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1

DC Current Interruption in HVDC SF6 Gas MRTB by Means of Self-Excitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kii-Channel HVDC link under construction in Japan is equipped with metallic return transfer breakers (MRTBs) in one converter station. A new MRTB for an interrupting current of 3500 A dc was developed. To interrupt a dc current, a method that produces a current zero point by superimposing a self-excited oscillatory current on a dc arc current was employed. For

H. Nakao; Y. Nakagoshi; M. Hatano; T. Koshizuka; S. Nishiwaki; A. Kobayashi; T. Murao; S. Yanabu

2001-01-01

2

DC current interruption in HVDC SF6 gas MRTB by means of self-excited oscillation superimposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kii-Channel HVDC Link under construction in Japan is equipped with metallic return transfer breakers (MRTBs) in one converter station. A new MRTB for an interrupting current of 3500 A DC was developed. To interrupt a DC current, a method that produces a current zero point by superimposing a self-excited oscillatory current on a DC arc current was employed. For

Hiroyuki Nakao; Yoshihiko Nakagoshi; Masayuki Hatano; Tadashi Koshizuka; Susumu Nishiwaki; Akio Kobayashi; Takeru Murao; Satoru Yanabu

2001-01-01

3

Hybrid arcless low-voltage AC\\/DC current limiting interrupting device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives an extended summary of results on research and development of the hybrid current limiting and interrupting device (H-CLID) suitable for DC and AC applications, carried out in the Technical University of Gdansk. Research included mathematical simulations, physical models, design, and laboratory verification on a low voltage short-circuit test station. The paper briefly covers present state of the

Jacek Zyborski; Tadeusz Lipski; Jozef Czucha; Saady Hasan

2000-01-01

4

DC current monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-intrusive DC current monitor is presented which emulates the theoretical operation of an AC transformer. A conductor, carrying the current to be measured, acts as the primary of a DC current transformer. This current is passed through the center of a secondary coil, and core positioned thereabout, and produces a magnetic flux which induces a current in the secondary proportional to the current flowing in the primary. Means are provided to periodically reset the transformer core such that the measurement inaccuracies associated with core saturation are obviated. A reset current is caused to periodically flow through the secondary coil which produces a magnetic flux oppositely polarized to the flux created by the current in the primary, thus allowing ongoing measurements to be made.

Canter, Stanley (Inventor)

1991-01-01

5

An improved ac\\/dc current comparator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel design of the magnetic cores, windings and means of the excitation and detection for an improved ac\\/dc current comparator is disclosed. The system enables accurate measurements of ac current only or dc current only, or both simultaneous ac and dc current with a pair of detection cores and windings only. For the same order sensitivity of ac\\/dc current

Shiyan Ren; Shengneng She; Xusheng Chen

1995-01-01

6

Development of HVDC Circuit Breaker and its Interrupting Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have developed a DC circuit breaker (DCCB) which interrupts a DC current by injecting a high-frequency reverse current from a commutating capacitor to be superposed to DC current and forcibly creating a current zero point. A breaking part consists of a vacuum interrupters or a SF6 gas, interrupters of the most advanced design connected in series or in

S. Yanabu; T. Tamagawa; S. Irokawa; T. Horiuchi; S. Tomimuro

1982-01-01

7

Development of HVDC Circuit Breaker and Its Interrupting Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have developed a DC circuit breaker (DCCB) which interrupts a DC current by injecting a high-frequency reverse current from a commutating capacitor to be superposed to DC current and forcibly creating a current zero point. A breaking part consists of a vacuum interrupters or a SFâ gas interrupters of the most advanced design connected in series or in

S. Yanabu; T. Tamagawa; S. Irokawa; T. Horiuchi; S. Tomimuro

1982-01-01

8

Nonlinear magnetotransport in dc current biased graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A balance-equation scheme is developed to investigate the magnetotransport in a dc current biased graphene. We examine the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation under a nonzero bias current. With an increase in the current density, the oscillatory differential resistivity exhibits phase inversion, in agreement with recent experimental observation. In the presence of surface optical phonons, a second phase inversion may occur at higher dc bias due to the reduced influence of electron heating and the enhanced direct effect of current on differential magnetoresistivity. We also predict the appearance of current-induced magnetoresistance oscillation in suspended graphene at lower magnetic fields and larger current densities. For the graphene mobility currently available (?20 m2/V s), the oscillatory behavior may be somewhat altered by magnetophonon resonance arising from intrinsic acoustic phonon under finite bias current conditions.

Wang, C. M.; Lei, X. L.

2013-06-01

9

14C ages and activity for the past 50 ka at Volca??n Galeras, Colombia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volca??n Galeras is the southernmost Colombian volcano with well-recorded historic activity. The volcano is part of a large and complex volcanic center upon which 400,000 people live. Historic activity has centered on a small-volume cone inside the youngest of several large amphitheaters that breach the west flank of the volcano, away from the city of Pasto (population 300,000). Lava flows (SiO2 between 54.6 and 64.7 wt.%) have dominated activity for more than 1 Ma, but explosive events have also occurred. Joint studies by volcanologists from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and the United States produced 24 new 14C ages and more than 100 stratigraphic sections to interpret the past 50 ka of activity at Galeras, including sector collapse events. The youngest collapse event truncated 12.8 ka lava flows and may have occurred as recently as 8 to 10 ka. Tephra-fall material rapidly thins and becomes finer away from the vent area. The only widespread marker in the < 10 ka section is a biotite-bearing tephra deposited between 4.1 and 4.5 ka from a source south of Galeras. It separates cryoturbated from largely undisturbed layers on Galeras, and thus dates a stratigraphic horizon which is useful in the interpretation of other volcanoes and geotectonics in the equatorial Andes. Pyroclastic flows during the past 50 ka have been small to moderate in volume, but they have left numerous thin deposits on the north and east flanks where lava flows have been impeded by crater and amphitheater walls. Many of the pyroclastic-flow deposits are lithic rich, with fines and clasts so strongly altered by hydrothermal action before eruption that they, as well as the sector collapse deposits, resemble waste dumps of leached cappings from disseminated sulfide deposits more than volcanogenic deposits. This evidence of a long-lived hydrothermal system indicates susceptibility to mass failure and explosive events higher than expected for a volcano built largely by lava flows and modest Vulcanian eruptions. Photographs, written accounts, and our study document historic north and east flank pyroclastic flows as far as 10 km from the summit; however, none have left recognizable deposits in Pasto for more than 40 ka.

Banks, N. G.; Calvache, V. , M. L.; Williams, S. N.

1997-01-01

10

CMOS current amplifiers exhibiting independent AC and DC current amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CMOS circuit topology is demonstrated for the amplification of high-frequency AC currents without requiring similar DC current amplification. This technique is useful for current-domain amplification and processing of signals when low DC power consumption is necessary. Large amounts of AC gain can be achieved using this technique without requiring equivalent DC current gain, which would increase power consumption. Two

Drew Guckenberger; Kevin Kornegay

2005-01-01

11

Studying on Measures of Restraining DC Current through Transformer Neutrals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monopole ground return mode may cause DC current through the transformer neutrals which are connected to the ground and make the transformers DC biases. With the increase of HVDC transmission power, some transformers through which there will be more DC current going may be saturated, which brings some problems such as acutely shaking, increased noises and overheating when power system

Zhu Yi-ying; Jiang Wei-ping; Zeng Zhao-hua; Yin Yong-hua

2005-01-01

12

Development of HVDC Circuit Breaker Based on Hybrid Interruption Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid interrupting unit (IU) has been examined which consists of a puffer type SF6 gas interrupting unit (GIU) and a vacuum interrupting unit (VIU) connected in series as the interrupting unit of HVDC circuit breaker (HVDC CB). Using the hybrid IU, a test of interrupting a dc current of 8 kA under a peak recovery voltage of 420 kV

T. Senda; T. Tamagawa; K. Higuchi; T. Horiuchi; S. Yanabu

1984-01-01

13

Stepping up AC-DC current up to 20 A  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the AC\\/DC current stepping up arrangement and results at the National Metrology Centre (NMC). Planar multi-junction thermal converters (PMJTCs) were used with a set of coaxial current shunts to build up the AC-DC current transfer standards for the range from 10 mA to 20 A at frequency range of 10 Hz to 100 kHz. Current level-dependence of

T. Jing; S. W. Chua; J. Sim; C. H. Ma

2008-01-01

14

AC-DC CURRENT TRANSFER STANDARDS AND CALIBRATIONS AT NRC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes efforts undertaken to upgrade ac-dc current transfer standards and calibrations at the National Research Council of Canada. The ac-dc current transfer comparator has been redesigned, using guarding techniques most advantageous for the current shunt comparisons. A set of coaxial shunts for currents between 10 mA and 10 A has been built, and characterized up to 100 kHz

Piotr S. Filipski; Michael Boecker

2006-01-01

15

Manipulating DC currents with bilayer bulk natural materials.  

PubMed

A novel and general method for spatially manipulating DC currents has been proposed and experimentally verified by only using bilayer bulk natural conductive materials. Our approach shows distinctive advantages with respect to homogeneity, isotropy, and independence of complicated microfabrication techniques. Our design scheme can be readily extended to robust manipulations of magnetic fields, thermal heat, elastic mechanics, and matter waves. PMID:24643906

Han, Tiancheng; Ye, Huapeng; Luo, Yu; Yeo, Swee Ping; Teng, Jinghua; Zhang, Shuang; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

2014-06-01

16

A calibration setup for AC and DC current sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting from the basic requirements (including amplitude and frequency ranges), the design of a calibration fixture for AC and DC current sensors (with emphasis on Rogowski coils) is analyzed, focusing on its capabilities and accuracy budget. The design is reconsidered with usability and flexibility in mind, so that a wide range of physical dimensions, amplitude and frequency values are accounted

Andrea Mariscotti

2010-01-01

17

An AC and DC current sensor of high accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A current sensor that can detect AC and DC currents with high accuracy of the same degree is presented. The detection characteristics are not degraded even when the sensor is exposed to large temperature variations and\\/or to external magnetic fields. The proposed sensor, which is named for the sensing principle it employs, will be referred to as the magnetic field

Toshikatsu Sonoda; Ryuzo Ueda; Kunio Koga

1992-01-01

18

BCR intercomparison of AC-DC current transfer standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The established national standards for ac-dc current transfer and the respective measurement set-ups of Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Sweden, and The Netherlands were intercompared in the current range from 10 mA to 20 A and in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. An agreement within 10 ppm to 30 ppm was obtained up to 100 mA, degrading

M. Klonz; R. Bergeest; A. Caizergues; D. Fraisse; C. A. D. Winther; U. Pogliano; F. Cabiati; G. C. Bosco; G. Zago; J. T. Dessens; J. P. M. de Vreede; K.-E. Rydler; H. Nilsson

1995-01-01

19

BCR intercomparison of ac-dc current transfer standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The established ac-dc current transfer standards and measurement set-ups of EC, IEN, LCIE, PTB, SP and VSL were intercompared in the current range from 10 mA to 20 A and in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. An agreement within 10 ppm to 30 ppm was obtained up to 100 mA, degrading to 100 ppm at 1

M. Klonz; R. Bergeest; A. Caizergues; D. Fraisse; C. A. D. Winther; U. Pogliano; F. Cabiati; G. C. Bosco; G. Zago; J. T. Dessens; J. P. M. de Vreede; K.-E. Rydler; H. Nilsson

1994-01-01

20

Development of HVDC circuit breaker and its interrupting test  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a DC circuit breaker (DCCB) which interrupts a DC current by injecting a high-frequency reverse current from a commutating capacitor to be superposed to DC current and forcibly creating a current zero point. A breaking part consists of a vacuum interrupters or a SF/sub 6/ gas interrupters of the most advanced design connected in series or in combination to attain a high interrupting capabilities. The commutating current is introduced into the interrupter through a pulse transformer so that DCCB can be conveniently used in the system. A 250kV-3500A DCCB system with these features was designed, manufactured and tested with successful results.

Yanabu, S.; Horivchi, T.; Irokawa, S.; Tamagawa, T.; Tomimuro, S.

1982-07-01

21

Interrupt Handling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The PowerPoint presentation, created by authors Hebah Kohari, Rathnakar Reddy Bodhireddy, and Sheril Dhabriya for Marist College, provides a great overview of interrupt handling in regards to computer operating systems. The presentation discusses the definition of interrupt handling and also provides examples of different types. Explanation of the hardware and software needed to handle interruption is outlined. Use of diagrams and flowcharts help illustrate these concepts; this provides each aspect with both a textual and visual representation. While complex, the authors make attempts to have the lesson be understandable for more novice users. Overall, this is certainly a useful resource for anyone in computer science education.

Bodhireddy, Rathnakar R.; Dhabriya, Sheril; Kohari, Hebah

2009-06-30

22

DC current induced second order optical nonlinearity in graphene.  

PubMed

We calculate the dc current induced second harmonic generation in doped graphene using the semiconductor Bloch equations under relaxation time approximations. We find that the maximum value of the effective second order susceptibility appears when the fundamental photon energy matches the chemical potential. For a surface current density 1.1 × 103 A/m and a relaxation time at optical frequencies of 13 fs, the effective second order susceptibility ?eff(2);xxx can be as large as 10-7m/V for h?? = 0.2 eV or 10-8 m/V for h?? = 0.53 eV. PMID:24977842

Cheng, J L; Vermeulen, N; Sipe, J E

2014-06-30

23

Marine sediments and Beryllium-10 record of the geomagnetic moment variations of the 20-50ka interval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better constrain the Earth's dipole moment changes at the time of the Laschamp and Mono Lake excursions, we reconstructed the cosmogenic nuclide 10Be production variations in the atmosphere using authigenic 10Be/9Be records measured along two marine sediment sequences from the north-east Atlantic (Portuguese margin) and west-equatorial Pacific (Papua-New Guinea margin) oceans. These two records evidence an almost doubling of the 10Be production at ~41 ka, thus assignable to the geomagnetic dipole low associated to the Laschamp excursion. The compilation of authigenic 10Be/9Be marine records provides a stack which indicates that the global 10Be production rates at 41 ka were enhanced by a ~1.5 factor compared to the average over the 20-50 ka interval. The comparison of this authigenic 10Be/9Be marine stack with the Greenland 10Be flux record (smoothed by 1000-year averaging) evidences a good coherency of the timing and amplitude of 10Be production recorded at high, mid and low latitudes. This confirms that the 10Be overproduction signal has a global significance, as expected from a geomagnetic dipole moment loss. The calibration of the 10Be/9Be stack using absolute virtual dipole moment values provides an independent tool to reconstruct geomagnetic dipole moment variations. This allows computing the loss rate leading to the Laschamp dipole minimum (~ -1.5 x 1022 A.m2.ka-1), which constitutes an interesting criterion to assess the loss rate of the historical field. In constrast with relative paleointensity records and absolute paleointensity data sets, the absence of significant cosmogenic enhancement at the age of 34 ka suggests that the Mono Lake dipole low was not sufficient to trigger a significant cosmogenic overproduction. This demonstrates that if the Mono lake excursion really occurred at that time, the duration and amplitude of the dipole weakening were very limited compared to that of the Laschamp. The 10Be overproduction quantified in this study constitutes a reliable basis to calibrate radiocarbon production and in situ cosmogenic nuclides production. For example, it can help to understand the atmospheric 14C concentration variations, recorded near 41 ka and near 34 ka in ? 14C series. The 10Be production peak linked to the Laschamp dipole low can be used as a global tie point for correlation of high-resolution paleoclimatic series obtained from high quality archives. This study is funded through the MAG-ORB project ANR- 09-BLAN-0053-01.

Ménabréaz, L.; Thouveny, N.; Bourles, D. L.

2012-12-01

24

Variability of Western Pacific Warm Pool Rainfall since 50 ka BP: Lithologic and Isotopic Perspectives from Lake Matano, Central Sulawesi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use multiple paleohydrological proxies applied to the sedimentary record of Lake Matano (2°29.1'S 121°20'E), central Sulawesi, Indonesia, to understand the mechanisms controlling long-term variations of the Australian-Indonesian Monsoon (AIM) and Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) convection during the past 50 ka. Lithogenic tracers of surface runoff, including magnetic susceptibility and XRF-derived iron counts, are high during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2/Last Glacial Maximum as well as during millennial-scale northern hemisphere cold events (e.g. the Younger Dryas and Heinrich events), indicating a wetter climate during these northern hemisphere stadials. These events appear in antiphase to dry conditions in mainland Asia, reconstructed by oxygen isotopic analyses of Chinese speleothems, demonstrating antiphasing between the AIM (our record) and the East Asian Summer Monsoon (Chinese speleothems) at both orbital and millennial timescales. At the orbital band, this antiphasing is likely due to the influence of changing seasonal insolation on the global summer monsoons, northern hemisphere ice sheet expansion, and associated shifts in the mean latitudinal position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Interestingly, our data indicates that MIS2 was far wetter than the late Holocene, despite similar austral summer insolation at these times. The strikingly wet MIS2 signal in our proxy data compared to MIS1 and MIS3 suggests that the climate in this region is strongly sensitive to glacial forcings, likely related to changes in WPWP convection driven by greenhouse gas forcing and ice-volume induced atmospheric circulation changes. To better understand the connection between WPWP convection, water vapor transport, and AIM strength at orbital timescales, we also investigate hydrogen isotopic ratios of terrestrial higher plant leaf waxes (?Dwax) in Lake Matano's sediments. Assuming that ?Dwax records the ?D of past precipitation, which may be related to the intensity of WPWP convection, we hypothesize that periods of strong convection covary with intervals of high surface runoff. Comparison of our lithologic and isotopic proxies of terrestrial paleohydrology, including nearby Lake Towuti, with regional proxy data will also help constrain the boundary between wet and dry events in the WPWP during the northern hemisphere stadials.

Wicaksono, S. A.; Russell, J. M.; Bijaksana, S.; Noren, A. J.; Wattrus, N. J.; Vogel, H.

2012-12-01

25

Five Earthquakes In The Last 50 Ka In The Northwestern Yakima Fold And Thrust Belt, Central Washington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratigraphic and structural relationships revealed in paleoseismic trenches suggest at least five earthquakes occurred in the last 50 ka along two prominent anticlines of the Yakima fold and thrust belt (YFTB). The YFTB is a series of northwest- and west-trending anticlinal ridges and synclinal valleys formed during and after emplacement of Miocene flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). Here we focus on scarps along Umtanum and Boylston Ridges. Air photos and LiDAR show an E-W trending, up-to-the-north scarp (~8 m high, ~11 km long) lying at the base of the southern limb of the Umtanum Ridge anticline at Wenas Valley, near the city of Yakima. A trench across the scarp exposed volcaniclastic deposits overlain by buried soils and colluvial deposits. Electron microprobe analysis of tephra from the uppermost volcaniclastic layers indicates correlation with Mt. St. Helens Set C (possibly Cy), erupted ~47 ka. Eight normal faults and one possible reverse fault deform the tephra, buried soils, and colluvial deposits above the tephra. Cross cutting relations require at least three earthquakes over the last ~47 ka. We infer bending moment deformation above a buried reverse fault as the most likely cause of surface faulting observed along the Wenas Valley scarp. LiDAR images at Boylston Ridge east of Ellensburg, WA reveal a ~4-km-long, NE-trending, up-to-the-west scarp. Trenches across this scarp showed Miocene basalt overlain by a thin, cobble-rich, colluvial soil at the surface. A single high-angle reverse fault offsets the basalt, and a fissure filled with colluvium separates the fault blocks. Older colluvium and a soil formed in the colluvium are both offset by the fault, suggesting at least two episodes of movement. Inclined striae on the fault plane hint at right-lateral oblique offset. About 1 km to the NE, a 700-m-long stretch of stream floodplain is incised as much as 7 m. Electron microprobe analysis of a tephra layer in the incised floodplain sediments indicates correlation with Mazama O, erupted ~7,600 yrs BP. We infer that the incision is the result of hanging wall uplift along the fault, probably from at least two earthquakes in the last 7,600 yrs. We incorporate aeromagnetic data, geologic mapping, scarps identified from LiDAR and air photos, and paleoseismology in a conceptual model of an oblique right-lateral stepover system for faults in the northwestern YFTB. Magnetic lineaments correspond with mapped Quaternary faults and scarps identified in LiDAR images and aerial photography. We observe that magnetic lineaments and faults associated with three anticlines (Cleman Mountain, Umtanum Ridge, and Manastash Ridge) combine to form a pattern similar to a restraining stepover seen in sandbox models of strike-slip faults and found above similar restraining stepovers in real-world fault systems. The Boylston reverse-fault trend is almost parallel to the geodetically determined N-S shortening direction for the region. This quandary of contradictory trends is resolved in our model by adding a component of right lateral movement to the fault system.

Sherrod, B. L.; Blakely, R. J.; Barnett, E. A.; Foit, F. F.; Weaver, C. S.

2011-12-01

26

Linking the10Be continental record of Lake Baikal to marine and ice archives of the last 50 ka: Implication for the global dust-aerosol input  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present here a 10Be profile from the continental sediments of Lake Baikal (the world's largest fresh water lake), which, for the first time, shows the ??? 40 ka 10Be enhancement and a pattern that strongly matches those from the marine and ice records for the last 50 ka. This finding provides a new horizon for global and regional correlation of continental archives. Additionally, our VADM-predicted 10Be production confirms and further strengthens a common global cause (geomagnetic field intensity) for the change in atmospheric 10Be over the last 50 ka. We also show that most of the 10Be inventory to the lake has been provided by riverine input, but with a significant addition from direct precipitation and dust-aerosol fallout. We estimate a higher dust-aerosol contribution of 10Be during the Holocene and interstadial stage 3 (22-50 ka) as compared with the glacial period (12-22 ka). Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.; Peck, J.; King, J.; Colman, S.

1999-01-01

27

Design, Modeling, and Verification of High-Performance AC-DC Current Shunts From Inexpensive Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of AC current shunt for AC-DC current transfer is presented for which the AC-DC current differences at frequencies from 10 to 100 kHz are calculated with uncertainties smaller than plusmn 9 muA\\/A in the current range of 30 mA-10 A. This is an independent realization of the AC-DC current-transfer standards in addition to the step-up method used

Kare Lind; T. Sorsdal; Harald Slinde

2008-01-01

28

Development and Interrupting Tests on 250KV 8KA HVDC Circuit Breaker  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the circuit and component selections, development and equivalent circuit test results on an HVDC circuit breaker for an HVDC transmission line. A puffer type SF6 gas interrupter for AC circuit breakers is utilized for interrupting DC current with injection of high-frequency inverse current from a commutating capacitor precharged to HVDC line voltage. Also, the effectiveness of application

S. Tokuyama; K. Arimatsu; Y. Yoshioka; Y. Kato; K. Hirata

1985-01-01

29

Interrupted Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interrupted reading is a close reading technique that consists of dividing a passage of text into short chunks and pausing the reading after each section in order for the student to consider possible responses. This type of reading helps students connect with the text by requiring that they summarize, look for devices, make predictions, etc., as they are reading. This technique helps students to build confidence as they are forced to slow down and notice detail, and it is a tool to help build analysis and commentary skills. Passages from Annie Dillard, The Things They Carried and Cold Mountain are utilized in this lesson.

Edwins, Cathy

2012-09-01

30

ac and dc current-induced motion of a 360° domain wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of 360° domain walls in narrow magnetic stripes to applied dc and ac currents, investigated by micromagnetic simulation, differs qualitatively from the response of 180° domain walls. The 360° domain-wall velocity scales with a dc current but is independent of an applied magnetic field along the stripe. An annihilation process occurs at a critical dc current density that

Mark D. Mascaro; C. A. Ross

2010-01-01

31

Current and frequency range extension of AC-DC current tranfer difference measurement system at CMI  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes current and frequency range extension of AC-DC current transfer difference measurement system in CMI which is now able to measure AC-DC current differences from 1 mA up to 10 A in the frequency range 10 Hz - 100 kHz.

V. Nováková Zachovalová; M. S?ira; J. Streit

2010-01-01

32

Sensing and measurement of DC current using a transformer and RL-multivibrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A circuit for sensing and measurement of DC current using a transformer and RL-multivibrator is proposed. The bridge multivibrator circuit is obtained, connecting the primary coil of a nonlinear transformer to an operational amplifier. The DC current that has to be measured is applied to the secondary of the transformer. It is shown that the DC voltage measured at the

I. M. Filanovsky; V. A. Piskarev

1991-01-01

33

AC-DC current transfer step-up and step-down calibration and uncertainty calculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

New AC-DC current transfer standards are built for the current range from 0.3 mA to 20 A and the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. A three-dimensional PTB-multijunction thermal converter (MJTC) with a heater resistance of 27 ? is the basic standard for the AC-DC current transfer at currents from 20 to 50 mA. At lower currents, planar

Manfred Klonz; Héctor Laiz; Thomas Spiegel; Peter Bittel

2002-01-01

34

High-current high-precision openable-core AC and AC\\/DC current transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of an electronic technique, which greatly increases the apparent permeability of the magnetic core of a current transformer, to high-current high-precision openable-core AC and AC\\/DC current transformers is described. The openable-core AC\\/DC current transformer can be used to measure accurately alternating current only or direct current only, or both alternating and direct currents simultaneously. Test results of two

Eddy So; Shiyan Ren; David A. Bennett

1993-01-01

35

AC-DC current transfer step-up calibration and uncertainty calculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

New AC-DC current transfer standards are built for the current range from 0.3 mA to 20 A and the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. A 3-dimensional PTB-Multijunction Thermal Converter (MJTC) with a heater resistance of 27 ? is the basic standard for the AC-DC current transfer at currents from 20 mA to 50 mA. At lower currents,

M. Klonz; H. Laiz; T. Spiegel; P. Bittel

2001-01-01

36

Multidisciplinary study of sediments deposited in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) during the last 50 ka: information on changes of ice extent during the glacial-interglacial transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Ross Sea (Antarctica), sedimentation is controlled by the dynamics of the ice shelves, fluctuations of the ice sheets extensions (Eastern and Western) and volcanic activity from several volcanic complex of the Victoria Land. Marine sediments consisting of alternated glacigenic, biogenic and volcanic deposits can be interpreted in terms of changes in paleoclimate and paleoenvironment conditions. In this project we present a multidisciplinary study (comprising tephrostratigraphy, petrology, paleomagnetism, rock magnetism, TIC/TOC geochemistry, Ar/Ar dating, palinology and integrated biostratigraphy of forams and calcareous nannoplankton) of the sediments recovered in selected cores from Ross Sea during 1999 and 2000 cruises and stored in the Italian archive at Museo Nazionale dell'Antartide (Trieste). Results provide new data on local and/or global changes of paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental conditions over the past 50 Ka. Furthermore, the study of the recovered volcanic deposits adds new information about the poorly known, recent volcanic activity in the Victoria Land area.

Del Carlo, Paola; Baneschi, Ilaria; Bertagnini, Antonella; Boschi, Chiara; Cascella, Antonio; Colizza, Ester; Di Roberto, Alessio; Di Vincenzo, Gianfranco; Finocchiaro, Furio; Landi, Patrizia; Lirer, Fabrizio; Pompilio, Massimo; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Sprovieri, Mario; Wrinkler, Aldo

2013-04-01

37

DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a HTS-SQUID gradiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar panels are expected to play a major role as a source of sustainable energy. In order to evaluate solar panels, non-destructive tests, such as defect inspections and response property evaluations, are necessary. We developed a DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a High Critical Temperature Superconductor Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (HTS-SQUID) gradiometer with ramp edge type Josephson junctions. Two independent components of the magnetic fields perpendicular to the panel surface (?Bz/?x, ?Bz/?y) were detected. The direct current of the solar panel is visualized by calculating the composition of the two signal components, the phase angle, and mapping the DC current vector. The developed system can evaluate the uniformity of DC current distributions precisely and may be applicable for defect detection of solar panels.

Miyazaki, Shingo; Kasuya, Syohei; Mawardi Saari, Mohd; Sakai, Kenji; Kiwa, Toshihiko; Tsukamoto, Akira; Adachi, Seiji; Tanabe, Keiichi; Tsukada, Keiji

2014-05-01

38

Variations of the oxygen minimum zone of the Okhotsk Sea during the last 50 ka as indicated by benthic foraminiferal and biogeochemical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic foraminiferal and sediment biogeochemical data (total organic carbon, calcium carbonate and biogenic opal contents) in two cores (1265 and 1312 m water depths) from the southeastern Sakhalin slope and one core (839 m water depth) from the southwestern Kamchatka slope were investigated to reconstruct variations of the oxygen minimum zone during the last 50 ka in the Okhotsk Sea. The oxygen minimum zone was less pronounced during cooling in the MIS 2 that is suggested to be caused by a maximal expansion of sea ice cover, decrease of marine productivity and increase of production of the oxygenated Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water (OSIW). A two-step-like strengthening of oxygen minimum zone during the warmings in the Termination 1a and 1b was linked to (1) enhanced oxygen consumption due to degradation of large amount of organic matter in the water column and bottom sediments, originated from increased marine productivity and supply of terrigenous material from the submerged northern shelves; (2) sea ice cover retreat and reduction of OSIW production; (3) freely inflow of the oxygen-depleted intermediate water mass from the North Pacific.

Bubenshchikova, N. V.; Nürnberg, D.; Gorbarenko, S. A.; Lembke-Jene, L.

2010-02-01

39

Low-noise ac\\/dc current source with continuous zero crossing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A circuit has been developed for the measurement of the electrical characteristics of devices sensitive to extrinsic noise and intrinsic power-supply transients. The circuit comprises two active current sources running in opposition. The current can be ramped smoothly through current excursions of a maximum of ±1 A. Provision is also made for the modulation of the dc current output by

S. T. Ruggiero; S. Schwarzbek; R. E. Howard; E. Track

1986-01-01

40

Optical dc current and voltage measurement by superposing ac magnetic or electric field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical DC current and voltage measurement using Faraday or Pockels effect necessitates the compensation of light intensity variation with some methods, because it is possible the intensity variation may give rise to a measuring error. We have proposed a method which suggests superposing AC magnetic field on linearly polarized light or AC electric field on elliptically polarized light and compensating

Masaru Higaki; Kunio Fujii; Shizuo Yamaguchi

1999-01-01

41

Realization of ac-dc current transfer difference to 1 MHz at SP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the realization of AC-DC current transfer difference at SP with emphasis on the realization at high frequencies, which is based on modeling of single junction thermal converters by their reactive and loss components. The estimated expanded uncertainty is 6 muA\\/A at 1 MHz. Also level dependence of planar multijunction converters is reported.

Karl-Erik Rydler; Valter Tarasso

2008-01-01

42

High precision automated measuring system for AC-DC current transfer standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated measuring system for AC-DC current transfer standards were developed at the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute (SP). The use of a guard makes intercomparisons with ppm precision possible at frequencies up to 100 kHz. Two multijunction thermal converters are used for evaluating the uncertainty of the system

Karl-Erik Rydler

1993-01-01

43

Improvements in the AC-DC Current Transfer Calibration Capabilities at NRC  

Microsoft Academic Search

NRC Electrical Standards Group is upgrading its shunt calibration facility to offer calibrations up to 100 A at 100 kHz. Primary standards of ac-dc current transfer difference have been verified using fast reversed dc source. A custom set of coaxial shunts has been built and is being characterized

P. S. Filipski; M. Boecker

2004-01-01

44

International comparison on ac-dc current transfer standards at frequencies up to 1 MHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an international comparison of ac-dc current transfer measurements at 10 mA and frequencies up to 1 MHz. The standards of NMIA, PTB and BEV have already been compared. The comparison is currently being extended to involve SP. The results will be presented at the conference.

I. Budovsky; T. Funck; M. Garcocz; G. Heine; K.-E. Rydler; V. Tarasso

2008-01-01

45

Extending ac-dc current transfer measurement to 100 A, 100 kHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and verification of current shunts for AC-DC transfer measurements in the range 20 A to 100 A. The measured AC-DC current transfer difference of the 100 A shunt is -36 muA\\/A at 100 kHz with an uncertainty of 200 muA\\/A.

Karl-Erik Rydler; Valter Tarasso

2008-01-01

46

Interactions between the ac voltages and dc current in weak ac\\/dc interconnections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the interactions between the ac voltages and the dc current in weak ac\\/dc interconnections. The response of the voltage is expressed in terms of the basic parameters of the interconnection and the impact of these parameters on the voltage waveshapes is analyzed. Finally, indexes describing the distortion of the magnitude and phase of the ac voltage during

C. Hatziadoniu; G. D. Galanos

1988-01-01

47

Operation of the DC current transformer intensity monitors at FNAL during run II  

SciTech Connect

Circulating beam intensity measurements at FNAL are provided by five DC current transformers (DCCT), one per machine. With the exception of the DCCT in the Recycler, all DCCT systems were designed and built at FNAL. This paper presents an overview of both DCCT systems, including the sensor, the electronics, and the front-end instrumentation software, as well as their performance during Run II.

Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Meyer, T.; Vogel, G.; /Fermilab

2012-01-01

48

Measures of restraining DC current through transformer neutral point: A comprehensive survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

HVDC power systems operating in ground-return mode produce DC voltages around the electrodes. During monopolar operations of the HVDC electrode, DC biases of the transformers caused by the DC current through neutral points may damage the transformers and the whole network. In an attempt to prevent or minimize these harmful effects, more efforts were put on the research activities on

Chengxiong Mao; Sheng Wang; Jiming Lu; Guihua Mei; Dan Wang

2007-01-01

49

Application of optical fiber DC current transformer for railway power system measurement and protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel optical fiber DC current transformer (OFDCCT) with advantages of robustness to the electromagnetic field, flexibility to the install condition, simple structure and electrical insulation has been developed. In this paper, some measurement results which are difficult to be realized by a conventional current sensor are shown. Such results emphasize the advantages of the OFDCCT. Furthermore, the possible future

Hitoshi HAYASHIYA; Takehiko NAKAMURA; Syuichi NAGAI; Hajime INOUE

2009-01-01

50

Radiolaria and pollen records from 0 to 50 ka at ODP Site 1233: Continental and marine climate records from the Southeast Pacific  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Site 1233 drilled during Leg 202 of the Ocean Drilling Program provides a detailed record of marine and continental climate change in the Southeast Pacific and South American continent. Splits from over 500 samples taken at 20 cm intervals for quantitative analysis of radiolarian and pollen populations yield a temporal resolution of 200-400 years. In each sample, 39 pollen taxa and 40 radiolarian species and genera were evaluated. Age control is provided by 25 AMS 14C dates [Lamy, F., Kaiser, J., Ninnemann, U., Hebbeln, D., Arz, H.W., Stoner, J., 2004. Science 304, 1959-1962]. Multivariate statistical analyses of these data allow us to conclude the following: (1) During the past 50 ka, the region of the central Chile coast is not directly influenced by polar water from the Antarctic region. (2) Changes in ocean conditions off central Chile during this time interval primarily reflect north-south shifts in the position of the South Pacific transition zone. (3) Changes in Chilean vegetation reflect comparable latitudinal shifts in precipitation and the position of the southern westerlies. (4) The first canonical variate of radiolarian and pollen records extracted from Site 1233 are remarkably similar to each other as well as to temperature records from the Antarctic, which suggests that marine and continental climate variability in the region is tightly coupled at periods longer than 3000 years. (5) The phase coupling of these climate records, which lead variations of continental erosion based on iron abundance at the same site, are consistent with a hypothesis that erosion is linked to relatively long (i.e, few thousand years) response times of the Patagonian ice sheet, and thus is not a direct indicator of regional climate. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pisias, N. G.; Heusser, L.; Heusser, C.; Hostetler, S. W.; Mix, A. C.; Weber, M.

2006-01-01

51

Transient current measurement of improved AC\\/DC current transformer for power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transient current measurement of the power system by an improved ac\\/dc current transformer is developed. The transient performance details and calculation formulas of the transformer are analyzed and derived. The important design bases for transient current measurement of the current transformer used to the power system are given. Testing results show that the transient error of 5000-A improved ac\\/dc

Shiyan Ren; Mingming Li; Xusheng Chen

1995-01-01

52

AC-DC current shunts and system for extended current and frequency ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new ac-dc current-shunt calibration system with a current range of 1 mA-100 A and a frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. The new system consists of an ac-dc comparator controlled via a universal serial bus and a set of reference coaxial shunts with dedicated thermal voltage converters. The design of the custom-built shunts has

Piotr S. Filipski; Michael Boecker

2006-01-01

53

Tee connectors for ac-dc current shunts up to 100 A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Special tee connectors are necessary to calibrate ac-dc current shunts up to 100 A in a step-up procedure. Influences of these tees on the measured ac-dc difference have been observed. The reason for this influence is shown and a solution suggested, which reduces uncertainties in the 20 A to 100 A range and provides customers with calibration values free from

M. Garcocz

2010-01-01

54

AC-DC Current Shunts and System for Extended Current and Frequency Ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a new ac-dc current shunt calibration system with a testing current range of 1 mA to 100 A and frequency range 10 Hz-100 kHz. The new system consists of a USB controlled ac-dc comparator and a set of reference coaxial shunts with dedicated thermal voltage converters. The design of custom build shunts has been optimized through theoretical

Piotr S. Filipski; Michael Boecker

2005-01-01

55

Fretting in copper-to-copper contacts under AC and DC current conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fretting on the contact resistance behavior of copper-to-copper wire-plate combinations under AC and DC current carrying conditions was investigated. The fretting conditions were as follows: frequency 1 Hz, slip amplitude 100 ?m and load 400 g (4N). The current level in both AC and DC conditions was 50 mA. In addition to contact resistance measurements, SEM and

Daniel Gagnon; Milenko Braunovic

2001-01-01

56

Fretting in copper-to-copper contacts under AC and DC current conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fretting on the contact resistance behavior of copper-to-copper wire-plate combinations under AC and DC current carrying conditions was investigated. The fretting conditions were as follows: frequency 1 Hz, slip amplitude 100 ?m and load 400 g (4N). The current level in both AC and DC conditions was 50 mA. In addition to contact resistance measurements, SEM and

D. Gagnon; M. Braunovic

2000-01-01

57

Final report on key comparison CCEM-K12: AC–DC current transfer standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circulation of the travelling standards in the CIPM key comparison CCEM-K12 of AC–DC current transfer difference began in March 2005 and was completed in April 2007. The travelling standards were lost on their way from the last participant to the pilot laboratory. Since, prior to their disappearance, the travelling standards exhibited exceptional stability, the CCEM Working Group on Low-Frequency

Ilya Budovsky

2012-01-01

58

Quartz planar multijunction thermal converter as a new AC-DC current transfer standard up to 1 MHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new generation of PMJTCs on quartz crystal chips and on quartz membranes developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) results in new calculable ac-dc current transfer standards for a current of 10 mA in the frequency range from 10 kHz to 1 MHz, with considerably reduced uncertainties. AC-DC current transfer differences below 1 ?A\\/A with standard uncertainties below 1 ?A\\/A

Luciana Scarioni; Manfred Klonz; Torsten Funck

2005-01-01

59

Interrupted monogroove slot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interrupted monogroove slot in a heat pipe facilitates priming of the heat pipe under zero gravity conditions by preventing the monogroove slot from completely priming before the liquid channel is primed.

Brown, Richard F. (Inventor); Edelstein, Fred (Inventor); Kosson, Robert L. (Inventor)

1993-01-01

60

Portable circuit-interruption indicator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device locates transient power interruptions occurring in electrical equipment. Indicator operates on principle that circuit in normal use retains residual current in the line prior to an interruption.

Bezant, K. R.

1971-01-01

61

Study of the acceptable dc current limit in core-form power transformers  

SciTech Connect

The temperature rise in power transformers subjected to a dc source of excitation was measured on core-form single-phase 735-kV autotransformers rated 370-MVA and 550-MVA. The measurements were compared to the temperature rise values obtained on the same transformers operating in overexcitation at 1.95 T. The results show that the tie plates of this particular type of transformer are the components most susceptible to rapid temperature rise. Smaller-scale tests on 100-kVA transformers were performed to take a specific look at these tie plates under the effect of a temperature increase. Finite-element simulations combined with analytical studies of temperature rise were performed in an attempt to determine a tolerable dc current limit based on permissible temperature standards.

Picher, P.; Bolduc, L. [Institut de Recherche d`Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), Varennes, Quebec (Canada)] [Institut de Recherche d`Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), Varennes, Quebec (Canada); Dutil, A. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). System Planning Dept.] [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). System Planning Dept.; Pham, V.Q. [ABB Canada, Varennes, Quebec (Canada). Power Transformer Div.] [ABB Canada, Varennes, Quebec (Canada). Power Transformer Div.

1997-01-01

62

Development and interrupting tests on 250KV 8KA HVDC circuit breaker  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the circuit and component selections, development and equivalent circuit test results on an HVDC circuit breaker for an HVDC transmission line. A puffer type SF/sub 6/ gas interrupter for AC circuit breakers is utilized for interrupting DC current with injection of high-frequency inverse current from a commutating capacitor precharged to HVDC line voltage. Also, the effectiveness of application of the HVDC breaker to an HVDC system with two parallel transmission lines is demonstrated through the EMTP simulation.

Tokuyama, S.; Arimatsu, K.; Hirata, K.; Kato, Y.; Yoshioka, Y.

1985-09-01

63

Miscarriage: A Dream Interrupted  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pregnancy is a developmental task that requires women to become accustomed to inherent and sometimes profound biological, somatic, and psychological changes. When pregnancy is interrupted by miscarriage, it may become a pivotal crisis point in the development of a woman's maternal identity as well as an issue in family development. This manuscript…

Trepal, Heather C.; Semivan, Suzanne Gibson; Caley-Bruce, Mary

2005-01-01

64

Deconstruction as Narrative Interruption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the way it prioritizes "interruption" and calls into question the very possibility of producing coherent, self-contained narratives, the deconstructive work of Jacques Derrida is often thought to be intrinsically anti-narrative in its very structure; and yet there are those who insist that, to the contrary, deconstruction is a narrative…

Gilbert-Walsh, James

2007-01-01

65

Electric and magnetic fields of two infinitely long parallel cylindrical conductors carrying a DC current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper calculates the electric and magnetic fields and the Poynting vector around two infinitely long parallel cylindrical conductors, carrying a DC current. Also the charges on the surface of the wire are calculated, and their distribution is visualized. The wire is assumed to be perfectly electrically conducting. Furthermore, the Hall effect is ignored. In the literature [S.J. Orfanidis, Electromagnetic waves and antennas, 2008], the problem of determining the electric field is usually tackled using an equivalent model consisting of two line charge densities, producing the same electric field. In this work, the Laplace equation is rigorously solved. The authors found no work explaining the solution of the Laplace equation with boundary conditions for this problem and hence thought it was useful to dedicate a paper to this topic. The method of separation of variables is employed and a bipolar coordinate system is used. After solving the appropriate Sturm-Liouville problems, the scalar potential is obtained. Taking the gradient yields the electric field. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Numelec 2012", Edited by Adel Razek.

Engelen, Kristof; Jacqmaer, Pieter; Driesen, Johan

2013-11-01

66

Temperature dependences of surface recombination DC current voltage characteristics in MOS structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature dependences of recombination current at interface traps in MOS transistor structure are investigated using the Shockley-Read-Hall Recombination DC current-voltage (R-DCIV) characteristics. Results include the effects of energy distribution of the interface traps (discrete, constant and U-shaped energy distributions) on the temperature dependence of the base terminal current-vs-gate-voltage lineshape ( IB- VGB), the peak current and voltage ( IB-peak, VGB-peak) and their thermal activation energy EA, and the reciprocal slope n of the IB-peak vs base/drain (or base/source) p/n junction forward voltage VBD. Surface impurity concentration and oxide thickness are varied. Temperature dependence of EA, VGB-peak and n is small while IB-peak and R-DCIV linewidth, large. This small temperature dependence simplifies the experimental implementation and data analysis of R-DCIV methodology applied at room temperatures without using expensive temperature controlled wafer-probe station.

Chen, Zuhui; Jie, Bin B.; Sah, Chih-Tang

2006-09-01

67

Generation of highly stable DC current by using a superconducting transformer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to generate a highly stable DC current by using a superconducting transformer. For the first trial stage, a 100 A class superconducting transformer was designed and fabricated for operation at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. The secondary coil of the transformer was wound with a superconducting Bi-2223 tape, and the turn ratio of the primary and secondary windings was about 11:1, which brought an output current of about 80 A by a small varying control current. The control system was constructed with a PC, an AD/DA conversion PCI board and a small current supply. The primary input current was controlled by a normal PID control program. The secondary output current was evaluated by measuring the voltage on a low resistivity shunt. As the result of this study, it was suggested that in the case of small impedance in secondary winding circuit, the DC output current with high stability can be obtained by applying an easy control algorithm to the program running on the controlling PC.

Ni, B.; Hakoda, S.; Otabe, E. S.; Kiuchi, M.

2006-06-01

68

Overshoot Damping Control of DC Current at Deblock in AC-DC Interconnected System with Externally Commutated Converters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deblock of AC-DC interconnected system with externally commutated converters generally adopts soft start which makes trigger delay angle about 90 degrees and starts DC voltage from about 0kV. High DC voltage, however, is possibly caused by relation between the deblock signal and AC voltage phase at the commutation start of converter, resulting to overdue current. Consequently, overshoot of DC current is generated and transient AC voltage sag is caused especially under the condition of relatively weak AC system. We resolved the generation mechanism of DC current overshoot at deblock. In addition, we reflected the mechanism in the control system of Higashi-Shimizu FC, and drew up overshoot damping control by EMTP simulation. Furthermore, we checked the effect of overshoot damping control at the commissioning test period and verified that result of measurement corresponded with EMTP simulation.

Kogiso, Keiji; Shimonosono, Takaaki

69

A Method for Calculating AC Currents from Sampled DC Current Data in a Three-phase PWM Inverter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reduce costs of inverters for home electrical appliances using the PMSM, the AC current sensor-less control is required as well as the position sensor-less control. This paper proposes a PWM technique suitable for calculating AC currents from sampled DC current data in the one-shunt system, which is one of the AC current sensor-less methods. The proposed PWM technique using a triangle carrier wave leads to the dc current sampling at near the top and bottom of the carrier wave, and AC current calculation within one cycle of the carrier under normal conditions. To reduce errors in the AC current calculation caused by the PWM current ripple, the current ripple waveforms are calculated from the instantaneous inverter output voltages and used for the compensation. The principles of the PWM technique and the AC current calculation are explained, as well as experimental results.

Fukumoto, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Yukie; Hamane, Hiroto; Hayashi, Yoichi

70

Frontline: The Interrupters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many organizations and individuals are working to transform some of America's most violent inner city neighborhoods by forming a series of coalitions with local residents, religious organizations, and schools. This engaging documentary from PBS's Frontline takes a look into "the violent landscape of our cities through the eyes of those fighting to sow peace and security." First-time visitors should click on "Meet the Interrupters" to learn about the unique individuals working on projects such as CeaseFire in Chicago and the Al Hafeez Initiative, which is designed to find resources for young boys and girls to utilize in after-school programs. Visitors can watch the entire program (one version that contains graphic language), move on to explore an online digital memorial for victims of violence, and also listen to profiles from National Public Radio and Chicago Tonight. Finally, visitors can click on the "Where Are They Now?" area to learn about what has happened to each "interrupter" since the documentary was released.

2012-03-02

71

Quartz Planar Multijunction Thermal Converter as a New AC-DC Current Transfer Standard up to 1 MHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new generation of PMJTCs on quartz membranes and on quartz crystal chips developed at the PTB results in new ac-dc current transfer standards for the current of 10 mA and the frequency range from 10 kHz to 1 MHz, accompanied with small uncertainties. For a PMJTC with a heater resistance of 240 Omega the uncertainties for frequencies up to

L. Scarioni; M. Klonz; T. Funck

2004-01-01

72

Comparison between ac and dc current annealing in CoFeSiB glass-covered amorphous microwires  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we present a study on the magnetic properties of Joule-heated CoFeSiB glass-covered amorphous microwires under applied stress. A comparison between the magnetic properties of four samples is made: (i) as cast, Joule-heated under (ii) dc current or ac current of (iii) 100 Hz or (iv) 500 Hz. The stress modifies the anisotropy and the domain structure in

K. D. Sossmeier; F. Bohn; H. Chiriac; M. Carara

2007-01-01

73

Improved AC-DC Current Transfer Step-Up With New Current Shunts and Potential Driven Guarding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ac-dc current transfer standards at PTB have been improved in frequency and current range up to 1 MHz and 1 A using a newly designed transconductance amplifier. Up to 100 kHz and 10 A, the uncertainties could be dramatically reduced. Starting from the calculable quartz planar multifunction thermal converter at 30 mA, for currents up to 10 A, new

Torsten Funck; Manfred Klonz

2007-01-01

74

Overshoot Damping Control of DC Current at Deblock in AC-DC Interconnected System with Externally Commutated Converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deblock of AC-DC interconnected system with externally commutated converters generally adopts soft start which makes trigger delay angle about 90 degrees and starts DC voltage from about 0kV. High DC voltage, however, is possibly caused by relation between the deblock signal and AC voltage phase at the commutation start of converter, resulting to overdue current. Consequently, overshoot of DC current

Keiji Kogiso; Takaaki Shimonosono

2008-01-01

75

A harmonic-free AC to AC power supply using DC current link: steady-state analysis and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the steady-state analysis and design of an sinusoidal input\\/output AC to AC power supply with DC current link. Despite many advantages of such a structure, its application in fixed frequency power supplies has received very little attention in the literature. Steady-state modeling of the system is carried out. Unity power factor operation of the system

Hamid R Karshenas; S. B. Dewan

1998-01-01

76

Phase textures induced by dc-current pair breaking in weakly coupled multilayer structures and two-gap superconductors.  

PubMed

We predict the current-induced formation of equilibrium phase textures for a multicomponent superconducting order parameter. Using the two-component Ginzburg-Landau and Usadel equations, we show that, for weakly coupled comoving superconducting condensates, the dc current I first causes the breakdown of the phase-locked state at I>I{c1} followed by the formation of intrinsic phase textures well below the depairing current I{d}. These phase textures can manifest themselves in multilayer structures, atomic Bose condensate mixtures in optical lattices, and two-gap superconductors, particularly MgB(2), where they can result in oscillating and resistive switching effects. PMID:17026065

Gurevich, A; Vinokur, V M

2006-09-29

77

Interrupt Verification via Thread Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the research effort towards verification of concurrent software has focused on multithreaded code. On the other hand, concurrency in low-end embedded systems is predominantly based on interrupts. Low-end embedded systems are ubiquitous in safety-critical applications such as those supporting transportation and medical automation; their verification is important. Although interrupts are superficially similar to threads, there are subtle semantic

John Regehr; Nathan Cooprider

2007-01-01

78

Global interrupt and barrier networks  

DOEpatents

A system and method for generating global asynchronous signals in a computing structure. Particularly, a global interrupt and barrier network is implemented that implements logic for generating global interrupt and barrier signals for controlling global asynchronous operations performed by processing elements at selected processing nodes of a computing structure in accordance with a processing algorithm; and includes the physical interconnecting of the processing nodes for communicating the global interrupt and barrier signals to the elements via low-latency paths. The global asynchronous signals respectively initiate interrupt and barrier operations at the processing nodes at times selected for optimizing performance of the processing algorithms. In one embodiment, the global interrupt and barrier network is implemented in a scalable, massively parallel supercomputing device structure comprising a plurality of processing nodes interconnected by multiple independent networks, with each node including one or more processing elements for performing computation or communication activity as required when performing parallel algorithm operations. One multiple independent network includes a global tree network for enabling high-speed global tree communications among global tree network nodes or sub-trees thereof. The global interrupt and barrier network may operate in parallel with the global tree network for providing global asynchronous sideband signals.

Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton-On-Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kopcsay, Gerard V. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY)

2008-10-28

79

MgB2 cylindrical superconducting shielding for cryogenic measurement applications: a case study on DC current transformers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for designing cylindrical hollow superconducting shields for cryogenic measurement devices operating in background fields of 1 T is proposed. The shield design is based on MgB2 composite, manufactured by the reactive Mg liquid infiltration process [1]. The MgB2 composite allows low-cost shields with good mechanical resistance to be realized easily. The geometrical design is benchmarked by the experimental characterization at 4.2 K. A design case study for the shield of a cryogenic DC current transformer is reported. Design results show a shielding efficiency of 70% for both the axial and radial components, with prospective measurement accuracy up to 10 ppm on 100 kA.

Arpaia, P.; Ballarino, A.; Giunchi, G.; Montenero, G.

2014-04-01

80

An architecture for intelligent task interruption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the design of real time systems the capability for task interruption is often considered essential. The problem of task interruption in knowledge-based domains is examined. It is proposed that task interruption can be often avoided by using appropriate functional architectures and knowledge engineering principles. Situations for which task interruption is indispensable, a preliminary architecture based on priority hierarchies is described.

Sharma, D. D.; Narayan, Srini

1990-01-01

81

Perceptual Learning of Interrupted Speech  

PubMed Central

The intelligibility of periodically interrupted speech improves once the silent gaps are filled with noise bursts. This improvement has been attributed to phonemic restoration, a top-down repair mechanism that helps intelligibility of degraded speech in daily life. Two hypotheses were investigated using perceptual learning of interrupted speech. If different cognitive processes played a role in restoring interrupted speech with and without filler noise, the two forms of speech would be learned at different rates and with different perceived mental effort. If the restoration benefit were an artificial outcome of using the ecologically invalid stimulus of speech with silent gaps, this benefit would diminish with training. Two groups of normal-hearing listeners were trained, one with interrupted sentences with the filler noise, and the other without. Feedback was provided with the auditory playback of the unprocessed and processed sentences, as well as the visual display of the sentence text. Training increased the overall performance significantly, however restoration benefit did not diminish. The increase in intelligibility and the decrease in perceived mental effort were relatively similar between the groups, implying similar cognitive mechanisms for the restoration of the two types of interruptions. Training effects were generalizable, as both groups improved their performance also with the other form of speech than that they were trained with, and retainable. Due to null results and relatively small number of participants (10 per group), further research is needed to more confidently draw conclusions. Nevertheless, training with interrupted speech seems to be effective, stimulating participants to more actively and efficiently use the top-down restoration. This finding further implies the potential of this training approach as a rehabilitative tool for hearing-impaired/elderly populations.

Benard, Michel Ruben; Baskent, Deniz

2013-01-01

82

DC current induced metal-insulator transition in epitaxial Sm0.6Nd0.4NiO3/LaAlO3 thin film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metal-insulator transition (MIT) in strong correlated electron materials can be induced by external perturbation in forms of thermal, electrical, optical, or magnetic fields. We report on the DC current induced MIT in epitaxial Sm0.6Nd0.4NiO3 (SNNO) thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition on (001)-LaAlO3 substrate. It was found that the MIT in SNNO film not only can be triggered by thermal, but also can be induced by DC current. The TMI of SNNO film decreases from 282 K to 200 K with the DC current density increasing from 0.003 × 109 A•m-2 to 4.9 × 109 A•m-2. Based on the resistivity curves measured at different temperatures, the MIT phase diagram has been successfully constructed.

Huang, Haoliang; Luo, Zhenlin; Yang, Yuanjun; Yun, Yu; Yang, Mengmeng; Meng, Dechao; Wang, Haibo; Hu, Sixia; Bao, Jun; Lu, Yalin; Gao, Chen

2014-05-01

83

Laser beam interrupter and divider  

SciTech Connect

Optical apparatus for converting a single, continuous incident laser beam into a plurality of pulsed laser beams is disclosed. The apparatus uses a rotatable first optical refracting element to cause the incident laser beam to sweep the surface of an imaginary cone. A circular or elliptical array of fixed, second optical refracting elements is placed in the path of the sweeping beam. The array is mounted in a holder of nontransmissive material. As the beam sweeps past each of the fixed second optical refracting elements, it is transmitted by that element and then interrupted by the nontransmissive material separating that element from the next fixed second optical refracting element. As the beam sweeps a complete circle or ellipse, a pulsation effect is created by the repetitive transmission and interruption, giving rise to a plurality of pulsed output beams. Such apparatus can be used in a system for perforating a web of sheet material with pulsed laser beams.

Brinker, R. G.

1985-02-12

84

Interruption of Denitrogenation by Air-Breathing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was designed to determine whether or not a proposed denitrogenation time, interrupted with a short air-breathing time and when matched with an additional denitrogenation time equal to the interruption, would protect from bends (decompression si...

J. P. Cooke

1975-01-01

85

Heat Pipe With Interrupted Slot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Newer version of heat pipe slot interrupted by plug or, if heat pipe is cast, by bridge of heat-pipe material cast integrally across groove. Small barrier assists in priming heat pipe. Vapor and noncondensible gas still accumulates in liquid channel at evaporator before or during startup, but barrier keeps liquid out of small part of slot at bubble. Dry part of slot allows bubble to escape into vapor channel, making room for liquid to move in during startup.

Brown, Richard F.; Kosson, Robert L.; Edelstein, Fred

1994-01-01

86

Reservation-Based Interrupt Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some real-time kernels (such as a recent real-time version of Linux) permit to execute interrupt handlers in dedicated threads, to control their interference on real-time applications. However, from the stand-point of real-time analysis, such threads are challenging and cannot be dealt with in the traditional ways. Furthermore, the application of traditional scheduling solutions (such as fixed priorities) proves ineffective in

Nicola Manica; Luca Abeni; Luigi Palopoli

2010-01-01

87

Investigating Interruptions: Implications for Flightdeck Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fundamental aspect of multiple task management is attending to new stimuli and integrating associated task requirements into an ongoing task set; this is "interruption management" (IM). Anecdotal evidence and field studies indicate the frequency and consequences of interruptions, however experimental investigations of mechanisms influencing IM are scarce. Interruptions on commercial flightdecks are numerous, of various forms, and have been cited as contributing factors in many aviation incident and accident reports. This research grounds an experimental investigation of flightdeck interruptions in a proposed IM stage model. This model organizes basic research, identifies influencing mechanisms, and suggests appropriate dependent measures for IM. Fourteen airline pilots participated in a flightdeck simulation experiment to investigate the general effects of performing an interrupting task and interrupted procedure, and the effects of specific task factors: (1) modality; (2) embeddedness, or goal-level, of an interruption; (3) strength of association, or coupling-strength, between interrupted tasks; (4) semantic similarity; and (5) environmental stress. General effects of interruptions were extremely robust. All individual task factors significantly affected interruption management, except "similarity." Results extend the Interruption Management model, and are interpreted for their implications for interrupted flightdeck performance and intervention strategies for mitigating their effects on the flightdeck.

Latorella, Kara A.

1999-01-01

88

Editorial: The Interrupted Case Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many ways to tell a tale. This issue of the journal demonstrates that point as it devotes itself once again entirely to case studies. One particularly useful type of case study is the Interrupted Case Method. In this form, information is fed piecemeal to students working in small groups, allowing all students to be engaged in problem solving. The case is presented in one class period, which faculty find appealing due to the ease of writing and teaching this type of case.

Herreid, Clyde F.

2005-10-01

89

Pregnancy interruption by vaginal misoprostol.  

PubMed

A total of 132 pregnant women with average gestational age of 14.2 weeks (range 11-22 weeks) undergoing legal abortion volunteered for a trial utilizing vaginal administration of misoprostol. In 106 women a dose of 800 micrograms was utilized, whilst in 26 women 1,200-1,600 micrograms were given. Nonsurgical expulsion of the fetus was successful in 117 cases (88.6%). Four cases had to be excluded for various social reasons. A total of 11 did not achieve fetal expulsion within 56 h after application of misoprostol. These cases (11/132; 8.3%) were considered failures. Previous reports in the literature of toxicity trials on animals reporting no fetotoxic nor teratogenic effects of misoprostol at doses up to 10,000 micrograms/kg body weight seem to be of no validity in the human since we could demonstrate that almost 80% of pregnancies were interrupted at a dose of 10-15 micrograms/kg body weight. The conclusion is that vaginal administration of this prostaglandin analogue, not requiring cool temperature for storage, is remarkably effective in achieving safe interruption of pregnancy without any significant complications. PMID:8300007

Bugalho, A; Bique, C; Almeida, L; Bergström, S

1993-01-01

90

Method, system, and article of manufacture for adjusting interrupt levels  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Provided are a method, system and article of manufacture for adjusting interrupt levels. A current system interrupt rate at a computational device is determined, wherein the current system interrupt rate is a sum of interrupt rates from a plurality of interrupt generating agents. The current system interrupt rate is compared with at least one threshold interrupt rate associated with the computational device. Based on the comparison, an interrupt moderation level is adjusted at an interrupt generating agent of the plurality of interrupt generating agents.

2006-06-20

91

Persuasion, Task Interruption and Health Regimen Adherence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cueing strategies, such as real-time reminders, are among the most effective methods of persuading individuals to perform healthy behaviors such as taking their medication and exercising. However, these reminders often represent a task interruption for users who are engaged in work activities. This paper presents the results of a study which explores strategies for interrupting users at work to perform

Timothy W. Bickmore; Daniel Mauer; Francisco Crespo; Thomas Brown

2007-01-01

92

The Role of Interruption in Building Trust  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the article, we explore conditions under which people may allow their listening to be interrupted, that is, allow themselves to start listening for something they had not been trying to hear previously. We present empirical evidence for the conditions by analyzing an interview with a teacher who tells us how his listening was interrupted as he…

Haroutunian-Gordon, Sophie

2009-01-01

93

Magnetoimpedance effect of the Ni80Fe20/Cu composite wires: The influence of DC current imposed on the Cu base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the copper composite wires of 75 ?m in diameter with a sputtered layer of Ni80Fe20 permalloy were prepared, with a DC current applied to the basal Cu terminals during the fabrication process. The influence of the DC current on the magnetic configuration and Magneto-Impedance (MI) effect was studied. The results indicate that both the current amplitude and actuation duration have significant effect on the magnetic properties of the Ni80Fe20 layer. With appropriate current applied, the induced magnetic field leads to a circumferential magnetic domain structure and reduces significantly the equivalent anisotropy field of Ni80Fe20 layer. Then, the GMI ratio of the composite wires was significantly increased. A maximum GMI of 194.8% can be reached when the current was fixed at 100 mA and the Ni80Fe20 thickness is 780 nm. If the Ni80Fe20 thickness is above 780 nm, the coercivity of the coating layer increases while the GMI ratio of the composite wire reduces, since the magnetic anisotropy of the Ni80Fe20 layer varies from circumferential to longitudinal. The results were explained combining the thermal and magnetic effects of current.

Chen, Delu; Li, Xin; Ji, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Qiang; Ruan, Jianzhong; Zhao, Zhenjie

2014-06-01

94

18 CFR 284.9 - Interruptible transportation service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Interruptible transportation service. 284.9 Section 284...RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL...Conditions § 284.9 Interruptible transportation service. (a) Interruptible...

2013-04-01

95

30 CFR 18.48 - Circuit-interrupting devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Circuit-interrupting devices. ...APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT...Requirements § 18.48 Circuit-interrupting devices. ...machine shall be equipped with a circuit-interrupting device...

2013-07-01

96

Checklist interruption and resumption: A linguistic study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study forms part of a project investigating the relationships among the formal structure of aviation procedures, the ways in which the crew members are taught to execute them, and the ways in which thet are actually performed in flight. Specifically, this report examines the interactions between the performance of checklists and interruptions, considering both interruptions by radio communications and by other crew members. The data consists of 14 crews' performance of a full mission simulation of a higher ratio of checklist speech acts to all speech acts within the span of the performance of the checklist. Further, it is not number of interruptions but length of interruptions which is associated with crew performance quality. Use of explicit holds is also associated with crew performance.

Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph

1987-01-01

97

dc arc interruption in pressurized gasses  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study was to investigate the possibility of achieving (1) short interruption time and (2) minimum contact erosion in a dc circuit interrupter. Arc interruption tests were performed on a 100-A, 600-V dc contactor under atmospheres of argon dry air, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen, each at four pressures 0.17, 0.34, 0.52, and 0.69 MPa (25, 50, 75 and 100 psig). It was found that the average arcing time in helium and hydrogen was the shortest, and that in argon the longest for the circuit conditions used. The contact erosion in hydrogen was the worst, and that in argon the best for the contact materials used in the tests. The static pressure in the chamber did not appear to have much effect on the arc interruption phenomenon for the contactor and gas pressures used.

Chowdhuri,P.

1980-01-01

98

Vacuum interrupters and thyratrons as opening switches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High power opening switches for inductive storage for large scale energy storage applications are described. The triggered vacuum interrupter and the magnetically quenched thyratrons are discussed. By electrically retriggering the discharge in the vacuum interrupter between pulses, the dependence on mechanical motion is eliminated. This should enable repetition rate operation at 10 to 15 kHz while still maintaining the vacuum interrupter's proven interrupting performance of tens of kiloamps at tens of kilovolts. The magnetically quenched thyratron uses a cross magnetic field to raise the switch impedance by decreasing the electron mobility and driving the discharge into an arc chute wall where it is quenched. Attempts to understand the basic mechanisms involved and to increase the switch, ratings, and particularly the conduction time, are discussed.

Honig, E. M.

99

Fast interrupt platform for extended DOS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extended DOS offers the unique combination of a simple operating system which allows direct access to the interrupt tables, 32 bit protected mode access to 4096 MByte address space, and the use of industry standard C compilers. The drawback is that fast interrupt handling requires both 32 bit and 16 bit versions of each real-time process interrupt handler to avoid mode switches on the interrupts. A set of tools has been developed which automates the process of transforming the output of a standard 32 bit C compiler to 16 bit interrupt code which directly handles the real mode interrupts. The entire process compiles one set of source code via a make file, which boosts productivity by making the management of the compile-link cycle very simple. The software components are in the form of classes written mostly in C. A foreground process written as a conventional application which can use the standard C libraries can communicate with the background real-time classes via a message passing mechanism. The platform thus enables the integration of high performance real-time processing into a conventional application framework.

Duryea, T. W.

1995-01-01

100

Control algorithm for the inverter fed induction motor drive with DC current feedback loop based on principles of the vector control  

SciTech Connect

This paper brings out a control algorithm for VSI fed induction motor drives based on the converter DC link current feedback. It is shown that the speed and flux can be controlled over the wide speed and load range quite satisfactorily for simpler drives. The base commands of both the inverter voltage and frequency are proportional to the reference speed, but each of them is further modified by the signals derived from the DC current sensor. The algorithm is based on the equations well known from the vector control theory, and is aimed to obtain the constant rotor flux and proportionality between the electrical torque, the slip frequency and the active component of the stator current. In this way, the problems of slip compensation, Ri compensation and correction of U/f characteristics are solved in the same time. Analytical considerations and computer simulations of the proposed control structure are in close agreement with the experimental results measured on a prototype drive.

Vuckovic, V.; Vukosavic, S. (Electrical Engineering Inst. Nikola Tesla, Viktora Igoa 3, Belgrade, 11000 (Yugoslavia))

1992-01-01

101

Vacuum interrupters and thyratrons as opening switches  

SciTech Connect

The clear advantages of inductive storage for large scale energy storage applications are creating an increasing interest in the research and development of the opening switches required. Opening switches for single-shot inductive transfers have received considerable attention and are fairly well advanced. The problem addressed by this workshop of high power opening switches for high repetition rate applications is much more severe, however, and may well require a major research and development effort. Two candidates for such an opening switch, the triggered vacuum interrupter and the magnetically quenched thyratron, are discussed. By electrically retriggering the discharge in the vacuum interrupter between pulses, the dependence on mechanical motion is eliminated. This should enable repetition rate operation at 10 to 15 kHz while still maintaining the vacuum interrupter's proven interrupting performance of tens of kiloamps at tens of kilovolts. The magnetically quenched thyratron, on the other hand, uses a cross magnetic field to raise the switch impedance by decreasing the electron mobility and driving the discharge into an arc chute wall where it is quenched. Successful interruptions of 1 kA at 15 kV and 100 A at 50 kV after conduction for 10 ..mu..s have been demonstrated by previous researchers. Work at Los Alamos is directed toward understanding the basic mechanisms involved and increasing the switch ratings, particularly the conduction time.

Honig, E.M.

1981-01-01

102

User requirements for interruption management in mobile communications in hospitals.  

PubMed

In hospitals, mobile communication devices increase the occurrence of inappropriate interruptions during clinical task performance. These interruptions have been related to decreased quality of clinical care. User requirements were elicited using a scenario based approach. The results present insights into user requirements for an interruption management system for hospitals. Hospital workflow protocols were identified as a major source of interruptions. Many suggestions for managing these interruptions related to improving workflow using IT. We have shown that even though the hospital is an exceptionally demanding environment, the user requirements for interruption management concur with earlier findings in the broader fields of context aware interruption management and computer supported cooperative work. PMID:23920869

Talsma, Bernd G; Solvoll, Terje; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

2013-01-01

103

Energetic Transmission Line Completion/Interruption Mechanism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A control mechanism is provided for coupling/interrupting two transmission leads. A first cam configured for spring-loaded rotation in a direction of rotation is positioned between the two leads. A lead coupler attached to the first cam couples the two le...

M. J. Sanford

1998-01-01

104

L'interruption légale de grossesse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé Enquête sociale sur 185 patientes s'étant présentées au cours des années 1949 à 1952 à la Policlinique psychiatrique pour demander un préavis pour l'interruption de grossesse. 85 patientes ont obtenu un préavis psychiatrique positif et 100 patientes en ont obtenu un négatif. Sur ces 100 patientes, 45 ont donné naissance à un enfant vivant. Nous avons interrogé 64 patientes

Henriette Hopf-Van der Elst

1959-01-01

105

WHAT HAPPENS WHEN BONDED RELATIONSHIPS ARE INTERRUPTED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interrupting or severing bonded relationships takes a heavy toll on human health and well-being. It is as serious as brain surgery, death or divorce. The younger the child and the deeper the bond, the more devastating the result. The trauma begins, of course, with the initial abuse and\\/or neglect, when a decision is made to change homes for the basic

James A. Kenny

106

Interrupted Aortic Arch in an Adult  

PubMed Central

Interrupted aortic arch is a rare congenital malformation of the aortic arch that occurs in 3 per million live births. Defined as a loss of luminal continuity between the ascending and descending portions of the aorta, this anomaly entails a very poor prognosis without surgical treatment. To our knowledge, the world medical literature contains only 12 reports of isolated interrupted aortic arch diagnosed in adults. Nine of these patients underwent successful surgical repair, but 1 died during the early postoperative period. We describe a 10th successful surgical repair, which involved a 42-year-old woman who had an asymptomatic type B interrupted aortic arch (characterized by interruption between the left subclavian and left carotid arteries). We performed a single-stage extra-anatomic repair by placing a 16-mm extra-anatomic Dacron graft between the ascending and descending portions of the thoracic aorta and by interposing a 7-mm extra-anatomic Dacron graft between the 16-mm graft and the left subclavian artery. The patient recovered uneventfully and continued to do well 6 months later. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:118–21)

Messner, Greg; Reul, George J.; Flamm, Scott D.; Gregoric, Igor D.; Opfermann, Ulrich Tim

2002-01-01

107

34 CFR 650.35 - May fellowship tenure be interrupted?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false May fellowship tenure be interrupted? 650...OF EDUCATION JACOB K. JAVITS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must be Met By Fellows? § 650.35 May fellowship tenure be interrupted?...

2013-07-01

108

Aortic Arch Thrombosis Mimicking Interrupted Aortic Arch  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a 32-week-gestation male who presented initially with symptoms suggestive of an interrupted aortic arch. The absence of a VSD prompted further investigations, including a CT angiogram, which revealed that he had an extensive thrombus in his aorta. He underwent a successful aortic thrombectomy with arch repair on cardiopulmonary bypass support. In view of the extensive thrombus, the patient was referred to the haematology team. There was no family history of prothrombotic tendencies.

Neal, Richard; Mattishent, Katharina; Reynolds, Fiona

2013-01-01

109

Multislice CT angiography of interrupted aortic arch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is defined as complete luminal and anatomic discontinuity between the ascending and descending\\u000a aorta. Because almost all patients with IAA become critically ill during the neonatal period, they should undergo urgent corrective\\u000a surgery. This clinical urgency necessitates a fast and accurate noninvasive diagnostic method. Although echocardiography remains\\u000a the primary imaging tool for this purpose, it is

Dong Hyun Yang; Hyun Woo Goo; Dong-Man Seo; Tae-Jin Yun; Jeong-Jun Park; In-Sook Park; Jae Kon Ko; Young Hwee Kim

2008-01-01

110

Interrupting long periods of sitting: good STUFF.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that sedentary behaviour is in itself a health risk, regardless of the daily amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Therefore, sedentary behaviour should be targeted as important health behaviour. It is known that even relatively small changes of health behaviour often require serious efforts from an individual and from people in their environment to become part of their lifestyle. Therefore, interventions to promote healthy behaviours should ideally be simple, easy to perform and easily available. Since sitting is likely to be highly habitual, confrontation with an intervention should almost automatically elicit a reaction of getting up, and thus break up and reduce sitting time. One important prerequisite for successful dissemination of such an intervention could be the use of a recognisable term relating to sedentary behaviour, which should have the characteristics of an effective brand name. To become wide spread, this term may need to meet three criteria: the "Law of the few", the "Stickiness factor", and the "Power of context". For that purpose we introduce STUFF: Stand Up For Fitness. STUFF can be defined as "interrupting long sitting periods by short breaks", for instance, interrupting sitting every 30 min by standing for at least five minutes. Even though we still need evidence to test the health-enhancing effects of interrupted sitting, we hope that the introduction of STUFF will facilitate the testing of the social, psychological and health effects of interventions to reduce sitting time. PMID:23281722

Rutten, Geert M; Savelberg, Hans H; Biddle, Stuart J H; Kremers, Stef P J

2013-01-01

111

Environmental Simulation of Real-Time Systems with Nested Interrupts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interrupts are important aspects of real-time embedded systems to handle events in time. When there exist nested in- terrupts in a real-time system, and an urgent interrupt is al- lowed to preempt the current interrupt handling, the design and analysis of the system become difficult due to the lack of appropriate behavioral models. This paper proposes a compositional model for

Guoqiang Li; Shoji Yuen; Masakazu Adachi

2009-01-01

112

Reliability evaluation of radial distribution system considering momentary interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose the reliability evaluation method of power distribution systems considering the momentary interruptions. The results of research are concentrated on two parts. One is the reliability evaluation method of power distribution system considering the momentary interruptions and the other is the reliability cost evaluation that unifies the sustained and momentary interruption costs. These proposed evaluation methodologies

S.-Y. Yun; J.-C. Kim; J.-F. Moon; C.-H. Park; S.-M. Park; M.-S. Lee

2003-01-01

113

Testing of a 50 kA, 50 kV current interrupter with I sup 2 t preheating and long recovery voltage  

SciTech Connect

The Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) presently being constructed at Los Alamos in a next generation Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) plasma experiment. An inductive energy transfer system, employing a 50 kA, 50 kV dc current interrupter, is being utilized for initiating the plasma current. These performance requirements (50 kA, 50 kV) had yet to be realized in a reliable switching system, development of this current interrupter system was initiated. A switch test bay with a 50 kA battery bank has been built at Los Alamos to test the interrupter in conditions which will exist in the CPRF experiment. Many switch parameters were measured to provide information on the current interrupting characteristics and reliability. Some of these diagnostics include voltage, current, pre and post I{sup 2}t contact resistance, opening speed and position, arc voltage, and stem temperature. To determine any long term changes, all shots and data channels are computer indexed, and may be easily recalled for review. Extensive testing was performed on Siemens D-10 vacuum interrupter. Test parameter space included 55 kA, 40 kV (per bottle); di/dt of 2250 A/{mu}s, I{sup 2}t of 5 {times} 10{sup 9} amp{sup 2} sec; and 20 kV-200 msec RC recovery decay. Circuit parameters effect opening reliability. Circuit data and the associated testing results will be presented along with long term trends of switch performance under normal'' conditions. 12 figs.

Reass, W.A.; Boenig, H.J.; Melton, J.G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-01-01

114

Workflow Interruptions and Failed Action Regulation in Surgery Personnel  

PubMed Central

Background Workflow interruptions during surgery may cause a threat to patient's safety. Workflow interruptions were tested to predict failure in action regulation that in turn predicts near-accidents in surgery and related health care. Methods One-hundred-and-thirty-three theater nurses and physicians from eight Swiss hospitals participated in a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The study participation rate was 43%. Results Structural equation modeling confirmed an indirect path from workflow interruptions through cognitive failure in action regulation on near-accidents (p < 0.05). The indirect path was stronger for workflow interruptions by malfunctions and task organizational blockages compared with workflow interruptions that were caused by persons. The indirect path remained meaningful when individual differences in conscientiousness and compliance with safety regulations were controlled. Conclusion Task interruptions caused by malfunction and organizational constraints are likely to trigger errors in surgery. Work redesign is recommended to reduce workflow interruptions by malfunction and regulatory constraints.

Elfering, Achim; Nutzi, Marina; Koch, Patricia; Baur, Heiner

2013-01-01

115

Exploration of the interrupted Fischer indolization reaction†  

PubMed Central

A convergent method to access the fused indoline ring system present in a multitude of bioactive molecules has been developed. The strategy involves the condensation of hydrazines with latent aldehydes to ultimately deliver indoline-containing products by way of an interrupted Fischer indolization sequence. The method is convergent, mild, operationally simple, broad in scope, and can be used to access enantioenriched products. In addition, our approach is amenable to the synthesis of furoindoline and pyrrolidinoindoline natural products as demonstrated by the concise formal total syntheses of physovenine and debromoflustramine B. The strategy will likely enable the synthesis of more complex targets such as the communesin alkaloids.

Schammel, Alex W.; Boal, Ben W.; Zu, Liansuo; Mesganaw, Tehetena; Garg, Neil K.

2010-01-01

116

Physiological Growth Responses by Nutrient Interruption in Aeroponically Grown Potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to retard potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs Superior, Atlantic, and Jasim) shoot growth by nutrient interruption and thereby induce tuber formation in an aeroponic\\u000a cultivation system. In the period between 25 and 55 days after transplanting (DAT), a 10-day nutrient interruption was carried\\u000a out on the potato plants. The interruption of nutrient supply significantly increased root activity

Dong Chil Chang; Choun Soo Park; Sung Yeul Kim; Su Jeong Kim; Yong Beom Lee

2008-01-01

117

Operational Failures and Interruptions in Hospital Nursing  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the work environment of hospital nurses with particular focus on the performance of work systems supplying information, materials, and equipment for patient care. Data Sources Primary observation, semistructured interviews, and surveys of hospital nurses. Study Design We sampled a cross-sectional group of six U.S. hospitals to examine the frequency of work system failures and their impact on nurse productivity. Data Collection We collected minute-by-minute data on the activities of 11 nurses. In addition, we conducted interviews with six of these nurses using questions related to obstacles to care. Finally, we created and administered two surveys in 48 nursing units, one for nurses and one for managers, asking about the frequency of specific work system failures. Principal Findings Nurses we observed experienced an average of 8.4 work system failures per 8-hour shift. The five most frequent types of failures, accounting for 6.4 of these obstacles, involved medications, orders, supplies, staffing, and equipment. Survey questions asking nurses how frequently they experienced these five categories of obstacles yielded similar frequencies. For an average 8-hour shift, the average task time was only 3.1 minutes, and in spite of this, nurses were interrupted mid-task an average of eight times per shift. Conclusions Our findings suggest that nurse effectiveness can be increased by creating improvement processes triggered by the occurrence of work system failures, with the goal of reducing future occurrences. Second, given that nursing work is fragmented and unpredictable, designing processes that are robust to interruption can help prevent errors.

Tucker, Anita L; Spear, Steven J

2006-01-01

118

Consumer interruption costing for reliability cost/benefit evaluation  

SciTech Connect

A procedure for determining customer interruption costs for use in a power system reliability cost/benefit evaluation is presented. The procedure uses the results of a calculation of the frequency and duration of reserve margin states together with emergency operating procedures, customer curtailment strategies, and interruption cost coefficients to predict the total expected customer interruption costs for a given power system configuration. The customer interruption costing procedure is described, an example is given, and the results of the application of the procedure in a generation system reliability cost/benefit evaluation are discussed.

Poore, W.P.; Greene, S.R.; Kuliasha, M.A.

1983-05-01

119

Space assembly interruptability with applications to Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The task of assembling large structures in space creates the possibility of construction interruptions. The unscheduled interruption of the assembly process may require abandoning the Station and returning to Earth. This interruption may be due to: crew illness/injury, Shuttle Orbiter mechanical failure, Orbiter or Station pressure loss, space debris damage, etc. If not handled properly these interruptions may jeopardize crew safety, Orbiter operations and the recoverability of the structure being assembled. The problem of space assembly interruptability was first addressed in January 1989 by astronaut Vance Brand (NASA-JSC) to Dr. George Morgenthaler at the University of Colorado - Boulder, at which time an Interruptability Team was organized at the University to study the problem of Space Station Freedom assembly interruptability. The approach which is being undertaken at the University of Colorado is to create a methodology capable of analyzing generic structures. This is being accomplished by developing a software tool, DYCA, to plan assembly sequences, and will be used in conjunction with INTERPRO, the INTERrupatbility PROgram, to analyze the Space Station Freedom assembly interruptability problem. Using an automated networking approach with some human interaction, the most favorable near-term safing plus options will be calculated in the event of an interruption. PERT network techniques are employed to analyze which of these near-term improvements provide the optimal long-term response, as far as impact on the time and cost of the overall project are concerned.

Wade, James W.

1990-01-01

120

On Improving Real-Time Interrupt Latencies of Hybrid Operating Systems with Two-Level Hardware Interrupts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose to implement hybrid operating systems based on two-level hardware interrupts. We analyze and model the worst-case real-time interrupt latency for RTAI and identify the key component for its optimization. Then, we propose our methodology to implement hybrid operating systems with two-level hardware interrupts by combining the real-time kernel and the time- sharing OS (Operating System)

Miao Liu; Duo Liu; Yi Wang; Meng Wang; Zili Shao

2011-01-01

121

Work interrupted: A comparison of workplace interruptions in emergency departments and primary care offices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: We sought to determine the number of interruptions and to characterize tasks performed in emergency departments compared with those performed in primary care offices. Methods: We conducted an observational time-motion, task-analysis study in 5 nonteaching community hospitals and 22 primary care offices in 5 central Indiana cities. Twenty-two emergency physicians and 22 office-based primary care physicians (PCPs) were

Carey D. Chisholm; Amanda M. Dornfeld; David R. Nelson; William H. Cordell

2001-01-01

122

Interrupted warm blood cardioplegia for coronary artery bypass grafting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous warm blood cardioplegia has been used with good clinical outcome in both antegrade and retrograde delivery. However, the continuous delivery of cardioplegia is sometimes interrupted for adequate visualization and flow is not constant with heart manipulation during operation. We studied the effects of interrupted antegrade delivery of warm blood cardioplegia on myocardial metabolism and clinical results after surgery. Fifty-five

T. Isomura; K. Hisatomi; T. Sato; N. Hayashida; K. Ohishi

1995-01-01

123

Single Server Queue with Mixed Types of Interruptions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The singer server M/G/1 queue subject to Poisson interruptions has many useful applications in computer systems modeling. The interruptions are usually characterized by their type of service-preemption discipline. This paper deals with this model in its m...

V. F. Nicola

1985-01-01

124

Negotiating task interruptions with virtual agents for health behavior change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual health counseling agents on mobile devices need to be able to interrupt their users when it is time for them to engage in healthy behaviors, such as scheduled medication taking or exercise. However, these real-time reminders often represent task interruptions for individuals who are engaged in work activities. This paper presents the results of a study which compares four

Timothy W. Bickmore; Daniel Mauer; Francisco Crespo; Thomas Brown

2008-01-01

125

Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Interrupter for Safe and Arm Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis addresses the development of a new micro-scale interrupter mechanism for a safe and arm device used in modern weapon systems. The interrupter mechanism often consists of a physical barrier that prevents an initial source of energy, in an explo...

S. S. Mink

2006-01-01

126

Physics of high-current interruption of vacuum circuit breakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present state of knowledge concerning the physical phenomena of high-current interruption with vacuum interrupters (VI) is reviewed. Two arc control methods, application of externally applied axial magnetic field (AMF) or transverse magnetic field (TMF), are available to distribute the heat flux from arc to contacts homogeneously over contact surface, to avoid local overheating. AMF spreads the arc at fixed

Ekkehard Schade

2005-01-01

127

Career Interruptions and Subsequent Earnings: A Reexamination Using Swedish Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cross-sectional and panel estimations of Swedish data reveal that different types of career interruptions have different effects on wages, varying by gender. Therefore, human capital depreciation does not entirely account for the negative effect of career interruptions on subsequent wages. (SK)

Albrecht, James W.; Edin, Per-Anders; Sundstrom, Marianne; Vroman, Susan B.

1999-01-01

128

Interrupt-based Phase-locked Frequency Multiplier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method aud system utilize a processor's digital timer and two interrupts to form a frequency multiplier. The first internipt's processing time window is definable by a first uumber of counts C(sub 1), of the digital timer while the second interrupt's processing time window is definable by a second number of counts C(sub 2) of the digital timer. A count value CV utilized by the systedmethod is based on a desired frequency multiplier N(sub 1), the timer clock rate, and the tiole required for one cycle of an input signal. The first interrupt is triggered upon completion of one cycle ofthe input sigual at which point the processing time window associated therewith begins. The second interrupt is triggered each time the timer's overflow signal is generated at which point the processing time window associated with the second interrupt begins. During the occurrence of the second interrupt's processing. the count value CV is modified to maintain the first interrupt's processing time window approximately centered between two of the second internipt's processing time windows.

Palumbo, Daniel L. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

129

Railgun power supply system utilizing traction motors and vacuum interrupters  

SciTech Connect

A railgun power supply has been designed that utilizes traction motors, vacuum interrupters and pulse transformers. An assembly of 28 traction motors, which store approximately 75 MJ, energize the primary windings of three pulse transformers at a peak current of 50 kA. At peak current an array of vacuum interrupters disconnects the transformer primary windings and forces the current to flow in the secondary windings. The secondary windings are connected directly to the railgun and require no opening switches. By staging the vacuum interrupter openings, a 1 MA to 1.3 MA ramped current waveform can be delivered to the railgun.

Parsons, W.M.; Parker, J.V.; Thullen, P.

1985-01-01

130

Development of a high-power vacuum interrupter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attempts to develop a vacuum interrupter with a voltage capability in the 72-80 kV range and a current capability in the 63-80 kA range with a continuous current rating of 3000 A are described. Arc physics, vacuum breakdown, mechanical problems, and interrupter fabrication and testing are described. A triggered vacuum gap interrupter of rod array type whose performance in a vacuum was at 63 kA, 97 kV rated voltage was developed. Its application as a very fast, high voltage, high current crowbar switch for protecting power transmission equipment and circuits is considered. The problem of arc transfer is discussed.

Rich, J. A.; Farrall, G. A.; Iman, I.; Sofianek, J. C.

1981-06-01

131

Procedure to Restart an Interrupted Hybrid Simulation: Addendum to PEER Report 2010/103.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hybrid simulation can be intentionally or unintentionally interrupted. This document describes a procedure to restart an interrupted hybrid simulation. The restart of an interrupted hybrid simulation involves restoration of the state of the hybrid model...

B. Stojadinovic V. Terzic

2012-01-01

132

Effect of Etching Interruptions on Track Formation in Plastics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of etch interruptions on track formation was studied in nitrocellulose plastic sheets using alpha particle tracks. The step effect is markable on some parameters of the tracks while on others, as the lengthening with development time, it seems ...

C. Sgarbi G. Baroni G. Romano M. C. Tabasso S. Dilliberto

1971-01-01

133

A framework of interruptions in distributed team environments.  

PubMed

In this study, we developed a framework for the study of interruptions in distributed team environments from the perspectives of distributed cognition and activity theory. The core of this framework is the Action Coding System (ACS) that provides a language for the description, representation, categorization, and analysis of interruptions at the level of activities that are meaningful for team performance. We demonstrated the practical utility and theoretical significance of ACS in an its application to a real-world, complex, dynamic, and mission critical environment--the Biomedical Engineer (BME) console in the Mission Control Center at NASA's Johnson Space Center. We discussed the potentials of our framework for the design of interruption management systems that could potentially eliminate some interruptions by information redesign, delegate others to autonomous agents, and help human agents to better manage the rest. PMID:15361021

Rukab, Jamie A; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A; Malin, Jane; Zhang, Jiajie

2004-01-01

134

Strategies for preventing distractions and interruptions in the OR.  

PubMed

Stakeholders in the automotive industry, airline industry, and anesthesia profession have identified critical periods of time in which distractions and interruptions of normal processes can have devastating effects. Just as reducing distractions improves safety in an automobile or airplane cockpit, limiting distractions and interruptions during critical times in the perioperative setting can increase patient safety. We assessed perioperative nurses and identified what they perceived as critical phases of nursing care. We also worked with our anesthesia partners to address their concerns about interruptions during the administration of nerve blocks. The perioperative nurses at our hospital initiated strategies to reduce distractions or interruptions to their practice at critical points, and, in collaboration with surgical committee members, we developed strategies to reduce or eliminate distractions for anesthesia professionals during the preoperative administration of nerve blocks and to eliminate distractions for the RN circulator and scrub person during the final counts. PMID:23722034

Clark, Gregory J

2013-06-01

135

15. INTERRUPTED SILL, SEATED AND MORTICED INTO HOLESET POST (NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. INTERRUPTED SILL, SEATED AND MORTICED INTO HOLE-SET POST (NOTE LOWER END CUT OFF AND SHOVED UP WITH BRICK UNDERPINNING) - Cedar Park, Cumberstone Road on West River, Cumberstone, Anne Arundel County, MD

136

A new synthetic test installation for testing vacuum interrupters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthetic test installation using voltage injection and medium voltage off-communication schemes has been constructed to conduct dynamic performance testing on vacuum interrupters. The test circuit in its present setup is capable of simulating variable forward currents up to 10kA, conduction time of interrupters in vacuum-arc made up to approximately 15ms, di\\/dt up to 100A\\/µs and recovery voltages in the

T. Mukutmoni; W. M. Parsons; H. H. Woodson

1976-01-01

137

Endovascular reconstruction of an interrupted inferior vena cava?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Inferior vena cava (IVC) interruption was established as a procedure to treat refractory venous thromboembolism (VTE) complicated by pulmonary embolism. Ilio-caval thrombosis and lower limb chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) are well known long-term complications of IVC interruption, where subsequent treatments may carry significant morbidity and mortality. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present here a case of chronic venous insufficiency resulting from IVC interruption with a vascular clip placed forty years previously. A novel approach utilising endovascular stents was used to reconstruct the iliocaval confluence and interrupted distal IVC without the need for laparotomy to remove the plicating clip. This procedure was associated with minimal morbidity and resulted with a quick resolution of the patient's CVI symptoms. DISCUSSION Endovascular angioplasty and stenting is an alternative to open reconstruction of the interrupted inferior vena cava. We have demonstrated successful opening of a plication vascular clip using only endovascular utilities. Advantages include a shorter hospital stay, and reduced morbidity and mortality when compared to a re-do laparotomy. CONCLUSION Endovascular stents may be used safely and effectively to reconstruct the surgically interrupted inferior vena cava in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency.

Thomas, Shannon D.; Ofri, Adam; Tang, Tjun; Englund, Raymond

2013-01-01

138

Effects of Continuous and Interrupted Radiation on Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

Various bacterial spores exhibited a wide range of radiation resistance to doses of 0.25 to 2.5 Mrad from a cobalt-60 radiation facility. Bacillus pumilus and Clos-tridium tetani were shown to have the highest degree of resistance when compared with other bacterial sporeformers. B. subtilis E163 was the least resistant of the bacterial spores studied. Dried spores contained on cellulose discs were more readily destroyed by ?-rays than were wet spores under similar conditions. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was destroyed by radiation doses much lower than that required by the least resistant bacterial spores. Interrupted dosimetry tests performed with materials of various types showed that sutures and other similar materials were effectively sterilized when the total radiation dose was given in two separate exposures with periods of interruption of 1 to 19 days. When “agar dosimeters” were employed in similar interrupted dosimetry series, B. pumilus spores were recovered in a few tests after administration of a total combined dosage of 2.5 Mrad with interruption periods of 2 to 19 days. When the experiment was repeated with interruption for 14 days, no survivors were found after a total dose of 2.0 to 2.8 Mrad.

Borick, P. M.; Fogarty, M. G.

1967-01-01

139

The Effect of Interruption Duration and Demand on Resuming Suspended Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The time to resume task goals after an interruption varied depending on the duration and cognitive demand of interruptions, as predicted by the memory for goals model (Altmann & Trafton, 2002). Three experiments using an interleaved tasks interruption paradigm showed that longer and more demanding interruptions led to longer resumption times in a…

Monk, Christopher A.; Trafton, J. Gregory; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A.

2008-01-01

140

The Nature of Procedural Interrupts in Ground Operations in Aerospace Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study proposes a methodology for characterizing the causal context and consequences of procedural interrupts in ground operations tasks. Behavioral science researchers observed 26 tasks at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. From these tasks, 81 procedural interrupts were identified and coded for the following information: source of the interrupt, circumstances surrounding the interrupt, and consequences of the interrupt. We found that more interrupts were equipment or personnel-related than procedure-related. More interrupts were due to unavailable resources or resources being incorrect than resources being inaccessible, and most interrupts resulted in some action being taken. Variation in duration of procedural interrupts across causal categories was also examined. The characterization process helps to identify those interrupts that are disruptive, those that cannot be avoided, and those that may have been prevented through better planning or scheduling of resources. Implications for the use of the methodology and suggestions for further research are discussed.

Irwin, Cheryl M.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

141

Reconstruction of interrupted SAR imagery for persistent surveillance change detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we apply a sparse signal recovery technique for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image formation from interrupted phase history data. Timeline constraints imposed on multi-function modern radars result in interrupted SAR data collection, which in turn leads to corrupted imagery that degrades reliable change detection. In this paper we extrapolate the missing data by applying the basis pursuit denoising algorithm (BPDN) in the image formation step, effectively, modeling the SAR scene as sparse. We investigate the effects of regular and random interruptions on the SAR point spread function (PSF), as well as on the quality of both coherent (CCD) and non-coherent (NCCD) change detection. We contrast the sparse reconstruction to the matched filter (MF) method, implemented via Fourier processing with missing data set to zero. To illustrate the capabilities of the gap-filling sparse reconstruction algorithm, we evaluate change detection performance using a pair of images from the GOTCHA data set.

Stojanovic, Ivana; Karl, W. C.; Novak, Les

2012-05-01

142

Interruptible load management using optimal power flow analysis  

SciTech Connect

An interruptible load management (ILM) scheme is proposed using dynamic Optimal Power Flow analysis. It enables real-time selection of interruptible loads incorporating network constraints and dynamic restriction on generation viz. ramp-rate limits. The model provides an analytical framework for addressing several important issues associated with optimal selection of load curtailment, e.g. advance notification for load curtailment, short-term price discounts and long-term discounts on demand-charges, power factor of the load and customer-cost associated with the load to be curtailed, and system security. A six-bus example illustrates the proposed methodology.

Majumdar, S.; Chattopadhyay, D.; Parikh, J. [Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Research, Bombay (India)] [Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Research, Bombay (India)

1996-05-01

143

Institutional Narcissism, Arrogant Organization Disorder and Interruptions in Organizational Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article aims to present an alternative approach to diagnosing behavioral barriers to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The paper juxtaposes interruptions in organizational learning with characteristics of narcissism and arrogant organization disorder. Psychoanalytically informed theory and DSM-IV criteria are…

Godkin, Lynn; Allcorn, Seth

2009-01-01

144

Interrupted warm blood cardioplegia for coronary artery bypass grafting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous warm blood cardioplegia has been used with good clinical outcome in both antegrade and retrograde delivery. However, the continuous delivery of cardioplegia is sometimes interrupted for adequate vis- ualization and flow is not constant with heart manipulation during operation. We studied the effects of inter- rupted antegrade delivery of warm blood cardioplegia on myocardial metabolism a nd clinical results

T. Isomura; K. Hisatomi; T. Sato; N. Hayashida; K. Ohishi

2009-01-01

145

Fast Interrupt Priority Management in Operating System Kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a new, low-overhead technique for manipulating processor interrupt state in an operating system kernel. Both uniprocessor and multiprocessor operating systems protect against uniprocessor deadlock and data corruption by selectively enabling and disabling inte rrupts during critical sections. This happens frequently during latency-critical activities such as IPC, schedulin g, and memory management. Unfortunately, the cycle cost

Daniel Stodolsky; J. Bradley Chen; Brian N. Bershad

1993-01-01

146

The Needs of Others: Gender and Sleep Interruptions for Caregivers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Received wisdom, some sociological theory and a handful of qualitative studies suggest that the "night shift" of caregiving work that interrupts sleep is a burden borne disproportionately by women. However, there is no broadly representative evidence to substantiate claims about who takes the night shift in contemporary American households.…

Burgard, Sarah A.

2011-01-01

147

Customer interruption cost assessment: an Indian commercial survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper summarizes the impact of power interruptions on the commercial sector of Punjab, a fast developing state of India. Punjab State Electricity Board, a state public sector undertaking is the only organization in Punjab responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity Commercial consumers of Punjab, on whom the present study is based, have a connected load of

N. Kaur; G. Singh; M. S. Bedi; T. Bhatti

2002-01-01

148

The Interrupted Task Paradigm: Age and Observer-Performer Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has indicated a developmental tendency toward greater repetition choice and recall of interrupted tasks than for completed tasks. The present study investigated this relationship and the possibility that observing versus performing a task might have differential effects on recall and repetition choice. Thirteen ten year old and eleven year old boys (performers) individually assembled eighteen jig-saw puzzles of

Laurie E. Davidson

1977-01-01

149

Diffusion approximations for open queueing networks with service interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper establishes functional central limit theorems describing the heavy-traffic behavior of open single-class queueing networks with service interruptions. In particular, each station has a single server which is alternatively up and down. There are two treatments of the up and down times. The first treatment corresponds to fixed up and down times and leads to a reflected Brownian motion,

Hong Chen; Ward Whitt

1993-01-01

150

Method for applying interrupt coalescing to incoming messages based on message length  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A balanced approach is provided for interrupt coalescing, wherein interrupts of locking and other small size packets are maximized, while large data segment interrupts are minimized. Thus, the most desirable interrupt characteristics of both large data segments and smaller packets are achieved. Usefully, a data processing system has an adapter connecting the system to a network to receive incoming packets of varying size, the incoming packets respectively carrying messages to interrupt the system processor. Each incoming packet is analyzed, to determine whether or not it meets one or more prespecified criteria, at least a first criterion being related to the size of the incoming packet. The processor is immediately interrupted in accordance with the interrupt message carried by the analyzed packet, if the packet meets all the prespecified criteria. If the analyzed packet does not meet all of the prespecified criteria, the processor is interrupted in accordance with a specified interrupt coalescing technique.

2006-09-05

151

The long-term costs of career interruptions.  

PubMed

This article is based on a study that analyzed the long-term salary implications of career choices made by healthcare administrators. The study used a cohort of graduates from a single health administration program; these individuals had comparable levels of human capital at the outset of their careers. We estimated the effect of periods of part-time employment and job interruptions--voluntary and involuntary--on long-term salary progression. We also estimated the impact of other career choices, such as membership in a professional organization or the decision to relocate. After controlling for these choices, we estimated the residual effect of gender on salary. We found that voluntary interruptions had a greater effect on long-term salary growth than did involuntary interruptions of the same length or periods of part-time employment. Individuals evaluating options for balancing career and family constraints should understand the long-term cost of choosing a career interruption rather than part-time employment during periods of heightened responsibilities outside the workplace. Healthcare administrators should also be educated about the positive association between professional memberships and career advancement to make informed decisions about participation in such organizations. Surprisingly, after controlling for all choice variables, gender had no measurable effect on long-term salary growth. Half of those who indicated a voluntary interruption for dependent care reasons preferred part-time or flexible-hour work if it had been available. These results suggest that a pool of healthcare administrators might compete for positions if more part-time opportunities were available. PMID:12592867

Ketsche, Patricia G; Branscomb, Lisette

2003-01-01

152

Prediction of DC current flow between the Otjiwarongo and Katima Mulilo regions, using 3D DC resistivity forward modelling and magnetotelluric and audio-magnetotelluric data recorded during SAMTEX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SAMTEX (Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment) is a multinational project initiated in 2003 to study the regional-scale electrical conductivity substructure of southern Africa and to infer from it the tectonic processes involved in the formation and deformation of the southern African subcontinental lithosphere. As an additional opportunistic component to SAMTEX, audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data were acquired during the most recent phase of the experiment (Phase IV) to investigate the local-scale conductivity substructure in the Otjiwarongo and Katima Mulilo regions (northern and north-eastern Namibia), where in future the installation of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) earth electrodes will commence. Both of the AMT surveys are situated close to the edge of the orogenic Neo-Proterozoic Ghanzi-Chobe/Damara belts (collectively termed the Damara Mobile Belt, DMB), which represents in part the collision between the Congo and Kalahari cratons during the amalgamation of South Gondwana. Previous studies using magnetotellurics (MT), magnetometer arrays and geomagnetic observatory data all point to the existence of a highly conductive mid-crustal zone which correlates well with the spatial location of the DMB. Preliminary modelling of the Otjiwarongo AMT data confirms the existence of a high conductive zone at mid-crustal depths (10-15 km), whereas in Katima Mulilo insufficient penetration of electromagnetic energy in the AMT frequency band, due to conductive sediment cover, prevents information being obtained of the conductivity at mid-crustal depths. However, at Katima Mulilo there are sparser broadband MT (BBMT) and long period MT (LMT) measurements that can be incorporated. The high conductivity of the DMB is explained by the presence of conductive materials (graphites, sulphides). In contrast, the lithospheric structure of the neighbouring Archaean cratons, the Congo and Kalahari, are generally found to be electrically resistive and therefore it is hypothesized that the return path of DC current, flowing along the path of least resistance between the two electrodes, is most likely to lie somewhere within, or in the vicinity of, the DMB. To obtain a better understanding of the current flow we propose using geological information, previous results of studies of the conductivity of the DMB and surrounding regions and 2D and 3D inversion results from the AMT and MT data recorded during SAMTEX in northern Botswana and Namibia, as input to a 3D DC resistivity forward modelling code, and to try to predict the return path that the DC current will follow.

Share, P.; Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Miensopust, M. P.; Khoza, D. T.; Fourie, S.; Webb, S. J.; Thunehed, H.

2009-12-01

153

Efficient fusing using AC or DC current  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three primary physical entities that must be controlled in order to create a correctly hot staked joint are electricity, electrode force and time. Each of these entities has a cause and effect relationship with what is ultimately to be the prime factor in making a good joint, i.e., heat. Note that the heat energy developed is: Q = I2Rt, Q

E. Kirker

1993-01-01

154

Modeling of AC\\/DC current shunts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes mathematical modeling of squirrel cage design AC current shunts. These shunts are designed to have a flat frequency response up to 100 kHz. Model was made using lumped element modeling and then analytical transfer function and input impedance of the shunt were derived from the model. Then these functions have been used in excel where frequency response

B. Pinter; M. Lindic?; B. Voljc?; Z. Svetik; R. Lapuh

2010-01-01

155

Comparison between an SCR and a vacuum interrupter system for repetitive opening  

SciTech Connect

Two conceptual systems are analyzed for repetitive interruption of current from an inductive energy storage source. The interruption level for both systems is 25 kA at 25 kV. Factors such as interruption frequency, power dissipation, reliability, maintenance, developmental time, and cost are compared. The vacuum interrupter system is considered feasible for an interruption frequency of 25 Hz and a 10 to 20% duty cycle. The SCR system is considered feasible for an interruption frequency of up to 10 kHz.

Parsons, W.M.

1981-01-01

156

Interrupted zeolite LTA and ATN-type boron imidazolate frameworks.  

PubMed

Zeolite A (LTA) is of much interest in zeolite family because of its large-scale industrial applications. Making Zeolite A (a typical 4-connected tetrahedral framework material) with a lower connectivity (3-connected) might lead to new open architecture with expanded ring size and enhanced functionality. The first interrupted Zeolite A with 3-connected network has been experimentally realized here by a boron imidazolate (im) framework material (BIF-20) with 3-coordinate BH(mim)(3)(-) building units. Additionally, a new strategy toward the construction of functional microporous metal-organic frameworks with interrupted zeolite-type topologies is presented by both 3-connected boron imidazolate frameworks (BIF-20 and BIF-21). BIF-20 has an unusual tetrahedral framework with both debonded ? and ? cages, and exhibits high H(2) uptake capacity. PMID:21761820

Zhang, Hai-Xia; Wang, Fei; Yang, Hui; Tan, Yan-Xi; Zhang, Jian; Bu, Xianhui

2011-08-10

157

33 CFR 159.89 - Power interruption: Type I and II devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power interruption: Type I and... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...and Testing § 159.89 Power interruption: Type I...

2013-07-01

158

Repair of interrupted aortic arch: A ten-year experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-two consecutive patients with interrupted aortic arch were referred to our institution between 1985 and 1995. Three died before any attempt at operation and 79 underwent surgical repair. Median age at operation was 9 days (range 1 day to 6 years) and median weight was 3.0 kg (range 1.8 to 20 kg). All but one were in severe congestive heart

Alain Serraf; François Lacour-Gayet; Monica Robotin; Jacqueline Bruniaux; Miguel Sousa-Uva; Régine Roussin; Claude Planché

1996-01-01

159

Interrupted Fischer Indolization Approach toward the Communesin Alkaloids and Perophoramidine  

PubMed Central

A concise approach toward the total synthesis of the communesin alkaloids and perophoramidine is reported. The strategy relies on the use of the interrupted Fischer indolization to build the tetracyclic indoline core of the natural products. Studies to probe the scope and limitations of this plan are presented. Although the methodology does not tolerate a C8-allyl substituent en route to the challenging vicinal quaternary stereocenters, variation at C7 and on the C ring is permitted.

Schammel, Alex W.; Chiou, Grace; Garg, Neil K.

2012-01-01

160

Symptomatic interrupted inferior vena cava: report of a case presenting with haematochezia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interrupted inferior vena cava (IVC) is a rare developmental defect. IVC interruption is usually accompanied with azygos and hemiazygos continuation, and is asymptomatic. Here, we report the imaging findings of a patient with an interrupted IVC with diffuse collaterals between the infrarenal IVC and large renal veins, left gonadal, and perirectal haemorrhoidal-portal collateral veins with associated haematochezia. Depending on the

Z Koc; S Ulusan; L Oguzkurt; E Serin

2007-01-01

161

Structured systems methodology for evaluation of random interruptions in continuous process type manufacturing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structured systems methodology was developed to analyse the problems of production interruptions occurring at random intervals in continuous process type manufacturing systems. At a macro level the methodology focuses on identifying suitable investment policies to reduce interruptions of a total manufacturing system that is a combination of several process plants. An interruption-tree-based simulation model was developed for macroanalysis. At

Kavuri Suryaprakasa Rao; K. N. Krishnaswamy; B. G. Raghavendra

1995-01-01

162

A formal approach supporting the comparative predictive assessment of the interruption-tolerance of interactive systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach for investigating in a predictive way potential disruptive effects of interruptions on task perform- ance in a multitasking environment. The approach combines previous work in the field of interruption analysis, formal descrip- tion techniques for interactive systems and stochastic processes to support performance analysis of user activities constrained by the occurrence of interruptions. The approach

Philippe A. Palanque; Marco Winckler; Jean-françois Ladry; Maurice H. Ter Beek; Giorgio P. Faconti; Mieke Massink

2009-01-01

163

Certifying low-level programs with hardware interrupts and preemptive threads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardware interrupts are widely used in the world's critical soft- ware systems to support preemptive threads, device drivers, operat- ing system kernels, and hypervisors. Handling interrupts properly is an essential component of low-level system programming. Un- fortunately, interrupts are also extremely hard to reason about: they dramatically alter the program control flow and complicate the in- variants in low-level concurrent

Xinyu Feng; Zhong Shao; Yuan Dong; Yu Guo

2008-01-01

164

The Voltage Distribution Characteristics of a Hybrid Circuit Breaker During High Current Interruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid circuit breaker (HCB) technology based on a vacuum interrupter and a SF6 interrupter in series has become a new research direction because of the low-carbon requirements for high voltage switches. The vacuum interrupter has an excellent ability to deal with the steep rising part of the transient recovery voltage (TRV), while the SF6 interrupter can withstand the peak part of the voltage easily. An HCB can take advantage of the interrupters in the current interruption process. In this study, an HCB model based on the vacuum ion diffusion equations, ion density equation, and modified Cassie-Mayr arc equation is explored. A simulation platform is constructed by using a set of software called the alternative transient program (ATP). An HCB prototype is also designed, and the short circuit current is interrupted by the HCB under different action sequences of contacts. The voltage distribution of the HCB is analyzed through simulations and tests. The results demonstrate that if the vacuum interrupter withstands the initial TRV and interrupts the post-arc current first, then the recovery speed of the dielectric strength of the SF6 interrupter will be fast. The voltage distribution between two interrupters is determined by their post-arc resistance, which happens after current-zero, and subsequently, it is determined by the capacitive impedance after the post-arc current decays to zero.

Cheng, Xian; Duan, Xiongying; Liao, Minfu; Huang, Zhihui; Luo, Yan; Zou, Jiyan

2013-08-01

165

Interruption in physical activity bout analysis: an accelerometry research issue  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the present investigation was to clarify the impact of the treatment of interruptions on the durations and the frequency of the physical activity (PA) bouts under free-living conditions. Methods One hundred and forty adults (50?±?7 years) wore an accelerometer (Lifecorder) for seven consecutive days under free-living conditions. According to the minutes by minutes metabolic equivalents (METs) value, the PA was divided into one of three intensity categories: light intensity PA (LPA, < 3 METs), moderate intensity PA (MPA, 3 to 6 METs), vigorous intensity PA (VPA, > 6 METs), and the sum of the MPA and VPA was defined as moderate to vigorous intensity PA (MVPA, > 3 METs). Thereafter, based on the time series data, we defined MVPA bouts as PA that was maintained at no less than 3 METs completely for 10 minutes or longer with or without allowing for a one-minute or a two-minute break (<3METs). Results The frequency and duration of the continuous MVPA bouts lasting longer than 10-min were significantly lower and shorter compared with that in the non-continuous MVPA bouts allowing a one- or two-minute interruption (4.11?±?1.65, 6.58?±?2.72 and 8.97?±?3.55 bouts/day, 71.62?±?33.66, 119.03?±?49.35 and 169.75?±?65.87 min/day, P?interruption (5.36?±?1.65, 6.39?±?1.07 and 6.65?±?0.85 days/week). Conclusion The treatment of interruptions for the setting of the accelerometer affects the estimation of the MVPA bouts under free-living conditions in middle-aged to older adults. The best analysis process with regard to the accelerometer quantifying the break to reflect the real behavioral pattern and the physiological stress in such subjects remains unclear.

2014-01-01

166

Interruption of the ascending aorta: a hitherto undescribed lesion.  

PubMed

We are describing a most unusual variant of aortic arch interruption. The ascending aorta was atretic above the sinutubular junction forming a blind-ending pouch. The coronary arteries were the only vessels arising from the aortic trunk. All the brachiocephalic vessels were perfused in retrograde fashion through the arterial duct. The aortic valve itself was dysplastic, stenotic, and permitted severe regurgitation. There was no subaortic obstruction. A modified first stage Norwood palliation was performed. Due to myocardial insufficiency transthoracic extracorporeal membrane oxygenation had to be commenced at the end of surgery. Unfortunately the child died due to severe intracranial hemorrhage. PMID:18355555

Weidenbach, Michael; Daehnert, Ingo; Razek, Vit; Beller, Alexandra; Janousek, Jan; Kostelka, Martin; Anderson, Robert H

2008-04-01

167

Those Old Kentucky Blues An Interrupted Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interrupted case study begins with the construction of a pedigree following an initial encounter with a clan of “blue people.” After constructing a pedigree, students decide whether the condition (methemoglobinemia) is a heritable trait. Students are then exposed to a different perspective of this condition and have to re-evaluate the inheritance pattern. This case study was written for a first year honors course in general biology. It could be modified for most general science majors’ biology, genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology courses.

Leander, Celeste A.; Huskey, Robert J.

2008-01-01

168

Surgical repair for isolated aortic interruption in a young adult.  

PubMed

Interrupted aortic arch (IAA), a rare congenital malformation of the aortic arch, is defined as a loss of luminal continuity between the ascending and descending portions of the aorta. It is rarely diagnosed as an isolated anomaly in adulthood. Surgical repair is feasible through a sternotomy or thoracotomy incision. In this report, we describe the surgical repair of an isolated IAA in a 29-year-old patient by performing an ascending-to-descending aortic bypass via a sternotomy with cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:23092669

Erkanli, Korhan; Onan, Burak; Aktürk, Ibrahim Faruk; Bakir, Ihsan

2012-10-01

169

Power interruption costs to industrial and commercial consumers of electricity  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the results of a survey of 210 large commercial and industrial customers to obtain detailed descriptions of the components of interruption costs they would experience under varying outage conditions. In addition, the survey observed plant operating schedules, products and services, processes used, machinery used in production, backup generation, and equipment designed to ensure power quality. The paper describes a statistical approach for obtaining inexpensive outage cost estimates for individual customers by combining information from on-site interviews with less costly information obtained from utility representatives. Results from regression models estimated from the information obtained in the on-site survey are described in detail.

Sullivan, M.J. [Freeman, Sullivan and Co., San Francisco, CA (United States)] [Freeman, Sullivan and Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Vardell, T.; Johnson, M. [Duke Power Co., Charlotte, NC (United States)] [Duke Power Co., Charlotte, NC (United States)

1997-11-01

170

MTOR overactivation and interrupted autophagy flux in obese hearts  

PubMed Central

As a central controller of cell growth, mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) affects an array of biological processes, in particular protein synthesis, autophagy and cardiac homeostasis. Conflicting findings have been seen with regard to the role of MTOR signaling and autophagy in cardiac and adipocyte function under metabolic syndrome. AKT, an essential insulin-signaling molecule upstream of MTOR, participates in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and cardiac metabolism. Akt2 knockout may rescue against high-fat diet-disrupted autophagy flux, en route to cardioprotection. Thus, inhibition of MTOR may serve as a possible avenue to retard pathological cardiac hypertrophy via rescuing interrupted autophagic flux.

Zhang, Yingmei; Xu, Xihui; Ren, Jun

2013-01-01

171

Physical aging by periodic creep and interrupted creep experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A newly developed ``interrupted creep'' experiment has been used to study the physical aging of a low molecular weight polystyrene, Tg~69 °C. The results of the new experiment are compared to those obtained from traditional ``periodic creep'' experiments. The interrupted creep experiment provides information about the viscosity, the recoverable creep compliance and the steady-state compliance, Js, during aging. Low molecular weight polystyrene was chosen because it exhibits a steady-state compliance that is a strong function of temperature. Aging was conducted at three temperatures, 68.2, 65.7 and 61.0 °C, using both down-jump and up-jump experiments. The behavior observed in the new experiments mirrors the behavior observed in the traditional experiments. In addition, the new experiments allow the first ever determination of how Js evolves during aging. The change of Js with aging time was calculated using the relationship between the shift factors, obtained from the recoverable creep compliance data, and the average relaxation times, obtained from the viscosity. The advantage of the new experiment is that it provides both the short-time recoverable creep compliance information and the long-time viscous flow. By combining these contributions to the creep compliance in a simple additive fashion, one can obtain a more complete picture of how the material is behaving during aging.

Bernatz, Kevin M.; Giri, Lily; Simon, Sindee L.; Plazek, Donald J.

1999-08-01

172

The interrupted power law and the size of shadow banking.  

PubMed

Using public data (Forbes Global 2000) we show that the asset sizes for the largest global firms follow a Pareto distribution in an intermediate range, that is "interrupted" by a sharp cut-off in its upper tail, where it is totally dominated by financial firms. This flattening of the distribution contrasts with a large body of empirical literature which finds a Pareto distribution for firm sizes both across countries and over time. Pareto distributions are generally traced back to a mechanism of proportional random growth, based on a regime of constant returns to scale. This makes our findings of an "interrupted" Pareto distribution all the more puzzling, because we provide evidence that financial firms in our sample should operate in such a regime. We claim that the missing mass from the upper tail of the asset size distribution is a consequence of shadow banking activity and that it provides an (upper) estimate of the size of the shadow banking system. This estimate-which we propose as a shadow banking index-compares well with estimates of the Financial Stability Board until 2009, but it shows a sharper rise in shadow banking activity after 2010. Finally, we propose a proportional random growth model that reproduces the observed distribution, thereby providing a quantitative estimate of the intensity of shadow banking activity. PMID:24728096

Fiaschi, Davide; Kondor, Imre; Marsili, Matteo; Volpati, Valerio

2014-01-01

173

Series and parallel arc-fault circuit interrupter tests.  

SciTech Connect

While the 2011 National Electrical Code%C2%AE (NEC) only requires series arc-fault protection, some arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) manufacturers are designing products to detect and mitigate both series and parallel arc-faults. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has extensively investigated the electrical differences of series and parallel arc-faults and has offered possible classification and mitigation solutions. As part of this effort, Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with MidNite Solar to create and test a 24-string combiner box with an AFCI which detects, differentiates, and de-energizes series and parallel arc-faults. In the case of the MidNite AFCI prototype, series arc-faults are mitigated by opening the PV strings, whereas parallel arc-faults are mitigated by shorting the array. A range of different experimental series and parallel arc-fault tests with the MidNite combiner box were performed at the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) at SNL in Albuquerque, NM. In all the tests, the prototype de-energized the arc-faults in the time period required by the arc-fault circuit interrupt testing standard, UL 1699B. The experimental tests confirm series and parallel arc-faults can be successfully mitigated with a combiner box-integrated solution.

Johnson, Jay; Fresquez, Armando J.; Gudgel, Bob [MidNite Solar, Arlington, WA; Meares, Andrew [MidNite Solar, Arlington, WA

2013-07-01

174

The Ice Hockey Injury An Interrupted Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The high school ice hockey team is playing the last of three games in one day. The game gets rough and Rick, the star player, is slammed against the boards. Injured, he has to be  escorted from the ice. This interrupted case study follows Ricks health as it deteriorates over the next few hours. Students are presented with Rick’s symptoms and use their knowledge of anatomy and physiology to diagnose the problem. The case was developed for a one-semester animal physiology course taken mostly by sophomore and junior biology or general science majors. It could also be used in a freshman general biology course, anatomy and physiology course, or human physiology course for non-science majors.

Stephens, Phil

2004-01-01

175

Triggered discharges with high arc voltages in a vacuum interrupter  

SciTech Connect

Studies of nonsustained disruptive discharges (NSDD), isolated cases of which can occur in vacuum interrupters, are presented. They indicate lateral discharges between the cathode and shield, which can initiate a brief discharge between the contacts. To facilitate the study of such discharges, they were triggered by a surface discharge induced by a spark gap, built into the side of the cathode, and observed with a high-speed film camera and an image-converter camera. The tests showed a cathode spot after igniting. The electrons emitted here first charge the shield negatively and are directed toward the anode. The discharge burns at a high voltage, with currents ranging from 10 to 100 A. After a period of up to 400{mu}s, the current demand increases abruptly; an arc discharge occurs between the contacts and discharges the capacitances near the switch. The contact gap undergoes a rapid dielectric recovery, and the restored voltage is maintained.

Gebel, R.; Falkenberg, D. (Siemens AG, Zentralabteilung Forschung und Entwicklung, D-8520 Erlangen (DE))

1990-10-01

176

Possible interruption of malaria transmission, highland Kenya, 2007-2008.  

PubMed

Highland areas where malaria transmission is unstable are targets for malaria elimination because transmission decreases to low levels during the dry season. In highland areas of Kipsamoite and Kapsisiywa, Kenya (population approximately 7,400 persons), annual household indoor residual spraying with a synthetic pyrethroid was performed starting in 2005, and artemether/lumefantrine was implemented as first-line malaria treatment in October 2006. During April 2007-March 2008, no microscopy-confirmed cases of malaria occurred at the sites. In 4 assessments of asymptomatic persons during May 2007-April 2008, a total of <0.3% of persons were positive for asexual Plasmodium falciparum by microscopy or PCR at any time, and none were positive by PCR at the last 2 sample collections. Our findings show that in such areas, interruption and eventual elimination of malaria transmission may be achievable with widespread annual indoor residual spraying of households and artemisinin combination therapy. PMID:19961670

John, Chandy C; Riedesel, Melissa A; Magak, Ng'wena G; Lindblade, Kim A; Menge, David M; Hodges, James S; Vulule, John M; Akhwale, Willis

2009-12-01

177

Influence of bile flow interruption on acute experimental pancreatitis.  

PubMed

The influence of bile flow interruption on the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis has been evaluated in the rat. The pancreatitis was induced by Pfeffer's technique and the severity of the disease was assessed by a macroscopic examination of the pancreatic damage and the calculation of amylase-to-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) as well. The results showed that the bile reflux into the pancreas made the pancreatic lesions caused by stasis in the gland associated with hyperstimulation of exocrine secretion more severe. On the other hand the bile reflux had no influence when the pancreatitis was due to flowing back of duodenal contents into the pancreas (closed duodenal loop). It was concluded that the bile effect is probably consistent with a pressure mechanism. In addition the reliability of ACCR in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was confirmed, and the test was effective in detecting even milder pancreatic damages. PMID:6206023

Sarli, L; Gafà, M; Lupi, M; Peracchia, A

1984-01-01

178

Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of digitoxin by cholestyramine  

PubMed Central

Previous studies of digitalis glycoside metabolism and excretion have indicated that these compounds undergo a significant enterohepatic cycle in some species. It has been suggested that the existence of such a cycle in man contributes to the prolonged action of certain cardiac glycosides. Previous studies have demonstrated that cholestyramine binds digitoxin and digoxin in vitro and accelerates the metabolic disposition of digitoxin in rats and guinea pigs, presumably by interrupting the enterohepatic circulation. In order to assess the role of the enterohepatic circulation in the metabolism of digitalis glycosides in humans, maintenance doses of cholestyramine were administered to 7 of 15 normal human subjects beginning 8 hr after digitalization with 1.2 mg of digitoxin-3H. All subjects had frequent measurements of serum radioactivity, left ventricular ejection time (LVET), and electromechanical systole (QS2), the latter recorded as the interval from onset of Q wave to first major component of second heart sound. Measurement of the LVET and QS2 intervals affords a sensitive index of the cardiac response to digitalis. In addition, chloroform extraction of serum was performed to separate unchanged digitoxin and active metabolites from cardioinactive metabolites of digitoxin. Cholestyramine treatment resulted in reduction in half-life to total serum radioactivity from 11.5 to 6.6 days, and in chloroform-extractable radioactivity from 6.0 to 4.5 days, as compared to controls. In addition, cholestyramine treatment was accompanied by more rapid return to base line values of digitoxin-induced changes in the LVET and QS2 intervals. A significant positive correlation was found between QS2 values and chloroform-extractable radioactivity, the latter reflecting unchanged digitoxin-H3 (r=0.64; P=<0.01). The results indicate that administration of cholestyramine to digitalized human subjects accelerates the metabolic disposition of digitoxin and abbreviates the physiologic response to the glycoside. This effect is presumably mediated by interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of digitoxin by cholestyramine.

Caldwell, James H.; Bush, Charles A.; Greenberger, Norton J.

1971-01-01

179

Platelet count kinetics following interruption of antiretroviral treatment  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the mechanisms of platelet kinetics in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) study that demonstrated excess mortality with CD4 guided episodic antiretroviral therapy (ART) drug conservation compared with continuous treatment viral suppression. Follow-up analyses of stored plasma samples demonstrated increased activation of both inflammatory and coagulation pathways after stopping ART. Design SMART patients from sites that determined platelets routinely. Methods Platelet counts were retrospectively collected from 2206 patients from visits at study entry, and during follow-up. D-dimer levels were measured at study entry, month 1, and 2. Results Platelet levels decreased in the drug conservation group following randomization, but remained stable in the viral suppression group [median (IQR) decline from study entry to month 4: ?24 000/µl (?54 000 to 4000) vs. 3000 (?22 000 to 24 000), respectively, P < 0.0001)] and the rate of developing thrombocytopenia (<100 000/µl) was significantly higher in the drug conservation vs. the viral suppression arm (unadjusted drug conservation/viral suppression [HR (95%CI) = 1.8 (1.2–2.7)]. The decline in platelet count among drug conservation participants on fully suppressive ART correlated with the rise in D-dimer from study entry to either month 1 or 2 (r = ?0.41; P = 0.02). Among drug conservation participants who resumed ART 74% recovered to their study entry platelet levels. Conclusion Interrupting ART increases the risk of thrombocytopenia, but reinitiation of ART typically reverses it. Factors contributing to declines in platelets after interrupting ART may include activation of coagulation pathways or HIV-1 replication itself. The contribution of platelets in HIV-related procoagulant activity requires further study.

Zetterberg, Eva; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Baker, Jason V.; Somboonwit, Charurut; Llibre, Josep M.; Palfreeman, Adrian; Chini, Maria; Lundgren, Jens D.

2014-01-01

180

A first census of collagen interruptions: Collagen's own stutters and stammers.  

PubMed

The repetitive Gly-X-Y sequence is the telltale sign of triple helical domains in collagens and collagen-like proteins. Most collagen sequences contain sporadic interruptions of this pattern, which may have functional roles in molecular flexibility, assembly or molecular recognition. However, the structural signatures of the different interruptions are not well defined. Here, a first comprehensive survey of collagen interruptions on collagen sequences from different taxonomic groups is presented. Amino acid preferences at the sites of interruption and the flanking triplets are analysed separately for metazoan and prokaryotic collagens and the concept of commensurateness between interruptions is introduced. Known structural information from model peptides is used to present a common framework for hydrogen bonding topology and variations in superhelical twist for the different types of interruptions. Several collagen interruptions are further classified here as stutters or stammers in analogy to the heptad breaks observed in alpha-helical coiled coils, and the structural consequences of commensurate interruptions in heterotrimeric collagens are briefly discussed. Data presented here will be useful for further investigation on the relation between structure and function of collagen interruptions. PMID:24709580

Bella, Jordi

2014-06-01

181

Real time optimal interruptible tariff mechanism incorporating utility-customer interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimal power flow based framework is proposed to determine the incentive rates of an interruptible tariff mechanism (ITM) on an hour-to-hour basis. Interaction between the utility and customers contracting interruptible load is incorporated in the analytical framework by formulating customer response functions to the ITM. It is shown that ITM is able to reduce costs and aid in system

Kankar Bhattacharya; M. H. J. Bollen; Jaap E. Daalder

2000-01-01

182

Hybrid Method to Assess Sensitive Process Interruption Costs Due to Faults in Electric Power Distribution Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows a new hybrid method for risk assessment regarding interruptions in sensitive processes due to faults in electric power distribution systems. This method determines indices related to long duration interruptions and short duration voltage variations (SDVV), such as voltage sags and swells in each customer supplied by the distribution network. Frequency of such occurrences and their impact on

Juan C. Cebrian; Nelson Kagan

2010-01-01

183

Recovery of breakdown strength of a vacuum interrupter after extinction of high currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relevant phenomena during the period of the recovery of the dielectric strength of vacuum interrupter (VI) are reviewed. Metal vapor, residual charge and the effects of molten contact surfaces reduce the breakdown strength after the interruption of high currents. Metal droplets seem to play only a secondary role during the recovery phase. Instability of liquid protrusions is suspected to initiate

E. Schade; E. Dullni

2002-01-01

184

Text Interruption and the Role of Working Memory in Discourse Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Kerry Ledoux: Text Interruption and the Role of Working Memory,in Discourse Processing (Under the direction of Peter C. Gordon) In this paper, I explore the role of working memory in discourse processing. Specifically, I am interested in describing the effects of text interruption (by another, unrelated text) on the construction and maintenance,of a discourse representation in working memory. Working

Kerry Ledoux

185

Effects of Cr content on the interruption ability of CuCr contact materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Cr content in CuCr contact materials, especially on high current interruption, have mostly been examined in experimental chambers rather than in actual vacuum interrupters (VIs). Possible interactions of the contacts with their surroundings, both electromechanical and gaseous, may require commercial VIs for a more realistic test determination of the effects of Cr content on the overall performance.

Wangpei Li; Robert L. Thomas; R. Kirkland Smith

2001-01-01

186

Real time interrupt handling using FORTRAN IV plus under RSX-11M  

SciTech Connect

A real-time data acquisition application for a linear accelerator is described. The important programming features of this application are use of connect to interrupt, a shared library, map to I/O page, and a shared data area. How you can provide rapid interrupt handling using these tools from FORTRAN IV PLUS is explained.

Schultz, D.E.

1981-01-01

187

Behaviours and Preferences when Coordinating Mediated Interruptions: Social and System influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in technologies for supporting individuals to man- age their accessibility for interruptions. The applicability of these technologies is likely to be influenced by social relationships between people. This paper describes an experi- ment that examines interplay between a working relationship of an interruptor and an in- terruptee and two different system approaches to handle interruptions.

Natalia A. Romero; Agnieszka Matysiak Szóstek; Maurits Kaptein; Panos Markopoulos

2007-01-01

188

Auditory training of speech recognition with interrupted and continuous noise maskers by children with hearing impairment  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have indicated that individuals with normal hearing (NH) experience a perceptual advantage for speech recognition in interrupted noise compared to continuous noise. In contrast, adults with hearing impairment (HI) and younger children with NH receive a minimal benefit. The objective of this investigation was to assess whether auditory training in interrupted noise would improve speech recognition in noise for children with HI and perhaps enhance their utilization of glimpsing skills. A partially-repeated measures design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of seven 1-h sessions of auditory training in interrupted and continuous noise. Speech recognition scores in interrupted and continuous noise were obtained from pre-, post-, and 3 months post-training from 24 children with moderate-to-severe hearing loss. Children who participated in auditory training in interrupted noise demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in speech recognition compared to those who trained in continuous noise. Those who trained in interrupted noise demonstrated similar improvements in both noise conditions while those who trained in continuous noise only showed modest improvements in the interrupted noise condition. This study presents direct evidence that auditory training in interrupted noise can be beneficial in improving speech recognition in noise for children with HI.

Sullivan, Jessica R.; Thibodeau, Linda M.; Assmann, Peter F.

2013-01-01

189

Negotiating Task Interruptions with Virtual Agents for Health Behavior Change (Short Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual health counseling agents on mobile devices need to be able to interrupt their users when it is time for them to engage in healthy behaviors, such as scheduled medication taking or exercise. However, these real-time reminders often represent task interruptions for individuals who are engaged in work activities. This paper presents the results of a study which compares four

Timothy Bickmore; Daniel Mauer; Francisco Crespo; Thomas Brown

190

Laser Doppler Measurements of Globular Concentrations and Flow Perturbations in a Model Gas Blast Interrupter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laser-Doppler method for measuring plasma flow velocities in a 10 kA free burning arc has already been described. The present contribution describes the use of the laser Doppler technique for measurements in a model gas blast interrupter. The interrupte...

P. S. Todorovic G. R. Jones

1983-01-01

191

A Formal Model-Based Approach for Designing Interruptions-Tolerant Advanced User Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the omnipresence of multitasking features in modern working environments, interruptions become commonplace as users must temporarily suspend a task to complete unexpected intervening activities. Interruptions are unpredictable and cannot be usually disregarded by users. They are quite often associated with negative effects (e.g. resuming to task after interruptions is difficult and is time consuming) but also with positive ones (e.g. alert systems shift our attention to matters that require immediate care to perform adequately a monitoring task). As users are facing more and more sources of information competing for attention, it is important to understand how interruptions affect user abilities to complete tasks. Despite multitasking environments are not new, interruptions are rarely considered explicitly in the design phases of interactive systems. In this chapter, we present how to integrate system models, task models and interruption models within a Model-Driven Approach (MDA). We show how formal descriptions of system and tasks can be used for simulation purposes while assessing system performance and how such simulations can be exploited to understand the consequences of interruptions on users' work. These aspects are illustrated by a case study demonstrating that these simulations can support the assessment of various interaction techniques according to interruption rates. An application of such concepts is also presented in the case of dynamic reconfiguration of the user interface (after hardware or software failures for instance).

Palanque, Philippe; Winckler, Marco; Martinie, Célia

192

The Pancake Palace: A Case Study in Business Interruption from the Defense Side  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case demonstrates the difficulties that can occur in business interruption cases when the insured is represented by a public adjuster. The Pancake Palace, a restaurant established for approximately thirty five years, suffered a business interruption due to a fire that completely destroyed the building housing their establishment. The maze created by the public adjuster submitting the claim to the

James A. DiGabriele

2006-01-01

193

Development through interruptions and reparations – A case study of a dual challenging psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to understand how relational difficulties in psychotherapy may be handled to represent possibilities for change. Temporary interruptions and subsequent reestablishment of contact were chosen as the strategic focus in one severely challenging case of long term psychodynamic psychotherapy where outcome was known to be good. Interruptions and reestablishments were conceptualised by how the informants

Marit Råbu; Karsten Hytten; Hanne Haavind; Per-Einar Binder

2010-01-01

194

Measuring and minimizing interrupt latency in Linux-based embedded systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paper describes performance of embedded real-time system controlled by Linux. Interrupt latency is taken into account as a main measured parameter in further considerations. To improve and minimize system's interrupt latency two separate approaches were evaluated. Obtained results proved that its possible to build a hard real-time system based on a modified Linux kernel.

Rybaniec, Rados?aw; Wieczorek, Piotr Z.

2012-05-01

195

Relative subjective count and assessment of interruptive technologies applied to mobile monitoring of stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of technologies - from agents designed to assist or encourage you, to context-based messaging services - have the opportunity to interrupt you many times throughout the day. One of the challenges with designing new highly interruptive technologies is how to objectively assess their influence on human experience. This paper presents an assessment of a new mobile system that

Rosalind W. Picard; Karen K. Liu

2007-01-01

196

Prospective Memory in Children: The Effects of Age and Task Interruption.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments examined effects of age and task interruption on children's prospective memory (PM), remembering to carry out a future task. Age explained a small portion of variance in performance. Children who did not have to interrupt their ongoing activity to complete the PM tasks performed significantly better than children who had to…

Kvavilashvili, Lia; Messer, David J.; Ebdon, Pippa

2001-01-01

197

Dielectric strength of double and single-break vacuum interrupters: experiments with real HV demonstration bottles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes dielectric experiments on vacuum interrupters for HV applications. The investigations were performed with two different vacuum bottle designs. The difference between these objects is the number of breaker units per bottle and slight deviations in the shielding arrangement. On this basis the dielectric results of one and two interrupter units in one housing are discussed. The experiments

S. Giere; H. C. Karner; H. Knobloch

2001-01-01

198

Short-Circuit Current Interruption in a Low-Voltage Fuse with Ablating Walls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer simulated short-circuit current interruption in low-voltage fuses with no sand filling is described. The current interruption process in such fuses is aided by the ablation of the wall material of the fuse which helps to cool the arc column ins...

S. Ramakrishnan W. M. C. Vandenheuvel

1985-01-01

199

Execution-Based Model Checking of Interrupt-Based Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Execution-based model checking (EMC) is a verification technique based on executing a multi-threaded/multiprocess program repeatedly in a systematic manner in order to explore the different interleavings of the program. This is in contrast to traditional model checking, where a model of a system is analyzed Several execution-based model-checking tools exist at this point, such as for example Verisoft and Java PathFinder. The most common formal specification languages used by EMC tools are un- timed, either just assertions, or linear-time temporal logic (LTL). An alternative verification technique is Runtime Execution Monitoring (REM), which is based on monitor- ing the execution of a program, checking that the execution trace conforms to a requirement specification. The Temporal Rover and DBRover are such tools. They provide a very rich specification language, being an extension of LTL with real-time constraints and time-series. We show how execution-based model checking, combined with runtime execution monitoring, can be used for the verification of a large class of safety critical systems commonly known as interrupt-based systems. The proposed approach is novel in that: (i) it supports model checking of a large class of applications not practically verifiable using conventional EMC tools, (ii) it supports verification of LTL assertions extended with real-time and time-series constraints, and (iii) it supports the verification of custom schedulers.

Drusinsky, Doron; Havelund, Klaus

2003-01-01

200

Ocular motor anatomy in a case of interrupted saccades.  

PubMed

Saccades normally place the eye on target with one smooth movement. In late-onset Tay-Sachs (LOTS), intrasaccadic transient decelerations occur that may result from (1) premature omnipause neuron (OPN) re-activation due to malfunction of the latch circuit that inhibits OPNs for the duration of the saccade or (2) premature inhibitory burst neuron (IBN) activation due to fastigial nucleus (FN) dysregulation by the dorsal cerebellar vermis. Neuroanatomic analysis of a LOTS brain was performed. Purkinje cells were absent and gliosis of the granular cell layer was present in the dorsal cerebellar vermis. Deep cerebellar nuclei contained large inclusions. IBNs were present with small inclusions. The sample did not contain the complete OPN region; however, neurons in the OPN region contained massive inclusions. Pathologic findings suggest that premature OPN re-activation and/or inappropriate firing of IBNs may be responsible for interrupted saccades in LOTS. Cerebellar clinical dysfunction, lack of saccadic slowing, and significant loss of cerebellar cells suggest that the second cause is more likely. PMID:18718354

Rucker, Janet C; Leigh, R John; Optican, Lance M; Keller, Edward L; Bu Ttner-Ennever, Jean A

2008-01-01

201

An interruption in unconscious communication in the analytic couple.  

PubMed

The authors describe an interruption in communication in the analyses of two patients, which gradually brings the analytic process to a halt/standstill. They propose several hypotheses for understanding this situation. One explanation is mutual identification of primitive superegos in the analytic couple which generates a moralizing effect thereby hindering investigation and discovery. They emphasize the importance of countertransference involvement which partly provokes this particular type of impasse. They also suggest the idea of shared acting out, with complementary participations of analyst and patient. In this way the analytic couple supports a 'bastion' which protects against the risk of breaking the omnipotence of patient and analyst or contributes to this omnipotence. Their shared unconscious phantasy feeds collusion linked to unconscious persecutory guilt. The authors also describe movements to break free from this impasse. The enclave created by the analytic couple is detected and subsequently worked through by way of the patient's contribution of dream material and the analyst's work with her countertransference. PMID:20433475

Feuerhake, Hilda María; Lebrero, Marta

2010-02-01

202

Interruption of malaria transmission by chloroquinized salt in Guyana  

PubMed Central

Malaria and its local vector, Anopheles darlingi, were eradicated from the coastlands and near interior of Guyana by DDT house-spraying in 1945-51. In the remote interior, where 10% of the population live, only partial control could be achieved, owing to the semi-silvatic habits of A. darlingi and the considerable movement of the sparse population; low malaria endemicity persisted in these areas with occasional localized outbreaks. In the south-west the problem was further complicated by the presence of malaria across the frontier. During the years 1961-65, the use of chloroquinized salt was made compulsory over an area of some 109 000 km2, covering a population of 48 500. Satisfactory results were obtained over 84% of this area within 6 months of the start of the campaign; only four cases of malaria were seen in four years. In the south-west, however, an initially favourable trend was reversed in 1962 with the introduction of a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum from Brazil. The situation was brought under control by house-spraying with DDT and interruption of transmission is expected.

Giglioli, George; Rutten, Frans J.; Ramjattan, S.

1967-01-01

203

University students' attitudes towards Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy.  

PubMed

An evaluation of the future professional trends was performed by analyzing the attitudes of university students to the Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy (VIP). An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 300 students (Medicine, Nursing and Law) of the University of Santiago de Compostela, with questions on their personal beliefs, opinion on the law and intention to participate in VIP. Of the 245 respondents (response rate 82%), 66.5% were pro-abortion and their attitudes towards VIP were consistent with their opinion on the beginning of life and with the ethical arguments related to the fetus and the mother. No differences were found with age, sex or degree. The students showed to be well informed on the VIP law, and the majority of them considered unsuitable termination of pregnancy in minors without parental consent. Students' intentions to take part in abortion provision were influenced by their views on abortion, level of participation and circumstances of pregnancy. Although the majority of participants would be willing to perform VIP in situations that affect fetus and mother's life or health (87-66%), their intentions clearly diminished in other situations, such as abortion on demand (17%). These data suggest that conscientious objection of health professionals can even increase with the new policy, a fact that might affect VIP availability. It is important to stress the need of ethical training to help in the solution of conflicts between patient and health professional values. PMID:22498236

Rodríguez-Calvo, María Sol; Martínez-Silva, Isabel María; Soto, José Luis; Concheiro, Luis; Muñoz-Barús, José Ignacio

2012-07-01

204

An industrial tool wear monitoring system for interrupted turning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective wear-monitoring system for machine tool inserts could yield significant cost savings for manufacturers. Over the years, various methods have been proposed to achieve tool condition monitoring (TCM), and recently sensor-based approaches for indirectly estimating tool wear have become highly popular. One difficulty with collecting sensory information from machine tools is that the signal-to-noise ratio of useful information about the tool wear is extremely poor. This problem can be overcome by using advanced signal-processing methods and also by fusing the information obtained from numerous sensors into a single modelling or decision-making scheme such as neural networks (NNs). Neural networks are known for their capacity to solve problems effectively in cases where theoretical/analytical models cannot be established. Furthermore, NNs can handle noisy and incomplete data such as that typically obtained from machining operations. Although numerous authors have proposed the NN approach for TCM, various problems still hamper a practical method of applying the technique for industrial use. This paper proposes a technique which should overcome these difficulties. A cost-effective and reliable tool condition monitoring system (TCMS) was developed, utilising the advantages of NNs for a typical industrial machining operation. The operation considered is interrupted turning (facing and boring) of Aluminium alloy components for the automotive industry. The development and implementation of various hardware and software components for the proposed technique are described in this paper. The main advantages of the technique are its accuracy, reliability and cost-effectiveness.

Scheffer, C.; Heyns, P. S.

2004-09-01

205

Current interruption and particle beam generation by a plasma focus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through collaboration with Dr. K. H. Schoenbach of Texas Tech University the plasma focus opening switch (PFOS) was revised to answer basic questions as to utility of the concept. To estimate the plasma temperature and classical resistivity a soft X-ray spectrometer and X-ray pinhole camera were developed. The temperature was estimated from a coronal model to range between 0.4 to 0.5 keV for either a nitrogen or neon impurity (1 to 2%) in deuterium at 3 torr. Strong pinches were observed in pure neon (0.6 torr) with an electron temperature in the same range. The corresponding classical resistance of the pinch is 9 m omega whereas 500 m omega is more consistent with output voltage pulse and current flow at interruption indicating anomalous resistivity is present. A one-dimensional two-fluid computer code has been developed to model anomalous resistivity in the pinch phase and preliminary results are consistent with the snowplow model. The final analysis of the plasma focus particle beam generation experiments was completed and a strong correlation was found for the beam-target model as the mechanism for neutron production in the Illinois plasma focus device.

Gerdin, G.; Venneri, F.

1982-11-01

206

[Effects of bkdAB interruption on avermectin biosynthesis].  

PubMed

In this study, Streptomyces avermitilis Bjbm0006 which produces four avermectin B components was used as an original test strain. A replacement plasmid containing a gene cluster bkdAB (branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase gene) involved in the biosynthesis of avermectin B in S. avermitilis Bjbm0006 was constructed by means of PCR technique and then named as pHJ5821 (pHZ1358::bkdAB&erm). A recombinant strain Bjbm5821 was obtained after the gene cluster was interrupted by double crossover. This strain was tested in laboratory conditions and analysed by PCR using the total DNA as template. The HPLC analysis showed that the strain Bjbm5821 synthesized the same 'a' components Bla and B2a as the original strain did. However, It lost the ability for the production of 'b'components for example B1b and B2b. A novel compound was detected in fermentation products. The results of present study suggests that the production of gene cluster bkdAB may play a main role similar to alpha-ketoisovaleric acid dehydrogenase in the pathway of avermectin synthesis. PMID:15969120

Zhu, Hao-Jun; Liang, Yun-Xiang; Zhou, Jun-Chu; Zheng, Ying-Hua

2004-03-01

207

Clinical impact of temporary therapy interruptions on anticoagulation control in patients treated with warfarin.  

PubMed

This retrospective cohort study was completed to describe the impact of short-term therapy interruptions on anticoagulation control in patients receiving warfarin. Patients seen in a pharmacist-managed anticoagulation clinic were included if they were on a stable warfarin dose and then underwent a planned interruption in therapy. Patients were excluded if phytonadione was administered before the interruption or if medications known to interact with warfarin were altered during the interruption. Data were analyzed for 2 groups: (1) patients with a single interruption in therapy (group 1) and (2) patients with a single interruption in therapy plus patients with an extended interruption in therapy (group 2). The primary endpoint was the change in weekly maintenance warfarin dose from preinterruption to postinterruption. Evaluation of 199 patients resulted in 31 interruptions in group 1 and 34 interruptions in group 2. A change in dose was required in 58% of patients in group 1 and 56% of patients in group 2. The mean absolute change in dose was 2.03 ± 2.79 mg (P < 0.003) in group 1 and 1.96 ± 2.72 mg (P < 0.002) in group 2. For the majority of patients, the dose change represented <10% of their preinterruption weekly dose. Of patients requiring a dose change, 50% required an increase in dose. In conclusion, close follow-up is warranted after a warfarin therapy interruption as dose adjustments will likely be needed to regain anticoagulation control and the direction of this dose change cannot be predicted. PMID:23011173

Boros, Melanie L; Rybarczyk, Amy M; Gallegos, Patrick J; Zimmerman, Jacob P

2013-01-01

208

CD4-guided structured treatment interruptions of antiretroviral therapy in HIV disease: Projecting beyond clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Background International trials have shown that CD4-guided structured treatment interruptions (STI) of antiretroviral therapy (ART) lead to worse outcomes than continuous treatment. We simulated continuous ART and STI strategies with higher CD4 interruption/reintroduction thresholds than those assessed in the trials. Methods We used the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC) Model to simulate cohorts of African adults with different CD4 counts at presentation (?200/?l, 201–350/?l, 351–500/?l). We varied ART initiation criteria (immediate, CD4<350/?l or severe opportunistic event, CD4<200/?l or severe opportunistic event), and ART interruption/reintroduction CD4 thresholds (e.g. 350/250/?l, 500/350/?l, 700/500/?l). First-line therapy was non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based and 2nd-line was protease inhibitor (PI)-based. Results STI generally led to a lower life expectancy than continuous ART, regardless of ART initiation criteria and interruption/reintroduction thresholds. Life expectancy increased with earlier ART initiation and higher interruption/reintroduction thresholds. STI reduced life expectancy by 48–69 months and by 11–30 months, compared to continuous ART when interruption/reintroduction thresholds were 350/250/?l and 500/350/?l, depending on ART initiation criteria. When patients interrupted/reintroduced ART at CD4 700/500/?l, life expectancies for STI ranged from 2 months lower to 1 month higher than continuous ART. Life expectancy for patients on STI increased with decreased risk of virologic resistance after ART interruptions. Conclusions STI with NNRTI-based regimens was almost always less effective than continuous treatment, regardless of interruption/reintroduction thresholds. The risks associated with STI decrease only if patients start ART earlier, interrupt/reintroduce treatment at very high CD4 thresholds (700/500/?l) and use first-line medications with higher resistance barriers, such as PIs.

Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Wolf, Lindsey L.; Anglaret, Xavier; Gabillard, Delphine; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Moh, Raoul; Danel, Christine; Sloan, Caroline E.; Losina, Elena; Freedberg, Kenneth A.

2011-01-01

209

SOHO Mission Interruption Joint NASA/ESA Investigation Board  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contact with the SOlar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft was lost in the early morning hours of June 25, 1998, Eastern Daylight Time (EDT), during a planned period of calibrations, maneuvers, and spacecraft reconfigurations. Prior to this the SOHO operations team had concluded two years of extremely successful science operations. A joint European Space Agency (ESA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engineering team has been planning and executing recovery efforts since loss of contact with some success to date. ESA and NASA management established the SOHO Mission Interruption Joint Investigation Board to determine the actual or probable cause(s) of the SOHO spacecraft mishap. The Board has concluded that there were no anomalies on-board the SOHO spacecraft but that a number of ground errors led to the major loss of attitude experienced by the spacecraft. The Board finds that the loss of the SOHO spacecraft was a direct result of operational errors, a failure to adequately monitor spacecraft status, and an erroneous decision which disabled part of the on-board autonomous failure detection. Further, following the occurrence of the emergency situation, the Board finds that insufficient time was taken by the operations team to fully assess the spacecraft status prior to initiating recovery operations. The Board discovered that a number of factors contributed to the circumstances that allowed the direct causes to occur. The Board strongly recommends that the two Agencies proceed immediately with a comprehensive review of SOHO operations addressing issues in the ground procedures, procedure implementation, management structure and process, and ground systems. This review process should be completed and process improvements initiated prior to the resumption of SOHO normal operations.

1998-01-01

210

Addressing the problem of interruptability in the construction of large space structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large scale space missions of the near future will depend upon successful multi-launch coordination and construction in the space environment. One of the main challenges is how to accomplish a valid global analysis of a construction project with the intent of improving safety, reducing overall mission cost, and total construction time. These three items are dependent on the interruptability of the project, which is the ability of the project to recover from unplanned interruptions; such as failure of the launch vehicle; sudden, on-orbit, crew illness; or damage from a space debris impact on the partially completed space structure. A new method for addressing and analyzing this type of problem is being developed. The method is called Program Interruptability and Risk Evaluation Technique, or PIRET. PIRET has been developed in order to model and analyze potential interruptability concerns of the construction of the U.S. Space Station Freedom (SSF), although PIRET is applicable to any complex, multi-launch structural assembly. This paper is a progress report on the continuing research of the NASA Center for Space Construction at the University of Colorado, Boulder into this area of space construction interruptability. The paper will define the problem of interruptability, will diagram the PIRET approach to space construction, will share results from a preliminary PIRET analysis of SSF, and will show that PIRET is a useful tool for modelling space construction interruptability.

Davidson, Roger A.; Morgenthaler, George W.

1989-01-01

211

Localization of single-chain interruptions in bacteriophage T5 DNA I. Electron microscopic studies.  

PubMed Central

Bacteriophage T5 DNA was examined in an electron microscope after limited digestion with exonuclease III from Escherichia coli. The effect of the exonuclease treatment was to convert each naturally occurring single-chain interruption in T5 DNA into a short segment of single-stranded DNA. The locations of these segments were determined for T5st(+) DNA, T5st(0) DNA, and fragments of T5st(0) DNA generated by EcoRI restriction endonuclease. The results indicate that single-chain interruptions occurr in a variable, but nonrandom, manner in T5 DNA. T5st(+) DNA has four principal interruptions located at sites approximately 7.9, 18.5, 32.6, and 64.8% from one end of the molecule. Interruptions occur at these sites in 80 to 90% of the population. A large number of additional sites, located primarily at the ends of the DNA, contain interruptions at lower frequencies. The average number of interruptions per genome, as determined by this method, is 8. A similar distribution of breaks occurs in T5st(0) DNA, except that the 32.6% site is missing. At least one of the principal interruptions is reproducibly located within an interval of 0.2% of the entire DNA. Images

Scheible, P P; Rhoades, E A; Rhoades, M

1977-01-01

212

Switching of Inferred Tropism Caused by HIV during Interruption of Antiretroviral Therapy ?  

PubMed Central

After interruption of highly active antiretroviral therapy, 15 out of 53 patients with the X4 HIV strain had a significantly larger decrease in CD4+ T cell count (P = 0.001) and shorter length of treatment interruption (P = 0.02) than patients with the R5 strain. At treatment resumption, HIV inferred tropism switched from the X4 strain to the R5 variant in 9 patients (60%). These patients had a prolonged length of treatment interruption compared to that of those who still carried the X4 strain.

Sarmati, L.; Parisi, S. G.; Andreoni, C.; Nicastri, E.; Buonomini, A. R.; Boldrin, C.; Dori, L.; Montano, M.; Tommasi, C.; Andreis, S.; Vullo, V.; Palu, G.; Andreoni, M.

2010-01-01

213

Preparation of high laser induced damage threshold antireflection film using interrupted ion assisted deposition.  

PubMed

Single layers and antireflection films were deposited by electron beam evaporation, ion assisted deposition and interrupted ion assisted deposition, respectively. Antireflection film of quite high laser damage threshold (18J/cm2) deposited by interrupted ion assisted deposition were got. The electric field distribution, weak absorption, and residual stress of films and their relations to damage threshold were investigated. It was shown that the laser induced damage threshold of film was the result of competition of disadvantages and advantages, and interrupted ion assisted deposition was one of the valuable methods for preparing high laser induced damage threshold films. PMID:19547431

Zhang, Da-Wei; Huang, Yuan-Shen; Ni, Zheng-Ji; Zhuang, Song-Lin; Shao, Jian-Da; Fan, Zheng-Xiu

2007-08-20

214

Commutating direct current out of a vacuum interrupter with a GTO thyristor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method of commutating direct current of a standard vacuum interrupter is described. The technique uses a high-current, gate-turn-off thyristor in series with the interrupter to extinguish the arc and allow the interrupter to clear. The commutation method has been used to design and fabricate a continuous duty switch that will switch off 1000 A in 100 microsec and develop 25 kV at a repetition rate of 5 Hz. Preliminary test data and the important design relationships are presented.

Johnson, D. E.; Barber, J. P.; Laquer, H. L.

1986-11-01

215

Functional Interrupts and Destructive Failures from Single Event Effect Testing of Point-Of-Load Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We show examples of single event functional interrupt and destructive failure in modern POL devices. The increasing complexity and diversity of the design and process introduce hard SEE modes that are triggered by various mechanisms.

Chen, Dakai; Phan, Anthony; Kim, Hak; Swonger, James; Musil, Paul; LaBel, Kenneth

2013-01-01

216

Experimental Methods for Determining the Effectiveness of Interruption of a Fuze Explosive Train.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several experimental approaches for establishing the effectiveness of the interruption of an explosive train are presented. It is recommended that a combination of the approaches described be used to evaluate the safety of any new explosive train. (Author...

C. R. Hamilton W. R. Hoelzen R. L. Higuera

1966-01-01

217

78 FR 65904 - Permanent Discontinuance or Interruption in Manufacturing of Certain Drug or Biological Products  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applicant's supply of the product. Manufacturing shutdowns for maintenance or other...biological product. A merger of firms or transfer of an application for...product. An interruption in manufacturing (e.g., contamination of...

2013-11-04

218

Power Supply Interruption Costs: Models and Methods Incorporating Time Dependent Patterns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This doctoral thesis develops models and methods for estimation of annual interruption costs for delivery points, emphasizing the handling of time dependent patterns and uncertainties in the variables determining the annual costs. It presents an analytica...

G. H. Kjoelle

1996-01-01

219

PC EASI: Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption on an IBM PC.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An IBM PC version of EASI (Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption) has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. EASI is an analytical technique for measuring the effectiveness of physical protection systems. PC EASI is menu driven and only min...

L. D. Chapman C. P. Harlan

1985-01-01

220

Are interventions to reduce interruptions and errors during medication administration effective?: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Medication administration errors are frequent and lead to patient harm. Interruptions during medication administration have been implicated as a potential contributory factor. Objective To assess evidence of the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing interruptions during medication administration on interruption and medication administration error rates. Methods In September 2012 we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group reviews, Google and Google Scholar, and hand searched references of included articles. Intervention studies reporting quantitative data based on direct observations of at least one outcome (interruptions, or medication administration errors) were included. Results Ten studies, eight from North America and two from Europe, met the inclusion criteria. Five measured significant changes in interruption rates pre and post interventions. Four found a significant reduction and one an increase. Three studies measured changes in medication administration error rates and showed reductions, but all implemented multiple interventions beyond those targeted at reducing interruptions. No study used a controlled design pre and post. Definitions for key outcome indicators were reported in only four studies. Only one study reported ? scores for inter-rater reliability and none of the multi-ward studies accounted for clustering in their analyses. Conclusions There is weak evidence of the effectiveness of interventions to significantly reduce interruption rates and very limited evidence of their effectiveness to reduce medication administration errors. Policy makers should proceed with great caution in implementing such interventions until controlled trials confirm their value. Research is also required to better understand the complex relationship between interruptions and error to support intervention design.

Raban, Magdalena Z; Westbrook, Johanna I

2014-01-01

221

Sex-Related Wage Differentials and Women's Interrupted Labor Careers--The Chicken or the Egg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wage differentials between men and women are often attributed to differences in on-the-job training-the lower investment of women being explained by their plans to interrupt their careers for family reasons. Career interruptions, however, are often explained by low wages. To trace this interrelationship, the author adopts a simultaneous equations approach-trying to explain wages, planned separations, on-the-job training, and the skill

Reuben Gronau

1988-01-01

222

A Mathematical Study of a TB Model with Treatment Interruptions and Two Latent Periods  

PubMed Central

A TB transmission model which incorporates treatment interruptions and two latent periods is presented. The threshold parameter known as the control reproduction number and the equilibria for the model are determined, and the global asymptotical stabilities of the equilibria are studied by constructing the proper Lyapunov functions. The reproduction numbers and numerical simulations show that treatment of active TB cases always helps to control the TB epidemic, while treatment interruptions may have a negative, positive, or no effect on combating TB epidemic.

Liu, Luju; Wang, Yan

2014-01-01

223

Interruption in the maintenance of compulsive sexual disorder: Two case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual offenses and disorders are at times compulsive in nature. It is hypothesized that compulsive sexuality is a function of a history of interrupted or frustrated approach behavior. Two case studies involving compulsive features were treated by preventing such interruptions and delays. An A-B-A-B single-case experimental design on one of the two case studies provided some support for the hypothesized

Worek P. Konopacki; Tian P. S. Oei

1988-01-01

224

Validity of current recommendation for peri-operative interruption of warfarin in Asians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporary interruption of anticoagulation therapy is usually recommended for anticoagulated patients undergoing invasive procedures\\u000a to minimize their bleeding risks. We validated the current consensus recommendation on warfarin interruption which were based\\u000a on Western population studies to determine if they could safely be applied to Asians. The international normalized ratios\\u000a (INR) in twenty warfarinised patients with a stable INR of 2–3

Sei Keng Koh; Heng Joo Ng; Ming Chai Kong; Yiong Huak Chan; Lai Heng Lee

2010-01-01

225

Microstructural Changes of Vacuum Interrupter Contact Materials Caused by Switching Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contact materials based on copper-chromium are widely used in vacuum interrupters for medium-voltage applications. The microstructures of contacts are rather coarse, with typical chromium particle sizes in the range of 100 microns. During switching operations, such as short-circuit current interruption, a vacuum arc is generated which in turn produces melted and resolidified layers at the contact surface. This paper describes

Reinhard A. Simon; Jörg F. Löffler; Thierry Delachaux; Dietmar Gentsch

2010-01-01

226

Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined.

Andrews, Lowell B. (2181-13th Ave. SW., Largo, FL 34640)

1998-01-01

227

Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined. 17 figs.

Andrews, L.B.

1998-08-18

228

Collecting and categorizing information related to electric power distribution interruption events: customer interruption data collection within the electric power distribution industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability of electric power systems remains a top societal issue. While transmission disturbances draw national attention and scrutiny, service interruptions at the distribution level are the primary concern of end-use customers and their regulatory and governmental representatives. Much effort has been expended in developing methods to uniformly and consistently quantify reliability of distribution service based on electric system performance. However,

Rodney L. Robinson; Donald F. Hall; Cheryl A. Warren; Val G. Werner

2006-01-01

229

Errors and electronic prescribing: a controlled laboratory study to examine task complexity and interruption effects  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effect of interruptions and task complexity on error rates when prescribing with computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems, and to categorize the types of prescribing errors. Design Two within-subject factors: task complexity (complex vs simple) and interruption (interruption vs no interruption). Thirty-two hospital doctors used a CPOE system in a computer laboratory to complete four prescribing tasks, half of which were interrupted using a counterbalanced design. Measurements Types of prescribing errors, error rate, resumption lag, and task completion time. Results Errors in creating and updating electronic medication charts that were measured included failure to enter allergy information; selection of incorrect medication, dose, route, formulation, or frequency of administration from lists and drop-down menus presented by the CPOE system; incorrect entry or omission in entering administration times, start date, and free-text qualifiers; and omissions in prescribing and ceasing medications. When errors occurred, the error rates across the four prescribing tasks ranged from 0.5% (1 incorrect medication selected out of 192 chances for selecting a medication or error opportunities) to 16% (5 failures to enter allergy information out of 32 error opportunities). Any impact of interruptions on prescribing error rates and task completion times was not detected in our experiment. However, complex tasks took significantly longer to complete (F(1, 27)=137.9; p<0.001) and when execution was interrupted they required almost three times longer to resume compared to simple tasks (resumption lag complex=9.6?seconds, SD=5.6; resumption lag simple=3.4?seconds, SD=1.7; t(28)=6.186; p<0.001). Conclusion Most electronic prescribing errors found in this study could be described as slips in using the CPOE system to create and update electronic medication charts. Cues available within the user interface may have aided resumption of interrupted tasks making CPOE systems robust to some interruption effects. Further experiments are required to rule out any effect interruption might have on CPOE error rates.

Li, Simon Y W; Day, Richard O; Coiera, Enrico

2010-01-01

230

Folding Delay and Structural Perturbations Caused by Type IV Collagen Natural Interruptions and Nearby Gly Missense Mutations*  

PubMed Central

The standard collagen triple helix requires Gly as every third residue in the amino acid sequence, yet all nonfibrillar collagens contain sites where this repeating pattern is interrupted. To explore the effects of such natural interruptions on the triple helix, a 4- or 15-residue sequence from human basement membrane type IV collagen was introduced between (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)n domains within a recombinant bacterial collagen. The interruptions had little effect on melting temperature, consistent with the high thermal stability reported for nonfibrillar collagens. Although the 4-residue interruption cannot be accommodated within a standard triple helix, trypsin and thermolysin resistance indicated a tightly packed structure. Central residues of the 15-residue interruption were protease-susceptible, whereas residues near the (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)n boundary were resistant, supporting a transition from an alternate conformation to a well packed triple helix. Both interruptions led to a delay in triple-helix folding, with the 15-residue interruption causing slower folding than the 4-residue interruption. These results suggest that propagation through interruptions represents a slow folding step. To clarify the relation between natural interruptions and pathological mutations, a Gly to Ser missense mutation was placed three triplets away from the 4-residue interruption. As a result of this mutation, the 4-residue interruption and nearby triple helix became susceptible to protease digestion, and an additional folding delay was observed. Because Gly missense mutations that cause disease are often located near natural interruptions, structural and folding perturbations arising from such proximity could be a factor in collagen genetic diseases.

Hwang, Eileen S.; Brodsky, Barbara

2012-01-01

231

Knowing before doing: discrimination by rats of a brief interruption of a tone.  

PubMed Central

Eight rats' lever presses were reinforced after an interruption in a tone, provided the lever had not been pressed before the tone interruption. After a few sessions, long before the animals reliably refrained from lever pressing before the interruption, the latencies of postinterruption presses (time from the termination of the interruption to the moment of the lever press) dissociated into two classes: short ones for to-be-rewarded presses, and long ones for presses in the other trials, which contained no reward because one or more lever presses had occurred before the interruption. Thus discrimination of impending reinforcement in the current trial occurred before there was evidence of sensitivity to reinforcement in the reinforcement-producing aspect of behavior. This finding is related to Shimp's (1981) contention that the temporal properties of recent behavior are reinforceable, if remembered. The present finding shows that learning to discriminate whether one's behavior has met a contingency, and learning to carry out this behavior, need not go together, implying that memory of temporal properties is probably a necessary but not a sufficient condition for learning the latter.

Eisler, H

1984-01-01

232

Supervisory-level interruption recovery in time-critical control tasks.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the effectiveness of providing interruption recovery assistance in the form of an interactive visual timeline of historical events on a peripheral display in support of team supervision in time-critical settings. As interruptions can have detrimental effects on task performance, particularly in time-critical work environments, there is growing interest in the design of tools to assist people in resuming their pre-interruption activity. A user study was conducted to evaluate the use of an interactive event timeline that provides assistance to human supervisors in time-critical settings. The study was conducted in an experimental platform that emulated a team of operators and a mission commander performing a time-critical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mission. The study results showed that providing interruption assistance enabled people to recover from interruptions faster and more accurately. These results have implications for interface design that could be adopted in similar time-critical environments such as air-traffic control, process control, and first responders. PMID:24581931

Sasangohar, Farzan; Scott, Stacey D; Cummings, M L

2014-07-01

233

An evaluation of interrupted and uninterrupted measurement of vocal stereotypy on perceived treatment outcomes.  

PubMed

The type of procedure used to measure a target behavior may directly influence the perceived treatment outcomes. In the present study, we examined the influence of different data-analysis procedures on the outcomes of two commonly used treatments on the vocal stereotypy of 2 children with an autism spectrum disorder. In Study 1, we compared an interrupted and uninterrupted data-analysis procedure to measure vocal stereotypy during the implementation of response interruption and redirection (RIRD). The results showed that the interrupted data-analysis procedure overestimated the effectiveness of RIRD. In Study 2, we examined the influence of different data-analysis procedures on the interpretation of the relative effects of 2 different treatments for vocal stereotypy. Specifically, we compared interrupted and uninterrupted data-analysis procedures during the implementation of RIRD and noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) as a treatment for vocal stereotypy. The results showed that, as in Study 1, the interrupted data-analysis procedure overestimated the effectiveness of RIRD; however, this effect was not apparent with NCR. These findings suggest that different types of data analysis can influence the perceived success of a treatment. PMID:24764249

Carroll, Regina A; Kodak, Tiffany

2014-06-01

234

Viral re-suppression and detection of drug resistance following interruption of a suppressive NNRTI-based regimen  

PubMed Central

Background Interruption of an NNRTI-regimen is often necessary, but must be performed with caution because NNRTIs have a low genetic barrier to resistance. Limited data exist to guide clinical practice on the best interruption strategy to use. Methods Patients in the drug-conservation arm of SMART who interrupted a fully suppressive NNRTI-regimen were evaluated. From 2003, SMART recommended interruption of an NNRTI by: a staggered-interruption, where the NNRTI was stopped before the NRTIs; or by replacing the NNRTI with another drug before interruption. Simultaneous-interruption of all ARVs was discouraged. Re-suppression rates four-to-eight months after re-initiating NNRTI-therapy were assessed, as was the detection of drug-resistance mutations within two months of the treatment interruption in a subset (N=141). Results Overall, 601/688 (87.4%) patients who re-started an NNRTI achieved viral re-suppression. The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for achieving re-suppression was 1.94 (1.02-3.69) for patients with a staggered-interruption and 3.64 (1.37-9.64) for those with a switched-interruption compared to patients with a simultaneous-interruption. At least one NNRTI-mutation was detected in the virus of 16.4% patients with simultaneous-interruption, 12.5% patients with staggered-interruption and 4.2% patients with switched-interruption. Fewer patients with detectable mutations (i.e. 69.2%) achieved HIV-RNA?400 copies/mL compared to those in whom no mutations were detected (i.e. 86.7%), p=0.05. Conclusions In patients who interrupt a suppressive NNRTI-regimen, the choice of interruption-strategy may influence re-suppression rates when re-starting a similar regimen. NNRTI drug-resistance mutations were observed in a relatively high proportion of patients. These data provide additional support for a staggered- or switched-interruption strategy for NNRTI drugs.

Fox, Zoe; Phillips, Andrew; Cohen, Cal; Neuhaus, Jacquie; Baxter, John; Emery, Sean; Hirschel, Bernard; Hullsiek, Kathy Huppler; Stephan, Christoph; Lundgren, Jens

2009-01-01

235

Quasistatic resonance of a chemical potential interruption in a graphene layer and its polarizability: The mixed-polarity semilocalized plasmon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical potential of a graphene layer can be locally interrupted by electrostatic gating or chemical doping. When properly designed, electrically small local interruption can possess quasistatic resonance and be strongly excited by electromagnetic field. This excitation generates a mixed-type semilocalized plasmon wave, e.g., it launches TM mode within the interruption domain and TE modes into the surrounding layer. Since the resonance is quasistatic, it is essentially independent of the interruption size and it exists also for sizes much smaller than the corresponding wavelengths of the aforementioned modes. Furthermore, the interruption's polarizability can be defined and calculated. Unlike the conventional polarizability, which is defined directly via a particle's dipole response, here it is defined via the induced currents in the interruption and in its surrounding. We verify our results by comparing them to full-wave numerical simulations. The results have potential applications in many one-atom-thick metamaterials and devices.

Hadad, Y.; Steinberg, Ben Z.

2013-08-01

236

Method and configuration for effecting an interruption-free power supply operation of a system unit  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

For accomplishing an interruption-free power supply operation of a system unit (HDD) in a computer system with a plurality of system computers (Sa; Sb) sharing the system unit (HDD) without having the limitation to a local location, a method and an arrangement is [sic] proposed in accord wherewith the operation of the respective station computers (Sa; Sb) respectively ensues with their own interruption-free power supplies (USVa; USVb) and, for the power supply of the shared system unit (HDD), the shared system unit (HDD) is always connected to an active interruption-free power supply (for example, USVb) by an automatically switching switchover (PCS) that monitors the voltage of its inputs.

2003-08-19

237

Growth-interruption-induced low-density InAs quantum dots on GaAs  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the use of growth interruption to obtain low-density InAs quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs. The process was realized by Ostwald-type ripening of a thin InAs layer. It was found that the optical properties of the QDs as a function of growth interruption strongly depend on InAs growth rate. By using this approach, a low density of QDs (4 dots/{mu}m{sup 2}) with uniform size distribution was achieved. As compared to QDs grown without growth interruption, a larger energy separation between the QD confined levels was observed, suggesting a situation closer to the ideal zero-dimensional system. Combining with an InGaAs capping layer such as In-rich QDs enable 1.3 {mu}m emission at 4 K.

Li, L. H.; Alloing, B. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics, Station 3, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Chauvin, N.; Fiore, A. [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Patriarche, G. [LPN/CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France)

2008-10-15

238

Operation Method for AC Motor Control during Power Interruption in Direct AC/AC Converter System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct AC/AC converters have been studied due to their potential use in power converters with no DC-link capacitor, which can contribute to the miniaturization of power converters. However, the absence of a DC-link capacitor makes it difficult to control the AC motor during power interruption. First, this paper proposes a system that realizes AC motor control during power interruption by utilizing a clamp capacitor. In general, direct AC/AC converters have a clamp circuit consisting of a rectifier diode(s) and a clamp capacitor in order to avoid over-voltages. In the proposed system, there is an additional semiconductor switch reverse-parallel to the rectifier diode(s), and the clamp capacitor voltage can be utilized for AC motor control by turning on the additional switch. Second, this paper discusses an operation method for AC motor control and clamp capacitor voltage control during power interruption. In the proposed method “DC-link voltage control”, the kinetic energy in the AC motor is transformed into electrical energy and stored in the clamp capacitor; the clamp capacitor is therefore charged and the capacitor voltage is controlled to remain constant at an instruction value. Third, this paper discusses a switching operation during power interruption. A dead-time is introduced between the operation of turning off all switches on the rectifier side and the operation of turning on the additional switch, which prevents the occurrence of a short circuit between the interrupted power source and the clamp capacitor. Finally, experimental results are presented. During power interruptions, an output current was continuously obtained and the clamp capacitor voltage was maintained to be equal to the instruction value of the capacitor voltage. These results indicate that both AC motor control and capacitor voltage control were successfully achieved by using the proposed system.

Shizu, Keiichiro; Azuma, Satoshi

239

Greater Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Interrupted Stress Pattern Compared to Daily Restraint Stress in Rats  

PubMed Central

Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated stress on psychiatric disorders.

Zhang, Wei; Hetzel, Andrea; Shah, Bijal; Atchley, Derek; Blume, Shannon R.; Padival, Mallika A.; Rosenkranz, J. Amiel

2014-01-01

240

Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.  

PubMed

Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated stress on psychiatric disorders. PMID:25014526

Zhang, Wei; Hetzel, Andrea; Shah, Bijal; Atchley, Derek; Blume, Shannon R; Padival, Mallika A; Rosenkranz, J Amiel

2014-01-01

241

Arch Reconstruction with Autologous Pulmonary Artery Patch in Interrupted Aortic Arch  

PubMed Central

Various surgical techniques have been developed for the repair of an interrupted aortic arch. However, tension and Gothic arch formation at the anastomotic site have remained major problems for these techniques: Excessive tension causes arch stenosis and left main bronchus compression, and Gothic arch configuration is related to cardiovascular complications. To resolve these problems, we adopted a modified surgical technique of distal aortic arch augmentation using an autologous main pulmonary artery patch. The descending aorta was then anastomosed to the augmented aortic arch in an end-to-side manner. Here, we report two cases of interrupted aortic arch that were repaired using this technique.

Lee, Won-Young

2014-01-01

242

Interruption in the maintenance of compulsive sexual disorder: two case studies.  

PubMed

Sexual offenses and disorders are at times compulsive in nature. It is hypothesized that compulsive sexuality is a function of a history of interrupted or frustrated approach behavior. Two case studies involving compulsive features were treated by preventing such interruptions and delays. An A-B-A-B single-case experimental design on one of the two case studies provided some support for the hypothesized relationship. Implications for assessment and treatment are examined and the mechanisms underlying the hypothesized relationship are discussed. PMID:3219064

Konopacki, W P; Oei, T P

1988-10-01

243

Evaluation of Parameters Affecting Arc Plasma Chute in a Typical Gas Interrupter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we examined a typical high-voltage gas circuit breaker. The main goal of this study is to characterize arc plasma and to determine its behavior using the generalized Mayr-type equation model following the interruption of high-voltage circuit breakers according to a semi-empirical one, named conductance model. Here, we tried to evaluate some arc parameters that affect interrupting ability by performing a numerical analysis so that our model defines recorded experimental results of an actual test.

Borghei, Seyed Majid; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Abolhassani, Mohammad Reza; Anvari, Abbas

2008-01-01

244

Single-stage correction of interrupted aortic arch in an adolescent patient.  

PubMed

Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare condition that generally requires surgical correction in the newborn. We report a case of delayed presentation of type A interrupted aortic arch with ventricular septal defect in a 13-year-old female. Single-stage correction without circulatory arrest was accomplished via midline sternotomy approach. Tissue-to-tissue anastomosis was performed without the use of prosthetic material in order to optimize chances for future growth. This simplified technique avoids additional procedures, reduces ischemic time, and prevents problems related to circulatory arrest. PMID:23799767

Reddy Kandakure, Pramod; Tutika, Srinivas Chakravarthy; Gundala, Anil; Annam, Sharath Reddy; Adluri, Rajeshwara Krishna Prasad

2013-01-01

245

Unique Venocaval Anomalies: Case of Duplicate Superior Vena Cava and Interrupted Inferior Vena Cava  

PubMed Central

Venocaval anomalies are uncommon in the general population and often go unrecognized, but physicians should be aware of their significance. Duplicate superior vena cava should be identified during cardiac imaging, surgery, and catheter insertions. While interrupted inferior vena cava can predispose to thrombus formation, they protect against pulmonary embolism from lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. We describe a unique case of a patient in which combined superior vena cava and inferior vena cava anomalies were found incidentally. This is the first reported case of a duplicate superior vena cava and interrupted inferior vena cava in a single patient in English literature. This article also provides a literature review on the topic.

Hagans, Iris; Markelov, Alexey; Makadia, Manthan

2014-01-01

246

EMG and metabolite-based prediction of force in paralyzed quadriceps muscle under interrupted stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major issue associated with functional electrical stimulation (FES) of a paralyzed limb is the decay with time of the muscle force as a result of fatigue. A possible means to reduce fatigue during FES is by using interrupted stimulation, in which fatigue and recovery occur in sequence. In this study, we present a model which enables us to evaluate

Oron Levin; Joseph Mizrahi

1999-01-01

247

The Effects of Matched Stimulation and Response Interruption and Redirection on Vocal Stereotypy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stereotypy has been classified as repetitive behavior that does not serve any apparent function. Two procedures that have been found to reduce rates of vocal stereotypy effectively are response interruption and redirection (RIRD) and noncontingent access to matched stimulation (MS). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of…

Love, Jessica J.; Miguel, Caio F.; Fernand, Jonathan K.; LaBrie, Jillian K.

2012-01-01

248

Truncus arteriosus with aortic arch interruption: cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings in the unrepaired adult  

PubMed Central

Truncus arteriosus (TA) is a rare congenital condition defined as a single arterial vessel arising from the heart that gives origin to the systemic, pulmonary and coronary circulations. We discuss the unique case of a 28 year-old female patient with unrepaired TA and interruption of the aortic arch who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR).

2010-01-01

249

Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses.Data extraction Search strategy of the Cochrane Library, Medline, OldMedline, Embase, and CINAHL, without language restriction, for any intervention to prevent transmission of respiratory viruses (isolation, quarantine, social distancing, barriers, personal protection, and hygiene). Study designs were randomised trials, cohort studies,

Tom Jefferson; Ruth Foxlee; Chris Del Mar; Liz Dooley; Eliana Ferroni; Bill Hewak; Adi Prabhala; Sree Nair; Alex Rivetti

2008-01-01

250

High speed switchgear protecting power generating facilities against voltage dip and interruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes thyristor switches interconnected between the output bus of power generating facilities and the bus on the power utility side located in the premises of the power-consuming company. The thyristor switches play the role of protecting power generating facilities against voltage dip and interruption. In order to make the overall unit compact, thyristor switches are installed in only

K. Matsushita; Y. Kataoka; M. Ono

1995-01-01

251

The Effects of Response Interruption and Redirection and Sertraline on Vocal Stereotypy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although response interruption and redirection (RIRD) has been shown to be successful in reducing vocal stereotypy, recent reports have suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may also reduce these behaviors. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effects of RIRD with and without sertraline on…

Miguel, Caio F.; Clark, Kathy; Tereshko, Lisa; Ahearn, William H.

2009-01-01

252

The Effects of Verbal Operant Training and Response Interruption and Redirection on Appropriate and Inappropriate Vocalizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research has shown that response interruption and redirection (RIRD) can effectively decrease automatically reinforced motor behavior (Hagopian & Adelinis, 2001). Ahearn, Clark, MacDonald, and Chung (2007) found that a procedural adaptation of RIRD reduced vocal stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for some children, although…

Colon, Candice L.; Ahearn, William H.; Clark, Kathleen M.; Masalsky, Jessica

2012-01-01

253

Evaluation of the Immediate and Subsequent Effects of Response Interruption and Redirection on Vocal Stereotypy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated 2 3-component multiple-schedule sequences--a response interruption and redirection (RIRD) treatment sequence and a no-interaction control sequence--using a multielement design. With this design, we were able to evaluate the immediate and subsequent effects of RIRD on 2 participants' vocal stereotypy. For both participants, RIRD…

Schumacher, Brittany I.; Rapp, John T.

2011-01-01

254

Immediate and Subsequent Effects of Response Interruption and Redirection on Targeted and Untargeted Forms of Stereotypy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of studies have shown that response interruption and redirection (RIRD) decreases immediate engagement in targeted stereotypic behaviors; however, its effects on untargeted stereotypy have not yet been studied, and its effects following removal of treatment are unclear. We evaluated the immediate and subsequent effects of RIRD on targeted…

Pastrana, Sarah J.; Rapp, John T.; Frewing, Tyla M.

2013-01-01

255

Interrupted Experiences: Reflection, Listening and "Negativity" in the Practice of Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This inquiry explores the educative meaning of interruptions or breaks in teacher's experiences by looking at their role in reflection and listening. Reflection and listening are not only two vital and distinct aspects of teaching, but are also interrelated and as such can serve to productively inform one another. In this context, I develop the…

English, Andrea

2007-01-01

256

Interruption of the Calvin cycle inhibits the repair of Photosystem II from photodamage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In photosynthetic organisms, impairment of the activities of enzymes in the Calvin cycle enhances the extent of photoinactivation of Photosystem II (PSII). We investigated the molecular mechanism responsible for this phenomenon in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. When the Calvin cycle was interrupted by glycolaldehyde, which is known to inhibit phosphoribulokinase, the extent of photoinactivation of PSII was enhanced.

Shunichi Takahashi; Norio Murata

2005-01-01

257

Azygos continuation of interrupted inferior vena cava in association with sick sinus syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various diagnostic and therapeutic procedures of the right side of the heart and the systemic venous system have increased the need for ready access to the inferior vena cava (IVC) through the transfemoral route. Anatomical variations or obstruction of the IVC can make these procedures difficult. The case of 47 year old woman with an interrupted infrahepatic IVC with azygos

R Vijayvergiya; M N Bhat; R M Kumar; S G Vivekanand; A Grover

2005-01-01

258

Interrupted speech perception: The effects of hearing sensitivity and frequency resolution  

PubMed Central

Jin & Nelson (2006) found that although amplified speech recognition performance of hearing-impaired (HI) listeners was equal to that of normal-hearing (NH) listeners in quiet and in steady noise, nevertheless HI listeners' performance was significantly poorer in modulated noise. As a follow-up, the current study investigated whether three factors, auditory integration, low-mid frequency audibility and auditory filter bandwidths, might contribute to reduced sentence recognition of HI listeners in the presence of modulated interference. Three findings emerged. First, sentence recognition in modulated noise found in Jin & Nelson (2006) was highly correlated with perception of sentences interrupted by silent gaps. This suggests that understanding speech interrupted by either noise or silent gaps require similar perceptual integration of speech fragments available either in the dips of a gated noise or across silent gaps of an interrupted speech signal. Second, those listeners with greatest hearing losses in the low frequencies were poorest at understanding interrupted sentences. Third, low-to mid-frequency hearing thresholds accounted for most of the variability in Masking Release (MR) for HI listeners. As suggested by Oxenham and his colleagues (2003 and 2009), low-frequency information within speech plays an important role in the perceptual segregation of speech from competing background noise.

Jin, Su-Hyun; Nelson, Peggy B.

2010-01-01

259

Aortic atresia with interruption of the aortic arch and an aortopulmonary fistulous tract: Case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of interruption of the aortic arch (IAA) in association with aortic atresia. A pulmonary artery to ascending aorta fistulous channel at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva of the pulmonary artery was present and supplied the ascending aorta and coronary arteries. The communication had a significant length, so embryologically it is not an aortopulmonary window.

M. T. Donofrio; C. Ramaciotti; P. M. Weinberg; J. D. Murphy

1995-01-01

260

A high speed HVDC circuit breaker with crossed-field interrupters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel HVDC circuit breaker is described which utilizes crossed-field interrupters in a sequential switching mode. The breaker and its components were tested in an inductive energy storage facility at levels of 1000 A, 100 kV and performed satisfactorily.

G. A. Hofmann; G. L. La Barbera; N. E. Reed; L. A. Shillong

1976-01-01

261

The Gamitron - A High Power Crossed-Field Switch Tube for HVDC Interruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high power crossed-field discharge device has been developed for use as a high voltage direct current interrupter. This device operates at low pressure (0.05 Torr), conducting current at a fixed voltage (~500 V) only in the presence of a weak magnetic field (~100 G) which is substantially perpendicular to the electric field between the electrodes. When the magnetic field

Michael A. Lutz; Gunter A. Hofmann

1974-01-01

262

Pardon the Interruption: Enhancing Communication Skills for Students with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides teachers and parents with a description of the behavior chain interruption strategy (BCIS), an evidence-based intervention for increasing requesting behaviors in individuals with moderate to severe disabilities. A review of the relevant literature is provided, as well as a description of the behavioral principles that…

Bayes, Daniel A.; Heath, Amy K.; Williams, Carol; Ganz, Jennifer B.

2013-01-01

263

The Behavior Chain Interruption Strategy: A Review of Research and Discussion of Future Directions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of 10 studies that utilize the behavior chain interruption strategy (BCIS) to teach communication skills to individuals with severe disabilities found that BCIS has been successfully applied to individuals across a wide range of ages and levels of disability, including learners with multiple disabilities. Generalization concerns are…

Carter, Mark; Grunsell, Julie

2001-01-01

264

Case Study: Evaluating the Effect of Email Interruptions within the Workplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experience report outlines the value of measuring the communication processes through electronic monitoring and is a follow up to the paper presented at the EASE 2001 conference last year. The use of email by employees at the Danwood Group was studied and it was found that the interrupt effect from emails was non-trivial. The common reaction to the arrival

Thomas Jackson; Ray Dawson; Darren Wilson

2001-01-01

265

Interruptions in the workplace: A case study to reduce their effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaboration is an important aspect for virtually all workplace environments. Workplaces often encourage and foster collaboration in a variety of ways with the purpose to collectively focus the group's attention on a specific problem and solve it as quickly and as efficiently as possible. While collaboration is generally viewed as a positive aspect of the workplace, the negative aspect—interruption—cannot be

Edward R. Sykes

2011-01-01

266

Strategizing as protective interrupting Preliminary insights from two case studies on strategic change within hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Taking a practice-based perspective on strategy and strategic change, this paper aims at contributing to the current discussion about the interface betweenorganizing and strategizing. Drawing on the concept of strategic episodes, we specifically explore practices and processes conducive,to a ,fruitful interruption and suspension of operational ,routines allowing ,the differentiation of strategizing from organizing. The focus is on strategic initiatives,

Silke Bucher

267

Method and apparatus of maintaining a video signal through brief interruptions of a related control signal  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A night vision system that allows a video camera to continue to be operational after a power control signal, such as a headlamp switch, to the camera has been temporarily interrupted. The system is designed to avoid a camera calibration or equalization process every time the power control signal from the camera or a display unit is disrupted.

2008-04-08

268

Mitigating Disruptive Effects of Interruptions through Training: What Needs to Be Practiced?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is generally accepted that, with practice, people improve on most tasks. However, when tasks have multiple parts, it is not always clear what aspects of the tasks practice or training should focus on. This research explores the features that allow training to improve the ability to resume a task after an interruption, specifically focusing on…

Cades, David M.; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A.; Trafton, J. Gregory; Monk, Christopher A.

2011-01-01

269

Further Evaluation of Response Interruption and Redirection as Treatment for Stereotypy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of 2 forms of response interruption and redirection (RIRD)--motor RIRD and vocal RIRD--were examined with 4 boys with autism to evaluate further the effects of this intervention and its potential underlying mechanisms. In Experiment 1, the effects of motor RIRD and vocal RIRD on vocal stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were…

Ahrens, Erin N.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Kodak, Tiffany; Worsdell, April S.; Keegan, Courtney

2011-01-01

270

Delays and interruptions: A self-perpetuating paradox of communication technology use  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contemporary knowledge work organizations, work is often accomplished through communication. Consequently, communication disruptions often translate into work disruptions. In this paper, we identify two types of communication disruptions with implications for the relative organization of work: delays and interruptions. Communication delays contribute to work disorganization when a worker is unable to move forward with a task due to insufficient

Julie Rennecker; Lindsey Godwin

2005-01-01

271

Response Interruption and Redirection for Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism: A Systematic Replication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study systematically replicated and extended previous research on response interruption and redirection (RIRD) by assessing instructed responses of a different topography than the target behavior, percentage of session spent in treatment, generalization of behavior reduction, and social validity of the intervention. Results showed that RIRD…

Cassella, Megan Duffy; Sidener, Tina M.; Sidener, David W.; Progar, Patrick R.

2011-01-01

272

Finish Hard Turning of Continuous and Interrupted Surfaces with CBN and Coated Carbide Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) and coated carbide tools were used for finish turning of hardened steel with continuous and interrupted surfaces. The objective of this work is to investigate the conditions under which carbide tools can give optimal results in terms of both, tool wear and surface integrity of the machined surface, in comparison to costly CBN

Manu Dogra; Vishal S. Sharma; Anish Sachdeva; Narinder Mohan Suri

2011-01-01

273

Improving Memory after Interruption: Exploiting Soft Constraints and Manipulating Information Access Cost  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forgetting what one was doing prior to interruption is an everyday problem. The recent soft constraints hypothesis (Gray, Sims, Fu, & Schoelles, 2006) emphasizes the strategic adaptation of information processing strategy to the task environment. It predicts that increasing information access cost (IAC: the time, and physical and mental effort…

Morgan, Phillip L.; Patrick, John; Waldron, Samuel M.; King, Sophia L.; Patrick, Tanya

2009-01-01

274

A Comparison of Alternative Approaches to the Analysis of Interrupted Time-Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer generated data representative of 16 Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA) models were used to compare the results of interrupted time-series analysis using: (1) the known model identification, (2) an assumed (l,0,0) model, and (3) an assumed (3,0,0) model as an approximation to the General Transformation approach. (Author/BW)

Harrop, John W.; Velicer, Wayne F.

1985-01-01

275

Interruptions between the triple helix peptides can promote the formation of amyloid-like fibrils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been reported that collagen can initiate or accelerate the formation of amyloid fibrils. Non-fibrillar collagen types have sites where the repeating (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)n sequences are interrupted by non- Gly-Xaa-Yaa sequences, and we are investigating the hypothesis that some of these interruptions can promote amyloid formation. Our experimental data show that model peptides containing an 8 or 9 residue interruption sequence between (Gly-Pro-Hyp)n domains have a strong propensity for self association to form fibrous structures. A peptide containing only the 9-residue interruption sequence forms amyloid like fibrils with anti-parallel ? sheet. Computational analysis predicts that 33 out of 374 naturally occurring human non-fibrillar collagen sequences within or between triple-helical sequences have significant cross-? aggregation potential, including the 8 and 9 residue sequences studied in peptides. Further studies are in progress to investigate whether a triple-helix peptide promotes amyloidogenesis and whether amyloid interferes with collagen fibrillogenesis.

Parmar, Avanish; Hwang, Eileen; Brodsky, Barbara

2010-03-01

276

Controlled AC drives with ride-through capability at power interruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

General purpose PWM inverter drives are equipped with an undervoltage protection mechanism, causing the system to shut down within a few milliseconds after a power interruption in the mains. This may entail loss or damage of material in such critical applications as the production of textile fibers, paper, or with extruder drives. The proposed solution to this problem is to

Joachim Holtz; Wolfgang Lotzkat; Siegfried Stadtfeld

1994-01-01

277

Prospective Memory in Children: The Effects of Age and Task Interruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prospective memory (PM), remembering to carry out a task in the future, is highly relevant to children's everyday functioning, yet relatively little is known about it. For these reasons the effects of age and task interruption on PM were studied in 3 experiments. Children aged 4, 5, and 7 years were asked to name pictures in stacks of cards (the

Lia Kvavilashvili; David J. Messer; Pippa Ebdon

2001-01-01

278

Distinct mechanisms for the impact of distraction and interruption on working memory in aging  

PubMed Central

Interference is known to negatively impact the ability to maintain information in working memory (WM), an effect that is exacerbated with aging. Here, we explore how distinct sources of interference, i.e., distraction (stimuli to-be-ignored) and interruption (stimuli requiring attention), differentially influence WM in younger and older adults. EEG was recorded while participants engaged in three versions of a delayed-recognition task: no interference, a distracting stimulus, and an interrupting stimulus presented during WM maintenance. Behaviorally, both types of interference negatively impacted WM accuracy in older adults significantly more than younger adults (with a larger deficit for interruptions). N170 latency measures revealed that the degree of processing both distractors and interruptors predicted WM accuracy in both populations. However, while WM impairments could be explained by excessive attention to distractors by older adults (a suppression deficit), impairment induced by interruption were not clearly mediated by age-related increases in attention to interruptors. These results suggest that distinct underlying mechanisms mediate the impact of different types of external interference on WM in normal aging.

Clapp, Wesley C; Gazzaley, Adam

2010-01-01

279

A gunner model for an AAA tracking task with interrupted observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of modeling a trained human operator's tracking performance in an anti-aircraft system under various display blanking conditions is discussed. The input to the gunner is the observable tracking error subjected to repeated interruptions (blanking). A simple and effective gunner model was developed. The effect of blanking on the gunner's tracking performance is approached via modeling the observer and controller gains.

Yu, C. F.; Wei, K. C.; Vikmanis, M.

1982-01-01

280

An improved finite difference method for calculating electric field in high voltage vacuum interrupter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric field distribution of vacuum interrupter has been calculated using multiple grid algorithm. The thorny problem encountered in finite difference method (FDM) has been well manipulated by transforming the original calculated region with complex boundary to a regular region with rectangular boundary employing the ellipsoid equation for mesh generation. The mathematic model on transformed region has been deduced and

Li Li; Wang Erzhi

2002-01-01

281

Formal Homologous Aldol Reactions: Interrupting the Nazarov Cyclization via Carboalkoxylation of Alkynes.  

PubMed

Reactions between 1,4-pentadien-3-ones and aryl acetylenes in the presence of BF3·OEt2 furnish ?-phenacyl cyclopentanones via a domino electrocyclization/carboalkoxylation reaction sequence. The overall process underscores a new mode of interrupted Nazarov trapping, where two new carbon-carbon bonds are installed with concomitant formation of carbonyl functionality. PMID:24735109

Wu, Yen-Ku; West, F G

2014-05-01

282

Throughput Analysis of Go-Back-N ARQ Protocol under Markovian Interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we determine the performance of a packet data multiplexer with go-back-N ARQ protocol under Markovian interruption. It is assumed that the input process into the system is Poisson process. The output channel is divided into a series of time slots and a data packet can be transmitted in a slot time. It is modeled that the output

Dashdondov Khongorzul; Brian B. C. Shinn

2008-01-01

283

OCTL Laser Beam Transmission Interruptions due to Aircraft and Predictive Avoidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser beam transmission from the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) at Table Mountain, California, is required in order to provide a beacon source for optical link acquisition between spacecraft carrying laser communication terminals and OCTL. The laser transmission must be regulated in order to avoid inadvertent irradiation of overflying aircraft or spacecraft. In this article, we present an analysis and data to determine the frequency and duration of laser transmission interruptions so that future laser communication operations can be planned. A week's worth of aircraft flight-path data in the vicinity of OCTL was obtained from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The FAA data were analyzed, along with simulated Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft predicted orbital data, in order to determine the frequency of laser transmission interruptions. An upper bound of five interruptions per 15-min period was observed due to aircraft overflights. Under more favorable conditions, a 15-min pass to the LADEE spacecraft could encounter no interruptions due to aircraft. The analysis was corroborated with "ground-truth" measurements at OCTL, using the existing laser safety system sensors and radar, to monitor aircraft that intercept a plus-or-minus 2.5-deg exclusion zone around the boresight axis of the OCTL telescope. The frequency of interruptions obtained from this data was in agreement with the predictions obtained using the FAA data analysis. Furthermore, the ground observation confirmed typical interrupt durations of 3 to 5 s due to overflying aircraft. This sets a lower bound for the fractional duration of the shoot window to be approximately 98 percent. Predictive avoidance (PA) data obtained from the Laser Clearing House (LCH) for approximately one month with the Moon as a target was analyzed. Note that the difference between using the Moon as a target versus simulated LADEE spacecraft orbital data is that the Moon line of sight is continuous from moonrise to moonset, whereas the line of sight to the spacecraft is interrupted due to occultation of the spacecraft by the Moon. The limited LCH data analysis presented indicates that though greater than 90 percent of laser shoot windows can be accessed nearly two-thirds of the time, it can drop to 60 to 90 percent approximately one-third of the time, with a single instance when it dropped to 32 percent.

Biswas, A.; Roberts, W. T.; Kovalik, J. M.; Wright, M. W.

2012-11-01

284

The Role of Interruptions in polyQ in the Pathology of SCA1  

PubMed Central

At least nine dominant neurodegenerative diseases are caused by expansion of CAG repeats in coding regions of specific genes that result in abnormal elongation of polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts in the corresponding gene products. When above a threshold that is specific for each disease the expanded polyQ repeats promote protein aggregation, misfolding and neuronal cell death. The length of the polyQ tract inversely correlates with the age at disease onset. It has been observed that interruption of the CAG tract by silent (CAA) or missense (CAT) mutations may strongly modulate the effect of the expansion and delay the onset age. We have carried out an extensive study in which we have complemented DNA sequence determination with cellular and biophysical models. By sequencing cloned normal and expanded SCA1 alleles taken from our cohort of ataxia patients we have determined sequence variations not detected by allele sizing and observed for the first time that repeat instability can occur even in the presence of CAG interruptions. We show that histidine interrupted pathogenic alleles occur with relatively high frequency (11%) and that the age at onset inversely correlates linearly with the longer uninterrupted CAG stretch. This could be reproduced in a cellular model to support the hypothesis of a linear behaviour of polyQ. We clarified by in vitro studies the mechanism by which polyQ interruption slows down aggregation. Our study contributes to the understanding of the role of polyQ interruption in the SCA1 phenotype with regards to age at disease onset, prognosis and transmission.

Faggiano, Serena; Vannocci, Tommaso; Rezaei, Human; Pemble, Sally; Sweeney, Mary G.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Davis, Mary B.; Pastore, Annalisa; Giunti, Paola

2013-01-01

285

Changes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Populations after Treatment Interruption in Patients Failing Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase and protease that confer resistance to antiretroviral agents are usually accompanied by a reduction in the viral replicative capacity under drug-free conditions. Consequently, when antiretroviral treatment is interrupted in HIV-1-infected patients harboring drug-resistant virus, resistant quasi-species appear to be most often replaced within several weeks by wild-type virus. Using a real-time PCR-based technique for the selective quantification of resistant viral sequences in plasma, we have studied the kinetics of the switch from mutant to wild-type virus and evaluated the extent to which minority populations of resistant viruses not detected by genotyping persist in these individuals. Among 12 patients with viruses expressing the V82A or L90M resistance mutation who had undergone a 3-month interruption of therapy and for whom conventional genotyping had revealed an apparent total reconversion to wild-type virus, minority populations expressing these mutations, representing 0.1 to 21% of total virus, were still detectable in 9 cases. Kinetic studies demonstrated that viruses expressing resistance mutations could be detected for >5 months after the discontinuation of treatment in some patients. Most of the minority resistant genomes detected more than 3 months after the interruption of therapy carried only part of the mutations present in the resistant viruses prior to treatment interruption and appeared to result from the emergence of existing strains selected at earlier stages in the development of drug resistance. Thus, following the interruption of treatment, viral populations containing resistance mutations can persist for several months after the time when conventional genotyping techniques detect only wild-type virus. These populations include viral strains with only some of the resistance mutations initially present, strains that presumably express better fitness under drug-free conditions.

Hance, Allan J.; Lemiale, Virginie; Izopet, Jacques; Lecossier, Denise; Joly, Veronique; Massip, Patrice; Mammano, Fabrizio; Descamps, Diane; Brun-Vezinet, Francoise; Clavel, Francois

2001-01-01

286

An evaluation of diagnostic techniques relevant to arcing fault current interrupters for direct current power systems in future aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arc fault circuit interrupters (AFCI) are a relatively new development in the area of circuit protection. Typical circuit breakers are designed to detect an overload current in the protected circuit and trip open within a specified period of time. The AFCI is a device that detects and interrupts an arcing fault when it occurs. An arc fault is a dangerous

R. Spyker; D. L. Schweickart; J. C. Horwath; L. C. Walko; D. Grosjean

2005-01-01

287

Interruption costs caused by supply voltage dips and outages in small industrial plants: a case study and survey results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper illustrates a practical application of a method for interruption costs calculation. The case study refers to a real manufacturing plant, investigated by the authors during a recent survey activity focused on the effects of power quality (PQ) issues and related costs in small industrial plants. The paper also reports the survey main results concerning the interruption costs and

S. Quaia; F. Tosato

2003-01-01

288

A rare case of Interrupted Aortic Arch in an adolescent, treated successfully by off pump extraanatomic bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interrupted Aortic Arch is a life threatening anomaly that has a ductus dependant circulation and needs urgent surgical intervention.\\u000a We here by present a case of Type B Arch Interruption, presenting in adolescence, with an absent ductus treated by an off\\u000a pump extraanatomic bypass and is a very rare case reported treated by the unique approach.

Sushan Mukherjee; Mayukh Chatterjee; Dibyendu Khan; Vinod Kumar

2010-01-01

289

Influence of allowable interruption period on estimates of accelerometer wear time and sedentary time in older adults  

PubMed Central

The criteria one uses to reduce accelerometer data can profoundly influence the interpretation of research outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of three different interruption periods (i.e., 20, 30, and 60 minutes) on the amount of data retained for analyses and estimates of sedentary time among older adults. Older adults (N=311; Mage=71.1) wore an accelerometer for seven days and reported wear time on an accelerometer log. Accelerometer data were downloaded and scored using 20, 30, and 60-minute interruption periods. Estimates of wear time derived using each interruption period were compared to self-reported wear time, and descriptive statistics were used to compare estimates of sedentary time. Results showed a longer interruption period (i.e., 60 minutes) yields the largest sample size and the closest approximation of self-reported wear time. A short interruption period (i.e., 20 minutes) is likely to underestimate sedentary time among older adults.

Mailey, Emily L.; Gothe, Neha P.; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Fanning, Jason T.; Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward

2013-01-01

290

Microwave-induced DC currents in mesoscopic structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the power ( P) dependence of microwave (MW)-induced current ( Iph) of a 1-?m sized mesoscopic structure fabricated from two-dimensional electron gas in the GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure at temperature of 1.4 K. MW signals were fed onto the sample through a loop antenna nearby and Iph is measured from a pair of ohmic contacts. We found that Iph is proportional to P at low- P limit; this dependence has been predicted for diffusion-limited electron transport in mesoscopic systems. By contrast, for large P, the dependence is extremely non-monotonous and complicated; even though its physical origin is still not clear so far, our data suggest it is related to the scattering processes from boundaries and impurities in the mesoscopic structure. We also investigated the symmetry properties against reversal of magnetic field ( B) and found that the field-symmetric part of Iph(B) is consistent with the variation of magnetoresistance; there exists also an anti-symmetric part, which should be related to time-reversal-symmetry-breaking scattering mechanisms in the channel.

Li, L. C.; Sung, Y. T.; Chang, C. W.; Suen, Y. W.; Chen, K. Y.; Liang, C. T.; Chen, Y. F.; Lee, B. C.; Lee, C. P.

2010-02-01

291

AGG/CCT interruptions affect nucleosome formation and positioning of healthy-length CGG/CCG triplet repeats  

PubMed Central

Background Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited form of mental retardation, is caused by expansion of a CGG/CCG repeat tract in the 5?-untranslated region of the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene, which changes the functional organization of the gene from euchromatin to heterochromatin. Interestingly, healthy-length repeat tracts possess AGG/CCT interruptions every 9–10 repeats, and clinical data shows that loss of these interruptions is linked to expansion of the repeat tract to disease-length. Thus, it is important to understand how these interruptions alter the behavior of the repeat tract in the packaged gene. Results To investigate how uninterrupted and interrupted CGG/CCG repeat tracts interact with the histone core, we designed experiments using the nucleosome core particle, the most basic unit of chromatin packaging. Using DNA containing 19 CGG/CCG repeats, flanked by either a nucleosome positioning sequence or the FMR1 gene sequence, we determined that the addition of a single AGG/CCT interruption modulates both the ability of the CGG/CCG repeat DNA to incorporate into a nucleosome and the rotational and translational position of the repeat DNA around the histone core when flanked by the nucleosome positioning sequence. The presence of these interruptions also alters the periodicity of the DNA in the nucleosome; interrupted repeat tracts have a greater periodicity than uninterrupted repeats. Conclusions This work defines the ability of AGG/CCT interruptions to modulate the behavior of the repeat tract in the packaged gene and contributes to our understanding of the role that AGG/CCT interruptions play in suppressing expansion and maintaining the correct functional organization of the FMR1 gene, highlighting a protective role played by the interruptions in genomic packaging.

2013-01-01

292

Daily sedative interruption versus intermittent sedation in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients: a randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background Daily sedative interruption and intermittent sedation are effective in abbreviating the time on mechanical ventilation. Whether one is superior to the other has not yet been determined. Our aim was to compare daily interruption and intermittent sedation during the mechanical ventilation period in a low nurse staffing ICU. Methods Adult patients expected to need mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours were randomly assigned, in a single center, either to daily interruption of continuous sedative and opioid infusion or to intermittent sedation. In both cases, our goal was to maintain a Sedation Agitation Scale (SAS) level of 3 or 4; that is patients should be calm, easily arousable or awakened with verbal stimuli or gentle shaking. Primary outcome was ventilator-free days in 28 days. Secondary outcomes were ICU and hospital mortality, incidence of delirium, nurse workload, self-extubation and psychological distress six months after ICU discharge. Results A total of 60 patients were included. There were no differences in the ventilator-free days in 28 days between daily interruption and intermittent sedation (median: 24 versus 25 days, P?=?0.160). There were also no differences in ICU mortality (40 versus 23.3%, P?=?0.165), hospital mortality (43.3 versus 30%, P?=?0.284), incidence of delirium (30 versus 40%, P?=?0.472), self-extubation (3.3 versus 6.7%, P?=?0.514), and psychological stress six months after ICU discharge. Also, the nurse workload was not different between groups, but it was reduced on day 5 compared to day 1 in both groups (Nurse Activity Score (NAS) in the intermittent sedation group was 54 on day 1 versus 39 on day 5, P?interruption group was 53 on day 1 versus 38 on day 5, P?interruption group. The tidal volume was higher in the intermittent sedation group during the first five days of ICU stay. Conclusions There was no difference in the number of ventilator-free days in 28 days between both groups. Intermittent sedation was associated with lower sedative and opioid doses. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00824239.

2014-01-01

293

Treatment Interruptions  

MedlinePLUS

... who stopped their medications. Do not stop your ART without careful discussion with your health care provider. ... infection. People infected with hepatitis B who stopped ART were much more likely to experience a “flare” ...

294

Evaluation of sensitive ground-fault interrupters for coal mines. Information Circular/1985  

SciTech Connect

Contacts with energized conductors are a major cause of electrocutions in underground coal mines. Sensitive ground-fault interrupters (GFI's) installed on in-mine three-phase ac utilization circuits would probably prevent the majority of these deaths. A sensitive GFI is a protective device that detects and interrupts small deadly ground currents in the milliampere range before those currents can cause ventricular fibrillation in humans. Commercially available three-phase sensitive GFI's have not been specifically designed for application in coal mines. The Bureau of Mines therefore tested three commercial GFI models to determine their worthiness for mine power systems. GFI design and construction, transient immunity, reliability, and time-current characteristics were evaluated in laboratory tests. No commercial device was found suitable for mine use without design modifications.

Yenchek, M.R.; Ackerman, M.N.

1985-01-01

295

The effect of contact angle on triangular shape interrupted microchannel heat sinks performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of different contact angle on triangular shaped interrupted microchannel performance was studied by simulation using FLUENT software. The investigated effects were pressure drop and platinum film temperature. The flow in microchannel is laminar and single phase. Water was used as the working fluid and the interrupted microchannel is made of silicon. A thin platinum film plate was deposited to provide uniform heat flux. The geometry dimension of the heat sink is 30 mm in length, width of 7 mm and the thickness of 0.525 mm. The chosen contact angles that were investigated are 48.13°, 51.27° and 58.48°. From the simulation result, pressure drop and thermal dissipation is the highest for contact angle 58.48° and 48.13° respectively. Reducing the contact angle reduces the pressure drop and increases the thermal dissipation.

Mohd Azmi, Mohd Irwan; Chuan, Yeoh Chit; Tokit, Ernie Mat; Razali, Nadlene; Munir, Fudhail Abd; Azmi Nordin, Mohd Nur; Mat Nuri, Nur Rashid

2012-06-01

296

Cost of Power Interruptions to Electricity Consumers in the UnitedStates (U.S.)  

SciTech Connect

The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern U.S.and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 catalyzed discussions about modernizingthe U.S. electricity grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of$50 to $100 billion would be needed. This work seeks to better understandan important piece of information that has been missing from thesediscussions: What do power interruptions and fluctuations in powerquality (power-quality events) cost electricity consumers? We developed abottom-up approach for assessing the cost to U.S. electricity consumersof power interruptions and power-quality events (referred to collectivelyas "reliability events"). The approach can be used to help assess thepotential benefits of investments in improving the reliability of thegrid. We developed a new estimate based on publicly availableinformation, and assessed how uncertainties in these data affect thisestimate using sensitivity analysis.

Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Eto, Joseph H.

2006-02-16

297

Isolated Interrupted Aortic Arch: Unexpected Diagnosis in a 63-Year-Old Male  

PubMed Central

A 63-year-old male with history of hypertension, dyspnea on exertion, and chronic chest pain was admitted for elective cardiac angiography. Arterial blood pressure was 160/90 mmHg in both arms. Femoral and popliteal pulses were extremely weak, and third (S3) and fourth (S4) heart sounds were audible. Aortography showed a mildly dilated aortic root with double brachiocephalic trunk and interruption of aortic arch at isthmus. Profuse and well-developed collaterals appeared at neck and thorax. The patient was recommended to take medical treatment for his hypertension and advanced heart failure. The aim of this paper, is to review the diagnostic and therapeutic options for treatment of the interrupted aortic arch.

Javadzadegan, Hassan; Porhomayon, Jahan; Sadighi, Alireza; Yavarikia, Mehrdad; Nader, Nader

2011-01-01

298

Internal temperature gradient of alloy semiconductor melts from interrupted growth experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interrupted growth experiments on Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Se alloys were performed in an attempt to estimate the actual internal temperature gradient in the melt during directional solidification. The results have been analyzed in terms of a theoretical model which assumes an axial composition profile characteristic of diffusion controlled solute redistribution during growth. A comparison of the calculated and measured values suggests a reduction in the applied (empty furnace) temperature gradient by about a factor of three. Values of the interface segregation coefficient (k) determined from the phase diagram, predict values of solute concentration build up in the solid during growth interruptions which are inconsistent with measured results. It appears that the k values used tend to underestimate the actual k values for higher alloy compositions and overestimate k for the lower alloy compositions.

Andrews, R. N.; Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.

1988-01-01

299

Factors associated with interruption of treatment among Pulmonary Tuberculosis patients in Plateau State, Nigeria. 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Nigeria has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens in the world with estimated incidence of 133 per 100,000 populations. Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) is an emerging threat of the TB control in Nigeria caused mainly by incomplete treatment. This study explored factors that affect adherence to treatment among patients undergoing direct observation of TB treatment in Plateau state, Nigeria. Methods Between June and July 2011, we reviewed medical records and interviewed randomly selected pulmonary TB patients in their eighth month of treatment. Information on patients? clinical, socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics was collected using checklist and structured questionnaire for knowledge of treatment duration and reasons for interruption of treatment. We conducted focus group discussions with patients about barriers to treatment adherence. Data were analyzed with Epi Info software. Results Of 378 records reviewed, 229 (61%) patients were male; mean age 37.6 ±13.5 years and 71 (19%) interrupted their treatment. Interruption of treatment was associated with living > 5 km from TB treatment site (AOR: 11.3; CI 95%: 5.7-22.2), lack of knowledge of duration of treatment (AOR: 6.1; CI 95%: 2.8-13.2) and cigarette smoking (AOR: 3.4; CI 95%: 1.5- 8.0). Major reasons for the interruption were lack of transport fare (40%) and feeling well (25%). Focused group discussions revealed unfriendly attitudes of health care workers as barriers to adherence to treatment. Conclusion This study revealed knowledge of the patients on the duration of treatment, distance and health workers attitude as the major determinants of adherent to TB treatment. Training for health care workers on patient education was conducted during routine supportive supervision.

Ibrahim, Luka Mangveep; Hadejia, Idris Suleiman; Nguku, Patrick; Dankoli, Raymond; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Akhimien, Moses Obiemen; Ogiri, Samuel; Oyemakinde, Akin; Dalhatu, Ibrahim; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Nsubuga, Peter

2014-01-01

300

Inflammatory activation following interruption of long-term cardiac resynchronization therapy.  

PubMed

Previous observations suggest that cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) may exert an anti-inflammatory effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of temporary interruption of long-term CRT on plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). The study group consisted of 54 patients (32 male and 22 female, mean age 64 years) with chronic heart failure (HF) treated with CRT. BNP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and neopterin were measured three times: after 26-28 weeks of continuous CRT (CRT-on), 48 h after its cessation (CRT-off), and 48 h after switching the CRT-on again. CRT interruption resulted in a significant worsening of left ventricular systolic function: reduction of cardiac output (CO), dP/dt, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), as well as deterioration of mitral regurgitation in the CRT responder group. A significant increase in serum concentrations of hs-CRP, neopterin, IL-6, and BNP was noted in this subpopulation. In CRT nonresponders, no significant changes were observed. In responders the changes in serum concentrations of hs-CRP, IL-6, neopterin, and BNP, following CRT interruption, significantly correlated with the respective changes in thoracic fluid content (TFC) and inversely correlated with LVEF changes. Even short (48 h) interruption of long-term CRT led to a significant increase of proinflammatory cytokines and BNP concentrations in responders. The changes in hs-CRP, IL-6, neopterin, and BNP concentrations correlated with the change in TFC-marker of pulmonary congestion and inversely correlated with the change in LVEF. PMID:23242167

Rubaj, Andrzej; Ruci?ski, Piotr; Oleszczak, Krzysztof; Trojnar, Micha? K; Wójcik, Maciej; Wysoki?ski, Andrzej; Kutarski, Andrzej

2013-09-01

301

Optimal design of multi-shield for improvement of insulation performance of high voltage Vacuum Interrupter  

Microsoft Academic Search

(?+?) Evolution Strategy(ES), based on electrostatic calculation, is suggested for improving the insulation performance of Vacuum Interrupter(VI). Axi-symmetric finite element routine including floating boundary condition for floating shields is applied to analyze electric potential and field distribution in VI. Three design variables of two types of multi-shield are selected for minimizing the maximum electric field strength. Finally, optimal solutions for

Hyun-Woo Joo; Jaeseop Ryu; Sungjun Tak; Jong-Hyuk Lee; Jong-Ho Lee

2010-01-01

302

Severe neurological crisis in a patient with hereditary tyrosinaemia type I after interruption of NTBC treatment.  

PubMed

Neurological crises do not occur in patients with tyrosinaemia type I treated with NTBC. We report an 8 month-old boy with severe neurological crisis after interruption of NTBC treatment including progressive ascending polyneuropathy and diaphragmatic paralysis, arterial hypertension, respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation who later also developed impaired liver function and tubulopathy. After re-introduction of NTBC the patient slowly regained normal neurological functions and recovered completely. PMID:18500574

Schlump, J-U; Perot, C; Ketteler, K; Schiff, M; Mayatepek, E; Wendel, U; Spiekerkoetter, U

2008-12-01

303

Prenatal diagnosis of isolated interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation to superior vena cava  

PubMed Central

Absence of inferior vena cava is an uncommon congenital abnormality. It is usually associated with other structural anomalies, typically left isomerism. We report a case of interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation diagnosed as an isolated finding during routine prenatal ultrasound scan, confirmed by post-natal echocardiography. Detailed ultrasound examination of the fetal anatomy failed to demonstrate other anomalies. The neonatal course of this fetus was uneventful.

Giang, Do Thi Cam; Rajeesh, Gayatri; Vaidyanathan, Balu

2014-01-01

304

A rare association of interrupted aortic arch type C and microdeletion 22q11.2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microdeletion 22q11.2 is associated with a variety of findings, and the most common are cardiac defects. It is very frequently\\u000a associated with interrupted aortic arch (IAA) type B and very rarely with type A and type C. Here we report the first case\\u000a of IAA type C associated with 22q11.2 deletion in Serbia and, to the best of our knowledge,

Goran Cuturilo; Danijela Drakulic; Milena Stevanovic; Ida Jovanovic; Milan Djukic; Slobodanka Miletic-Grkovic; Marina Atanaskovic-Markovic

2008-01-01

305

A self timed interrupt controller: a case study in asynchronous micro-architecture design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of the design and layout simulation of an interrupt controller dedicated to the SGS-Thomson ST9 microprocessor family. The unit is composed of a delay insensitive local control-path and a synchronous local data-path for priority computations. The local control-path is automatically synthesised out of an Occam algorithmic specification, while the local data-path is made up of conventional

Alessandro De Gloria; Paolo Faraboschi; Mauro Olivieri

1994-01-01

306

High Voltage Vacuum Interrupters; Technical and Physical Feasibility versus Economical Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tn the medium voltage range the vacuum switching principle is well established (Fink and Renz, 2002). Today vacuum circuit breakers are available up to 52 kV rated voltage and 80 kA short-circuit current. By using a series arrangement of two or more vacuum interrupters it is basically possible to double or multiply the dielectric strength without increasing the operating energy

R. Renz

2006-01-01

307

Demand response modeling considering Interruptible\\/Curtailable loads and capacity market programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a massive focus has been made on demand response (DR) programs, aimed to electricity price reduction, transmission lines congestion resolving, security enhancement and improvement of market liquidity. Basically, demand response programs are divided into two main categories namely, incentive-based programs and time-based programs. The focus of this paper is on Interruptible\\/Curtailable service (I\\/C) and capacity market programs (CAP), which

H. A. Aalami; M. Parsa Moghaddam; G. R. Yousefi

2010-01-01

308

An Interrupted Time Series Evaluation of a Hepatitis C Intervention for Persons with HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate HCV knowledge is lacking among high-risk groups, including people with HIV\\/AIDS (PLWHA). Liver disease primarily\\u000a due to HCV has emerged as a serious cause of mortality among PLWHA. We used an Interrupted Time Series design to evaluate\\u000a a social-ecologically based intervention for PLWHA, where an infectious disease clinic serving a six-county intervention area\\u000a was monitored before (7 months) and after

Rae Jean Proeschold-Bell; Bettina Hoeppner; Baishakhi Taylor; Sarah Cohen; Rachel Blouin; Beth Stringfield; Andrew J. Muir

309

Impact of Non-interruptive Medication Laboratory Monitoring Alerts in Ambulatory Care  

PubMed Central

Objective Interruptive alerts within electronic applications can cause “alert fatigue” if they fire too frequently or are clinically reasonable only some of the time. We assessed the impact of non-interruptive, real-time medication laboratory alerts on provider lab test ordering. Design We enrolled 22 outpatient practices into a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Clinics either used the existing system or received on-screen recommendations for baseline laboratory tests when prescribing new medications. Since the warnings were non-interruptive, providers did not have to act upon or acknowledge the notification to complete a medication request. Measurements Data were collected each time providers performed suggested laboratory testing within 14 days of a new prescription order. Findings were adjusted for patient and provider characteristics as well as patient clustering within clinics. Results Among 12 clinics with 191 providers in the control group and 10 clinics with 175 providers in the intervention group, there were 3673 total events where baseline lab tests would have been advised: 1988 events in the control group and 1685 in the intervention group. In the control group, baseline labs were requested for 771 (39%) of the medications. In the intervention group, baseline labs were ordered by clinicians in 689 (41%) of the cases. Overall, no significant association existed between the intervention and the rate of ordering appropriate baseline laboratory tests. Conclusion We found that non-interruptive medication laboratory monitoring alerts were not effective in improving receipt of recommended baseline laboratory test monitoring for medications. Further work is necessary to optimize compliance with non-critical recommendations.

Lo, Helen G.; Matheny, Michael E.; Seger, Diane L.; Bates, David W.; Gandhi, Tejal K.

2009-01-01

310

Visual context due to speech-reading suppresses the auditory response to acoustic interruptions in speech  

PubMed Central

Speech reading enhances auditory perception in noise. One means by which this perceptual facilitation comes about is through information from visual networks reinforcing the encoding of the congruent speech signal by ignoring interfering acoustic signals. We tested this hypothesis neurophysiologically by acquiring EEG while individuals listened to words with a fixed portion of each word replaced by white noise. Congruent (meaningful) or incongruent (reversed frames) mouth movements accompanied the words. Individuals judged whether they heard the words as continuous (illusion) or interrupted (illusion failure) through the noise. We hypothesized that congruent, as opposed to incongruent, mouth movements should further enhance illusory perception by suppressing the auditory cortex's response to interruption onsets and offsets. Indeed, we found that the N1 auditory evoked potential (AEP) to noise onsets and offsets was reduced when individuals experienced the illusion during congruent, but not incongruent, audiovisual streams. This N1 inhibitory effect was most prominent at noise offsets, suggesting that visual influences on auditory perception are instigated to a greater extent during noisy periods. These findings suggest that visual context due to speech-reading disengages (inhibits) neural processes associated with interfering sounds (e.g., noisy interruptions) during speech perception.

Bhat, Jyoti; Pitt, Mark A.; Shahin, Antoine J.

2014-01-01

311

The effects of orlistat treatment interruption on weight and associated metabolic parameters.  

PubMed

Due to the insurance companies' restrictions, partial reimbursement of orlistat treatment in the Czech Republic is restricted to obese diabetics with BMI >35 who are concurrently treated pharmacologically for dyslipidaemia, hypertension or ischaemic heart disease, with compulsory interruption of minimum 3 months, only after which the treatment can be resumed for another year. We evaluated 32 patients with Type 2 diabetes who underwent such course of treatment, with view of establishing whether the interruption has any detrimental effect on the success of the therapy in terms of weight loss and diabetes compensation. The treatment was well tolerated, producing statistically significant decrease in BMI and triglyceride levels during the first year, which was maintained in the second year. Fasting glucose levels were improved at nearly-significant level. The interruption in treatment between the first and second year had no marked detrimental effect, although the relative failure of the second treatment year to bring further benefits to the patients can certainly be at least partially attributed to this treatment gap. PMID:17402552

Owen, K; Svacina, S

2006-01-01

312

Visual context due to speech-reading suppresses the auditory response to acoustic interruptions in speech.  

PubMed

Speech reading enhances auditory perception in noise. One means by which this perceptual facilitation comes about is through information from visual networks reinforcing the encoding of the congruent speech signal by ignoring interfering acoustic signals. We tested this hypothesis neurophysiologically by acquiring EEG while individuals listened to words with a fixed portion of each word replaced by white noise. Congruent (meaningful) or incongruent (reversed frames) mouth movements accompanied the words. Individuals judged whether they heard the words as continuous (illusion) or interrupted (illusion failure) through the noise. We hypothesized that congruent, as opposed to incongruent, mouth movements should further enhance illusory perception by suppressing the auditory cortex's response to interruption onsets and offsets. Indeed, we found that the N1 auditory evoked potential (AEP) to noise onsets and offsets was reduced when individuals experienced the illusion during congruent, but not incongruent, audiovisual streams. This N1 inhibitory effect was most prominent at noise offsets, suggesting that visual influences on auditory perception are instigated to a greater extent during noisy periods. These findings suggest that visual context due to speech-reading disengages (inhibits) neural processes associated with interfering sounds (e.g., noisy interruptions) during speech perception. PMID:25053937

Bhat, Jyoti; Pitt, Mark A; Shahin, Antoine J

2014-01-01

313

Exact Efficient Handling of Interrupted Illumination in Helical Cone-Beam Computed Tomography with Arbitrary Pitch*  

PubMed Central

We present a theoretically-exact and stable computed tomography (CT) reconstruction algorithm that is capable of handling interrupted illumination and therefore of using all measured data at arbitrary pitch. This algorithm is based on a differentiated backprojection (DBP) on M-lines. First, we discuss the problem of interrupted illumination and how it affects the DBP. Then we show that it is possible to take advantage of some properties of the DBP to compensate for the effects of interrupted illumination in a mathematically exact way. From there, we have developed an efficient algorithm which we have successfully implemented. We show encouraging preliminary results using both computer-simulated data and real data. Our results show that our method is capable of achieving a substantial reduction of image noise when decreasing the helix pitch compared with the maximum pitch case. We conclude that the proposed algorithm defines for the first time a theoretically-exact and stable reconstruction method that is capable of beneficially using all measured data at arbitrary pitch.

Schondube, Harald; Stierstorfer, Karl; Noo, Frederic

2010-01-01

314

Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus in interrupted inferior caval vein through femoral vein approach  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous closure of the patent arterial duct in patients with interrupted inferior caval vein poses a technical challenge. A 12-year-old girl with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and interrupted inferior caval vein is described in this report. The diagnosis of interrupted inferior caval vein and azygos continuation was made in the catheterization laboratory. A catheter was advanced and snared in the descending aorta. An exchange wire was advanced through the catheter and snared in the descending aorta. Then, an Amplatzer TorqVue 2 delivery sheath was advanced over the wire from the venous side and again snared in the descending aorta. An Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO) size 8/6 was advanced through the sheath while still holding the sheath with a snare. The device was opened. The sheath was then unsnared once the aortic disc was completely out. The sheath and the device were pulled back into the duct and the device was successfully implanted. The device was then released and it attained a stable position. An aortic angiogram was performed which showed complete occlusion.

Tefera, Endale; Bermudez-Canete, Ramon

2014-01-01

315

Interrupted versus uninterrupted flow: a safety propensity index for driver behavior.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to develop a quantitative safety propensity index (SPI) that captures the overall propensity of a given surrounding environment to cause unsafe driving. The study is conducted in two different flow conditions: interrupted and uninterrupted. Using structural modeling techniques, the index can be estimated from observed geometric, weather-related, vehicular, driver-related, and traffic-related characteristics. To illustrate the adopted approach, extensive effort was conducted to "sync" data from different sources including the Virginia Department of Transportation and the FARS/GES crash data libraries. The Virginia Department of Transportation provided traffic data for 10 freeway sections with interrupted flow and 9 highway sections with interrupted flow in the Northern Virginia area, USA. Two different structural equations models were found allowing insights to the safety impact of different surrounding elements/dimensions. The SPI provides (a) a basis for quantifying the effects of the aforementioned characteristics on safety, (b) a basis for comparing the differences between the factors affecting safety in different flow scenarios and (c) ranking the corresponding roadway sections/locations for improved safety performance. The framework and methodology used to develop this index have the potential to support safety policy analysis and decision making. PMID:23507432

Hamdar, Samer H; Schorr, Justin

2013-06-01

316

Speech reception by listeners with real and simulated hearing impairment: Effects of continuous and interrupted noise  

PubMed Central

The effects of audibility and age on masking for sentences in continuous and interrupted noise were examined in listeners with real and simulated hearing loss. The absolute thresholds of each of ten listeners with sensorineural hearing loss were simulated in normal-hearing listeners through a combination of spectrally-shaped threshold noise and multi-band expansion for octave bands with center frequencies from 0.25–8 kHz. Each individual hearing loss was simulated in two groups of three normal-hearing listeners (an age-matched and a non-age-matched group). The speech-to-noise ratio (S?N) for 50%-correct identification of hearing in noise test (HINT) sentences was measured in backgrounds of continuous and temporally-modulated (10 Hz square-wave) noise at two overall levels for unprocessed speech and for speech that was amplified with the NAL-RP prescription. The S?N in both continuous and interrupted noise of the hearing-impaired listeners was relatively well-simulated in both groups of normal-hearing listeners. Thus, release from masking (the difference in S?N obtained in continuous versus interrupted noise) appears to be determined primarily by audibility. Minimal age effects were observed in this small sample. Observed values of masking release were compared to predictions derived from intelligibility curves generated using the extended speech intelligibility index (ESII) [Rhebergen et al. (2006). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 3988–3997].

Desloge, Joseph G.; Reed, Charlotte M.; Braida, Louis D.; Perez, Zachary D.; Delhorne, Lorraine A.

2010-01-01

317

Enhancing the Simulation Speed of Sensor Network Applications by Asynchronization of Interrupt Service Routines  

PubMed Central

Sensor network simulations require high fidelity and timing accuracy to be used as an implementation and evaluation tool. The cycle-accurate and instruction-level simulator is the known solution for these purposes. However, this type of simulation incurs a high computation cost since it has to model not only the instruction level behavior but also the synchronization between multiple sensors for their causality. This paper presents a novel technique that exploits asynchronous simulations of interrupt service routines (ISR). We can avoid the synchronization overheads when the interrupt service routines are simulated without preemption. If the causality errors occur, we devise a rollback procedure to restore the original synchronized simulation. This concept can be extended to any instruction-level sensor network simulator. Evaluation results show our method can enhance the simulation speed up to 52% in the case of our experiments. For applications with longer interrupt service routines and smaller number of preemptions, the speedup becomes greater. In addition, our simulator is 2 to 11 times faster than the well-known sensor network simulator.

Joe, Hyunwoo; Woo, Duk-Kyun; Kim, Hyungshin

2013-01-01

318

A Human Operator Gunner Model for a Tracking Task with Interrupted Observations in an Antiaircraft Artillery System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development of a mathematical model (blanking model) for a human operator's tracking performance under visual interruptions via blanking the target in a simulated manned antiaircraft artillery system. The basic ideas of the Luenb...

C. F. Yu

1981-01-01

319

A study on DC hybrid three-phase fault current limiting interrupter for a power distribution system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of protecting electric power system, many researches and developments of fault current limiters are being performed. The authors studied a dc hybrid three-phase fault current limiting interrupter (FCLI) composed of a superconducting reactor and an S/N transition element, connected in series each other. The dc hybrid type fault current limiting interrupter can limit a fault current by means of the inductance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil together with the normal transition of HTS bulk material (HTSB). In the case of an accident, the normal transition of the bulk material can be accelerated by the magnetic field of the HTS coil. In this paper, the dc hybrid type fault current limiting interrupter for 5.5 km long 6.6 kV-600 A power distribution system is analyzed, and performances of fault current limitation and interruption are confirmed. Moreover, a reclosing operation is discussed for this power distribution system.

Shao, Hongtian; Satoh, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Mitsugi; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Satoh, Takao; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki

2005-10-01

320

Interruption and DRI in the treatment of self-injurious behavior among mentally retarded and autistic self-restrainers.  

PubMed

Two profoundly mentally retarded adolescents who displayed both self-injurious behavior (SIB) and self-restraint were treated with a mild interruption (I) procedure alone, and I combined with the differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI). Interruption combined with DRI proved highly effective in reducing the SIB of one student, but not of the other. Possible reasons for these differential results are discussed. PMID:2818464

Underwood, L A; Figueroa, R G; Thyer, B A; Nzeocha, A

1989-10-01

321

Functional and structural changes in mammalian sympathetic neurones following interruption of their axons.  

PubMed Central

The effects of interrupting the axons of principal neurones in the superior cervical ganglion of adult guinea-pigs were studied by means of intracellular recording, and light and electron microscopy. 1. Within 72 hr of axon interruption, the amplitude of exitatory postsynaptic potentials potentials (e.p.s.p.s) recorded in principal neurons in response to maximal preganglionic stimulation declined. E.p.s.p.s were maximally reduced (by more than 70% on average) 4-7 days following interruption, and failed to bring many cells to threshold. E.p.s.p.s. recorded in nearby neurones whose axons remained intact were unaffected. 2. In ganglia in which axon interruption was achieved by means of nerve crush (thus allowing prompt regeneration), mean e.p.s.p. amplitudes began to increase again after about 1-2 weeks. One month after the initial injury many neurones had e.p.s.p.s of normal amplitude, and by 2 months affected neurones were indistinguishable from control cells. Functional peripheral connexions were re-established during the period of synaptic recovery. 3. The mean number of synapses identified electron microscopically in ganglia in which all the major efferent branches had been crushed decreased by 65-70% in parallel with synaptic depression measured by intracellular recording. However synapse counts did not return to normal levels even after 3 months. 4. During the period of maximum synaptic depression, numerous abnormal profiles which contained accumulations of vesicular and tubular organelles, vesicles, and mitochondria were observed in electron microscopic sections. Injection of horseradish peroxidase into affected neurones demonstrated dendritic swelling which probably correspond to these profiles. 5. Little or no difference was found in the electrical properties of normal neurones and neurones whose axons had been interrupted 4-7 days previously. However, the mean amplitude of spontaneously occurring synaptic potentials was reduced, and the amplitude distribution was shifted. This abnormality of the synapses which remain on affected neurones also contributes to synaptic depression. 6. Counts of neurones in normal and experimental ganglia showed that approximately half the principal cells died 1-5 weeks after crushing the major efferent brances. This finding presumably explains the failure of synapse counts to return to control levels after recovery. 7. If axons were prevented from growing back to their target organ by chronic ligation, surviving neurones whose axons were enclosed by the ligature did not generally recover normal synaptic function. Following ligation, most affected cells died within a month. 8. Thus the integrity of a principal cell's axon is necessary for the maintenance of preganglionic synaptic contacts, and ultimately for neuronal survival. The basis of neuronal recovery from the effects of axon interruption appears to be some aspect of regeneration to the peripheral target. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3

Purves, D

1975-01-01

322

Fabrication of InGaN quantum dots by periodically interrupted growth in MOCVD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-assembled InGaN quantum dots are fabricated in a two-flow horizontal MOCVD reactor maintained at the pressure of 200 torr. The precursors were trimethyl-gallium (TMG) and trimethyl-indium (TMI) and ammonia (NH3), and the carrier gas was N2 and H2. The optimum condition for periodically interrupted growth (PIG) mode was deduced to fabricate the InGaN quantum dots. NH3 was supplied in PIG mode with the interval of 3 seconds and 5 seconds while TMG and TMI were supplied continuously. The carrier gas was N2 in QDs growth, while H2 in nucleation and buffer layer growth. The influence of number of periodic interrupted NH3 on the structural and optical properties of InGaN quantum dots was investigated by AFM, FE-SEM and low temperature photoluminescence (LT-PL). The AFM images give the size of InGaN QDs with diameter of 20 ~ 50 nm, height of 3 ~ 10 nm and density of 1010 #/cm2 ~ 1011 #/cm2. A strong peak at 362.2 nm (3.41eV) and broad emission peak in 435 nm (2.86 eV) were evolved in the photoluminescence measurement using Nd-YAG laser. The composition of QDs was estimated to be In0.14Ga0.86N from the relation between peak energy and indium content. Hence. The periodic interruption growth enables the fabrication of self- assembled InGaN QDs with high density and uniform size.

Choi, Seung-Kyu; Jang, Jae-Min; Yi, Sung-Hak; Kim, Jung-A.; Jung, Woo-Gwang

2008-03-01

323

Identification of Serum Cytokine Profiles Associated with HBeAg Seroconversion Following Antiviral Treatment Interruption.  

PubMed

Abstract The major shortcoming of nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is the frequent requirement for indefinite therapy. Withdrawal of treatment can result in viral rebound with an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) flare leading to hepatic decompensation, while in others this can lead to hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion. The aim of the study was to identify host immune profiles associated with these different outcomes. Eighteen HBeAg(+) patients, enrolled on a phase III trial with the nucleoside analogue adefovir dipivoxil, were followed for up to 128 weeks. For the first 48 weeks, all patients received continuous therapy. Subsequently, patients experienced cycles of treatment interruptions due to random drug/placebo misallocations. Host immune profiles were characterized by measuring a panel of serum cytokines before, during, and after each cycle of treatment withdrawal. Virus-specific T-cell responses were also determined at these time points in a subset of patients to elucidate the mechanisms utilized to control hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication post-treatment. Significantly, elevated levels of IFN-?, IP-10, and IL-2 on-treatment were associated with HBeAg seroconversion after treatment withdrawal. In these patients, treatment interruption induced further increases in serum IFN-? levels and marked increases in virus-specific T-cells producing IFN-?, but minimal alterations in viremia and ALT. In HBeAg(+) patients with low on-treatment levels of serum IFN-?, the interruption of therapy induced significant elevations in HBV-DNA, ALT, IP-10, and increases in virus-specific T-cells producing IL-10. Evaluating on-treatment serum cytokines in concert with virologic and clinical parameters may help to identify CHB patients who can successfully discontinue nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy. PMID:24797262

Chokshi, Shilpa; Cooksley, Helen; Riva, Antonio; Phillips, Sandra; Williams, Roger; Gaggar, Anuj; Naoumov, Nikolai V

2014-06-01

324

Localization of Single-Chain Interruptions in Bacteriophage T5 DNA. II. Electrophoretic Studies 1  

PubMed Central

Upon denaturation, T5 DNA yields a large number of discrete, single-chain fragments that can be resolved by agarose gel electrophoresis. The positions of the more prominent of these fragments in the T5 duplex were determined by analyzing their sensitivity to digestion with ? exonuclease and their distribution among EcoRI fragments of T5 DNA. These experiments also provide firm evidence concerning the polarity of the strands in T5 DNA. An analogous study was carried out on the fragments produced by treating exonuclease III-degraded T5 DNA with the single-strand-specific SI endonuclease. This procedure yielded over 40 discrete duplex fragments that could be resolved with considerable precision by agarose gel electrophoresis. The positions of most of these fragments were determined by analyzing EcoRI fragments of T5st(+) and T5st(0) DNA. Over 20 sites where single-chain interruptions can occur in T5 DNA were identified, and the distribution of interruptions within the terminal repetition was shown to be identical at both ends of the molecule. A precise value for the size of the terminal repetition in T5 DNA was obtained by analyzing SI endonuclease digests of ligase-repaired, circular T5 DNA in agarose gels. The repeated segment represented 8.3% of the T5st(+) DNA. The results of this study also provide information concerning the properties of ? exonuclease. Hydrolysis by this enzyme was not terminated when single-chain interruptions were encountered either in the strand being degraded or in the complementary strand. Images

Rhoades, Marc

1977-01-01

325

Differential radiosensitivity in cultured B-16 melanoma cells following interrupted melanogenesis induced by glucosamine  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between cell pigmentation and radiosensitivity was investigated in a cell model in which melanogenesis was suppressed by a glycosylation inhibitor. It was found that X-irradiation of melanotic B-16 melanoma cells and their amelanotic counterparts, obtained by glucosamine treatment, showed an inverse correlation between radiosensitivity and melanin contents. Since melanogenesis interruption by glucosamine does not affect the DNA repair capacity of nonpigmented cells, it is likely that intracellular melanins play a role in the relative resistance of pigmented cells to X-irradiation.

Mileo, A.M.; Mattei, E.; Fanuele, M.; Delpino, A.; Ferrini, U. (Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy))

1989-05-01

326

Growth Interruption Effect on the Fabrication of GaAs Concentric Multiple Rings by Droplet Epitaxy  

PubMed Central

We present the molecular beam epitaxy fabrication and optical properties of complex GaAs nanostructures by droplet epitaxy: concentric triple quantum rings. A significant difference was found between the volumes of the original droplets and the final GaAs structures. By means of atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy, we found that a thin GaAs quantum well-like layer is developed all over the substrate during the growth interruption times, caused by the migration of Ga in a low As background.

2010-01-01

327

Growth Interruption Effect on the Fabrication of GaAs Concentric Multiple Rings by Droplet Epitaxy.  

PubMed

WE PRESENT THE MOLECULAR BEAM EPITAXY FABRICATION AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF COMPLEX GAAS NANOSTRUCTURES BY DROPLET EPITAXY: concentric triple quantum rings. A significant difference was found between the volumes of the original droplets and the final GaAs structures. By means of atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy, we found that a thin GaAs quantum well-like layer is developed all over the substrate during the growth interruption times, caused by the migration of Ga in a low As background. PMID:21170414

Somaschini, C; Bietti, S; Fedorov, A; Koguchi, N; Sanguinetti, S

2010-01-01

328

Arsenic passivation - A possible remedy for MBE growth-interruption problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A passivation technique to protect MBE-growth-interrupted interfaces from carrier depletion is presented. Amorphous As (a-As) is deposited by MBE onto the first MBE-growth GaAs:Si layer on a GaAs substrate; the sample is processed outside the MBE system; and the a-As is desorbed during deposition of the second MBE layer. Experiments using exposure to air at room temperature or at 180 C, dry N2, or deionized H2O to simulate processing are evaluated by measuring the final carrier-concentration depth profile: excellent protection of the interfaces is achieved.

Kawai, N. J.; Nakagawa, T.; Kojima, T.; Ohta, K.; Kawashima, M.

1984-01-01

329

Mechanism of interrupted saccades in patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease.  

PubMed

In late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS), saccades are interrupted by one or more transient decelerations. Some saccades reaccelerate and continue on before eye velocity reaches zero, even in darkness. Intervals between successive decelerations are not regularly spaced. Peak decelerations of horizontal and vertical components of oblique saccades in LOTS is more synchronous than those in control subjects. We hypothesize that these decelerations are caused by dysregulation of the fastigial nuclei (FN) of the cerebellum, which fire brain stem inhibitory burst neurons (IBNs). PMID:18718355

Optican, Lance M; Rucker, Janet C; Keller, Edward L; Leigh, R John

2008-01-01

330

Brief Therapy Based on Interrupting Ironic Processes: The Palo Alto Model  

PubMed Central

The model of brief therapy developed by Fisch, Weakland, Watzlawick, and colleagues in Palo Alto is based on identifying and interrupting ironic processes that occur when repeated attempts to solve a problem keep the problem going or make it worse. Formulations of ironic problem-solution loops provide a template for assessment and strategic intervention, indicating where to look to understand what keeps a problem going (look for “more of the same” solution) and what needs to happen for the complaint to be resolved (someone must apply “less of the same” solution). Supporting research is preliminary but suggests this approach may be well suited for change-resistant clients.

Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Shoham, Varda

2009-01-01

331

Temporal evolution of neoclassical tearing modes in the frequently interrupted regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phenomenological method for description of temporal evolution of neoclassical tearing modes in the frequently interrupted regime (FIR) is proposed. The method makes it possible to predict the beginning and the end of the FIR regime as well as the frequency of the FIR drops. A few experimental parameters which are used in the model are commonly measured quantities. Several specific ASDEX Upgrade (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASDEX_Upgrade) FIR discharges with different heating and different FIR behavior are analyzed in detail.

Dumbrajs, O.; Igochine, V.; Gude, A.; Maraschek, M.; Zohm, H.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

2010-04-01

332

Randomized, Controlled Trial of Therapy Interruption in Chronic HIV-1 Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Approaches to limiting exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs are an active area of HIV therapy research. Here we present longitudinal follow-up of a randomized, open-label, single-center study of the immune, viral, and safety outcomes of structured therapy interruptions (TIs) in patients with chronically suppressed HIV-1 infection as compared to equal follow-up of patients on continuous therapy and including a final therapy interruption in both arms. Methods and Findings Forty-two chronically HIV-infected patients on suppressive ART with CD4 counts higher than 400 were randomized 1:1 to either (1) three successive fixed TIs of 2, 4, and 6 wk, with intervening resumption of therapy with resuppression for 4 wk before subsequent interruption, or (2) 40 wk of continuous therapy, with a final open-ended TI in both treatment groups. Main outcome was analysis of the time to viral rebound (>5,000 copies/ml) during the open-ended TI. Secondary outcomes included study-defined safety criteria, viral resistance, therapy failure, and retention of immune reconstitution. There was no difference between the groups in time to viral rebound during the open-ended TI (continuous therapy/single TI, median [interquartile range] = 4 [1–8] wk, n = 21; repeated TI, median [interquartile range] = 5 [4–8] wk, n = 21; p = 0.36). No differences in study-related adverse events, viral set point at 12 or 20 wk of open-ended interruption, viral resistance or therapy failure, retention of CD4 T cell numbers on ART, or retention of lymphoproliferative recall antigen responses were noted between groups. Importantly, resistance detected shortly after initial viremia following the open-ended TI did not result in a lack of resuppression to less than 50 copies/ml after reinitiation of the same drug regimen. Conclusion Cycles of 2- to 6-wk time-fixed TIs in patients with suppressed HIV infection failed to confer a clinically significant benefit with regard to viral suppression off ART. Also, secondary analysis showed no difference between the two strategies in terms of safety, retention of immune reconstitution, and clinical therapy failure. Based on these findings, we suggest that further clinical research on the long-term consequences of TI strategies to decrease drug exposure is warranted.

2004-01-01

333

MTOR overactivation and interrupted autophagy flux in obese hearts: a dicey assembly?  

PubMed

As a central controller of cell growth, mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) affects an array of biological processes, in particular protein synthesis, autophagy and cardiac homeostasis. Conflicting findings have been seen with regard to the role of MTOR signaling and autophagy in cardiac and adipocyte function under metabolic syndrome. AKT, an essential insulin-signaling molecule upstream of MTOR, participates in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and cardiac metabolism. Akt2 knockout may rescue against high-fat diet-disrupted autophagy flux, en route to cardioprotection. Thus, inhibition of MTOR may serve as a possible avenue to retard pathological cardiac hypertrophy via rescuing interrupted autophagic flux. PMID:23529215

Zhang, Yingmei; Xu, Xihui; Ren, Jun

2013-06-01

334

Electric Power Interruption Cost Estimates for Individual Industries, Sectors, and U.S. Economy  

SciTech Connect

During the last 20 years, utilities and researchers have begun to understand the value in the collection and analysis of interruption cost data. The continued investigation of the monetary impact of power outages will facilitate the advancement of the analytical methods used to measure the costs and benefits from the perspective of the energy consumer. More in-depth analysis may be warranted because of the privatization and deregulation of power utilities, price instability in certain regions of the U.S. and the continued evolution of alternative auxiliary power systems.

Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; DeSteese, John G.; Weimar, Mark R.

2002-02-27

335

Interrupted interface growth and periodic boundary layer trapping in dendrite growth of steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time continuity, spatial continuity, and segregation are investigated in the directional solidified columnar dendrite with pulling velocity 40 ?m/s and quenching solidified columnar dendrite of 20SiMn and 20SiMnMo steel. The results show that the growth of columnar dendrite is a dynamic discrete process with interrupted interface growth and periodic trapping of solute enriched boundary layer in growing austenite dendrite matrix. Theoretical analysis shows that the non-equilibrium solute partition at the growing interface and actual temperature gradient accounts for above phenomena. Such growth style results in the segregationless dendrite in the mesoscale.

Ma, Xiaoping; Li, Dianzhong

2013-06-01

336

Decreasing Beam Auto Tuning Interruption Events with In-Situ Chemical Cleaning on Axcelis GSD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion beam auto tuning time and success rate are often major factors in the utilization and productivity of ion implanters. Tuning software frequently fails to meet specified setup times or recipe parameters, causing production stoppages and requiring manual intervention. Build-up of conductive deposits in the arc chamber and extraction gap can be one of the main causes of auto tuning problems. The deposits cause glitching and ion beam instabilities, which lead to errors in the software optimization routines. Infineon Regensburg has been testing use of XeF2, an in-situ chemical cleaning reagent, with positive results in reducing auto tuning interruption events.

Fuchs, Dieter; Spreitzer, Stefan; Vogl, Josef; Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Kaim, Robert

2008-11-01

337

Understanding the cost of power interruptions to U.S. electricity consumers  

SciTech Connect

The massive electric power blackout in the northeastern United States and Canada on August 14-15, 2003 resulted in the U.S. electricity system being called ''antiquated'' and catalyzed discussions about modernizing the grid. Industry sources suggested that investments of $50 to $100 billion would be needed. This report seeks to quantify an important piece of information that has been missing from these discussions: how much do power interruptions and fluctuations in power quality (power-quality events) cost U.S. electricity consumers? Accurately estimating this cost will help assess the potential benefits of investments in improving the reliability of the grid. We develop a comprehensive end-use framework for assessing the cost to U.S. electricity consumers of power interruptions and power-quality events (referred to collectively as ''reliability events''). The framework expresses these costs as a function of: (1) Number of customers by type in a region; (2) Frequency and type of reliability events experienced annually (including both power interruptions and power-quality events) by these customers; (3) Cost of reliability events; and (4) Vulnerability of customers to these events. The framework is designed so that its cost estimate can be improved as additional data become available. Using our framework, we estimate that the national cost of power interruptions is about $80 billion annually, based on the best information available in the public domain. However, there are large gaps in and significant uncertainties about the information currently available. Notably, we were not able to develop an estimate of power-quality events. Sensitivity analysis of some of these uncertainties suggests that the total annual cost could range from less than $30 billion to more than $130 billion. Because of this large range and the enormous cost of the decisions that may be based on this estimate, we encourage policy makers, regulators, and industry to jointly under take the comparatively modest-cost improvements needed in the information used to estimate the cost of reliability events. Specific areas for improvement include: coordinated, nationwide collection of updated information on the cost of reliability events; consistent definition and recording of the duration and frequency of reliability events, including power-quality events; and improved information on the costs of and efforts by consumers to reduce their vulnerability to reliability events.

LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Eto, Joseph H.

2004-09-01

338

A chemical synthesis of 11-methoxy mitragynine pseudoindoxyl featuring the interrupted Ugi reaction  

PubMed Central

A synthesis of 11-methoxy mitragynine pseudoindoxyl, a new member of the mitragynine class of opioid agonists, from a derivative of the Geissman-Waiss lactone is described. An internal attack of an electron-rich aromatic ring on an electrophilic nitrilium ion and a late-stage construction of the functionalized piperidine ring by the method of reductive cyclization are the pivotal transformations; both ring annulations proceed in a highly diastereoselective fashion. The construction of substituted indoxyl frameworks by the interrupted Ugi method offers an attractive alternative to the strategy of oxidatively rearranging indoles.

Kim, Jimin; Schneekloth, John S.

2013-01-01

339

Decreasing Beam Auto Tuning Interruption Events with In-Situ Chemical Cleaning on Axcelis GSD  

SciTech Connect

Ion beam auto tuning time and success rate are often major factors in the utilization and productivity of ion implanters. Tuning software frequently fails to meet specified setup times or recipe parameters, causing production stoppages and requiring manual intervention. Build-up of conductive deposits in the arc chamber and extraction gap can be one of the main causes of auto tuning problems. The deposits cause glitching and ion beam instabilities, which lead to errors in the software optimization routines. Infineon Regensburg has been testing use of XeF{sub 2}, an in-situ chemical cleaning reagent, with positive results in reducing auto tuning interruption events.

Fuchs, Dieter; Spreitzer, Stefan; Vogl, Josef [Infineon Technologies AG., Wernerwerkstr.2, 93049 Regensburg (Germany); Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Kaim, Robert [ATMI Inc., 7 Commerce Drive, Danbury, CT 06810 (United States)

2008-11-03

340

High-Resolution Comparison of the I-Cycle 90 Interrupted Sapropel From Four Locations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sapropel layers record periods of wetter-than-present Mediterranean paleoclimate that lasted 3-12 ky during precessional minima. Mounting evidence indicates that sapropel-depositing conditions were not internally uniform. In fact, some sapropels are interrupted, which suggests that climate reverted to arid conditions like today for 200-1000 y before becoming wet again. We have studied an example of an interrupted sapropel layer - the sapropel deposited during insolation cycle 90 (955 ka) - at 1-cm intervals in four ODP drill-holes to determine spatial differences and similarities in its expression. Hole 967A is located in the Levantine Basin and is influenced by monsoonal variations in Nile outflow. Hole 969D is on the Mediterranean Ridge and near the western limit of Nile influence. Hole 974C in the Tyrrhenian Basin is hydrologically isolated from most of the Mediterranean Sea and is instead sensitive to rivers draining the Apennines. Hole 975C is in the Balearic Basin, where it monitors runoff from the Pyrenees and the Alps. The sapropel layer is similarly divided into two sublayers at the four locations - an upper layer in which organic carbon concentrations reach 4 to 6 percent, and a lower layer in which they peak between 1 and 3 percent. Concentrations differ between the sites because of differences in sedimentation rates of the mineral components that dilute organic matter; organic carbon mass accumulation rates are similar, which indicates similar paleoproductivity and preservation rates at the four locations. The local conditions conducive to sapropel formation evidently were not only similar but also concordant, which means that mid-Pleistocene paleoclimate changes were synchronous across the Mediterranean region. Moreover, the presence of the interrupted interval suggests that climate could change fairly rapidly and at much less than precessional intervals. We have determined grain size distributions in the sub-63 micron fraction across the interrupted sapropel to explore for climate-related differences in sediment delivery at Site 969, where other investigators have shown that dust from the Sahara Desert dominates clastic components in non-sapropels and fluvial components from the Balkan Peninsula dominate in sapropels. The grain-size distribution (median 7 microns) remains remarkably monotonous at this location, which shows that clastic transport remained similar despite changes in sediment provenance.

Hassold, N.; Cotsonika, L.; Kim, S.; Boettcher, A.; Arnaboldi, M.; Rea, D. K.; Meyers, P. A.

2001-12-01

341

A Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Model Demonstrates That Nocturnal Hot Flashes Interrupt Objective Sleep  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Sleep interruption is often reported by women with hot flashes and night sweats (or vasomotor symptoms, VMS). Although women report that VMS awaken them, polysomnography (PSG) studies have not consistently supported this contention. Design: We mimicked menopause using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) to investigate whether VMS increase awakenings and wake after sleep onset (WASO). VMS, serum estradiol, and at-home PSGs (two pretreatment, two posttreatment) were measured before and after 4 weeks on GnRHa. Regression models were used to determine the effect of increasing VMS frequency on awakenings and WASO, as measured objectively and subjectively. Participants: Twenty-nine healthy women (mean 27.3 y). Setting: Academic medical center. Interventions: Depot GnRHa (leuprolide 3.75-mg). Results: Serum estradiol was rapidly and uniformly suppressed on GnRHa. Persistent VMS were reported by 69% of women. The number of nighttime VMS correlated directly with the degree of sleep disturbance. Each additional reported nighttime VMS was associated with a 62% increase from baseline in PSG-measured WASO (P = 0.007), a 3% increase in awakenings (P = 0.05), and 6% increase in %N1 sleep (P = 0.02). Nighttime VMS were also associated with increased perceived WASO (312%; P = 0.02), awakenings (16%; P = 0.007), Insomnia Severity Index (P = 0.03), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (P = 0.03) scores, and decreased perceived sleep efficiency (P = 0.01). Objectively recorded nighttime VMS correlated with PSG-measured WASO (rs = 0.45, P = 0.02). Conclusions: This menopause model demonstrates that nighttime vasomotor symptoms correlate with increased sleep fragmentation. These findings are consistent with a specific contribution of vasomotor symptoms to polysomnography-measured sleep interruption suggesting that nighttime vasomotor symptoms interrupt sleep in the setting of menopause. Citation: Joffe H; Crawford S; Economou N; Kim S; Regan S; Hall JE; White D. A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist model demonstrates that nocturnal hot flashes interrupt objective sleep. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1977-1985.

Joffe, Hadine; Crawford, Sybil; Economou, Nicole; Kim, Semmie; Regan, Susan; Hall, Janet E.; White, David

2013-01-01

342

LASERS AND AMPLIFIERS: Copper vapour laser with an inductive energy storage and a semiconductor current interrupter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A copper vapour laser is built in which a pump generator uses an inductive energy storage and a semiconductor current interrupter. Lasing was obtained in the stationary mode, using a self-heating active element 36 cm3 in volume, at a pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz and an average output power of 3.3 W. The use of the inductive energy storage in this laser resulted in a 20% increase in the average output power compared to that for a conventional pump circuit.

Kostyrya, I. D.; Evtushenko, Gennadii S.; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Shiyanov, D. V.

2001-10-01

343

Microsatellite Interruptions Stabilize Primate Genomes and Exist as Population-Specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms within Individual Human Genomes  

PubMed Central

Interruptions of microsatellite sequences impact genome evolution and can alter disease manifestation. However, human polymorphism levels at interrupted microsatellites (iMSs) are not known at a genome-wide scale, and the pathways for gaining interruptions are poorly understood. Using the 1000 Genomes Phase-1 variant call set, we interrogated mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats up to 10 units in length. We detected ?26,000–40,000 iMSs within each of four human population groups (African, European, East Asian, and American). We identified population-specific iMSs within exonic regions, and discovered that known disease-associated iMSs contain alleles present at differing frequencies among the populations. By analyzing longer microsatellites in primate genomes, we demonstrate that single interruptions result in a genome-wide average two- to six-fold reduction in microsatellite mutability, as compared with perfect microsatellites. Centrally located interruptions lowered mutability dramatically, by two to three orders of magnitude. Using a biochemical approach, we tested directly whether the mutability of a specific iMS is lower because of decreased DNA polymerase strand slippage errors. Modeling the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene sequence, we observed that a single base substitution interruption reduced strand slippage error rates five- to 50-fold, relative to a perfect repeat, during synthesis by DNA polymerases ?, ?, or ?. Computationally, we demonstrate that iMSs arise primarily by base substitution mutations within individual human genomes. Our biochemical survey of human DNA polymerase ?, ?, ?, ?, and ? error rates within certain microsatellites suggests that interruptions are created most frequently by low fidelity polymerases. Our combined computational and biochemical results demonstrate that iMSs are abundant in human genomes and are sources of population-specific genetic variation that may affect genome stability. The genome-wide identification of iMSs in human populations presented here has important implications for current models describing the impact of microsatellite polymorphisms on gene expression.

Ananda, Guruprasad; Hile, Suzanne E.; Breski, Amanda; Wang, Yanli; Kelkar, Yogeshwar; Makova, Kateryna D.; Eckert, Kristin A.

2014-01-01

344

Increasing the Mand Repertoire of Children With Autism Through the Use of an Interrupted Chain Procedure  

PubMed Central

Mand training is an essential component of verbal behavior training for any individual who lacks this skill. The current study replicates and extends, with some procedural differences, the work of Hall and Sundberg (1987) by using an interrupted chain procedure to teach mands for missing items to children with autism. The participants were 3 children with autism, ranging between 5 and 8 years of age, who would regularly mand for a wide variety of reinforcers when they were present but would rarely mand for items that were not in sight (i.e., missing items). Participants were first taught to complete 3 behavior chains. Subsequently, the chains were interrupted by removing 1 item needed to complete each chain to contrive motivating operations (MOs) as a means of teaching mands for missing items. Following mand training incorporating vocal prompt and prompt fading procedures, all participants emitted unprompted mands for the missing items within the context of the trained chains and within the context of novel, untrained chains. After teaching mands for missing items, probes were conducted to test for untrained tact acquisition. All participants also demonstrated tact responses relative to the missing items as a result of the mand training.

Albert, Kristin M.; Carbone, Vincent J.; Murray, Danielle D.; Hagerty, Margaret; Sweeney-Kerwin, Emily J.

2012-01-01

345

Plants cause ecosystem nutrient depletion via the interruption of bird-derived spatial subsidies  

PubMed Central

Plant introductions and subsequent community shifts are known to affect nutrient cycling, but most such studies have focused on nutrient enrichment effects. The nature of plant-driven nutrient depletions and the mechanisms by which these might occur are relatively poorly understood. In this study we demonstrate that the proliferation of the commonly introduced coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, interrupts the flow of allochthonous marine subsidies to terrestrial ecosystems via an indirect effect: impact on birds. Birds avoid nesting or roosting in C. nucifera, thus reducing the critical nutrient inputs they bring from the marine environment. These decreases in marine subsidies then lead to reductions in available soil nutrients, decreases in leaf nutrient quality, diminished leaf palatability, and reduced herbivory. This nutrient depletion pathway contrasts the more typical patterns of nutrient enrichment that follow plant species introductions. Research on the effects of spatial subsidy disruptions on ecosystems has not yet examined interruptions driven by changes within the recipient community, such as plant community shifts. The ubiquity of coconut palm introductions across the tropics and subtropics makes these observations particularly noteworthy. Equally important, the case of C. nucifera provides a strong demonstration of how plant community changes can dramatically impact the supply of allochthonous nutrients and thereby reshape energy flow in ecosystems.

Young, Hillary S.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Dirzo, Rodolfo

2010-01-01

346

Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the Abu Hamed Focus, Sudan  

PubMed Central

Abu Hamed, Sudan, the northernmost location of onchocerciasis in the world, began community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in 1998, with annual treatments enhanced to semiannual in 2007. We assessed the status of the parasite transmission in 2011 entomologically, parasitologically, and serologically. O-150 pool screening showed no parasite DNA in 17,537 black flies collected in 2011 (95% confidence interval upper limit [95% CI UL] = 0.023). Skin microfilariae, nodules, and signs of skin disease were absent in 536 individuals in seven local communities. Similarly, no evidence of Onchocerca volvulus Ov16 antibodies was found in 6,756 school children ? 10 years (95% CI UL = 0.03%). Because this assessment of the focus meets the 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for interrupted transmission, treatment was halted in 2012, and a post-treatment surveillance period was initiated in anticipation of declaration of disease elimination in this area. We provide the first evidence in East Africa that long-term CDTI alone can interrupt transmission of onchocerciasis.

Higazi, Tarig B.; Zarroug, Isam M. A.; Mohamed, Hanan A.; ElMubark, Wigdan A.; Deran, Tong Chor M.; Aziz, Nabil; Katabarwa, Moses; Hassan, Hassan K.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Richards, Frank; Hashim, Kamal

2013-01-01

347

Complex prospective memory: development across the lifespan and the role of task interruption.  

PubMed

Prospective memory (PM) reflects the product of cognitive processes associated with the formation, retention, delayed initiation, and execution of intentions. It has been proposed that developmental changes in PM across the lifespan are heavily dependent upon the developmental trajectory of executive control functions. This study is the first to apply a complex PM task to children, young adults, and older adults. The procedure allows for the assessment of each of the 4 phases of PM. During intention execution, the authors additionally manipulated whether participants had to actively interrupt attention to the current 'ongoing' task in order to switch to the execution of the next intended task. Group differences mirroring inverted U-shaped functions were observed in those phases conceptualized as relying on executive control (intention formation, initiation, and execution). Age differences in intention execution were substantially greater when active task interruption was necessary. The current study provides the first evidence of growth and decline of complex PM across the lifespan and suggests that the degree of inhibitory control needed to succeed in the task may be one factor underlying this development. PMID:18331148

Kliegel, Matthias; Mackinlay, Rachael; Jäger, Theodor

2008-03-01

348

Effects of political conflict-induced treatment interruptions on HIV drug resistance.  

PubMed

Thirty-four million people worldwide were living with the HIV by the end of 2010. Despite significant advances in antiretroviral therapy, drug resistance remains a major deterrent to successful, enduring treatment. Unplanned interruptions in antiretroviral therapy have negative effects on HIV treatment outcomes, including increased morbidity and mortality, as well as development of drug resistance. Treatment interruptions due to political conflicts, not infrequent in resource-limited settings, result in disruptions in health care, infrastructure, or treatment facilities and patient displacement. Such circumstances are ideal bases for antiretroviral therapy resistance development, but there is limited awareness of and data available on the association between political conflict and the development of HIV drug resistance. In this review we identify and discuss this association and review how varying antiretroviral therapy half-lives, genetic barriers, different HIV subtypes, and archived resistance can lead to lack of medication effectiveness upon post-conflict resumption of care. Optimized antiretroviral therapy stopping strategies as well as infrastructural concerns and stable HIV treatment systems to ensure continuity of care and rapid resumption of care must be addressed in order to mitigate risks of HIV drug resistance development during and after political conflicts. Increased awareness of such associations by clinicians as well as politicians and stakeholders is essential. PMID:23449225

Mann, Marita; Lurie, Mark N; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Kantor, Rami

2013-01-01

349

Single interrupted sutures compared with Donati sutures after open carpal tunnel release: a prospective randomised trial.  

PubMed

Inversion of the wound edges is one of the potential causes of postoperative scar tenderness after open carpal tunnel release. When using vertical mattress sutures (also named Donati sutures), inversion of wound edges is less likely to occur compared with single interrupted sutures. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of both sutures after open carpal tunnel release and assess their effects on scar tenderness and functional outcome. A prospective randomised controlled trial was performed comparing single interrupted and Donati sutures. Eighty-nine hands were included in the study. Eight weeks postoperatively, scar formation was nice/very nice in 94% (single stitches) and 97% (Donati stitches) of the patients. Pain and disability scores were, in both groups, improved 8 weeks postoperatively, although the patients receiving Donati sutures had a 2-fold higher pain score. In conclusion, both Donati and single stitches are related to excellent scar formation. The Donati sutures are related to more prolonged postoperative pain. PMID:23710789

Bolster, Mireille; Schipper, Carlijn; Van Sterkenburg, Steven; Ruettermann, Mike; Reijnen, Michel

2013-09-01

350

Customer response to interruptible and curtailable rates: Volume 1, Methodology and results: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Interruptible or curtailable (I/C) service, one of the fastest growing utility programs, provides the utility with both an innovative rate alternative as well as a demand side management tool. This project examines existing (I/C) programs with the objective of providing information that will enable utilities to plan for future I/C programs. First, the report summarizes the rate and customer characteristics of I/C programs at ten utilities. Second, the report presents a regression technique that can be used to assess load relief provided by customers on I/C rates. The report demonstrates the technique by assessing load relief for each of the ten utilities. Tests of the regression technique showed it to be significantly more accurate than other procedures that are sometimes used. Utilities can implement the regression technique using standard statistical software in conjunction with the RELIEF software that was developed as part of this project. Finally the project examined those customer and program factors that influence load relief. Important customer factors were type of industry and load factor. Important program characteristics were number of interruptions, length of size of credit. 12 refs., 44 figs., 35 tabs.

Caves, D.W.; Herriges, J.A.; Windle, R.J.

1988-03-01

351

Microstructural development and mechanical properties of interrupted aged Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of a recently developed interrupted aging procedure on the microstructural development and mechanical properties of the commercial Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy 6061 have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and mechanical testing. This so-called T6I6 temper involves partially aging the alloy at a typical T6 temperature (the underaging stage), quenching, then holding at a reduced temperature (in this case 65 °C) to facilitate further hardening (the secondary aging stage), prior to final aging to peak properties at, or close to, the initial aging (T6) temperature (the reaging stage). The T6I6 aging treatment produces simultaneous increases in tensile properties, hardness, and toughness, as compared with conventional T6. The overall improvement in the mechanical properties of 6061 T6I6 is associated with the formation of a greater number of finer, and more densely dispersed, ?? precipitates in the final microstructure. Secondary precipitation took place during the interrupted aging stage of the T6I6 temper, resulting in the formation of a large number of Guinier-Preston (GP) zones that served as precursors to the needlelike ?? precipitates when elevated temperature aging was resumed.

Buha, J.; Lumley, R. N.; Crosky, A. G.

2006-10-01

352

Transmission of Onchocerciasis in Wadelai Focus of Northwestern Uganda Has Been Interrupted and the Disease Eliminated  

PubMed Central

Wadelai, an isolated focus for onchocerciasis in northwest Uganda, was selected for piloting an onchocerciasis elimination strategy that was ultimately the precursor for countrywide onchocerciasis elimination policy. The Wadelai focus strategy was to increase ivermectin treatments from annual to semiannual frequency and expand geographic area in order to include communities with nodule rate of less than 20%. These communities had not been covered by the previous policy that sought to control onchocerciasis only as a public health problem. From 2006 to 2010, Wadelai program successfully attained ultimate treatment goal (UTG), treatment coverage of ?90%, despite expanding from 19 to 34 communities and from 5,600 annual treatments to over 29,000 semiannual treatments. Evaluations in 2009 showed no microfilaria in skin snips of over 500 persons examined, and only 1 of 3011 children was IgG4 antibody positive to the OV16 recombinant antigen. No Simulium vectors were found, and their disappearance could have sped up interruption of transmission. Although twice-per-year treatment had an unclear role in interruption of transmission, the experience demonstrated that twice-per-year treatment is feasible in the Ugandan setting. The monitoring data support the conclusion that onchocerciasis has been eliminated from the Wadelai focus of Uganda.

Katabarwa, Moses N.; Walsh, Frank; Habomugisha, Peace; Lakwo, Thomson L.; Agunyo, Stella; Oguttu, David W.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Unoba, Dickson; Byamukama, Edson; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Richards, Frank O.

2012-01-01

353

Simulation of SLF Interrupting Performance for CO2 Gas Circuit Breaker based on Serially Connected 3 Arc Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper shows the simulation of SLF interrupting performances for CO2 gas circuit breakers. In the SLF interruption tests using 72kV-CO2 gas model circuit breakers, very large post arc currents were measured. This point is obviously difference between CO2 circuit breaker and SF6 one. To simulate the SLF interrupting performances for the SF6 gas circuit breakers, serially connected 3 arc models were developed. In the arc model, Cassie arc model and two Mayr arc models were serially connected. It was tried to use the arc model to simulate the SLF interrupting performances for CO2 circuit breaker. As a result, it was good agreement with the measurements and simulations. The large post arc currents could be simulated by the arc model. It was shown that the SLF interrupting performance of the CO2 circuit breaker was dependent on the Mayr model simulated around voltage extinction peak. On the other hand, the performance of the SF6 gas circuit breaker was dependent on the Mayr model simulated around current zero. From the result, it proved that most severe SLF condition for the CO2 gas circuit breaker was L75 or L80.

Koshizuka, Tadashi; Udagawa, Keisuke; Shinkai, Takeshi; Uchii, Toshiyuki; Kawano, Hiromichi

354

Clinical Impact of Dose Reductions and Interruptions of Second-Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia  

PubMed Central

Second (2nd)-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) (dasatinib, nilotinib) are effective in patients with all phases of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Dose reductions and treatment interruptions are frequently required due to toxicity, but their significance is unknown. We analysed the impact of dose reductions/interruptions and dose intensity of 2nd-generation TKI on response and survival. A total of 280 patients with CML (all phases) were analysed. Dose reductions were considered when the daily dose was below the standard dose. Dose intensity was determined based on the percentage of the ideal dose intensity. Overall, 176 patients (63%) required treatment interruptions and/or dose reduction at least once during therapy. Dose reductions/interruptions, analysed as a time-dependent covariate, were associated with worse failure-free survival only in patients with untreated CML. Dose intensity analysis did not reveal a worse response or survival in patients who received a lower dose intensity (<100%) during therapy or during the first 6 months. In conclusion, dose reductions and treatment interruptions of 2nd generation TKI in patients with CML have a minimal impact in the response rate and survival of these patients. Further studies are required to determine whether there might be a minimum adequate dose of these agents.

Santos, Fabio P S; Kantarjian, Hagop; Fava, Carmen; O'Brien, Susan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Ravandi, Farhad; Wierda, William; Thomas, Deborah; Shan, Jianquin; Cortes, Jorge

2014-01-01

355

Starvation tactics for solid tumors: tumor blood flow interruption via a combretastatin derivative (Cderiv), and its microcirculation mechanism.  

PubMed

Combretastatin can prevent the supply of nutrients to cancer cells by selectively interrupting tumor blood flow (TBF). Therefore, combretastatin may serve as a new anticancer drug that utilizes starvation tactics to attack solid tumors. Among combretastatin compounds, combretastatin A-4 and a combretastatin A-4 derivative (Cderiv) are now in phase III clinical trials. These two combretastatin compounds have similar chemical structures and provide marked TBF interruption. However, their mechanisms of action are reportedly quite different and remain controversial. Precise mechanisms of action of these agents must be elucidated so as to develop safe clinical treatments and wider clinical applications. By using various kinds of rodent tumors, we showed that Cderiv produced potent interruption of TBF in all primary tumors and metastatic foci, without exception, and had beneficial therapeutic effects including significantly improved survival. Cderiv caused host arterioles to constrict. However, a tumor vascular bed scarcely reacted to a direct topical application of Cderiv. In addition, the fact that Cderiv did not have cytotoxic drug-like accumulated toxicity usually caused by repeated administration means that inhibition of tubulin polymerization by Cderiv may not occur to a great degree in vivo. Therefore, at least for Cderiv, our studies demonstrated that TBF interruption was mainly caused indirectly, via enhancement of vascular resistance of host arterioles, rather than being caused by a direct effect of Cderiv on tumor vessels. In this review, I describe cancer therapy that utilizes such TBF interruption, which leads to Cderiv-induced necrosis, and discuss details of its microcirculation mechanism. PMID:22101805

Hori, Katsuyoshi

2012-06-01

356

Learning from Accident and Error: Avoiding the Hazards of Workload, Stress, and Routine Interruptions in the Emergency Department  

PubMed Central

This article presents a model of how a build-up of interruptions can shift the dynamics of the emergency department (ED) from an adaptive, self-regulating system into a fragile, crisis-prone one. Drawing on case studies of organizational disasters and insights from the theory of high-reliability organizations, the authors use computer simulations to show how the accumulation of small interruptions could have disproportionately large effects in the ED. In the face of a mounting workload created by interruptions, EDs, like other organizational systems, have tipping points, thresholds beyond which a vicious cycle can lead rather quickly to the collapse of normal operating routines and in the extreme to a crisis of organizational paralysis. The authors discuss some possible implications for emergency medicine, emphasizing the potential threat from routine, non-novel demands on EDs and raising the concern that EDs are operating closer to the precipitous edge of crisis as ED crowding exacerbates the problem.

Morrison, J. Bradley; Rudolph, Jenny W.

2012-01-01

357

The effects of total sleep deprivation, selective sleep interruption and sleep recovery on pain tolerance thresholds in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD), rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and slow wave sleep (SWS) interruption and sleep recovery on mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity in healthy adults. Nine healthy male volunteers (age 26--43 years) were randomly assigned in this double blind and crossover study to undergo either REM sleep or SWS interruption. Periods of 6 consecutive laboratory nights separated by at least 2 weeks were designed as follows: N1 Adaptation night; N2 Baseline night; N3 Total sleep deprivation (40 h); N4 and N5 SWS or REM sleep interruption; N6 Recovery. Sleep was recorded and scored using standard methods. Tolerance thresholds to mechanical and thermal pain were assessed using an electronic pressure dolorimeter and a thermode operating on a Peltier principle. Relative to baseline levels, TSD decreased significantly mechanical pain thresholds (-8%). Both REM sleep and SWS interruption tended to decrease mechanical pain thresholds. Recovery sleep, after SWS interruption produced a significant increase in mechanical pain thresholds (+ 15%). Recovery sleep after REM sleep interruption did not significantly increase mechanical pain thresholds. No significant differences in thermal pain thresholds were detected between and within periods. In conclusion this experimental study in healthy adult volunteers has demonstrated an hyperalgesic effect related to 40 h TSD and an analgesic effect related to SWS recovery. The analgesic effect of SWS recovery is apparently greater than the analgesia induced by level I (World Health Organization) analgesic compounds in mechanical pain experiments in healthy volunteers. PMID:11285053

Onen, S H; Alloui, A; Gross, A; Eschallier, A; Dubray, C

2001-03-01

358

Genomes of "phiKMV-like viruses" of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contain localized single-strand interruptions.  

PubMed

The "phiKMV-like viruses" comprise an important genus of T7 related phages infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The genomes of these bacteriophages have localized single-strand interruptions (nicks), a distinguishing genomic trait previously thought to be unique for T5 related coliphages. Analysis of this feature in the newly sequenced phage phikF77 shows all four nicks to be localized on the non-coding DNA strand. They are present with high frequencies within the phage population and are introduced into the phage DNA at late stages of the lytic cycle. The general consensus sequence in the nicks (5'-CGACxxxxxCCTAoh pCTCCGG-3') was shown to be common among all phiKMV-related phages. PMID:19592061

Kulakov, Leonid A; Ksenzenko, Vladimir N; Shlyapnikov, Michael G; Kochetkov, Vladimir V; Del Casale, Antonio; Allen, Christopher C R; Larkin, Michael J; Ceyssens, Pieter-Jan; Lavigne, Rob

2009-08-15

359

Interruption of Somatic Embryogenesis in Daucus carota L. by 5-Bromodeoxyuridine  

PubMed Central

Embryogenic Daucus carota L. cells grown in 9 micromolar 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid are resistant to greater than 5 micromolar 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). In contrast, 5 micromolar BrdU strongly inhibits somatic embryogenesis within 24 hours after transfer of cells to an auxin-free medium. DNA synthesis rates in control and BrdU-treated cultures are rapid and similar; however, the DNA content does not reach levels as great in the presence of BrdU as in control cultures. BrdU substitutes for thymidine in the DNA in 28% of the available sites 48 hours after auxin removal. Following DNA repair, somatic embryogenesis resumes. BrdU DNA incorporation leads to somatic embryogenesis inhibition and provides an alternative to auxin treatment for the interruption of carrot cell culture differentiation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 7

Thomas, John C.; Nessler, Craig; Katterman, Frank

1989-01-01

360

The effects of verbal operant training and response interruption and redirection on appropriate and inappropriate vocalizations.  

PubMed

Past research has shown that response interruption and redirection (RIRD) can effectively decrease automatically reinforced motor behavior (Hagopian & Adelinis, 2001). Ahearn, Clark, MacDonald, and Chung (2007) found that a procedural adaptation of RIRD reduced vocal stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for some children, although appropriate vocalizations were not targeted directly. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of directly targeting appropriate language (i.e., verbal operant training) on vocal stereotypy and appropriate speech in 3 children with an autism spectrum disorder. The effects of verbal operant (i.e., tact) training were evaluated in a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across participants. In addition, RIRD was implemented with 2 of the 3 participants to further decrease levels of vocal stereotypy. Verbal operant training alone produced slightly lower levels of stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for all 3 participants; however, RIRD was required to produce acceptably low levels of stereotypy for 2 of the 3 participants. PMID:22403453

Colón, Candice L; Ahearn, William H; Clark, Kathleen M; Masalsky, Jessica

2012-01-01

361

17q21.31 microdeletion in a patient with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 26-month-old boy with mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, childhood feeding difficulties, short stature, bilateral cryptorchidism, micropenis, and heart defect. Endocrinal evaluation revealed complete growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and gonadotropic deficiency, and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging showed partial pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS). A de novo 493 kb microdeletion on chromosome 17q21.31 was identified using array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis. This is the first report of PSIS in the phenotypical spectrum of 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, although other midline abnormalities have previously been described. Our report suggests that GHD should be investigated in patients with 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome and short stature, defined by a body height below - 2 standard deviation scores (SDS) for age and sex. This finding also opens new avenues of research on the etiopathogenesis of PSIS, for which the genetic mechanisms remain unknown. PMID:21397059

El Chehadeh-Djebbar, Salima; Callier, Patrick; Masurel-Paulet, Alice; Bensignor, Candace; Méjean, Nathalie; Payet, Muriel; Ragon, Clémence; Durand, Christine; Marle, Nathalie; Mosca-Boidron, Anne-Laure; Huet, Frédéric; Mugneret, Francine; Faivre, Laurence; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel

2011-01-01

362

Interruption of vector transmission by native vectors and "the art of the possible"  

PubMed Central

In a recent article in the Reader’s Opinion, advantages and disadvantages of the certification processes of interrupted Chagas disease transmission (American trypanosomiasis) by native vector were discussed. Such concept, accepted by those authors for the case of endemic situations with introduced vectors, has been built on a long and laborious process by endemic countries and Subregional Initiatives for Prevention, Control and Treatment of Chagas, with Technical Secretariat of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, to create a horizon target and goal to concentrate priorities and resource allocation and actions. With varying degrees of sucess, which are not replaceable for a certificate of good practice, has allowed during 23 years to safeguard the effective control of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi not to hundreds of thousands, but millions of people at risk conditions, truly “the art of the possible.”

Salvatella, Roberto; Irabedra, Pilar; Castellanos, Luis G

2013-01-01

363

Interruption of vector transmission by native vectors and "the art of the possible".  

PubMed

In a recent article in the Reader's Opinion, advantages and disadvantages of the certification processes of interrupted Chagas disease transmission (American trypanosomiasis) by native vector were discussed. Such concept, accepted by those authors for the case of endemic situations with introduced vectors, has been built on a long and laborious process by endemic countries and Subregional Initiatives for Prevention, Control and Treatment of Chagas, with Technical Secretariat of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, to create a horizon target and goal to concentrate priorities and resource allocation and actions. With varying degrees of sucess, which are not replaceable for a certificate of good practice, has allowed during 23 years to safeguard the effective control of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi not to hundreds of thousands, but millions of people at risk conditions, truly "the art of the possible." PMID:24626310

Salvatella, Roberto; Irabedra, Pilar; Castellanos, Luis G

2014-02-01

364

THE EFFECTS OF VERBAL OPERANT TRAINING AND RESPONSE INTERRUPTION AND REDIRECTION ON APPROPRIATE AND INAPPROPRIATE VOCALIZATIONS  

PubMed Central

Past research has shown that response interruption and redirection (RIRD) can effectively decrease automatically reinforced motor behavior (Hagopian & Adelinis, 2001). Ahearn, Clark, MacDonald, and Chung (2007) found that a procedural adaptation of RIRD reduced vocal stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for some children, although appropriate vocalizations were not targeted directly. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of directly targeting appropriate language (i.e., verbal operant training) on vocal stereotypy and appropriate speech in 3 children with an autism spectrum disorder. The effects of verbal operant (i.e., tact) training were evaluated in a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across participants. In addition, RIRD was implemented with 2 of the 3 participants to further decrease levels of vocal stereotypy. Verbal operant training alone produced slightly lower levels of stereotypy and increased appropriate vocalizations for all 3 participants; however, RIRD was required to produce acceptably low levels of stereotypy for 2 of the 3 participants.

Colon, Candice L; Ahearn, William H; Clark, Kathleen M; Masalsky, Jessica

2012-01-01

365

Entry of parainfluenza virus into cells as a target for interrupting childhood respiratory disease  

PubMed Central

Human parainfluenza viruses cause several serious respiratory diseases in children for which there is no effective prevention or therapy. Parainfluenza viruses initiate infection by binding to cell surface receptors and then, via coordinated action of the 2 viral surface glycoproteins, fuse directly with the cell membrane to release the viral replication machinery into the host cell’s cytoplasm. During this process, the receptor-binding molecule must trigger the viral fusion protein to mediate fusion and entry of the virus into a cell. This review explores the binding and entry into cells of parainfluenza virus type 3, focusing on how the receptor-binding molecule triggers the fusion process. There are several steps during the process of binding, triggering, and fusion that are now understood at the molecular level, and each of these steps represents potential targets for interrupting infection.

Moscona, Anne

2005-01-01

366

A rare association of interrupted aortic arch type C and microdeletion 22q11.2.  

PubMed

Microdeletion 22q11.2 is associated with a variety of findings, and the most common are cardiac defects. It is very frequently associated with interrupted aortic arch (IAA) type B and very rarely with type A and type C. Here we report the first case of IAA type C associated with 22q11.2 deletion in Serbia and, to the best of our knowledge, the fourth case described worldwide so far. By this report we would like to point out that all patients with IAA type C who have additional features specific for 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome should be screened for the presence of this deletion. PMID:18040716

Cuturilo, Goran; Drakulic, Danijela; Stevanovic, Milena; Jovanovic, Ida; Djukic, Milan; Miletic-Grkovic, Slobodanka; Atanaskovic-Markovic, Marina

2008-10-01

367

The use of interrupted case studies to enhance critical thinking skills in biology.  

PubMed

There has been a dramatic increase in the availability of case studies for use in the biology classroom, and perceptions of the effectiveness of case-study-based learning are overwhelmingly positive. Here we report the results of a study in which we evaluated the ability of interrupted case studies to improve critical thinking in the context of experimental design and the conventions of data interpretation. Students were assessed using further case studies designed to evaluate their ability to recognize and articulate problematic approaches to these elements of experimentation. Our work reveals that case studies have broad utility in the classroom. In addition to demonstrating a small but statistically significant increase in the number of students capable of critically evaluating selected aspects of experimental design, we also observed increased student engagement and documented widespread misconceptions regarding the conventions of data acquisition and analysis. PMID:23653687

White, Tracy K; Whitaker, Paul; Gonya, Terri; Hein, Richard; Kroening, Dubear; Lee, Kevin; Lee, Laura; Lukowiak, Andrea; Hayes, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

368

Joint reconstruction of interrupted SAR imagery for persistent surveillance change detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a new method for restoring multi-pass synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images containing arbitrary gaps in SAR phase history data. Frequency and aspect gaps in SAR image spectrum manifest themselves as artifacts in the associated SAR imagery. Our approach, which we term LDREG for the (cursive ell);1 difference regularization, jointly processes multi-pass interrupted data using sparse magnitude and sparse magnitude difference constraints, and results in improved quality imagery. We find that the joint processing of LDREG results in coherent change detection gains over independent processing of each data pass. To illustrate the capabilities of LDREG, we evaluate coherent change detection performance using images from the Gotcha SAR.

Stojanovic, Ivana; Novak, Les; Karl, W. C.

2013-05-01

369

The Use of Interrupted Case Studies to Enhance Critical Thinking Skills in Biology  

PubMed Central

There has been a dramatic increase in the availability of case studies for use in the biology classroom, and perceptions of the effectiveness of case-study-based learning are overwhelmingly positive. Here we report the results of a study in which we evaluated the ability of interrupted case studies to improve critical thinking in the context of experimental design and the conventions of data interpretation. Students were assessed using further case studies designed to evaluate their ability to recognize and articulate problematic approaches to these elements of experimentation. Our work reveals that case studies have broad utility in the classroom. In addition to demonstrating a small but statistically significant increase in the number of students capable of critically evaluating selected aspects of experimental design, we also observed increased student engagement and documented widespread misconceptions regarding the conventions of data acquisition and analysis.

White, Tracy K.; Whitaker, Paul; Gonya, Terri; Hein, Richard; Kroening, Dubear; Lee, Kevin; Lee, Laura; Lukowiak, Andrea; Hayes, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

370

Activation and interruption of the reproduction of Varroa destructor is triggered by host signals (Apis mellifera).  

PubMed

The reproductive cycle of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor is closely linked to the development of the honey bee host larvae. Using a within colony approach we introduced phoretic Varroa females into brood cells of different age in order to analyze the capacity of certain stages of the honey bee larva to either activate or interrupt the reproduction of Varroa females. Only larvae within 18 h (worker) and 36 h (drones), respectively, after cell capping were able to stimulate the mite's oogenesis. Therewith we could specify for the first time the short time window where honey bee larvae provide the signals for the activation of the Varroa reproduction. Stage specific volatiles of the larval cuticle are at least part of these activation signals. This is confirmed by the successful stimulation of presumably non-reproducing mites to oviposition by the application of a larval extract into the sealed brood cells. According to preliminary quantitative GC-MS analysis we suggest certain fatty acid ethyl esters as candidate compounds. If Varroa females that have just started with egg formation are transferred to brood cells containing host larvae of an elder stage two-thirds of these mites stopped their oogenesis. This confirms the presence of an additional signal in the host larvae allowing the reproducing mites to adjust their own reproductive cycle to the ontogenetic development of the host. From an adaptive point of view that sort of a stop signal enables the female mite to save resources for a next reproductive cycle if the own egg development is not sufficiently synchronized with the development of the host. The results presented here offer the opportunity to analyze exactly those host stages that have the capacity to activate or interrupt the Varroa reproduction in order to identify the crucial host signals. PMID:23376006

Frey, Eva; Odemer, Richard; Blum, Thomas; Rosenkranz, Peter

2013-05-01

371

Mechanism of the Antidiuretic Effect Associated with Interruption of Parasympathetic Pathways  

PubMed Central

The present experiments were undertaken to investigate the mechanism whereby the parasympathetic nervous system may be involved in the renal regulation of solute-free water excretion. The effects of interruption of parasympathetic pathways by bilateral cervical vagotomy were examined in eight normal and seven hypophysectomized anesthetized dogs undergoing a water diuresis. In the normal animals cervical vagotomy decreased free-water clearance (CH2O) from 2.59±0.4 se to ?0.26±0.1 ml/min (P < 0.001), and urinary osmolality (Uosm) increased from 86±7 to 396±60 mOsm/kg (P < 0.001). This antidiuretic effect was not associated with changes in cardiac output, renal perfusion pressure, glomerular filtration rate, renal vascular resistance, or filtration fraction and was not affected by renal denervation. A small but significant increase in urinary sodium and potassium excretion was observed after vagotomy in these normal animals. Pharmacological blockade of parasympathetic efferent pathways with atropine, curare, or both was not associated with an alteration in either renal hemodynamics or renal diluting capacity. In contrast to the results in normal animals, cervical vagotomy was not associated with an antidiuretic effect in hypophysectomized animals. CH2O was 2.29±0.26 ml/min before and 2.41±0.3 ml/min after vagotomy, and Uosm was 88±9.5 mOsm/kg before vagotomy and 78±8.6 mOsm/kg after vagotomy in the hypophysectomized animals. Changes in systemic or renal hemodynamics or electrolyte excretion were also not observed after vagotomy in these hypophysectomized animals. On the basis of these results, we conclude that the antidiuretic effect associated with cervical vagotomy is initiated by interruption of parasympathetic afferent pathways and is mediated by increased endogenous release of vasopressin. This antidiuresis was also demonstrated to occur in the absence of renal nerves and alterations in systemic and renal hemodynamics.

Schrier, Robert W.; Berl, Tomas; Harbottle, Judith A.

1972-01-01

372

Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome in 59 children: the value of MRI in assessment of pituitary functions.  

PubMed

Pituitary imaging abnormality is a specific indicator of hypopituitarism. This study involved a retrospective review of 59 children diagnosed with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS). Of the 59 eligible patients, 54 were born by breech delivery, and there was a significant difference between numbers of patients with breech and head-presenting birth. In order to discuss the relationship between pituitary functions and delineation of pituitary structure in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a control analysis was carried out in children with PSIS. Fifty-nine children were subdivided into two groups: group I (partial PSIS, 20 cases) and group II (complete PSIS, 39 cases). There was a significantly small anterior pituitary in both groups of PSIS compared with controls (P?Interruption of pituitary stalk and ectopic posterior pituitary both represent important markers of pituitary structure and function. PMID:24257915

Wang, Qian; Hu, Yanyan; Li, Guimei; Sun, Xiaojun

2014-05-01

373

Long-lasting insecticidal nets are synergistic with mass drug administration for interruption of lymphatic filariasis transmission in Nigeria.  

PubMed

In central Nigeria Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF). The strategy used for interrupting LF transmission in this area is annual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and ivermectin, but after 8 years of MDA, entomological evaluations in sentinel villages showed continued low-grade mosquito infection rates of 0.32%. After long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution by the national malaria program in late 2010, however, we were no longer able to detect infected vectors over a 24-month period. This is evidence that LLINs are synergistic with MDA in interrupting LF transmission. PMID:24205421

Eigege, Abel; Kal, Alphonsus; Miri, Emmanuel; Sallau, Adamu; Umaru, John; Mafuyai, Hayward; Chuwang, Yohanna S; Danjuma, Goshit; Danboyi, Jacob; Adelamo, Solomon E; Mancha, Bulus S; Okoeguale, Bridget; Patterson, Amy E; Rakers, Lindsay; Richards, Frank O

2013-01-01

374

Interrupting habitual car use: The importance of car habit strength and moral motivation for personal car use reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, habitual car use was interrupted by means of an intervention attempting to induce a deliberate consideration to reduce personal car use and forming implementation intentions for the planned changes in travel behavior. The importance of car habit strength and of moral motivation for reducing car use was analyzed. The study was conducted as a field experiment where

Louise Eriksson; Jörgen Garvill; Annika M. Nordlund

2008-01-01

375

Increase in nitrate uptake by soybean plants during interruption of the dark period with low intensity light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diurnal patterns of net NO3- uptake by nonnodulated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] plants growing in flowing hydroponic culture at 26 and 16 degrees C root temperatures were measured at hourly intervals during alternate days of a 12-day growth period. Ion chromatography was used to determine removal of NO3- from the culture solution. Day and night periods of 9 and 15 h were used during growth. The night period included two 6-h dark periods and an intervening 3-h period of night interruption by incandescent lamps to effect a long-day photoperiod and repress floral initiation. At both root temperatures, the average specific rates of NO3- uptake were twice as great during the night interruption period as during the day period; they were greater during the day period than during the dark periods; and they were greater during the dark period immediately following the day period than during the later dark period that followed the night interruption. While these average patterns were repetitious among days, measured rates of uptake varied hourly and included intervals of net efflux scattered through the day period and more frequently through the 2 dark periods. Root temperature did not affect the average daily specific rates of uptake or the qualitative relationships among day, dark and night interruption periods of the diurnal cycle.

Raper, C. D. Jr; Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.

1991-01-01

376

Collecting and categorizing information related to electric power distribution interruption events: data consistency and categorization for benchmarking surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability of electric power systems remains an important societal issue. While transmission disturbances draw national attention and scrutiny, service interruptions at the distribution level are the primary concern of the end-use customer and their regulatory and governmental representatives. Much effort has been expended in developing methods to uniformly and consistently quantify the reliability of distribution service based on electric system

V. G. Werner; D. F. Hall; R. L. Robinson; C. A. Warren

2006-01-01

377

Collecting and categorizing information related to electric power distribution interruption events: data consistency and categorization for benchmarking surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Reliability of electric power systems remains an important societal issue. While transmission disturbances draw national attention and scrutiny, service interruptions at the distribution level are the primary concern of the end-use customer and their regulatory and governmental representatives. Much effort has been expended in developing methods to uniformly and consistently quantify the reliability of distribution service

V. Werner; D. Hall; R. Robinson; C. Warren

2005-01-01

378

Finish Hard Turning of Continuous and Interrupted Surfaces with Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) and Coated Carbide Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, cubic boron nitride (CBN) and coated carbide tools were used for finish turning of hardened steel with continuous and interrupted surfaces. The objective of this work is to investigate the conditions under which carbide tools can give optimal results in terms of both tool wear and surface integrity of the machined surface in comparison to costly CBN

Manu Dogra; Vishal S. Sharma; Anish Sachdeva; Narinder Mohan Suri

2012-01-01

379

Delayed Locking Technique for Improving Real-Time Performance of Embedded Linux by Prediction of Timer Interrupt  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new technique, called a delayed locking technique, to improve the real-time performance of embedded Linux. The proposed technique employs the rule that entering a critical section is allowed only if the operation does not disturb the future execution of the real-time application. To execute this rule, we introduce the concepts of timer interrupt prediction

Jupyung Lee; Kyu-Ho Park

2005-01-01

380

Effects of age and hearing loss on the recognition of interrupted words in isolation and in sentences  

PubMed Central

The ability to recognize spoken words interrupted by silence was investigated with young normal-hearing listeners and older listeners with and without hearing impairment. Target words from the revised SPIN test by Bilger et al. [J. Speech Hear. Res. 27(1), 32–48 (1984)] were presented in isolation and in the original sentence context using a range of interruption patterns in which portions of speech were replaced with silence. The number of auditory “glimpses” of speech and the glimpse proportion (total duration glimpsed/word duration) were varied using a subset of the SPIN target words that ranged in duration from 300 to 600?ms. The words were presented in isolation, in the context of low-predictability (LP) sentences, and in high-predictability (HP) sentences. The glimpse proportion was found to have a strong influence on word recognition, with relatively little influence of the number of glimpses, glimpse duration, or glimpse rate. Although older listeners tended to recognize fewer interrupted words, there was considerable overlap in recognition scores across listener groups in all conditions, and all groups were affected by interruption parameters and context in much the same way.

Kidd, Gary R.; Humes, Larry E.

2012-01-01

381

Paying the price works: increasing goal-state access cost improves problem solving and mitigates the effect of interruption.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to investigate whether it was possible to induce more internal planning in the four-disk Tower of Hanoi (ToH) in order not only to produce more efficient problem solving but also to make it more resistant to the negative effect of interruption. The theoretical frameworks of soft constraints and the memory for goals model underpinned Experiments 1 and 2. In both experiments, three goal-state access cost conditions were used: high (mouse movements and 2.5-s delay), medium (mouse movements) and low (goal state always available). In Experiment 1, more memory-based planning was induced by the high cost condition, which resulted in fewer moves to solution and the gradual development of an efficient subgoaling strategy, resulting in more perfect solutions. In Experiment 2, the same condition protected performance against a 10-s interruption irrespective of the interrupting task (blank screen, mental arithmetic, or three-disk ToH). The more memory-based planning strategy, induced by high access cost, presumably strengthened participants' goals during planning and problem solving, making them less susceptible to decay and interference from interruption. These novel results are discussed in the context of other recent studies. PMID:22928975

Morgan, Phillip L; Patrick, John

2013-01-01

382

Typed Versus Voice Recognition for Data Entry in Electronic Health Records: Emergency Physician Time Use and Interruptions  

PubMed Central

Introduction Use of electronic health record (EHR) systems can place a considerable data entry burden upon the emergency department (ED) physician. Voice recognition data entry has been proposed as one mechanism to mitigate some of this burden; however, no reports are available specifically comparing emergency physician (EP) time use or number of interruptions between typed and voice recognition data entry-based EHRs. We designed this study to compare physician time use and interruptions between an EHR system using typed data entry versus an EHR with voice recognition. Methods We collected prospective observational data at 2 academic teaching hospital EDs, one using an EHR with typed data entry and the other with voice recognition capabilities. Independent raters observed EP activities during regular shifts. Tasks each physician performed were noted and logged in 30 second intervals. We compared time allocated to charting, direct patient care, and change in tasks leading to interruptions between sites. Results We logged 4,140 minutes of observation for this study. We detected no statistically significant differences in the time spent by EPs charting (29.4% typed; 27.5% voice) or the time allocated to direct patient care (30.7%; 30.8%). Significantly more interruptions per hour were seen with typed data entry versus voice recognition data entry (5.33 vs. 3.47; p=0.0165). Conclusion The use of a voice recognition data entry system versus typed data entry did not appear to alter the amount of time physicians spend charting or performing direct patient care in an ED setting. However, we did observe a lower number of workflow interruptions with the voice recognition data entry EHR. Additional research is needed to further evaluate the data entry burden in the ED and examine alternative mechanisms for chart entry as EHR systems continue to evolve.

dela Cruz, Jonathan E.; Shabosky, John C.; Albrecht, Matthew; Clark, Ted R.; Milbrandt, Joseph C.; Markwell, Steven J.; Kegg, Jason A.

2014-01-01

383

42 CFR 412.531 - Special payment provisions when an interruption of a stay occurs in a long-term care hospital.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...interruption of stayâ means a stay at a long-term care hospital during which...interruption of stayâ means A stay in a long-term care hospital during which...payment for all portions of a long-term care stay. (1 ) For a 3-day or...

2010-10-01

384

42 CFR 412.531 - Special payment provisions when an interruption of a stay occurs in a long-term care hospital.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...interruption of stayâ means a stay at a long-term care hospital during which...interruption of stayâ means A stay in a long-term care hospital during which...payment for all portions of a long-term care stay. (1 ) For a 3-day or...

2009-10-01

385

Protective Factors Interrupting the Continuity from School Bullying to Later Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: A Systematic Review of Prospective Longitudinal Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A systematic review is presented, based on prospective longitudinal studies, on protective factors that interrupt the continuity from bullying perpetration at school to externalizing problem behaviors later in life; and from bullying victimization to later internalizing problems. Some common factors were established, which seem to interrupt the…

Ttofi, Maria M.; Bowes, Lucy; Farrington, David P.; Lösel, Friedrich

2014-01-01

386

Common interruptions in the repeating tripeptide sequence of non-fibrillar collagens: Sequence analysis and structural studies on triple-helix peptide models  

PubMed Central

Interruptions in the repeating (Gly-X1-X2)n amino acid sequence pattern are found in the triple-helix domains of all non-fibrillar collagens, and perturbations to the triple-helix at such sites are likely to play a role in collagen higher order structure and function. This report defines the sequence features and structural consequences of the most common interruption, where one residue is missing in the tripeptide pattern, Gly-X1-X2-Gly-AA1-Gly-X1-X2, designated as G1G interruptions. Residues found within G1G interruptions are predominantly hydrophobic (70%), followed by a significant amount of charged residues (16%), and the Gly-X1-X2 triplets flanking the interruption are atypical. Studies on peptide models indicate the degree of destabilization is much greater when a Pro is in the interruption, GP, than when hydrophobic residues (GF, GY) are present, and a rigid Gly-Pro-Hyp tripeptide adjacent to the interruption leads to greater destabilization than a flexible Gly-Ala-Ala sequence. Modeling based on NMR data indicates the Phe residue within a GF interruption is located on the outside of the triple-helix. The G1G interruptions resemble a previously studied collagen interruption GPOGAAVMGPO, designated as a G4G type, in that both are destabilizing, but allow continuation of rod-like triple-helices and maintenance of the 1-residue stagger throughout the imperfection, with a loss of axial register of the superhelix on both sides. Both kinds of interruptions result in a highly localized perturbation in hydrogen bonding and dihedral angles, but the hydrophobic residue of a G4G interruption packs near the central axis of the superhelix while the hydrophobic residue of a G1G interruption is located on the triple-helix surface. The different structural consequences of G1G and G4G interruptions in the repeating tripeptide sequence pattern suggest a physical basis for their differential susceptibility to matrix metalloproteinases in type X collagen.

Thiagarajan, Geetha; Li, Yingjie; Mohs, Angela; Strafaci, Christopher; Popiel, Magdalena; Baum, Jean; Brodsky, Barbara

2009-01-01

387

Improving Malaria Control in West Africa: Interruption of Transmission as a Paradigm Shift  

PubMed Central

With the paradigm shift from the reduction of morbidity and mortality to the interruption of transmission, the focus of malaria control broadens from symptomatic infections in children ? 5 years of age to include asymptomatic infections in older children and adults. In addition, as control efforts intensify and the number of interventions increases, there will be decreases in prevalence, incidence and transmission with additional decreases in morbidity and mortality. Expected secondary consequences of these changes include upward shifts in the peak ages for infection (parasitemia) and disease, increases in the ages for acquisition of antiparasite humoral and cellular immune responses and increases in false-negative blood smears and rapid diagnostic tests. Strategies to monitor these changes must include: 1] studies of the entire population (that are not restricted to children ? 5 or ? 10 years of age), 2] study sites in both cities and rural areas (because of increasing urbanization across sub-Saharan Africa) and 3] innovative strategies for surveillance as the prevalence of infection decreases and the frequency of false-negative smears and rapid diagnostic tests increases.

Doumbia, Seydou O.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Koita, Ousmane A.; Diakite, Mahamadou; Nwakanma, Davis; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Traore, Sekou F.; Keating, Joseph; Milner, Danny A.; Ndiaye, Jean-Louis; Sene, Papa Diogoye; Ahouidi, Ambroise; Dieye, Tandakha N.; Gaye, Oumar; Okebe, Joseph; Ceesay, Serign J.; Ngwa, Alfred; Oriero, Eniyou C.; Konate, Lassana; Sy, Ngayo; Jawara, Musa; Faye, Ousmane; Keita, Moussa; Cisse, Moussa; Sogoba, Nafomon; Poudiougou, Belco; Diawara, Sory; Sangare, Lansana; Coulibaly, Tinzana; Seck, Ibrahima; Abubakar, Ismaela; Gomis, Jules; Mather, Frances J.; Sissako, Aliou; Diarra, Ayouba; Kandeh, Balla; Whalen, Christopher; Moyer, Brian; Nnedu, Obinna; Thiero, Oumar; Bei, Amy K.; Daniels, Rachel; Miura, Kazutoyo; Long, Carole A.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Duraisingh, Manoj; Muskavitch, Marc A.T.; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Conway, David J.; Volkman, Sarah K.; Valim, Clarissa; Wirth, Dyann F.; Krogstad, Donald J.

2011-01-01

388

HIV model parameter estimates from interruption trial data including drug efficacy and reservoir dynamics.  

PubMed

Mathematical models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) have had significant impact on understanding HIV disease dynamics and optimizing patient treatment. A model that characterizes the essential disease dynamics can be used for prediction only if the model parameters are identifiable from clinical data. Most previous parameter identification studies for HIV have used sparsely sampled data from the decay phase following the introduction of therapy. In this paper, model parameters are identified from frequently sampled viral-load data taken from ten patients enrolled in the previously published AutoVac HAART interruption study, providing between 69 and 114 viral load measurements from 3-5 phases of viral decay and rebound for each patient. This dataset is considerably larger than those used in previously published parameter estimation studies. Furthermore, the measurements come from two separate experimental conditions, which allows for the direct estimation of drug efficacy and reservoir contribution rates, two parameters that cannot be identified from decay-phase data alone. A Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method is used to estimate the model parameter values, with initial estimates obtained using nonlinear least-squares methods. The posterior distributions of the parameter estimates are reported and compared for all patients. PMID:22815727

Luo, Rutao; Piovoso, Michael J; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Zurakowski, Ryan

2012-01-01

389

Interrupted blood-feeding by Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) on European starlings.  

PubMed

To determine whether Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) mosquitoes tend to take multiple blood meals when birds of certain species serve as hosts, we compared the frequencies with which such mosquitoes fed upon caged starlings and robins and determined whether similar volumes of blood were imbibed from each. The blood of robins (Turdus migratorius) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) was marked contrastingly by injecting birds with rubidium or cesium salts. Caged birds were placed together in a natural wetland setting overnight. Mosquitoes captured nearby on the following morning were analyzed for each of the elemental markers. Where marked robins and starlings were equally abundant, 43% of freshly engorged Cs. melanura fed on more than or equal to two hosts. More Cs. melanura fed on robins than on starlings. Individual mosquitoes tended to contain far more robin- than starling-associated marker, indicating that mosquitoes "feasted" on robins but only "nibbled" on starlings. Mosquitoes marked with both elements apparently fed meagerly on the starlings then abundantly on the robins. Our estimates of bloodmeal volume indicate that 85% of mosquitoes that fed on marked starlings obtained < 0.5 microliter of blood from them. We suggest that defensive behavior by starlings interrupts mosquito blood-feeding and that, in a communal roost of starlings, each mosquito will tend to feed on more than one bird, thereby promoting rapid transmission of such ornithonotic arboviruses as eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and West Nile virus. PMID:11268693

Hodgson, J C; Spielman, A; Komar, N; Krahforst, C F; Wallace, G T; Pollack, R J

2001-01-01

390

Analysis of cell cycle shortening and developmental interruption in Dictyostelium discoideum allC RNAi mutants.  

PubMed

Dictyostelium discoideum allC RNAi mutant cells are motile and aggregate together, but do not undergo further morphological development. The relatively quick growth rate of allC RNAi mutants compared to wild-type D. discoideum results in a shortened mutant cell cycle. However, at present, little is known about the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Here, we used semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time quantitative RT-PCR, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry to elucidate the phenomenon. We found significant downregulation of myosin II heavy chain, D. discoideum calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule-1 (DdCAD-1) mRNA, DdCAD-1 protein, D. discoideum mRNA for 14-3-3 and 14-3-3 protein, and type A von Willebrand factor domain-containing protein mRNA in allC RNAi mutants. The results suggest that downregulation of the myosin II heavy chain could be one of key factors causing the developmental interruption and that downregulation of the 14-3-3 protein and the type A von Willebrand factor domain-containing protein mRNA plays an important role in shortening the cell cycle of allC RNAi mutants. PMID:24938606

Xue, D M; Hou, L S; Zhang, S R; Chen, N X

2014-01-01

391

Modelling interrupted time series to evaluate prevention and control of infection in healthcare.  

PubMed

The most common methods for evaluating interventions to reduce the rate of new Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in hospitals use segmented regression or interrupted time-series analysis. We describe approaches to evaluating interventions introduced in different healthcare units at different times. We compare fitting a segmented Poisson regression in each hospital unit with pooling the individual estimates by inverse variance. An extension of this approach to accommodate potential heterogeneity allows estimates to be calculated from a single statistical model: a 'stacked' model. It can be used to ascertain whether transmission rates before the intervention have the same slope in all units, whether the immediate impact of the intervention is the same in all units, and whether transmission rates have the same slope after the intervention. The methods are illustrated by analyses of data from a study at a Veterans Affairs hospital. Both approaches yielded consistent results. Where feasible, a model adjusting for the unit effect should be fitted, or if there is heterogeneity, an analysis incorporating a random effect for units may be appropriate. PMID:22335933

Gebski, V; Ellingson, K; Edwards, J; Jernigan, J; Kleinbaum, D

2012-12-01

392

Housekeeping recA gene interrupted by group II intron in the thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus.  

PubMed

Most of group II introns are found in intergenes and CDSs with unknown functions, but not in housekeeping genes. In particular, no group II intron within the housekeeping recA gene has been reported either in eukaryotic genomes or in prokaryotic genomes. In this study, we found that the recA gene of the thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus genome is interrupted by a group II intron (Gk. Int1), and that Gk.Int1 can splice in temperatures above 70 degrees C in vivo. Here, we report the first prokaryotic group II intron to be found in a housekeeping gene, the characteristics of its self-splicing in vivo and in vitro, and our conclusion that the recA gene functions through the self-splicing of Gk.Int1. It is suggested that the amelioration of Gk.Int1 intron has occurred recently, and that it is still in the process of evolution to the recipient genome. PMID:16242272

Chee, Gab-Joo; Takami, Hideto

2005-12-19

393

[How to manage the interruption of a treatment with anti-inflammatory corticosteroids?].  

PubMed

A prolonged treatment with anti-inflammatory corticosteroids induces an inhibition of ACTH secretion from pituitary corticotroph cells. An abrupt interruption of such a treatment potentially leads to the risk of an acute adrenal failure, in particular in stressing situations. The inertia in reactivation of the secretion of the stimulating hypothalamic factors (CRH and AVP) and consecutively of ACTH can be responsible for an inability to adapt the secretion of glucocorticoids in response to stress. A short-time treatment (<3 weeks) with anti-inflammatory corticoids does not expose to this risk. On the contrary, a more prolonged treatment, especially with high daily doses, needs to perform an evaluation of the level of corticotroph secretion. This evaluation should be done before to consider that either stopping the treatment is out of risk or if the initiation of a substitutive treatment with hydrocortisone is required. The measurement of morning plasma cortisol level already provides a significant information. As to whether that is needed, a dynamic evaluation can be performed. Among the available tests, the Synacthen(®)test, easy to perform and using at best 1?g of ?1-24 ACTH, appears the most finely informative to answer this question and to choose the most adapted follow-up. PMID:24613064

Kuhn, Jean-Marc; Prévost, Gaëtan

2014-04-01

394

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and acceptability of planned treatment interruptions in HIV-infected children.  

PubMed

There have been no paediatric randomised trials describing the effect of planned treatment interruptions (PTIs) of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on adherence, or evaluating acceptability of such a strategy. In PENTA 11, HIV-infected children were randomised to CD4-guided PTIs (n = 53) or continuous therapy (CT, n = 56). Carers, and children if appropriate, completed questionnaires on adherence to ART and acceptability of PTIs. There was no difference in reported adherence on ART between CT and PTI groups; non-adherence (reporting missed doses over the last 3 days or marking <100 % adherence since the last clinical visit on a visual analogue scale) was 18 % (20/111) and 14 % (12/83) on carer questionnaires in the CT and PTI groups respectively (odds ratios, OR (95 % CI) = 1.04 (0.20, 5.41), ?(2) (1) = 0.003, p = 0.96). Carers in Europe/USA reported non-adherence more often (31/121, 26 %) than in Thailand (1/73, 1 %; OR (95 % CI) = 54.65 (3.68, 810.55), ?(2) (1) = 8.45, p = 0.004). The majority of families indicated they were happy to have further PTIs (carer: 23/36, 64 %; children: 8/13, 62 %), however many reported more clinic visits during PTI were a problem (carer: 15/36, 42 %; children: 6/12, 50 %). PMID:22584916

Harrison, Linda; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Hamadache, Djamel; Compagnucci, Alexandra; Penazzato, Martina; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Mazza, Antonio; Ramos, Jose Tomas; Flynn, Jacquie; Rampon, Osvalda; Mellado Pena, Maria Jose; Floret, Daniel; Marczynska, Magdalena; Puga, Ana; Forcat, Silvia; Riault, Yoann; Lallemant, Marc; Castro, Hannah; Gibb, Diana M; Giaquinto, Carlo

2013-01-01

395

Life interrupted and life regained? Coping with stroke at a young age  

PubMed Central

Stroke is a leading cause of disability across the developed world, affecting an increasing number of younger people. In this article, we seek to understand the experience of stroke as a disabling life situation among young people and the strategies that they use to recover and cope. Directed content analysis was conducted from interviews with 17 community-dwelling stroke survivors aged 55 years and younger across the United Kingdom. The sample was drawn from a larger maximum variation sample of stroke survivors. Using the sociological concepts of biographical disruption and biographical repair as a guide, excerpts from the interviews pertaining to aspects of the patients’ life that were interrupted, in addition to how they coped with the changes, were selected and analysed. All individuals described an “altered sense of self,” a theme that included loss of identity, family disruption, and/or loss of valued activities. Individuals sought to adapt their sense of self by seeking external support, by restoring normality, and/or through positive reflection. Despite the adapted self that emerged, most individuals continued to experience impairments. While young stroke survivors adapt to their illness over time, they continue to experience impairments and disruptions in their personal and work lives. A holistic model of rehabilitation that helps individuals regain the capacity for everyday activities related to work, family life, and leisure can begin to address the emotional ramifications of diseases such as stroke, restore wellness, and work towards minimizing the burden felt by family caregivers and children.

Dow, Clare; Locock, Louise; Lyons, Renee F.; Lasserson, Daniel

2014-01-01

396

Life interrupted and life regained? Coping with stroke at a young age.  

PubMed

Stroke is a leading cause of disability across the developed world, affecting an increasing number of younger people. In this article, we seek to understand the experience of stroke as a disabling life situation among young people and the strategies that they use to recover and cope. Directed content analysis was conducted from interviews with 17 community-dwelling stroke survivors aged 55 years and younger across the United Kingdom. The sample was drawn from a larger maximum variation sample of stroke survivors. Using the sociological concepts of biographical disruption and biographical repair as a guide, excerpts from the interviews pertaining to aspects of the patients' life that were interrupted, in addition to how they coped with the changes, were selected and analysed. All individuals described an "altered sense of self," a theme that included loss of identity, family disruption, and/or loss of valued activities. Individuals sought to adapt their sense of self by seeking external support, by restoring normality, and/or through positive reflection. Despite the adapted self that emerged, most individuals continued to experience impairments. While young stroke survivors adapt to their illness over time, they continue to experience impairments and disruptions in their personal and work lives. A holistic model of rehabilitation that helps individuals regain the capacity for everyday activities related to work, family life, and leisure can begin to address the emotional ramifications of diseases such as stroke, restore wellness, and work towards minimizing the burden felt by family caregivers and children. PMID:24461569

Kuluski, Kerry; Dow, Clare; Locock, Louise; Lyons, Renee F; Lasserson, Daniel

2014-01-01

397

HIV Model Parameter Estimates from Interruption Trial Data including Drug Efficacy and Reservoir Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Mathematical models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) have had significant impact on understanding HIV disease dynamics and optimizing patient treatment. A model that characterizes the essential disease dynamics can be used for prediction only if the model parameters are identifiable from clinical data. Most previous parameter identification studies for HIV have used sparsely sampled data from the decay phase following the introduction of therapy. In this paper, model parameters are identified from frequently sampled viral-load data taken from ten patients enrolled in the previously published AutoVac HAART interruption study, providing between 69 and 114 viral load measurements from 3–5 phases of viral decay and rebound for each patient. This dataset is considerably larger than those used in previously published parameter estimation studies. Furthermore, the measurements come from two separate experimental conditions, which allows for the direct estimation of drug efficacy and reservoir contribution rates, two parameters that cannot be identified from decay-phase data alone. A Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method is used to estimate the model parameter values, with initial estimates obtained using nonlinear least-squares methods. The posterior distributions of the parameter estimates are reported and compared for all patients.

Luo, Rutao; Piovoso, Michael J.; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Zurakowski, Ryan

2012-01-01

398

Immune control of HIV-1 infection after therapy interruption: immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy  

PubMed Central

Background The optimal stage for initiating antiretroviral therapies in HIV-1 bearing patients is still a matter of debate. Methods We present computer simulations of HIV-1 infection aimed at identifying the pro et contra of immediate as compared to deferred Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). Results Our simulations highlight that a prompt specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes response is detected when therapy is delayed. Compared to very early initiation of HAART, in deferred treated patients CD8+ T cells manage to mediate the decline of viremia in a shorter time and, at interruption of therapy, the virus experiences a stronger immune pressure. We also observe, however, that the immunological effects of the therapy fade with time in both therapeutic regimens. Thus, within one year from discontinuation, viral burden recovers to the value at which it would level off in the absence of therapy. In summary, simulations show that immediate therapy does not prolong the disease-free period and does not confer a survival benefit when compared to treatment started during the chronic infection phase. Conclusion Our conclusion is that, since there is no therapy to date that guarantees life-long protection, deferral of therapy should be preferred in order to minimize the risk of adverse effects, the occurrence of drug resistances and the costs of treatment.

2009-01-01

399

Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplankton–zooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.

2011-01-01

400

Effectiveness of an improved road safety policy in Ethiopia: an interrupted time series study  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in implementing road safety policy by different low income countries. However; the evidence is scarce on its success in the reduction of crashes, injuries and deaths. This study was conducted to assess whether road crashes, injuries and fatalities was reduced following the road safety regulation introduced as of September 2007 by Oromia Regional State Transport Bureau. Methods Routine road traffic accident data for the year 2002-2011were collected from sixteen traffic police offices. Data on average daily vehicle flow was obtained from the Ethiopian Road Authority. Interrupted time series design using segmented linear regression model was applied to estimate the effect of an improved road safety policy. Results A total of 4,053 crashes occurred on Addis Ababa - Adama/Hawassa main road. Of these crashes, almost half 46.4% (1,880) were property damage, 29.4% (1,193) were fatal and 24.2% (980) injury crashes, resulting 1,392 fatalities and 1,749 injuries. There were statistically significant reductions in non-injury crashes and deaths. Non-injury crash was reduced by 19% and fatality by 12.4% in the first year of implementing the revised transport safety regulation. Conclusion Although revised road safety policy helped in reducing motor vehicle crashes and associated fatalities, the overall incidence rate is still very high. Further action is required to avoid unnecessary loss of lives.

2014-01-01

401

Simulation of SLF Interrupting Performance for SF6 Gas Circuit Breaker based on Serially Connected 3 Arc Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper shows the simulation of SLF interrupting performances for SF6 gas circuit breakers. From the measurements using 300kV-SF6 gas model circuit breakers, it was shown that the extinction peak voltages were varying with arcing times. But, the current values at the extinction peak were the same. To simulate the SLF interrupting performances for the circuit breakers, serially connected 3 arc models were used. Cassie arc model and two Mayr arc models were serially connected. In this arc model, the Cassie model simulates the high current arc. One of the Mayr arc model (Mayr model 1) simulates the arc around the voltage extinction peak. And the other Mayr arc model simulates the arc around current zero. In this model, arc voltage of the Cassie model and arc power loss of the Mayr model 1 are only estimated from the experiments. It was good agreement with the measurements and simulations.

Koshizuka, Tadashi; Shinkai, Takeshi; Udagawa, Keisuke; Kawano, Hiromichi

402

Effects of elevated temperatures during interruption of irradiation on Harwell Red 4034 PMMA and Kodak Biomax alanine film dosimetry systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the industrial setting it is not uncommon for a process interruption to occur during irradiation. In this event, dosimeters may be exposed to prolonged periods of elevated temperature without exposure to ionizing radiation. Once the process is restarted, the same dosimeters are exposed to ionizing radiation in order to achieve target dose. The goal of this experiment was to simulate a process interruption within limits and quantify the effects of a combination of factors (heat, time, and fractionation) on dosimeter response. We present an in-depth experimental study on the response of dosimeters that have been irradiated, stored for a fixed period of time at several temperatures, and then re-irradiated. This study was performed using Harwell Red 4034 polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and Kodak BioMax alanine film dosimeters.

Sidereas, P.; Patil, D. S.; Garcia, R.; Tracy, R. P.; Holzman, J. M.

2007-11-01

403

Development of a Discharge Channel upon Electric Explosion of a Wire in Interrupted- and Uninterrupted-Current Regimes  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results on the electrical explosion of thin W, Cu and Ni wires with a current density of {approx}10{sup 12} A/m{sup 2}, a current rise rate (dI/dt){approx}40 A/ns and a current pulse with amplitude 9 kA are presented. The structures of the discharge channels developed in single wire explosions in air and vacuum using laser shadow and schlieren imaging have been studied under the condition that the current in the circuit was interrupted. A difference in the shock wave propagation in air and the expansion of the exploded wire dense core in interrupted- and uninterrupted-current regimes has been observed. Analysis of the optical images has been performed in a shunting breakdown scenario.

Romanova, Vera; Tkachenko, Svetlana; Mingaleev, Albert; Agafonov, Alexey; Ter-Oganesyan, Alexey; Shelkovenko, Tatiana; Pikuz, Sergey [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

2009-01-21

404

Genomic analysis of Pseudomonas putida phage tf with localized single-strand DNA interruptions.  

PubMed

The complete sequence of the 46,267 bp genome of the lytic bacteriophage tf specific to Pseudomonas putida PpG1 has been determined. The phage genome has two sets of convergently transcribed genes and 186 bp long direct terminal repeats. The overall genomic architecture of the tf phage is similar to that of the previously described Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages PaP3, LUZ24 and phiMR299-2, and 39 out of the 72 products of predicted tf open reading frames have orthologs in these phages. Accordingly, tf was classified as belonging to the LUZ24-like bacteriophage group. However, taking into account very low homology levels between tf DNA and that of the other phages, tf should be considered as an evolutionary divergent member of the group. Two distinguishing features not reported for other members of the group were found in the tf genome. Firstly, a unique end structure--a blunt right end and a 4-nucleotide 3'-protruding left end--was observed. Secondly, 14 single-chain interruptions (nicks) were found in the top strand of the tf DNA. All nicks were mapped within a consensus sequence 5'-TACT/RTGMC-3'. Two nicks were analyzed in detail and were shown to be present in more than 90% of the phage population. Although localized nicks were previously found only in the DNA of T5-like and phiKMV-like phages, it seems increasingly likely that this enigmatic structural feature is common to various other bacteriophages. PMID:23236447

Glukhov, Anatoly S; Krutilina, Antonina I; Shlyapnikov, Michael G; Severinov, Konstantin; Lavysh, Daria; Kochetkov, Vladimir V; McGrath, John W; de Leeuwe, Colin; Shaburova, Olga V; Krylov, Victor N; Akulenko, Natalia V; Kulakov, Leonid A

2012-01-01

405

Influence of safety warnings on ESA prescribing among dialysis patients using an interrupted time series  

PubMed Central

Background In March, 2007, a black box warning was issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to use the lowest possible erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) doses for treatment of anemia associated with renal disease. The goal is to determine if a change in ESA use was observed following the warning among US dialysis patients. Methods ESA therapy was examined from September 2004 through August 2009 (thirty months before and after the FDA black box warning) among adult Medicare hemodialysis patients. An interrupted time series model assessed the impact of the warnings. Results The FDA black box warning did not appear to influence ESA prescribing among the overall dialysis population. However, significant declines in ESA therapy after the FDA warnings were observed for selected populations. Patients with a hematocrit ?36% had a declining month-to-month trend before (?164 units/week, p?=?<0.0001) and after the warnings (?80 units/week, p?=?.001), and a large drop in ESA level immediately after the black box (?4,744 units/week, p?=?<.0001). Not-for-profit facilities had a declining month-to-month trend before the warnings (?90 units/week, p?=?.009) and a large drop in ESA dose immediately afterwards (?2,487 units/week, p?=?0.015). In contrast, for-profit facilities did not have a significant change in ESA prescribing. Conclusions ESA therapy had been both profitable for providers and controversial regarding benefits for nearly two decades. The extent to which a FDA black box warning highlighting important safety concerns influenced use of ESA therapy among nephrologists and dialysis providers was unknown. Our study found no evidence of changes in ESA prescribing for the overall dialysis population resulting from a FDA black box warning.

2013-01-01

406

Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome in Chinese People: Clinical Characteristic Analysis of 55 Cases  

PubMed Central

Objective Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is characterized by the absence of pituitary stalk, pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic posterior pituitary. Due to the rarity of PSIS, clinical data are limited, especially in Chinese people. Herein, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with PSIS from our center over 10 years. Patients and Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical manifestations and laboratory and MRI findings in 55 patients with PSIS. Results Of the 55 patients with PSIS, 48 (87.3%) were male. The average age was 19.7±6.7 years and there was no familial case. A history of breech delivery was documented in 40 of 45 patients (88.9%) and 19 of 55 patients (34.5%) had a history of dystocia. Short stature was found in 47 of 55 patients (85.5%) and bone age delayed 7.26±5.37 years. Secondary sex characteristics were poor or undeveloped in most patients. The prevalence of deficiencies in growth hormone, gonadotropins, corticotropin, and thyrotropin were 100%, 95.8%, 81.8%, 76.3%, respectively. Hyperprolactinemia was found in 36.4% of patients. Three or more pituitary hormone deficiencies were found in 92.7% of the patients. All patients had normal posterior pituitary function and absent pituitary stalk on imaging. The average height of anterior pituitary was 28 mm, documented anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Midline abnormalities were presented in 9.1% of patients. Conclusions The clinical features of our Chinese PSIS patients seem to be different from other reported patients in regarding to the higher degree of hypopituitarism and lower prevalence of midline defects. In addition, our patients were older at the time of case detection and the bone age was markedly delayed. We also had no cases of familial PSIS.

Mu, Yiming; Lu, Jvming; Pan, Changyu; Dou, Jingtao; Lv, Zhaohui; Ba, Jianming; Wang, Baoan; Zou, Xiaoman; Yang, Lijuan; Ouyang, Jinzhi; Yang, Guoqing; Wang, Xianling; Du, Jin; Gu, Weijun; Jin, Nan; Chen, Kang; Zang, Li; Erickson, Bradley J.

2013-01-01

407

Validity Testing of the Stopwatch Urine Stream Interruption Test in Radical Prostatectomy Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess convergent validity of the stopwatch urine stream interruption test (UST). Specific aims were to describe relationships among stopwatch UST scores and four common clinical indices of pelvic floor muscle strength: 24-hour urine leakage, confidence in performing pelvic muscle exercise, 24-hour pad count, and daily pelvic muscle exercise count. Design Secondary analysis; instrumentation study. Methods The final sample consisted of baseline stopwatch UST scores and measurements of comparison variables from 47 participants in a randomized clinical trial of three approaches to pelvic floor training for patients with urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy. The sample size provided 80% power to detect correlations of moderate strength or higher. The stopwatch UST was conducted in an examination room at the study site by trained study personnel. Measurements of comparison variables were obtained from three instruments: 24-hour pad test, Broome Pelvic Muscle Self-Efficacy Scale, and 3-day bladder diary. Relationships among study variables were evaluated with Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results Stopwatch UST scores were moderately correlated with 24-hour urine leakage on the 24-hour pad test (r = .35, p < .05), the most robust comparison measure. Correlations between stopwatch UST scores and all other comparison measures were in the appropriate direction, although weak and did not reach statistical significance Conclusion Findings suggest the stopwatch UST may be a valid index of pelvic floor muscle strength in men following radical prostatectomy. With further testing, the stopwatch UST could become a valuable clinical tool for assessing pelvic floor muscle strength in radical prostatectomy patients with urinary incontinence.

Robinson, Joanne P.; Burrell, Sherry A.; Avi-Itzhak, Tamara; McCorkle, Ruth

2012-01-01

408

Chemical disinfection to interrupt transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from environmental surfaces to hands.  

PubMed

Rhinoviruses can survive on environmental surfaces for several hours under ambient conditions. Hands can readily become contaminated after contact with such surfaces, and self-inoculation may lead to infection. Whereas hand washing is crucial in preventing the spread of rhinovirus colds, proper disinfection of environmental surfaces may further reduce rhinovirus transmission. In this study, the capacities of Lysol Disinfectant Spray (0.1% o-phenylphenol and 79% ethanol), a domestic bleach (6% sodium hypochlorite diluted to give 800 ppm of free chlorine), a quaternary ammonium-based product (7.05% quaternary ammonium diluted 1:128 in tap water), and a phenol-based product (14.7% phenol diluted 1:256 in tap water) were compared in interrupting the transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from stainless steel disks to fingerpads of human volunteers upon a 10-s contact at a pressure of 1 kg/cm2. Ten microliters of the virus, suspended in bovine mucin (5 mg/ml), was placed on each disk, and the inoculum was dried under ambient conditions; the input number on each disk ranged from 0.5 x 10(5) to 2.1 x 10(6) PFU. The dried virus was exposed to 20 microliters of the test disinfectant. The Lysol spray was able to reduce virus infectivity by > 99.99% after a contact of either 1 or 10 min, and no detectable virus was transferred to fingerpads from Lysol-treated disks. The bleach (800 ppm of free chlorine) reduced the virus titer by 99.7% after a contact time of 10 min, and again no virus was transferred from the disks treated with it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8390817

Sattar, S A; Jacobsen, H; Springthorpe, V S; Cusack, T M; Rubino, J R

1993-05-01

409

Cerebral Activations Related to Ballistic, Stepwise Interrupted and Gradually Modulated Movements in Parkinson Patients  

PubMed Central

Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG) contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N?=?12) and healthy subjects (N?=?18). In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN) and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static) model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account enhanced responsiveness to external stimuli in this disease and the effects of hyper-fluctuating cortical inputs to the striatum and STN in particular.

Toxopeus, Carolien M.; Maurits, Natasha M.; Valsan, Gopal; Conway, Bernard A.; Leenders, Klaus L.; de Jong, Bauke M.

2012-01-01

410

Within-season flowering interruptions are common in the water-limited Sky Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within-season breaks in flowering have been reported in a wide range of highly variable ecosystems including deserts, tropical forests and high-elevation meadows. A tendency for interruptions in flowering has also been documented in southwestern US "Sky Island" plant communities, which encompass xeric to mesic conditions. Seasonal breaks in flowering have implications for plant reproductive success, population structure, and gene flow as well as resource availability for pollinators and dependent animals. Most reports of multiple within-season flowering events describe only two distinct flowering episodes. In this study, we set out to better quantify distinct within-season flowering events in highly variable Sky Islands plant communities. Across a >1,200 m elevation gradient, we documented a strong tendency for multiple within-season flowering events. In both distinct spring and summer seasons, we observed greater than two distinct within-season flowering in more than 10 % of instances. Patterns were clearly mediated by the different climate factors at work in the two seasons. The spring season, which is influenced by both temperature and precipitation, showed a mixed response, with the greatest tendency for multiple flowering events occurring at mid-elevations and functional types varying in their responses across the gradient. In the summer season, during which flowering across the gradient is limited by localized precipitation, annual plants exhibited the fewest within-season flowering events and herbaceous perennial plants showed the greatest. Additionally, more distinct events occurred at lower elevations. The patterns documented here provide a baseline for comparison of system responses to changing climate conditions.

Crimmins, Theresa M.; Bertelsen, C. David; Crimmins, Michael A.

2014-05-01

411

Interruption of antiretroviral therapy is associated with increased plasma cystatin C  

PubMed Central

Background Cystatin C has been proposed as an alternative marker of renal function. We sought to determine if participants randomized to episodic use of antiretroviral therapy guided by CD4+ count (drug conservation; DC) had altered cystatin C levels compared to those randomised to continuous antiretroviral therapy (viral suppression; VS) in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy Trial, and to identify factors associated with increased cystatin C. Methods Cystatin C was measured in plasma collected at randomization, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 months after randomization in a random sample of 249 and 250 participants in the DC and VS groups respectively. Logistic regression was used to model the odds of ? 0.15 mg/dl increase in cystatin C (1 standard deviation [SD]) in the first month after randomisation, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. Results At randomisation, mean (SD) cystatin C level was 0.99 (0.26 mg/dl) and 1.01 (0.28 mg/dl) in the DC and VS arms respectively (p=0.29). In the first month after randomisation, 21.8% and 10.6% had ?0.15 mg/dl increase in cystatin C in the DC and VS arm respectively (p=0.0008). The difference in cystatin C between the treatment arms was maintained through 1 year after randomisation. After adjustment, participants in the VS arm had significantly reduced odds of ?0.15 mg/dl increase in cystatin C in the first month (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.23–0.74, p=0.0023). Conclusions These results demonstrate that interruption of antiretroviral therapy is associated with an increase in cystatin C, which may reflect worsened renal function.

Mocroft, A; Wyatt, C; Szczech, L; Neuhaus, J; El-Sadr, W; Tracy, R; Kuller, L; Shlipak, M; Angus, B; Klinker, H; Ross, M

2009-01-01

412

Radiosensitization by combining an aurora kinase inhibitor with radiotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma through cell cycle interruption.  

PubMed

Radiotherapy has been integrated into the multimodal treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially of localized hepatic tumor(s) refractory to conventional treatment. However, tumor control remains unsatisfactory mainly because of insufficient dose, and sublethally irradiated tumor may associate with metastasis. Our aim was to assess the effect of combining a molecularly targeted Aurora kinase inhibitor, VE-465, with radiotherapy in in vitro and in vivo models of human HCC. Human HCC cell lines (Huh7 and PLC-5) were used to evaluate the in vitro synergism of combining VE-465 with irradiation. Flow cytometry analyzed the cell cycle changes, while western blot investigated the protein expressions after the combined treatment. Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice bearing ectopic and orthotopic HCC xenografts were treated with VE-465 and/or radiotherapy for the in vivo response. VE-465 significantly enhanced radiation-induced death in HCC cells by a mechanism involving the enhanced inhibition of histone H3 phosphorylation and interruption of cell cycle change. In SCID, mice bearing ectopic HCC xenografts, pretreatment with VE-465 (20 mg/kg/day × 9 days) significantly enhanced the tumor-suppressive effect of radiotherapy (5 Gy/day × 5 days) by 54.0%. A similar combinatorial effect of VE-465 and radiotherapy was observed in an orthotopic model of Huh7 tumor growth by 17.2%. In the orthotopic Huh7 xenografts, VE-465 significantly enhanced radiation-induced tumor growth suppression by a mechanism involving the increased apoptosis. VE-465 is a potent inhibitor of Aurora kinase with therapeutic value as a radiosensitizer of HCC. PMID:24375034

Lin, Zhong-Zhe; Chou, Chia-Hung; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Liu, Wei-Lin; Chia-Hsien Cheng, Jason

2014-07-15

413

Within-season flowering interruptions are common in the water-limited Sky Islands.  

PubMed

Within-season breaks in flowering have been reported in a wide range of highly variable ecosystems including deserts, tropical forests and high-elevation meadows. A tendency for interruptions in flowering has also been documented in southwestern US "Sky Island" plant communities, which encompass xeric to mesic conditions. Seasonal breaks in flowering have implications for plant reproductive success, population structure, and gene flow as well as resource availability for pollinators and dependent animals. Most reports of multiple within-season flowering events describe only two distinct flowering episodes. In this study, we set out to better quantify distinct within-season flowering events in highly variable Sky Islands plant communities. Across a >1,200 m elevation gradient, we documented a strong tendency for multiple within-season flowering events. In both distinct spring and summer seasons, we observed greater than two distinct within-season flowering in more than 10 % of instances. Patterns were clearly mediated by the different climate factors at work in the two seasons. The spring season, which is influenced by both temperature and precipitation, showed a mixed response, with the greatest tendency for multiple flowering events occurring at mid-elevations and functional types varying in their responses across the gradient. In the summer season, during which flowering across the gradient is limited by localized precipitation, annual plants exhibited the fewest within-season flowering events and herbaceous perennial plants showed the greatest. Additionally, more distinct events occurred at lower elevations. The patterns documented here provide a baseline for comparison of system responses to changing climate conditions. PMID:24122340

Crimmins, Theresa M; Bertelsen, David C; Crimmins, Michael A

2014-05-01

414

Intracellular ice formation in mouse oocytes subjected to interrupted rapid cooling  

PubMed Central

The formation of ice crystals within cells (IIF) is lethal. The classical approach to avoiding it is to cool cells slowly enough so that nearly all their supercooled freezable water leaves the cell osmotically before they have cooled to a temperature that permits IIF. An alternative approach is to cool the cell rapidly to just above its ice nucleation temperature, and hold it there long enough to permit dehydration. Then, the cell is cooled rapidly to ?70°C or below. This approach, often called interrupted rapid cooling, is the subject of this paper. Mouse oocytes were suspended in 1.5 M ethylene glycol (EG)/PBS, rapidly cooled (50°C/min) to ?25°C and held for 5, 10, 20, 30, or 40 min before being rapidly cooled (50°C/min) to ?70°C. In cells held for 5 min, IIF (flashing) occurred abruptly during the second rapid cool. As the holding period was increased to 10 and 20 min, fewer cells flashed during the cooling and more turned black during warming. Finally, when the oocytes were held 30 or 40 min, relatively few flashed during either cooling or warming. Immediately upon thawing, these oocytes were highly shrunken and crenated. However, upon warming to 20°C, they regained most of their normal volume, shape, and appearance. These oocytes have intact cell membranes, and we refer to them as survivors. We conclude that 30 min at ?25°C removes nearly all intracellular freezable water, the consequence of which is that IIF occurs neither during the subsequent rapid cooling to ?70°C nor during warming.

Mazur, Peter; Pinn, Irina L.; Kleinhans, F.W.

2007-01-01

415

Characterizing the modification of surface proteins with poly(ethylene glycol) to interrupt platelet adhesion  

PubMed Central

Surface protein modification with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) can inhibit acute thrombosis on damaged vascular and biomaterial surfaces by blocking surface protein–platelet interactions. However, the feasibility of employing protein reactive PEGs to limit intravascular and biomaterial thrombosis in vivo is contingent upon rapid and extensive surface protein modification. To characterize the factors controlling this potential therapeutic approach, the model protein bovine serum albumin was adsorbed onto polyurethane surfaces and modified with PEG-carboxymethyl succinimidyl ester (PEG-NHS), PEG-isocyanate (PEG-ISO), or PEG-diisocyanate (PEG-DISO) in aqueous buffer at varying concentrations and contact times. It was found that up to 5 PEGs could be attached per albumin molecule within one min and that adsorbed albumin PEGylation approached maximal levels by 6 min. The lability of reactive PEGs in aqueous buffer reduced total protein modification by 50% when the PEG solution was incubated for 7 min prior to application. For fibrinogen PEGylation (performed in the solution phase), PEG-NHS was more reactive than PEG-ISO or PEG-DISO. The ? peptide of fibrinogen, which contains several key platelet-binding motifs, was highly modified. A marked reduction in platelet adhesion was observed on fibrinogen-adsorbed polyurethane treated with PEG-NHS or PEG-DISO. Relative differences in platelet adhesion on PEG-NHS and PEG-DISO modified surfaces could be attributed to differences in reactivity towards fibrinogen and the size of the polymer backbone. Taken together, these findings provide insight and guidance for applying protein reactive PEGs for the interruption of acute thrombotic deposition.

Xu, Haiyan; Kaar, Joel L.; Russell, Alan J.; Wagner, William R.

2010-01-01

416

Reduction of maternal mortality due to preeclampsia in Colombia-an interrupted time-series analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Preeclampsia is the most important cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. A comprehensive prenatal care program including bio-psychosocial components was developed and introduced at a national level in Colombia. We report on the trends in maternal mortality rates and their related causes before and after implementation of this program. Methods: General and specific maternal mortality rates were monitored for nine years (1998-2006). An interrupted time-series analysis was performed with monthly data on cases of maternal mortality that compared trends and changes in national mortality rates and the impact of these changes attributable to the introduction of a bio-psychosocial model. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate correlations between the interventions. Results: Five years after (2002 - 2006) its introduction the general maternal mortality rate was significantly reduced to 23% (OR=0.77, CI 95% 0.71-0.82).The implementation of BPSM also reduced the incidence of preeclampsia in 22% (OR= 0.78, CI 95% 0.67-0.88), as also the labor complications by hemorrhage in 25% (OR=0.75, CI 95% 0.59-0.90) associated with the implementation of red code. The other causes of maternal mortality did not reveal significant changes. Biomedical, nutritional, psychosocial assessments, and other individual interventions in prenatal care were not correlated to maternal mortality (p= 0.112); however, together as a model we observed a significant association (p= 0.042). Conclusions: General maternal mortality was reduced after the implementation of a comprehensive national prenatal care program. Is important the evaluation of this program in others populations.

Herrera-Medina, Rodolfo; Herrera-Escobar, Juan Pablo; Nieto-Diaz, Anibal

2014-01-01

417

Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus nucleocapsid assembly is interrupted upon deletion of the 38K gene.  

PubMed

38K (ac98) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is a highly conserved baculovirus gene whose function is unknown. To determine the role of 38K in the baculovirus life cycle, a 38K knockout bacmid containing the AcMNPV genome was generated through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, a 38K repair bacmid was constructed by transposing the 38K open reading frame with its native promoter region into the polyhedrin locus of the 38K knockout bacmid. After transfection of these viruses into Spodoptera frugiperda cells, the 38K knockout bacmid led to a defect in production of infectious budded virus, while the 38K repair bacmid rescued this defect, allowing budded-virus titers to reach wild-type levels. Slot blot analysis indicated that 38K deletion did not affect the levels of viral DNA replication. Subsequent immunoelectron-microscopic analysis revealed that masses of electron-lucent tubular structures containing the capsid protein VP39 were present in cells transfected with 38K knockout bacmids, suggesting that nucleocapsid assembly was interrupted. In contrast, the production of normal nucleocapsids was restored when the 38K knockout bacmid was rescued with a copy of 38K. Recombinant virus that expresses 38K fused to green fluorescent protein as a visual marker was constructed to monitor protein transport and localization within the nucleus during infection. Fluorescence was first detected along the cytoplasmic periphery of the nucleus and subsequently localized to the center of the nucleus. These results demonstrate that 38K plays a role in nucleocapsid assembly and is essential for viral replication in the AcMNPV life cycle. PMID:16987976

Wu, Wenbi; Lin, Tiehao; Pan, Lijing; Yu, Mei; Li, Zhaofei; Pang, Yi; Yang, Kai

2006-12-01

418

Chemical disinfection to interrupt transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from environmental surfaces to hands.  

PubMed Central

Rhinoviruses can survive on environmental surfaces for several hours under ambient conditions. Hands can readily become contaminated after contact with such surfaces, and self-inoculation may lead to infection. Whereas hand washing is crucial in preventing the spread of rhinovirus colds, proper disinfection of environmental surfaces may further reduce rhinovirus transmission. In this study, the capacities of Lysol Disinfectant Spray (0.1% o-phenylphenol and 79% ethanol), a domestic bleach (6% sodium hypochlorite diluted to give 800 ppm of free chlorine), a quaternary ammonium-based product (7.05% quaternary ammonium diluted 1:128 in tap water), and a phenol-based product (14.7% phenol diluted 1:256 in tap water) were compared in interrupting the transfer of rhinovirus type 14 from stainless steel disks to fingerpads of human volunteers upon a 10-s contact at a pressure of 1 kg/cm2. Ten microliters of the virus, suspended in bovine mucin (5 mg/ml), was placed on each disk, and the inoculum was dried under ambient conditions; the input number on each disk ranged from 0.5 x 10(5) to 2.1 x 10(6) PFU. The dried virus was exposed to 20 microliters of the test disinfectant. The Lysol spray was able to reduce virus infectivity by > 99.99% after a contact of either 1 or 10 min, and no detectable virus was transferred to fingerpads from Lysol-treated disks. The bleach (800 ppm of free chlorine) reduced the virus titer by 99.7% after a contact time of 10 min, and again no virus was transferred from the disks treated with it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Sattar, S A; Jacobsen, H; Springthorpe, V S; Cusack, T M; Rubino, J R

1993-01-01

419

STAT3 interrupts ATR-Chk1 signaling to allow oncovirus-mediated cell proliferation.  

PubMed

DNA damage response (DDR) is a signaling network that senses DNA damage and activates response pathways to coordinate cell-cycle progression and DNA repair. Thus, DDR is critical for maintenance of genome stability, and presents a powerful defense against tumorigenesis. Therefore, to drive cell-proliferation and transformation, viral and cellular oncogenes need to circumvent DDR-induced cell-cycle checkpoints. Unlike in hereditary cancers, mechanisms that attenuate DDR and disrupt cell-cycle checkpoints in sporadic cancers are not well understood. Using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a source of oncogenes, we have previously shown that EBV-driven cell proliferation requires the cellular transcription factor STAT3. EBV infection is rapidly followed by activation and increased expression of STAT3, which mediates relaxation of the intra-S phase cell-cycle checkpoint; this facilitates viral oncogene-driven cell proliferation. We now show that replication stress-associated DNA damage, which results from EBV infection, is detected by DDR. However, signaling downstream of ATR is impaired by STAT3, leading to relaxation of the intra-S phase checkpoint. We find that STAT3 interrupts ATR-to-Chk1 signaling by promoting loss of Claspin, a protein that assists ATR to phosphorylate Chk1. This loss of Claspin which ultimately facilitates cell proliferation is mediated by caspase 7, a protein that typically promotes cell death. Our findings demonstrate how STAT3, which is constitutively active in many human cancers, suppresses DDR, fundamental to tumorigenesis. This newly recognized role for STAT3 in attenuation of DDR, discovered in the context of EBV infection, is of broad interest as the biology of cell proliferation is central to both health and disease. PMID:24639502

Koganti, Siva; Hui-Yuen, Joyce; McAllister, Shane; Gardner, Benjamin; Grasser, Friedrich; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Tangye, Stuart G; Freeman, Alexandra F; Bhaduri-McIntosh, Sumita

2014-04-01

420

The Immunological and Virological Consequences of Planned Treatment Interruptions in Children with HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the immunological and viral consequences of planned treatment interruptions (PTI) in children with HIV. Design This was an immunological and virological sub-study of the Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) 11 trial, which compared CD4-guided PTI of antiretroviral therapy (ART) with continuous therapy (CT) in children. Methods HIV-1 RNA and lymphocyte subsets, including CD4 and CD8 cells, were quantified on fresh samples collected during the study; CD45RA, CD45RO and CD31 subpopulations were evaluated in some centres. For 36 (18 PTI, 18 CT) children, immunophenotyping was performed and cell-associated HIV-1 DNA analysed on stored samples to 48 weeks. Results In the PTI group, CD4 cell count fell rapidly in the first 12 weeks off ART, with decreases in both naïve and memory cells. However, the proportion of CD4 cells expressing CD45RA and CD45RO remained constant in both groups. The increase in CD8 cells in the first 12 weeks off ART in the PTI group was predominantly due to increases in RO-expressing cells. PTI was associated with a rapid and sustained increase in CD4 cells expressing Ki67 and HLA-DR, and increased levels of HIV-1 DNA. Conclusions PTI in children is associated with rapid changes in CD4 and CD8 cells, likely due to increased cell turnover and immune activation. However, children off treatment may be able to maintain stable levels of naïve CD4 cells, at least in proportion to the memory cell pool, which may in part explain the observed excellent CD4 cell recovery with re-introduction of ART.

Klein, Nigel; Sefe, Delali; Mosconi, Ilaria; Zanchetta, Marisa; Castro, Hannah; Jacobsen, Marianne; Jones, Hannah; Bernardi, Stefania; Pillay, Deenan; Giaquinto, Carlo; Walker, A. Sarah; Gibb, Diana M.; De Rossi, Anita

2013-01-01

421

Molecular dynamic simulation studies on the effect of one residue chain staggering on the structure and stability of heterotrimeric collagen-like peptides with interruption.  

PubMed

A systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been carried out on collagen-like peptides with different combinations of interruptions in the Gly-X(AA) -Y(AA) repeats. Although experimental studies have been carried out to elucidate the structural consequences of homotrimeric collagen-like peptides, this is the first report on the structural effect on the heterotrimeric models with G4G and G1G breaks present simultaneously in the constituent chains with difference in one residue chain staggering. The results reveal that the axial registry of the interrupted region changes significantly from that of conventional triple helical peptide without interruption. Further, results from MD simulations show the formation of a kink in the interrupted region of the triple-helical peptides. The conformational analysis reveals that the interruption in the Gly-X(AA) -Y(AA) pattern in these peptides induces ?-strand conformation in triple helical peptides. The conventional hydrogen bonds in the interrupted triad are affected and new nonconventional H-bonds are formed in the triple helical structure, and as a result interrupted region becomes locally fragile. MM-PBSA calculations on the different systems clearly suggest that the binding affinity varies marginally due to one residue staggering. However, it is found from the structural parameters that hydrogen-bonding pattern differs significantly due to the difference in the staggering of chains. PMID:22899360

Singam, Ettayapuram Ramaprasad Azhagiya; Balamurugan, Kanagasabai; Gopalakrishnan, Ravimohan; Subramanian, Sundar Raman; Subramanian, Venkatesan; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

2012-11-01

422

Posterior Nutcracker Syndrome Associated with Interrupted Left Inferior Vena Cava with Azygos Continuation and Retroaortic Right Renal Vein  

PubMed Central

Various anatomic anomalies have been considered the causes of nutcracker syndrome (NCS). Posterior NCS refers to the condition, in which vascular narrowing was secondary to the compression of the retroaortic left renal vein while it is crossing between the aorta and the vertebral column. Here, we report an unusual case of posterior NCS associated with a complicated malformation of the interrupted left inferior vena cava with azygos continuation and retroaortic right renal vein, diagnosed by both color Doppler ultrasonography and CT angiography.

Luo, Xiao-Li; Qian, Gen-Nian; Xiao, Hui; Zhao, Chun-Lei

2012-01-01

423

Differentiation of secreted and membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase activities based on substitutions and interruptions of triple-helical sequences.  

PubMed

The turnover of the collagen triple-helical structure (collagenolysis) is a tightly regulated process in normal physiology and has been ascribed to a small number of proteases. Several members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) family possess collagenolytic activity, and the mechanisms by which these enzymes process triple helices are beginning to be unraveled. The present study has utilized two triple-helical sequences to compare the cleavage-site specificities of 10 MMPs. One substrate featured a continuous Gly-Xxx-Yyy sequence (Pro-Leu-Gly approximately Met-Arg-Gly), while the other incorporated an interruption in the Gly-Xxx-Yyy repeat (Pro-Val-Asn approximately Phe-Arg-Gly). Both sequences were selectively cleaved by MMP-13 while in linear form, but neither proved to be selective within a triple helix. This suggests that the conformational presentation of substrate sequences to a MMP active site is critical for enzyme specificity, in that activities differ when sequences are presented from an unwound triple helix versus an independent single strand. Differences in specificity between secreted and membrane-type (MT) MMPs were also observed for both sequences, where MMP-2 and MT-MMPs showed an ability to hydrolyze a triple helix at an additional site (Gly-Gln bond). Interruption of the triple helix had different effects on secreted MMPs and MT-MMPs, because MT-MMPs could not hydrolyze the Asn-Phe bond but instead cleaved the triple helix closer to the C terminus at a Gly-Gln bond. It is possible that MT-MMPs have a requirement for Gly in the P1 subsite to be able to efficiently process a triple-helical molecule. Analysis of individual kinetic parameters and activation energies indicated different substrate preferences within secreted MMPs, because MMP-13 preferred the interrupted sequence, while MMP-8 showed little discrimination between non-interrupted and interrupted triple helices. On the basis of the present and prior studies, we can assign unique triple-helical peptidase behaviors to the collagenolytic MMPs. Such differences may be significant for understanding MMP mechanisms of action and aid in the development of selective MMP inhibitors. PMID:17338550

Minond, Dmitriy; Lauer-Fields, Janelle L; Cudic, Mare; Overall, Christopher M; Pei, Duanqing; Brew, Keith; Moss, Marcia L; Fields, Gregg B

2007-03-27

424

Training emergency services' dispatchers to recognise stroke: an interrupted time-series analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke is a time-dependent medical emergency in which early presentation to specialist care reduces death and dependency. Up to 70% of all stroke patients obtain first medical contact from the Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Identifying ‘true stroke’ from an EMS call is challenging, with over 50% of strokes being misclassified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the training package on the recognition of stroke by Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMDs). Methods This study took place in an ambulance service and a hospital in England using an interrupted time-series design. Suspected stroke patients were identified in one week blocks, every three weeks over an 18 month period, during which time the training was implemented. Patients were included if they had a diagnosis of stroke (EMS or hospital). The effect of the intervention on the accuracy of dispatch diagnosis was investigated using binomial (grouped) logistic regression. Results In the Pre-implementation period EMDs correctly identified 63% of stroke patients; this increased to 80% Post-implementation. This change was significant (p=0.003), reflecting an improvement in identifying stroke patients relative to the Pre-implementation period both the During-implementation (OR=4.10 [95% CI 1.58 to 10.66]) and Post-implementation (OR=2.30 [95% CI 1.07 to 4.92]) periods. For patients with a final diagnosis of stroke who had been dispatched as stroke there was a marginally non-significant 2.8 minutes (95% CI ?0.2 to 5.9 minutes, p=0.068) reduction between Pre- and Post-implementation periods from call to arrival of the ambulance at scene. Conclusions This is the first study to develop, implement and evaluate the impact of a training package for EMDs with the aim of improving the recognition of stroke. Training led to a significant increase in the proportion of stroke patients dispatched as such by EMDs; a small reduction in time from call to arrival at scene by the ambulance also appeared likely. The training package has been endorsed by the UK Stroke Forum Education and Training, and is free to access on-line.

2013-01-01

425

MEDITERRANEAN SAPROPEL S1: Formation, Redox-Controled Preservation, and Interruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sapropels are distinct organic-rich units in Mediterraneran sediments; their deposition is thought to be precession-related and to be associated with humid climate conditions. The last humid period from 11 - 5 kyr 14C ago, occurred simultaneous with a sustained circum-Mediterranean wet period. Within that period, the most recent sapropel (S1) formed synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ky BP at all water depths greater than a few hundred metres. As a consequence of increased fresh water (monsoon) input, surface waters had a reduced salinity and concomitantly the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea was devoid of oxygen during 4,000 years of S1. This has resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1 determined by water depth, as a result of different ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km. The end of this period is marked by a basin-wide high sedimentary manganese-oxide peak that represents an abrupt re-ventilation at 5.7 kyr. The sustaining oxic conditions thereafter have resulted in a downward progressing oxidation-front that is not only characterized by the degradation of most organic matter over its active pathway, but also by the built-up of manganese oxide. The latter has resulted in a secondary Mn-peak below the first, upper, ventilation Mn-peak. Apart from the major re-ventilation event at the end of sapropel S1 formation, also other, short-term ventilation events appear to have occurred during its formation, notably the 8.2 ka event. This potentially basin-wide event is particularly noticeable at relatively shallow near-coastal sites of high sedimentation rates. It marks a brief episode of not only re-oxygenated deep water thus reduced preservation, but also decreased primary productivity thus nutrient supply. This 8.2 cal ka BP interruption event is thought to be related to enhanced deep water formation in the Aegean or Adriatic due to a period of sustained cold air fluxes from Polar regions. The amount of precipitation thus stratified water column conditions seems mostly related to the N.African monsoonal system, whereas deep-water formation, thus disrupture of a stratified water column seems mostly related to the northern borderland climate system. Sapropel formation mechanisms, therefore, are related to a sensitive interplay between N-African monsoonal and northern climate systems.

De Lange, Gert J.; Goudeau, Marie-Louise; Hennekam, Rick; Filippidi, Amalia

2014-05-01

426

Cockpit Interruptions and Distractions: Effective Management Requires a Careful Balancing Act  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Managing several tasks concurrently is an everyday part of cockpit operations. For the most part, crews handle concurrent task demands efficiently, yet crew preoccupation with one task to the detriment of performing other tasks is one of the more common forms of error in the cockpit. Most pilots are familiar with the December 1972 L1011 crash that occurred when the crew became preoccupied with a landing gear light malfunction and failed to notice that someone had inadvertently bumped off the autopilot. More recently a DC-9 landed gear-up in Houston when the crew, preoccupied with an stabilized approach, failed to recognize that the gear was not down because they had not switched the hydraulic pumps to high. We have recently started a research project to study why crews are vulnerable to these sorts of errors. As part of that project we reviewed NTSB reports of accidents attributed to crew error; we concluded that nearly half of these accidents involved lapses of attention associated with interruptions, distractions, or preoccupation with one task to the exclusion of another task. We have also analyzed 107 ASRS reports involving competing tasks; we present here some of our conclusions from those ASRS reports. These 107 reports involved 21 different types of routine tasks crews neglected at a critical moment while attending to another task. Sixty-nine percent of the neglected tasks involved either failure to monitor the current status or position of the aircraft or failure to monitor the actions of the pilot flying or taxiing. Thirty-four different types of competing activities distracted or preoccupied the pilots. Ninety percent of these competing activities fell into one of four broad categories: communication (e.g., discussion among crew or radio communication), heads-down work (e.g., programming the FMS or reviewing approach plates), responding to abnormals, or searching for VMC traffic. We will discuss examples of each of these four categories and suggest things crews can do to reduce their vulnerability to these and similar situations.

Dismukes, R. K.; Young, Grant E.; Sumwalt, Robert L., III; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

427

The role of interruptible natural gas customers in New England heating oil markets: A preliminary examination of events in January-February 2000  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an analysis of data collected from gas service providers and end-use customers in the six New England States and offers a preliminary assessment of the impact of interruptible gas customers on the distillate fuel oil market this past winter. Based on information collected and analyzed as of October 2000, the main findings areas follows: (1) For interruptible gas customers with distillate fuel oil as a backup fuel, their volume of interruptions was equivalent to about 1 to 2 percent of the total sales of distillate fuel oil in New England during January-February 2000. For the two peak weeks of gas supply interruptions, however, the equivalent volume of distillate fuel oil amounted to an estimated 3 to 6 percent of total sales in New England. There were no interruptions of the natural gas service during the 2-month period. (2) Purchases of distillate fuel oil by interruptible gas customers may have contributed somewhat to the spike in the price of distillate fuel oil in January-February 2000, especially during the peak weeks of gas interruptions. Nevertheless, other factors--a sudden drop in temperatures, low regional stocks of distillate fuels, and weather-related supply problems during a period of high customer demand--appear to have played a significant role in this price spike, as they have in previous spikes. (3) While this preliminary analysis suggests that interruptible natural gas service does not threaten the stability of the home heating oil market, several steps might be taken-without undermining the benefits of interruptible service--to reduce the potential adverse impacts of gas supply interruptions in times of market stress. Regardless of the magnitude of the impact of distillate fuel oil purchases by interruptible gas customers on Northeast heating oil markets, the threat of future heating oil price spikes and supply problems still remains. To help counter the threat, President Clinton in July 2000 directed Secretary Richardson to establish a heating oil component of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in the Northeast, and 2 million barrels of heating oil are now stored in the reserve. Other possible policy options are outlined.

None

2000-11-01

428

Coronary artery bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass and without interruption of native coronary flow using a novel anastomosis site restraining device (“Octopus”)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. This study assessed the feasibility of coronary artery bypass grafting on the beating heart without interruption of native coronary blood flow using a novel anastomosis site restraining device.Background. Recently, an end-to-side bypass technique was described that does not require interruption of flow in the recipient artery.Methods. By means of a suction device (“Octopus”), in 31 pigs the epicardium was

Cornelius Borst; Erik W. L. Jansen; Cornelis A. F. Tulleken; Paul F. Grundeman; Hendricus J. Mansvelt Beck; Jeroen W. F. van Dongen; Kees C. Hodde; Jaap J. Bredée

1996-01-01

429

Randomized Trial of Time-Limited Interruptions of Protease Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) vs. Continuous Therapy for HIV1 Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe clinical outcomes of short interruptions of PI-based ART regimens remains undefined.MethodsA 2-arm non-inferiority trial was conducted on 53 HIV-1 infected South African participants with viral load 450 cells\\/µl on stavudine (or zidovudine), lamivudine and lopinavir\\/ritonavir. Subjects were randomized to a) sequential 2, 4 and 8-week ART interruptions or b) continuous ART (cART). Primary analysis was based on the proportion

Cynthia Firnhaber; Livio Azzoni; Andrea S. Foulkes; Robert Gross; Xiangfan Yin; Desiree van Amsterdam; Doreen Schulze; Deborah K. Glencross; Wendy Stevens; Gillian Hunt; Lynn Morris; Lawrence Fox; Ian Sanne; Luis J. Montaner; Clive M. Gray

2011-01-01

430

Perceptual weighting of the envelope and fine structure across frequency bands for sentence intelligibility: Effect of interruption at the syllabic-rate and periodic-rate of speech  

PubMed Central

Listeners often only have fragments of speech available to understand the intended message due to competing background noise. In order to maximize successful speech recognition, listeners must allocate their perceptual resources to the most informative acoustic properties. The speech signal contains temporally-varying acoustics in the envelope and fine structure that are present across the frequency spectrum. Understanding how listeners perceptually weigh these acoustic properties in different frequency regions during interrupted speech is essential for the design of assistive listening devices. This study measured the perceptual weighting of young normal-hearing listeners for the envelope and fine structure in each of three frequency bands for interrupted sentence materials. Perceptual weights were obtained during interruption at the syllabic rate (i.e., 4 Hz) and the periodic rate (i.e., 128 Hz) of speech. Potential interruption interactions with fundamental frequency information were investigated by shifting the natural pitch contour higher relative to the interruption rate. The availability of each acoustic property was varied independently by adding noise at different levels. Perceptual weights were determined by correlating a listener’s performance with the availability of each acoustic property on a trial-by-trial basis. Results demonstrated similar relative weights across the interruption conditions, with emphasis on the envelope in high-frequencies.

Fogerty, Daniel

2011-01-01

431

Evolution of schistosomiasis-induced pathology after therapy and interruption of exposure to schistosomes: a review of ultrasonographic studies.  

PubMed

Ultrasonography (US) is suitable for diagnosing schistosomiasis-related organic pathology and is particularly useful to assess its evolution after therapy and/or interruption of exposure to the Schistosoma parasites. Evolution of pathology after treatment: Regression of hepatic abnormalities in Schistosma mansoni-infected children and adolescents has been observed already from 7 months post-therapy on. This does, however, not occur in all cases: individual differences are great ranging from spontaneous regression of pathology without treatment to persistence of pathology lasting for years after therapy even without re-infection. Intensity and duration of exposure, different parasite strains, patients' age and genetic background all influence the evolution of pathology. In communities at continuous exposure to S. mansoni infection, repeated re-treatment is required to control hepatosplenic morbidity. In Schistosoma japonicum infection, changes around the portal tree may regress, but characteristic diffuse abnormalities described as 'network pattern' abnormalities do not resolve. In Schistosoma haematobium infection bladder abnormalities and urinary tract obstruction frequently resolve after treatment. Clinically relevant pathology may resurge from 1 year after therapy on if exposure continues. Subjects with more advanced pathology before therapy, appear to be at higher risk of pathology re-appearance. Evolution of pathology after interruption of exposure to schistosomiasis: Knowledge on the evolution of pathology induced by S. mansoni is limited to some reports in emigrants and to the experience of ultrasonographists working in areas, where transmission has been partially interrupted. Due to the longevity of the parasite, infection may last for many years. Even after elimination of the parasites severe pathology may persist for long. In S. haematobium infection spontaneous healing after interruption of re-exposure may occur, but cases have been reported where urogenital lesions led to complications many years after exposure. Contrary to hepatosplenic and urinary pathology, knowlegde on the evolution of other organic abnormalities is very limited: studies on the evolution of biliary abnormalities or intestinal pathology have not been published. Genital pathology may be induced by all Schistosoma spp. Post-therapy evolution of genital schistosomiasis is largely ignored. In some European travellers partial regression of prostatic fibrosis has been described. Schistosomal adnexitis leading to infertility and/or ectopic pregnancy has been reported occurring many years after interruption of exposure. Ultrasonography (US) has never been used to study the influence of schistosomiasis on pregnancy. Concluding, current knowlegde on the evolution of pathology after treatment and/or interruption of exposure is still fragmentary. Frequently, fibrosis reverses after therapy, but advanced pathology may persist for long. Therefore, the possibility of severe clinical complications has to be taken into account, even if the infection is inactive since many years. In interventions aimed at controlling schistosomiasis-related morbidity, evolution of pathology must be monitored by US in representative patient cohorts. Further systematic US-studies are needed not only on the evolution of hepatosplenic and urinary pathology but also on that of intestinal, biliary and genital pathology induced by schistosomiasis, as well as on the influence of schistosomiasis on the outcome of pregnancy. PMID:10996127

Richter, J

2000-10-23

432

Results of Antiretroviral Treatment Interruption and Intensification in Advanced Multi-Drug Resistant HIV Infection from the OPTIMA Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Guidance is needed on best medical management for advanced HIV disease with multidrug resistance (MDR) and limited retreatment options. We assessed two novel antiretroviral (ARV) treatment approaches in this setting. Methods and Findings We conducted a 2×2 factorial randomized open label controlled trial in patients with a CD4 count ?300 cells/µl who had ARV treatment (ART) failure requiring retreatment, to two options (a) re-treatment with either standard (?4 ARVs) or intensive (?5 ARVs) ART and b) either treatment starting immediately or after a 12-week monitored ART interruption. Primary outcome was time to developing a first AIDS-defining event (ADE) or death from any cause. Analysis was by intention to treat. From 2001 to 2006, 368 patients were randomized. At baseline, mean age was 48 years, 2% were women, median CD4 count was 106/µl, mean viral load was 4.74 log10 copies/ml, and 59% had a prior AIDS diagnosis. Median follow-up was 4.0 years in 1249 person-years of observation. There were no statistically significant differences in the primary composite outcome of ADE or death between re-treatment options of standard versus intensive ART (hazard ratio 1.17; CI 0.86–1.59), or between immediate retreatment initiation versus interruption before re-treatment (hazard ratio 0.93; CI 0.68–1.30), or in the rate of non-HIV associated serious adverse events between re-treatment options. Conclusions We did not observe clinical benefit or harm assessed by the primary outcome in this largest and longest trial exploring both ART interruption and intensification in advanced MDR HIV infection with poor retreatment options. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00050089

Holodniy, Mark; Brown, Sheldon T.; Cameron, D. William; Kyriakides, Tassos C.; Angus, Brian; Babiker, Abdel; Singer, Joel; Owens, Douglas K.; Anis, Aslam; Goodall, Ruth; Hudson, Fleur; Piaseczny, Mirek; Russo, John; Schechter, Martin; Deyton, Lawrence; Darbyshire, Janet

2011-01-01

433

Daily Average Consumption of 2 Long-Acting Opioids: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Oxycodone controlled release (CR) and oxymorphone extended release (ER) are frequently prescribed long-acting opioids, which are approved for twice-daily dosing. The US Food and Drug Administration approved a reformulated crush-resistant version of oxycodone CR in April 2010. Objective To compare the daily average consumption (DACON) for oxycodone CR and for oxymorphone ER before and after the introduction of the reformulated, crush-resistant version of oxycodone CR. Methods This was a retrospective claims database analysis using pharmacy claims from the MarketScan database for the period from January 2010 through March 2011. The interrupted time series analysis was used to evaluate the impact of the introduction of reformulated oxycodone CR on the DACON of the 2 drugs—oxycodone CR and oxymorphone ER. The source of the databases included private-sector health data from more than 150 medium and large employers. All prescription claims containing oxycodone CR and oxymorphone ER dispensed to members from January 1, 2010, to March 31, 2011, were included in the analysis. Prescription claims containing duplicate National Drug Codes, missing member identification, invalid quantities or inaccurate days supply of either drug, and DACON values of <1 and >500 were removed. Results The database yielded 483,063 prescription claims for oxycodone CR and oxymorphone ER from January 1, 2010, to March 31, 2011. The final sample consisted of 411,404 oxycodone CR prescriptions (traditional and reformulated) dispensed to 85,150 members and 62,656 oxymorphone ER prescriptions dispensed to 11,931 members. Before the introduction of reformulated oxycodone CR, DACON values for the highest strength available for each of the 2 drugs were 0.51 tablets higher for oxycodone CR than for oxymorphone ER, with mean DACON values of 3.5 for oxycodone CR and 3.0 for oxymorphone ER (P <.001). The differences of mean DACON between the 2 drugs for all lower strengths were 0.46 tablets, with mean DACON values of 2.7 for oxycodone CR and 2.3 for oxymorphone ER (P <.001). After the introduction of the new formulation, the difference in mean DACON between the 2 drugs was slightly lower: 0.45 tablets for the highest-strength and 0.40 tablets for the lower-strength pairs. Regression analyses showed that the immediate and overall impact of the reformulation of oxycodone CR on the DACON of oxycodone CR was minimal, whereas no changes were seen in the DACON of oxymorphone ER. The estimated DACON for oxycodone CR decreased by 0.1 tablets, or 3.7% (P <.001), 6 months after the new formulation was introduced. Conclusion The mean DACON was 0.4 tablets per day higher for oxycodone CR compared with oxymorphone ER for all dosage strengths for the entire study period. After the introduction of the reformulated oxycodone CR, the DACON for this drug was slightly mitigated; however, there was a minimal impact on the mean differences between oxycodone CR and oxymorphone ER.

Puenpatom, R. Amy; Szeinbach, Sheryl L.; Ma, Larry; Ben-Joseph, Rami H.; Summers, Kent H.

2012-01-01

434

Posterior nutcracker syndrome associated with interrupted left inferior vena cava with azygos continuation and retroaortic right renal vein.  

PubMed

Various anatomic anomalies have been considered the causes of nutcracker syndrome (NCS). Posterior NCS refers to the condition, in which vascular narrowing was secondary to the compression of the retroaortic left renal vein while it is crossing between the aorta and the vertebral column. Here, we report an unusual case of posterior NCS associated with a complicated malformation of the interrupted left inferior vena cava with azygos continuation and retroaortic right renal vein, diagnosed by both color Doppler ultrasonography and CT angiography. PMID:22563273

Luo, Xiao-Li; Qian, Gen-Nian; Xiao, Hui; Zhao, Chun-Lei; Zhou, Xiao-Dong

2012-01-01

435

Post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging provides the diagnosis following aortic rupture in an infant with treated aortic interruption.  

PubMed

In the United Kingdom, there has been a steady decline in the number of conventional autopsies performed in children. For cardiovascular disease, structural and not pathological considerations are often more important in defining the cause of death. Magnetic resonance imaging is now often used in the assessment of congenital cardiac malformations during life. In this case report, we demonstrate how post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging was able to establish the diagnosis of aortic rupture in a patient who had undergone surgical repair of aortic interruption. In this patient, the parents had declined conventional histopathological autopsy, but were happy to consent to magnetic resonance post-mortem assessment. PMID:16454883

Taylor, Andrew M; Jones, Rod; Derrick, Graham

2006-02-01

436

Denaturation behaviors of two-state and non-two-state proteins examined by an interruption-incubation protocol.  

PubMed

We established an interruption-incubation protocol to study the denaturation and aggregation behaviors of two-state and non-two-state proteins, represented by hen egg-white lysozyme (lysozyme) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. After incubation at selected interrupting temperatures (T(int)), the onset temperature (T(onset)) and denaturation temperature (T(d)) of the reheating scans were found to pose distinct contrasts between the two proteins. BSA shows increasing T(onset) and T(d) as T(int) increases, whereas lysozyme exhibits invariable T(onset) and T(d). After long-time incubation, the reheating scans of BSA still show residual peaks in the DSC curves. Moderate aggregation upon incubation restricts the refolding of the thermodynamically stable unfolding intermediates in the denaturation of BSA. On the contrary, prolonged incubation at selected T(int) causes complete denaturation of lysozyme. The results were also supported by FTIR experiments. It is concluded that the variable T(onset) and T(d) indicate the unfolding of the "trapped" intermediates in the second heating scans, and the invariable T(onset) and T(d) values indicate the nonexistence of such intermediates. The examination of two additional proteins, ribonuclease A and ?-globulin, shows a similar phenomenon. The results may represent the general features of two-state and non-two-state denaturations and the protocol would serve to study protein denaturation cooperativity. PMID:21671575

Luo, Jun-Jie; Wu, Fu-Gen; Yu, Ji-Sheng; Wang, Rui; Yu, Zhi-Wu

2011-07-21

437

Transmission of an FMR1 premutation allele in a large family identified through newborn screening: the role of AGG interruptions  

PubMed Central

The CGG repeat within the premutation range in the FMR1 gene can lead to neurodegenerative disorders and intellectual disabilities. An increase in size upon transmission from parent to child is more likely to occur for larger alleles and without AGG interruptions. We describe the molecular structure and the transmission of an FMR1 premutation allele in a multigenerational family, identified through newborn screening for fragile X syndrome. Transmission of the premutation allele was traced through 5 generations in 14 of the 23 individuals who were genotyped through cascade testing. Allele size instability during transmission was observed but no expansions to a full mutation were detected. Clinical and molecular characterizations of the participants lead to the diagnosis of FXTAS in one subject identified as a premutation carrier. A gradual small increase in the size of the premutation allele was observed during transmission through five generations. The relative stability is likely due to the presence of two AGGs within the allele. The detection of AGG interruptions within the premutation alleles is important in genetic counseling to better predict the risk of expansion during transmission from a premutation to a full mutation allele.

Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Mendoza-Morales, Guadalupe; Hagerman, Randi; Tassone, Flora

2014-01-01

438

Non-adherence and drug-related interruptions are risk factors for delays in completion of treatment for tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY SETTING A key program performance objective established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is that ?93% of tuberculosis (TB) cases complete treatment within 12 months. OBJECTIVE To determine the rate of and risk factors for delay in anti-tuberculosis treatment completion. DESIGN Nested case-control study among TB cases reported to the Tennessee Department of Health between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010. Time to complete treatment was calculated using treatment start and stop dates documented in the Tuberculosis Information Management System (TIMS). RESULTS Of 2627 cases, 261 (9.9%) required >12 months to complete treatment. In adjusted conditional logistic regression analyses, cavitary disease and positive cultures after 2 months of therapy (OR 5.85, 95%CI 1.98–17.32, P = 0.001), non-adherence (OR 4.13, 95%CI 1.76–9.72, P < 0.001), and interruptions in treatment due to drug-related issues (OR 6.91, 95%CI 3.76–12.70, P < 0.001) were independently associated with delay in completion of TB treatment. CONCLUSION From 2000 to 2010, the proportion of TB cases completing treatment within 12 months increased from 84.6% to 94.9%, and remained above the CDC target during 2009–2010. Efforts to improve patient adherence and reduce interruptions in treatment due to anti-tuberculosis drug-related issues could improve the proportion of TB cases completing treatment within 12 months.

Pettit, A. C.; Cummins, J.; Kaltenbach, L. A.; Sterling, T. R.; Warkentin, J. V.

2014-01-01

439

Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coating During Interrupted High-Heat Flux Laser Testing Using Upconversion Luminescence Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Upconversion luminescence imaging of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has been shown to successfully monitor TBC delamination progression during interrupted furnace cycling. However, furnace cycling does not adequately model engine conditions where TBC-coated components are subjected to significant heat fluxes that produce through-thickness temperature gradients that may alter both the rate and path of delamination progression. Therefore, new measurements are presented based on luminescence imaging of TBC-coated specimens subjected to interrupted high-heat-flux laser cycling exposures that much better simulate the thermal gradients present in engine conditions. The TBCs tested were deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and were composed of 7wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) with an integrated delamination sensing layer composed of 7YSZ co-doped with erbium and ytterbium (7YSZ:Er,Yb). The high-heat-flux exposures that produce the desired through-thickness thermal gradients were performed using a high power CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 10.6 microns. Upconversion luminescence images revealed the debond progression produced by the cyclic high-heat-flux exposures and these results were compared to that observed for furnace cycling.

Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

2011-01-01

440

The use of segmented regression in analysing interrupted time series studies: an example in pre-hospital ambulance care  

PubMed Central

Background An interrupted time series design is a powerful quasi-experimental approach for evaluating effects of interventions introduced at a specific point in time. To utilize the strength of this design, a modification to standard regression analysis, such as segmented regression, is required. In segmented regression analysis, the change in intercept and/or slope from pre- to post-intervention is estimated and used to test causal hypotheses about the intervention. We illustrate segmented regression using data from a previously published study that evaluated the effectiveness of a collaborative intervention to improve quality in pre-hospital ambulance care for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke. In the original analysis, a standard regression model was used with time as a continuous variable. We contrast the results from this standard regression analysis with those from segmented regression analysis. We discuss the limitations of the former and advantages of the latter, as well as the challenges of using segmented regression in analysing complex quality improvement interventions. Findings Based on the estimated change in