 Section 401.420 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage Services §...

  16. Study made of heat transfer and pressure drop through tubes with internal interrupted fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Argon gas flow through an internal interrupted finned tube was investigated to obtain heat transfer and frictional pressure drop data. The results were plotted against the same data for corresponding louvered plate-finned surfaces.

  17. Nested Interrupt Analysis of Low Cost and High Performance Embedded Systems Using GSPN Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-Min

    Interrupt service routines are a key technology for embedded systems. In this paper, we introduce the standard approach for using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPNs) as a high-level model for generating CTMC Continuous-Time Markov Chains (CTMCs) and then use Markov Reward Models (MRMs) to compute the performance for embedded systems. This framework is employed to analyze two embedded controllers with low cost and high performance, ARM7 and Cortex-M3. Cortex-M3 is designed with a tail-chaining mechanism to improve the performance of ARM7 when a nested interrupt occurs on an embedded controller. The Platform Independent Petri net Editor 2 (PIPE2) tool is used to model and evaluate the controllers in terms of power consumption and interrupt overhead performance. Using numerical results, in spite of the power consumption or interrupt overhead, Cortex-M3 performs better than ARM7.

  18. 41 CFR 302-6.106 - May I interrupt occupancy of temporary quarters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...I interrupt occupancy of temporary quarters? 302-6.106 Section 302-6.106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 6-ALLOWANCE FOR TEMPORARY QUARTERS SUBSISTENCE...

  19. Sex-Related Wage Differentials and Women's Interrupted Labor Careers--The Chicken or the Egg

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reuben Gronau

    1988-01-01

    Wage differentials between men and women are often attributed to differences in on-the-job training-the lower investment of women being explained by their plans to interrupt their careers for family reasons. Career interruptions, however, are often explained by low wages. To trace this interrelationship, the author adopts a simultaneous equations approach-trying to explain wages, planned separations, on-the-job training, and the skill

  20. Are interventions to reduce interruptions and errors during medication administration effective?: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Raban, Magdalena Z; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication administration errors are frequent and lead to patient harm. Interruptions during medication administration have been implicated as a potential contributory factor. Objective To assess evidence of the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing interruptions during medication administration on interruption and medication administration error rates. Methods In September 2012 we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group reviews, Google and Google Scholar, and hand searched references of included articles. Intervention studies reporting quantitative data based on direct observations of at least one outcome (interruptions, or medication administration errors) were included. Results Ten studies, eight from North America and two from Europe, met the inclusion criteria. Five measured significant changes in interruption rates pre and post interventions. Four found a significant reduction and one an increase. Three studies measured changes in medication administration error rates and showed reductions, but all implemented multiple interventions beyond those targeted at reducing interruptions. No study used a controlled design pre and post. Definitions for key outcome indicators were reported in only four studies. Only one study reported ? scores for inter-rater reliability and none of the multi-ward studies accounted for clustering in their analyses. Conclusions There is weak evidence of the effectiveness of interventions to significantly reduce interruption rates and very limited evidence of their effectiveness to reduce medication administration errors. Policy makers should proceed with great caution in implementing such interventions until controlled trials confirm their value. Research is also required to better understand the complex relationship between interruptions and error to support intervention design. PMID:23980188

  1. Physicians Interrupted by Mobile Devices in Hospitals: Understanding the Interaction Between Devices, Roles, and Duties

    PubMed Central

    Scholl, Jeremiah; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Background A common denominator of modern hospitals is a variety of communication problems. In particular, interruptions from mobile communication devices are a cause of great concern for many physicians. Objective To characterize how interruptions from mobile devices disturb physicians in their daily work. The gathered knowledge will be subsequently used as input for the design and development of a context-sensitive communication system for mobile communications suitable for hospitals. Methods This study adheres to an ethnographic and interpretive field research approach. The data gathering consisted of participant observations, non-structured and mostly ad hoc interviews, and open-ended discussions with a selected group of physicians. Eleven physicians were observed for a total of 135 hours during May and June 2009. Results The study demonstrates to what degree physicians are interrupted by mobile devices in their daily work and in which situations they are interrupted, such as surgery, examinations, and during patients/relatives high-importance level conversations. The participants in the study expected, and also indicated, that wireless phones probably led to more interruptions immediately after their introduction in a clinic, when compared to a pager, but this changed after a short while. The unpleasant feeling experienced by the caller when interrupting someone by calling them differs compared to sending a page message, which leaves it up to the receiver when to return the call. Conclusions Mobile devices, which frequently interrupt physicians in hospitals, are a problem for both physicians and patients. The results from this study contribute to knowledge being used as input for designing and developing a prototype for a context-sensitive communication system for mobile communication suitable for hospitals. We combined these findings with results from earlier studies and also involved actual users to develop the prototype, CallMeSmart. This system intends to reduce such interruptions and at the same time minimize the number of communication devices needed per user. PMID:23470528

  2. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Northern Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis is caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium species (black flies). In the Americas, the infection has been previously described in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela) where more than 370,000 people are currently considered at risk. Since 2001, disease control in Venezuela has relied on the mass drug administration to the at-risk communities. This report provides empirical evidence of interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium metallicum in 510 endemic communities from two Northern foci of Venezuela, after 10–12 years of 6-monthly Mectizan® (ivermectin) treatment to all the eligible residents. Methods In-depth entomologic and epidemiologic surveys were serially conducted from 2001–2012 in selected (sentinel and extra-sentinel) communities from the North-central (NC) and North-east (NE) onchocerciasis foci of Venezuela in order to monitor the impact of ivermectin treatment. Results From 2007–2009, entomological indicators in both foci confirmed that 0 out of 112,637 S. metallicum females examined by PCR contained L3 infection in insect heads. The upper bound of the 95% confidence intervals of the infective rate of the vector reached values below 1% by 2009 (NC) and 2012 (NE). Additionally, after 14 (NC) and 22 (NE) rounds of treatment, the seasonal transmission potential (±UL CIs) of S. metallicum was under the critical threshold of 20 L3 per person per season. Serological analysis in school children < 15 years-old demonstrated that 0 out of 6,590 individuals were harboring antibodies to Ov-16. Finally, epidemiological surveys made during 2010 (NC) and 2012 (NE) showed no evidence of microfilariae in the skin and eyes of the population. Conclusions These results meet the WHO criteria for absence of parasite transmission and disease morbidity in these endemic areas which represent 91% of the population previously at-risk in the country. Consequently, the two Northern foci are currently under post-treatment onchocerciasis surveillance status in Venezuela. PMID:24499653

  3. Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, L.B.

    1998-08-18

    An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined. 17 figs.

  4. Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, Lowell B. (2181-13th Ave. SW., Largo, FL 34640)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined.

  5. Effect of Radiotherapy Interruptions on Survival in Medicare Enrollees With Local and Regional Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fesinmeyer, Megan Dann [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Mehta, Vivek [Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Blough, David [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); School of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Tock, Lauri [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Ramsey, Scott D., E-mail: sramsey@fhcrc.or [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); School of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether interruptions in radiotherapy are associated with decreased survival in a population-based sample of head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database we identified Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years and older diagnosed with local-regional head-and-neck cancer during the period 1997-2003. We examined claims records of 3864 patients completing radiotherapy for the presence of one or more 5-30-day interruption(s) in therapy. We then performed Cox regression analyses to estimate the association between therapy interruptions and survival. Results: Patients with laryngeal tumors who experienced an interruption in radiotherapy had a 68% (95% confidence interval, 41-200%) increased risk of death, compared with patients with no interruptions. Patients with nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oral, salivary gland, and sinus tumors had similar associations between interruptions and increased risk of death, but these did not reach statistical significance because of small sample sizes. Conclusions: Treatment interruptions seem to influence survival time among patients with laryngeal tumors completing a full course of radiotherapy. At all head-and-neck sites, the association between interruptions and survival is sensitive to confounding by stage and other treatments. Further research is needed to develop methods to identify patients most susceptible to interruption-induced mortality.

  6. An evaluation of interrupted and uninterrupted measurement of vocal stereotypy on perceived treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Regina A; Kodak, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    The type of procedure used to measure a target behavior may directly influence the perceived treatment outcomes. In the present study, we examined the influence of different data-analysis procedures on the outcomes of two commonly used treatments on the vocal stereotypy of 2 children with an autism spectrum disorder. In Study 1, we compared an interrupted and uninterrupted data-analysis procedure to measure vocal stereotypy during the implementation of response interruption and redirection (RIRD). The results showed that the interrupted data-analysis procedure overestimated the effectiveness of RIRD. In Study 2, we examined the influence of different data-analysis procedures on the interpretation of the relative effects of 2 different treatments for vocal stereotypy. Specifically, we compared interrupted and uninterrupted data-analysis procedures during the implementation of RIRD and noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) as a treatment for vocal stereotypy. The results showed that, as in Study 1, the interrupted data-analysis procedure overestimated the effectiveness of RIRD; however, this effect was not apparent with NCR. These findings suggest that different types of data analysis can influence the perceived success of a treatment. PMID:24764249

  7. The ordnance transfer interrupter: A new type of S & A device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenslade, John T.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion is given in this paper of a new approach to the Safing and Arming of aerospace ordnance systems interconnected by detonation transfer lines, in which the conventional type of S&A device normally used for this purpose is replaced by a relatively simple electro-mechanical switching device, referred to as an 'Interrupter.' In this approach the Interrupter, which is interposed in the transfer line between the system initiator and output device, is completely passive in that it contains no pyrotechnic devices or materials. Being passive (therefore, non-initiating), the Interrupter is much less hazardous to handle and install, as well as being significantly less complex and costly than conventional S&A devices containing EED's and explosive leads. Details are presented relative to the design, development and qualification, by PS/EDD, of an ordnance transfer Interrupter intended for use on a commercial launch missile. This device, which is capable of simultaneously 'switching' multiple detonation transfer lines, incorporates a rod-type rotary barrier with independent transverse apertures for each transfer line. Barrier actuation is bi-modal, i.e., the barrier can be driven from safe-to-arm or from arm-to-safe positions by independent electro-mechanical actuators. The Interrupter described also features visual and remote status monitoring provisions and, in common with range-approved conventional S&A devices, a pre-flight safety locking mechanism functioned by a removable safing key.

  8. Activation and inhibition of posterior parietal cortex have bi-directional effects on spatial errors following interruptions

    PubMed Central

    Foroughi, Cyrus K.; Blumberg, Eric J.; Parasuraman, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Interruptions to ongoing mental activities are omnipresent in our modern digital world, but the brain networks involved in interrupted performance are not known, nor have the activation of those networks been modulated. Errors following interruptions reflect failures in spatial memory, whose maintenance is supported by a brain network including the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC). The present study therefore used bi-directional transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) of right PPC to examine the neuromodulation of spatial errors following interruptions, as well as performance on another PPC-dependent task, mental rotation. Anodal stimulation significantly reduced the number of interruption-based errors and increased mental rotation accuracy whereas cathodal stimulation significantly increased errors and reduced mental rotation accuracy. The results provide evidence for a causal role of the PPC in the maintenance of spatial representations during interrupted task performance. PMID:25628543

  9. Current interruption in a low-pressure high-current pulsed discharge with hollow cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, Y. D.; Landl, N. V.; Geyman, V. G.; Frants, O. B.; Bolotov, A. V.; Nekhoroshev, V. O.; Kasyanov, V. S.

    2014-11-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of current interruption in the hollow-cathode discharge as applied to the electrode configuration of pseudospark switch. The phenomenon of interruption manifests itself at currents of several kiloamperes or higher and at a low gas pressure. It is demonstrated that the region of the hollow cathode is able to pass a high current density. The region that is responsible for the current interruption is the main gap of the switch, i.e., the positive column of discharge. The theoretical model of the positive column is proposed. The model implies that the gas ionization in the column is provided by the fast electrons which are accelerated in a double electric layer at the exit of cathode cavity. The estimates with a usage of the model are in agreement with the experimental data.

  10. Interrupting the balance: reconsidering the complexities of conflict in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Pendle, Naomi

    2014-04-01

    By the start of 2014, violent conflict had erupted across much of South Sudan following initial violence in Juba on 15 December 2013. The speed with which the fighting has spread raises questions regarding the impact of national-level politics on violence at the local level. This article develops a framework in which violent conflict can be comprehended as a response to the interruption of the negotiation of the balance of power between groups; the negotiation is interrupted when that balance tips in favour of one group, such as through changes in the national political market or government reforms. The article provides two cases studies of attempts to strengthen the state that inadvertently interrupted local power relations between groups. In response, the groups engaged in violent conflict to reinstate a balance of power. Both examples involve conflict among Dinka groups from 2005 to 2008. PMID:24601915

  11. AGG interruptions and maternal age affect FMR1 CGG repeat allele stability during transmission

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of AGG interruptions in the CGG repeat locus of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene decreases the instability of the allele during transmission from parent to child, and decreases the risk of expansion of a premutation allele to a full mutation allele (the predominant cause of fragile X syndrome) during maternal transmission. Methods To strengthen recent findings on the utility of AGG interruptions in predicting instability or expansion to a full mutation of FMR1 CGG repeat alleles, we assessed the outcomes of 108 intermediate (also named gray zone) and 710 premutation alleles that were transmitted from parent to child, and collected from four international clinical sites. We have used the results to revise our initial model that predicted the risk of a maternal premutation allele expanding to a full mutation during transmission and to test the effect of AGG interruptions on the magnitude of expanded allele instability of intermediate or premutation alleles that did not expand to a full mutation. Results Consistent with previous studies, the number of AGG triplets that interrupts the CGG repeat locus was found to influence the risk of allele instability, including expansion to a full mutation. The total length of the CGG repeat allele remains the best predictor of instability or expansion to a full mutation, but the number of AGG interruptions and, to a much lesser degree, maternal age are also factors when considering the risk of transmission of the premutation allele to a full mutation. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that a model with total CGG length, number of AGG interruptions, and maternal age is recommended for calculating the risk of expansion to a full mutation during maternal transmission. Taken together, the results of this study provide relevant information for the genetic counseling of female premutation carriers, and improve the current predictive models which calculate risk of expansion to a full mutation using only total CGG repeat length. PMID:25110527

  12. Use and Outcomes Associated With Bridging During Anticoagulation Interruptions in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Eric D.; Kim, Sunghee; Thomas, Laine; Gersh, Bernard J.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Kowey, Peter R.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Sherwood, Matthew W.; Chang, Paul; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Ansell, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Background— Temporary interruption of oral anticoagulation for procedures is often required, and some propose using bridging anticoagulation. However, the use and outcomes of bridging during oral anticoagulation interruptions in clinical practice are unknown. Methods and Results— The Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF) registry is a prospective, observational registry study of US outpatients with atrial fibrillation. We recorded incident temporary interruptions of oral anticoagulation for a procedure, including the use and type of bridging therapy. Outcomes included multivariable-adjusted rates of myocardial infarction, stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, cause-specific hospitalization, and death within 30 days. Of 7372 patients treated with oral anticoagulation, 2803 overall interruption events occurred in 2200 patients (30%) at a median follow-up of 2 years. Bridging anticoagulants were used in 24% (n=665), predominantly low-molecular-weight heparin (73%, n=487) and unfractionated heparin (15%, n=97). Bridged patients were more likely to have had prior cerebrovascular events (22% versus 15%; P=0.0003) and mechanical valve replacements (9.6% versus 2.4%; P<0.0001); however, there was no difference in CHA2DS2-VASc scores (scores ?2 in 94% versus 95%; P=0.5). Bleeding events were more common in bridged than nonbridged patients (5.0% versus 1.3%; adjusted odds ratio, 3.84; P<0.0001). The incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, hospitalization, or death within 30 days was also significantly higher in patients receiving bridging (13% versus 6.3%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.94; P=0.0001). Conclusions— Bridging anticoagulation is used in one quarter of anticoagulation interruptions and is associated with higher risk for bleeding and adverse events. These data do not support the use of routine bridging, and additional data are needed to identify best practices concerning anticoagulation interruptions. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01165710. PMID:25499873

  13. The effect of interrupted alcohol supply on spontaneous alcohol consumption by rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kornet, M; Goosen, C; Van Ree, J M

    1990-01-01

    The alcohol supply (a 16% and a 32%, v/v, ethanol-in-water solution) for eight male rhesus monkeys, who already have had free access to water and ethanol solutions concurrently for about one year, was interrupted for 1, 2 or 7 days. The previously acquired ethanol consuming behaviour appeared very resistant to extinction, because ethanol consumption was immediately resumed after renewed access, even at a temporarily increased level. Since physical withdrawal distress was not observed and the increase was higher when interruption lasted longer, the observed behaviour could be attributed to the reinforcing effects of ethanol, leading to specific ethanol-directed behaviour. PMID:2222574

  14. The Tdgl Equation for Car-Following Model with Consideration of the Traffic Interruption Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Yi-Qiang; Kuang, Hua; Lo, Siu-Ming

    2012-07-01

    A car-following model which involves the effects of traffic interruption probability is further investigated. The stability condition of the model is obtained through the linear stability analysis. The reductive perturbation method is taken to derive the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equation to describe the traffic flow near the critical point. Moreover, the coexisting curve and the spinodal line are obtained by the first and second derivatives of the thermodynamic potential, respectively. The analytical results show that considering the interruption effects could further stabilize traffic flow.

  15. Unique Venocaval Anomalies: Case of Duplicate Superior Vena Cava and Interrupted Inferior Vena Cava

    PubMed Central

    Hagans, Iris; Markelov, Alexey; Makadia, Manthan

    2014-01-01

    Venocaval anomalies are uncommon in the general population and often go unrecognized, but physicians should be aware of their significance. Duplicate superior vena cava should be identified during cardiac imaging, surgery, and catheter insertions. While interrupted inferior vena cava can predispose to thrombus formation, they protect against pulmonary embolism from lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. We describe a unique case of a patient in which combined superior vena cava and inferior vena cava anomalies were found incidentally. This is the first reported case of a duplicate superior vena cava and interrupted inferior vena cava in a single patient in English literature. This article also provides a literature review on the topic. PMID:24967010

  16. How interruptions in students' medical education affect their clinical performance evaluations.

    PubMed

    Kalishman, S; Santo-Gomez, L

    1990-11-01

    The enrollment records of 380 medical students from the graduating class of 1983-1988 at a four-year medical school were compared with the students' performances on two measures, third-year clinical rotation grades and National Board of Medical Examiners Part II examination (NBME-II) scores. Thirty-seven students (9.7%) interrupted their progress through medical school for negative (school-initiated, academic) reasons or neutral (student-initiated, nonacademic, or personal) reasons. On both performance measures, the students in the neutral group performed similarly to regular-progress students and significantly better than students who interrupted their attendance in medical school for negative reasons. PMID:2102102

  17. The effect of a safe zone on nurse interruptions, distractions, and medication administration errors.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Mindy; Schadewald, Diane; Dietrich, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety is a health care priority. Yet medical errors are ranked the eighth leading cause of death. Medication administration errors (MAEs) often result from multiple environmental and individual factors. This quality improvement initiative adapted a protocol based on airline industry safety measures to decrease nurse distractions and interruptions during medication administration, with the goal of decreasing MAEs. Sources of distractions, interruptions, and MAEs were measured pre and post intervention. Patient satisfaction scores were measured concurrently. Results of this initiative differ from previous studies in which similar interventions reduced both distractions and MAEs. An unexpected finding was dramatically increased patient satisfaction. PMID:25723837

  18. The Capability of 500kV Circuit Breaker for Interruption of Short Circuit Current with a Large D.C. Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Takayuki; Eto, Atsushi; Koshizuka, Tadashi; Nishiwaki, Susumu; Kudo, Kietsu; Matsushita, Kozo; Hosokawa, Osamu

    The time constants of the D.C. component of asymmetrical fault current are trend to increase. It is said that interruption capability of gas circuit breaker degrades at asymmetrical current interruption. This paper shows the investigation of the interruption capability of 550kV one-break SF6 gas circuit breaker at asymmetrical current interruption. Interrupting tests of asymmetrical current with time constant 100ms, 150ms were carried out in high power laboratory. At the interrupting tests, arcing time was changed due to the time constant of the D.C. component. From the interrupting test results, arc energy was calculated. Degradation of the interrupting capability at asymmetrical current interruption was investigated by using measured arc energy.

  19. Prospective Memory in Children: The Effects of Age and Task Interruption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lia Kvavilashvili; David J. Messer; Pippa Ebdon

    2001-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM), remembering to carry out a task in the future, is highly relevant to children's everyday functioning, yet relatively little is known about it. For these reasons the effects of age and task interruption on PM were studied in 3 experiments. Children aged 4, 5, and 7 years were asked to name pictures in stacks of cards (the

  20. Continuous Partial Attention: Reconsidering the Role of Online Learning in the Age of Interruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    "Continuous partial attention" is a term that was coined in the late 1990s, to describe the increasingly dispersed nature of attention in online environments. The purpose of this article is to describe the concept, discuss its implications for online learning, and propose a new agenda for research in what has been called "the Age of Interruption."

  1. Effects of interruption of apicoplast function on malaria infection, development, and transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margery Sullivan; Jun Li; Sanjai Kumar; M. John Rogers; Thomas F McCutchan

    2000-01-01

    A chloroplast-like organelle is present in many species of the Apicomplexa phylum. We have previously demonstrated that the plastid organelle of Plasmodium falciparum is essential to the survival of the blood-stage malaria parasite in culture. One known function of the plastid organelle in another Apicomplexan, Toxoplasma gondii, involves the formation of the parasitophorous vacuole. The effects of interruption of plastid

  2. Rapid Resumption of Interrupted Search Is Independent of Age-Related Improvements in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lleras, Alejandro; Porporino, Mafalda; Burack, Jacob A.; Enns, James T.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 7-19-year-olds performed an interrupted visual search task in two experiments. Our question was whether the tendency to respond within 500 ms after a second glimpse of a display (the "rapid resumption" effect ["Psychological Science", 16 (2005) 684-688]) would increase with age in the same way as overall search efficiency. The…

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MULTITHREADING FOR INTERRUPTS ON COMMUNICATION PROCESSORS

    E-print Network

    Lee, Ben

    ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MULTITHREADING FOR INTERRUPTS ON COMMUNICATION PROCESSORS Vinu a modest improvement to proc- essing performance. However, our analysis also shows that multithreading, such as Ethernet, ATM, USB, and HDLC. Keywords: Multithreading, UDP/IP, device driver, inter- rupt processing

  4. Timing for distribution and interrupt control for the TOPAZ Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, H.; Enomoto, R.; Kawabata, S.; Yamauchi, M.; Imanishi, A.; Ishii, T.; Maruyama, K.; Masuda, H.; Okumo, H.; Ukai, K.

    1987-02-01

    In order to provide a standardized control for the data acquisition system for the TOPAZ detector, a Timing Server/Receiver scheme was developed. The entire system is under control of the Interrupt Control Section, which manages an integral operation of the data acquisition system in the FASTBUS environment.

  5. [Delays and treatment interruptions: difficulties in administering radiotherapy in an ideal time-period].

    PubMed

    González San Segundo, Carmen; Calvo Manuel, Felipe A; Santos Miranda, Juan Antonio

    2005-03-01

    Prescribed total radiation dose should be administered within in a specific time-frame and delays in commencing treatment and/or unplanned interruptions in radiation delivery are unacceptable because, in certain cancer sites, treatment-time prolongation can have a deleterious effect on local tumour control, and on patient outcomes. The present review evaluated the causes of initial treatment delays as well as interruptions in the scheduled radiotherapy. The literature search highlighted a significant concern in avoiding treatment-time prolongation in head and neck, cervix, breast and lung cancer. Among the causes involved in delay in radiotherapy commencement factors such as waiting lists, lack of material and human resources, and an increase complexity in planning, simulation and verification are highlighted. Most authors recommend radiotherapy commencement as soon as possible in radical (exclusive irradiation with active tumour present) and palliative situations with a maximum delay of no more than 6 to 8 weeks in the case of adjuvant radiotherapy (post-resection) programs. Interruptions during the course of treatment include: planned unit maintenance and servicing, acute patient toxicity or unexpected malfunction of linear accelerators; this last feature has the most deleterious effect on patients as well as radiotherapy practitioners. Interruptions that impact on the programmed time-course for radiotherapy needs to be compensated-for so as assure the biological equivalence in treatment efficacy with respect to cancer site and stage. PMID:15899208

  6. Optimal design of gas circuit breaker for increasing the small current interruption capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Kyu Kim; Kyong-Yop Park; Chang-Hwan Im; Hyun-Kyo Jung

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the optimal shape design of gas circuit breaker to improve the small current interruption capability. The objective function is the minimal difference between the withstanding voltage and the applied voltage. To obtain the dynamic gas properties, the axisymmetric Euler equations are solved using the finite volume fluid-in-cell method and the withstanding voltage is calculated from the gas

  7. 1D Cahn-Hilliard dynamics : coarsening and interrupted Simon Villain-Guillot

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1D Cahn-Hilliard dynamics : coarsening and interrupted coarsening Simon Villain-Guillot Laboratoire or super-crystal. We show that this is the case for a modified Cahn-Hilliard dynamics due to Oono which for the equation of Oono[4], which is particularly well suited to describe the dynamics of systems with a modulated

  8. 40 CFR 53.54 - Test for proper sampler operation following power interruptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Testing Physical (Design) and Performance Characteristics of Reference Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 § 53.54 Test for proper sampler operation following power interruptions. (a) Overview....

  9. 40 CFR 53.54 - Test for proper sampler operation following power interruptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Testing Physical (Design) and Performance Characteristics of Reference Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 § 53.54 Test for proper sampler operation following power interruptions. (a) Overview....

  10. 40 CFR 53.54 - Test for proper sampler operation following power interruptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Testing Physical (Design) and Performance Characteristics of Reference Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 § 53.54 Test for proper sampler operation following power interruptions. (a) Overview....

  11. Response Interruption and Redirection for Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism: A Systematic Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassella, Megan Duffy; Sidener, Tina M.; Sidener, David W.; Progar, Patrick R.

    2011-01-01

    This study systematically replicated and extended previous research on response interruption and redirection (RIRD) by assessing instructed responses of a different topography than the target behavior, percentage of session spent in treatment, generalization of behavior reduction, and social validity of the intervention. Results showed that RIRD…

  12. A Methodology and Design Process for System Generated User Interruption based on Context, Preferences, and Situation

    E-print Network

    Madiraju, Praveen

    with the growing popularity of pervasive and context aware systems, intelligent phones, smart homes and otherA Methodology and Design Process for System Generated User Interruption based on Context Engineering University of Dayton 300 College Park, Dayton, Ohio 45469-0226 {godbolas, Waleed

  13. The Effects of Matched Stimulation and Response Interruption and Redirection on Vocal Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica J.; Miguel, Caio F.; Fernand, Jonathan K.; LaBrie, Jillian K.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypy has been classified as repetitive behavior that does not serve any apparent function. Two procedures that have been found to reduce rates of vocal stereotypy effectively are response interruption and redirection (RIRD) and noncontingent access to matched stimulation (MS). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of…

  14. Evaluation of the Immediate and Subsequent Effects of Response Interruption and Redirection on Vocal Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Brittany I.; Rapp, John T.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated 2 3-component multiple-schedule sequences--a response interruption and redirection (RIRD) treatment sequence and a no-interaction control sequence--using a multielement design. With this design, we were able to evaluate the immediate and subsequent effects of RIRD on 2 participants' vocal stereotypy. For both participants, RIRD…

  15. ELSEVIER Marine Geology 153 (1999) 337343 Eastern Mediterranean sapropel S1 interruption: an expression of the

    E-print Network

    Rohling, Eelco

    years 14 Cnc BP, are genuine and related to climatic deterioration. This interpretation is endorsed pre- ceded the onset of sapropel formation around 8300 years 14 Cnc BP (14 Cnc D radiocarbon years years 14 Cnc BP, and the interruption was found between 7100 and 6900 years 14 Cnc BP. Benthic

  16. A Model for Human Interruptability: Experimental Evaluation and Automatic Estimation from Wearable Sensors

    E-print Network

    the data from a microphone, 12 body-worn 3D acceler- ation sensors, and a location estimation. We haveA Model for Human Interruptability: Experimental Evaluation and Automatic Estimation from Wearable {kern,antifakos,schiele}@inf.ethz.ch Adrian Schwaninger Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics

  17. Interruptions between the triple helix peptides can promote the formation of amyloid-like fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Avanish; Hwang, Eileen; Brodsky, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    It has been reported that collagen can initiate or accelerate the formation of amyloid fibrils. Non-fibrillar collagen types have sites where the repeating (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)n sequences are interrupted by non- Gly-Xaa-Yaa sequences, and we are investigating the hypothesis that some of these interruptions can promote amyloid formation. Our experimental data show that model peptides containing an 8 or 9 residue interruption sequence between (Gly-Pro-Hyp)n domains have a strong propensity for self association to form fibrous structures. A peptide containing only the 9-residue interruption sequence forms amyloid like fibrils with anti-parallel ? sheet. Computational analysis predicts that 33 out of 374 naturally occurring human non-fibrillar collagen sequences within or between triple-helical sequences have significant cross-? aggregation potential, including the 8 and 9 residue sequences studied in peptides. Further studies are in progress to investigate whether a triple-helix peptide promotes amyloidogenesis and whether amyloid interferes with collagen fibrillogenesis.

  18. The effects of periodic interruptions of physical activities on the physical capacities of adult active women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrícia Greve; Fabio da Silva Wanderley; José Rubens Rebelatto

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity programs adapted to the elderly have been proposed with the purpose of minimizing the alterations provoked by aging. These programs usually present break periods of more than 30 days, at least once a year. The aim of this study was to verify if 30-day interruptions cause alterations in the acquisition of physical capacities for senescent women. The study

  19. Mitigating Disruptive Effects of Interruptions through Training: What Needs to Be Practiced?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cades, David M.; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A.; Trafton, J. Gregory; Monk, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    It is generally accepted that, with practice, people improve on most tasks. However, when tasks have multiple parts, it is not always clear what aspects of the tasks practice or training should focus on. This research explores the features that allow training to improve the ability to resume a task after an interruption, specifically focusing on…

  20. A gunner model for an AAA tracking task with interrupted observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. F.; Wei, K. C.; Vikmanis, M.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of modeling a trained human operator's tracking performance in an anti-aircraft system under various display blanking conditions is discussed. The input to the gunner is the observable tracking error subjected to repeated interruptions (blanking). A simple and effective gunner model was developed. The effect of blanking on the gunner's tracking performance is approached via modeling the observer and controller gains.

  1. Acoustic Predictors of Intelligibility for Segmentally Interrupted Speech: Temporal Envelope, Voicing, and Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogerty, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Temporal interruption limits the perception of speech to isolated temporal glimpses. An analysis was conducted to determine the acoustic parameter that best predicts speech recognition from temporal fragments that preserve different types of speech information--namely, consonants and vowels. Method: Young listeners with normal hearing…

  2. Assigning Student Leaders: Decreasing Interruptions during Teacher-Led Small-Group Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Jeremy T.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Best, Tiffany L.; Wood, Allison; Luna, Elisa; Adcock, Wes

    2013-01-01

    The authors used a withdrawal design to evaluate an intervention designed to decrease interruptions during small-group instruction in a Kindergarten class. A new rule was put into place; during teacher-led small-group instruction, those not in the small group were required to address questions to designated student leaders, as opposed to…

  3. Comparison Groups in Short Interrupted Time-Series: An Illustration Evaluating No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Manyee; Cook, Thomas D.; Steiner, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    Interrupted time-series (ITS) are often used to assess the causal effect of a planned or even unplanned shock introduced into an on-going process. The pre-intervention slope is supposed to index the causal counterfactual, and deviations from it in mean, slope or variance are used to indicate an effect. However, a secure causal inference is only…

  4. Aging correlation functions of the interrupted fractional Fokker-Planck propagator

    E-print Network

    Cao, Jianshu

    Aging correlation functions of the interrupted fractional Fokker-Planck propagator James B The authors explore aging in a general semi-Markov process with arbitrary waiting time distributions coordination, but one can generalize the construction to incorporate cutoffs in the aging of the system, i

  5. Interrupted Maternal Education and Child Health: The Long Run Health Impact of the Chinese Cultural Revolution

    E-print Network

    Levinson, David M.

    -1961, the greatest famine in human history. Key Words: Mother's Education, Child Health, Chinese Cultural Revolution health status, is closely correlated with mental development, adult health, educational attainmentInterrupted Maternal Education and Child Health: The Long Run Health Impact of the Chinese Cultural

  6. Electrolytic Hydrogen Evolution in DMFCs Induced by Oxygen Interruptions and Its Effect on Cell Performance

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Electrolytic Hydrogen Evolution in DMFCs Induced by Oxygen Interruptions and Its Effect on Cell; revised manuscript received December 24, 2004. Available electronically March 1, 2005. Because direct oxidation of methanol is sluggish; hence, highly reactive anodic catalysts are needed. The second, more seri

  7. Formal homologous aldol reactions: interrupting the Nazarov cyclization via carboalkoxylation of alkynes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yen-Ku; West, F G

    2014-05-01

    Reactions between 1,4-pentadien-3-ones and aryl acetylenes in the presence of BF3·OEt2 furnish ?-phenacyl cyclopentanones via a domino electrocyclization/carboalkoxylation reaction sequence. The overall process underscores a new mode of interrupted Nazarov trapping, where two new carbon-carbon bonds are installed with concomitant formation of carbonyl functionality. PMID:24735109

  8. The mechanism study of jet stream interrupter gap lightning protection device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jufeng Wang; Zhidu Huang; Zhouping Chen; Jie Tang; Yanlei Wang

    2010-01-01

    To address the problem of lightning struck on overhead transmission lines, a kind of jet stream interrupter gap lightning protection device (JSIGLPD) installed in the overhead transmission lines was developed. When lightning struck on the transmission line and cause AC flashover of insulator strings, the device is able to quickly cut off the frequency freewheeling, and effectively protect the insulator

  9. Study of a new Jet Stream Interrupter Gap Lightning Protection Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jufeng Wang; Mengni Long

    2011-01-01

    To avoid the overhead transmission lines suffering from the harm of lighting, a new type of Jet Stream Interrupter Gap Lightning Protection Device (JSGLPD) has been developed and applied, which is applied on 10Kv and 35Kv transmission lines. Improved mayr arc model is formulated to simulate the arc extinguishing capacity of by JSGLPD, when the arc is produced by Grounding

  10. Interruptibility of long call production in tamarins: implications for vocal control.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cory T; Flusberg, Stephen; Hauser, Marc D

    2003-08-01

    Vocal production can be highly deterministic, such that once the central nervous system generates a signal to call, the vocalization is emitted immune to external events. Conversely, vocal production can be modulated by auditory feedback such that interference or disruption can cause an individual to stop calling or, if it continues to call, for the acoustic morphology of the signal to change. To explore which of these models best accounts for the control of vocal production in non-human primates, we adapted an interruption technique originally developed for songbirds for use with a New World monkey species, the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus). Results from a pilot experiment indicated that an auditory stimulus (white noise) was more effective than a visual stimulus (strobe light) at interrupting the tamarin's species-typical 'combination long call (CLC)'. Data from a second experiment showed that although the duration of the auditory stimulus did not affect the proportion of interruptions that occurred, a 1000 ms white noise stimulus perturbed the temporal structure of the CLC to a greater extent than did a 250 ms white noise stimulus. Furthermore, when call production was interrupted, tamarins stopped vocalizing after the completion of a syllable, suggesting that the syllable represents a unit of organization within the call. Overall, these results provide evidence that tamarins can modify their vocal output based on external events, but the degree of vocal control is significantly less than in oscine songbirds. PMID:12819269

  11. Mathematical Modeling of Current-Interrupt and Pulse Operation of Valve-Regulated Lead Acid Cells

    E-print Network

    Mathematical Modeling of Current-Interrupt and Pulse Operation of Valve-Regulated Lead Acid Cells Electric and hybrid electric vehicles use valve-regulated lead acid VRLA cells that are subjected the last decade, advanced batteries have re- ceived much attention. At present, only the valve-regulated

  12. Conversations Amidst Computing: A Study of Interruptions and Recovery of Task Activity

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, Eric

    behavior of computer users. We report on several findings, including the timing of the resumption of tasks the influence of interruptions on computing activities. DART was constructed on top of Eve, a set of user and logs user activities, including engagement with software applications, switches among windows

  13. Interrupted time-series analysis and its application to behavioral data

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Donald P.; Gottman, John M.; Jones, Richard R.; Gardner, William; Kazdin, Alan E.; Vaught, Russell S.

    1980-01-01

    This paper uses a question-and-answer format to present the technical aspects of interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA). Topics include the potential relevance of ITSA to behavioral researchers, serial dependency, time-series models, tests of significance, and sources of ITSA information. PMID:16795632

  14. TELEPHONE BOMB THREAT REPORT FORM INSTRUCTIONS: Be calm. Be courteous. Listen. Do not interrupt the caller.

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    TELEPHONE BOMB THREAT REPORT FORM INSTRUCTIONS: Be calm. Be courteous. Listen. Do not interrupt for caller (Try to ask these questions and document responses) When will the bomb explode? What kind of bomb is it? What will cause the bomb to explode? Where is the bomb located? What does the bomb look like? Did

  15. OCTL Laser Beam Transmission Interruptions due to Aircraft and Predictive Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, A.; Roberts, W. T.; Kovalik, J. M.; Wright, M. W.

    2012-11-01

    Laser beam transmission from the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) at Table Mountain, California, is required in order to provide a beacon source for optical link acquisition between spacecraft carrying laser communication terminals and OCTL. The laser transmission must be regulated in order to avoid inadvertent irradiation of overflying aircraft or spacecraft. In this article, we present an analysis and data to determine the frequency and duration of laser transmission interruptions so that future laser communication operations can be planned. A week's worth of aircraft flight-path data in the vicinity of OCTL was obtained from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The FAA data were analyzed, along with simulated Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft predicted orbital data, in order to determine the frequency of laser transmission interruptions. An upper bound of five interruptions per 15-min period was observed due to aircraft overflights. Under more favorable conditions, a 15-min pass to the LADEE spacecraft could encounter no interruptions due to aircraft. The analysis was corroborated with "ground-truth" measurements at OCTL, using the existing laser safety system sensors and radar, to monitor aircraft that intercept a plus-or-minus 2.5-deg exclusion zone around the boresight axis of the OCTL telescope. The frequency of interruptions obtained from this data was in agreement with the predictions obtained using the FAA data analysis. Furthermore, the ground observation confirmed typical interrupt durations of 3 to 5 s due to overflying aircraft. This sets a lower bound for the fractional duration of the shoot window to be approximately 98 percent. Predictive avoidance (PA) data obtained from the Laser Clearing House (LCH) for approximately one month with the Moon as a target was analyzed. Note that the difference between using the Moon as a target versus simulated LADEE spacecraft orbital data is that the Moon line of sight is continuous from moonrise to moonset, whereas the line of sight to the spacecraft is interrupted due to occultation of the spacecraft by the Moon. The limited LCH data analysis presented indicates that though greater than 90 percent of laser shoot windows can be accessed nearly two-thirds of the time, it can drop to 60 to 90 percent approximately one-third of the time, with a single instance when it dropped to 32 percent.

  16. GaN:Eu electroluminescent devices grown by interrupted growth epitaxy C. Munasinghe, A.J. Steckl *

    E-print Network

    Steckl, Andrew J.

    with both silicon and glass substrates. In this paper, we discuss GaN:Eu IGE on (111) Si and glassGaN:Eu electroluminescent devices grown by interrupted growth epitaxy C. Munasinghe, A.J. Steckl In this paper we report on electroluminescent devices fabricated using Eu-doped GaN films grown by interrupted

  17. Interrupt Service Threads - A New Approach to Handle Multiple Hard Real-Time Events on a Multithreaded Microcontroller

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Brinkschulte; C. Krakowski; J. Kreuzinger

    1999-01-01

    We propose a new event handling mechanism based on a multithreaded microcontroller, that allows efficient han- dling of concurrent events with hard real-time require- ments. Real-time threads are used as interrupt service threads (ISTs) instead of interrupt service routines (ISRs) and are executed on a multithreaded microcontroller. Sev- eral thread priority schemes are managed in hardware, in particular, we propose

  18. 43 CFR 3481.4-1 - Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...3481.4-1 Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as...

  19. 43 CFR 3481.4-1 - Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...3481.4-1 Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as...

  20. 43 CFR 3481.4-1 - Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...3481.4-1 Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as...

  1. 43 CFR 3481.4-1 - Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as producing...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...3481.4-1 Can I temporarily interrupt coal severance and still be qualified as...

  2. Multitasking and prospective memory: Resistance to the effect of interruptions in a computer-based student study setting 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jining

    2013-07-02

    interrupted three times while performing four study-related tasks, in addition to an event-based PM task. Our results show that PM, multitasking and multitasking-related behaviours, such as task-switching, were unaffected by interruptions. However, we...

  3. 43 CFR 3481.4-2 - What are some examples of circumstances that qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? 3481.4-2 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? (a) Movement,...

  4. 43 CFR 3481.4-2 - What are some examples of circumstances that qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? 3481.4-2 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? (a) Movement,...

  5. 43 CFR 3481.4-2 - What are some examples of circumstances that qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? 3481.4-2 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? (a) Movement,...

  6. 43 CFR 3481.4-2 - What are some examples of circumstances that qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? 3481.4-2 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...qualify for a temporary interruption of coal severance? (a) Movement,...

  7. Internal temperature gradient of alloy semiconductor melts from interrupted growth experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, R. N.; Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1988-01-01

    Interrupted growth experiments on Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Se alloys were performed in an attempt to estimate the actual internal temperature gradient in the melt during directional solidification. The results have been analyzed in terms of a theoretical model which assumes an axial composition profile characteristic of diffusion controlled solute redistribution during growth. A comparison of the calculated and measured values suggests a reduction in the applied (empty furnace) temperature gradient by about a factor of three. Values of the interface segregation coefficient (k) determined from the phase diagram, predict values of solute concentration build up in the solid during growth interruptions which are inconsistent with measured results. It appears that the k values used tend to underestimate the actual k values for higher alloy compositions and overestimate k for the lower alloy compositions.

  8. LSI Design for Sensing Data Transmission by Interruption in Tactile Sensor Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muroyama, Masanori; Makihata, Mitsutoshi; Matsuzaki, Sakae; Yamada, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Ui; Nakayama, Takahiro; Nonomura, Yutaka; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    This paper proposes a novel tactile sensor system, which acquires sensing data by interrupt data transmission from each tactile sensor element. The interrupt makes decentralized sensing data transmission. Compared with existing centralized tactile sensor systems, the system can handle a large amount of tactile sensor elements and attach the elements on the arbitrary surface of the robot, because decentralized serial bus communication and the integration of a MEMS sensor and a signal processing LSI realize low power consumption, high speed response and flexible network morphology. In this paper, we focus on system analysis and LSI design for the system. Experimental results show that response time and power consumption of a tactile sensor element, which is composed of a MEMS capacitive force sensor and a signal processing LSI, are 21?s and 2mW, respectively. The computational experiments proved that more than thousands of the elements can be mounted in the system.

  9. Phased Array Ghost Elimination (PAGE) for Segmented SSFP Imaging With Interrupted Steady-State

    PubMed Central

    Kellman, Peter; Guttman, Michael A.; Herzka, Daniel A.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2007-01-01

    Steady-state free precession (SSFP) has recently proven to be valuable for cardiac imaging due to its high signal-to-noise ratio and blood-myocardium contrast. Data acquired using ECG-triggered, segmented sequences during the approach to steady-state, or return to steady-state after interruption, may have ghost artifacts due to periodic k-space distortion. Schemes involving several preparatory RF pulses have been proposed to restore steady-state, but these consume imaging time during early systole. Alternatively, the phased-array ghost elimination (PAGE) method may be used to remove ghost artifacts from the first several frames. PAGE was demonstrated for cardiac cine SSFP imaging with interrupted steady-state using a simple alpha/2 magnetization preparation and storage scheme and a spatial tagging preparation. PMID:12465121

  10. Parametric analysis of response interruption and redirection as treatment for stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Saini, Valdeep; Gregory, Meagan K; Uran, Kirstin J; Fantetti, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Response interruption and redirection (RIRD), a procedure in which demands are delivered contingent on stereotypy, has been shown to reduce vocal and motor stereotypy maintained by automatic reinforcement. However, RIRD can be time consuming and can interrupt ongoing activities and access to reinforcement for appropriate behavior. We attempted to address these limitations by comparing the effectiveness of RIRD using the standard 3-demand procedure to RIRD using just 1 demand. Results showed that RIRD with 1 demand was effective in reducing stereotypy for all participants, required fewer demands overall, and resulted in shorter implementation time. In addition, 2 participants showed an increase in appropriate play during RIRD. These results suggest RIRD with 1 demand may be an effective and less intrusive procedure for reducing stereotypy. PMID:25640901

  11. Thermal fatigue due to beam interruptions in a Lead-Bismuth cooled ATW blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F.

    2000-11-15

    Thermal fatigue consequences of frequent accelerator beam interruptions are quantified for both sodium and lead-bismuth cooled blankets in current designs for accelerator transmutation of waste devices. Temperature response was calculated using the SASSYS-1 systems analysis code for an immediate drop in beam current from full power to zero. Coolant temperatures from SASSYS-1 were fed into a multi-node structure temperature calculation to obtain thermal strains for various structural components. Fatigue curves from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code were used to determine the number of cycles that these components could endure, based on these thermal strains. Beam interruption frequency data from a current accelerator were used to estimate design lifetimes for components. Mitigation options for reducing thermal fatigue are discussed.

  12. An exploratory study of the corrosion of Mg alloys during interrupted salt spray testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Chun Zhao; Patrik Schmutz; Samuel Brunner; Ming Liu; Guang-ling Song; Andrej Atrens

    2009-01-01

    A first systematic investigation was carried out to understand the corrosion of common Mg alloys (Pure Mg, AZ31, AZ91, AM30, AM60, ZE41) exposed to interrupted salt spray. The corrosion rates were also evaluated for these alloys immersed in 3wt.% NaCl by measuring hydrogen evolution and an attempt was made to estimate the corrosion rate using Tafel extrapolation of the cathodic

  13. Production and protein kinase C activation of diacylglycerols containing polymethylene-interrupted PUFA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-ichi Morishige; Yoshimichi Takai; Kaoru Hirano; Tamotsu Tanaka; Kiyoshi Satouchi

    2005-01-01

    Sciadonic acid (20?3, ?-5c,11c,14c) is a polymethylene-interrupted PUFA (PMI-PUFA) that is present in conifer seeds and known to be incorporated into animal\\u000a cells and to accumulate in membrane PI as a substitute for arachidonate. In this study, we investigated whether PI having\\u000a sciadonate could serve as source of DAG that could activate protein kinase C (PKC). When Swiss 3T3 cells

  14. Factors associated with interruption of treatment among Pulmonary Tuberculosis patients in Plateau State, Nigeria. 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Luka Mangveep; Hadejia, Idris Suleiman; Nguku, Patrick; Dankoli, Raymond; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Akhimien, Moses Obiemen; Ogiri, Samuel; Oyemakinde, Akin; Dalhatu, Ibrahim; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nigeria has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens in the world with estimated incidence of 133 per 100,000 populations. Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) is an emerging threat of the TB control in Nigeria caused mainly by incomplete treatment. This study explored factors that affect adherence to treatment among patients undergoing direct observation of TB treatment in Plateau state, Nigeria. Methods Between June and July 2011, we reviewed medical records and interviewed randomly selected pulmonary TB patients in their eighth month of treatment. Information on patients? clinical, socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics was collected using checklist and structured questionnaire for knowledge of treatment duration and reasons for interruption of treatment. We conducted focus group discussions with patients about barriers to treatment adherence. Data were analyzed with Epi Info software. Results Of 378 records reviewed, 229 (61%) patients were male; mean age 37.6 ±13.5 years and 71 (19%) interrupted their treatment. Interruption of treatment was associated with living > 5 km from TB treatment site (AOR: 11.3; CI 95%: 5.7-22.2), lack of knowledge of duration of treatment (AOR: 6.1; CI 95%: 2.8-13.2) and cigarette smoking (AOR: 3.4; CI 95%: 1.5- 8.0). Major reasons for the interruption were lack of transport fare (40%) and feeling well (25%). Focused group discussions revealed unfriendly attitudes of health care workers as barriers to adherence to treatment. Conclusion This study revealed knowledge of the patients on the duration of treatment, distance and health workers attitude as the major determinants of adherent to TB treatment. Training for health care workers on patient education was conducted during routine supportive supervision. PMID:24711884

  15. Hormonal markers of stress response following interruption of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Michelson; Jay Amsterdam; Jeffrey Apter; Maurizio Fava; Peter Londborg; Roy Tamura; Lisa Pagh

    2000-01-01

    Depressive illness is associated with loss of the usual regulation of stress-responsive hormonal and neurotransmitter systems, and antidepressants have intrinsic effects reducing the activity of these systems. Abrupt interruption of treatment with some antidepressants has been associated with a self-limited syndrome of physical and psychological symptoms distinct from relapse, of which drug half-life appears to be the major determinant. We

  16. Interrupting Sudden Death: Genes, Medicine, and the Healing Power of Love

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Weber

    2006-01-01

    This autobiographical account centers on a life-threatening medical crisis—a sudden aortic dissection—and the dramatic story of how medical technology, the skill and care of medical professionals, and the support of family and friends all contributed to the interruption of sudden death and to the power of healing. Attention is given to the systemic nature of medical treatment—the challenge of collaboration

  17. Effect of cyclic flow interruptions on performance of vertically directed miscible floods

    SciTech Connect

    Adamache, I. (Adamache Petroeng Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Kantzas, A. (Novacor Research and Technology Corp., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); McIntyre, F.; Sigmund, P.

    1994-02-01

    Spatial variation in permeability can result in a wide range of critical rates in heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs undergoing vertical miscible floods. Such situations provide an opportunity for new design strategies where gravity, viscosity, and forces are used to advantage to improve miscible flood performance. One such design strategy is use of cyclic interruptions in the from of well flow shut-in. Field observations and laboratory experiments are presented.

  18. Evaluation of the immediate and subsequent effects of response interruption and redirection on vocal stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Brittany I; Rapp, John T

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated 2 3-component multiple-schedule sequences-a response interruption and redirection (RIRD) treatment sequence and a no-interaction control sequence-using a multielement design. With this design, we were able to evaluate the immediate and subsequent effects of RIRD on 2 participants' vocal stereotypy. For both participants, RIRD produced an immediate decrease in vocal stereotypy and did not result in a subsequent increase. PMID:21941405

  19. Hybrid palliation of interrupted aortic arch in a high-risk neonate

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Mohsen; Farouk, Ahmed; Golden, Alex; Gilkeson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a high-risk neonate with interrupted aortic arch (IAA) and ventricular septal defect who underwent a successful hybrid palliative procedure using a ductal stent and bilateral branch pulmonary artery banding. This case represents not only a successful use of hybrid approach in high-risk neonates with IAA, but also introduces an alternative and safe access for ductal stent insertion through the right ventricular infundibulum. PMID:20814480

  20. Green leaf volatiles interrupt aggregation pheromone response in bark beetles infesting southern pines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Dickens; R. F. Billings; T. L. Payne

    1992-01-01

    Summary Green leaf volatiles were shown to interrupt responses to aggregation pheromones of three species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) which infest pines in the southern United States [the southern pine beetle,Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.; the four-spined engraver,Ips avulsus (Eichhoff); and the five-spined engraver,Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff)]. The order of effectiveness of the compounds tested for each species was hexanal>hexanal+hexan-1-ol>hexan-1-ol. Neither hexanal,

  1. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses: systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Jefferson; Chris Del Mar; Liz Dooley; Eliana Ferroni; Lubna A Al-Ansary; Ghada A Bawazeer; Mieke L van Driel; Ruth Foxlee; Alessandro Rivetti

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review systematically the evidence of effectiveness of physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses.Data sources Cochrane Library, Medline, OldMedline, Embase, and CINAHL, without restrictions on language or publication.Data selection Studies of any intervention to prevent the transmission of respiratory viruses (isolation, quarantine, social distancing, barriers, personal protection, and hygiene). A search of study designs

  2. Design and testing of a phototype water-cooled vacuum interrupter for use in superconducting magnet protection circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    A water-cooled vacuum interrupter was designed and tested for use at 25 kA and 10 kV. This device is expected to have a lifetime approximately one order of magnitude greater than commercial dc circuit breakers. Testing showed that, although the device could successfully carry and interrupt 25 kA, interruption reliabililty was only about 95% with a 10 kV recovery voltage. In addition, a structural crack developed in one electrode from either thermal or mechanical stresses or a combination thereof. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Effects of Light Interruption on Sleep and Viability of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenxing; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2014-01-01

    Light is a very important regulator of the daily sleep rhythm. Here, we investigate the influence of nocturnal light stimulation on Drosophila sleep. Results showed that total daytime sleep was reduced due to a decrease in daytime sleep episode duration caused by discontinuous light stimulation, but sleep was not strongly impacted at nighttime although the discontinuous light stimulation occurred during the scotophase. During a subsequent recovery period without light interruption, the sleep quality of nighttime sleep was improved and of daytime sleep reduced, indicating flies have a persistent response to nocturnal light stimulation. Further studies showed that the discontinuous light stimulation damped the daily rhythm of a circadian light-sensitive protein cryptochrome both at the mRNA and protein levels, which subsequently caused disappearance of circadian rhythm of the core oscillator timeless and decrease of TIMLESS protein at nighttime. These data indicate that the nocturnal light interruption plays an important role in sleep through core proteins CRYTOCHROME and TIMLESS, Moreover, interruption of sleep further impacted reproduction and viability. PMID:25148297

  4. INTERRUPTION OF TIDAL-DISRUPTION FLARES BY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F. K.; Li, S.; Chen Xian, E-mail: fkliu@bac.pku.edu.c, E-mail: lis@bac.pku.edu.c, E-mail: chenx@bac.pku.edu.c [Astronomy Department, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China)

    2009-11-20

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are products of galaxy mergers, and are important in testing LAMBDA cold dark matter cosmology and locating gravitational-wave-radiation sources. A unique electromagnetic signature of SMBHBs in galactic nuclei is essential in identifying the binaries in observations from the IR band through optical to X-ray. Recently, the flares in optical, UV, and X-ray caused by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) tidally disrupting nearby stars have been successfully used to observationally probe single SMBHs in normal galaxies. In this Letter, we investigate the accretion of the gaseous debris of a tidally disrupted star by a SMBHB. Using both stability analysis of three-body systems and numerical scattering experiments, we show that the accretion of stellar debris gas, which initially decays with time propor tot {sup -5/3}, would stop at a time T{sub tr} approx = etaT{sub b}. Here, eta approx 0.25 and T{sub b} is the orbital period of the SMBHB. After a period of interruption, the accretion recurs discretely at time T{sub r} approx = xi{sub b}, where xi approx 1. Both eta and xi sensitively depend on the orbital parameters of the tidally disrupted star at the tidal radius and the orbit eccentricity of SMBHB. The interrupted accretion of the stellar debris gas gives rise to an interrupted tidal flare, which could be used to identify SMBHBs in non-active galaxies in the upcoming transient surveys.

  5. Treatment Interruptions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... careful discussion with your health care provider. Viral load and CD4 cell levels should be carefully monitored. ... develop an AIDS-related infection. Also, the viral load will probably climb and the CD4 count will ...

  6. Correlation of shape changes of grain surfaces and reversible stress evolution during interruptions of polycrystalline film growth

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hang Z.; Thompson, Carl V., E-mail: cthomp@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-04-07

    Short interruptions of the growth of polycrystalline films often lead to stress evolution that is reversed when growth is resumed. Correlated in situ stress measurements and ex situ transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy characterizations of grain boundary surface grooves as a function of the interruption time are reported for films deposited at different temperatures and held for different times before quenching to room temperature. These studies suggest that during film deposition surface grooves at grain boundaries are kinetically constrained to be shallow, while during a growth interruption surface diffusion allows grain boundary grooves to deepen and approach their equilibrium depth. The latter relieves a component of the compressive stress associated with trapped atoms in the grain boundaries. When growth is resumed, the non-equilibrium surface morphology is reestablished and the compressive stress increases to its pre-interruption value.

  7. Mitigating errors caused by interruptions during medication verification and administration: interventions in a simulated ambulatory chemotherapy setting

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Varuna; Koczmara, Christine; Savage, Pamela; Trip, Katherine; Stewart, Janice; McCurdie, Tara; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Trbovich, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background Nurses are frequently interrupted during medication verification and administration; however, few interventions exist to mitigate resulting errors, and the impact of these interventions on medication safety is poorly understood. Objective The study objectives were to (A) assess the effects of interruptions on medication verification and administration errors, and (B) design and test the effectiveness of targeted interventions at reducing these errors. Methods The study focused on medication verification and administration in an ambulatory chemotherapy setting. A simulation laboratory experiment was conducted to determine interruption-related error rates during specific medication verification and administration tasks. Interventions to reduce these errors were developed through a participatory design process, and their error reduction effectiveness was assessed through a postintervention experiment. Results Significantly more nurses committed medication errors when interrupted than when uninterrupted. With use of interventions when interrupted, significantly fewer nurses made errors in verifying medication volumes contained in syringes (16/18; 89% preintervention error rate vs 11/19; 58% postintervention error rate; p=0.038; Fisher's exact test) and programmed in ambulatory pumps (17/18; 94% preintervention vs 11/19; 58% postintervention; p=0.012). The rate of error commission significantly decreased with use of interventions when interrupted during intravenous push (16/18; 89% preintervention vs 6/19; 32% postintervention; p=0.017) and pump programming (7/18; 39% preintervention vs 1/19; 5% postintervention; p=0.017). No statistically significant differences were observed for other medication verification tasks. Conclusions Interruptions can lead to medication verification and administration errors. Interventions were highly effective at reducing unanticipated errors of commission in medication administration tasks, but showed mixed effectiveness at reducing predictable errors of detection in medication verification tasks. These findings can be generalised and adapted to mitigate interruption-related errors in other settings where medication verification and administration are required. PMID:24906806

  8. Electric Power Interruption Cost Estimates for Individual Industries, Sectors, and the U.S. Economy

    E-print Network

    Balducci, P. J.; Roop, J. M.; Schienbein, L. A.; DeSteese, J. G.; Weimar, M. R.

    2001) U.S. 2001 Entire U.S. Economy - US$119 Billion Annually Gannon (Gannon 1976) U.S. 1976 Industrial - US$2.68/kWh Commercial- US$7.21/kWh Jenkins, Lim and Shukla (Jenkins et al. 1999) Mexico 1999 Industrial - US$I.2/kWh Commercial- US$0.75/k.... Palo Alto, CA. (200 I). 6. Gannon, P. Cost of Interruptions: Economic Evaluation of Reliability. I&CPS Technical Conference, Los Angeles, California. (1976). 7. Jenkins, G., Lim, H. and Shukla, P. Evaluation of an Expansion of the Electricity...

  9. Understanding the cost of power interruptions to U.S. electricity consumers

    SciTech Connect

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Eto, Joseph H.

    2004-09-01

    The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern United States and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 resulted in the U.S. electricity system being called ''antiquated'' and catalyzed discussions about modernizing the grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of $50 to $100 billion would be needed. This report seeks to quantify an important piece of information that has been missing from these discussions: how much do power interruptions and fluctuations in power quality (power-quality events) cost U.S. electricity consumers? Accurately estimating this cost will help assess the potential benefits of investments in improving the reliability of the grid. We develop a comprehensive end-use framework for assessing the cost to U.S. electricity consumers of power interruptions and power-quality events (referred to collectively as ''reliability events''). The framework expresses these costs as a function of: (1) Number of customers by type in a region; (2) Frequency and type of reliability events experienced annually (including both power interruptions and power-quality events) by these customers; (3) Cost of reliability events; and (4) Vulnerability of customers to these events. The framework is designed so that its cost estimate can be improved as additional data become available. Using our framework, we estimate that the national cost of power interruptions is about $80 billion annually, based on the best information available in the public domain. However, there are large gaps in and significant uncertainties about the information currently available. Notably, we were not able to develop an estimate of power-quality events. Sensitivity analysis of some of these uncertainties suggests that the total annual cost could range from less than $30 billion to more than $130 billion. Because of this large range and the enormous cost of the decisions that may be based on this estimate, we encourage policy makers, regulators, and industry to jointly under take the comparatively modest-cost improvements needed in the information used to estimate the cost of reliability events. Specific areas for improvement include: coordinated, nationwide collection of updated information on the cost of reliability events; consistent definition and recording of the duration and frequency of reliability events, including power-quality events; and improved information on the costs of and efforts by consumers to reduce their vulnerability to reliability events.

  10. Electric Power Interruption Cost Estimates for Individual Industries, Sectors, and U.S. Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; DeSteese, John G.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2002-02-27

    During the last 20 years, utilities and researchers have begun to understand the value in the collection and analysis of interruption cost data. The continued investigation of the monetary impact of power outages will facilitate the advancement of the analytical methods used to measure the costs and benefits from the perspective of the energy consumer. More in-depth analysis may be warranted because of the privatization and deregulation of power utilities, price instability in certain regions of the U.S. and the continued evolution of alternative auxiliary power systems.

  11. Growth Interruption Effect on the Fabrication of GaAs Concentric Multiple Rings by Droplet Epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We present the molecular beam epitaxy fabrication and optical properties of complex GaAs nanostructures by droplet epitaxy: concentric triple quantum rings. A significant difference was found between the volumes of the original droplets and the final GaAs structures. By means of atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy, we found that a thin GaAs quantum well-like layer is developed all over the substrate during the growth interruption times, caused by the migration of Ga in a low As background. PMID:21170414

  12. [Robotically and video-assisted thoracoscopic interruption of patent ductus arteriosus].

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Kagami

    2006-07-01

    Over the past decade, video-assisted thoracoscopic techniques have been used in the pediatric population. Recently, the computer-enhanced robotic system has been applied to video-assisted thoracoscopic interruption of patent ductus arteriosus (VATS-PDA). We focused on the utility of a voice-controlled robotic arm (automated endoscope system for optimal positioning: AESOP 3000) in VATS-PDA. Thirteen infants weighing 4.2 approximately 12.6 (mean 6.6) kg underwent robotically assisted VATS-PDA. Robotically assisted VATS-PDA is comparable with closure by means of the conventional video-assisted thoracoscopic technique. PMID:16910511

  13. Temporal evolution of neoclassical tearing modes in the frequently interrupted regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumbrajs, O.; Igochine, V.; Gude, A.; Maraschek, M.; Zohm, H.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2010-04-01

    A phenomenological method for description of temporal evolution of neoclassical tearing modes in the frequently interrupted regime (FIR) is proposed. The method makes it possible to predict the beginning and the end of the FIR regime as well as the frequency of the FIR drops. A few experimental parameters which are used in the model are commonly measured quantities. Several specific ASDEX Upgrade (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASDEX_Upgrade) FIR discharges with different heating and different FIR behavior are analyzed in detail.

  14. Decreasing Beam Auto Tuning Interruption Events with In-Situ Chemical Cleaning on Axcelis GSD

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Dieter; Spreitzer, Stefan; Vogl, Josef [Infineon Technologies AG., Wernerwerkstr.2, 93049 Regensburg (Germany); Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Kaim, Robert [ATMI Inc., 7 Commerce Drive, Danbury, CT 06810 (United States)

    2008-11-03

    Ion beam auto tuning time and success rate are often major factors in the utilization and productivity of ion implanters. Tuning software frequently fails to meet specified setup times or recipe parameters, causing production stoppages and requiring manual intervention. Build-up of conductive deposits in the arc chamber and extraction gap can be one of the main causes of auto tuning problems. The deposits cause glitching and ion beam instabilities, which lead to errors in the software optimization routines. Infineon Regensburg has been testing use of XeF{sub 2}, an in-situ chemical cleaning reagent, with positive results in reducing auto tuning interruption events.

  15. Mechanism of interrupted saccades in patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease.

    PubMed

    Optican, Lance M; Rucker, Janet C; Keller, Edward L; Leigh, R John

    2008-01-01

    In late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS), saccades are interrupted by one or more transient decelerations. Some saccades reaccelerate and continue on before eye velocity reaches zero, even in darkness. Intervals between successive decelerations are not regularly spaced. Peak decelerations of horizontal and vertical components of oblique saccades in LOTS is more synchronous than those in control subjects. We hypothesize that these decelerations are caused by dysregulation of the fastigial nuclei (FN) of the cerebellum, which fire brain stem inhibitory burst neurons (IBNs). PMID:18718355

  16. Hydrogen-borrowing and interrupted-hydrogen-borrowing reactions of ketones and methanol catalyzed by iridium.

    PubMed

    Shen, Di; Poole, Darren L; Shotton, Camilla C; Kornahrens, Anne F; Healy, Mark P; Donohoe, Timothy J

    2015-01-26

    Reported herein is the use of catalytic [{Ir(cod)Cl}2 ] to facilitate hydrogen-borrowing reactions of ketone enolates with methanol at 65?°C. An oxygen atmosphere accelerates the process, and when combined with the use of a bulky monodentate phosphine ligand, interrupts the catalytic cycle by preventing enone reduction. Subsequent addition of pro-nucleophiles to the reaction mixture allowed a one-pot methylenation/conjugate addition protocol to be developed, which greatly expands the range of products that can be made by this methodology. PMID:25491653

  17. Hydrogen-Borrowing and Interrupted-Hydrogen-Borrowing Reactions of Ketones and Methanol Catalyzed by Iridium**

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Di; Poole, Darren L; Shotton, Camilla C; Kornahrens, Anne F; Healy, Mark P; Donohoe, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Reported herein is the use of catalytic [{Ir(cod)Cl}2] to facilitate hydrogen-borrowing reactions of ketone enolates with methanol at 65 °C. An oxygen atmosphere accelerates the process, and when combined with the use of a bulky monodentate phosphine ligand, interrupts the catalytic cycle by preventing enone reduction. Subsequent addition of pro-nucleophiles to the reaction mixture allowed a one-pot methylenation/conjugate addition protocol to be developed, which greatly expands the range of products that can be made by this methodology. PMID:25491653

  18. The Effect of Interrupts on Software Pipeline Execution on Message-Passing Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Sarukkai, Sekhar R.; Mehra, Pankaj; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Pipelining is a common strategy for extracting parallelism from a collection of independent computational tasks, each of which is spread among a number of processors and has an implied data dependence. When implemented on MIMD parallel computers with finite process interrupt times, pipeline algorithms suffer from slowdown--in addition to the expected pipeline fill time--due to a wave-like propagation of delays. This phenomenon, which has been observed experimentally using the performance monitoring system AIMS, is investigated analytically, and an optimal correction is derived to eliminate the wave. Efficiency increase through the correction is verified experimentally.

  19. Differential radiosensitivity in cultured B-16 melanoma cells following interrupted melanogenesis induced by glucosamine

    SciTech Connect

    Mileo, A.M.; Mattei, E.; Fanuele, M.; Delpino, A.; Ferrini, U. (Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy))

    1989-05-01

    The relationship between cell pigmentation and radiosensitivity was investigated in a cell model in which melanogenesis was suppressed by a glycosylation inhibitor. It was found that X-irradiation of melanotic B-16 melanoma cells and their amelanotic counterparts, obtained by glucosamine treatment, showed an inverse correlation between radiosensitivity and melanin contents. Since melanogenesis interruption by glucosamine does not affect the DNA repair capacity of nonpigmented cells, it is likely that intracellular melanins play a role in the relative resistance of pigmented cells to X-irradiation.

  20. Catalysis and chemodivergence in the interrupted, formal homo-Nazarov cyclization using allylsilanes.

    PubMed

    Shenje, Raynold; Williams, Corey W; Francois, Katherine M; France, Stefan

    2014-12-19

    A chemodivergent, Lewis acid catalyzed allylsilane interrupted formal homo-Nazarov cyclization is disclosed. With catalytic amounts of SnCl4 and in the presence of allyltrimethylsilane, a formal Hosomi-Sakurai-type allylation of the oxyallyl cation intermediate is observed. A variety of functionalized donor-acceptor cyclopropanes and allylsilanes were shown to be amenable to the reaction transformation and the allyl products were formed in up to 92% yield. Under dilute reaction conditions with stoichiometric SnCl4 and at reduced temperatures, an unusual formal [3 + 2]-cycloaddition between the allylsilane and the oxyallyl cation occurred to give hexahydrobenzofuran products in up to 69% yield. PMID:25495709

  1. A chemical synthesis of 11-methoxy mitragynine pseudoindoxyl featuring the interrupted Ugi reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jimin; Schneekloth, John S.

    2013-01-01

    A synthesis of 11-methoxy mitragynine pseudoindoxyl, a new member of the mitragynine class of opioid agonists, from a derivative of the Geissman-Waiss lactone is described. An internal attack of an electron-rich aromatic ring on an electrophilic nitrilium ion and a late-stage construction of the functionalized piperidine ring by the method of reductive cyclization are the pivotal transformations; both ring annulations proceed in a highly diastereoselective fashion. The construction of substituted indoxyl frameworks by the interrupted Ugi method offers an attractive alternative to the strategy of oxidatively rearranging indoles. PMID:23878716

  2. Microsatellite Interruptions Stabilize Primate Genomes and Exist as Population-Specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms within Individual Human Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ananda, Guruprasad; Hile, Suzanne E.; Breski, Amanda; Wang, Yanli; Kelkar, Yogeshwar; Makova, Kateryna D.; Eckert, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Interruptions of microsatellite sequences impact genome evolution and can alter disease manifestation. However, human polymorphism levels at interrupted microsatellites (iMSs) are not known at a genome-wide scale, and the pathways for gaining interruptions are poorly understood. Using the 1000 Genomes Phase-1 variant call set, we interrogated mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats up to 10 units in length. We detected ?26,000–40,000 iMSs within each of four human population groups (African, European, East Asian, and American). We identified population-specific iMSs within exonic regions, and discovered that known disease-associated iMSs contain alleles present at differing frequencies among the populations. By analyzing longer microsatellites in primate genomes, we demonstrate that single interruptions result in a genome-wide average two- to six-fold reduction in microsatellite mutability, as compared with perfect microsatellites. Centrally located interruptions lowered mutability dramatically, by two to three orders of magnitude. Using a biochemical approach, we tested directly whether the mutability of a specific iMS is lower because of decreased DNA polymerase strand slippage errors. Modeling the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene sequence, we observed that a single base substitution interruption reduced strand slippage error rates five- to 50-fold, relative to a perfect repeat, during synthesis by DNA polymerases ?, ?, or ?. Computationally, we demonstrate that iMSs arise primarily by base substitution mutations within individual human genomes. Our biochemical survey of human DNA polymerase ?, ?, ?, ?, and ? error rates within certain microsatellites suggests that interruptions are created most frequently by low fidelity polymerases. Our combined computational and biochemical results demonstrate that iMSs are abundant in human genomes and are sources of population-specific genetic variation that may affect genome stability. The genome-wide identification of iMSs in human populations presented here has important implications for current models describing the impact of microsatellite polymorphisms on gene expression. PMID:25033203

  3. Microsatellite interruptions stabilize primate genomes and exist as population-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms within individual human genomes.

    PubMed

    Ananda, Guruprasad; Hile, Suzanne E; Breski, Amanda; Wang, Yanli; Kelkar, Yogeshwar; Makova, Kateryna D; Eckert, Kristin A

    2014-07-01

    Interruptions of microsatellite sequences impact genome evolution and can alter disease manifestation. However, human polymorphism levels at interrupted microsatellites (iMSs) are not known at a genome-wide scale, and the pathways for gaining interruptions are poorly understood. Using the 1000 Genomes Phase-1 variant call set, we interrogated mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats up to 10 units in length. We detected ?26,000-40,000 iMSs within each of four human population groups (African, European, East Asian, and American). We identified population-specific iMSs within exonic regions, and discovered that known disease-associated iMSs contain alleles present at differing frequencies among the populations. By analyzing longer microsatellites in primate genomes, we demonstrate that single interruptions result in a genome-wide average two- to six-fold reduction in microsatellite mutability, as compared with perfect microsatellites. Centrally located interruptions lowered mutability dramatically, by two to three orders of magnitude. Using a biochemical approach, we tested directly whether the mutability of a specific iMS is lower because of decreased DNA polymerase strand slippage errors. Modeling the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene sequence, we observed that a single base substitution interruption reduced strand slippage error rates five- to 50-fold, relative to a perfect repeat, during synthesis by DNA polymerases ?, ?, or ?. Computationally, we demonstrate that iMSs arise primarily by base substitution mutations within individual human genomes. Our biochemical survey of human DNA polymerase ?, ?, ?, ?, and ? error rates within certain microsatellites suggests that interruptions are created most frequently by low fidelity polymerases. Our combined computational and biochemical results demonstrate that iMSs are abundant in human genomes and are sources of population-specific genetic variation that may affect genome stability. The genome-wide identification of iMSs in human populations presented here has important implications for current models describing the impact of microsatellite polymorphisms on gene expression. PMID:25033203

  4. Fast and interrupted expansion in cyclic void growth in dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Wetering, F. M. J. H.; Brooimans, R. J. C.; Nijdam, S.; Beckers, J.; Kroesen, G. M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Low-pressure acetylene plasmas are able to spontaneously form dust particles. This will result in a dense cloud of solid particles that is levitated in the plasma. The formed particles can grow up to micrometers. We observed a spontaneous interruption in the expansion of the so-called dust void. A dust void is a macroscopic region in the plasma that is free of nanoparticles. The phenomenon is periodical and reproducible. We refer to the expansion interruption as ‘hiccup’. The expanding void is an environment in which a new cycle of dust particle formation can start. At a certain moment in time, this cycle reaches the (sudden) coagulation phase and as a result the void will temporarily shrink. To substantiate this reasoning, the electron density is determined non-intrusively using microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy. Moreover, video imaging of laser light scattering of the dust particles provides their spatial distribution. The emission intensity of a single argon transition is measured similarly. Our results support the aforementioned hypothesis for what happens during the void hiccup. The void dynamics preceding the hiccup are modeled using a simple analytical model for the two dominant forces (ion drag and electric) working on a nanoparticle in a plasma. The model results qualitatively reproduce the measurements.

  5. Customer response to interruptible and curtailable rates: Volume 1, Methodology and results: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Caves, D.W.; Herriges, J.A.; Windle, R.J.

    1988-03-01

    Interruptible or curtailable (I/C) service, one of the fastest growing utility programs, provides the utility with both an innovative rate alternative as well as a demand side management tool. This project examines existing (I/C) programs with the objective of providing information that will enable utilities to plan for future I/C programs. First, the report summarizes the rate and customer characteristics of I/C programs at ten utilities. Second, the report presents a regression technique that can be used to assess load relief provided by customers on I/C rates. The report demonstrates the technique by assessing load relief for each of the ten utilities. Tests of the regression technique showed it to be significantly more accurate than other procedures that are sometimes used. Utilities can implement the regression technique using standard statistical software in conjunction with the RELIEF software that was developed as part of this project. Finally the project examined those customer and program factors that influence load relief. Important customer factors were type of industry and load factor. Important program characteristics were number of interruptions, length of size of credit. 12 refs., 44 figs., 35 tabs.

  6. An interrupted tensile testing at high strain rates for pure copper bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongfang, Ma; Danian, Chen; Shanxing, Wu; Huanran, Wang; Yanjun, Hou; Canyuan, Cai

    2010-12-01

    A high-speed tensile facility (HSTF) invented by us was applied to interrupting the tests for pure copper specimen bars controlled locally at different levels of elongation. It was realized to isolate and identify the different stages of the dynamic fracture process of the pure copper specimen bar under impact tension. The results of scanning electron microscopical (SEM) investigation of the recovered pure copper specimens show that the void evolution near the surface of the minimum cross-section of the necking area is more severe than that at the middle of the necking area, which may be connected with the findings discussed by Alves and Jones [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 47, 643 (1999)]. The constitutive models in a certain range of strain determined from the tensile split Hopkinson bar optimized by us were employed and adjusted in numerically simulating the large deformation of the pure copper specimen in the interrupted tensile tests on HSTF. The dependence of the instability strain of thermoviscoplastic materials in simple tension on material parameters delineated by Batra and Wei [Int. J. Impact Eng. 34, 448 (2007)] was inspected in predicting the diffuse necking of the specimen bar. The axisymmetric necking rod model with a central void under static tension presented by Ragab [Eng. Fract. Mech. 71, 1515 (2004)] was extended to predicting the local necking and fracture of the specimen bar under impact tension.

  7. Characterization of cryobiological responses in TF-1 cells using interrupted freezing procedures.

    PubMed

    Ross-Rodriguez, Lisa U; Elliott, Janet A W; McGann, Locksley E

    2010-04-01

    Cryopreservation currently is the only method for long-term preservation of cellular viability and function for uses in cellular therapies. Characterizing the cryobiological response of a cell type is essential in the approach to designing and optimizing cryopreservation protocols. For cells used in therapies, there is significant interest in designing cryopreservation protocols that do not rely on dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO) as a cryoprotectant, since this cryoprotectant has been shown to have adverse effects on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant patients. This study characterized the cryobiological responses of the human erythroleukemic stem cell line TF-1, as a model for HSC. We measured the osmotic parameters of TF-1 cells, including the osmotically-inactive fraction, temperature-dependent membrane hydraulic conductivity and the membrane permeability to 1M Me(2)SO. A two-step freezing procedure (interrupted rapid cooling with hold time) and a graded freezing procedure (interrupted slow cooling without hold time) were used to characterize TF-1 cell recovery during various phases of the cooling process. One outcome of these experiments was high recovery of TF-1 cells cryopreserved in the absence of traditional cryoprotectants. The results of this study of the cryobiology of TF-1 cells will be critical for future understanding of the cryobiology of HSC, and to the design of cryopreservation protocols with specific design criteria for applications in cellular therapies. PMID:19766619

  8. Increasing the mand repertoire of children with autism through the use of an interrupted chain procedure.

    PubMed

    Albert, Kristin M; Carbone, Vincent J; Murray, Danielle D; Hagerty, Margaret; Sweeney-Kerwin, Emily J

    2012-01-01

    Mand training is an essential component of verbal behavior training for any individual who lacks this skill. The current study replicates and extends, with some procedural differences, the work of Hall and Sundberg (1987) by using an interrupted chain procedure to teach mands for missing items to children with autism. The participants were 3 children with autism, ranging between 5 and 8 years of age, who would regularly mand for a wide variety of reinforcers when they were present but would rarely mand for items that were not in sight (i.e., missing items). Participants were first taught to complete 3 behavior chains. Subsequently, the chains were interrupted by removing 1 item needed to complete each chain to contrive motivating operations (MOs) as a means of teaching mands for missing items. Following mand training incorporating vocal prompt and prompt fading procedures, all participants emitted unprompted mands for the missing items within the context of the trained chains and within the context of novel, untrained chains. After teaching mands for missing items, probes were conducted to test for untrained tact acquisition. All participants also demonstrated tact responses relative to the missing items as a result of the mand training. PMID:23730468

  9. Increasing the Mand Repertoire of Children With Autism Through the Use of an Interrupted Chain Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Kristin M.; Carbone, Vincent J.; Murray, Danielle D.; Hagerty, Margaret; Sweeney-Kerwin, Emily J.

    2012-01-01

    Mand training is an essential component of verbal behavior training for any individual who lacks this skill. The current study replicates and extends, with some procedural differences, the work of Hall and Sundberg (1987) by using an interrupted chain procedure to teach mands for missing items to children with autism. The participants were 3 children with autism, ranging between 5 and 8 years of age, who would regularly mand for a wide variety of reinforcers when they were present but would rarely mand for items that were not in sight (i.e., missing items). Participants were first taught to complete 3 behavior chains. Subsequently, the chains were interrupted by removing 1 item needed to complete each chain to contrive motivating operations (MOs) as a means of teaching mands for missing items. Following mand training incorporating vocal prompt and prompt fading procedures, all participants emitted unprompted mands for the missing items within the context of the trained chains and within the context of novel, untrained chains. After teaching mands for missing items, probes were conducted to test for untrained tact acquisition. All participants also demonstrated tact responses relative to the missing items as a result of the mand training. PMID:23730468

  10. A general framework for understanding the effects of variability and interruptions on foraging behaviour.

    PubMed

    McNamara, J M; Houston, A I

    1987-01-01

    A general framework for analysing the effects of variability and the effects of interruptions on foraging is presented. The animal is characterised by its level of energetic reserves, x. We consider behaviour over a period of time [O,T]. A terminal reward function R(x) determines the expected future reproductive success of an animal with reserves x at time T. For any state x at a time in the period, we give the animal a choice between various options and then constrain it to follow a background strategy. The best option is the one that maximizes expected future reproductive success. Using this framework, we show that sensitivity to variability in amount of energy gained is logically distinct from sensitivity to variability in the time at which food is obtained. We also show that incorporating interruptions results in both a preference for variability in time and a preference for a reward followed by a delay as opposed to the same delay before the reward. PMID:3113143

  11. Cockpit Interruptions and Distractions: An Analysis of ASRS Reports and an Experimental Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. K.; Young, Grant E.; Connors, Mary (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A recent detailed analysis of 107 ASRS incident reports focusing on interruptions and distractions as their primary feature revealed several interesting and surprising findings. Of those tasks that were interfered with, over 40% fell within the category of monitoring; for example, monitoring the autopilot flying the aircraft, monitoring the pilot flying, or monitoring the altimeter or navigation instruments for future action. Surprisingly, over 60% of the tasks that were considered distractions fell under the broad category of communication or conversation. Using these findings, we have developed an experimental paradigm that will help us understand the method by which pilots perform certain monitoring tasks. Specifically, we hope to determine the degree to which pilots rely on internal time mechanisms versus external cues as a means of successfully completing a monitoring task. In addition, we will incorporate a battery of competing aviation type tasks, including communication, to see how these tasks affect the process of monitoring. The long range goal of this research is to find operational solutions that facilitate effective monitoring in the presence of both sudden interruptions and distractions that lead to unintended multiple tasks situations.

  12. Feasibility of global measles eradication after interruption of transmission in the Americas.

    PubMed

    de Quadros, Ciro A; Andrus, Jon Kim; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Castillo-Solórzano, Carlos

    2008-04-01

    Measles is one of the most infectious diseases. Before the introduction of the measles vaccine, nearly all children contracted measles. By the end of the 1980s, most countries of the world had incorporated the measles vaccine into their routine vaccination programs. Globally, some 345,000 deaths due to measles still occur every year. Eradication of measles would play an important role in improving child survival. The goal to eradicate measles from the Americas was set by the Pan-American Sanitary Conference in 1994. Progress to date has been remarkable. Measles is no longer an endemic disease in the Americas and interruption of transmission has been documented in most countries. As of December 2007, 5 years have elapsed since the detection of the last endemic case in Venezuela in November 2002. This experience demonstrates that interruption of measles transmission can be achieved and sustained over a long period of time. Global eradication should be feasible if the appropriate strategies are implemented. Even in a new paradigm in which eradication is not followed by the discontinuation of vaccination, eradication of measles should be a good investment to avoid expensive epidemics and save those children that would potentially die due to infection with the measles virus. It is not only a dream to think that we will see a world free of measles by the year 2015. PMID:18393605

  13. Analysis of interrupted time series mortality trends: an example to evaluate regionalized perinatal care.

    PubMed

    Gillings, D; Makuc, D; Siegel, E

    1981-01-01

    Interrupted time series designs are frequently employed to evaluate program impact. Analysis strategies to determine if shifts have occurred are not well known. The case where statistical fluctuations (errors) may be assumed independent is considered, and a segmented regression methodology presented. The method discussed ia applied to the assessment of changes in local and state perinatal postneonatal mortality to identify historical trends and will be used to evaluate the impact of the North Carolina Regionalized Perinatal Care Program when seven years of post-program mortality data become available. The perinatal program region is contrasted with a control region to provide a basis for interpretation of differences noted. Relevant segmented regression models provided good fits to the data and highlighted mortality trends over the last 30 years. Considerable racial differences in these trends were identified, particularly for postneonatal mortality. Segmented regression is considered relevant for the analysis of interrupted time series designs in other applications when errors can be taken to be independent. Thus, the methodology may be regarded as a general statistical tool for evaluation purposes. PMID:7258429

  14. Interrupting violence: how the CeaseFire Program prevents imminent gun violence through conflict mediation.

    PubMed

    Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Parker, Elizabeth M

    2014-02-01

    Cities are increasingly adopting CeaseFire, an evidence-based public health program that uses specialized outreach workers, called violence interrupters (VIs), to mediate potentially violent conflicts before they lead to a shooting. Prior research has linked conflict mediation with program-related reductions in homicides, but the specific conflict mediation practices used by effective programs to prevent imminent gun violence have not been identified. We conducted case studies of CeaseFire programs in two inner cities using qualitative data from focus groups with 24 VIs and interviews with eight program managers. Study sites were purposively sampled to represent programs with more than 1 year of implementation and evidence of program effectiveness. Staff with more than 6 months of job experience were recruited for participation. Successful mediation efforts were built on trust and respect between VIs and the community, especially high-risk individuals. In conflict mediation, immediate priorities included separating the potential shooter from the intended victim and from peers who may encourage violence, followed by persuading the parties to resolve the conflict peacefully. Tactics for brokering peace included arranging the return of stolen property and emphasizing negative consequences of violence such as jail, death, or increased police attention. Utilizing these approaches, VIs are capable of preventing gun violence and interrupting cycles of retaliation. PMID:23440488

  15. Phasic and Tonic Pain Differentially Impact the Interruptive Function of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sinke, Christopher; Schmidt, Katharina; Forkmann, Katarina; Bingel, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    The interruptive effect of painful experimental stimulation on cognitive processes is a well-known phenomenon. This study investigated the influence of pain duration on the negative effects of pain on cognition. Thirty-four healthy volunteers performed a rapid serial visual presentation task (RSVP) in which subjects had to detect (visual detection task) and count the occurrence of a target letter (working memory task) in two separate sessions while being stimulated on the left volar forearm with either short (2 sec) or long (18 sec) painful heat stimuli of equal subjective intensity. The results show that subjects performed significantly worse in the long pain session as indexed by decreased detection and counting performance. Interestingly, this effect on performance was also observed during control trials of the long pain session in which participants did not receive any painful stimulation. Moreover, subjects expected long painful stimulation to have a greater impact on their performance and individual expectation correlated with working memory performance. These findings suggest that not only the length of painful stimulation but also its expected ability to impair cognitive functioning might influence the interruptive function of pain. The exact relevance of expectation for the detrimental effects of pain on cognitive processes needs to be explored in more detail in future studies. PMID:25695254

  16. Effects of political conflict-induced treatment interruptions on HIV drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Mann, Marita; Lurie, Mark N; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Kantor, Rami

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-four million people worldwide were living with the HIV by the end of 2010. Despite significant advances in antiretroviral therapy, drug resistance remains a major deterrent to successful, enduring treatment. Unplanned interruptions in antiretroviral therapy have negative effects on HIV treatment outcomes, including increased morbidity and mortality, as well as development of drug resistance. Treatment interruptions due to political conflicts, not infrequent in resource-limited settings, result in disruptions in health care, infrastructure, or treatment facilities and patient displacement. Such circumstances are ideal bases for antiretroviral therapy resistance development, but there is limited awareness of and data available on the association between political conflict and the development of HIV drug resistance. In this review we identify and discuss this association and review how varying antiretroviral therapy half-lives, genetic barriers, different HIV subtypes, and archived resistance can lead to lack of medication effectiveness upon post-conflict resumption of care. Optimized antiretroviral therapy stopping strategies as well as infrastructural concerns and stable HIV treatment systems to ensure continuity of care and rapid resumption of care must be addressed in order to mitigate risks of HIV drug resistance development during and after political conflicts. Increased awareness of such associations by clinicians as well as politicians and stakeholders is essential. PMID:23449225

  17. 50 Ka Till-Filled Pleistocene Plunge Pools and Potholes Found Beneath the World Trade Center Site, New York, NY

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    of pegmatite are scattered across the site, with concentrations in the NW corner (Tower 1), seen above, and SE of massive granitic pegmatite was concentrated primarily in the northwest (Tower 1 area) and southeast (Tower

  18. Stabilization and growth interruption effects at ZnSxSe1?x\\/ZnSe quantum-well interfaces grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Schneider; K. P. Geyzers; M. Heuken

    1993-01-01

    ZnSxSe1?x\\/ZnSe quantum wells (QW) with and without growth interruption at the interface were grown using atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. It has been shown that growth interruptions have a major influence on the optical properties of the QW. An interruption of growth in ternary ZnSSe layers causes a quasi-QW photoluminescence (PL), explained by sulfur depletion of the layer. A stabilization

  19. Enhancing the quantum efficiency of InGaN yellow-green light-emitting diodes by growth interruption

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Chunhua; Ma, Ziguang; Zhou, Junming; Lu, Taiping; Jiang, Yang; Zuo, Peng; Jia, Haiqiang; Chen, Hong, E-mail: hchen@iphy.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condense Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-08-18

    We studied the effect of multiple interruptions during the quantum well growth on emission-efficiency enhancement of InGaN-based yellow-green light emitting diodes on c-plane sapphire substrate. The output power and dominant wavelength at 20?mA are 0.24 mW and 556.3?nm. High resolution x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and electroluminescence measurements demonstrate that efficiency enhancement could be partially attributed to crystal quality improvement of the active region resulted from reduced In clusters and relevant defects on the surface of InGaN layer by introducing interruptions. The less tilted energy band in the quantum well is also caused by the decrease of In-content gradient along c-axis resulted from In segregation during the interruptions, which increases spatial overlap of electron-hole wavefunction and thus the internal quantum efficiency. The latter also leads to smaller blueshift of dominant wavelength with current increasing.

  20. Higher baseline CD4 cell count predicts treatment interruptions and persistent viremia in patients initiating ARVs in rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    ADAKUN, Susan A.; SIEDNER, Mark J.; MUZOORA, Conrad; HABERER, Jessica E.; TSAI, Alexander C.; HUNT, Peter W.; MARTIN, Jeff N.; BANGSBERG, David R.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the association between CD4 cell count and adherence in a cohort of Ugandans initiating ARVs. Outcomes were: a) adherence<90%; b) any treatment interruptions>72 hours; c) number of treatment interruptions; and d) HIV RNA>400 copies/ml. We fit regression models to estimate associations with our exposure of interest, baseline CD4 cell count ?250 cells/?L (n=60) versus <250 cells/?L (n=413). CD4 cell count?250 cells/?L was independently associated with increased odds and number of treatment interruptions, and increased odds of persistent viremia. Interventions to support adherence in patients with higher CD4 cell counts should be considered as drug availability to this population increases. PMID:23242160

  1. Learning from Accident and Error: Avoiding the Hazards of Workload, Stress, and Routine Interruptions in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, J. Bradley; Rudolph, Jenny W.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a model of how a build-up of interruptions can shift the dynamics of the emergency department (ED) from an adaptive, self-regulating system into a fragile, crisis-prone one. Drawing on case studies of organizational disasters and insights from the theory of high-reliability organizations, the authors use computer simulations to show how the accumulation of small interruptions could have disproportionately large effects in the ED. In the face of a mounting workload created by interruptions, EDs, like other organizational systems, have tipping points, thresholds beyond which a vicious cycle can lead rather quickly to the collapse of normal operating routines and in the extreme to a crisis of organizational paralysis. The authors discuss some possible implications for emergency medicine, emphasizing the potential threat from routine, non-novel demands on EDs and raising the concern that EDs are operating closer to the precipitous edge of crisis as ED crowding exacerbates the problem. PMID:22168187

  2. Percutaneous atrial septal defect closure by using jugular venous access in a case with interrupted inferior vena cava

    PubMed Central

    Narin, Nazmi; Baykan, Ali; Argun, Mustafa; Ozyurt, Abdullah; Uzum, Kazim

    2014-01-01

    Femoral venous approach is the classical route of percutaneous atrial septal defect (ASD) closure. But in certain circumstances alternative routes are used. In this report percutaneous ASD closure in a case with interrupted vena cava by jugular venous approach is discussed. Percutaneous closure through femoral venous route was planned in a 6-year-old girl with ASD. Because of interrupted vena cava the jugular venous route was used. Having knowledge of this anatomical variation is important for interventionalists before performing femoral venous approach. Percutaneous transjugular venous access is a feasible alternative route in paediatric population for ASD closure. PMID:25489321

  3. Alveolar macrophage kinetics and function after interruption of canine marrow function

    SciTech Connect

    Springmeyer, S.C.; Altman, L.C.; Kopecky, K.J.; Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.

    1982-03-01

    To study the kinetics and function of alveolar macrophages after interruption of marrow function, we performed serial bronchoalveolar lavages in dogs. The studies were performed before and after 9.0 to 9.5 Grey total body irradiation and marrow infusion. Monocytes had disappeared from the bloodstream by Day 7 after the irradiation. Alveolar macrophages were significantly decreased at Day 21. At Days 14 and 21 myeloperoxidase-positive alveolar macrophages were also significantly decreased. Beyond Day 30 the number of circulating monocytes, myeloperoxidase-positive and total alveolar macrophages had returned. Sex chromatin stains of alveolar macrophages obtained from a male dog that received female marrow indicated that the repopulating macrophages were of marrow origin. In vitro studies of alveolar macrophage migration and phagocytosis demonstrated increased activities beyond Day 30. These studies suggest that in this model the alveolar macrophage is dependent on the bone marrow for support and that the alveolar macrophage depletion may impair lung defense mechanisms.

  4. Driving Can Be Dangerous to Your Health An Interrupted Case Study in Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Phil Stephens

    2008-01-01

    In this interrupted case study, students read about an older woman named Barbara who becomes ill after driving with her husband 19 hours from Florida to visit their son’s family. Barbara experiences an asthma attack and then more serious breathing problems, which result in her admission to the hospital. Students are presented with a variety of signs, symptoms, and medical data relating to Barbara’s health, which they must interpret to solve this case in circulatory and respiratory physiology. Developed for use in a one-semester animal physiology course taken by sophomore and junior science majors, it could also be used in a human anatomy and physiology course as well as a course in general biology.

  5. Genomes of "phiKMV-like viruses" of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contain localized single-strand interruptions.

    PubMed

    Kulakov, Leonid A; Ksenzenko, Vladimir N; Shlyapnikov, Michael G; Kochetkov, Vladimir V; Del Casale, Antonio; Allen, Christopher C R; Larkin, Michael J; Ceyssens, Pieter-Jan; Lavigne, Rob

    2009-08-15

    The "phiKMV-like viruses" comprise an important genus of T7 related phages infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The genomes of these bacteriophages have localized single-strand interruptions (nicks), a distinguishing genomic trait previously thought to be unique for T5 related coliphages. Analysis of this feature in the newly sequenced phage phikF77 shows all four nicks to be localized on the non-coding DNA strand. They are present with high frequencies within the phage population and are introduced into the phage DNA at late stages of the lytic cycle. The general consensus sequence in the nicks (5'-CGACxxxxxCCTAoh pCTCCGG-3') was shown to be common among all phiKMV-related phages. PMID:19592061

  6. THE EFFECTS OF VERBAL OPERANT TRAINING AND RESPONSE INTERRUPTION AND REDIRECTION ON APPROPRIATE AND INAPPROPRIATE VOCALIZATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Colón, Candice L; Ahearn, William H; Clark, Kathleen M; Masalsky, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Past research has shown that response interruption and redirection (RIRD) can effectively decrease automatically reinforced motor behavior (Hagopian & Adelinis, 2001). Ahearn, Clark, MacDonald, and Chung (2007) found that a procedural adaptation of RIRD reduced vocal stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for some children, although appropriate vocalizations were not targeted directly. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of directly targeting appropriate language (i.e., verbal operant training) on vocal stereotypy and appropriate speech in 3 children with an autism spectrum disorder. The effects of verbal operant (i.e., tact) training were evaluated in a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across participants. In addition, RIRD was implemented with 2 of the 3 participants to further decrease levels of vocal stereotypy. Verbal operant training alone produced slightly lower levels of stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for all 3 participants; however, RIRD was required to produce acceptably low levels of stereotypy for 2 of the 3 participants. PMID:22403453

  7. Dynamic characteristics of high-speed operated, long-stroke bellows for vacuum interrupters

    SciTech Connect

    Tsutsumi, T.; Kanai, Y.; Okabe, N.; Kaneko, E.; Kamikawaji, T.; Homma, M. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    The authors observed and analyzed the dynamic characteristics of long-stroke stainless steel bellows for a vacuum interrupter when it is extended and contracted at high speeds. Dimensions of bellows tested are as follows: outer diameter 85 mm, inner diameter 62 mm, number of folds 44 and 55. Test conditions: contracted speed: 4 m/s, 2 m/s, extended speed: 2 m/s, 1 m/s. They found that increasing the number of folds on the bellows does not necessarily prolong the life of bellows and it is preferable that the bellows be designed so that the ratio of operation stroke and free length of bellows falls in the range between 0.3 to 0.4.

  8. The effects of matched stimulation and response interruption and redirection on vocal stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Love, Jessica J; Miguel, Caio F; Fernand, Jonathan K; LaBrie, Jillian K

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypy has been classified as repetitive behavior that does not serve any apparent function. Two procedures that have been found to reduce rates of vocal stereotypy effectively are response interruption and redirection (RIRD) and noncontingent access to matched stimulation (MS). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of RIRD alone, MS alone, and MS combined with RIRD. One participant's results suggested similar suppressive effects on vocal stereotypy across treatment conditions. For the second participant, a slightly greater suppression of stereotypy was associated with MS + RIRD. In addition, both participants emitted a greater frequency of appropriate vocalizations in conditions with RIRD. Data suggest that the addition of MS might facilitate the implementation of RIRD in applied settings. PMID:23060668

  9. Women endurance runners with menstrual dysfunction have prolonged interruption of training due to injury.

    PubMed

    Beckvid Henriksson, G; Schnell, C; Lindén Hirschberg, A

    2000-01-01

    Strenuous exercise by women is associated with menstrual dysfunction, eating disorders and osteoporosis. Intensive training may also increase the susceptibility to infections. In this study, we investigated whether menstrual dysfunction was related to musculoskeletal injuries and/or upper respiratory tract infections in women middle/long-distance runners. A questionnaire was mailed to 127 Swedish female runners of whom 75% answered. This retrospective study showed a higher frequency of menstrual disorders (25%) in runners than in the general population. Furthermore, almost half of the athletes (46%) were classified as at risk of developing eating disorders. Women athletes with menstrual dysfunction were found to have had a longer interruption of training due to musculoskeletal injuries than those with regular cycles (34.1 +/- 3.0 vs. 9.0 +/- 9. 4 days, p < 0.05). However, no relation was found between susceptibility to infections and menstrual status. PMID:10629372

  10. Note: A compact three-axis optical force/torque sensor using photo-interrupters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2013-12-01

    By integrating four photo-interrupters in a cross-shaped structure, we developed a compact three-axis optical force/torque (F/T) sensor. The developed sensor has a diameter of 28 mm and a thickness of 7 mm. Despite simplicity and compactness, the experiments with a prototype of the proposed sensor demonstrate notably high accuracy. The RMS errors are 0.5% ± 0.1% of the maximum vertical force in z-axis, 1.9% ± 0.2% of the maximum torque in x-axis, and 2.0% ± 0.3% of the maximum torque in y-axis. It is expected that the proposed sensor allows cost-effective integration of robot systems requiring compact and multi-axis F/T sensors such as a walking assist robot.

  11. A model predictive control strategy toward optimal structured treatment interruptions in anti-HIV therapy.

    PubMed

    Pannocchia, Gabriele; Laurino, Marco; Landi, Alberto

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) strategies are applied to the control of human immunodeficiency virus infection, with the final goal of implementing an optimal structured treatment interruptions protocol. The MPC algorithms proposed in this paper use a dynamic model recently developed in order to mimic both transient responses and ultimate behavior, and to describe accordingly the different effect of commonly used drugs in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Simulation studies show that the proposed methods achieve the goal of reducing the drug consumption (thus minimizing the severe side effects of HAART drugs) while respecting the desired constraints on CD4+ cells and free virions concentration. Such promising results are obtained with realistic assumptions of infrequent (possibly noisy) measurements of a subset of model state variables. Furthermore, the control objectives are achieved even in the presence of mismatch between the dynamics of true patients and that of the MPC model. PMID:20172797

  12. Estimates of thermal fatigue due to beam interruptions for an ALMR-type ATW

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F. E.; Wade, D. C.

    1999-11-12

    Thermal fatigue due to beam interruptions has been investigated in a sodium cooled ATW using the Advanced Liquid Metal mod B design as a basis for the subcritical source driven reactor. A k{sub eff} of 0.975 was used for the reactor. Temperature response in the primary coolant system was calculated, using the SASSYS- 1 code, for a drop in beam current from full power to zero in 1 microsecond.. Temperature differences were used to calculate thermal stresses. Fatigue curves from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code were used to determine the number of cycles various components should be designed for, based on these thermal stresses.

  13. Unplanned antiretroviral treatment interruptions in southern Africa: how should we be managing these?

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Nina; Whiteside, Alan; Lalloo, David; Gibbs, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is essential for maximising individual treatment outcomes and preventing the development of drug resistance. It is, however, frequently compromised due to predictable, but adverse, scenarios in the countries most severely affected by HIV/AIDS. This paper looks at lessons from three specific crises in southern Africa: the 2008 floods in Mozambique, the ongoing political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe, and the 2007 public sector strike in South Africa. It considers how these crises impacted on the delivery of antiretroviral therapy and looks at some of the strategies employed to mitigate any adverse effects. Based on this it makes recommendations for keeping patients on treatment and limiting the development of drug resistance where treatment interruptions are inevitable. PMID:20356383

  14. Rapid resumption of interrupted search is independent of age-related improvements in visual search.

    PubMed

    Lleras, Alejandro; Porporino, Mafalda; Burack, Jacob A; Enns, James T

    2011-05-01

    In this study, 7-19-year-olds performed an interrupted visual search task in two experiments. Our question was whether the tendency to respond within 500ms after a second glimpse of a display (the rapid resumption effect [Psychological Science, 16 (2005) 684-688]) would increase with age in the same way as overall search efficiency. The results indicated no correlation of rapid resumption with search speed either across age groups (7, 9, 11, and 19years) or at the level of individual participants. Moreover, relocating the target randomly between looks reduced the rate of rapid resumption in a very similar way at each age. These results imply that implicit perceptual prediction during search is invariant across this age range and is distinct from other critical processes such as feature integration and control over spatial attention. PMID:21109252

  15. FURTHER EVALUATION OF RESPONSE INTERRUPTION AND REDIRECTION AS TREATMENT FOR STEREOTYPY

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Erin N; Lerman, Dorothea C; Kodak, Tiffany; Worsdell, April S; Keegan, Courtney

    2011-01-01

    The effects of 2 forms of response interruption and redirection (RIRD)—motor RIRD and vocal RIRD—were examined with 4 boys with autism to evaluate further the effects of this intervention and its potential underlying mechanisms. In Experiment 1, the effects of motor RIRD and vocal RIRD on vocal stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were compared for 2 participants. In Experiment 2, the effects of both RIRD procedures on both vocal and motor stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were compared with 2 additional participants. Results suggested that RIRD was effective regardless of the procedural variation or topography of stereotypy and that vocal RIRD functioned as a punisher. This mechanism was further explored with 1 participant by manipulating the schedule of RIRD in Experiment 3. Results were consistent with the punishment interpretation. PMID:21541130

  16. Motion-induced interruptions and postural equilibrium in linear lateral accelerations.

    PubMed

    Matsangas, P; McCauley, M E; Gehl, G; Kiser, J; Bandstra, A; Blankenship, J; Pierce, E

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses lateral tipping motion-induced interruptions (MIIs) in a simulated motion environment. The objective is to revisit MII occurrence and sway motion relationship by focusing on the frequency and acceleration of the lateral motion stimulus. Results verify that MIIs increase with increasing peak sway acceleration, but the effect of sway frequency is not as clear as that of acceleration. Complex multidirectional motions create more tipping MIIs than unidirectional motion. Research should incorporate acceleration, frequency and motion complexity as factors influencing MII occurrence. To describe a temporary loss of balance without tipping, the term 'probable' MII is introduced. This term fills the gap between the theoretical definition and a human-centred perception of an MII where loss of balance is not a binary phenomenon. The 'probable' MIIs were 16-67% more common than the 'definite' MIIs. The developed mathematical model of MII occurrence versus sway acceleration (amplitude, frequency) approximated the observed MIIs with less than 9% difference. PMID:24646414

  17. Activation and interruption of the reproduction of Varroa destructor is triggered by host signals (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Frey, Eva; Odemer, Richard; Blum, Thomas; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2013-05-01

    The reproductive cycle of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor is closely linked to the development of the honey bee host larvae. Using a within colony approach we introduced phoretic Varroa females into brood cells of different age in order to analyze the capacity of certain stages of the honey bee larva to either activate or interrupt the reproduction of Varroa females. Only larvae within 18 h (worker) and 36 h (drones), respectively, after cell capping were able to stimulate the mite's oogenesis. Therewith we could specify for the first time the short time window where honey bee larvae provide the signals for the activation of the Varroa reproduction. Stage specific volatiles of the larval cuticle are at least part of these activation signals. This is confirmed by the successful stimulation of presumably non-reproducing mites to oviposition by the application of a larval extract into the sealed brood cells. According to preliminary quantitative GC-MS analysis we suggest certain fatty acid ethyl esters as candidate compounds. If Varroa females that have just started with egg formation are transferred to brood cells containing host larvae of an elder stage two-thirds of these mites stopped their oogenesis. This confirms the presence of an additional signal in the host larvae allowing the reproducing mites to adjust their own reproductive cycle to the ontogenetic development of the host. From an adaptive point of view that sort of a stop signal enables the female mite to save resources for a next reproductive cycle if the own egg development is not sufficiently synchronized with the development of the host. The results presented here offer the opportunity to analyze exactly those host stages that have the capacity to activate or interrupt the Varroa reproduction in order to identify the crucial host signals. PMID:23376006

  18. HIV-1 coreceptor switch during 2 years of structured treatment interruptions.

    PubMed

    Baroncelli, S; Galluzzo, C M; Andreotti, M; Pirillo, M F; Fragola, V; Weimer, L E; Giuliano, M; Vella, S; Palmisano, L

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) tropism of uncontrolled virus exposure during 2 years of intermittent highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The Istituto Superiore di Sanità-Pulsed Antiretroviral Therapy (ISS-PART) randomized study compared the outcome of 2 years of structured treatment interruptions (STIs) versus standard continuous treatment in first-line HAART responder subjects. The STI schedule consisted of five STIs of 1, 1, 2, 2, and 3 months, respectively, separated by four periods of 3-month therapy. In the present study, coreceptor tropism was assessed in 12 patients of the STI arm at different time points over a period of 2 years. Tropism was determined on DNA and RNA by V3 loop region sequencing. The Geno2pheno algorithm (false-positive rate, FPR: 20%) was used for data interpretation. At baseline, 9/12 subjects (75.0%) had CCR5-tropic viruses in their HIV. Three had a CXCR4-tropic virus. Ten patients maintained the same coreceptor in DNA after 2 years, whereas in two patients, a shift occurred (one R5-X4, one X4-R5). In a patient with an R5 virus at baseline, a transient change to X4 tropism was seen in the rebounding virus during STI. Changes in tropism were not associated with the amplitude and duration of virus exposure during STIs, residual viremia at baseline, or the development of resistance mutations in the RT region. Our preliminary results suggest that viral replication, observed after short periods of treatment interruption, is not enough to drive the evolution of HIV tropism. PMID:24213914

  19. Synchronizing Bees With Bloom: Interrupted Incubation and Short-Term Storage of the Alfalfa Pollinator, Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interrupting the spring incubation with short-term low-temperature storage of the developing pupae and pharate adult stage of Megachile rotundata (F.) is a useful technique for synchronizing the emergence of these bees with the peak alfalfa bloom. However, low-temperature exposure can be stressful d...

  20. The context-switch overhead inflicted by hardware interrupts (and the enigma of do-nothing loops)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Tsafrir

    2007-01-01

    The overhead of a context switch is typically associated with multitasking, where several applications share a processor. But even if only one runnable application is present in the system and supposedly runs alone, it is still repeatedly preempted in favor of a different thread of execution, namely, the operating system that services periodic clock interrupts. We employ two complement- ing

  1. Abstract--The FREEDM grid utilizes solid state transformers (SST) and solid state fault interruption devices (FID) which may

    E-print Network

    Kimball, Jonathan W.

    --FREEDM, Solid state transformer, solid state fault interruption device, microgrid, renewable energy. I an AC/DC microgrid, dubbed the Green Hub that utilizes distributed renewable power sources in addition. INTRODUCTION HE Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery Management (FREEDM) Systems Center is developing

  2. Unilateral and bilateral hypogastric artery interruption during aortoiliac aneurysm repair in 154 patients: A relatively innocuous procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manish Mehta; Frank J. Veith; Takao Ohki; Jacob Cynamon; Kenneth Goldstein; William D. Suggs; Reese A. Wain; David W. Chang; Steven G. Friedman; Larry A. Scher; Evan C. Lipsitz

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Hypogastric artery (HA) occlusion during aortic aneurysm repair has been associated with considerable morbidity. We analyzed the consequences of interrupting one or both HAs in the standard surgical or endovascular treatment of aortoiliac aneurysms (AIAs). Methods: From 1992 to 2000, 154 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (n = 66), iliac aneurysms (n = 28), or AIAs (n = 60)

  3. Results of a UK survey on methods for compensating for unscheduled treatment interruptions and errors in treatment delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R G Dale; B Jones; J A Sinclair; C Comins; E Antoniou

    2007-01-01

    In order to obtain a preliminary overview of the current national status regarding the management of both unintentional interruptions to radiotherapy treatments and inadvertent errors in treatment delivery, a short questionnaire was sent to 60 UK radiotherapy departments, of which 35 (58%) responded. The study was initiated by the authors and was not commissioned by any professional body. Amongst the

  4. Should children be seen and not heard? An examination of how children's interruptions are treated in family therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LEICESTER U NIVERSITY

    ABSTRA C T This work adds to the growing literature on children's talk and the extensive research on interruptions by combining the two. I investigate children in the institutional context of family therapy and their interactions with the parents and therapist. Drawing upon 22 hours of natural family therapy data and four families, I use a discursive approach. I note

  5. Should children be seen and not heard? An examination of how children’s interruptions are treated in family therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle O’Reilly

    2006-01-01

    This work adds to the growing literature on children’s talk and the extensive research on interruptions by combining the two. I investigate children in the institutional context of family therapy and their interactions with the parents and therapist. Drawing upon 22 hours of natural family therapy data and four families, I use a discursive approach. I note that children are

  6. One-stage repair of interrupted aortic arch, ventricular septal defect, and subaortic obstruction in the neonate: A novel approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Battista Luciani; Ruben J. Ackerman; Anthony C. Chang; Winfield J. Wells; Vaughn A. Starnes

    1996-01-01

    Background: One-stage repair of interrupted aortic arch, ventricular septal defect, and severe subaortic stenosis represents a surgical challenge. Techniques that use extracardiac conduits to bypass the subaortic area or involve transaortic or transatrial resection of the conal septum have shown limitations and have failed to reduce the high mortality rate associated with subaortic obstruction.Methods and results: A new operative approach

  7. Measuring the Impacts of Community Development Initiatives: A New Application of the Adjusted Interrupted Time-Series Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galster, George; Temkin, Kenneth; Walker, Chris; Sawyer, Noah

    2004-01-01

    The authors contribute to the development of empirical methods for measuring the impacts of place-based local development strategies by introducing the adjusted interrupted time-series (AITS) approach. It estimates a more precise counterfactual scenario, thus offering a stronger basis for drawing causal inferences about impacts. The authors…

  8. An interrupted vinylogous iso-Nazarov reaction: cycloisomerization of conjugated trienones to cyclopenta[b]furan derivatives.

    PubMed

    Riveira, Martín J; Mischne, Mirta P

    2014-09-01

    Iron(III) chloride-catalyzed cyclopentannulation of ?-conjugated 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds is described. An interrupted vinylogous iso-Nazarov reaction of trienones was established in which cyclopenta[b]furan derivatives are obtained as single diastereomers. PMID:25075431

  9. Examining the Internal Validity and Statistical Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time Series Design by Comparison with a Randomized Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St.Clair, Travis; Cook, Thomas D.; Hallberg, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Although evaluators often use an interrupted time series (ITS) design to test hypotheses about program effects, there are few empirical tests of the design's validity. We take a randomized experiment on an educational topic and compare its effects to those from a comparative ITS (CITS) design that uses the same treatment group as the…

  10. Technical Note: The use of an interrupted-flow centrifugation method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, R. A.; Cuthbert, M. O.; Timms, W.

    2015-01-01

    We present an interrupted-flow centrifugation technique to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media. The method entails a minimum of three phases: centrifuge induced flow, no flow and centrifuge induced flow, which may be repeated several times in order to most effectively characterise multi-rate mass transfer behaviour. In addition, the method enables accurate simulation of relevant in situ total stress conditions during flow by selecting an appropriate centrifugal force level. We demonstrate the utility of the technique for characterising the hydraulic properties of smectite clay dominated core samples. All samples exhibited a non-Fickian tracer breakthrough (early tracer arrival), combined with a decrease in tracer concentration immediately after each period of interrupted-flow. This is indicative of dual (or multi) porosity behaviour, with solute migration predominately via advection during induced flow, and via molecular diffusion (between the preferential flow network(s) and the low hydraulic conductivity domain) during interrupted-flow. Tracer breakthrough curves were simulated using a bespoke dual porosity model with excellent agreement between the data and model output (Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient was >0.97 for all samples). In combination interrupted-flow centrifuge experiments and dual porosity transport modelling are shown to be a powerful method to characterise preferential flow in low permeability media.

  11. Increase in nitrate uptake by soybean plants during interruption of the dark period with low intensity light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, C. D. Jr; Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.

    1991-01-01

    Diurnal patterns of net NO3- uptake by nonnodulated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] plants growing in flowing hydroponic culture at 26 and 16 degrees C root temperatures were measured at hourly intervals during alternate days of a 12-day growth period. Ion chromatography was used to determine removal of NO3- from the culture solution. Day and night periods of 9 and 15 h were used during growth. The night period included two 6-h dark periods and an intervening 3-h period of night interruption by incandescent lamps to effect a long-day photoperiod and repress floral initiation. At both root temperatures, the average specific rates of NO3- uptake were twice as great during the night interruption period as during the day period; they were greater during the day period than during the dark periods; and they were greater during the dark period immediately following the day period than during the later dark period that followed the night interruption. While these average patterns were repetitious among days, measured rates of uptake varied hourly and included intervals of net efflux scattered through the day period and more frequently through the 2 dark periods. Root temperature did not affect the average daily specific rates of uptake or the qualitative relationships among day, dark and night interruption periods of the diurnal cycle.

  12. Complicating Consent: A Study of the Rhetorical Strategies Employed to Interrupt Rape Myths in the Prosecutor v. Kunarac

    E-print Network

    Shook, Lindsey

    2010-08-31

    The justices in the trial of the Prosecutor v. Kunarac were able to interrupt the rape myths that generally exist in rape trials by complicating the notion of consent. In this paper I argue that the justices de-naturalize common myths about consent...

  13. A Formal Approach Supporting the Comparative Predic-tive Assessment of the Interruption-Tolerance of Interac-

    E-print Network

    Winckler, Marco Antonio Alba

    tech- niques to provide a precise description of user tasks, and both system and interruptions behavior of user activities constrained by the occurrence of in- terruptions. The approach uses formal description interaction techniques. In particular, it allows us to determine which of the system states are most affected

  14. One-stage neonatal repair of complex aortic arch obstruction or interruption. Recent experience at Texas Children's Hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Hirooka, K; Fraser, C D

    1997-01-01

    The optimal surgical approach for complex aortic coarctation or an interrupted aortic arch with associated intracardiac defects is not universally agreed upon. We reviewed our experience with 18 consecutive patients (10 with coarctation, 8 with interrupted aortic arch) undergoing a 1-stage repair through median sternotomy between September of 1995 and February of 1997. Age at operation ranged from 3 days to 3 months (mean 23 days) and weight ranged from 1,700 g to 5,100 g (mean 3,350 g). Under hypothermic circulatory arrest, the aortic arch was reconstructed using native tissue-tissue anastomoses, and coexisting intracardiac anomalies were repaired by standard techniques. All patients survived the procedure and were ultimately discharged from the hospital. There were 2 late deaths in the interrupted aortic arch group, 1 during reoperation for subaortic stenosis and the other from noncardiac causes 5 months after discharge. Another interrupted aortic arch patient required a Ross-Konno procedure 8 months later. There has been no recoarctation among the 16 survivors. Thus a 1-stage repair for complex aortic arch obstruction in neonates can be accomplished with low operative risk, although long-term outcome is strongly influenced by the presence of subaortic obstruction. PMID:9456485

  15. Protective Factors Interrupting the Continuity from School Bullying to Later Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: A Systematic Review of Prospective Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ttofi, Maria M.; Bowes, Lucy; Farrington, David P.; Lösel, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review is presented, based on prospective longitudinal studies, on protective factors that interrupt the continuity from bullying perpetration at school to externalizing problem behaviors later in life; and from bullying victimization to later internalizing problems. Some common factors were established, which seem to interrupt the…

  16. A study of Time\\/Current Characteristics of the Ignition Processes in Cellulosic Material Caused by Electrical Arcing for Application in 240V Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Kolker; S. Campolo; N. DiSalvo

    2007-01-01

    In the development of Arc-Fault Circuit interrupters (AFCIs), one of the most important parameters is the time that an arcing fault could persist before the device will interrupt the current flow and hopefully mitigate fire propagation. In 1996 Underwriters laboratories (UL) published a report on time\\/current ignition characteristics of arcs at 120 V. Despite the very limited number of tests

  17. Comparison of Metabolic Deterioration between Insulin Analog and Regular Insulin after a 5Hour Interruption of a Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRUNO GUERCI; LAURENT MEYER; AGNES SALLE; ANNE CHARRIE; BRIGITTE DOUSSET; OLIVIER ZIEGLER; PIERRE DROUIN

    An interruption of continuous sc insulin infusion (CSII) of the insulin analog lispro should result in a more rapid metabolic deteri- oration of type 1 diabetic patients because of its pharmacokinetic characteristics. We analyzed the metabolic changes occurring during a 5-h interruption of CSII and the 5 h after restarting the pump in 10 type 1 diabetic patients. The study

  18. 43 CFR 3481.4-4 - What is the aggregate amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my lease...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my...

  19. 43 CFR 3481.4-4 - What is the aggregate amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my lease...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my...

  20. 43 CFR 3481.4-4 - What is the aggregate amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my lease...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my...

  1. 43 CFR 3481.4-4 - What is the aggregate amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my lease...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES...amount of time I can temporarily interrupt coal severance and have BLM consider my...

  2. Role of contact tracing and prevention strategies in the interruption of leprosy transmission.

    PubMed

    Smith, W Cairns S; Aerts, Ann

    2014-03-01

    The global prevalence of leprosy has declined from 5.2 million in the 1980 s to 200,000 today. However, the new case detection rate remains high: over the last 8 years, around 220,000-250,000 people have been diagnosed with leprosy each year. In June 2013, an international meeting was organised by the Novartis Foundation for Sustainable Development in Geneva, Switzerland,2 with the objective of discussing the feasibility of interrupting the transmission of leprosy. The group of physicians, epidemiologists and public health professionals concluded that a successful programme would require early diagnosis and prompt multidrug therapy (MDT) for all patients, tracing and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for contacts of patients newly diagnosed with leprosy, improvements in diagnostic tools, as well as strict epidemiological surveillance and response systems to monitor progress. As a follow-up, a second expert group meeting was convened by the Novartis Foundation in January 2014 in Zurich, Switzerland, with the objective of reviewing the evidence for chemoprophylaxis in contacts and high-risk communities. The meeting also considered the definitions of 'contacts' and 'contact tracing', discussed alternative prophylaxis regimens, preliminary findings of operational pilot projects on PEP in Indonesia, as well as the development of diagnostic tools, and identified the priority questions for operational research in leprosy transmission. The meeting outlined how contact tracing and chemoprophylaxis programmes can be implemented to interrupt leprosy transmission. The expert panel reached the following conclusions: Chemoprophylaxis with single-dose rifampicin (SDR) is efficacious in reducing the risk of developing leprosy, although the protective effect appears to be smaller in contacts closer to the index patient than in more distant contacts.3 SDR can be targeted to contacts or implemented as community mass prophylaxis in certain circumstances; the preferred approach depends on local factors, such as the case detection rate, the level of community stigma against leprosy, and the degree of access to healthcare for patients and contacts. Alternative prophylaxis regimens and the role of post-exposure immunoprophylaxis need to be further investigated. Contact tracing combined with PEP across very diverse settings offers protection rates similar to those reported in controlled trials. For high-incidence pockets ('hotspots') or remote or confined high-incidence populations ('hotpops'), blanket administration of PEP may be a better option. Implementation of contact-tracing programmes is feasible and cost-effective, particularly in high-risk groups, but it should be integrated into local healthcare services to ensure their long-term sustainability. Funding and support must be maintained after an initial pilot has finished. New programmes for contact tracing need effective surveillance systems to enable appropriate follow-up and outcome evaluation. The Novartis Foundation and Netherlands Leprosy Relief (NLR) are currently developing and implementing a large international programme to demonstrate the feasibility, acceptability, cost-effectiveness and real-world efficacy of PEP as a strategy to interrupt leprosy transmission, in six pilot projects in Asia, Africa and South America. These new pilot projects will be developed together with the local health authorities, healthcare workers, communities and patients, in order to create local ownership from the outset. The pilots should aim to be scalable and sustainable, and should therefore include an objective outcome assessment. Local ownership ensures that locally appropriate language and definitions of contacts are used in each of the pilots. A test to identify subclinical disease and distinguish M. leprae exposure from infection would facilitate early and appropriate therapy (with PEP or MDT). The identification and validation of new, sensitive biomarkers for M. leprae infection and exposure may allow better targeting of PEP to those contacts at highest risk of developing leprosy. PMID:249744

  3. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review systematically the evidence of effectiveness of physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Data sources Cochrane Library, Medline, OldMedline, Embase, and CINAHL, without restrictions on language or publication. Data selection Studies of any intervention to prevent the transmission of respiratory viruses (isolation, quarantine, social distancing, barriers, personal protection, and hygiene). A search of study designs included randomised trials, cohort, case-control, crossover, before and after, and time series studies. After scanning of the titles, abstracts and full text articles as a first filter, a standardised form was used to assess the eligibility of the remainder. Risk of bias of randomised studies was assessed for generation of the allocation sequence, allocation concealment, blinding, and follow-up. Non-randomised studies were assessed for the presence of potential confounders and classified as being at low, medium, or high risk of bias. Data synthesis 58 papers of 59 studies were included. The quality of the studies was poor for all four randomised controlled trials and most cluster randomised controlled trials; the observational studies were of mixed quality. Meta-analysis of six case-control studies suggested that physical measures are highly effective in preventing the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome: handwashing more than 10 times daily (odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.57; number needed to treat=4, 95% confidence interval 3.65 to 5.52), wearing masks (0.32, 0.25 to 0.40; NNT=6, 4.54 to 8.03), wearing N95 masks (0.09, 0.03 to 0.30; NNT=3, 2.37 to 4.06), wearing gloves (0.43, 0.29 to 0.65; NNT=5, 4.15 to 15.41), wearing gowns (0.23, 0.14 to 0.37; NNT=5, 3.37 to 7.12), and handwashing, masks, gloves, and gowns combined (0.09, 0.02 to 0.35; NNT=3, 2.66 to 4.97). The combination was also effective in interrupting the spread of influenza within households. The highest quality cluster randomised trials suggested that spread of respiratory viruses can be prevented by hygienic measures in younger children and within households. Evidence that the more uncomfortable and expensive N95 masks were superior to simple surgical masks was limited, but they caused skin irritation. The incremental effect of adding virucidals or antiseptics to normal handwashing to reduce respiratory disease remains uncertain. Global measures, such as screening at entry ports, were not properly evaluated. Evidence was limited for social distancing being effective, especially if related to risk of exposure—that is, the higher the risk the longer the distancing period. Conclusion Routine long term implementation of some of the measures to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses might be difficult. However, many simple and low cost interventions reduce the transmission of epidemic respiratory viruses. More resources should be invested into studying which physical interventions are the most effective, flexible, and cost effective means of minimising the impact of acute respiratory tract infections. PMID:19773323

  4. Predictors of unstructured antiretroviral treatment interruption and resumption among HIV-positive individuals in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Samji, Hasina; Taha, Taha E; Moore, David; Burchell, Ann N; Cescon, Angela; Cooper, Curtis; Raboud, Janet M; Klein, Marina; Loutfy, Mona R; Machouf, Nima; Tsoukas, Chris M; Montaner, Julio SG; Hogg, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Background Sustained optimal use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) has been shown to decrease morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. However, incomplete adherence and treatment interruption (TI) remain challenges to the full realization of the promise of cART. We estimated trends and predictors of treatment interruption and resumption among individuals in the Canadian Observational Cohort (CANOC) collaboration. Methods cART-naïve individuals ?18 years of age who initiated cART between 2000–2011 were included. We defined TIs as ?90 consecutive days off cART. We used descriptive analyses to study TI trends over time and Cox regression to identify factors predicting time to first TI and time to treatment resumption after a first TI. Results 7,633 participants were eligible, of whom 1,860 (24.5%) experienced a TI. The prevalence of TI in the first calendar year of cART decreased by half over the study period. Our analyses highlighted a higher risk of TI among women (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.59, 95%CI: 1.33–1.92), younger individuals (aHR: 1.27, 95%CI: 1.15–1.37 per decade increase), earlier treatment initiators (CD4 count ?350 versus <200 mm3, aHR: 1.46, 95%CI: 1.17–1.81), Aboriginal participants (aHR: 1.67, 95%CI: 1.27–2.20), injecting drug users (aHR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.09–1.89), and users of zidovudine versus tenofovir in the initial cART regimen (aHR: 2.47, 95%CI: 1.92–3.20). Conversely, factors predicting treatment resumption were male sex, older age, and a CD4 cell count <200 mm3 at cART initiation. Conclusion Despite significant improvements in cART since its advent, our results demonstrate that TIs remain relatively prevalent. Strategies to support continuous HIV treatment are needed to maximize the benefits of cART. PMID:25174373

  5. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Data extraction Search strategy of the Cochrane Library, Medline, OldMedline, Embase, and CINAHL, without language restriction, for any intervention to prevent transmission of respiratory viruses (isolation, quarantine, social distancing, barriers, personal protection, and hygiene). Study designs were randomised trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, and controlled before and after studies. Data synthesis Of 2300 titles scanned 138 full papers were retrieved, including 49 papers of 51 studies. Study quality was poor for the three randomised controlled trials and most of the cluster randomised controlled trials; the observational studies were of mixed quality. Heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis of most data except that from six case-control studies. The highest quality cluster randomised trials suggest that the spread of respiratory viruses into the community can be prevented by intervening with hygienic measures aimed at younger children. Meta-analysis of six case-control studies suggests that physical measures are highly effective in preventing the spread of SARS: handwashing more than 10 times daily (odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.57; number needed to treat=4, 95% confidence interval 3.65 to 5.52); wearing masks (0.32, 0.25 to 0.40; NNT=6, 4.54 to 8.03); wearing N95 masks (0.09, 0.03 to 0.30; NNT=3, 2.37 to 4.06); wearing gloves (0.43, 0.29 to 0.65; NNT=5, 4.15 to 15.41); wearing gowns (0.23, 0.14 to 0.37; NNT=5, 3.37 to 7.12); and handwashing, masks, gloves, and gowns combined (0.09, 0.02 to 0.35; NNT=3, 2.66 to 4.97). The incremental effect of adding virucidals or antiseptics to normal handwashing to decrease the spread of respiratory disease remains uncertain. The lack of proper evaluation of global measures such as screening at entry ports and social distancing prevent firm conclusions being drawn. Conclusion Routine long term implementation of some physical measures to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses might be difficult but many simple and low cost interventions could be useful in reducing the spread. PMID:18042961

  6. Stellate ganglion block may relieve hot flashes by interrupting the sympathetic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Lipov, E G; Lipov, S; Joshi, J R; Santucci, V D; Slavin, K V; Beck Vigue, S G

    2007-01-01

    Stellate ganglion block is routinely used in pain clinics. The mechanism of action of the stellate ganglion block is uncertain; the most common explanation is that it produces peripheral vasodilation, resulting in neural inhibition in the ganglion's sphere of innervation. However, the wide range of conditions that have been reported to respond favorably to stellate ganglion block suggest that its effectiveness may not be solely the result of increased blood flow nor restricted just to its sphere of innervation. We have found that stellate ganglion block is effective in the treatment of hot flashes in postmenopausal women, as well as those with estrogen depletion resulting from breast cancer treatment. Based on evidence that hot flashes may be centrally mediated and that the stellate ganglion has links with the central nervous system nuclei that modulate body temperature, we hypothesize that the stellate ganglion block provides relief of hot flashes by interrupting the central nervous system connections with the sympathetic nervous system, allowing the body's temperature-regulating mechanisms to reset. If this mechanism can be confirmed, this would provide women with intractable hot flashes with an effective, potentially long-lasting means of relieving their symptoms, and potentially widen the range of indications for stellate ganglion block to include other centrally mediated syndromes. PMID:17425958

  7. Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplankton–zooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

  8. Interruptions improve choice performance in gray jays: prolonged information processing versus minimization of costly errors.

    PubMed

    Waite, Thomas A

    2002-12-01

    Under the assumption that selection favors minimization of costly errors, erroneous choice may be common when its fitness cost is low. According to an adaptive-choice model, this cost depends on the rate at which an animal encounters the choice: the higher this rate, the smaller the cost of choosing a less valuable option. Errors should thus be more common when interruptions to foraging are shorter. A previous experiment supported this prediction: gray jays, Perisoreus canadensis, were more error prone when subjected to shorter delays to access to food rewards. This pattern, though, is also predicted by an attentional-constraints model. Because the subjects were able to inspect the rewards during delays, their improved performance when subjected to longer delays could have been a byproduct of the experimentally prolonged opportunity for information processing. To evaluate this possibility, a follow-up experiment manipulated both delay to access and whether rewards could be inspected during delays. Depriving jays of the opportunity to inspect rewards (using opaque lids) induced only a small, nonsignificant increase in error rate. This effect was independent of length of delay and so the jays' improved performance when subjected to longer delays was not simply a byproduct of prolonged information processing. More definitively, even when the jays were prevented from inspecting rewards during delays, their performance improved when subjected to longer delays. The findings are thus consistent with the adaptive-choice model. PMID:12461598

  9. [Study on the efficacy of genetically engineered vaccines against hepatitis B for interruption of perinatal transmission].

    PubMed

    Kang, P; Shen, X M; Yu, H M

    1995-07-01

    The infectivity rate of newborn babies who had been borne from HBsAG(+), HBeAg(+) and anti-HBc(+) mothers was very high (85%). 142 babies born in the hospital were divided into three groups, in this study. In the group 1, 57 babies were inoculated with 20 micrograms recombinant DNA vaccinia vaccines against hepatitis B. The injections were given at newborn, 1 month, and 6 months, respectively. In group 2, 41 babies were inoculated with 20 micrograms genetic engineering vaccines against hepatitis B at same time were intervals as group 1. In group 3, 44 newborn babies were inoculated with 10 micrograms as same vaccines as group 2 HBIG plus 1ml (200 U/ml), at same time intervals as group 1. The immune pretection rates of newborn babies in three groups were 88.2%, 85.9% and 100%, respectively. The anti-HBs pasitive conversion rates were 82%, 86% and 98%, respectively. The group 3 was compared with group 1 and 2. Statistical analysis showed the significant differences (P < 0.05). The result showed the immune program of group 3 was superior to that of group 1 and 2, and none of the 44 babies in group 3 were infected. The efficacy of immunization by genetic engineering vaccines were superior to that of blood-derived vaccine. The genetic engineering vaccines against hepatitis B would be more useful for interruption of perinatal transmission of HBV. PMID:8631089

  10. Interrupted blood-feeding by Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) on European starlings.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, J C; Spielman, A; Komar, N; Krahforst, C F; Wallace, G T; Pollack, R J

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) mosquitoes tend to take multiple blood meals when birds of certain species serve as hosts, we compared the frequencies with which such mosquitoes fed upon caged starlings and robins and determined whether similar volumes of blood were imbibed from each. The blood of robins (Turdus migratorius) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) was marked contrastingly by injecting birds with rubidium or cesium salts. Caged birds were placed together in a natural wetland setting overnight. Mosquitoes captured nearby on the following morning were analyzed for each of the elemental markers. Where marked robins and starlings were equally abundant, 43% of freshly engorged Cs. melanura fed on more than or equal to two hosts. More Cs. melanura fed on robins than on starlings. Individual mosquitoes tended to contain far more robin- than starling-associated marker, indicating that mosquitoes "feasted" on robins but only "nibbled" on starlings. Mosquitoes marked with both elements apparently fed meagerly on the starlings then abundantly on the robins. Our estimates of bloodmeal volume indicate that 85% of mosquitoes that fed on marked starlings obtained < 0.5 microliter of blood from them. We suggest that defensive behavior by starlings interrupts mosquito blood-feeding and that, in a communal roost of starlings, each mosquito will tend to feed on more than one bird, thereby promoting rapid transmission of such ornithonotic arboviruses as eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and West Nile virus. PMID:11268693

  11. Effectiveness of an improved road safety policy in Ethiopia: an interrupted time series study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in implementing road safety policy by different low income countries. However; the evidence is scarce on its success in the reduction of crashes, injuries and deaths. This study was conducted to assess whether road crashes, injuries and fatalities was reduced following the road safety regulation introduced as of September 2007 by Oromia Regional State Transport Bureau. Methods Routine road traffic accident data for the year 2002-2011were collected from sixteen traffic police offices. Data on average daily vehicle flow was obtained from the Ethiopian Road Authority. Interrupted time series design using segmented linear regression model was applied to estimate the effect of an improved road safety policy. Results A total of 4,053 crashes occurred on Addis Ababa - Adama/Hawassa main road. Of these crashes, almost half 46.4% (1,880) were property damage, 29.4% (1,193) were fatal and 24.2% (980) injury crashes, resulting 1,392 fatalities and 1,749 injuries. There were statistically significant reductions in non-injury crashes and deaths. Non-injury crash was reduced by 19% and fatality by 12.4% in the first year of implementing the revised transport safety regulation. Conclusion Although revised road safety policy helped in reducing motor vehicle crashes and associated fatalities, the overall incidence rate is still very high. Further action is required to avoid unnecessary loss of lives. PMID:24886220

  12. Crystal structure of restriction endonuclease BglI bound to its interrupted DNA recognition sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, M; Lunnen, K; Wilson, G; Greci, J; Schildkraut, I; Phillips, S E

    1998-01-01

    The crystal structure of the type II restriction endonuclease BglI bound to DNA containing its specific recognition sequence has been determined at 2.2 A resolution. This is the first structure of a restriction endonuclease that recognizes and cleaves an interrupted DNA sequence, producing 3' overhanging ends. BglI is a homodimer that binds its specific DNA sequence with the minor groove facing the protein. Parts of the enzyme reach into both the major and minor grooves to contact the edges of the bases within the recognition half-sites. The arrangement of active site residues is strikingly similar to other restriction endonucleases, but the co-ordination of two calcium ions at the active site gives new insight into the catalytic mechanism. Surprisingly, the core of a BglI subunit displays a striking similarity to subunits of EcoRV and PvuII, but the dimer structure is dramatically different. The BglI-DNA complex demonstrates, for the first time, that a conserved subunit fold can dimerize in more than one way, resulting in different DNA cleavage patterns. PMID:9736624

  13. Life interrupted and life regained? Coping with stroke at a young age

    PubMed Central

    Dow, Clare; Locock, Louise; Lyons, Renee F.; Lasserson, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability across the developed world, affecting an increasing number of younger people. In this article, we seek to understand the experience of stroke as a disabling life situation among young people and the strategies that they use to recover and cope. Directed content analysis was conducted from interviews with 17 community-dwelling stroke survivors aged 55 years and younger across the United Kingdom. The sample was drawn from a larger maximum variation sample of stroke survivors. Using the sociological concepts of biographical disruption and biographical repair as a guide, excerpts from the interviews pertaining to aspects of the patients’ life that were interrupted, in addition to how they coped with the changes, were selected and analysed. All individuals described an “altered sense of self,” a theme that included loss of identity, family disruption, and/or loss of valued activities. Individuals sought to adapt their sense of self by seeking external support, by restoring normality, and/or through positive reflection. Despite the adapted self that emerged, most individuals continued to experience impairments. While young stroke survivors adapt to their illness over time, they continue to experience impairments and disruptions in their personal and work lives. A holistic model of rehabilitation that helps individuals regain the capacity for everyday activities related to work, family life, and leisure can begin to address the emotional ramifications of diseases such as stroke, restore wellness, and work towards minimizing the burden felt by family caregivers and children. PMID:24461569

  14. Cessation of Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis in Zanzibar in 2006: Was Transmission Interrupted?

    PubMed Central

    Rebollo, Maria P.; Mohammed, Khalfan A.; Thomas, Brent; Ame, Shaali; Ali, Said Mohammed; Cano, Jorge; Escalada, Alba Gonzalez; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination through annual mass drug administration (MDA) for 4–6 years. In 2006, Zanzibar stopped MDA against LF after five rounds of MDA revealed no microfilaraemic individuals during surveys at selected sentinel sites. We asked the question if LF transmission was truly interrupted in 2006 when MDA was stopped. Methodology/Principal Findings In line with ongoing efforts to shrink the LF map, we performed the WHO recommended transmission assessment surveys (TAS) in January 2012 to verify the absence of LF transmission on the main Zanzibar islands of Unguja and Pemba. Altogether, 3275 children were tested on both islands and 89 were found to be CFA positive; 70 in Pemba and 19 in Unguja. The distribution of schools with positive children was heterogeneous with pronounced spatial variation on both islands. Based on the calculated TAS cut-offs of 18 and 20 CFA positive children for Pemba and Unguja respectively, we demonstrated that transmission was still ongoing in Pemba where the cut-off was exceeded. Conclusions Our findings indicated ongoing transmission of LF on Pemba in 2012. Moreover, we presented evidence from previous studies that LF transmission was also active on Unguja shortly after stopping MDA in 2006. Based on these observations the government of Zanzibar decided to resume MDA against LF on both islands in 2013. PMID:25816287

  15. Analysis of cell cycle shortening and developmental interruption in Dictyostelium discoideum allC RNAi mutants.

    PubMed

    Xue, D M; Hou, L S; Zhang, S R; Chen, N X

    2014-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum allC RNAi mutant cells are motile and aggregate together, but do not undergo further morphological development. The relatively quick growth rate of allC RNAi mutants compared to wild-type D. discoideum results in a shortened mutant cell cycle. However, at present, little is known about the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Here, we used semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time quantitative RT-PCR, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry to elucidate the phenomenon. We found significant downregulation of myosin II heavy chain, D. discoideum calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule-1 (DdCAD-1) mRNA, DdCAD-1 protein, D. discoideum mRNA for 14-3-3 and 14-3-3 protein, and type A von Willebrand factor domain-containing protein mRNA in allC RNAi mutants. The results suggest that downregulation of the myosin II heavy chain could be one of key factors causing the developmental interruption and that downregulation of the 14-3-3 protein and the type A von Willebrand factor domain-containing protein mRNA plays an important role in shortening the cell cycle of allC RNAi mutants. PMID:24938606

  16. Improving Malaria Control in West Africa: Interruption of Transmission as a Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Doumbia, Seydou O.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Koita, Ousmane A.; Diakité, Mahamadou; Nwakanma, Davis; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Traoré, Sekou F.; Keating, Joseph; Milner, Danny A.; Ndiaye, Jean-Louis; Sene, Papa Diogoye; Ahouidi, Ambroise; Dieye, Tandakha N.; Gaye, Oumar; Okebe, Joseph; Ceesay, Serign J.; Ngwa, Alfred; Oriero, Eniyou C.; Konaté, Lassana; Sy, Ngayo; Jawara, Musa; Faye, Ousmane; Kéita, Moussa; Cissé, Moussa; Sogoba, Nafomon; Poudiougou, Belco; Diawara, Sory; Sangaré, Lansana; Coulibaly, Tinzana; Seck, Ibrahima; Abubakar, Ismaela; Gomis, Jules; Mather, Frances J.; Sissako, Aliou; Diarra, Ayouba; Kandeh, Balla; Whalen, Christopher; Moyer, Brian; Nnedu, Obinna; Thiero, Oumar; Bei, Amy K.; Daniels, Rachel; Miura, Kazutoyo; Long, Carole A.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Duraisingh, Manoj; Muskavitch, Marc A.T.; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Conway, David J.; Volkman, Sarah K.; Valim, Clarissa; Wirth, Dyann F.; Krogstad, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    With the paradigm shift from the reduction of morbidity and mortality to the interruption of transmission, the focus of malaria control broadens from symptomatic infections in children ? 5 years of age to include asymptomatic infections in older children and adults. In addition, as control efforts intensify and the number of interventions increases, there will be decreases in prevalence, incidence and transmission with additional decreases in morbidity and mortality. Expected secondary consequences of these changes include upward shifts in the peak ages for infection (parasitemia) and disease, increases in the ages for acquisition of antiparasite humoral and cellular immune responses and increases in false-negative blood smears and rapid diagnostic tests. Strategies to monitor these changes must include: 1] studies of the entire population (that are not restricted to children ? 5 or ? 10 years of age), 2] study sites in both cities and rural areas (because of increasing urbanization across sub-Saharan Africa) and 3] innovative strategies for surveillance as the prevalence of infection decreases and the frequency of false-negative smears and rapid diagnostic tests increases. PMID:22142790

  17. Simulating bistable perception with interrupted ambiguous stimulus using self-oscillator dynamics with percept choice bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Fürstenau, Norbert

    2014-11-01

    A behavioral stochastic self-oscillator model is used for simulating interrupted ambiguous stimulus-induced percept reversals. The results provide further support for a dynamical systems foundation of cognitive and psychological problems as discussed in detail within the context of Gestalt psychology by Wagemans et al. (Concept Theor Found Psychol Bull 138(6):1218-1252, 2012), and for coordination dynamics of the brain (Kelso in Philos Trans R Soc B 367:906-918, 2012). Statistical evaluation of simulated reversal time series predicts a maximum of the percept reversal rate that conforms with a number of results in the literature. The macroscopic model is based on two inhibitorily coupled sets of three coupled nonlinear equations, one triplet for each percept. The derivation of our specific dynamics equations is based on a drastically simplified field theoretical approach using well-known phase synchronization for explaining brain dynamics on the macroscopic EEG level. The degree of coherence (contrast ?, 0 ? ? ? 1) of the superimposed fields required for onset of bistable dynamics is related to a phase synchronization index of EEG fields, and it is used in the present context as ambiguity control parameter. For quantitative agreement with the experimental data, the addition of a stochastic Langevin force term in the attention equation proved essential. Formal analysis leads to a quantification of well-known "cognitive inertia" and supports the interplay between percept choice (bifurcation) dynamics during stimulus onset and adaptive gain (attention fatigue) driven quasiperiodic percept reversals. PMID:25181991

  18. Application of padmounted fault interrupters to single-phase URD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Israel, W.F. [Cooper Power Systems, South Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Underground distribution has proven itself to be a highly effective means of eliminating the temporary faults that plague overhead distribution, however, the permanent faults that do occur are often cable or splice failures which are unpredictable, difficult to locate and require a lot of time and expense to repair. One of the ways that the designer seeks to minimize the impact of such events on service reliability is by incorporating an overcurrent protection scheme which removes the faulted section from the rest of the system and contingency scheme which allows isolation of the faulted section and restoration of service in the shortest possible time with a minimal number of switching operations. As a result there has been a continuing interest in the development of devices, equipment, and methods which help to realize the ideals of rapid service restoration and isolation of faults to the smallest segment of the system. Overcurrent protection of the single-phase URD system has, traditionally, been the province of fused cutouts and fused padmounted sectionalizing terminals and switchgear. Recently however, padmounted vacuum fault interrupters, that utilize electronic controls for tripping, have become available from several manufacturers and are beginning to make inroads into this portion of the distribution system. This paper will discuss the characteristics and potential applications of a new product offered by Cooper Power Systems, the Shrubline VFI, which was designed specifically for use in single phase residential underground distribution.

  19. Dolphins Can Maintain Vigilant Behavior through Echolocation for 15 Days without Interruption or Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Branstetter, Brian K.; Finneran, James J.; Fletcher, Elizabeth A.; Weisman, Brian C.; Ridgway, Sam H.

    2012-01-01

    In dolphins, natural selection has developed unihemispheric sleep where alternating hemispheres of their brain stay awake. This allows dolphins to maintain consciousness in response to respiratory demands of the ocean. Unihemispheric sleep may also allow dolphins to maintain vigilant states over long periods of time. Because of the relatively poor visibility in the ocean, dolphins use echolocation to interrogate their environment. During echolocation, dolphin produce clicks and listen to returning echoes to determine the location and identity of objects. The extent to which individual dolphins are able to maintain continuous vigilance through this active sense is unknown. Here we show that dolphins may continuously echolocate and accurately report the presence of targets for at least 15 days without interruption. During a total of three sessions, each lasting five days, two dolphins maintained echolocation behaviors while successfully detecting and reporting targets. Overall performance was between 75 to 86% correct for one dolphin and 97 to 99% correct for a second dolphin. Both animals demonstrated diel patterns in echolocation behavior. A 15-day testing session with one dolphin resulted in near perfect performance with no significant decrement over time. Our results demonstrate that dolphins can continuously monitor their environment and maintain long-term vigilant behavior through echolocation. PMID:23082170

  20. Development of a Discharge Channel upon Electric Explosion of a Wire in Interrupted- and Uninterrupted-Current Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Romanova, Vera; Tkachenko, Svetlana; Mingaleev, Albert; Agafonov, Alexey; Ter-Oganesyan, Alexey; Shelkovenko, Tatiana; Pikuz, Sergey [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2009-01-21

    Experimental results on the electrical explosion of thin W, Cu and Ni wires with a current density of {approx}10{sup 12} A/m{sup 2}, a current rise rate (dI/dt){approx}40 A/ns and a current pulse with amplitude 9 kA are presented. The structures of the discharge channels developed in single wire explosions in air and vacuum using laser shadow and schlieren imaging have been studied under the condition that the current in the circuit was interrupted. A difference in the shock wave propagation in air and the expansion of the exploded wire dense core in interrupted- and uninterrupted-current regimes has been observed. Analysis of the optical images has been performed in a shunting breakdown scenario.

  1. Interruption-assisted epitaxy of faceted p-InAs on buffered GaSb for terahertz emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadia, Cyril P.; Muldera, Joselito; Estacio, Elmer S.; Somintac, Armando S.; Salvador, Arnel A.; Que, Christopher T.; Yamamoto, Kohji; Tani, Masahiko

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate molecular beam epitaxy growth of p-InAs layers on GaAs-buffered GaSb that may be suitable for terahertz applications. GaAs buffer deposition is initiated by applying growth interruption. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction shows that GaAs growth proceeds to a quasi-two-dimensional growth mode. The scheme allows growth of a p-InAs layer 600 nm to 1.0 µm thick. Growth performed without GaAs and growth interruption resulted in decomposition of the p-InAs. When the scheme is used, the ensuing p-InAs first follows quasi-two-dimensional growth before favoring faceted islanding. Under 800-nm-wavelength femtosecond laser excitation, the p-InAs layer generates terahertz signals 70% of that of bulk p-InAs.

  2. Numerical simulation of two-dimensional gas flow in puffer-type SF 6 circuit breaker during short current interruption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Xin; Lian Jianhua; Xu Jianyan

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents a model to analyze the convection-stabilized local thermodynamic equilibrium electric arc occurring in the arc-quenching chamber of puffer-type circuit breakers during a short-current interruption, which is described with the axial-symmetric Euler's equations and coupled with a one-dimensional electric field. Employing the modified fluid in cell (FLIC) method, the gas flow has been calculated during both loading and

  3. Temporal trends of time to antiretroviral treatment initiation, interruption and modification: examination of patients diagnosed with advanced HIV in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Stephen T; Law, Matthew G; Cooper, David A; Keen, Phillip; McDonald, Ann; Middleton, Melanie; Woolley, Ian; Kelly, Mark; Petoumenos, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV prevention strategies are moving towards reducing plasma HIV RNA viral load in all HIV-positive persons, including those undiagnosed, treatment naïve, on or off antiretroviral therapy. A proxy population for those undiagnosed are patients that present late to care with advanced HIV. The objectives of this analysis are to examine factors associated with patients presenting with advanced HIV, and establish rates of treatment interruption and modification after initiating ART. Methods We deterministically linked records from the Australian HIV Observational Database to the Australian National HIV Registry to obtain information related to HIV diagnosis. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with advanced HIV diagnosis. We used survival methods to evaluate rates of ART initiation by diagnosis CD4 count strata and by calendar year of HIV diagnosis. Cox models were used to determine hazard of first ART treatment interruption (duration >30 days) and time to first major ART modification. Results Factors associated (p<0.05) with increased odds of advanced HIV diagnosis were sex, older age, heterosexual mode of HIV exposure, born overseas and rural–regional care setting. Earlier initiation of ART occurred at higher rates in later periods (2007–2012) in all diagnosis CD4 count groups. We found an 83% (69, 91%) reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption comparing 2007–2012 versus 1996–2001 (p<0.001), and no difference in ART modification for patients diagnosed with advanced HIV. Conclusions Recent HIV diagnoses are initiating therapy earlier in all diagnosis CD4 cell count groups, potentially lowering community viral load compared to earlier time periods. We found a marked reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption, and found no difference in rates of major modification to ART by HIV presentation status in recent periods. PMID:25865372

  4. Large number of rebounding/founder HIV variants emerge from multifocal infection in lymphatic tissues after treatment interruption

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberger, Meghan K.; Keele, Brandon F.; Wietgrefe, Stephen W.; Fletcher, Courtney V.; Beilman, Gregory J.; Chipman, Jeffrey G.; Khoruts, Alexander; Estes, Jacob D.; Anderson, Jodi; Callisto, Samuel P.; Schmidt, Thomas E.; Thorkelson, Ann; Reilly, Cavan; Perkey, Katherine; Reimann, Thomas G.; Utay, Netanya S.; Nganou Makamdop, Krystelle; Stevenson, Mario; Douek, Daniel C.; Haase, Ashley T.; Schacker, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV replication in most individuals but cannot eradicate latently infected cells established before ART was initiated. Thus, infection rebounds when treatment is interrupted by reactivation of virus production from this reservoir. Currently, one or a few latently infected resting memory CD4 T cells are thought be the principal source of recrudescent infection, but this estimate is based on peripheral blood rather than lymphoid tissues (LTs), the principal sites of virus production and persistence before initiating ART. We, therefore, examined lymph node (LN) and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) biopsies from fully suppressed subjects, interrupted therapy, monitored plasma viral load (pVL), and repeated biopsies on 12 individuals as soon as pVL became detectable. Isolated HIV RNA-positive (vRNA+) cells were detected by in situ hybridization in LTs obtained before interruption in several patients. After interruption, multiple foci of vRNA+ cells were detected in 6 of 12 individuals as soon as pVL was measureable and in some subjects, in more than one anatomic site. Minimal estimates of the number of rebounding/founder (R/F) variants were determined by single-gene amplification and sequencing of viral RNA or DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma obtained at or just before viral recrudescence. Sequence analysis revealed a large number of R/F viruses representing recrudescent viremia from multiple sources. Together, these findings are consistent with the origins of recrudescent infection by reactivation from many latently infected cells at multiple sites. The inferred large pool of cells and sites to rekindle recrudescent infection highlights the challenges in eradicating HIV. PMID:25713386

  5. Large number of rebounding/founder HIV variants emerge from multifocal infection in lymphatic tissues after treatment interruption.

    PubMed

    Rothenberger, Meghan K; Keele, Brandon F; Wietgrefe, Stephen W; Fletcher, Courtney V; Beilman, Gregory J; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Khoruts, Alexander; Estes, Jacob D; Anderson, Jodi; Callisto, Samuel P; Schmidt, Thomas E; Thorkelson, Ann; Reilly, Cavan; Perkey, Katherine; Reimann, Thomas G; Utay, Netanya S; Nganou Makamdop, Krystelle; Stevenson, Mario; Douek, Daniel C; Haase, Ashley T; Schacker, Timothy W

    2015-03-10

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV replication in most individuals but cannot eradicate latently infected cells established before ART was initiated. Thus, infection rebounds when treatment is interrupted by reactivation of virus production from this reservoir. Currently, one or a few latently infected resting memory CD4 T cells are thought be the principal source of recrudescent infection, but this estimate is based on peripheral blood rather than lymphoid tissues (LTs), the principal sites of virus production and persistence before initiating ART. We, therefore, examined lymph node (LN) and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) biopsies from fully suppressed subjects, interrupted therapy, monitored plasma viral load (pVL), and repeated biopsies on 12 individuals as soon as pVL became detectable. Isolated HIV RNA-positive (vRNA+) cells were detected by in situ hybridization in LTs obtained before interruption in several patients. After interruption, multiple foci of vRNA+ cells were detected in 6 of 12 individuals as soon as pVL was measureable and in some subjects, in more than one anatomic site. Minimal estimates of the number of rebounding/founder (R/F) variants were determined by single-gene amplification and sequencing of viral RNA or DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma obtained at or just before viral recrudescence. Sequence analysis revealed a large number of R/F viruses representing recrudescent viremia from multiple sources. Together, these findings are consistent with the origins of recrudescent infection by reactivation from many latently infected cells at multiple sites. The inferred large pool of cells and sites to rekindle recrudescent infection highlights the challenges in eradicating HIV. PMID:25713386

  6. Investigation of heat transfer characteristics on various kinds of fin-and-tube heat exchangers with interrupted surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Y. Yun; K. S. Lee

    1999-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates the effects of the shapes of interrupted surfaces on the performance of the fin-and-tube heat exchanger used in home air conditioners. The scaled-up model experiments are conducted to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop, and prototype experiments are also performed to examine the validity of the scaled-up experiments. Their results are in agreement with

  7. The Interruption of Alpine Foehn by a Cold Front. Part I: Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohm, A.; Mayr, G. J.; Darby, L. S.; Banta, R. M.

    2010-09-01

    The propagation of a cold front and its interaction with foehn winds is investigated in an Alpine valley, based on observations collected during the field campaign of the Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP) on 6 November 1999. The key instrument of this study is a Doppler lidar that had been operated in the Wipp Valley (Austria). The cold front approached the European Alps from the northwest, became distorted at the mountain barrier and entered the east-west aligned Inn Valley near the town of Innsbruck primarily via two passes. It continued to propagate towards Innsbruck from both valley directions as two separate fronts that eventually collided east of Innsbruck after part of the cold air had entered the adjacent north-south aligned Wipp Valley. In the Inn and Wipp Valley, the front caused the interruption of foehn winds. A synthesis of Doppler lidar measurements with conventional meteorological data, including automatic weather stations and radiosondes, leads to the conclusion that the cold front in the Wipp Valley was an atmospheric density current characterized by an elevated head, a front-relative feeder flow and a typical propagation speed of 7 m s-1. The foehn flow on top of the density current caused strong wind shear and triggered shear-flow instability that led to the formation of a turbulent wake behind the head. As the density current propagated towards the Brenner Pass, it slowed down. The shape of the frontal surface varied in time. Its inclination of about 10"-20" is steeper than previously reported for the Inn Valley but is consistent with other observations of atmospheric density currents. In a follow-up presentation (part 2) this observational study is complemented by high-resolution numerical simulations.

  8. Genomic Analysis of Pseudomonas putida Phage tf with Localized Single-Strand DNA Interruptions

    PubMed Central

    Glukhov, Anatoly S.; Krutilina, Antonina I.; Shlyapnikov, Michael G.; Severinov, Konstantin; Lavysh, Daria; Kochetkov, Vladimir V.; McGrath, John W.; de Leeuwe, Colin; Shaburova, Olga V.; Krylov, Victor N.; Akulenko, Natalia V.; Kulakov, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    The complete sequence of the 46,267 bp genome of the lytic bacteriophage tf specific to Pseudomonas putida PpG1 has been determined. The phage genome has two sets of convergently transcribed genes and 186 bp long direct terminal repeats. The overall genomic architecture of the tf phage is similar to that of the previously described Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages PaP3, LUZ24 and phiMR299-2, and 39 out of the 72 products of predicted tf open reading frames have orthologs in these phages. Accordingly, tf was classified as belonging to the LUZ24-like bacteriophage group. However, taking into account very low homology levels between tf DNA and that of the other phages, tf should be considered as an evolutionary divergent member of the group. Two distinguishing features not reported for other members of the group were found in the tf genome. Firstly, a unique end structure – a blunt right end and a 4-nucleotide 3?-protruding left end – was observed. Secondly, 14 single-chain interruptions (nicks) were found in the top strand of the tf DNA. All nicks were mapped within a consensus sequence 5?-TACT/RTGMC-3?. Two nicks were analyzed in detail and were shown to be present in more than 90% of the phage population. Although localized nicks were previously found only in the DNA of T5-like and phiKMV-like phages, it seems increasingly likely that this enigmatic structural feature is common to various other bacteriophages. PMID:23236447

  9. Genomic analysis of Pseudomonas putida phage tf with localized single-strand DNA interruptions.

    PubMed

    Glukhov, Anatoly S; Krutilina, Antonina I; Shlyapnikov, Michael G; Severinov, Konstantin; Lavysh, Daria; Kochetkov, Vladimir V; McGrath, John W; de Leeuwe, Colin; Shaburova, Olga V; Krylov, Victor N; Akulenko, Natalia V; Kulakov, Leonid A

    2012-01-01

    The complete sequence of the 46,267 bp genome of the lytic bacteriophage tf specific to Pseudomonas putida PpG1 has been determined. The phage genome has two sets of convergently transcribed genes and 186 bp long direct terminal repeats. The overall genomic architecture of the tf phage is similar to that of the previously described Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages PaP3, LUZ24 and phiMR299-2, and 39 out of the 72 products of predicted tf open reading frames have orthologs in these phages. Accordingly, tf was classified as belonging to the LUZ24-like bacteriophage group. However, taking into account very low homology levels between tf DNA and that of the other phages, tf should be considered as an evolutionary divergent member of the group. Two distinguishing features not reported for other members of the group were found in the tf genome. Firstly, a unique end structure--a blunt right end and a 4-nucleotide 3'-protruding left end--was observed. Secondly, 14 single-chain interruptions (nicks) were found in the top strand of the tf DNA. All nicks were mapped within a consensus sequence 5'-TACT/RTGMC-3'. Two nicks were analyzed in detail and were shown to be present in more than 90% of the phage population. Although localized nicks were previously found only in the DNA of T5-like and phiKMV-like phages, it seems increasingly likely that this enigmatic structural feature is common to various other bacteriophages. PMID:23236447

  10. Interruption of Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Southern Chiapas Focus, México

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I.; Orozco-Algarra, María Eugenia; Rodríguez-Morales, Kristel B.; Rodríguez-Luna, Isabel C.; Prado-Velasco, Francisco Gibert

    2013-01-01

    Background The Southern Chiapas focus of onchocerciasis in Southern Mexico represents one of the major onchocerciasis foci in Latin America. All 559 endemic communities of this focus have undergone semi-annual mass treatment with ivermectin since 1998. In 50 communities of this focus, ivermectin frequency shifted from twice to four times a year in 2003; an additional 113 communities were added to the quarterly treatment regimen in 2009 to achieve a rapid suppression of transmission. Methodology/Principal findings In-depth epidemiologic and entomologic assessments were performed in six sentinel communities (which had undergone 2 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year) and three extra-sentinel communities (which had undergone 4 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year). None of the 67,924 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from this focus during the dry season of 2011 were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA), resulting in an upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI) of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.06/2,000 flies examined. Serological assays testing for Onchocerca volvulus exposure conducted on 4,230 children 5 years of age and under (of a total population of 10,280 in this age group) revealed that 2/4,230 individuals were exposed to O. volvulus (0.05%; one sided 95% confidence interval?=?0.08%). Conclusions/Significance The in-depth epidemiological and entomological findings from the Southern Chiapas focus meet the criteria for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. PMID:23556018

  11. Do Active Surveillance and Contact Precautions Reduce MRSA Acquisition? A Prospective Interrupted Time Series

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Caroline; Richards, Michael; McBryde, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Background Consensus for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) control has still not been reached. We hypothesised that use of rapid MRSA detection followed by contact precautions and single room isolation would reduce MRSA acquisition. Methods This study was a pre-planned prospective interrupted time series comparing rapid PCR detection and use of long sleeved gowns and gloves (contact precautions) plus single room isolation or cohorting of MRSA colonised patients with a control group. The study took place in a medical-surgical intensive care unit of a tertiary adult hospital between May 21st 2007 and September 21st 2009. The primary outcome was the rate of MRSA acquisition. A segmented regression analysis was performed to determine the trend in MRSA acquisition rates before and after the intervention. Findings The rate of MRSA acquisition was 18.5 per 1000 at risk patient days in the control phase and 7.9 per 1000 at-risk patient days in the intervention phase, with an adjusted hazard ratio 0.39 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.62). Segmented regression analysis showed a decline in MRSA acquisition of 7% per month in the intervention phase, (95%CI 1.9% to 12.8% reduction) which was a significant change in slope compared with the control phase. Secondary analysis found prior exposure to anaerobically active antibiotics and colonization pressure were associated with increased acquisition risk. Conclusion Contact precautions with single room isolation or cohorting were associated with a 60% reduction in MRSA acquisition. While this study was a quasi-experimental design, many measures were taken to strengthen the study, such as accounting for differences in colonisation pressure, hand hygiene compliance and individual risk factors across the groups, and confining the study to one centre to reduce variation in transmission. Use of two research nurses may limit its generalisability to units in which this level of support is available. PMID:23555568

  12. Reducing Blood Culture Contamination in the Emergency Department: An Interrupted Time Series Quality Improvement Study

    PubMed Central

    Self, Wesley H.; Speroff, Theodore; Grijalva, Carlos G.; McNaughton, Candace D.; Ashburn, Jacki; Liu, Dandan; Arbogast, Patrick G.; Russ, Stephan; Storrow, Alan B.; Talbot, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Blood culture contamination is a common problem in the emergency department (ED) that leads to unnecessary patient morbidity and health care costs. The study objective was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a quality improvement (QI) intervention for reducing blood culture contamination in an ED. Methods The authors developed a QI intervention to reduce blood culture contamination in the ED and then evaluated its effectiveness in a prospective interrupted times series study. The QI intervention involved changing the technique of blood culture specimen collection from the traditional clean procedure, to a new sterile procedure, with standardized use of sterile gloves and a new materials kit containing a 2% chlorhexidine skin antisepsis device, a sterile fenestrated drape, a sterile needle, and a procedural checklist. The intervention was implemented in a university-affiliated ED and its effect on blood culture contamination evaluated by comparing the biweekly percentages of blood cultures contaminated during a 48-week baseline period (clean technique), and 48-week intervention period (sterile technique), using segmented regression analysis with adjustment for secular trends and first-order autocorrelation. The goal was to achieve and maintain a contamination rate below 3%. Results During the baseline period, 321 out of 7,389 (4.3%) cultures were contaminated, compared to 111 of 6,590 (1.7%) during the intervention period (p < 0.001). In the segmented regression model, the intervention was associated with an immediate 2.9% (95% CI = 2.2% to 3.2%) absolute reduction in contamination. The contamination rate was maintained below 3% during each biweekly interval throughout the intervention period. Conclusions A QI assessment of ED blood culture contamination led to development of a targeted intervention to convert the process of blood culture collection from a clean to a fully sterile procedure. Implementation of this intervention led to an immediate and sustained reduction of contamination in an ED with a high baseline contamination rate. PMID:23570482

  13. A genetic etiology for interruption of the aortic arch type B.

    PubMed

    Lewin, M B; Lindsay, E A; Jurecic, V; Goytia, V; Towbin, J A; Baldini, A

    1997-08-15

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) type B is a congenital heart defect believed to be caused by an anomaly of bronchial arch mesenchymal development. IAA type B has been associated with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), which includes conotruncal heart defects, T-cell immunodeficiency, hypocalcemia, and facial abnormalities. The great majority of DGS cases are associated with hemizygous deletions at the chromosome 22q11 locus. The present study was designed to establish the involvement of the 22q11 locus in the etiology of IAA type B, independently from the typical DGS phenotype. An evaluation was performed on 73 patients with conotruncal heart defects using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with probes from the 22q11 DGS locus. From this group, 7 patients were deleted (including 4 of the 11 patients with IAA type B). FISH analysis was extended to a total of 22 patients with IAA type B and 11 of these (50%) were deleted. FISH and Southern blot analyses using additional markers within the DiGeorge chromosomal region were performed on patients found not to be deleted in the initial FISH screening. No small deletions or rearrangements were detected. In our patient population, a single, specific genetic defect is the basis for one half of the IAA type B cases. These data suggest that IAA type B is one of the most etiologically homogeneous congenital heart defects. A 22q11 deletion in IAA type B may or may not be associated with the typical DGS phenotype. Therefore, IAA type B, per se, should be an indication for 22q11 deletion testing. PMID:9285664

  14. STAT3 interrupts ATR-Chk1 signaling to allow oncovirus-mediated cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Koganti, Siva; Hui-Yuen, Joyce; McAllister, Shane; Gardner, Benjamin; Grasser, Friedrich; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Tangye, Stuart G; Freeman, Alexandra F; Bhaduri-McIntosh, Sumita

    2014-04-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) is a signaling network that senses DNA damage and activates response pathways to coordinate cell-cycle progression and DNA repair. Thus, DDR is critical for maintenance of genome stability, and presents a powerful defense against tumorigenesis. Therefore, to drive cell-proliferation and transformation, viral and cellular oncogenes need to circumvent DDR-induced cell-cycle checkpoints. Unlike in hereditary cancers, mechanisms that attenuate DDR and disrupt cell-cycle checkpoints in sporadic cancers are not well understood. Using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a source of oncogenes, we have previously shown that EBV-driven cell proliferation requires the cellular transcription factor STAT3. EBV infection is rapidly followed by activation and increased expression of STAT3, which mediates relaxation of the intra-S phase cell-cycle checkpoint; this facilitates viral oncogene-driven cell proliferation. We now show that replication stress-associated DNA damage, which results from EBV infection, is detected by DDR. However, signaling downstream of ATR is impaired by STAT3, leading to relaxation of the intra-S phase checkpoint. We find that STAT3 interrupts ATR-to-Chk1 signaling by promoting loss of Claspin, a protein that assists ATR to phosphorylate Chk1. This loss of Claspin which ultimately facilitates cell proliferation is mediated by caspase 7, a protein that typically promotes cell death. Our findings demonstrate how STAT3, which is constitutively active in many human cancers, suppresses DDR, fundamental to tumorigenesis. This newly recognized role for STAT3 in attenuation of DDR, discovered in the context of EBV infection, is of broad interest as the biology of cell proliferation is central to both health and disease. PMID:24639502

  15. Use of interrupted time series analysis in evaluating health care quality improvements.

    PubMed

    Penfold, Robert B; Zhang, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Interrupted time series (ITS) analysis is arguably the strongest quasi-experimental research design. ITS is particularly useful when a randomized trial is infeasible or unethical. The approach usually involves constructing a time series of population-level rates for a particular quality improvement focus (eg, rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] medication initiation) and testing statistically for a change in the outcome rate in the time periods before and time periods after implementation of a policy/program designed to change the outcome. In parallel, investigators often analyze rates of negative outcomes that might be (unintentionally) affected by the policy/program. We discuss why ITS is a useful tool for quality improvement. Strengths of ITS include the ability to control for secular trends in the data (unlike a 2-period before-and-after t test), ability to evaluate outcomes using population-level data, clear graphical presentation of results, ease of conducting stratified analyses, and ability to evaluate both intended and unintended consequences of interventions. Limitations of ITS include the need for a minimum of 8 time periods before and 8 after an intervention to evaluate changes statistically, difficulty in analyzing the independent impact of separate components of a program that are implemented close together in time, and existence of a suitable control population. Investigators must also be careful not to make individual-level inferences when population-level rates are used to evaluate interventions (though ITS can be used with individual-level data). A brief description of ITS is provided, including a fully implemented (but hypothetical) study of the impact of a program to reduce ADHD medication initiation in children younger than 5 years old and insured by Medicaid in Washington State. An example of the database needed to conduct an ITS is provided, as well as SAS code to implement a difference-in-differences model using preschool-age children in California as a comparison group. PMID:24268083

  16. Interruption of antiretroviral therapy is associated with increased plasma cystatin C

    PubMed Central

    Mocroft, A; Wyatt, C; Szczech, L; Neuhaus, J; El-Sadr, W; Tracy, R; Kuller, L; Shlipak, M; Angus, B; Klinker, H; Ross, M

    2009-01-01

    Background Cystatin C has been proposed as an alternative marker of renal function. We sought to determine if participants randomized to episodic use of antiretroviral therapy guided by CD4+ count (drug conservation; DC) had altered cystatin C levels compared to those randomised to continuous antiretroviral therapy (viral suppression; VS) in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy Trial, and to identify factors associated with increased cystatin C. Methods Cystatin C was measured in plasma collected at randomization, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 months after randomization in a random sample of 249 and 250 participants in the DC and VS groups respectively. Logistic regression was used to model the odds of ? 0.15 mg/dl increase in cystatin C (1 standard deviation [SD]) in the first month after randomisation, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. Results At randomisation, mean (SD) cystatin C level was 0.99 (0.26 mg/dl) and 1.01 (0.28 mg/dl) in the DC and VS arms respectively (p=0.29). In the first month after randomisation, 21.8% and 10.6% had ?0.15 mg/dl increase in cystatin C in the DC and VS arm respectively (p=0.0008). The difference in cystatin C between the treatment arms was maintained through 1 year after randomisation. After adjustment, participants in the VS arm had significantly reduced odds of ?0.15 mg/dl increase in cystatin C in the first month (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.23–0.74, p=0.0023). Conclusions These results demonstrate that interruption of antiretroviral therapy is associated with an increase in cystatin C, which may reflect worsened renal function. PMID:19050388

  17. Within-season flowering interruptions are common in the water-limited Sky Islands.

    PubMed

    Crimmins, Theresa M; Bertelsen, David C; Crimmins, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    Within-season breaks in flowering have been reported in a wide range of highly variable ecosystems including deserts, tropical forests and high-elevation meadows. A tendency for interruptions in flowering has also been documented in southwestern US "Sky Island" plant communities, which encompass xeric to mesic conditions. Seasonal breaks in flowering have implications for plant reproductive success, population structure, and gene flow as well as resource availability for pollinators and dependent animals. Most reports of multiple within-season flowering events describe only two distinct flowering episodes. In this study, we set out to better quantify distinct within-season flowering events in highly variable Sky Islands plant communities. Across a >1,200 m elevation gradient, we documented a strong tendency for multiple within-season flowering events. In both distinct spring and summer seasons, we observed greater than two distinct within-season flowering in more than 10 % of instances. Patterns were clearly mediated by the different climate factors at work in the two seasons. The spring season, which is influenced by both temperature and precipitation, showed a mixed response, with the greatest tendency for multiple flowering events occurring at mid-elevations and functional types varying in their responses across the gradient. In the summer season, during which flowering across the gradient is limited by localized precipitation, annual plants exhibited the fewest within-season flowering events and herbaceous perennial plants showed the greatest. Additionally, more distinct events occurred at lower elevations. The patterns documented here provide a baseline for comparison of system responses to changing climate conditions. PMID:24122340

  18. Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Nucleocapsid Assembly Is Interrupted upon Deletion of the 38K Gene?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenbi; Lin, Tiehao; Pan, Lijing; Yu, Mei; Li, Zhaofei; Pang, Yi; Yang, Kai

    2006-01-01

    38K (ac98) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is a highly conserved baculovirus gene whose function is unknown. To determine the role of 38K in the baculovirus life cycle, a 38K knockout bacmid containing the AcMNPV genome was generated through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, a 38K repair bacmid was constructed by transposing the 38K open reading frame with its native promoter region into the polyhedrin locus of the 38K knockout bacmid. After transfection of these viruses into Spodoptera frugiperda cells, the 38K knockout bacmid led to a defect in production of infectious budded virus, while the 38K repair bacmid rescued this defect, allowing budded-virus titers to reach wild-type levels. Slot blot analysis indicated that 38K deletion did not affect the levels of viral DNA replication. Subsequent immunoelectron-microscopic analysis revealed that masses of electron-lucent tubular structures containing the capsid protein VP39 were present in cells transfected with 38K knockout bacmids, suggesting that nucleocapsid assembly was interrupted. In contrast, the production of normal nucleocapsids was restored when the 38K knockout bacmid was rescued with a copy of 38K. Recombinant virus that expresses 38K fused to green fluorescent protein as a visual marker was constructed to monitor protein transport and localization within the nucleus during infection. Fluorescence was first detected along the cytoplasmic periphery of the nucleus and subsequently localized to the center of the nucleus. These results demonstrate that 38K plays a role in nucleocapsid assembly and is essential for viral replication in the AcMNPV life cycle. PMID:16987976

  19. Interrupted chalcogenide-based zeolite-analogue semiconductor: atomically precise doping for tunable electro-/photoelectrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian; Dong, Youzhen; Zhang, Qian; Hu, Dandan; Li, Na; Wang, Le; Liu, Yang; Wu, Tao

    2015-04-20

    Incorporation of semiconductor property into zeolite materials is a plausible approach to graft oxide zeolites with multifunctionality in which both electronic/optoelectronic functions and high porosity are integrated. However, creating such semiconductor zeolites, especially the ones with controllable function regulation still remains as a great synthetic challenge over the years. Hereby, we reported the first case of an interrupted chalcogenide-based zeolite-analog semiconductor with an entirely new boracite-related framework and specific sites at the interrupted section. The semiconducting nature and band structure of this open-framework n-type semiconductor material were characterized with solid-state UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky measurements. More importantly, the In-Se chalcogenide zeolite analog was for the first time explored as an effective electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The specific indium sites served as active centers and proved to be responsible for a superior ORR activity. Meanwhile, these specific sites could be precisely replaced by bismuth(III) ions, leading to facile manipulation in their electro-/photoelectrochemical properties. Such atomically precise doping successfully implemented at the semiconductor zeolite material with specifically interrupted sites presents a very promising route for accurately regulating electronic structure and photoelectrical properties of other open-framework semiconductor materials. PMID:25727727

  20. An analysis of strategic treatment interruptions during imatinib treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia with imatinib-resistant mutations.

    PubMed

    Paquin, Dana; Sacco, David; Shamshoian, John

    2015-04-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a cancer of the white blood cells that results from increased and uncontrolled growth of myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of these cells in the blood. The most common form of treatment for CML is imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Although imatinib is an effective treatment for CML and most patients treated with imatinib do attain some form of remission, imatinib does not completely eradicate all leukemia cells, and if treatment is stopped, all patients eventually relapse (Cortes, 2005). In Kim (2008), the authors developed a mathematical model for the dynamics of CML under imatinib treatment that incorporates the anti-leukemia immune response, and in Paquin (2011), the authors used this mathematical model to study strategic treatment interruptions as a potential therapeutic strategy for CML patients. Although the authors presented the results of several numerical simulations in Paquin (2011), the studies in that work did not include the possibility of imatinib-resistant mutations or an initial population of imatinib-resistant leukemia cells. As resistance is a significant consideration in any drug treatment, it is important to study the efficacy of the strategic treatment interruption plan in the presence of imatinib resistance. In this work, we modify the delay differential equations model of Kim (2008), Paquin (2011) to include the possibility of imatinib resistance, and we analyze strategic treatment interruptions as a potential therapeutic tool in the case of patients with imatinib-resistance leukemia cells. PMID:25659886

  1. Differentiation of secreted and membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase activities based on substitutions and interruptions of triple-helical sequences.

    PubMed

    Minond, Dmitriy; Lauer-Fields, Janelle L; Cudic, Mare; Overall, Christopher M; Pei, Duanqing; Brew, Keith; Moss, Marcia L; Fields, Gregg B

    2007-03-27

    The turnover of the collagen triple-helical structure (collagenolysis) is a tightly regulated process in normal physiology and has been ascribed to a small number of proteases. Several members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) family possess collagenolytic activity, and the mechanisms by which these enzymes process triple helices are beginning to be unraveled. The present study has utilized two triple-helical sequences to compare the cleavage-site specificities of 10 MMPs. One substrate featured a continuous Gly-Xxx-Yyy sequence (Pro-Leu-Gly approximately Met-Arg-Gly), while the other incorporated an interruption in the Gly-Xxx-Yyy repeat (Pro-Val-Asn approximately Phe-Arg-Gly). Both sequences were selectively cleaved by MMP-13 while in linear form, but neither proved to be selective within a triple helix. This suggests that the conformational presentation of substrate sequences to a MMP active site is critical for enzyme specificity, in that activities differ when sequences are presented from an unwound triple helix versus an independent single strand. Differences in specificity between secreted and membrane-type (MT) MMPs were also observed for both sequences, where MMP-2 and MT-MMPs showed an ability to hydrolyze a triple helix at an additional site (Gly-Gln bond). Interruption of the triple helix had different effects on secreted MMPs and MT-MMPs, because MT-MMPs could not hydrolyze the Asn-Phe bond but instead cleaved the triple helix closer to the C terminus at a Gly-Gln bond. It is possible that MT-MMPs have a requirement for Gly in the P1 subsite to be able to efficiently process a triple-helical molecule. Analysis of individual kinetic parameters and activation energies indicated different substrate preferences within secreted MMPs, because MMP-13 preferred the interrupted sequence, while MMP-8 showed little discrimination between non-interrupted and interrupted triple helices. On the basis of the present and prior studies, we can assign unique triple-helical peptidase behaviors to the collagenolytic MMPs. Such differences may be significant for understanding MMP mechanisms of action and aid in the development of selective MMP inhibitors. PMID:17338550

  2. The role of interruptible natural gas customers in New England heating oil markets: A preliminary examination of events in January-February 2000

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2000-11-01

    This report provides an analysis of data collected from gas service providers and end-use customers in the six New England States and offers a preliminary assessment of the impact of interruptible gas customers on the distillate fuel oil market this past winter. Based on information collected and analyzed as of October 2000, the main findings areas follows: (1) For interruptible gas customers with distillate fuel oil as a backup fuel, their volume of interruptions was equivalent to about 1 to 2 percent of the total sales of distillate fuel oil in New England during January-February 2000. For the two peak weeks of gas supply interruptions, however, the equivalent volume of distillate fuel oil amounted to an estimated 3 to 6 percent of total sales in New England. There were no interruptions of the natural gas service during the 2-month period. (2) Purchases of distillate fuel oil by interruptible gas customers may have contributed somewhat to the spike in the price of distillate fuel oil in January-February 2000, especially during the peak weeks of gas interruptions. Nevertheless, other factors--a sudden drop in temperatures, low regional stocks of distillate fuels, and weather-related supply problems during a period of high customer demand--appear to have played a significant role in this price spike, as they have in previous spikes. (3) While this preliminary analysis suggests that interruptible natural gas service does not threaten the stability of the home heating oil market, several steps might be taken-without undermining the benefits of interruptible service--to reduce the potential adverse impacts of gas supply interruptions in times of market stress. Regardless of the magnitude of the impact of distillate fuel oil purchases by interruptible gas customers on Northeast heating oil markets, the threat of future heating oil price spikes and supply problems still remains. To help counter the threat, President Clinton in July 2000 directed Secretary Richardson to establish a heating oil component of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in the Northeast, and 2 million barrels of heating oil are now stored in the reserve. Other possible policy options are outlined.

  3. Perioperative bridging anticoagulation during dabigatran or warfarin interruption among patients who had an elective surgery or procedure. Substudy of the RE-LY trial.

    PubMed

    Douketis, J D; Healey, J S; Brueckmann, M; Eikelboom, J W; Ezekowitz, M D; Fraessdorf, M; Noack, H; Oldgren, J; Reilly, P; Spyropoulos, A C; Wallentin, L; Connolly, S J

    2015-03-01

    In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who require interruption of dabigatran or warfarin for an elective surgery/procedure, the risks and benefits of perioperative bridging anticoagulation is uncertain.We accessed the database from RE-LY, a randomised trial comparing dabigatran with warfarin for stroke prevention in AF, to assess the potential benefits and risks of bridging. In patients who had a first interruption of dabigatran or warfarin for an elective surgery/procedure, we compared the risk for major bleeding (MB), stroke or systemic embolism (SSE) and any thromboembolism (TE) in patients who were bridged or not bridged during the period of seven days before until 30 days after surgery/procedure. We used multivariable Cox regression to adjust for potential confounders.Bridging was used more during warfarin interruption than dabigatran interruption (27.5?% vs 15.4?%; pinterruption, bridged patients had more MB (6.5?% vs 1.8?%, pinterruption, bridged patients had more MB (6.8?% vs 1.6?%, pinterrupted dabigatran or warfarin for a surgery/ procedure in the RE-LY trial, use of bridging anticoagulation appeared to increase the risk for major bleeding irrespective of dabigatran or warfarin interruption. PMID:25472710

  4. Coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass and without interruption of native coronary flow using a novel anastomosis site restraining device (“Octopus”)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelius Borst; Erik W. L. Jansen; Cornelis A. F. Tulleken; Paul F. Grundeman; Hendricus J. Mansvelt Beck; Jeroen W. F. van Dongen; Kees C. Hodde; Jaap J. Bredée

    1996-01-01

    Objective. This study assessed the feasibility of coronary artery bypass grafting on the beating heart without interruption of native coronary blood flow using a novel anastomosis site restraining device.Background. Recently, an end-to-side bypass technique was described that does not require interruption of flow in the recipient artery.Methods. By means of a suction device (“Octopus”), in 31 pigs the epicardium was

  5. The Interruption of Alpine Foehn by a Cold Front. Part II: Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dautz, E.; Gohm, A.

    2010-09-01

    In this work the interaction of Alpine foehn winds with a cold front is investigated. Despite the wealth of studies on south foehn in the region of Innsbruck during the last century not much is known about the dynamics of foehn breakdown. In most cases, the interruption of foehn is connected with a cold front, which approaches the Alps from northerly or northwesterly directions. The resulting change of warm and dry southerly winds to a cold and moist airmass may occur within less than an hour. The objective of this study is to receive a better understanding of the dynamical processes connected with the collision of two airflows from opposing directions in an Alpine valley by means of numerical simulations conducted with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, Version 3.1. For this purpose a foehn event at the Special Observing Period (SOP) of the Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP) has been chosen. On 6 November 1999 a cold front impinged on the Alps and caused the breakdown of the foehn flow. The investigations are mainly focused on the Austrian Inn- and Wipp Valley, which has been one of the target areas during the MAP SOP. The results from the mesoscale model are compaired against the large available observational data set, including surface station, radiosonde and lidar measurements. Nested model runs provide the ability to investigate a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. The model is able to capture the blocking of moist air south of the Alps during foehn and the deformation of the cold front by the mountain range north of the Alps. To quantitatively describe the exchange of air masses in a given box near Innsbruck a mass budget calculation has been accomplished. The most prominent feature is a sudden increase of the inflow from the west during the cold front passage. The fine-scale structure of the cold front, which shows the nature of a density current, is determined with an additional one-way nested high-resolution simulation in the Wipp Valley. Futhermore, the sensitivity of the model results on the initial and boundary conditions, which are based on different ECMWF analysis products, is studied. Apart from these tests, it is shown, that the quality of the numerical simulations strongly depends on the type of boundary-layer parametrization used in the model.

  6. Cockpit Interruptions and Distractions: Effective Management Requires a Careful Balancing Act

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. K.; Young, Grant E.; Sumwalt, Robert L., III; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Managing several tasks concurrently is an everyday part of cockpit operations. For the most part, crews handle concurrent task demands efficiently, yet crew preoccupation with one task to the detriment of performing other tasks is one of the more common forms of error in the cockpit. Most pilots are familiar with the December 1972 L1011 crash that occurred when the crew became preoccupied with a landing gear light malfunction and failed to notice that someone had inadvertently bumped off the autopilot. More recently a DC-9 landed gear-up in Houston when the crew, preoccupied with an stabilized approach, failed to recognize that the gear was not down because they had not switched the hydraulic pumps to high. We have recently started a research project to study why crews are vulnerable to these sorts of errors. As part of that project we reviewed NTSB reports of accidents attributed to crew error; we concluded that nearly half of these accidents involved lapses of attention associated with interruptions, distractions, or preoccupation with one task to the exclusion of another task. We have also analyzed 107 ASRS reports involving competing tasks; we present here some of our conclusions from those ASRS reports. These 107 reports involved 21 different types of routine tasks crews neglected at a critical moment while attending to another task. Sixty-nine percent of the neglected tasks involved either failure to monitor the current status or position of the aircraft or failure to monitor the actions of the pilot flying or taxiing. Thirty-four different types of competing activities distracted or preoccupied the pilots. Ninety percent of these competing activities fell into one of four broad categories: communication (e.g., discussion among crew or radio communication), heads-down work (e.g., programming the FMS or reviewing approach plates), responding to abnormals, or searching for VMC traffic. We will discuss examples of each of these four categories and suggest things crews can do to reduce their vulnerability to these and similar situations.

  7. MEDITERRANEAN SAPROPEL S1: Formation, Redox-Controled Preservation, and Interruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, Gert J.; Goudeau, Marie-Louise; Hennekam, Rick; Filippidi, Amalia

    2014-05-01

    Sapropels are distinct organic-rich units in Mediterraneran sediments; their deposition is thought to be precession-related and to be associated with humid climate conditions. The last humid period from 11 - 5 kyr 14C ago, occurred simultaneous with a sustained circum-Mediterranean wet period. Within that period, the most recent sapropel (S1) formed synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ky BP at all water depths greater than a few hundred metres. As a consequence of increased fresh water (monsoon) input, surface waters had a reduced salinity and concomitantly the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea was devoid of oxygen during 4,000 years of S1. This has resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1 determined by water depth, as a result of different ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km. The end of this period is marked by a basin-wide high sedimentary manganese-oxide peak that represents an abrupt re-ventilation at 5.7 kyr. The sustaining oxic conditions thereafter have resulted in a downward progressing oxidation-front that is not only characterized by the degradation of most organic matter over its active pathway, but also by the built-up of manganese oxide. The latter has resulted in a secondary Mn-peak below the first, upper, ventilation Mn-peak. Apart from the major re-ventilation event at the end of sapropel S1 formation, also other, short-term ventilation events appear to have occurred during its formation, notably the 8.2 ka event. This potentially basin-wide event is particularly noticeable at relatively shallow near-coastal sites of high sedimentation rates. It marks a brief episode of not only re-oxygenated deep water thus reduced preservation, but also decreased primary productivity thus nutrient supply. This 8.2 cal ka BP interruption event is thought to be related to enhanced deep water formation in the Aegean or Adriatic due to a period of sustained cold air fluxes from Polar regions. The amount of precipitation thus stratified water column conditions seems mostly related to the N.African monsoonal system, whereas deep-water formation, thus disrupture of a stratified water column seems mostly related to the northern borderland climate system. Sapropel formation mechanisms, therefore, are related to a sensitive interplay between N-African monsoonal and northern climate systems.

  8. Supplementary corpora lutea monitoring allows progestin treatment interruption on day 70 of pregnancy in non-cyclic recipient mares.

    PubMed

    Silva, E S M; Frade, S C F; Ignácio, F S; Pantoja, J C F; Puoli Filho, J N P; Meira, C

    2014-01-30

    The present study evaluated the effect of altrenogest treatment during 70 or 120 days of gestation on pregnancy maintenance in non-cyclic recipient mares and correlated the hormonal interruption findings with number, supplementary corpora lutea (SCL) formation period, and plasma progesterone (P4). Twenty five mares were used as recipients during anestrus, transitional or ovulatory phase and were assigned into groups according to altrenogest treatment period (70ALT, 120ALT or Control groups) or reproductive status at beginning of treatment (Anestrus, Transition or Cyclic/Control groups). Mares were evaluated by ultrasonography and quantification of plasma progesterone to monitor pregnancy status, SCL formation and P4 profile. After hormonal withdrawal, abortion was only observed on group 70ALT. The days of first SCL formation were similar (p=0.32) in the 70ALT and 120ALT groups and greater (p<0.01) than the Control group. In addition, the first SCL formation period occurred later during gestation in the anestrus group than in the transitional or cyclic mares. Progesterone synthesis in non-cyclic mares occurred in more advanced gestational period and showed lower concentration during the 120 days in relation to cyclic mares. It is suggested that progestin treatment interruption in non-cyclic recipient mares at 70 days of gestation allows pregnancy maintenance when SCL are observed and at 120 days enables maintenance in all recipient mares. In addition, the first SCL development period occurs in different gestational phases during pregnancy among anestrus, transitional and cyclic mares. This study improves the understanding of pregnancy physiology and enables progestins treatment interruption on day 70 of pregnancy in non-cyclic pregnant recipient mares. PMID:24380787

  9. Isolated right subclavian artery with interrupted aortic arch, ventricular septal defect, and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.

    PubMed

    Te Hoven, Arianne S; Clur, Sally-Ann B; Andreu, Joaquin Perez; Hazekamp, Mark G

    2015-04-01

    We present two cases of isolated right subclavian artery from the right pulmonary artery (PA) associated with interrupted aortic arch, ventricular septal defect, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and 22q11 microdeletion. Both patients were successfully managed with bilateral PA banding initially followed by a modified Yasui operation. Isolation of the subclavian artery is rare but should always be taken into account, especially when bilateral PA banding is considered. The banding must then be placed on the PA distal to the origin of the subclavian artery. PMID:25870352

  10. Transapical closure of paraprosthetic mitral leak in a patient with inferior vena cava interruption and azygos continuation.

    PubMed

    Mega, Simona; Patti, Giuseppe; Carminati, Mario; Sedati, Pietro; D'Ambrosio, Andrea; Di Sciascio, Germano

    2015-01-01

    Para-valvular leaks represent a relevant post-operative complication of cardiac valve replacement, often causing heart failure or severe hemolysis. We report a case of a 72 year-old woman with aortic and mitral mechanical prostheses who developed hemolytic anemia because of a para-prosthetic mitral leak. Chest tomography in such patient unexpectedly documented inferior vena cava interruption with azygos continuation into superior vena cava. Given the high surgical risk, the venous anomaly and the presence of the aortic valve prosthesis, transcatheter leak closure via antero-lateral mini-thoracotomy and transapical approach was performed. PMID:24048023

  11. Daily Average Consumption of 2 Long-Acting Opioids: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Puenpatom, R. Amy; Szeinbach, Sheryl L.; Ma, Larry; Ben-Joseph, Rami H.; Summers, Kent H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Oxycodone controlled release (CR) and oxymorphone extended release (ER) are frequently prescribed long-acting opioids, which are approved for twice-daily dosing. The US Food and Drug Administration approved a reformulated crush-resistant version of oxycodone CR in April 2010. Objective To compare the daily average consumption (DACON) for oxycodone CR and for oxymorphone ER before and after the introduction of the reformulated, crush-resistant version of oxycodone CR. Methods This was a retrospective claims database analysis using pharmacy claims from the MarketScan database for the period from January 2010 through March 2011. The interrupted time series analysis was used to evaluate the impact of the introduction of reformulated oxycodone CR on the DACON of the 2 drugs—oxycodone CR and oxymorphone ER. The source of the databases included private-sector health data from more than 150 medium and large employers. All prescription claims containing oxycodone CR and oxymorphone ER dispensed to members from January 1, 2010, to March 31, 2011, were included in the analysis. Prescription claims containing duplicate National Drug Codes, missing member identification, invalid quantities or inaccurate days supply of either drug, and DACON values of <1 and >500 were removed. Results The database yielded 483,063 prescription claims for oxycodone CR and oxymorphone ER from January 1, 2010, to March 31, 2011. The final sample consisted of 411,404 oxycodone CR prescriptions (traditional and reformulated) dispensed to 85,150 members and 62,656 oxymorphone ER prescriptions dispensed to 11,931 members. Before the introduction of reformulated oxycodone CR, DACON values for the highest strength available for each of the 2 drugs were 0.51 tablets higher for oxycodone CR than for oxymorphone ER, with mean DACON values of 3.5 for oxycodone CR and 3.0 for oxymorphone ER (P <.001). The differences of mean DACON between the 2 drugs for all lower strengths were 0.46 tablets, with mean DACON values of 2.7 for oxycodone CR and 2.3 for oxymorphone ER (P <.001). After the introduction of the new formulation, the difference in mean DACON between the 2 drugs was slightly lower: 0.45 tablets for the highest-strength and 0.40 tablets for the lower-strength pairs. Regression analyses showed that the immediate and overall impact of the reformulation of oxycodone CR on the DACON of oxycodone CR was minimal, whereas no changes were seen in the DACON of oxymorphone ER. The estimated DACON for oxycodone CR decreased by 0.1 tablets, or 3.7% (P <.001), 6 months after the new formulation was introduced. Conclusion The mean DACON was 0.4 tablets per day higher for oxycodone CR compared with oxymorphone ER for all dosage strengths for the entire study period. After the introduction of the reformulated oxycodone CR, the DACON for this drug was slightly mitigated; however, there was a minimal impact on the mean differences between oxycodone CR and oxymorphone ER. PMID:24991311

  12. Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Regulations to Reduce Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Oliver W; Griffiths, Clare; Majeed, Azeem

    2007-01-01

    Background Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning is the leading cause of acute liver failure in Great Britain and the United States. Successful interventions to reduced harm from paracetamol poisoning are needed. To achieve this, the government of the United Kingdom introduced legislation in 1998 limiting the pack size of paracetamol sold in shops. Several studies have reported recent decreases in fatal poisonings involving paracetamol. We use interrupted time-series analysis to evaluate whether the recent fall in the number of paracetamol deaths is different to trends in fatal poisoning involving aspirin, paracetamol compounds, antidepressants, or nondrug poisoning suicide. Methods and Findings We calculated directly age-standardised mortality rates for paracetamol poisoning in England and Wales from 1993 to 2004. We used an ordinary least-squares regression model divided into pre- and postintervention segments at 1999. The model included a term for autocorrelation within the time series. We tested for changes in the level and slope between the pre- and postintervention segments. To assess whether observed changes in the time series were unique to paracetamol, we compared against poisoning deaths involving compound paracetamol (not covered by the regulations), aspirin, antidepressants, and nonpoisoning suicide deaths. We did this comparison by calculating a ratio of each comparison series with paracetamol and applying a segmented regression model to the ratios. No change in the ratio level or slope indicated no difference compared to the control series. There were about 2,200 deaths involving paracetamol. The age-standardised mortality rate rose from 8.1 per million in 1993 to 8.8 per million in 1997, subsequently falling to about 5.3 per million in 2004. After the regulations were introduced, deaths dropped by 2.69 per million (p = 0.003). Trends in the age-standardised mortality rate for paracetamol compounds, aspirin, and antidepressants were broadly similar to paracetamol, increasing until 1997 and then declining. Nondrug poisoning suicide also declined during the study period, but was highest in 1993. The segmented regression models showed that the age-standardised mortality rate for compound paracetamol dropped less after the regulations (p = 0.012) but declined more rapidly afterward (p = 0.031). However, age-standardised rates for aspirin and antidepressants fell in a similar way to paracetamol after the regulations. Nondrug poisoning suicide declined at a similar rate to paracetamol after the regulations were introduced. Conclusions Introduction of regulations to limit availability of paracetamol coincided with a decrease in paracetamol-poisoning mortality. However, fatal poisoning involving aspirin, antidepressants, and to a lesser degree, paracetamol compounds, also showed similar trends. This raises the question whether the decline in paracetamol deaths was due to the regulations or was part of a wider trend in decreasing drug-poisoning mortality. We found little evidence to support the hypothesis that the 1998 regulations limiting pack size resulted in a greater reduction in poisoning deaths involving paracetamol than occurred for other drugs or nondrug poisoning suicide. PMID:17407385

  13. Factors associated with antiretroviral treatment interruption in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected children attending the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ebonyi, Augustine O.; Ejeliogu, Emeka U.; Okpe, Sylvanus E.; Shwe, David D.; Yiltok, Esther S.; Ochoga, Martha O.; Oguche, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interrupting anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for any number of reasons is an indication of a compromised adherence to ART. Several factors, including the pill burden from other drugs used in treating co-infections in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), may influence ART adherence. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with ART interruption in HIV-1-infected children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study analysing data on 580 children consecutively enrolled on ART between February 2006 and December 2010 at the paediatric HIV clinic of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos. Subjects were children aged 2 months — 15 years diagnosed with HIV-1 infection and on first-line ART. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was usually commenced at diagnosis while awaiting ART commencement. Children diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) were also placed on multiple individual anti-TB drugs. Statistical analysis used: A comparison of the data on children with and without ART interruption was made. Variables associated with ART interruption in a univariate analysis were fit in a multivariate logistic model to determine the factors that were associated with ART interruption. Results: Children on anti-TB drugs were twice more likely to interrupt ART compared to those who were not, (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 1.84 (1.03-3.28); P = 0.04). But children on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis had a 57% reduction in the odds of interrupting ART compared to those who were not, (AOR = 0.43 (0.20-0.93); P = 0.03). Conclusion: Children on ART and also taking multiple individual anti-TB drugs should be monitored closely for ART adherence. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis should be encouraged in children diagnosed with HIV while awaiting ART commencement as this may prime them for a better ART adherence. PMID:25657493

  14. Results of a UK survey on methods for compensating for unscheduled treatment interruptions and errors in treatment delivery.

    PubMed

    Dale, R G; Jones, B; Sinclair, J A; Comins, C; Antoniou, E

    2007-05-01

    In order to obtain a preliminary overview of the current national status regarding the management of both unintentional interruptions to radiotherapy treatments and inadvertent errors in treatment delivery, a short questionnaire was sent to 60 UK radiotherapy departments, of which 35 (58%) responded. The study was initiated by the authors and was not commissioned by any professional body. Amongst the centres which responded the majority (86%) currently have standardized protocols in place for dealing with treatment interruptions and many have extended the enactment of compensation methods to cover a wider range of tumour types than are encompassed within the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR)-defined Categories 1 and 2. Fewer of the respondents (60%) have standardized methods for dealing with treatment errors. Given that 42% of centres did not respond it is difficult to assess the fuller national picture. Some smaller departments may seek protocols or advice from larger adjacent centres, but the overall percentage of centres with systems in place may be lower than indicated from the survey results. The desirability of providing training in the radiobiological methods pertaining to treatment compensation was raised by a number of respondents. PMID:17267460

  15. Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coating During Interrupted High-Heat Flux Laser Testing Using Upconversion Luminescence Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    Upconversion luminescence imaging of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has been shown to successfully monitor TBC delamination progression during interrupted furnace cycling. However, furnace cycling does not adequately model engine conditions where TBC-coated components are subjected to significant heat fluxes that produce through-thickness temperature gradients that may alter both the rate and path of delamination progression. Therefore, new measurements are presented based on luminescence imaging of TBC-coated specimens subjected to interrupted high-heat-flux laser cycling exposures that much better simulate the thermal gradients present in engine conditions. The TBCs tested were deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and were composed of 7wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) with an integrated delamination sensing layer composed of 7YSZ co-doped with erbium and ytterbium (7YSZ:Er,Yb). The high-heat-flux exposures that produce the desired through-thickness thermal gradients were performed using a high power CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 10.6 microns. Upconversion luminescence images revealed the debond progression produced by the cyclic high-heat-flux exposures and these results were compared to that observed for furnace cycling.

  16. The effect of growth interruption on the photoluminescence linewidth of GaAs/InGaAs quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S. F.; Li, H. M.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Zhang, D. H.

    1993-07-01

    Low-temperature photoluminescence measurements were carried out to assess the interfacial properties of strained GaAs/InGaAs quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy at different well temperatures with and without growth interruption at the heterointerfaces. Sharp exiton peaks were observed in the spectra, some with linewidths as low as 1.2 meV. The spectra from samples with growth interruption at the interface were narrower, indicating structural improvements at the interfaces. The linewidths were narrower in samples with growth interruption at the bottom InGaAs/GaAs interface or by increasing the duration of the interrupt time. The narrowest linewidths were seen in samples with growth at both the top GaAs/InGaAs and bottom InGaAs/GaAs interfaces interrupted. A reduction in the linewidth was observed in wells grown at higher temperatures, most likely due to greater indium reevaporation leading to a reduction in strain, well width and interface fluctuations.

  17. Locally Advanced Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Impact of Pre-Radiotherapy Hemoglobin Level and Interruptions During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net; Stoehr, Monika [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Kazic, Nadja [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Sarajevo, Sarajevo(Bosnia and Herzegowina); Hakim, Samer G. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Walz, Annette [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Dunst, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Stage IV head and neck cancer patients carry a poor prognosis. Clear understanding of prognostic factors can help to optimize care for the individual patient. This study investigated 11 potential prognostic factors including pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level and interruptions during radiotherapy for overall survival (OS), metastases-free survival (MFS), and locoregional control (LC) after radiochemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven factors were investigated in 153 patients receiving radiochemotherapy for Stage IV squamous cell head and neck cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor site, grading, T stage, N stage, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, surgery, chemotherapy type, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved OS was associated with KPS 90-100 (relative risk [RR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.93; p = .012), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.01-3.53; p = .048), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.15-5.78; p = .021). Improved LC was significantly associated with lower T stage (RR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.16-4.63; p = .013), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.92-9.09; p < .001), surgery (RR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.28-5.88; p = .008), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.26-8.79; p = .015). Improved MFS was associated with KPS 90-100 (RR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.46-8.85; p = .012). Conclusions: Significant predictors for outcome in Stage IV head and neck cancer were performance status, stage, surgery, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. It appears important to avoid anemia and radiotherapy interruptions to achieve the best treatment results.

  18. Transcription of the SCL/TAL1 Interrupting Locus (Stil) Is Required for Cell Proliferation in Adult Zebrafish Retinas*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lei; Li, Ping; Carr, Aprell L.; Gorsuch, Ryne; Yarka, Clare; Li, Jingling; Bartlett, Michael; Pfister, Delaney; Hyde, David R.; Li, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) is highly conserved in vertebrate species. Previously, we identified a homolog of the Stil gene in zebrafish mutant (night blindness b, nbb), which showed neural defects in the retina (e.g. dopaminergic cell degeneration and/or lack of regeneration). In this research, we examined the roles of Stil in cell proliferation after degeneration in adult zebrafish retinas. We demonstrated that knockdown of Stil gene expression or inhibition of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling transduction decreases the rate of cell proliferation. In contrast, activation of Shh signal transduction promotes cell proliferation. In nbb+/? retinas, inhibition of SUFU (a repressor in the Shh pathway) rescues the defects in cell proliferation due to down-regulation of Stil gene expression. The latter data suggest that Stil play a role in cell proliferation through the Shh signal transduction pathway. PMID:24469449

  19. Transcription of the SCL/TAL1 interrupting Locus (Stil) is required for cell proliferation in adult Zebrafish Retinas.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Li, Ping; Carr, Aprell L; Gorsuch, Ryne; Yarka, Clare; Li, Jingling; Bartlett, Michael; Pfister, Delaney; Hyde, David R; Li, Lei

    2014-03-01

    The human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) is highly conserved in vertebrate species. Previously, we identified a homolog of the Stil gene in zebrafish mutant (night blindness b, nbb), which showed neural defects in the retina (e.g. dopaminergic cell degeneration and/or lack of regeneration). In this research, we examined the roles of Stil in cell proliferation after degeneration in adult zebrafish retinas. We demonstrated that knockdown of Stil gene expression or inhibition of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling transduction decreases the rate of cell proliferation. In contrast, activation of Shh signal transduction promotes cell proliferation. In nbb(+/-) retinas, inhibition of SUFU (a repressor in the Shh pathway) rescues the defects in cell proliferation due to down-regulation of Stil gene expression. The latter data suggest that Stil play a role in cell proliferation through the Shh signal transduction pathway. PMID:24469449

  20. Experimental and computational studies on interrupted Nazarov reactions: exploration of umpolung reactivity at the ?-carbon of cyclopentanones.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yen-Ku; Dunbar, Christine R; McDonald, Robert; Ferguson, Michael J; West, F G

    2014-10-22

    A set of densely substituted, ?-functionalized cyclopentanones can be generated by a two-component, domino reaction sequence entailing the Nazarov electrocyclization of divinyl ketones and nucleophilic addition of the resulting 2-oxidocyclopentenyl cations by selected trapping modalities. Bypassing the typical eliminative termination, Nazarov oxyallyl species can react with carbon ?-nucleophiles through cycloadditions (or formal cycloadditions), in which bridged bicyclic systems are established, or nucleophilic trappings whereby one terminal carbon of the oxyallyl intermediate is subjected to carbon-carbon bond formation. A detailed investigation of reaction parameters to explicitly control the course of the "interrupted" Nazarov reactions is described. This methodology allows for facile installation of ?-quaternary centers bearing allyl, alkynyl, and heteroaryl groups in an umpolung fashion. In addition, the trapping event of a Nazarov intermediate with furan was studied by DFT computations, in conjunction with experimental data, offering a rationale for the observed reaction pattern and diastereoselectivity. PMID:25310874

  1. Pressure support-ventilation versus spontaneous breathing with "T-Tube" for interrupting the ventilation after cardiac operations

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Isabela Scali; Franco, Aline Marques; Bassetto, Solange; Rodrigues, Alfredo José

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare pressure-support ventilation with spontaneous breathing through a T-tube for interrupting invasive mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods Adults of both genders were randomly allocated to 30 minutes of either pressure-support ventilation or spontaneous ventilation with "T-tube" before extubation. Manovacuometry, ventilometry and clinical evaluation were performed before the operation, immediately before and after extubation, 1h and 12h after extubation. Results Twenty-eight patients were studied. There were no deaths or pulmonary complications. The mean aortic clamping time in the pressure support ventilation group was 62 ± 35 minutes and 68 ± 36 minutes in the T-tube group (P=0.651). The mean cardiopulmonary bypass duration in the pressure-support ventilation group was 89 ± 44 minutes and 82 ± 42 minutes in the T-tube group (P=0.75). The mean Tobin index in the pressure support ventilation group was 51 ± 25 and 64.5 ± 23 in the T-tube group (P=0.153). The duration of intensive care unit stay for the pressure support ventilation group was 2.1 ± 0.36 days and 2.3 ± 0.61 days in the T-tube group (P=0.581). The atelectasis score in the T-tube group was 0.6 ± 0.8 and 0.5 ± 0.6 (P=0.979) in the pressure support ventilation group. The study groups did not differ significantly in manovacuometric and ventilometric parameters and hospital evolution. Conclusion The two trial methods evaluated for interruption of mechanical ventilation did not affect the postoperative course of patients who underwent cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:24598949

  2. Internet-based remote counseling to support stress management: preventing interruptions to regular exercise in elderly people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Sayuri; Munakata, Tsunestugu; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Okunaka, Jyunzo; Koga, Tatsuzo

    2006-01-01

    Our research showed that a high degree of life-stress has a negative mental health effect that may interrupt regular exercise. We used an internet based, remotely conducted, face to face, preventive counseling program using video monitors to reduce the source of life-stresses that interrupts regular exercise and evaluated the preventative effects of the program in elderly people. NTSC Video signals were converted to the IP protocol and facial images were transmitted to a PC display using the exclusive optical network lines of JGN2. Participants were 22 elderly people in Hokkaido, Japan, who regularly played table tennis. A survey was conducted before the intervention in August 2003. IT remote counseling was conducted on two occasions for one hour on each occasion. A post intervention survey was conducted in February 2004 and a follow-up survey was conducted in March 2005. Network quality was satisfactory with little data loss and high display quality. Results indicated that self-esteem increased significantly, trait anxiety decreased significantly, cognition of emotional support by people other than family members had a tendency to increase, and source of stress had a tendency to decrease after the intervention. Follow-up results indicated that cognition of emotional support by family increased significantly, and interpersonal dependency decreased significantly compared to before the intervention. These results suggest that face to face IT remote counseling using video monitors is useful to keep elderly people from feeling anxious and to make them confident to continue exercising regularly. Moreover, it has a stress management effect.

  3. The effect of high temperature interruptions during inductive period on the extent of flowering and on metabolic responses in olives (Olea europaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of the duration of high temperature interruption and the timing of it’s occurrence during inductive period on the extent of inhibition of inflorescence production in ‘Arbequina’ olive trees was investigated. Trees kept under inductive conditions in different growth chambers were subjected...

  4. Formation of a Direct Arterial Blood Supply to the Anterior Pituitary Gland following Complete or Partial Interruption of the Hypophyseal Portal Vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florianne Monnet; Kathleen A. Elias; Katherine Fagin; Anne Neill; Paul Goldsmith; Richard I. Weiner

    1984-01-01

    If regions of the anterior pituitary gland received systemic blood via a direct arterial blood supply these regions would escape hypothalamic regulation and thus be a sequela in endocrine disorders. Since, in the untreated rat, all of the blood supply to the anterior pituitary gland is via the hypophyseal portal vessels, we hypothesized that partial interruption of the portal vessels

  5. An Interrupted Time Series Analysis of the State College Nuisance Property Ordinance and an Assessment of Rental Property Managers as Place Manager/Intimate Handler of Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehle, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    This research involves a legal impact study of the State College Nuisance Property Ordinance and an assessment of State College Rental Property Managers in the role of place manager/intimate handler of offender. The impact of the Ordinance was assessed by employing an interrupted time series design which examined five years of pre-ordinance…

  6. A Study to Determine the Counseling Needs of Women Enrolled at the University of West Florida After an Interruption in Their Formal Educational Training. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Barbara H.

    Counseling needs of women enrolled at a university after an interruption in their formal educational training are explored. The target population was women who were at least 24 years old and who had not attended an educational institution for two years prior to enrolling in the university. A stratefied sample (N=20) was chosen from a computer…

  7. Effects of Prolongation of Overall Treatment Time Due To Unplanned Interruptions During Radiotherapy of Different Tumor Sites and Practical Methods for Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Bese, Nuran Senel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School, Cerrahpasa, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: nuranbese@superonline.com; Hendry, Jolyon [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Jeremic, Branislav [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    The prescribed total radiation dose should be administered within a specific time. In daily clinical practice, however, unplanned treatment interruptions resulting in prolongation of the overall treatment time are predictable. The present review evaluated the existing published data regarding the affect of the prolongation of the overall treatment time on the tumor control rate and outcome of patients with head-and-neck, lung, and uterine cervical cancer and other treatment sites. In most studies, including the planned interruption (split-course) schedules, as well as the retrospective studies analyzing the role of overall treatment time, a detrimental effect from the treatment break on the outcome was evident. This is suggestive of the deleterious effect of accelerated repopulation of tumor clonogens. In particular for the cancers of the head and neck for which the evidence is the strongest for such a consequence, even a 1-day interruption resulted in a decrease in the local control rate by 1.4%. Although the increased number of gaps was associated with a negative outcome, the data are contradictory concerning the effect of the number of gaps. The main recommendation is to exert all efforts to retain the planned irradiation schedule; however, existing data have shown that interruptions that effect the programmed time-course for irradiation need to be compensated for. This is to ensure biologic equivalence in treatment efficacy compared with uninterrupted regimens with respect to cancer site and stage. Practical methods for compensation using radiobiologic modeling and their limitations are also discussed.

  8. Peek-a-What? Infants' Response to the Still-Face Task after Normal and Interrupted Peek-a-Boo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Best, Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    Infants' sensitivity to the vitality or tension envelope within dyadic social exchanges was investigated by examining their responses following normal and interrupted games of peek-a-boo embedded in a Still-Face Task. Infants 5-6 months old engaged in two modified Still-Face Tasks with their mothers. In one task, the initial interaction ended…

  9. Interrupted Incubation and Short-Term Storage of the Alfalfa Pollinator, Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): A Potential Tool for Synchronizing Bees With Bloom

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interrupting the spring incubation with short-term low temperature storage of the developing pupae and pharate adult stage of Megachile rotundata (F.) is a useful technique for synchronizing the emergence of this bee species with the peak alfalfa bloom. However, low temperature exposure can be stres...

  10. The Validity and Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time Series Design and the Difference-in-Difference Design in Educational Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Marie-Andrée; Zhu, Pei; Jacob, Robin; Bloom, Howard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the validity and precision of two nonexperimental study designs (NXDs) that can be used in educational evaluation: the comparative interrupted time series (CITS) design and the difference-in-difference (DD) design. In a CITS design, program impacts are evaluated by looking at whether the treatment group deviates from its…

  11. Chagas disease: current epidemiological trends after the interruption of vectorial and transfusional transmission in the Southern Cone countries.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Alvaro

    2003-07-01

    Chagas disease, named after Carlos Chagas who first described it in 1909, exists only on the American Continent. It is caused by a parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs and by blood transfusion. Chagas disease has two successive phases, acute and chronic. The acute phase lasts 6 to 8 weeks. After several years of starting the chronic phase, 20% to 35% of the infected individuals, depending on the geographical area will develop irreversible lesions of the autonomous nervous system in the heart, esophagus, colon and the peripheral nervous system. Data on the prevalence and distribution of Chagas disease improved in quality during the 1980's as a result of the demographically representative cross-sectional studies carried out in countries where accurate information was not available. A group of experts met in Bras lia in 1979 and devised standard protocols to carry out countrywide prevalence studies on human T. cruzi infection and triatomine house infestation. Thanks to a coordinated multi-country program in the Southern Cone countries the transmission of Chagas disease by vectors and by blood transfusion has been interrupted in Uruguay in1997, in Chile in 1999, and in 8 of the 12 endemic states of Brazil in 2000 and so the incidence of new infections by T. cruzi in the whole continent has decreased by 70%. Similar control multi-country initiatives have been launched in the Andean countries and in Central America and rapid progress has been recorded to ensure the interruption of the transmission of Chagas disease by 2005 as requested by a Resolution of the World Health Assembly approved in 1998. The cost-benefit analysis of the investments of the vector control program in Brazil indicate that there are savings of US$17 in medical care and disabilities for each dollar spent on prevention, showing that the program is a health investment with good return. Since the inception in 1979 of the Steering Committee on Chagas Disease of the Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases of the World Health Organization (TDR), the objective was set to promote and finance research aimed at the development of new methods and tools to control this disease. The well known research institutions in Latin America were the key elements of a world wide network of laboratories that received - on a competitive basis - financial support for projects in line with the priorities established. It is presented the time line of the different milestones that were answering successively and logically the outstanding scientific questions identified by the Scientific Working Group in 1978 and that influenced the development and industrial production of practical solutions for diagnosis of the infection and disease control. PMID:12973523

  12. Understanding reasons for treatment interruption amongst patients on antiretroviral therapy – A qualitative study at the Lighthouse Clinic, Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Julia; Namakhoma, Ireen; Tweya, Hannock; Phiri, Sam; Schnitzler, Paul; Neuhann, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, scaling up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings moved impressively towards universal access. Along with these achievements, public health HIV programs are facing a number of challenges including the support of patients on lifelong therapy and the prevention of temporary/permanent loss of patients in care. Understanding reasons for treatment interruption (TI) can inform strategies for improving drug adherence and retention in care. Objective To evaluate key characteristics of patients resuming ART after TI at the Lighthouse Clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, and to identify their reasons for interrupting ART. Design This study uses a mixed methods design to evaluate patients resuming ART after TI. We analysed an assessment form for patients with TI using pre-defined categories and a comments field to identify frequently stated reasons for TI. Additionally, we conducted 26 in-depth interviews to deepen our understanding of common reasons for TI. In-depth interviews also included the patients’ knowledge about ART and presence of social support systems. Qualitative data analysis was based on a thematic framework approach. Results A total of 347 patients (58.2% female, average age 35.1±11.3 years) with TI were identified. Despite the presence of social support and sufficient knowledge of possible consequences of TI, all patients experienced situations that resulted in TI. Analysis of in-depth interviews led to new and distinct categories for TI. The most common reason for TI was travel (54.5%, n=80/147), which further differentiated into work- or family-related travel. Patients also stated transport costs and health-care-provider-related reasons, which included perceived/enacted discrimination by health care workers. Other drivers of TI were treatment fatigue/forgetfulness, the patients’ health status, adverse drug effects, pregnancy/delivery, religious belief or perceived/enacted stigma. Conclusions To adequately address patients’ needs on a lifelong therapy, adherence-counselling sessions require provision of problem-solving strategies for common barriers to continuous care. PMID:25280736

  13. Peri-procedural interrupted oral anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation ablation: comparison of aspirin, warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban

    PubMed Central

    Winkle, Roger A.; Mead, R. Hardwin; Engel, Gregory; Kong, Melissa H.; Patrawala, Rob A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Atrial fibrillation ablation requires peri-procedural oral anticoagulation (OAC) to prevent thromboembolic events. There are several options for OAC. We evaluate peri-procedural AF ablation complications using a variety of peri-procedural OACs. Methods and results We examined peri-procedural OAC and groin, bleeding, and thromboembolic complications for 2334 consecutive AF ablations using open irrigated-tip radiofrequency (RF) catheters. Pre-ablation OAC was warfarin in 1113 (47.7%), dabigatran 426 (18.3%), rivaroxaban 187 (8.0%), aspirin 472 (20.2%), and none 136 (5.8%). Oral anticoagulation was always interrupted and intraprocedural anticoagulation was unfractionated heparin (activated clotting time, ACT = 237 ± 26 s). Pre- and post-OAC drugs were the same for 1591 (68.2%) and were different for 743 (31.8%). Following ablation, 693 (29.7%) were treated with dabigatran and 291 (12.5%) were treated with rivaroxaban. There were no problems changing from one OAC pre-ablation to another post-ablation. Complications included 12 (0.51%) pericardial tamponades [no differences for dabigatran (P = 0.457) or rivaroxaban (P = 0.163) compared with warfarin], 12 (0.51%) groin complications [no differences for rivaroxaban (P = 0.709) and fewer for dabigatran (P = 0.041) compared with warfarin]. Only 5 of 2334 (0.21%) required blood transfusions. There were two strokes (0.086%) and no transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) in the first 48 h post-ablation. Three additional strokes (0.13%), and two TIAs (0.086%) occurred from 48 h to 30 days. Only one stroke had a residual deficit. Compared with warfarin, the neurologic event rate was not different for dabigatran (P = 0.684) or rivaroxaban (P = 0.612). Conclusion Using interrupted OAC, low target intraprocedural ACT, and irrigated-tip RF, the rate of peri-procedural groin, haemorrhagic, and thromboembolic complications was extremely low. There were only minimal differences between OACs. Low-risk patients may remain on aspirin/no OAC pre-ablation. There are no problems changing from one OAC pre-ablation to another post-ablation. PMID:25115168

  14. Environmental change within the Balkan region during the past ca. 50 ka recorded in the sediments from lakes Prespa and Ohrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, B.; Vogel, H.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.

    2010-10-01

    Lakes Prespa and Ohrid, in the Balkan region, are considered to be amongst the oldest lakes in Europe. Both lakes are hydraulically connected via karst aquifers. From Lake Ohrid, several sediment cores up to 15 m long have been studied over the last few years. Here, we document the first long sediment record from nearby Lake Prespa to clarify the influence of Lake Prespa on Lake Ohrid and the environmental history of the region. Radiocarbon dating and dated tephra layers provide robust age control and indicate that the 10.5 m long sediment record from Lake Prespa reaches back to 48 ka. Glacial sedimentation is characterized by low organic matter content and absence of carbonates in the sediments, which indicate oligotrophic conditions in both lakes. Holocene sedimentation is characterized by particularly high carbonate content in Lake Ohrid and by particularly high organic matter content in Lake Prespa, which indicates a shift towards more mesotrophic conditions in the latter. Long-term environmental change and short-term events, such as related to the Heinrich events during the Pleistocene or the 8.2 ka cooling event during the Holocene, are well recorded in both lakes, but are only evident in certain proxies. The comparison of the sediment cores from both lakes indicates that environmental change affects particularly the trophic state of Lake Prespa due to its lower volume and water depth.

  15. Fifteen Years of Annual Mass Treatment of Onchocerciasis with Ivermectin Have Not Interrupted Transmission in the West Region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Katabarwa, Moses N.; Eyamba, Albert; Nwane, Philippe; Enyong, Peter; Kamgno, Joseph; Kueté, Thomas; Yaya, Souleymanou; Aboutou, Rosalie; Mukenge, Léonard; Kafando, Claude; Siaka, Coulibaly; Mkpouwoueiko, Salifou; Ngangue, Demanga; Biholong, Benjamin Didier; Andze, Gervais Ondobo

    2013-01-01

    We followed up the 1996 baseline parasitological and entomological studies on onchocerciasis transmission in eleven health districts in West Region, Cameroon. Annual mass ivermectin treatment had been provided for 15 years. Follow-up assessments which took place in 2005, 2006, and 2011 consisted of skin snips for microfilariae (mf) and palpation examinations for nodules. Follow-up Simulium vector dissections for larval infection rates were done from 2011 to 2012. mf prevalence in adults dropped from 68.7% to 11.4%, and nodule prevalence dropped from 65.9% to 12.1%. The decrease of mf prevalence in children from 29.2% to 8.9% was evidence that transmission was still continuing. mf rates in the follow-up assessments among adults and in children levelled out after a sharp reduction from baseline levels. Only three health districts out of 11 were close to interruption of transmission. Evidence of continuing transmission was also observed in two out of three fly collection sites that had infective rates of 0.19% and 0.18% and ATP of 70 (Foumbot) and 300 (Massangam), respectively. Therefore, halting of annual mass treatment with ivermectin cannot be done after 15 years as it might escalate the risk of transmission recrudescence. PMID:23691275

  16. An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Durkheim's Social Deregulation Thesis: The Case of the Russian Federation

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Chamlin, Mitchell B.; Cochran, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The dissolution of the Soviet Union resulted in sudden, widespread, and fundamental changes to Russian society. The former social welfare system-with its broad guarantees of employment, healthcare, education, and other forms of social support-was dismantled in the shift toward democracy, rule of law, and a free-market economy. This unique natural experiment provides a rare opportunity to examine the potentially disintegrative effects of rapid social change on deviance, and thus to evaluate one of Durkheim's core tenets. We took advantage of this opportunity by performing interrupted time-series analyses of annual age-adjusted homicide, suicide, and alcohol-related mortality rates for the Russian Federation using data from 1956 to 2002, with 1992-2002 as the postintervention time-frame. The ARIMA models indicate that, controlling for the long-term processes that generated these three time series, the breakup of the Soviet Union was associated with an appreciable increase in each of the cause-of-death rates. We interpret these findings as being consistent with the Durkheimian hypothesis that rapid social change disrupts social order, thereby increasing the level of crime and deviance. PMID:20165565

  17. Targeting Hippo pathway by specific interruption of YAP-TEAD interaction using cyclic YAP-like peptides.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zheng; Hu, Taishan; Xu, Zhiheng; Lin, Zhaohu; Zhang, Zhisen; Feng, Teng; Zhu, Liangcheng; Rong, Yiping; Shen, Hong; Luk, John M; Zhang, Xiongwen; Qin, Ning

    2015-02-01

    Hippo signaling pathway is emerging as a novel target for anticancer therapy because it plays key roles in organ size control and tumorigenesis. As the downstream effectors, Yes-associated protein (YAP)-transcriptional enhancer activation domain family member (TEAD) association is essential for YAP-driven oncogenic activity, while TEAD is largely dispensable for normal tissue growth. We present the design of YAP-like peptides (17mer) to occupy the interface 3 on TEAD. Introducing cysteines at YAP sites 87 and 96 can induce disulfide formation, as confirmed by crystallography. The engineered peptide significantly improves the potency in disrupting YAP-TEAD interaction in vitro. To confirm that blocking YAP-TEAD complex formation by directly targeting on TEAD is a valid approach, we report a significant reduction in tumor growth rate in a hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft model after introducing the dominant-negative mutation (Y406H) of TEAD1 to abolish YAP-TEAD interaction. Our results suggest that targeting TEAD is a promising strategy against YAP-induced oncogenesis.-Zhou, Z., Hu, T., Xu, Z., Lin, Z., Zhang, Z., Feng, T., Zhu, L., Rong, Y., Shen, H., Luk, J. M., Zhang, X., Qin, N. Targeting Hippo pathway by specific interruption of YAP-TEAD interaction using cyclic YAP-like peptides. PMID:25384421

  18. Interrupted or continuous slowly absorbable sutures – Design of a multi-centre randomised trial to evaluate abdominal closure techniques INSECT-Trial [ISRCTN24023541

    PubMed Central

    Knaebel, Hanns-Peter; Koch, Moritz; Sauerland, Stefan; Diener, Markus K; Büchler, Markus W; Seiler, Christoph M

    2005-01-01

    Background The closure of the abdomen after median laparotomy is still a matter of debate among surgeons. Further well designed and performed randomised controlled trials determining the optimal method of abdominal fascial closure are needed. Design This is a three armed, multi-centre, intra-operatively randomised, controlled, patient blinded trial. Over 20 surgical departments will enrol 600 patients who are planned for an elective primary abdominal operation. The objective of this study is to compare the frequency of abdominal incisional hernias between two continuous suture techniques with different, slowly absorbable monofilament materials and an interrupted suture using an absorbable braided suture material at one year postoperatively. Conclusion This trial will answer the question whether the continuous abdominal wall closure with a slowly absorbable material with longitudinal elasticity is superior to the continuous suture with a material lacking elasticity and to interrupted sutures with braided thread. PMID:15755324

  19. Pseudo interruption of the inferior vena cava complicating the device closure of patent ductus arteriosus: Case report and short review of venous system embryology

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Venkateshwaran; Mahadevan, Krishnamoorthy Kavassery; Sivasubramonian, Sivasankaran; Tharakan, Jaganmohan

    2014-01-01

    A nineteen-month-old girl was taken up for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) device closure. A diagnostic catheter from the right femoral venous access entered the superior vena cava (SVC), through the azygos vein suggesting interruption of inferior vena caval with azygos continuity. Therefore, the PDA device was closed from the right jugular venous access. However, a postprocedure echocardiogram (echo) showed a patent inferior vena caval connection into the right atrium. An angiogram from femoral veins showed communication between the iliac veins and the azygos system, in addition to normal drainage into the inferior vena cava (IVC). Congenital communication between the iliac veins and the azygos system can mimic IVC interruption. An attempt to theoretically explain the embryological origin of the communication has been made. PMID:24701092

  20. Pseudo interruption of the inferior vena cava complicating the device closure of patent ductus arteriosus: Case report and short review of venous system embryology.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Venkateshwaran; Mahadevan, Krishnamoorthy Kavassery; Sivasubramonian, Sivasankaran; Tharakan, Jaganmohan

    2014-01-01

    A nineteen-month-old girl was taken up for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) device closure. A diagnostic catheter from the right femoral venous access entered the superior vena cava (SVC), through the azygos vein suggesting interruption of inferior vena caval with azygos continuity. Therefore, the PDA device was closed from the right jugular venous access. However, a postprocedure echocardiogram (echo) showed a patent inferior vena caval connection into the right atrium. An angiogram from femoral veins showed communication between the iliac veins and the azygos system, in addition to normal drainage into the inferior vena cava (IVC). Congenital communication between the iliac veins and the azygos system can mimic IVC interruption. An attempt to theoretically explain the embryological origin of the communication has been made. PMID:24701092

  1. Preliminary Report on a Single-tube, Non-interrupted Reverse Transcription–Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Detection of Rabies Virus in Brain Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Gupta; R. K. Singh; R. N. Sharma; Y. U. B. Rao; G. Butchaiah

    2001-01-01

    A simple method for the rapid detection of rabies virus was developed employing a single-tube reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The method utilized a single buffer system for both RT and PCR and was performed without interruption as a single thermal cycling programme. Two primer sets within the genes coding for rabies nucleoprotein and glycoprotein were used to amplify a

  2. Identifying Autocorrelation Generated by Various Error Processes in Interrupted Time-Series Regression Designs: A Comparison of AR1 and Portmanteau Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huitema, Bradley E.; McKean, Joseph W.

    2007-01-01

    Regression models used in the analysis of interrupted time-series designs assume statistically independent errors. Four methods of evaluating this assumption are the Durbin-Watson (D-W), Huitema-McKean (H-M), Box-Pierce (B-P), and Ljung-Box (L-B) tests. These tests were compared with respect to Type I error and power under a wide variety of error…

  3. Mid to Long-Term Results of the Two-Stage Approach for Type B Interrupted Aortic Arch and Ventricular Septal Defect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D Mainwaring; John J Lamberti

    1997-01-01

    Background. Type B interrupted aortic arch with ventricular septal defect is a complex congenital heart defect that may have associated left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Surgical management has evolved from a two-stage approach to the currently favored single-stage approach. The following data summarize our experience with the two-stage approach over a 15-year period.Methods. Between 1980 and 1995, 27 consecutive patients

  4. Research Paper: The Influence that Electronic Prescribing Has on Medication Errors and Preventable Adverse Drug Events: an Interrupted Time-series Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasperien E. van Doormaal; Patricia M. L. A. van den Bemt; Rianne J. Zaal; Antoine C. G. Egberts; Bertil W. Lenderink; Jos G. W. Kosterink; Flora M. Haaijer-Ruskamp; Peter G. M. Mol

    2009-01-01

    ObjectiveThis study evaluated the effect of a Computerized Physician Order Entry system with basic Clinical Decision Support (CPOE\\/CDSS) on the incidence of medication errors (MEs) and preventable adverse drug events (pADEs).DesignInterrupted time-series design.MeasurementsThe primary outcome measurements comprised the percentage of medication orders with one or more MEs and the percentage of patients with one or more pADEs.ResultsPre-implementation, the mean percentage

  5. Targeted deletion of PTEN in cardiomyocytes renders cardiac contractile dysfunction through interruption of Pink1-AMPK signaling and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Roe, Nathan D; Xu, Xihui; Kandadi, Machender R; Hu, Nan; Pang, Jiaojiao; Weiser-Evans, Mary C M; Ren, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deleted from chromosome 10 has been implicated in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis although the underlying mechanism(s) remains elusive. We generated a murine model of cardiomyocyte-specific knockout of PTEN to evaluate cardiac geometry and contractile function, as well as the effect of metformin on PTEN deficiency-induced cardiac anomalies, if any. Cardiac histology, autophagy and related signaling molecules were evaluated. Cardiomyocyte-specific PTEN deletion elicited cardiac hypertrophy and contractile anomalies (echocardiographic and cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction) associated with compromised intracellular Ca(2+) handling. PTEN deletion-induced cardiac hypertrophy and contractile anomalies were associated with dampened phosphorylation of PTEN-inducible kinase 1 (Pink1) and AMPK. Interestingly, administration of AMPK activator metformin (200mg/kg/d, in drinking H2O for 4weeks) rescued against PTEN deletion-induced geometric and functional defects as well as interrupted autophagy and autophagic flux in the heart. Moreover, metformin administration partially although significantly attenuated PTEN deletion-induced accumulation of superoxide. RNA interference against Pink1 in H9C2 myoblasts overtly increased intracellular ATP levels and suppressed AMPK phosphorylation, confirming the role of AMPK as a downstream target for PTEN-Pink1. Further scrutiny revealed that activation of AMPK and autophagy using metformin and rapamycin, respectively, rescued against PTEN deletion-induced mechanical anomalies with little additive effect. These data demonstrated that cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of PTEN leads to the loss of Pink1-AMPK signaling, development of cardiac hypertrophy and contractile defect. Activation of AMPK rescued against PTEN deletion-induced cardiac anomalies associated with restoration of autophagy and autophagic flux. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Autophagy and protein quality control in cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:25229693

  6. The Free Caesareans Policy in Low-Income Settings: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis in Mali (2003–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Pierre; Dumont, Alexandre; Tourigny, Caroline; Philibert, Aline; Coulibaly, Aliou; Traoré, Mamadou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several countries have instituted fee exemptions for caesareans to reduce maternal and newborn mortality. Objectives To evaluate the effect of fee exemptions for caesareans on population caesarean rates taking into account different levels of accessibility. Methods The observation period was from January 2003 to May 2012 in one Region and covered 11.7 million person-years. Exemption fees for caesareans were adopted on June 26, 2005. Data were obtained from a registration system implemented in 2003 that tracks all obstetrical emergencies and interventions including caesareans. The pre-intervention period was 30 months and the post-intervention period was 83 months. We used an interrupted time series to evaluate the trend before and after the policy adoption and the overall tendency. Findings During the study period, the caesarean rate increased from 0.25 to 1.5% for the entire population. For women living in cities with district hospitals that provided caesareans, the rate increased from 1.7% before the policy was enforced to 5.7% 83 months later. No significant change in trends was observed among women living in villages with a healthcare centre or those in villages with no healthcare facility. For the latter, the caesarean rate increased from 0.4 to 1%. Conclusions After nine years of implementation policy in Mali, the caesarean rate achieved in cities with a district hospital reached the full beneficial effect of this measure, whereas for women living elsewhere this policy did not increase the caesarean rate to a level that could contribute effectively to reduce their risk of maternal death. Only universal access to this essential intervention could reduce the inequities and increase the effectiveness of this policy. PMID:25137072

  7. The impact of hospital accreditation on clinical documentation compliance: a life cycle explanation using interrupted time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Devkaran, Subashnie; O'Farrell, Patrick N

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether accredited hospitals maintain quality and patient safety standards over the accreditation cycle by testing a life cycle explanation of accreditation on quality measures. Four distinct phases of the accreditation life cycle were defined based on the Joint Commission International process. Predictions concerning the time series trend of compliance during each phase were specified and tested. Design Interrupted time series (ITS) regression analysis of 23 quality and accreditation compliance measures. Setting A 150-bed multispecialty hospital in Abu Dhabi, UAE. Participants Each month (over 48?months) a simple random sample of 24% of patient records was audited, resulting in 276?000 observations collected from 12?000 patient records, drawn from a population of 50?000. Intervention(s) The impact of hospital accreditation on the 23 quality measures was observed for 48?months, 1?year preaccreditation (2009) and 3-year postaccreditation (2010–2012). Main outcome measure(s) The Life Cycle Model was evaluated by aggregating the data for 23 quality measures to produce a composite score (YC) and fitting an ITS regression equation to the unweighted monthly mean of the series. Results The four phases of the life cycle are as follows: the initiation phase, the presurvey phase, the postaccreditation slump phase and the stagnation phase. The Life Cycle Model explains 87% of the variation in quality compliance measures (R2=0.87). The ITS model not only contains three significant variables (?1, ?2 and ?3) (p?0.001), but also the size of the coefficients indicates that the effects of these variables are substantial (?1=2.19, ?2=?3.95 (95% CI ?6.39 to ?1.51) and ?3=?2.16 (95% CI ?2.52 to ?1.80). Conclusions Although there was a reduction in compliance immediately after the accreditation survey, the lack of subsequent fading in quality performance should be a reassurance to researchers, managers, clinicians and accreditors. PMID:25095876

  8. Interruption of Infection Transmission in the Onchocerciasis Focus of Ecuador Leading to the Cessation of Ivermectin Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Lovato, Raquel; Guevara, Angel; Guderian, Ronald; Proaño, Roberto; Unnasch, Thomas; Criollo, Hipatia; Hassan, Hassan K.; Mackenzie, Charles D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A clinically significant endemic focus of onchocerciasis existing in Esmeraldas Province, coastal Ecuador has been under an ivermectin mass drug administration program since 1991. The main transmitting vector in this area is the voracious blackfly, Simulium exiguum. This paper describes the assessments made that support the decision to cease mass treatment. Methodology and Principle Findings: Thirty-five rounds of ivermectin treatment occurred between 1991–2009 with 29 of these carrying >85% coverage. Following the guidelines set by WHO for ceasing ivermectin distribution the impact on parasite transmission was measured in the two vector species by an O-150 PCR technique standard for assessing for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus. Up to seven collection sites in three major river systems were tested on four occasions between 1995 and 2008. The infectivity rates of 65.0 (CI 39–101) and 72.7 (CI 42–116) in 1995 dropped to zero at all seven collection sites by 2008. Assessment for the presence of antibodies against O. volvulus was made in 2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008 using standard ELISA assays for detecting anti-Ov16 antibodies. None of total of 1810 children aged 1–15 years (between 82 and 98% of children present in the surveyed villages) tested in the above years were found to be carrying antibodies to this antigen. These findings were the basis for the cessation of mass drug treatment with ivermectin in 2009. Significance: This fulfillment of the criteria for cessation of mass distribution of ivermectin in the only known endemic zone of onchocerciasis in Ecuador moves the country into the surveillance phase of official verification for national elimination of transmission of infection. These findings indicate that ivermectin given twice a year with greater than 85% of the community can move a program to the final stages of verification of transmission interruption. PMID:24853587

  9. Changing Use of Surgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Thika Hospital, Kenya: A Quality Improvement Intervention with an Interrupted Time Series Design

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Alexander M.; Wanyoro, Anthony K.; Mwangi, Jonah; Juma, Francis; Mugoya, Isaac K.; Scott, J. Anthony G

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In low-income countries, Surgical Site Infection (SSI) is a common form of hospital-acquired infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis is an effective method of preventing these infections, if given immediately before the start of surgery. Although several studies in Africa have compared pre-operative versus post-operative prophylaxis, there are no studies describing the implementation of policies to improve prescribing of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in African hospitals. Methods We conducted SSI surveillance at a typical Government hospital in Kenya over a 16 month period between August 2010 and December 2011, using standard definitions of SSI and the extent of contamination of surgical wounds. As an intervention, we developed a hospital policy that advised pre-operative antibiotic prophylaxis and discouraged extended post-operative antibiotics use. We measured process, outcome and balancing effects of this intervention in using an interrupted time series design. Results From a starting point of near-exclusive post-operative antibiotic use, after policy introduction in February 2011 there was rapid adoption of the use of pre-operative antibiotic prophylaxis (60% of operations at 1 week; 98% at 6 weeks) and a substantial decrease in the use of post-operative antibiotics (40% of operations at 1 week; 10% at 6 weeks) in Clean and Clean-Contaminated surgery. There was no immediate step-change in risk of SSI, but overall, there appeared to be a moderate reduction in the risk of superficial SSI across all levels of wound contamination. There were marked reductions in the costs associated with antibiotic use, the number of intravenous injections performed and nursing time spent administering these. Conclusion Implementation of a locally developed policy regarding surgical antibiotic prophylaxis is an achievable quality improvement target for hospitals in low-income countries, and can lead to substantial benefits for individual patients and the institution. PMID:24244390

  10. Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coatings During Interrupted High-Heat-Flux Laser Testing using Luminescence Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation showed progress made in extending luminescence-base delamination monitoring to TBCs exposed to high heat fluxes, which is an environment that much better simulates actual turbine engine conditions. This was done by performing upconversion luminescence imaging during interruptions in laser testing, where a high-power CO2 laser was employed to create the desired heat flux. Upconverison luminescence refers to luminescence where the emission is at a higher energy (shorter wavelength) than the excitation. Since there will be negligible background emission at higher energies than the excitation, this methods produces superb contrast. Delamination contrast is produced because both the excitation and emission wavelengths are reflected at delamination cracks so that substantially higher luminescence intensity is observed in regions containing delamination cracks. Erbium was selected as the dopant for luminescence specifically because it exhibits upconversion luminescence. The high power CO2 10.6 micron wavelength laser facility at NASA GRC was used to produce the heat flux in combination with forced air backside cooling. Testing was performed at a lower (95 W/sq cm) and higher (125 W/sq cm) heat flux as well as furnace cycling at 1163C for comparison. The lower heat flux showed the same general behavior as furnace cycling, a gradual, "spotty" increase in luminescence associated with debond progression; however, a significant difference was a pronounced incubation period followed by acceleration delamination progression. These results indicate that extrapolating behavior from furnace cycling measurements will grossly overestimate remaining life under high heat flux conditions. The higher heat flux results were not only accelerated, but much different in character. Extreme bond coat rumpling occurred, and delamination propagation extended over much larger areas before precipitating macroscopic TBC failure. This indicates that under the higher heat flux (and surface & interface temperatures), the TBC was more tolerant of damage. The main conclusions were that high heat flux conditions can not only accelerate TBC debond progression but can also grossly alter the pathway of delamination.

  11. Impact of a COPD Discharge Care Bundle on Readmissions following Admission with Acute Exacerbation: Interrupted Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Laverty, Anthony A.; Elkin, Sarah L.; Watt, Hilary C.; Millett, Christopher; Restrick, Louise J.; Williams, Sian; Bell, Derek; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated the impact of a COPD discharge care bundle on readmission rates following hospitalisation with an acute exacerbation. Design Interrupted time series analysis, comparing readmission rates for COPD exacerbations at nine trusts that introduced the bundle, to two comparison groups; (1) other NHS trusts in London and (2) all other NHS trusts in England. Care bundles were implemented at different times for different NHS trusts, ranging from October 2009 to April 2011. Setting Nine NHS acute trusts in the London, England. Participants Patients aged 45 years and older admitted to an NHS acute hospital in England for acute exacerbation of COPD. Data come from Hospital Episode Statistics, April 2002 to March 2012. Main Outcome Measures Annual trend readmission rates (and in total bed days) within 7, 28 and 90 days, before and after implementation. Results In hospitals introducing the bundle readmission rates were rising before implementation and falling afterwards (e.g. readmissions within 28 days +2.13% per annum (pa) pre and -5.32% pa post (p for difference in trends = 0.012)). Following implementation, readmission rates within 7 and 28 day were falling faster than among other trusts in London, although this was not statistically significant (e.g. readmissions within 28 days -4.6% pa vs. -3.2% pa, p = 0.44). Comparisons with a national control group were similar. Conclusions The COPD discharge care bundle appeared to be associated with a reduction in readmission rate among hospitals using it. The significance of this is unclear because of changes to background trends in London and nationally. PMID:25679218

  12. Undiagnosed interrupted aortic arch in a 59-year-old male patient with severe aortic valve stenosis: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpooya, Maryam; Eskandari, Ramin; Salehi, Mehrdad; Shajirat, Zeinab; Golabchi, Allahyar; Satarzadeh, Roya; Zand-Parsa, Amir Farhang

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is defined by a lack of the luminal continuity between the ascending and descending thoracic aorta. It is a rare, severe congenital heart defect which without surgery is associated with high mortality in the neonatal period. The aims of this study were to present a case with IAA who was alive until the age of 59 years without any surgical intervention and to review the literatures that have presented IAA cases. CASE REPORT The patient was admitted with respiratory distress and pulmonary edema. Echocardiography showed the sever stenosis in aortic valve and sever left ventricular dysfunction. Cardiac catheterization and angiography confirmed interrupted aorta (type A). The descending thoracic aorta was supplied by extensive collateral vessels from the vertebrobasilar system down to the posterior chest wall and the spine. Surgical correction including coronary artery bypass graft and aortic valve replacement and repair of interruption of the aorta was performed. Three weeks later the patient was died due to uncontrollable gastrointestinal bleeding and hospital acquired pneumonia. We described diagnosis and management of our case. CONCLUSION This case was very interesting for us, because the patient had not been diagnosed until the recent presentation. Similar cases with this diagnosis do not reach adulthood, but our patient was alive up to 59 years of age. PMID:25258640

  13. Low-energy DC current ablation in a mouse tumor model.

    PubMed

    Philips, Prejesh; Li, Yan; Martin, Robert C G

    2014-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation has recently been applied to tissue and tumor ablation. This animal model was developed to evaluate optimal parameters for subcutaneous tumor ablation. The immortalized Panc1 tumor cell line was used for generating tumors via subcutaneous injection in mice. Under general anesthesia with complete muscle relaxation, electroporation was performed with the NanoKnife device. Post-procedure tumors were recovered and studied at specified time intervals to assess the efficacy. PMID:24510830

  14. Effects of energy distribution of interface traps on recombination dc current-voltage line shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zuhui; Jie, Bin B.; Sah, Chih-Tang

    2006-12-01

    The effects of energy distributions of Si /SiO2 interface traps in the energy gap of oxidized silicon on the current versus voltage line shape of the electron-hole recombination current are analyzed using the steady-state Shockley-Read-Hall kinetics. Slater's [Insulators, Semiconductors and Metals; Quantum Theory of Molecules and Solids (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967)] localized bulk perturbation theory applied by us to the interface anticipates U-shaped energy distributions of the density of neutral electron and hole interface traps from random variations of the Si:Si and Si:O bond angles and lengths. Conservation in dissipative transition energy anticipates the rate of electron capture into neutral electron trap to be faster for electron trap energy levels nearer the conduction band edge, and similarly, the rate of hole capture into neutral hole trap to be faster for hole trap energy levels nearer the valence band edge. Line shape broadening is analyzed for discrete and U-shaped energy distributions of interface trap energy levels. The broadened line shapes observed in past experiments, previously attributed to spatial variations of surface dopant impurity concentrations, could also arise from energy distributions of interface trap energy levels.

  15. Linear variable inductor in DC current sensors utilized in telecom solar battery chargers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Kislovski

    1989-01-01

    The author describes an LVI (linear variable inductor) current sensor proposed for high-reliability solar-powered telecommunication battery chargers. Its design principle and implementation are discussed. In the proposed LVI sensor, high sensitivity at low current has been achieved by applying a prepolarization field to the sensor core structure. This sensor is shown to be superior to the other possible candidates with

  16. Commutation torque ripple reduction in brushless DC motor drives using a single DC current sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joong-Ho Song; Ick Choy

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study on reducing commutation torque ripples generated in brushless DC motor drives with only a single DC-link current sensor provided. In such drives, commutation torque ripple suppression techniques that are practically effective in low speed as well as high speed regions are scarcely found. The commutation compensation technique proposed here is based on a strategy

  17. Interrupting Gendered Assessment Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Gaell M.

    This paper is part of the symposium on "Gender and Assessment of Physics in Context: Getting It Right!" It examines ways in which current practices privilege the "masculine" over the "feminine" and presents an agenda for gender inclusive assessment practices. It is argued that physics like other domains of knowledge, is a constructed entity, and…

  18. The impact of economic austerity and prosperity events on suicide in Greece: a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C; Kastanaki, Anastasia E; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Tzougas, John; Kranioti, Elena F; Theodorakis, Pavlos N; Carr, Brendan G; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To complete a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis of the impact of austerity-related and prosperity-related events on the occurrence of suicide across Greece. Setting Greece from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 2012. Participants A total of 11?505 suicides, 9079 by men and 2426 by women, occurring in Greece over the study period. Primary and secondary outcomes National data from the Hellenic Statistical Authority assembled as 360 monthly counts of: all suicides, male suicides, female suicides and all suicides plus potentially misclassified suicides. Results In 30?years, the highest months of suicide in Greece occurred in 2012. The passage of new austerity measures in June 2011 marked the beginning of significant, abrupt and sustained increases in total suicides (+35.7%, p<0.001) and male suicides (+18.5%, p<0.01). Sensitivity analyses that figured in undercounting of suicides also found a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in June 2011 (+20.5%, p<0.001). Suicides by men in Greece also underwent a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in October 2008 when the Greek recession began (+13.1%, p<0.01), and an abrupt but temporary increase in April 2012 following a public suicide committed in response to austerity conditions (+29.7%, p<0.05). Suicides by women in Greece also underwent an abrupt and sustained increase in May 2011 following austerity-related events (+35.8%, p<0.05). One prosperity-related event, the January 2002 launch of the Euro in Greece, marked an abrupt but temporary decrease in male suicides (?27.1%, p<0.05). Conclusions This is the first multidecade, national analysis of suicide in Greece using monthly data. Select austerity-related events in Greece corresponded to statistically significant increases for suicides overall, as well as for suicides among men and women. The consideration of future austerity measures should give greater weight to the unintended mental health consequences that may follow and the public messaging of these policies and related events. PMID:25643700

  19. Impacts of interruption of the Agulhas leakage on the tropical Atlantic in coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarsma, Reindert J.; Campos, Edmo J. D.; Drijfhout, Sybren; Hazeleger, Wilco; Severijns, Camiel

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we use a coupled ocean-atmosphere model to investigate the impact of the interruption of Agulhas leakage of Indian ocean water on the tropical Atlantic, a region where strong coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions occur. The effect of a shut down of leakage of Indian ocean water is isolated from the effect of a collapse of the MOC. In our experiments, the ocean model is forced with boundary conditions in the southeastern corner of the domain that correspond to no interocean exchange of Indian ocean water into the Atlantic. The southern boundary condition is taken from the Levitus data and ensures an MOC in the Atlantic. Within this configuration, instead of warm and salty Indian ocean water temperature (cold) and salinity (fresh) anomalies of southern ocean origin propagate into the South Atlantic and eventually reach the equatorial region, mainly in the thermocline. This set up mimics the closure of the "warm water path" in favor of the "cold water path". As part of the atmospheric response, there is a northward shift of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). The changes in trade winds lead to reduced Ekman pumping in the equatorial region. This leads to a freshening and warming of the surface waters along the equator. Especially in the Cold Tongue region, the cold and fresh subsurface anomalies do not reach the surface due to the reduced upwelling. The anomaly signals are transported by the equatorial undercurrent and spread away from the equator within the thermocline. Part of the anomaly eventually reaches the Tropical North Atlantic, where it affects the Guinea Dome. Surprisingly, the main effect at the surface is small on the equator and relatively large at the Guinea Dome. In the atmosphere, the northward shift of the ITCZ is associated with a band of negative precipitation anomalies and higher salinities over the Tropical South Atlantic. An important implication of these results is that the modified water characteristics due to a shut down of the Agulhas leakage remain largely unaffected when crossing the equatorial Atlantic and therefore can affect the deepwater formation in the North Atlantic. This supports the hypothesis that the Agulhas leakage is an important source region for climate change and decadal variability of the Atlantic.

  20. Measuring Quality Improvement in Acute Ischemic Stroke Care: Interrupted Time Series Analysis of Door-to-Needle Time

    PubMed Central

    van Dishoeck, Anne Margreet; Dippel, Diederik W.J.; Dirks, Maaike; Looman, Caspar W.N.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.

    2014-01-01

    Background In patients with acute ischemic stroke, early treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) improves functional outcome by effectively reducing disability and dependency. Timely thrombolysis, within 1 h, is a vital aspect of acute stroke treatment, and is reflected in the widely used performance indicator ‘door-to-needle time’ (DNT). DNT measures the time from the moment the patient enters the emergency department until he/she receives intravenous rtPA. The purpose of the study was to measure quality improvement from the first implementation of thrombolysis in stroke patients in a university hospital in the Netherlands. We further aimed to identify specific interventions that affect DNT. Methods We included all patients with acute ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to a large university hospital in the Netherlands between January 2006 and December 2012, and focused on those treated with thrombolytic therapy on admission. Data were collected routinely for research purposes and internal quality measurement (the Erasmus Stroke Study). We used a retrospective interrupted time series design to study the trend in DNT, analyzed by means of segmented regression. Results Between January 2006 and December 2012, 1,703 patients with ischemic stroke were admitted and 262 (17%) were treated with rtPA. Patients treated with thrombolysis were on average 63 years old at the time of the stroke and 52% were male. Mean age (p = 0.58) and sex distribution (p = 0.98) did not change over the years. The proportion treated with thrombolysis increased from 5% in 2006 to 22% in 2012. In 2006, none of the patients were treated within 1 h. In 2012, this had increased to 81%. In a logistic regression analysis, this trend was significant (OR 1.6 per year, CI 1.4-1.8). The median DNT was reduced from 75 min in 2006 to 45 min in 2012 (p < 0.001 in a linear regression model). In this period, a 12% annual decrease in DNT was achieved (CI from 16 to 8%). We could not find a significant association between any specific intervention and the trend in DNT. Conclusion and Implications The DNT steadily improved from the first implementation of thrombolysis. Specific explanations for this improvement require further study, and may relate to the combined impact of a series of structural and logistic interventions. Our results support the use of performance measures for internal communication. Median DNT should be used on a monthly or quarterly basis to inform all professionals treating stroke patient of their achievements. PMID:25076959

  1. Expansion of antibody secreting cells and modulation of neutralizing antibody activity in HIV infected individuals undergoing structured treatment interruptions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-1 infection generates numerous abnormalities in the B cell compartment which can be partly reversed by antiretroviral therapy. Our aim was to evaluate the effects that re-exposure to HIV antigens might have on the frequency and functionality of antibody secreting cells (ASC) in patients undergoing structured treatment interruptions (STI). As re-exposure to viral antigens may also boost the production of (neutralizing) antibodies, we also assessed the neutralizing activities during STI cycles. Methods Retrospective study of 10 patients undergoing 3 cycles of STI with 2 weeks on and 4 weeks off HAART. ASC frequencies were determined by flow cytometry in samples obtained at the beginning and the end of STI. Neutralization capacity, total IgG concentration and anti-gp120-IgG titres were evaluated. Results As expected, median viral loads were higher at the end of STI compared to on-HAART time points. The level of CD27 and CD38 expressing ACS followed the same pattern; with ASC being elevated up to 16 fold in some patients (median increase of 3.5%?±?4.13). Eight out of 10 patients maintained stable total IgG levels during the study. After purifying IgG fractions from plasma, HIV-neutralizing activity was observed in the two subjects with highest anti-gp120 titers. In one of these patients the neutralizing activity remained constant while the other showed elevated neutralizing Ab after first STI and once treatment was reinitiated after the 2nd STI. Conclusions Our data suggest that STI and its associated transient increases in viral load drive the frequencies of ASC in an antigen-specific manner. In some subjects, this re-exposure to autologous virus boosts the presence of neutralizing antibodies, similar to what is seen after influenza vaccination. STI may not boost clinically beneficial nAb levels but offers opportunities to isolate nAb producing cells at considerably higher levels than in subjects with completely suppressed viral replication. PMID:23433486

  2. Curcumin eliminates the effect of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on the divergent regulation of gene expression of receptors of AGEs by interrupting leptin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Youcai; Chen, Anping

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a major risk factor for hepatic fibrogenesis. NASH is often found in diabetic patients with hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia induces non-enzymatic glycation of proteins, yielding advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Effects of AGEs are mainly mediated by two categories of cytoplasmic membrane receptors. Receptor for AGEs (RAGE) is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation, whereas AGE receptor-1 (AGE-R1) is involved in detoxification and clearance of AGEs. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) is crucial to the development of hepatic fibrosis. We recently reported that AGEs stimulated HSC activation likely by inhibiting gene expression of AGE-R1 and inducing gene expression of RAGE in HSC, which were eliminated by the antioxidant curcumin. This study is to test our hypothesis that curcumin eliminates the effects of AGEs on the divergent regulation of the two receptors of AGEs in HSC by interrupting the AGEs-caused activation of leptin signaling, leading to the inhibition of HSC activation. We observed herein that AGEs activated leptin signaling by inducing gene expression of leptin and its receptor in HSC. Like AGEs, leptin differentially regulated gene expression of RAGE and AGE-R1. Curcumin eliminated the effects of AGEs in HSC by interrupting leptin signaling and activating transcription factor Nrf2, leading to the elevation of cellular glutathione and the attenuation of oxidative stress. In conclusions, curcumin eliminated the effects of AGEs on the divergent regulation of gene expression of RAGE and AGE-R1 in HSC by interrupting the AGEs-caused activation of leptin signaling, leading to the inhibition of HSC activation. PMID:24614199

  3. [No interrupted surgical defects of the white upper lip: repair by a combined advancement and rotation flap in the lip subunit].

    PubMed

    Guillot, P

    2013-01-01

    A solid understanding of anatomy, basic surgical principles, and tissue movement is essential when undertaking the reconstruction of facial cutaneous surgical defects. Aesthetic facial reconstruction requires understanding ability to use the tissue adjacent to the defect to create a reconstruction that preserves the function of the area and the cosmetic facial units and subunits. The closure of non interrupted white upper lip defects by using a combined advancement and rotation flap is preferred for defects not overtaking 2.5 cm in diameter. PMID:25252575

  4. Withaferin A abolishes the stem cell factor-stimulated pigmentation of human epidermal equivalents by interrupting the auto-phosphorylation of c-KIT in human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Terazawa, Shuko; Nakajima, Hiroaki; Fukasawa, Katsunori; Imokawa, Genji

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the mechanism(s) underlying the abrogating effect of withaferin A (WFA) on the stem cell factor (SCF)-stimulated pigmentation of human epidermal equivalents (HEEs). Increased gene and protein expression levels of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein1, dopachrome tautomerase, PMEL17, c-KIT and their targeted transcription factor, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) were significantly reversed at days 7 and 10, respectively, by treatment with WFA. In WFA-treated normal human melanocytes (NHMs), there was a marked deficiency in the SCF-stimulated series of phosphorylations of c-KIT, Shc, Raf-1, MEK, ERK, MITF and CREB. Treatment with dithiothreitol (DTT) distinctly abolished the suppressive effect of WFA on the SCF-stimulated phosphorylation of c-KIT in NHMs. On the other hand, even after incubation at 4 °C for 2 h with 5 nM SCF, followed by the removal of unbound SCF by washing and then raising the temperature to 37 °C to start the signaling reaction, c-KIT was distinctly phosphorylated to a similar extent by incubation for 15 min with SCF only or with SCF + WFA. These findings indicate that WFA attenuates the SCF-induced activation of c-KIT in NHMs by interrupting the auto-phosphorylation of c-KIT through DTT-suppressible Michael addition thioalkylation reactions without interrupting the binding of SCF to the c-KIT receptor. PMID:25376854

  5. Water-tight knee arthrotomy closure: comparison of a novel single bidirectional barbed self-retaining running suture versus conventional interrupted sutures.

    PubMed

    Nett, Michael; Avelar, Rui; Sheehan, Michael; Cushner, Fred

    2011-03-01

    Standard medial parapatellar arthrotomies of 10 cadaveric knees were closed with either conventional interrupted absorbable sutures (control group, mean of 19.4 sutures) or a single running knotless bidirectional barbed absorbable suture (experimental group). Water-tightness of the arthrotomy closure was compared by simulating a tense hemarthrosis and measuring arthrotomy leakage over 3 minutes. Mean total leakage was 356 mL and 89 mL in the control and experimental groups, respectively (p = 0.027). Using 8 of the 10 knees (4 closed with control sutures, 4 closed with an experimental suture), a tense hemarthrosis was again created, and iatrogenic suture rupture was performed: a proximal suture was cut at 1 minute; a distal suture was cut at 2 minutes. The impact of suture rupture was compared by measuring total arthrotomy leakage over 3 minutes. Mean total leakage was 601 mL and 174 mL in the control and experimental groups, respectively (p = 0.3). In summary, using a cadaveric model, arthrotomies closed with a single bidirectional barbed running suture were statistically significantly more water-tight than those closed using a standard interrupted technique. The sample size was insufficient to determine whether the two closure techniques differed in leakage volume after suture rupture. PMID:21618939

  6. Interruption of triacylglycerol synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum is the initiating event for saturated fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity in liver cells.

    PubMed

    Mantzaris, Michalis D; Tsianos, Epameinondas V; Galaris, Dimitrios

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate in detail the molecular mechanisms by which free fatty acids induce liver toxicity in liver cells. HepG2 and Huh7 human liver cell lines were exposed to varying concentrations of stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1), or mixtures of the two fatty acids, and the effects on cell proliferation, lipid droplet accumulation and induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis were evaluated. It was observed that: (a) stearate, but not oleate, inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death; (b) stearate-induced cell death had the characteristics of endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis; (c) the activation of stearate in the form of stearoyl-CoA was a necessary step for the lipotoxic effect; (d) the capacity of cells to produce and accumulate triacylglycerols in the form of lipid droplets was interrupted following exposure to stearate, whereas it proceeded normally in oleate-treated cells; and (e) the presence of relatively low amounts of oleate protected cells from stearate-induced toxicity and restored the ability of the cells to accumulate triacylglycerols. Our data suggest that interruption of triacylglycerol synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum, apparently because of the formation of a pool of oversaturated intermediates, represents the key initiating event in the mechanism of saturated fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity. PMID:21182590

  7. Dependence of the electrical and optical properties on growth interruption in AlAs/In0.53Ga0.47As/InAs resonant tunneling diodes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The dependence of interface roughness of pseudomorphic AlAs/In0.53Ga0.47As/InAs resonant tunneling diodes [RTDs] grown by molecular beam epitaxy on interruption time was studied by current-voltage [I-V] characteristics, photoluminescence [PL] spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy [TEM]. We have observed that a splitting in the quantum-well PL due to island formation in the quantum well is sensitive to growth interruption at the AlAs/In0.53Ga0.47As interfaces. TEM images also show flatter interfaces with a few islands which only occur by applying an optimum value of interruption time. The symmetry of I-V characteristics of RTDs with PL and TEM results is consistent because tunneling current is highly dependent on barrier thickness and interface roughness. PMID:22112249

  8. Off-Label Biologic Regimens in Psoriasis: A Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety of Dose Escalation, Reduction, and Interrupted Biologic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brezinski, Elizabeth A.; Armstrong, April W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives While off-label dosing of biologic treatments may be necessary in selected psoriasis patients, no systematic review exists to date that synthesizes the efficacy and safety of these off-label dosing regimens. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate efficacy and safety of off-label dosing regimens (dose escalation, dose reduction, and interrupted treatment) with etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, ustekinumab, and alefacept for psoriasis treatment. Data Sources and Study Selection We searched OVID Medline from January 1, 1990 through August 1, 2011 for prospective clinical trials that studied biologic therapy for psoriasis treatment in adults. Individual articles were screened for studies that examined escalated, reduced, or interrupted therapy with etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, ustekinumab, or alefacept. Data Synthesis A total of 23 articles with 12,617 patients matched the inclusion and exclusion criteria for the systematic review. Data were examined for primary and secondary efficacy outcomes and adverse events including infections, malignancies, cardiovascular events, and anti-drug antibodies. The preponderance of data suggests that continuous treatment with anti-TNF agents and anti-IL12/23 agent was necessary for maintenance of disease control. Among non-responders, dose escalation with etanercept, adalimumab, ustekinumab, and alefacept typically resulted in greater efficacy than standard dosing. Dose reduction with etanercept and alefacept resulted in reduced efficacy. Withdrawal of the examined biologics led to an increase in disease activity; efficacy from retreatment did not result in equivalent initial response rates for most biologics. Safety data on off-label dosing regimens are limited. Conclusion Dose escalation in non-responders generally resulted in increased efficacy in the examined biologics used to treat moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Continuous treatment with anti-TNF agents and anti-IL12/23 agent results in superior efficacy over interrupted therapy. The decision to use off-label dosing needs to account for both benefits and risks and be individualized to patients' disease severity, quality of life, and existence of comorbidities. PMID:22509259

  9. A DC-81-indole conjugate agent suppresses melanoma A375 cell migration partially via interrupting VEGF production and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha}-mediated signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Ming-Chu [Graduate Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Hu, Wan-Ping [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Yu, Hsin-Su [Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Wu, Wen-Chuan [Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Long-Sen [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Kao, Ying-Hsien, E-mail: danyhkao@gmail.com [Department of Medical Research, E-DA Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jeh-Jeng, E-mail: jjwang@kmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-01

    Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) chemicals are antitumor antibiotics inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis. An indole carboxylate-PBD hybrid with six-carbon spacer structure (IN6CPBD) has been previously demonstrated to induce melanoma cell apoptosis and reduce metastasis in mouse lungs. This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of the other hybrid compound with four-carbon spacer (IN4CPBD) and elucidating its anti-metastatic mechanism. Human melanoma A375 cells with IN4CPBD treatment underwent cytotoxicity and apoptosis-associated assays. Transwell migration assay, Western blotting, and ELISA were used for mechanistic study. IN4CPBD exhibited potent melanoma cytotoxicity through interrupting G1/S cell cycle progression, increasing DNA fragmentation and hypodipoidic DNA contents, and reducing mitochondrial membrane potential. Caspase activity elevation suggested that both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways were involved in IN4CPBD-induced melanoma apoptosis. IN4CPBD up-regulated p53 and p21, thereby concomitantly derailing the equilibrium between Bcl-2 and Bax levels. Transwell migration assay demonstrated that stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}) stimulated A375 cell motility, while kinase inhibitors treatment confirmed that Rho/ROCK, Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK pathways were involved in SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced melanoma migration. IN4CPBD not only abolished the SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced chemotactic motility but also suppressed constitutive MMP-9 and VEGF expression. Mechanistically, IN4CPBD down-regulated Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK total proteins and MYPT1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, beyond the fact that IN4CPBD induces melanoma cell apoptosis at cytotoxic dose, the interruption in the VEGF expression and the SDF-1{alpha}-related signaling at cytostatic dose may partially constitute the rationale for its in vivo anti-metastatic potency. - Research Highlights: > A novel carboxylate-PBD hybrid as anti-melanoma drug. > IN4CPBD interrupts melanoma cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis. > IN4CPBD suppresses SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced signaling and melanoma migration. > IN4CPBD abolishes angiogenic factor production and chemotactic effect of SDF-1{alpha}. > This drug is clinically applicable to melanoma therapy.

  10. Development and testing of a 180-volt dc electronic circuit breaker with a 335-ampere carry and 1200-ampere interrupt rating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, A. S.; Phillips, R. L.

    NASA Lewis Research Center and associated contractors have conducted a program to assess the potential requirements for a high-current switch to conceptually design a switch using the best existing technology, and to build and demonstrate a breadboard which meets the requirements. The result is the high current remote bus isolator (HRBI). The HRBI is rated at 180 V dc, 335 A continuous with a 1200 A interrupt rating. It also incorporates remote-control and protective features called for by the Space Station Freedom PMAD dc test bed design. Two breadboard 335 A circuit breakers were built and tested that demonstrate a promising concept of paralleled current-limiting modules. The units incorporated all control and protective features required by advanced aerospace power systems. Component stresses in each unit were determined by design, and are consistent with a life of many thousands of fault operations.

  11. Development and testing of a 180-volt dc electronic circuit breaker with a 335-ampere carry and 1200-ampere interrupt rating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brush, A. S.; Phillips, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center and associated contractors have conducted a program to assess the potential requirements for a high-current switch to conceptually design a switch using the best existing technology, and to build and demonstrate a breadboard which meets the requirements. The result is the high current remote bus isolator (HRBI). The HRBI is rated at 180 V dc, 335 A continuous with a 1200 A interrupt rating. It also incorporates remote-control and protective features called for by the Space Station Freedom PMAD dc test bed design. Two breadboard 335 A circuit breakers were built and tested that demonstrate a promising concept of paralleled current-limiting modules. The units incorporated all control and protective features required by advanced aerospace power systems. Component stresses in each unit were determined by design, and are consistent with a life of many thousands of fault operations.

  12. Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis of Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis in the Lower Extremity of a Child with Interrupted Inferior Vena Cava

    SciTech Connect

    Oguzkurt, Levent, E-mail: loguzkurt@yahoo.com; Ozkan, Ugur; Tercan, Fahri; Koc, Zafer [Baskent University, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2007-04-15

    We present the case of a 14-year-old girl who developed acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in her right lower extremity. Laboratory testing revealed protein S deficiency, and the patient's father also had this abnormality with a history of lower extremity DVT. Manual thromboaspiration followed by catheter-directed thrombolysis resulted in total clearance of all thrombi. Computed tomography and later venography revealed an interrupted inferior vena cava. Catheter-directed thrombolysis is an established treatment for adults with acute DVT. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe catheter-directed thrombolysis in a pediatric patient with lower extremity DVT. Our results suggest that catheter-directed thrombolysis is safe and effective for use in selected older children and adolescents with acute DVT in the lower extremity.

  13. Experimentally Determining the IR Drop in Solution at Carbon Fiber Microelectrodes with Current Interruption and Application to Single-Cell Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Lambie, Bradley A.; Brennan, Carrie; Olofsson, Jessica; Orwar, Owe; Weber, Stephen G.

    2008-01-01

    Single-cell electroporation uses microelectrodes, capillaries or micropipets positioned near single, adherent cells to increase transiently the membrane permeability of the cell. The increased permeability permits, for example, transfection without chemical reagents. When using microelectrodes for applying an electric field to the cell, there is a question of how much voltage to apply. Unlike in bulk electroporation where hundreds of volts may be applied between electrodes, a rather small voltage is applied to a microelectrode in single-cell electroporation. In the single-cell experiment with microelectrodes, a substantial fraction of the voltage is lost at the interface, and does not therefore exist in solution. This problem is the same as the classical electrochemist's problem of knowing the ‘iR’ drop in solution and correcting for it to obtain true interfacial potential differences. Therefore, we have used current interruption to determine the iR drop in solution near microcylinder electrodes. As the field is inhomogeneous, calculations are required to understand the field distribution. Results of the current interruption are validated by comparing two independent measurements of the resistance in solution: one value results from the measured iR drop in conjunction with the known applied current. The other value results from a measured solution conductivity and a computed cell constant. We find substantial agreement in the range of resistances from about 2 to 50 k?, but not at higher resistances. We propose a simple, four-step plan which takes a few minutes to calculate the approximate current required to electroporate a cell with an electrode of a particular size, shape and distance from the cell. We validate the approach with electroporation of single A549 cells. PMID:17411009

  14. CD4+ T-Cell Decline after the Interruption of Antiretroviral Therapy in ACTG A5170 Is Predicted by Differential Expression of Genes in the Ras Signaling Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhining; Su, Zhaohui; Nau, Martin E.; Krambrink, Amy; Skiest, Daniel J.; Margolis, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Patterns of expressed genes examined in cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of seropositive persons electing to stop antiretroviral therapy in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5170 were scrutinized to identify markers capable of predicting the likelihood of CD4+ T-cell depletion after cessation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). A5170 was a multicenter, 96-week, prospective study of HIV-infected patients with immunological preservation on ART who elected to interrupt therapy. Study entry required that the CD4 count was greater than 350?cells/mm3 within 6 months of ART initiation. Median nadir CD4 count of enrollees was 436?cells/mm3. Two cohorts, matched for clinical characteristics, were selected from A5170. Twenty-four patients with an absolute CD4 cell decline of less that 20% at week 24 (good outcome group) and 24 with a CD4 cell decline of >20% (poor outcome group) were studied. The good outcome group had a decline in CD4+ T-cell count that was 50% less than the poor outcome group. Significance analysis of microarrays identified differential gene expression (DE) in the two groups in data obtained from Affymetrix Human FOCUS GeneChips. DE was significantly higher in the poor outcome group than in the good outcome group. Prediction analysis of microarrays (PAM-R) identified genes that classified persons as to progression with greater than 80% accuracy at therapy interruption (TI) as well as at 24 weeks after TI. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) identified a set of genes in the Ras signaling pathway, associated with the downregulation of apoptosis, as significantly upregulated in the good outcome group at cessation of ART. These observations identify specific host cell processes associated with differential outcome in this cohort after TI. PMID:18724805

  15. Interrupted thymidylate synthase gene of bacteriophages T2 and T6 and other potential self-splicing introns in the T-even bacteriophages

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, F.K.; Maley, F.; Martinez, J.; Maley, G.F.

    1987-09-01

    Southern hybridization analyses of procaryotic DNA from Escherchia coli, lambda bacteriophage, and T1 to T7 phages were carried out. The hybridization probes used consisted of DNA restriction fragments derived from the T4 phage intron-containing thymidylate synthase gene (td) and short synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides defining specific exon and intron regions of the gene. It was shown that intact as well as restricted DNA from the T-even phages hybridized not only to both T4 phage td intron- and exon-specific probes but also to probes defining the td 5' (exon I-intron) and 3' (intron-exon II) presplice junctions. These data strongly suggest that, analogous to the T4 phage, only the T2 and T6 phages among the procaryotes tested contain interrupted td genes. The td intervening sequence in each phage is roughly 1 kilobase pair (kb) in size and interrupts the td gene at a site analogous to that in the T4 phage. This was confirmed by data from Northern (RNA) hybridization analysis of td-specific in vitro transcripts of these phage DNAs. (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)GTP in vitro labeling of total RNA from T4 phage-infected cells produced five species of labeled RNAs that were 1, 0.9, 0.83, 0.75, and 0.6 kb in size. Only the 1-, 0.9-, and 0.75-kb species were labeled in RNA from T2- or T6-infected cells. The commonly present 1-kb RNA is the excised td intron, which exists in both linear and circular forms in the respective T-even-phage-infected cells, while the 0.6-kb RNA unique to T4 may be the excised intron derived from the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit gene (nrdB) of the phage. The remaining labeled RNA species are likely candidates for other self-splicing introns.

  16. How to Prepare for the Hurricane Season and Avoid Being Underinsured for Business Interruption Coverage, and a Special Section on “What to Do If You Have Loss of Income from the BP Oil Spill”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Glasser

    2010-01-01

    Most chief financial officers (CFOs) and risk managers have an understanding of their property and liability insurance needs and are comfortable purchasing coverage that protects their companies from a loss due to an insured peril. However, it has been our experience that their comfort level declines dramatically when it comes to business interruption coverage and limits. The uncertainty surrounding business

  17. Insertional mutagenesis and recovery of interrupted genes of Streptococcus mutans by using transposon Tn917: preliminary characterization of mutants displaying acid sensitivity and nutritional requirements.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, J A; Crowley, P J; Brown, D P; Hillman, J D; Youngman, P; Bleiweis, A S

    1996-07-01

    New vectors were constructed for efficient transposon Tn917-mediated mutagenesis of poorly transformable strains of Streptococcus mutans(pTV1-OK) and subsequent recovery of interrupted genes in Escherichia coli (pT21delta2TetM). In this report, we demonstrate the utility of Tn917 mutagenesis of a poorly transformable strain of S. mutans (JH1005) by showing (i) the conditional replication of pTV1-OK, a repA(Ts) derivative of the broad-host-range plasmid pWVO1 harboring Tn9l7, in JH1005 at the permissive temperature (30 degrees C) versus that at the nonpermissive temperature (45 degrees C); (ii) transposition frequencies similar to those reported for Bacillus subtilis (10(-5) to 10(-4)) with efficient plasmid curing in 90 to 97% of the erythromycin-resistant survivors following a temperature shift to 42 to 45 degrees C; and (iii) the apparent randomness of Tn917 insertion as determined by Southern hybridization analysis and the ability to isolate nutritional mutants, mutants in acid tolerance, and mutants in bacteriocin production, at frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 0.7%. Recovery of transposon-interrupted genes was achieved by two methods: (i) marker rescue in E. coli with the recovery vector pTV21delta2TetM, a tetracycline-resistant and ampicillin-sensitive Tn9l7-pBR322 hybrid, and (ii) "shotgun" cloning of genomic libraries of Tn917 mutants into pUC19. Sequence analyses revealed insertions at five different genetic loci in sequences displaying homologies to Clostridium spp.fhs (66% identity), E. coli dfp (43% identity), and B. subtilis ylxM-ffh (58% identity), icd (citC [69% identity]), and argD (61% identity). Insertions in icd and argD caused nutritional requirements; the one in ylxM-ffh caused acid sensitivity, while those in fhs and dfp caused both acid sensitivity and nutritional requirements. This paper describes the construction of pTV1-OK and demonstrates that it can be efficiently employed to deliver Tn917 into S. mutans for genetic analyses with some degree of randomness and that insertions in the chromosome can be easily recovered for subsequent characterization. This represents the first published report of successful Tn9l7 mutagenesis in the genus Streptococcus. PMID:8763945

  18. Sequential depletion of rat testicular lipids with long-chain and very long-chain polyenoic fatty acids after X-ray-induced interruption of spermatogenesis[S

    PubMed Central

    Oresti, Gerardo M.; Ayuza Aresti, Pablo L.; Gigola, Graciela; Reyes, Luis E.; Aveldaño, Marta I.

    2010-01-01

    When a single dose of X-rays is applied to the adult rat testis, stem spermatogonia are damaged, and spermatogenesis is interrupted. Supported by Sertoli cells, spermatogenic cells that endure irradiation complete their differentiation and gradually leave the testis as spermatozoa. In this study, the in vivo changes taking place a number of weeks after irradiation revealed cell-specific features of testicular lipid classes. A linear drop, taking about six weeks, in testis weight, nonlipid materials, free cholesterol, and 22:5n-6-rich glycerophospholipids took place with germ cell depletion. Sphingomyelins and ceramides with nonhydroxy very long-chain polyenoic fatty acids (n-VLCPUFA) disappeared in four weeks, together with the last spermatocytes, whereas species with 2-hydroxy VLCPUFA lasted for six weeks, disappearing with the last spermatids and spermatozoa. The amount per testis of 22:5n-6-rich triacylglycerols, unchanged for four weeks, fell between weeks 4 and 6, associating these lipids with spermatids and their residual bodies, detected as small, bright lipid droplets. In contrast, 22:5n-6-rich species of cholesterol esters and large lipid droplets increased in seminiferous tubules up to week 6, revealing they are Sertoli cell products. At week 30, the lipid and fatty acid profiles reflected the resulting permanent testicular involution. Our data highlight the importance of Sertoli cells in maintaining lipid homeostasis during normal spermatogenesis. PMID:20529883

  19. Impact of Pay for Performance on Prescribing of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in Primary Care: An Interrupted Time Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Arrowsmith, Myat E.; Majeed, Azeem; Lee, John Tayu; Saxena, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), a major pay-for-performance programme in the United Kingdom, on prescribing of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) in primary care. Methods Negative binomial interrupted time series analysis using practice level prescribing data from April 2007 to March 2012. The main outcome measure was the prescribing rate of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), including hormonal and non hormonal intrauterine devices and systems (IUDs and IUSs), injectable contraceptives and hormonal implants. Results Prescribing rates of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) were stable before the introduction of contraceptive targets to the QOF and increased afterwards by 4% annually (rate ratios ?=?1.04, 95% CI?=?1.03, 1.06). The increase in LARC prescribing was mainly driven by increases in injectables (increased by 6% annually), which was the most commonly prescribed LARC method. Of other types of LARC, the QOF indicator was associated with a step increase of 20% in implant prescribing (RR?=? 1.20, 95% CI?=? 1.09, 1.32). This change is equivalent to an additional 110 thousand women being prescribed with LARC had QOF points not been introduced. Conclusions Pay for performance incentives for contraceptive counselling in primary care with women seeking contraceptive advice has increased uptake of LARC methods. PMID:24694949

  20. Should antiplatelet therapy be interrupted in drug eluting stent recipients throughout the periendoscopic period? A very late stent thrombosis case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dong, Peng; Yang, Xin-Chun; Bian, Su-Yan

    2014-09-01

    In-stent thrombosis after cessation of antiplatelet medications in patients with drug-eluting stents (DES) is a significant problem in medical practice, particularly in the perioperative period. We report a case of an 87-year-old man with a medical history of hypertension, coronary artery disease and chronic atrophic gastritis. Very late thrombosis of a sirolimus-eluting stent occurred 1207 days after implantation, seven months after discontinuation of clopidogrel, and the interruption of aspirin 13 days in preparation of an elective endoscopic gastrointestinal procedure presented with acute myocardial infarction. The patient was treated with thrombectomy and successfully revascularized with superimposition of two sirolimus-eluting stents. Medications administered in the catheterization laboratory included low molecular weight heparin and nitroglycerin. Flow was defined as grade 2 according to the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction scale. Electrocardiogram after the procedure revealed persistent, but decreased, ST-segment elevation in the anterolateral leads. The patient recovered and was discharged on aspirin and clopidogrel indefinitely. There was no cardiac event during the two year follow-up period. This case underlines the importance of maintaining the balance of thrombosis and bleeding during perioperation of non-cardiac procedure and the possible need for continuation of aspirin therapy during periendoscopic procedures among patients with low bleeding risks who received DES. PMID:25278977

  1. Prediction of Unmet Primary Care Needs for the Medically Vulnerable Post-Disaster: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Health System Responses

    PubMed Central

    Runkle, Jennifer D.; Zhang, Hongmei; Karmaus, Wilfried; Brock-Martin, Amy; Svendsen, Erik R.

    2012-01-01

    Disasters serve as shocks and precipitate unanticipated disturbances to the health care system. Public health surveillance is generally focused on monitoring latent health and environmental exposure effects, rather than health system performance in response to these local shocks. The following intervention study sought to determine the long-term effects of the 2005 chlorine spill in Graniteville, South Carolina on primary care access for vulnerable populations. We used an interrupted time-series approach to model monthly visits for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, an indicator of unmet primary care need, to quantify the impact of the disaster on unmet primary care need in Medicaid beneficiaries. The results showed Medicaid beneficiaries in the directly impacted service area experienced improved access to primary care in the 24 months post-disaster. We provide evidence that a health system serving the medically underserved can prove resilient and display improved adaptive capacity under adverse circumstances (i.e., technological disasters) to ensure access to primary care for vulnerable sub-groups. The results suggests a new application for ambulatory care sensitive conditions as a population-based metric to advance anecdotal evidence of secondary surge and evaluate pre- and post-health system surge capacity following a disaster. PMID:23202752

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis interrupts an exocytic pathway to acquire endogenously synthesized sphingomyelin in transit from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Hackstadt, T; Rockey, D D; Heinzen, R A; Scidmore, M A

    1996-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis acquires C6-NBD-sphingomyelin endogenously synthesized from C6-NBD-ceramide and transported to the vesicle (inclusion) in which they multiply. Here we explore the mechanisms of this unusual trafficking and further characterize the association of the chlamydial inclusion with the Golgi apparatus. Endocytosed chlamydiae are trafficked to the Golgi region and begin to acquire sphingolipids from the host within a few hours following infection. The transport of NBD-sphingolipid to the inclusion is energy- and temperature-dependent with the characteristics of an active, vesicle-mediated process. Photo-oxidation of C5-DMB-ceramide, in the presence of diaminobenzidine, identified DMB-lipids in vesicles in the process of fusing to the chlamydial inclusion membrane. C6-NBD-sphingomyelin incorporated into the plasma membrane is not trafficked to the inclusion to a significant degree, suggesting the pathway for sphingomyelin trafficking is direct from the Golgi apparatus to the chlamydial inclusion. Lectins and antibody probes for Golgi-specific glycoproteins demonstrate the close association of the chlamydial inclusion with the Golgi apparatus but do not detect these markers in the inclusion membrane. Collectively, the data are consistent with a model in which C.trachomatis inhabits a unique vesicle which interrupts an exocytic pathway to intercept host sphingolipids in transit from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane. Images PMID:8605892

  3. Implementation and Evaluation of a Wiki Involving Multiple Stakeholders Including Patients in the Promotion of Best Practices in Trauma Care: The WikiTrauma Interrupted Time Series Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Alexis F; Witteman, Holly O; Lauzier, François; Moore, Lynne; Lamontagne, François; Horsley, Tanya; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Droit, Arnaud; Weiss, Matthew; Tremblay, Sébastien; Lachaine, Jean; Le Sage, Natalie; Émond, Marcel; Berthelot, Simon; Plaisance, Ariane; Lapointe, Jean; Razek, Tarek; van de Belt, Tom H; Brand, Kevin; Bérubé, Mélanie; Clément, Julien; Grajales III, Francisco Jose; Eysenbach, Gunther; Kuziemsky, Craig; Friedman, Debbie; Lang, Eddy; Muscedere, John; Rizoli, Sandro; Roberts, Derek J; Scales, Damon C; Sinuff, Tasnim; Stelfox, Henry T; Gagnon, Isabelle; Chabot, Christian; Grenier, Richard; Légaré, France

    2015-01-01

    Background Trauma is the most common cause of mortality among people between the ages of 1 and 45 years, costing Canadians 19.8 billion dollars a year (2004 data), yet half of all patients with major traumatic injuries do not receive evidence-based care, and significant regional variation in the quality of care across Canada exists. Accordingly, our goal is to lead a research project in which stakeholders themselves will adapt evidence-based trauma care knowledge tools to their own varied institutional contexts and cultures. We will do this by developing and assessing the combined impact of WikiTrauma, a free collaborative database of clinical decision support tools, and Wiki101, a training course teaching participants how to use WikiTrauma. WikiTrauma has the potential to ensure that all stakeholders (eg, patients, clinicians, and decision makers) can all contribute to, and benefit from, evidence-based clinical knowledge about trauma care that is tailored to their own needs and clinical setting. Objective Our main objective will be to study the combined effect of WikiTrauma and Wiki101 on the quality of care in four trauma centers in Quebec. Methods First, we will pilot-test the wiki with potential users to create a version ready to test in practice. A rapid, iterative prototyping process with 15 health professionals from nonparticipating centers will allow us to identify and resolve usability issues prior to finalizing the definitive version for the interrupted time series. Second, we will conduct an interrupted time series to measure the impact of our combined intervention on the quality of care in four trauma centers that will be selected—one level I, one level II, and two level III centers. Participants will be health care professionals working in the selected trauma centers. Also, five patient representatives will be recruited to participate in the creation of knowledge tools destined for their use (eg, handouts). All participants will be invited to complete the Wiki101 training and then use, and contribute to, WikiTrauma for 12 months. The primary outcome will be the change over time of a validated, composite, performance indicator score based on 15 process performance indicators found in the Quebec Trauma Registry. Results This project was funded in November 2014 by the Canadian Medical Protective Association. We expect to start this trial in early 2015 and preliminary results should be available in June 2016. Two trauma centers have already agreed to participate and two more will be recruited in the next months. Conclusions We expect that this study will add important and unique evidence about the effectiveness, safety, and cost savings of using collaborative platforms to adapt knowledge implementation tools across jurisdictions. PMID:25699546

  4. Impact of pharmaceutical policy interventions on utilization of antipsychotic medicines in Finland and Portugal in times of economic recession: interrupted time series analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the impacts of pharmaceutical sector policies implemented to contain country spending during the economic recession – a reference price system in Finland and a mix of policies including changes in reimbursement rates, a generic promotion campaign and discounts granted to the public payer in Portugal – on utilization of, as a proxy for access to, antipsychotic medicines. Methodology We obtained monthly IMS Health sales data in standard units of antipsychotic medicines in Portugal and Finland for the period January 2007 to December 2011. We used an interrupted time series design to estimate changes in overall use and generic market shares by comparing pre-policy and post-policy levels and trends. Results Both countries’ policy approaches were associated with slight, likely unintended, decreases in overall use of antipsychotic medicines and with increases in generic market shares of major antipsychotic products. In Finland, quetiapine and risperidone generic market shares increased substantially (estimates one year post-policy compared to before, quetiapine: 6.80% [3.92%, 9.68%]; risperidone: 11.13% [6.79%, 15.48%]. The policy interventions in Portugal resulted in a substantially increased generic market share for amisulpride (estimate one year post-policy compared to before: 22.95% [21.01%, 24.90%]; generic risperidone already dominated the market prior to the policy interventions. Conclusions Different policy approaches to contain pharmaceutical expenditures in times of the economic recession in Finland and Portugal had intended – increased use of generics – and likely unintended – slightly decreased overall sales, possibly consistent with decreased access to needed medicines – impacts. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring and evaluating the effects of pharmaceutical policy interventions on use of medicines and health outcomes. PMID:25062657

  5. Small tyrosine kinase inhibitors interrupt EGFR signaling by interacting with erbB3 and erbB4 in glioblastoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Saceda, Miguel [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain) [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, 03203 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Grasso, Silvina; Rocamora-Reverte, Lourdes; Conde, Mariano; Gomez-Martinez, Angeles [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain)] [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Garcia-Morales, Pilar [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain) [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, 03203 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Ferragut, Jose A. [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain)] [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Martinez-Lacaci, Isabel, E-mail: imlacaci@umh.es [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain) [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad AECC de Investigacion Traslacional en Cancer, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 Murcia (Spain)

    2011-06-10

    Signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is relevant in glioblastoma. We have determined the effects of the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 in glioblastoma cell lines and found that U87 and LN-229 cells were very sensitive to this drug, since their proliferation diminished and underwent a marked G{sub 1} arrest. T98 cells were a little more refractory to growth inhibition and A172 cells did not undergo a G{sub 1} arrest. This G{sub 1} arrest was associated with up-regulation of p27{sup kip1}, whose protein turnover was stabilized. EGFR autophosphorylation was blocked with AG1478 to the same extent in all the cell lines. Other small-molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors employed in the clinic, such as gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib, were able to abrogate proliferation of glioblastoma cell lines, which underwent a G{sub 1} arrest. However, the EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab had no effect on cell proliferation and consistently, had no effect on cell cycle either. Similarly, cetuximab did not inhibit proliferation of U87 {Delta}EGFR cells or primary glioblastoma cell cultures, whereas small-molecule EGFR inhibitors did. Activity of downstream signaling molecules of EGFR such as Akt and especially ERK1/2 was interrupted with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, whereas cetuximab treatment could not sustain this blockade over time. Small-molecule EGFR inhibitors were able to prevent phosphorylation of erbB3 and erbB4, whereas cetuximab only hindered EGFR phosphorylation, suggesting that EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors may mediate their anti-proliferative effects through other erbB family members. We can conclude that small-molecule EGFR inhibitors may be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of glioblastoma patients.

  6. Investigating cryoinjury using simulations and experiments. 1: TF-1 cells during two-step freezing (rapid cooling interrupted with a hold time).

    PubMed

    Ross-Rodriguez, L U; Elliott, J A W; McGann, L E

    2010-08-01

    There is significant interest in designing a cryopreservation protocol for hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) which does not rely on dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO) as a cryoprotectant. Computer simulations that describe cellular osmotic responses during cooling and warming can be used to optimize the viability of cryopreserved HSC; however, a better understanding of cellular osmotic parameters is required for these simulations. As a model for HSC, the erythroleukemic human cell line TF-1 was used in this study. Simulations, based on the osmotic properties of TF-1 cells and on the solution properties of the intra- and extracellular compartments, were used to interpret cryoinjury associated with a two-step cryopreservation protocol. Calculated intracellular supercooling was used as an indicator of cryoinjury related to intracellular ice formation. Simulations were applied to the two-step cooling protocol (rapid cooling interrupted with a hold time) for TF-1 cells in the absence of Me(2)SO or other cryoprotectants and optimized by minimizing the indicator of cryoinjury. A comparison of simulations and experimental measurements of membrane integrity supports the concept that, for two-step cooling, increasing intracellular supercooling is the primary contributor to potential freezing injury due to the increase in the likelihood of intracellular ice formation. By calculating intracellular supercooling for each step separately and comparing these calculations with cell recovery data, it was demonstrated that it is not optimal simply to limit overall supercooling during two-step freezing procedures. More aptly, appropriate limitations of supercooling differ from the first step to the second step. This study also demonstrates why high cell recovery after cryopreservation could be achieved in the absence of traditional cryoprotectants. PMID:20471379

  7. Amino Acid Transport and Metabolism in Mycobacteria: Cloning, Interruption, and Characterization of an l-Arginine/?-Aminobutyric Acid Permease in Mycobacterium bovis BCG

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Anjali; Connell, Nancy D.

    2000-01-01

    Genes encoding l-arginine biosynthetic and transport proteins have been shown in a number of pathogenic organisms to be important for metabolism within the host. In this study we describe the cloning of a gene (Rv0522) encoding an amino acid transporter from Mycobacterium bovis BCG and the effects of its deletion on l-arginine transport and metabolism. The Rv0522 gene of BCG was cloned from a cosmid library by using primers homologous to the rocE gene of Bacillus subtilis, a putative arginine transporter. A deletion mutant strain was constructed by homologous recombination with the Rv0522 gene interrupted by a selectable marker. The mutant strain was complemented with the wild-type gene in single copy. Transport analysis of these strains was conducted using 14C-labeled substrates. Greatly reduced uptake of l-arginine and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) but not of lysine, ornithine, proline, or alanine was observed in the mutant strain compared to the wild type, grown in Middlebrook 7H9 medium. However, when the strains were starved for 24 h or incubated in a minimal salts medium containing 20 mM arginine (in which even the parent strain does not grow), l-[14C]arginine uptake by the mutant but not the wild-type strain increased strongly. Exogenous l-arginine but not GABA, lysine, ornithine, or alanine was shown to be toxic at concentrations of 20 mM and above to wild-type cells growing in optimal carbon and nitrogen sources such as glycerol and ammonium. l-Arginine supplied in the form of dipeptides showed no toxicity at concentrations as high as 30 mM. Finally, the permease mutant strain showed no defect in survival in unactivated cultured murine macrophages compared with wild-type BCG. PMID:10648515

  8. Compromised local control due to treatment interruptions and late treatment breaks in early glottic cancer: Population-based outcomes study supporting need for intensified treatment schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Groome, Patti A. [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen's Cancer Research Institute, Queen's University, Kingston, ON (Canada)]. E-mail: patti.groome@krcc.on.ca; O'Sullivan, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Mackillop, William J. [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen's Cancer Research Institute, Queen's University, Kingston, ON (Canada); Jackson, Lynda D. [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen's Cancer Research Institute, Queen's University, Kingston, ON (Canada); Schulze, Karleen M.Math. [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen's Cancer Research Institute, Queen's University, Kingston, ON (Canada); Irish, Jonathan C. [Department of Otolaryngology, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Warde, Padraig R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Schneider, Ken M. [Regional Cancer Centres, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, ON (Canada); Mackenzie, Robert G. [Regional Cancer Centres, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hodson, D. Ian [Regional Cancer Centres, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hammond, J. Alex [Regional Cancer Centres, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, ON (Canada); Gulavita, Sunil P.P. [Regional Cancer Centres, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, ON (Canada); Eapen, Libni J. [Regional Cancer Centres, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, ON (Canada); Dixon, Peter F. M.B. [Regional Cancer Centres, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bissett, Randy J. [Regional Cancer Centres, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: This population-based study describes the treatment of early glottic cancer in Ontario, Canada and assesses whether treatment variations were associated with treatment effectiveness. Methods and Materials: We studied 491 T1N0 and 213 T2N0 patients. Data abstracted from charts included age, sex, stage, treatment details, disease control, and survival. Results: The total dose ranged from 50 to 70 Gy, and the daily dose ranged from 1.9 to 2.8 Gy. In 90%, treatment duration was between 25 and 50 days. Field sizes, field reductions, beam arrangement, and beam energy varied. Late treatment breaks occurred in 13.6% of T1N0 and 27.1% of T2N0 cases. Local control was comparable to other reports for T1N0 (82% at 5 years), but was only 63.2% in T2N0. Variables associated with local failure in T1N0 were age less than 49 years (relative risk [RR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-6.90) and >3 treatment interruption days (RR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.00-5.91). In T2N0, these were field reduction (RR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.23-4.42) and late treatment breaks (RR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.09-4.41). Conclusion: Some aspects of treatment for early glottic cancer were associated with worse local control. Problems with protracted treatment are of particular concern, underscoring the need for randomized studies to intensify radiotherapy.

  9. Ligustrazine attenuates oxidative stress-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells by interrupting platelet-derived growth factor-? receptor-mediated ERK and p38 pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China)] [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Ni, Chunyan [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China) [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); The First People's Hospital of Changzhou, Changzhou 213003 (China); Kong, Desong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhu, Xiaojing; Chen, Li [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China)] [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Lu, Yin [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China) [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China); National First-Class Key Discipline for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China); Zheng, Shizhong, E-mail: nytws@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China) [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China); National First-Class Key Discipline for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Hepatic fibrosis represents a frequent event following chronic insult to trigger wound healing reactions with accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the liver. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the pivotal event during liver fibrogenesis. Compelling evidence indicates that oxidative stress is concomitant with liver fibrosis irrespective of the underlying etiology. Natural antioxidant ligustrazine exhibits potent antifibrotic activities, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Our studies were to investigate the ligustrazine effects on HSC activation stimulated by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), an in vitro model mimicking the oxidative stress in liver fibrogenesis, and to elucidate the possible mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at 5 ?M significantly stimulated HSC proliferation and expression of marker genes of HSC activation; whereas ligustrazine dose-dependently suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-activated HSCs, and attenuated expression of fibrotic marker genes. Mechanistic investigations revealed that ligustrazine reduced platelet-derived growth factor-? receptor (PDGF-?R) expression and blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase, two downstream effectors of PDGF-?R. Further molecular evidence suggested that ligustrazine interruption of ERK and p38 pathways was dependent on the blockade of PDGF-?R and might be involved in ligustrazine reduction of fibrotic marker gene expression under H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stimulation. Furthermore, ligustrazine modulated some proteins critical for HSC activation and ECM homeostasis in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-stimulated HSCs. These data collectively indicated that ligustrazine could attenuate HSC activation caused by oxidative stress, providing novel insights into ligustrazine as a therapeutic option for hepatic fibrosis. Highlights: ? Ligustrazine inhibits oxidative stress-induced HSC activation. ? Ligustrazine reduces fibrotic marker genes in HSCs under oxidative stress. ? Disruption of PDGF-?R-mediated ERK and p38 pathways was involved. ? Ligustrazine could be a promising antifibrotic candidate.

  10. Interruption of macrophage-derived IL-27(p28) production by IL-10 during sepsis requires STAT3 but not SOCS3.

    PubMed

    Bosmann, Markus; Russkamp, Norman F; Strobl, Birgit; Roewe, Julian; Balouzian, Liza; Pache, Florence; Radsak, Markus P; van Rooijen, Nico; Zetoune, Firas S; Sarma, J Vidya; Núñez, Gabriel; Müller, Mathias; Murray, Peter J; Ward, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Severe sepsis and septic shock are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Infection-associated inflammation promotes the development and progression of adverse outcomes in sepsis. The effects of heterodimeric IL-27 (p28/EBI3) have been implicated in the natural course of sepsis, whereas the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of gene expression and release of IL-27 in sepsis are poorly understood. We studied the events regulating the p28 subunit of IL-27 in endotoxic shock and polymicrobial sepsis following cecal ligation and puncture. Neutralizing Abs to IL-27(p28) improved survival rates, restricted cytokine release, and reduced bacterial burden in C57BL/6 mice during sepsis. Genetic disruption of IL-27 signaling enhanced the respiratory burst of macrophages. Experiments using splenectomized mice or treatment with clodronate liposomes suggested that macrophages in the spleen may be a significant source of IL-27(p28) during sepsis. In cultures of TLR4-activated macrophages, the frequency of F4/80(+)CD11b(+)IL-27(p28)(+) cells was reduced by the addition of IL-10. IL-10 antagonized both MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent release of IL-27(p28). Genetic deletion of STAT3 in Tie2-Cre/STAT3flox macrophages completely interrupted the inhibition of IL-27(p28) by IL-10 after TLR4 activation. In contrast, IL-10 remained fully active to suppress IL-27(p28) with deletion of SOCS3 in Tie2-Cre/SOCS3flox macrophages. Blockade of IL-10R by Ab or genetic deficiency of IL-10 resulted in 3-5-fold higher concentrations of IL-27(p28) in endotoxic shock and polymicrobial sepsis. Our studies identify IL-10 as a critical suppressing factor for IL-27(p28) production during infection-associated inflammation. These findings may be helpful for a beneficial manipulation of adverse IL-27(p28) release during sepsis. PMID:25348624

  11. Measurement of interstrand cross-link frequency and distance between interruptions in DNA exposed to 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen and near-ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, N.; Ross, P.M.

    1987-04-07

    Bifunctional psoralens react photochemically with DNA to form single-strand adducts and interstrand, chemical cross-links. Cross-link formation is first order with (P), the concentration of added psoralen, when (P) much less than Kd, the psoralen-DNA dissociation constant. DNA molecules containing interstrand cross-links are reversibly bihelical and so are readily detected. It was not heretofore possible to determine cross-link frequency in polydisperse DNA from the mass F of DNA spared cross-linkage. We have derived a statistical relation to calculate cross-link frequency at fixed light exposure and variable (P). We show here that S, the initial slope of the curve described by -ln F as a function of (P), is proportional to Mw, the weight-average molecular weight of nick-free DNA. The cross-link frequency at any (P) can be determined from k, a constant measured for DNA of known Mw at low cross-linkage. This relation is valid for DNA of any molecular weight distribution. In experiments with uniform length DNA, -ln F (cross-link frequency) increased in simple proportion to (P). Intact and restriction endonuclease HindIII digested phage lambda DNA molecules have discrete lengths. S for each was proportional to Mw of the twin helix even though the molecular weight distribution of the restriction fragments was skewed. S was proportional to Mw and to the median molecular weight of sheared cellular DNA over a wide range. Also, we found that 1/S was linear with exposure of cellular DNA to gamma radiation. S can therefore be used to calculate L, the average distance between interruptions in the double helix.

  12. Analysis of DC Current Crowding in Through-Silicon-Vias and Its Impact on Power Integrity in 3D ICs

    E-print Network

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    /ground (P/G) through-silicon-vias (TSVs) or micro-bumps, are unique components in 3D power grids. Copyright 2012 ACM 978-1-4503-1199-1/12/06 ...$10.00. M10 (top) landing pad C4 back-side metal of bottom die to Metal 10 and Metal 9; however, for the top die, current is delivered to Metal 10 and Metal 9 through

  13. Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Dyakonov; Michael Shur

    1993-01-01

    We demonstrate that electrons in a ballistic field effect transistor behave as a fluid similar to shallow water. Phenomena similar to wave and soliton propagation, hydraulic jump, and others should take place in this electron fluid. We show that a relatively slow electron flow should be unstable because of plasma wave amplification due to the reflection from the device boundaries.

  14. Analysis of DC current accelerated life tests of GaN LEDs using a Weibull-based statistical model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Levada; M. Meneghini; G. Meneghesso; E. Zanoni

    2005-01-01

    Gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diode (LED) accelerated life tests were carried out over devices adopting two different packaging schemes (i.e., with plastic transparent encapsulation or with pure metallic package). Data analyses were done using a Weibull-based statistical description with the aim of estimating the effect of high current on device performance. A consistent statistical model was found with the capability to estimate

  15. Impact of universal screening on MRSA bacteremias in a single acute NHS organisation (2006–12): interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In November 2004, a national target was set for the English hospital trusts to reduce the Meticillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia rate by 60% by April 2008 against the number during 2003/04 (baseline year). In our organisation the number of MRSA bacteremias had risen since 2002 and peaked at 75 in 2005/06. A target was set to reduce the number and series of specific and non- specific interventions was introduced including universal MRSA screening. This study analyzes the impact of universal MRSA screening using a quasi-experimental design using routinely gathered data. Methods This study used data gathered routinely for clinical governance, quality control, financial management and outbreak monitoring purposes. Interrupted Time Series (ITS) analysis of 15 pre- and 19 post- universal MRSA screening (and decolonisation) quarterly numbers of bacteremias was carried out where Meticillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) numbers served as non-equivalent dependent variable (control). Results An immediate sharp fall in MRSA bacteremias was observed following the universal MRSA screening (and decolonisation) commenced in Q2, 2007. The number dropped sharply from 23 (Q2, 2007) to 10 (Q3, 2007) for all MRSA bacteremias, and, from 15 (Q2, 2007) to 6 (Q3, 2007) for bacteremias??48 hours of hospitalization. The declining trend continued reaching zero in Q2, 2009 and Q4, 2010 for those with ?48 hours of hospitalization and all bacteremias, respectively. ITS analysis revealed significant impact of universal MRSA screening on all MRSA bacteremias (?2 -0.554, p 0.000) and those with ?48 of hospitalization (?2 -0.577, p 0.001). Impact estimation predicted 17 and 13 bacteremias for all and those with ?48 hours hospitalization, respectively in the 19th quarter post-intervention, if the intervention did not occur. The number of MRSA isolates from non-blood culture systemic sources as percentage of admissions also dropped significantly from 3.32% in Q2, 2007 to 1.51% in Q3, 2007 (?2 -0.506, p 0.000) which is still running low at 0.33% at the end of Q1, 2012. On the other hand, there was no statistically significant impact of universal screening on MSSA bacteremias. Conclusions We conclude that of all interventions, the universal MRSA screening (and decolonisation) is the most effective intervention associated with significant and sharp drop in MRSA burden. PMID:23316746

  16. After 66 years, the University of Washington will confer honorary degrees upon Japanese Americans whose studies were interrupted by time in internment camps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Man who helped inspire ceremony may not attendhttp://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2004391404_uwjapaneseryo24m.htmlJapanese American Exhibit and Access Projecthttp://www.lib.washington.edu/exhibits/harmony/Densho: The Japanese American Legacy Project [Real Player, Quick Time]http://www.densho.org/U.S. Office of War Information: Japanese Relocationhttp://www.archive.org/details/Japanese1943Ansel Adams's Photographs of Japanese-American Internment at Manzanarhttp://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/anseladams/Ryo Kumasaka is set to receive an honorary degree from the University of Washington in a few days, but he's not sure whether or not he'll show up to receive it. Kumasaka's situation is a bit different than most students today, as his studies were interrupted by a decision by the United States government to move thousands of Japanese Americans to internment camps several months after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. A number of people moved to these camps happened to be students at the University of Washington, and after the war was over, some were able to return to finish their degrees and some were not. Several faculty members at the University of Washington have been working to make the degrees a reality, including Gail Nomura, who recently commented, "We don't want this story to be forgotten. Civil liberties are a special thing. Only when we lose them do we realize how important it is to protect and defend them all." While a number of Kumasaka's former classmates will be at the commencement ceremony on May 18th in Seattle, he remains a bit ambivalent about the honor, "I can take it or leave it. It doesn't matter one way or the other. It's too late for that to have any effect on my life." The first link will take visitors to a news article from this Monday's Seattle Times about the upcoming honorary degree ceremony at the University of Washington. The second link leads to another article from the Seattle Times about Kumasaka, complete with an audio clip of him talking about his experiences on the way to the internment camp. Moving on, the third link leads to the Japanese American Exhibit and Access Project at the University of Washington Libraries. Here visitors can view images from the camps, read oral histories of the students who were moved to the camps, and also look over a number of historical documents from the period. The fourth link takes users to the Densho Digital Archives site, which provides access to many hours of interviews with Japanese Americans who spent time in the internment camps and a wide range of related educational resources. The fifth link leads to a film created by the U.S. Office of War Information in 1943 that attempts to offer a justification for the relocation of thousands of Japanese Americans into the internment campus. Finally, the last link will take users to a moving exhibit of photographs taken by Ansel Adams at the internment camp in Manzanar, California in 1943 offered by the American Memory project at the Library of Congress.

  17. A De Novo Apparently Balanced Translocation [46,XY,t(2;9)(p13;p24)] Interrupting RAB11FIP5 Identifies a Potential Candidate Gene for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Roohi, Jasmin; Tegay, David H.; Pomeroy, John C.; Burkett, Sandra; Stone, Gary; Stanyon, Roscoe; Hatchwell, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severe developmental disorder of the central nervous system characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and range of interests and behaviors. The syndrome's prevalence is estimated to be as high as 1 in 150 American children yet its etiology remains largely unknown. Examination of observed cytogenetic variants in individuals with ASD may identify genes involved in its pathogenesis. As part of a multidisciplinary study, an apparently balanced de novo translocation between chromosomes 2 and 9 [46,XY,t(2;9)(p13;p24)] was identified in a subject with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and no distinctive dysmorphic features. Molecular characterization of the rearrangement revealed direct interruption of the RAB11 family interacting protein 5 (RAB11FIP5) gene. RAB11FIP5 is a Rab effector involved in protein trafficking from apical recycling endosomes to the apical plasma membrane. It is ubiquitously expressed and reported to contribute to both neurotransmitter release and neurotransmitter uptake at the synaptic junction. Detailed analysis of the rearrangement breakpoints suggests that the reciprocal translocation may have formed secondary to incorrect repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). PMID:18384058

  18. Quenching of an electric arc in a vacuum gap with a uniform transverse magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Alferov, D. F.; Ahmetgareev, M. R.; Yevsin, D. V.; Ivanov, V. P. [All-Russia Electrotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15

    The breaking ability of a vacuum arc interrupter with a uniform transverse magnetic field formed by a system of permanent magnets was investigated experimentally. The vacuum interrupter with a 0.5-{mu}F shunting capacitor switched off a dc current of up to 150 A at magnetic fields of 100-180 mT. At magnetic fields of 120-160 mT, the breaking ability of the vacuum interrupter was increased to 300 A by introducing a nonuniformity in the magnetic field distribution near the contact surface.

  19. Quenching of an electric arc in a vacuum gap with a uniform transverse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alferov, D. F.; Ahmetgareev, M. R.; Yevsin, D. V.; Ivanov, V. P.

    2010-12-01

    The breaking ability of a vacuum arc interrupter with a uniform transverse magnetic field formed by a system of permanent magnets was investigated experimentally. The vacuum interrupter with a 0.5-?F shunting capacitor switched off a dc current of up to 150 A at magnetic fields of 100-180 mT. At magnetic fields of 120-160 mT, the breaking ability of the vacuum interrupter was increased to 300 A by introducing a nonuniformity in the magnetic field distribution near the contact surface.

  20. Cytotoxicity of diacetoxyscirpenol is associated with apoptosis by activation of caspase-8 and interruption of cell cycle progression by down-regulation of cdk4 and cyclin B1 in human Jurkat T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Do Youn [Laboratory of Immunobiology, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Genetic Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Seok [Laboratory of Immunobiology, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hae Sun [Laboratory of Immunobiology, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Woo Sun [Laboratory of Immunobiology, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Young Seuk [Laboratory of Immunobiology, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho [Laboratory of Immunobiology, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: ykim@knu.ac.kr

    2007-07-15

    To understand the mechanism underlying T-cell toxicity of diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) from Fusarium sambucinum, its apoptogenic as well as growth retardation activity was investigated in human Jurkat T cells. Exposure to DAS (0.01-0.15 {mu}M) caused apoptotic DNA fragmentation along with caspase-8 activation, Bid cleavage, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and PARP degradation, without any alteration in the levels of Fas or FasL. Under these conditions, necrosis was not accompanied. The cytotoxicity of DAS was not blocked by the anti-Fas neutralizing antibody ZB-4. Although the DAS-induced apoptotic events were completely prevented by overexpression of Bcl-xL, the cells overexpressing Bcl-xL were unable to divide in the presence of DAS, resulting from the failure of cell cycle progression possibly due to down-regulation in the protein levels of cdk4 and cyclin B1. The DAS-mediated apoptosis and activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 were abrogated by either pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) or caspase-8 inhibitor (z-IETD-fmk). While the DAS-mediated apoptosis and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 were slightly suppressed by the mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor (CsA), both caspase-8 activation and Bid cleavage were not affected by CsA. The activated normal peripheral T cells possessed a similar susceptibility to the cytotoxicity of DAS. These results demonstrate that the T-cell toxicity of DAS is attributable to not only apoptosis initiated by caspase-8 activation and subsequent mitochondrion-dependent or -independent activation of caspase cascades, which can be regulated by Bcl-xL, but also interruption of cell cycle progression caused by down-regulation of cdk4 and cyclin B1 proteins.

  1. High concentration effects of neutral-potential-well interface traps on recombination dc current-voltage lineshape in metal-oxide-silicon transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zuhui; Jie, Bin B.; Sah, Chih-Tang

    2008-11-01

    Steady-state Shockley-Read-Hall kinetics is employed to explore the high concentration effect of neutral-potential-well interface traps on the electron-hole recombination direct-current current-voltage (R-DCIV) properties in metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistors. Extensive calculations include device parameter variations in neutral-trapping-potential-well electron interface-trap density NET (charge states 0 and -1), dopant impurity concentration PIM, oxide thickness Xox, forward source/drain junction bias VPN, and transistor temperature T. It shows significant distortion of the R-DCIV lineshape by the high concentrations of the interface traps. The result suggests that the lineshape distortion observed in past experiments, previously attributed to spatial variation in surface impurity concentration and energy distribution of interface traps in the silicon energy gap, can also arise from interface-trap concentration along surface channel region.

  2. Interrupting the Public Realm: Performative Excursions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Malcolm

    2007-01-01

    In the context of debates on place, space, and identity in a period of globalisation, this article asks whether collaborative arts projects are a means to identity formation for participants. This is of interest, not least, because such projects are outside consumption, the latter more often discussed in work on identity in sociology. Situated…

  3. Inactive Brains An Interrupted Case Study

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David K. Spierer

    2007-01-01

    Two speakers have been invited to a town hall meeting to help decide a hotly contested issue. A grant has been awarded to the school district with the stipulation that the money be dedicated to only one program. School officials wish to use the funds to improve the science curriculum, but district parents favor an investment in physical education to improve the health of their children. Since the grant money cannot be divided, students are forced to grapple with the role of science in education, the growing problem of childhood obesity, and related issues of public policy.

  4. Interrupting Extremism by Creating Educative Turbulence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    This article begins from the premise that it is important to explore how people unlearn, as well as learn, specifically in terms of extremist or violent attitudes. It shows the implications of two aspects of complexity theory--turbulence and self-organisation--for educational practice and the fostering of a complex adaptive school, which can aid…

  5. Industrial Interruptible Power: An Economical Alternative

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, S. D.; Gardner, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Prevailing utility cost forecasts project that long-term energy costs will rise in real terms. With the addition of capacity construction costs into electric utility rate bases, electric power costs for some utilities will rise sharply...

  6. Composite Layer Manufacturing with Fewer Interruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Bor Z.; Liu, Junhai; Chen, Shizu

    2009-01-01

    An improved version of composite layer manufacturing (CLM) has been invented. CLM is a type of solid freeform fabrication (SFF) -- an automated process in which a three-dimensional object is built up, point-by-point, through extrusion of a matrix/fiber composite-material precursor. In CLM, the translation and the extrusion operation are such that the final size and shape of the fabricated object are as specified by a computer-aided design (CAD). Sometimes, in order to achieve the desired final shape,

  7. Characterization of the papain active centre by using two-protonic-state electrophiles as reactivity probes. Evidence for nucleophilic reactivity in the un-interrupted cysteine-25-histidine-159 interactive system.

    PubMed Central

    Shipton, M; Brochlehurst, K

    1978-01-01

    1.2,2'-Dipyridyl disulphide (2-Py-S-S-2-Py) and n-propyl 2-pyridyl disulphide (propyl-S-S-2-Py) were used as two-protonic-state reactivity probes to investigate the active centre of papain (EC 3.4.22.2).2. The existence of a striking rate optimum at pH approx. 4 in the reaction of papain not only with the symmetrical probe but also with the unsymmetrical probe is shown to constitute compelling evidence that the thiolate ion component of the cysteine-25-histidine-159 interactive system of papain possesses appreciable nucleophilic character. It is not a necessary requirement that the probe reagent should engage the imidazolium ion of histidine-159 in hydrogen-bonding for the sulphur atom of the interactive system to display nucleophilic character. The single proton-binding site of propyl-S-S-2-Py cannot simultaneously interrupt the active-centre ion pair and provide for rate enhancement as the pH is lowered towards 4. The possible implication of this for the mechanism of papain-catalysed hydrolysis is discussed. 3. The suspected difference in the active centres of papain and ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), which could be a lack in ficin of a carboxy group conformationally equivalent to that of aspartic acid-158 of papain is confirmed. The reactivity of the papain thiol group towards both probe reagents is controlled by two ionizations with pKa close to 4 that are positively co-operative. 4. In the reaction of papain with 2-Py-S-S-2-Py. the reactivity appears to be controlled also by an addition ionization with pKa approx. 5. Possible origins of this additional ionization are discussed. K. The spectral and ionization characteristics of propyl-S-S-2-Py are reported. 6. The reagent reacts rapidly with thiol groups at the sulphur atom distal from the pyridyl ring to provide, at pH values below 9, stoicheiometric release of 2-thiopyridone. This property, together with the ability of the reagent markedly to increase its electrophilicity consequent on protonation, suggests alkyl-2-pyridyl disulphides in general as valuable two-protonic-state reactivity probes with exceptional specificity for thiol groups. PMID:26335

  8. Suppression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Viremia with Reverse Transcriptase and Integrase Inhibitors, CD4+ T-Cell Recovery, and Viral Rebound upon Interruption of Therapy in a New Model for HIV Treatment in the Humanized Rag2?/??c?/? Mouse? †

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Shailesh K.; Rezk, Naser L.; Ince, William L.; Cheema, Manzoor; Zhang, Liguo; Su, Lishan; Swanstrom, Ronald; Kashuba, Angela D. M.; Margolis, David M.

    2009-01-01

    A small animal model that reproduces human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis may allow modeling of new therapeutic strategies in ways not approachable in mononuclear cell culture. We find that, as in humans, combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in humanized (hu-) Rag2?/??c?/? mice allows suppression of viremia below the limits of detection and recovery of CD4+ cells, while interruption of ART results in viral rebound and renewed loss of CD4+ T cells. Failure of ART in infected mice is associated with the appearance of drug resistance mutations. The hu-Rag2?/??c?/? mouse may therefore facilitate testing of novel approaches to HIV replication and persistence. PMID:19494021

  9. Study of DC Circuit Breaker of H2-N2 Mixture Gas for High Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiba, Yuji; Morishita, Yukinaga; Kaneko, Shuhei; Okabe, Shigemitsu; Mizoguchi, Hitoshi; Yanabu, Satoru

    Global warming caused by CO2 etc. is a field where the concern is very high. Especially, automobile emissions are problem for it. Therefore, the hybrid car is widely development and used recently. Hybrid car used electric power and gasoline. So, the car reduces CO2. Hybrid car has engine and motor. To rotate the motor, hybrid car has battery. This battery is large capacity. Therefore, the relay should interrupt high DC current for the switch of the motor and the engine. So, hybrid car used hydrogen gas filling relay We studied interruption test for the research of a basic characteristic of hydrogen gas. DC current has not current zero point. So, it is necessary to make the current zero by high arc voltage and forcible current zero point. The loss coefficient and arc voltage of hydrogen is high. Therefore, we studied interruption test for used high arc voltage. We studied interruption test and dielectric breakdown test of air, pure Hydrogen, and Hydrogen- nitrogen mixture gas. As a result, we realized H2-N2(80%-20%) is the best gas.

  10. Expansion, Interruption, Autoethnography: Toward Disorienting Fiction, Part 2

    E-print Network

    Buzard, James

    The thesis of my 2005 book Disorienting Fiction: The Autoethnographic Work of Nineteenth-Century British Novels is gestured at by the three words of this essay's main title: nineteenth-century Britain's imperial expansion ...

  11. Breeding, paternal behavior, and their interruption in Betta splendens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Bronstein

    1982-01-01

    Seven experiments examined the reproductive activities of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Spawning occurred after heterosexual pairs were together for about 24 h, and males cared for eggs, nest, and fry thereafter.\\u000a The visual cues provided by an intruder male, but not a female, stimulated aggression in the male breeder, and these agonistic\\u000a behaviors competed with breeding to cause a

  12. Chasing vs. Stalking: Interrupting the Perception of Animacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Tao; Scholl, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Visual experience involves not only physical features such as color and shape, but also higher-level properties such as animacy and goal-directedness. Perceiving animacy is an inherently dynamic experience, in part because agents' goal-directed behavior may be frequently in flux--unlike many of their physical properties. How does the visual system…

  13. Interrupting Life History: The Evolution of Relationship within Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the author explores how relationships are defined within the context of constructing a life history. The life history of Benjamin, a homeless young man transitioning to adulthood, is used to illustrate how difficult it is to define the parameters of the research environment. During an "ethically important moment" in the research…

  14. Baby Boomers in an Active Adult Retirement Community: Comity Interrupted

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Erin G.; Keimig, Lynn; Rubinstein, Robert L.; Morgan, Leslie; Eckert, J. Kevin; Goldman, Susan; Peeples, Amanda D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This article explores a clash between incoming Baby Boomers and older residents in an active adult retirement community (AARC). We examine issues of social identity and attitudes as these groups encounter each other. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from a multiyear ethnographic study of social relations in senior housing. Research at this site included in-depth, open-ended interviews (47), field notes (25), and participant observation in the field (500 hr). Research team biweekly discussions and Atlas.ti software program facilitated analysis. Findings: We begin with a poignant incident that has continued to engender feelings of rejection by elders with each retelling and suggests the power and prevalence of ageism in this AARC. We identify three pervasive themes: (a) social identity and image matter, (b) significant cultural and attitudinal differences exist between Boomers and older residents, and (c) shared age matters less than shared interests. Implications: Our data clearly show the operation of ageism in this community and an equating of being old with being sick. The conflict between these two age cohorts suggests that cohort consciousness among Boomers carries elements of age denial, shared by the older old. It also challenges the Third Age concept as a generational phenomenon. PMID:22391870

  15. Interrupting the Gaze: On Reconsidering Authority in the Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofanenko, B.

    2006-01-01

    Thinking about the museum's engagement in educational programmes is increasingly adopting a more critical perspective on the implications of a programme in authorizing and defining particular knowledge. While objects are still invoked to define history and culture and to underscore their authority, the museum's claim to educational purposes is…

  16. Optimising by minimising: interruptions and the erosion of teaching time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence J Leonard

    2003-01-01

    The current and continuing international cycle of public school reforms, founded primarily on the premise that educator accountability will result in improved learning outcomes, places additional pressure on teachers and administrators to better facilitate student achievement. The essential challenge is to forge improved learning environments that provide opportunities for enhanced student growth. Unfortunately, many schools seem to remain mired in

  17. Baby Boomers in an Active Adult Retirement Community: Comity Interrupted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Erin G.; Keimig, Lynn; Rubinstein, Robert L.; Morgan, Leslie; Eckert, J. Kevin; Goldman, Susan; Peeples, Amanda D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This article explores a clash between incoming Baby Boomers and older residents in an active adult retirement community (AARC). We examine issues of social identity and attitudes as these groups encounter each other. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from a multiyear ethnographic study of social relations in senior housing.…

  18. Those Old Kentucky Blues: An Interrupted Case Study

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Huskey, Robert J.

    2008-03-04

    This case study involves the topics of pedigree, genetics and inheritance. The condition methemoglobinemia is explored through the example of the blue people of Kentucky. The material would be appropriate for upper level high school or lower level undergraduate students. The case study and teaching notes may be downloaded in PDF format. The site also includes a section for instructor feedback where general comments may be read and contributed.

  19. Off Peak Power - An Alternative to Interruptible Service

    E-print Network

    Nordyke, H. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    20%, or about 7% annually. Billing demand is reduced year round in proportion to cut-backs taken during the summer on-peak period. Examples will be developed that quantity benefits to large, high load factor customers of Georgia Power Company who have...

  20. Citizen, interrupted: the 2011 English riots from a psychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Aiello, G; Pariante, C M

    2013-03-01

    Aims. This is a contribution to the debate over the 2011 English riots from a psychosocial perspective. Methods. We compare the impulsive and 'mindless' behaviour of rioters with the impulsive, violent and contradictory behaviour of people affected by severe personality disorders. Results. We propose that the lack of a sense of social identity and of mentalization skills is a common feature of the two conditions - the lack of social identity, leading to frustration and anger, coupled with a lack of mentalization, leading to the impulsive and violent expression. Furthermore, we highlight the confusing impact that the social marginalization and consumerism can have on young generations from lower classes in cities from the Western world. Conclusions. By building a parallel with the therapeutic intervention offered to severe personality disorders, we speculate on how the community, by modifying its communication's style and actively intervene in deprived socio-economic contexts, could inspire more confidence, trust and sense of belonging in its marginalized members. PMID:23088997