Frazier, O. H.; Cohn, William E.
We implanted a continuous-flow total heart replacement device in a 55-year-old man who had severe end-stage heart failure due to amyloidosis and no other options for treatment. The device was composed of 2 modified HeartMate II ventricular assist pumps. After the implantation, our patient recovered normal neurologic function and was able to converse with his family and work on his computer. He died of multisystem organ failure caused by severe amyloidosis 5 weeks after the implantation. During the past 6 years, we have been developing and testing various technological iterations for total heart replacement in our animal laboratory and have achieved survival periods as long as 90 days in calves. We describe the development, preclinical trials, and adaptation for human use of the modified HeartMate II apparatus, as well as its role in our patient's survival. PMID:22949774
Ibilibor, Christine; Wells, Jeremy; Kavuri, Sravan; Moses, Kelvin A
Treating testicular cancer with adjuvant radiation has been associated with a number of second malignancies affecting the genitourinary tract and retroperitoneal structures; however, there have been few reported cases of cutaneous second malignancies. We report the case of a man who developed stage IV squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of a condyloma after orchiectomy and adjuvant radiation for testicular cancer. We also review relevant literature available to date. A 55-year-old Caucasian man presented to the hospital with a large growth at the right groin which had grown into his right thigh preventing ambulation. His past medical history was significant for right testicular cancer of unknown pathology treated with orchiectomy and adjuvant radiation twenty years ago. Punch biopsy of the lesion revealed superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma. He underwent excision of the growth with subsequent Cisplatin, radiation boost, and Paclitaxel regimens. Despite an aggressive treatment regimen and an initial good response, the patient's cancer progressed requiring palliative care. It is unclear whether or not therapeutic radiation in this case promoted the conversion of the patient's condyloma to a malignant lesion. Further studies are required at this time to clarify the clinical implications of these findings. PMID:25024864
Four Thrombotic Events Over 5 Years, Two Pulmonary Emboli and Two Deep Venous Thrombosis, When Testosterone-HCG Therapy Was Continued Despite Concurrent Anticoagulation in a 55-Year-Old Man With Lupus Anticoagulant
Glueck, Charles J.; Lee, Kevin; Prince, Marloe; Jetty, Vybhav; Shah, Parth; Wang, Ping
Background: When exogenous testosterone or treatments to elevate testosterone (human chorionic gonadotropin [HCG] or Clomid) are prescribed for men who have antecedent thrombophilia, deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism often occur and may recur despite adequate anticoagulation if testosterone therapy is continued. Case Presentation: A 55-year-old white male was referred to us because of 4 thrombotic events, 3 despite adequate anticoagulation over a 5-year period. We assessed interactions between thrombophilia, exogenous testosterone therapy, and recurrent thrombosis. In 2009, despite low-normal serum testosterone 334 ng/dL (lower normal limit [LNL] 300 ng/dL), he was given testosterone (TT) cypionate (50 mg/week) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG; 500 units/week) for presumed hypogonadism. Ten months later, with supranormal serum T (1385 ng/dL, upper normal limit [UNL] 827 ng/dL) and estradiol (E2) 45 pg/mL (UNL 41 pg/mL), he had a pulmonary embolus (PE) and was then anticoagulated for 2 years (enoxaparin, then warfarin). Four years later, on TT-HCG, he had his first deep venous thrombosis (DVT). TT was stopped and HCG continued; he was anticoagulated (enoxaparin, then warfarin, then apixaban, then fondaparinux). One year after his first DVT, on HCG, still on fondaparinux, he had a second DVT (5/315), was anticoagulated (enoxaparin + warfarin), with a Greenfield filter placed, but 8 days later had a second PE. Thrombophilia testing revealed the lupus anticoagulant. After stopping HCG, and maintained on warfarin, he has been free of further DVT-PE for 9 months. Conclusion: When DVT-PE occur on TT or HCG, in the presence of thrombophilia, TT-HCG should be stopped, lest DVT-PE reoccur despite concurrent anticoagulation. PMID:27536705
Reed, Caitlyn Trotter; Adams, Kristen; Shenoy, Veena
We report a rare case of xanthogranulomatous adrenalitis in a 55-year-old man. The patient presented to the hospital with fever, nausea, and right flank pain. His medical history was significant for diabetes and an adrenal mass that was detected 6 years prior to presentation during a computed tomography (CT) scan for trauma secondary to a motor vehicle collision. The mass was thought to be a myelolipoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a 12-cm right adrenal mass that was considered suspicious for carcinoma, which was surgically excised and cultured intraoperatively. The cultures subsequently grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Grossly, the adrenal mass was an encapsulated, necrotic lesion with surrounding areas of fat necrosis. On histologic examination, the tissue showed sheets of histiocytes, lymphocytes, and plasma cells diffusely involving the adrenal gland along with bright yellow lipofuscin crystals in a background of necrosis and fibrosis. PMID:26044256
Zarei, Mina; Bidaki, Reza; Hakim-Shooshtari, Mitra
Bipolar disorder is a mental disease that can be presented as irritable mood with affective storms, mixed symptoms of depression and mania, rapid cycles, emotional labiality and irritability during all episodes. A confirmed positive familial history of the disease is the single most robust risk factor for developing the illness. This report presents 5.5 years-old girl with the symptoms of bipolar disorder and with the purpose to draw attention to the diversity of possible symptoms of mood disorders in childhood. PMID:24644461
Okafor, U H; Unuigbe, E I; Onwuchekwa, A C; Emem-Chioma, P
Analgesic nephropathy is a subtle but significant cause of chronic renal failure. There is paucity of data on analgesic nephropathy in Nigeria. This case presentation is to highlight the need to have high index of suspicion in patients at risk of developing analgesic nephropathy. In March 2009 a 55-year-old businessman was referred to the renal unit on account of azotemia by the hematologist who had hitherto managed the patient as a case of refractory anemia. The patient had osteoarthritis for over 10 years and was managed with several analgesic drugs over the same period. He was found to have features suggestive of analgesic nephropathy and had end-stage renal disease. He was commenced on appropriate therapy, and he had a live related kidney transplant six months later. Analgesic nephropathy is preventable and morbidity/mortality can be remarkably reduced with appropriate and prompt intervention. PMID:22718180
Castori, Marco; Morlino, Silvia; Ritelli, Marco; Brancati, Francesco; De Bernardo, Carmelilia; Colombi, Marina; Grammatico, Paola
Lateral meningocele syndrome (LMS) is a rare hereditary connective tissue disorder characterized by pan-spinal meningoceles, specific facial dysmorphism, skeletal and soft tissue abnormalities, and hypotonia and/or muscle weakness. LMS has been observed in eleven patients with two instances of vertical transmission, and seven sporadic cases with an age at diagnosis ranging from 25 months to 33 years. We report on a further observation of LMS in a 55-year-old woman presenting with a long history of joint instability, chronic musculoskeletal pain, and iatrogenic bladder and anorectal dysfunction due to irreversible nerve damage after surgical excision of a meningeal cyst. Her clinical characteristics are compared with those of previously reported patients, as well as two further cases originally diagnosed with Hajdu-Cheney and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, but displaying typical features of LMS. PMID:24311540
Acosta, Andrés Martin; Hamedani, Farid Saei; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Wiley, Elizabeth Louise
Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs) of the biliary tract are rare tumors, and to date only a few cases arising in the gallbladder have been reported. Their histogenesis is a matter of debate, since the biliary tract normally lacks neuroendocrine cells. However, the immunohistochemical identification of nonneoplastic neuroendocrine cells in both biliary adenocarcinomas and intestinal metaplasia has been documented. Here we report a case of a 55-year-old female patient presenting with right upper quadrant pain, cholelithiasis, and a gallbladder mass identified after cholecystectomy. The histopathologic examination showed a MANEC, composed of an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma and a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, arising in a background of enteric metaplasia with extensive high-grade dysplasia. Moreover, we report the presence of focal pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-like epithelial lesions, which has not been described for these tumors yet. The histopathologic features of this case provide further support for the theory that MANECs arise following a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma pathway. PMID:25838330
Osaki, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Katsumi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Fukazawa, Hiroshi
Familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia (FDH) is a familial autosomal dominant disease caused by mutation in the albumin gene that produces a condition of euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia. In patients with FDH, serum-free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations as measured by several commercial methods are often falsely increased with normal thyrotropin (TSH). Therefore, several diagnostic steps are needed to differentiate TSH-secreting tumor or generalized resistance to thyroid hormone from FDH. We herein report a case of a Japanese man born in Aomori prefecture, with FDH caused by a mutant albumin gene (R218P). We found that a large number of FDH patients reported in Japan to date might have been born in Aomori prefecture and have shown the R218P mutation. In conclusion, FDH needs to be considered among the differential diagnoses in Japanese patients born in Aomori prefecture and showing normal TSH levels and elevated FT4 levels. PMID:27081329
Osaki, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Katsumi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Fukazawa, Hiroshi
Familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia (FDH) is a familial autosomal dominant disease caused by mutation in the albumin gene that produces a condition of euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia. In patients with FDH, serum-free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations as measured by several commercial methods are often falsely increased with normal thyrotropin (TSH). Therefore, several diagnostic steps are needed to differentiate TSH-secreting tumor or generalized resistance to thyroid hormone from FDH. We herein report a case of a Japanese man born in Aomori prefecture, with FDH caused by a mutant albumin gene (R218P). We found that a large number of FDH patients reported in Japan to date might have been born in Aomori prefecture and have shown the R218P mutation. In conclusion, FDH needs to be considered among the differential diagnoses in Japanese patients born in Aomori prefecture and showing normal TSH levels and elevated FT4 levels. PMID:27081329
Asahata-Tago, Sayaka; Hirai, Yuji; Ainoda, Yusuke; Fujita, Takahiro; Muraosa, Yasunori; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Wakayama, Megumi; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Kikuchi, Ken
We report herein on the case of a 33-year-old Japanese man in whom an abnormal shadow was detected on chest radiography during a medical checkup after a 1-year-stay in Mexico. Chest computed tomography showed a nodule in the left lower lobe adjacent to the visceral pleura. Histopathologic examination of a thoracoscopic partial pulmonary resection specimen showed coagulation necrosis with a number of yeast-like forms on Grocott staining. In addition, serum anti-Histoplasma antibody positivity was detected with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Histoplasma-specific nested real-time polymerase chain reaction results were positive in the pulmonary region. Finally, pulmonary histoplasmosis was diagnosed, and treatment with itraconazole was initiated. The patient's wife who had accompanied him to Mexico was asymptomatic and was not found to have histoplasmosis based on diagnostic imaging and serological findings. Although rare in Japan, histoplasmosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary lesions in patients who have returned from travel to endemic areas. PMID:27032179
Barros, Silvia C; Ramos, Fernanda; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Alves, Maria J; Fagulha, Teresa; Duarte, Margarida; Henriques, Margarida; Luís, Tiago; Fevereiro, Miguel
West Nile virus (WNV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are important mosquito-borne viruses of the Flaviviridae family, associated with encephalitis, mainly in humans and horses. WNV is also pathogen for many bird species. The incidence of human and animal WNV infections in Europe has risen, mostly in recent years, and JEV was detected in 2011 in mosquitoes collected in Italy and may emerge in Europe in the same way as other flaviviruses had emerged recently (USUTU and Bagaza virus) and should be regarded as a potential threat to public health. Prompt identification and discrimination between WNV and JEV provides critical epidemiological data for prevalence studies and public and animal health management policies. Here we describe a quantitative one-step duplex TaqMan RT-PCR, targeting non-structural protein 2A gene (NS2A-qRT-PCR), based on only one primer pair and two probes for differential diagnosis of WNV and JEV. Also this assay enables the detection of both WNV lineages (WNV-1 and WNV-2). To access the specificity of NS2A-qRT-PCR a panel of different arboviruses were used. The assay was shown to be specific for both WNV lineages (WNV-1 and WNV-2), WNV related Kunjin virus and JEV, since no cross-reactions were observed with other tested arboviruses. Sensitivity of the assay was determined using serial dilutions of in vitro-transcribed RNA from WNV and JEV. The duplex NS2A-qRT-PCR assay was shown to be very sensitive, being able to detect 10 copies of WNV and JEV RNA. This assay is a suitable tool for the diagnosis of WNV and JEV, and provides a valuable addition to the methods currently available for routine diagnosis of these zoonoses and for surveillance studies. PMID:23892127
Huang, Jau-Ling; Lin, Hui-Tsu; Wang, Yu-Ming; Weng, Ming-Hui; Ji, Da-Der; Kuo, Ming-Der; Liu, Huan-Wun; Lin, Chang-Shen
A rapid, sensitive, and accurate laboratory diagnostic test is needed for distinguishing Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) from other diseases featuring similar clinical symptoms and also for preventing potential outbreaks. In this study, a TaqMan reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for rapid detection and quantification of the viral RNA of various JEV strains. A consensus JEV NS3 region was chosen to design the primers and the TaqMan probe. The JEV TaqMan assay used the EZ-rTtH RT-PCR system featuring advantages such as a one-step, high-temperature RT reaction modality and preventing carry-over contamination. The sensitivity of the JEV TaqMan assay for detecting in vitro-transcribed JEV NS3 RNA was estimated to be one to five copies of RNA per reaction. For cultured JE virions, less than 40 plaque forming unit (PFU)/ml of virus load (corresponding to 0.07 PFU/test) could be detected. In addition, the JEV TaqMan assay could detect all seven strains of JEV tested, but provided negative results for nine other flaviviruses and encephalitis viruses tested. The JEV TaqMan assay demonstrated greater sensitivity and specificity than traditional RT-PCR methods as has been previously reported. The application of the JEV TaqMan assay herein has been shown to the sensitive detection of the JEV from both mosquito pools and also JEV-spiking human blood. The assay should be of use in diagnostic laboratory conduct and could be used to replace or complement time-consuming viral-culture methods, thus achieving more rapid, sensitive, and highly specific identification of JEV infection. PMID:15484282
Schroeder, Nikhila; Palacios, Thamiris; Rosen, Lindsey B.; Martinez, Bianca; Browne, Sarah; Borish, Larry
As immunologists, we are frequently asked to evaluate patients with recurrent infections. These infections can provide us with clues regarding what pathways might be aberrant in a given patient, e.g., specific pyogenic bacteria with Toll-like receptor problems, atypical mycobacteria with interferon gamma receptor autoantibodies, and Candida/staphylococcal infections with cellular immune abnormalities. We present a 55-year-old man who presented to our immunology clinic with onychodystrophy of the toenails and fingernails and recurrent oral–esophageal candidiasis. The differential diagnosis for recurrent yeast infections is complex and includes usual suspects as well as some that are not as straightforward. PMID:25295810
Hayani, Omar; Higginson, Lyall A J; Toye, Baldwin; Burwash, Ian G
Infective endocarditis caused by zoonotic microorganisms is an uncommon clinical entity. A 55-year-old man was diagnosed with endocarditis due to Capnocytophaga canimorsus, a commensal bacterium contained in the saliva of dogs, that involved the aortic and tricuspid valves and was complicated by a para-aortic valve abscess and aorta-to-right atrial fistula. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention. C canimorsus endocarditis should be considered in patients with culture-negative endocarditis, particularly in immunosuppressed, asplenic or alcoholic individuals who have recently suffered a dog bite or have had close contact with dogs. PMID:19340358
Uchida, T; Kinoshita, T; Hirabayashi, N; Saito, H; Harano, K; Harano, T
We report the first case of Hemoglobin Pitié-Salpétrière (Hb P-S) identified among the Japanese population. The patient was a 33-year-old man referred to us because of severe erythrocytosis and mild hemolysis. DEAE high-performance liquid chromatography showed an abnormal broad peak around Hb A2 peak. Isoelectrofocusing detected abnormal Hb at the position of the Hb F band, and the content of abnormal Hb was estimated at about 25%. An instability test according to the isopropanol precipitation method was positive, and the beta/alpha ratio of biosynthesized globin was slightly reduced. Structural analyses demonstrated the substitution of phenylalanine for valine at beta 34, which was also confirmed by DNA sequencing; that is a single base substitution of GTC-->TTC at codon 34 of beta chain. From these findings, the abnormal Hb was identified as being a high-oxygen-affinity variant, Hb P-S (beta 34 [B16] Val-->Phe). Hb P-S was detected in the patient's mother but not in his father, suggesting that the inheritance pattern is autosomal dominant. It was suggested that the slightly unstable state of Hb P-S caused by the looseness of alpha 1 beta 1 contact could result in mild hemolysis. PMID:10846826
Armour, William S.
Addresses two issues within a general theory of cross-cultural adaption. One concerns the extent to which cross-cultural adaption is activated by the ability to make meaning in Japanese as a foreign language; the second investigated the phenomenon of identity slippage. Six life histories of informants who had learned Japanese after age 11 are used…
Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.
This supplementary textbook for students of Japanese presents a collection of 43 songs--folk songs, nursery songs, lullabies, love songs, wedding songs, graduation songs, the national anthem, drinking songs, school songs, and Christmas carols. With the exception of the carols, the musical scores are presented with their Japanese lyrics. The…
Goletto, Tiphaine; Crockett, Flora; Aractingi, Selim; Toper, Cecile; Senet, Patricia; Cadranel, Jacques; Naccache, Jean-Marc
Werner syndrome (WS) is a progeroid or premature aging syndrome characterized by early onset of age-related pathologies and cancer. The average life expectancy of affected people is 52.8 years and tends to increase. The major causes of death are malignancy and myocardial infarction. Increased telomere attrition and decay are thought to play a causative role in the clinical and pathological manifestations of the disease. Although telomere length, with or without germline mutation, is known to be associated with interstitial lung disease, the latter is not associated with WS. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case describing a WS patient with fatal ILD. This case suggests that older patients with WS could develop ILD. Clinical outcome of WS patients may thus be improved by counselling them regarding smoking cessation or other exposure and by proposing antifibrotic therapy. PMID:26788395
Shigeta, Jessie M.
Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Japanese culture. Some of the items and activities described include Japanese musical instruments and records, toys and crafts, traditional clothing and accessories, and food utensils. Several recipes for Japanese dishes are provided. Lists of pertinent…
Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.
Ogino, Ken; Oishi, Akio; Oishi, Maho; Gotoh, Norimoto; Morooka, Satoshi; Sugahara, Masako; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Miyata, Manabu; Yoshimura, Nagahisa
Purpose We evaluated the efficacy of column scatter plots to describe genotype–phenotype correlations in a Japanese cohort with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods Clinical records of 121 patients with RP with identified causative mutations were reviewed. Visual acuity, central and peripheral visual fields, electroretinography (ERG), lens status, and measurements of optical coherence tomography were evaluated according to causative genes using column scatter plots. Values for three common genes (EYS, USH2A, and RHO) were compared statistically. Results All patients with PDE6B, PRPH2, and RPGR mutations, those 55 years old or younger with RP1L1 and USH2A mutations, and those 45 years old or younger with EYS and RHO mutations retained visual acuity of at least 0.1. All patients with RPGR mutations showed at least −20 dB mean deviation. Goldmann perimeter measures of 4/6 patients with RHO mutations showed remaining peripheral visual fields. Dark-adapted 0.01 and 3.0 ERGs were extinguished for most genes. Half of the patients with RHO RP maintained cone responses in light-adapted 3.0 and 3.0 flicker ERG. All patients with PRPH2, those 55 years old or younger with USH2A and RP1L1, and those 45 years old or younger with PDE6B and EYS mutations maintained subfoveal ellipsoid zones. No differences were identified between EYS and USH2A or RHO and USH2A. Conclusions Column scatter plots enabled comparisons of the associated severities and illustration of the ophthalmological measurements for every RP causative gene. Translational Relevance Analysis of mutations in specific genes may be helpful for determining visual prognoses in the clinical setting. PMID:26966640
Typhoon Man-Yi was pummeling the Japanese island of Okinawa with winds between 230 and 295 kilometers per hour (125-160 knots, 144-184 miles per hour) and heavy rain on the morning of July 13, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image. The immense storm covered hundreds of kilometers with spiraling bands of thunderstorms, though it had lost the distinctive cloud-free eye it exhibited the day before. Typhoons are common in Japan, but powerful typhoons usually strike the island nation later in the year. The Japan Meteorological Agency said that Man-Yi is the fourth typhoon of the 2007 season and may be the most powerful ever observed in the northwest Pacific in July, reported Kyodo News. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expected the typhoon to strike Kyushu, a southern Japanese island, on July 14, and then curve northeast along the eastern shore of Japan. By the time the storm reaches Tokyo on July 15, it should be degraded to a tropical storm. As of July 13, Typhoon Man-Yi had injured eight and flooded twenty houses in Okinawa, and forced airlines to cancel hundreds of flights, said Kyodo News. The storm was expected to bring heavy rain to Japan's Pacific coast. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the MODIS Rapid Response team.
Mayfield, M. Kent
This study is both an interpretation and a translation of three modern Japanese plays, providing an artistic perspective on the radical reordering of experience and thought with which modern man must grapple in cross-cultural encounters. An introductory essay prefaces each play, providing a historical, critical, or appreciative perspective from…
3. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, March 14, 1935 VIEW IN DINING ROOM SHOWING JAPANESE CHINA CLOSET, S.W. - John Bullard House, Harrogate Springs Road vicinity, Wetumpka, Elmore County, AL
In the 1950s and 1960s, Wernher von Braun was famous as the man who led the West's journey into space. Some also remember him as the German engineer who developed the V-2 missile that bombarded Antwerp and London at the end of the Second World War. However, many still celebrate Von Braun, who died in 1977, as the man who put the astronauts on the Moon. While this is not strictly true, there is no doubt that Von Braun was one of the most influential engineers, lobbyists and personalities in the Moon-landing project.
Buck, James H.
From the sixth to the eighth century A.D., Japan was the recipient of massive cultural infusions from China. This acceptance of the Chinese pattern included, and to a great extent was based on, the acceptance of the Chinese language. The Chinese writing system was applied to Japanese because there was no other model to follow and in spite of the…
Hatasa, Kazumi; And Others
The Macintosh HyperCard environment has become a popular platform for Japanese language courseware because of its flexibility and ease of programing. This project created Japanese bitmap font files for the JIS Levels 1 and 2, and writing XFCNs for font manipulation, Japanese kana input, and answer correction. (12 references) (Author/LB)
Samuel George Morton (1799-1851) was the most highly regarded American scientist of the early and middle 19th century. Thanks largely to Stephen Jay Gould's book The Mismeasure of Man, Morton's cranial capacity measurements of different races is now held up as a prime example of and cautionary tale against scientific racism. A team of anthropologists recently reevaluated Morton's work and argued that it was Gould, not Morton, who was biased in his analysis. This article is a reexamination of the Morton and Gould controversy. It argues that most of Gould's arguments against Morton are sound. Although Gould made some errors and overstated his case in a number of places, he provided prima facia evidence, as yet unrefuted, that Morton did indeed mismeasure his skulls in ways that conformed to 19th century racial biases. Gould's critique of Morton ought to remain as an illustration of implicit bias in science. PMID:24761929
Morita, K; Nabeshima, T; Buerano, C C
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an inflammation of the central nervous system in humans and animals, specifically horses and cattle. The disease, which can sometimes be fatal, is caused by the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), of which there are five genotypes (genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). The transmission cycle of the virus involves pigs and wild birds as virus amplifiers and mosquitoes as vectors for transferring the virus between amplifying hosts and to dead- end hosts, i.e. humans, horses and cattle. In horses and cattle the disease is usually asymptomatic, but when clinical signs do occur they include fever, decreased appetite, frothing at the mouth, rigidity of the legs and recumbency, and neurological signs, such as convulsive fits, circling, marked depression and disordered consciousness. In pigs, it can cause abortion and stillbirths. At present, the virus is detected in a wide area covering eastern and southern Asia, Indonesia, northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Pakistan. JEV RNA has also been detected in Italy, first in dead birds in 1997 and 2000 and then in mosquitoes in 2010. Genotype shift, i.e. a change of genotype from genotype 3 to genotype 1, has occurred in some countries, namely Japan, South Korea, Chinese Taipei and Vietnam. Laboratory methods are available for confirming the causative agent of the disease. There are control measures to prevent or minimise infection and, among them, vaccination is one of the most important and one which should be adopted in endemic and epidemic areas. PMID:26601447
Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus. JEV is prevalent in much of Asia and the Western Pacific, with over 4 billion people living at risk of infection. In the absence of antiviral intervention, vaccination is the only strategy to develop long-term sustainable protection against JEV infection. Over the past half-century, a mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has been used internationally for active immunization. To date, however, JEV is still a clinically important, emerging, and re-emerging human pathogen of global significance. In recent years, production of the mouse brain-derived vaccine has been discontinued, but 3 new cell culture-derived vaccines are available in various parts of the world. Here we review current aspects of JEV biology, summarize the 4 types of JEV vaccine, and discuss the potential of an infectious JEV cDNA technology for future vaccine development. PMID:24161909
Provides a brief overview of the history of modern Japanese education, its early modernization, and the policy of intertwining the Japanese ideology with Western technology. Proposes the establishment of a new Buddhist-inspired philosophy of education. (GLR)
Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.
This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…
Noting that although many Western educators praise the Japanese educational system because of its students' academic achievements, schools in Japan have developed severe and prevalent problems with student bullying. This paper examines the problem of bullying in Japanese schools. Part 1 of the paper reviews bullying incidents in Japanese schools…
This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…
Tanaka, Sachiko Oda
Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)
In recent years, United States scholars with an interest in international business and organizational communication have begun to notice the success of Japanese "quality control circles." These are small groups, usually composed of seven to ten workers, who are organized at the production levels within most large Japanese factories. A typical…
There are three sets of Japanese containerless experiments. The first is Drop dynamics research. It consists of acoustic levitation and large amplitude drop oscillation. The second is Optical materials processing in an acoustic levitation furnace. And the third is Electrostatic levitator development by two different Japanese companies.
This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…
Stevenson, Harold W.
Discusses the development of Japanese elementary education in the context of three periods of its history. Considers salient characteristics of Japanese elementary schools and teaching procedures; these include curriculum; social and moral education; classroom environment; teachers; afterschool classes; college entrance examinations; the kyoiku…
Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Day, Richard R.
This article discusses how we incorporated an extensive reading (ER) program into a second semester Japanese course at the University of Hawai'i using Japanese children's literature. After summarizing the ten principles of ER, we describe how we addressed six critical issues faced while introducing ER into the course. We also discuss the outcomes…
In a speech presented before the American Association of School Administrators, Atlantic City, 1971, the author discusses fundamental needs of man and contends that the danger to man is not so much in the destruction of life as in the spoiling of its quality; quality can be gained through diversity. (BY)
Noble, W. C.
Provides information to update Institute of Biology's Studies in Biology No. 111, "Microorganisms and Man," by W. C. Noble and Jay Naidoo (Edward Arnold, 1979). Topics include: (1) food poisoning; (2) airborn infections in man; (3) infection in animals and plants; and (4) biodegradation and biosynthesis. (JN)
The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…
Chambers, D W
The Japanese do not work harder or even use different approaches so much as they aim for a different result--one that balances process and results and extends the definition of quality beyond the product itself to include cost and convenience to the customer as well. Ten methods of the Japanese kaizen culture of work are presented with applications and contrasts to American dentistry. PMID:9929991
Viewgraphs on manned systems technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: crew-systems interfaces and interactions; crew training; on-board systems maintenance and support; habitability and environment; and computational human factors.
Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of estrogens and androgens in
... of Page How long does the Japanese encephalitis vaccination last? The duration of protection is unknown. For ... What are the side effects of Japanese encephalitis vaccination? Pain and tenderness are the most commonly reported ...
Tucker, Frank H.
Japanese literature, television, movies, and school texts from 1935 to 1955 are analyzed for their influence and contribution to Japanese youths' pioneering spirit and frontiermindedness. "Asian Affairs" is published by the American-Asian Educational Exchange, New York. (DE)
Cultural competence in business Japanese requires more than superficial knowledge of business etiquette. One must truly understand why Japanese people think and act differently from their American counterparts. For example, instruction in the use of Japanese taxis must be accompanied by instruction in the concept and implications of seating order…
Hale, Joseph P.
Viewgraphs on man-systems integration and the man-machine interface are presented. Man-systems integration applies the systems' approach to the integration of the user and the machine to form an effective, symbiotic Man-Machine System (MMS). A MMS is a combination of one or more human beings and one or more physical components that are integrated through the common purpose of achieving some objective. The human operator interacts with the system through the Man-Machine Interface (MMI).
Amano, Hiroo; Nagai, Yayoi; Endo, Yukie; Iwasaki, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Osamu
We report here the case of a 55-year-old Japanese man with a one-year history of multiple ulcers on the left crural region. He had had pronounced varicose veins on both legs and the abdominal region for 35 years. Computed tomography images of the thoracic and abdominal regions showed the absence of an inferior vena cava, with pronounced dilatation of paravertebral venous plexus, cutaneous and azygous veins. Conservative topical treatments led to complete healing of the ulcers in one month. An absent inferior vena cava is an uncommon abnormality, often complicated by cardiac and other visceral malformations. It is a rare cause of chronic leg ulcers. PMID:19734977
The aptitude for symbolization, characteristic of man, is revealed not only in artistic representations and funerary practices. It is exhibited by every manifestation of human activity or representation of natural phenomena that assumes or refers to a meaning. We can recognize functional symbolism (tool-making, habitative or food technology), social symbolism, (language and social communication) and spiritual symbolism (funerary practices and artistic expressions). On the basis of these concepts, research into symbolism in prehistoric man allows us to recognize forms of symbolism already in the manifestations of the most ancient humans, starting with Homo habilis (or rudolfensis). Toolmaking, social organization and organization of the territory are oriented toward survival and the life of the family group. They attest to symbolic behaviors and constitute symbolic systems by means of which man expresses himself, lives and transmits his symbolic world. The diverse forms of symbolism are discussed with reference to the different phases of prehistoric humanity. PMID:11216422
Akiyama, Nobuo; Flamm, Carol S.
The "Nucleus Course in Japanese," based on the Institute of Modern Languages'"Situational Reinforcement" approach, is designed for 80 to 100 hours of instruction. Each lesson has several sections--Response drills, Appropriate Response Sequence, and Reading. Most of the lessons also include optional sections with Sentences for Repetition or a…
The purpose of this dissertation is to reconsider reflexives in Japanese through the following three steps: (a) separation of genuine reflexive elements from elements that are confounded as reflexives, (b) classification of reflexive anaphors into subtypes based on their semantic difference, and (c) classification of predicates that occur with…
A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as…
Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire
Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…
Rubin, Michael; Funato, Makiko
This set of materials for Japanese second language instruction was designed for students who can be taught most effectively through a functional, conversational approach. It is intended as a supplement to the regular course of study so that all students, regardless of ability level, can be provided with an effective instructional program. It…
For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.
"Eskimo Medicine Man" is a record of primitive Alaskan life in the 1930's. It records the experiences in Alaska's remote areas of Dr. Otto George, the last "traveling physician" for the Department of Interior's Indian Service, when in all the territory (an area one-fifth that of the contiguous United States) there were fewer than sixty thousand…
Solem, Alan; And Others
Written in 1964, the document represents experimental material of the Anthropology Curriculum Study Project. The objectives of the project were to discuss the evolution of man as distinguished from the evolution of other species and as related to culture, and to emphasize human diversity. Three brief essays are presented. The first, "The Species…
Biology and Human Affairs, 1971
Reviews four texts and compilations of papers in an effort to assess the relevance of animal behavior studies to anthropology and sociology. Concludes that where a basic element of behavior occurs widely throughout the animal kingdom, especially in the higher mammals and primates, we may expect to find a manifestation in man." Limitations of the…
In 1942 a grievously wounded soldier was forsaken in the "No Mans's Land" for five days. However he totally recovered as his wound had been overrun of maggots. Thus H. Fruchaud decided to apply using of maggots for all infected wounds. PMID:15211995
The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.
Various theories about the purpose of myth are described briefly, and then the place of myth in modern life is explored. Modern man is found to still create his own myths, and his life is still influenced by mythical prototypes and images. Myths, mythical beliefs, and mythical thinking are discovered in socialist, Communist, and totalitarian…
Taxis, Linda A., Ed.
The 32nd annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Louisville in 1970. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "Industrial Arts--The Blender Between Social Form and Technical Function," (2) "Technology and Society: Present and Future Challenges," (3) "A Student-Oriented Industrial Arts," (4) "Man:…
Waters, W. G., II
Analyzes the urban transport problems in comparison with those involved in a journey to the Moon. Indicates that the problem of enabling man to travel through the inner space of conurbations may prove to be more difficult than the transport problem of space travel. (CC)
This NASA Educational Publication was prepared from a transcript of a panel discussion held on July 2, 1976, in conjunction with the Viking Missions to Mars. The members of the Why Man Explores panel were selected as authorities in classical disciplines relating to exploration.
A development history is presented for Japanese astronomy from the 6th century to the present day, together with a status report and account of future plans. About 500 professionals currently belong to the Astronomical Society of Japan. Tokyo's Mitaka Observatory employs a staff of about 70 astronomers; most modern astronomical instruments, however, have been installed at sites outside the Tokyo area. The limitations of present instruments are notably severe for astronomers working in the visible and IR wavelengths.
Terrapin Technologies proposes a Manned Mars Mission design study. The purpose of the Manned Mars Mission is to transport ten people and a habitat with all required support systems and supplies from low Earth orbit (LEO) to the surface of Mars and, after an expedition of three months to return the personnel safely to LEO. The proposed hardware design is based on systems and components of demonstrated high capability and reliability. The mission design builds on past mission experience but incorporates innovative design approaches to achieve mission priorities. These priorities, in decreasing order of importance, are safety, reliability, minimum personnel transfer time, minimum weight, and minimum cost. The design demonstrates the feasibility and flexibility of a waverider transfer module. Information is given on how the plan meets the mission requirements.
Rosheim, Mark E.
This paper describes a design for a man-amplifying exoskeleton, an electrically powered, articulated frame worn by an operator. The design features modular construction and employ anthropomorphic pitch-yaw joints for arms and legs. These singularity-free designs offer a significant advancement over simple pivot-type joints used in older designs. Twenty-six degrees-of-freedom excluding the hands gives the Man-Amplifier its unique dexterity. A five hundred-pound load capacity is engineered for a diverse range of tasks. Potential applications in emergency rescue work, restoring functionality to the handicapped, and military applications ranging from material handling to an elite fighting core are discussed. A bibliography concludes this paper.
Kiefer, Christie W.
This ethnographic study of the Japanese American community in San Francisco is stated to be aimed at showing how the cross cultural study of personality changes throughout the life style can enrich the understanding of man. Chapters describe collective life in Japan Town against the background of its history; inspect respondents' perceptions of…
The uniquely intense stress due to the Examination Hell (shiken jigoku) not only generates a basic drive for Japan's economic success but also contributes to a high rate of young people's suicide. This paper discusses the major factors in the intensity of Japanese stress on both institutional and psychological levels. The social structural factors which convert stress to suicide are analyzed in terms of weak ego; restraint on aggression; a lack of social resources; and views of life, death and suicide. Japanese views of life, death and suicide are treated in terms of Absolute phenomenalism, the original form of Shintoism, to which Buddhism and Confucianism have been adjusted in Japan. Japanese phenomenalism affects suicide through its three aspects: animism, present-time oriented small groupism, and the absolute acceptance of the established social order. Confusion and conflict since World War II have increased anomic suicides; however, elements of fatalistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to strong social integration) are evident. Suicide is still a highly institutionalized adjustment mechanism in Japan. PMID:7233479
West, J. B.
The Challenger disaster focused attention on the hazards as well as the possibilities of man in space. The physiological effects of prolonged weightlessness include important changes in vestibular, bone, muscle, cardiovascular, blood, renal, and pulmonary function. Much has been learned from US and Soviet experiments, but large areas of ignorance remain. Exceptional opportunities for physiological research are provided by Spacelab, a pressurized laboratory planned as a payload of the Space Shuttle.
West, J B
The Challenger disaster focused attention on the hazards as well as the possibilities of man in space. The physiological effects of prolonged weightlessness include important changes in vestibular, bone, muscle, cardiovascular, blood, renal, and pulmonary function. Much has been learned from US and Soviet experiments, but large areas of ignorance remain. Exceptional opportunities for physiological research are provided by Spacelab, a pressurized laboratory planned as a payload of the Space Shuttle. PMID:11539062
Freitag, R. F.
Studies evaluating potential operational and commercial uses of space are being conducted, taking into account astronomy, astrophysics, manned bases and laboratories in earth orbit, space colonization, terrestrial communications, space processing and manufacturing, interstellar probes, planetary exploration, and the use of space for terrestrial energy supply. The present status in the exploration of the solar system is examined, giving attention to Jupiter, Venus, Mars, and Mercury. A brief outline of the development of human colonies on Mars is presented.
Nagata, Katsumi; Uchiyama, Kenji; Unneberg, H.
This paper describes the first research Man Machine simulator in the nuclear field in Japan. The simulator was developed during 1993-1995. Since late 1995 the simulator is used for both Man Machine research and research of operator training. The simulator is installed at TEPCO Nuclear Power R&D Center in Yokohama. Man Machine studies by the Japanese BWR group have been performed on training simulators in Japan since 1984. Training simulators have certain limitations, it is difficult to reconfigure panel instrumentation, therefore TEPCO decided during 1992 to develop a special purpose simulator. The developed simulator was a collaborative effort between TEPCO, TEC and EuroSim AB. The Man Machine simulator models an 1100 MWe nuclear power plant in TEPCO. The Man Machine interface consists of emulated soft panels (CRT based) of real plant panels. The soft panel displays can also produce non-replica images such as process diagrams, logic diagrams and core images such as process diagrams, logic diagrams and core images that are not accessible in the actual plant or a traditional full scope replica simulator. The panel hardware is fully flexible, thus allowing changes to CRT height, position and viewing arrangements.
Bracey, Gerald W.
A Japanese editorial in an English-language daily harshly criticized Japanese education's failure to enhance students' spirit of independence; develop critical and artistic thinking skills; and promote social awareness and an international viewpoint. The United States finished fourth out of 60 in the (unpublicized) International Math Olympiad.…
Siefert, Janet L.
The resiliency and adaptive ability of microbial life in real time on Earth relies heavily upon horizontal gene transfer. Based on that knowledge, how likely is earth based microbial life to colonize extraterrestrial targets such as Mars? To address this question, we consider manned and unmanned space exploration, the resident microbiota that is likely to inhabit those vehicles, the adaptive potential of that microbiota in an extraterrestrial setting especially with regards to mobile genetic elements, and the likelihood that Mars like environments could initiate and sustain colonization. PMID:23481263
Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community," explores the…
Backhouse, A. E.
This guide provides an overview of the salient features of the Japanese language from the perspective of the beginning-level English-speaking learner. Chapters address these topics: the Japanese language and its historic and cultural setting; phonology (sounds and syllables, word accentuation; loanwords; connected speech); writing (scripts,…
Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.
These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…
BAILEY, DON C.
THIS GLOSSARY COMPRISES A LIST OF USEFUL NEW WORDS AND PHRASES IN CURRENT USE NOT FOUND IN JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARIES, SPECIFICALLY KENKYUSHA'S NEW JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY, 1954 EDITION, WHICH HAS SERVED AS THE MODEL IN MOST RESPECTS FOR THE FORMAT AND STYLE. ROMANIZATION OF THE ORTHOGRAPHY FOLLOWS A MODIFIED HEPBURN SYSTEM AND THE JAPANESE…
Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Kent W.; Akutsu, Motoko
The authors review an article (J. Yamamoto & F. Tagami, 2004) published in the "Japanese Journal of Counseling Science" that described changes in contemporary Japanese family structures and illustrated a therapy process with a father to enhance the father-son relationship. Implications for the counseling profession in working with men on…
Perez-Davis, M.E.; Faymon, K.A.
A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighing from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.
Pedrini, D. T.; Gregory, Lura N.
The many problems presented by the nature of man and in studying man are the focus of this paper which attempts to place these problems in perspective in terms of the past and future. The enigma facing man, that man must study man, is related in an introduction. Freud's, Adler's, and Jung's developments in the study of the nature of man are…
Sigelman, Carol K.
In an examination guided by cognitive developmental and attribution theory of how explanations of wealth and poverty and perceptions of rich and poor people change with age and are interrelated, 6-, 10-, and 14-year-olds (N = 88) were asked for their causal attributions and trait judgments concerning a rich man and a poor man. First graders, like…
Tiroumourougane, S; Raghava, P; Srinivasan, S
One of the leading causes of acute encephalopathy in children in the tropics is Japanese encephalitis (JE). Transmitted by the culex mosquito, this neurotropic virus predominately affects the thalamus, anterior horns of the spinal cord, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. It mainly affects children <15 years and is mostly asymptomatic. The occasional symptomatic child typically presents with a neurological syndrome characterised by altered sensorium, seizures, and features of intracranial hypertension. Aetiological diagnosis is based on virus isolation or demonstration of virus specific antigen or antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid/blood. Though no antiviral drug is available against JE, effective supportive management can improve the outcome. Control of JE involves efficient vector control and appropriate use of vaccines. PMID:11930023
The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is removed from its shipping crate and moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named 'Kibo' (Hope) to arrive at KSC. Japan's primary contribution to the International Space Station, the module will enhance unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts will conduct experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility or platform for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.
McArthur, Monica A.; Holbrook, Michael R.
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a significant human health concern in Asia, Indonesia and parts of Australia with more than 3 billion people potentially at risk of infection with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the causative agent of JE. Given the risk to human health and the theoretical potential for JEV use as a bioweapon, the development of safe and effective vaccines to prevent JEV infection is vital for preserving human health. The development of vaccines for JE began in the 1940s with formalin-inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccines. These vaccines have been shown to induce a protective immune response and to be very effective. Mouse brain-derived vaccines were still in use until May 2011 when the last lots of the BIKEN® JE-VAX® expired. Development of modern JE vaccines utilizes cell culture-derived viruses and improvements in manufacturing processes as well as removal of potential allergens or toxins have significantly improved vaccine safety. China has developed a live-attenuated vaccine that has proven to induce protective immunity following a single inoculation. In addition, a chimeric vaccine virus incorporating the prM and E structural proteins derived from the live-attenuated JE vaccine into the live-attenuated yellow fever 17D vaccine virus backbone is currently in clinical trials. In this article, we provide a summary of JE vaccine development and on-going clinical trials. We also discuss the potential risk of JEV as a bioweapon with a focus on virus sustainability if used as a weapon. PMID:23125946
Molino, A B; Garcia, E A; Santos, G C; Vieira Filho, J A; Baldo, G A A; Almeida Paz, I C L
To adapt commercial poultry production to a new scenario of energy savings and to develop specific practices for quail production aimed at reducing costs while maintaining or improving productivity, four experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, birds were allocated to four treatments (photoperiod duration): T1: 14 L:10 D; T2: 15 L:9 D; T3: 16 L:8 D; and T4: 17 L:7 D. In the second experiment, birds were subjected to four levels of brightness: T1: 5 lux; T2: 10 lux; T3:15 lux; and T4: 22 lux (control). In the third experiment, four types of lamps were evaluated: T1: compact fluorescent lamp (color temperature: 6,500 K); T2: compact fluorescent lamp (color temperature: 2,700 K); T3: incandescent lamp; and T4: yellow LED. In the last experiment, four lighting programs were compared: T1: continuous program (control), in which there was a single photoperiod of 15 h; the other treatments consisted of intermittent lighting programs, as follows: T2: 1 h of light provided 1 h after dusk; T3: 1 h of light provided 2 h before dawn; T4: half an hour of light provided 1 h after dusk and half an hour of light provided 1.5 h before dawn. In each experiment, 1,296 Japanese quail were evaluated for four 28-d cycles, totaling 112 experimental days. A completely randomized experimental design of 4 treatments with 12 replicates of 27 birds each was applied in all trials. Performance and egg quality were evaluated in each experiment. Higher egg production and adequate egg quality, as well as energy savings, can be obtained with Japanese quail using compact fluorescent lamps or LEDs and a photoperiod of 15 h/d supplied using an intermittent lighting program, with 1 h of artificial light 2 h before dawn at a brightness of 5 lux. PMID:25589080
Pskovskiy, Y. P.
Observations made by ancient man are of great interest to present day astronomers. Drawings made by neolithic man in caves show a surprising sense of perspective. The discoveries in the Fern Grotto in California are of special interest. Photographs of cave drawings are included.
Sall, Malkit S.
This review of the research literature on the interaction between humans and computers discusses how man machine systems can be utilized effectively in the learning-teaching process, especially in secondary education. Beginning with a definition of man machine systems and comments on the poor quality of much of the computer-based learning material…
The purpose of this study is to clarify Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages based on the kinds and changes of TV and radio programs that aired on the Japanese national broadcasting station (NHK) between 1955 and 2000. Foreign language programs are classified into three groups according to their content: 1) cultivation, 2) education, or 3) communication. For Japanese people, foreign languages are the measures of intelligence and intellect. Studying a foreign language is considered a sign of intelligence whether or not it is used for actual communication. The number of foreign language programs has increased tremendously since 1965 in part because the global economy has brought many countries in such close contact. Since 1990, programs for the purpose of communication have increased because of the necessity to communicate with foreign people. Japanese attitudes towards studying foreign languages have been changing gradually from an intellectual purpose to a communication purpose. PMID:15156734
Harker, Laurence A.; Finch, Clement A.
Platelet production, distribution, and destruction have been quantitated in normal man and in selected patients with platelet disorders. In most instances, total production as calculated from the megakaryocyte mass agreed with production estimated from platelet turnover. In patients with megaloblastosis, a discrepancy between these two measurements indicated the presence of ineffective thrombopoiesis. Thrombopoiesis was regulated by (a) alterations in megakaryocyte number, and (b) changes in megakaryocyte volume (produced by changes in endomitosis). The volume-endomitosis changes were closely related to the peripheral platelet count and were a useful indicator of thrombopoietic stimulus. Thrombocytopenic disorders have been classified on the basis of the disturbed physiology into disorders of (a) production (hypoproliferative or ineffective), (b) distribution (splenic pooling), or (c) destruction (immune or consumptive). Less than a twofold increase in platelet production in the presence of significant thrombocytopenia was taken to represent impaired proliferation. Thrombocytosis was classified as reactive or autonomous. Reactive thrombocytosis was consistently associated with a mean megakaryocyte volume and endomitosis less than normal but appropriate for the elevated circulating platelet count. In contrast, the average megakaryocyte volume and nuclear number were always greater than normal in thrombocythemia findings indicating autonomy. Images PMID:5814231
Light in the form of solar radiation influenced early civilisations and resulted in the independent development of a number of sun-worshipping dieties. These were of particular importance as hunter gatherers transformed into settled agricultural societies. All artificial light sources were synonymous with fire, and early civilisations began to expand their visual day by burning brands, oil, and candles. Fire-based light sources extended for thousands of years and were still present in the era of gas lighting. Light meant fire risk. The advent of incandescent bulbs and the era of electric lighting really only expanded in the early part of the twentieth century. Fluorescent lighting became available in the 1940s, and today the drive for low energy has resulted in a plethora of novel light sources-in particular, light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Evolution governed the development of the eye in relation to roughly 12 h of light gradually changing to 12 h of darkness. Today almost daylight levels can be achieved abruptly at the flick of a switch. Many studies have demonstrated the spectral dependence of eye health, with the retinal hazard zone associated with wavelengths in the blue, peaking at 441 nm- many of today's low-energy sources peak in this region. Given the increased longevity and artificial light sources emitting at biologically unfriendly wavelengths, attention has to be directed towards light in man's environment as a risk factor in age-related ocular diseases. PMID:26742864
Barratt, Gillian; Puisieux, Francis
Madison (United States), December 7th 1941. It is early in the morning. Takeru Higuchi is listening to the radio when the programme is suddenly interrupted: part of the American naval fleet has just been destroyed in an air-raid on Pearl Harbour. For the United States, their involvement in the World War is now inevitable. For Takeru Higuchi, the son of Japanese immigrants, this was the beginning of an inner struggle. As a student of Physical Chemistry at the University of Wisconsin, he had received a fellowship from the American government; the war between the two countries pulled him in opposing directions. His austere childhood had left him with an extremely determined character and Takeru Higuchi chose to overcome his suffering by a personal dichotomy: he gave his heart to Japan but put his trust in the United States and devoted his energy to the service of science. This choice made him a man and a scientist of exceptional qualities, producing scientific work astonishing by its originality and quantity, making a major contribution to the pharmaceutical profession, particularly in the field of research. PMID:21640808
The Japanese scientific ballooning program has been organized by ISAS since the institute was founded in mid 1960s. Since then, the balloon group of ISAS has been engaged in the development of the balloon technologies and scientific observations in collaboration with scientists and engineers in other universities and organizations. Here, I describe several subjects of recent activities, the details of some items will also be reported in the separate papers in this meeting.Preparation of a new mobile receiving station.
Leclerc, A; Lapébie, F-X; Thuillier, F; Lacroix, P
Calcifications are rarely located within the inferior vena cava and the renal veins. The etiology is poorly understood and the prognosis is uncertain. We report a case in a 55-year-old man. PMID:27344300
Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul
Cholesterol granuloma is rare in the paranasal sinuses. We present what is to our knowledge the first case of cholesterol granuloma of a Haller cell associated with unilateral exophthalmos and diplopia in a 55-year-old man. PMID:26719083
Johnson, V.M.; Rogers, L.L.
Poor man`s parallelism is a term to describe the harnessing of commonly available computational approaches containing a high degree of implicit or explicit parallelism with distributed computer resources to produce a large gain in processing time. The distinguishing features of poor man`s techniques are their accessibility and relatively low cost. In some circumstances, the clever exploitation of existing hardware and software may achieve as much improvement in the timely completion of tasks as do high-end, state-of-the-art parallel technologies. The ANN-GA approach to the optimization of environmental remediation strategies is an example of poor man`s parallelism: it integrates two well-known computational technologies, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and the genetic algorithm (GA), with a simple scheme for exploiting a network of Unix workstations to solve a nonlinear combinatorial optimization problem. Although this work has been motivated by the need to tame a computational tiger rather than to experiment with different flavors of parallelism, the approach has reached a level of maturity where it is instructive to examine how parallelism is embodied in its various components. It also stands as a demonstration of how even resource-lean organizations can take advantage of parallelism to solve problems.
Fujita Tsuguakira was a man who established Jahyeuiwon, a governmental medical facility, during the Residency-General Period and took over the presidency of a committee in the Japanese Government-General of Chosun after Chosun was annexed to Japanese. In addition, he is a man well qualified to be placed on the top of the list when discussing the Japanese colonial medicine in Chosun, considering his personal history of getting evolved in the colonial rule of Taiwan for seven years as an army surgeon. He led the colonial medicine in Chosun for nine years before and after the Japanese annexation of Korea. He was engaged in almost all the areas related to the colonial medicine such as anti-cholera projects, Hansung Sanitation Union, Deahan Hospital, Chosun Chongdokbu Hospital, Jahyeuiwon, medical schools affiliated to the Japanese Government-General of Chosun. In all respects, his life was in sync with the expansionist strategies of Imperial Japan. Especially, his deeds in Chosun was an "active aid to the instructions" from Army Minister Terauchi Masatake " as Sato Kozo testifies. Fujita was chosen by the military, and so he faithfully served the role given from it. The rewards that he received form the military attest to this fact. He took the position of Surgeon General in Army Medical Service on September, 1912, the top place that an army surgeon could hold. The position was first given to the officer who worked outside Japan proper, and he was the only army surgeon with no doctorial degree to receive such title except for Ishiguro Tadanori who was the first army surgeon in Japan. To sum up, Fujita was not a "doctor" but a "military officer". His walk of life mainly lay in the role of an aider adjusted to the ups and downs and the speeds of the plans of Imperial Japan to invade the continent. Therefore, the Japanese colonial medicine controlled by such man as Fujita in Chosun was inevitably studded with the military things. As a chief in the army medicine, what was
Hamaker, Joseph; Smith, Keith
The potential costs of several options of a manned Mars mission are examined. A cost estimating methodology based primarily on existing Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) parametric cost models is summarized. These models include the MSFC Space Station Cost Model and the MSFC Launch Vehicle Cost Model as well as other modes and techniques. The ground rules and assumptions of the cost estimating methodology are discussed and cost estimates presented for six potential mission options which were studied. The estimated manned Mars mission costs are compared to the cost of the somewhat analogous Apollo Program cost after normalizing the Apollo cost to the environment and ground rules of the manned Mars missions. It is concluded that a manned Mars mission, as currently defined, could be accomplished for under $30 billion in 1985 dollars excluding launch vehicle development and mission operations.
McKean, Kevin; Brownlee, Shannon
Discusses evidence suggesting that man only recently diverged from the apes. The evidence, still disputed by some scientists, has caused many others to revise their thinking as to when and how the human line originated. (JN)
Berry, C. A.
Review of experience obtained from space flight to evaluate man's physiological capability to function in space. Results of the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs are presented, with emphasis on the latter. The space medicine requirements which were necessary for assuring man's safe journey into and return from space have resulted in hardware and techniques of great value to terrestrial medicine. The need to monitor the physiologic function of crewmen led to the development of miniaturized, nonirritating, and highly reliable sensors.
Padam, Gurpreet Kaur
"Do you know why a hanging man dances?" asked Mr B. He was once an intensely independent man, now 80 years old and afflicted with end-stage lung disease. He appeared tired, repositioning himself with great effort to sitting at the edge of the bed, tightly holding onto the bed sheets as if clenching to a life that was slowly escaping him. "No. I don't want anything that will make me live longer." PMID:26176577
Ichihara, Yasuyo G.
In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.
A unique campaign launched by JOICFP in August 1993 had by the end of June 1994 netted US $41,200 to support activities of the integrated Project (IP) in developing countries. Under the campaign, the public, institutions, organizations, and businesses have been sending in used prepaid cards for sale to collectors in Japan and abroad. Prepaid cards are widely used throughout Japan for phones, subways, railways and highways. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) alone issues 20 million cards annually. The campaign, which has been widely featured in the media, has proved effective for drawing attention to JOICFP and to population and family planning issues. Gaining the understanding of the Japanese public about population issues has grown in importance since the government's announcement of the new Global Issues Initiative (GII). Word about the campaign was carried by radio, television, newspapers, and magazines nationwide. The number of cards sent in escalated with the attention. By the end of June, JOICFP had received around 700,000 cards, of which 550,000 have been exchanged for cash. The funds generated by the card sales have been allocated to support grassroots IP activities and encourage the self-reliance of projects in China, Ghana, Guatemala, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia. Responses to the campaign have come from individuals as well as local governments, hospitals, enterprises, and educational institutions. Many of these have initiated their own card-collection system and information-dissemination activities to support JOICFP. Over 5000 different organizations are now collaborating with JOICFP for the campaign, including Tenmaya Department Store in Okayama City. PMID:12288124
Development of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned Mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into 2 categories, Environmental Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Japanese research activities were conducted and will be continued accordingly.
Many research activities regarding Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) have been conducted and continued all over the world since the 1960's and the concept of CELSS is now changing from Science Fiction to Scientific Reality. Development of CELSS technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into two categories, Environment Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Based on these considerations, Japanese research activities have been conducted and will be continued under the tentative guideline of CELSS research activities as shown in documents /1/,/2/. The status of the over all activities are discussed in this paper.
Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin
Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…
Ito, Kikuyo; Strange, Winifred
Perception of stop aspiration and glottal stop allophonic cues for word juncture in English by Japanese second language (L2) learners of English was examined, extending a study of Spanish L2 learners [Altenberg, E. P. (2005). Second Lang. Res. 21, 325–358]. Thirty Japanese listeners ranging in length of residence (LOR) in the United States (2 weeks–12 years) were tested on 42 contrasting pairs (e.g., aspiration: keeps talking vs keep stalking, glottal stop: a nice man vs an ice man, and double cues: grape in vs grey pin). Phrases were presented in randomly ordered lists and subjects responded in a two-choice identification task followed by a phrase familiarity test. The Japanese listeners performed more poorly than an American English-speaking control group (N=10), especially on aspiration pairs. Aspiration pairs were differentiated significantly less well (73% correct) by Japanese listeners than were glottal stop pairs (91% correct) and double cue pairs (94% correct); response biases predicted from relative familiarity of phrases were evident only for aspiration pairs. Performance correlated with LOR and suggested that aspiration cues take more immersion experience to learn than glottal stop cues. The patterns of errors were similar, but not identical, to Altenberg’s Spanish data. PMID:19354409
Fujikura, Katsunori; Lindsay, Dhugal; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Nishida, Shuhei; Shirayama, Yoshihisa
To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness), the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans. PMID:20689840
Takeda, Kunihiko; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki
JABEE in Japanese engineering education is discussed by focusing on the status and treatment of engineers in Japanese society and their achievements. The entrance fee and tuition of the engineering departments of higher education facilities are higher than those of the law, economy and literature departments. On the other hand, an engineer's lifelong wage is smaller than that of those who have graduated from the latter fields. Although engineering students must study for a longer period of time, the scholarship system to support these students in Japan falls far behind that in the U.S.A. The achievements of Japanese engineering were summarized from the viewpoint of economic indications such as 1) production of steel, 2) energy consumption per person as a function of GDP, 3) income 4) real estate abroad and miscellaneous factors such as the life spans and criminal rates of many countries. These analyses made it clear that Japanese engineers have the highest ability even compared to advanced countries and this is because of the higher engineering education in Japan ; but their status is unreasonably low in Japanese society. The four points by which the present status of Japanese engineers can be improved were discussed in relation to the introduction and the achievement of the JABEE system. The true aim of education reform by JABEE is that the engineering education in Japan should shift “from government to non-government”, “from organization to individual” and “from control to interdependency.” The expected points of improvement are discussed.
Japanese nursery school and kindergarten activities are designed to facilitate the socialization of Japanese children. The culture of the home and the culture of the school (and by extension the rest of Japanese society) are so different from each other that it is believed the open and unselfconscious help of the education system is necessary to…
Yoshiwara, Florence M.
An historical review of the immigration and resettlement patterns, and a demographic profile of Japanese Americans reveals a myth of the "successful minority." Since the founding of the Japanese American Citizens League in 1928, Japanese Americans have defeated alien land laws, discriminatory immigration quotas, anti-miscengenation laws, and…
Backus, Robert L.
This paper seeks to formulate a principle that explains the working of the Japanese number system with respect to Japanese nouns and that defines the kinds of nouns and contexts that condition the forms of number expressions. It is the author's theory that in applying numbers to nouns, the Japanese make a formal distinction between things they…
Describes a method of teaching Japanese literature to Japanese native speakers by comparing English translations to the original texts. Discusses criteria for choosing a text and lists some of the texts used and the method in which they were used. This method gave students a deeper understanding of the original Japanese text. (SED)
Silva, David J., Ed.
A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese Political Debate: Syntax,…
Both the beauty and the utility of the Japanese sword as a weapon depend on the characteristic metallic component structure of the sword blade steel. After briefly describing the characteristics of the sword blade and the history of the Japanese sword, this paper describes the forging process for making the composite structure of the sword blade steel, according to the author's experiences. Finally, andent ironmaking and steelmaking processes are briefly explained. The author concludes that the high purity of the iron and steel obtained to the beauty and artistry of the finished sword blade.
Education in the United States was in a state of "crisis" at the time of the 1983 release of "A Nation at Risk," the landmark report on the US education reform. This was the time when the rising Japanese economy started threatening the post-war US economic dominance and conservative figures such as Ronald Reagan gained popular support. Subsequent…
The Japanese National Survey on Family Planning has been conducted since 1950 by the Mainichi Newspapers. The 21st survey, which included approximately 3400 persons, was conducted in 1992 in conjunction with various family planning organizations. The results reported include the ideal number of children, care for the elderly, tolerance for induced abortion, beliefs about the side effects of oral contraceptives, attitudes of husbands toward their wives working outside the home, sexual harassment, and elderly husband's concern about contracting AIDS. 45% of respondents supported Japan's involvement in FP efforts in developing countries, and 20.9% disapproved of involvement. Fertility declined from 1.54 in 1990 to 1.53 in 1991. There was an 5% increase to 75.3% in the number of women concerned about declining fertility for such reasons as the loss of social vitality and the increased burden of support in old age. However, 60.9% of wives and 56.8% of husbands felt that the government should not take action to prevent further fertility decline. Public policies for reducing the cost of education were supported by 39.6% of wives and 43.6% of husbands. A similar number supported increases in child allowance, and a smaller percentage of husbands and wives wanted the government to subsidize housing expenses. The ideal number of children was 3 for 45.7% of those surveyed, which was more than those desiring 2 children. The ideal of 3 children was held by survey participants who were more than 35 years old and by those with a high education. Part-time workers and office clerks were more likely to report that 2 children were ideal. An increasing number of respondents (60.4%) do not intend to rely on their children in old age. There has been a shift in family planning methods from induced abortions to increased contraceptive use. The highest rate of contraceptive use is among wives 35-39 years old. 75.3% use condoms. 67.7% reported concern about side effects from oral
Framingham Public Schools, MA.
GRADE OR AGES: Junior high school. SUBJECT MATTER: The black man in American society. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: There are four major parts each with an overview. The four parts concern a) the African heritage of the black man, b) the American exploitation of the black man, c) the black man's contribution to American society, d) the…
Miksch, Karen L.; Ghere, David
Few events in American history are so universally deplored as the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. The United States government has acknowledged the error and the injustice that resulted with an official Presidential apology and a Congressional disbursement of reparations to the victims of the incarceration policy. The…
Discussion of whether the Japanese copula can adequately be described as a dummy, i.e., as an element which although existing in the surface structure can be dispensed with in the deep structure of a sentence; based on a paper read at the 1970 meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea, Prague, Czechoslovakia. (RS)
McAbee, Michael K.
In response to tightening emission standards imposed by the government, Japanese industry will increase its capital spending on pollution control equipment to account for about 20 percent of all industrial capital spending. Preferential treatment and loans from government-affiliated financial institutions are available for projects. (Author/MLH)
Research is reviewed on systematic differences in expository styles due to cultural or linguistic diversity. The critique concentrates on the method of data gathering, the usage of the categorization "Oriental," and the description of English paragraph development. An investigation is reported that consisted of an analysis of the Japanese and…
Wanko, Jeffrey J.
An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…
Describes the Japanese program at Mimosa Elementary School in Roswell, Georgia. The success of the program has been aided by collaborative team teaching, a spiraled curriculum, creative teaching methods, Teacher -made materials, and communication among teachers, parents, and administrators. he challenges are also discussed. (Author/VWL)
Develops an argument for a pied-piping approach to the apparent absence of island effects in Japanese, along the lines of Nishigauchi (1986, 1990). Investigates the nature of pied-piping, developing a theory that accounts for the fact that wh-islands cannot be pied-piped. (Author/VWL)
Haiqi, Zhang; Yamazaki, Shigeaki
Evaluates Japanese journals--128 indexed in the 1994 "Journal Citation Reports"--in bibliometric parameters such as impact factors (IFs), mean IFs from citing and cited journals, and self-citing and self-cited rates. Results: only 15 journals, with a wide variation of self-citing and self-cited rates, have obtained a current impact higher than…
Taylor, Satomi Izumi; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Wilson, Jeanne
Interviews were conducted with 28 kindergartners, their teachers, and their director to examine Japanese children's moral development. Qualitative analysis of interviews revealed three themes related to moral development: social system morality, emotions, and responsibility. Children made moral decisions based on social system morality…
Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.
This volume has been prepared as a reference book on particles, verbs, and "true" adjectives, as presented in the Defense Language Institute's Basic Course in Japanese. Forty-six particles are listed, with varying numbers of different usages explained and illustrated by examples. (AMM)
The nature of scrambling in Japanese is examined in light of the work of Webelhuth and Mahajan, and it is argued that their apparently inconsistent hypotheses are both necessary for the analysis of scrambling. A modified version is suggested. (59 references) (Author/LB)
This paper examines the future of manned spaceflight in context of past accomplishments and possible future benefits of space exploration. Three technological advances mentioned are a device called the rotating wall vessel, also known as the 'bioreactor,' which allows the study of the growth of cells in three dimensions; the use of microgravity to produce high-quality electronic, magnetic, and superconducting thin films; and mining of helium-3 from the lunar surface for use in future fusion reactions with deuterium. The author then makes recommendations on how NASA should meet the challenges of manned spaceflight.
This book is the history of all the great moments of failure, tension, drama, euphoria, and success that characterized the beginning of man's adventure in space. It covers the technology and scientific knowledge, the vision, the politics, and the dedication of all those involved in the space program. One chapter is devoted to the experiments and observations of the astronauts as they explored the moon. An integral part of the history of space exploration is the race between Russia and the US to establish man in space. This is included. The book vividly portrays the experiences of the astronauts from Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and the Apollo-Soyuz missions. (SC)
Lee, Boram; Moon, Hyun Im; Lim, Sung Hee; Cho, Hyesuk; Choi, Hyunjoo; Pyun, Sung-Bom
Few studies have investigated language recovery patterns and the mechanisms of crossed bilingual aphasia following a subcortical stroke. In particular, Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia has not been reported. A 47-year-old, right-handed man was diagnosed with an extensive right basal ganglia hemorrhage. He was bilingual, fluent in both Korean and Japanese. After his stroke, the patient presented with crossed aphasia. We investigated changes in the Korean (L1) and Japanese (L2) language recovery patterns. Both Korean and Japanese versions of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) were completed one month after the stroke, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed using picture-naming tasks. The WAB showed a paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia, with an aphasia quotient (AQ) of 32 for Korean and 50.6 for Japanese, with Broca's aphasia. The patient scored better in the Japanese version of all domains of the tests. The fMRI study showed left lateralized activation in both language tasks, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus. After six months of language therapy targeting L1, the Korean-WAB score improved significantly, while the Japanese-WAB score showed slight improvement. In this case, the subcortical lesion contributed to crossed bilingual aphasia more highly affecting L1 due to loss of the cortico-subcortical control mechanism in the dominant hemisphere. The paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia disappeared after lengthy language therapy targeting L1, and the therapy effect did not transfer to L2. Language recovery in L1 might have been accomplished by reintegrating language networks, including the contralesional language homologue area in the left hemisphere. PMID:26853846
In English and Chinese, questions with a "wh"-object and a universally quantified subject (e.g. "What did everyone buy?") allow an individual answer ("Everyone bought apples.") and a pair-list answer ("Sam bought apples, Jo bought bananas, Sally bought..."). By contrast, the pair-list answer is reportedly unavailable in Japanese and Korean. This…
Chapman, Frank L.
This publication is designed for use as part of a curriculum series developed by the Regional Marine Science Project. As an informative text for a three-week unit in marine science for grade six, it considers man's role in using coastal resources and how he affects the marine environments. An ecological approach to nature is emphasized, stressing…
du Pré, Bastiaan C; Akkersdijk, Willem L
A 43-year-old man presented with acute left-sided middle and lower abdominal pain. He was diagnosed with 'left-sided acute appendicitis with non-rotation of the colon'. This is a rare and usually asymptomatic congenital anomaly. PMID:22551755
Landsberg, Helmut E.
Reviews environmental studies which show that national climatic fluctuations vary over a wide range. Solar radiation, earth temperatures, precipitation, atmospheric gases and suspended particulates are discussed in relation to urban and extraurban effects. Local weather modifications and attempts at climate control by man seem to have substantial…
Lawson, Fred A.; Spackman, Everett
The insects discussed in this document are those which have a direct effect upon humans either through a permanent association, as with lice, or a temporary association in the case of flies, bees, wasps, and spiders. In each case, life cycles and identifying characteristics are presented with remarks about the specific effect incurred by man. (CS)
Schneider, Edward F.
As machines have become a more common part of daily life through the passage of time, the idea that the line separating man and machine is slowly fading has become more popular as well. This paper examines three critics of change through their most famous works. One of the most popular views of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" is that it is a…
The experience of Thames Television in presenting an educational series during prime time is described. "The Botanic Man," a series on ecology, is a rating success. Several difficulties encountered in collaboration efforts and follow-up activities, including courses and workbook publications, are identified. (JMF)
Stanton School District, Wilmington, DE.
"Man and Revolution," the second syllabus in a sequential program, provides 11th grade students with a humanities course that deals heavily in political theory. The rationale, objectives, guidelines, methods, and arrangement are the same as those described in SO 004 030. The introductory unit, followed by further units, helps students define and…
Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.
The general theme of this 1968 yearbook is that man is a threatened species, facing overpopulation and unbridled technology - both self induced. The presentation is broad, relating to many aspects of conservation and natural resources in the United States in a descriptive, non-technical style. The yearbook is divided into major topics: Land…
DUDLEY, HOMER; AND OTHERS
SESSION 63 OF THE 1967 INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERS INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION BROUGHT TOGETHER SEVEN DISTINGUISHED MEN WORKING IN FIELDS RELEVANT TO LANGUAGE. THEIR TOPICS INCLUDED ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, LANGUAGE AND CULTURE, MAN'S PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS FOR SPEECH, LINGUISTICS, AND TECHNOLOGY AND…
Gielen, Dolf; Yagita, Hiroshi
The NEAT model (Nonenergy-use Emission Accounting Tables) has been developed in order to estimate CO2 emissions caused by so-called nonenergy use of fossil fuels. The model is based on material flow accounting. The model has been applied to a number of countries in order to validate and improve its use. This paper discusses the case study for Japan. The NEAT analysis suggests that emissions in 1996 were 23 Mt higher than previously estimated based on the guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This quantity equals 1.9% of the total Japanese greenhouse gas emission. It is recommended to adjust the Japanese emission accounting practice and to apply more detailed emission estimation methods in future years. Given similar results for other countries it is also recommended to improve the IPCC guidelines. PMID:11928351
Itoh, Kyoko; Iwamoto, Kazuhide; Satoh, Yu; Fujita, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kenta; Katano, Harutaka; Hasegawa, Hideki; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Tando, So; Fushiki, Shinji
The nationwide introduction of a Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine has contributed to a reduction in the annual infection rate of JE in Japan. However, the current neutralizing antibody prevalence ratio in Japan is approximately 20% in children 3-4 years of age and in people in their forties and fifties. We herein report a man with JE who was definitively diagnosed by multi-virus real-time polymerase chain reaction employing biopsied brain tissue and serological examinations. JE should be kept in mind when a patient has severe encephalitis of unknown etiology. In order to protect the susceptible population from JE, vaccination is recommended, especially for children and middle-aged people. PMID:27580555
Yoneda, Masayasu; Yamane, Kiminori; Jitsuiki, Kuniaki; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Kamei, Nozomu; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kohno, Nobuoki
Metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by the accumulation of multiple risk factors for atherosclerosis. Japanese-Americans in the U.S. have a more rapid and intense progression of atherosclerosis than native Japanese in Japan due to a westernization of their lifestyle. We investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between 416 native Japanese (194 men and 222 women) in Hiroshima and 574 Japanese-Americans (217 men and 357 women) in Los Angeles, aged 30-89 years. According to the criteria proposed by the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine, the prevalence was 13.9 and 2.7% for native Japanese men and women, and 32.7 and 3.4% for Japanese-American men and women, respectively. According to the IDF or AHA/NHLBI criteria, the prevalence was 20.1 and 6.3%, and 38.7 and 4.5%, or 13.4 and 14.4%, and 30.9 and 27.7%, respectively. Thus, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men was significantly higher in Japanese-American than in native Japanese by all the three criteria. However, the prevalence in women was similar between native Japanese and Japanese-American by the Japanese and IDF criteria, whereas it was significantly higher in Japanese-American than in native Japanese by the AHA/NHLBI criteria. This report demonstrates that a westernization of lifestyle can increase the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Japanese-Americans as compared to native Japanese. PMID:18006105
Lamoure, Richard; Kitchingman, Ian; Novo, Francisco; Sinnema, Gerben
The Window Design for Manned Spacecraft (WDM) project being undertaken by Magna Parva Ltd, under contract with the European Space Agency, aims to develop and improve the current structural integrity verification program for manned spacecraft pressurised windows. A critical review of the existing requirements and current state-of-the-art in spacecraft window design, materials and verification practice is conducted. Possible areas for improvement are identified. An experimental test programme is designed to perform and assess mechanical characterisation methods at material level. Tests are intended to increase familiarity with material testing methods and investigate the effects of sample size, surface finish and load type on material characterisation. Novel methods and their applicability are investigated. Results of characterisation testing will be employed in the design and verification of a breadboard window.
Hamilton, E. C.; Johnson, P.; Pearson, J.; Tucker, W.
This paper describes the SRS Manned Mars Mission and Program Analysis study designed to support a manned expedition to Mars contemplated by NASA for the purposes of initiating human exploration and eventual habitation of this planet. The capabilities of the interactive software package being presently developed by the SRS for the mission/program analysis are described, and it is shown that the interactive package can be used to investigate the impact of various mission concepts on the sensitivity of mass required in LEO, schedules, relative costs, and risk. The results, to date, indicate the need for an earth-to-orbit transportation system much larger than the present STS, reliable long-life support systems, and either advanced propulsion or aerobraking technology.
Apodaca, Tony; Porter, Tom
The two worlds of interactive graphics and realistic graphics have remained separate. Fast graphics hardware runs simple algorithms and generates simple looking images. Photorealistic image synthesis software runs slowly on large expensive computers. The time has come for these two branches of computer graphics to merge. The speed and expense of graphics hardware is no longer the barrier to the wide acceptance of photorealism. There is every reason to believe that high quality image synthesis will become a standard capability of every graphics machine, from superworkstation to personal computer. The significant barrier has been the lack of a common language, an agreed-upon set of terms and conditions, for 3-D modeling systems to talk to 3-D rendering systems for computing an accurate rendition of that scene. Pixar has introduced RenderMan to serve as that common language. RenderMan, specifically the extensibility it offers in shading calculations, is discussed.
Philpotts, J. A.; Martin, W.; Schnetzler, C. C.
K, Rb, Sr, Ba and rare-earth concentrations in some Japanese lavas have been determined by mass-spectrometric stable-isotope dilution. The samples fall into three rare-earth groups corresponding to tholeiitic, high alumina and alkali basalts. Japanese tholeiites have trace element characteristics similar to those of oceanic ridge tholeiites except for distinctly higher relative concentrations of Ba. Japanese lavas may result from various degrees of partial fusion of amphibole eclogite.
Xia, Yun; Cutrona, Anthony; Barreiro, Timothy J.
Abstract Tetanus is a rare disease in the United States. Fewer than 40 cases are reported annually because of the high incidence of vaccination. Recognition of the clinical presentations is important because laboratory recovery of pathogen is only 30%, and toxin detection is rare because of consumption at motor neurons. We report a case of tetanus in an elderly man who had a reaction to tetanus vaccination as a child and was nonvaccinated through adult life. PMID:27330266
Allton, C. S.
The astronaut/Manned Maneuvering Unit interface, which presented a challenging set of requirements for a latching mechanism, is described. A spring loaded cam segment with variable ratio pulley release actuator was developed to meet the requirements. To preclude jamming of the mechanism, special precautions were taken such as spring loaded bearing points and careful selection of materials to resist cold welding. The mechanism successfully passed a number of tests which partially simulated orbital conditions.
Stanton, L.; Cook, C. W.
The multiple man machine interfaces inherent in military pilot training, their social implications, and the issue of possible negative feedback were explored. Modern technology has produced machines which can see, hear, and touch with greater accuracy and precision than human beings. Consequently, the military pilot is more a systems manager, often doing battle against a target he never sees. It is concluded that unquantifiable human activity requires motivation that is not intrinsic in a machine.
The quantity of online documentation and viewing tools is overwhelming, with the World Wide Web, vendor-supported and local-site documentation and tools, etc. Maintaining the information and tools is equally overwhelming. However, statistics show that MAN usage far exceeds usage of other online documentation tools. But as one knows, MAN has its own problems, and at the forefront are MAN`S many inconsistencies. MAN is the standard Unix (and POSIX) tool which provides good summary information for those already familiar with a command. Well-written manual pages provide a good overall documentation. However, when a particular manual becomes too long, it becomes a cumbersome method to use for reading documentation. The paper describes MAN`s problems and the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center requirements for MAN.
Taylor, Harvey M.
Each culture has its own nonverbal as well as its verbal language. Movements, gestures and sounds have distinct and often conflicting interpretations in different countries. For Americans communicating with Japanese, misunderstandings are of two types: Japanese behavior which is completely new to the American, and Japanese behavior which is…
Tierney, L M
The Japanese health care system has been highly praised for its universal access, freedom of patient choice, maintenance of a private system, and creative funding. Japanese citizens enjoy general good health, low infant mortality, and long life expectancy. Nevertheless, aspects of Japanese medical education, both graduate and undergraduate, and the structure of academic departments differ from those seen in the United States. A sabbatical spent teaching general internal medicine in Japan provided the experience for this review of the Japanese system. I describe the structure and function of departments of medicine and observations made at daily clinical teaching exercises in hospitals throughout the country. PMID:8160464
Dickinson, William B., Jr., Ed.
Nine reports published in this volume study the uneasy coexistence of modern man and the complex society he has wrought. Man's apparent disorganized behavior is attributed to his inability to adapt readily to the charged pace of technological change. To combat the advancement of machine over man, he must, therefore, insist that moral and…
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... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Manning Rail, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Manning Grain Company Manning Rail, Inc. (MRI), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption \\1\\ under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Manning...
This seminar paper explores biological aspects of the man-technology relationship. From man's beginning and continuing into the future, technology is interwoven extensively in the biological fabric of man. Five facets of the biology-technology interaction are examined: (1) technological innovations enabling man to learn about his biological…
Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R. N.; Goebert, Deborah A.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Andrade, Naleen N.
Few studies have examined the effect of ethnicity and cultural identity on substance use among Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents. A cross-sequential study conducted in Hawai'i with 144 Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents assessed a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, substance use, major life events, and social support. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Culture Scale and on the Peers’ Social Support than the part-Japanese American adolescents. Significant associations for substance use and impairment included culturally intensified events and Japanese cultural identity- behavior subset. Models had good overall fits and suggested that conflict surrounding cultural identity may contribute to substance use. PMID:23480213
Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R N; Hishinuma, Earl S; Goebert, Deborah A; Chang, Janice Y; Andrade, Naleen N; Nishimura, Stephanie T
A confirmatory model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, and depression was developed (N = 140). The model incorporated the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), Major Life Events Scale, and Japanese Cultural Scale. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Cultural Scale and reported fewer depressive symptoms on the CES-D total and on 2 of the 3 CES-D factors than part-Japanese American adolescents. Predictors for depression were being Japanese American vs. part-Japanese American, female gender, and culturally intensified events. A significant interaction of behavior by self-identification was noted. The model had good overall fit and suggested that the formation of cultural identity may contribute to depressive symptoms experienced by adolescents, particularly adolescents of mixed heritage. PMID:15727494
Nishimukai, H; Kitamura, H; Sano, Y; Tamaki, Y
By high-voltage agarose gel electrophoresis, seven phenotypes of C3 were found in Japanese. The allele frequencies for C3*S, C3*S025, C3*S02, C3*F, C3*F06, C3*F065, and C3*F08 were 0.9943, 0.0003, 0.0003, 0.0006, 0.0003, 0.0021, and 0.0021, respectively. CH50, C3/C3c protein concentrations, and C3 hemolytic activities in fresh sera with variant C3 phenotypes were within the normal ranges. PMID:3988301
Von Puttkamer, J.
Human capabilities and requirements on space missions are discussed. Utilitarian and humanistic motivations for manned missions are considered, and a general program of development from easy space access and return, to a permanent LEO presence, to the limited self-sufficiency of man in space, is proposed. Man's potential as scientific observer, operator, and engineer/technician is illustrated with examples from the Apollo and Skylab missions. It is shown that future increases in man's space presence will require significant improvements in habitation technology, crew comfort and safety, operational effectiveness and reliability, and man/machine interactions: man-tended systems must be standardized and adapted to (mainly EVA) human servicing; permanently manned systems must be designed to attain levels of comfort, privacy, and overall habitability more like those expected on the ground.
Marriott, Helen E.
The article surveys the development of Japanese language courses in Australia, noting a variety of factors contribute to the growth and recent intensification of interest in the subject. It examines problems within Japanese language teaching and discusses further innovative course development, differentiation of needs, employer perceptions, and…
This article explores Japanese EFL learners' classroom silence in a Japanese EFL context. The existence of silence in second language learning contexts can be a source of conflict between students and teachers and even among students themselves. It can also be an obstacle to acquiring the target language. In order to tackle this problem and to…
Tokuda, Yasuharu; Inoguchi, Takashi
Our main objective in this paper is to evaluate the possible association between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness among Japanese people. Based on cross-sectional data for the Japanese general population from the Asia Barometer Survey (2003-2006), we analyzed the relationship between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness using a logistic…
Wetzel, Patricia J.
Examines strikingly parallel claims concerning Japanese communication strategies, and female communication strategies in the West. Miscommunication between Japan and the West resembles miscommunication between the sexes in the West, suggesting not that Japanese linguistic behavior is not feminine but that it is indicative of the problems inherent…
Maynard, Senko K.
This handbook offers a detailed description of the structure and rhetorical effects observed in various genres of Japanese discourse. Drawing on Japanese "bunshooron" and incorporating results of Western discourse studies, the book covers principles of overall rhetorical organization, including"ki-shoo-ten-ketsu," topic structure, "danraku," and…
YAMAGIWA, JOSEPH K.
INCLUDED AMONG THE 18 SELECTIONS IN THIS READER FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS OF JAPANESE ARE SUCH ARTICLES AND EXCERPTS FROM BOOKS AS "THE TAIKA REFORMS" BY SAKAMOTO TAROO (1935) AND "THE SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT OF INCOME BY KOKU AND FEUDALISM" BY NAKAMURA KICIJI (1960). THESE TEXTS ARE REPRODUCED EXACTLY AS THEY APPEARED IN JAPANESE-LANGUAGE PUBLICATIONS…
Shwalb, David W., Ed.; Shwalb, Barbara J., Ed.
The context of Japanese childrearing has changed during the postwar era. Noting that "new" observations concerning childrearing and socialization may not actually be new, this volume establishes continuity with past researchers by integrating the past half-century of cross-cultural research on Japanese childrearing and socialization, placing…
Through an examination of the discourse markers "ano" and "sono" in Japanese (commonly characterized as demonstrative adjectives but which cannot be used interchangeably in a context), this paper explores how these linguistic devices function in conversation found in Japanese writings. The focus of this analysis is the mental and social functions…
This paper reviews the results of a survey of institutions of higher education which offer coursework focusing on Japanese Americans and emphasizes the program in Japanese American Studies at San Francisco State University. The results showed a distribution of twenty-eight courses offered at fifteen institutions in California, Washington and…
NIWA, TAMAKO; MATSUDA, MAYAKO
THE 24 LESSONS IN THIS TEXT ARE DESIGNED FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS BEGINNING JAPANESE LANGUAGE STUDY. THE SELECTION OF VOCABULARY AND THE PRESENTATION OF GRAMMAR ARE DIRECTED TO THE GOAL OF ACQUIRING FACILITY IN SPEAKING RATHER THAN WRITING. FOR A READING TEXT RECOMMENDED FOR USE WITH THIS SPOKEN LANGUAGE TEXT, SEE HIBBETT AND ITSAKA "MODERN JAPANESE,…
Japanese cornmint (Mentha canadensis L.) is a subtropical essential oil crop grown in Asia and South America. The essential oil of Japanese cornmint is the source for production of crystal (-)-menthol, which is a major aromatic agent used as a flavor, fragrance, and cooling sensation vector in the ...
Wetzel, Patricia J.
Describes the results of a subjective reaction test of over 700 Japanese college students' and office workers' attitudes toward honorifics (keigo) in Japanese. It found that subjects from higher socioeconomic classes were more outspoken and ready to judge incompetent or insufficient keigo more negatively than individuals from lower socioeconomic…
Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko
A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…
A hidden participant/observer working in a Japanese auto plant in the United States discovered worker resistance to Japanese management practices in the form of sabotage, protest, agitation, and confrontation. Results questioned assumptions that participatory techniques increase worker control and decentralized authority increases worker autonomy.…
Kuwayama, Masaru; Ito, Mikako; Takao, Shinichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Fukuda, Shinji; Miyazaki, Kazuo; Kurane, Ichiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko
Cerebrospinal fluid specimens from 57 patients diagnosed with meningitis were tested for Japanese encephalitis virus. Total RNA was extracted from the specimens and amplified. Two products had highest homology with Nakayama strain and 2 with Ishikawa strain. Results suggest that Japanese encephalitis virus causes some aseptic meningitis in Japan. PMID:15757569
This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology," 2000, Vol. 76, pp.…
Sugie, Shuji; Shwalb, David W.; Shwalb, Barbara J.
The meaning of respect changed historically in postwar Japan, and respect as a concept is important yet unnoticed in postmodern Japanese society. Contrary to the perception of Japanese socialization as instilling conformist respect and obedience in children and adolescents, this chapter shows why one commentator predicts that Japan may be changing…
This literature review serves to inform the reader on current literature on Contrastive Rhetoric (CR), with specific reference to teaching writing to Japanese students of English. It will examine the historical developments of CR and its present significance before then looking at possible reasons for unique characteristics of Japanese L2 writers…
This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…
The increasing pace and scope of global structural change has left Japanese flagship universities at a crossroads. Reflecting upon historical trends, current policy changes and respective institutional strategies for global marketing among Japanese top research universities, the author discusses possible future directions for these institutions…
The roles played by English borrowings in modern Japanese literary works are examined. After a brief summary of previous studies, this paper describes the style repertoire and the kinds of stylistic effects produced in Japanese literature by English borrowings, such as attention attractors and in-group-identity markers. (23 references) (Author/LB)
For generations, moral development has been both a conscious aim and a formal process in Japanese education. This book investigates the history and development of Japanese moral education and analyzes and compares current moral education with the concepts of the Imperial Rescript on Education (1890) and the "shushin" moral education of prewar…
Cook, G. V. O. (Editor)
The preliminary design of the manned maneuvering unit (MMU) for the shuttle is investigated, and the current state of the art in certain technology areas that may find application on the operational EVA shuttle MMU is examined. Three broad areas of technology, namely: (1) mechanical energy storage - i.e., the practicality of utilizing the energy storage capability of either a reaction wheel or a control moment gyro, (2) numerical and alphanumerical displays, and (3) recent electronics developments such as microprocessors and integrated injection logic, were covered.
Berry, C. A.
The program for the Apollo 16 flight was designed to include both safeguards against and investigations of the physiological problems arising from increase in the period of manned space flight. Precautions included the provision of a controlled diet with high potassium content, carefully controlled work loads and work-rest cycles, and an emergency cardiology consultation service, and investigations were made to enable preflight vs postflight comparisons of metabolic, cardiovascular, and central nervous system data. Results of these investigations indicate that adjustment to weightlessness can be satisfactorily assisted by appropriate countermeasures, including attention to diet.
Since 1992 China has been carrying out a conspicuous manned space mission A utility project has been defined and created during the same period The Utility Project of the Chinese Manned Space Mission involves wide science areas such as earth observation life science micro-gravity fluid physics and material science astronomy space environment etc In the earth observation area it is focused on the changes of global environments and relevant exploration technologies A Middle Revolution Image Spectrometer and a Multi-model Micro-wave Remote Sensor have been developed The detectors for cirrostratus distribution solar constant earth emission budget earth-atmosphere ultra-violet spectrum and flux have been manufactured and tested All of above equipment was engaged in orbital experiments on-board the Shenzhou series spacecrafts Space life science biotechnologies and micro-gravity science were much concerned with the project A series of experiments has been made both in ground laboratories and spacecraft capsules The environmental effect in different biological bodies in space protein crystallization electrical cell-fusion animal cells cultural research on separation by using free-low electrophoresis a liquid drop Marangoni migration experiment under micro-gravity as well as a set of crystal growth and metal processing was successfully operated in space The Gamma-ray burst and high-energy emission from solar flares have been explored A set of particle detectors and a mass spectrometer measured
Marie Curie was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry 1911. During the preceding year a rumour had circulated in Stockholm that she had had an affaire with one of her assistants. She received a letter, in which she was told that there had been strong opposition to her election not on scientific but moral grounds, and that she should not go to Stockholm, because nobody could forsee what reactions her appearance at the prize ceremony could evoke. Emil Kleen, a man of violent temper and radical opinions, reacted strongly to these rumours. He wrote a paper, with a violent attack on Gustaf Retzius, previous professor of Histology at Karolinska Institutet. Rightly or wrongly he suspected him to be the author of the infamous letter. Retzius is described as a dilletant in scientific matters, as a "sexual hyena" and a garroulus old man. This portrait of Retzius is of course most unfair, but the portrait of Emil Kleen by the famous swedish artist Bruno Liljefors is a masterpiece and one of the most valuable of the Swedish Medical Association. PMID:11624972
Theilen, Gordon H.; Dungworth, Donald L.; Kawakami, Thomas G.
General comparative aspects of leukemia were reviewed. Leukemia in adult cattle occurs frequently within certain multiple case herds. Cattle in these herds often have persistent lymphocytosis and increased numbers of atypical lymphocytes in blood. Attempts are being made to demonstrate the frequency in which this is a “pre-leukemic” or “perileukemic” condition. With the recognition of viral causative agent(s) in chickens, laboratory rodents and cats, there is increased interest in the leukemia of dogs, cattle and other animals, for the disease in these animals may serve as valuable models in the study and isolation of human leukemogenic agents. Epidemiologic and clinicopathologic aspects of animal leukemias share comparative similarities with themselves and with lymphoreticular neoplasms of man. Causative factor(s) probably act on the host, regardless of species, in a similar fashion. It is not likely, but neither improbable, that leukemia in domesticated animals and leukemia in man share common causal relationships. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:18730090
Gardner, S; Jaing, C
The goal of this project is to develop forensic genotyping assays for select agent viruses, addressing a significant capability gap for the viral bioforensics and law enforcement community. We used a multipronged approach combining bioinformatics analysis, PCR-enriched samples, microarrays and TaqMan assays to develop high resolution and cost effective genotyping methods for strain level forensic discrimination of viruses. We have leveraged substantial experience and efficiency gained through year 1 on software development, SNP discovery, TaqMan signature design and phylogenetic signature mapping to scale up the development of forensics signatures in year 2. In this report, we have summarized the Taqman signature development for South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis viruses and henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.
Japanese has a rich set of focus particles, several exclusive and additive particles, and, in addition, contrastive particles. This thesis provides a formal description of the meanings of Japanese focus particles and addresses two general questions: "What kinds concepts do Japanese focus particles express?" and "Why does Japanese have a larger…
This paper discusses several design issues in the development of a new online Japanese textbook, called "Robo-Sensei: Japanese Curriculum with Automated Feedback". When it is completed, the new online textbook will present a full Japanese curriculum. It extends a previously published online software program, "Robo-Sensei: Personal Japanese Tutor"…
Park, Chul; Davies, Carol B.
The aerothermodynamic problems associated with the aerobraking of the spacecraft proposed for the manned Mars mission are studied. The propulsive Delta V necessary at departure from earth and Mars and the velocities of the atmospheric entries into the two planets are deduced. It is shown that the propulsive Delta V can be reduced by increasing the entry velocities and that entry velocities up to about 15 km/sec are appropriate at both earth and Mars. L/D values of 0.8 and 2.0 are found to be necessary at earth and Mars, respectively. Density, pressure, and stagnation-point convective-heat-transfer rates are calculated for the typical aerobraking flights. Assuming the shock layer flow to be in equilibrium, the stagnation-point radiative-heat-transfer rates are calculated to be larger than the convective-heat-transfer rates. The possible impact of ablation, turbulence, and nonequilibrium are discussed.
Lenda, J. A.
The space shuttle will provide an opportunity to extend and enhance the crew's inherent capabilities in orbit by allowing them to operate effectively outside of their spacecraft by means of extravehicular activity. For this role, the shuttle crew will have a new, easier to don and operate space suit with integral life support system, and a self-contained propulsive backpack. The backpack, called the manned maneuvering unit, will allow the crew to operate beyond the confines of the Shuttle cargo bay and fly to any part of their own spacecraft or to nearby free-flying payloads or structure. This independent mobility will be used to support a wide variety of activities including free-space transfer of cargo and personnel, inspection and monitoring of orbital operations, and construction and assembly of large structures in orbit.
Descotes, J; Nicolas, B; Vial, T; Nicolas, J F
Abstract The immunotoxic consequences of chemical exposures include direct immunotoxicity (namely immunosuppression and immunostimulation), hypersensitivity and autoimmunity, and because the mechanisms involved are markedly different, no single immune parameter is likely to ever predict or assess all three types of immunotoxicity. A fairly large number of immunological endpoints have been proposed for use as biomarkers of immunotoxicity in man. Unfortunately, they are often not sensitive enough and/or poorly standardized, so that their relevance for assessing immunotoxic effects in humans is debatable, and actually debated. Immune-mediated sentinel events detected in individuals with a defined history of chemical exposure, may prove helpful until methodological advances, notably with the introduction of technologies derived from molecular biology, provide reliable parameters to be used as biomarkers of immunotoxicity. PMID:23888916
Kopylov, S.; Smirnov, N. V.; Tanklevsky, L. T.
Based on an analysis of fires in the oxygen-enriched atmosphere conditions in spacecraft and other sealed chambers of various purposes, the most dangerous groups of fires are identified. For this purpose, groups were compiled to analyze dependences that describe the increase of fire hazard to a critical value. A criterion for determining timely and effective fire extinguishing was offered. Fire experiments in oxygen-enriched atmosphere conditions were conducted, and an array of experimental data on the mass burning rate of materials and their extinguishing by water mist was obtained. Relationships colligating an array of experimental data were offered. Experimental and analytical studies were taken as a basis for hand fire extinguisher implementation for manned spacecraft.
The development of remote mechanical systems to augment man's capabilities in our manned space effort is considered. A teleoperator system extends man's innate intelligence and sensory capabilities to distant hostile and hazardous environments through a manipulator-equipped spacecraft and an RF link. Examined are space teleoperator system applications in the space station/space shuttle program, which is where the most immediate need exists and the potential return is greatest.
Ito, Takamichi; Yoshida, Yuichi; Adachi, Koji; Furue, Masutaka; Yamamoto, Osamu
Depigmented haloes sometimes appear around melanocytic tumors or non-melanocytic tumors, but coexistence of warts and depigmented haloes is extremely rare. We report here an unusual case of warts accompanied by depigmented haloes and subsequently-triggered generalized vitiligo. A 55-year-old Japanese man presented with a 3-year history of brown nodules on the back, upper eyelid and dorsum of the left hand. Depigmented haloes appeared around the noldules and then gradually spread over a wide area, resulting in the development of generalized vitiligo. He had no history of antecedent treatment for these lesions before consultation. Histopathologically, the lesion showed papillomatosis and hyperkeratosis with lymphocytic exocytosis into the epidermis, which compatible to warts. Based on these clinical and histopathologic findings, a diagnosis of warts with depigmented halo and subsequently-triggered generalized vitiligo was made. None of the warts had resolved spontaneously after the appearance of haloes, and the depigmented haloes and generalized vitiligo remain unchanged. PMID:24031144
Goto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Kishimoto, Miyako; Minowada, Shigeru; Aibe, Hitoshi; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Kajio, Hiroshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko
A 55-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with severe weakness. Without measurement of serum electrolyte concentrations, diuretic therapy for hypertension was started 2 weeks prior to admission. Laboratory findings showed profound hypokalemia (1.4 mEq/L), and extreme elevation of the serum creatinine phosphokinase levels (15,760 IU/L), suggesting that the patient had hypokalemic paralysis and hypokalemia-induced rhabdomyolysis. Further evaluations, including adrenal venous sampling strongly suggested that he had primary aldosteronism. He was treated successfully by laparoscopic adrenalectomy. This case provides an important lesson that serum electrolyte concentrations should be measured in hypertensive patients before the administration of antihypertensive agents. PMID:19218772
Matsuzaki, Tadanobu; Shiraishi, Wataru; Iwanaga, Yasutaka; Yamamoto, Akifumi
We report a 55 year old Japanese man with a history of alcohol abuse, who was in a near fasting state for the previous few days.He was admitted to our hospital with abrupt disturbance of consciousness. He presented disturbance of consciousness with extreme hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis with high β-hydroxybutyric acid concentration. Taking into account his living history, we diagnosed with alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA). Symptoms ameliorated with glucose injection and fluid loading. AKA patients show abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, but they are usually alert and lucid despite the severe acidosis. This case, however, presented comatose status caused by hypoglycemia. Poor oral intake of this patient was assumed to be the cause of hypoglycemia. Alcoholism may cause hypoglycemia accompanying with AKA, due to a low carbohydrate intake, the inhibition of gluconeogenesis, and reduced hepaticglycogen storage as seen in this case. Here, we report a case of AKA that demonstrated hypoglycemia with the literature review. PMID:25787101
Liu, Ning-guo; Wang, Tao; Huang, Pingf; Qing, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Jian-hua; Chen, Yi-jiu
Karoshi remains one of the most troublesome issues in forensic identification. It is rather a social medicine than a clinical disease. Japanese scholars pioneered examining the relation between sud- den cardiac death (SCD) and chronic fatigue from long time and/or high-tension work. In the current case, a 55-year-old man, whose job was loading and carrying heavy cement bags, was found dead after 11 days of continuous hard work. His family members sued the cement factory for his death and claimed for compensation. The problem was the difficulty of identifying the causative relation without the precedent or the relevant regulations. However, the forensic problems were finally acknowledged after autopsy and calculation of labor intensity. The lawsuit was won as the first case pertaining to Karoshi in the Chinese court. PMID:26821473
The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) program has made significant progress. The JEM preliminary design review was completed in July 1992; construction of JEM operation facilities has begun; and the micro-G airplane, drop shaft, and micro-G experiment rocket are all operational. The national policy for JEM utilization was also established. The Space Experiment Laboratory (SEL) opened in June '92 and will function as a user support center. Eight JEM multiuser facilities are in phase B, and scientific requirements are being defined for 17 candidate multiuser facilities. The National Joint Research Program is about to start. Precursor missions and early Space Station utilization activities are being defined. This paper summarizes the program in outline and graphic form.
Japanese industry will have many opportunities to perform microgravity tests in the 1990s. The world's longest dropshaft was completed in Hokkaido last year. SJAC has many programs, including GAS, MASER, CASIMIR, COSIMA, and MIR. In fact, 12 electronic and 4 biomaterial experiments using GAS canisters which have been waiting since 1986 will be finished by early 1993. STC will carry out 4 experiments on D-2 in 1993. USEF has two high-quality experiment programs on SFU and EXPRESS. SFU is an unmanned platform for multiple uses and the first flight is expected in 1994 or 95. Ground tests of 8 material experiments are now in progress. EXPRESS is a reusable reentry capsule. Multireactors in an autoclave which are designed for zeolite and catalyst crystal growth on EXPRESS have been developed.
Few studies have ever dealt with Japanese male gay and bisexual identity. This exploratory study investigated gay and bisexual identity through interviews of 34 Japanese gay and bisexual men. Though Japan has unique cultural aspects that are different from Western countries, it can be shown that Western concepts or models of homosexual identity are applicable to a considerable extent to Japanese gay and bisexual men. The results of this study suggest that there are two distinct types of Japanese men sexually interested in men, which the author will call "bisexual" and "gay." These two types are compared in terms of three aspects: self-identity, sexual preference, and social identity and role. A significant number of respondents have careers or vocations in the arts. This study touches on the correlation between art and male-male sexual orientation in Japan. PMID:12013576
Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi
In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.
Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio
There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject’s ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak. PMID:25978647
Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio
There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject's ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak. PMID:25978647
The universe has always aroused people's curiosity. It fascinates and at the same time scares in its vastness. Encourages us to reflect of the meaning of human life. This begs the questions: whether there is a life beyond Earth? Whether is it possible that the man is alone in such a large space? These questions still remain unanswered, and topics concerning "the cosmos" constantly evoke many emotions. It is especially fascinating for the youngest students. Quite often, preschoolers can flawlessly name the planets according to their order of appearance in relation to the sun. They are happy to take the fun inspired by journeys into space. Teaching through action is extremely important for the development of the child-man* (Piaget, 2006). The thinking originates primarily from the action. Therefore, students should undertake independent research activities, perform experiments and conduct observations and thus raise questions about the world, looking for meanings and solutions. Adults (a teacher, a person with a passion) are to be the support in the search for knowledge, its processing and cleaning. Its role is to ensure a proper development of environment that is conducive to research activity. The answer to these requirements was to create in the oldest technical school in Poland (Railway Technical College, now Technical College No. 7) the astronomical observatory, which can be used by pupils of Warsaw's kindergartens and schools. There are organized activities for children and youth in this school, as well as trainings for teachers. Younger students during such an interdisciplinary courses are, among others, the opportunity to get acquainted with the construction of the telescope, they can build their own rockets and organize their racing or create your own star constellations. Older students as a result of observations and experiments may confirm or refute the hypothesis that the universe is within each of us. The classes are enriched using applications on
Deciphering the learning mechanism which exists in man remains to be solved. This article examines the learning process with respect to association and cybernetics. It is recommended that research should focus on the transdisciplinary processes of learning which could become the next key concept in the science of man. (Author/MA)
National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Earth Sciences.
Presented are the results of two years of inquiry by the Committee on Resources and Man established by the National Academy of Sciences. Chapters 1 and 2 pose the problem: since resources are finite, as population increases the ratio of resources to man must eventually fall to an unacceptable level. Chapter 3 considers the possibility of evading…
Press, William H.
Reviews calculations that derive an order of magnitude expression for the size of man in terms of fundamental constants, assuming that man satifies these three properties: he is made of complicated molecules; he requires an atmosphere which is not hydrogen and helium; he is as large as possible. (CS)
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manning. 143.407 Section 143.407 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Standby Vessels § 143.407 Manning. Standby vessels must be...
Graber, Richard R.
Suggests that man, endowed with intellect, has a moral obligation to revere and to conserve all forms of life. In addition, human resources are to be applied toward ecological investigation and education. A warning is sounded against man's continual plundering of the earth's resources. (LC)
Stone, Mark H.
The science of metrology has moved from man as the measure to man as the measurer. This transformation is documented with examples from the history of metrology. Outcome measures, which rest on the same history of measurement, are units constructed and maintained for their utility, constancy, and generality. (Author/SLD)
Phoenix Union High School District, AZ.
This is a collection of papers which resulted from an assignment given in a seminar dealing with the topic Man and His Environment at Phoenix Union High School, Arizona. The interdisciplinary seminar focused on the relationships between man and his physical environment. Its purpose was to introduce the participants to the spectrum of environmental…
Mank, Evans R.
Building upon Course I, this teaching guide for the first of four units of Course II introduces the secondary student to geographic concepts and generalizations of the physical world to which man has related over time. All units of the second course emphasize the process of development whereby man, coping with given conditions in his physical…
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manning. 143.407 Section 143.407 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Standby Vessels § 143.407 Manning. Standby vessels must be crewed in accordance with their certificate...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manning. 143.407 Section 143.407 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Standby Vessels § 143.407 Manning. Standby vessels must be crewed in accordance with their certificate...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manning. 143.407 Section 143.407 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Standby Vessels § 143.407 Manning. Standby vessels must be crewed in accordance with their certificate...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manning. 143.407 Section 143.407 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Standby Vessels § 143.407 Manning. Standby vessels must be crewed in accordance with their certificate...
Hollister, Leo E.
Reviews three years of research on the effects of marihuana in man. Previously known clinical mental and physical effects have been confirmed. Causes and mechanisms of these effects generally remain undetermined in man and animals. Social implications and long term effects require additional study, although usage appears detrimental. (JM)
Raleigh, M. J.; Washburn, S. L.
The study of origin and evolution of man gives new perspective for understanding his behavior. Physical behaviors such as walking and throwing are results of biological evolution which has not kept pace with sociocultural evolution. Irrational decisions by man in social, cultural, and political fields are results of this brain activity. (PS)
Two frameworks for the study of man are discussed. The Cartesian model views man as a physical object. A dialectic framework, with the emphasis on the self, grew out of nineteenth century romanticism and reflects the theories of Hegel. Both models have had an effect on social psychology and the study of interpersonal communication. (BH)
Commission on Engineering Education, Washington, DC.
THIS TEACHER'S MANUAL FOR THE ENGINEERING CONCEPTS CURRICULUM PROJECT'S HIGH SCHOOL COURSE, "THE MAN MADE WORLD," IS THE THIRD DRAFT OF THE EXPERIMENTAL VERSION. THE MATERIAL WRITTEN BY ENGINEERS, SCIENTISTS, AND EDUCATORS, EMPHASIZES ENGINEERING--MAN'S APPLICATION OF SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES TO THE CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF HIS ENVIRONMENT.…
Nicogossian, A. E.
Man's ability to live and perform useful work in space was demonstrated throughout the history of manned space flight. Current planning envisions a multi-functional space station. Man's unique abilities to respond to the unforeseen and to operate at a level of complexity exceeding any reasonable amount of previous planning distinguish him from present day machines. His limitations, however, include his inherent inability to survive without protection, his limited strength, and his propensity to make mistakes when performing repetitive and monotonous tasks. By contrast, an automated system does routine and delicate tasks, exerts force smoothly and precisely, stores, and recalls large amounts of data, and performs deductive reasoning while maintaining a relative insensitivity to the environment. The establishment of a permanent presence of man in space demands that man and machines be appropriately combined in spaceborne systems. To achieve this optimal combination, research is needed in such diverse fields as artificial intelligence, robotics, behavioral psychology, economics, and human factors engineering.
Simon, William E.; Nored, Donald L.
A brief history of the development of electrical power systems from the earliest manned space flights illustrates a natural trend toward a growth of electrical power requirements and operational lifetimes with each succeeding space program. A review of the design philosophy and development experience associated with the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power system is presented, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. A discussion of prototype, verification, and qualification hardware is included, and several design improvements following the first Orbiter flight are described. The problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches used to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained are stressed. Major technology barriers and their solutions are discussed, and a brief Orbiter flight experience summary of early Space Shuttle missions is included. A description of projected Space Station power requirements and candidate system concepts which could satisfy these anticipated needs is presented. Significant challenges different from Space Shuttle, innovative concepts and ideas, and station growth considerations are discussed. The Phase B Advanced Development hardware program is summarized and a status of Phase B preliminary tradeoff studies is presented.
Rasmussen, Morten; Sikora, Martin; Albrechtsen, Anders; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Poznik, G David; Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Allentoft, Morten E; Moltke, Ida; Jónsson, Hákon; Valdiosera, Cristina; Malhi, Ripan S; Orlando, Ludovic; Bustamante, Carlos D; Stafford, Thomas W; Meltzer, David J; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske
Kennewick Man, referred to as the Ancient One by Native Americans, is a male human skeleton discovered in Washington state (USA) in 1996 and initially radiocarbon dated to 8,340-9,200 calibrated years before present (BP). His population affinities have been the subject of scientific debate and legal controversy. Based on an initial study of cranial morphology it was asserted that Kennewick Man was neither Native American nor closely related to the claimant Plateau tribes of the Pacific Northwest, who claimed ancestral relationship and requested repatriation under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). The morphological analysis was important to judicial decisions that Kennewick Man was not Native American and that therefore NAGPRA did not apply. Instead of repatriation, additional studies of the remains were permitted. Subsequent craniometric analysis affirmed Kennewick Man to be more closely related to circumpacific groups such as the Ainu and Polynesians than he is to modern Native Americans. In order to resolve Kennewick Man's ancestry and affiliations, we have sequenced his genome to ∼1× coverage and compared it to worldwide genomic data including for the Ainu and Polynesians. We find that Kennewick Man is closer to modern Native Americans than to any other population worldwide. Among the Native American groups for whom genome-wide data are available for comparison, several seem to be descended from a population closely related to that of Kennewick Man, including the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville), one of the five tribes claiming Kennewick Man. We revisit the cranial analyses and find that, as opposed to genome-wide comparisons, it is not possible on that basis to affiliate Kennewick Man to specific contemporary groups. We therefore conclude based on genetic comparisons that Kennewick Man shows continuity with Native North Americans over at least the last eight millennia. PMID:26087396
Caudill, William; Frost, Lois
Previous studies have shown that American mothers, in contrast to Japanese, do more lively chatting to their babies, and that as a result, the American babies have a generally higher level of vocalization and, particularly, they respond with greater amounts of happy vocalization and gross motor activity than do Japanese babies. Thus, it appears…
In 1947 the Fundamental Law of Education (FLE) defined the pacifist principles for post-war Japanese education and was revised in 2006 for the first time in nearly 60 years. The revised FLE stipulates the importance of teaching love for country and region and Japanese culture and traditions with special emphasis on moral education. Today, this…
This article reports on an experimental investigation of knowledge of distributivity in nonnative (L2) Japanese learners whose first language (L1) is English or Korean. The availability of distributive scope in Japanese is modulated by word order and the semantic features of quantifiers. For English-speaking learners, these subtle interpretive…
Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger
Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother…
Backus, Robert L.
The varied forms and semantic factors of Japanese ordinal expressions are related to one another in a coherent system. In Japanese, the cardinal number form is a numeral compound in construction with a referent. The numeral compound consists of a number and a numeral adjunct. Numeral adjuncts are derived from bound forms, or numeral suffixes, and…
This revision of Mitsugu Matsuda's Japanese in Hawaii, 1868-1967: An Annotated Bibliography of the First Hundred Years, calls attention to writings which are available to students and individuals interested in Americans of Japanese ancestry. The materials range from scholarly pieces based on traditional academic sources for documentation to…
Goto, Courtney T.
With high rates of out-marriage and dwindling need for bilingual worship, Japanese-American churches face a critical question: "Why retain the Japanese part of our identity?" This article explores how one layperson (Naomi Takahashi Goto) draws from her experience as an artist, teacher, and mother to help her congregation answer this question.…
In spite of the growing volume of research on Asian Americans since the late 1960's, very little examination in the mental health field has been done of specific groups of Asian Americans. To compare the mental health treatment characteristics of Japanese in Japan and Japanese Americans in the United States, 27 Tokyo therapists and their 120…
Tanaka, Yuji; Yoshikura, Nobuaki; Harada, Naoko; Yamada, Megumi; Koumura, Akihiro; Sakurai, Takeo; Hayashi, Yuichi; Kimura, Akio; Hozumi, Isao; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Inuzuka, Takashi
We report cases of Japanese sisters with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). The elder sister was 25, when she was diagnosed with right optic neuritis. After 3 months, she developed left optic neuritis and myelitis. At age 27, she had the second relapse, but she has been free from episodes thereafter. The younger sister was 26, when she was diagnosed with optic neuritis. Thus far, she has 9 relapses, comprising both myelitis and optic neuritis. Both sisters had normal brain MRI scans, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis over 3 vertebral segments, and positive results for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody (AQAP4Ab). They fulfilled the Wingerchuk criteria for definite NMO. Both sisters shared some immunogenetic factors, but they were not exposed to the same environmental factors after their early twenties. The final disability status was almost the same in both cases, and both showed a very benign course. These data suggest that genetic factors affect the age at onset and environmental factors may affect the frequency of relapse. PMID:22082898
Morse, Zac; Sano, Kimito; Fujii, Kazuyuki; Kanri, Tomio
There is very little information about the practice of sedation in Japan. Despite the remarkable advances in dentistry, fear and anxiety continue to be significant deterrents for seeking dental services. Most dental procedures can fortunately be undertaken with the aid of sedation. A comprehensive survey of all the dental schools in Japan was carried out to determine what sedation practices were used in Japan. All 29 dental schools in Japan possessed a dedicated department of anesthesiology at the time of this survey. The survey attempted to determine the specific sedation methods (techniques, routes of administration, and agents used in sedation) as well as practices (monitoring, fasting, location, education, and fees involved in sedation). The results indicate that there was a broad range in sedation practices. The Japanese Dental Society of Anesthesiology may wish to examine the findings of this study and may wish to formulate guidelines appropriate for the practice of sedation in Japan. Others may also wish to compare their own practices with those of Japan. PMID:15497299
Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin
Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War II with homogamy and intermarriage with Whites for the prewar (1930–1940) and resettlement (1946–1966) marriage cohorts. The authors applied log-linear models to census microsamples (N = 1,590,416) to estimate the odds ratios of homogamy versus intermarriage. The unadjusted odds ratios of Japanese Americans declined between cohorts and appeared to be consistent with the assimilation hypothesis. Once compositional influences and educational pairing patterns were adjusted, however, the odds ratios increased and supported the heightened exclusion hypothesis. PMID:21116449
Kikuchi, Naoki; Nakazato, Koichi; Min, Seok-ki; Ueda, Dai; Igawa, Shoji
In this study, we investigated whether the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with muscular power in Japanese collegiate athletes by analyzing the mean and peak power results of a 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) with respect to the ACTN3 R577X genotype in 253 Japanese athletes (144 men and 109 women). Each athlete performed a 30-second WAnT with a resistance equal to 7.5% of his or her body weight. Genotyping for the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan approach. The ACTN3 R577X genotypes exhibited a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium distribution in our population. The relative and absolute mean power results of the 30-second WAnT did not differ significantly among the genotypes. However, the relative peak power result of the WAnT was significantly higher in the R-allele-dominant model groups than in the XX group in male but not female athletes. These results suggest that the ACTN3 R allele is associated with the relative peak power during the WAnT in male Japanese collegiate athletes. PMID:24343324
Rasmussen, Morten; Poznik, G. David; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; de León, Marcia Ponce; Allentoft, Morten E.; Moltke, Ida; Jónsson, Hákon; Valdiosera, Cristina; Malhi, Ripan S.; Orlando, Ludovic; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Meltzer, David J.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske
Kennewick Man, referred to as the Ancient One by Native Americans, is a male human skeleton discovered in Washington state (USA) in 1996 and initially radiocarbon-dated to 8340–9200 calibrated years BP1. His population affinities have been the subject of scientific debate and legal controversy. Based on initial study of cranial morphology it was asserted that Kennewick Man was neither Native American nor closely related to the Claimant Plateau tribes of the Pacific Northwest, who claimed ancestral relationship and requested repatriation under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). The morphological analysis was important to judicial decisions that Kennewick Man was not Native American and that therefore NAGPRA did not apply. Instead of repatriation, additional studies of the remains were permitted2. Subsequent craniometric analysis affirmed Kennewick Man to be more closely related to circumpacific groups such as the Ainu and Polynesians than he is to modern Native Americans2. In order to resolve Kennewick Man’s ancestry and affiliations, we have sequenced his genome to ~1× coverage and compared it to worldwide genomic data including the Ainu and Polynesians. We find that Kennewick Man is closer to modern Native Americans than to any other population worldwide. Among the Native American groups for whom genome wide data is available for comparison, several appear to be descended from a population closely related to that of Kennewick Man, including the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville), one of the five tribes claiming Kennewick Man. We revisit the cranial analyses and find that, as opposed to genomic-wide comparisons, it is not possible on that basis to affiliate Kennewick Man to specific contemporary groups. We therefore conclude based on genetic comparisons that Kennewick Man shows continuity with Native North Americans over at least the last eight millennia. PMID:26087396