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Sample records for 50v cmos sliding-mode

  1. Terminal Sliding Modes In Nonlinear Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Subramanian T.; Gulati, Sandeep

    1993-01-01

    Control systems of proposed type called "terminal controllers" offers increased precision and stability of robotic operations in presence of unknown and/or changing parameters. Systems include special computer hardware and software implementing novel control laws involving terminal sliding modes of motion: closed-loop combination of robot and terminal controller converge, in finite time, to point of stable equilibrium in abstract space of velocity and/or position coordinates applicable to particular control problem.

  2. Sliding Mode Control of Steerable Needles

    PubMed Central

    Rucker, D. Caleb; Das, Jadav; Gilbert, Hunter B.; Swaney, Philip J.; Miga, Michael I.; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Webster, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Steerable needles can potentially increase the accuracy of needle-based diagnosis and therapy delivery, provided they can be adequately controlled based on medical image information. We propose a novel sliding mode control law that can be used to deliver the tip of a flexible asymmetric-tipped needle to a desired point, or to track a desired trajectory within tissue. The proposed control strategy requires no a priori knowledge of model parameters, has bounded input speeds, and requires little computational resources. We show that if the standard nonholonomic model for tip-steered needles holds, then the control law will converge to desired targets in a reachable workspace, within a tolerance that can be defined by the control parameters. Experimental results validate the control law for target points and trajectory following in phantom tissue and ex vivo liver. Experiments with targets that move during insertion illustrate robustness to disturbances caused by tissue deformation. PMID:25400527

  3. Sliding Mode Control of Steerable Needles.

    PubMed

    Rucker, D Caleb; Das, Jadav; Gilbert, Hunter B; Swaney, Philip J; Miga, Michael I; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Webster, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    Steerable needles can potentially increase the accuracy of needle-based diagnosis and therapy delivery, provided they can be adequately controlled based on medical image information. We propose a novel sliding mode control law that can be used to deliver the tip of a flexible asymmetric-tipped needle to a desired point, or to track a desired trajectory within tissue. The proposed control strategy requires no a priori knowledge of model parameters, has bounded input speeds, and requires little computational resources. We show that if the standard nonholonomic model for tip-steered needles holds, then the control law will converge to desired targets in a reachable workspace, within a tolerance that can be defined by the control parameters. Experimental results validate the control law for target points and trajectory following in phantom tissue and ex vivo liver. Experiments with targets that move during insertion illustrate robustness to disturbances caused by tissue deformation. PMID:25400527

  4. Fuzzy fractional order sliding mode controller for nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delavari, H.; Ghaderi, R.; Ranjbar, A.; Momani, S.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, an intelligent robust fractional surface sliding mode control for a nonlinear system is studied. At first a sliding PD surface is designed and then, a fractional form of these networks PDα, is proposed. Fast reaching velocity into the switching hyperplane in the hitting phase and little chattering phenomena in the sliding phase is desired. To reduce the chattering phenomenon in sliding mode control (SMC), a fuzzy logic controller is used to replace the discontinuity in the signum function at the reaching phase in the sliding mode control. For the problem of determining and optimizing the parameters of fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC), genetic algorithm (GA) is used. Finally, the performance and the significance of the controlled system two case studies (robot manipulator and coupled tanks) are investigated under variation in system parameters and also in presence of an external disturbance. The simulation results signify performance of genetic-based fuzzy fractional sliding mode controller.

  5. Robust sliding mode control applied to double Inverted pendulum system

    SciTech Connect

    Mahjoub, Sonia; Derbel, Nabil; Mnif, Faical

    2009-03-05

    A three hierarchical sliding mode control is presented for a class of an underactuated system which can overcome the mismatched perturbations. The considered underactuated system is a double inverted pendulum (DIP), can be modeled by three subsystems. Such structure allows the construction of several designs of hierarchies for the controller. For all hierarchical designs, the asymptotic stability of every layer sliding mode surface and the sliding mode surface of subsystems are proved theoretically by Barbalat's lemma. Simulation results show the validity of these methods.

  6. Sliding Mode Thermal Control System for Space Station Furnace Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson Mark E.; Shtessel, Yuri B.

    1998-01-01

    The decoupled control of the nonlinear, multiinput-multioutput, and highly coupled space station furnace facility (SSFF) thermal control system is addressed. Sliding mode control theory, a subset of variable-structure control theory, is employed to increase the performance, robustness, and reliability of the SSFF's currently designed control system. This paper presents the nonlinear thermal control system description and develops the sliding mode controllers that cause the interconnected subsystems to operate in their local sliding modes, resulting in control system invariance to plant uncertainties and external and interaction disturbances. The desired decoupled flow-rate tracking is achieved by optimization of the local linear sliding mode equations. The controllers are implemented digitally and extensive simulation results are presented to show the flow-rate tracking robustness and invariance to plant uncertainties, nonlinearities, external disturbances, and variations of the system pressure supplied to the controlled subsystems.

  7. Active Suppression of the Transonic Flutter Using Sliding Mode Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degaki, Takanori; Suzuki, Shinji

    This paper describes two-dimensional active flutter suppression to cope with the transonic dip using the sliding mode control. The airfoil model has plunge and pitch degrees of freedom with leading and trailing edge control surfaces. The aerodynamic forces acting on the airfoil, lift and pitching moment, are calculated by solving Euler's equations using computational fluid dynamics. At a specific altitude, flutter occurs between Mach number of 0.7 and 0.88, which corresponds to the transonic dip. The sliding mode control makes the airfoil to be stable all through the Mach number including the transonic dip. The sliding mode controller gives wider flutter margin than a linear quadratic regulator. These characteristics indicate that the sliding mode control is useful for active flutter suppression in the transonic flight.

  8. Adaptive sliding mode control for a class of chaotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, R.; Ibrahim, A.; Zalam, B.

    2015-03-30

    Chaos control here means to design a controller that is able to mitigating or eliminating the chaos behavior of nonlinear systems that experiencing such phenomenon. In this paper, an Adaptive Sliding Mode Controller (ASMC) is presented based on Lyapunov stability theory. The well known Chua's circuit is chosen to be our case study in this paper. The study shows the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive sliding mode controller.

  9. Second-order sliding mode control with experimental application.

    PubMed

    Eker, Ilyas

    2010-07-01

    In this article, a second-order sliding mode control (2-SMC) is proposed for second-order uncertain plants using equivalent control approach to improve the performance of control systems. A Proportional + Integral + Derivative (PID) sliding surface is used for the sliding mode. The sliding mode control law is derived using direct Lyapunov stability approach and asymptotic stability is proved theoretically. The performance of the closed-loop system is analysed through an experimental application to an electromechanical plant to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed second-order sliding mode control and factors involved in the design. The second-order plant parameters are experimentally determined using input-output measured data. The results of the experimental application are presented to make a quantitative comparison with the traditional (first-order) sliding mode control (SMC) and PID control. It is demonstrated that the proposed 2-SMC system improves the performance of the closed-loop system with better tracking specifications in the case of external disturbances, better behavior of the output and faster convergence of the sliding surface while maintaining the stability. PMID:20413118

  10. Sliding mode controllers for a tempered glass furnace.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Naif B; Zribi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the design of two sliding mode controllers (SMCs) applied to a tempered glass furnace system. The main objective of the proposed controllers is to regulate the glass plate temperature, the upper-wall temperature and the lower-wall temperature in the furnace to a common desired temperature. The first controller is a conventional sliding mode controller. The key step in the design of this controller is the introduction of a nonlinear transformation that maps the dynamic model of the tempered glass furnace into the generalized controller canonical form; this step facilitates the design of the sliding mode controller. The second controller is based on a state-dependent coefficient (SDC) factorization of the tempered glass furnace dynamic model. Using an SDC factorization, a simplified sliding mode controller is designed. The simulation results indicate that the two proposed control schemes work very well. Moreover, the robustness of the control schemes to changes in the system's parameters as well as to disturbances is investigated. In addition, a comparison of the proposed control schemes with a fuzzy PID controller is performed; the results show that the proposed SDC-based sliding mode controller gave better results. PMID:26614678

  11. Robust sliding mode continuous control of an IM drive

    SciTech Connect

    Jezernik, K.; Hren, A.; Drevensek, D.

    1995-12-31

    A control approach for robust trajectory tracking of IM servodrive based on the variable structure systems (VSS) is described. A new discrete-time control algorithm has been developed by combining VSS and Lyapunov design. It possesses all the good properties of the sliding mode and avoids the unnecessary discontinuity of the control input, thus eliminating chattering which has been considering as serious obstacles for applications of VSS. A unified control approach for current, torque and motion control based on the discrete-time sliding mode for application in indirect vector control of an IM drive is developed. The sliding mode approach can be applied to the control of an Im drive due to the replacement of the hysteresis controller with widely used PWM technique. All the theoretical issues are verified by experiment. The experimental system consists of a transputer and a microcontroller, thus allowing parallel processing.

  12. Fuzzy logic sliding mode control for command guidance law design.

    PubMed

    Elhalwagy, Y Z; Tarbouchi, M

    2004-04-01

    Recently, the combination of sliding mode and fuzzy logic techniques has emerged as a promising methodology for dealing with nonlinear, uncertain, dynamical systems. In this paper, a sliding mode control algorithm combined with a fuzzy control scheme is developed for the trajectory control of a command guidance system. The acceleration command input is mathematically derived. The proposed controller is used to compensate for the influence of unmodeled dynamics and to alleviate chattering. Simulation results show that the proposed controller gives good system performance in the face of system parameters variation and external disturbances. In addition, they show the effectiveness of the proposed missile guidance law against different engagement scenarios where the results demonstrate better performance over the conventional sliding mode control. PMID:15098583

  13. Tensor product model transformation based decoupled terminal sliding mode control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guoliang; Li, Hongxing; Song, Zhankui

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to propose a tensor product model transformation based decoupled terminal sliding mode controller design methodology. The methodology is divided into two steps. In the first step, tensor product model transformation is applied to the single-input-multi-output system and a parameter-varying weighted linear time-invariant system is obtained. Then, decoupled terminal sliding mode controller is designed based on the linear time-invariant systems. The main novelty of this paper is that the nonsingular terminal sliding mode control design is based on a numerical model rather than an analytical one. Finally, simulations are tested on cart-pole system and translational oscillations with a rotational actuator system.

  14. Application of partial sliding mode in guidance problem.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, M H; Binazadeh, T

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the problem of 3-dimensional guidance law design is considered and a new guidance law based on partial sliding mode technique is presented. The approach is based on the classification of the state variables within the guidance system dynamics with respect to their required stabilization properties. In the proposed law by using a partial sliding mode technique, only trajectories of a part of states variables are forced to reach the partial sliding surfaces and slide on them. The resulting guidance law enables the missile to intercept highly maneuvering targets within a finite interception time. Effectiveness of the proposed guidance law is demonstrated through analysis and simulations. PMID:23260528

  15. Reusable Launch Vehicle Control In Multiple Time Scale Sliding Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shtessel, Yuri; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark

    2000-01-01

    A reusable launch vehicle control problem during ascent is addressed via multiple-time scaled continuous sliding mode control. The proposed sliding mode controller utilizes a two-loop structure and provides robust, de-coupled tracking of both orientation angle command profiles and angular rate command profiles in the presence of bounded external disturbances and plant uncertainties. Sliding mode control causes the angular rate and orientation angle tracking error dynamics to be constrained to linear, de-coupled, homogeneous, and vector valued differential equations with desired eigenvalues placement. Overall stability of a two-loop control system is addressed. An optimal control allocation algorithm is designed that allocates torque commands into end-effector deflection commands, which are executed by the actuators. The dual-time scale sliding mode controller was designed for the X-33 technology demonstration sub-orbital launch vehicle in the launch mode. Simulation results show that the designed controller provides robust, accurate, de-coupled tracking of the orientation angle command profiles in presence of external disturbances and vehicle inertia uncertainties. This is a significant advancement in performance over that achieved with linear, gain scheduled control systems currently being used for launch vehicles.

  16. Robust observer-based adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oveisi, Atta; Nestorović, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a new observer-based adaptive fuzzy integral sliding mode controller is proposed based on the Lyapunov stability theorem. The plant is subjected to a square-integrable disturbance and is assumed to have mismatch uncertainties both in state- and input-matrices. Based on the classical sliding mode controller, the equivalent control effort is obtained to satisfy the sufficient requirement of sliding mode controller and then the control law is modified to guarantee the reachability of the system trajectory to the sliding manifold. In order to relax the norm-bounded constrains on the control law and solve the chattering problem of sliding mode controller, a fuzzy logic inference mechanism is combined with the controller. An adaptive law is then introduced to tune the parameters of the fuzzy system on-line. Finally, for evaluating the controller and the robust performance of the closed-loop system, the proposed regulator is implemented on a real-time mechanical vibrating system.

  17. Robust Neural Sliding Mode Control of Robot Manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Tran Hiep; Pham Thuong Cat

    2009-03-05

    This paper proposes a robust neural sliding mode control method for robot tracking problem to overcome the noises and large uncertainties in robot dynamics. The Lyapunov direct method has been used to prove the stability of the overall system. Simulation results are given to illustrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  18. Anomaly Detection in Test Equipment via Sliding Mode Observers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solano, Wanda M.; Drakunov, Sergey V.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear observers were originally developed based on the ideas of variable structure control, and for the purpose of detecting disturbances in complex systems. In this anomaly detection application, these observers were designed for estimating the distributed state of fluid flow in a pipe described by a class of advection equations. The observer algorithm uses collected data in a piping system to estimate the distributed system state (pressure and velocity along a pipe containing liquid gas propellant flow) using only boundary measurements. These estimates are then used to further estimate and localize possible anomalies such as leaks or foreign objects, and instrumentation metering problems such as incorrect flow meter orifice plate size. The observer algorithm has the following parts: a mathematical model of the fluid flow, observer control algorithm, and an anomaly identification algorithm. The main functional operation of the algorithm is in creating the sliding mode in the observer system implemented as software. Once the sliding mode starts in the system, the equivalent value of the discontinuous function in sliding mode can be obtained by filtering out the high-frequency chattering component. In control theory, "observers" are dynamic algorithms for the online estimation of the current state of a dynamic system by measurements of an output of the system. Classical linear observers can provide optimal estimates of a system state in case of uncertainty modeled by white noise. For nonlinear cases, the theory of nonlinear observers has been developed and its success is mainly due to the sliding mode approach. Using the mathematical theory of variable structure systems with sliding modes, the observer algorithm is designed in such a way that it steers the output of the model to the output of the system obtained via a variety of sensors, in spite of possible mismatches between the assumed model and actual system. The unique properties of sliding mode control

  19. Chattering-Free Sliding Mode Control with Unmodeled Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krupp, Don; Shtessel, Yuri B.

    1999-01-01

    Sliding mode control systems are valued for their robust accommodation of uncertainties and their ability to reject disturbances. In this paper, a design methodology is proposed to eliminate the chattering phenomenon affecting sliding mode controlled plants with input unmodeled actuator dynamics of second order or greater. The proposed controller design is based on the relative degrees of the plant and the unmodeled actuator dynamics and the ranges of the uncertainties of the plant and actuator. The controller utilizes the pass filter characteristics of the physical actuating device to provide a smoothing effect on the discontinuous control signal rather than introducing any artificial dynamics into the controller design thus eliminating chattering in the system's output response.

  20. Neuro-sliding mode multivariable control of a powered wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nghia; Nguyen, Hung T; Su, Steven

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a neuro-sliding mode multivariable control approach for the control of a powered wheelchair system. In the first stage, a systematic decoupling technique is applied to the wheelchair system in order to reduce the multivariable control problem into two independent scalar control problems. Then two Neuro-Sliding Mode Controllers (NSMCs) are designed for these independent subsystems to guarantee system robustness under model uncertainties and unknown external disturbances. Both off-line and on-line trainings are involved in the second stage. Real-time experimental results confirm that robust performance for this multivariable wheelchair control system under model uncertainties and unknown external disturbances can indeed be achieved. PMID:19163456

  1. Sliding Mode Control of a Slewing Flexible Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, David G.; Parker, Gordon G.; Starr, Gregory P.; Robinett, Rush D., III

    1997-01-01

    An output feedback sliding mode controller (SMC) is proposed to minimize the effects of vibrations of slewing flexible manipulators. A spline trajectory is used to generate ideal position and velocity commands. Constrained nonlinear optimization techniques are used to both calibrate nonlinear models and determine optimized gains to produce a rest-to-rest, residual vibration-free maneuver. Vibration-free maneuvers are important for current and future NASA space missions. This study required the development of the nonlinear dynamic system equations of motion; robust control law design; numerical implementation; system identification; and verification using the Sandia National Laboratories flexible robot testbed. Results are shown for a slewing flexible beam.

  2. Control of nonlinear systems using terminal sliding modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, S. T.; Gulati, S.

    1992-01-01

    The development of an approach to control synthesis for robust robot operations in unstructured environments is discussed. To enhance control performance with full model information, the authors introduce the notion of terminal convergence and develop control laws based on a class of sliding modes, denoted as terminal sliders. They demonstrate that terminal sliders provide robustness to parametric uncertainty without having to resort to high-frequency control switching, as in the case of conventional sliders. It is shown that the proposed method leads to greater guaranteed precision in all control cases discussed.

  3. Permanent Magnet DC Motor Sliding Mode Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaez-Zadeh, S.; Zamanian, M.

    2000-09-01

    In this paper a sliding mode controller (SMC) is designed for a permanent magnet, direct current (PMDC) motor to enhance the motor performance in the presence of unwanted uncertainties. Both the electrical and mechanical signals are used as the inputs to the SMC. The complete motor control system is simulated on a personal computer with different design parameters and desirable system performance is obtained. The experimental implementation of the motor control system is also presented. The test results confirm the simulation results and validate the proposed control system.

  4. Sliding Mode Control Applied to Reconfigurable Flight Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Wells, S. R.; Bacon, Barton (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sliding mode control is applied to the design of a flight control system capable of operating with limited bandwidth actuators and in the presence of significant damage to the airframe and/or control effector actuators. Although inherently robust, sliding mode control algorithms have been hampered by their sensitivity to the effects of parasitic unmodeled dynamics, such as those associated with actuators and structural modes. It is known that asymptotic observers can alleviate this sensitivity while still allowing the system to exhibit significant robustness. This approach is demonstrated. The selection of the sliding manifold as well as the interpretation of the linear design that results after introduction of a boundary layer is accomplished in the frequency domain. The design technique is exercised on a pitch-axis controller for a simple short-period model of the High Angle of Attack F-18 vehicle via computer simulation. Stability and performance is compared to that of a system incorporating a controller designed by classical loop-shaping techniques.

  5. Sliding mode control of electromagnetic tethered satellite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallaj, Mohammad Amin Alandi; Assadian, Nima

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the control of tethered satellite formation actuated by electromagnetic dipoles and reaction wheels using the robust sliding mode control technique. Generating electromagnetic forces and moments by electric current coils provides an attractive control actuation alternative for tethered satellite system due to the advantages of no propellant consumption and no obligatory rotational motion. Based on a dumbbell model of tethered satellite in which the flexibility and mass of the tether is neglected, the equations of motion in Cartesian coordinate are derived. In this model, the J2 perturbation is taken into account. The far-field and mid-field models of electromagnetic forces and moments of two satellites on each other and the effect of the Earth's magnetic field are presented. A robust sliding mode controller is designed for precise trajectory tracking purposes and to deal with the electromagnetic force and moment uncertainties and external disturbances due to the Earth's gravitational and magnetic fields inaccuracy. Numerical simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the developed controller and its superiority over the linear controller.

  6. Adaptive backstepping slide mode control of pneumatic position servo system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haipeng; Fan, Juntao

    2016-06-01

    With the price decreasing of the pneumatic proportional valve and the high performance micro controller, the simple structure and high tracking performance pneumatic servo system demonstrates more application potential in many fields. However, most existing control methods with high tracking performance need to know the model information and to use pressure sensor. This limits the application of the pneumatic servo system. An adaptive backstepping slide mode control method is proposed for pneumatic position servo system. The proposed method designs adaptive slide mode controller using backstepping design technique. The controller parameter adaptive law is derived from Lyapunov analysis to guarantee the stability of the system. A theorem is testified to show that the state of closed-loop system is uniformly bounded, and the closed-loop system is stable. The advantages of the proposed method include that system dynamic model parameters are not required for the controller design, uncertain parameters bounds are not need, and the bulk and expensive pressure sensor is not needed as well. Experimental results show that the designed controller can achieve better tracking performance, as compared with some existing methods.

  7. Compensation of significant parametric uncertainties using sliding mode online learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnetter, Philipp; Kruger, Thomas

    An augmented nonlinear inverse dynamics (NID) flight control strategy using sliding mode online learning for a small unmanned aircraft system (UAS) is presented. Because parameter identification for this class of aircraft often is not valid throughout the complete flight envelope, aerodynamic parameters used for model based control strategies may show significant deviations. For the concept of feedback linearization this leads to inversion errors that in combination with the distinctive susceptibility of small UAS towards atmospheric turbulence pose a demanding control task for these systems. In this work an adaptive flight control strategy using feedforward neural networks for counteracting such nonlinear effects is augmented with the concept of sliding mode control (SMC). SMC-learning is derived from variable structure theory. It considers a neural network and its training as a control problem. It is shown that by the dynamic calculation of the learning rates, stability can be guaranteed and thus increase the robustness against external disturbances and system failures. With the resulting higher speed of convergence a wide range of simultaneously occurring disturbances can be compensated. The SMC-based flight controller is tested and compared to the standard gradient descent (GD) backpropagation algorithm under the influence of significant model uncertainties and system failures.

  8. Sliding Mode Control of a Thermal Mixing Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Hanz; Figueroa, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we consider the robust control of a thermal mixer using multivariable Sliding Mode Control (SMC). The mixer consists of a mixing chamber, hot and cold fluid valves, and an exit valve. The commanded positions of the three valves are the available control inputs, while the controlled variables are total mass flow rate, chamber pressure and the density of the mixture inside the chamber. Unsteady thermodynamics and linear valve models are used in deriving a 5th order nonlinear system with three inputs and three outputs, An SMC controller is designed to achieve robust output tracking in the presence of unknown energy losses between the chamber and the environment. The usefulness of the technique is illustrated with a simulation.

  9. Real-time misfire detection via sliding mode observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunsong; Chu, Fulei

    2005-07-01

    A new method to detect misfire in internal combustion engines is presented. It is based on the estimation of the cylinder deviation torque by using sliding mode observer. The input estimation problem is transformed into the control tracking problem. The sliding controller is utilised to continuously track the measured varying crank speed by changing the estimated deviation torque. During the process of tracking, the speed estimation errors decrease and the gradual stability of the dynamics is assured. The mean deviation torque during the power stroke derived from the estimated deviation torque can be employed to detect easily engine misfires. Experimental results for a four-cylinder engine indicate that the method is a suitable tool for real-time misfire detection on board vehicle under various working conditions.

  10. Sliding mode control method having terminal convergence in finite time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Subramanian T. (Inventor); Gulati, Sandeep (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An object of this invention is to provide robust nonlinear controllers for robotic operations in unstructured environments based upon a new class of closed loop sliding control methods, sometimes denoted terminal sliders, where the new class will enforce closed-loop control convergence to equilibrium in finite time. Improved performance results from the elimination of high frequency control switching previously employed for robustness to parametric uncertainties. Improved performance also results from the dependence of terminal slider stability upon the rate of change of uncertainties over the sliding surface rather than the magnitude of the uncertainty itself for robust control. Terminal sliding mode control also yields improved convergence where convergence time is finite and is to be controlled. A further object is to apply terminal sliders to robot manipulator control and benchmark performance with the traditional computed torque control method and provide for design of control parameters.

  11. Adaptive sliding mode control - convergence and gain boundedness revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Khayati, Karim

    2016-04-01

    This paper reviews the main adaptive sliding mode controller (ASMC) designs for nonlinear systems with finite uncertainties of unknown bounds. Different statements of convergence referring to uniformly ultimate boundedness (UUB), asymptotic convergence (AC) and finite-time convergence (FTC) for ASMC shown in recent papers are analysed. Weaknesses and incomplete proofs apropos FTC are pointed out. Thereafter, a new approach is proposed to successfully demonstrate FTC of the so-called sliding variable. We identify a compensating phase and a reaching phase during the ASMC process. A new explicit form for estimating the upper-bound reaching time is provided for any bounded perturbation. An amended form of the real ASMC is recalled showing improved accuracy and chattering reduction. Finally, numerical and experimental applications are performed to convey the discussed results.

  12. A novel sliding-mode control of induction motor using space vector modulation technique.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tian-Jun; Xie, Wen-Fang

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents a novel sliding-mode control method for torque control of induction motors. The control principle is based on sliding-mode control combined with space vector modulation technique. The sliding-mode control contributes to the robustness of induction motor drives, and the space vector modulation improves the torque, flux, and current steady-state performance by reducing the ripple. The Lyapunov direct method is used to ensure the reaching and sustaining of sliding mode and stability of the control system. The performance of the proposed system is compared with those of conventional sliding-mode controller and classical PI controller. Finally, computer simulation results show that the proposed control scheme provides robust dynamic characteristics with low torque ripple. PMID:16294775

  13. Sliding mode control of magnetic suspensions for precision pointing and tracking applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misovec, Kathleen M.; Flynn, Frederick J.; Johnson, Bruce G.; Hedrick, J. Karl

    1991-01-01

    A recently developed nonlinear control method, sliding mode control, is examined as a means of advancing the achievable performance of space-based precision pointing and tracking systems that use nonlinear magnetic actuators. Analytic results indicate that sliding mode control improves performance compared to linear control approaches. In order to realize these performance improvements, precise knowledge of the plant is required. Additionally, the interaction of an estimating scheme and the sliding mode controller has not been fully examined in the literature. Estimation schemes were designed for use with this sliding mode controller that do not seriously degrade system performance. The authors designed and built a laboratory testbed to determine the feasibility of utilizing sliding mode control in these types of applications. Using this testbed, experimental verification of the authors' analyses is ongoing.

  14. Second order sliding mode control for a quadrotor UAV.

    PubMed

    Zheng, En-Hui; Xiong, Jing-Jing; Luo, Ji-Liang

    2014-07-01

    A method based on second order sliding mode control (2-SMC) is proposed to design controllers for a small quadrotor UAV. For the switching sliding manifold design, the selection of the coefficients of the switching sliding manifold is in general a sophisticated issue because the coefficients are nonlinear. In this work, in order to perform the position and attitude tracking control of the quadrotor perfectly, the dynamical model of the quadrotor is divided into two subsystems, i.e., a fully actuated subsystem and an underactuated subsystem. For the former, a sliding manifold is defined by combining the position and velocity tracking errors of one state variable, i.e., the sliding manifold has two coefficients. For the latter, a sliding manifold is constructed via a linear combination of position and velocity tracking errors of two state variables, i.e., the sliding manifold has four coefficients. In order to further obtain the nonlinear coefficients of the sliding manifold, Hurwitz stability analysis is used to the solving process. In addition, the flight controllers are derived by using Lyapunov theory, which guarantees that all system state trajectories reach and stay on the sliding surfaces. Extensive simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method. PMID:24751475

  15. Sliding Mode Control (SMC) of Robot Manipulator via Intelligent Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, Neha; Ohri, Jyoti

    2016-06-01

    Inspite of so much research, key technical problem, naming chattering of conventional, simple and robust SMC is still a challenge to the researchers and hence limits its practical application. However, newly developed soft computing based techniques can provide solution. In order to have advantages of conventional and heuristic soft computing based control techniques, in this paper various commonly used intelligent techniques, neural network, fuzzy logic and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) have been combined with sliding mode controller (SMC). For validation, proposed hybrid control schemes have been implemented for tracking a predefined trajectory by robotic manipulator, incorporating structured and unstructured uncertainties in the system. After reviewing numerous papers, all the commonly occurring uncertainties like continuous disturbance, uniform random white noise, static friction like coulomb friction and viscous friction, dynamic friction like Dhal friction and LuGre friction have been inserted in the system. Various performance indices like norm of tracking error, chattering in control input, norm of input torque, disturbance rejection, chattering rejection have been used. Comparative results show that with almost eliminated chattering the intelligent SMC controllers are found to be more efficient over simple SMC. It has also been observed from results that ANFIS based controller has the best tracking performance with the reduced burden on the system. No paper in the literature has found to have all these structured and unstructured uncertainties together for motion control of robotic manipulator.

  16. Tensor Product Model Transformation Based Adaptive Integral-Sliding Mode Controller: Equivalent Control Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoliang; Li, Hongxing

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes new methodologies for the design of adaptive integral-sliding mode control. A tensor product model transformation based adaptive integral-sliding mode control law with respect to uncertainties and perturbations is studied, while upper bounds on the perturbations and uncertainties are assumed to be unknown. The advantage of proposed controllers consists in having a dynamical adaptive control gain to establish a sliding mode right at the beginning of the process. Gain dynamics ensure a reasonable adaptive gain with respect to the uncertainties. Finally, efficacy of the proposed controller is verified by simulations on an uncertain nonlinear system model. PMID:24453897

  17. Sliding mode pulse-width modulation technique for direct torque controlled induction motor drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounadja, M.; Belarbi, A. W.; Belmadani, B.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a novel pulse-width modulation technique based sliding mode approach for direct torque control of an induction machine drive. Methodology begins with a sliding mode control of machine's torque and stator flux to generate the reference voltage vector and to reduce parameters sensitivity. Then, the switching control of the three-phase inverter is developed using sliding mode concept to make the system tracking reference voltage inputs. The main features of the proposed methodologies are the high tracking accuracy and the much easier implementation compared to the space vector modulation. Simulations are carried out to confirm the effectiveness of proposed control algorithms.

  18. Finite time control for MIMO nonlinear system based on higher-order sliding mode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangjie; Han, Yaozhen

    2014-11-01

    Considering a class of MIMO uncertain nonlinear system, a novel finite time stable control algorithm is proposed based on higher-order sliding mode concept. The higher-order sliding mode control problem of MIMO nonlinear system is firstly transformed into finite time stability problem of multivariable system. Then continuous control law, which can guarantee finite time stabilization of nominal integral chain system, is employed. The second-order sliding mode is used to overcome the system uncertainties. High frequency chattering phenomenon of sliding mode is greatly weakened, and the arbitrarily fast convergence is reached. The finite time stability is proved based on the quadratic form Lyapunov function. Examples concerning the triple integral chain system with uncertainty and the hovercraft trajectory tracking are simulated respectively to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25277626

  19. Robust Second Order Sliding mode Observer for the Estimation of the Vehicle States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaibet, A.; Nouveliere, L.; Hima, S.; Mammar, S.

    2008-06-01

    This paper is dedicated to the observation of non measurable variables for automotive systems. A non linear observer, based on a sliding mode approach, is presented for the estimation of the dynamic states of the vehicle. The considered technique is applied to the estimation problem for an automated vehicle following. Both the simulation and the experimental results are addressed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the sliding mode observer for different maneuvers, in terms of performances and robustness.

  20. Minimum sliding mode error feedback control for fault tolerant reconfigurable satellite formations with J2 perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lu; Chen, Xiaoqian; Misra, Arun K.

    2014-03-01

    Minimum Sliding Mode Error Feedback Control (MSMEFC) is proposed to improve the control precision of spacecraft formations based on the conventional sliding mode control theory. This paper proposes a new approach to estimate and offset the system model errors, which include various kinds of uncertainties and disturbances, as well as smoothes out the effect of nonlinear switching control terms. To facilitate the analysis, the concept of equivalent control error is introduced, which is the key to the utilization of MSMEFC. A cost function is formulated on the basis of the principle of minimum sliding mode error; then the equivalent control error is estimated and fed back to the conventional sliding mode control. It is shown that the sliding mode after the MSMEFC will approximate to the ideal sliding mode, resulting in improved control performance and quality. The new methodology is applied to spacecraft formation flying. It guarantees global asymptotic convergence of the relative tracking error in the presence of J2 perturbations. In addition, some fault tolerant situations such as thruster failure for a period of time, thruster degradation and so on, are also considered to verify the effectiveness of MSMEFC. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology to maintain and reconfigure the satellite formation with the existence of initial offsets and J2 perturbation effects, even in the fault-tolerant cases.

  1. Second-order sliding mode control for DFIG-based wind turbines fault ride-through capability enhancement.

    PubMed

    Benbouzid, Mohamed; Beltran, Brice; Amirat, Yassine; Yao, Gang; Han, Jingang; Mangel, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the fault ride-through capability assessment of a doubly fed induction generator-based wind turbine using a high-order sliding mode control. Indeed, it has been recently suggested that sliding mode control is a solution of choice to the fault ride-through problem. In this context, this paper proposes a second-order sliding mode as an improved solution that handle the classical sliding mode chattering problem. Indeed, the main and attractive features of high-order sliding modes are robustness against external disturbances, the grids faults in particular, and chattering-free behavior (no extra mechanical stress on the wind turbine drive train). Simulations using the NREL FAST code on a 1.5-MW wind turbine are carried out to evaluate ride-through performance of the proposed high-order sliding mode control strategy in case of grid frequency variations and unbalanced voltage sags. PMID:24530194

  2. Projective synchronization of nonidentical fractional-order neural networks based on sliding mode controller.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhixia; Shen, Yi

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates global projective synchronization of nonidentical fractional-order neural networks (FNNs) based on sliding mode control technique. We firstly construct a fractional-order integral sliding surface. Then, according to the sliding mode control theory, we design a sliding mode controller to guarantee the occurrence of the sliding motion. Based on fractional Lyapunov direct methods, system trajectories are driven to the proposed sliding surface and remain on it evermore, and some novel criteria are obtained to realize global projective synchronization of nonidentical FNNs. As the special cases, some sufficient conditions are given to ensure projective synchronization of identical FNNs, complete synchronization of nonidentical FNNs and anti-synchronization of nonidentical FNNs. Finally, one numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results. PMID:26874968

  3. Decoupled thermal control for space station furnace facility using sliding mode techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Mark E.; Shtessel, Yuri B.

    1996-03-01

    The Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) provides the necessary core systems to operate various material processing furnaces. The Thermal Control System (TCS) is defined as one of the core systems and its function is to collect excess heat from furnaces and to provide precise cold temperature control of components and of certain furnace zones. Physical interconnection of parallel thermal control subsystems through a common pump implies the description of the whole TCS by coupled nonlinear differential equations in flow and pressure. The paper formulates the system equations and develops the sliding mode controllers that cause the interconnected subsystems to operate in the local sliding modes, resulting in control system invariance to interaction disturbances. The desired de-coupled flow rate profile tracking is achieved by optimization of the local linear sliding mode equations. Extensive digital simulation results are presented to show the flow rate tracking robustness and invariance to plant nonlinearities and variations of the pump pressure supplied to the controlled subsystems.

  4. Higher-order sliding mode control of leg power in paraplegic FES-cycling.

    PubMed

    Farhoud, Aidin; Erfanian, Abbas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust control methodology based on high order sliding mode (HOSM) for control of the leg power in FES-Cycling. A major obstacle to the development of control systems for functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been the highly non-linear, time-varying properties of neuromusculoskeletal systems. A useful and powerful control scheme to deal with the uncertainties, nonlinearities, and bounded external disturbances is the sliding mode control (SMC). The main drawback of the classical sliding mode is mostly related to the so-called chattering which is dangerous for FES applications. To avoid chattering, HOSM approaches were proposed. Keeping the main advantages of the original approach, at the same time they totally remove the chattering effect and provide for even higher accuracy in realization. The results of simulation studies and experiments on two paraplegic subjects show the superior performance of the leg power control during different conditions of operation using HOSM control scheme. PMID:21096932

  5. Multi-mode sliding mode control for precision linear stage based on fixed or floating stator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jiwen; Long, Zhili; Wang, Michael Yu; Zhang, Lufan; Dai, Xufei

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the control performance of a linear motion stage driven by Voice Coil Motor (VCM). Unlike the conventional VCM, the stator of this VCM is regulated, which means it can be adjusted as a floating-stator or fixed-stator. A Multi-Mode Sliding Mode Control (MMSMC), including a conventional Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and an Integral Sliding Mode Control (ISMC), is designed to control the linear motion stage. The control is switched between SMC and IMSC based on the error threshold. To eliminate the chattering, a smooth function is adopted instead of a signum function. The experimental results with the floating stator show that the positioning accuracy and tracking performance of the linear motion stage are improved with the MMSMC approach.

  6. Reaction jet and aerodynamics compound control missile autopilot design based on adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhenhui; Dong, Chaoyang

    2006-11-01

    Because of nonlinearity and strong coupling of reaction-jet and aerodynamics compound control missile, a missile autopilot design method based on adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control (AFSMC) is proposed in this paper. The universal approximation ability of adaptive fuzzy system is used to approximate the nonlinear function in missile dynamics equation during the flight of high angle of attack. And because the sliding mode control is robustness to external disturbance strongly, the sliding mode surface of the error system is constructed to overcome the influence of approximation error and external disturbance so that the actual overload can track the maneuvering command with high precision. Simulation results show that the missile autopilot designed in this paper not only can track large overload command with higher precision than traditional method, but also is robust to model uncertainty and external disturbance strongly.

  7. Adaptive sliding mode control of tri-layer conjugated polymer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangjiang; Alici, Gursel; Nguyen, Chuc Huu

    2013-02-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive sliding mode control methodology to enhance the positioning ability of conducting polymer actuators typified by tri-layer conjugated polymer actuators. This is motivated by the search for an effective control strategy to command such actuators to a desired configuration in the presence of parametric uncertainties and unmodeled disturbances. After analyzing the stability of the adaptive sliding mode control system, experiments were conducted to demonstrate its satisfactory tracking ability, based on a series of experimental results. Implementation of the control law requires a valid model of the conducting polymer actuator and boundaries of the uncertainties and disturbances. Based on the theoretical and experimental results presented, the adaptive sliding mode control methodology is very attractive in the field of smart actuators which contain significant uncertainties and disturbances.

  8. Sliding mode control for multi-agent systems under a time-varying topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lijing; Chai, Senchun; Zhang, Baihai; Kiong Nguang, Sing

    2016-07-01

    This paper addresses the tracking problem of a class of multi-agent systems under uncertain communication environments which has been modelled by a finite number of constant Laplacian matrices together with their corresponding scheduling functions. Sliding mode control method is applied to solve this nonlinear tracking problem under a time-varying topology. The controller of each tracking agent has been designed by using only its own and neighbours' information. Sufficient conditions for the existence of a sliding mode control tracking strategy have been provided by the solvability of linear matrix inequalities. At the end of this work, numerical simulations are employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sliding mode control tracking strategy.

  9. Adaptive sliding mode control of tethered satellite deployment with input limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Sun, Guanghui

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive sliding mode tension control method for the deployment of tethered satellite, where the input tension limitation is taken into account. The underactuated governing equations of the tethered satellites system are firstly derived based on Lagrangian mechanics theory. Considering the fact that the tether can only resist axial stretching, the tension input is modelled as input limitation. New adaptive sliding mode laws are addressed to guarantee the stability of the tethered satellite deployment with input disturbance, meanwhile to eliminate the effect of the limitation features of the tension input. Compared with the classic control strategy, the newly proposed adaptive sliding mode control law can deploy the satellite with smaller overshoot of the in-plane angle and implement the tension control reasonably and effectively in engineering practice. The numerical results validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  10. A fuzzy logic sliding mode controlled electronic differential for a direct wheel drive EV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkop, Emre; Altas, Ismail H.; Okumus, H. Ibrahim; Sharaf, Adel M.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a direct wheel drive electric vehicle based on an electronic differential system with a fuzzy logic sliding mode controller (FLSMC) is studied. The conventional sliding surface is modified using a fuzzy rule base to obtain fuzzy dynamic sliding surfaces by changing its slopes using the global error and its derivative in a fuzzy logic inference system. The controller is compared with proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and sliding mode controllers (SMCs), which are usually preferred to be used in industry. The proposed controller provides robustness and flexibility to direct wheel drive electric vehicles. The fuzzy logic sliding mode controller, electronic differential system and the overall electrical vehicle mechanism are modelled and digitally simulated by using the Matlab software. Simulation results show that the system with FLSMC has better efficiency and performance compared to those of PID and SMCs.

  11. Robust fuzzy control for stochastic Markovian jumping systems via sliding mode method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bei; Jia, Tinggang; Niu, Yugang

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers the problem of sliding mode control for stochastic Markovian jumping systems by means of fuzzy method. The Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy stochastic model subject to state-dependent noise is presented. A key feature in this work is to remove the restricted condition that each local system model had to share the same input channel, which is usually assumed in some existing results. The integral sliding surface is constructed for every mode and the connections among various sliding surfaces are established via a set of coupled matrices. Moreover, the present sliding mode controller including the transition rates of modes can cope with the effect of Markovian switching. It is shown that both the reachability of sliding surfaces and the stability of sliding mode dynamics can be ensured. Finally, numerical simulation results are given.

  12. Designing for Damage: Robust Flight Control Design using Sliding Mode Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetter, T. K.; Wells, S. R.; Hess, Ronald A.; Bacon, Barton (Technical Monitor); Davidson, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A brief review of sliding model control is undertaken, with particular emphasis upon the effects of neglected parasitic dynamics. Sliding model control design is interpreted in the frequency domain. The inclusion of asymptotic observers and control 'hedging' is shown to reduce the effects of neglected parasitic dynamics. An investigation into the application of observer-based sliding mode control to the robust longitudinal control of a highly unstable is described. The sliding mode controller is shown to exhibit stability and performance robustness superior to that of a classical loop-shaped design when significant changes in vehicle and actuator dynamics are employed to model airframe damage.

  13. Fault tolerant small satellite attitude control using adaptive non-singular terminal sliding mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lu; Chen, XiaoQian; Sheng, Tao

    2013-06-01

    The Attitude Control System (ACS) plays a pivotal role in the whole performance of the spacecraft on the orbit; therefore, it is vitally important to design the control system with the performance of rapid response, high control precision and insensitive to external perturbations. In the first place, this paper proposes two adaptive nonlinear control algorithms based on the sliding mode control (SMC), which are designed for small satellite attitude control system. The nonlinear dynamics describing the attitude of small satellite is considered in a circle reference orbit, and the stability of the closed-loop system in the presence of external perturbations is investigated. Then, in order to account for accidental or degradation fault in satellite actuators, the fault-tolerant control schemes are presented. Hence, two adaptive fault-tolerant control laws (continuous sliding mode control and non-singular terminal sliding mode control) are developed by adopting the nonlinear analytical model to describe the system, which can guarantee global asymptotic convergence of the attitude control error with the existence of unknown external perturbations. The nonlinear hyperplane based Terminal sliding mode is introduced into the control law design; therefore, the system convergence performance improves and the control error is convergent in "finite time". As a result, the study on the non-singular terminal sliding mode control is the emphasis and the continuous sliding mode control is used to compare with the non-singular terminal sliding mode control. Meanwhile, an adaptive fuzzy algorithm has been proposed to suppress the chattering phenomenon. Moreover, several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed controllers by correcting for the external perturbations. Simulation results confirm that the suggested methodologies yield high control precision in control. In addition, actuator degradation, actuator stuck and actuator failure for a

  14. Unknown Input and Sensor Fault Estimation Using Sliding-Mode Observers

    SciTech Connect

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Hui, Stefen; Zak, Stanislaw

    2011-06-29

    Sliding-mode observers are used to construct unknown input estimators. Then, these unknown input estimators are combined with sensor fault estimation schemes into one architecture that employs two sliding-mode observers for simultaneously estimating the plant’s actuator faults (part of the unknown input) and detecting sensor faults. Closed form expressions are presented for the estimates of unknown inputs and sensor faults. A benchmark example of a controlled inverted pendulum system from the literature is utilized in the simulation study. The study shows that the observers analyzed in this paper generate good estimates of the unknown input and sensor faults signals in noisy environments for nonlinear plants.

  15. Sliding mode control of wind-induced vibrations using fuzzy sliding surface and gain adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thenozhi, Suresh; Yu, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Although fuzzy/adaptive sliding mode control can reduce the chattering problem in structural vibration control applications, they require the equivalent control and the upper bounds of the system uncertainties. In this paper, we used fuzzy logic to approximate the standard sliding surface and designed a dead-zone adaptive law for tuning the switching gain of the sliding mode control. The stability of the proposed controller is established using Lyapunov stability theory. A six-storey building prototype equipped with an active mass damper has been used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller towards the wind-induced vibrations.

  16. Universal fuzzy integral sliding-mode controllers for stochastic nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qing; Liu, Lu; Feng, Gang; Wang, Yong

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the universal integral sliding-mode controller problem for the general stochastic nonlinear systems modeled by Itô type stochastic differential equations is investigated. One of the main contributions is that a novel dynamic integral sliding mode control (DISMC) scheme is developed for stochastic nonlinear systems based on their stochastic T-S fuzzy approximation models. The key advantage of the proposed DISMC scheme is that two very restrictive assumptions in most existing ISMC approaches to stochastic fuzzy systems have been removed. Based on the stochastic Lyapunov theory, it is shown that the closed-loop control system trajectories are kept on the integral sliding surface almost surely since the initial time, and moreover, the stochastic stability of the sliding motion can be guaranteed in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Another main contribution is that the results of universal fuzzy integral sliding-mode controllers for two classes of stochastic nonlinear systems, along with constructive procedures to obtain the universal fuzzy integral sliding-mode controllers, are provided, respectively. Simulation results from an inverted pendulum example are presented to illustrate the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed approaches. PMID:24718584

  17. Fully magnetic sliding mode control for acquiring three-axis attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, M. Yu.; Roldugin, D. S.; Penkov, V. I.; Tkachev, S. S.; Mashtakov, Y. V.

    2016-04-01

    Satellite equipped with purely magnetic attitude control system is considered. Sliding mode control is used to achieve three-axis satellite attitude. Underactuation problem is solved for transient motion. Necessary attitude is acquired by proper sliding manifold construction. Satellite motion on the manifold is executed with magnetic control system. One manifold construction approach is proposed and discussed. Numerical examples are provided.

  18. Sliding Mode Approaches for Robust Control, State Estimation, Secure Communication, and Fault Diagnosis in Nuclear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablay, Gunyaz

    Using traditional control methods for controller design, parameter estimation and fault diagnosis may lead to poor results with nuclear systems in practice because of approximations and uncertainties in the system models used, possibly resulting in unexpected plant unavailability. This experience has led to an interest in development of robust control, estimation and fault diagnosis methods. One particularly robust approach is the sliding mode control methodology. Sliding mode approaches have been of great interest and importance in industry and engineering in the recent decades due to their potential for producing economic, safe and reliable designs. In order to utilize these advantages, sliding mode approaches are implemented for robust control, state estimation, secure communication and fault diagnosis in nuclear plant systems. In addition, a sliding mode output observer is developed for fault diagnosis in dynamical systems. To validate the effectiveness of the methodologies, several nuclear plant system models are considered for applications, including point reactor kinetics, xenon concentration dynamics, an uncertain pressurizer model, a U-tube steam generator model and a coupled nonlinear nuclear reactor model.

  19. Sliding Mode Control of the X-33 with an Engine Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shtessel, Yuri B.; Hall, Charles E.

    2000-01-01

    Ascent flight control of the X-3 is performed using two XRS-2200 linear aerospike engines. in addition to aerosurfaces. The baseline control algorithms are PID with gain scheduling. Flight control using an innovative method. Sliding Mode Control. is presented for nominal and engine failed modes of flight. An easy to implement, robust controller. requiring no reconfiguration or gain scheduling is demonstrated through high fidelity flight simulations. The proposed sliding mode controller utilizes a two-loop structure and provides robust. de-coupled tracking of both orientation angle command profiles and angular rate command profiles in the presence of engine failure, bounded external disturbances (wind gusts) and uncertain matrix of inertia. Sliding mode control causes the angular rate and orientation angle tracking error dynamics to be constrained to linear, de-coupled, homogeneous, and vector valued differential equations with desired eigenvalues. Conditions that restrict engine failures to robustness domain of the sliding mode controller are derived. Overall stability of a two-loop flight control system is assessed. Simulation results show that the designed controller provides robust, accurate, de-coupled tracking of the orientation angle command profiles in the presence of external disturbances and vehicle inertia uncertainties, as well as the single engine failed case. The designed robust controller will significantly reduce the time and cost associated with flying new trajectory profiles or orbits, with new payloads, and with modified vehicles

  20. Application of Sliding Mode Methods to the Design of Reconfigurable Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Scott R.

    2002-01-01

    Observer-based sliding mode control is investigated for application to aircraft reconfigurable flight control. A comprehensive overview of reconfigurable flight control is given, including, a review of the current state-of-the-art within the subdisciplines of fault detection, parameter identification, adaptive control schemes, and dynamic control allocation. Of the adaptive control methods reviewed, sliding mode control (SMC) appears very promising due its property of invariance to matched uncertainty. An overview of sliding mode control is given and its remarkable properties are demonstrated by example. Sliding mode methods, however, are difficult to implement because unmodeled parasitic dynamics cause immediate and severe instability. This presents a challenge for all practical applications with limited bandwidth actuators. One method to deal with parasitic dynamics is the use of an asymptotic observer in the feedback path. Observer-based SMC is investigated, and a method for selecting observer gains is offered. An additional method for shaping the feedback loop using a filter is also developed. It is shown that this SMC prefilter is equivalent to a form of model reference hedging. A complete design procedure is given which takes advantage of the sliding mode boundary layer to recast the SMC as a linear control law. Frequency domain loop shaping is then used to design the sliding manifold. Finally, three aircraft applications are demonstrated. An F-18/HARV is used to demonstrate a SISO pitch rate tracking controller. It is also used to demonstrate a MIMO lateral-directional roll rate tracking controller. The last application is a full linear six degree-of-freedom advanced tailless fighter model. The observer-based SMC is seen to provide excellent tracking with superior robustness to parameter changes and actuator failures.

  1. A Sliding Mode Controller Using Nonlinear Sliding Surface Improved With Fuzzy Logic: Application to the Coupled Tanks System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubakir, A.; Boudjema, F.; Boubakir, C.

    2008-06-01

    This paper proposes an approach of hybrid control that is based on the concept of combining fuzzy logic and the methodology of sliding mode control (SMC). In the present works, a first-order nonlinear sliding surface is presented, on which the developed control law is based. Mathematical proof for the stability and convergence of the system is presented. In order to reduce the chattering in sliding mode control, a fixed boundary layer around the switch surface is used. Within the boundary layer, since the fuzzy logic control is applied, the chattering phenomenon, which is inherent in a sliding mode control, is avoided by smoothing the switch signal. Outside the boundary, the sliding mode control is applied to driving the system states into the boundary layer. Experimental studies carried out on a coupled Tanks system indicate that the proposed fuzzy sliding mode control (FSMC) is a good candidate for control applications.

  2. Adaptive Actor-Critic Design-Based Integral Sliding-Mode Control for Partially Unknown Nonlinear Systems With Input Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Fan, Quan-Yong; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of integral sliding-mode control for a class of nonlinear systems with input disturbances and unknown nonlinear terms through the adaptive actor-critic (AC) control method. The main objective is to design a sliding-mode control methodology based on the adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) method, so that the closed-loop system with time-varying disturbances is stable and the nearly optimal performance of the sliding-mode dynamics can be guaranteed. In the first step, a neural network (NN)-based observer and a disturbance observer are designed to approximate the unknown nonlinear terms and estimate the input disturbances, respectively. Based on the NN approximations and disturbance estimations, the discontinuous part of the sliding-mode control is constructed to eliminate the effect of the disturbances and attain the expected equivalent sliding-mode dynamics. Then, the ADP method with AC structure is presented to learn the optimal control for the sliding-mode dynamics online. Reconstructed tuning laws are developed to guarantee the stability of the sliding-mode dynamics and the convergence of the weights of critic and actor NNs. Finally, the simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26357411

  3. Implementation of fuzzy-sliding mode based control of a grid connected photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    Menadi, Abdelkrim; Abdeddaim, Sabrina; Ghamri, Ahmed; Betka, Achour

    2015-09-01

    The present work describes an optimal operation of a small scale photovoltaic system connected to a micro-grid, based on both sliding mode and fuzzy logic control. Real time implementation is done through a dSPACE 1104 single board, controlling a boost chopper on the PV array side and a voltage source inverter (VSI) on the grid side. The sliding mode controller tracks permanently the maximum power of the PV array regardless of atmospheric condition variations, while The fuzzy logic controller (FLC) regulates the DC-link voltage, and ensures via current control of the VSI a quasi-total transit of the extracted PV power to the grid under a unity power factor operation. Simulation results, carried out via Matlab-Simulink package were approved through experiment, showing the effectiveness of the proposed control techniques. PMID:26243440

  4. A novel adaptive switching function on fault tolerable sliding mode control for uncertain stochastic systems.

    PubMed

    Zahiripour, Seyed Ali; Jalali, Ali Akbar

    2014-09-01

    A novel switching function based on an optimization strategy for the sliding mode control (SMC) method has been provided for uncertain stochastic systems subject to actuator degradation such that the closed-loop system is globally asymptotically stable with probability one. In the previous researches the focus on sliding surface has been on proportional or proportional-integral function of states. In this research, from a degree of freedom that depends on designer choice is used to meet certain objectives. In the design of the switching function, there is a parameter which the designer can regulate for specified objectives. A sliding-mode controller is synthesized to ensure the reachability of the specified switching surface, despite actuator degradation and uncertainties. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:24954808

  5. Neuro-sliding mode control with its applications to seesaw systems.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chun-Hsien; Chung, Hung-Yuan; Yu, Fang-Ming

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach of cooperative control that is based on the concept of combining neural networks and the methodology of sliding mode control (SMC). The main purpose is to eliminate the chattering phenomenon. Next, the system performance can be improved by using the method of SMC. In the present approach, two parallel Neural Networks are utilized to realize a neuro-sliding mode control (NSMC), where the equivalent control and the corrective control are the outputs of neural network 1 and neural network 2, respectively. Based on expressions of the SMC, the weight adaptations of neural network can be determined. Furthermore, the gradient descent method is used to minimize the control force so that the chattering phenomenon can be eliminated. Finally, experimental results are given to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the approach. PMID:15387253

  6. Vibration suppression in flexible structures via the sliding-mode control approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drakunov, S.; Oezguener, Uemit

    1994-01-01

    Sliding mode control became very popular recently because it makes the closed loop system highly insensitive to external disturbances and parameter variations. Sliding algorithms for flexible structures have been used previously, but these were based on finite-dimensional models. An extension of this approach for differential-difference systems is obtained. That makes if possible to apply sliding-mode control algorithms to the variety of nondispersive flexible structures which can be described as differential-difference systems. The main idea of using this technique for dispersive structures is to reduce the order of the controlled part of the system by applying an integral transformation. We can say that transformation 'absorbs' the dispersive properties of the flexible structure as the controlled part becomes dispersive.

  7. Microgravity Isolation Control System Design Via High-Order Sliding Mode Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkolnikov, Ilya; Shtessel, Yuri; Whorton, Mark S.; Jackson, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Vibration isolation control system design for a microgravity experiment mount is considered. The controller design based on dynamic sliding manifold (DSM) technique is proposed to attenuate the accelerations transmitted to an isolated experiment mount either from a vibrating base or directly generated by the experiment, as well as to stabilize the internal dynamics of this nonminimum phase plant. An auxiliary DSM is employed to maintain the high-order sliding mode on the primary sliding manifold in the presence of uncertain actuator dynamics of second order. The primary DSM is designed for the closed-loop system in sliding mode to be a filter with given characteristics with respect to the input external disturbances.

  8. Adaptive terminal sliding mode control subject to input nonlinearity for synchronization of chaotic gyros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chi-Ching; Ou, Chung-Jen

    2013-03-01

    Under the existence of system uncertainties, external disturbances, and input nonlinearity, complete synchronization and anti-synchronization between two chaotic gyros are achieved by introducing a novel adaptive terminal sliding mode (ATSM) controller. In the literature, by taking account of input nonlinearity, the magnitudes of bounded nonlinear dynamics of synchronous error system were required in the designed sliding mode controller. In this study, the proposed ATSM controller associated with time-varying feedback gains can tackle nonlinear dynamics according to the novel adaptive rules. These feedback gains are not necessary to be determined in advance but updated by the adaptive rules without known the magnitudes of bounded nonlinear dynamics, system uncertainties, and external disturbances. Sufficient conditions to guarantee stable synchronization are given in the sense of the Lyapunov stability theorem, and the numerical simulations are performed to verify the effectiveness of presented schemes.

  9. Sliding mode control of the space nuclear reactor system TOPAZ II

    SciTech Connect

    Shtessel, Y.B.; Wyant, F.J.

    1996-03-01

    The Automatic Control System (ACS) of the space nuclear reactor power system TOPAZ II that generates electricity from nuclear heat using in-core thermionic converters is considered. Sliding Mode Control Technique was applied to the reactor system controller design in order to provide the robust high accuracy following of a neutron (thermal) power reference profile in a start up regime and a payload electric power (current) reference profile following in an operation regime. Extensive simulations of the TOPAZ II reactor system with the designed sliding mode controllers showed improved accuracy and robustness of the reactor system performances in a start up regime and in an electric power supply regime as well. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Libration point orbit rendezvous using PWPF modulated terminal sliding mode control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yijun; Tang, Guojian

    2013-12-01

    The near-range rendezvous problem of two libration point orbit spacecraft in the Earth-Moon system is studied using the terminal sliding mode control which enables a time-fixed process with the flight time prescribed a priori. The underlying dynamics are the full nonlinear equations of motion for a complete Solar System model. For practical purposes, two means of pulse-width pulse-frequency (PWPF) modulation are employed to realize the theoretical continuous control with a series of thrust pulses. Extensive simulations with major errors taken into account show that the sliding mode controller can successfully guide the chaser to a given staging node with the final position and velocity errors, on average, lower than 20 m and 1 mm/s, respectively. Compared with the glideslope guidance previously studied, the proposed approach outperforms the former by saving approximately 50-60% of total delta-v.

  11. Biomolecular implementation of a quasi sliding mode feedback controller based on DNA strand displacement reactions.

    PubMed

    Sawlekar, Rucha; Montefusco, Francesco; Kulkarni, Vishwesh; Bates, Declan G

    2015-08-01

    A fundamental aim of synthetic biology is to achieve the capability to design and implement robust embedded biomolecular feedback control circuits. An approach to realize this objective is to use abstract chemical reaction networks (CRNs) as a programming language for the design of complex circuits and networks. Here, we employ this approach to facilitate the implementation of a class of nonlinear feedback controllers based on sliding mode control theory. We show how a set of two-step irreversible reactions with ultrasensitive response dynamics can provide a biomolecular implementation of a nonlinear quasi sliding mode (QSM) controller. We implement our controller in closed-loop with a prototype of a biological pathway and demonstrate that the nonlinear QSM controller outperforms a traditional linear controller by facilitating faster tracking response dynamics without introducing overshoots in the transient response. PMID:26736420

  12. Smith predictor based-sliding mode controller for integrating processes with elevated deadtime.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Oscar; De la Cruz, Francisco

    2004-04-01

    An approach to control integrating processes with elevated deadtime using a Smith predictor sliding mode controller is presented. A PID sliding surface and an integrating first-order plus deadtime model have been used to synthesize the controller. Since the performance of existing controllers with a Smith predictor decrease in the presence of modeling errors, this paper presents a simple approach to combining the Smith predictor with the sliding mode concept, which is a proven, simple, and robust procedure. The proposed scheme has a set of tuning equations as a function of the characteristic parameters of the model. For implementation of our proposed approach, computer based industrial controllers that execute PID algorithms can be used. The performance and robustness of the proposed controller are compared with the Matausek-Micić scheme for linear systems using simulations. PMID:15098585

  13. Output feedback sliding mode control for a linear multi-compartment lung mechanics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Saing Paul; Meskin, Nader; Haddad, Wassim M.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we develop a sliding mode control architecture to control lung volume and minute ventilation in the presence of modelling system uncertainties. Since the applied input pressure to the lungs is, in general, nonnegative and cannot be arbitrarily large, as not to damage the lungs, a sliding mode control with bounded nonnegative control inputs is proposed. The controller only uses output information (i.e., the total volume of the lungs) and automatically adjusts the applied input pressure so that the system is able to track a given reference signal in the presence of parameter uncertainty (i.e., modelling uncertainty of the lung resistances and lung compliances) and system disturbances. Controllers for both matched and unmatched uncertainties are presented. Specifically, a Lyapunov-based approach is presented for the stability analysis of the system and the proposed control framework is applied to a two-compartment lung model to show the efficacy of the proposed control method.

  14. Non-linear adaptive sliding mode switching control with average dwell-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lei; Zhang, Maoqing; Fei, Shumin

    2013-03-01

    In this article, an adaptive integral sliding mode control scheme is addressed for switched non-linear systems in the presence of model uncertainties and external disturbances. The control law includes two parts: a slide mode controller for the reduced model of the plant and a compensation controller to deal with the non-linear systems with parameter uncertainties. The adaptive updated laws have been derived from the switched multiple Lyapunov function method, also an admissible switching signal with average dwell-time technique is given. The simplicity of the proposed control scheme facilitates its implementation and the overall control scheme guarantees the global asymptotic stability in the Lyapunov sense such that the sliding surface of the control system is well reached. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  15. Observation and sliding mode observer for nonlinear fractional-order system with unknown input.

    PubMed

    Djeghali, Nadia; Djennoune, Said; Bettayeb, Maamar; Ghanes, Malek; Barbot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this paper is twofold. First, the observability and the left invertibility properties and the observable canonical form for nonlinear fractional-order systems are introduced. By using a transformation, we show that these properties can be deduced from an equivalent nonlinear integer-order system. Second, a step by step sliding mode observer for fault detection and estimation in nonlinear fractional-order systems is proposed. Starting with a chained fractional-order integrators form, a step by step first-order sliding mode observer is designed. The finite time convergence of the observer is established by using Lyapunov stability theory. A numerical example is given to illustrate the performance of the proposed approach. PMID:26961320

  16. Observer-based higher order sliding mode control for large optical astronomical telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wangping; Ye, Xiaoling; Guo, Wei; Wu, Zhonghua

    2009-05-01

    In order to study more remote universe and the detailed structures of near stars, large-scale astronomical telescopes are very needed with the development of astronomy and astrophysics. In this trend, astronomical telescope becomes more and more huge, which leads its driving system to bear heavy nonlinear disturbances. The increased nonlinear disturbances especially caused by friction torque in the control system can easily bring tingle and stick-slip phenomena when the telescope tracks an object with an ultra-low velocity. However, conventional control approaches are difficult to realize high-precision controls and can decrease the quality of a telescope's observations. Therefore, it will be of significance in theory and in practice to develop an advanced new control method to restrain nonlinear disturbance and improve telescope's observation performance. Sliding mode approach has been applied in many other mechanical control systems since it is invariable to various disturbances. However, conventional sliding mode approach may cause dangerous high-frequency vibrations in corresponding control system, which may influence control performance or even lead the system unstable. To counteract the effect of above nuisance, a high-order sliding mode (HOSM) controller of third-order has been suggested in the large telescope's drive system through theoretic deduction and analysis. On account of that the HOSM approach needs all system states available, a sliding mode observer has then been designed in order to get the acceleration state of the drive system. Simulation results show that this approach can obtain high control precision and may satisfy the requirements of a telescope for a nicely ultra-low velocity.

  17. Classical and higher-order sliding mode attitude control for launch vehicle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, James Edward, Jr.

    In determining flight controls for launch vehicle systems, several things must be taken into account. Launch vehicle systems can be expendable or reusable, carry crew or cargo, etc. Each of these launch vehicles maneuvers through a wide range of flight conditions and different mission profiles. Crewed vehicles must adhere to human rating requirements which limit the angular rates. Reusable launch vehicle systems must take into account actuator saturation during entry. Wind disturbances and plant uncertainties are major perturbations to the nominal state of any launch vehicle. An ideal controller is one that is robust enough to handle these uncertainties and external disturbances with limited control authority. One major challenge that exists in the design of these vehicles is the updating of old autopilot technology to new robust designs while also taking into account the different type of launch vehicle system employed. Sliding mode control algorithms that are inherently robust to external disturbances and plant uncertainties are very good candidates for improving the robustness and accuracy of the flight control systems. This dissertation focuses on systematically studying and developing a 'toolbox' of classical and higher-order sliding mode attitude control algorithms for different types of launch vehicle systems operating in uncertain conditions, including model uncertainties, actuator malfunctions, and external perturbations such as wind gusts. The developed toolbox comprises of time-varying sliding variables, classical and higher-order sliding mode attitude control algorithms, and observer techniques that yield novel sliding mode attitude control architectures. The proposed control toolbox allows achieving even higher standards of performance, reliability, safety, operability, and cost for launch vehicles over the current state of the art. Case studies include controlling the X-33 and SLV-X Launch Vehicles studied under NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI

  18. Chattering free adaptive multivariable sliding mode controller for systems with matched and mismatched uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sanjoy; Mahanta, Chitralekha

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a chattering free adaptive sliding mode controller (SMC) is proposed for stabilizing a class of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems affected by both matched and mismatched types of uncertainties. The proposed controller uses a proportional plus integral sliding surface whose gain is adaptively tuned to prevent overestimation. A vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft system is simulated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. PMID:23357555

  19. Speed control of switched reluctance motor using sliding mode control strategy

    SciTech Connect

    John, G.; Eastham, A.R.

    1995-12-31

    A robust speed drive system for a switched reluctance motor (SRM) using sliding mode control strategy (SLMC) is presented. After reviewing the operation of an SRM drive, a SLMC based scheme is formulated to control the drive speed. The scheme is implemented using a micro-controller and a high resolution position sensor. The parameter insensitive characteristics are demonstrated through computer simulations and experimental verification.

  20. Flight Control Design for an Autonomous Rotorcraft Using Pseudo-Sliding Mode Control and Waypoint Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallory, Nicolas Joseph

    The design of robust automated flight control systems for aircraft of varying size and complexity is a topic of continuing interest for both military and civilian industries. By merging the benefits of robustness from sliding mode control (SMC) with the familiarity and transparency of design tradeoff offered by frequency domain approaches, this thesis presents pseudo-sliding mode control as a viable option for designing automated flight control systems for complex six degree-of-freedom aircraft. The infinite frequency control switching of SMC is replaced, by necessity, with control inputs that are continuous in nature. An introduction to SMC theory is presented, followed by a detailed design of a pseudo-sliding mode control and automated flight control system for a six degree-of-freedom model of a Hughes OH6 helicopter. This model is then controlled through three different waypoint missions that demonstrate the stability of the system and the aircraft's ability to follow certain maneuvers despite time delays, large changes in model parameters and vehicle dynamics, actuator dynamics, sensor noise, and atmospheric disturbances.

  1. Current Sensor Fault Diagnosis Based on a Sliding Mode Observer for PMSM Driven Systems

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gang; Luo, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Chang-Fan; Huang, Yi-Shan; Zhao, Kai-Hui

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a current sensor fault detection method based on a sliding mode observer for the torque closed-loop control system of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors. First, a sliding mode observer based on the extended flux linkage is built to simplify the motor model, which effectively eliminates the phenomenon of salient poles and the dependence on the direct axis inductance parameter, and can also be used for real-time calculation of feedback torque. Then a sliding mode current observer is constructed in αβ coordinates to generate the fault residuals of the phase current sensors. The method can accurately identify abrupt gain faults and slow-variation offset faults in real time in faulty sensors, and the generated residuals of the designed fault detection system are not affected by the unknown input, the structure of the observer, and the theoretical derivation and the stability proof process are concise and simple. The RT-LAB real-time simulation is used to build a simulation model of the hardware in the loop. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25970258

  2. Robust dynamic sliding-mode control using adaptive RENN for magnetic levitation system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Faa-Jeng; Chen, Syuan-Yi; Shyu, Kuo-Kai

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, a robust dynamic sliding mode control system (RDSMC) using a recurrent Elman neural network (RENN) is proposed to control the position of a levitated object of a magnetic levitation system considering the uncertainties. First, a dynamic model of the magnetic levitation system is derived. Then, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID)-type sliding-mode control system (SMC) is adopted for tracking of the reference trajectories. Moreover, a new PID-type dynamic sliding-mode control system (DSMC) is proposed to reduce the chattering phenomenon. However, due to the hardware being limited and the uncertainty bound being unknown of the switching function for the DSMC, an RDSMC is proposed to improve the control performance and further increase the robustness of the magnetic levitation system. In the RDSMC, an RENN estimator is used to estimate an unknown nonlinear function of lumped uncertainty online and replace the switching function in the hitting control of the DSMC directly. The adaptive learning algorithms that trained the parameters of the RENN online are derived using Lyapunov stability theorem. Furthermore, a robust compensator is proposed to confront the uncertainties including approximation error, optimal parameter vectors, and higher order terms in Taylor series. Finally, some experimental results of tracking the various periodic trajectories demonstrate the validity of the proposed RDSMC for practical applications. PMID:19423437

  3. Current Sensor Fault Diagnosis Based on a Sliding Mode Observer for PMSM Driven Systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gang; Luo, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Chang-Fan; Huang, Yi-Shan; Zhao, Kai-Hui

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a current sensor fault detection method based on a sliding mode observer for the torque closed-loop control system of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors. First, a sliding mode observer based on the extended flux linkage is built to simplify the motor model, which effectively eliminates the phenomenon of salient poles and the dependence on the direct axis inductance parameter, and can also be used for real-time calculation of feedback torque. Then a sliding mode current observer is constructed in αβ coordinates to generate the fault residuals of the phase current sensors. The method can accurately identify abrupt gain faults and slow-variation offset faults in real time in faulty sensors, and the generated residuals of the designed fault detection system are not affected by the unknown input, the structure of the observer, and the theoretical derivation and the stability proof process are concise and simple. The RT-LAB real-time simulation is used to build a simulation model of the hardware in the loop. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25970258

  4. X33 Reusable Launch Vehicle Control on Sliding Modes: Concepts for a Control System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shtessel, Yuri B.

    1998-01-01

    Control of the X33 reusable launch vehicle is considered. The launch control problem consists of automatic tracking of the launch trajectory which is assumed to be optimally precalculated. It requires development of a reliable, robust control algorithm that can automatically adjust to some changes in mission specifications (mass of payload, target orbit) and the operating environment (atmospheric perturbations, interconnection perturbations from the other subsystems of the vehicle, thrust deficiencies, failure scenarios). One of the effective control strategies successfully applied in nonlinear systems is the Sliding Mode Control. The main advantage of the Sliding Mode Control is that the system's state response in the sliding surface remains insensitive to certain parameter variations, nonlinearities and disturbances. Employing the time scaling concept, a new two (three)-loop structure of the control system for the X33 launch vehicle was developed. Smoothed sliding mode controllers were designed to robustly enforce the given closed-loop dynamics. Simulations of the 3-DOF model of the X33 launch vehicle with the table-look-up models for Euler angle reference profiles and disturbance torque profiles showed a very accurate, robust tracking performance.

  5. Exact differentiator based sliding mode control for large optical astronomical telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wangping; Xu, Xinqi; Dong, Zhiming

    2007-12-01

    Large astronomical optical telescopes are badly needed in order to learn more remote universe. There exist some key problems of the control systems of large astronomical optical telescopes. Since they have voluminous bodies that would encounter heavy external disturbance, one of the key problems is focused on how to accurately control them. Additionally, in order to get nicer ultra-low velocity performance and a steady field of view, friction drive is widely applied in contemporary large optical telescopes. One serious disadvantage of friction drive is that it will cause some nonlinear uncertainties to influence telescope controls because of the mechanical characteristics between the principal and subordinate friction wheels. These two aspects of external and internal disturbances will make a telescope very difficult to be controlled. In this paper, we introduce a method of higher order sliding modes (HOSM) to control telescopes, which overcome these two disadvantages of traditional Proportional-Integral-Derivative approach and can achieve excellent control performance. Conventional sliding mode approach has been applied in many other mechanical control systems owing to its high accuracy in anti-jamming. By discontinuous switching, it is invariable to disturbances based on keeping some constraints with a sufficiently energetic effort. However, such conventional sliding mode approach may cause dangerous high-frequency vibrations in the corresponding control system, which may influence systemic control performance or even lead the system unstable. In this work, we use the newly developed HOSM approach in the control systems of the large astronomical optical telescopes. The HOSM approach inherits the dominant merits of conventional sliding mode. Moreover, it acts on the higher order time derivatives of the system deviation from the constraint. And the discontinuous dynamics are restricted to the highest state while the counterpart in standard sliding mode is in first

  6. Synchronization of a class of chaotic systems with fully unknown parameters using adaptive sliding mode approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roopaei, M.; Zolghadri Jahromi, M.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, an adaptive sliding mode control method for synchronization of a class of chaotic systems with fully unknown parameters is introduced. In this method, no knowledge of the bounds of parameters is required in advance and the parameters are updated through an adaptive control process. We use our proposed method to synchronize two chaotic gyros, which has been the subject of intense study during the recent years for its application in the navigational, aeronautical, and space engineering domains. The effectiveness of our method is demonstrated in simulation environment and the results are compared with some recent schemes proposed in the literature for the same task.

  7. Drag-based composite super-twisting sliding mode control law design for Mars entry guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhenhua; Yang, Jun; Li, Shihua; Guo, Lei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the drag-based trajectory tracking guidance problem is investigated for Mars entry vehicle subject to uncertainties. A composite super twisting sliding mode control method based on finite-time disturbance observer is proposed for guidance law design. The proposed controller not only eliminates the effects of matched and mismatched disturbances due to uncertainties of atmospheric models and vehicle aerodynamics but also guarantees the continuity of control action. Numerical simulations are carried out on the basis of Mars Science Laboratory mission, where the results show that the proposed methods can improve the Mars entry guidance precision as compared with some existing guidance methods including PID and ADRC.

  8. A modified integral sliding mode control to lateral stabilisation of 4-wheel independent drive electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, Hasan; Bagher Bannae Sharifian, Mohammad; Sabahi, Mehran

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a novel sliding mode controller (SMC) and its application in the lateral stability control of a 4-wheel independent drive electric vehicle. The structure of the SMC is modified and online-tuned to ensure vehicle system stability, and to track the desired vehicle motion references when an in-wheel motor fault happens. The proposed controller is faster, more accurate, more robust, and with smaller chattering than common SMCs chatter. The effectiveness of the introduced approach is investigated through conducted simulations in the CARSIM and MATLAB software environments.

  9. Sliding Mode Control Technique: Application to a Four Rotors Mini-Flying Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemalache, K. M.; Tahar, M.; Omari, A.; Maaref, H.

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents the study of stabilization with motion planning of the four rotors mini-flying robot (helicopter with four rotors). The dynamic model involves four control inputs which are computed to stabilize the engine with predefined trajectories path. The tracking feedback controller is based on receding horizon point to point steering. It is clear that our device belongs to families of under-actuated systems. Our aim is to obtain control algorithms using the cascade sliding mode approach in order to stabilize the engine and to generate its trajectory.

  10. Motorized CPM/CAM physiotherapy device with sliding-mode Fuzzy Neural Network control loop.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hung-Jung; Chen, Tien-Chi

    2009-11-01

    Continuous passive motion (CPM) and controllable active motion (CAM) physiotherapy devices promote rehabilitation of damaged joints. This paper presents a computerized CPM/CAM system that obviates the need for mechanical resistance devices such as springs. The system is controlled by a computer which performs sliding-mode Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN) calculations online. CAM-type resistance force is generated by the active performance of an electric motor which is controlled so as to oppose the motion of the patient's leg. A force sensor under the patient's foot on the device pedal provides data for feedback in a sliding-mode FNN control loop built around the motor. Via an active impedance control feedback system, the controller drives the motor to behave similarly to a damped spring by generating and controlling the amplitude and direction of the pedal force in relation to the patient's leg. Experiments demonstrate the high sensitivity and speed of the device. The PC-based feedback nature of the control loop means that sophisticated auto-adaptable CPM/CAM custom-designed physiotherapy becomes possible. The computer base also allows extensive data recording, data analysis and network-connected remote patient monitoring. PMID:19439391

  11. An investigation of the edge-sliding mode in fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. L.; Chisholm, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    A boundary collocation procedure has been applied to the Williams stress function to determine the elastic stress distribution for the crack tip region of a finite, edge-cracked plate subjected to mode II loading at the crack tips. The asymmetric specimen selected was particularly suitable for the determination of plane strain fracture toughness for mode II loading. Numerical solutions for stress intensity factors for the edge-sliding mode obtained by the boundary collocation method were in close agreement with values obtained from photoelastic experiments. Fracture tests of several compact shear specimens of 2024-T4 aluminum were conducted in order to experimentally investigate the behavior of the edge-sliding mode. In each case a brittle shear failure was observed and mode II fracture toughness values were obtained. The average value for K-IIc obtained from two tests was 39.5 ksi radical (in). No K-Ic data for 2024-T4 were available for comparison purposes; however, K-Ic values for a similar alloy, 2024-T351, have been reported as 34 ksi radical (in) which is only about 15 per cent below the corresponding K-IIc value.

  12. Sliding-Mode Control Applied for Robust Control of a Highly Unstable Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetter, Travis Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    An investigation into the application of an observer based sliding mode controller for robust control of a highly unstable aircraft and methods of compensating for actuator dynamics is performed. After a brief overview of some reconfigurable controllers, sliding mode control (SMC) is selected because of its invariance properties and lack of need for parameter identification. SMC is reviewed and issues with parasitic dynamics, which cause system instability, are addressed. Utilizing sliding manifold boundary layers, the nonlinear control is converted to a linear control and sliding manifold design is performed in the frequency domain. An additional feedback form of model reference hedging is employed which is similar to a prefilter and has large benefits to system performance. The effects of inclusion of actuator dynamics into the designed plant is heavily investigated. Multiple Simulink models of the full longitudinal dynamics and wing deflection modes of the forward swept aero elastic vehicle (FSAV) are constructed. Additionally a linear state space models to analyze effects from various system parameters. The FSAV has a pole at +7 rad/sec and is non-minimum phase. The use of 'model actuators' in the feedback path, and varying there design, is heavily investigated for the resulting effects on plant robustness and tolerance to actuator failure. The use of redundant actuators is also explored and improved robustness is shown. All models are simulated with severe failure and excellent tracking, and task dependent handling qualities, and low pilot induced oscillation tendency is shown.

  13. Robust fuzzy neural network sliding mode control scheme for IPMSM drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, V. Q.; Mwasilu, F.; Choi, H. H.; Lee, J.; Jung, J. W.

    2014-07-01

    This article proposes a robust fuzzy neural network sliding mode control (FNNSMC) law for interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) drives. The proposed control strategy not only guarantees accurate and fast command speed tracking but also it ensures the robustness to system uncertainties and sudden speed and load changes. The proposed speed controller encompasses three control terms: a decoupling control term which compensates for nonlinear coupling factors using nominal parameters, a fuzzy neural network (FNN) control term which approximates the ideal control components and a sliding mode control (SMC) term which is proposed to compensate for the errors of that approximation. Next, an online FNN training methodology, which is developed using the Lyapunov stability theorem and the gradient descent method, is proposed to enhance the learning capability of the FNN. Moreover, the maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) control is incorporated to maximise the torque generation in the constant torque region and increase the efficiency of the IPMSM drives. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed robust FNNSMC, simulations and experiments are performed by using MATLAB/Simulink platform and a TI TMS320F28335 DSP on a prototype IPMSM drive setup, respectively. Finally, the simulated and experimental results indicate that the proposed design scheme can achieve much better control performances (e.g. more rapid transient response and smaller steady-state error) when compared to the conventional SMC method, especially in the case that there exist system uncertainties.

  14. Design of adaptive fuzzy wavelet neural sliding mode controller for uncertain nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Shahriari kahkeshi, Maryam; Sheikholeslam, Farid; Zekri, Maryam

    2013-05-01

    This paper proposes novel adaptive fuzzy wavelet neural sliding mode controller (AFWN-SMC) for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. The main contribution of this paper is to design smooth sliding mode control (SMC) for a class of high-order nonlinear systems while the structure of the system is unknown and no prior knowledge about uncertainty is available. The proposed scheme composed of an Adaptive Fuzzy Wavelet Neural Controller (AFWNC) to construct equivalent control term and an Adaptive Proportional-Integral (A-PI) controller for implementing switching term to provide smooth control input. Asymptotical stability of the closed loop system is guaranteed, using the Lyapunov direct method. To show the efficiency of the proposed scheme, some numerical examples are provided. To validate the results obtained by proposed approach, some other methods are adopted from the literature and applied for comparison. Simulation results show superiority and capability of the proposed controller to improve the steady state performance and transient response specifications by using less numbers of fuzzy rules and on-line adaptive parameters in comparison to other methods. Furthermore, control effort has considerably decreased and chattering phenomenon has been completely removed. PMID:23453235

  15. Two modified discrete PID-based sliding mode controllers for piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Y.; Chen, X. B.

    2014-01-01

    Hysteresis is a nonlinear effect that can result in the degraded performance of piezoelectric actuators (PEAs). To counteract the effect, several control methods have been developed and reported in the literature. One promising method for compensation is the use of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID)-based sliding mode control (SMC), in which the PEA hysteresis is treated as an unknown disturbance to the PEA input. If the hysteresis can be modelled or partially modelled, the integration of the hysteresis models into the control schemes may lead to further improved performance. On this philosophy, this paper presents the development of two modified discrete PID-based sliding mode controllers (PID-SMCs) for the PEAs, namely an inversion-based PID-SMC and a disturbance-observer (DOB)-based PID-SMC, in which the PEA hysteresis is predicted or partially predicted through the use of existing models for the PEA hysteresis. Experiments were performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control schemes. The results were compared to those of the nominal PID-SMC. By employing the inversion hysteresis and the DOB, the PEA performance was greatly improved.

  16. Analytical impact time and angle guidance via time-varying sliding mode technique.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yao; Sheng, Yongzhi; Liu, Xiangdong

    2016-05-01

    To concretely provide a feasible solution for homing missiles with the precise impact time and angle, this paper develops a novel guidance law, based on the nonlinear engagement dynamics. The guidance law is firstly designed with the prior assumption of a stationary target, followed by the practical extension to a moving target scenario. The time-varying sliding mode (TVSM) technique is applied to fulfill the terminal constraints, in which a specific TVSM surface is constructed with two unknown coefficients. One is tuned to meet the impact time requirement and the other one is targeted with a global sliding mode, so that the impact angle constraint as well as the zero miss distance can be satisfied. Because the proposed law possesses three guidance gain as design parameters, the intercept trajectory can be shaped according to the operational conditions and missile׳s capability. To improve the tolerance of initial heading errors and broaden the application, a new frame of reference is also introduced. Furthermore, the analytical solutions of the flight trajectory, heading angle and acceleration command can be totally expressed for the prediction and offline parameter selection by solving a first-order linear differential equation. Numerical simulation results for various scenarios validate the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law and demonstrate the accuracy of the analytic solutions. PMID:26952314

  17. An adaptive sliding mode backstepping control for the mobile manipulator with nonholonomic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Naijian; Song, Fangzhen; Li, Guoping; Sun, Xuan; Ai, Changsheng

    2013-10-01

    To solve disturbances, nonlinearity, nonholonomic constraints and dynamic coupling between the platform and its mounted robot manipulator, an adaptive sliding mode controller based on the backstepping method applied to the robust trajectory tracking of the wheeled mobile manipulator is described in this article. The control algorithm rests on adopting the backstepping method to improve the global ultimate asymptotic stability and applying the sliding mode control to obtain high response and invariability to uncertainties. According to the Lyapunov stability criterion, the wheeled mobile manipulator is divided into several stabilizing subsystems, and an adaptive law is designed to estimate the general nondeterminacy, which make the controller be capable to drive the trajectory tracking error of the mobile manipulator to converge to zero even in the presence of perturbations and mathematical model errors. We compare our controller with the robust neural network based algorithm in nonholonomic constraints and uncertainties, and simulation results prove the effectivity and feasibility of the proposed method in the trajectory tracking of the wheeled mobile manipulator.

  18. Nonsingular decoupled terminal sliding-mode control for a class of fourth-order nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayramoglu, Husnu; Komurcugil, Hasan

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a nonsingular decoupled terminal sliding mode control (NDTSMC) method for a class of fourth-order nonlinear systems. First, the nonlinear fourth-order system is decoupled into two second-order subsystems which are referred to as the primary and secondary subsystems. The sliding surface of each subsystem was designed by utilizing time-varying coefficients which are computed by linear functions derived from the input-output mapping of the one-dimensional fuzzy rule base. Then, the control target of the secondary subsystem was embedded to the primary subsystem by the help of an intermediate signal. Thereafter, a nonsingular terminal sliding mode control (NTSMC) method was utilized to make both subsystems converge to their equilibrium points in finite time. The simulation results on the inverted pendulum system are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. It is seen that the proposed method exhibits a considerable improvement in terms of a faster dynamic response and lower IAE and ITAE values as compared with the existing decoupled control methods.

  19. Fault-tolerant nonlinear adaptive flight control using sliding mode online learning.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Thomas; Schnetter, Philipp; Placzek, Robin; Vörsmann, Peter

    2012-08-01

    An expanded nonlinear model inversion flight control strategy using sliding mode online learning for neural networks is presented. The proposed control strategy is implemented for a small unmanned aircraft system (UAS). This class of aircraft is very susceptible towards nonlinearities like atmospheric turbulence, model uncertainties and of course system failures. Therefore, these systems mark a sensible testbed to evaluate fault-tolerant, adaptive flight control strategies. Within this work the concept of feedback linearization is combined with feed forward neural networks to compensate for inversion errors and other nonlinear effects. Backpropagation-based adaption laws of the network weights are used for online training. Within these adaption laws the standard gradient descent backpropagation algorithm is augmented with the concept of sliding mode control (SMC). Implemented as a learning algorithm, this nonlinear control strategy treats the neural network as a controlled system and allows a stable, dynamic calculation of the learning rates. While considering the system's stability, this robust online learning method therefore offers a higher speed of convergence, especially in the presence of external disturbances. The SMC-based flight controller is tested and compared with the standard gradient descent backpropagation algorithm in the presence of system failures. PMID:22386784

  20. Output Feedback Fractional-Order Nonsingular Terminal Sliding Mode Control of Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiawang; Gu, Linyi

    2014-01-01

    For the 4-DOF (degrees of freedom) trajectory tracking control problem of underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in the presence of model uncertainties and external disturbances, a novel output feedback fractional-order nonsingular terminal sliding mode control (FO-NTSMC) technique is introduced in light of the equivalent output injection sliding mode observer (SMO) and TSMC principle and fractional calculus technology. The equivalent output injection SMO is applied to reconstruct the full states in finite time. Meanwhile, the FO-NTSMC algorithm, based on a new proposed fractional-order switching manifold, is designed to stabilize the tracking error to equilibrium points in finite time. The corresponding stability analysis of the closed-loop system is presented using the fractional-order version of the Lyapunov stability theory. Comparative numerical simulation results are presented and analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, it is noteworthy that the proposed output feedback FO-NTSMC technique can be used to control a broad range of nonlinear second-order dynamical systems in finite time. PMID:24983004

  1. Sliding mode based fault detection, reconstruction and fault tolerant control scheme for motor systems.

    PubMed

    Mekki, Hemza; Benzineb, Omar; Boukhetala, Djamel; Tadjine, Mohamed; Benbouzid, Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    The fault-tolerant control problem belongs to the domain of complex control systems in which inter-control-disciplinary information and expertise are required. This paper proposes an improved faults detection, reconstruction and fault-tolerant control (FTC) scheme for motor systems (MS) with typical faults. For this purpose, a sliding mode controller (SMC) with an integral sliding surface is adopted. This controller can make the output of system to track the desired position reference signal in finite-time and obtain a better dynamic response and anti-disturbance performance. But this controller cannot deal directly with total system failures. However an appropriate combination of the adopted SMC and sliding mode observer (SMO), later it is designed to on-line detect and reconstruct the faults and also to give a sensorless control strategy which can achieve tolerance to a wide class of total additive failures. The closed-loop stability is proved, using the Lyapunov stability theory. Simulation results in healthy and faulty conditions confirm the reliability of the suggested framework. PMID:25747198

  2. Adaptive sliding mode dynamic controller with integrator in the loop for nonholonomic wheeled mobile robot trajectory tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asif, Muhammad; Junaid Khan, Muhammad; Cai, Ning

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, novel adaptive sliding mode dynamic controller with integrator in the loop is proposed for nonholonomic wheeled mobile robot (WMR). The modified kinematics controller is used to generate kinematics velocities of WMR which are subsequently used as the input to adaptive dynamic controller. Actuator dynamics are also derived to generate actuator voltage of WMR through torque and velocity vectors. Stability of both kinematics and dynamic controller is presented using Lyapunov stability analysis. The proposed scheme is verified and validated using computer simulations for tracking the desired trajectory of WMR. The performance of proposed scheme is compared with standard backstepping kinematics controller and classical sliding mode control. In addition, the performance is further compared with standard backstepping kinematics controller with adaptive sliding mode controller without integrator. It is shown that the proposed scheme exhibits zero steady state error, fast error convergence and robustness in the presence of continuous disturbances and uncertainties.

  3. Robotic Implementation of Realistic Reaching Motion Using a Sliding Mode/Operational Space Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiers, Adam; Herrmann, Guido; Melhuish, Chris; Pipe, Tony; Lenz, Alexander

    It has been shown that a task-level controller with minimal-effort posture control produces human-like motion in simulation. This control approach is based on the dynamic model of a human skeletal system superimposed with realistic muscle like actuators whose effort is minimised. In practical application, there is often a degree of error between the dynamic model of a system used for controller derivation and the actual dynamics of the system. We present a practical application of the task-level control framework with simplified posture control in order to produce life-like and compliant reaching motions for a redundant task. The addition of a sliding mode controller improves performance of the physical robot by compensating for unknown parametric and dynamic disturbances without compromising the human-like posture.

  4. Sliding mode control of a spherical haptic device featuring electrorheological fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Young-Min; Nguyen, Hung Quoc; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents force-feedback control performance of a new type of haptic device featuring spherical geometry and smart materials that can be used for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). A spherical electrorheological (ER) joint is designed and optimized based on the mathematical torque modeling. Force response of the manufactured ER joint is then experimentally evaluated. Subsequently, the 2-DOF force-feedback device is manufactured by integrating the spherical ER joint with AC motor. In order to achieve desired force trajectories of the haptic device, a sliding mode controller (SMC), which is robust to uncertainty, is formulated and experimentally realized. Tracking control performances for various force trajectories are presented in time domain, and their tracking errors are evaluated.

  5. MIMO Sliding Mode Control for a Tailless Fighter Aircraft, An Alternative to Reconfigurable Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, S. R.; Hess, R. A.

    2002-01-01

    A frequency-domain procedure for the design of sliding mode controllers for multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) systems is presented. The methodology accommodates the effects of parasitic dynamics such as those introduced by unmodeled actuators through the introduction of multiple asymptotic observers and model reference hedging. The design procedure includes a frequency domain approach to specify the sliding manifold, the observer eigenvalues, and the hedge model. The procedure is applied to the development of a flight control system for a linear model of the Innovative Control Effector (ICE) fighter aircraft. The stability and performance robustness of the resulting design is demonstrated through the introduction of significant degradation in the control effector actuators and variation in vehicle dynamics.

  6. Nonlinear adaptive observer-based sliding mode control for LAMOST mount driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wang-Ping; Zheng, Yi; Guo, Wei; Yu, Li; Yang, Chang-Song

    2010-01-01

    Heavy disturbances caused mainly by wind and friction in the mount drive system greatly impair the pointing accuracy of the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST). To overcome this negative effect, a third order Higher Order Sliding Mode (HOSM) controller is proposed. The key part of this approach is to design an appropriate observer which obtains the acceleration state. A nonlinear adaptive observer is proposed in which a novel polynomial model is applied to estimate the internal disturbances of the mount drive system. Theoretical analysis demonstrates the stability of the proposed observer. Simulation results show that this nonlinear adaptive observer can obtain a high precision acceleration signal which completes the HOSM controller. Furthermore, the HOSM approach can easily satisfy the position tracking requirements of the LAMOST mount drive system.

  7. Variable speed wind turbine control by discrete-time sliding mode approach.

    PubMed

    Torchani, Borhen; Sellami, Anis; Garcia, Germain

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a new design variable speed wind turbine control by discrete-time sliding mode approach. This methodology is designed for linear saturated system. The saturation constraint is reported on inputs vector. To this end, the back stepping design procedure is followed to construct a suitable sliding manifold that guarantees the attainment of a stabilization control objective. It is well known that the mechanisms are investigated in term of the most proposed assumptions to deal with the damping, shaft stiffness and inertia effect of the gear. The objectives are to synthesize robust controllers that maximize the energy extracted from wind, while reducing mechanical loads and rotor speed tracking combined with an electromagnetic torque. Simulation results of the proposed scheme are presented. PMID:26804750

  8. Continuous high order sliding mode controller design for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Zong, Qun; Su, Rui; Tian, Bailing

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the problem of tracking control with uncertainties for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV). In order to overcome the analytical intractability of this model, an Input-Output linearization model is constructed for the purpose of feedback control design. Then, the continuous finite time convergence high order sliding mode controller is designed for the Input-Output linearization model without uncertainties. In addition, a nonlinear disturbance observer is applied to estimate the uncertainties in order to compensate the controller and disturbance suppression, where disturbance observer and controller synthesis design is obtained. Finally, the synthesis of controller and disturbance observer is used to achieve the tracking for the velocity and altitude of the FAHV and simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategies. PMID:24534328

  9. Fault tolerant control based on interval type-2 fuzzy sliding mode controller for coaxial trirotor aircraft.

    PubMed

    Zeghlache, Samir; Kara, Kamel; Saigaa, Djamel

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a robust controller for a Six Degrees of Freedom (6 DOF) coaxial trirotor helicopter control is proposed in presence of defects in the system. A control strategy based on the coupling of the interval type-2 fuzzy logic control and sliding mode control technique are used to design a controller. The main purpose of this work is to eliminate the chattering phenomenon and guaranteeing the stability and the robustness of the system. In order to achieve this goal, interval type-2 fuzzy logic control has been used to generate the discontinuous control signal. The simulation results have shown that the proposed control strategy can greatly alleviate the chattering effect, and perform good reference tracking in presence of defects in the system. PMID:26428878

  10. Impedance Control of the Rehabilitation Robot Based on Sliding Mode Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiawang; Zhou, Zude; Ai, Qingsong

    As an auxiliary treatment, the 6-DOF parallel robot plays an important role in lower limb rehabilitation. In order to improve the efficiency and flexibility of the lower limb rehabilitation training, this paper studies the impedance controller based on the position control. A nonsingular terminal sliding mode control is developed to ensure the trajectory tracking precision and in contrast to traditional PID control strategy in the inner position loop, the system will be more stable. The stability of the system is proved by Lyapunov function to guarantee the convergence of the control errors. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the target impedance model and show that the parallel robot can adjust gait trajectory online according to the human-machine interaction force to meet the gait request of patients, and changing the impedance parameters can meet the demands of different stages of rehabilitation training.

  11. A reduced-order nonlinear sliding mode observer for vehicle slip angle and tyre forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuhang; Ji, Yunfeng; Guo, Konghui

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a reduced-order sliding mode observer (RO-SMO) is developed for vehicle state estimation. Several improvements are achieved in this paper. First, the reference model accuracy is improved by considering vehicle load transfers and using a precise nonlinear tyre model 'UniTire'. Second, without the reference model accuracy degraded, the computing burden of the state observer is decreased by a reduced-order approach. Third, nonlinear system damping is integrated into the SMO to speed convergence and reduce chattering. The proposed RO-SMO is evaluated through simulation and experiments based on an in-wheel motor electric vehicle. The results show that the proposed observer accurately predicts the vehicle states.

  12. Sliding mode-based lateral vehicle dynamics control using tyre force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunnappillil Madhusudhanan, Anil; Corno, Matteo; Holweg, Edward

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a lateral vehicle dynamics control based on tyre force measurements is proposed. Most of the lateral vehicle dynamics control schemes are based on yaw rate whereas tyre forces are the most important variables in vehicle dynamics as tyres are the only contact points between the vehicle and road. In the proposed method, active front steering is employed to uniformly distribute the required lateral force among the front left and right tyres. The force distribution is quantified through the tyre utilisation coefficients. In order to address the nonlinearities and uncertainties of the vehicle model, a gain scheduling sliding-mode control technique is used. In addition to stabilising the lateral dynamics, the proposed controller is able to maintain maximum lateral acceleration. The proposed method is tested and validated on a multi-body vehicle simulator.

  13. Analysis and design of sliding mode controller gains for boost power factor corrector.

    PubMed

    Kessal, Abdelhalim; Rahmani, Lazhar

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a systematic procedure to compute the gains of sliding mode controller based on an optimization scheme. This controller is oriented to drive an AC-DC converter operating in continuous mode with power factor near unity, and in order to improve static and dynamic performances with large variations of reference voltage and load. This study shows the great influence of the controller gains on the global performances of the system. Hence, a methodology for choosing the gains is detailed. The sliding surface used in this study contains two state variables, input current and output voltage; the advantage of this surface is getting reactions against various disturbances-at the power source, the reference of the output, or the value of the load. The controller is experimentally confirmed for steady-state performance and transient response. PMID:23735439

  14. Flexible Modes Control Using Sliding Mode Observers: Application to Ares I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shtessel, Yuri B.; Hall, Charles E.; Baev, Simon; Orr, Jeb S.

    2010-01-01

    The launch vehicle dynamics affected by bending and sloshing modes are considered. Attitude measurement data that are corrupted by flexible modes could yield instability of the vehicle dynamics. Flexible body and sloshing modes are reconstructed by sliding mode observers. The resultant estimates are used to remove the undesirable dynamics from the measurements, and the direct effects of sloshing and bending modes on the launch vehicle are compensated by means of a controller that is designed without taking the bending and sloshing modes into account. A linearized mathematical model of Ares I launch vehicle was derived based on FRACTAL, a linear model developed by NASA/MSFC. The compensated vehicle dynamics with a simple PID controller were studied for the launch vehicle model that included two bending modes, two slosh modes and actuator dynamics. A simulation study demonstrated stable and accurate performance of the flight control system with the augmented simple PID controller without the use of traditional linear bending filters.

  15. Decentralized adaptive sliding mode control for beam synchronization of tethered InSAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinxiu; Zhang, Zhigang; Wu, Baolin

    2016-10-01

    Beam synchronization problem of tethered interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is addressed in this paper. Two antennas of the system are carried by separate satellites connected through a tether to obtain a preferable baseline. A Total Zero Doppler Steering (TZDS) is implemented to mother-satellite to cancel the residual Doppler. Subsequently attitude reference trajectories for the two satellites are generated to achieve the beam synchronization and TZDS. Thereafter, a decentralized adaptive sliding mode control law is proposed to track these reference trajectories in the presence of model uncertainties and external disturbances. Finally, the stability of closed-loop system is proved by the corollary of Barbalat's Lemma. Simulation results show the proposed control law is effective to achieve beam synchronization of the system.

  16. A fractographic study of the edge-sliding mode in fracture toughness testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. L.; Chisholm, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    A fractographic study of Mode II fracture surfaces has been conducted for the purpose of identifying the microstructural mechanisms responsible for fracture in the edge-sliding mode. A compact shear (CS) specimen was employed to generate the fracture surfaces and also to establish Mode II fracture toughness values for Ti-6Al-4V, A533-B steel, and several aluminum alloys. In all tests, one of the two edge cracks sustained complete Mode II fracture while the other exhibited only a limited amount of subcritical crack growth. Mode II fracture surfaces, which were unique in appearance, have been examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. It was determined that shear (or parabolic) microvoid coalescence was the dominant mechanism for Mode II fracture. It was also established that most of the surface abrasions were created by the relative sliding of the fracture surfaces during unstable fracture rather than the crack initiation process.

  17. The sliding mode control for different shapes and dimensions of IPMC on resisting its creep characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Lina; Chen, Yang; Sun, Zhiyong

    2015-04-01

    Ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) is a novel smart material which has been widely implemented in MEMS, biomimetic mechanical and electrical integrated system and micro operation system. While the IPMC with different shapes and dimensions has been implemented in many different types of biomechanical integrated systems, one of its inherent properties called creep characteristic is difficult to be handled, which limits the further application of different IPMCs in integrated systems. A promising control method called sliding mode control (SMC) is proposed to resist the creep characteristics in this paper. The SMC controller can regulate IPMC actuators with different shapes and dimensions effectively to resist the creep characteristics without changing parameters of the control system. Experiments of four different types of IPMC actuators were conducted on the semi-physical SMC experimental platform. All the experimental results confirm the feasibility of the SMC control approach on regulating the multi-IPMCs with different shapes and dimensions based integrated system.

  18. Decentralized sliding-mode control for spacecraft attitude synchronization under actuator failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Baolin; Wang, Danwei; Poh, Eng Kee

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines attitude synchronization and tracking problems with model uncertainties, external disturbances, actuator failures and control torque saturation. Two decentralized sliding mode control laws are proposed and analyzed based on algebraic graph theory. Using Barbalat's Lemma, it is shown that the control laws guarantee each spacecraft approaches the desired time-varying attitude and angular velocity while maintaining attitude synchronization among the other spacecraft in the formation. The first controller is designed in the presence of model uncertainties, external disturbances, and actuator failures. The results are extended to the case with control input saturation in the second controller. Both control laws do not require online identification of failures. Numerical simulations are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed attitude synchronization and tracking approaches.

  19. Robust neuro-sliding mode multivariable control strategy for powered wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan Nghia; Su, Steven W; Nguyen, Hung T

    2011-02-01

    This paper proposes an advanced robust multivariable control strategy for a powered wheelchair system. The new control strategy is based on a combination of the systematic triangularization technique and the robust neuro-sliding mode control approach. This strategy effectively copes with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances in real-time in order to achieve robustness and optimal performance of a multivariable system. This novel strategy reduces coupling effects on a multivariable system, eliminates chattering phenomena, and avoids the plant Jacobian calculation problem. Furthermore, the strategy can also achieve fast and global convergence using less computation. The effectiveness of the new multivariable control strategy is verified in real-time implementation on a powered wheelchair system. The obtained results confirm that robustness and desired performance of the overall system are guaranteed, even under parameter uncertainty and external disturbance effects. PMID:20805057

  20. Experimental Study of Flexible Plate Vibration Control by Using Two-Loop Sliding Mode Control Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jingyu; Lin, Jiahui; Liu, Yuejun; Yang, Kang; Zhou, Lanwei; Chen, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that intelligent control theory has been used in many research fields, novel modeling method (DROMM) is used for flexible rectangular active vibration control, and then the validity of new model is confirmed by comparing finite element model with new model. In this paper, taking advantage of the dynamics of flexible rectangular plate, a two-loop sliding mode (TSM) MIMO approach is introduced for designing multiple-input multiple-output continuous vibration control system, which can overcome uncertainties, disturbances or unstable dynamics. An illustrative example is given in order to show the feasibility of the method. Numerical simulations and experiment confirm the effectiveness of the proposed TSM MIMO controller.

  1. Semi-active sliding mode control of vehicle suspension with magneto-rheological damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hailong; Wang, Enrong; Zhang, Ning; Min, Fuhong; Subash, Rakheja; Su, Chunyi

    2015-01-01

    The vehicle semi-active suspension with magneto-rheological damper(MRD) has been a hot topic since this decade, in which the robust control synthesis considering load variation is a challenging task. In this paper, a new semi-active controller based upon the inverse model and sliding mode control (SMC) strategies is proposed for the quarter-vehicle suspension with the magneto-rheological (MR) damper, wherein an ideal skyhook suspension is employed as the control reference model and the vehicle sprung mass is considered as an uncertain parameter. According to the asymptotical stability of SMC, the dynamic errors between the plant and reference systems are used to derive the control damping force acquired by the MR quarter-vehicle suspension system. The proposed modified Bouc-wen hysteretic force-velocity ( F- v) model and its inverse model of MR damper, as well as the proposed continuous modulation (CM) filtering algorithm without phase shift are employed to convert the control damping force into the direct drive current of the MR damper. Moreover, the proposed semi-active sliding mode controller (SSMC)-based MR quarter-vehicle suspension is systematically evaluated through comparing the time and frequency domain responses of the sprung and unsprung mass displacement accelerations, suspension travel and the tire dynamic force with those of the passive quarter-vehicle suspension, under three kinds of varied amplitude harmonic, rounded pulse and real-road measured random excitations. The evaluation results illustrate that the proposed SSMC can greatly suppress the vehicle suspension vibration due to uncertainty of the load, and thus improve the ride comfort and handling safety. The study establishes a solid theoretical foundation as the universal control scheme for the adaptive semi-active control of the MR full-vehicle suspension decoupled into four MR quarter-vehicle sub-suspension systems.

  2. Least square based sliding mode control for a quad-rotor helicopter and energy saving by chattering reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumantri, Bambang; Uchiyama, Naoki; Sano, Shigenori

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new control structure for a quad-rotor helicopter that employs the least squares method is introduced. This proposed algorithm solves the overdetermined problem of the control input for the translational motion of a quad-rotor helicopter. The algorithm allows all six degrees of freedom to be considered to calculate the control input. The sliding mode controller is applied to achieve robust tracking and stabilization. A saturation function is designed around a boundary layer to reduce the chattering phenomenon that is a common problem in sliding mode control. In order to improve the tracking performance, an integral sliding surface is designed. An energy saving effect because of chattering reduction is also evaluated. First, the dynamics of the quad-rotor helicopter is derived by the Newton-Euler formulation for a rigid body. Second, a constant plus proportional reaching law is introduced to increase the reaching rate of the sliding mode controller. Global stability of the proposed control strategy is guaranteed based on the Lyapunov's stability theory. Finally, the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed control system are demonstrated experimentally under wind gusts, and are compared with a regular sliding mode controller, a proportional-differential controller, and a proportional-integral-differential controller.

  3. Controlling chaos based on a novel intelligent integral terminal sliding mode control in a rod-type plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safa, Khari; Zahra, Rahmani; Behrooz, Rezaie

    2016-05-01

    An integral terminal sliding mode controller is proposed in order to control chaos in a rod-type plasma torch system. In this method, a new sliding surface is defined based on a combination of the conventional sliding surface in terminal sliding mode control and a nonlinear function of the integral of the system states. It is assumed that the dynamics of a chaotic system are unknown and also the system is exposed to disturbance and unstructured uncertainty. To achieve a chattering-free and high-speed response for such an unknown system, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is utilized in the next step to approximate the unknown part of the nonlinear dynamics. Then, the proposed integral terminal sliding mode controller stabilizes the approximated system based on Lyapunov’s stability theory. In addition, a Bee algorithm is used to select the coefficients of integral terminal sliding mode controller to improve the performance of the proposed method. Simulation results demonstrate the improvement in the response speed, chattering rejection, transient response, and robustness against uncertainties.

  4. Reusable Launch Vehicle Attitude Control Using a Time-Varying Sliding Mode Control Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shtessel, Yuri B.; Zhu, J. Jim; Daniels, Dan; Jackson, Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a time-varying sliding mode control (TVSMC) technique for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) attitude control in ascent and entry flight phases. In ascent flight the guidance commands Euler roll, pitch and yaw angles, and in entry flight it commands the aerodynamic angles of bank, attack and sideslip. The controller employs a body rate inner loop and the attitude outer loop, which are separated in time-scale by the singular perturbation principle. The novelty of the TVSMC is that both the sliding surface and the boundary layer dynamics can be varied in real time using the PD-eigenvalue assignment technique. This salient feature is used to cope with control command saturation and integrator windup in the presence of severe disturbance or control effector failure, which enhances the robustness and fault tolerance of the controller. The TV-SMC ascent and descent designs are currently being tested with high fidelity, 6-DOF dispersion simulations. The test results will be presented in the final version of this paper.

  5. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy sliding mode control of multi-joint movement using intraspinal microstimulation.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Ali-Reza; Erfanian, Abbas

    2012-07-01

    During the last decade, intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) has been proposed as a potential technique for restoring motor function in paralyzed limbs. A major challenge to restoration of a desired functional limb movement through the use of ISMS is the development of a robust control strategy for determining the stimulation patterns. Accurate and stable control of limbs by functional intraspinal microstimulation is a very difficult task because neuromusculoskeletal systems have significant nonlinearity, time variability, large latency and time constant, and muscle fatigue. Furthermore, the controller must be able to compensate the effect of the dynamic interaction between motor neuron pools and electrode sites during ISMS. In this paper, we present a robust strategy for multi-joint control through ISMS in which the system parameters are adapted online and the controller requires no offline training phase. The method is based on the combination of sliding mode control with fuzzy logic and neural control. Extensive experiments on six rats are provided to demonstrate the robustness, stability, and tracking accuracy of the proposed method. Despite the complexity of the spinal neuronal networks, our results show that the proposed strategy could provide accurate tracking control with fast convergence and could generate control signals to compensate for the effects of muscle fatigue. PMID:22711783

  6. Sliding mode based trajectory linearization control for hypersonic reentry vehicle via extended disturbance observer.

    PubMed

    Xingling, Shao; Honglun, Wang

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel hybrid control framework by combing observer-based sliding mode control (SMC) with trajectory linearization control (TLC) for hypersonic reentry vehicle (HRV) attitude tracking problem. First, fewer control consumption is achieved using nonlinear tracking differentiator (TD) in the attitude loop. Second, a novel SMC that employs extended disturbance observer (EDO) to counteract the effect of uncertainties using a new sliding surface which includes the estimation error is integrated to address the tracking error stabilization issues in the attitude and angular rate loop, respectively. In addition, new results associated with EDO are examined in terms of dynamic response and noise-tolerant performance, as well as estimation accuracy. The key feature of the proposed compound control approach is that chattering free tracking performance with high accuracy can be ensured for HRV in the presence of multiple uncertainties under control constraints. Based on finite time convergence stability theory, the stability of the resulting closed-loop system is well established. Also, comparisons and extensive simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control strategy. PMID:25451817

  7. State observer-based sliding mode control for semi-active hydro-pneumatic suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hongbin; Chen, Sizhong; Zhao, Yuzhuang; Liu, Gang; Yang, Lin

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes an improved virtual reference model for semi-active suspension to coordinate the vehicle ride comfort and handling stability. The reference model combines the virtues of sky-hook with ground-hook control logic, and the hybrid coefficient is tuned according to the longitudinal and lateral acceleration so as to improve the vehicle stability especially in high-speed condition. Suspension state observer based on unscented Kalman filter is designed. A sliding mode controller (SMC) is developed to track the states of the reference model. The stability of the SMC strategy is proven by means of Lyapunov function taking into account the nonlinear damper characteristics and sprung mass variation of the vehicle. Finally, the performance of the controller is demonstrated under three typical working conditions: the random road excitation, speed bump road and sharp acceleration and braking. The simulation results indicated that, compared with the traditional passive suspension, the proposed control algorithm can offer a better coordination between vehicle ride comfort and handling stability. This approach provides a viable alternative to costlier active suspension control systems for commercial vehicles.

  8. A sliding-mode-based observer to identify faults in FBG sensors embedded in composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzulani, Gabriele; Cinquemani, Simone; Ronchi, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Optical strain gauges, such as Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG), have a great potential for smart structures, thanks to their small transversal size and the possibility to make an array of many sensors. They can be embedded in composite structures and their effect on the structure is nearly negligible. These advantages make them very interesting in the field of active vibration suppression. Unfortunately their low reliability is an obstacle to their use in such applications. For this reason, this paper introduces a fault identification algorithm to identify online those sensors which are not working correctly. The algorithm is based on the use of a sliding mode observer to estimate the coherence of measurements, and then to highlight possible faults. Once identified, the corresponding sensors can be excluded from the feedback loop of the control algorithm to avoid unwanted behaviors or instabilities. Numerical and experimental tests have been carried out on a carbon fiber structure considering different fault conditions. Results show it is possible to identify the faulty sensors and thus improve the signals used in the feedback loop.

  9. Sliding Mode Control of ER Seat Suspension Considering Human Vibration Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y. M.; Jung, J. Y.; Choi, S. B.; Wereley, N. M.

    This paper presents robust control performances of a semi-active electro-rheological (ER) seat suspension incorporating vibration model of human-body. A cylindrical type of ER seat damper is manufactured for a commercial vehicle seat suspension system and its field-dependent damping force is experimentally evaluated. A human-body model is then derived and integrated with the governing equations of the ER seat suspension system. The integrated seat-driver model featured by a high order degree-of-freedom (DOF) is reduced through a balanced model reduction to design robust controller. By imposing semi-active actuating conditions, a sliding mode controller which is very robust to external disturbances and parameter uncertainties is synthesized and experimentally realized with the state observer. In the experimental configuration, a driver directly sits on the controlled seat. Control results for ride quality considering response of each human body segment are evaluated in both time and frequency domains. In addition, a comparison of the proposed semi-active ER seat suspension to a conventional passive seat suspension system is undertaken.

  10. Development of a sliding mode control model for quiet upright stance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongbo; Nussbaum, Maury A; Agnew, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Human upright stance appears maintained or controlled intermittently, through some combination of passive and active ankle torques, respectively representing intrinsic and contractile contributions of the ankle musculature. Several intermittent postural control models have been proposed, though it has been challenging to accurately represent actual kinematics and kinetics and to separately estimate passive and active ankle torque components. Here, a simplified single-segment, 2D (sagittal plane) sliding mode control model was developed for application to track kinematics and kinetics during upright stance. The model was implemented and evaluated using previous experimental data consisting of whole body angular kinematics and ankle torques. Tracking errors for the whole-body center-of-mass (COM) angle and angular velocity, as well as ankle torque, were all within ∼10% of experimental values, though tracking performance for COM angular acceleration was substantially poorer. The model also enabled separate estimates of the contributions of passive and active ankle torques, with overall contributions estimated here to be 96% and 4% of the total ankle torque, respectively. Such a model may have future utility in understanding human postural control, though additional work is needed, such as expanding the model to multiple segments and to three dimensions. PMID:26810735

  11. Adaptive sliding mode control on inner axis for high precision flight motion simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yongling; Niu, Jianjun; Wang, Yan

    2008-10-01

    Discrete adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) with exponential reaching law is proposed to alleviate the influence of the factors such as the periodical fluctuation torque of motor, nonlinear friction, and other disturbance which will deteriorate the tracking performance of a DC torque motor driven inner axis for a high precision flight motion simulator, considering the limited compensating ability of the ASMC for these uncertainty, an equivalent friction advance compensator based on Stribeck model is also presented for extra-low speed servo of the system. Firstly, the way direct using the available parts of the inner axis itself to ascertain the parameters for Stribeck model is listed. Secondly, adaptive approach is used to overcome the difficulty of choice the key parameter for exponential reaching law, and the stability of the algorithm is analyzed. Lastly, comparable experiments are carried out to verify the valid of the combined approach. The experiments results show with a stable 0.00006°/s speed response, 95% of time the tracking error is within 0.0002°, other servos such as sine wave tracking are also with high precision.

  12. Mean deviation coupling synchronous control for multiple motors via second-order adaptive sliding mode control.

    PubMed

    Li, Lebao; Sun, Lingling; Zhang, Shengzhou

    2016-05-01

    A new mean deviation coupling synchronization control strategy is developed for multiple motor control systems, which can guarantee the synchronization performance of multiple motor control systems and reduce complexity of the control structure with the increasing number of motors. The mean deviation coupling synchronization control architecture combining second-order adaptive sliding mode control (SOASMC) approach is proposed, which can improve synchronization control precision of multiple motor control systems and make speed tracking errors, mean speed errors of each motor and speed synchronization errors converge to zero rapidly. The proposed control scheme is robustness to parameter variations and random external disturbances and can alleviate the chattering phenomena. Moreover, an adaptive law is employed to estimate the unknown bound of uncertainty, which is obtained in the sense of Lyapunov stability theorem to minimize the control effort. Performance comparisons with master-slave control, relative coupling control, ring coupling control, conventional PI control and SMC are investigated on a four-motor synchronization control system. Extensive comparative results are given to shown the good performance of the proposed control scheme. PMID:26899554

  13. Active following fuzzy output feedback sliding mode control of real-vehicle semi-active suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Nonami, K.; Hagiwara, T.

    2008-07-01

    Many semi-active suspension systems have been investigated in various literatures in order to achieve lower energy consumption and as good performance as full-active suspension systems. Full-active suspension systems can achieve a good ride quality by actuators; however, their implementation equipments are expensive. The full-active suspensions are perfect from the point of view of control; hence, semi-active control laws with performance similar to full-active controls have attracted the engineering community for their ease and lower cost of implementation. This paper presents a new active following fuzzy output feedback sliding mode control for a real-vehicle semi-active suspension system. The performance of the proposed controller has been verified by comparing it with passive control and also with the full-active target semi-active approximation control method. In the experiment, it was shown that the proposed method has the effectiveness in stabilizing heave, roll and pitch movement of the car body.

  14. Sliding mode control of continuous time systems with reaching law based on exponential function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamorski, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    In this paper a pseudo-sliding mode control is proposed by introducing a continuous and smooth input signal in order to guarantee both chattering elimination and boundedness of sliding variable derivative in the presence of non-zero external disturbance. For this purpose, having fixed a suitable sliding manifold, a homogeneous differential equation describing the sliding variable evolution is considered. It is discussed later in this paper that the input signal formed on the basis of this equation provides asymptotic convergence of the sliding variable and its derivative to zero as well as the asymptotic stability of the non-linear system in the absence of external disturbance. The dynamics of the system affected by non-zero external disturbance make the state vector converge to domains in a vicinity of the origin at the exponential rate, as the norm of arbitrary trajectory is limited to decreasing exponential function. In order to expand the variety of controllers based on a reaching law and providing the above-mentioned properties, a certain class of functions is presented.

  15. Robust Sliding Mode Control Based on GA Optimization and CMAC Compensation for Lower Limb Exoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yi; Du, Zhi-jiang; Wang, Wei-dong; Dong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A lower limb assistive exoskeleton is designed to help operators walk or carry payloads. The exoskeleton is required to shadow human motion intent accurately and compliantly to prevent incoordination. If the user's intention is estimated accurately, a precise position control strategy will improve collaboration between the user and the exoskeleton. In this paper, a hybrid position control scheme, combining sliding mode control (SMC) with a cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) neural network, is proposed to control the exoskeleton to react appropriately to human motion intent. A genetic algorithm (GA) is utilized to determine the optimal sliding surface and the sliding control law to improve performance of SMC. The proposed control strategy (SMC_GA_CMAC) is compared with three other types of approaches, that is, conventional SMC without optimization, optimal SMC with GA (SMC_GA), and SMC with CMAC compensation (SMC_CMAC), all of which are employed to track the desired joint angular position which is deduced from Clinical Gait Analysis (CGA) data. Position tracking performance is investigated with cosimulation using ADAMS and MATLAB/SIMULINK in two cases, of which the first case is without disturbances while the second case is with a bounded disturbance. The cosimulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy which can be employed in similar exoskeleton systems. PMID:27069353

  16. 6-DOF robust adaptive terminal sliding mode control for spacecraft formation flying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianying; Sun, Zhaowei

    2012-04-01

    This paper addresses the tracking control problem of the leader-follower spacecraft formation, by which we mean that the relative motion between the leader and the follower is required to track a desired time-varying trajectory given in advance. Using dual number, the six-degree-of-freedom motion of the follower spacecraft relative to the leader spacecraft is modeled, where the coupling effect between the translational motion and the rotational one is accounted. A robust adaptive terminal sliding mode control law, including the adaptive algorithms, is proposed to ensure the finite time convergence of the relative motion tracking errors despite the presence of model uncertainties and external disturbances, based on which a modified controller is furthermore developed to solve the dual-equilibrium problem caused by dual quaternion representation. In addition, to alleviate the chattering, hyperbolic tangent function is adopted to substitute for the sign function. And by theoretical analysis, it is proved that the tracking error in such case will converge to a neighborhood of the origin in finite time. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the validity of the proposed approaches.

  17. Robust Sliding Mode Control Based on GA Optimization and CMAC Compensation for Lower Limb Exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Long, Yi; Du, Zhi-Jiang; Wang, Wei-Dong; Dong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A lower limb assistive exoskeleton is designed to help operators walk or carry payloads. The exoskeleton is required to shadow human motion intent accurately and compliantly to prevent incoordination. If the user's intention is estimated accurately, a precise position control strategy will improve collaboration between the user and the exoskeleton. In this paper, a hybrid position control scheme, combining sliding mode control (SMC) with a cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) neural network, is proposed to control the exoskeleton to react appropriately to human motion intent. A genetic algorithm (GA) is utilized to determine the optimal sliding surface and the sliding control law to improve performance of SMC. The proposed control strategy (SMC_GA_CMAC) is compared with three other types of approaches, that is, conventional SMC without optimization, optimal SMC with GA (SMC_GA), and SMC with CMAC compensation (SMC_CMAC), all of which are employed to track the desired joint angular position which is deduced from Clinical Gait Analysis (CGA) data. Position tracking performance is investigated with cosimulation using ADAMS and MATLAB/SIMULINK in two cases, of which the first case is without disturbances while the second case is with a bounded disturbance. The cosimulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy which can be employed in similar exoskeleton systems. PMID:27069353

  18. A coordinated MIMO control design for a power plant using improved sliding mode controller.

    PubMed

    Ataei, Mohammad; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Samani, Siavash Golmohammadi

    2014-03-01

    For the participation of the steam power plants in regulating the network frequency, boilers and turbines should be co-ordinately controlled in addition to the base load productions. Lack of coordinated control over boiler-turbine may lead to instability; oscillation in producing power and boiler parameters; reduction in the reliability of the unit; and inflicting thermodynamic tension on devices. This paper proposes a boiler-turbine coordinated multivariable control system based on improved sliding mode controller (ISMC). The system controls two main boiler-turbine parameters i.e., the turbine revolution and superheated steam pressure of the boiler output. For this purpose, a comprehensive model of the system including complete and exact description of the subsystems is extracted. The parameters of this model are determined according to our case study that is the 320MW unit of Islam-Abad power plant in Isfahan/Iran. The ISMC method is simulated on the power plant and its performance is compared with the related real PI (proportional-integral) controllers which have been used in this unit. The simulation results show the capability of the proposed controller system in controlling local network frequency and superheated steam pressure in the presence of load variations and disturbances of boiler. PMID:24112644

  19. LQ optimal and reaching law-based sliding modes for inventory management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignaciuk, Przemysław; Bartoszewicz, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the theory of discrete sliding-mode control is used to design new supply strategies for periodic-review inventory systems. In the considered systems, the stock used to fulfil an unknown, time-varying demand can be replenished from a single supply source or from multiple suppliers procuring orders with different delays. The proposed strategies guarantee that demand is always entirely satisfied from the on-hand stock (yielding the maximum service level), and the warehouse capacity is not exceeded (which eliminates the cost of emergency storage). In contrast to the classical, stochastic approaches, in this article, we focus on optimising the inventory system dynamics. The parameters of the first control strategy are selected by minimising a quadratic cost functional. Next, it is shown how the system dynamical performance can be improved by applying the concept of a reaching law with the appropriately adjusted reaching phase. The stable, nonoscillatory behaviour of the closed-loop system is demonstrated and the properties of the designed controllers are discussed and strictly proved.

  20. Fuzzy-neural-network inherited sliding-mode control for robot manipulator including actuator dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wai, Rong-Jong; Muthusamy, Rajkumar

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents the design and analysis of an intelligent control system that inherits the robust properties of sliding-mode control (SMC) for an n-link robot manipulator, including actuator dynamics in order to achieve a high-precision position tracking with a firm robustness. First, the coupled higher order dynamic model of an n-link robot manipulator is briefy introduced. Then, a conventional SMC scheme is developed for the joint position tracking of robot manipulators. Moreover, a fuzzy-neural-network inherited SMC (FNNISMC) scheme is proposed to relax the requirement of detailed system information and deal with chattering control efforts in the SMC system. In the FNNISMC strategy, the FNN framework is designed to mimic the SMC law, and adaptive tuning algorithms for network parameters are derived in the sense of projection algorithm and Lyapunov stability theorem to ensure the network convergence as well as stable control performance. Numerical simulations and experimental results of a two-link robot manipulator actuated by DC servo motors are provided to justify the claims of the proposed FNNISMC system, and the superiority of the proposed FNNISMC scheme is also evaluated by quantitative comparison with previous intelligent control schemes. PMID:24808281

  1. Fractional fuzzy adaptive sliding-mode control of a 2-DOF direct-drive robot arm.

    PubMed

    Efe, Mehmet Onder

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel parameter adjustment scheme to improve the robustness of fuzzy sliding-mode control achieved by the use of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) architecture. The proposed scheme utilizes fractional-order integration in the parameter tuning stage. The controller parameters are tuned such that the system under control is driven toward the sliding regime in the traditional sense. After a comparison with the classical integer-order counterpart, it is seen that the control system with the proposed adaptation scheme displays better tracking performance, and a very high degree of robustness and insensitivity to disturbances are observed. The claims are justified through some simulations utilizing the dynamic model of a 2-DOF direct-drive robot arm. Overall, the contribution of this paper is to demonstrate that the response of the system under control is significantly better for the fractional-order integration exploited in the parameter adaptation stage than that for the classical integer-order integration. PMID:19022726

  2. A Double-Wing Chaotic System Based on Ion Migration Memristor and Its Sliding Mode Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Guoqi; Duan, Shukai; Wang, Lidan

    The ion migration memristor is a nonlinear element with memory function and nanoscale size, it is considered as a potential candidate to reduce system power consumption and circuit size. When it works as the nonlinear part of the chaotic system, rich nonlinear curves will be produced, and at the same time, the complexity of chaotic systems and the randomness of signals will be enhanced. So in this paper, by Matlab numerical simulation, a new double-wing chaotic system based on an ion migration memristor is designed. In reality, there are many systems interfered inevitably by random noise, so in this paper the random bounded noises are also considered. The power spectrum, Lyapunov exponent spectrum, Poincaré map and bifurcation diagram are used to investigate its complex dynamic characteristics. Then, a SPICE-based analog circuit is presented to verify the feasibility of the system, for which the simulation results are consistent with the numerical simulation. Finally, the sliding mode variable structure control is applied to overcome the shortcomings of traditional control method, so that the chaotic orbits can be controlled to any fixed points or periodic orbits, and this provides an insight into chaos control in power electronics systems.

  3. Sliding Mode Pulsed Averaging IC Drivers for High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Anatoly Shteynberg, PhD

    2006-08-17

    This project developed new Light Emitting Diode (LED) driver ICs associated with specific (uniquely operated) switching power supplies that optimize performance for High Brightness LEDs (HB-LEDs). The drivers utilize a digital control core with a newly developed nonlinear, hysteretic/sliding mode controller with mixed-signal processing. The drivers are flexible enough to allow both traditional microprocessor interface as well as other options such as “on the fly” adjustment of color and brightness. Some other unique features of the newly developed drivers include • AC Power Factor Correction; • High power efficiency; • Substantially fewer external components should be required, leading to substantial reduction of Bill of Materials (BOM). Thus, the LED drivers developed in this research : optimize LED performance by increasing power efficiency and power factor. Perhaps more remarkably, the LED drivers provide this improved performance at substantially reduced costs compared to the present LED power electronic driver circuits. Since one of the barriers to market penetration for HB-LEDs (in particular “white” light LEDs) is cost/lumen, this research makes important contributions in helping the advancement of SSL consumer acceptance and usage.

  4. Sliding mode observer based incipient sensor fault detection with application to high-speed railway traction device.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kangkang; Jiang, Bin; Yan, Xing-Gang; Mao, Zehui

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers incipient sensor fault detection issue for a class of nonlinear systems with "observer unmatched" uncertainties. A particular fault detection sliding mode observer is designed for the augmented system formed by the original system and incipient sensor faults. The designed parameters are obtained using LMI and line filter techniques to guarantee that the generated residuals are robust to uncertainties and that sliding motion is not destroyed by faults. Then, three levels of novel adaptive thresholds are proposed based on the reduced order sliding mode dynamics, which effectively improve incipient sensor faults detectability. Case study of on the traction system in China Railway High-speed is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed incipient senor faults detection schemes. PMID:27156675

  5. Sliding mode control for Lorentz-augmented spacecraft hovering around elliptic orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Yan, Ye; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Hua

    2014-10-01

    A Lorentz spacecraft is an electrostatically charged space vehicle that could actively modulate its surface charge to generate Lorentz force as it moves through the planetary magnetic field. The induced Lorentz force provides propellantless electromagnetic propulsion for orbital maneuvering, such as spacecraft hovering that the chaser thrusts continuously to create an equilibrium state at the desired position relative to the target. Due to the fact that the direction of Lorentz force is determined by the local magnetic field and the velocity of the spacecraft with respect to the local magnetic field, which does not necessarily coincide with that of the required control acceleration for hovering, thus, in most cases, the Lorentz force works as a means of auxiliary propulsion to reduce the expenditure of fuel onboard. And that is why it is called Lorentz-augmented hovering. A dynamical model for Lorentz-augmented hovering around elliptic orbits is developed based upon the assumption that the Earth's magnetic field could be modeled as a tilted dipole that corotates with Earth. Fuel-optimal open-loop control laws are then derived based on the proposed dynamical model, presenting the optimal trajectories of the required specific charge of Lorentz spacecraft and the thruster-generated control acceleration. Considering the external disturbances that may drift the desired hovering position, a closed-loop integral sliding mode controller is also designed to guarantee the tracking of optimal control trajectories, ensuring the robustness of the system against perturbations. Numerical simulations are presented to analyze the characteristics of Lorentz-augmented hovering around eccentric orbits and the results substantiate the validity of the proposed open-loop and closed-loop control methods.

  6. RTDS implementation of an improved sliding mode based inverter controller for PV system.

    PubMed

    Islam, Gazi; Muyeen, S M; Al-Durra, Ahmed; Hasanien, Hany M

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for testing dynamics and control aspects of a large scale photovoltaic (PV) system in real time along with resolving design hindrances of controller parameters using Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). In general, the harmonic profile of a fast controller has wide distribution due to the large bandwidth of the controller. The major contribution of this paper is that the proposed control strategy gives an improved voltage harmonic profile and distribute it more around the switching frequency along with fast transient response; filter design, thus, becomes easier. The implementation of a control strategy with high bandwidth in small time steps of Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) is not straight forward. This paper shows a good methodology for the practitioners to implement such control scheme in RTDS. As a part of the industrial process, the controller parameters are optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique to improve the low voltage ride through (LVRT) performance under network disturbance. The response surface methodology (RSM) is well adapted to build analytical models for recovery time (Rt), maximum percentage overshoot (MPOS), settling time (Ts), and steady state error (Ess) of the voltage profile immediate after inverter under disturbance. A systematic approach of controller parameter optimization is detailed. The transient performance of the PSO based optimization method applied to the proposed sliding mode controlled PV inverter is compared with the results from genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique. The reported real time implementation challenges and controller optimization procedure are applicable to other control applications in the field of renewable and distributed generation systems. PMID:26606852

  7. An LMI approach for the Integral Sliding Mode and H∞ State Feedback Control Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezzaoucha, Souad; Henry, David

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the state feedback control problem for linear uncertain systems subject to both matched and unmatched perturbations. The proposed control law is based on an the Integral Sliding Mode Control (ISMC) approach to tackle matched perturbations as well as the H∞ paradigm for robustness against unmatched perturbations. The proposed method also parallels the work presented in [1] which addressed the same problem and proposed a solution involving an Algebraic Riccati Equation (ARE)-based formulation. The contribution of this paper is concerned by the establishment of a Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI)-based solution which offers the possibility to consider other types of constraints such as 𝓓-stability constraints (pole assignment-like constraints). The proposed methodology is applied to a pilot three-tank system and experiment results illustrate the feasibility. Note that only a few real experiments have been rarely considered using SMC in the past. This is due to the high energetic behaviour of the control signal. It is important to outline that the paper does not aim at proposing a LMI formulation of an ARE. This is done since 1971 [2] and further discussed in [3] where the link between AREs and ARIs (algebraic Riccati inequality) is established for the H∞ control problem. The main contribution of this paper is to establish the adequate LMI-based methodology (changes of matrix variables) so that the ARE that corresponds to the particular structure of the mixed ISMC/H∞ structure proposed by [1] can be re-formulated within the LMI paradigm.

  8. Neuro-sliding mode control with modular models for control of knee-joint angle using quadriceps electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ajoudani, Arash; Erfanian, Abbas

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a control methodology which is based on synergistic combination of a single-neuron controller with sliding mode control (SMC) for control of knee-joint position in paraplegic subjects with quadriceps stimulation. The control law will be switched from the sliding mode control to neural control, when the state trajectory of system enters in some boundary layer around the sliding surface. The main drawback of the standard sliding modes is mostly related to the so-called chattering caused by the high-frequency control switching. The value of switching gain depends on the bounds of system uncertainties. The system with large uncertainties needs to use a higher switching gain. This will, however, result in the high-frequency control switching and chattering across the sliding surface. To avoid such a condition, it is necessary to decrease the system uncertainty. To decrease the uncertainty, an accurate model of the system is required. For this purpose, we present a modular approach to modeling the knee-joint dynamics. Extensive experiments on healthy and paraplegic subjects are provided to demonstrate the robustness, stability and tracking accuracy of the neuro-SMC. The experimental results show that the neuro-SMC provides excellent tracking control for different reference trajectories and could generate control signals to compensate the muscle fatigue. PMID:18002483

  9. Backstepping sliding mode tracking control of a vane-type air motor X-Y table motion system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Hua; Hwang, Yean-Ren; Shen, Yu-Ta

    2011-04-01

    Air motors are increasingly being used in pneumatic related industries because of their advantages of low operating cost and low maintenance. The DSP controller and the backstepping sliding mode control method were utilized in this study to control an X-Y pneumatic table for tracking trajectory. Due to the effects of the compressibility of air, friction between the motor and ball screw table and the dead-zone effect caused by the proportional valve, the system will yield different responses even with the same inlet pressure and will chatter at low speed. Hence under certain conditions, this method of backstepping sliding mode control can be applied to achieve better results than with the PID controller, such as for tracking circle error and tracking error of the two axes. According to the results, a steady-state error of 0.5 μm can be achieved. The proposed method of backstepping sliding mode control can accomplish accurate tracking circle trajectory performance, offering an improvement in the tracking error of more than 50% over that of the PID controller. PMID:21272879

  10. Sliding mode fault detection and fault-tolerant control of smart dampers in semi-active control of building structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeganeh Fallah, Arash; Taghikhany, Touraj

    2015-12-01

    Recent decades have witnessed much interest in the application of active and semi-active control strategies for seismic protection of civil infrastructures. However, the reliability of these systems is still in doubt as there remains the possibility of malfunctioning of their critical components (i.e. actuators and sensors) during an earthquake. This paper focuses on the application of the sliding mode method due to the inherent robustness of its fault detection observer and fault-tolerant control. The robust sliding mode observer estimates the state of the system and reconstructs the actuators’ faults which are used for calculating a fault distribution matrix. Then the fault-tolerant sliding mode controller reconfigures itself by the fault distribution matrix and accommodates the fault effect on the system. Numerical simulation of a three-story structure with magneto-rheological dampers demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed fault-tolerant control system. It was shown that the fault-tolerant control system maintains the performance of the structure at an acceptable level in the post-fault case.

  11. Sliding mode control based impact angle control guidance considering the seeker׳s field-of-view constraint.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingliang; Zhang, Youan; Wu, Huali

    2016-03-01

    The problem of impact angle control guidance for a field-of-view constrained missile against non-maneuvering or maneuvering targets is solved by using the sliding mode control theory. The existing impact angle control guidance laws with field-of-view constraint are only applicable against stationary targets and most of them suffer abrupt-jumping of guidance command due to the application of additional guidance mode switching logic. In this paper, the field-of-view constraint is handled without using any additional switching logic. In particular, a novel time-varying sliding surface is first designed to achieve zero miss distance and zero impact angle error without violating the field-of-view constraint during the sliding mode phase. Then a control integral barrier Lyapunov function is used to design the reaching law so that the sliding mode can be reached within finite time and the field-of-view constraint is not violated during the reaching phase as well. A nonlinear extended state observer is constructed to estimate the disturbance caused by unknown target maneuver, and the undesirable chattering is alleviated effectively by using the estimation as a compensation item in the guidance law. The performance of the proposed guidance law is illustrated with simulations. PMID:26782929

  12. Observer-based robust finite time H∞ sliding mode control for Markovian switching systems with mode-dependent time-varying delay and incomplete transition rate.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lijun; Jiang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Dandan

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the problem of robust finite time H∞ sliding mode control for a class of Markovian switching systems. The system is subjected to the mode-dependent time-varying delay, partly unknown transition rate and unmeasurable state. The main difficulty is that, a sliding mode surface cannot be designed based on the unknown transition rate and unmeasurable state directly. To overcome this obstacle, the set of modes is firstly divided into two subsets standing for known transition rate subset and unknown one, based on which a state observer is established. A component robust finite-time sliding mode controller is also designed to cope with the effect of partially unknown transition rate. It is illustrated that the reachability, finite-time stability, finite-time boundedness, finite-time H∞ state feedback stabilization of sliding mode dynamics can be ensured despite the unknown transition rate. Finally, the simulation results verify the effectiveness of robust finite time control problem. PMID:26777336

  13. A new fractional-order sliding mode controller via a nonlinear disturbance observer for a class of dynamical systems with mismatched disturbances.

    PubMed

    Pashaei, Shabnam; Badamchizadeh, Mohammadali

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the stabilization and disturbance rejection for a class of fractional-order nonlinear dynamical systems with mismatched disturbances. To fulfill this purpose a new fractional-order sliding mode control (FOSMC) based on a nonlinear disturbance observer is proposed. In order to design the suitable fractional-order sliding mode controller, a proper switching surface is introduced. Afterward, by using the sliding mode theory and Lyapunov stability theory, a robust fractional-order control law via a nonlinear disturbance observer is proposed to assure the existence of the sliding motion in finite time. The proposed fractional-order sliding mode controller exposes better control performance, ensures fast and robust stability of the closed-loop system, eliminates the disturbances and diminishes the chattering problem. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed fractional-order controller is depicted via numerical simulation results of practical example and is compared with some other controllers. PMID:27108564

  14. Integral sliding mode controller for precise manoeuvring of autonomous underwater vehicle in the presence of unknown environmental disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minsung; Joe, Hangil; Kim, Jinwhan; Yu, Son-cheol

    2015-10-01

    We propose an integral sliding mode controller (ISMC) to stabilse an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) which is subject to modelling errors and often suffers from unknown environmental disturbances. The ISMC is effective in compensating for the uncertainties in the hydrodynamic and hydrostatic parameters of the vehicle and rejecting the unpredictable disturbance effects due to ocean waves, tides and currents. The ISMC is comprised of an equivalent controller and a switching controller to suppress the parameter uncertainties and external disturbances, and its closed-loop system is exponentially stable. Numerical simulations were performed to validate the proposed control approach, and experimental tests using Cyclops AUV were carried out to demonstrate its practical feasibility.

  15. Application of discrete time sliding mode control to a spacecraft in 6DoF with parameter identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, N. K.; Veres, S. M.

    2010-11-01

    This article presents the application of two discrete-time sliding mode controllers, developed in conjunction with a potential function guidance method, to provide control in both position and attitude for a rigid, holonomic spacecraft body using thrusters only. Identification of mass and inertial matrix parameters is also included. Both controllers are demonstrated for their effectiveness under realistic actuator constraints. One of the controllers is also implemented on hardware in a representative 5 degrees of freedom (5DoF) testbed environment to show the practical performance of the methods.

  16. High-order sliding mode control of a DC motor drive via a switched controlled multi-cellular converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djemaï, M.; Busawon, K.; Benmansour, K.; Marouf, A.

    2011-11-01

    In this article, we present a high-order sliding mode controller of a DC motor drive connected to a multi-cellular converter. More specifically, we design a second-order (super-twisting) control algorithm for the speed regulation of a DC motor. For this, a switching control for the multi-cellular converter is derived in order to supply the correct reference value for the speed regulation. A practical implementation of the controller is realised using a laboratory set-up. The performance and the validity of the controller are shown experimentally.

  17. Placing all closed loop poles of missile attitude control systems in the sliding mode via the root locus technique.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y J; Way, H K

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a robust control method for uncertain nonminimum phase systems with external disturbances. A systematic design algorithm is developed which links the sliding mode control and the root locus technique. Complete closed-loop pole placement is achieved in addition to the placement of the reduced order equivalent system poles. An integration function is employed in the sliding variable formulation. The output tracking error is guaranteed to vanish. The proposed method was successfully applied to control the angle of attack of a missile attitude control system. PMID:11577821

  18. INDIRECT INTELLIGENT SLIDING MODE CONTROL OF A SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY ACTUATED FLEXIBLE BEAM USING HYSTERETIC RECURRENT NEURAL NETWORKS

    PubMed Central

    Hannen, Jennifer C.; Crews, John H.; Buckner, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an indirect intelligent sliding mode controller (IISMC) for shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators, specifically a flexible beam deflected by a single offset SMA tendon. The controller manipulates applied voltage, which alters SMA tendon temperature to track reference bending angles. A hysteretic recurrent neural network (HRNN) captures the nonlinear, hysteretic relationship between SMA temperature and bending angle. The variable structure control strategy provides robustness to model uncertainties and parameter variations, while effectively compensating for system nonlinearities, achieving superior tracking compared to an optimized PI controller. PMID:22962538

  19. Robust tracking control of a unicycle-type wheeled mobile manipulator using a hybrid sliding mode fuzzy neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Meng-Bi; Su, Wu-Chung; Tsai, Ching-Chih

    2012-03-01

    This article presents a robust tracking controller for an uncertain mobile manipulator system. A rigid robotic arm is mounted on a wheeled mobile platform whose motion is subject to nonholonomic constraints. The sliding mode control (SMC) method is associated with the fuzzy neural network (FNN) to constitute a robust control scheme to cope with three types of system uncertainties; namely, external disturbances, modelling errors, and strong couplings in between the mobile platform and the onboard arm subsystems. All parameter adjustment rules for the proposed controller are derived from the Lyapunov theory such that the tracking error dynamics and the FNN weighting updates are ensured to be stable with uniform ultimate boundedness (UUB).

  20. A novel discrete adaptive sliding-mode-like control method for ionic polymer-metal composite manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiyong; Hao, Lina; Chen, Wenlin; Li, Zhi; Liu, Liqun

    2013-09-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC), also called artificial muscle, is an EAP material which can generate a relatively large deformation with a low driving voltage (generally less than 5 V). Like other EAP materials, IPMC possesses strong nonlinear properties, which can be described as a hybrid of back-relaxation (BR) and hysteresis characteristics, which also vary with water content, environmental temperature and even the usage consumption. Nowadays, many control approaches have been developed to tune the IPMC actuators, among which adaptive methods show a particular striking performance. To deal with IPMCs’ nonlinear problem, this paper represents a robust discrete adaptive inverse (AI) control approach, which employs an on-line identification technique based on the BR operator and Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) hysteresis operator hybrid model estimation method. Here the newly formed control approach is called discrete adaptive sliding-mode-like control (DASMLC) due to the similarity of its design method to that of a sliding mode controller. The weighted least mean squares (WLMS) identification method was employed to estimate the hybrid IPMC model because of its advantage of insensitivity to environmental noise. Experiments with the DASMLC approach and a conventional PID controller were carried out to compare and demonstrate the proposed controller’s better performance.

  1. Robust fractional order sliding mode control of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimkhani, Sadegh

    2016-07-01

    Wind power plants have nonlinear dynamics and contain many uncertainties such as unknown nonlinear disturbances and parameter uncertainties. Thus, it is a difficult task to design a robust reliable controller for this system. This paper proposes a novel robust fractional-order sliding mode (FOSM) controller for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind energy conversion system. In order to enhance the robustness of the control system, uncertainties and disturbances are estimated using a fractional order uncertainty estimator. In the proposed method a continuous control strategy is developed to achieve the chattering free fractional order sliding-mode control, and also no knowledge of the uncertainties and disturbances or their bound is assumed. The boundedness and convergence properties of the closed-loop signals are proven using Lyapunov׳s stability theory. Simulation results in the presence of various uncertainties were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control scheme. PMID:27018145

  2. Intelligent complementary sliding-mode control for LUSMS-based X-Y-theta motion control stage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Faa-Jeng; Chen, Syuan-Yi; Shyu, Kuo-Kai; Liu, Yen-Hung

    2010-07-01

    An intelligent complementary sliding-mode control (ICSMC) system using a recurrent wavelet-based Elman neural network (RWENN) estimator is proposed in this study to control the mover position of a linear ultrasonic motors (LUSMs)-based X-Y-theta motion control stage for the tracking of various contours. By the addition of a complementary generalized error transformation, the complementary sliding-mode control (CSMC) can efficiently reduce the guaranteed ultimate bound of the tracking error by half compared with the slidingmode control (SMC) while using the saturation function. To estimate a lumped uncertainty on-line and replace the hitting control of the CSMC directly, the RWENN estimator is adopted in the proposed ICSMC system. In the RWENN, each hidden neuron employs a different wavelet function as an activation function to improve both the convergent precision and the convergent time compared with the conventional Elman neural network (ENN). The estimation laws of the RWENN are derived using the Lyapunov stability theorem to train the network parameters on-line. A robust compensator is also proposed to confront the uncertainties including approximation error, optimal parameter vectors, and higher-order terms in Taylor series. Finally, some experimental results of various contours tracking show that the tracking performance of the ICSMC system is significantly improved compared with the SMC and CSMC systems. PMID:20639156

  3. Application of Nonstationary Sliding Mode Control to Suppression of Transverse Vibration of Elevator Rope Using Input Device with Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuki, Masatsugu; Ushijima, Yumiko; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Toshiaki

    Transverse vibrations of ropes spanning a high-speed elevator are induced by resonance when a building sways because of an earthquake or wind force. Hence, an effective solution is demanded. In this study, we undertake to suppress the vibration of an elevator rope by using an input device placed in the vicinity of the upper boundary of the rope. This input device has gaps between an actuator and the rope to prevent the progression of their abrasion. A nonstationary control method is effective for the control of a time-varying system with which an elevator rope and a crane wire are categorized. In addition, a sliding mode controller is robust toward nonlinearity at the position where input is introduced. Thus, in this paper, we present a method of vibration control for the elevator rope, which is based on the nonstationary sliding mode control method using the input device with gaps. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller are examined by numerical calculation that simulates input saturation, stroke limitation, gap-width expansion, and varying parameters, in the presence of model errors of the elevator rope. The results indicate effective vibration suppression and high robustness in the above cases except for the case of varying parameters.

  4. Nonlinear torque and air-to-fuel ratio control of spark ignition engines using neuro-sliding mode techniques.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ting; Javaherian, Hossein; Liu, Derong

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the calibration and control of spark ignition engines using a combination of neural networks and sliding mode control technique. Two parallel neural networks are utilized to realize a neuro-sliding mode control (NSLMC) for self-learning control of automotive engines. The equivalent control and the corrective control terms are the outputs of the neural networks. Instead of using error backpropagation algorithm, the network weights of equivalent control are updated using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Moreover, a new approach is utilized to update the gain of corrective control. Both modifications of the NSLMC are aimed at improving the transient performance and speed of convergence. Using the data from a test vehicle with a V8 engine, we built neural network models for the engine torque (TRQ) and the air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) dynamics and developed NSLMC controllers to achieve tracking control. The goal of TRQ control and AFR control is to track the commanded values under various operating conditions. From simulation studies, the feasibility and efficiency of the approach are illustrated. For both control problems, excellent tracking performance has been achieved. PMID:21656924

  5. A novel approach for state of charge estimation based on adaptive switching gain sliding mode observer in electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaopeng; Shen, Weixiang; Cao, Zhenwei; Kapoor, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach for battery state of charge (SOC) estimation in electric vehicles (EVs) based on an adaptive switching gain sliding mode observer (ASGSMO) has been presented. To design the ASGSMO for the SOC estimation, the state equations based on a battery equivalent circuit model (BECM) are derived to represent dynamic behaviours of a battery. Comparing with a conventional sliding mode observer, the ASGSMO has a capability of minimising chattering levels in the SOC estimation by using the self-adjusted switching gain while maintaining the characteristics of being able to compensate modelling errors caused by the parameter variations of the BECM. Lyapunov stability theory is adopted to prove the error convergence of the ASGSMO for the SOC estimation. The lithium-polymer battery (LiPB) is utilised to conduct experiments for determining the parameters of the BECM and verifying the effectiveness of the proposed ASGSMO in various discharge current profiles including EV driving conditions in both city and suburban.

  6. Based on interval type-2 fuzzy-neural network direct adaptive sliding mode control for SISO nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tsung-Chih

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, a novel direct adaptive interval type-2 fuzzy-neural tracking control equipped with sliding mode and Lyapunov synthesis approach is proposed to handle the training data corrupted by noise or rule uncertainties for nonlinear SISO nonlinear systems involving external disturbances. By employing adaptive fuzzy-neural control theory, the update laws will be derived for approximating the uncertain nonlinear dynamical system. In the meantime, the sliding mode control method and the Lyapunov stability criterion are incorporated into the adaptive fuzzy-neural control scheme such that the derived controller is robust with respect to unmodeled dynamics, external disturbance and approximation errors. In comparison with conventional methods, the advocated approach not only guarantees closed-loop stability but also the output tracking error of the overall system will converge to zero asymptotically without prior knowledge on the upper bound of the lumped uncertainty. Furthermore, chattering effect of the control input will be substantially reduced by the proposed technique. To illustrate the performance of the proposed method, finally simulation example will be given.

  7. Design and Experimental Evaluation of a Robust Position Controller for an Electrohydrostatic Actuator Using Adaptive Antiwindup Sliding Mode Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Min; Park, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jong Shik

    2013-01-01

    A robust control scheme is proposed for the position control of the electrohydrostatic actuator (EHA) when considering hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities. To reduce overshoot due to a saturation of electric motor and to realize robustness against load disturbance and lumped system uncertainties such as varying parameters and modeling error, this paper proposes an adaptive antiwindup PID sliding mode scheme as a robust position controller for the EHA system. An optimal PID controller and an optimal anti-windup PID controller are also designed to compare control performance. An EHA prototype is developed, carrying out system modeling and parameter identification in designing the position controller. The simply identified linear model serves as the basis for the design of the position controllers, while the robustness of the control systems is compared by experiments. The adaptive anti-windup PID sliding mode controller has been found to have the desired performance and become robust against hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities. PMID:23983640

  8. Sliding-mode control of a six-phase series/parallel connected two induction motors drive.

    PubMed

    Abjadi, Navid R

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a parallel configuration is proposed for two quasi six-phase induction motors (QIMs) to feed them from a single six-phase voltage source inverter (VSI). A direct torque control (DTC) based on input-output feedback linearization (IOFL) combined with sliding mode (SM) control is used for each QIM in stationary reference frame. In addition, an adaptive scheme is employed to solve the motor resistances mismatching problem. The effectiveness and capability of the proposed method are shown by practical results obtained for two QIMs in series/parallel connections supplied from a single VSI. The decoupling control of QIMs and the feasibility of their torque and flux control are investigated. Moreover, a complete comparison between series and parallel connections of two QIMs is given. PMID:25264286

  9. Continuous higher-order sliding mode control with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Yaozhen; Liu, Xiangjie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a continuous higher-order sliding mode (HOSM) control scheme with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is derived from the concept of geometric homogeneity and super-twisting algorithm, and includes two parts, the first part of which achieves smooth finite time stabilization of pure integrator chains. The second part conquers the twice differentiable uncertainty and realizes system robustness by employing super-twisting algorithm. Particularly, time-varying switching control gain is constructed to reduce the switching control action magnitude to the minimum possible value while keeping the property of finite time convergence. Examples concerning the perturbed triple integrator chains and excitation control for single-machine infinite bus power system are simulated respectively to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach. PMID:26920085

  10. Decentralized Sliding Mode Observer Based Dual Closed-Loop Fault Tolerant Control for Reconfigurable Manipulator against Actuator Failure

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Li, Yuanchun

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a decentralized fault tolerant control (DFTC) scheme for reconfigurable manipulators. With the appearance of norm-bounded failure, a dual closed-loop trajectory tracking control algorithm is proposed on the basis of the Lyapunov stability theory. Characterized by the modularization property, the actuator failure is estimated by the proposed decentralized sliding mode observer (DSMO). Moreover, the actuator failure can be treated in view of the local joint information, so its control performance degradation is independent of other normal joints. In addition, the presented DFTC scheme is significantly simplified in terms of the structure of the controller due to its dual closed-loop architecture, and its feasibility is highly reflected in the control of reconfigurable manipulators. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed DFTC scheme is demonstrated using simulations. PMID:26181826

  11. Sliding mode control of dissolved oxygen in an integrated nitrogen removal process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, C; Young, H; Antileo, C; Bornhardt, C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a sliding mode controller (SMC) for dissolved oxygen (DO) in an integrated nitrogen removal process carried out in a suspended biomass sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SMC performance was compared against an auto-tuning PI controller with parameters adjusted at the beginning of the batch cycle. A method for cancelling the slow DO sensor dynamics was implemented by using a first order model of the sensor. Tests in a lab-scale reactor showed that the SMC offers a better disturbance rejection capability than the auto-tuning PI controller, furthermore providing reasonable performance in a wide range of operation. Thus, SMC becomes an effective robust nonlinear tool to the DO control in this process, being also simple from a computational point of view, allowing its implementation in devices such as industrial programmable logic controllers (PLCs). PMID:19923760

  12. Active Pneumatic Vibration Control by Using Pressure and Velocity Measurements and Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding-Mode Controller

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Yi; Liang, Jin-Wei; Wu, Jia-Wei

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent control strategy to overcome nonlinear and time-varying characteristics of a diaphragm-type pneumatic vibration isolator (PVI) system. By combining an adaptive rule with fuzzy and sliding-mode control, the method has online learning ability when it faces the system's nonlinear and time-varying behaviors during an active vibration control process. Since the proposed scheme has a simple structure, it is easy to implement. To validate the proposed scheme, a composite control which adopts both chamber pressure and payload velocity as feedback signal is implemented. During experimental investigations, sinusoidal excitation at resonance and random-like signal are input on a floor base to simulate ground vibration. Performances obtained from the proposed scheme are compared with those obtained from passive system and PID scheme to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed intelligent control. PMID:23820746

  13. Robust Sensor Faults Reconstruction for a Class of Uncertain Linear Systems Using a Sliding Mode Observer: An LMI Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskander, Boulaabi; Anis, Sellami; Fayçal, Ben Hmida; Moncef, Gossa

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a design method of a Sliding Mode Observer (SMO) for robust sensor faults reconstruction of systems with matched uncertainty. This class of uncertainty requires a known upper bound. The basic idea is to use the H∞ concept to design the observer, which minimizes the effect of the uncertainty on the reconstruction of the sensor faults. Specifically, we applied the equivalent output error injection concept from previous work in Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) scheme. Then, these two problems of design and reconstruction can be expressed and numerically formulate via Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) optimization. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the validity and the applicability of the proposed approach.

  14. Online Fault Detection of Permanent Magnet Demagnetization for IPMSMs by Nonsingular Fast Terminal-Sliding-Mode Observer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai-Hui; Chen, Te-Fang; Zhang, Chang-Fan; He, Jing; Huang, Gang

    2014-01-01

    To prevent irreversible demagnetization of a permanent magnet (PM) for interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSMs) by flux-weakening control, a robust PM flux-linkage nonsingular fast terminal-sliding-mode observer (NFTSMO) is proposed to detect demagnetization faults. First, the IPMSM mathematical model of demagnetization is presented. Second, the construction of the NFTSMO to estimate PM demagnetization faults in IPMSM is described, and a proof of observer stability is given. The fault decision criteria and fault-processing method are also presented. Finally, the proposed scheme was simulated using MATLAB/Simulink and implemented on the RT-LAB platform. A number of robustness tests have been carried out. The scheme shows good performance in spite of speed fluctuations, torque ripples and the uncertainties of stator resistance. PMID:25490582

  15. Tracking Control of a Magnetic Shape Memory Actuator Using an Inverse Preisach Model with Modified Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jhih-Hong; Chiang, Mao-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys are a new class of smart materials with extraordinary strains up to 12% and frequencies in the range of 1 to 2 kHz. The MSM actuator is a potential device which can achieve high performance electromagnetic actuation by using the properties of MSM alloys. However, significant non-linear hysteresis behavior is a significant barrier to control the MSM actuator. In this paper, the Preisach model was used, by capturing experiments from different input signals and output responses, to model the hysteresis of MSM actuator, and the inverse Preisach model, as a feedforward control, provided compensational signals to the MSM actuator to linearize the hysteresis non-linearity. The control strategy for path tracking combined the hysteresis compensator and the modified fuzzy sliding mode control (MFSMC) which served as a path controller. Based on the experimental results, it was verified that a tracking error in the order of micrometers was achieved. PMID:27571081

  16. Robust Sensor Faults Reconstruction for a Class of Uncertain Linear Systems Using a Sliding Mode Observer: An LMI Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Iskander, Boulaabi; Faycal, Ben Hmida; Moncef, Gossa; Anis, Sellami

    2009-03-05

    This paper presents a design method of a Sliding Mode Observer (SMO) for robust sensor faults reconstruction of systems with matched uncertainty. This class of uncertainty requires a known upper bound. The basic idea is to use the H{sub {infinity}} concept to design the observer, which minimizes the effect of the uncertainty on the reconstruction of the sensor faults. Specifically, we applied the equivalent output error injection concept from previous work in Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) scheme. Then, these two problems of design and reconstruction can be expressed and numerically formulate via Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) optimization. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the validity and the applicability of the proposed approach.

  17. Decentralized Sliding Mode Observer Based Dual Closed-Loop Fault Tolerant Control for Reconfigurable Manipulator against Actuator Failure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Li, Chenghao; Liu, Derong; Li, Yuanchun

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a decentralized fault tolerant control (DFTC) scheme for reconfigurable manipulators. With the appearance of norm-bounded failure, a dual closed-loop trajectory tracking control algorithm is proposed on the basis of the Lyapunov stability theory. Characterized by the modularization property, the actuator failure is estimated by the proposed decentralized sliding mode observer (DSMO). Moreover, the actuator failure can be treated in view of the local joint information, so its control performance degradation is independent of other normal joints. In addition, the presented DFTC scheme is significantly simplified in terms of the structure of the controller due to its dual closed-loop architecture, and its feasibility is highly reflected in the control of reconfigurable manipulators. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed DFTC scheme is demonstrated using simulations. PMID:26181826

  18. Vision-based stabilization of nonholonomic mobile robots by integrating sliding-mode control and adaptive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhengcai; Yin, Longjie; Fu, Yili

    2013-01-01

    Vision-based pose stabilization of nonholonomic mobile robots has received extensive attention. At present, most of the solutions of the problem do not take the robot dynamics into account in the controller design, so that these controllers are difficult to realize satisfactory control in practical application. Besides, many of the approaches suffer from the initial speed and torque jump which are not practical in the real world. Considering the kinematics and dynamics, a two-stage visual controller for solving the stabilization problem of a mobile robot is presented, applying the integration of adaptive control, sliding-mode control, and neural dynamics. In the first stage, an adaptive kinematic stabilization controller utilized to generate the command of velocity is developed based on Lyapunov theory. In the second stage, adopting the sliding-mode control approach, a dynamic controller with a variable speed function used to reduce the chattering is designed, which is utilized to generate the command of torque to make the actual velocity of the mobile robot asymptotically reach the desired velocity. Furthermore, to handle the speed and torque jump problems, the neural dynamics model is integrated into the above mentioned controllers. The stability of the proposed control system is analyzed by using Lyapunov theory. Finally, the simulation of the control law is implemented in perturbed case, and the results show that the control scheme can solve the stabilization problem effectively. The proposed control law can solve the speed and torque jump problems, overcome external disturbances, and provide a new solution for the vision-based stabilization of the mobile robot.

  19. Comments on "Fuzzy fractional order sliding mode controller for nonlinear systems" [Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat 15 (2010) 963-978

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghababa, Mohammad Pourmahmood

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this note is to point out some comments to the article [Delavari H, Ghaderi R, Ranjbar A, Momani S. Fuzzy fractional order sliding mode controller for nonlinear systems, Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat 15 (2010) 963-978].

  20. Sliding mode attitude control with L 2-gain performance and vibration reduction of flexible spacecraft with actuator dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qinglei

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a dual-stage control system design method for the rotational maneuver control and vibration stabilization of a flexible spacecraft. In this design approach, the sub-systems of attitude control and vibration suppression are designed separately using the low order model. Based on the sliding mode control (SMC) theory, a discontinuous attitude control law in the form of the input voltage of the reaction wheel is derived to control the orientation of the spacecraft, incorporating the L 2-gain performance criterion constraint. The resulting closed-loop system is proven to be uniformly ultimately bounded stability and the effect of the external disturbance on both attitude quaternion and angular velocity can be attenuated to the prescribed level as well. In addition, an adaptive version of the control law is designed for adapting the unknown upper bounds of the lumped disturbance such that the limitation of knowing the bound of the disturbance in advance is released. For actively suppressing the induced vibration, strain rate feedback control method is also investigated by using piezoelectric materials as additional sensors and actuators bonded on the surface of the flexible appendages. Numerical simulations are performed to show that rotational maneuver and vibration suppression are accomplished in spite of the presence of disturbance and uncertainty.

  1. A multi-mode operation control strategy for flexible microgrid based on sliding-mode direct voltage and hierarchical controls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinjin; Liu, Yancheng; Zhao, Youtao; Wang, Ning

    2016-03-01

    Multi-mode operation and transient stability are two problems that significantly affect flexible microgrid (MG). This paper proposes a multi-mode operation control strategy for flexible MG based on a three-layer hierarchical structure. The proposed structure is composed of autonomous, cooperative, and scheduling controllers. Autonomous controller is utilized to control the performance of the single micro-source inverter. An adaptive sliding-mode direct voltage loop and an improved droop power loop based on virtual negative impedance are presented respectively to enhance the system disturbance-rejection performance and the power sharing accuracy. Cooperative controller, which is composed of secondary voltage/frequency control and phase synchronization control, is designed to eliminate the voltage/frequency deviations produced by the autonomous controller and prepare for grid connection. Scheduling controller manages the power flow between the MG and the grid. The MG with the improved hierarchical control scheme can achieve seamless transitions from islanded to grid-connected mode and have a good transient performance. In addition the presented work can also optimize the power quality issues and improve the load power sharing accuracy between parallel VSIs. Finally, the transient performance and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme are evaluated by theoretical analysis and simulation results. PMID:26686458

  2. Symmetric caging formation for convex polygonal object transportation by multiple mobile robots based on fuzzy sliding mode control.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yanyan; Kim, YoonGu; Wee, SungGil; Lee, DongHa; Lee, SukGyu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of object caging and transporting is considered for multiple mobile robots. With the consideration of minimizing the number of robots and decreasing the rotation of the object, the proper points are calculated and assigned to the multiple mobile robots to allow them to form a symmetric caging formation. The caging formation guarantees that all of the Euclidean distances between any two adjacent robots are smaller than the minimal width of the polygonal object so that the object cannot escape. In order to avoid collision among robots, the parameter of the robots radius is utilized to design the caging formation, and the A⁎ algorithm is used so that mobile robots can move to the proper points. In order to avoid obstacles, the robots and the object are regarded as a rigid body to apply artificial potential field method. The fuzzy sliding mode control method is applied for tracking control of the nonholonomic mobile robots. Finally, the simulation and experimental results show that multiple mobile robots are able to cage and transport the polygonal object to the goal position, avoiding obstacles. PMID:26704719

  3. Discrete-Time Integral Sliding Mode Control with Disturbances Compensation and Reduced Chattering for Pv Grid-Connected Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meo, Santolo; Sorrentino, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    In the paper a new discrete-time integral sliding mode control (DISMC) with disturbances compensation and reduced chattering for grid-connected inverter is proposed for active and reactive power regulation. Differently by many SMC proposed in literature that have a time-continuous formulation in spite have been implemented with digital processor, the proposed DISMC is fully formulated in discrete-time, taking into account the effects introduced by a microprocessor-based implementation. As will be demonstrated such approach consents to reduce the chattering about the sliding manifold within a boundary layer of O(T2) thickness instead of O(T) (being T the sampling period of the control algorithm). Moreover it introduces a correction of the control vector which eliminates the influence of modeling error and external disturbances improving stability and robustness of the controlled system. Constant converter switching frequency is achieved by using space vector modulation, which eases the design of the ac harmonic filter. In the paper, after a detailed formalization of the proposed control algorithm, several numerical and experimental results on a three-phase grid-connected inverter prototype are shown, proving the effectiveness of the control strategy.

  4. Synchronization analysis and control of three eccentric rotors in a vibrating system using adaptive sliding mode control algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangxi; Zhang, Xueliang; Chen, Xiaozhe; Wen, Bangchun; Wang, Bo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, self- and controlled synchronizations of three eccentric rotors (ERs) in line driven by induction motors rotating in the same direction in a vibrating system are investigated. The vibrating system is a typical underactuated mechanical-electromagnetic coupling system. The analysis and control of the vibrating system convert to the synchronization motion problem of three ERs. Firstly, the self-synchronization motion of three ERs is analyzed according to self-synchronization theory. The criterions of synchronization and stability of self-synchronous state are obtained by using a modified average perturbation method. The significant synchronization motion of three ERs with zero phase differences cannot be implemented according to self-synchronization theory through analysis and simulations. To implement the synchronization motion of three ERs with zero phase differences, an adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) algorithm based on a modified master-slave control strategy is employed to design the controllers. The stability of the controllers is verified by using Lyapunov theorem. The performances of the controlled synchronization system are presented by simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of controllers. Finally, the effects of reference speed and non-zero phase differences on the controlled system are discussed to show the strong robustness of the proposed controllers. Additionally, the dynamic responses of the vibrating system in different synchronous states are analyzed.

  5. Fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with in-wheel motors using actuator-grouping sliding mode controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Boyuan; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua

    2016-05-01

    Although electric vehicles with in-wheel motors have been regarded as one of the promising vehicle architectures in recent years, the probability of in-wheel motor fault is still a crucial issue due to the system complexity and large number of control actuators. In this study, a modified sliding mode control (SMC) is applied to achieve fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with four-wheel-independent-steering (4WIS) and four-wheel-independent-driving (4WID). Unlike in traditional SMC, in this approach the steering geometry is re-arranged according to the location of faulty wheels in the modified SMC. Three SMC control laws for longitudinal velocity control, lateral velocity control and yaw rate control are designed based on specific vehicle motion scenarios. In addition the actuator-grouping SMC method is proposed so that driving actuators are grouped and each group of actuators can be used to achieve the specific control target, which avoids the strong coupling effect between each control target. Simulation results prove that the proposed modified SMC can achieve good vehicle dynamics control performance in normal driving and large steering angle turning scenarios. In addition, the proposed actuator-grouping SMC can solve the coupling effect of different control targets and the control performance is improved.

  6. Design of an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control for uncertain discrete-time nonlinear systems based on noisy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Toshio

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the design of an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control (AFSMC) for uncertain discrete-time nonlinear dynamic systems. The dynamic systems are described by a discrete-time state equation with nonlinear uncertainties, and the uncertainties include the modelling errors and the external disturbances to be unknown but nonlinear with the bounded properties. The states are measured by the restriction of measurement sensors and the contamination with independent measurement noises. The nonlinear uncertainties are approximated by using the fuzzy IF-THEN rules based on the universal approximation theorem, and the approximation error is compensated by adding an adaptive complementary term to the proposed AFSMC. The fuzzy inference approach based on the extended single input rule modules is proposed to reduce the number of the fuzzy IF-THEN rules. The estimates for the un-measurable states and the adjustable parameters are obtained by using the weighted least squares estimator and its simplified one. It is proved that under some conditions the estimation errors will remain in the vicinity of zero as time increases, and the states are ultimately bounded subject to the proposed AFSMC. The effectiveness of the proposed method is indicated through the simulation experiment of a simple numerical system.

  7. Loop tuning with specification on gain and phase margins via modified second-order sliding mode control algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiko, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    The modified second-order sliding mode algorithm is used for controller tuning. Namely, the modified suboptimal algorithm-based test (modified SOT) and non-parametric tuning rules for proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers are presented in this article. In the developed method of test and tuning, the idea of coordinated selection of the test parameters and the controller tuning parameters is introduced. The proposed approach allows for the formulation of simple non-parametric tuning rules for PID controllers that provide desired amplitude or phase margins exactly. In the modified SOT, the frequency of the self-excited oscillations can be generated equal to either the phase crossover frequency or the magnitude crossover frequency of the open-loop system frequency response (including a future PID controller) - depending on the tuning method choice. The first option will provide tuning with specification on gain margin, and the second option will ensure tuning with specification on phase margin. Tuning rules for a PID controller and simulation examples are provided.

  8. Design of Linear DC Motor Two-degree-of-freedom Positioning System using Model Reference type Sliding Mode Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urushihara, Shiro; Kamano, Takuya; Yura, Satoshi; Yasuno, Takashi; Suzuki, Takayuki

    One of fundamental problems in the factory automation is how to obtain linear motion. Linear motors produce directly the linear motion force without a motion-transform mechanism. Linear d.c. motors (LDMs) have excellent performance and controllability. However, the dynamics of small-sized LDMs is adversely affected by the dead-band due to the friction between brushes and commutators. In this paper, it is described that the design of the two-degree-of-freedom positioning system with a LDM using model reference type sliding mode controller (SMC). The proposed positioning system consists of a fixed gain feedforward controller and a SMC used as a feedback controller. The objective of the SMC is to repress the influence of nonlinear characteristics (the dead-band and parameter variations etc.). The tracking performance can be improved as the fixed gain feedforward controller makes a dynamic inverse system in the feedforward path. The effectiveness of the proposed system for improvement of the tracking performance is demonstrated by experimental results.

  9. Time-varying sliding-coefficient-based decoupled terminal sliding-mode control for a class of fourth-order systems.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Husnu; Komurcugil, Hasan

    2014-07-01

    A time-varying sliding-coefficient-based decoupled terminal sliding mode control strategy is presented for a class of fourth-order systems. First, the fourth-order system is decoupled into two second-order subsystems. The sliding surface of each subsystem was designed by utilizing time-varying coefficients. Then, the control target of one subsystem to another subsystem was embedded. Thereafter, a terminal sliding mode control method was utilized to make both subsystems converge to their equilibrium points in finite time. The simulation results on the inverted pendulum system demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits a considerable improvement in terms of a faster dynamic response and lower IAE and ITAE values as compared with the existing decoupled control methods. PMID:24913067

  10. Observer-based higher order sliding mode control of power factor in three-phase AC/DC converter for hybrid electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianxing; Laghrouche, Salah; Wack, Maxime

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a full-bridge boost power converter topology is studied for power factor control, using output higher order sliding mode control. The AC/DC converters are used for charging the battery and super-capacitor in hybrid electric vehicles from the utility. The proposed control forces the input currents to track the desired values, which can control the output voltage while keeping the power factor close to one. Super-twisting sliding mode observer is employed to estimate the input currents and load resistance only from the measurement of output voltage. Lyapunov analysis shows the asymptotic convergence of the closed-loop system to zero. Multi-rate simulation illustrates the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller in the presence of measurement noise.

  11. An SOC estimation approach based on adaptive sliding mode observer and fractional order equivalent circuit model for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Fuli; Li, Hui; Zhong, Shouming; Zhong, Qishui; Yin, Chun

    2015-07-01

    A state of charge (SOC) estimation approach based on an adaptive sliding mode observer (SMO) and a fractional order equivalent circuit model (FOECM) for lithium-ion batteries is proposed in this paper. In order to design the adaptive sliding mode observer (SMO) for the SOC estimation, the state equations based on a FOECM of battery are derived. A new self-adjusting strategy for the observer gains is presented to adjust the observer in the estimating process, which helps to reduce chattering and convergence time. Furthermore, a continuous and smooth function called hyperbolic tangent function is applied to balance the chattering affection and the disturbance. At last, a battery simulation model is established to test the SOC estimation performance of the designed SMOs, and the results show the proposed approach is feasible and effective.

  12. Supersonic flutter suppression of electrorheological fluid-based adaptive panels resting on elastic foundations using sliding mode control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasheminejad, Seyyed M.; Nezami, M.; Aryaee Panah, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    Brief reviews on suppressing panel flutter vibrations by various active control strategies as well as utilization tunable electrorheological fluids (ERFs) for vibration control of structural systems are presented. Active suppression of the supersonic flutter motion of a simply supported sandwich panel with a tunable ERF interlayer, and coupled to an elastic foundation, is subsequently investigated. The structural formulation is based on the classical beam theory along with the Winkler-Pasternak foundation model, the ER fluid core is modeled as a first-order Kelvin-Voigt material, and the quasi-steady first-order supersonic piston theory is employed to describe the aerodynamic loading. Hamilton’s principle is used to derive a set of fully coupled dynamic equations of motion. The generalized Fourier expansions in conjunction with the Galerkin method are then employed to formulate the governing equations in the state space domain. The critical dynamic pressures at which unstable panel oscillations (coalescence of eigenvalues) occur are obtained via the p-method for selected applied electric field strengths (E = 0,2,4 kV mm-1). The classical Runge-Kutta time integration algorithm is subsequently used to calculate the open-loop aeroelastic response of the system in various basic loading configurations (i.e. uniformly distributed blast, gust, sonic boom, and step loads), with or without an interacting soft/stiff elastic foundation. Finally, a sliding mode control synthesis (SMC) involving the first six natural modes of the structural system is set up to actively suppress the closed-loop system response in supersonic flight conditions and under the imposed excitations. Simulation results demonstrate performance, effectiveness, and insensitivity with respect to the spillover of the proposed SMC-based control system. Limiting cases are considered and good agreements with the data available in the literature as well as with the computations made by using the Rayleigh

  13. Station-keeping of real Earth-Moon libration point orbits using discrete-time sliding mode control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yijun; Gómez, Gerard; Masdemont, Josep J.; Tang, Guojian

    2014-10-01

    In this work, station-keeping of real Earth-Moon libration point orbits is studied using discrete-time sliding mode control (DSMC). For comparison, a discrete linear quadratic regulator (DLQR) controller is also considered. The libration orbits are termed “real” in the sense that they are obtained in a complete Solar System model, taking into account all the gravitational forces of the planets, the Moon, and the Sun. This is a key point for any station-keeping study, that the use of far from real orbits as nominal ones increases unnecessarily the station-keeping cost. The resulting controlled system, linearised with respect to some nominal orbit, takes a discrete-time form suitable for applying impulsive maneuvers. The DSMC controller is designed by the reaching law with the parameters chosen in an adaptive way. A method for designing the sliding surface is proposed. In order to assess and compare the performance of the two controllers, simulations are done for six libration point orbits around the L2 point (three halo orbits and three Lissajous ones) during a time span of 10 years. Several practical constraints are also considered in the simulations. Extensive Monte Carlo results show that the proposed DSMC approach is able to maintain the spacecraft within a close vicinity of the nominal orbits with a maneuver cost less than 2 m/s per year, and it outperforms the DLQR approach in terms of the position controllability. Some comparison with previous results obtained by other authors with different procedures is also given.

  14. A vehicle ABS adaptive sliding-mode control algorithm based on the vehicle velocity estimation and tyre/road friction coefficient estimations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangwen; Xu, Yong; Pan, Ming; Ren, Fenghua

    2014-04-01

    A sliding-mode observer is designed to estimate the vehicle velocity with the measured vehicle acceleration, the wheel speeds and the braking torques. Based on the Burckhardt tyre model, the extended Kalman filter is designed to estimate the parameters of the Burckhardt model with the estimated vehicle velocity, the measured wheel speeds and the vehicle acceleration. According to the estimated parameters of the Burckhardt tyre model, the tyre/road friction coefficients and the optimal slip ratios are calculated. A vehicle adaptive sliding-mode control (SMC) algorithm is presented with the estimated vehicle velocity, the tyre/road friction coefficients and the optimal slip ratios. And the adjustment method of the sliding-mode gain factors is discussed. Based on the adaptive SMC algorithm, a vehicle's antilock braking system (ABS) control system model is built with the Simulink Toolbox. Under the single-road condition as well as the different road conditions, the performance of the vehicle ABS system is simulated with the vehicle velocity observer, the tyre/road friction coefficient estimator and the adaptive SMC algorithm. The results indicate that the estimated errors of the vehicle velocity and the tyre/road friction coefficients are acceptable and the vehicle ABS adaptive SMC algorithm is effective. So the proposed adaptive SMC algorithm can be used to control the vehicle ABS without the information of the vehicle velocity and the road conditions.

  15. Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentration in Type 1 Diabetics Using Single Order Sliding Mode Control Combined with Fuzzy On-line Tunable Gain, a Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Dinani, Soudabeh Taghian; Zekri, Maryam; Kamali, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is considered as a global affecting disease with an increasing contribution to both mortality rate and cost damage in the society. Therefore, tight control of blood glucose levels has gained significant attention over the decades. This paper proposes a method for blood glucose level regulation in type 1 diabetics. The control strategy is based on combining the fuzzy logic theory and single order sliding mode control (SOSMC) to improve the properties of sliding mode control method and to alleviate its drawbacks. The aim of the proposed controller that is called SOSMC combined with fuzzy on-line tunable gain is to tune the gain of the controller adaptively. This merit causes a less amount of control effort, which is the rate of insulin delivered to the patient body. As a result, this method can decline the risk of hypoglycemia, a lethal phenomenon in regulating blood glucose level in diabetics caused by a low blood glucose level. Moreover, it attenuates the chattering observed in SOSMC significantly. It is worth noting that in this approach, a mathematical model called minimal model is applied instead of the intravenously infused insulin–blood glucose dynamics. The simulation results demonstrate a good performance of the proposed controller in meal disturbance rejection and robustness against parameter changes. In addition, this method is compared to fuzzy high-order sliding mode control (FHOSMC) and the superiority of the new method compared to FHOSMC is shown in the results. PMID:26284169

  16. Vibration control of a ship engine system using high-load magnetorheological mounts associated with a new indirect fuzzy sliding mode controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phu, Do Xuan; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-02-01

    In this work, a new high-load magnetorheological (MR) fluid mount system is devised and applied to control vibration in a ship engine. In the investigation of vibration-control performance, a new modified indirect fuzzy sliding mode controller is formulated and realized. The design of the proposed MR mount is based on the flow mode of MR fluid, and it includes two separated coils for generating a magnetic field. An optimization process is carried out to achieve maximal damping force under certain design constraints, such as the allowable height of the mount. As an actuating smart fluid, a new plate-like iron-particle-based MR fluid is used, instead of the conventional spherical iron-particle-based MR fluid. After evaluating the field-dependent yield stress of the MR fluid, the field-dependent damping force required to control unwanted vibration in the ship engine is determined. Subsequently, an appropriate-sized MR mount is manufactured and its damping characteristics are evaluated. After confirming the sufficient damping force level of the manufactured MR mount, a medium-sized ship engine mount system consisting of eight MR mounts is established, and its dynamic governing equations are derived. A new modified indirect fuzzy sliding mode controller is then formulated and applied to the engine mount system. The displacement and velocity responses show that the unwanted vibrations of the ship engine system can be effectively controlled in both the axial and radial directions by applying the proposed control methodology.

  17. Full-order sliding mode control of uncertain chaos in a permanent magnet synchronous motor based on a fuzzy extended state observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiang; Nan, Yu-Rong; Zheng, Heng-Huo; Ren, Xue-Mei

    2015-11-01

    A full-order sliding mode control based on a fuzzy extended state observer is proposed to control the uncertain chaos in the permanent magnet synchronous motor. Through a simple coordinate transformation, the chaotic PMSM model is transformed into the Brunovsky canonical form, which is more suitable for the controller design. Based on the fuzzy control theory, a fuzzy extended state observer is developed to estimate the unknown states and uncertainties, and the restriction that all the system states should be completely measurable is avoided. Thereafter, a full-order sliding mode controller is designed to ensure the convergence of all system states without any chattering problem. Comparative simulations show the effectiveness and superior performance of the proposed control method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61403343 and 61433003), the Scientific Research Foundation of Education Department of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. Y201329260), and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang University of Technology, China (Grant No. 1301103053408).

  18. Design and implementation of a new modified sliding mode controller for grid-connected inverter to controlling the voltage and frequency.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarian, Mohammad Mehdi; Nayeripour, Majid; Rajaei, Amirhossein; Mansouri, Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-03-01

    As the output power of a microgrid with renewable energy sources should be regulated based on the grid conditions, using robust controllers to share and balance the power in order to regulate the voltage and frequency of microgrid is critical. Therefore a proper control system is necessary for updating the reference signals and determining the proportion of each inverter in the microgrid control. This paper proposes a new adaptive method which is robust while the conditions are changing. This controller is based on a modified sliding mode controller which provides adapting conditions in linear and nonlinear loads. The performance of the proposed method is validated by representing the simulation results and experimental lab results. PMID:26704720

  19. Adaptive sliding mode back-stepping pitch angle control of a variable-displacement pump controlled pitch system for wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiu-xing; Lin, Yong-gang; Li, Wei; Liu, Hong-wei; Gu, Ya-jing

    2015-09-01

    A variable-displacement pump controlled pitch system is proposed to mitigate generator power and flap-wise load fluctuations for wind turbines. The pitch system mainly consists of a variable-displacement hydraulic pump, a fixed-displacement hydraulic motor and a gear set. The hydraulic motor can be accurately regulated by controlling the pump displacement and fluid flows to change the pitch angle through the gear set. The detailed mathematical representation and dynamic characteristics of the proposed pitch system are thoroughly analyzed. An adaptive sliding mode pump displacement controller and a back-stepping stroke piston controller are designed for the proposed pitch system such that the resulting pitch angle tracks its desired value regardless of external disturbances and uncertainties. The effectiveness and control efficiency of the proposed pitch system and controllers have been verified by using realistic dataset of a 750 kW research wind turbine. PMID:26303957

  20. Sliding-mode and proportional-derivative-type motion control with radial basis function neural network based estimators for wheeled vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamosoaji, Anugrah K.; Thuong Cat, Pham; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2014-12-01

    An obstacle avoidance problem of rear-steered wheeled vehicles in consideration of the presence of uncertainties is addressed. Modelling errors and additional uncertainties are taken into consideration. Controller designs for driving and steering motors are designed. A proportional-derivative-type driving motor controller and a sliding-mode steering controller combined with radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) based estimators are proposed. The convergence properties of the RBFNN-based estimators are proven by the Stone-Weierstrass theorem. The stability of the proposed control law is proven using Lyapunov stability analysis. The obstacle avoidance strategy utilising the sliding surface adjustment to an existing navigation method is presented. It is concluded that the driving velocity and steering-angle performances of the proposed control system are satisfactory.

  1. Multiple Model Adaptive Two-Step Filter and Motion Tracking Sliding-Mode Guidance for Missiles with Time Lag in Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Di; Zhang, Yong-An; Duan, Guang-Ren

    The two-step filter has been combined with a modified Sage-Husa time-varying measurement noise statistical estimator, which is able to estimate the covariance of measurement noise on line, to generate an adaptive two-step filter. In many practical applications such as the bearings-only guidance, some model parameters and the process noise covariance are also unknown a priori. Based on the adaptive two-step filter, we utilize multiple models in the first-step filtering as well as in the time update of the second-step filtering to handle the uncertainties of model parameters and process noise covariance. In each timestep of the multiple model filtering, probabilistic weights punishing the estimates of first-step state from different models, and their associated covariance matrices are acquired according to Bayes’ rule. The weighted sum of the estimates of first-step state and that of the associated covariance matrices are extracted as the ultimate estimate and covariance of the first-step state, and are used as measurement information for the measurement update of the second-step state. Thus there is still only one iteration process and no apparent enhancement of computation burden. A motion tracking sliding-mode guidance law is presented for missiles with non-negligible delays in actual acceleration. This guidance law guarantees guidance accuracy and is able to enhance observability in bearings-only tracking. In bearings-only cases, the multiple model adaptive two-step filter is applied to the motion tracking sliding-mode guidance law, supplying relative range, relative velocity, and target acceleration information. In simulation experiments satisfactory filtering and guidance results are obtained, even if the filter runs into unknown target maneuvers and unknown time-varying measurement noise covariance, and the guidance law has to deal with a large time lag in acceleration.

  2. A neuro-sliding-mode control with adaptive modeling of uncertainty for control of movement in paralyzed limbs using functional electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ajoudani, Arash; Erfanian, Abbas

    2009-07-01

    During the past several years, several strategies have been proposed for control of joint movement in paraplegic subjects using functional electrical stimulation (FES), but developing a control strategy that provides satisfactory tracking performance, to be robust against time-varying properties of muscle-joint dynamics, day-to-day variations, subject-to-subject variations, muscle fatigue, and external disturbances, and to be easy to apply without any re-identification of plant dynamics during different experiment sessions is still an open problem. In this paper, we propose a novel control methodology that is based on synergistic combination of neural networks with sliding-mode control (SMC) for controlling FES. The main advantage of SMC derives from the property of robustness to system uncertainties and external disturbances. However, the main drawback of the standard sliding modes is mostly related to the so-called chattering caused by the high-frequency control switching. To eliminate the chattering, we couple two neural networks with online learning without any offline training into the SMC. A recurrent neural network is used to model the uncertainties and provide an auxiliary equivalent control to keep the uncertainties to low values, and consequently, to use an SMC with lower switching gain. The second neural network consists of a single neuron and is used as an auxiliary controller. The control law will be switched from the SMC to neural control, when the state trajectory of system enters in some boundary layer around the sliding surface. Extensive simulations and experiments on healthy and paraplegic subjects are provided to demonstrate the robustness, stability, and tracking accuracy of the proposed neuroadaptive SMC. The results show that the neuro-SMC provides accurate tracking control with fast convergence for different reference trajectories and could generate control signals to compensate the muscle fatigue and reject the external disturbance. PMID

  3. Decentralized adaptive robust control based on sliding mode and nonlinear compensator for the control of ankle movement using functional electrical stimulation of agonist-antagonist muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobravi, Hamid-Reza; Erfanian, Abbas

    2009-08-01

    A decentralized control methodology is designed for the control of ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion in paraplegic subjects with electrical stimulation of tibialis anterior and calf muscles. Each muscle joint is considered as a subsystem and individual controllers are designed for each subsystem. Each controller operates solely on its associated subsystem, with no exchange of information between the subsystems. The interactions between the subsystems are taken as external disturbances for each isolated subsystem. In order to achieve robustness with respect to external disturbances, unmodeled dynamics, model uncertainty and time-varying properties of muscle-joint dynamics, a robust control framework is proposed which is based on the synergistic combination of an adaptive nonlinear compensator with a sliding mode control and is referred to as an adaptive robust control. Extensive simulations and experiments on healthy and paraplegic subjects were performed to demonstrate the robustness against the time-varying properties of muscle-joint dynamics, day-to-day variations, subject-to-subject variations, fast convergence, stability and tracking accuracy of the proposed method. The results indicate that the decentralized robust control provides excellent tracking control for different reference trajectories and can generate control signals to compensate the muscle fatigue and reject the external disturbance. Moreover, the controller is able to automatically regulate the interaction between agonist and antagonist muscles under different conditions of operating without any preprogrammed antagonist activities.

  4. Improved Re-Configurable Sliding Mode Controller for Reusable Launch Vehicle of Second Generation Addressing Aerodynamic Surface Failures and Thrust Deficiencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shtessel, Yuri B.

    2002-01-01

    In this report we present a time-varying sliding mode control (TV-SMC) technique for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) attitude control in ascent and entry flight phases. In ascent flight the guidance commands Euler roll, pitch and yaw angles, and in entry flight it commands the aerodynamic angles of bank, attack and sideslip. The controller employs a body rate inner loop and the attitude outer loop, which are separated in time-scale by the singular perturbation principle. The novelty of the TVSMC is that both the sliding surface and the boundary layer dynamics can be varied in real time using the PD-eigenvalue assignment technique. This salient feature is used to cope with control command saturation and integrator windup in the presence of severe disturbance or control effector failure, which enhances the robustness and fault tolerance of the controller. The TV-SMC is developed and tuned up for the X-33 sub-orbital technology demonstration vehicle in launch and re-entry modes. A variety of nominal, dispersion and failure scenarios have tested via high fidelity 6DOF simulations using MAVERIC/SLIM simulation software.

  5. Type-1 and Type-2 Fuzzy Logic and Sliding-Mode Based Speed Control of Direct Torque and Flux Control Induction Motor Drives - A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Tejavathu; Panda, A. K.; Kumar, S. Shiva

    2013-08-01

    In this research study, the performance of direct torque and flux control induction motor drive (IMD) is presented using five different speed control techniques. The performance of IMD mainly depends on the design of speed controller. The PI speed controller requires precise mathematical model, continuous and appropriate gain values. Therefore, adaptive control based speed controller is desirable to achieve high-performance drive. The sliding-mode speed controller (SMSC) is developed to achieve continuous control of motor speed and torque. Furthermore, the type-1 fuzzy logic speed controller (T1FLSC), type-1 fuzzy SMSC and a new type-2 fuzzy logic speed controller are designed to obtain high performance, dynamic tracking behaviour, speed accuracy and also robustness to parameter variations. The performance of each control technique has been tested for its robustness to parameter uncertainties and load disturbances. The detailed comparison of different control schemes are carried out in a MATALB/Simulink environment at different speed operating conditions, such as, forward and reversal motoring under no-load, load and sudden change in speed.

  6. Parallel Control of Velocity Control and Energy-Saving Control for a Hydraulic Valve-Controlled Cylinder System Using Self-Organizing Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Chien, Yu-Wei

    Conventional hydraulic valve-controlled systems that incorporate positive displacement pumps and relief valves have a problem of low energy efficiency. The objective of the research is to implement parallel control of energy-saving control in an electro-hydraulic load-sensing system and velocity control in a hydraulic valve-controlled cylinder system to achieve both high velocity control accuracy and low input power simultaneously. The overall control system is a two-input two-output system. For that, the control strategy of self-organizing fuzzy sliding mode control (SOFSMC) is developed in this study to reduce the fuzzy rule number and to self-organize on-line the fuzzy rules. To compare the energy-saving performance, the velocity control is implemented under three different energy-saving control systems, such as load-sensing control system, constant supply pressure control system and conventional hydraulic system. The parallel control of the velocity control and energy-saving control by the SOFSMC is implemented experimentally.

  7. CAOS-CMOS camera.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; La Torre, Juan Pablo; Amin, M Junaid

    2016-06-13

    Proposed and experimentally demonstrated is the CAOS-CMOS camera design that combines the coded access optical sensor (CAOS) imager platform with the CMOS multi-pixel optical sensor. The unique CAOS-CMOS camera engages the classic CMOS sensor light staring mode with the time-frequency-space agile pixel CAOS imager mode within one programmable optical unit to realize a high dynamic range imager for extreme light contrast conditions. The experimentally demonstrated CAOS-CMOS camera is built using a digital micromirror device, a silicon point-photo-detector with a variable gain amplifier, and a silicon CMOS sensor with a maximum rated 51.3 dB dynamic range. White light imaging of three different brightness simultaneously viewed targets, that is not possible by the CMOS sensor, is achieved by the CAOS-CMOS camera demonstrating an 82.06 dB dynamic range. Applications for the camera include industrial machine vision, welding, laser analysis, automotive, night vision, surveillance and multispectral military systems. PMID:27410361

  8. Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Jun; Tokuda, Takashi; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Noda, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented. PMID:22291554

  9. Phase and speed synchronization control of four eccentric rotors driven by induction motors in a linear vibratory feeder with unknown time-varying load torques using adaptive sliding mode control algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangxi; Zhang, Xueliang; Chen, Xiaozhe; Wen, Bangchun; Wang, Bo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, phase and speed synchronization control of four eccentric rotors (ERs) driven by induction motors in a linear vibratory feeder with unknown time-varying load torques is studied. Firstly, the electromechanical coupling model of the linear vibratory feeder is established by associating induction motor's model with the dynamic model of the system, which is a typical under actuated model. According to the characteristics of the linear vibratory feeder, the complex control problem of the under actuated electromechanical coupling model converts to phase and speed synchronization control of four ERs. In order to keep the four ERs operating synchronously with zero phase differences, phase and speed synchronization controllers are designed by employing adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) algorithm via a modified master-slave structure. The stability of the controllers is proved by Lyapunov stability theorem. The proposed controllers are verified by simulation via Matlab/Simulink program and compared with the conventional sliding mode control (SMC) algorithm. The results show the proposed controllers can reject the time-varying load torques effectively and four ERs can operate synchronously with zero phase differences. Moreover, the control performance is better than the conventional SMC algorithm and the chattering phenomenon is attenuated. Furthermore, the effects of reference speed and parametric perturbations are discussed to show the strong robustness of the proposed controllers. Finally, experiments on a simple vibratory test bench are operated by using the proposed controllers and without control, respectively, to validate the effectiveness of the proposed controllers further.

  10. CCD and CMOS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltham, Nick

    The charge-coupled device (CCD) has been developed primarily as a compact image sensor for consumer and industrial markets, but is now also the preeminent visible and ultraviolet wavelength image sensor in many fields of scientific research including space-science and both Earth and planetary remote sensing. Today"s scientific or science-grade CCD will strive to maximise pixel count, focal plane coverage, photon detection efficiency over the broadest spectral range and signal dynamic range whilst maintaining the lowest possible readout noise. The relatively recent emergence of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor technology is arguably the most important development in solid-state imaging since the invention of the CCD. CMOS technology enables the integration on a single silicon chip of a large array of photodiode pixels alongside all of the ancillary electronics needed to address the array and digitise the resulting analogue video signal. Compared to the CCD, CMOS promises a more compact, lower mass, lower power and potentially more radiation tolerant camera.

  11. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOEpatents

    Welch, J.D.

    1998-06-02

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a series combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electrically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided. 14 figs.

  12. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOEpatents

    Welch, James D.

    1998-01-01

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a seriesed combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided.

  13. Multivariable robust adaptive sliding mode control of an industrial boiler-turbine in the presence of modeling imprecisions and external disturbances: A comparison with type-I servo controller.

    PubMed

    Ghabraei, Soheil; Moradi, Hamed; Vossoughi, Gholamreza

    2015-09-01

    To guarantee the safety and efficient performance of the power plant, a robust controller for the boiler-turbine unit is needed. In this paper, a robust adaptive sliding mode controller (RASMC) is proposed to control a nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) model of industrial boiler-turbine unit, in the presence of unknown bounded uncertainties and external disturbances. To overcome the coupled nonlinearities and investigate the zero dynamics, input-output linearization is performed, and then the new decoupled inputs are derived. To tackle the uncertainties and external disturbances, appropriate adaption laws are introduced. For constructing the RASMC, suitable sliding surface is considered. To guarantee the sliding motion occurrence, appropriate control laws are constructed. Then the robustness and stability of the proposed RASMC is proved via Lyapunov stability theory. To compare the performance of the purposed RASMC with traditional control schemes, a type-I servo controller is designed. To evaluate the performance of the proposed control schemes, simulation studies on nonlinear MIMO dynamic system in the presence of high frequency bounded uncertainties and external disturbances are conducted and compared. Comparison of the results reveals the superiority of proposed RASMC over the traditional control schemes. RAMSC acts efficiently in disturbance rejection and keeping the system behavior in desirable tracking objectives, without the existence of unstable quasi-periodic solutions. PMID:25983065

  14. SOI CMOS Imager with Suppression of Cross-Talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Zheng, Xingyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Seshadri, Suresh; Sun, Chao

    2009-01-01

    A monolithic silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) image-detecting integrated circuit of the active-pixel-sensor type, now undergoing development, is designed to operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths and to offer a combination of high quantum efficiency and low diffusion and capacitive cross-talk among pixels. The imager is designed to be especially suitable for astronomical and astrophysical applications. The imager design could also readily be adapted to general scientific, biological, medical, and spectroscopic applications. One of the conditions needed to ensure both high quantum efficiency and low diffusion cross-talk is a relatively high reverse bias potential (between about 20 and about 50 V) on the photodiode in each pixel. Heretofore, a major obstacle to realization of this condition in a monolithic integrated circuit has been posed by the fact that the required high reverse bias on the photodiode is incompatible with metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) in the CMOS pixel readout circuitry. In the imager now being developed, the SOI structure is utilized to overcome this obstacle: The handle wafer is retained and the photodiode is formed in the handle wafer. The MOSFETs are formed on the SOI layer, which is separated from the handle wafer by a buried oxide layer. The electrical isolation provided by the buried oxide layer makes it possible to bias the MOSFETs at CMOS-compatible potentials (between 0 and 3 V), while biasing the photodiode at the required higher potential, and enables independent optimization of the sensory and readout portions of the imager.

  15. Large area CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetta, R.; Guerrini, N.; Sedgwick, I.

    2011-01-01

    CMOS image sensors, also known as CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS) or Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), are today the dominant imaging devices. They are omnipresent in our daily life, as image sensors in cellular phones, web cams, digital cameras, ... In these applications, the pixels can be very small, in the micron range, and the sensors themselves tend to be limited in size. However, many scientific applications, like particle or X-ray detection, require large format, often with large pixels, as well as other specific performance, like low noise, radiation hardness or very fast readout. The sensors are also required to be sensitive to a broad spectrum of radiation: photons from the silicon cut-off in the IR down to UV and X- and gamma-rays through the visible spectrum as well as charged particles. This requirement calls for modifications to the substrate to be introduced to provide optimized sensitivity. This paper will review existing CMOS image sensors, whose size can be as large as a single CMOS wafer, and analyse the technical requirements and specific challenges of large format CMOS image sensors.

  16. CMOS Integrated Carbon Nanotube Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, M. S.; Lerner, B.; Boselli, A.; Lamagna, A.; Obregon, P. D. Pareja; Julian, P. M.; Mandolesi, P. S.; Buffa, F. A.

    2009-05-23

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gaining their importance as sensors for gases, temperature and chemicals. Advances in fabrication processes simplify the formation of CNT sensor on silicon substrate. We have integrated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS) to produce a chip sensor system. The sensor prototype was designed and fabricated using a 0.30 um CMOS process. The main advantage is that the device has a voltage amplifier so the electrical measure can be taken and amplified inside the sensor. When the conductance of the SWCNTs varies in response to media changes, this is observed as a variation in the output tension accordingly.

  17. High-voltage CMOS detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrler, F.; Blanco, R.; Leys, R.; Perić, I.

    2016-07-01

    High-voltage CMOS (HVCMOS) pixel sensors are depleted active pixel sensors implemented in standard commercial CMOS processes. The sensor element is the n-well/p-substrate diode. The sensor electronics are entirely placed inside the n-well which is at the same time used as the charge collection electrode. High voltage is used to deplete the part of the substrate around the n-well. HVCMOS sensors allow implementation of complex in-pixel electronics. This, together with fast signal collection, allows a good time resolution, which is required for particle tracking in high energy physics. HVCMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI and are considered as an option for both ATLAS and CLIC (CERN). Radiation tolerance and time walk compensation have been tested and results are presented.

  18. CMOS output buffer wave shaper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albertson, L.; Whitaker, S.; Merrell, R.

    1990-01-01

    As the switching speeds and densities of Digital CMOS integrated circuits continue to increase, output switching noise becomes more of a problem. A design technique which aids in the reduction of switching noise is reported. The output driver stage is analyzed through the use of an equivalent RLC circuit. The results of the analysis are used in the design of an output driver stage. A test circuit based on these techniques is being submitted to MOSIS for fabrication.

  19. Fabrication of CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinovich, Yacov; Koltin, Ephie; Choen, David; Shkuri, Moshe; Ben-Simon, Meir

    1999-04-01

    In order to provide its customers with sub-micron CMOS fabrication solutions for imaging applications, Tower Semiconductor initiated a project to characterize the optical parameters of Tower's 0.5-micron process. A special characterization test chip was processed using the TS50 process. The results confirmed a high quality process for optical applications. Perhaps the most important result is the process' very low dark current, of 30-50 pA/cm2, using the entire window of process. This very low dark current characteristic was confirmed for a variety of pixel architectures. Additionally, we have succeeded to reduce and virtually eliminate the white spots on large sensor arrays. As a foundry Tower needs to support fabrication of many different imaging products. Therefore we have developed a fabrication methodology that is adjusted to the special needs of optical applications. In order to establish in-line process monitoring of the optical parameters, Tower places a scribe line optical test chip that enables wafer level measurements of the most important parameters, ensuring the optical quality and repeatability of the process. We have developed complementary capabilities like in house deposition of color filter and fabrication of very large are dice using sub-micron CMOS technologies. Shellcase and Tower are currently developing a new CMOS image sensor optical package.

  20. CMOS downsizing toward sub-10 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Hiroshi

    2004-04-01

    Recently, CMOS downsizing has been accelerated very aggressively in both production and research level, and even transistor operation of a 6 nm gate length p-channel MOSFET was reported in a conference. However, many serious problems are expected for implementing such small-geometry MOSFETs into large scale integrated circuits, and it is still questionable whether we can successfully introduce sub-10 nm CMOS LSIs into the market or not. In this paper, limitation and its possible causes for the downscaling of CMOS towards sub-10 nm are discussed with consideration of past CMOS predictions for the limitation.

  1. CMOS foveal image sensor chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandera, Cesar (Inventor); Scott, Peter (Inventor); Sridhar, Ramalingam (Inventor); Xia, Shu (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A foveal image sensor integrated circuit comprising a plurality of CMOS active pixel sensors arranged both within and about a central fovea region of the chip. The pixels in the central fovea region have a smaller size than the pixels arranged in peripheral rings about the central region. A new photocharge normalization scheme and associated circuitry normalizes the output signals from the different size pixels in the array. The pixels are assembled into a multi-resolution rectilinear foveal image sensor chip using a novel access scheme to reduce the number of analog RAM cells needed. Localized spatial resolution declines monotonically with offset from the imager's optical axis, analogous to biological foveal vision.

  2. Nanosecond monolithic CMOS readout cell

    DOEpatents

    Souchkov, Vitali V.

    2004-08-24

    A pulse shaper is implemented in monolithic CMOS with a delay unit formed of a unity gain buffer. The shaper is formed of a difference amplifier having one input connected directly to an input signal and a second input connected to a delayed input signal through the buffer. An elementary cell is based on the pulse shaper and a timing circuit which gates the output of an integrator connected to the pulse shaper output. A detector readout system is formed of a plurality of elementary cells, each connected to a pixel of a pixel array, or to a microstrip of a plurality of microstrips, or to a detector segment.

  3. Accelerated life testing effects on CMOS microcircuit characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Accelerated life tests were performed on CMOS microcircuits to predict their long term reliability. The consistency of the CMOS microcircuit activation energy between the range of 125 C to 200 C and the range 200 C to 250 C was determined. Results indicate CMOS complexity and the amount of moisture detected inside the devices after testing influences time to failure of tested CMOS devices.

  4. Carbon Nanotube Integration with a CMOS Process

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Maximiliano S.; Lerner, Betiana; Resasco, Daniel E.; Pareja Obregon, Pablo D.; Julian, Pedro M.; Mandolesi, Pablo S.; Buffa, Fabian A.; Boselli, Alfredo; Lamagna, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This work shows the integration of a sensor based on carbon nanotubes using CMOS technology. A chip sensor (CS) was designed and manufactured using a 0.30 μm CMOS process, leaving a free window on the passivation layer that allowed the deposition of SWCNTs over the electrodes. We successfully investigated with the CS the effect of humidity and temperature on the electrical transport properties of SWCNTs. The possibility of a large scale integration of SWCNTs with CMOS process opens a new route in the design of more efficient, low cost sensors with high reproducibility in their manufacture. PMID:22319330

  5. Biosensing with integrated CMOS nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Ashfaque; Yemenicioglu, Sukru; Chen, Chin-Hsuan; Corgliano, Ellie; Milaninia, Kaveh; Xia, Fan; Plaxco, Kevin; Theogarajan, Luke

    2012-10-01

    This paper outlines our recent efforts in using solid-state nanopores as a biosensing platform. Traditionally biosensors concentrate mainly on the detection platform and not on signal processing. This decoupling can lead to inferior sensors and is exacerbated in nanoscale devices, where device noise is large and large dynamic range is required. This paper outlines a novel platform that integrates the nano, micro and macroscales in a closely coupled manner that mitigates many of these problems. We discuss our initial results of DNA translocation through the nanopore. We also briefly discuss the use of molecular recognition properties of aptamers with the versatility of the nanopore detector to design a new class of biosensors in a CMOS compatible platform.

  6. Flexible packaging and integration of CMOS IC with elastomeric microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bowei; Dong, Quan; Korman, Can E.; Li, Zhenyu; Zaghloul, Mona E.

    2013-05-01

    We have demonstrated flexible packaging and integration of CMOS IC chips with PDMS microfluidics. Microfluidic channels are used to deliver both liquid samples and liquid metals to the CMOS die. The liquid metals are used to realize electrical interconnects to the CMOS chip. As a demonstration we integrated a CMOS magnetic sensor die and matched PDMS microfluidic channels in a flexible package. The packaged system is fully functional under 3cm bending radius. The flexible integration of CMOS ICs with microfluidics enables previously unavailable flexible CMOS electronic systems with fluidic manipulation capabilities, which hold great potential for wearable health monitoring, point-of-care diagnostics and environmental sensing.

  7. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, K. K.; Ram, R. J.; Eltony, A. M.; Chuang, I. L.; Bruzewicz, C. D.; Sage, J. M. Chiaverini, J.

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  8. Nanopore-CMOS Interfaces for DNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Magierowski, Sebastian; Huang, Yiyun; Wang, Chengjie; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    DNA sequencers based on nanopore sensors present an opportunity for a significant break from the template-based incumbents of the last forty years. Key advantages ushered by nanopore technology include a simplified chemistry and the ability to interface to CMOS technology. The latter opportunity offers substantial promise for improvement in sequencing speed, size and cost. This paper reviews existing and emerging means of interfacing nanopores to CMOS technology with an emphasis on massively-arrayed structures. It presents this in the context of incumbent DNA sequencing techniques, reviews and quantifies nanopore characteristics and models and presents CMOS circuit methods for the amplification of low-current nanopore signals in such interfaces. PMID:27509529

  9. Characterization and reliability of CMOS microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedder, Gary K.; Blanton, Ronald D. S.

    1999-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of high-aspect-ratio CMOS micromachining, focusing on materials characterization, reliability, and fault analysis. Composite microstrutural beam widths and gaps down to 1.2 micrometers are etched out of conventional CMOS dielectric, aluminum, and gate-polysilicon thin films using post-CMOS dry etching for both structural sidewall definition and for release from the substrate. Differences in stress between the multiple metal and dielectric layers cause vertical stress gradients and curl, while misalignment between layers causes lateral stress gradients and curl. Cracking is induced in a resonant fatigue structures at 620 MPa of repetitive stress after over 50 million cycles. Beams have withstood over 1.3 billion cycles at 124 MPa stress levels induced by electrostatic actuation. Failures due to process defects are classified according to the geometrical features of the defective structures. Relative probability of occurrence of each defect type is extracted from the process simulation results.

  10. High-temperature Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors (CMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbrayer, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an investigation into the possibility of using complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology for high temperature electronics are presented. A CMOS test chip was specifically developed as the test bed. This test chip incorporates CMOS transistors that have no gate protection diodes; these diodes are the major cause of leakage in commercial devices.

  11. Low power, CMOS digital autocorrelator spectrometer for spaceborne applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, Kumar; Wilson, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A 128-channel digital autocorrelator spectrometer using four 32 channel low power CMOS correlator chips was built and tested. The CMOS correlator chip uses a 2-bit multiplication algorithm and a full-custom CMOS VLSI design to achieve low DC power consumption. The digital autocorrelator spectrometer has a 20 MHz band width, and the total DC power requirement is 6 Watts.

  12. Resistor Extends Life Of Battery In Clocked CMOS Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, George H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Addition of fixed resistor between battery and clocked complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) circuit reduces current drawn from battery. Basic idea to minimize current drawn from battery by operating CMOS circuit at lowest possible current consistent with use of simple, fixed off-the-shelf components. Prolongs lives of batteries in such low-power CMOS circuits as watches and calculators.

  13. End-of-fabrication CMOS process monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Allen, R. A.; Blaes, B. R.; Hannaman, D. J.; Lieneweg, U.; Lin, Y.-S.; Sayah, H. R.

    1990-01-01

    A set of test 'modules' for verifying the quality of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process at the end of the wafer fabrication is documented. By electrical testing of specific structures, over thirty parameters are collected characterizing interconnects, dielectrics, contacts, transistors, and inverters. Each test module contains a specification of its purpose, the layout of the test structure, the test procedures, the data reduction algorithms, and exemplary results obtained from 3-, 2-, or 1.6-micrometer CMOS/bulk processes. The document is intended to establish standard process qualification procedures for Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC's).

  14. Radiation Tolerance of 65nm CMOS Transistors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Krohn, M.; Bentele, B.; Christian, D. C.; Cumalat, J. P.; Deptuch, G.; Fahim, F.; Hoff, J.; Shenai, A.; Wagner, S. R.

    2015-12-11

    We report on the effects of ionizing radiation on 65 nm CMOS transistors held at approximately -20°C during irradiation. The pattern of damage observed after a total dose of 1 Grad is similar to damage reported in room temperature exposures, but we observe less damage than was observed at room temperature.

  15. SEU hardening of CMOS memory circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, S.; Canaris, J.; Liu, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a design technique to harden CMOS memory circuits against Single Event Upset (SEU) in the space environment. A RAM cell and Flip Flop design are presented to demonstrate the method. The Flip Flop was used in the control circuitry for a Reed Solomon encoder designed for the Space Station.

  16. Low energy CMOS for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Alkalaj, Leon

    1992-01-01

    The current focus of NASA's space flight programs reflects a new thrust towards smaller, less costly, and more frequent space missions, when compared to missions such as Galileo, Magellan, or Cassini. Recently, the concept of a microspacecraft was proposed. In this concept, a small, compact spacecraft that weighs tens of kilograms performs focused scientific objectives such as imaging. Similarly, a Mars Lander micro-rover project is under study that will allow miniature robots weighing less than seven kilograms to explore the Martian surface. To bring the microspacecraft and microrover ideas to fruition, one will have to leverage compact 3D multi-chip module-based multiprocessors (MCM) technologies. Low energy CMOS will become increasingly important because of the thermodynamic considerations in cooling compact 3D MCM implementations and also from considerations of the power budget for space applications. In this paper, we show how the operating voltage is related to the threshold voltage of the CMOS transistors for accomplishing a task in VLSI with minimal energy. We also derive expressions for the noise margins at the optimal operating point. We then look at a low voltage CMOS (LVCMOS) technology developed at Stanford University which improves the power consumption over conventional CMOS by a couple of orders of magnitude and consider the suitability of the technology for space applications by characterizing its SEU immunity.

  17. Low power SEU immune CMOS memory circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, M. N.; Whitaker, Sterling

    1992-01-01

    The authors report a design improvement for CMOS static memory circuits hardened against single event upset (SEU) using a recently proposed logic/circuit design technique. This improvement drastically reduces static power consumption, reduces the number of transistors required in a D flip-flop design, and eliminates the possibility of capturing an upset state in the slave section during a clock transition.

  18. Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Justin A.; Naik, Gururaj V.; Petach, Trevor A.; Baum, Brian K.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Dionne, Jennifer A.

    2016-02-01

    CMOS-compatible fabrication of plasmonic materials and devices will accelerate the development of integrated nanophotonics for information processing applications. Using low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), we develop a recipe for fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride (TiN) that is plasmonic in the visible and near infrared. Films are grown on silicon, silicon dioxide, and epitaxially on magnesium oxide substrates. By optimizing the plasma exposure per growth cycle during PEALD, carbon and oxygen contamination are reduced, lowering undesirable loss. We use electron beam lithography to pattern TiN nanopillars with varying diameters on silicon in large-area arrays. In the first reported single-particle measurements on plasmonic TiN, we demonstrate size-tunable darkfield scattering spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared regimes. The optical properties of this CMOS-compatible material, combined with its high melting temperature and mechanical durability, comprise a step towards fully CMOS-integrated nanophotonic information processing.

  19. A fail-safe CMOS logic gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobin, V.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a design technique to make Complex CMOS Gates fail-safe for a class of faults. Two classes of faults are defined. The fail-safe design presented has limited fault-tolerance capability. Multiple faults are also covered.

  20. CMOS preamplifiers for detectors large and small

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.

    1997-12-31

    We describe four CMOS preamplifiers developed for multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) and silicon drift detectors (SDD) covering a capacitance range from 150 pF to 0.15 pF. Circuit techniques to optimize noise performance, particularly in the low-capacitance regime, are discussed.

  1. Low energy CMOS for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Alkalaj, Leon

    The current focus of NASA's space flight programs reflects a new thrust towards smaller, less costly, and more frequent space missions, when compared to missions such as Galileo, Magellan, or Cassini. Recently, the concept of a microspacecraft was proposed. In this concept, a small, compact spacecraft that weighs tens of kilograms performs focused scientific objectives such as imaging. Similarly, a Mars Lander micro-rover project is under study that will allow miniature robots weighing less than seven kilograms to explore the Martian surface. To bring the microspacecraft and microrover ideas to fruition, one will have to leverage compact 3D multi-chip module-based multiprocessors (MCM) technologies. Low energy CMOS will become increasingly important because of the thermodynamic considerations in cooling compact 3D MCM implementations and also from considerations of the power budget for space applications. In this paper, we show how the operating voltage is related to the threshold voltage of the CMOS transistors for accomplishing a task in VLSI with minimal energy. We also derive expressions for the noise margins at the optimal operating point. We then look at a low voltage CMOS (LVCMOS) technology developed at Stanford University which improves the power consumption over conventional CMOS by a couple of orders of magnitude and consider the suitability of the technology for space applications by characterizing its SEU immunity.

  2. Low-Power SOI CMOS Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujikawa, Gene (Technical Monitor); Cheruiyot, K.; Cothern, J.; Huang, D.; Singh, S.; Zencir, E.; Dogan, N.

    2003-01-01

    The work aims at developing a low-power Silicon on Insulator Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (SOI CMOS) Transceiver for deep-space communications. RF Receiver must accomplish the following tasks: (a) Select the desired radio channel and reject other radio signals, (b) Amplify the desired radio signal and translate them back to baseband, and (c) Detect and decode the information with Low BER. In order to minimize cost and achieve high level of integration, receiver architecture should use least number of external filters and passive components. It should also consume least amount of power to minimize battery cost, size, and weight. One of the most stringent requirements for deep-space communication is the low-power operation. Our study identified that two candidate architectures listed in the following meet these requirements: (1) Low-IF receiver, (2) Sub-sampling receiver. The low-IF receiver uses minimum number of external components. Compared to Zero-IF (Direct conversion) architecture, it has less severe offset and flicker noise problems. The Sub-sampling receiver amplifies the RF signal and samples it using track-and-hold Subsampling mixer. These architectures provide low-power solution for the short- range communications missions on Mars. Accomplishments to date include: (1) System-level design and simulation of a Double-Differential PSK receiver, (2) Implementation of Honeywell SOI CMOS process design kit (PDK) in Cadence design tools, (3) Design of test circuits to investigate relationships between layout techniques, geometry, and low-frequency noise in SOI CMOS, (4) Model development and verification of on-chip spiral inductors in SOI CMOS process, (5) Design/implementation of low-power low-noise amplifier (LNA) and mixer for low-IF receiver, and (6) Design/implementation of high-gain LNA for sub-sampling receiver. Our initial results show that substantial improvement in power consumption is achieved using SOI CMOS as compared to standard CMOS

  3. Comparative study of Gamow-Teller strength distributions in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 50}V and its impact on electron capture rates in astrophysical environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Sajjad, Muhammad

    2007-11-15

    Gamow-Teller (GT) strength transitions are an ideal probe for testing nuclear structure models. In addition to nuclear structure, GT transitions in nuclei directly affect the early phases of Type Ia and Type-II supernovae core collapse since the electron capture rates are partly determined by these GT transitions. In astrophysics, GT transitions provide an important input for model calculations and element formation during the explosive phase of a massive star at the end of its life-time. Recent nucleosynthesis calculations show that odd-odd and odd-A nuclei cause the largest contribution in the rate of change of lepton-to-baryon ratio. In the present manuscript, we have calculated the GT strength distributions and electron capture rates for odd-odd nucleus {sup 50}V by using the pn-QRPA theory. At present {sup 50}V is the first experimentally available odd-odd nucleus in fp-shell nuclei. We also compare our GT strength distribution with the recently measured results of a {sup 50}V(d, {sup 2}He){sup 50}Ti experiment, with the earlier work of Fuller, Fowler, and Newman (referred to as FFN) and subsequently with the large-scale shell model calculations. One curious finding of the paper is that the Brink's hypothesis, usually employed in large-scale shell model calculations, is not a good approximation to use at least in the case of {sup 50}V. SNe Ia model calculations performed using FFN rates result in overproduction of {sup 50}Ti, and were brought to a much acceptable value by employing shell model results. It might be interesting to study how the composition of the ejecta using presently reported QRPA rates compare with the observed abundances.

  4. Insights into the extremotolerance of Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1, a gram-negative bacterium isolated from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

    PubMed

    McCoy, K B; Derecho, I; Wong, T; Tran, H M; Huynh, T D; La Duc, M T; Venkateswaran, K; Mogul, R

    2012-09-01

    The microbiology of the spacecraft assembly process is of paramount importance to planetary exploration, as the biological contamination that can result from remote-enabled spacecraft carries the potential to impact both life-detection experiments and extraterrestrial evolution. Accordingly, insights into the mechanisms and range of extremotolerance of Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1, a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from the surface of the preflight Mars Odyssey orbiter, were gained by using a combination of microbiological, enzymatic, and proteomic methods. In summary, A. radioresistens 50v1 displayed a remarkable range of survival against hydrogen peroxide and the sequential exposures of desiccation, vapor and plasma phase hydrogen peroxide, and ultraviolet irradiation. The survival is among the highest reported for non-spore-forming and Gram-negative bacteria and is based upon contributions from the enzyme-based degradation of H(2)O(2) (catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase), energy management (ATP synthase and alcohol dehydrogenase), and modulation of the membrane composition. Together, the biochemical and survival features of A. radioresistens 50v1 support a potential persistence on Mars (given an unintended or planned surface landing of the Mars Odyssey orbiter), which in turn may compromise the scientific integrity of future life-detection missions. PMID:22917036

  5. Graphene/Si CMOS Hybrid Hall Integrated Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Le; Xu, Huilong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Chengying; Jiang, Jianhua; Ma, Xiaomeng; Chen, Bingyan; Li, Zishen; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2014-01-01

    Graphene/silicon CMOS hybrid integrated circuits (ICs) should provide powerful functions which combines the ultra-high carrier mobility of graphene and the sophisticated functions of silicon CMOS ICs. But it is difficult to integrate these two kinds of heterogeneous devices on a single chip. In this work a low temperature process is developed for integrating graphene devices onto silicon CMOS ICs for the first time, and a high performance graphene/CMOS hybrid Hall IC is demonstrated. Signal amplifying/process ICs are manufactured via commercial 0.18 um silicon CMOS technology, and graphene Hall elements (GHEs) are fabricated on top of the passivation layer of the CMOS chip via a low-temperature micro-fabrication process. The sensitivity of the GHE on CMOS chip is further improved by integrating the GHE with the CMOS amplifier on the Si chip. This work not only paves the way to fabricate graphene/Si CMOS Hall ICs with much higher performance than that of conventional Hall ICs, but also provides a general method for scalable integration of graphene devices with silicon CMOS ICs via a low-temperature process. PMID:24998222

  6. Ultralow-Loss CMOS Copper Plasmonic Waveguides.

    PubMed

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu; Yakubovsky, Dmitry I; Kirtaev, Roman V; Volkov, Valentyn S

    2016-01-13

    Surface plasmon polaritons can give a unique opportunity to manipulate light at a scale well below the diffraction limit reducing the size of optical components down to that of nanoelectronic circuits. At the same time, plasmonics is mostly based on noble metals, which are not compatible with microelectronics manufacturing technologies. This prevents plasmonic components from integration with both silicon photonics and silicon microelectronics. Here, we demonstrate ultralow-loss copper plasmonic waveguides fabricated in a simple complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process, which can outperform gold plasmonic waveguides simultaneously providing long (>40 μm) propagation length and deep subwavelength (∼λ(2)/50, where λ is the free-space wavelength) mode confinement in the telecommunication spectral range. These results create the backbone for the development of a CMOS plasmonic platform and its integration in future electronic chips. PMID:26654281

  7. Noise in a CMOS digital pixel sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Zhang; Suying, Yao; Jiangtao, Xu

    2011-11-01

    Based on the study of noise performance in CMOS digital pixel sensor (DPS), a mathematical model of noise is established with the pulse-width-modulation (PWM) principle. Compared with traditional CMOS image sensors, the integration time is different and A/D conversion is implemented in each PWM DPS pixel. Then, the quantitative calculating formula of system noise is derived. It is found that dark current shot noise is the dominant noise source in low light region while photodiode shot noise becomes significantly important in the bright region. In this model, photodiode shot noise does not vary with luminance, but dark current shot noise does. According to increasing photodiode capacitance and the comparator's reference voltage or optimizing the mismatch in the comparator, the total noise can be reduced. These results serve as a guideline for the design of PWM DPS.

  8. Spectrum acquisition of detonation based on CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Bai, Yonglin; Wang, Bo; Liu, Baiyu; Xue, Yingdong; Zhang, Wei; Gou, Yongsheng; Bai, Xiaohong; Qin, Junjun; Xian, Ouyang

    2010-10-01

    The detection of high-speed dynamic spectrum is the main method to acquire transient information. In order to obtain the large amount spectral data in real-time during the process of detonation, a CMOS-based system with high-speed spectrum data acquisition is designed. The hardware platform of the system is based on FPGA, and the unique characteristic of CMOS image sensors in the rolling shutter model is used simultaneously. Using FPGA as the master control chip of the system, not only provides the time sequence for CIS, but also controls the storage and transmission of the spectral data. In the experiment of spectral data acquisition, the acquired information is transmitted to the host computer through the CameraLink bus. The dynamic spectral curve is obtained after the subsequent processing. The experimental results demonstrate that this system is feasible in the acquisition and storage of high-speed dynamic spectrum information during the process of detonation.

  9. IR CMOS: infrared enhanced silicon imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pralle, M. U.; Carey, J. E.; Haddad, Homayoon; Vineis, C.; Sickler, J.; Li, X.; Jiang, J.; Sahebi, F.; Palsule, C.; McKee, J.

    2013-06-01

    SiOnyx has developed visible and infrared CMOS image sensors leveraging a proprietary ultrafast laser semiconductor process technology. This technology demonstrates 10 fold improvements in infrared sensitivity over incumbent imaging technology while maintaining complete compatibility with standard CMOS image sensor process flows. Furthermore, these sensitivity enhancements are achieved on a focal plane with state of the art noise performance of 2 electrons/pixel. By capturing light in the visible regime as well as infrared light from the night glow, this sensor technology provides imaging in daytime through twilight and into nighttime conditions. The measured 10x quantum efficiency at the critical 1064 nm laser node enables see spot imaging capabilities in a variety of ambient conditions. The spectral sensitivity is from 400 to 1200 nm.

  10. Cmos spdt switch for wlan applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, M. A. S.; Reaz, M. B. I.; Rahman, L. F.; Minhad, K. N.

    2015-04-01

    WLAN has become an essential part of our today's life. The advancement of CMOS technology let the researchers contribute low power, size and cost effective WLAN devices. This paper proposes a single pole double through transmit/receive (T/R) switch for WLAN applications in 0.13 μm CMOS technology. The proposed switch exhibit 1.36 dB insertion loss, 25.3 dB isolation and 24.3 dBm power handling capacity. Moreover, it only dissipates 786.7 nW power per cycle. The switch utilizes only transistor aspect ratio optimization and resistive body floating technique to achieve such desired performance. In this design the use of bulky inductor and capacitor is avoided to evade imposition of unwanted nonlinearities to the communication signal.

  11. CMOS Camera Array With Onboard Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Nahum

    2009-01-01

    A compact CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) camera system has been developed with high resolution (1.3 Megapixels), a USB (universal serial bus) 2.0 interface, and an onboard memory. Exposure times, and other operating parameters, are sent from a control PC via the USB port. Data from the camera can be received via the USB port and the interface allows for simple control and data capture through a laptop computer.

  12. CMOS-array design-automation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, A.; Lombardt, T.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty four page report discusses design of 4,096-bit complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) read-only memory (ROM). CMOSROM is either mask or laser programable. Report is divided into six sections; section one describes background of ROM chips; section two presents design goals for chip; section three discusses chip implementation and chip statistics; conclusions and recommendations are given in sections four thru six.

  13. Advanced CMOS Radiation Effects Testing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan Allen; Marshall, Paul W.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Gordon, Michael S.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Schwank, James R.; Dodds, Nathaniel A.; Castaneda, Carlos M.; Berg, Melanie D.; Kim, Hak S.; Phan, Anthony M.; Seidleck, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Presentation at the annual NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Electronic Technology Workshop (ETW). The material includes an update of progress in this NEPP task area over the past year, which includes testing, evaluation, and analysis of radiation effects data on the IBM 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The testing was conducted using test vehicles supplied by directly by IBM.

  14. Advanced CMOS Radiation Effects Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, J. A.; Marshall, P. W.; Rodbell, K. P.; Gordon, M. S.; LaBel, K. A.; Schwank, J. R.; Dodds, N. A.; Castaneda, C. M.; Berg, M. D.; Kim, H. S.; Phan, A. M.; Seidleck, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Presentation at the annual NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Electronic Technology Workshop (ETW). The material includes an update of progress in this NEPP task area over the past year, which includes testing, evaluation, and analysis of radiation effects data on the IBM 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The testing was conducted using test vehicles supplied by directly by IBM.

  15. Radiation effects on scientific CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuanfu, Zhao; Liyan, Liu; Xiaohui, Liu; Xiaofeng, Jin; Xiang, Li

    2015-11-01

    A systemic solution for radiation hardened design is presented. Besides, a series of experiments have been carried out on the samples, and then the photoelectric response characteristic and spectral characteristic before and after the experiments have been comprehensively analyzed. The performance of the CMOS image sensor with the radiation hardened design technique realized total-dose resilience up to 300 krad(Si) and resilience to single-event latch up for LET up to 110 MeV·cm2/mg.

  16. Radiation characteristics of scintillator coupled CMOS APS for radiography conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Soongpyung; Kang, Dong-Won; Kim, Dong-Kie

    2006-11-01

    Under industrial radiography conditions, we analyzed short-term radiation characteristics of scintillator coupled CMOS APS (hereinafter SC CMOS APS). By means of experimentation, the contribution of the transmitted X-ray through the scintillator to the properties of the CMOS APS and the afterimage, generated in the acquired image even at low dose condition, were investigated. To see the transmitted X-ray effects on the CMOS APS, Fein focus™ X-ray machine, two scintillators of Lanex™ Fine and Regular, and two CMOS APS array of RadEye™ were used under the conditions of 50 kV p/1 mAs and 100 kV p/1 mAs. By measuring the transmitted X-ray on signal and Noise Power Spectrum, we analytically examined the generation mechanism of the afterimage, based on dark signal or dark current increase in the sensor, and explained the afterimage in the SC CMOS APS.

  17. CMOS-controlled rapidly tunable photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ray

    With rapidly increasing data bandwidth demands, wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) optical access networks seem unavoidable in the near future. To operate WDM optical networks in an efficient scheme, wavelength reconfigurability and scalability of the network are crucial. Unfortunately, most of the existing wavelength tunable technologies are neither rapidly tunable nor spectrally programmable. This dissertation presents a tunable photodetector that is designed for dynamic-wavelength allocation WDM network environments. The wavelength tuning mechanism is completely different from existing technologies. The spectrum of this detector is programmable through low-voltage digital patterns. Since the wavelength selection is achieved by electronic means, the device wavelength reconfiguration time is as fast as the electronic switching time. In this dissertation work, we have demonstrated a tunable detector that is hybridly integrated with its customized CMOS driver and receiver with nanosecond wavelength reconfiguration time. In addition to its nanosecond wavelength reconfiguration time, the spectrum of this detector is digitally programmable, which means that it can adapt to system changes without re-fabrication. We have theoretically developed and experimentally demonstrated two device operating algorithms based on the same orthogonal device-optics basis. Both the rapid wavelength tuning time and the scalability make this novel device very viable for new reconfigurable WDM networks. By taking advantage of CMOS circuit design, this detector concept can be further extended for simultaneous multiple wavelength detection. We have developed one possible chip architecture and have designed a CMOS tunable optical demux for simultaneous controllable two-wavelength detection.

  18. Efficient design of CMOS TSC checkers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddappa, Anita; Shamanna, Manjunath K.; Maki, Gary; Whitaker, Sterling

    1990-01-01

    This paper considers the design of an efficient, robustly testable, CMOS Totally Self-Checking (TSC) Checker for k-out-of-2k codes. Most existing implementations use primitive gates and assume the single stuck-at fault model. The self-testing property has been found to fail for CMOS TSC checkers under the stuck-open fault model due to timing skews and arbitrary delays in the circuit. A new four level design using CMOS primitive gates (NAND, NOR, INVERTERS) is presented. This design retains its properties under the stuck-open fault model. Additionally, this method offers an impressive reduction (greater than 70 percent) in gate count, gate inputs, and test set size when compared to the existing method. This implementation is easily realizable and is based on Anderson's technique. A thorough comparative study has been made on the proposed implementation and Kundu's implementation and the results indicate that the proposed one is better than Kundu's in all respects for k-out-of-2k codes.

  19. Quantitative optical metrology with CMOS cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, Cosme; Kolenovic, Ervin; Ferguson, Curtis F.

    2004-08-01

    Recent advances in laser technology, optical sensing, and computer processing of data, have lead to the development of advanced quantitative optical metrology techniques for high accuracy measurements of absolute shapes and deformations of objects. These techniques provide noninvasive, remote, and full field of view information about the objects of interest. The information obtained relates to changes in shape and/or size of the objects, characterizes anomalies, and provides tools to enhance fabrication processes. Factors that influence selection and applicability of an optical technique include the required sensitivity, accuracy, and precision that are necessary for a particular application. In this paper, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision characteristics in quantitative optical metrology techniques, and specifically in optoelectronic holography (OEH) based on CMOS cameras, are discussed. Sensitivity, accuracy, and precision are investigated with the aid of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable gauges, demonstrating the applicability of CMOS cameras in quantitative optical metrology techniques. It is shown that the advanced nature of CMOS technology can be applied to challenging engineering applications, including the study of rapidly evolving phenomena occurring in MEMS and micromechatronics.

  20. Correct CMOS IC defect models for quality testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soden, Jerry M.; Hawkins, Charles F.

    1993-01-01

    Leading edge, high reliability, and low escape CMOS IC test practices have now virtually removed the stuck-at fault model and replaced it with more defect-orientated models. Quiescent power supply current testing (I(sub DDQ)) combined with strategic use of high speed test patterns is the recommended approach to zero defect and high reliability testing goals. This paper reviews the reasons for the change in CMOS IC test practices and outlines an improved CMOS IC test methodology.

  1. A Standard CMOS Humidity Sensor without Post-Processing

    PubMed Central

    Nizhnik, Oleg; Higuchi, Kohei; Maenaka, Kazusuke

    2011-01-01

    A 2 μW power dissipation, voltage-output, humidity sensor accurate to 5% relative humidity was developed using the LFoundry 0.15 μm CMOS technology without post-processing. The sensor consists of a woven lateral array of electrodes implemented in CMOS top metal, a Intervia Photodielectric 8023–10 humidity-sensitive layer, and a CMOS capacitance to voltage converter. PMID:22163949

  2. Behavior of faulty double BJT BiCMOS logic gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Sankaran M.; Malaiya, Yashwant K.; Jayasumana, Anura P.

    1992-01-01

    Logic Behavior of a Double BJT BiCMOS device under transistor level shorts and opens is examined. In addition to delay faults, faults that cause the gate to exhibit sequential behavior were observed. Several faults can be detected only by monitoring the current. The faulty behavior of Bipolar (TTL) and CMOS logic families is compared with BiCMOS, to bring out the testability differences.

  3. Power Conditioning And Distribution Units For 50V Platforms A Flexible And Modular Concept Allowing To Deal With Time Constraining Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempereur, V.; Liegeois, B.; Deplus, N.

    2011-10-01

    In the frame of its Power Conditioning and Distribution Unit (PCDU) Medium power product family, Thales Alenia space ETCA is currently developing Power Conditioning Unit (PCU) and PCDU products for 50V platforms applications. These developments are performed in very schedule constraining programs. This challenge can be met thanks to the modular PCDU concept allowing to share a common heritage at mechanical & thermal points of view as well as at electrical functions level. First Medium power PCDU application has been developed for Herschel-Planck PCDU and re-used in several other missions (e.g. GlobalStar2 PCDU for which we are producing more than 26 units). Based on this heritage, a development plan based on Electrical Model (EM) (avoiding Electrical Qualification Model - EQM) can be proposed when the mechanical qualification of the concept covers the environment required in new projects. This first heritage level allows reducing development schedule and activities. In addition, development is also optimized thanks to the re-use of functions designed and qualified in Herschel- PlanckPCDU. This coversinternal TM/TC management inside PCDU based on a centralized scheduler and an internal high speed serial bus. Finally, thanks to common architecture of several 50V platforms based on full regulated bus, S3R (Sequential Shunt Switch Regulator) concept and one (or two) Li- Ion battery(ies), a common PCU/PCDU architecture has allowed the development of modules or functions that are used in several applications. These achievements are discussed with particular emphasis on PCDU architecture trade-offs allowing flexibility of proposed technical solutions (w.r.t. mono/bi-battery configurations, SA inner capacitance value, output power needs...). Pro's and con's of sharing concepts and designs between several applications on 50V platforms are also be discussed.

  4. Interferometric comparison of the performance of a CMOS and sCMOS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Moreno, J. M.; De la Torre I., Manuel H.; Hernández-Montes, M. S.; Pérez-López, Carlos; Mendoza S., Fernando

    2015-08-01

    We present an analysis of the imaging performance of two state-of-the-art sensors widely used in the nondestructive- testing area (NDT). The analysis is based on the quantification of the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio from an optical phase image. The calculation of the SNR is based on the relation of the median (average) and standard deviation measurements over specific areas of interest in the phase images of both sensors. This retrieved phase is coming from the vibrational behavior of a large object by means of an out-of-plane holographic interferometer. The SNR is used as a figure-of-merit to evaluate and compare the performance of the CMOS and scientific CMOS (sCMOS) camera as part of the experimental set-up. One of the cameras has a high speed CMOS sensor while the other has a high resolution sCMOS sensor. The object under study is a metallically framed table with a Formica cover with an observable area of 1.1 m2. The vibration induced to the sample is performed by a linear step motor with an attached tip in the motion stage. Each camera is used once at the time to record the deformation keeping the same experimental conditions for each case. These measurements may complement the conventional procedures or technical information commonly used to evaluate a camerás performance such as: quantum efficiency, spatial resolution and others. Results present post processed images from both cameras, but showing a smoother and easy to unwrap optical phase coming from those recorded with the sCMOS camera.

  5. Current-mode CMOS hybrid image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benyhesan, Mohammad Kassim

    Digital imaging is growing rapidly making Complimentary Metal-Oxide-Semi conductor (CMOS) image sensor-based cameras indispensable in many modern life devices like cell phones, surveillance devices, personal computers, and tablets. For various purposes wireless portable image systems are widely deployed in many indoor and outdoor places such as hospitals, urban areas, streets, highways, forests, mountains, and towers. However, the increased demand on high-resolution image sensors and improved processing features is expected to increase the power consumption of the CMOS sensor-based camera systems. Increased power consumption translates into a reduced battery life-time. The increased power consumption might not be a problem if there is access to a nearby charging station. On the other hand, the problem arises if the image sensor is located in widely spread areas, unfavorable to human intervention, and difficult to reach. Given the limitation of energy sources available for wireless CMOS image sensor, an energy harvesting technique presents a viable solution to extend the sensor life-time. Energy can be harvested from the sun light or the artificial light surrounding the sensor itself. In this thesis, we propose a current-mode CMOS hybrid image sensor capable of energy harvesting and image capture. The proposed sensor is based on a hybrid pixel that can be programmed to perform the task of an image sensor and the task of a solar cell to harvest energy. The basic idea is to design a pixel that can be configured to exploit its internal photodiode to perform two functions: image sensing and energy harvesting. As a proof of concept a 40 x 40 array of hybrid pixels has been designed and fabricated in a standard 0.5 microm CMOS process. Measurement results show that up to 39 microW of power can be harvested from the array under 130 Klux condition with an energy efficiency of 220 nJ /pixel /frame. The proposed image sensor is a current-mode image sensor which has several

  6. Envelope tracking CMOS power amplifier with high-speed CMOS envelope amplifier for mobile handsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Sakai, Yasufumi; Oishi, Kazuaki; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Mori, Toshihiko; Yamaura, Shinji; Suto, Kazuo; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2014-01-01

    A high-efficiency CMOS power amplifier (PA) based on envelope tracking (ET) has been reported for a wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) and long term evolution (LTE) application. By adopting a high-speed CMOS envelope amplifier with current direction sensing, a 5% improvement in total power-added efficiency (PAE) and a 11 dB decrease in adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) are achieved with a W-CDMA signal. Moreover, the proposed PA achieves a PAE of 25.4% for a 10 MHz LTE signal at an output power (Pout) of 25.6 dBm and a gain of 24 dB.

  7. Lab-on-CMOS Integration of Microfluidics and Electrochemical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yue; Mason, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a CMOS-microfluidics integration scheme for electrochemical microsystems. A CMOS chip was embedded into a micro-machined silicon carrier. By leveling the CMOS chip and carrier surface to within 100 nm, an expanded obstacle-free surface suitable for photolithography was achieved. Thin film metal planar interconnects were microfabricated to bridge CMOS pads to the perimeter of the carrier, leaving a flat and smooth surface for integrating microfluidic structures. A model device containing SU-8 microfluidic mixers and detection channels crossing over microelectrodes on a CMOS integrated circuit was constructed using the chip-carrier assembly scheme. Functional integrity of microfluidic structures and on-CMOS electrodes was verified by a simultaneous sample dilution and electrochemical detection experiment within multi-channel microfluidics. This lab-on-CMOS integration process is capable of high packing density, is suitable for wafer-level batch production, and opens new opportunities to combine the performance benefits of on-CMOS sensors with lab-on-chip platforms. PMID:23939616

  8. High responsivity CMOS imager pixel implemented in SOI technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, X.; Wrigley, C.; Yang, G.; Pain, B.

    2000-01-01

    Availability of mature sub-micron CMOS technology and the advent of the new low noise active pixel sensor (APS) concept have enabled the development of low power, miniature, single-chip, CMOS digital imagers in the decade of the 1990's.

  9. CMOS-compatible RF MEMS switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakamraju, Narendra V.; Kim, Bruce; Phillips, Stephen M.

    2004-08-01

    Mobile technologies have relied on RF switches for a long time. Though the basic function of the switch has remained the same, the way they have been made has changed in the recent past. In the past few years work has been done to use MEMS technologies in designing and fabricating an RF switch that would in many ways replace the electronic and mechanical switches that have been used for so long. The work that is described here is an attempt to design and fabricate an RF MEMS switch that can handle higher RF power and have CMOS compatible operating voltages.

  10. Vertical Isolation for Photodiodes in CMOS Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2008-01-01

    In a proposed improvement in complementary metal oxide/semi conduct - or (CMOS) image detectors, two additional implants in each pixel would effect vertical isolation between the metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and the photodiode of the pixel. This improvement is expected to enable separate optimization of the designs of the photodiode and the MOSFETs so as to optimize their performances independently of each other. The purpose to be served by enabling this separate optimization is to eliminate or vastly reduce diffusion cross-talk, thereby increasing sensitivity, effective spatial resolution, and color fidelity while reducing noise.

  11. Monolithic CMOS imaging x-ray spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenter, Almus; Kraft, Ralph; Gauron, Thomas; Murray, Stephen S.

    2014-07-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in collaboration with SRI/Sarnoff is developing monolithic CMOS detectors optimized for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this multi-year program is to produce CMOS x-ray imaging spectrometers that are Fano noise limited over the 0.1-10keV energy band while incorporating the many benefits of CMOS technology. These benefits include: low power consumption, radiation "hardness", high levels of integration, and very high read rates. Small format test devices from a previous wafer fabrication run (2011-2012) have recently been back-thinned and tested for response below 1keV. These devices perform as expected in regards to dark current, read noise, spectral response and Quantum Efficiency (QE). We demonstrate that running these devices at rates ~> 1Mpix/second eliminates the need for cooling as shot noise from any dark current is greatly mitigated. The test devices were fabricated on 15μm, high resistivity custom (~30kΩ-cm) epitaxial silicon and have a 16 by 192 pixel format. They incorporate 16μm pitch, 6 Transistor Pinned Photo Diode (6TPPD) pixels which have ~40μV/electron sensitivity and a highly parallel analog CDS signal chain. Newer, improved, lower noise detectors have just been fabricated (October 2013). These new detectors are fabricated on 9μm epitaxial silicon and have a 1k by 1k format. They incorporate similar 16μm pitch, 6TPPD pixels but have ~ 50% higher sensitivity and much (3×) lower read noise. These new detectors have undergone preliminary testing for functionality in Front Illuminated (FI) form and are presently being prepared for back thinning and packaging. Monolithic CMOS devices such as these, would be ideal candidate detectors for the focal planes of Solar, planetary and other space-borne x-ray astronomy missions. The high through-put, low noise and excellent low energy response, provide high dynamic range and good time resolution; bright, time varying x-ray features could be temporally and

  12. Theoretical performance analysis for CMOS based high resolution detectors.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    High resolution imaging capabilities are essential for accurately guiding successful endovascular interventional procedures. Present x-ray imaging detectors are not always adequate due to their inherent limitations. The newly-developed high-resolution micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF-CCD) detector has demonstrated excellent clinical image quality; however, further improvement in performance and physical design may be possible using CMOS sensors. We have thus calculated the theoretical performance of two proposed CMOS detectors which may be used as a successor to the MAF. The proposed detectors have a 300 μm thick HL-type CsI phosphor, a 50 μm-pixel CMOS sensor with and without a variable gain light image intensifier (LII), and are designated MAF-CMOS-LII and MAF-CMOS, respectively. For the performance evaluation, linear cascade modeling was used. The detector imaging chains were divided into individual stages characterized by one of the basic processes (quantum gain, binomial selection, stochastic and deterministic blurring, additive noise). Ranges of readout noise and exposure were used to calculate the detectors' MTF and DQE. The MAF-CMOS showed slightly better MTF than the MAF-CMOS-LII, but the MAF-CMOS-LII showed far better DQE, especially for lower exposures. The proposed detectors can have improved MTF and DQE compared with the present high resolution MAF detector. The performance of the MAF-CMOS is excellent for the angiography exposure range; however it is limited at fluoroscopic levels due to additive instrumentation noise. The MAF-CMOS-LII, having the advantage of the variable LII gain, can overcome the noise limitation and hence may perform exceptionally for the full range of required exposures; however, it is more complex and hence more expensive. PMID:24353390

  13. A CMOS high speed imaging system design based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hong; Wang, Huawei; Cao, Jianzhong; Qiao, Mingrui

    2015-10-01

    CMOS sensors have more advantages than traditional CCD sensors. The imaging system based on CMOS has become a hot spot in research and development. In order to achieve the real-time data acquisition and high-speed transmission, we design a high-speed CMOS imaging system on account of FPGA. The core control chip of this system is XC6SL75T and we take advantages of CameraLink interface and AM41V4 CMOS image sensors to transmit and acquire image data. AM41V4 is a 4 Megapixel High speed 500 frames per second CMOS image sensor with global shutter and 4/3" optical format. The sensor uses column parallel A/D converters to digitize the images. The CameraLink interface adopts DS90CR287 and it can convert 28 bits of LVCMOS/LVTTL data into four LVDS data stream. The reflected light of objects is photographed by the CMOS detectors. CMOS sensors convert the light to electronic signals and then send them to FPGA. FPGA processes data it received and transmits them to upper computer which has acquisition cards through CameraLink interface configured as full models. Then PC will store, visualize and process images later. The structure and principle of the system are both explained in this paper and this paper introduces the hardware and software design of the system. FPGA introduces the driven clock of CMOS. The data in CMOS is converted to LVDS signals and then transmitted to the data acquisition cards. After simulation, the paper presents a row transfer timing sequence of CMOS. The system realized real-time image acquisition and external controls.

  14. A novel colour-sensitive CMOS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langfelder, G.; Longoni, A.; Zaraga, F.

    2009-10-01

    A novel colour-sensitive semiconductor detector is proposed. The device (named Transverse Field Detector (TFD)) can be used to measure the colour of the incident light without any colour filter. The device is completely compatible with standard CMOS processes and is suitable to be integrated in a pixel array for imaging purposes. The working principle is based on the capability of this device to collect at different superficial junctions the carriers, generated at different depths, by means of suitable transverse electric fields. The transverse components of the electric field are generated inside the depleted region by a suitable bias of the superficial junctions. Thanks to the differences in the light absorption coefficients at different wavelengths, the device performs colour separation. Among the advantages of this approach are the capability of an active tuning of the pixel colour response, which can be obtained just by changing the biasing values of collecting junctions, and foreseen higher colour fidelity, thanks to the easy extension to four colour pixels. First test structures of three colours TFD pixels were designed and built in a standard CMOS 90 nm technology. Operative principles of the device and first experimental results are presented.

  15. Challenges of nickel silicidation in CMOS technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Breil, Nicolas; Lavoie, Christian; Ozcan, Ahmet; Baumann, Frieder; Klymko, Nancy; Nummy, Karen; Sun, Bing; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Yu, Jian; Zhu, Frank; Narasimha, Shreesh; Chudzik, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In our paper, we review some of the key challenges associated with the Ni silicidation process in the most recent CMOS technologies. The introduction of new materials (e.g.SiGe), and of non-planar architectures bring some important changes that require fundamental investigation from a material engineering perspective. Following a discussion of the device architecture and silicide evolution through the last CMOS generations, we focus our study on a very peculiar defect, termed NiSi-Fangs. We describe a mechanism for the defect formation, and present a detailed material analysis that supports this mechanism. We highlight some of the possible metal enrichment processes of the nickel monosilicide such as oxidation or various RIE (Reactive Ion Etching) plasma process, leading to a metal source available for defect formation. Furthermore, we investigate the NiSi formation and re-formation silicidation differences between Si and SiGe materials, and between (1 0 0) and (1 1 1) orientations. Finally, we show that the thermal budgets post silicidation can lead to the formation of NiSi-Fangs if the structure and the processes are not optimized. Beyond the understanding of the defect and the discussion on the engineering solutions used to prevent its formation, the interest of this investigation also lies in the fundamental learning within the Ni–Pt–Si–Ge system and some additional perspective on Ni-based contacts to advanced microelectronic devices.

  16. Modulated CMOS camera for fluorescence lifetime microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongtao; Holst, Gerhard; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-12-01

    Widefield frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FD-FLIM) is a fast and accurate method to measure the fluorescence lifetime of entire images. However, the complexity and high costs involved in construction of such a system limit the extensive use of this technique. PCO AG recently released the first luminescence lifetime imaging camera based on a high frequency modulated CMOS image sensor, QMFLIM2. Here we tested and provide operational procedures to calibrate the camera and to improve the accuracy using corrections necessary for image analysis. With its flexible input/output options, we are able to use a modulated laser diode or a 20 MHz pulsed white supercontinuum laser as the light source. The output of the camera consists of a stack of modulated images that can be analyzed by the SimFCS software using the phasor approach. The nonuniform system response across the image sensor must be calibrated at the pixel level. This pixel calibration is crucial and needed for every camera settings, e.g. modulation frequency and exposure time. A significant dependency of the modulation signal on the intensity was also observed and hence an additional calibration is needed for each pixel depending on the pixel intensity level. These corrections are important not only for the fundamental frequency, but also for the higher harmonics when using the pulsed supercontinuum laser. With these post data acquisition corrections, the PCO CMOS-FLIM camera can be used for various biomedical applications requiring a large frame and high speed acquisition. PMID:26500051

  17. All-CMOS night vision viewer with integrated microdisplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goosen, Marius E.; Venter, Petrus J.; du Plessis, Monuko; Faure, Nicolaas M.; Janse van Rensburg, Christo; Rademeyer, Pieter

    2014-02-01

    The unrivalled integration potential of CMOS has made it the dominant technology for digital integrated circuits. With the advent of visible light emission from silicon through hot carrier electroluminescence, several applications arose, all of which rely upon the advantages of mature CMOS technologies for a competitive edge in a very active and attractive market. In this paper we present a low-cost night vision viewer which employs only standard CMOS technologies. A commercial CMOS imager is utilized for near infrared image capturing with a 128x96 pixel all-CMOS microdisplay implemented to convey the image to the user. The display is implemented in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process, with no process alterations or post processing. The display features a 25 μm pixel pitch and a 3.2 mm x 2.4 mm active area, which through magnification presents the virtual image to the user equivalent of a 19-inch display viewed from a distance of 3 meters. This work represents the first application of a CMOS microdisplay in a low-cost consumer product.

  18. Ink-Jet Printed CMOS Electronics from Oxide Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Garlapati, Suresh Kumar; Baby, Tessy Theres; Dehm, Simone; Hammad, Mohammed; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Kruk, Robert; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2015-08-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology with high transconductance and signal gain is mandatory for practicable digital/analog logic electronics. However, high performance all-oxide CMOS logics are scarcely reported in the literature; specifically, not at all for solution-processed/printed transistors. As a major step toward solution-processed all-oxide electronics, here it is shown that using a highly efficient electrolyte-gating approach one can obtain printed and low-voltage operated oxide CMOS logics with high signal gain (≈21 at a supply voltage of only 1.5 V) and low static power dissipation. PMID:25867029

  19. Lower-Dark-Current, Higher-Blue-Response CMOS Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Hancock, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Several improved designs for complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuit image detectors have been developed, primarily to reduce dark currents (leakage currents) and secondarily to increase responses to blue light and increase signal-handling capacities, relative to those of prior CMOS imagers. The main conclusion that can be drawn from a study of the causes of dark currents in prior CMOS imagers is that dark currents could be reduced by relocating p/n junctions away from Si/SiO2 interfaces. In addition to reflecting this conclusion, the improved designs include several other features to counteract dark-current mechanisms and enhance performance.

  20. CMOS digital pixel sensors: technology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

    2014-04-01

    CMOS active pixel sensor technology, which is widely used these days for digital imaging, is based on analog pixels. Transition to digital pixel sensors can boost signal-to-noise ratios and enhance image quality, but can increase pixel area to dimensions that are impractical for the high-volume market of consumer electronic devices. There are two main approaches to digital pixel design. The first uses digitization methods that largely rely on photodetector properties and so are unique to imaging. The second is based on adaptation of a classical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for in-pixel data conversion. Imaging systems for medical, industrial, and security applications are emerging lower-volume markets that can benefit from these in-pixel ADCs. With these applications, larger pixels are typically acceptable, and imaging may be done in invisible spectral bands.

  1. CMOS imager for pointing and tracking applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Heynssens, Julie B. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Systems and techniques to realize pointing and tracking applications with CMOS imaging devices. In general, in one implementation, the technique includes: sampling multiple rows and multiple columns of an active pixel sensor array into a memory array (e.g., an on-chip memory array), and reading out the multiple rows and multiple columns sampled in the memory array to provide image data with reduced motion artifact. Various operation modes may be provided, including TDS, CDS, CQS, a tracking mode to read out multiple windows, and/or a mode employing a sample-first-read-later readout scheme. The tracking mode can take advantage of a diagonal switch array. The diagonal switch array, the active pixel sensor array and the memory array can be integrated onto a single imager chip with a controller. This imager device can be part of a larger imaging system for both space-based applications and terrestrial applications.

  2. Latchup in CMOS devices from heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, K.; Nichols, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    It is noted that complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microcircuits are inherently latchup prone. The four-layer n-p-n-p structures formed from the parasitic pnp and npn transistors make up a silicon controlled rectifier. If properly biased, this rectifier may be triggered 'ON' by electrical transients, ionizing radiation, or a single heavy ion. This latchup phenomenon might lead to a loss of functionality or device burnout. Results are presented from tests on 19 different device types from six manufacturers which investigate their latchup sensitivity with argon and krypton beams. The parasitic npnp paths are identified in general, and a qualitative rationale is given for latchup susceptibility, along with a latchup cross section for each type of device. Also presented is the correlation between bit-flip sensitivity and latchup susceptibility.

  3. CMOS image sensor with contour enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Liya; Lai, Xiaofeng; Chen, Kun; Yuan, Xianghui

    2010-10-01

    Imitating the signal acquisition and processing of vertebrate retina, a CMOS image sensor with bionic pre-processing circuit is designed. Integration of signal-process circuit on-chip can reduce the requirement of bandwidth and precision of the subsequent interface circuit, and simplify the design of the computer-vision system. This signal pre-processing circuit consists of adaptive photoreceptor, spatial filtering resistive network and Op-Amp calculation circuit. The adaptive photoreceptor unit with a dynamic range of approximately 100 dB has a good self-adaptability for the transient changes in light intensity instead of intensity level itself. Spatial low-pass filtering resistive network used to mimic the function of horizontal cell, is composed of the horizontal resistor (HRES) circuit and OTA (Operational Transconductance Amplifier) circuit. HRES circuit, imitating dendrite of the neuron cell, comprises of two series MOS transistors operated in weak inversion region. Appending two diode-connected n-channel transistors to a simple transconductance amplifier forms the OTA Op-Amp circuit, which provides stable bias voltage for the gate of MOS transistors in HRES circuit, while serves as an OTA voltage follower to provide input voltage for the network nodes. The Op-Amp calculation circuit with a simple two-stage Op-Amp achieves the image contour enhancing. By adjusting the bias voltage of the resistive network, the smoothing effect can be tuned to change the effect of image's contour enhancement. Simulations of cell circuit and 16×16 2D circuit array are implemented using CSMC 0.5μm DPTM CMOS process.

  4. A safety monitoring system for taxi based on CMOS imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi

    2005-01-01

    CMOS image sensors now become increasingly competitive with respect to their CCD counterparts, while adding advantages such as no blooming, simpler driving requirements and the potential of on-chip integration of sensor, analogue circuitry, and digital processing functions. A safety monitoring system for taxi based on cmos imager that can record field situation when unusual circumstance happened is described in this paper. The monitoring system is based on a CMOS imager (OV7120), which can output digital image data through parallel pixel data port. The system consists of a CMOS image sensor, a large capacity NAND FLASH ROM, a USB interface chip and a micro controller (AT90S8515). The structure of whole system and the test data is discussed and analyzed in detail.

  5. Tests of commercial colour CMOS cameras for astronomical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhvala, S. M.; Reshetnyk, V. M.; Zhilyaev, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    We present some results of testing commercial colour CMOS cameras for astronomical applications. Colour CMOS sensors allow to perform photometry in three filters simultaneously that gives a great advantage compared with monochrome CCD detectors. The Bayer BGR colour system realized in colour CMOS sensors is close to the astronomical Johnson BVR system. The basic camera characteristics: read noise (e^{-}/pix), thermal noise (e^{-}/pix/sec) and electronic gain (e^{-}/ADU) for the commercial digital camera Canon 5D MarkIII are presented. We give the same characteristics for the scientific high performance cooled CCD camera system ALTA E47. Comparing results for tests of Canon 5D MarkIII and CCD ALTA E47 show that present-day commercial colour CMOS cameras can seriously compete with the scientific CCD cameras in deep astronomical imaging.

  6. High-speed multicolour photometry with CMOS cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhvala, S. M.; Zhilyaev, B. E.; Reshetnyk, V. M.

    2012-11-01

    We present the results of testing the commercial digital camera Nikon D90 with a CMOS sensor for high-speed photometry with a small telescope Celestron 11'' at the Peak Terskol Observatory. CMOS sensor allows to perform photometry in 3 filters simultaneously that gives a great advantage compared with monochrome CCD detectors. The Bayer BGR colour system of CMOS sensors is close to the Johnson BVR system. The results of testing show that one can carry out photometric measurements with CMOS cameras for stars with the V-magnitude up to ≃14^{m} with the precision of 0.01^{m}. Stars with the V-magnitude up to ˜10 can be shot at 24 frames per second in the video mode.

  7. Depleted CMOS pixels for LHC proton-proton experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wermes, N.

    2016-07-01

    While so far monolithic pixel detectors have remained in the realm of comparatively low rate and radiation applications outside LHC, new developments exploiting high resistivity substrates with three or four well CMOS process options allow reasonably large depletion depths and full CMOS circuitry in a monolithic structure. This opens up the possibility to target CMOS pixel detectors also for high radiation pp-experiments at the LHC upgrade, either in a hybrid-type fashion or even fully monolithic. Several pixel matrices have been prototyped with high ohmic substrates, high voltage options, and full CMOS electronics. They were characterized in the lab and in test beams. An overview of the necessary development steps and different approaches as well as prototype results are presented in this paper.

  8. CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Technology and Reliability Characterization Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yuan; Guertin, Steven M.; Pain, Bedabrata; Kayaii, Sammy

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the technology, design features and reliability characterization methodology of a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. Both overall chip reliability and pixel reliability are projected for the imagers.

  9. CMOS monolithic pixel sensors research and development at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contarato, D.; Bussat, J.-M.; Denes, P.; Greiner, L.; Kim, T.; Stezelberger, T.; Wieman, H.; Battaglia, M.; Hooberman, B.; Tompkins, L.

    2007-12-01

    This paper summarizes the recent progress in the design and characterization of CMOS pixel sensors at LBNL. Results of lab tests, beam tests and radiation hardness tests carried out at LBNL on a test structure with pixels of various sizes are reported. The first results of the characterization of back-thinned CMOS pixel sensors are also reported, and future plans and activities are discussed.

  10. OLED-on-CMOS integration for optoelectronic sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Kreye, Daniel; Reckziegel, Sven; Törker, Michael; Grillberger, Christiane; Amelung, Jörg

    2007-02-01

    Highly-efficient, low-voltage organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are well suitable for post-processing integration onto the top metal layer of CMOS devices. This has been proven for OLED microdisplays so far. Moreover, OLEDon- CMOS technology may also be excellently suitable for various optoelectronic sensor applications by combining highly efficient emitters, use of low-cost materials and cost-effective manufacturing together with silicon-inherent photodetectors and CMOS circuitry. The use of OLEDs on CMOS substrates requires a top-emitting, low-voltage and highly efficient OLED structure. By reducing the operating voltage for the OLED below 5V, the costs for the CMOS process can be reduced, because a process without high-voltage option can be used. Red, orange, white, green and blue OLED-stacks with doped charge transport layers were prepared on different dualmetal layer CMOS test substrates without active transistor area. Afterwards, the different devices were measured and compared with respect to their performance (current, luminance, voltage, luminance dependence on viewing angle, optical outcoupling etc.). Low operating voltages of 2.4V at 100cd/m2 for the red p-i-n type phosphorescent emitting OLED stack, 2.5V at 100cd/m2 for the orange phosphorescent emitting OLED stack and 3.2V at 100cd/m2 for the white fluorescent emitting OLED have been achieved here. Therefore, those OLED stacks are suitable for use in a CMOS process even within a regular 5V process option. Moreover, the operating voltage achieved so far is expected to be reduced further when using different top electrode materials. Integrating such OLEDs on a CMOS-substrate provide a preferable choice for silicon-based optical microsystems targeted towards optoelectronic sensor applications, as there are integrated light barriers, optocouplers, or lab-onchip devices.

  11. Delta Doping High Purity CCDs and CMOS for LSST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael; Elliott, S. Tom; Bebek, Chris; Holland, Steve; Kolbe, Bill

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing delta doping high purity CCD's and CMOS for LSST is shown. The topics include: 1) Overview of JPL s versatile back-surface process for CCDs and CMOS; 2) Application to SNAP and ORION missions; 3) Delta doping as a back-surface electrode for fully depleted LBNL CCDs; 4) Delta doping high purity CCDs for SNAP and ORION; 5) JPL CMP thinning process development; and 6) Antireflection coating process development.

  12. CMOS front end electronics for the ATLAS muon detector

    SciTech Connect

    Huth, J.; Oliver, J.; Hazen, E.; Shank, J.

    1997-12-31

    An all-CMOS design for an integrated ASD (Amplifier-Shaper-Discriminator) chip for readout of the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tubes (MDTs) is presented. Eight channels of charge-sensitive preamp, two-stage pole/zero shaper, Wilkinson ADC and discriminator with programmable hysteresis are integrated on a single IC. Key elements have been prototyped in 1.2 and 0.5 micron CMOS operating at 5V and 3.3V respectively.

  13. CMOS Image Sensors: Electronic Camera On A Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, E. R.

    1995-01-01

    Recent advancements in CMOS image sensor technology are reviewed, including both passive pixel sensors and active pixel sensors. On- chip analog to digital converters and on-chip timing and control circuits permit realization of an electronic camera-on-a-chip. Highly miniaturized imaging systems based on CMOS image sensor technology are emerging as a competitor to charge-coupled devices for low cost uses.

  14. Advancement of CMOS Doping Technology in an External Development Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Amitabh; Chambers, James J.; Shaw, Judy B.

    2011-01-01

    The consumer appetite for a rich multimedia experience drives technology development for mobile hand-held devices and the infrastructure to support them. Enhancements in functionality, speed, and user experience are derived from advancements in CMOS technology. The technical challenges in developing each successive CMOS technology node to support these enhancements have become increasingly difficult. These trends have motivated the CMOS business towards a collaborative approach based on strategic partnerships. This paper describes our model and experience of CMOS development, based on multi-dimensional industrial and academic partnerships. We provide to our process equipment, materials, and simulation partners, as well as to our silicon foundry partners, the detailed requirements for future integrated circuit products. This is done very early in the development cycle to ensure that these requirements can be met. In order to determine these fundamental requirements, we rely on a strategy that requires strong interaction between process and device simulation, physical and chemical analytical methods, and research at academic institutions. This learning is shared with each project partner to address integration and manufacturing issues encountered during CMOS technology development from its inception through product ramp. We utilize TI's core strengths in physical analysis, unit processes and integration, yield ramp, reliability, and product engineering to support this technological development. Finally, this paper presents examples of the advancement of CMOS doping technology for the 28 nm node and beyond through this development model.

  15. Multiband CMOS sensor simplify FPA design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weng Lyang B.; Ling, Jer

    2015-10-01

    Push broom multi-band Focal Plane Array (FPA) design needs to consider optics, image sensor, electronic, mechanic as well as thermal. Conventional FPA use two or several CCD device as an image sensor. The CCD image sensor requires several high speed, high voltage and high current clock drivers as well as analog video processors to support their operation. Signal needs to digitize using external sample / hold and digitized circuit. These support circuits are bulky, consume a lot of power, must be shielded and placed in close to the CCD to minimize the introduction of unwanted noise. The CCD also needs to consider how to dissipate power. The end result is a very complicated FPA and hard to make due to more weighs and draws more power requiring complex heat transfer mechanisms. In this paper, we integrate microelectronic technology and multi-layer soft / hard Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology to design electronic portion. Since its simplicity and integration, the optics, mechanic, structure and thermal design will become very simple. The whole FPA assembly and dis-assembly reduced to a few days. A multi-band CMOS Sensor (dedicated as C468) was used for this design. The CMOS Sensor, allow for the incorporation of clock drivers, timing generators, signal processing and digitization onto the same Integrated Circuit (IC) as the image sensor arrays. This keeps noise to a minimum while providing high functionality at reasonable power levels. The C468 is a first Multiple System-On-Chip (MSOC) IC. This device used our proprietary wafer butting technology and MSOC technology to combine five long sensor arrays into a size of 120 mm x 23.2 mm and 155 mm x 60 mm for chip and package, respectively. The device composed of one Panchromatic (PAN) and four different Multi- Spectral (MS) sensors. Due to its integration on the electronic design, a lot of room is clear for the thermal design. The optical and mechanical design is become very straight forward. The flight model FPA

  16. A CMOS readout circuit for microstrip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasri, B.; Fiorini, C.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we present the design and the results of a CMOS analog channel for silicon microstrips detectors. The readout circuit was initially conceived for the outer layers of the SuperB silicon vertex tracker (SVT), but can serve more generally other microstrip-based detection systems. The strip detectors considered show a very high stray capacitance and high series resistance. Therefore, the noise optimization was the first priority design concern. A necessary compromise on the best peaking time to achieve an acceptable noise level together with efficiency and timing accuracy has been investigated. The ASIC is composed by a preamplifier, shaping amplifier and a Time over Threshold (T.o.T) block for the digitalization of the signals. The chosen shaping function is the third-order semi-Gaussian function implemented with complex poles. An inverter stage is employed in the analog channel in order to operate with signals delivered from both p and n strips. The circuit includes the possibility to select the peaking time of the shaper output from four values: 250 ns, 375 ns, 500 ns and 750 ns. In this way, the noise performances and the signal occupancy can be optimized according to the real background during the experiment. The ASIC prototype has been fabricated in the 130 nm IBM technology which is considered intrinsically radiation hard. The results of the experimental characterization of a produced prototype are satisfactorily matched with simulation.

  17. NSC 800, 8-bit CMOS microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suszko, S. F.

    1984-01-01

    The NSC 800 is an 8-bit CMOS microprocessor manufactured by National Semiconductor Corp., Santa Clara, California. The 8-bit microprocessor chip with 40-pad pin-terminals has eight address buffers (A8-A15), eight data address -- I/O buffers (AD(sub 0)-AD(sub 7)), six interrupt controls and sixteen timing controls with a chip clock generator and an 8-bit dynamic RAM refresh circuit. The 22 internal registers have the capability of addressing 64K bytes of memory and 256 I/O devices. The chip is fabricated on N-type (100) silicon using self-aligned polysilicon gates and local oxidation process technology. The chip interconnect consists of four levels: Aluminum, Polysi 2, Polysi 1, and P(+) and N(+) diffusions. The four levels, except for contact interface, are isolated by interlevel oxide. The chip is packaged in a 40-pin dual-in-line (DIP), side brazed, hermetically sealed, ceramic package with a metal lid. The operating voltage for the device is 5 V. It is available in three operating temperature ranges: 0 to +70 C, -40 to +85 C, and -55 to +125 C. Two devices were submitted for product evaluation by F. Stott, MTS, JPL Microprocessor Specialist. The devices were pencil-marked and photographed for identification.

  18. Simulation of SEU transients in CMOS ICs

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, N.; Bhuva, B.L.; Kerns, S.E. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports that available analytical models of the number of single-event-induced errors (SEU) in combinational logic systems are not easily applicable to real integrated circuits (ICs). An efficient computer simulation algorithm set, SITA, predicts the vulnerability of data stored in and processed by complex combinational logic circuits to SEU. SITA is described in detail to allow researchers to incorporate it into their error analysis packages. Required simulation algorithms are based on approximate closed-form equations modeling individual device behavior in CMOS logic units. Device-level simulation is used to estimate the probability that ion-device interactions produce erroneous signals capable of propagating to a latch (or n output node), and logic-level simulation to predict the spread of such erroneous, latched information through the IC. Simulation results are compared to those from SPICE for several circuit and logic configurations. SITA results are comparable to this established circuit-level code, and SITA can analyze circuits with state-of-the-art device densities (which SPICE cannot). At all IC complexity levels, SITAS offers several factors of 10 savings in simulation time over SPICE.

  19. On noise in time-delay integration CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levski, Deyan; Choubey, Bhaskar

    2016-05-01

    Time delay integration sensors are of increasing interest in CMOS processes owing to their low cost, power and ability to integrate with other circuit readout blocks. This paper presents an analysis of the noise contributors in current day CMOS Time-Delay-Integration image sensors with various readout architectures. An analysis of charge versus voltage domain readout modes is presented, followed by a noise classification of the existing Analog Accumulator Readout (AAR) and Digital Accumulator Readout (DAR) schemes for TDI imaging. The analysis and classification of existing readout schemes include, pipelined charge transfer, buffered direct injection, voltage as well as current-mode analog accumulators and all-digital accumulator techniques. Time-Delay-Integration imaging modes in CMOS processes typically use an N-number of readout steps, equivalent to the number of TDI pixel stages. In CMOS TDI sensors, where voltage domain readout is used, the requirements over speed and noise of the ADC readout chain are increased due to accumulation of the dominant voltage readout and ADC noise with every stage N. Until this day, the latter is the primary reason for a leap-back of CMOS TDI sensors as compared to their CCD counterparts. Moreover, most commercial CMOS TDI implementations are still based on a charge-domain readout, mimicking a CCD-like operation mode. Thus, having a good understanding of each noise contributor in the signal chain, as well as its magnitude in different readout architectures, is vital for the design of future generation low-noise CMOS TDI image sensors based on a voltage domain readout. This paper gives a quantitative classification of all major noise sources for all popular implementations in the literature.

  20. Improved Space Object Observation Techniques Using CMOS Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, T.; Hinze, A.; Schlatter, P.; Silha, J.; Peltonen, J.; Santti, T.; Flohrer, T.

    2013-08-01

    CMOS-sensors, or in general Active Pixel Sensors (APS), are rapidly replacing CCDs in the consumer camera market. Due to significant technological advances during the past years these devices start to compete with CCDs also for demanding scientific imaging applications, in particular in the astronomy community. CMOS detectors offer a series of inherent advantages compared to CCDs, due to the structure of their basic pixel cells, which each contain their own amplifier and readout electronics. The most prominent advantages for space object observations are the extremely fast and flexible readout capabilities, feasibility for electronic shuttering and precise epoch registration, and the potential to perform image processing operations on-chip and in real-time. Presently applied and proposed optical observation strategies for space debris surveys and space surveillance applications had to be analyzed. The major design drivers were identified and potential benefits from using available and future CMOS sensors were assessed. The major challenges and design drivers for ground-based and space-based optical observation strategies have been analyzed. CMOS detector characteristics were critically evaluated and compared with the established CCD technology, especially with respect to the above mentioned observations. Similarly, the desirable on-chip processing functionalities which would further enhance the object detection and image segmentation were identified. Finally, the characteristics of a particular CMOS sensor available at the Zimmerwald observatory were analyzed by performing laboratory test measurements.

  1. CMOS Imaging Sensor Technology for Aerial Mapping Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Klaus; Welzenbach, Martin; Timm, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In June 2015 Leica Geosystems launched the first large format aerial mapping camera using CMOS sensor technology, the Leica DMC III. This paper describes the motivation to change from CCD sensor technology to CMOS for the development of this new aerial mapping camera. In 2002 the DMC first generation was developed by Z/I Imaging. It was the first large format digital frame sensor designed for mapping applications. In 2009 Z/I Imaging designed the DMC II which was the first digital aerial mapping camera using a single ultra large CCD sensor to avoid stitching of smaller CCDs. The DMC III is now the third generation of large format frame sensor developed by Z/I Imaging and Leica Geosystems for the DMC camera family. It is an evolution of the DMC II using the same system design with one large monolithic PAN sensor and four multi spectral camera heads for R,G, B and NIR. For the first time a 391 Megapixel large CMOS sensor had been used as PAN chromatic sensor, which is an industry record. Along with CMOS technology goes a range of technical benefits. The dynamic range of the CMOS sensor is approx. twice the range of a comparable CCD sensor and the signal to noise ratio is significantly better than with CCDs. Finally results from the first DMC III customer installations and test flights will be presented and compared with other CCD based aerial sensors.

  2. High-performance monolithic CMOS detectors for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Pe, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Vignon, Bruno; Magnan, Pierre; Farre, Jean A.; Corbiere, Franck; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe

    2001-12-01

    During the last 10 years, research about CMOS image sensors (also called APS - Active Pixel Sensors) has been intensively carried out, in order to offer an alternative to CCDs as image sensors. This is particularly the case for space applications as CMOS image sensors feature characteristics which are obviously of interest for flight hardware: parallel or semi-parallel architecture, on chip control and processing electronics, low power dissipation, high level of radiation tolerance... Many image sensor companies, institutes and laboratories have demonstrated the compatibility of CMOS image sensors with consumer applications: micro-cameras, video-conferencing, digital- still cameras. And recent designs have shown that APS is getting closer to the CCD in terms of performance level. However, he large majority of the existing products do not offer the specific features which are required for many space applications. ASTRIUM and SUPAERO/CIMI have decided to work together in view of developing CMOS image sensors dedicated to space business. After a brief presentation of the team organization for space image sensor design and production, the latest results of a high performances 512 X 512 pixels CMOS device characterization are presented with emphasis on the achieved electro-optical performance. Finally, the on going and short-term coming activities of the team are discussed.

  3. Design and Fabrication of Vertically-Integrated CMOS Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

    2011-01-01

    Technologies to fabricate integrated circuits (IC) with 3D structures are an emerging trend in IC design. They are based on vertical stacking of active components to form heterogeneous microsystems. Electronic image sensors will benefit from these technologies because they allow increased pixel-level data processing and device optimization. This paper covers general principles in the design of vertically-integrated (VI) CMOS image sensors that are fabricated by flip-chip bonding. These sensors are composed of a CMOS die and a photodetector die. As a specific example, the paper presents a VI-CMOS image sensor that was designed at the University of Alberta, and fabricated with the help of CMC Microsystems and Micralyne Inc. To realize prototypes, CMOS dies with logarithmic active pixels were prepared in a commercial process, and photodetector dies with metal-semiconductor-metal devices were prepared in a custom process using hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The paper also describes a digital camera that was developed to test the prototype. In this camera, scenes captured by the image sensor are read using an FPGA board, and sent in real time to a PC over USB for data processing and display. Experimental results show that the VI-CMOS prototype has a higher dynamic range and a lower dark limit than conventional electronic image sensors. PMID:22163860

  4. CMOS Cell Sensors for Point-of-Care Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Adiguzel, Yekbun; Kulah, Haluk

    2012-01-01

    The burden of health-care related services in a global era with continuously increasing population and inefficient dissipation of the resources requires effective solutions. From this perspective, point-of-care diagnostics is a demanded field in clinics. It is also necessary both for prompt diagnosis and for providing health services evenly throughout the population, including the rural districts. The requirements can only be fulfilled by technologies whose productivity has already been proven, such as complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS). CMOS-based products can enable clinical tests in a fast, simple, safe, and reliable manner, with improved sensitivities. Portability due to diminished sensor dimensions and compactness of the test set-ups, along with low sample and power consumption, is another vital feature. CMOS-based sensors for cell studies have the potential to become essential counterparts of point-of-care diagnostics technologies. Hence, this review attempts to inform on the sensors fabricated with CMOS technology for point-of-care diagnostic studies, with a focus on CMOS image sensors and capacitance sensors for cell studies. PMID:23112587

  5. ESD protection design for advanced CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin B.; Wang, Gewen

    2001-10-01

    ESD effects in integrated circuits have become a major concern as today's technologies shrink to sub-micron/deep- sub-micron dimensions. The thinner gate oxide and shallower junction depth used in the advanced technologies make them very vulnerable to ESD damages. The advanced techniques like silicidation and STI (shallow trench insulation) used for improving other device performances make ESD design even more challenging. For non-silicided technologies, a certain DCGS (drain contact to gate edge spacing) is needed to achieve ESD hardness for nMOS output drivers and nMOS protection transistors. The typical DCGS values are 4-5um and 2-3um for 0.5um and 0.25um CMOS, respectively. The silicidation reduces the ballast resistance provided by DCGS with at least a factor of 10. As a result, scaling of the ESD performance with device width is lost and even zero ESD performance is reported for standard silicided devices. The device level ESD design is focused in this paper, which includes GGNMOS (gate grounded NMOS) and GCNMOS (gate coupled NMOS). The device level ESD testing including TLP (transmission line pulse) is given. Several ESD issues caused by advanced technologies have been pointed out. The possible solutions have been developed and summarized including silicide blocking, process optimization, back-end ballasting, and new protection scheme, dummy gate/n-well resistor ballsting, etc. Some of them require process cost increase, and others provide novel, compact, and simple design but involving royalty/IP (intellectual property) issue. Circuit level ESD design and layout design considerations are covered. The top-level ESD protection strategies are also given.

  6. Adiabatic circuits: converter for static CMOS signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, J.; Amirante, E.; Bargagli-Stoffi, A.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2003-05-01

    Ultra low power applications can take great advantages from adiabatic circuitry. In this technique a multiphase system is used which consists ideally of trapezoidal voltage signals. The input signals to be processed will often come from a function block realized in static CMOS. The static rectangular signals must be converted for the oscillating multiphase system of the adiabatic circuitry. This work shows how to convert the input signals to the proposed pulse form which is synchronized to the appropriate supply voltage. By means of adder structures designed for a 0.13µm technology in a 4-phase system there will be demonstrated, which additional circuits are necessary for the conversion. It must be taken into account whether the data arrive in parallel or serial form. Parallel data are all in one phase and therefore it is advantageous to use an adder structure with a proper input stage, e.g. a Carry Lookahead Adder (CLA). With a serial input stage it is possible to read and to process four signals during one cycle due to the adiabatic 4-phase system. Therefore input signals with a frequency four times higher than the adiabatic clock frequency can be used. This reduces the disadvantage of the slow clock period typical for adiabatic circuits. By means of an 8 bit Ripple Carry Adder (8 bit RCA) the serial reading will be introduced. If the word width is larger than 4 bits the word can be divided in 4 bit words which are processed in parallel. This is the most efficient way to minimize the number of input lines and pads. At the same time a high throughput is achieved.

  7. Radiation tolerant back biased CMOS VLSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Gary K. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Hass, Kenneth J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A CMOS circuit formed in a semiconductor substrate having improved immunity to total ionizing dose radiation, improved immunity to radiation induced latch up, and improved immunity to a single event upset. The architecture of the present invention can be utilized with the n-well, p-well, or dual-well processes. For example, a preferred embodiment of the present invention is described relative to a p-well process wherein the p-well is formed in an n-type substrate. A network of NMOS transistors is formed in the p-well, and a network of PMOS transistors is formed in the n-type substrate. A contact is electrically coupled to the p-well region and is coupled to first means for independently controlling the voltage in the p-well region. Another contact is electrically coupled to the n-type substrate and is coupled to second means for independently controlling the voltage in the n-type substrate. By controlling the p-well voltage, the effective threshold voltages of the n-channel transistors both drawn and parasitic can be dynamically tuned. Likewise, by controlling the n-type substrate, the effective threshold voltages of the p-channel transistors both drawn and parasitic can also be dynamically tuned. Preferably, by optimizing the threshold voltages of the n-channel and p-channel transistors, the total ionizing dose radiation effect will be neutralized and lower supply voltages can be utilized for the circuit which would result in the circuit requiring less power.

  8. A CMOS Humidity Sensor for Passive RFID Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Fangming; He, Yigang; Zhang, Chaolong; Feng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost low-power CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications. The humidity sensing element is implemented in standard CMOS technology without any further post-processing, which results in low fabrication costs. The interface of this humidity sensor employs a PLL-based architecture transferring sensor signal processing from the voltage domain to the frequency domain. Therefore this architecture allows the use of a fully digital circuit, which can operate on ultra-low supply voltage and thus achieves low-power consumption. The proposed humidity sensor has been fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show this humidity sensor exhibits excellent linearity and stability within the relative humidity range. The sensor interface circuit consumes only 1.05 μW at 0.5 V supply voltage and reduces it at least by an order of magnitude compared to previous designs. PMID:24841250

  9. A CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fangming; He, Yigang; Zhang, Chaolong; Feng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost low-power CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications. The humidity sensing element is implemented in standard CMOS technology without any further post-processing, which results in low fabrication costs. The interface of this humidity sensor employs a PLL-based architecture transferring sensor signal processing from the voltage domain to the frequency domain. Therefore this architecture allows the use of a fully digital circuit, which can operate on ultra-low supply voltage and thus achieves low-power consumption. The proposed humidity sensor has been fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show this humidity sensor exhibits excellent linearity and stability within the relative humidity range. The sensor interface circuit consumes only 1.05 µW at 0.5 V supply voltage and reduces it at least by an order of magnitude compared to previous designs. PMID:24841250

  10. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS): Developments and future outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetta, R.; Fant, A.; Gasiorek, P.; Esbrand, C.; Griffiths, J. A.; Metaxas, M. G.; Royle, G. J.; Speller, R.; Venanzi, C.; van der Stelt, P. F.; Verheij, H.; Li, G.; Theodoridis, S.; Georgiou, H.; Cavouras, D.; Hall, G.; Noy, M.; Jones, J.; Leaver, J.; Machin, D.; Greenwood, S.; Khaleeq, M.; Schulerud, H.; Østby, J. M.; Triantis, F.; Asimidis, A.; Bolanakis, D.; Manthos, N.; Longo, R.; Bergamaschi, A.

    2007-12-01

    Re-invented in the early 1990s, on both sides of the Atlantic, Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in a CMOS technology are today the most sold solid-state imaging devices, overtaking the traditional technology of Charge-Coupled Devices (CCD). The slow uptake of CMOS MAPS started with low-end applications, for example web-cams, and is slowly pervading the high-end applications, for example in prosumer digital cameras. Higher specifications are required for scientific applications: very low noise, high speed, high dynamic range, large format and radiation hardness are some of these requirements. This paper will present a brief overview of the CMOS Image Sensor technology and of the requirements for scientific applications. As an example, a sensor for X-ray imaging will be presented. This sensor was developed within a European FP6 Consortium, intelligent imaging sensors (I-ImaS).

  11. Design of CMOS logic gates for TID radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, John Okyere; Sasabo, Maria L.

    1993-01-01

    The rise time, fall time and propagation delay of the logic gates were derived. The effects of total ionizing dose (TID) radiation on the fall and rise times of CMOS logic gates were obtained using C program calculations and PSPICE simulations. The variations of mobility and threshold voltage on MOSFET transistors when subjected to TID radiation were used to determine the dependence of switching times on TID. The results of this work indicate that by increasing the size of P-channel transistor with respect to the N-channel transistors of the CMOS gates, the propagation delay of CMOS logic gate can be made to decrease with, or be independent of an increase in TID radiation.

  12. VHF NEMS-CMOS piezoresistive resonators for advanced sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcamone, Julien; Dupré, Cécilia; Arndt, Grégory; Colinet, Eric; Hentz, Sébastien; Ollier, Eric; Duraffourg, Laurent

    2014-10-01

    This work reports on top-down nanoelectromechanical resonators, which are among the smallest resonators listed in the literature. To overcome the fact that their electromechanical transduction is intrinsically very challenging due to their very high frequency (100 MHz) and ultimate size (each resonator is a 1.2 μm long, 100 nm wide, 20 nm thick silicon beam with 100 nm long and 30 nm wide piezoresistive lateral nanowire gauges), they have been monolithically integrated with an advanced fully depleted SOI CMOS technology. By advantageously combining the unique benefits of nanomechanics and nanoelectronics, this hybrid NEMS-CMOS device paves the way for novel breakthrough applications, such as NEMS-based mass spectrometry or hybrid NEMS/CMOS logic, which cannot be fully implemented without this association.

  13. Operation and biasing for single device equivalent to CMOS

    DOEpatents

    Welch, James D.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are semiconductor devices including at least one junction which is rectifying whether the semiconductor is caused to be N or P-type, by the presence of field induced carriers. In particular, inverting and non-inverting gate voltage channel induced semiconductor single devices with operating characteristics similar to conventional multiple device CMOS systems, which can be operated as modulators, are disclosed as are a non-latching SCR and an approach to blocking parasitic currents. Operation of the gate voltage channel induced semiconductor single devices with operating characteristics similar to multiple device CMOS systems under typical bias schemes is described, and simple demonstrative five mask fabrication procedures for the inverting and non-inverting gate voltage channel induced semiconductor single devices with operating characteristics similar to multiple device CMOS systems are also presented.

  14. Fabrication of the planar angular rotator using the CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Ching-Liang; Chang, Chien-Liu; Chen, Hung-Lin; Chang, Pei-Zen

    2002-05-01

    In this investigation we propose a novel planar angular rotator fabricated by the conventional complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. Following the 0.6 μm single poly triple metal (SPTM) CMOS process, the device is completed by a simple maskless, post-process etching step. The rotor of the planar angular rotator rotates around its geometric center with electrostatic actuation. The proposed design adopts an intelligent mechanism including the slider-crank system to permit simultaneous motion. The CMOS planar angular rotator could be driven with driving voltages of around 40 V. The design proposed here has a shorter response time and longer life, without problems of friction and wear, compared to the more common planar angular micromotor.

  15. IGBT scaling principle toward CMOS compatible wafer processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Omura, Ichiro

    2013-02-01

    A scaling principle for trench gate IGBT is proposed. CMOS technology on large diameter wafer enables to produce various digital circuits with higher performance and lower cost. The transistor cell structure becomes laterally smaller and smaller and vertically shallower and shallower. In contrast, latest IGBTs have rather deeper trench structure to obtain lower on-state voltage drop and turn-off loss. In the aspect of the process uniformity and wafer warpage, manufacturing such structure in the CMOS factory is difficult. In this paper, we show the scaling principle toward shallower structure and better performance. The principle is theoretically explained by our previously proposed "Structure Oriented" analytical model. The principle represents a possibility of technology direction and roadmap for future IGBT for improving the device performance consistent with lower cost and high volume productivity with CMOS compatible large diameter wafer technologies.

  16. 77 FR 26787 - Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt of Complaint...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... COMMISSION Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt of Complaint... complaint entitled Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products Containing Same, DN 2895; the Commission is... importation of certain CMOS image sensors and products containing same. The complaint names as...

  17. Spectrometer with CMOS demodulation of fiber optic Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Martin Brokner

    A CMOS imager based spectrometer is developed to interrogate a network containing a large number of Bragg grating sensors. The spectrometer uses a Prism-Grating- Prism (PGP) to spectrally separate serially multiplexed Bragg reflections on a single fiber. As a result, each Bragg grating produces a discrete spot on the CMOS imager that shifts horizontally as the Bragg grating experiences changes in strain or temperature. The reflected wavelength of the spot can be determined by finding the center of the spot produced. The use of a randomly addressable CMOS imager enables a flexible sampling rate. Some fibers can be interrogated at a high sampling rate while others can be interrogated at a low sampling rate. However, the use of a CMOS imager leads to several unique problems in terms of signal processing. These include a logarithmic pixel response, a low signal-to-noise ratio, a long pixel time constant, and software issues. The expected capabilities of the CMOS imager based spectrometer are determined with a theoretical model. The theoretical model tests three algorithms for determining the center of the spot: single row centroid, single row parabolic fit, and entire spot centroid. The theoretical results are compared to laboratory test data and field test data. The CMOS based spectrometer is capable of interrogating many optical fibers, and in the configuration tested, the fiber bundle consisted of 23 fibers. Using this system, a single fiber can be interrogated from 778 nm to 852 nm at 2100 Hz or multiple fibers can be interrogated over the same wavelength so that the total number of fiber interrogations is up to 2100 per second. The reflected Bragg wavelength can be determined within +/-3pm, corresponding to a +/-3μɛ uncertainty.

  18. A 65 nm CMOS LNA for Bolometer Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tom Nan; Boon, Chirn Chye; Zhu, Forest Xi; Yi, Xiang; He, Xiaofeng; Feng, Guangyin; Lim, Wei Meng; Liu, Bei

    2016-04-01

    Modern bolometers generally consist of large-scale arrays of detectors. Implemented in conventional technologies, such bolometer arrays suffer from integrability and productivity issues. Recently, the development of CMOS technologies has presented an opportunity for the massive production of high-performance and highly integrated bolometers. This paper presents a 65-nm CMOS LNA designed for a millimeter-wave bolometer's pre-amplification stage. By properly applying some positive feedback, the noise figure of the proposed LNA is minimized at under 6 dB and the bandwidth is extended to 30 GHz.

  19. Impact of technology trends on SEU in CMOS SRAMs

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, P.E.; Sexton, F.W.; Hash, G.L.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Draper, B.L.; Farino, A.J.; Flores, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The impact of technology trends on the SEU hardness of epitaxial CMOS SRAMs is investigated using three-dimensional simulation. The authors study trends in SEU susceptibility with parameter variations across and within technology generations. Upset mechanisms for various strike locations and their dependence on gate-length scaling are explored. Such studies are useful for technology development and providing input for process and design decisions. An application of SEU simulation to the development of a 0.5-{micro}m radiation-hardened CMOS SRAM is presented.

  20. Evaluation of MOBILE-based gate-level pipelining augmenting CMOS with RTDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuñez, Juan; Avedillo, María J.; Quintana, José M.

    2011-05-01

    The incorporation of Resonant Tunnel Diodes (RTDs) into III/V transistor technologies has shown an improved circuit performance: higher circuit speed, reduced component count, and/or lowered power consumption. Currently, the incorporation of these devices into CMOS technologies (RTD-CMOS) is an area of active research. Although some works have focused the evaluation of the advantages of this incorporation, additional work in this direction is required. We compare RTD-CMOS and pure CMOS realizations of a network of logic gates which can be operated in a gate-level pipeline. Significant lower average power is obtained for RTD-CMOS implementations.

  1. A 128 x 128 CMOS Active Pixel Image Sensor for Highly Integrated Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendis, Sunetra K.; Kemeny, Sabrina E.; Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    A new CMOS-based image sensor that is intrinsically compatible with on-chip CMOS circuitry is reported. The new CMOS active pixel image sensor achieves low noise, high sensitivity, X-Y addressability, and has simple timing requirements. The image sensor was fabricated using a 2 micrometer p-well CMOS process, and consists of a 128 x 128 array of 40 micrometer x 40 micrometer pixels. The CMOS image sensor technology enables highly integrated smart image sensors, and makes the design, incorporation and fabrication of such sensors widely accessible to the integrated circuit community.

  2. Low light level CMOS sensor for night vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Elad; Ginat, Ran; Nesher, Ofer

    2015-05-01

    For many years image intensifier tubes were used for night vision systems. In 2014, Elbit systems developed a digital low-light level CMOS sensor, with similar sensitivity to a Gen II image-intensifiers, down to starlight conditions. In this work we describe: the basic principle behind this sensor, physical model for low-light performance estimation and results of field testing.

  3. Mechanically Flexible and High-Performance CMOS Logic Circuits.

    PubMed

    Honda, Wataru; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu

    2015-01-01

    Low-power flexible logic circuits are key components required by the next generation of flexible electronic devices. For stable device operation, such components require a high degree of mechanical flexibility and reliability. Here, the mechanical properties of low-power flexible complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic circuits including inverter, NAND, and NOR are investigated. To fabricate CMOS circuits on flexible polyimide substrates, carbon nanotube (CNT) network films are used for p-type transistors, whereas amorphous InGaZnO films are used for the n-type transistors. The power consumption and voltage gain of CMOS inverters are <500 pW/mm at Vin = 0 V (<7.5 nW/mm at Vin = 5 V) and >45, respectively. Importantly, bending of the substrate is not found to cause significant changes in the device characteristics. This is also observed to be the case for more complex flexible NAND and NOR logic circuits for bending states with a curvature radius of 2.6 mm. The mechanical stability of these CMOS logic circuits makes them ideal candidates for use in flexible integrated devices. PMID:26459882

  4. Research-grade CMOS image sensors for remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Pe, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Corbiere, Franck; Belliot, Pierre; Estribeau, Magali

    2004-11-01

    Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid-90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been competing with CCDs for consumer domains (webcams, cell phones, digital cameras...). Featuring significant advantages over CCD sensors for space applications (lower power consumption, smaller system size, better radiations behaviour...), CMOS technology is also expanding in this field, justifying specific R&D and development programs funded by national and European space agencies (mainly CNES, DGA and ESA). All along the 90s and thanks to their increasingly improving performances, CIS have started to be successfully used for more and more demanding space applications, from vision and control functions requiring low-level performances to guidance applications requiring medium-level performances. Recent technology improvements have made possible the manufacturing of research-grade CIS that are able to compete with CCDs in the high-performances arena. After an introduction outlining the growing interest of optical instruments designers for CMOS image sensors, this paper will present the existing and foreseen ways to reach high-level electro-optics performances for CIS. The developments and performances of CIS prototypes built using an imaging CMOS process will be presented in the corresponding section.

  5. Research-grade CMOS image sensors for demanding space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Pé, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Corbière, Franck; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Belliot, Pierre

    2004-06-01

    Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid-90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been competing with CCDs for more and more consumer domains (webcams, cell phones, digital cameras...). Featuring significant advantages over CCD sensors for space applications (lower power consumption, smaller system size, better radiations behaviour...), CMOS technology is also expanding in this field, justifying specific R&D and development programs funded by national and European space agencies (mainly CNES, DGA, and ESA). All along the 90s and thanks to their increasingly improving performances, CIS have started to be successfully used for more and more demanding applications, from vision and control functions requiring low-level performances to guidance applications requiring medium-level performances. Recent technology improvements have made possible the manufacturing of research-grade CIS that are able to compete with CCDs in the high-performances arena. After an introduction outlining the growing interest of optical instruments designers for CMOS image sensors, this talk will present the existing and foreseen ways to reach high-level electro-optics performances for CIS. The developments of CIS prototypes built using an imaging CMOS process and of devices based on improved designs will be presented.

  6. CMOS image sensors as an efficient platform for glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Kim, Sanghyo; Choi, Cheol Soo

    2013-10-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors have been used previously in the analysis of biological samples. In the present study, a CMOS image sensor was used to monitor the concentration of oxidized mouse plasma glucose (86-322 mg dL(-1)) based on photon count variation. Measurement of the concentration of oxidized glucose was dependent on changes in color intensity; color intensity increased with increasing glucose concentration. The high color density of glucose highly prevented photons from passing through the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip, which suggests that the photon count was altered by color intensity. Photons were detected by a photodiode in the CMOS image sensor and converted to digital numbers by an analog to digital converter (ADC). Additionally, UV-spectral analysis and time-dependent photon analysis proved the efficiency of the detection system. This simple, effective, and consistent method for glucose measurement shows that CMOS image sensors are efficient devices for monitoring glucose in point-of-care applications. PMID:23900281

  7. Effects Of Dose Rates On Radiation Damage In CMOS Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goben, Charles A.; Coss, James R.; Price, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes measurements of effects of ionizing-radiation dose rate on consequent damage to complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) electronic devices. Depending on irradiation time and degree of annealing, survivability of devices in outer space, or after explosion of nuclear weapons, enhanced. Annealing involving recovery beyond pre-irradiation conditions (rebound) detrimental. Damage more severe at lower dose rates.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of CMOS-MEMS thermoelectric micro generators.

    PubMed

    Kao, Pin-Hsu; Shih, Po-Jen; Dai, Ching-Liang; Liu, Mao-Chen

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a thermoelectric micro generator fabricated by the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process and the post-CMOS process. The micro generator is composed of 24 thermocouples in series. Each thermocouple is constructed by p-type and n-type polysilicon strips. The output power of the generator depends on the temperature difference between the hot and cold parts in the thermocouples. In order to prevent heat-receiving in the cold part in the thermocouples, the cold part is covered with a silicon dioxide layer with low thermal conductivity to insulate the heat source. The hot part of the thermocouples is suspended and connected to an aluminum plate, to increases the heat-receiving area in the hot part. The generator requires a post-CMOS process to release the suspended structures. The post-CMOS process uses an anisotropic dry etching to remove the oxide sacrificial layer and an isotropic dry etching to etch the silicon substrate. Experimental results show that the micro generator has an output voltage of 67 μV at the temperature difference of 1 K. PMID:22205869

  9. Upper-Bound Estimates Of SEU in CMOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Larry D.

    1990-01-01

    Theory of single-event upsets (SEU) (changes in logic state caused by energetic charged subatomic particles) in complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) logic devices extended to provide upper-bound estimates of rates of SEU when limited experimental information available and configuration and dimensions of SEU-sensitive regions of devices unknown. Based partly on chord-length-distribution method.

  10. An SEU-hardened CMOS data latch design

    SciTech Connect

    Rockett, L.R. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    A Single Event Upset (SEU)-hardened Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) data latch design is described. The hardness is achieved by virtue of the latch design, thus no fabrication process or design groundrule development is required. Hardness is gained with comparatively little adverse impact on performance. Cyclotron tests provided hardness verification.

  11. CMOS VLSI Layout and Verification of a SIMD Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Jianqing

    1996-01-01

    A CMOS VLSI layout and verification of a 3 x 3 processor parallel computer has been completed. The layout was done using the MAGIC tool and the verification using HSPICE. Suggestions for expanding the computer into a million processor network are presented. Many problems that might be encountered when implementing a massively parallel computer are discussed.

  12. Attributes and drawbacks of submicron CMOS for IR FPA readouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowski, L. J.

    1998-09-01

    The availability of submicron CMOS has enabled the development of shingle-chip IR cameras having performance capabilities and on-chip functions which were previously impossible. Sensor designers are, however, encoutering and overcoming several challanges including steadily decreasing operating voltage.

  13. Relationship between IBICC imaging and SEU in CMOS ICs

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, F.W.; Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L.; Laird, J.S.; Cholewa, M.; Saint, A.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1993-03-01

    Ion-beam-induced charge-collection (IBICC) images of the TA670 16K-bit CMOS SRAM are analyzed and compared to previous SEU images. Enhanced charge collection was observed in the n-source/drains regions consistent with bipolar amplification or shunting.

  14. Relationship between IBICC imaging and SEU in CMOS ICs

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, F.W.; Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L. ); Laird, J.S.; Cholewa, M.; Saint, A.; Legge, G.J.F. )

    1993-01-01

    Ion-beam-induced charge-collection (IBICC) images of the TA670 16K-bit CMOS SRAM are analyzed and compared to previous SEU images. Enhanced charge collection was observed in the n-source/drains regions consistent with bipolar amplification or shunting.

  15. Overcoming scaling concerns in a radiation-hardening CMOS technology

    SciTech Connect

    Maimon, J.; Haddad, N.

    1999-12-01

    Scaling efforts to develop an advanced radiation-hardened CMOS process to support a 4M SRAM are described. Issues encountered during scaling of transistor, isolation, and resistor elements are discussed, as well as the solutions used to overcome these issues. Transistor data, total dose radiation results, and the performance of novel resistors for prevention of single event upsets (SEU) are presented.

  16. Reliability design of CMOS image sensor for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ning; Chen, Shijun; Chen, Yongping

    2013-08-01

    In space applications, sensors work in very harsh space environment. Thus the reliability design must be carefully considered. This paper addresses the techniques which effectively increase the reliability of CMOS image sensors. A radiation tolerant pixel design which is implemented in a sun tracker sensor is presented. Measurement results of total dose radiation, SEL, SEU, etc prove the radiation immunity of the sensor.

  17. Fabrication and Characterization of CMOS-MEMS Thermoelectric Micro Generators

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Pin-Hsu; Shih, Po-Jen; Dai, Ching-Liang; Liu, Mao-Chen

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a thermoelectric micro generator fabricated by the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process and the post-CMOS process. The micro generator is composed of 24 thermocouples in series. Each thermocouple is constructed by p-type and n-type polysilicon strips. The output power of the generator depends on the temperature difference between the hot and cold parts in the thermocouples. In order to prevent heat-receiving in the cold part in the thermocouples, the cold part is covered with a silicon dioxide layer with low thermal conductivity to insulate the heat source. The hot part of the thermocouples is suspended and connected to an aluminum plate, to increases the heat-receiving area in the hot part. The generator requires a post-CMOS process to release the suspended structures. The post-CMOS process uses an anisotropic dry etching to remove the oxide sacrificial layer and an isotropic dry etching to etch the silicon substrate. Experimental results show that the micro generator has an output voltage of 67 μV at the temperature difference of 1 K. PMID:22205869

  18. Thin Film on CMOS Active Pixel Sensor for Space Applications

    PubMed Central

    Schulze Spuentrup, Jan Dirk; Burghartz, Joachim N.; Graf, Heinz-Gerd; Harendt, Christine; Hutter, Franz; Nicke, Markus; Schmidt, Uwe; Schubert, Markus; Sterzel, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    A 664 × 664 element Active Pixel image Sensor (APS) with integrated analog signal processing, full frame synchronous shutter and random access for applications in star sensors is presented and discussed. A thick vertical diode array in Thin Film on CMOS (TFC) technology is explored to achieve radiation hardness and maximum fill factor.

  19. CMOS Ultra Low Power Radiation Tolerant (CULPRiT) Microelectronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Penshu; Maki, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Space Electronics needs Radiation Tolerance or hardness to withstand the harsh space environment: high-energy particles can change the state of the electronics or puncture transistors making them disfunctional. This viewgraph document reviews the use of CMOS Ultra Low Power Radiation Tolerant circuits for NASA's electronic requirements.

  20. CCD AND PIN-CMOS DEVELOPMENTS FOR LARGE OPTICAL TELESCOPE.

    SciTech Connect

    RADEKA, V.

    2006-04-03

    Higher quantum efficiency in near-IR, narrower point spread function and higher readout speed than with conventional sensors have been receiving increased emphasis in the development of CCDs and silicon PIN-CMOS sensors for use in large optical telescopes. Some key aspects in the development of such devices are reviewed.

  1. Mechanically Flexible and High-Performance CMOS Logic Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Wataru; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu

    2015-01-01

    Low-power flexible logic circuits are key components required by the next generation of flexible electronic devices. For stable device operation, such components require a high degree of mechanical flexibility and reliability. Here, the mechanical properties of low-power flexible complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) logic circuits including inverter, NAND, and NOR are investigated. To fabricate CMOS circuits on flexible polyimide substrates, carbon nanotube (CNT) network films are used for p-type transistors, whereas amorphous InGaZnO films are used for the n-type transistors. The power consumption and voltage gain of CMOS inverters are <500 pW/mm at Vin = 0 V (<7.5 nW/mm at Vin = 5 V) and >45, respectively. Importantly, bending of the substrate is not found to cause significant changes in the device characteristics. This is also observed to be the case for more complex flexible NAND and NOR logic circuits for bending states with a curvature radius of 2.6 mm. The mechanical stability of these CMOS logic circuits makes them ideal candidates for use in flexible integrated devices. PMID:26459882

  2. Integrated imaging sensor systems with CMOS active pixel sensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, G.; Cunningham, T.; Ortiz, M.; Heynssens, J.; Sun, C.; Hancock, B.; Seshadri, S.; Wrigley, C.; McCarty, K.; Pain, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses common approaches to CMOS APS technology, as well as specific results on the five-wire programmable digital camera-on-a-chip developed at JPL. The paper also reports recent research in the design, operation, and performance of APS imagers for several imager applications.

  3. Neutron induced soft errors in CMOS memories under reduced bias

    SciTech Connect

    Hazucha, P.; Svensson, C.; Johansson, K.

    1998-12-01

    A custom designed 16 kbit CMOS memory was irradiated by 14 MeV neutrons and 100 MeV neutrons. SEU cross sections were evaluated under different supply voltages. The cross section values are compared to those predicted by the BGR model.

  4. Planar CMOS analog SiPMs: design, modeling, and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yu; Villa, Federica; Bronzi, Danilo; Tisa, Simone; Tosi, Alberto; Zappa, Franco

    2015-11-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are large area detectors consisting of an array of single-photon-sensitive microcells, which make SiPMs extremely attractive to substitute the photomultiplier tubes in many applications. We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of analog SiPMs in standard planar 0.35 μm CMOS technology, with about 1 mm × 1 mm total area and different kinds of microcells, based on single-photon avalanche diodes with 30 μm diameter reaching 21.0% fill-factor (FF), 50 μm diameter (FF = 58.3%) or 50 μm square active area with rounded corner of 5 μm radius (FF = 73.7%). We also developed the electrical SPICE model for CMOS SiPMs. Our CMOS SiPMs have 25 V breakdown voltage, in line with most commercial SiPMs and higher gain (8.8 × 106, 13.2 × 106, and 15.0 × 106, respectively). Although dark count rate density is slightly higher than state-of-the-art analog SiPMs, the proposed standard CMOS processing opens the feasibility of integration with active electronics, for switching hot pixels off, drastically reducing the overall dark count rate, or for further on-chip processing.

  5. CMOS Active-Pixel Image Sensor With Simple Floating Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Nakamura, Junichi; Kemeny, Sabrina E.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental complementary metal-oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) active-pixel image sensor integrated circuit features simple floating-gate structure, with metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) as active circuit element in each pixel. Provides flexibility of readout modes, no kTC noise, and relatively simple structure suitable for high-density arrays. Features desirable for "smart sensor" applications.

  6. INDEP approach for leakage reduction in nanoscale CMOS circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Pattanaik, Manisha; Raj, Balwinder

    2015-02-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology scaling for improving speed and functionality turns leakage power one of the major concerns for nanoscale circuits design. The minimization of leakage power is a rising challenge for the design of the existing and future nanoscale CMOS circuits. This paper presents a novel, input-dependent, transistor-level, low leakage and reliable INput DEPendent (INDEP) approach for nanoscale CMOS circuits. INDEP approach is based on Boolean logic calculations for the input signals of the extra inserted transistors within the logic circuit. The gate terminals of extra inserted transistors depend on the primary input combinations of the logic circuits. The appropriate selection of input gate voltages of INDEP transistors are reducing the leakage current efficiently along with rail to rail output voltage swing. The important characteristic of INDEP approach is that it works well in both active as well as standby modes of the circuits. This approach overcomes the limitations created by the prevalent current leakage reduction techniques. The simulation results indicate that INDEP approach mitigates 41.6% and 35% leakage power for 1-bit full adder and ISCAS-85 c17 benchmark circuit, respectively, at 32 nm bulk CMOS technology node.

  7. Direct readout of gaseous detectors with tiled CMOS circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visschers, J. L.; Blanco Carballo, V.; Chefdeville, M.; Colas, P.; van der Graaf, H.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S.; Timmermans, J.

    2007-03-01

    A coordinated design effort is underway, exploring the three-dimensional direct readout of gaseous detectors by an anode plate equipped with a tiled array of many CMOS pixel readout ASICs, having amplification grids integrated on their topsides and being contacted on their backside.

  8. Analysis of pixel circuits in CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Zou; Chen, Nan; Yao, Li-bin

    2015-04-01

    CMOS image sensors (CIS) have lower power consumption, lower cost and smaller size than CCD image sensors. However, generally CCDs have higher performance than CIS mainly due to lower noise. The pixel circuit used in CIS is the first part of the signal processing circuit and connected to photodiode directly, so its performance will greatly affect the CIS or even the whole imaging system. To achieve high performance, CMOS image sensors need advanced pixel circuits. There are many pixel circuits used in CIS, such as passive pixel sensor (PPS), 3T and 4T active pixel sensor (APS), capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA), and passive pixel sensor (PPS). At first, the main performance parameters of each pixel structure including the noise, injection efficiency, sensitivity, power consumption, and stability of bias voltage are analyzed. Through the theoretical analysis of those pixel circuits, it is concluded that CTIA pixel circuit has good noise performance, high injection efficiency, stable photodiode bias, and high sensitivity with small integrator capacitor. Furthermore, the APS and CTIA pixel circuits are simulated in a standard 0.18-μm CMOS process and using a n-well/p-sub photodiode by SPICE and the simulation result confirms the theoretical analysis result. It shows the possibility that CMOS image sensors can be extended to a wide range of applications requiring high performance.

  9. Hybrid CMOS SiPIN detectors as astronomical imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simms, Lance Michael

    Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) have dominated optical and x-ray astronomy since their inception in 1969. Only recently, through improvements in design and fabrication methods, have imagers that use Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology gained ground on CCDs in scientific imaging. We are now in the midst of an era where astronomers might begin to design optical telescope cameras that employ CMOS imagers. The first three chapters of this dissertation are primarily composed of introductory material. In them, we discuss the potential advantages that CMOS imagers offer over CCDs in astronomical applications. We compare the two technologies in terms of the standard metrics used to evaluate and compare scientific imagers: dark current, read noise, linearity, etc. We also discuss novel features of CMOS devices and the benefits they offer to astronomy. In particular, we focus on a specific kind of hybrid CMOS sensor that uses Silicon PIN photodiodes to detect optical light in order to overcome deficiencies of commercial CMOS sensors. The remaining four chapters focus on a specific type of hybrid CMOS Silicon PIN sensor: the Teledyne Hybrid Visible Silicon PIN Imager (HyViSI). In chapters four and five, results from testing HyViSI detectors in the laboratory and at the Kitt Peak 2.1m telescope are presented. We present our laboratory measurements of the standard detector metrics for a number of HyViSI devices, ranging from 1k×1k to 4k×4k format. We also include a description of the SIDECAR readout circuit that was used to control the detectors. We then show how they performed at the telescope in terms of photometry, astrometry, variability measurement, and telescope focusing and guiding. Lastly, in the final two chapters we present results on detector artifacts such as pixel crosstalk, electronic crosstalk, and image persistence. One form of pixel crosstalk that has not been discussed elsewhere in the literature, which we refer to as Interpixel Charge

  10. A novel multi-actuation CMOS RF MEMS switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chiung-I.; Ko, Chih-Hsiang; Huang, Tsun-Che

    2008-12-01

    This paper demonstrates a capacitive shunt type RF MEMS switch, which is actuated by electro-thermal actuator and electrostatic actuator at the same time, and than latching the switching status by electrostatic force only. Since thermal actuators need relative low voltage compare to electrostatic actuators, and electrostatic force needs almost no power to maintain the switching status, the benefits of the mechanism are very low actuation voltage and low power consumption. Moreover, the RF MEMS switch has considered issues for integrated circuit compatible in design phase. So the switch is fabricated by a standard 0.35um 2P4M CMOS process and uses wet etching and dry etching technologies for postprocess. This compatible ability is important because the RF characteristics are not only related to the device itself. If a packaged RF switch and a packaged IC wired together, the parasitic capacitance will cause the problem for optimization. The structure of the switch consists of a set of CPW transmission lines and a suspended membrane. The CPW lines and the membrane are in metal layers of CMOS process. Besides, the electro-thermal actuators are designed by polysilicon layer of the CMOS process. So the RF switch is only CMOS process layers needed for both electro-thermal and electrostatic actuations in switch. The thermal actuator is composed of a three-dimensional membrane and two heaters. The membrane is a stacked step structure including two metal layers in CMOS process, and heat is generated by poly silicon resistors near the anchors of membrane. Measured results show that the actuation voltage of the switch is under 7V for electro-thermal added electrostatic actuation.

  11. Contact CMOS imaging of gaseous oxygen sensor array

    PubMed Central

    Daivasagaya, Daisy S.; Yao, Lei; Yi Yung, Ka; Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Cheung, Maurice C.; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P.; Bright, Frank V.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a compact luminescent gaseous oxygen (O2) sensor microsystem based on the direct integration of sensor elements with a polymeric optical filter and placed on a low power complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager integrated circuit (IC). The sensor operates on the measurement of excited-state emission intensity of O2-sensitive luminophore molecules tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) ([Ru(dpp)3]2+) encapsulated within sol–gel derived xerogel thin films. The polymeric optical filter is made with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that is mixed with a dye (Sudan-II). The PDMS membrane surface is molded to incorporate arrays of trapezoidal microstructures that serve to focus the optical sensor signals on to the imager pixels. The molded PDMS membrane is then attached with the PDMS color filter. The xerogel sensor arrays are contact printed on top of the PDMS trapezoidal lens-like microstructures. The CMOS imager uses a 32 × 32 (1024 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. Correlated double sampling circuit, pixel address, digital control and signal integration circuits are also implemented on-chip. The CMOS imager data is read out as a serial coded signal. The CMOS imager consumes a static power of 320 µW and an average dynamic power of 625 µW when operating at 100 Hz sampling frequency and 1.8 V DC. This CMOS sensor system provides a useful platform for the development of miniaturized optical chemical gas sensors. PMID:24493909

  12. Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) in a VLSI CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetta, R.; French, M.; Manolopoulos, S.; Tyndel, M.; Allport, P.; Bates, R.; O'Shea, V.; Hall, G.; Raymond, M.

    2003-03-01

    Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) designed in a standard VLSI CMOS technology have recently been proposed as a compact pixel detector for the detection of high-energy charged particle in vertex/tracking applications. MAPS, also named CMOS sensors, are already extensively used in visible light applications. With respect to other competing imaging technologies, CMOS sensors have several potential advantages in terms of low cost, low power, lower noise at higher speed, random access of pixels which allows windowing of region of interest, ability to integrate several functions on the same chip. This brings altogether to the concept of 'camera-on-a-chip'. In this paper, we review the use of CMOS sensors for particle physics and we analyse their performances in term of the efficiency (fill factor), signal generation, noise, readout speed and sensor area. In most of high-energy physics applications, data reduction is needed in the sensor at an early stage of the data processing before transfer of the data to tape. Because of the large number of pixels, data reduction is needed on the sensor itself or just outside. This brings in stringent requirements on the temporal noise as well as to the sensor uniformity, expressed as a Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN). A pixel architecture with an additional transistor is proposed. This architecture, coupled to correlated double sampling of the signal will allow cancellation of the two dominant noise sources, namely the reset or kTC noise and the FPN. A prototype has been designed in a standard 0.25 μm CMOS technology. It has also a structure for electrical calibration of the sensor. The prototype is functional and detailed tests are under way.

  13. Fully CMOS analog and digital SiPMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yu; Villa, Federica; Bronzi, Danilo; Tisa, Simone; Tosi, Alberto; Zappa, Franco

    2015-03-01

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are emerging single photon detectors used in many applications requiring large active area, photon-number resolving capability and immunity to magnetic fields. We present three families of analog SiPM fabricated in a reliable and cost-effective fully standard planar CMOS technology with a total photosensitive area of 1×1 mm2. These three families have different active areas with fill-factors (21%, 58.3%, 73.7%) comparable to those of commercial SiPM, which are developed in vertical (current flow) custom technologies. The peak photon detection efficiency in the near-UV tops at 38% (fill-factor included) comparable to commercial custom-process ones and dark count rate density is just a little higher than the best-in-class commercial analog SiPMs. Thanks to the CMOS processing, these new SiPMs can be integrated together with active components and electronics both within the microcell and on-chip, in order to act at the microcell level or to perform global pre-processing. We also report CMOS digital SiPMs in the same standard CMOS technology, based on microcells with digitalized processing, all integrated on-chip. This CMOS digital SiPMs has four 32×1 cells (128 microcells), each consisting of SPAD, active quenching circuit with adjustable dead time, digital control (to switch off noisy SPADs and readout position of detected photons), and fast trigger output signal. The achieved 20% fill-factor is still very good.

  14. An RF Energy Harvester System Using UHF Micropower CMOS Rectifier Based on a Diode Connected CMOS Transistor

    PubMed Central

    Shokrani, Mohammad Reza; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar B.; Rokhani, Fakhrul Zaman; Shafie, Suhaidi Bin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new type diode connected MOS transistor to improve CMOS conventional rectifier's performance in RF energy harvester systems for wireless sensor networks in which the circuits are designed in 0.18 μm TSMC CMOS technology. The proposed diode connected MOS transistor uses a new bulk connection which leads to reduction in the threshold voltage and leakage current; therefore, it contributes to increment of the rectifier's output voltage, output current, and efficiency when it is well important in the conventional CMOS rectifiers. The design technique for the rectifiers is explained and a matching network has been proposed to increase the sensitivity of the proposed rectifier. Five-stage rectifier with a matching network is proposed based on the optimization. The simulation results shows 18.2% improvement in the efficiency of the rectifier circuit and increase in sensitivity of RF energy harvester circuit. All circuits are designed in 0.18 μm TSMC CMOS technology. PMID:24782680

  15. An RF energy harvester system using UHF micropower CMOS rectifier based on a diode connected CMOS transistor.

    PubMed

    Shokrani, Mohammad Reza; Khoddam, Mojtaba; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar B; Kamsani, Noor Ain; Rokhani, Fakhrul Zaman; Shafie, Suhaidi Bin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new type diode connected MOS transistor to improve CMOS conventional rectifier's performance in RF energy harvester systems for wireless sensor networks in which the circuits are designed in 0.18  μm TSMC CMOS technology. The proposed diode connected MOS transistor uses a new bulk connection which leads to reduction in the threshold voltage and leakage current; therefore, it contributes to increment of the rectifier's output voltage, output current, and efficiency when it is well important in the conventional CMOS rectifiers. The design technique for the rectifiers is explained and a matching network has been proposed to increase the sensitivity of the proposed rectifier. Five-stage rectifier with a matching network is proposed based on the optimization. The simulation results shows 18.2% improvement in the efficiency of the rectifier circuit and increase in sensitivity of RF energy harvester circuit. All circuits are designed in 0.18 μm TSMC CMOS technology. PMID:24782680

  16. Low-cost uncooled infrared detector arrays in standard CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eminoglu, Selim; Tanrikulu, M. Y.; Akin, Tayfun

    2003-09-01

    This paper reports the development of a low-cost 128 x 128 uncooled infrared focal plane array (FPA) based on suspended and thermally isolated CMOS p+-active/n-well diodes. The FPA is fabricated using a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process followed by simple post-CMOS bulk micromachining that does not require any critical lithography or complicated deposition steps; and therefore, the cost of the uncooled FPA is almost equal to the cost of the CMOS chip. The post-CMOS fabrication steps include an RIE etching to reach the bulk silicon and an anisotropic silicon etching to obtain thermally isolated pixels. During the RIE etching, CMOS metal layers are used as masking layers, and therefore, narrow openings such as 2 μm can be defined between the support arms. This approach allows achieving small pixel size of 40 μm x 40 μm with a fill factor of 44%. The FPA is scanned at 30 fps by monolithically integrated multi-channel parallel readout circuitry which is composed of low-noise differential transconductance amplifiers, switched capacitor (SC) integrators, sample-and-hold circuits, and various other circuit blocks for reducing the effects of variations in detector voltage and operating temperature. The fabricated detector has a temperature coefficient of -2 mV/K, a thermal conductance value of 1.8 x 10-7 W/K, and a thermal time constant value of 36 msec, providing a measured DC responsivity (R) of 4970 V/W under continuous bias. Measured detector noise is 0.69 μV in 8 kHz bandwidth at 30 fps scanning rate, resulting a measured detectivity (D*) of 9.7 x 108 cm√HzW. Contribution of the 1/f noise component is found to be negligible due to the single crystal nature of the silicon n-well and its low value at low bias levels. The noise of the readout circuit is measured as 0.76 μV, resulting in an expected NETD value of 1 K when scanned at 30 fps using f=1 optics. This NETD value can be decreased below 350 mK by decreasing the electrical bandwidth with the help of increased

  17. Improved Space Object Orbit Determination Using CMOS Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, T.; Peltonen, J.; Sännti, T.; Silha, J.; Flohrer, T.

    2014-09-01

    CMOS-sensors, or in general Active Pixel Sensors (APS), are rapidly replacing CCDs in the consumer camera market. Due to significant technological advances during the past years these devices start to compete with CCDs also for demanding scientific imaging applications, in particular in the astronomy community. CMOS detectors offer a series of inherent advantages compared to CCDs, due to the structure of their basic pixel cells, which each contains their own amplifier and readout electronics. The most prominent advantages for space object observations are the extremely fast and flexible readout capabilities, feasibility for electronic shuttering and precise epoch registration, and the potential to perform image processing operations on-chip and in real-time. The major challenges and design drivers for ground-based and space-based optical observation strategies have been analyzed. CMOS detector characteristics were critically evaluated and compared with the established CCD technology, especially with respect to the above mentioned observations. Similarly, the desirable on-chip processing functionalities which would further enhance the object detection and image segmentation were identified. Finally, we simulated several observation scenarios for ground- and space-based sensor by assuming different observation and sensor properties. We will introduce the analyzed end-to-end simulations of the ground- and space-based strategies in order to investigate the orbit determination accuracy and its sensitivity which may result from different values for the frame-rate, pixel scale, astrometric and epoch registration accuracies. Two cases were simulated, a survey using a ground-based sensor to observe objects in LEO for surveillance applications, and a statistical survey with a space-based sensor orbiting in LEO observing small-size debris in LEO. The ground-based LEO survey uses a dynamical fence close to the Earth shadow a few hours after sunset. For the space-based scenario

  18. High-Voltage-Input Level Translator Using Standard CMOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Vo, Tuan A.; Blalock, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    proposed integrated circuit would translate (1) a pair of input signals having a low differential potential and a possibly high common-mode potential into (2) a pair of output signals having the same low differential potential and a low common-mode potential. As used here, "low" and "high" refer to potentials that are, respectively, below or above the nominal supply potential (3.3 V) at which standard complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits are designed to operate. The input common-mode potential could lie between 0 and 10 V; the output common-mode potential would be 2 V. This translation would make it possible to process the pair of signals by use of standard 3.3-V CMOS analog and/or mixed-signal (analog and digital) circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. A schematic of the circuit is shown in the figure. Standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry cannot withstand input potentials greater than about 4 V. However, there are many applications that involve low-differential-potential, high-common-mode-potential input signal pairs and in which standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry, which is relatively inexpensive, would be the most appropriate circuitry for performing other functions on the integrated-circuit chip that handles the high-potential input signals. Thus, there is a need to combine high-voltage input circuitry with standard low-voltage CMOS circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. The proposed circuit would satisfy this need. In the proposed circuit, the input signals would be coupled into both a level-shifting pair and a common-mode-sensing pair of CMOS transistors. The output of the level-shifting pair would be fed as input to a differential pair of transistors. The resulting differential current output would pass through six standoff transistors to be mirrored into an output branch by four heterojunction bipolar transistors. The mirrored differential current would be converted back to potential by a pair of diode-connected transistors

  19. CMOS VLSI Active-Pixel Sensor for Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Sun, Chao; Yang, Guang; Heynssens, Julie

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for a proposed active-pixel sensor (APS) and a design to implement the architecture in a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit provide for some advanced features that are expected to be especially desirable for tracking pointlike features of stars. The architecture would also make this APS suitable for robotic- vision and general pointing and tracking applications. CMOS imagers in general are well suited for pointing and tracking because they can be configured for random access to selected pixels and to provide readout from windows of interest within their fields of view. However, until now, the architectures of CMOS imagers have not supported multiwindow operation or low-noise data collection. Moreover, smearing and motion artifacts in collected images have made prior CMOS imagers unsuitable for tracking applications. The proposed CMOS imager (see figure) would include an array of 1,024 by 1,024 pixels containing high-performance photodiode-based APS circuitry. The pixel pitch would be 9 m. The operations of the pixel circuits would be sequenced and otherwise controlled by an on-chip timing and control block, which would enable the collection of image data, during a single frame period, from either the full frame (that is, all 1,024 1,024 pixels) or from within as many as 8 different arbitrarily placed windows as large as 8 by 8 pixels each. A typical prior CMOS APS operates in a row-at-a-time ( grolling-shutter h) readout mode, which gives rise to exposure skew. In contrast, the proposed APS would operate in a sample-first/readlater mode, suppressing rolling-shutter effects. In this mode, the analog readout signals from the pixels corresponding to the windows of the interest (which windows, in the star-tracking application, would presumably contain guide stars) would be sampled rapidly by routing them through a programmable diagonal switch array to an on-chip parallel analog memory array. The

  20. Large-area low-temperature ultrananocrystaline diamond (UNCD) films and integration with CMOS devices for monolithically integrated diamond MEMD/NEMS-CMOS systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Sumant, A.V.; Auciello, O.; Yuan, H.-C; Ma, Z.; Carpick, R. W.; Mancini, D. C.; Univ. of Wisconsin; Univ. of Pennsylvania

    2009-05-01

    Because of exceptional mechanical, chemical, and tribological properties, diamond has a great potential to be used as a material for the development of high-performance MEMS and NEMS such as resonators and switches compatible with harsh environments, which involve mechanical motion and intermittent contact. Integration of such MEMS/NEMS devices with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microelectronics will provide a unique platform for CMOS-driven commercial MEMS/NEMS. The main hurdle to achieve diamond-CMOS integration is the relatively high substrate temperatures (600-800 C) required for depositing conventional diamond thin films, which are well above the CMOS operating thermal budget (400 C). Additionally, a materials integration strategy has to be developed to enable diamond-CMOS integration. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), a novel material developed in thin film form at Argonne, is currently the only microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) grown diamond film that can be grown at 400 C, and still retain exceptional mechanical, chemical, and tribological properties comparable to that of single crystal diamond. We have developed a process based on MPCVD to synthesize UNCD films on up to 200 mm in diameter CMOS wafers, which will open new avenues for the fabrication of monolithically integrated CMOS-driven MEMS/NEMS based on UNCD. UNCD films were grown successfully on individual Si-based CMOS chips and on 200 mm CMOS wafers at 400 C in a MPCVD system, using Ar-rich/CH4 gas mixture. The CMOS devices on the wafers were characterized before and after UNCD deposition. All devices were performing to specifications with very small degradation after UNCD deposition and processing. A threshold voltage degradation in the range of 0.08-0.44V and transconductance degradation in the range of 1.5-9% were observed.

  1. Fundamental performance differences between CMOS and CCD imagers: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janesick, James; Andrews, James; Tower, John; Grygon, Mark; Elliott, Tom; Cheng, John; Lesser, Michael; Pinter, Jeff

    2007-09-01

    A new class of CMOS imagers that compete with scientific CCDs is presented. The sensors are based on deep depletion backside illuminated technology to achieve high near infrared quantum efficiency and low pixel cross-talk. The imagers deliver very low read noise suitable for single photon counting - Fano-noise limited soft x-ray applications. Digital correlated double sampling signal processing necessary to achieve low read noise performance is analyzed and demonstrated for CMOS use. Detailed experimental data products generated by different pixel architectures (notably 3TPPD, 5TPPD and 6TPG designs) are presented including read noise, charge capacity, dynamic range, quantum efficiency, charge collection and transfer efficiency and dark current generation. Radiation damage data taken for the imagers is also reported.

  2. A fully integrated CMOS inverse sine circuit for computational systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seon, Jong-Kug

    2010-08-01

    An inverse trigonometric function generator using CMOS technology is presented and implemented. The development and synthesis of inverse trigonometric functional circuits based on the simple approximation equations are also introduced. The proposed inverse sine function generator has the infinite input range and can be used in many measurement and instrumentation systems. The nonlinearity of less than 2.8% for the entire input range of 0.5 Vp-p with a small-signal bandwidth of 3.2 MHz is achieved. The chip implemented in 0.25 μm CMOS process operates from a single 1.8 V supply. The measured power consumption and the active chip area of the inverse sine function circuit are 350 μW and 0.15 mm2, respectively.

  3. Monolithic CMOS-MEMS integration for high-g accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, Vinayak; Li, Holden; Tan, Chuan Seng

    2014-10-01

    This paper highlights work-in-progress towards the conceptualization, simulation, fabrication and initial testing of a silicon-germanium (SiGe) integrated CMOS-MEMS high-g accelerometer for military, munition, fuze and shock measurement applications. Developed on IMEC's SiGe MEMS platform, the MEMS offers a dynamic range of 5,000 g and a bandwidth of 12 kHz. The low noise readout circuit adopts a chopper-stabilization technique implementing the CMOS through the TSMC 0.18 µm process. The device structure employs a fully differential split comb-drive set up with two sets of stators and a rotor all driven separately. Dummy structures acting as protective over-range stops were designed to protect the active components when under impacts well above the designed dynamic range.

  4. TID Simulation of Advanced CMOS Devices for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajid, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    This paper focuses on Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effects caused by accumulation of charges at silicon dioxide, substrate/silicon dioxide interface, Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) for scaled CMOS bulk devices as well as at Buried Oxide (BOX) layer in devices based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology to be operated in space radiation environment. The radiation induced leakage current and corresponding density/concentration electrons in leakage current path was presented/depicted for 180nm, 130nm and 65nm NMOS, PMOS transistors based on CMOS bulk as well as SOI process technologies on-board LEO and GEO satellites. On the basis of simulation results, the TID robustness analysis for advanced deep sub-micron technologies was accomplished up to 500 Krad. The correlation between the impact of technology scaling and magnitude of leakage current with corresponding total dose was established utilizing Visual TCAD Genius program.

  5. Radiation Hard 0.13 Micron CMOS Library at IHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagdhold, U.

    2013-08-01

    To support space applications we have developed an 0.13 micron CMOS library which should be radiation hard up to 200 krad. The article describes the concept to come to a radiation hard digital circuit and was introduces in 2010 [1]. By introducing new radiation hard design rules we will minimize IC-level leakage and single event latch-up (SEL). To reduce single event upset (SEU) we add two p-MOS transistors to all flip flops. For reliability reasons we use double contacts in all library elements. The additional rules and the library elements are integrated in our Cadence mixed signal design kit, “Virtuoso” IC6.1 [2]. A test chip is produced with our in house 0.13 micron BiCMOS technology, see Ref. [3]. As next step we will doing radiation tests according the european space agency (ESA) specifications, see Ref. [4], [5].

  6. Radiation Hard 0.25 Micron CMOS Library at IHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagdhold, U.

    2008-08-01

    To support space applications we have produced a test chip with our in house 0.25 micron BiCMOS- Technology. Then the chips were radiated and measured. During measurements no threshold voltage shift and no single event latchup (SEL) were obtained up to a level of 200 krad. As conclusion of the measurement we developed new radiation hard design rules and according to these rules we created a new radiation hard CMOS library. With this new library we produced a Leon3 chip with triple module redundancy. Single event upsets did occur. Therefore we upgrade the library to make the flip flops more resistant against single event upset (SEU) by adding two p-MOS transistors.

  7. A CMOS image sensor dedicated to medical gamma camera application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salahuddin, Nur S.; Paindavoine, Michel; Ginhac, Dominique; Parmentier, Michel; Tamda, Najia

    2005-03-01

    Generally, medical Gamma Camera are based on the Anger principle. These cameras use a scintillator block coupled to a bulky array of photomultiplier tube (PMT). To simplify this, we designed a new integrated CMOS image sensor in order to replace bulky PMT photodetetors. We studied several photodiodes sensors including current mirror amplifiers. These photodiodes have been fabricated using a CMOS 0.6 micrometers process from Austria Mikro Systeme (AMS). Each sensor pixel in the array occupies respectively, 1mm x 1mm area, 0.5mm x 0.5mm area and 0.2mm 0.2mm area with fill factor 98 % and total chip area is 2 square millimeters. The sensor pixels show a logarithmic response in illumination and are capable of detecting very low green light emitting diode (less than 0.5 lux) . These results allow to use our sensor in new Gamma Camera solid-state concept.

  8. Diffuse reflectance measurements using lensless CMOS imaging chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelkanova, I.; Pandya, A.; Shah, D.; Lilge, L.; Douplik, A.

    2014-10-01

    To assess superficial epithelial microcirculation, a diagnostic tool should be able to detect the heterogeneity of microvasculature, and to monitor qualitative derangement of perfusion in a diseased condition. Employing a lensless CMOS imaging chip with an RGB Bayer filter, experiments were conducted with a microfluidic platform to obtain diffuse reflectance maps. Haemoglobin (Hb) solution (160 g/l) was injected in the periodic channels (grooves) of the microfluidic phantom which were covered with ~250 μm thick layer of intralipid to obtain a diffusive environment. Image processing was performed on data acquired on the surface of the phantom to evaluate the diffuse reflectance from the subsurface periodic pattern. Thickness of the microfluidic grooves, the wavelength dependent contrast between Hb and the background, and effective periodicity of the grooves were evaluated. Results demonstrate that a lens-less CMOS camera is capable of capturing images of subsurface structures with large field of view.

  9. A back-illuminated megapixel CMOS image sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael; Jones, Todd; Wrigley, Chris; Hancock, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the test and characterization results for a back-illuminated megapixel CMOS imager. The imager pixel consists of a standard junction photodiode coupled to a three transistor-per-pixel switched source-follower readout [1]. The imager also consists of integrated timing and control and bias generation circuits, and provides analog output. The analog column-scan circuits were implemented in such a way that the imager could be configured to run in off-chip correlated double-sampling (CDS) mode. The imager was originally designed for normal front-illuminated operation, and was fabricated in a commercially available 0.5 pn triple-metal CMOS-imager compatible process. For backside illumination, the imager was thinned by etching away the substrate was etched away in a post-fabrication processing step.

  10. A CMOS integrated timing discriminator circuit for fast scintillation counters

    SciTech Connect

    Jochmann, M.W.

    1998-06-01

    Based on a zero-crossing discriminator using a CR differentiation network for pulse shaping, a new CMOS integrated timing discriminator circuit is proposed for fast (t{sub r} {ge} 2 ns) scintillation counters at the cooler synchrotron COSY-Juelich. By eliminating the input signal`s amplitude information by means of an analog continuous-time divider, a normalized pulse shape at the zero-crossing point is gained over a wide dynamic input amplitude range. In combination with an arming comparator and a monostable multivibrator this yields in a highly precise timing discriminator circuit, that is expected to be useful in different time measurement applications. First measurement results of a CMOS integrated logarithmic amplifier, which is part of the analog continuous-time divider, agree well with the corresponding simulations. Moreover, SPICE simulations of the integrated discriminator circuit promise a time walk well below 200 ps (FWHM) over a 40 dB input amplitude dynamic range.

  11. A Brief Discussion of Radiation Hardening of CMOS Microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.

    1998-12-18

    Commercial microchips work well in their intended environments. However, generic microchips will not fimction correctly if exposed to sufficient amounts of ionizing radiation, the kind that satellites encounter in outer space. Modern CMOS circuits must overcome three specific concerns from ionizing radiation: total-dose, single-event, and dose-rate effects. Minority-carrier devices such as bipolar transistors, optical receivers, and solar cells must also deal with recombination-generation centers caused by displacement damage, which are not major concerns for majority-carrier CMOS devices. There are ways to make the chips themselves more resistant to radiation. This extra protection, called radiation hardening, has been called both a science and an art. Radiation hardening requires both changing the designs of the chips and altering the ways that the chips are manufactured.

  12. Hardening of commercial CMOS PROMs with polysilicon fusible links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. H.; Rauchfuss, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The method by which a commercial 4K CMOS PROM with polysilicon fuses was hardened and the feasibility of applying this method to a 16K PROM are presented. A description of the process and the necessary minor modifications to the original layout are given. The PROM circuit and discrete device characteristics over radiation to 1000K rad-Si are summarized. The dose rate sensitivity of the 4K PROMs is also presented.

  13. CMOS floating-point vector-arithmetic unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, D.; Rix, B.; Hahn, H.; Hosticka, B. J.

    1994-05-01

    This work describes a floating-point arithmetic unit based on the CORDIC algorithm. The unit computes a full set of high level arithmetic and elementary functions: multiplication, division, (co)sine, hyperbolic (co)sine, square root, natural logarithm, inverse (hyperbolic) tangent, vector norm, and phase. The chip has been integrated in 1.6 micron double-metal n-well CMOS technology and achieves a normalized peak performance of 220 MFLOPS.

  14. Accelerated life testing effects on CMOS microcircuit characteristics, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maximow, B.

    1976-01-01

    An accelerated life test of sufficient duration to generate a minimum of 50% cumulative failures in lots of CMOS devices was conducted to provide a basis for determining the consistency of activation energy at 250 C. An investigation was made to determine whether any thresholds were exceeded during the high temperature testing, which could trigger failure mechanisms unique to that temperature. The usefulness of the 250 C temperature test as a predictor of long term reliability was evaluated.

  15. Characterization of a CMOS detector for limited-view mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbakri, Idris A.

    2007-03-01

    Sensors based on complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) technology have recently been considered for mammography applications. CMOS offers the advantages of lower cost and relative ease of fabrications. We report on the evaluation of a CMOS imager (C9730DK, Hamamatsu Corporation) with 14-bit digitization and 50-micron detector element (del) resolution. The imager has an active area of 5 x 5 cm and uses 160-micron layer of needle-crystal CsI (55 mg/cc) to convert x-rays to light. The detector is suitable for spot and specimen imaging and image-guided biopsy. To evaluate resolution performance, we measured the modulation transfer function (MTF) using the slanted edge method. We also measured the normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) using Fourier analysis of uniform images. The MTF and NNPS were used to determine the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector. The detector was characterized using a molybdenum target/molybdenum filter mammography x-ray source operated at 28 kVp with 44mm of PMMA added to mimic clinical beam quality (HVL = 0.62 mm Al). Our analysis showed that the imager had a linear response. The MTF was 28% at 5 lp/mm and 8% at 10 lp/mm. The product of the NNPS and exposure showed that the detector was quantum limited. The DQE near 0 lp/mm was in the 55-60% range. The DQE and MTF performance of the CMOS detector are comparable to published values for other digital mammography detectors.

  16. A BiCMOS integrated charge to amplitude converter

    SciTech Connect

    Gallin-Martel, L.; Pouxe, J.; Rossetto, O.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a fast two channel gated charge to amplitude converter (QAC) which has been designed with the 1.2 {mu}m BiCMOS technology from AMS (Austria Mikro Systeme). It can integrate fast negative impulse currents up to 100 mA. Associated with an audio 18 bit low cost ADC, it can easily be used to make a 12 to 13 bit QDC. The problems of current to current conversion, pedestal and offset stability are discussed.

  17. Linear dynamic range enhancement in a CMOS imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A CMOS imager with increased linear dynamic range but without degradation in noise, responsivity, linearity, fixed-pattern noise, or photometric calibration comprises a linear calibrated dual gain pixel in which the gain is reduced after a pre-defined threshold level by switching in an additional capacitance. The pixel may include a novel on-pixel latch circuit that is used to switch in the additional capacitance.

  18. Attenuation of single event induced pulses in CMOS combinational logic

    SciTech Connect

    Baze, M.P.; Buchner, S.P.

    1997-12-01

    Results are presented of a study of SEU generated transient pulse attenuation in combinational logic structures built using common digital CMOS design practices. SPICE circuit analysis, heavy ion tests, and pulsed, focused laser simulations were used to examine the response characteristics of transient pulse behavior in long logic strings. Results show that while there is an observable effect, it cannot be generally assumed that attenuation will significantly reduce observed circuit bit error rates.

  19. CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, S.; Hu, G.; Howe, R. C. T.; de Luca, A.; Ali, S. Z.; Udrea, F.; Gardner, J. W.; Ray, S. K.; Guha, P. K.; Hasan, T.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the integration of inkjet-printed graphene with a CMOS micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) microhotplate for humidity sensing. The graphene ink is produced via ultrasonic assisted liquid phase exfoliation in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) polymer as the stabilizer. We formulate inks with different graphene concentrations, which are then deposited through inkjet printing over predefined interdigitated gold electrodes on a CMOS microhotplate. The graphene flakes form a percolating network to render the resultant graphene-PVP thin film conductive, which varies in presence of humidity due to swelling of the hygroscopic PVP host. When the sensors are exposed to relative humidity ranging from 10-80%, we observe significant changes in resistance with increasing sensitivity from the amount of graphene in the inks. Our sensors show excellent repeatability and stability, over a period of several weeks. The location specific deposition of functional graphene ink onto a low cost CMOS platform has the potential for high volume, economic manufacturing and application as a new generation of miniature, low power humidity sensors for the internet of things.

  20. Aluminum nitride on titanium for CMOS compatible piezoelectric transducers

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Joseph C; Petzold, Bryan C; Ninan, Biju; Mullapudi, Ravi; Pruitt, Beth L

    2010-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are widely used for microscale sensors and actuators but can pose material compatibility challenges. This paper reports a post-CMOS compatible fabrication process for piezoelectric sensors and actuators on silicon using only standard CMOS metals. The piezoelectric properties of aluminum nitride (AlN) deposited on titanium (Ti) by reactive sputtering are characterized and microcantilever actuators are demonstrated. The film texture of the polycrystalline Ti and AlN films is improved by removing the native oxide from the silicon substrate in situ and sequentially depositing the films under vacuum to provide a uniform growth surface. The piezoelectric properties for several AlN film thicknesses are measured using laser doppler vibrometry on unpatterned wafers and released cantilever beams. The film structure and properties are shown to vary with thickness, with values of d33f, d31 and d33 of up to 2.9, −1.9 and 6.5 pm V−1, respectively. These values are comparable with AlN deposited on a Pt metal electrode, but with the benefit of a fabrication process that uses only standard CMOS metals. PMID:20333316

  1. Fully depleted, thick, monolithic CMOS pixels with high quantum efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, A.; Stefanov, K.; Johnston, N.; Holland, A.

    2015-04-01

    The Centre for Electronic Imaging (CEI) has an active programme of evaluating and designing Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors with high quantum efficiency, for applications in near-infrared and X-ray photon detection. This paper describes the performance characterisation of CMOS devices made on a high resistivity 50 μ m thick p-type substrate with a particular focus on determining the depletion depth and the quantum efficiency. The test devices contain 8 × 8 pixel arrays using CCD-style charge collection, which are manufactured in a low voltage CMOS process by ESPROS Photonics Corporation (EPC). Measurements include determining under which operating conditions the devices become fully depleted. By projecting a spot using a microscope optic and a LED and biasing the devices over a range of voltages, the depletion depth will change, causing the amount of charge collected in the projected spot to change. We determine if the device is fully depleted by measuring the signal collected from the projected spot. The analysis of spot size and shape is still under development.

  2. Development of CMOS Imager Block for Capsule Endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafie, S.; Fodzi, F. A. M.; Tung, L. Q.; Lioe, D. X.; Halin, I. A.; Hasan, W. Z. W.; Jaafar, H.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the development of imager block to be associated in a capsule endoscopy system. Since the capsule endoscope is used to diagnose gastrointestinal diseases, the imager block must be in small size which is comfortable for the patients to swallow. In this project, a small size 1.5V button battery is used as the power supply while the voltage supply requirements for other components such as microcontroller and CMOS image sensor are higher. Therefore, a voltage booster circuit is proposed to boost up the voltage supply from 1.5V to 3.3V. A low power microcontroller is used to generate control pulses for the CMOS image sensor and to convert the 8-bits parallel data output to serial data to be transmitted to the display panel. The results show that the voltage booster circuit was able to boost the voltage supply from 1.5V to 3.3V. The microcontroller precisely controls the CMOS image sensor to produce parallel data which is then serialized again by the microcontroller. The serial data is then successfully translated to 2fps image and displayed on computer.

  3. Neuronal cell biocompatibility and adhesion to modified CMOS electrodes.

    PubMed

    Graham, Anthony H D; Bowen, Chris R; Taylor, John; Robbins, Jon

    2009-10-01

    The use of CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) integrated circuits to create electrodes for biosensors, implants and drug-discovery has several potential advantages over passive multi-electrode arrays (MEAs). However, unmodified aluminium CMOS electrodes may corrode in a physiological environment. We have investigated a low-cost electrode design based on the modification of CMOS metallisation to produce a nanoporous alumina electrode as an interface to mammalian neuronal cells and corrosion inhibitor. Using NG108-15 mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid cells, results show that porous alumina is biocompatible and that the inter-pore distance (pore pitch) of the alumina has no effect on cell vitality. To establish whether porous alumina and a cell membrane can produce a tight junction required for good electrical coupling between electrode and cell, we devised a novel cell detachment centrifugation assay to assess the long-term adhesion of cells. Results show that porous alumina substrates produced with a large pore pitch of 206 nm present a significantly improved surface compared to the unmodified aluminium control and that small pore-pitches of 17 nm and 69 nm present a less favourable surface for cell adhesion. PMID:19459049

  4. CMOS-compatible graphene photodetector covering all optical communication bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospischil, Andreas; Humer, Markus; Furchi, Marco M.; Bachmann, Dominic; Guider, Romain; Fromherz, Thomas; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Optical interconnects are becoming attractive alternatives to electrical wiring in intra- and interchip communication links. Particularly, the integration with silicon complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has received considerable interest because of the ability of cost-effective integration of electronics and optics on a single chip. Although silicon enables the realization of optical waveguides and passive components, the integration of another, optically absorbing, material is required for photodetection. Traditionally, germanium or compound semiconductors are used for this purpose; however, their integration with silicon technology faces major challenges. Recently, graphene emerged as a viable alternative for optoelectronic applications, including photodetection. Here, we demonstrate an ultra-wideband CMOS-compatible photodetector based on graphene. We achieved a multigigahertz operation over all fibre-optic telecommunication bands beyond the wavelength range of strained germanium photodetectors, the responsivity of which is limited by their bandgap. Our work complements the recent demonstration of a CMOS-integrated graphene electro-optical modulator, and paves the way for carbon-based optical interconnects.

  5. A CMOS TDI image sensor for Earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, Joseph E.; Stefanov, Konstantin D.; Holland, Andrew D.; Endicott, James; Mayer, Frederic; Barbier, Frederic

    2015-09-01

    Time Delay and Integration (TDI) is used to increase the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) in image sensors when imaging fast moving objects. One important TDI application is in Earth observation from space. In order to operate in the space radiation environment, the effect that radiation damage has on the performance of the image sensors must be understood. This work looks at prototype TDI sensor pixel designs, produced by e2v technologies. The sensor is a CCD-like charge transfer device, allowing in-pixel charge summation, produced on a CMOS process. The use of a CMOS process allows potential advantages such as lower power consumption, smaller pixels, higher line rate and extra on-chip functionality which can simplify system design. CMOS also allows a dedicated output amplifier per column allowing fewer charge transfers and helping to facilitate higher line rates than CCDs. In this work the effect on the pixels of radiation damage from high energy protons, at doses relevant to a low Earth orbit mission, is presented. This includes the resulting changes in Charge Transfer inefficiency (CTI) and dark signal.

  6. Polycrystalline Mercuric Iodide Films on CMOS Readout Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Hartsough, Neal E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Nygard, Einar; Malakhov, Nail; Barber, William C.; Gandhi, Thulasidharan

    2009-01-01

    We have created high-resolution x-ray imaging devices using polycrystalline mercuric iodide (HgI2) films grown directly onto CMOS readout chips using a thermal vapor transport process. Images from prototype 400×400 pixel HgI2-coated CMOS readout chips are presented, where the pixel grid is 30 μm × 30 μm. The devices exhibited sensitivity of 6.2 μC/Rcm2 with corresponding dark current of ∼2.7 nA/cm2, and a 80 μm FWHM planar image response to a 50 μm slit aperture. X-ray CT images demonstrate a point spread function sufficient to obtain a 50 μm spatial resolution in reconstructed CT images at a substantially reduced dose compared to phosphor-coated readouts. The use of CMOS technology allows for small pixels (30 μm), fast readout speeds (8 fps for a 3200×3200 pixel array), and future design flexibility due to the use of well-developed fabrication processes. PMID:20161098

  7. CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing.

    PubMed

    Santra, S; Hu, G; Howe, R C T; De Luca, A; Ali, S Z; Udrea, F; Gardner, J W; Ray, S K; Guha, P K; Hasan, T

    2015-01-01

    We report on the integration of inkjet-printed graphene with a CMOS micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) microhotplate for humidity sensing. The graphene ink is produced via ultrasonic assisted liquid phase exfoliation in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) polymer as the stabilizer. We formulate inks with different graphene concentrations, which are then deposited through inkjet printing over predefined interdigitated gold electrodes on a CMOS microhotplate. The graphene flakes form a percolating network to render the resultant graphene-PVP thin film conductive, which varies in presence of humidity due to swelling of the hygroscopic PVP host. When the sensors are exposed to relative humidity ranging from 10-80%, we observe significant changes in resistance with increasing sensitivity from the amount of graphene in the inks. Our sensors show excellent repeatability and stability, over a period of several weeks. The location specific deposition of functional graphene ink onto a low cost CMOS platform has the potential for high volume, economic manufacturing and application as a new generation of miniature, low power humidity sensors for the internet of things. PMID:26616216

  8. CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing

    PubMed Central

    Santra, S.; Hu, G.; Howe, R. C. T.; De Luca, A.; Ali, S. Z.; Udrea, F.; Gardner, J. W.; Ray, S. K.; Guha, P. K.; Hasan, T.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the integration of inkjet-printed graphene with a CMOS micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) microhotplate for humidity sensing. The graphene ink is produced via ultrasonic assisted liquid phase exfoliation in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) polymer as the stabilizer. We formulate inks with different graphene concentrations, which are then deposited through inkjet printing over predefined interdigitated gold electrodes on a CMOS microhotplate. The graphene flakes form a percolating network to render the resultant graphene-PVP thin film conductive, which varies in presence of humidity due to swelling of the hygroscopic PVP host. When the sensors are exposed to relative humidity ranging from 10–80%, we observe significant changes in resistance with increasing sensitivity from the amount of graphene in the inks. Our sensors show excellent repeatability and stability, over a period of several weeks. The location specific deposition of functional graphene ink onto a low cost CMOS platform has the potential for high volume, economic manufacturing and application as a new generation of miniature, low power humidity sensors for the internet of things. PMID:26616216

  9. Cryogenic CMOS circuits for single charge digital readout.

    SciTech Connect

    Gurrieri, Thomas M.; Longoria, Erin Michelle; Eng, Kevin; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Young, Ralph Watson

    2010-03-01

    The readout of a solid state qubit often relies on single charge sensitive electrometry. However the combination of fast and accurate measurements is non trivial due to large RC time constants due to the electrometers resistance and shunt capacitance from wires between the cold stage and room temperature. Currently fast sensitive measurements are accomplished through rf reflectrometry. I will present an alternative single charge readout technique based on cryogenic CMOS circuits in hopes to improve speed, signal-to-noise, power consumption and simplicity in implementation. The readout circuit is based on a current comparator where changes in current from an electrometer will trigger a digital output. These circuits were fabricated using Sandia's 0.35 {micro}m CMOS foundry process. Initial measurements of comparators with an addition a current amplifier have displayed current sensitivities of < 1nA at 4.2K, switching speeds up to {approx}120ns, while consuming {approx}10 {micro}W. I will also discuss an investigation of noise characterization of our CMOS process in hopes to obtain a better understanding of the ultimate limit in signal to noise performance.

  10. Cryogenic CMOS circuits for single charge digital readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eng, Kevin; Gurrieri, T. M.; Hamlet, J.; Carroll, M. S.

    2010-03-01

    The readout of a solid state qubit often relies on single charge sensitive electrometry. However the combination of fast and accurate measurements is non trivial due to large RC time constants due to the electrometers resistance and shunt capacitance from wires between the cold stage and room temperature. Currently fast sensitive measurements are accomplished through rf reflectrometry. I will present an alternative single charge readout technique based on cryogenic CMOS circuits in hopes to improve speed, signal-to-noise, power consumption and simplicity in implementation. The readout circuit is based on a current comparator where changes in current from an electrometer will trigger a digital output. These circuits were fabricated using Sandia's 0.35μm CMOS foundry process. Initial measurements of comparators with an addition a current amplifier have displayed current sensitivities of < 1nA at 4.2K, switching speeds up to ˜120ns, while consuming ˜10μW. I will also discuss an investigation of noise characterization of our CMOS process in hopes to obtain a better understanding of the ultimate limit in signal to noise performance.

  11. First result on biased CMOS MAPs-on-diamond devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanxheri, K.; Citroni, M.; Fanetti, S.; Lagomarsino, S.; Morozzi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Sciortino, S.; Servoli, L.

    2015-10-01

    Recently a new type of device, the MAPS-on-diamond, obtained bonding a thinned to 25 μm CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor to a standard 500 μm pCVD diamond substrate, has been proposed and fabricated, allowing a highly segmented readout (10×10 μm pixel size) of the signal produced in the diamond substrate. The bonding between the two materials has been obtained using a new laser technique to deliver the needed energy at the interface. A biasing scheme has been adopted to polarize the diamond substrate to allow the charge transport inside the diamond without disrupting the functionalities of the CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor. The main concept of this class of devices is the capability of the charges generated in the diamond by ionizing radiation to cross the silicon-diamond interface and to be collected by the MAPS photodiodes. In this work we demonstrate that such passage occurs and measure its overall efficiency. This study has been carried out first calibrating the CMOS MAPS with monochromatic X-rays, and then testing the device with charged particles (electrons) either with and without biasing the diamond substrate, to compare the amount of signal collected.

  12. CMOS-liquid-crystal-based image transceiver device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efron, Uzi; Davidov, Isak; Sinelnikov, Vladimir; Levin, Ilya

    2001-05-01

    A CMOS-Liquid Crystal-Based Image Transceiver Device (ITD) is under development at the Holon Institute of Technology. The device combines both functions of imaginary and display in a single array structure. This unique structure allows the combination of see-through, aiming, imaging and the displaying of a superposed image to be combined in a single, compact, head mounted display. The CMOS-based pixel elements are designed to provide image sensor part of the pixel is based on an n-well photodiode and a three-transistors readout circuit. The imaging function is based on a back- illuminated sensor configuration. In order to provide a high imager fill-factor, two pixel configuration are proposed: 1) A p++/p-/p-well silicon structure using twin- well CMOS process; 2) an n-well processed silicon structure with a micro-lens array. The display portion of the IT device is to be fabricate don a silicon-based reflective, active matrix driver, using nematic liquid crystal material. The reflective display pixel electrode is driven by an n-MOS transistor, formed in the corresponding pixel region on the silicon substrate. The timing, sequencing and control of the IT device array are designed in a pipeline array processing scheme. A preliminary prototype system and device design have been performed and the first test device is currently being tested. Details of the device design as well as its smart goggle applications are presented.

  13. CMOS/LCOS-based image transceiver device: II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efron, Uzi; Davidov, Isak; Sinelnikov, Vladimir; Friesem, Asher A.

    2001-11-01

    A CMOS-liquid crystal-based image transceiver device (ITD) is under development at the Holon Institute of Technology. The device combines both functions of imaging and display in a single array configuration. This unique structure allows the combination of see-through, aiming, imaging and the displaying of a superposed image to be combined in a single, compact, head mounted display. The CMOS-based pixel elements are designed to provide efficient imaging in the visible range as well as driver capabilities for the overlying liquid crystal modulator. The image sensor part of the pixel is based on an n-well photodiode and a three-transistor readout circuit. The imaging function is based on a back- illuminated sensor configuration. In order to provide a high imager fill-factor, two pixel configurations are proposed: 1) A p++/p-/p-well silicon structure using twin- well CMOS process; 2) An n-well processed silicon structure with a micro-lens array. The display portion of the IT device is to be fabricated on a silicon-based reflective, active matrix driver, using nematic liquid crystal material, in LCOS technology. The timing, sequencing and control of the IT device array are designed in a pipeline array processing scheme. A preliminary prototype system and device design have been performed and the first test device is currently undergoing testing. Details of the device design as well as its Smart Goggle applications are presented.

  14. Aluminum nitride on titanium for CMOS compatible piezoelectric transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doll, Joseph C.; Petzold, Bryan C.; Ninan, Biju; Mullapudi, Ravi; Pruitt, Beth L.

    2010-02-01

    Piezoelectric materials are widely used for microscale sensors and actuators but can pose material compatibility challenges. This paper reports a post-CMOS compatible fabrication process for piezoelectric sensors and actuators on silicon using only standard CMOS metals. The piezoelectric properties of aluminum nitride (AlN) deposited on titanium (Ti) by reactive sputtering are characterized and microcantilever actuators are demonstrated. The film texture of the polycrystalline Ti and AlN films is improved by removing the native oxide from the silicon substrate in situ and sequentially depositing the films under vacuum to provide a uniform growth surface. The piezoelectric properties for several AlN film thicknesses are measured using laser doppler vibrometry on unpatterned wafers and released cantilever beams. The film structure and properties are shown to vary with thickness, with values of d33f, d31 and d33 of up to 2.9, -1.9 and 6.5 pm V-1, respectively. These values are comparable with AlN deposited on a Pt metal electrode, but with the benefit of a fabrication process that uses only standard CMOS metals.

  15. Self-Calibrated Humidity Sensor in CMOS without Post-Processing

    PubMed Central

    Nizhnik, Oleg; Higuchi, Kohei; Maenaka, Kazusuke

    2012-01-01

    A 1.1 μW power dissipation, voltage-output humidity sensor with 10% relative humidity accuracy was developed in the LFoundry 0.15 μm CMOS technology without post-processing. The sensor consists of a woven lateral array of electrodes implemented in CMOS top metal, a humidity-sensitive layer of Intervia Photodielectric 8023D-10, a CMOS capacitance to voltage converter, and the self-calibration circuitry. PMID:22368466

  16. Single photon detection and localization accuracy with an ebCMOS camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajgfinger, T.; Dominjon, A.; Barbier, R.

    2015-07-01

    The CMOS sensor technologies evolve very fast and offer today very promising solutions to existing issues facing by imaging camera systems. CMOS sensors are very attractive for fast and sensitive imaging thanks to their low pixel noise (1e-) and their possibility of backside illumination. The ebCMOS group of IPNL has produced a camera system dedicated to Low Light Level detection and based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. After reminding the principle of detection of an ebCMOS and the characteristics of our prototype, we confront our camera to other imaging systems. We compare the identification efficiency and the localization accuracy of a point source by four different photo-detection devices: the scientific CMOS (sCMOS), the Charge Coupled Device (CDD), the Electron Multiplying CCD (emCCD) and the Electron Bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). Our ebCMOS camera is able to identify a single photon source in less than 10 ms with a localization accuracy better than 1 μm. We report as well efficiency measurement and the false positive identification of the ebCMOS camera by identifying more than hundreds of single photon sources in parallel. About 700 spots are identified with a detection efficiency higher than 90% and a false positive percentage lower than 5. With these measurements, we show that our target tracking algorithm can be implemented in real time at 500 frames per second under a photon flux of the order of 8000 photons per frame. These results demonstrate that the ebCMOS camera concept with its single photon detection and target tracking algorithm is one of the best devices for low light and fast applications such as bioluminescence imaging, quantum dots tracking or adaptive optics.

  17. CMOS Integrated Single Electron Transistor Electrometry (CMOS-SET) circuit design for nanosecond quantum-bit read-out.

    SciTech Connect

    Gurrieri, Thomas M.; Lilly, Michael Patrick; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Levy, James E.

    2008-08-01

    Novel single electron transistor (SET) read-out circuit designs are described. The circuits use a silicon SET interfaced to a CMOS voltage mode or current mode comparator to obtain a digital read-out of the state of the qubit. The design assumes standard submicron (0.35 um) CMOS SOI technology using room temperature SPICE models. Implications and uncertainties related to the temperature scaling of these models to 100mK operation are discussed. Using this technology, the simulations predict a read-out operation speed of approximately Ins and a power dissipation per cell as low as 2nW for single-shot read-out, which is a significant advantage over currently used radio frequency SET (RF-SET) approaches.

  18. Top-down fabrication of fully CMOS-compatible silicon nanowire arrays and their integration into CMOS Inverters on plastic.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeongwon; Jeon, Youngin; Moon, Taeho; Kim, Sangsig

    2011-04-26

    A route to the top-down fabrication of highly ordered and aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays with degenerately doped source/drain regions from a bulk Si wafer is presented. In this approach, freestanding n- and p-SiNWs with an inverted triangular cross section are obtained using conventional photolithography, crystal orientation dependent wet etching, size reduction oxidation, and ion implantation doping. Based on these n- and p-SiNWs transferred onto a plastic substrate, simple SiNW-based complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) inverters are constructed for the possible applications of these SiNW arrays in integrated circuits on plastic. The static voltage transfer characteristic of the SiNW-based CMOS inverter exhibits a voltage gain of ∼9 V/V and a transition of 0.32 V at an operating voltage of 1.5 V with a full output voltage swing between 0 V and V(DD), and its mechnical bendability indicates good fatigue properties for potential applications of flexible electronics. This novel top-down approach is fully compatible with the current state-of-the-art Si-based CMOS technologies and, therefore, offers greater flexibility in device design for both high-performance and low-power functionality. PMID:21355599

  19. Interaction of I50V mutant and I50L/A71V double mutant HIV-protease with inhibitor TMC114 (darunavir): molecular dynamics simulation and binding free energy studies.

    PubMed

    Meher, Biswa Ranjan; Wang, Yixuan

    2012-02-16

    In the present work, the binding of inhibitor TMC114 (darunavir) to wild-type (WT), single (I50V) as well as double (I50L/A71V) mutant HIV-proteases (HIV-pr) was investigated with all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as well as molecular mechanic-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) calculation. For both the apo and complexed HIV-pr, many intriguing effects due to double mutant, I50L/A71V, are observed. For example, the flap-flap distance and the distance from the active site to the flap residues in the apo I50L/A71V-HIV-pr are smaller than those of WT- and I50V-HIV-pr, probably making the active site smaller in volume and closer movement of flaps. For the complexed HIV-pr with TMC114, the double mutant I50L/A71V shows a less curling of the flap tips and less flexibility than WT and the single mutant I50V. As for the other previous studies, the present results also show that the single mutant I50V decreases the binding affinity of I50V-HIV-pr to TMC, resulting in a drug resistance; whereas the double mutant I50L/A71V increases the binding affinity, and as a result of the stronger binding, the I50L/A71V may be well adapted by the TMC114. The energy decomposition analysis suggests that the increase of the binding for the double mutant I50L/A71V-HIV-pr can be mainly attributed to the increase in electrostatic energy by -5.52 kacl/mol and van der Waals by -0.42 kcal/mol, which are canceled out in part by the increase of polar solvation energy of 1.99 kcal/mol. The I50L/A71V mutant directly increases the binding affinity by approximately -0.88 (Ile50 to Leu50) and -0.90 (Ile50' to Leu50') kcal/mol, accounting 45% for the total gain of the binding affinity. Besides the direct effects from the residues Leu50 and Leu50', the residue Gly49' increases the binding affinity of I50L/A71V-HIV-pr to the inhibitor by -0.74 kcal/mol, to which the electrostatic interaction of Leu50's backbone contributes by -1.23 kcal/mol. Another two residues Ile84 and Ile47' also

  20. NV-CMOS HD camera for day/night imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelsong, T.; Tower, J.; Sudol, Thomas; Senko, T.; Chodelka, D.

    2014-06-01

    SRI International (SRI) has developed a new multi-purpose day/night video camera with low-light imaging performance comparable to an image intensifier, while offering the size, weight, ruggedness, and cost advantages enabled by the use of SRI's NV-CMOS HD digital image sensor chip. The digital video output is ideal for image enhancement, sharing with others through networking, video capture for data analysis, or fusion with thermal cameras. The camera provides Camera Link output with HD/WUXGA resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels operating at 60 Hz. Windowing to smaller sizes enables operation at higher frame rates. High sensitivity is achieved through use of backside illumination, providing high Quantum Efficiency (QE) across the visible and near infrared (NIR) bands (peak QE <90%), as well as projected low noise (<2h+) readout. Power consumption is minimized in the camera, which operates from a single 5V supply. The NVCMOS HD camera provides a substantial reduction in size, weight, and power (SWaP) , ideal for SWaP-constrained day/night imaging platforms such as UAVs, ground vehicles, fixed mount surveillance, and may be reconfigured for mobile soldier operations such as night vision goggles and weapon sights. In addition the camera with the NV-CMOS HD imager is suitable for high performance digital cinematography/broadcast systems, biofluorescence/microscopy imaging, day/night security and surveillance, and other high-end applications which require HD video imaging with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The camera comes with an array of lens mounts including C-mount and F-mount. The latest test data from the NV-CMOS HD camera will be presented.

  1. Swap intensified WDR CMOS module for I2/LWIR fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yang; Noguier, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    The combination of high resolution visible-near-infrared low light sensor and moderate resolution uncooled thermal sensor provides an efficient way for multi-task night vision. Tremendous progress has been made on uncooled thermal sensors (a-Si, VOx, etc.). It's possible to make a miniature uncooled thermal camera module in a tiny 1cm3 cube with <1W power consumption. For silicon based solid-state low light CCD/CMOS sensors have observed also a constant progress in terms of readout noise, dark current, resolution and frame rate. In contrast to thermal sensing which is intrinsic day&night operational, the silicon based solid-state sensors are not yet capable to do the night vision performance required by defense and critical surveillance applications. Readout noise, dark current are 2 major obstacles. The low dynamic range at high sensitivity mode of silicon sensors is also an important limiting factor, which leads to recognition failure due to local or global saturations & blooming. In this context, the image intensifier based solution is still attractive for the following reasons: 1) high gain and ultra-low dark current; 2) wide dynamic range and 3) ultra-low power consumption. With high electron gain and ultra low dark current of image intensifier, the only requirement on the silicon image pickup device are resolution, dynamic range and power consumption. In this paper, we present a SWAP intensified Wide Dynamic Range CMOS module for night vision applications, especially for I2/LWIR fusion. This module is based on a dedicated CMOS image sensor using solar-cell mode photodiode logarithmic pixel design which covers a huge dynamic range (> 140dB) without saturation and blooming. The ultra-wide dynamic range image from this new generation logarithmic sensor can be used directly without any image processing and provide an instant light accommodation. The complete module is slightly bigger than a simple ANVIS format I2 tube with <500mW power consumption.

  2. A CMOS In-Pixel CTIA High Sensitivity Fluorescence Imager

    PubMed Central

    Murari, Kartikeya; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Thakor, Nitish; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, charge coupled device (CCD) based image sensors have held sway over the field of biomedical imaging. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based imagers so far lack sensitivity leading to poor low-light imaging. Certain applications including our work on animal-mountable systems for imaging in awake and unrestrained rodents require the high sensitivity and image quality of CCDs and the low power consumption, flexibility and compactness of CMOS imagers. We present a 132×124 high sensitivity imager array with a 20.1 μm pixel pitch fabricated in a standard 0.5 μ CMOS process. The chip incorporates n-well/p-sub photodiodes, capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) based in-pixel amplification, pixel scanners and delta differencing circuits. The 5-transistor all-nMOS pixel interfaces with peripheral pMOS transistors for column-parallel CTIA. At 70 fps, the array has a minimum detectable signal of 4 nW/cm2 at a wavelength of 450 nm while consuming 718 μA from a 3.3 V supply. Peak signal to noise ratio (SNR) was 44 dB at an incident intensity of 1 μW/cm2. Implementing 4×4 binning allowed the frame rate to be increased to 675 fps. Alternately, sensitivity could be increased to detect about 0.8 nW/cm2 while maintaining 70 fps. The chip was used to image single cell fluorescence at 28 fps with an average SNR of 32 dB. For comparison, a cooled CCD camera imaged the same cell at 20 fps with an average SNR of 33.2 dB under the same illumination while consuming over a watt. PMID:23136624

  3. 77 FR 74513 - Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products Containing Same; Investigations: Terminations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... (``CalTech''). 77 FR 33488 (June 6, 2012). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the Tariff... COMMISSION Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products Containing Same; Investigations: Terminations... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain CMOS image sensors...

  4. 77 FR 33488 - Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products Containing Same; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products Containing Same; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to... States after importation of certain CMOS image sensors and products containing same by reason of... image sensors and products containing same that infringe one or more of claims 1 and 2 of the...

  5. CMOS IC fault models, physical defect coverage, and I sub DDQ testing

    SciTech Connect

    Fritzemeier, R.R.; Soden, J.M. ); Hawkins, C.F. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    The development of the stuck-at fault (SAF) model is reviewed with emphasis on its relationship to CMOS integrated circuit (IC) technologies. The ability of the SAF model to represent common physical defects in CMOS ICs is evaluated. A test strategy for defect detection, which includes I{sub DDQ} testing is presented. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Comparison of Total Dose Effects on Micropower Op-Amps: Bipolar and CMOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C.; Johnston, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper compares low-paper op-amps, OPA241 (bipolar) and OPA336 (CMOS), from Burr-Brown, MAX473 (bipolar) and MAX409 (CMOS), characterizing their total dose response with a single 2.7V power supply voltage.

  7. Integration of GMR-based spin torque oscillators and CMOS circuitry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tingsu; Eklund, Anders; Sani, Sohrab; Rodriguez, Saul; Malm, B. Gunnar; Åkerman, Johan; Rusu, Ana

    2015-09-01

    This paper demonstrates the integration of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) spin torque oscillators (STO) with dedicated high frequency CMOS circuits. The wire-bonding-based integration approach is employed in this work, since it allows easy implementation, measurement and replacement. A GMR STO is wire-bonded to the dedicated CMOS integrated circuit (IC) mounted on a PCB, forming a (GMR STO + CMOS IC) pair. The GMR STO has a lateral size of 70 nm and more than an octave of tunability in the microwave frequency range. The proposed CMOS IC provides the necessary bias-tee for the GMR STO, as well as electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and wideband amplification targeting high frequency GMR STO-based applications. It is implemented in a 65 nm CMOS process, offers a measured gain of 12 dB, while consuming only 14.3 mW and taking a total silicon area of 0.329 mm2. The measurement results show that the (GMR STO + CMOS IC) pair has a wide tunability range from 8 GHz to 16.5 GHz and improves the output power of the GMR STO by about 10 dB. This GMR STO-CMOS integration eliminates wave reflections during the signal transmission and therefore exhibits good potential for developing high frequency GMR STO-based applications, which combine the features of CMOS and STO technologies.

  8. Fabrication and Characterization of a CMOS-MEMS Humidity Sensor.

    PubMed

    Dennis, John-Ojur; Ahmed, Abdelaziz-Yousif; Khir, Mohd-Haris

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Microelectromechanical System (CMOS-MEMS) device with embedded microheater operated at relatively elevated temperatures (40 °C to 80 °C) for the purpose of relative humidity measurement. The sensing principle is based on the change in amplitude of the device due to adsorption or desorption of humidity on the active material layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles deposited on the moving plate, which results in changes in the mass of the device. The sensor has been designed and fabricated through a standard 0.35 µm CMOS process technology and post-CMOS micromachining technique has been successfully implemented to release the MEMS structures. The sensor is operated in the dynamic mode using electrothermal actuation and the output signal measured using a piezoresistive (PZR) sensor connected in a Wheatstone bridge circuit. The output voltage of the humidity sensor increases from 0.585 mV to 30.580 mV as the humidity increases from 35% RH to 95% RH. The output voltage is found to be linear from 0.585 mV to 3.250 mV as the humidity increased from 35% RH to 60% RH, with sensitivity of 0.107 mV/% RH; and again linear from 3.250 mV to 30.580 mV as the humidity level increases from 60% RH to 95% RH, with higher sensitivity of 0.781 mV/% RH. On the other hand, the sensitivity of the humidity sensor increases linearly from 0.102 mV/% RH to 0.501 mV/% RH with increase in the temperature from 40 °C to 80 °C and a maximum hysteresis of 0.87% RH is found at a relative humidity of 80%. The sensitivity is also frequency dependent, increasing from 0.500 mV/% RH at 2 Hz to reach a maximum value of 1.634 mV/% RH at a frequency of 12 Hz, then decreasing to 1.110 mV/% RH at a frequency of 20 Hz. Finally, the CMOS-MEMS humidity sensor showed comparable response, recovery, and repeatability of measurements in three cycles as compared to a standard sensor that directly

  9. Performance Analysis of Visible Light Communication Using CMOS Sensors.

    PubMed

    Do, Trong-Hop; Yoo, Myungsik

    2016-01-01

    This paper elucidates the fundamentals of visible light communication systems that use the rolling shutter mechanism of CMOS sensors. All related information involving different subjects, such as photometry, camera operation, photography and image processing, are studied in tandem to explain the system. Then, the system performance is analyzed with respect to signal quality and data rate. To this end, a measure of signal quality, the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR), is formulated. Finally, a simulation is conducted to verify the analysis. PMID:26938535

  10. Performance Analysis of Visible Light Communication Using CMOS Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Do, Trong-Hop; Yoo, Myungsik

    2016-01-01

    This paper elucidates the fundamentals of visible light communication systems that use the rolling shutter mechanism of CMOS sensors. All related information involving different subjects, such as photometry, camera operation, photography and image processing, are studied in tandem to explain the system. Then, the system performance is analyzed with respect to signal quality and data rate. To this end, a measure of signal quality, the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR), is formulated. Finally, a simulation is conducted to verify the analysis. PMID:26938535

  11. Fabrication and Characterization of a CMOS-MEMS Humidity Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, John-Ojur; Ahmed, Abdelaziz-Yousif; Khir, Mohd-Haris

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Microelectromechanical System (CMOS-MEMS) device with embedded microheater operated at relatively elevated temperatures (40 °C to 80 °C) for the purpose of relative humidity measurement. The sensing principle is based on the change in amplitude of the device due to adsorption or desorption of humidity on the active material layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles deposited on the moving plate, which results in changes in the mass of the device. The sensor has been designed and fabricated through a standard 0.35 µm CMOS process technology and post-CMOS micromachining technique has been successfully implemented to release the MEMS structures. The sensor is operated in the dynamic mode using electrothermal actuation and the output signal measured using a piezoresistive (PZR) sensor connected in a Wheatstone bridge circuit. The output voltage of the humidity sensor increases from 0.585 mV to 30.580 mV as the humidity increases from 35% RH to 95% RH. The output voltage is found to be linear from 0.585 mV to 3.250 mV as the humidity increased from 35% RH to 60% RH, with sensitivity of 0.107 mV/% RH; and again linear from 3.250 mV to 30.580 mV as the humidity level increases from 60% RH to 95% RH, with higher sensitivity of 0.781 mV/% RH. On the other hand, the sensitivity of the humidity sensor increases linearly from 0.102 mV/% RH to 0.501 mV/% RH with increase in the temperature from 40 °C to 80 °C and a maximum hysteresis of 0.87% RH is found at a relative humidity of 80%. The sensitivity is also frequency dependent, increasing from 0.500 mV/% RH at 2 Hz to reach a maximum value of 1.634 mV/% RH at a frequency of 12 Hz, then decreasing to 1.110 mV/% RH at a frequency of 20 Hz. Finally, the CMOS-MEMS humidity sensor showed comparable response, recovery, and repeatability of measurements in three cycles as compared to a standard sensor that directly

  12. Defect classes - an overdue paradigm for CMOS IC testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, C.F.; Soden, J.M.; Righter, A.W.; Ferguson, F.J.

    1994-09-01

    The IC test industry has struggled for more than 30 years to establish a test approach that would guarantee a low defect level to the customer. We propose a comprehensive strategy for testing CMOS ICs that uses defect classes based on measured defect electrical properties. Defect classes differ from traditional fault models. Our defect class approach requires that the test strategy match the defect electrical properties, while fault models require that IC defects match the fault definition. We use data from Sandia Labs failure analysis and test facilities and from public literature. We describe test pattern requirements for each defect class and propose a test paradigm.

  13. High total dose effects on CMOS/SOI technology

    SciTech Connect

    Flament, O.; Dupont-Nivet, E.; Leray, J.L.; Pere, J.F.; Delagnes, E. ); Auberton-Herve, A.J.; Giffard, B. ); Borel, G.; Ouisse, T. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports that, CMOS silicon on insulator technology has shown its ability to process hardened components which remain functional after irradiation with a total dose of several tens of Megarads. New tests on elementary transistors and 29101 microprocessor have been made at doses up to 100 Mrad (SiO{sub 2}) and above. Results of irradiation at these total doses are presented for different biases, together with the post-irradiation behavior of the components. All the observations show that new parameters must be taken into account for hardness insurance at a high level of total dose.

  14. A CMOS readout system for very large detector capacitances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeneberg, U.; Hosticka, B. J.; Fent, J.; Oberlack, H.; Zimmer, G.

    1990-03-01

    In this contribution we present readout electronics for a liquid-argon calorimeter. It has been designed and optimized for operation at cryogenic temperatures and it is integrated in an n-well 2 μm CMOS technology. The chip contains 16 analog channels with switched-capacitor circuits for charge collection, storage, and amplification, and averaging and correlated double sampling circuits for noise reduction. Further components include a trigger generator, an analog multiplexer, digital control circuits for analog switching, and 50 ω cable drivers.

  15. Laser SEU sensitivity mapping of deep submicron CMOS SRAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongtao, Yu; Guoqiang, Feng; Rui, Chen; Jianwei, Han

    2014-06-01

    The pulsed laser facility for SEU sensitivity mapping is utilized to study the SEU sensitive regions of a 0.18 μm CMOS SRAM cell. Combined with the device layout micrograph, SEU sensitivity maps of the SRAM cell are obtained. TCAD simulation work is performed to examine the SEU sensitivity characteristics of the SRAM cell. The laser mapping experiment results are discussed and compared with the electron micrograph information of the SRAM cell and the TCAD simulation results. The results present that the test technique is reliable and of high mapping precision for the deep submicron technology device.

  16. Silicon nanowires integrated with CMOS circuits for biosensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, G.; Asadollahi, A.; Hellström, P.-E.; Garidis, K.; Östling, M.

    2014-08-01

    We describe a silicon nanowire (SiNW) biosensor fabricated in a fully depleted SOI CMOS process. The sensor array consists of N by N pixel matrix (N2 pixels or test sites) and 8 input-output (I/O) pins. In each pixel a single crystalline SiNW with 75 by 20 nm cross-section area is defined using sidewall transfer lithography in the SOI layer. The key advantage of the design is that each individual SiNWs can be read-out sequentially and used for real-time charge based detection of molecules in liquids or gases.

  17. Radiation-hard silicon gate bulk CMOS cell family

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbon, C. F.; Habing, D. H.; Flores, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    A radiation-hardened bulk silicon gate CMOS technology and a topologically simple, high-performance dual-port cell family utilizing this process have been demonstrated. Additional circuits, including a random logic circuit containing 4800 transistors on a 236 x 236 mil die, are presently being designed and processed. Finally, a joint design-process effort is underway to redesign the cell family in reduced design rules; this results in a factor of 2.5 cell size reduction and a factor of 3 decrease in chip interconnect area. Cell performance is correspondingly improved.

  18. A quasi-passive CMOS pipeline D/A converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Fong-Jim; Temes, Gabor C.; Law, Simon

    1989-01-01

    A novel pipeline digital-to-analog converter configuration, based on switched-capacitor techniques, is described. An n-bit D/A conversion can be implemented by cascading n + 1 unit cells. The device count of the circuit increases linearly, not exponentially, with the conversion accuracy. The new configuration can be pipelined. Hence, the conversion rate can be increased without requiring a higher clock rate. An experimental 10-bit DAC prototype has been fabricated using a 3-micron CMOS process. The results show that high-speed, high-accuracy, and low-power operation can be achieved without special process or postprocess trimming.

  19. Test of radiation hardness of CMOS transistors under neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Rowe, W.A.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Hoffman, C.M.; Holtkamp, D.; Kinnison, W.W.; Sommer, W.F. Jr.; Ziock, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    We have tested 2 micron CMOS test structures from various foundries in the LAMPF Beam stop for radiation damage under prolongued neutron irradiation. The fluxes employed covered the region expected to be encountered at the SSC and led to fluences of up to 10/sup 14/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/ in about 500 hrs of running. We show that test structures which have been measured to survive ionizing radiation of the order MRad also survive these high neutron fluences. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Predicting Lifetimes Of CMOS ASIC's From Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.; Zamani, Nasser; Zoutendyk, John A.

    1993-01-01

    Concise report discusses recent developments in use of semiempirical mathematical models to predict rates of failure and operating lifetimes of complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). Each model represents specific mechanism of failure. Once failure mechanisms and models relevant to given ASIC chosen, adjustable parameters in models fitted to life-test data acquired from representative integrated-circuit structures on test coupons fabricated along with ASIC's. Then design parameters of ASIC's incorporated into models, and models yield lifetimes.

  1. A high speed CMOS A/D converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Don R.; Whitaker, Sterling R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a high speed analog-to-digital (A/D) converter. The converter is a 7 bit flash converter with one half LSB accuracy. Typical parts will function at approximately 200 MHz. The converter uses a novel comparator circuit that is shown to out perform more traditional comparators, and thus increases the speed of the converter. The comparator is a clocked, precharged circuit that offers very fast operation with a minimal offset voltage (2 mv). The converter was designed using a standard 1 micron digital CMOS process and is 2,244 microns by 3,972 microns.

  2. An electrostatic CMOS/BiCMOS Lithium ion vibration-based harvester-charger IC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Erick Omar

    Self-powered microsystems, such as wireless transceiver microsensors, appeal to an expanding application space in monitoring, control, and diagnosis for commercial, industrial, military, space, and biomedical products. As these devices continue to shrink, their microscale dimensions allow them to be unobtrusive and economical, with the potential to operate from typically unreachable environments and, in wireless network applications, deploy numerous distributed sensing nodes simultaneously. Extended operational life, however, is difficult to achieve since their limited volume space constrains the stored energy available, even with state-of-the-art technologies, such as thin-film lithium-ion batteries (Li Ion) and micro-fuel cells. Harvesting ambient energy overcomes this deficit by continually replenishing the energy reservoir and, as a result, indefinitely extending system lifetime. In this work, an electrostatic harvester that harnesses ambient kinetic energy from vibrations to charge an energy-storage device (e.g., a battery) is investigated, developed, and evaluated. The proposed harvester charges and holds the voltage across a vibration-sensitive variable capacitor so that vibrations can induce it to generate current into the battery when capacitance decreases (as its plates separate). The challenge is that energy is harnessed at relatively slow rates, producing low output power, and the electronics required to transfer it to charge a battery can easily demand more than the power produced. To this end, the system reduces losses by time-managing and biasing its circuits to operate only when needed and with just enough energy while charging the capacitor through an efficient quasi-lossless inductor-based precharger. As result, the proposed energy harvester stores a net energy gain in the battery during every vibration cycle. Two energy-harvesting integrated circuits (IC) were analyzed, designed, developed, and validated using a 0.7-im BiCMOS process and a 30-Hz

  3. Optimum Design of CMOS DC-DC Converter for Mobile Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Yasushi; Edo, Masaharu; Denta, Toshio; Kawashima, Tetsuya; Ninomiya, Tamotsu

    In recent years, low output power CMOS DC-DC converters which integrate power stage MOSFETs and a PWM controller using CMOS process have been used in many mobile applications. In this paper, we propose the calculation method of CMOS DC-DC converter efficiency and report optimum design of CMOS DC-DC converter based on this method. By this method, converter efficiencies are directly calculated from converter specifications, dimensions of power stage MOSFET and device parameters. Therefore, this method can be used for optimization of CMOS DC-DC converter design, such as dimensions of power stage MOSFET and switching frequency. The efficiency calculated by the proposed method agrees well with the experimental results.

  4. Closed-loop adaptive optics using a CMOS image quality metric sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Chueh; Rayankula, Aditya; Giles, Michael K.; Furth, Paul M.

    2006-08-01

    When compared to a Shack-Hartmann sensor, a CMOS image sharpness sensor has the advantage of reduced complexity in a closed-loop adaptive optics system. It also has the potential to be implemented as a smart sensor using VLSI technology. In this paper, we present a novel adaptive optics testbed that uses a CMOS sharpness imager built in the New Mexico State University (NMSU) Electro-Optics Research Laboratory (EORL). The adaptive optics testbed, which includes a CMOS image quality metric sensor and a 37-channel deformable mirror, has the capability to rapidly compensate higher-order phase aberrations. An experimental performance comparison of the pinhole image sharpness feedback method and the CMOS imager is presented. The experimental data shows that the CMOS sharpness imager works well in a closed-loop adaptive optics system. Its overall performance is better than that of the pinhole method, and it has a fast response time.

  5. Fabrication and device characteristics of strained-Si-on-insulator (strained-SOI) CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Shin-ichi; Mizuno, Tomohisa; Tezuka, Tsutomu; Sugiyama, Naoharu; Numata, Toshinori; Usuda, Koji; Moriyama, Yoshihiko; Nakaharai, Shu; Koga, Junji; Tanabe, Akihito; Maeda, Tatsuro

    2004-03-01

    Strained-Si-on-insulator (strained-SOI) CMOS is a promising device structure for satisfying requirements of both high current drive and low supply voltage under sub-100 nm nodes, because of the combination of advantages of SOI MOSFETs and high mobility strained-Si channels. In this paper, we present the concept, the device structures and the fabrication techniques of strained-SOI CMOS. We introduce our original fabrication method of strained-SOI substrates, called the Ge condensation technique. It is experimentally shown that strained-SOI CMOS has higher electron and hole mobility and that strained-SOI CMOS ring oscillators successfully operate with the performance enhancement of 30-70% against conventional SOI CMOS ones.

  6. The total dose effects on the 1/f noise of deep submicron CMOS transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rongbin, Hu; Yuxin, Wang; Wu, Lu

    2014-02-01

    Using 0.18 μm CMOS transistors, the total dose effects on the 1/f noise of deep-submicron CMOS transistors are studied for the first time in mainland China. From the experimental results and the theoretic analysis, we realize that total dose radiation causes a lot of trapped positive charges in STI (shallow trench isolation) SiO2 layers, which induces a current leakage passage, increasing the 1/f noise power of CMOS transistors. In addition, we design some radiation-hardness structures on the CMOS transistors and the experimental results show that, until the total dose achieves 750 krad, the 1/f noise power of the radiation-hardness CMOS transistors remains unchanged, which proves our conclusion.

  7. CMOS digital intra-oral sensor for x-ray radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinqiao; Byczko, Andrew; Choi, Marcus; Chung, Lap; Do, Hung; Fowler, Boyd; Ispasoiu, Radu; Joshi, Kumar; Miller, Todd; Nagy, Alex; Reaves, David; Rodricks, Brian; Teeter, Doug; Wang, George; Xiao, Feng

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we present a CMOS digital intra-oral sensor for x-ray radiography. The sensor system consists of a custom CMOS imager, custom scintillator/fiber optics plate, camera timing and digital control electronics, and direct USB communication. The CMOS imager contains 1700 x 1346 pixels. The pixel size is 19.5um x 19.5um. The imager was fabricated with a 0.18um CMOS imaging process. The sensor and CMOS imager design features chamfered corners for patient comfort. All camera functions were integrated within the sensor housing and a standard USB cable was used to directly connect the intra-oral sensor to the host computer. The sensor demonstrated wide dynamic range from 5uGy to 1300uGy and high image quality with a SNR of greater than 160 at 400uGy dose. The sensor has a spatial resolution more than 20 lp/mm.

  8. Development of on-CMOS chip micro-photonic and MOEMS systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyman, Lukas W.; Okhai, Timothy; Bourouina, Tarik; Noell, Wilfried

    2011-03-01

    Advanced 3D CAD and optical simulation software were used to design first iteration on-CMOS chip MOEMS micro-systems. A Si Avalanche-based LED and an array of detectors interface laterally with a single arm canti-lever system, all to be fabricated with CMOS technology. Silicon nitride wave-guides are used as optical propagation channels offering losses of lower than 1dB.cm-1. Micro-bending and multi-planing of the wave guiding is possible. Far-field manipulation of the emitted channel radiation is possible. Mechanically designed and sensor systems can be added by means of CMOS post processing techniques. The emission level of the Si CMOS Av LEDs is 10+3 higher than the detectivity of silicon p-i-n detectors, offering good dynamic range in detection and data analyses. The mature processing characteristics of CMOS technology offers high integration possibilities and low cost manufacturing of the designed systems.

  9. Beyond CMOS: heterogeneous integration of III-V devices, RF MEMS and other dissimilar materials/devices with Si CMOS to create intelligent microsystems.

    PubMed

    Kazior, Thomas E

    2014-03-28

    Advances in silicon technology continue to revolutionize micro-/nano-electronics. However, Si cannot do everything, and devices/components based on other materials systems are required. What is the best way to integrate these dissimilar materials and to enhance the capabilities of Si, thereby continuing the micro-/nano-electronics revolution? In this paper, I review different approaches to heterogeneously integrate dissimilar materials with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In particular, I summarize results on the successful integration of III-V electronic devices (InP heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) and GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs)) with Si CMOS on a common silicon-based wafer using an integration/fabrication process similar to a SiGe BiCMOS process (BiCMOS integrates bipolar junction and CMOS transistors). Our III-V BiCMOS process has been scaled to 200 mm diameter wafers for integration with scaled CMOS and used to fabricate radio-frequency (RF) and mixed signals circuits with on-chip digital control/calibration. I also show that RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) can be integrated onto this platform to create tunable or reconfigurable circuits. Thus, heterogeneous integration of III-V devices, MEMS and other dissimilar materials with Si CMOS enables a new class of high-performance integrated circuits that enhance the capabilities of existing systems, enable new circuit architectures and facilitate the continued proliferation of low-cost micro-/nano-electronics for a wide range of applications. PMID:24567473

  10. Beyond CMOS: heterogeneous integration of III–V devices, RF MEMS and other dissimilar materials/devices with Si CMOS to create intelligent microsystems

    PubMed Central

    Kazior, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in silicon technology continue to revolutionize micro-/nano-electronics. However, Si cannot do everything, and devices/components based on other materials systems are required. What is the best way to integrate these dissimilar materials and to enhance the capabilities of Si, thereby continuing the micro-/nano-electronics revolution? In this paper, I review different approaches to heterogeneously integrate dissimilar materials with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In particular, I summarize results on the successful integration of III–V electronic devices (InP heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) and GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs)) with Si CMOS on a common silicon-based wafer using an integration/fabrication process similar to a SiGe BiCMOS process (BiCMOS integrates bipolar junction and CMOS transistors). Our III–V BiCMOS process has been scaled to 200 mm diameter wafers for integration with scaled CMOS and used to fabricate radio-frequency (RF) and mixed signals circuits with on-chip digital control/calibration. I also show that RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) can be integrated onto this platform to create tunable or reconfigurable circuits. Thus, heterogeneous integration of III–V devices, MEMS and other dissimilar materials with Si CMOS enables a new class of high-performance integrated circuits that enhance the capabilities of existing systems, enable new circuit architectures and facilitate the continued proliferation of low-cost micro-/nano-electronics for a wide range of applications. PMID:24567473

  11. Design considerations for a new, high resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope based on a CMOS sensor (MAF-CMOS)

    PubMed Central

    Loughran, Brendan; Swetadri Vasan, S. N.; Singh, Vivek; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Titus, Albert; Rudin, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The detectors that are used for endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGI), particularly for neurovascular interventions, do not provide clinicians with adequate visualization to ensure the best possible treatment outcomes. Developing an improved x-ray imaging detector requires the determination of estimated clinical x-ray entrance exposures to the detector. The range of exposures to the detector in clinical studies was found for the three modes of operation: fluoroscopic mode, high frame-rate digital angiographic mode (HD fluoroscopic mode), and DSA mode. Using these estimated detector exposure ranges and available CMOS detector technical specifications, design requirements were developed to pursue a quantum limited, high resolution, dynamic x-ray detector based on a CMOS sensor with 50 μm pixel size. For the proposed MAF-CMOS, the estimated charge collected within the full exposure range was found to be within the estimated full well capacity of the pixels. Expected instrumentation noise for the proposed detector was estimated to be 50–1,300 electrons. Adding a gain stage such as a light image intensifier would minimize the effect of the estimated instrumentation noise on total image noise but may not be necessary to ensure quantum limited detector operation at low exposure levels. A recursive temporal filter may decrease the effective total noise by 2 to 3 times, allowing for the improved signal to noise ratios at the lowest estimated exposures despite consequent loss in temporal resolution. This work can serve as a guide for further development of dynamic x-ray imaging prototypes or improvements for existing dynamic x-ray imaging systems. PMID:24353389

  12. Design considerations for a new, high resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope based on a CMOS sensor (MAF-CMOS).

    PubMed

    Loughran, Brendan; Swetadri Vasan, S N; Singh, Vivek; Ionita, Ciprian N; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R; Titus, Albert; Rudin, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    The detectors that are used for endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGI), particularly for neurovascular interventions, do not provide clinicians with adequate visualization to ensure the best possible treatment outcomes. Developing an improved x-ray imaging detector requires the determination of estimated clinical x-ray entrance exposures to the detector. The range of exposures to the detector in clinical studies was found for the three modes of operation: fluoroscopic mode, high frame-rate digital angiographic mode (HD fluoroscopic mode), and DSA mode. Using these estimated detector exposure ranges and available CMOS detector technical specifications, design requirements were developed to pursue a quantum limited, high resolution, dynamic x-ray detector based on a CMOS sensor with 50 μm pixel size. For the proposed MAF-CMOS, the estimated charge collected within the full exposure range was found to be within the estimated full well capacity of the pixels. Expected instrumentation noise for the proposed detector was estimated to be 50-1,300 electrons. Adding a gain stage such as a light image intensifier would minimize the effect of the estimated instrumentation noise on total image noise but may not be necessary to ensure quantum limited detector operation at low exposure levels. A recursive temporal filter may decrease the effective total noise by 2 to 3 times, allowing for the improved signal to noise ratios at the lowest estimated exposures despite consequent loss in temporal resolution. This work can serve as a guide for further development of dynamic x-ray imaging prototypes or improvements for existing dynamic x-ray imaging systems. PMID:24353389

  13. Design considerations for a new high resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope based on a CMOS sensor (MAF-CMOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughran, Brendan; Swetadri Vasan, S. N.; Singh, Vivek; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Titus, Albert H.; Rudin, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    The detectors that are used for endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGI), particularly for neurovascular interventions, do not provide clinicians with adequate visualization to ensure the best possible treatment outcomes. Developing an improved x-ray imaging detector requires the determination of estimated clinical x-ray entrance exposures to the detector. The range of exposures to the detector in clinical studies was found for the three modes of operation: fluoroscopic mode, high frame-rate digital angiographic mode (HD fluoroscopic mode), and DSA mode. Using these estimated detector exposure ranges and available CMOS detector technical specifications, design requirements were developed to pursue a quantum limited, high resolution, dynamic x-ray detector based on a CMOS sensor with 50 μm pixel size. For the proposed MAF-CMOS, the estimated charge collected within the full exposure range was found to be within the estimated full well capacity of the pixels. Expected instrumentation noise for the proposed detector was estimated to be 50-1,300 electrons. Adding a gain stage such as a light image intensifier would minimize the effect of the estimated instrumentation noise on total image noise but may not be necessary to ensure quantum limited detector operation at low exposure levels. A recursive temporal filter may decrease the effective total noise by 2 to 3 times, allowing for the improved signal to noise ratios at the lowest estimated exposures despite consequent loss in temporal resolution. This work can serve as a guide for further development of dynamic x-ray imaging prototypes or improvements for existing dynamic x-ray imaging systems.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of CMOS-MEMS Magnetic Microsensors

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chen-Hsuan; Dai, Ching-Liang; Yang, Ming-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the design and fabrication of magnetic microsensors using the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The magnetic sensor is composed of springs and interdigitated electrodes, and it is actuated by the Lorentz force. The finite element method (FEM) software CoventorWare is adopted to simulate the displacement and capacitance of the magnetic sensor. A post-CMOS process is utilized to release the suspended structure. The post-process uses an anisotropic dry etching to etch the silicon dioxide layer and an isotropic dry etching to remove the silicon substrate. When a magnetic field is applied to the magnetic sensor, it generates a change in capacitance. A sensing circuit is employed to convert the capacitance variation of the sensor into the output voltage. The experimental results show that the output voltage of the magnetic microsensor varies from 0.05 to 1.94 V in the magnetic field range of 5–200 mT. PMID:24172287

  15. Further developments on a novel color sensitive CMOS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langfelder, G.; Longoni, A.; Zaraga, F.

    2009-05-01

    The Transverse Field Detector (TFD) is a recently proposed Silicon pixel device designed to perform color imaging without the use of color filters. The color detection principle is based on the dependence of the Silicon absorption coefficient from the wavelength and relies on the generation of a suitable transverse electric field configuration, within the semiconductor active layer, to drive photocarriers generated at different depths towards different collecting electrodes. Each electrode has in this way a different spectral response with respect to the incoming wavelength. Pixels with three or four different spectral responses can be implemented within ~ 6 μm of pixel dimension. Thanks to the compatibility with standard triple well CMOS processes, the TFD can be used in an Active Pixel Sensor exploiting a dedicated readout topology, based on a single transistor charge amplifier. The overall APS electronics includes five transistors (5T) and a feedback capacitance, with a resulting overall fill factor around 50%. In this work the three colors and four colors TFD pixel simulations and implementations in a 90 nm standard CMOS triple well technology are described. Details on the design of a TFD APS mini matrix are provided and preliminary experimental results on four colors pixels are presented.

  16. A CMOS Smart Temperature and Humidity Sensor with Combined Readout

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Clemens; Valente, Virgilio; Donaldson, Nick; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    A fully-integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor for combined temperature and humidity measurements is presented. The main purpose of the device is to monitor the hermeticity of micro-packages for implanted integrated circuits and to ensure their safe operation by monitoring the operating temperature and humidity on-chip. The smart sensor has two modes of operation, in which either the temperature or humidity is converted into a digital code representing a frequency ratio between two oscillators. This ratio is determined by the ratios of the timing capacitances and bias currents in both oscillators. The reference oscillator is biased by a current whose temperature dependency is complementary to the proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) current. For the temperature measurement, this results in an exceptional normalized sensitivity of about 0.77%/°C at the accepted expense of reduced linearity. The humidity sensor is a capacitor, whose value varies linearly with relative humidity (RH) with a normalized sensitivity of 0.055%/% RH. For comparison, two versions of the humidity sensor with an area of either 0.2 mm2 or 1.2 mm2 were fabricated in a commercial 0.18 μm CMOS process. The on-chip readout electronics operate from a 5 V power supply and consume a current of approximately 85 μA. PMID:25230305

  17. Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimerling, L. C.; Ahn, D.; Apsel, A. B.; Beals, M.; Carothers, D.; Chen, Y.-K.; Conway, T.; Gill, D. M.; Grove, M.; Hong, C.-Y.; Lipson, M.; Liu, J.; Michel, J.; Pan, D.; Patel, S. S.; Pomerene, A. T.; Rasras, M.; Sparacin, D. K.; Tu, K.-Y.; White, A. E.; Wong, C. W.

    2006-02-01

    The optical components industry stands at the threshold of a major expansion that will restructure its business processes and sustain its profitability for the next three decades. This growth will establish a cost effective platform for the partitioning of electronic and photonic functionality to extend the processing power of integrated circuits. BAE Systems, Lucent Technologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Applied Wave Research are participating in a high payoff research and development program for the Microsystems Technology Office (MTO) of DARPA. The goal of the program is the development of technologies and design tools necessary to fabricate an application-specific, electronicphotonic integrated circuit (AS-EPIC). As part of the development of this demonstration platform we are exploring selected functions normally associated with the front end of mixed signal receivers such as modulation, detection, and filtering. The chip will be fabricated in the BAE Systems CMOS foundry and at MIT's Microphotonics Center. We will present the latest results on the performance of multi-layer deposited High Index Contrast Waveguides, CMOS compatible modulators and detectors, and optical filter slices. These advances will be discussed in the context of the Communications Technology Roadmap that was recently released by the MIT Microphotonics Center Industry Consortium.

  18. Custom CMOS Reed Solomon coder for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, S.; Cameron, K.; Owsley, P.; Maki, G.

    1990-01-01

    A VLSI coder is presented that can function either as an encoder or decoder for Reed-Solomon codes. VLSI is one approach to implementing high-performance Reed-Solomon decoders. There are three VLSI technologies that could be used: gate arrays, standard cells, and full custom. The first two approaches are relatively easy to implement, but are limited in both performance and density. Full-custom VLSI is used to achieve both circuit density and speed, and allows control of the amount of interconnect. Speed, which is a function of capacitance, which is a function of interconnect, is an important parameter in high-performance VLSI. A single 8.2 mm x 8.4 mm, 200,000 transistor CMOS chip implementation of the Reed-Solomon code required by the Hubble Space Telescope is reported. The chip features a 10-MHz sustained byte rate independent of error pattern. The 1.6-micron CMOS integrated circuit has complete decoder and encoder functions and uses a single data/system clock. Block lengths up to 255 bytes and shortened codes are supported with no external buffering. Erasure corrections and random error corrections are supported with programmable correction of up to 10 symbol errors. Correction time is independent of error pattern and the number of errors in the incoming message.

  19. Single donor electronics and quantum functionalities with advanced CMOS technology.

    PubMed

    Jehl, Xavier; Niquet, Yann-Michel; Sanquer, Marc

    2016-03-16

    Recent progresses in quantum dots technology allow fundamental studies of single donors in various semiconductor nanostructures. For the prospect of applications figures of merits such as scalability, tunability, and operation at relatively large temperature are of prime importance. Beyond the case of actual dopant atoms in a host crystal, similar arguments hold for small enough quantum dots which behave as artificial atoms, for instance for single spin control and manipulation. In this context, this experimental review focuses on the silicon-on-insulator devices produced within microelectronics facilities with only very minor modifications to the current industrial CMOS process and tools. This is required for scalability and enabled by shallow trench or mesa isolation. It also paves the way for real integration with conventional circuits, as illustrated by a nanoscale device coupled to a CMOS circuit producing a radio-frequency drive on-chip. At the device level we emphasize the central role of electrostatics in etched silicon nanowire transistors, which allows to understand the characteristics in the full range from zero to room temperature. PMID:26871255

  20. Single phase dynamic CMOS PLA using charge sharing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhong, Y. B.; Tsang, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    A single phase dynamic CMOS NOR-NOR programmable logic array (PLA) using triggered decoders and charge sharing techniques for high speed and low power is presented. By using the triggered decoder technique, the ground switches are eliminated, thereby, making this new design much faster and lower power dissipation than conventional PLA's. By using the charge-sharing technique in a dynamic CMOS NOR structure, a cascading AND gate can be implemented. The proposed PLA's are presented with a delay-time of 15.95 and 18.05 nsec, respectively, which compare with a conventional single phase PLA with 35.5 nsec delay-time. For a typical example of PLA like the Signetics 82S100 with 16 inputs, 48 input minterms (m) and 8 output minterms (n), the 2-SOP PLA using the triggered 2-bit decoder is 2.23 times faster and has 2.1 times less power dissipation than the conventional PLA. These results are simulated using maximum drain current of 600 micro-A, gate length of 2.0 micron, V sub DD of 5 V, the capacitance of an input miniterm of 1600 fF, and the capacitance of an output minterm of 1500 fF.

  1. CMOS-TDI detector technology for reconnaissance application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckardt, Andreas; Reulke, Ralf; Jung, Melanie; Sengebusch, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    The Institute of Optical Sensor Systems (OS) at the Robotics and Mechatronics Center of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has more than 30 years of experience with high-resolution imaging technology. This paper shows the institute's scientific results of the leading-edge detector design CMOS in a TDI (Time Delay and Integration) architecture. This project includes the technological design of future high or multi-spectral resolution spaceborne instruments and the possibility of higher integration. DLR OS and the Fraunhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems (IMS) in Duisburg were driving the technology of new detectors and the FPA design for future projects, new manufacturing accuracy and on-chip processing capability in order to keep pace with the ambitious scientific and user requirements. In combination with the engineering research, the current generation of space borne sensor systems is focusing on VIS/NIR high spectral resolution to meet the requirements on earth and planetary observation systems. The combination of large-swath and high-spectral resolution with intelligent synchronization control, fast-readout ADC (analog digital converter) chains and new focal-plane concepts opens the door to new remote-sensing and smart deep-space instruments. The paper gives an overview of the detector development status and verification program at DLR, as well as of new control possibilities for CMOS-TDI detectors in synchronization control mode.

  2. Illumination robust change detection with CMOS imaging sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengarajan, Vijay; Gupta, Sheetal B.; Rajagopalan, A. N.; Seetharaman, Guna

    2015-05-01

    Change detection between two images in the presence of degradations is an important problem in the computer vision community, more so for the aerial scenario which is particularly challenging. Cameras mounted on moving platforms such as aircrafts or drones are subject to general six-dimensional motion as the motion is not restricted to a single plane. With CMOS cameras increasingly in vogue due to their low power consumption, the inevitability of rolling-shutter (RS) effect adds to the challenge. This is caused by sequential exposure of rows in CMOS cameras unlike conventional global shutter cameras where all pixels are exposed simultaneously. The RS effect is particularly pronounced in aerial imaging since each row of the imaging sensor is likely to experience a different motion. For fast-moving platforms, the problem is further compounded since the rows are also affected by motion blur. Moreover, since the two images are shot at different times, illumination differences are common. In this paper, we propose a unified computational framework that elegantly exploits the scarcity constraint to deal with the problem of change detection in images degraded by RS effect, motion blur as well as non-global illumination differences. We formulate an optimization problem where each row of the distorted image is approximated as a weighted sum of the corresponding rows in warped versions of the reference image due to camera motion within the exposure period to account for geometric as well as photometric differences. The method has been validated on both synthetic and real data.

  3. 3-D perpendicular assembly of SWNTs for CMOS interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Yilmaz, Cihan; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Busnaina, Ahmed

    2013-11-01

    Due to their superior electrical properties such as high current density and ballistic transport, carbon nanotubes (CNT) are considered as a potential candidate for future very large scale integration (VLSI) interconnects. However, direct incorporation of CNTs into a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) architecture by the conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth method is problematic because it requires high temperatures that might damage insulators and doped semiconductors in the underlying CMOS circuits. In this paper, we present a directed assembly method to assemble aligned CNTs into pre-patterned vias perpendicular to the substrate. A dynamic electric field with a static offset is applied to provide the force needed for directing the SWNT assembly. It is also shown that by adjusting assembly parameters the density of the assembled CNTs can be significantly enhanced. This highly scalable directed assembly method is conducted at room temperature and pressure and is accomplished in a few minutes. I-V characterization of the assembled CNTs was conducted using a Zyvex nanomanipulator in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the measured value of the resistance was 270 kΩs.

  4. CMOS: efficient clustered data monitoring in sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Min, Jun-Ki

    2013-01-01

    Tiny and smart sensors enable applications that access a network of hundreds or thousands of sensors. Thus, recently, many researchers have paid attention to wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The limitation of energy is critical since most sensors are battery-powered and it is very difficult to replace batteries in cases that sensor networks are utilized outdoors. Data transmission between sensor nodes needs more energy than computation in a sensor node. In order to reduce the energy consumption of sensors, we present an approximate data gathering technique, called CMOS, based on the Kalman filter. The goal of CMOS is to efficiently obtain the sensor readings within a certain error bound. In our approach, spatially close sensors are grouped as a cluster. Since a cluster header generates approximate readings of member nodes, a user query can be answered efficiently using the cluster headers. In addition, we suggest an energy efficient clustering method to distribute the energy consumption of cluster headers. Our simulation results with synthetic data demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of our proposed technique. PMID:24459444

  5. Reliability issue on pipeline defects in CMOS memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, So; Terrell, Kyle; Wu, Chau-Chin; Shy, Paul; Lien, Chuen-Der

    1996-09-01

    Pipeline defects have recently been reported in a leakage source of CMOS devices when die shrink. We report the observed physical defects which shorted source and drain under .6 u short channel CMOS devices by the Wright-etching of the defective devices. We also found pipeline defects filled with phosphorous doped n-type material by the cross- sectioning of the pipeline in the channel of NMOS transistor. We also observed that devices are failing during high temperature reliability test, which causes single bit failure. This indicates that there are many potential defective die to reach assembly process even though most of detectives are discarded at wafer sort. SEM analysis identifies that location of defective parts is decorated with a pair of protruding holes at the 90 degree corner of field island of faulty pass-gate of SRAM. These pipeline defects are caused mainly by the compressed stress from field oxide. Reliability and yield have been improved since the pipeline were minimized after relieving stress on pass- gate.

  6. 3D integration of sub-surface photonics with CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Bahram; Indukuri, Tejaswi; Koonath, Prakash

    2006-02-01

    The integration of photonics and electronics on a single silicon substrate requires technologies that can add optical functionalities without significantly sacrificing valuable wafer area. To this end, we have developed an innovative fabrication process, called SIMOX 3-D Sculpting, that enables monolithic optoelectronic integration in a manner that does not compromise the economics of CMOS manufacturing. In this technique, photonic devices are realized in subsurface silicon layers that are separated from the surface silicon layer by an intervening SiO II layer. The surface silicon layer may then be utilized for electronic circuitry. SIMOX 3-D sculpting involves (1) the implantation of oxygen ions into a patterned silicon substrate followed by (2) high temperature anneal to create buried waveguide-based photonic devices. This process has produced subterranean microresonators with unloaded quality factors of 8000 and extinction ratios >20dB. On the surface silicon layers, MOS transistor structures have been fabricated. The small cross-sectional area of the waveguides lends itself to the realization of nonlinear optical devices. We have previously demonstrated spectral broadening and continuum generation in silicon waveguides utilizing Kerr optical nonlinearity. This may be combined with microresonator filters for on-chip supercontiuum generation and spectral carving. The monolithic integration of CMOS circuits and optical modulators with such multi-wavelength sources represent an exciting avenue for silicon photonics.

  7. A CMOS smart temperature and humidity sensor with combined readout.

    PubMed

    Eder, Clemens; Valente, Virgilio; Donaldson, Nick; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    A fully-integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor for combined temperature and humidity measurements is presented. The main purpose of the device is to monitor the hermeticity of micro-packages for implanted integrated circuits and to ensure their safe operation by monitoring the operating temperature and humidity on-chip. The smart sensor has two modes of operation, in which either the temperature or humidity is converted into a digital code representing a frequency ratio between two oscillators. This ratio is determined by the ratios of the timing capacitances and bias currents in both oscillators. The reference oscillator is biased by a current whose temperature dependency is complementary to the proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) current. For the temperature measurement, this results in an exceptional normalized sensitivity of about 0.77%/°C at the accepted expense of reduced linearity. The humidity sensor is a capacitor, whose value varies linearly with relative humidity (RH) with a normalized sensitivity of 0.055%/% RH. For comparison, two versions of the humidity sensor with an area of either 0.2 mm2 or 1.2 mm2 were fabricated in a commercial 0.18 μm CMOS process. The on-chip readout electronics operate from a 5 V power supply and consume a current of approximately 85 µA. PMID:25230305

  8. Smart CMOS image sensor for lightning detection and imaging.

    PubMed

    Rolando, Sébastien; Goiffon, Vincent; Magnan, Pierre; Corbière, Franck; Molina, Romain; Tulet, Michel; Bréart-de-Boisanger, Michel; Saint-Pé, Olivier; Guiry, Saïprasad; Larnaudie, Franck; Leone, Bruno; Perez-Cuevas, Leticia; Zayer, Igor

    2013-03-01

    We present a CMOS image sensor dedicated to lightning detection and imaging. The detector has been designed to evaluate the potentiality of an on-chip lightning detection solution based on a smart sensor. This evaluation is performed in the frame of the predevelopment phase of the lightning detector that will be implemented in the Meteosat Third Generation Imager satellite for the European Space Agency. The lightning detection process is performed by a smart detector combining an in-pixel frame-to-frame difference comparison with an adjustable threshold and on-chip digital processing allowing an efficient localization of a faint lightning pulse on the entire large format array at a frequency of 1 kHz. A CMOS prototype sensor with a 256×256 pixel array and a 60 μm pixel pitch has been fabricated using a 0.35 μm 2P 5M technology and tested to validate the selected detection approach. PMID:23458812

  9. Single donor electronics and quantum functionalities with advanced CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehl, Xavier; Niquet, Yann-Michel; Sanquer, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Recent progresses in quantum dots technology allow fundamental studies of single donors in various semiconductor nanostructures. For the prospect of applications figures of merits such as scalability, tunability, and operation at relatively large temperature are of prime importance. Beyond the case of actual dopant atoms in a host crystal, similar arguments hold for small enough quantum dots which behave as artificial atoms, for instance for single spin control and manipulation. In this context, this experimental review focuses on the silicon-on-insulator devices produced within microelectronics facilities with only very minor modifications to the current industrial CMOS process and tools. This is required for scalability and enabled by shallow trench or mesa isolation. It also paves the way for real integration with conventional circuits, as illustrated by a nanoscale device coupled to a CMOS circuit producing a radio-frequency drive on-chip. At the device level we emphasize the central role of electrostatics in etched silicon nanowire transistors, which allows to understand the characteristics in the full range from zero to room temperature.

  10. CMOS low data rate imaging method based on compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Long-long; Liu, Kun; Han, Da-peng

    2012-07-01

    Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enables the integration of image sensing and image compression processing, making improvements on overall system performance possible. We present a CMOS low data rate imaging approach by implementing compressed sensing (CS). On the basis of the CS framework, the image sensor projects the image onto a separable two-dimensional (2D) basis set and measures the corresponding coefficients obtained. First, the electrical current output from the pixels in a column are combined, with weights specified by voltage, in accordance with Kirchhoff's law. The second computation is performed in an analog vector-matrix multiplier (VMM). Each element of the VMM considers the total value of each column as the input and multiplies it by a unique coefficient. Both weights and coefficients are reprogrammable through analog floating-gate (FG) transistors. The image can be recovered from a percentage of these measurements using an optimization algorithm. The percentage, which can be altered flexibly by programming on the hardware circuit, determines the image compression ratio. These novel designs facilitate image compression during the image-capture phase before storage, and have the potential to reduce power consumption. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves a large image compression ratio and ensures imaging quality.

  11. Scanning probe lithography approach for beyond CMOS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Zahid; Jones, Mervyn; Kaestner, Marcus; Hofer, Manuel; Guliyev, Elshad; Ahmad, Ahmad; Ivanov, Tzvetan; Zoellner, Jens-Peter; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    2013-03-01

    As present CMOS devices approach technological and physical limits at the sub-10 nm scale, a `beyond CMOS' information-processing technology is necessary for timescales beyond the semiconductor technology roadmap. This requires new approaches to logic and memory devices, and to associated lithographic processes. At the sub-5 nm scale, a technology platform based on a combination of high-resolution scanning probe lithography (SPL) and nano-imprint lithography (NIL) is regarded as a promising candidate for both resolution and high throughput production. The practical application of quantum-effect devices, such as room temperature single-electron and quantum-dot devices, then becomes feasible. This paper considers lithographic and device approaches to such a `single nanometer manufacturing' technology. We consider the application of scanning probes, capable of imaging, probing of material properties and lithography at the single nanometer scale. Modified scanning probes are used to pattern molecular glass based resist materials, where the small particle size (<1 nm) and mono-disperse nature leads to more uniform and smaller lithographic pixel size. We also review the current status of single-electron and quantum dot devices capable of room-temperature operation, and discuss the requirements for these devices with regards to practical application.

  12. CMOS prototype for retinal prosthesis applications with analog processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Cabrera, G.; García-Lamont, J.; Reyes-Barranca, M. A.; Matsumoto-Kuwabara, Y.; Moreno-Cadenas, J. A.; Flores-Nava, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    A core architecture for analog processing, which emulates a retina's receptive field, is presented in this work. A model was partially implemented and built on CMOS standard technology through MOSIS. It considers that the receptive field is the basic unit for image processing in the visual system. That is why the design is concerned on a partial solution of receptive field properties in order to be adapted in the future as an aid to people with retinal diseases. A receptive field is represented by an array of 3×3 pixels. Each pixel carries out a process based on four main operations. This means that image processing is developed at pixel level. Operations involved are: (1) photo-transduction by photocurrent integration, (2) signal averaging from eight neighbouring pixels executed by a neu-NMOS (ν-NMOS) neuron, (3) signal average gradient between central pixel and the average value from the eight neighbouring pixels (this gradient is performed by a comparator) and finally (4) a pulse generator. Each one of these operations gives place to circuital blocks which were built on 0.5 μm CMOS technology.

  13. A CMOS active pixel sensor for retinal stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prydderch, Mark L.; French, Marcus J.; Mathieson, Keith; Adams, Christopher; Gunning, Deborah; Laudanski, Jonathan; Morrison, James D.; Moodie, Alan R.; Sinclair, James

    2006-02-01

    Degenerative photoreceptor diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa, are the most common causes of blindness in the western world. A potential cure is to use a microelectronic retinal prosthesis to provide electrical stimulation to the remaining healthy retinal cells. We describe a prototype CMOS Active Pixel Sensor capable of detecting a visual scene and translating it into a train of electrical pulses for stimulation of the retina. The sensor consists of a 10 x 10 array of 100 micron square pixels fabricated on a 0.35 micron CMOS process. Light incident upon each pixel is converted into output current pulse trains with a frequency related to the light intensity. These outputs are connected to a biocompatible microelectrode array for contact to the retinal cells. The flexible design allows experimentation with signal amplitudes and frequencies in order to determine the most appropriate stimulus for the retina. Neural processing in the retina can be studied by using the sensor in conjunction with a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) programmed to behave as a neural network. The sensor has been integrated into a test system designed for studying retinal response. We present the most recent results obtained from this sensor.

  14. IR CMOS: near infrared enhanced digital imaging (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pralle, Martin U.; Carey, James E.; Joy, Thomas; Vineis, Chris J.; Palsule, Chintamani

    2015-08-01

    SiOnyx has demonstrated imaging at light levels below 1 mLux (moonless starlight) at video frame rates with a 720P CMOS image sensor in a compact, low latency camera. Low light imaging is enabled by the combination of enhanced quantum efficiency in the near infrared together with state of the art low noise image sensor design. The quantum efficiency enhancements are achieved by applying Black Silicon, SiOnyx's proprietary ultrafast laser semiconductor processing technology. In the near infrared, silicon's native indirect bandgap results in low absorption coefficients and long absorption lengths. The Black Silicon nanostructured layer fundamentally disrupts this paradigm by enhancing the absorption of light within a thin pixel layer making 5 microns of silicon equivalent to over 300 microns of standard silicon. This results in a demonstrate 10 fold improvements in near infrared sensitivity over incumbent imaging technology while maintaining complete compatibility with standard CMOS image sensor process flows. Applications include surveillance, nightvision, and 1064nm laser see spot. Imaging performance metrics will be discussed. Demonstrated performance characteristics: Pixel size : 5.6 and 10 um Array size: 720P/1.3Mpix Frame rate: 60 Hz Read noise: 2 ele/pixel Spectral sensitivity: 400 to 1200 nm (with 10x QE at 1064nm) Daytime imaging: color (Bayer pattern) Nighttime imaging: moonless starlight conditions 1064nm laser imaging: daytime imaging out to 2Km

  15. CMOS: Efficient Clustered Data Monitoring in Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Tiny and smart sensors enable applications that access a network of hundreds or thousands of sensors. Thus, recently, many researchers have paid attention to wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The limitation of energy is critical since most sensors are battery-powered and it is very difficult to replace batteries in cases that sensor networks are utilized outdoors. Data transmission between sensor nodes needs more energy than computation in a sensor node. In order to reduce the energy consumption of sensors, we present an approximate data gathering technique, called CMOS, based on the Kalman filter. The goal of CMOS is to efficiently obtain the sensor readings within a certain error bound. In our approach, spatially close sensors are grouped as a cluster. Since a cluster header generates approximate readings of member nodes, a user query can be answered efficiently using the cluster headers. In addition, we suggest an energy efficient clustering method to distribute the energy consumption of cluster headers. Our simulation results with synthetic data demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of our proposed technique. PMID:24459444

  16. High-stage analog accumulator for TDI CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianxin, Li; Fujun, Huang; Yong, Zong; Jing, Gao

    2016-02-01

    The impact of the parasitic phenomenon on the performance of the analog accumulator in TDI CMOS image sensor is analyzed and resolved. A 128-stage optimized accumulator based on 0.18-μm one-poly four-metal 3.3 V CMOS technology is designed and simulated. A charge injection effect from the top plate sampling is employed to compensate the un-eliminated parasitics based on the accumulator with a decoupling switch, and then a calibration circuit is designed to restrain the mismatch and Process, Voltage and Temperature (PVT) variations. The post layout simulation indicates that the improved SNR of the accumulator upgrades from 17.835 to 21.067 dB, while an ideal value is 21.072 dB. In addition, the linearity of the accumulator is 99.62%. The simulation results of two extreme cases and Monte Carlo show that the mismatch and PVT variations are restrained by the calibration circuit. Furthermore, it is promising to design a higher stage accumulator based on the proposed structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404090, 61434004).

  17. CMOS mm-wave transceivers for Gbps wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baoyong, Chi; Zheng, Song; Lixue, Kuang; Haikun, Jia; Xiangyu, Meng; Zhihua, Wang

    2016-07-01

    The challenges in the design of CMOS millimeter-wave (mm-wave) transceiver for Gbps wireless communication are discussed. To support the Gbps data rate, the link bandwidth of the receiver/transmitter must be wide enough, which puts a lot of pressure on the mm-wave front-end as well as on the baseband circuit. This paper discusses the effects of the limited link bandwidth on the transceiver system performance and overviews the bandwidth expansion techniques for mm-wave amplifiers and IF programmable gain amplifier. Furthermore, dual-mode power amplifier (PA) and self-healing technique are introduced to improve the PA's average efficiency and to deal with the process, voltage, and temperature variation issue, respectively. Several fully-integrated CMOS mm-wave transceivers are also presented to give a short overview on the state-of-the-art mm-wave transceivers. Project supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61331003).

  18. A Low-Cost CMOS Programmable Temperature Switch

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunlong; Wu, Nanjian

    2008-01-01

    A novel uncalibrated CMOS programmable temperature switch with high temperature accuracy is presented. Its threshold temperature Tth can be programmed by adjusting the ratios of width and length of the transistors. The operating principles of the temperature switch circuit is theoretically explained. A floating gate neural MOS circuit is designed to compensate automatically the threshold temperature Tth variation that results form the process tolerance. The switch circuit is implemented in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process. The temperature switch can be programmed to perform the switch operation at 16 different threshold temperature Tths from 45—120°C with a 5°C increment. The measurement shows a good consistency in the threshold temperatures. The chip core area is 0.04 mm2 and power consumption is 3.1 μA at 3.3V power supply. The advantages of the temperature switch are low power consumption, the programmable threshold temperature and the controllable hysteresis.

  19. Large CMOS imager using hadamard transform based multiplexing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, Boris S.; Wadsworth, Mark V.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a concept design for a large (10k x 10k) CMOS imaging array whose elements are grouped in small subarrays with N pixels in each. The subarrays are code-division multiplexed using the Hadamard Transform (HT) based encoding. The Hadamard code improves the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio to the reference of the read-out amplifier by a factor of N^1/2. This way of grouping pixels reduces the number of hybridization bumps by N. A single chip layout has been designed and the architecture of the imager has been developed to accommodate the HT base multiplexing into the existing CMOS technology. The imager architecture allows for a trade-off between the speed and the sensitivity. The envisioned imager would operate at a speed >100 fps with the pixel noise < 20 e-. The power dissipation would be 100 pW/pixe1. The combination of the large format, high speed, high sensitivity and low power dissipation can be very attractive for space reconnaissance applications.

  20. A CMOS Imager with Focal Plane Compression using Predictive Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon-Salas, Walter D.; Balkir, Sina; Sayood, Khalid; Schemm, Nathan; Hoffman, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a CMOS image sensor with focal-plane compression. The design has a column-level architecture and it is based on predictive coding techniques for image decorrelation. The prediction operations are performed in the analog domain to avoid quantization noise and to decrease the area complexity of the circuit, The prediction residuals are quantized and encoded by a joint quantizer/coder circuit. To save area resources, the joint quantizerlcoder circuit exploits common circuitry between a single-slope analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and a Golomb-Rice entropy coder. This combination of ADC and encoder allows the integration of the entropy coder at the column level. A prototype chip was fabricated in a 0.35 pm CMOS process. The output of the chip is a compressed bit stream. The test chip occupies a silicon area of 2.60 mm x 5.96 mm which includes an 80 X 44 APS array. Tests of the fabricated chip demonstrate the validity of the design.

  1. Dinuclear [(V(V)O(putrebactin))2(μ-OCH3)2] formed in solution as established from LC-MS measurements using 50V-enriched V2O5.

    PubMed

    Soe, Cho Zin; Pakchung, Amalie A H; Codd, Rachel

    2014-06-01

    Analysis of 1:1 solutions of V(V) and the macrocyclic dihydroxamic acid siderophore putrebactin (pbH2) in 1:1 H2O/CH3OH using triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-QQQ) (pH ≈ 4) showed two well-resolved peaks (tR(1) 10.85 min; tR(2) 14.27 min) using simultaneous detection modes (absorbance, 450 nm; selective ion monitoring, m/z 437) characteristic of the previously identified oxidoV(V) complex [V(V)O(pb)](+) ([M](+), m/zcalc 437.1). Peak 1 gave mass spectrometry (MS) signals consistent with [V(V)O(pb)](+), together with [V(V)O(pb)(OH)] and the dinuclear complexes [(V(V)O(pb))2(μ-OH)](+) and [(V(V)O(pb))2(μ-OH)2]. Peak 2 gave MS signals consistent with [V(V)O(pb)](+), together with [V(V)O(pb)(OCH3)] and the dinuclear complexes [(V(V)O(pb))2(μ-OCH3)](+) and [(V(V)O(pb))2(μ-OCH3)2]. This analysis showed that two groups of V(V)/pbH2 complexes with water- or methanol-derived ancillary ligands were resolved by liquid chromatography (LC). The detection of [V(V)O(pb)](+) in both peaks could be accounted for by its production from dissociation (peak 1: [(V(V)O(pb))2(μ-OH)](+) → [V(V)O(pb)](+) + [V(V)O(pb)(OH)]; peak 2: [(V(V)O(pb))2(μ-OCH3)](+) → [V(V)O(pb)](+) + [V(V)O(pb)(OCH3)]). The assignment of the signal at m/zobs 959.2 (100%) as the dinuclear complex [(V(V)O(pb))2(μ-OCH3)2] ([M + Na(+)](+), m/zcalc 959.3) and not an ion cluster of mononuclear [V(V)O(pb)(OCH3)] ({2[M] + Na(+)}(+), m/zcalc 959.3) was made unequivocal by the use of (50)V-enriched V2O5, which gave a signal with an isotope pattern comprising the sum of the patterns of the three constituent (51)V-(51)V, (51)V-(50)V, and (50)V-(50)V species. Coordination of methoxide was confirmed upon the replacement of CH3OH with CD3OD, which generated [(V(V)O(pb))2(μ-OCD3)2] ([M + Na(+)](+), m/zcalc 965.3, m/zobs 965.3). Analysis of 1:1 solutions of Mo(VI) and pbH2 showed a single peak in the LC (tR 16.04 min), which gave MS signals that were characterized as mononuclear [Mo

  2. High-content analysis of single cells directly assembled on CMOS sensor based on color imaging.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Saeki, Tatsuya; Sunaga, Yoshihiko; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2010-12-15

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor was applied to high-content analysis of single cells which were assembled closely or directly onto the CMOS sensor surface. The direct assembling of cell groups on CMOS sensor surface allows large-field (6.66 mm×5.32 mm in entire active area of CMOS sensor) imaging within a second. Trypan blue-stained and non-stained cells in the same field area on the CMOS sensor were successfully distinguished as white- and blue-colored images under white LED light irradiation. Furthermore, the chemiluminescent signals of each cell were successfully visualized as blue-colored images on CMOS sensor only when HeLa cells were placed directly on the micro-lens array of the CMOS sensor. Our proposed approach will be a promising technique for real-time and high-content analysis of single cells in a large-field area based on color imaging. PMID:20728336

  3. Monolithic integration of high bandwidth waveguide coupled Ge photodiode in a photonic BiCMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lischke, S.; Knoll, D.; Zimmermann, L.

    2015-03-01

    Monolithic integration of photonic functionality in the frontend-of-line (FEOL) of an advanced microelectronics technology is a key step towards future communication applications. This combines photonic components such as waveguides, couplers, modulators, and photo detectors with high-speed electronics plus shortest possible interconnects crucial for high-speed performance. Integration of photonics into CMOS FEOL is therefore in development for quite some time reaching 90nm node recently [1]. However, an alternative to CMOS is high-performance BiCMOS, offering significant advantages for integrated photonics-electronics applications with regard to cost and RF performance. We already presented results of FEOL integration of photonic components in a high-performance SiGe:C BiCMOS baseline to establish a novel, photonic BiCMOS process. Process cornerstone is a local-SOI approach which allows us to fabricate SOI-based, thus low-loss photonic components in a bulk BiCMOS environment [2]. A monolithically integrated 10Gbit/sec Silicon modulator with driver was shown here [3]. A monolithically integrated 25Gbps receiver was presented in [4], consisting of 200GHz bipolar transistors and CMOS devices, low-loss waveguides, couplers, and highspeed Ge photo diodes showing 3-dB bandwidth of 35GHz, internal responsivity of more than 0.6A/W at λ= 1.55μm, and ~ 50nA dark current at 1V. However, the BiCMOS-given thermal steps cause a significant smearing of the Germanium photo diodes doping profile, limiting the photo diode performance. Therefore, we introduced implantation of non-doping elements to overcome such limiting factors, resulting in photo diode bandwidths of more than 50GHz even under the effect of thermal steps necessary when the diodes are integrated in a high performance BiCMOS process.

  4. Delta-Doped Back-Illuminated CMOS Imaging Arrays: Progress and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E.; Jones, Todd J.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Greer, Frank; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Blazejewski, Edward; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report the latest results on our development of delta-doped, thinned, back-illuminated CMOS imaging arrays. As with charge-coupled devices, thinning and back-illumination are essential to the development of high performance CMOS imaging arrays. Problems with back surface passivation have emerged as critical to the prospects for incorporating CMOS imaging arrays into high performance scientific instruments, just as they did for CCDs over twenty years ago. In the early 1990's, JPL developed delta-doped CCDs, in which low temperature molecular beam epitaxy was used to form an ideal passivation layer on the silicon back surface. Comprising only a few nanometers of highly-doped epitaxial silicon, delta-doping achieves the stability and uniformity that are essential for high performance imaging and spectroscopy. Delta-doped CCDs were shown to have high, stable, and uniform quantum efficiency across the entire spectral range from the extreme ultraviolet through the near infrared. JPL has recently bump-bonded thinned, delta-doped CMOS imaging arrays to a CMOS readout, and demonstrated imaging. Delta-doped CMOS devices exhibit the high quantum efficiency that has become the standard for scientific-grade CCDs. Together with new circuit designs for low-noise readout currently under development, delta-doping expands the potential scientific applications of CMOS imaging arrays, and brings within reach important new capabilities, such as fast, high-sensitivity imaging with parallel readout and real-time signal processing. It remains to demonstrate manufacturability of delta-doped CMOS imaging arrays. To that end, JPL has acquired a new silicon MBE and ancillary equipment for delta-doping wafers up to 200mm in diameter, and is now developing processes for high-throughput, high yield delta-doping of fully-processed wafers with CCD and CMOS imaging devices.

  5. High-performance VGA-resolution digital color CMOS imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agwani, Suhail; Domer, Steve; Rubacha, Ray; Stanley, Scott

    1999-04-01

    This paper discusses the performance of a new VGA resolution color CMOS imager developed by Motorola on a 0.5micrometers /3.3V CMOS process. This fully integrated, high performance imager has on chip timing, control, and analog signal processing chain for digital imaging applications. The picture elements are based on 7.8micrometers active CMOS pixels that use pinned photodiodes for higher quantum efficiency and low noise performance. The image processing engine includes a bank of programmable gain amplifiers, line rate clamping for dark offset removal, real time auto white balancing, per column gain and offset calibration, and a 10 bit pipelined RSD analog to digital converter with a programmable input range. Post ADC signal processing includes features such as bad pixel replacement based on user defined thresholds levels, 10 to 8 bit companding and 5 tap FIR filtering. The sensor can be programmed via a standard I2C interface that runs on 3.3V clocks. Programmable features include variable frame rates using a constant frequency master clock, electronic exposure control, continuous or single frame capture, progressive or interlace scanning modes. Each pixel is individually addressable allowing region of interest imaging and image subsampling. The sensor operates with master clock frequencies of up to 13.5MHz resulting in 30FPS. A total programmable gain of 27dB is available. The sensor power dissipation is 400mW at full speed of operation. The low noise design yields a measured 'system on a chip' dynamic range of 50dB thus giving over 8 true bits of resolution. Extremely high conversion gain result in an excellent peak sensitivity of 22V/(mu) J/cm2 or 3.3V/lux-sec. This monolithic image capture and processing engine represent a compete imaging solution making it a true 'camera on a chip'. Yet in its operation it remains extremely easy to use requiring only one clock and a 3.3V power supply. Given the available features and performance levels, this sensor will be

  6. Steps toward fabricating cryogenic CMOS compatible single electron devices for future qubits.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Childs, Kenton David; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Tracy, Lisa A.; Eng, Kevin; Stevens, Jeffrey; Nordberg, Eric; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Lilly, Michael Patrick

    2008-08-01

    We describe the development of a novel silicon quantum bit (qubit) device architecture that involves using materials that are compatible with a Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) 0.35 mum complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process intended to operate at 100 mK. We describe how the qubit structure can be integrated with CMOS electronics, which is believed to have advantages for critical functions like fast single electron electrometry for readout compared to current approaches using radio frequency techniques. Critical materials properties are reviewed and preliminary characterization of the SNL CMOS devices at 4.2 K is presented.

  7. Proof of principle study of the use of a CMOS active pixel sensor for proton radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Seco, Joao; Depauw, Nicolas

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Proof of principle study of the use of a CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) in producing proton radiographic images using the proton beam at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Methods: A CMOS APS, previously tested for use in s-ray radiation therapy applications, was used for proton beam radiographic imaging at the MGH. Two different setups were used as a proof of principle that CMOS can be used as proton imaging device: (i) a pen with two metal screws to assess spatial resolution of the CMOS and (ii) a phantom with lung tissue, bone tissue, and water to assess tissue contrast of the CMOS. The sensor was then traversed by a double scattered monoenergetic proton beam at 117 MeV, and the energy deposition inside the detector was recorded to assess its energy response. Conventional x-ray images with similar setup at voltages of 70 kVp and proton images using commercial Gafchromic EBT 2 and Kodak X-Omat V films were also taken for comparison purposes. Results: Images were successfully acquired and compared to x-ray kVp and proton EBT2/X-Omat film images. The spatial resolution of the CMOS detector image is subjectively comparable to the EBT2 and Kodak X-Omat V film images obtained at the same object-detector distance. X-rays have apparent higher spatial resolution than the CMOS. However, further studies with different commercial films using proton beam irradiation demonstrate that the distance of the detector to the object is important to the amount of proton scatter contributing to the proton image. Proton images obtained with films at different distances from the source indicate that proton scatter significantly affects the CMOS image quality. Conclusion: Proton radiographic images were successfully acquired at MGH using a CMOS active pixel sensor detector. The CMOS demonstrated spatial resolution subjectively comparable to films at the same object-detector distance. Further work will be done in order to establish the spatial and energy resolution of the

  8. CMOS Time-Resolved, Contact, and Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging for DNA Molecular Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Nan; Cheung, Ka Wai; Wong, Hiu Tung; Ho, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Instrumental limitations such as bulkiness and high cost prevent the fluorescence technique from becoming ubiquitous for point-of-care deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection and other in-field molecular diagnostics applications. The complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, as benefited from process scaling, provides several advanced capabilities such as high integration density, high-resolution signal processing, and low power consumption, enabling sensitive, integrated, and low-cost fluorescence analytical platforms. In this paper, CMOS time-resolved, contact, and multispectral imaging are reviewed. Recently reported CMOS fluorescence analysis microsystem prototypes are surveyed to highlight the present state of the art. PMID:25365460

  9. Future directions for CMOS device technology development from a system application perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Tak H.

    2007-03-01

    The development of CMOS technology has been, and will remain, driven by system needs. Traditionally, these needs have been met quite satisfactorily by simply reducing the physical size of the transistors as guided by the MOSFET scaling theory and increasing the chip-level integration density as anticipated from "Moore's Law." Now that CMOS has reached its scaling limits, continued progress has to come from innovations beyond the traditional development paths, guided by anticipating and addressing system designers' concerns and needs. In this talk, we examine several opportunities for extending current CMOS technology to continue satisfying the needs of system designers.

  10. Top-Down CMOS-NEMS Polysilicon Nanowire with Piezoresistive Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Marigó, Eloi; Sansa, Marc; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; Uranga, Arantxa; Barniol, Núria

    2015-01-01

    A top-down clamped-clamped beam integrated in a CMOS technology with a cross section of 500 nm × 280 nm has been electrostatic actuated and sensed using two different transduction methods: capacitive and piezoresistive. The resonator made from a single polysilicon layer has a fundamental in-plane resonance at 27 MHz. Piezoresistive transduction avoids the effect of the parasitic capacitance assessing the capability to use it and enhance the CMOS-NEMS resonators towards more efficient oscillator. The displacement derived from the capacitive transduction allows to compute the gauge factor for the polysilicon material available in the CMOS technology. PMID:26184222

  11. Triple inverter pierce oscillator circuit suitable for CMOS

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf; Kurt O.

    2007-02-27

    An oscillator circuit is disclosed which can be formed using discrete field-effect transistors (FETs), or as a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit. The oscillator circuit utilizes a Pierce oscillator design with three inverter stages connected in series. A feedback resistor provided in a feedback loop about a second inverter stage provides an almost ideal inverting transconductance thereby allowing high-Q operation at the resonator-controlled frequency while suppressing a parasitic oscillation frequency that is inherent in a Pierce configuration using a "standard" triple inverter for the sustaining amplifier. The oscillator circuit, which operates in a range of 10 50 MHz, has applications for use as a clock in a microprocessor and can also be used for sensor applications.

  12. An Approach for Self-Timed Synchronous CMOS Circuit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Alvernon; Lala, Parag K.

    2001-01-01

    In this letter we present a timing and control strategy that can be used to realize synchronous systems with a level of performance that approaches that of asynchronous circuits or systems. This approach is based upon a single-phase synchronous circuit/system architecture with a variable period clock. The handshaking signals required for asynchronous self-timed circuits are not needed. Dynamic power supply current monitoring is used to generate the timing information, that is comparable to the completion signal found in self-timed circuits; this timing information is used to modi@ the circuit clock period. This letter is concluded with an example of the proposed approach applied to a static CMOS ripple-carry adder.

  13. A 20 MHz CMOS reorder buffer for a superscalar microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenell, John; Wallace, Steve; Bagherzadeh, Nader

    1992-01-01

    Superscalar processors can achieve increased performance by issuing instructions out-of-order from the original sequential instruction stream. Implementing an out-of-order instruction issue policy requires a hardware mechanism to prevent incorrectly executed instructions from updating register values. A reorder buffer can be used to allow a superscalar processor to issue instructions out-of-order and maintain program correctness. This paper describes the design and implementation of a 20MHz CMOS reorder buffer for superscalar processors. The reorder buffer is designed to accept and retire two instructions per cycle. A full-custom layout in 1.2 micron has been implemented, measuring 1.1058 mm by 1.3542 mm.

  14. Characteristic of e2v CMOS sensors for astronomical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Hu, Yen-Shan; Geary, John C.; Amato, Stephen M.; Pratlong, Jerome; Pike, Andrew; Jordan, Paul; Lehner, Matthew J.

    2014-07-01

    We report the testing result of e2v CIS 107 CMOS sensor for temperature from 300K to 170K. The CIS 107 sensor is a prototype device with 10 different variations of pixel designs. The sensor has 1500 × 2000, 7 μm pixels with 4 outputs. Each variation covers 1500 × 200 pixels. These are 4T pixels with high resistivity epitaxial silicon and back thinned to 11μm. At room temperature, the several variants of pixels show peak QE higher than 90%, readout noise around 5e- and dark current around 50e-/s/pix. The full well is about 15000 e- due to the limitation of the transfer gate capacitor. The CIS 107 device was further characterized at different device temperatures from 170K to 300K. The readout noise decreases and the full well increases as the device is operated at lower temperature.

  15. Rapid Bacterial Detection via an All-Electronic CMOS Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Nikkhoo, Nasim; Cumby, Nichole; Gulak, P Glenn; Maxwell, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    The timely and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases is one of the greatest challenges currently facing modern medicine. The development of innovative techniques for the rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens in point-of-care facilities using low-cost, portable instruments is essential. We have developed a novel all-electronic biosensor that is able to identify bacteria in less than ten minutes. This technology exploits bacteriocins, protein toxins naturally produced by bacteria, as the selective biological detection element. The bacteriocins are integrated with an array of potassium-selective sensors in Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor technology to provide an inexpensive bacterial biosensor. An electronic platform connects the CMOS sensor to a computer for processing and real-time visualization. We have used this technology to successfully identify both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria commonly found in human infections. PMID:27618185

  16. Variation in SEU sensitivity of dose-imprinted CMOS SRAMs

    SciTech Connect

    Stassinopoulos, E.G. ); Brucker, G.S. ); Van Gunten, O. ); Kim, H.S. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper reports on an experimental study of dose-induced changes in SEU sensitivity of CMOS static RAMs. Two time-regimes were investigated following exposure of memories to Cobalt-60 gamma rays: the near term within a few hours after exposure, and the long term, after many days. Samples were irradiated both at room and at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The latter procedure was used in order to freeze-in the damage state until SEU measurements could be made before annealing would take place. Results show that memories damaged by dose are more sensitive to upsets by heavy ions. The induced changes are substantial: threshold linear energy transfer (LET) values decreased by as much as 46% and asymptotic cross sections increased by factors of 2 to 4 (unannealed samples).

  17. Accelerated life testing effects on CMOS microcircuit characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The 250 C, 200C and 125C accelerated tests are described. The wear-out distributions from the 250 and 200 C tests were used to estimate the activation energy between the two test temperatures. The duration of the 125 C test was not sufficient to bring the test devices into the wear-out region. It was estimated that, for the most complex of the three devices types, the activation energy between 200 C and 125 C should be at least as high as that between 250 C and 200 C. The practicality of the use of high temperature for the accelerated life tests from the point of view of durability of equipment is assessed. Guidlines for the development of accelerated life-test conditions are proposed. The use of the silicon nitride overcoat to improve the high temperature accelerated life-test characteristics of CMOS microcircuits is described.

  18. Variation in SEU sensitivity of dose-imprinted CMOS SRAMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Brucker, G. J.; Van Gunten, O.; Kim, H. S.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report on an experimental study of dose-induced changes in SEU (single-event-upset) sensitivity of CMOS static RAMs. Two time regimes were investigated following exposure of memories to cobalt-60 gamma rays: the near term, within a few hours after exposure, and the long term, after many days. Samples were irradiated both at room and at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The latter procedure was used in order to freeze in the damage state until SEU measurements could be made prior to annealing. Results show that memories damaged by dose are more sensitive to upsets by heavy ions. The induced changes are substantial: threshold linear energy transfer (LET) values decreased by as much as 46 percent and asymptotic cross sections increased by factors of two to four (unannealed samples).

  19. Single event upset in irradiated 16k CMOS SRAMs

    SciTech Connect

    Axness, C.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Browning, J.S.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Koga, R.

    1988-12-01

    The Single Event Upset (SEU) characteristics of a CMOS SRAM cell irradiated under conditions that simulate the total-dose degradation anticipated in space applications are experimentally and theoretically investigated. Simulations of SEU sensitivity utilizing a 2D circuit/device simulator, with measured transistor threshold-voltage shifts and mobility degradations as inputs, are shown to be in good agreement with experimental data at high total dose. Both simulation and experiment show a strong SRAM cell SEU imbalance, resulting in a more SEU tolerant preferred state and a less tolerant non-preferred state. The resulting cell imbalance causes an overall degradation in SEU immunity which increases with increasing total dose and which should be taken into account in SEU testing and part characterization.

  20. CMOS APS detector characterization for quantitative X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endrizzi, Marco; Oliva, Piernicola; Golosio, Bruno; Delogu, Pasquale

    2013-03-01

    An X-ray Imaging detector based on CMOS Active Pixel Sensor and structured scintillator is characterized for quantitative X-ray imaging in the energy range 11-30 keV. Linearity, dark noise, spatial resolution and flat-field correction are the characteristics of the detector subject of investigation. The detector response, in terms of mean Analog-to-Digital Unit and noise, is modeled as a function of the energy and intensity of the X-rays. The model is directly tested using monochromatic X-ray beams and it is also indirectly validated by means of polychromatic X-ray-tube spectra. Such a characterization is suitable for quantitative X-ray imaging and the model can be used in simulation studies that take into account the actual performance of the detector.

  1. Novel CMOS readout techniques for uncooled pyroelectric IR FPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tai-Ping; Chin, Yuan-Lung; Chung, Wen-Yaw; Hsiung, Shen-Kan; Chou, Jung-Chuan

    1998-09-01

    Based on the application of the source follower per detector (SFD) input biasing technique, a new redout structure for the IR focal-plane-array (FPA), called the variable gain source follower per detector (VGSFD) is proposed and analyzed. The readout circuit of VGSFD of a unit cell of pyroelectric sensor under investigation, is composed of a source follower per detector circuit, high gain amplifier, and the reset switch. The VGSFD readout chip has been designed in 0.5 micrometers double-poly-double-metal n-well CMOS technology in various formats from 8 by 8 to 128 by 128. The experimental 8 by 8 VGSFD measurement results of the fabricated readout chip at room temperature have successfully verified both the readout function and performance. The high gain, low power, high sensitivity readout performances are achieved in a 50 by 50 micrometers (superscript 2) pixel size.

  2. A portable swappable method scientific CMOS image data storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-long; Pi, Hai-feng; Hu, Bing-liang; Gao, Jia-rui

    2015-11-01

    In the field of deep space exploration, the detector needs high-speed data real-time transmission and large capacity storage. SATA(Serial advanced technology attachment) as a new generation of interface protocols, SATA interface hard disk has the advantages of with large storage capacity, high transmission rate, the cheap price, data is not lost when power supply drop, so it is suitable for used in high speed large capacity data storage system. This paper by using Kintex-7 XCE7K325T XILINK series FPGA, the data of scientific CMOS CIS2521F through the SATA controller is stored in the hard disk. If the hard disk storage is full, it will automatically switch to the next hard disk.

  3. Reliability Considerations of ULP Scaled CMOS in Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Mark; MacNeal, Kristen; Cooper, Mark

    2012-01-01

    NASA, the aerospace community, and other high reliability (hi-rel) users of advanced microelectronic products face many challenges as technology continues to scale into the deep sub-micron region. Decreasing the feature size of CMOS devices not only allows more components to be placed on a single chip, but it increases performance by allowing faster switching (or clock) speeds with reduced power compared to larger scaled devices. Higher performance, and lower operating and stand-by power characteristics of Ultra-Low Power (ULP) microelectronics are not only desirable, but also necessary to meet low power consumption design goals of critical spacecraft systems. The integration of these components in such systems, however, must be balanced with the overall risk tolerance of the project.

  4. Development of a radiation-hard CMOS process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    It is recommended that various techniques be investigated which appear to have the potential for improving the radiation hardness of CMOS devices for prolonged space flight mission. The three key recommended processing techniques are: (1) making the gate oxide thin. It has been shown that radiation degradation is proportional to the cube of oxide thickness so that a relatively small reduction in thickness can greatly improve radiation resistance; (2) cleanliness and contamination control; and (3) to investigate different oxide growth (low temperature dry, TCE and HCL). All three produce high quality clean oxides, which are more radiation tolerant. Technique 2 addresses the reduction of metallic contamination. Technique 3 will produce a higher quality oxide by using slow growth rate conditions, and will minimize the effects of any residual sodium contamination through the introduction of hydrogen and chlorine into the oxide during growth.

  5. A new visible watermarking technique applied to CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pingping; Shang, Yan; Li, Chunming

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a new visible watermarking solution for CMOS image sensor which can enhance secure features of captured images. Visible watermarks are embedded in the Bayer format image data and can be transferred by the subsequent interpolation process. A piecewise function is setup based on the gray scale resolution characteristics of human eyes. Watermark stretch factor can be adaptively chosen according to the gray value of the current pixel. The advantage of this algorithm is that the watermark has the same visibility in different image brightness region. A number of color images have been used to test the method. In order to check the robustness of watermarked images, we conducted adding noise and filtering experiments, results show that the visibility of watermark is also good after the experiments. The approach allows a digital watermark to be embedded in an image immediately upon its capture, before leaving the imaging chip.

  6. Failure analysis of a half-micron CMOS IC technology

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, A.Y.; Tangyunyong, P.; Bennett, R.S.; Flores, R.S.

    1996-08-01

    We present the results of recent failure analysis of an advanced, 0.5 {mu}m, fully planarized, triple metallization CMOS technology. A variety of failure analysis (FA) tools and techniques were used to localize and identify defects generated by wafer processing. These include light (photon) emission microscopy (LE), fluorescent microthermal imaging (FMI), focused ion beam cross sectioning, SEM/voltage contrast imaging, resistive contrast imaging (RCI), and e-beam testing using an IDS-5000 with an HP 82000. The defects identified included inter- and intra-metal shorts, gate oxide shorts due to plasma processing damage, and high contact resistance due to the contact etch and deposition process. Root causes of these defects were determined and corrective action was taken to improve yield and reliability.

  7. A radiation hardened SONOS/CMOS EEPROM family

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, V.F.; Wood, G.M.; Buller, J.F. . Semiconductor Sector); Murray, J.R.; Rodriquez, J.L. )

    1990-01-01

    There has long been a need for fast read nonvolatile, rad hard memories for military and space applications. Recent advances in EEPROM technology now allow this need to be met for many applications. Harris/Sandia have developed a 16k and a 256k rad hard EEPROM. The EEPROMs utilize a Silicon-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon (SONOS) memory transistor integrated into a 2 {mu}m, rad hard two level metal CMOS process. Both the 16k and the 256k parts have been designed to interface with the Intel 8085 or 80C51 and National 32000 series microprocessors and feature page and block clear modes. Both parts are functionally identical, and are produced by the same fabrication process. They are also pin for pin compatible with each other, except for the extra address and ground pins on the 256k. This paper describes the characteristics of this EEPROM family. 1 ref.

  8. A radiation hardened SONOS/CMOS EEPROM family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, V. F.; Wood, G. M.; Buller, J. F.; Murray, J. R.; Rodriquez, J. L.

    1990-07-01

    There has long been a need for fast read nonvolatile, rad hard memories for military and space applications. Recent advances in Electrically Erasably Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM) technology now allow this need to be met for many applications. Harris/Sandia have developed a 16k and a 256k rad hard EEPROM. The EEPROMs utilize a Silicon Oxide Nitride Oxide Silicon (SONOS) memory transistor integrated into a 2 microns rad hard two level metal CMOS process. Both the 16k and the 256k parts were designed to interface with the Intel 8085 or 80C51 and National 32000 series microprocessors and feature page and block clear modes. Both parts are functionally identical, and are produced by the same fabrication process. They are also pin for pin compatible with each other, except for the extra address and ground pins on the 256k. The characteristics of this EEPROM family are described.

  9. Rule-based circuit optimization for CMOS VLSI

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, F.

    1987-01-01

    A closed-loop design system iJADE was developed in Franz LISP. iJADE is a hierarchical CMOS VLSI circuit optimizer. Using a switch-level timing simulator and a timing analyzer, the program pinpoints the critical paths. The path-delay reduction algorithms and a rule-based expert system are then applied to adjust transistor sizes such that the speed of the circuit can be improved while keeping constraints satisfied. iJADE is also capable of detecting and correcting the timing errors of synchronous circuits. The circuit is described in SPICE-like input format, and then partitioned into blocks. Delays are computed on a block-by-block basis hierarchically, using a simple model based on input rise time, block type, and output load.

  10. Interferometric metrology of wafer nanotopography for advanced CMOS process integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, John F.; Koliopoulos, Chris L.; Tang, Shouhong

    2001-12-01

    According to industry standards (SEMI M43, Guide for Reporting Wafer Nanotopography), Nanotopography is the non- planar deviation of the whole front wafer surface within a spatial wavelength range of approximately 0.2 to 20 mm and within the fixed quality area (FQA). The need for precision metrology of wafer nanotopography is being actively addressed by interferometric technology. In this paper we present an approach to mapping the whole wafer front surface nanotopography using an engineered coherence interferometer. The interferometer acquires a whole wafer raw topography map. The raw map is then filtered to remove the long spatial wavelength, high amplitude shape contributions and reveal the nanotopography in the filtered map. Filtered maps can be quantitatively analyzed in a variety of ways to enable statistical process control (SPC) of nanotopography parameters. The importance of tracking these parameters for CMOS gate level processes at 180-nm critical dimension, and below, is examined.

  11. Hybrid backside illuminated CMOS image sensors possessing low crosstalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra Rao, Padmakumar; De Munck, Koen; Minoglou, Kyriaki; De Vos, Joeri; Sabuncuoglu, Deniz; De Moor, Piet

    2011-11-01

    Backside illuminated (BSI) hybrid CMOS image sensors possessing excellent spectral response (> 80% between 400nm-800nm) have been previously reported by us. Particularly challenging with BSI imagers is to combine such sensitivity, with low electrical inter-pixel crosstalk (or charge-dispersion). Employing thick bulk silicon (in BSI) to maximize red response results in large crosstalk especially for blue light. In the second generation of these imagers, we undertook the exercise of solving the crosstalk problem by a two-pronged approach: a) an optimized epitaxial substrate that was engineered to maximize the internal electric field b) high aspect ratio trenches (30 μm deep) with carefully tailored sidewall passivation. The results show that the proposed optimizations are effective in curtailing crosstalk without having a major impact on other sensor parameters.

  12. A CMOS Neural Interface for a Multichannel Vestibular Prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Hageman, Kristin N; Kalayjian, Zaven K; Tejada, Francisco; Chiang, Bryce; Rahman, Mehdi A; Fridman, Gene Y; Dai, Chenkai; Pouliquen, Philippe O; Georgiou, Julio; Della Santina, Charles C; Andreou, Andreas G

    2016-04-01

    We present a high-voltage CMOS neural-interface chip for a multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) that measures head motion and modulates vestibular nerve activity to restore vision- and posture-stabilizing reflexes. This application specific integrated circuit neural interface (ASIC-NI) chip was designed to work with a commercially available microcontroller, which controls the ASIC-NI via a fast parallel interface to deliver biphasic stimulation pulses with 9-bit programmable current amplitude via 16 stimulation channels. The chip was fabricated in the ONSemi C5 0.5 micron, high-voltage CMOS process and can accommodate compliance voltages up to 12 V, stimulating vestibular nerve branches using biphasic current pulses up to 1.45±0.06 mA with durations as short as 10 μs/phase. The ASIC-NI includes a dedicated digital-to-analog converter for each channel, enabling it to perform complex multipolar stimulation. The ASIC-NI replaces discrete components that cover nearly half of the 2nd generation MVP (MVP2) printed circuit board, reducing the MVP system size by 48% and power consumption by 17%. Physiological tests of the ASIC-based MVP system (MVP2A) in a rhesus monkey produced reflexive eye movement responses to prosthetic stimulation similar to those observed when using the MVP2. Sinusoidal modulation of stimulus pulse rate from 68-130 pulses per second at frequencies from 0.1 to 5 Hz elicited appropriately-directed slow phase eye velocities ranging in amplitude from 1.9-16.7 °/s for the MVP2 and 2.0-14.2 °/s for the MVP2A. The eye velocities evoked by MVP2 and MVP2A showed no significant difference ( t-test, p=0.34), suggesting that the MVP2A achieves performance at least as good as the larger MVP2. PMID:25974945

  13. High-Q CMOS-integrated photonic crystal microcavity devices

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Karan K.; Orcutt, Jason S.; Tehar-Zahav, Ofer; Sternberg, Zvi; Bafrali, Reha; Meade, Roy; Ram, Rajeev J.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated optical resonators are necessary or beneficial in realizations of various functions in scaled photonic platforms, including filtering, modulation, and detection in classical communication systems, optical sensing, as well as addressing and control of solid state emitters for quantum technologies. Although photonic crystal (PhC) microresonators can be advantageous to the more commonly used microring devices due to the former's low mode volumes, fabrication of PhC cavities has typically relied on electron-beam lithography, which precludes integration with large-scale and reproducible CMOS fabrication. Here, we demonstrate wavelength-scale polycrystalline silicon (pSi) PhC microresonators with Qs up to 60,000 fabricated within a bulk CMOS process. Quasi-1D resonators in lateral p-i-n structures allow for resonant defect-state photodetection in all-silicon devices, exhibiting voltage-dependent quantum efficiencies in the range of a few 10 s of %, few-GHz bandwidths, and low dark currents, in devices with loaded Qs in the range of 4,300–9,300; one device, for example, exhibited a loaded Q of 4,300, 25% quantum efficiency (corresponding to a responsivity of 0.31 A/W), 3 GHz bandwidth, and 30 nA dark current at a reverse bias of 30 V. This work demonstrates the possibility for practical integration of PhC microresonators with active electro-optic capability into large-scale silicon photonic systems. PMID:24518161

  14. A CMOS Neural Interface for a Multichannel Vestibular Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hageman, Kristin N.; Kalayjian, Zaven K.; Tejada, Francisco; Chiang, Bryce; Rahman, Mehdi A.; Fridman, Gene Y.; Dai, Chenkai; Pouliquen, Philippe O.; Georgiou, Julio; Della Santina, Charles C.; Andreou, Andreas G.

    2015-01-01

    We present a high-voltage CMOS neural-interface chip for a multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) that measures head motion and modulates vestibular nerve activity to restore vision- and posture-stabilizing reflexes. This application specific integrated circuit neural interface (ASIC-NI) chip was designed to work with a commercially available microcontroller, which controls the ASIC-NI via a fast parallel interface to deliver biphasic stimulation pulses with 9-bit programmable current amplitude via 16 stimulation channels. The chip was fabricated in the ONSemi C5 0.5 micron, high-voltage CMOS process and can accommodate compliance voltages up to 12 V, stimulating vestibular nerve branches using biphasic current pulses up to 1.45 ± 0.06 mA with durations as short as 10 µs/phase. The ASIC-NI includes a dedicated digital-to-analog converter for each channel, enabling it to perform complex multipolar stimulation. The ASIC-NI replaces discrete components that cover nearly half of the 2nd generation MVP (MVP2) printed circuit board, reducing the MVP system size by 48% and power consumption by 17%. Physiological tests of the ASIC-based MVP system (MVP2A) in a rhesus monkey produced reflexive eye movement responses to prosthetic stimulation similar to those observed when using the MVP2. Sinusoidal modulation of stimulus pulse rate from 68–130 pulses per second at frequencies from 0.1 to 5 Hz elicited appropriately-directed slow phase eye velocities ranging in amplitude from 1.9–16.7°/s for the MVP2 and 2.0–14.2°/s for the MVP2A. The eye velocities evoked by MVP2 and MVP2A showed no significant difference (t-test, p = 0.034), suggesting that the MVP2A achieves performance at least as good as the larger MVP2. PMID:25974945

  15. Packaging commercial CMOS chips for lab on a chip integration.

    PubMed

    Datta-Chaudhuri, Timir; Abshire, Pamela; Smela, Elisabeth

    2014-05-21

    Combining integrated circuitry with microfluidics enables lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices to perform sensing, freeing them from benchtop equipment. However, this integration is challenging with small chips, as is briefly reviewed with reference to key metrics for package comparison. In this paper we present a simple packaging method for including mm-sized, foundry-fabricated dies containing complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuits within LOCs. The chip is embedded in an epoxy handle wafer to yield a level, large-area surface, allowing subsequent photolithographic post-processing and microfluidic integration. Electrical connection off-chip is provided by thin film metal traces passivated with parylene-C. The parylene is patterned to selectively expose the active sensing area of the chip, allowing direct interaction with a fluidic environment. The method accommodates any die size and automatically levels the die and handle wafer surfaces. Functionality was demonstrated by packaging two different types of CMOS sensor ICs, a bioamplifier chip with an array of surface electrodes connected to internal amplifiers for recording extracellular electrical signals and a capacitance sensor chip for monitoring cell adhesion and viability. Cells were cultured on the surface of both types of chips, and data were acquired using a PC. Long term culture (weeks) showed the packaging materials to be biocompatible. Package lifetime was demonstrated by exposure to fluids over a longer duration (months), and the package was robust enough to allow repeated sterilization and re-use. The ease of fabrication and good performance of this packaging method should allow wide adoption, thereby spurring advances in miniaturized sensing systems. PMID:24682025

  16. CMOS color image sensor with overlaid organic photoconductive layers having narrow absorption band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Shunji; Ihama, Mikio; Inuiya, Masafumi; Komatsu, Takashi; Saito, Takahiro

    2007-02-01

    At EI2006, we proposed the CMOS image sensor, which was overlaid with organic photoconductive layers in order to incorporate in it large light-capturing ability of a color film owing to its multiple-layer structure, and demonstrated the pictures taken by the trial product of the proposed CMOS image sensor overlaid with an organic layer having green sensitivity. In this study, we have tried to get the optimized spectral sensitivity for the proposed CMOS image sensor by means of the simulation to minimize the color difference between the original Macbeth chart and its reproduction with the spectral sensitivity of the sensor as a parameter. As a result, it has been confirmed that the proposed CMOS image sensor with multiple-layer structure possesses high potential capability in terms of imagecapturing efficiency when it is provided with the optimized spectral sensitivity.

  17. ''Normal'' tissues from humans exposed to radium contain an alteration in the c-mos locus

    SciTech Connect

    Huberman, E.; Schlenker, R.A.; Hardwick, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The structures of a number of human proto-oncogenes from persons with internal systemic exposure to radium were analyzed by restriction enzyme digestion and southern blotting of their DNA. Two extra c-mos Eco R1 restriction-fragment-length bands of 5.0 kb and 5.5 kb were found in tissue DNA from six of seven individuals. The extra c-mos bands were detected in DNA from many, but not all, of the tissues of the individuals exposed to radium. Our results suggest that the c-mos restriction-fragment-length alterations (RFLA) found in individuals exposed to radium were induced rather than inherited, are epigenetic in origin, and most likely result from changes in the methylation of bases surrounding the single exon of the c-mos proto-oncogene. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Prediction and measurement of radiation damage to CMOS devices on board spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, R. A.; Danchenko, V.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Sing, M.; Brucker, G. J.; Ohanian, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    The CMOS Radiation Effects Measurement (CREM) experiment is presently being flown on the Explorer-55. The purpose of the experiment is to evaluate device performance in the actual space radiation environment and to correlate the respective measurements to on-the-ground laboratory irradiation results. The experiment contains an assembly of C-MOS and P-MOS devices shielded in front by flat slabs of aluminum and by a practically infinite shield in the back. Predictions of radiation damage to C-MOS devices are based on standard environment models and computational techniques. A comparison of the shifts in CMOS threshold potentials, that is, those measured in space to those obtained from the on-the-ground simulation experiment with Co-60, indicates that the measured space damage is smaller than predicted by about a factor of 2-3 for thin shields, but agrees well with predictions for thicker shields.

  19. Heterogeneous integration of GaAs pHEMT and Si CMOS on the same chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-Shu, Wu; Yan, Zhao; Hong-Chang, Shen; You-Tao, Zhang; Tang-Sheng, Chen

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the technology of wafer-scale transistor-level heterogeneous integration of GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (pHEMTs) and Si complementary metal–oxide semiconductor (CMOS) on the same Silicon substrate. GaAs pHEMTs are vertical stacked at the top of the Si CMOS wafer using a wafer bonding technique, and the best alignment accuracy of 5 μm is obtained. As a circuit example, a wide band GaAs digital controlled switch is fabricated, which features the technologies of a digital control circuit in Si CMOS and a switch circuit in GaAs pHEMT, 15% smaller than the area of normal GaAs and Si CMOS circuits.

  20. Long term ionization response of several BiCMOS VLSIC technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Pease, R.L. ); Combs, W.; Clark, S. )

    1992-06-01

    BiCMOS is emerging as a strong competitor to CMOS for gate arrays and memories because of its performance advantages for the same feature size. In this paper, the authors examine the long term ionization response of five BiCMOS technologies by characterizing test structures which emphasize the various failure modes of CMOS and bipolar. The primary failure modes are found to be associated with the recessed field oxide isolation; edge leakage in the n channel MOSFETs and buried layer to buried layer leakage in the bipolar. The ionization failure thresholds for worst case bias were in the range of 5-20 Krad(Si) for both failure modes in all five technologies.