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Sample records for 5l x70 steel

  1. A new method for preparing bionic multi scale superhydrophobic functional surface on X70 pipeline steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Sirong; Wang, Xiaolong; Wang, Wei; Yao, Qiang; Xu, Jun; Xiong, Wei

    2013-04-01

    The hydrophobic property of a rough surface with a low free energy coating was theoretically analyzed in this paper. In order to obtain a superhydrophobic surface, a rough surface morphology must be formed in addition to the low free energy coating on the surface. Through the shot blasting, chemical etching with concentrated hydrochloric acid, and low free energy modification with myristic acid ethanol solution, the superhydrophobic surface was obtained on X70 pipeline steel. The better process parameters for preparing superhydrophobic surface on X70 pipeline steel were obtained. The diameter of the stainless steel shot used in the shot blasting was 0.8-1.0 mm. The concentration of hydrochloric acid was 6 mol/L. The chemical etching time was 320 min. The concentration of myristic acid ethanol solution was 0.1 mol/L. The soaking time in myristic acid ethanol solution was 72 h. After X70 pipeline steel surface was treated using the process parameters mentioned above, the biggest contact angle between the specimen surface and distilled water was 153.5°, and the sliding angle was less than 5°.

  2. Correlation of microstructure and fracture properties of API X70 pipeline steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Byoungchul; Kim, Young Min; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Nack J.; Ahn, Seong Soo

    2005-03-01

    Effects of microstructure on fracture toughness and transition temperature of high-toughness X70 pipeline steels were investigated in this study. Three types of steels were fabricated by varying alloying elements such as C, Cu, and Mo, and their microstructures were varied by rolling conditions such as finish rolling temperature and finish cooling temperature. Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact tests and pressed notch drop-weight tear tests (DWTT) were conducted on the rolled steel specimens. The charpy impact test results indicated that the specimens rolled in the single-phase region of the steel containing a reduced amount of C and Mo had the highest upper shelf energy (USE) and the lowest energy transition temperature (ETT) because of the appropriate formation of acicular, quasipolygonal, or polygonal ferrite and the decreased fraction of martensite-austenite constituents. Most of the specimens rolled in the single-phase region also showed excellent DWTT properties as the percent shear area (pct SA) well exceeded 85 pct, irrespective of finish cooling temperatures, while their USE was higher than that of the specimens rolled in the two-phase region. Thus, overall fracture properties of the specimens rolled in the single-phase region were better than those of the specimens rolled in the two-phase region, considering both USE and pct SA.

  3. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Welded API X70 Pipeline Steel in Simulated Underground Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. Y.; Du, C. W.; Li, C.; Wang, F. M.; Li, X. G.

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of welded API X70 pipeline steel in simulated underground water using the slow strain rate test, fractographic characterization by scanning electron microscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. SCC susceptibility of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) is demonstrated to be dependent on two factors: the effect of the microstructure in the HAZ on electrochemical reactions and the effect of the mechanical property on SCC occurrence. Electrochemical experiments indicate that the microstructures in the HAZ, especially the softened microstructure, can significantly facilitate the processes of hydrogen evolution when cathodic potential is positive to -1050 mVSCE. However, when the cathodic potential is below -1050 mVSCE, the cathode current densities of different microstructures are close to one another and greatly increase because of the decrease of the applied potentials. The SCC behavior is consistent with the electrochemical results. Under -650 and -850 mVSCE, SCC is most likely to occur in the softened region, and under -1200 mVSCE, SCC occurs in both the softened and hardened regions.

  4. Texture Study Across Thickness of API X70 Steel After Hot Deformation and Different Posttreatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumi, M.; Herculano, L. F. G.; Almeida, A. A.; Béreš, M.; de Abreu, H. F. G.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the texture heterogeneity across the thickness of API X70 steel subjected to hot deformation and different posttreatments was investigated. X-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction were used to analyze crystallographic orientation and grain boundary distributions at the center and surface layers of specimens. The initial material was rolled at 1000°C to 67% reduction; then one deformed sample was cooled in air, and the others were quenched in water and finally tempered at 350°C and 700°C for 1 h. The shear strain generated by friction between rolls and strip induces heterogeneity across thickness. The results showed that in the center layer, the (001)[ bar{1}bar{1}0 ] texture dominated in all specimens, whereas the {110}//ND component was developed at the surface layer. Furthermore, a local misorientation histogram showed that the surface layer was subjected to a higher degree of deformation in comparison with the center layer due to additional shear deformation.

  5. Influence of crystallographic texture in X70 pipeline steels on toughness anisotropy and delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jabr, Haytham M.

    The effects of microstructure and crystallographic texture in four commercially-produced API X70 pipeline steels and their relation to planar anisotropy of toughness and delamination were evaluated. The experimental steels were processed through either a hot strip mill, a Steckel mill, or a compact strip mill. Different processing routes were selected to obtain plates with potential variations in the microstructure and anisotropic characteristics. Tensile and Charpy impact testing were used to evaluate the mechanical properties in three orientations: longitudinal (L), transverse (T) and diagonal (D) with respect to the rolling direction to evaluate mechanical property anisotropy. The yield and tensile strengths were higher in the T orientation and toughness was lower in the D orientation for all plates. Delamination was observed in some of the ductile fracture surfaces of the impact samples. To further study the splitting behavior and effects on impact toughness, a modified impact test (MCVN) specimen with side grooves was designed to intensify induced stresses parallel to the notch root and thus facilitate evaluation of delamination. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) were used to evaluate the grain size, microstructural constituents, and crystallographic texture to determine the factors leading to delamination and the anisotropy in toughness. The ferrite grain size is mainly responsible for the differences in DBTTs between the L and T orientations. The higher DBTT in the D orientation observed in pipeline steels is attributed to crystallographic texture. The higher DBTT in the D direction is due to the higher volume fraction of grains having their {100} planes parallel or close to the primary fracture plane for the D orientation. An equation based on a new "brittleness parameter," based on an assessment of grain orientations based on EBSD data, was developed to predict the changes in DBTTs with respect to sample

  6. Microstructure characterisation of an X70 grade pipeline steel and its dislocation development during Bauschinger testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, T. S.; Chiu, Y. L.; Jones, I. P.

    2014-06-01

    The microstructure of an X70 alloy and its dislocation development during one cycle of compression/tension strain has been analysed. The microstructure of the as received material and the dislocation arrangements before, during and after the Bauschinger test have been characterised. Results for this particular alloy show no evidence of grain boundary dislocation pile-ups or of precipitates pinning dislocations. A comparison between the dislocation arrangement in the as received, compressed and compressed-tensioned samples shows the formation of small dislocation cells, implying that the conception of the Bauschinger effect comes from dislocation-dislocation interactions.

  7. Static Recrystallized Grain Size of Coarse-Grained Austenite in an API-X70 Pipeline Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Qingyun; Li, Guiyan; Li, Dahang

    2013-12-01

    The effects of initial grain size and strain on the static recrystallized grain size of coarse-grained austenite in an API-X70 steel microalloyed with Nb, V, and Ti were investigated using a Gleeble-3800 thermomechanical simulator. The results indicate that the static recrystallized grain size of coarse-grained austenite decreases with decreasing initial grain size and increasing applied strain. The addition of microalloying elements can lead to a smaller initial grain size for hot deformation due to the grain growth inhibition during reheating, resulting in decreasing of static recrystallized grain size. Based on the experimental data, an equation for the static recrystallized grain size was derived using the least square method. The grain sizes calculated using this equation fit well with the measured ones compared with the equations for fine-grained austenite and for coarse-grained austenite of Nb-V microalloyed steel.

  8. Corrosion behavior of X-70 pipe steel in near-neutral pH solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, L.; Cheng, Y. F.

    2007-08-01

    The mechanism of near-neutral pH stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of natural gas pipelines has not been well-established since the first accident was found in the 1980s. In particular, the role of hydrogen in near-neutral pH SCC has remained unknown. In this work, cyclic voltammetry was used to comprehensively investigate the fundamentals of the electrochemical corrosion reactions occurring at the steel/solution interface in diluted, 5% CO 2/N 2-purged, near-neutral pH bicarbonate solutions. It is shown that there is no stable oxide film formed on the steel surface in near-neutral pH solution. The dissolution-based cracking mechanism does not apply for near-neutral pH SCC of pipelines. The formation of a metastable Fe(OH) 2 deposit layer shows a catalytic activity on hydrogen evolution reaction, indicating that a significant amount of hydrogen could be generated under near-neutral pH condition. The presence of corrosive anions in the soil electrolyte enhances both the anodic polarization of the steel and the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction, resulting in an increased hydrogen evolution rate. The introduction of oxygen could form a stable oxide film on the surface of steel, resulting in the loss of the surface catalytic effect on hydrogen evolution reaction. Thus, a hydrogen-based mechanism does not apply for SCC in the presence of oxygen.

  9. Effect of pH Value on the Electrochemical and Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of X70 Pipeline Steel in the Dilute Bicarbonate Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Z. Y.; Liu, Z. Y.; Wang, L. W.; Ma, H. C.; Du, C. W.; Li, X. G.; Wang, X.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, effects of pH value on the electrochemical and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of X70 pipeline steel in the dilute bicarbonate solutions were investigated using electrochemical measurements, slow strain rate tensile tests and surface analysis techniques. Decrease of the solution pH from 6.8 to 6.0 promotes the anodic dissolution and cathodic reduction simultaneously. Further decrease of the pH value mainly accelerates the cathodic reduction of X70 pipeline steel. As a result, when the solution pH decreases form 6.8 to 5.5, SCC susceptibility decreases because of the enhancement of the anodic dissolution. When the solution pH decreases from 5.5 to 4.0, SCC susceptibility increases gradually because of the acceleration of cathodic reactions.

  10. Effects of Dynamic Strain Hardening Exponent on Abnormal Cleavage Fracture Occurring During Drop Weight Tear Test of API X70 and X80 Linepipe Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Minju; Kim, Hyunmin; Lee, Sunghak; Shin, Sang Yong

    2014-02-01

    In this study, drop weight tear tests (DWTT) were conducted on API X70 and X80 linepipe steels fabricated with various compositions and rolling and cooling conditions in order to correlate the strain hardening with the abnormal cleavage fracture occurring in the hammer-impacted area. Area fractions of fracture modes were measured from fractured DWTT specimens, and the measured data were analyzed in relation to microstructures, Charpy impact energy, and strain hardening. All the steels consisted of fine acicular ferrite, together with some bainitic ferrite, granular bainite, and martensite-austenite constituent. As the volume fraction of acicular ferrite increased, the area fraction of DWTT abnormal cleavage fracture decreased because the toughness of acicular ferrite was higher than other microstructures. The area fraction of abnormal cleavage fracture was weakly related with strain hardening exponents obtained from the quasi-static tensile and compressive tests, but showed better correlation with those obtained from the dynamic compressive test. This tendency could be more clearly observed when steels having similar Charpy impact energy levels were grouped. Since the DWTT was performed under a dynamic loading condition, thus, the abnormal cleavage fracture behavior should be related with the strain hardening analyzed under a dynamic loading condition.

  11. Effect of Strain Rate on Cathodic Reaction During Stress Corrosion Cracking of X70 Pipeline Steel in a Near-Neutral pH Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. Y.; Li, X. G.; Cheng, Y. F.

    2011-10-01

    The effect of strain rate on cathodic reactions of X70 pipeline steel during stress corrosion cracking in a near-neutral pH solution was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscope and potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements as well as slow strain rate tests. A local additional potential model was used to understand mechanistically the role of strain rate in electrochemical cathodic reaction. It was found that an application of elastic stress would not affect the electrochemical stable state of the steel specimen at a macroscopic scale. Under a weak cathodic polarization, the interfacial charge-transfer process occurring on steel contains both cathodic and anodic reactions. Since the anodic reaction process is still significant, localized dissolution could occur even at such a cathodic potential, resulting in generation of corrosion pits. These pits could be the start sites to initiate stress corrosion cracks. Strain rate affects the corrosion reaction, which is associated with the generation of dislocation emergence points and slip steps on the specimen surface, resulting in a negative local additional potential to enhance the cathodic reaction locally.

  12. Evolution of weld metal microstructure in shielded metal arc welding of X70 HSLA steel with cellulosic electrodes: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Ghomashchi, Reza Costin, Walter; Kurji, Rahim

    2015-09-15

    The microstructure of weld joint in X70 line pipe steel resulted from shielded metal arc welding with E6010 cellulosic electrodes is characterized using optical and electron microscopy. A range of ferritic morphologies have been identified ranging from polygonal inter- and intra-prior austenite grains allotriomorphic, idiomorphic ferrites to Widmanstätten, acicular and bainitic ferrites. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis using Image Quality (IQ) and Inverse Pole Figure (IPF) maps through superimposition of IQ and IPF maps and measurement of percentages of high and low angle grain boundaries was identified to assist in differentiation of acicular ferrite from Widmanstätten and bainitic ferrite morphologies. In addition two types of pearlitic structures were identified. There was no martensite detected in this weld structure. The morphology, size and chemistry of non-metallic inclusions are also discussed briefly. - Highlights: • Application of EBSD reveals orientation relationships in a range of phases for shielded metal arc welding of HSLA steel. • Nucleation sites of various ferrite morphologies identified • Formation of upper and lower bainite and their morphologies.

  13. Inhibitive Performance of Monoethylene Glycol on CO2 Corrosion of API 5L X52 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidi, M.; Khodaparast, M.

    2015-04-01

    Monoethylene glycol has been utilized in wet natural gas transportation to avoid hydrate formation and corrosion. The inhibitive performance of monoethylene glycol (MEG) on CO2 corrosion of API 5L X52 steel in saline solution at 50 °C was studied using electrochemical techniques. Change in inhibition mechanism of MEG against CO2 corrosion was observed including the blocking of reaction sites by MEG in low concentration and slow down of corrosion reactions at high concentration. The presence of different concentrations of sodium chloride affects the corrosion rate in a different manner for rich and lean glycol solution.

  14. Effects of Specimen Thickness and Notch Shape on Fracture Modes in the Drop Weight Tear Test of API X70 and X80 Linepipe Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seokmin; Shin, Sang Yong; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Nack J.

    2011-09-01

    This study is concerned with effects of specimen thickness and notch shape on drop weight tear test (DWTT) properties and fracture modes of API X70 and API X80 low-carbon microalloyed linepipe steels. Detailed fractographic analysis of broken DWTT specimens showed that the fracture initiated in an initial cleavage mode near the specimen notch and that some delaminations occurred at the center of the fracture surface. The chevron notch (CN) DWTT specimens had broader initial cleavage areas than the pressed notch (PN) DWTT specimens. The larger inverse fracture areas ( i.e., cleavage areas close the hammer impact side) appeared in the PN DWTT specimens, because their higher fracture initiation energy at the notch allowed a higher strain hardening in the hammer-impacted region. The number and length of delaminations were larger in the CN DWTT specimens than in the PN DWTT specimens, and increased with increasing specimen thickness due to the plane strain condition effect. As the test temperature decreased, the tendency of delaminations increased, but delaminations were not found when the cleavage fracture prevailed at very low temperatures. The DWTT test results such as upper shelf energy (USE) and energy transition temperature (ETT) were discussed with relation to microstructures and fracture modes including initial cleavage fracture, ductile fracture, inverse fracture, and delaminations.

  15. Influence of the maximum applied magnetic field on the angular dependence of Magnetic Barkhausen Noise in API5L steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Ortiz, P.; Pérez-Benítez, J. A.; Espina-Hernández, J. H.; Caleyo, F.; Mehboob, N.; Grössinger, R.; Hallen, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work studies the influence of the maximum applied magnetic field on the angular dependence of the energy of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise signal in three different API5L pipeline steels. The results show that the shape of the angular dependence of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise energy changes with the increase of the amplitude of the applied magnetic field. This phenomenon is a consequence of the presence of unlike magnetization processes at different magnitudes of the applied magnetic field. The outcomes reveal the importance of controlling the value of the maximum applied field as parameter for the improvement of the MBN angular dependence measurements.

  16. Effect of artificial aging on the microstructure of weldment on API 5L X-52 steel pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas-Arista, B. . E-mail: bvarista26@yahoo.com.mx; Hallen, J.M. . E-mail: j_hallen@yahoo.com; Albiter, A. . E-mail: aalbiter@imp.mx

    2007-08-15

    The effects of artificial aging on the microstructure in the weldment of an API 5L X-52 steel pipe were studied. Aging was performed at 250 deg. C over a period of 1000 h and values were recorded at every 100 h intervals. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed precipitation strengthening from nearly circular Nb-C containing nanoparticles for the base metal and heat affected zone, and cementite for the weld metal. The largest amount of precipitation in the weldment zone was obtained at 500 h, due to peak-aging, which showed the highest particle density. The weld metal was more susceptible to aging, exhibiting the highest increase in precipitation at 500 h, followed by the heat affected zone. After 500 h, the deterioration in the microstructure was caused by the coarsening of particles due to over-aging. The base metal showed the larger increment in particle size after 900 h of aging accompanied by a bigger decrease in fine particles than in the weld metal.

  17. The Effect of Temperature and Acid Gas Loading on Corrosion Behavior of API 5L X52 Carbon Steel in Amine Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidi, M.; Lalehparvar, M. M.; Ghassemi, A.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of temperature and H2S concentration on amine corrosion of API 5L X52 carbon steel in a CO2-saturated 25 wt.% diethanolamine solution was investigated via electrochemical techniques. It was found that increase in temperature from 25 to 80 °C resulted in severe increase in corrosion rate from 0.88 to 16.24 mpy due to increase in degradation rate of amine. Also, it was concluded that increase in H2S concentration led to increase in corrosion rate because of formation of more heat stable amine salts. The effect of temperature on corrosion rate was more significant than acid gas loading.

  18. Utilization of nondestructive electrochemical techniques in characterizing microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of API-5L X65 carbon linepipe steel: Laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Abbas, F.; Kakpovbia, A.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D.; Spear, J.

    2012-05-01

    Nondestructive electrochemical techniques were used to investigate the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) by Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) corrosion of API 5L X65 linepipe steel. These techniques included Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), open circuit potential (OCP) and linear polarization resistance (Rp). OCP trend showed anodic polarization of 67 mV between the biotic media with reference to abiotic media. These shifts were attributed to the cathodic side reactions produced by the metabolic activity of SRB. Through circuit modeling, EIS results were used to interpret the real time interactions between the electrode, biofilm and solution interfaces.

  19. CO/sub 2/ corrosion of C-steel and 13Cr-steel in a particle laden fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, U.; Sydberger, T.

    1987-01-01

    Corrosion tests were carried out on C-steel (API 5L X70) and 13Cr steel (AISI 420) materials in a 3% NaCl solution containing sand particles (5000-9000 ppm) and saturated with CO/sub 2/ at defined partial pressure (0-0.3 MPa) and temperature (30-60/sup 0/C). The effect of residual O/sub 2/ content (10-1500 ppb) was further examined. Two flow geometries were studied: 1) undisturbed pipe flow and 2) submerged jet impinging (30-90/sup 0/) onto a flat plate. The effect of specimen surface treatment (shot-blasting or pickling) was examined with dry polished material as a reference. Weight-loss and electrochemical measurements were applied to determine average and instantaneous corrosion rates respectively. The results are discussed in relation to fluid flow conditions and the surface preparation/microstructure of materials tested.

  20. F-5-L Boat Seaplane : performance characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, W S

    1922-01-01

    Performance characteristics for the F-5-L Boat Seaplane are given. Characteristic curves for the RAF-6 airfoil and the F-5-L wings, parasite resistance and velocity data, engine and propeller characteristics, effective and maximum horsepower, and cruising performance are discussed.

  1. The 5L Instructional Design For Exploring Legacies through Biography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulware, Beverly J.; Monroe, Eula E.; Wilcox, Bradley Ray

    2013-01-01

    People who have impacted generations have left legacies we can explore today through biographies. The 5L instructional design introduced in this article includes five components: Listen, Learn, Locate, Link, and Legacy. In the "Listen" section, teachers use storytelling and read-alouds to introduce individuals who shaped history. During…

  2. Elevated temperature mechanical properties of line pipe steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Taylor Roth

    The effects of test temperature on the tensile properties of four line pipe steels were evaluated. The four materials include a ferrite-pearlite line pipe steel with a yield strength specification of 359 MPa (52 ksi) and three 485 MPa (70 ksi) yield strength acicular ferrite line pipe steels. Deformation behavior, ductility, strength, strain hardening rate, strain rate sensitivity, and fracture behavior were characterized at room temperature and in the temperature range of 200--350 °C, the potential operating range for steels used in oil production by the steam assisted gravity drainage process. Elevated temperature tensile testing was conducted on commercially produced as-received plates at engineering strain rates of 1.67 x 10 -4, 8.33 x 10-4, and 1.67 x 10-3 s-1. The acicular ferrite (X70) line pipe steels were also tested at elevated temperatures after aging at 200, 275, and 350 °C for 100 h under a tensile load of 419 MPa. The presence of serrated yielding depended on temperature and strain rate, and the upper bound of the temperature range where serrated yielding was observed was independent of microstructure between the ferrite-pearlite (X52) steel and the X70 steels. Serrated yielding was observed at intermediate temperatures and continuous plastic deformation was observed at room temperature and high temperatures. All steels exhibited a minimum in ductility as a function of temperature at testing conditions where serrated yielding was observed. At the higher temperatures (>275 °C) the X52 steel exhibited an increase in ductility with an increase in temperature and the X70 steels exhibited a maximum in ductility as a function of temperature. All steels exhibited a maximum in flow strength and average strain hardening rate as a function of temperature. The X52 steel exhibited maxima in flow strength and average strain hardening rate at lower temperatures than observed for the X70 steels. For all steels, the temperature where the maximum in both flow

  3. Expression of CDC5L is associated with tumor progression in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenjuan; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yan; Sun, Jie; Wang, Donglin; Fan, Shaochen; Ban, Na; Zhu, Junya; Ji, Bin; Wang, Yuchan

    2016-03-01

    Cell division cycle 5-like (CDC5L) protein is a cell cycle regulator of the G2/M transition and has been reported to participate in the catalytic step of pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing and DNA damage repair. Recently, it was also found to act as a candidate oncogene in osteosarcoma and cervical tumors. However, the role of CDC5L expression in tumor biology was still unclear. Here, we analyzed the expression and clinical significance of CDC5L in gliomas. The expression of CDC5L in fresh glioma tissues and paraffin-embedded slices was evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We found that CDC5L was highly expressed in glioma tissues. The expression of CDC5L was significantly associated with glioma pathology grade and Ki-67 expression. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that high CDC5L expression was an independent prognostic factor for glioma patients' survival. To determine whether CDC5L could regulate the proliferation of glioma cells, we transfected glioma cells with interfering RNA target CDC5L, then investigated cell proliferation with cell counting kit (CCK)-8, flow cytometry assays and colony formation analyses. Our results indicated that knockdown of CDC5L would inhibit proliferation of glioma cells. Besides, reduced expression of CDC5L could induce the apoptosis of glioma cells. These findings suggested that CDC5L might play an important role in glioma and thus be a promising therapeutic target of glioma. PMID:26490980

  4. Structural basis for acyl-group discrimination by human Gcn5L2

    PubMed Central

    Ringel, Alison E.; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Gcn5 is a conserved acetyltransferase that regulates transcription by acetylating the N-terminal tails of histones. Motivated by recent studies identifying a chemically diverse array of lysine acyl modifications in vivo, the acyl-chain specificity of the acetyltransferase human Gcn5 (Gcn5L2) was examined. Whereas Gcn5L2 robustly catalyzes lysine acetylation, the acyltransferase activity of Gcn5L2 becomes progressively weaker with increasing acyl-chain length. To understand how Gcn5 discriminates between different acyl-CoA molecules, structures of the catalytic domain of human Gcn5L2 bound to propionyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA were determined. Although the active site of Gcn5L2 can accommodate propionyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA without major structural rearrangements, butyryl-CoA adopts a conformation incompatible with catalysis that obstructs the path of the incoming lysine residue and acts as a competitive inhibitor of Gcn5L2 versus acetyl-CoA. These structures demonstrate how Gcn5L2 discriminates between acyl-chain donors and explain why Gcn5L2 has weak activity for acyl moieties that are larger than an acetyl group. PMID:27377381

  5. C5L2: a controversial receptor of complement anaphylatoxin, C5a.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Coulthard, Liam G; Wu, M C L; Taylor, Stephen M; Woodruff, Trent M

    2013-03-01

    C5a is the paramount proinflammatory mediator of the complement cascade, and has been previously thought to act only through a single, G-protein-coupled, C5a receptor (C5aR; also termed CD88). In 2000, a second C5a receptor, C5L2 (previously known as GPR77), was discovered; yet, despite 12 yr of intensive research, its biological, or pathophysiological, function is both enigmatic and controversial. Unlike C5aR, this receptor does not couple to G proteins, and early studies promoted the hypothesis that C5L2 functions as a decoy receptor. However, recent data have provided other evidence for more complicated and conflicting interactions between C5L2 and other inflammatory mediators. C5L2 has been recently demonstrated to physically interact with both C5aR and β-arrestin to negatively regulate C5aR signaling toward an anti-inflammatory manner, and to reduce pathology, in several disease models in vivo. In direct contrast, other groups have demonstrated that C5L2 stimulation caused release of HMGB1 both in vitro and in vivo, and enhanced pathology in sepsis models, suggesting a clear proinflammatory signaling role. These astoundingly contradictory data challenge our precepts and complicate the foundational bases for the possible targeting of C5L2 as a therapeutic option in inflammatory disease. C5L2 may be the great masquerader in complement biology; its function dependent on the cell type, species, and disease context. Because of these unusual and unforeseen complexities, we present the current state of knowledge on C5L2 structure, expression and, most controversially, its putative functions.-Li, R., Coulthard, L.G., Wu, M. C. L., Taylor, S. M., Woodruff, T. M. C5L2: a controversial receptor of complement anaphylatoxin, C5a. PMID:23239822

  6. Bax-PGAM5L-Drp1 complex is required for intrinsic apoptosis execution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenjuan; Jing, Linlin; Wang, Quanshi; Lin, Chung-Chih; Chen, Xiaoting; Diao, Jianxin; Liu, Yuanliang; Sun, Xuegang

    2015-10-01

    Intrinsic apoptosis eliminates cells with damaged DNA and cells with dysregulated expression of oncogene. PGAM5, a member of the phosphoglycerate mutase family, has two splicing variants: PGAM5L (the long form) and PGAM5S (the short form). It has been well established that PGAM5 is at the convergent point of multiple necrosis pathways. However, the role of PGAM5 in intrinsic apoptosis is still controversial. Here we report that the PGAM5L, but not PGAM5S is a prerequisite for the activation of Bax and dephosphorylation of Drp1 in arenobufagin and staurosporine induced intrinsic apoptosis. Knockdown of PGAM5L inhibits the translocation of Bax to the mitochondria and reduces mitochondrial fission. The interaction between PGAM5L and Drp1 was observed in both arenobufagin and staurosporine treated HCT116 cells, but not in HCT116 Bax(-/-) cells. Bax transfection rescues the formation of the triplex in both arenobufagin and staurosporine stimulated HCT116 Bax(-/-) cells. Arenobufagin shows remarkable anti-cancer effects both in orthotropic and heterotropic CRC models and demonstrates less toxic effects as compared with that of cisplatin. Bax-PGAM5L-Drp1 complex is detected in arenobufagin and staurosporine treated CRC cells in vitro and in arenobufagin and cisplatin treated tumor in vivo as well. In summary, our results demonstrate that Bax-PGAM5L-Drp1 complex is required for intrinsic apoptosis execution. PMID:26356820

  7. A critical role for C5L2 in the pathogenesis of experimental allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xun; Schmudde, Inken; Laumonnier, Yves; Pandey, Manoj K; Clark, Jennifer R; König, Peter; Gerard, Norma P; Gerard, Craig; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Köhl, Jörg

    2010-12-01

    The complement fragment C5a plays dual roles in the development of experimental allergic asthma. It protects from pulmonary allergy by a regulatory effect on dendritic cells during allergen sensitization, but is proallergic during the effector phase. C5a can bind to two distinct receptors (i.e., C5a receptor and C5a receptor-like 2 [C5L2]). The functional role of C5L2 in vivo remains enigmatic. In this study, we show in two models of OVA- and house dust mite (HDM)-induced experimental allergic asthma that C5L2-deficient mice are protected from the development of airway hyperresponsiveness, Th2 cytokine production, eosinophilic airway inflammation, serum IgE, or mucus production. Surprisingly, HDM-induced experimental asthma in C5L2-deficient mice was associated with increased pulmonary IL-17A production and increased airway neutrophil numbers. To directly assess the role of C5L2 on myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) during allergen sensitization, we performed single or repeated adoptive transfers of C5L2-deficient mDCs into wild-type mice. HDM-pulsed C5L2-deficient mDCs induced strong Th2 cytokine production, which was associated with marked IFN-γ and IL-17A production, decreased eosinophil numbers, and reduced IgE production as compared with HDM-pulsed mDCs from wild-type mice. HDM stimulation of C5L2(-/-) mDCs in vitro resulted in production of Th17-promoting cytokine IL-23, which was absent in wild-type mDCs. Our findings suggest that C5L2 acts at the mDC/T cell interface to control the development of Th1 and Th17 cells in response to airway HDM exposure. Furthermore, it drives Th2 immune responses independent of mDCs, suggesting a complex role for C5L2 in the development of experimental allergic asthma. PMID:20974988

  8. Homozygous mutation of STXBP5L explains an autosomal recessive infantile-onset neurodegenerative disorder.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raman; Corbett, Mark A; Smith, Nicholas J C; Jolly, Lachlan A; Tan, Chuan; Keating, Damien J; Duffield, Michael D; Utsumi, Toshihiko; Moriya, Koko; Smith, Katherine R; Hoischen, Alexander; Abbott, Kim; Harbord, Michael G; Compton, Alison G; Woenig, Joshua A; Arts, Peer; Kwint, Michael; Wieskamp, Nienke; Gijsen, Sabine; Veltman, Joris A; Bahlo, Melanie; Gleeson, Joseph G; Haan, Eric; Gecz, Jozef

    2015-04-01

    We report siblings of consanguineous parents with an infantile-onset neurodegenerative disorder manifesting a predominant sensorimotor axonal neuropathy, optic atrophy and cognitive deficit. We used homozygosity mapping to identify an ∼12-Mbp interval identical by descent (IBD) between the affected individuals on chromosome 3q13.13-21.1 with an LOD score of 2.31. We combined family-based whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing of parents and affected siblings and, after filtering of likely non-pathogenic variants, identified a unique missense variant in syntaxin-binding protein 5-like (STXBP5L c.3127G>A, p.Val1043Ile [CCDS43137.1]) in the IBD interval. Considering other modes of inheritance, we also found compound heterozygous variants in FMNL3 (c.114G>C, p.Phe38Leu and c.1372T>G, p.Ile458Leu [CCDS44874.1]) located on chromosome 12. STXBP5L (or Tomosyn-2) is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system and is known to inhibit neurotransmitter release through inhibition of the formation of the SNARE complexes between synaptic vesicles and the plasma membrane. FMNL3 is expressed more widely and is a formin family protein that is involved in the regulation of cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization. The STXBP5L p.Val1043Ile variant enhanced inhibition of exocytosis in comparison with wild-type (WT) STXBP5L. Furthermore, WT STXBP5L, but not variant STXBP5L, promoted axonal outgrowth in manipulated mouse primary hippocampal neurons. However, the FMNL3 p.Phe38Leu and p.Ile458Leu variants showed minimal effects in these cells. Collectively, our clinical, genetic and molecular data suggest that the IBD variant in STXBP5L is the likely cause of the disorder. PMID:25504045

  9. CD5L/AIM Regulates Lipid Biosynthesis and Restrains Th17 Cell Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Yosef, Nir; Gaublomme, Jellert; Wu, Chuan; Lee, Youjin; Clish, Clary B; Kaminski, Jim; Xiao, Sheng; Meyer Zu Horste, Gerd; Pawlak, Mathias; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Joller, Nicole; Karwacz, Katarzyna; Zhu, Chen; Ordovas-Montanes, Maria; Madi, Asaf; Wortman, Ivo; Miyazaki, Toru; Sobel, Raymond A; Park, Hongkun; Regev, Aviv; Kuchroo, Vijay K

    2015-12-01

    Th17 cells play a critical role in host defense against extracellular pathogens and tissue homeostasis but can induce autoimmunity. The mechanisms implicated in balancing "pathogenic" and "non-pathogenic" Th17 cell states remain largely unknown. We used single-cell RNA-seq to identify CD5L/AIM as a regulator expressed in non-pathogenic, but not in pathogenic Th17 cells. Although CD5L does not affect Th17 differentiation, it is a functional switch that regulates the pathogenicity of Th17 cells. Loss of CD5L converts non-pathogenic Th17 cells into pathogenic cells that induce autoimmunity. CD5L mediates this effect by modulating the intracellular lipidome, altering fatty acid composition and restricting cholesterol biosynthesis and, thus, ligand availability for Rorγt, the master transcription factor of Th17 cells. Our study identifies CD5L as a critical regulator of the Th17 cell functional state and highlights the importance of lipid metabolism in balancing immune protection and disease induced by T cells. PMID:26607793

  10. Large scale validation of the M5L lung CAD on heterogeneous CT datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez Torres, E. E-mail: cerello@to.infn.it; Fiorina, E.; Pennazio, F.; Peroni, C.; Saletta, M.; Cerello, P. E-mail: cerello@to.infn.it; Camarlinghi, N.; Fantacci, M. E.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: M5L, a fully automated computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection and segmentation of lung nodules in thoracic computed tomography (CT), is presented and validated on several image datasets. Methods: M5L is the combination of two independent subsystems, based on the Channeler Ant Model as a segmentation tool [lung channeler ant model (lungCAM)] and on the voxel-based neural approach. The lungCAM was upgraded with a scan equalization module and a new procedure to recover the nodules connected to other lung structures; its classification module, which makes use of a feed-forward neural network, is based of a small number of features (13), so as to minimize the risk of lacking generalization, which could be possible given the large difference between the size of the training and testing datasets, which contain 94 and 1019 CTs, respectively. The lungCAM (standalone) and M5L (combined) performance was extensively tested on 1043 CT scans from three independent datasets, including a detailed analysis of the full Lung Image Database Consortium/Image Database Resource Initiative database, which is not yet found in literature. Results: The lungCAM and M5L performance is consistent across the databases, with a sensitivity of about 70% and 80%, respectively, at eight false positive findings per scan, despite the variable annotation criteria and acquisition and reconstruction conditions. A reduced sensitivity is found for subtle nodules and ground glass opacities (GGO) structures. A comparison with other CAD systems is also presented. Conclusions: The M5L performance on a large and heterogeneous dataset is stable and satisfactory, although the development of a dedicated module for GGOs detection could further improve it, as well as an iterative optimization of the training procedure. The main aim of the present study was accomplished: M5L results do not deteriorate when increasing the dataset size, making it a candidate for supporting radiologists on large

  11. Effects of Ultra Fast Cooling on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Pipeline Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yong; Li, Qun; Wang, Zhao-dong; Wang, Guo-dong

    2015-09-01

    X70 (steel A) and X80 (steel B) pipeline steels were fabricated by ultra fast cooling (UFC). UFC processing improves not only ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), yield ratio (YS/UTS), and total elongation of both steels, but also their Charpy absorbed energy ( A K) as well. The microstructures of both steels were all composed of quasi polygonal, acicular ferrite (AF), and granular bainite. MA islands (the mixtures of brittle martensite and residual austenite) are more finely dispersed in steel B, and the amount of AF in steel B is much more than that in steel A. The strength of steel B is higher than that of steel A. This is mainly attributed to the effect of the ferrite grain refinement which is resulted from UFC processing. The finely dispersed MA islands not only provide dispersion strengthening, but also reduce loss of impact properties to pipeline steels. UFC produces low-temperature transformation microstructures containing larger amounts of AFs. The presence of AF is a crucial factor in achieving desired mechanical properties for both steels. It is suggested that the toughness of the experimental steel increases with increasing the amount of AF.

  12. Small angle X-ray scattering studies of CTNNBL1 dimerization and CTNNBL1/CDC5L complex

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jae-Woo; Sik Jin, Kyeong; Francis Son, Hyeoncheol; Ho Chang, Jeong; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The hPrp19/CDC5L complex is a non-snRNP spliceosome complex that plays a key role in the spliceosome activation during pre-mRNA splicing, and CTNNBL1 and CDC5L are essential components of the complex. In this study, to investigate the oligomeric state of CTNNBL1 in solution, we performed small angle X-ray scattering experiments in various concentrations of NaCl. We observed that CTNNBL1 existed as a dimer in physiological NaCl concentrations. Site-directed mutagenesis experiment of CTNNBL1 confirmed that N-terminal capping region and the first four ARM repeats are important for dimerization of the protein. We also found that the positively-charged NLS3-containing region (residues 197–235) of CDC5L bound to the negatively-charged patch of CTNNBL1 and that the CTNNBL1/CDC5L complex formed a heterotetramer consisting of one CTNNBL1 dimer and one CDC5L dimer. Moreover, reconstruction of 3D models of CTNNBL1/CDC5L complexes containing CTNNBL1 and three different truncated forms of CDC5L showed that the CDC5L141–196 region and the CDC5L236–377 region were positioned at the top of the N-terminal capping region and at the bottom of ARM VII of CTNNBL1, respectively. PMID:26381213

  13. Depletion of pre-mRNA splicing factor Cdc5L inhibits mitotic progression and triggers mitotic catastrophe

    PubMed Central

    Mu, R; Wang, Y-B; Wu, M; Yang, Y; Song, W; Li, T; Zhang, W-N; Tan, B; Li, A-L; Wang, N; Xia, Q; Gong, W-L; Wang, C-G; Zhou, T; Guo, N; Sang, Z-H; Li, H-Y

    2014-01-01

    Disturbing mitotic progression via targeted anti-mitotic therapy is an attractive strategy for cancer treatment. Therefore, the exploration and elucidation of molecular targets and pathways in mitosis are critical for the development of anti-mitotic drugs. Here, we show that cell division cycle 5-like (Cdc5L), a pre-mRNA splicing factor, is a regulator of mitotic progression. Depletion of Cdc5L causes dramatic mitotic arrest, chromosome misalignments and sustained activation of spindle assembly checkpoint, eventually leading to mitotic catastrophe. Moreover, these defects result from severe impairment of kinetochore-microtubule attachment and serious DNA damage. Genome-wide gene expression analysis reveals that Cdc5L modulates the expression of a set of genes involved in the mitosis and the DNA damage response. We further found that the pre-mRNA splicing efficiency of these genes were impaired when Cdc5L was knocked down. Interestingly, Cdc5L is highly expressed in cervical tumors and osteosarcoma. Finally, we demonstrate that downregulation of Cdc5L decreases the cell viability of related tumor cells. These results suggest that Cdc5L is a key regulator of mitotic progression and highlight the potential of Cdc5L as a target for cancer therapy. PMID:24675469

  14. Depletion of pre-mRNA splicing factor Cdc5L inhibits mitotic progression and triggers mitotic catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Mu, R; Wang, Y-B; Wu, M; Yang, Y; Song, W; Li, T; Zhang, W-N; Tan, B; Li, A-L; Wang, N; Xia, Q; Gong, W-L; Wang, C-G; Zhou, T; Guo, N; Sang, Z-H; Li, H-Y

    2014-01-01

    Disturbing mitotic progression via targeted anti-mitotic therapy is an attractive strategy for cancer treatment. Therefore, the exploration and elucidation of molecular targets and pathways in mitosis are critical for the development of anti-mitotic drugs. Here, we show that cell division cycle 5-like (Cdc5L), a pre-mRNA splicing factor, is a regulator of mitotic progression. Depletion of Cdc5L causes dramatic mitotic arrest, chromosome misalignments and sustained activation of spindle assembly checkpoint, eventually leading to mitotic catastrophe. Moreover, these defects result from severe impairment of kinetochore-microtubule attachment and serious DNA damage. Genome-wide gene expression analysis reveals that Cdc5L modulates the expression of a set of genes involved in the mitosis and the DNA damage response. We further found that the pre-mRNA splicing efficiency of these genes were impaired when Cdc5L was knocked down. Interestingly, Cdc5L is highly expressed in cervical tumors and osteosarcoma. Finally, we demonstrate that downregulation of Cdc5L decreases the cell viability of related tumor cells. These results suggest that Cdc5L is a key regulator of mitotic progression and highlight the potential of Cdc5L as a target for cancer therapy. PMID:24675469

  15. The human CD5L/AIM-CD36 axis: A novel autophagy inducer in macrophages that modulates inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Sanjurjo, Lucía; Amézaga, Núria; Aran, Gemma; Naranjo-Gómez, Mar; Arias, Lilibeth; Armengol, Carolina; Borràs, Francesc E; Sarrias, Maria-Rosa

    2015-01-01

    CD5L (CD5 molecule-like) is a secreted glycoprotein that participates in host response to bacterial infection. CD5L influences the monocyte inflammatory response to the bacterial surface molecules lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) by inhibiting TNF secretion. Here we studied the intracellular events that lead to macrophage TNF inhibition by human CD5L. To accomplish this goal, we performed functional analyses with human monocytic THP1 macrophages, as well as with peripheral blood monocytes. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) reversed the inhibitory effect of CD5L on TNF secretion. Among the various PtdIns3K isoforms, our results indicated that CD5L activates PtdIns3K (whose catalytic subunit is termed PIK3C3), a key modulator involved in autophagy. Further analysis revealed a concomitant enhancement of autophagy markers such as cellular LC3-II content, increased LC3 puncta, as well as LC3-LysoTracker Red colocalization. Moreover, electron microscopy showed an increased presence of cytosolic autophagosomes in THP1 macrophages overexpressing CD5L. Besides preventing TNF secretion, CD5L also inhibited IL1B and enhanced IL10 secretion. This macrophage anti-inflammatory pattern of CD5L was reverted upon silencing of autophagy protein ATG7 by siRNA transfection. Additional siRNA experiments in THP1 macrophages indicated that the induction of autophagy mechanisms by CD5L was achieved through cell-surface scavenger receptor CD36, a multiligand receptor expressed in a wide variety of cell types. Our data represent the first evidence that CD36 is involved in autophagy and point to a significant contribution of the CD5L-CD36 axis to the induction of macrophage autophagy. PMID:25713983

  16. Functional analysis of the human CDC5L complex and identification of its components by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ajuh, Paul; Kuster, Bernhard; Panov, Kostya; Zomerdijk, Joost C.B.M.; Mann, Matthias; Lamond, Angus I.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, we identified proteins that co-purify with the human spliceosome using mass spectrometry. One of the identified proteins, CDC5L, corresponds to the human homologue of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe CDC5+ gene product. Here we show that CDC5L is part of a larger multiprotein complex in HeLa nuclear extract that incorporates into the spliceosome in an ATP-dependent step. We also show that this complex is required for the second catalytic step of pre-mRNA splicing. Immunodepletion of the CDC5L complex from HeLa nuclear extract inhibits the formation of pre-mRNA splicing products in vitro but does not prevent spliceosome assembly. The first catalytic step of pre-mRNA splicing is less affected by immunodepleting the complex. The purified CDC5L complex in HeLa nuclear extract restores pre-mRNA splicing activity when added to extracts that have been immunodepleted using anti-CDC5L antibodies. Using mass spectrometry and database searches, the major protein components of the CDC5L complex have been identified. This work reports a first purification and characterization of a functional, human non-snRNA spliceosome subunit containing CDC5L and at least five additional protein factors. PMID:11101529

  17. Application of Celluclast 1.5L in apple pectin extraction.

    PubMed

    Wikiera, Agnieszka; Mika, Magdalena; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bożena

    2015-12-10

    Pectins were extracted from apple pomace with Celluclast 1.5L at a dose of 25, 50 and 75 μl per 1g of material. In obtained pectin, the galacturonic acid (GalA) content, the neutral sugars (NS) profile, the degree of methylation (DM) and acetylation (DAc), the molecular mass, protein, ash and polyphenol levels as well as antioxidant and antitumor activity were determined. The lowest dose of enzymatic preparation resulted in the yield of pectin isolation comparable with acidic treatment (15.3%). Application of higher dose caused further, almost 4% increase in polymer recovery. Enzymatically isolated pectin was characterised by larger molecular mass and contained more GalA of higher DM and DAc than polymer extracted with acid. It was also richer in protein and polyphenols, and had different NS profile, which resulted in higher antiradical activity as well as the ability to inhibit the proliferation and invasion of Caco-2 adenocarcinoma cells. PMID:26428122

  18. Adhesions of extracellular surface-layer associated proteins in Lactobacillus M5-L and Q8-L.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingchun; Xiang, Xinling; Lu, Qianhui; Zhang, Lanwei; Ma, Fang; Wang, Linlin

    2016-02-01

    Surface-layer associated proteins (SLAP) that envelop Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei M5-L and Lactobacillus casei Q8-L cell surfaces are involved in the adherence of these strain to the human intestinal cell line HT-29. To further elucidate some of the properties of these proteins, we assessed the yields and expressions of SLAP under different incubation conditions. An efficient and selective extraction of SLAP was obtained when cells of Lactobacillus were treated with 5 M LiCl at 37°C in aerobic conditions. The SLAP of Lactobacillus M5-L and Q8-L in cell extracts were visualized by SDS-PAGE and identified by Western blotting with sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide-biotin-labeled HT-29 cells as adhesion proteins. Atomic force microscopy contact imaging revealed that Lactobacillus strains M5-L and Q8-L normally display a smooth, homogeneous surface, whereas the surfaces of M5-L and Q8-L treated with 5 M LiCl were rough and more heterogeneous. Analysis of adhesion forces revealed that the initial adhesion forces of 1.41 and 1.28 nN obtained for normal Lactobacillus M5-L and Q8-L strains, respectively, decreased to 0.70 and 0.48 nN, respectively, following 5 M LiCl treatment. Finally, the dominant 45-kDa protein bands of Lactobacillus Q8-L and Lactobacillus M5-L were identified as elongation factor Tu and surface antigen, respectively, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:26709174

  19. The EQ-5D-5L health status questionnaire in COPD: validity, responsiveness and minimum important difference

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Claire M; Longworth, Louise; Lord, Joanne; Canavan, Jane L; Jones, Sarah E; Kon, Samantha S C; Man, William D-C

    2016-01-01

    Background The EQ-5D, a generic health status questionnaire that is widely used in health economic evaluation, was recently expanded to the EQ-5D-5L to address criticisms of unresponsiveness and ceiling effect. Aims To describe the validity, responsiveness and minimum important difference of the EQ-5D-5L in COPD. Methods Study 1: The validity of the EQ-5D-5L utility index and visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) was compared with four established disease-specific health status questionnaires and other measures of disease severity in 616 stable outpatients with COPD. Study 2: The EQ-5D-5L utility index and EQ-VAS were measured in 324 patients with COPD before and after 8 weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation. Distribution and anchor-based approaches were used to estimate the minimum important difference. Results There were moderate-to-strong correlations between utility index and EQ-VAS with disease-specific questionnaires (Pearson's r=0.47–0.72). A ceiling effect was seen in 7% and 2.6% of utility index and EQ-VAS. Utility index decreased (worsening health status) with indices of worsening disease severity. With rehabilitation, mean (95% CI) changes in utility index and EQ-VAS were 0.065 (0.047 to 0.083) and 8.6 (6.5 to 10.7), respectively, with standardised response means of 0.39 and 0.44. The mean (range) anchor estimates of the minimum important difference for utility index and EQ-VAS were 0.051 (0.037 to 0.063) and 6.9 (6.5 to 8.0), respectively. Conclusions The EQ-5D-5L is a valid and responsive measure of health status in COPD and may provide useful additional cost-effectiveness data in clinical trials. PMID:27030578

  20. Microstructure and Mechanism of Strengthening of Microalloyed Pipeline Steel: Ultra-Fast Cooling (UFC) Versus Laminar Cooling (LC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Wang, X.; Hu, W.; Kang, J.; Yuan, G.; Di, H.; Misra, R. D. K.

    2016-05-01

    A novel thermo-mechanical controlled processing (TMCP) schedule involving ultra-fast cooling (UFC) technique was used to process X70 (420 MPa) microalloyed pipeline steel with high strength-high toughness combination. A relative comparison is made between microstructure and mechanical properties between conventionally processed (CP) and ultra-fast cooled (UFC) pipeline steels, together with differences in strengthening mechanisms with respect to both types of processes. UFC-processed steel exhibited best combination of strength and good toughness compared to the CP process. The microstructure of CP pipeline steel mainly consisted of acicular ferrite (AF), bainitic ferrite (BF), and dispersed secondary martensite/austenite (M/A) constituent and a small fraction of fine quasi-polygonal ferrite. In contrast, the microstructure of UFC-processed pipeline steel was predominantly composed of finer AF, BF, and dispersed M/A constituent. The primary strengthening mechanisms in UFC pipeline steel were grain size strengthening and dislocation strengthening with strength increment of ~277 and ~151 MPa, respectively. However, the strengthening contribution in CP steel was related to grain size strengthening, dislocation strengthening, and precipitation strengthening, and the corresponding strength increments were ~212, ~149 and ~86 MPa, respectively. The decrease in strength induced by reducing Nb and Cr in UFC pipeline steel was compensated by enhancing the contribution of grain size strengthening in the UFC process. In conclusion, cooling schedule of UFC combined with LC is a promising method for processing low-cost pipeline steels.

  1. Microstructure and Mechanism of Strengthening of Microalloyed Pipeline Steel: Ultra-Fast Cooling (UFC) Versus Laminar Cooling (LC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Wang, X.; Hu, W.; Kang, J.; Yuan, G.; Di, H.; Misra, R. D. K.

    2016-06-01

    A novel thermo-mechanical controlled processing (TMCP) schedule involving ultra-fast cooling (UFC) technique was used to process X70 (420 MPa) microalloyed pipeline steel with high strength-high toughness combination. A relative comparison is made between microstructure and mechanical properties between conventionally processed (CP) and ultra-fast cooled (UFC) pipeline steels, together with differences in strengthening mechanisms with respect to both types of processes. UFC-processed steel exhibited best combination of strength and good toughness compared to the CP process. The microstructure of CP pipeline steel mainly consisted of acicular ferrite (AF), bainitic ferrite (BF), and dispersed secondary martensite/austenite (M/A) constituent and a small fraction of fine quasi-polygonal ferrite. In contrast, the microstructure of UFC-processed pipeline steel was predominantly composed of finer AF, BF, and dispersed M/A constituent. The primary strengthening mechanisms in UFC pipeline steel were grain size strengthening and dislocation strengthening with strength increment of ~277 and ~151 MPa, respectively. However, the strengthening contribution in CP steel was related to grain size strengthening, dislocation strengthening, and precipitation strengthening, and the corresponding strength increments were ~212, ~149 and ~86 MPa, respectively. The decrease in strength induced by reducing Nb and Cr in UFC pipeline steel was compensated by enhancing the contribution of grain size strengthening in the UFC process. In conclusion, cooling schedule of UFC combined with LC is a promising method for processing low-cost pipeline steels.

  2. A Time Trade-off-derived Value Set of the EQ-5D-5L for Canada

    PubMed Central

    Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Gaebel, Kathy; Bansback, Nick; Bryan, Stirling; Ohinmaa, Arto; Poissant, Lise; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The 5-level version of the EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) was recently developed. A number of preference-based scoring systems are being developed for several countries around the world. Objective: To develop a value set for the EQ-5D-5L based on societal preferences in Canada. Methods: We used age, sex, and education quota sampling from the general population from 4 cities across Canada. Composite time trade-off (cTTO) and traditional time trade-off (tTTO) were used as the main elicitation technique. A total of 86 EQ-5D-5L health states grouped into 10 blocks were valued using cTTO, whereas a subset of 18 severe states was also valued using tTTO. Participants meeting predefined inconsistency criteria were excluded from the analyses. For the value set development, we used tTTO and positive cTTO values, while censoring negative and zero cTTO values at zero. Models with the main effects presented using linear terms combined with various additional terms were estimated. The preferred model was selected based primarily on logically ordered coefficients, and secondly model fit. Results: Of the 1209 participants who completed the interview, 136 met criteria that excluded them from the primary analyses. The demographics and socioeconomic status of the remaining 1073 participants were similar to the Canadian general population. The preferred model has 5 linear terms for the main effects, a term for level 4 or 5 for each dimension, and a term for the squared total number of level 4 or 5 beyond the first. For this preferred model, the health utilities ranged from −0.148 for the worst (55555) to 0.949 for the best (11111) EQ-5D-5L states. Conclusions: This is the first TTO-based value set of the EQ-5D-5L for Canada. It can be used to support the health utility estimation in economic evaluations for reimbursement decision making in Canada. PMID:26492214

  3. Hydrogen Induced Damage in Pipeline Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, Garrett R.

    The hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) resistance of several grades of plate steels was investigated using electrolytic hydrogen charging. HIC generated by electrolytic charging was also compared to the industrial standard test for HIC, the NACE standard TM0284. The electrolytic charging (EC) apparatus was designed to optimize the reproducibility of the HIC results and the robustness of the components during long charging times. A characterization study on the EC apparatus was undertaken. Alterations to applied current density and charging time were conducted on a highly susceptible plate steel, 100XF, to assess HIC damage as a function of charging conditions. Intermediate current densities of 10 to 15 mA/cm2 produced the greatest extent of cracking without significant corrosion related surface damage. The hydrogen charging time did not greatly affect the extent and depth of cracking for test times between 24 to 48 hours. Thus, for subsequent experiments, the applied current density was set to 15 mA/cm2 and the charging time was set to 24 hours. Plate steel grades X52, X60, X70, and 100XF were prestrained in tension to various levels and then electrolytically charged with hydrogen or tested with the NACE standard TM0284 test (solution A) saturated with H2S(g) to induce HIC. Prestrain was introduced to assess its impact on HIC. Hydrogen damage was quantified with the crack ratios defined in the NACE Standard TM0284. The results from the EC and NACE methods were very comparable to one, with respect to the magnitude of cracking and the trends between alloy and pre-strain conditions observed. Both methods showed that HIC substantially increased for the high strength 100XF steel compared to the lower strength alloys. This is consistent with NACE recommendations for HIC resistance steels, which suggests that alloy strength should be less than 116 ksi (800 MPa) or 248 HV (22 HRC). The HIC results were largely independent of the pre-strain levels imposed within the

  4. Supertough Stainless Bearing Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Gregory B.

    1995-01-01

    Composition and processing of supertough stainless bearing steel designed with help of computer-aided thermodynamic modeling. Fracture toughness and hardness of steel exceeds those of other bearing steels like 440C stainless bearing steel. Developed for service in fuel and oxidizer turbopumps on Space Shuttle main engine. Because of strength and toughness, also proves useful in other applications like gears and surgical knives.

  5. EQ-5D-5L in the General German Population: Comparison and Evaluation of Three Yearly Cross-Section Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Manuel B.; Reitmeir, Peter; Vogelmann, Martin; Leidl, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a key measure for evaluating health status in populations. Using the recent EQ-5D-5L for measurement, this study analyzed quality of life results and their stability over consecutive population surveys. Three cross-section surveys for representative samples of the general German population from 2012, 2013, and 2014 were evaluated using the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system and valuation by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Aggregated sample size reached 6074. The dimension with the highest prevalence of problems was pain/discomfort (31.7%). Compared with 2012 (59.3%), the percentage of participants in the best health state increased slightly in 2013 (63.4%) and 2014 (62%). Over the 3-year period, diabetes and heart disease had the strongest negative influence on mean VAS result. The number of reported chronic diseases cumulatively reduced mean VAS. Extreme problems in one or more dimensions were stated by only 0.1%–0.2% of patients. Of the potential 247 health states with a problem score ≥20, only six were observed in the aggregated sample. HRQoL results were fairly stable over the 3 years, but the share of the population with no problems was not. Results from the aggregated sample may serve as updated reference values for the general German population. PMID:27007387

  6. Glycoproteomic analysis of plasma from patients with atopic dermatitis: CD5L and ApoE as potential biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Kon; Hwang, Hyang-Ran; Kim, Do Hyung; Lee, Phil Young; In, Yu Jung; Ryu, Hye-Young; Park, Sung Goo

    2008-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disorder that is both uncomfortable and distressing to patients, and its prevalence has been steadily increasing. It is obvious that the identification of efficient markers of AD in plasma would offer the possibility of effective diagnosis, prevention, and treatment strategies. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to analyze plasma glycoproteins from both children with AD and healthy child donors. Several protein spots showing significant quantitative changes in the AD patients were identified. Through sequential studies, it was confirmed that CD5L and ApoE were significantly up-regulated or down-regulated, respectively, in the plasma from AD patients compared with that from healthy donors. In addition, we suggest that the up-regulated CD5L in AD patients causes eosinophilia by inhibiting apoptosis or promoting the proliferation of eosinophils either in combination with or without IL-5. The glycoproteomic data in this study provides clues to understanding the mechanism of atopic alterations in plasma and suggests AD-related proteins can be used as candidate markers for AD. PMID:19116453

  7. Ultrahigh carbon steels, Damascus steels, and superplasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.

    1997-04-01

    The processing properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been studied at Stanford University over the past twenty years. These studies have shown that such steels (1 to 2.1% C) can be made superplastic at elevated temperature and can have remarkable mechanical properties at room temperature. It was the investigation of these UHCSs that eventually brought us to study the myths, magic, and metallurgy of ancient Damascus steels, which in fact, were also ultrahigh carbon steels. These steels were made in India as castings, known as wootz, possibly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great. The best swords are believed to have been forged in Persia from Indian wootz. This paper centers on recent work on superplastic UHCSs and on their relation to Damascus steels. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Supporting steel

    SciTech Connect

    Badra, C.

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) have just completed a pilot program on the technical and economic viability of direct ironmaking by a process based on bath smelting. In this process, oxygen, prereduced iron ore pellets, coal, and flux are charged into a molten slag bath containing a high percentage of carbon. The carbon removes oxygen from the iron ore and generates carbon monoxide and liquid iron. Oxygen is then injected to burn some of the carbon monoxide gas before it leaves the smelting vessel. The partially combusted gas is sued to preheat and prereduced the ore before it is injected into the bath. There are several competing cokeless ironmaking processes in various stages of development around the world. A brief comparison of these processes provides a useful perspective with which to gauge the progress and objectives of the AISI-DOE research initiative. The principal competing foreign technologies include the Corex process, DIOS, HIsmelt, and Jupiter. The advantages of the direct ironmaking process examined by AISI-DOE were not sufficiently demonstrated to justify commercialization without further research. However, enough knowledge was gained from laboratory and pilot testing to teach researchers how to optimize the direct ironmaking process and to provide the foundation for future research. Researchers now better understand issues such as the dissolution of materials, reduction mechanisms and rates, slag foaming and control, the behavior of sulfur, dust generation, and the entire question of energy efficiency--including post combustion and the role of coal/volatile matter.

  9. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  10. Welding Rustproof Steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, W

    1929-01-01

    The following experimental results will perhaps increase the knowledge of the process of welding rustproof steels. The experiments were made with two chrome-steel sheets and with two chrome-steel-nickel sheets having the composition shown in Table I.

  11. The steel scrap age.

    PubMed

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-01

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age. PMID:23442209

  12. Methods of forming steel

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  13. Tool steels. 5. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, G.; Krauss, G.; Kennedy, R.

    1998-12-31

    The revision of this authoritative work contains a significant amount of new information from the past nearly two decades presented in an entirely new outline, making this a must have reference for engineers involved in tool-steel production, as well as in the selection and use of tool steels in metalworking and other materials manufacturing industries. The chapter on tool-steel manufacturing includes new production processes, such as electroslag refining, vacuum arc remelting, spray deposition processes (Osprey and centrifugal spray), and powder metal processing. The seven chapters covering tool-steel types in the 4th Edition have been expanded to 11 chapters covering nine main groups of tool steels as well as other types of ultrahigh strength steels sometimes used for tooling. Each chapter discusses in detail processing, composition, and applications specific to the particular group. In addition, two chapters have been added covering surface modification and trouble shooting production and performance problems.

  14. A Qualitative Assessment of the Content Validity of the ICECAP-A and EQ-5D-5L and Their Appropriateness for Use in Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Keeley, Thomas; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Lorgelly, Paula; Coast, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The ICECAP-A and EQ-5D-5L are two index measures appropriate for use in health research. Assessment of content validity allows understanding of whether a measure captures the most relevant and important aspects of a concept. This paper reports a qualitative assessment of the content validity and appropriateness for use of the eq-5D-5L and ICECAP-A measures, using novel methodology. Methods In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with research professionals in the UK and Australia. Informants were purposively sampled based on their professional role. Data were analysed in an iterative, thematic and constant comparative manner. A two stage investigation - the comparative direct approach - was developed to address the methodological challenges of the content validity research and allow rigorous assessment. Results Informants viewed the ICECAP-A as an assessment of the broader determinants of quality of life, but lacking in assessment of health-related determinants. The eq-5D-5L was viewed as offering good coverage of health determinants, but as lacking in assessment of these broader determinants. Informants held some concerns about the content or wording of the Self-care, Pain/Discomfort and Anxiety/Depression items (EQ-5D-5L) and the Enjoyment, Achievement and attachment items (ICECAP-A). Conclusion Using rigorous qualitative methodology the results suggest that the ICECAP-A and EQ-5D-5L hold acceptable levels of content validity and are appropriate for use in health research. This work adds expert opinion to the emerging body of research using patients and public to validate these measures. PMID:24367708

  15. Modern Steel Framed Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Steel Construction, Inc., New York, NY.

    In view of the cost of structural framing for school buildings, ten steel-framed schools are examined to review the economical advantages of steel for school construction. These schools do not resemble each other in size, shape, arrangement or unit cost; some are original in concept and architecture, and others are conservative. Cost and…

  16. The Steel Band.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Describes studying the steel drum, an import from Trinidad, as an instrument of intellectual growth. Describes how developing a steel drum band provided Montessori middle school students the opportunity to experience some important feelings necessary to emotional growth during this difficult age: competence, usefulness, independence, and…

  17. Steel Industry Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)

  18. EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, BUFFALO PLANT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROLL SHOP. 8" BAR MILL DESIGNED AND BUILT BY DONNER STEEL CO. (PREDECESSOR OF REPUBLIC), 1919-1920. FOR DESCRIPTION OF ORIGINAL MILL SEE "IRON AGE", 116\\4 (23 JULY 1925): 201-204. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  19. Nuclear transmutation in steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerova, A. R.; Shimanskii, G. A.; Belozerov, S. V.

    2009-05-01

    The investigations of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels that are widely used in nuclear power and research reactors and in steels that are planned for the application in thermonuclear fusion plants, which are employed under the conditions of a prolonged action of neutron irradiation with different spectra, made it possible to study the effects of changes in the isotopic and chemical composition on the tendency of changes in the structural stability of these steels. For the computations of nuclear transmutation in steels, we used a program complex we have previously developed on the basis of algorithms for constructing branched block-type diagrams of nuclide transformations and for locally and globally optimizing these diagrams with the purpose of minimizing systematic errors in the calculation of nuclear transmutation. The dependences obtained were applied onto a Schaeffler diagram for steels used for structural elements of reactors. For the irradiation in fission reactors, we observed only a weak influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability. On the contrary, in the case of irradiation with fusion neutrons, a strong influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability has been noted.

  20. Cobalt free maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Floreen, S.

    1984-04-17

    The subject invention is directed to ferrous-base alloys, particularly to a cobalt-free maraging steel of novel chemistry characterized by a desired combination of strength and toughness, notwithstanding that cobalt is non-essential.

  1. Structural Amorphous Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z. P.; Liu, C. T.; Thompson, J. R.; Porter, W. D.

    2004-06-01

    Recent advancement in bulk metallic glasses, whose properties are usually superior to their crystalline counterparts, has stimulated great interest in fabricating bulk amorphous steels. While a great deal of effort has been devoted to this field, the fabrication of structural amorphous steels with large cross sections has remained an alchemist’s dream because of the limited glass-forming ability (GFA) of these materials. Here we report the discovery of structural amorphous steels that can be cast into glasses with large cross-section sizes using conventional drop-casting methods. These new steels showed interesting physical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, along with high thermal stability. The underlying mechanisms for the superior GFA of these materials are discussed.

  2. Glass Stronger than Steel

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  3. Life after Steel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Bobby Curran grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Baltimore, finished high school, and followed his grandfather's steel-toed bootprints straight to Sparrows Point, a 3,000-acre sprawl of industry on the Chesapeake Bay. College was not part of the plan. A gritty but well-paying job at the RG Steel plant was Mr. Curran's ticket to a secure…

  4. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  5. Profiles in garbage: Steel cans

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1998-02-01

    Steel mills are the largest market for steel cans. Integrated mills use the basic oxygen process to manufacture tinplate, appliances, car bodies, and steel framing. Electric arc furnaces use 100% scrap to produce steel shapes such as railroad ties and bridge spans. Electric arc furnaces are more geographically diverse and tend to have smaller capacities than basic oxygen furnaces. Detinners remove the tin from steel cans for resale to tin using industries. With less tin use in steel cans, the importance of the detinning market has declined substantially. Foundries use scrap as a raw material in making castings and molds for industrial users.

  6. A novel polymorphism (901G > a) of C5L2 gene is associated with coronary artery disease in Chinese Han and Uyghur population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background C5L2, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), has been demonstrated to be a ligand for acylation-stimulating protein (ASP). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association of a novel variation (901A > G) of C5L2 gene with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods We identified a novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), (901G > A), in exon 2 using a polymerase chain reaction direct-sequencing method. This nucleotide change causes the amino-acid order from Arginine to glutaminate at codon 300. We analyzed the relationship between this SNP and CAD in two independent case–control studies: one was in a Han population (492 CAD patients and 577 control subjects) and the other was in a Uygur population (319 CAD patients and 554 control subjects). Results The frequency of AG genotype in CAD subjects was less than that in the control subjects not only in Han (1.8% vs 8.6%, P < 0.001, OR = 0.143, 95% CI: 0.068 ~ 0.302) but also in Uygur population (0.9% vs 5.2%, P = 0.001, OR = 0.246, 95% CI: 0.072 ~ 0.837). After adjustment for known CAD risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, age and gender, the difference remained significant. Conclusion The 901G > A polymorphism of C5L2 may be a genetic maker of CAD in the Han and Uygur population in western China. PMID:24073849

  7. View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  8. Brazing titanium to stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium and stainless-steel members are usually joined mechanically for lack of any other effective method. New approach using different brazing alloy and plating steel member with nickel resolves problem. Process must be carried out in inert atmosphere.

  9. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  10. Alloyed steel wastes utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Sokol, I.V.

    1995-12-31

    Alloyed steel chips and swarf formed during metal processing are looked upon as additional raw materials in metallurgical production. This paper presents some new methods for steel waste chips and swarf cleaning. One of them is swarf and steel chips cleaning in tetrachloroethylene with ultrasonic assistance and solvent regeneration. Thermal cleaning of waste chips and swarf provides off gas products utilization. The catalyst influence of the metal surface on the thermal decomposition of liquid hydrocarbons during the cleaning process has been studied. It has been determined that the efficiency of this metal waste cleaning technique depends on the storage time of the swarf. The waste chips and swarf cleaning procedures have been proven to be economically advantageous and environmentally appropriate.

  11. A-3 steel work completed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  12. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  13. Braze alloy spreading on steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siewert, T. A.; Heine, R. W.; Lagally, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Auger electron microscopy (AEM) were employed to observe elemental surface decomposition resulting from the brazing of a copper-treated steel. Two types of steel were used for the study, stainless steel (treated with a eutectic silver-copper alloy), and low-carbon steel (treated with pure copper). Attention is given to oxygen partial pressure during the processes; a low enough pressure (8 x 10 to the -5th torr) was found to totally inhibit the spreading of the filler material at a fixed heating cycle. With both types of steel, copper treatment enhanced even spreading at a decreased temperature.

  14. Sensitization of stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, James P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this experiment is to determine the corrosion rates of 18-8 stainless steels that have been sensitized at various temperatures and to show the application of phase diagrams. The laboratory instructor will assign each student a temperature, ranging from 550 C to 1050 C, to which the sample will be heated. Further details of the experimental procedure are detailed.

  15. The Bo1-specific PCR marker AWW5L7 is predictive of boron tolerance status in a range of exotic durum and bread wheats.

    PubMed

    Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2008-12-01

    High soil boron (B) constitutes a major soil problem in many parts of the world, particularly in low-rainfall areas and land under irrigation. Low accumulation of B in the shoot or grain of cereal crops is correlated with the maintenance of biomass production and grain yield under high B conditions, suggesting that this trait is an important component of field tolerance. A novel screening protocol to measure B accumulation in aerated and supported hydroponics was validated using a set of known and exotic bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.) accessions. Furthermore, B accumulation in two Triticum urartu Tumanian ex Gandilyan and 54 Triticum monococcum L. accessions was measured and showed considerable phenotypic variation. However, B accumulation in these lines was higher than that observed in the most tolerant durum or bread wheats. Mapping of high B tolerance in the durum population AUS14010/Yallaroi revealed a locus possibly allelic to Bo1, a major source of B toxicity tolerance previously identified in bread wheat. Here, we show that the Bo1-specific codominant PCR marker AWW5L7 is predictive of B tolerance status among exotic durum and bread wheat accessions. All tolerant durum accessions assayed carried very similar AWW5L7 marker fragments, indicating wide distribution of this allele among tolerant durum wheats. Three bread wheat accessions had tolerance that was independent of Bo1 and is probably located on chromosome 4A. These lines represent a valuable genetic resource for B toxicity tolerance breeding in wheat. PMID:19088810

  16. Functional Roles for C5a and C5aR but Not C5L2 in the Pathogenesis of Human and Experimental Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hani; Erdman, Laura K.; Lu, Ziyue; Serghides, Lena; Zhong, Kathleen; Dhabangi, Aggrey; Musoke, Charles; Gerard, Craig; Cserti-Gazdewich, Christine; Liles, W. Conrad

    2014-01-01

    The host immune response plays an important role in the onset and progression of cerebral malaria (CM). The complement system is an essential component of the innate immune response to malaria, and its activation generates the anaphylatoxin C5a. To test the hypothesis that C5a signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of CM, we investigated a causal role for the C5a receptors C5aR and C5L2 in a mouse model of experimental CM (ECM) induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection, and using a case-control design, we examined levels of C5a in plasma samples from Ugandan children presenting with CM or uncomplicated malaria (UM). In the ECM model, C5aR−/− mice displayed significantly improved survival compared to their wild-type (WT) counterparts (P = 0.004), whereas C5L2−/− mice showed no difference in survival from WT mice. Improved survival in C5aR−/− mice was associated with reduced levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and the chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) (CCL2). Furthermore, endothelial integrity was enhanced, as demonstrated by increased levels of angiopoietin-1, decreased levels of angiopoietin-2 and soluble ICAM-1, and decreased Evans blue extravasation into brain parenchyma. In the case-control study, the median levels of C5a at presentation were significantly higher in children with CM versus those in children with UM (43.7 versus 22.4 ng/ml; P < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that C5a is dysregulated in human CM and contributes to the pathogenesis of ECM via C5aR-dependent inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. PMID:24191300

  17. Special steel production on common carbon steel production line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Huachun; Han, Jingtao; Hu, Haiping; Bian, Ruisheng; Kang, Jianjun; Xu, Manlin

    2004-06-01

    The equipment and technology of small bar tandem rolling line of Shijiazhuang Iron & Steel Co. in China has reached the 90's international advanced level in the 20th century, but products on the line are mostly of common carbon steel. Currently there are few steel plants in China to produce 45 steel bars for cold drawing, which is a kind of shortage product. Development of 45 steel for cold drawing has a wide market outlook in China. In this paper, continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve of 45 steel for cold drawing used for rolling was set out first. According to the CCT curve, we determined some key temperature points such as Ac3 temperature and Ac1 temperature during the cooling procedure and discussed the precipitation microstructure at different cooling rate. Then by studying thermal treatment process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing, the influence of cooling time on microstructure was analyzed and the optimum cooling speed has been found. All results concluded from the above studies are the basis of regulating controlled cooling process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing. Finally, the feasible production process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing on common carbon steel production line combined with the field condition was recommended.

  18. Ferritic steel melt and FLiBe/steel experiment : melting ferritic steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Smith, Brandon M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan

    2004-11-01

    In preparation for developing a Z-pinch IFE power plant, the interaction of ferritic steel with the coolant, FLiBe, must be explored. Sandia National Laboratories Fusion Technology Department was asked to drop molten ferritic steel and FLiBe in a vacuum system and determine the gas byproducts and ability to recycle the steel. We tried various methods of resistive heating of ferritic steel using available power supplies and easily obtained heaters. Although we could melt the steel, we could not cause a drop to fall. This report describes the various experiments that were performed and includes some suggestions and materials needed to be successful. Although the steel was easily melted, it was not possible to drip the molten steel into a FLiBe pool Levitation melting of the drop is likely to be more successful.

  19. 77 FR 30589 - SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver Infrastructure Fund North America LP, and Patriot Funding LLC--Control Exemption--Patriot Rail Corp., et al. SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP (SRIP LP), SteelRiver...

  20. History of ultrahigh carbon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, J.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-06-20

    The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.

  1. On the estimation of the magnetic easy axis in pipeline steels using magnetic Barkhausen noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Ortiz, P.; Pérez-Benitez, J. A.; Espina-Hernández, J. H.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    A method for determination of the magnetic easy axis of the Roll Magnetic Anisotropy in API-5L steels is proposed. The method is based on the fact that the angular dependence of the energy corresponding to the main peak of the Magnetic Barkhausen signal presents uniaxial anisotropy with its easy axis parallel to the rolling direction, independently of the angular dependence of the magnetocrystalline energy in the materials. The proposal is also justified based on the analysis of the influence of microstructural changes, produced by hot-rolling on the domain wall dynamics.

  2. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  3. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  4. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  5. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  6. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  7. Nanoprecipitates in Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, Joachim H; Lu, Zhao Ping; Shim, Sang Hoon

    2007-01-01

    The creep strength of ferritic steels can be substantially improved by the incorporation of a high number density of nano-scale dispersoids. Examples for such alloys are the oxide dispersion strengthened steels MA956, MA957, and PM2000. The dispersoids in these steels contain Y and Ti, or Y and Al. They can be as small as a few nanometers in size. Processing is traditionally carried out by mechanical alloying of elemental or pre-alloyed powders mixed with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. The goal of the present research is to identify alternative ways of producing ultrafine dispersoids. One possible way is internal oxidation, in which reactive elements dissolved in a metallic matrix are selectively oxidized. Internal oxidation experiments were carried out with Fe-Y, Fe-Ti-Y, and Fe-Al-Y precursors. Microstructural analysis showed that dispersoid dimensions as small as 10 nm could be achieved. Atomized Fe-0.25 at% Y powder was internally oxidized and consolidated by hot forging. An increase in the high-temperature creep strength by {approx} 20% was observed. Since it is likely that the composition of the precursor alloys is crucial for maximizing the number density and thermal stability of the oxides, experiments allowing the rapid screening of different compositions have been initiated.

  8. Nanoprecipitates in Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, Joachim H; Kad, Bimal

    2008-01-01

    The creep strength of ferritic steels can be substantially improved by the incorporation of a high number density of nano-scale dispersoids. Examples for such alloys are the oxide dispersion strengthened steels MA956, MA957, and PM2000. The dispersoids in these steels contain Y and Ti, or Y and Al. They can be as small as a few nanometers in size. Processing is traditionally carried out by mechanical alloying of elemental or pre-alloyed powders mixed with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. The goal of the present research is to identify alternative ways of producing ultrafine dispersoids. One possible way is internal oxidation, in which reactive elements dissolved in a metallic matrix are selectively oxidized. Internal oxidation experiments were carried out with Fe-Y, Fe-Ti-Y, and Fe-Al-Y precursors. Microstructural analysis showed that dispersoid dimensions as small as 10 nm could be achieved. Atomized Fe-0.25 at% Y powder was internally oxidized and consolidated by hot forging. An increase in the high-temperature creep strength by {approx} 20% was observed. Since it is likely that the composition of the precursor alloys is crucial for maximizing the number density and thermal stability of the oxides, experiments allowing the rapid screening of different compositions have been initiated.

  9. Stainless Steel Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Buchenauer, Dean A.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in materials is critical to predicting tritium transport in structural metals (at high pressure), estimating tritium losses during production (fission environment), and predicting in-vessel inventory for future fusion devices (plasma driven permeation). Current models often assume equilibrium diffusivity and solubility for a class of materials (e.g. stainless steels or aluminum alloys), neglecting trapping effects or, at best, considering a single population of trapping sites. Permeation and trapping studies of the particular castings and forgings enable greater confidence and reduced margins in the models. For FY15, we have continued our investigation of the role of ferrite in permeation for steels of interest to GTS, through measurements of the duplex steel 2507. We also initiated an investigation of the permeability in work hardened materials, to follow up on earlier observations of unusual permeability in a particular region of 304L forgings. Samples were prepared and characterized for ferrite content and coated with palladium to prevent oxidation. Issues with the poor reproducibility of measurements at low permeability were overcome, although the techniques in use are tedious. Funding through TPBAR and GTS were secured for a research grade quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and replacement turbo pumps, which should improve the fidelity and throughput of measurements in FY16.

  10. P5L mutation in Ank results in an increase in extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate during proliferation and nonmineralizing hypertrophy in stably transduced ATDC5 cells

    PubMed Central

    Zaka, Raihana; Stokes, David; Dion, Arnold S; Kusnierz, Anna; Han, Fei; Williams, Charlene J

    2006-01-01

    Ank is a multipass transmembrane protein that regulates the cellular transport of inorganic pyrophosphate. In the progressive ankylosis (ank) mouse, a premature termination mutation at glutamic acid 440 results in a phenotype characterized by inappropriate deposition of basic calcium phosphate crystals in skeletal tissues. Mutations in the amino terminus of ANKH, the human homolog of Ank, result in familial calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease. It has been hypothesized that these mutations result in a gain-of-function with respect to the elaboration of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate. To explore this issue in a mineralization-competent system, we stably transduced ATDC5 cells with wild-type Ank as well as with familial chondrocalcinosis-causing Ank mutations. We evaluated the elaboration of inorganic pyrophosphate, the activity of pyrophosphate-modulating enzymes, and the mineralization in the transduced cells. Expression of transduced protein was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and by ELISA. Levels of inorganic pyrophosphate were measured, as were the activities of nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase and alkaline phosphatase. We also evaluated the expression of markers of chondrocyte maturation and the nature of the mineralization phase elaborated by transduced cells. The cell line expressing the proline to leucine mutation at position 5 (P5L) consistently displayed higher levels of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate and higher phosphodiesterase activity than the other transduced lines. During hypertrophy, however, extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate levels were modulated by alkaline phosphatase activity in this cell system, resulting in the deposition of basic calcium phosphate crystals only in all transduced cell lines. Cells overexpressing wild-type Ank displayed a higher level of expression of type X collagen than cells transduced with mutant Ank. Other markers of hypertrophy and terminal differentiation, such as

  11. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, William A.; Dudek, Frederick J.; Daniels, Edward J.

    1998-01-01

    A process for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75.degree. C. and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (i) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (ii) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (iii) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (iv) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte.

  12. High strength, tough alloy steel

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Rao, Bangaru V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range (1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below 300.degree. C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.

  13. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, W.A.; Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1998-07-14

    A process is described for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75 C and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (1) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (2) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (3) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (4) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte. 1 fig.

  14. Induction heat treatment of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Semiatin, S.L.; Stutz, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the induction heating. After reviewing heat treating operations for steel and the principles of the heat treatment of steel, an overview of induction heat treating is provided. Next, consideration is given to equipment and equipment selection, coil design, power requirements and temperature control. A discussion of surface and through hardening of steel is provided, including information on frequency and power selection and quenching apparatus. Tempering is considered, followed by information on control of residual stresses, cracking, temper brittleness and the important metallurgical and hardness differences between induction and furnace treated steel.

  15. Activation response of martensitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Forty, C.B.A.

    1997-09-01

    A hypothetical martensitic steel has been compositionally designed in order to optimize both metallurgical and reduced activation properties. When compared with two other martensitic steels, its activation characteristics are shown to be superior for all activation indices examined. However, these excellent properties are found to be due to the assumed absence of deleterious tramp impurities. When limiting impurity concentrations are determined for the hypothetical steel, they are found to be extremely stringent, and wholly unachievable using industrial scale production methods. It is concluded that only slight improvements can be made to currently available low activation martensitic steels to reduce residual activity responses further. 26 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Activation Response of Martensitic Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forty, C. B. A.

    1997-09-01

    A hypothetical martensitic steel has been compositionally designed in order to optimize both metallurgical and reduced activation properties. When compared with two other martensitic steels, its activation characteristics are shown to be superior for all activation indices examined. However, these excellent properties are found to be due to the assumed absence of deleterious tramp impurities. When limiting impurity concentrations are determined for the hypothetical steel, they are found to be extremely stringent, and wholly unachievable using industrial scale production methods. It is concluded that only slight improvements can be made to currently available low activation martensitic steels to reduce residual activity responses further.

  17. Mechanical Characteristics of Submerged Arc Weldment in API Gas Pipeline Steel of Grade X65

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, S. H.; Mohammadyani, D.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties of submerged arc weldment (SAW) in gas transportation pipeline steel of grade API X65 (65 ksi yield strength) were investigated. This steel is produced by thermo mechanical control rolled (TMC), and is largely used in Iran gas piping systems and networks. The results from laboratory study on three different regions; i.e. base metal (BM), fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) were used to compare weldment mechanical characteristics with those specified by API 5L (revision 2004) standard code. Different laboratory experiments were conducted on test specimens taken from 48 inch outside diameter and 14.3 mm wall thickness gas pipeline. The test results showed a gradient of microstructure and Vickers hardness data from the centerline of FZ towards the unaffected MB. Similarly, lower Charpy absorbed energy (compared to BM) was observed in the FZ impact specimens. Despite this, the API specifications were fulfilled in three tested zones, ensuring pipeline structural integrity under working conditions.

  18. Mechanical Characteristics of Submerged Arc Weldment in API Gas Pipeline Steel of Grade X65

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemi, S. H.; Mohammadyani, D.

    2011-01-17

    The mechanical properties of submerged arc weldment (SAW) in gas transportation pipeline steel of grade API X65 (65 ksi yield strength) were investigated. This steel is produced by thermo mechanical control rolled (TMC), and is largely used in Iran gas piping systems and networks. The results from laboratory study on three different regions; i.e. base metal (BM), fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) were used to compare weldment mechanical characteristics with those specified by API 5L (revision 2004) standard code. Different laboratory experiments were conducted on test specimens taken from 48 inch outside diameter and 14.3 mm wall thickness gas pipeline. The test results showed a gradient of microstructure and Vickers hardness data from the centerline of FZ towards the unaffected MB. Similarly, lower Charpy absorbed energy (compared to BM) was observed in the FZ impact specimens. Despite this, the API specifications were fulfilled in three tested zones, ensuring pipeline structural integrity under working conditions.

  19. Development and validation of a real time PCR for the detection of myxoma virus based on the diploid gene M000.5L/R.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Margarida Dias; Barros, Sílvia Carla; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Fagulha, Maria Teresa; Ramos, Fernanda; Luís, Tiago; Fevereiro, Miguel

    2014-02-01

    The myxoma virus (MYXV) causes severe infections in European rabbits that may reach mortality rates up to 100% depending on the viral strain. The typical symptoms and lesions induced by the virus are usually enough to permit the correct clinical diagnosis. However, in peracute forms the infection may be accompanied by unspecific symptoms. Sudden death may also occur without evident clinical signs of myxomatosis. Likewise, a clinical diagnosis of atypical forms of myxomatosis (amyxomatous) is often complicated and delayed due to the scarceness of skin lesions. As the disease control often depends on an early and unequivocal diagnosis of MYXV, laboratorial methods play a relevant role in the confirmation of MYXV infection. This study describes the development and validation of a novel, high accurate real time polymerase chain reaction assay (rtPCR) for the detection of MYXV. Primers were designed to amplify a 125-bp within the gene M000.5L/R, which is duplicated in the termini of the genome and is unique among Leporipoxvirus. The assay was negative for SFV and other poxviruses and was able to detect 2.6 copies of MYXV DNA proving the effectiveness, specificity and sensitivity of this diagnosis tool. The rtPCR has been applied successfully in INIAV laboratory for routine diagnosis of myxomatosis since 2005. PMID:24300832

  20. Elevation, looking SE. Concrete and steel bridge with exposed steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation, looking SE. Concrete and steel bridge with exposed steel frame is the central of three bridges crossing Brush Street between east Baltimore and Piquette. The bridge links Old Lake Shore and Michigan Central Main Line on the western side to a New York Central siding on the eastern side - Railroad Overpass, East Milwaukee & Hastings Avenues, Detroit, MI

  1. Photodesorption from stainless steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesarwi, A.; Ignatiev, A.

    1988-01-01

    The photodesorption by low-energy photons from three types of stainless steels is examined. For all these systems both CO and CO2 were observed to photodesorb with high yields: about 0.001 molecules/photon for CO2 and about 0.0001 molecules/photon for CO at 250 nm. The observed threshold energies were found to be the same for all systems at E0 = 2.92 eV for CO2 and E0 = 2.92-3.10 eV for CO.

  2. Switch to duplex stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Quik, J.M.A.; Geudeke, M.

    1994-11-01

    Duplex stainless steels contain approximately equal proportions of ferrite and austenite. These stainless steels have become an established material of construction in the chemical process industries (CPI). Duplexes offer benefits over austenitic stainless steels and carbon steels because of their higher strength, and good toughness and ductility, in combination with equivalent resistance to general corrosion, as well as better resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Additionally, duplex materials have thermal-conductivity and thermal-expansion coefficients similar to those of ferritic materials, are tough at low (sub-zero) temperatures, and have a high resistance to erosion and abrasion. In some of the highly corrosive environments encountered in the CPI, the super duplex stainless steels offer cost-effective options not possible with the standard austenitic stainless steels. The initial applications were almost exclusively as heat exchanger tubing in water-cooled service. In recent times, duplex stainless steels have been used in the oil, gas, and chemical industries. Examples include service in sweet and mildly sour corrosive environments, on offshore platforms where weight savings can be realized, and as a replacement for standard austenitic stainless steel in chemical-processing plants.

  3. The industrial ecology of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  4. Magnetoacoustic stress measurements in steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, M.; Utrata, D.; Allison, S. G.; Heyman, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Uniaxial stress effects on the low-field magnetoacoustic interaction have been studied using bulk compressional waves and Rayleigh surface waves in numerous steel samples having various impurity concentrations (Namkung et al., 1984). The results invariably showed that the initial slope of acoustic natural velocity variations, with respect to net induced magnetization parallel to the stress axis, is positive under tension and negative under compression. The results of current measurements in railroad rail steel having about 0.68 wt percent carbon content are typical for medium range carbon steels. The low-field natural velocity slope in this particular type of steel, which is almost zero when unstressed, becomes steeper with increased magnitude of stress in both directions. Hence, the nondestructive determination of the sign of residual stress in railroad wheels and rails is possible using this technique. This paper discusses the basic physical mechanism underlying the experimental observations and presents the results obtained in railroad rail steel.

  5. 2169 Steel Waveform Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furnish, M.; Alexander, C.; Reinhart, W.; Brown, J.

    2013-06-01

    In support of efforts to develop multiscale models of materials, we performed eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn). These experiments provided shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were used, with samples 1 to 5 mm thick. The study focused on dynamic strength determination via the release/reshock paths. Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allowed release information to be determined from these free surface samples as well. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Why stainless steel corrodes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mary P; Williams, David E; Chater, Richard J; Hutton, Bernie M; McPhail, David S

    2002-02-14

    Stainless steels are used in countless diverse applications for their corrosion resistance. Although they have extremely good general resistance, they are nevertheless susceptible to pitting corrosion. This localized dissolution of an oxide-covered metal in specific aggressive environments is one of the most common and catastrophic causes of failure of metallic structures. The pitting process has been described as random, sporadic and stochastic and the prediction of the time and location of events remains extremely difficult. Many contested models of pitting corrosion exist, but one undisputed aspect is that manganese sulphide inclusions play a critical role. Indeed, the vast majority of pitting events are found to occur at, or adjacent to, such second-phase particles. Chemical changes in and around sulphide inclusions have been postulated as a mechanism for pit initiation but such variations have never been measured. Here we use nanometre-scale secondary ion mass spectroscopy to demonstrate a significant reduction in the Cr:Fe ratio of the steel matrix around MnS particles. These chromium-depleted zones are susceptible to high-rate dissolution that 'triggers' pitting. The implications of these results are that materials processing conditions control the likelihood of corrosion failures, and these data provide a basis for optimizing such conditions. PMID:11845203

  7. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  8. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  9. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  10. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  11. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  12. Occupational Profiles in the European Steel Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Hans-Werner; And Others

    The steel industry in Europe has faced great changes, with resulting layoffs and restructuring. Now that the most basic changes seem to be over, it has become evident that the remaining steel industry requires more highly trained workers than was the case previously. Although steel maintenance employees were always highly skilled, steel production…

  13. Improving the toughness of ultrahigh strength steel

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Koji

    2002-08-15

    The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the toughening mechanism of the Fe/Co/Ni/Cr/Mo/C steel, AerMet 100, which has the highest toughness/strength combination among all commercial ultrahigh strength steels. The possibility of improving the toughness of this steel was examined by considering several relevant factors.

  14. Irradiation effects in ferritic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechtenberg, Thomas

    1985-08-01

    Since 1979 the Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance (ADIP) task funded by the US Department of Energy has been studying the 2-12Cr class of ferritic steels to establish the feasibility of using them in fusion reactor first wall/breeding blanket (FW/B) applications. The advantages of ferritic steels include superior swelling resistance, low thermal stresses compared to austenitic stainless steels, attractive mechanical properties up to 600°C. and service histories exceeding 100 000 h. These steels are commonly used in a range of microstructural conditions which include ferritic, martensitic. tempered martensitic, bainitic etc. Throughout this paper where the term "ferritic" is used it should be taken to mean any of these microstructures. The ADIP task is studying several candidate alloy systems including 12Cr-1MoWV (HT-9), modified 9Cr-1MoVNb, and dual-phased steels such as EM-12 and 2 {1}/{4}Cr-Mo. These materials are ferromagnetic (FM), body centered cubic (bcc), and contain chromium additions between 2 and 12 wt% and molybdenum additions usually below 2%. The perceived issues associated with the application of this class of steel to fusion reactors are the increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) with neutron damage, the compatibility of these steels with liquid metals and solid breeding materials, and their weldability. The ferromagnetic character of these steels can also be important in reactor design. It is the purpose of this paper to review the current understanding of these bcc steels and the effects of irradiation. The major points of discussion will be irradiation-induced or -enhanced dimensional changes such as swelling and creep, mechanical properties such as tensile strength and various measurements of toughness, and activation by neutron interactions with structural materials.

  15. High-strength, low-alloy steels.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M S

    1980-05-23

    High-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steels have nearly the same composition as plain carbon steels. However, they are up to twice as strong and their greater load-bearing capacity allows engineering use in lighter sections. Their high strength is derived from a combination of grain refinement; precipitation strengthening due to minor additions of vanadium, niobium, or titanium; and modifications of manufacturing processes, such as controlled rolling and controlled cooling of otherwise essentially plain carbon steel. HSLA steels are less formable than lower strength steels, but dualphase steels, which evolved from HSLA steels, have ferrite-martensite microstructures and better formability than HSLA steels of similar strength. This improved formability has substantially increased the utilization potential of high-strength steels in the manufacture of complex components. This article reviews the development of HSLA and dual-phase steels and discusses the effects of variations in microstructure and chemistry on their mechanical properties. PMID:17772810

  16. Welding tritium exposed stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

  17. Stainless steel display evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Darrel G.; Meyer, Frederick M.; Longo, Sam J.; Trissell, Terry L.

    2007-04-01

    Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) technology is one candidate to become a low power alternative in some applications to the currently dominant, active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD), technology. Furthermore, fabrication of the AMOLED on stainless steel (SS) foil rather than the traditional glass substrate, while presenting a set of severe technical challenges, opens up the potential for displays that are both lighter and less breakable. Also, transition to an SS foil substrate may enable rollable displays - large when used but small for stowage within gear already worn or carried or installed. Research has been initiated on AMOLED/SS technology and the first 320 x 240 color pixel 4-in. demonstration device has been evaluated in the AFRL Display Test and Evaluation Laboratory. Results of this evaluation are reported along with a research roadmap.

  18. 2169 steel waveform experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

    2012-11-01

    In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe - phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mm-thick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

  19. JPDR vessel steel examination

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, W.R.; Broadhead, B.L.; Sokolov, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    There is a need to validate the results of irradiation effects research by the examination of material taken directly from the wall of a pressure vessel which has been irradiated during normal service. This task has been included with the HSSI Program to provide just such an evaluation of material from the wall of the pressure vessel from the JPDR. The JPDR was a small BWR that began operation in 1963. It operated until 1976, accumulating {approximately}17,000 h of operation, of which a little over 14,000 h were with the original 45-MWTh core, and the remaining fraction, late in life, with an upgraded 90-MWTh core. The pressure vessel of the JPDR, fabricated from A 302, grade B, modified steel with an internal weld overlay cladding of 304 stainless steel, is approximately 2 m ID and 73 mm thick. It was fabricated from two shell halves joined by longitudinal seam welds located 180{degrees} from each other. The rolling direction of the shell plates is parallel to the axis of the vessel. It operated at 273{degrees}C and reached a maximum fluence of about 2.3 x 10{sup 18} n/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV). The impurity contents in the base metal are 0.10 to 0.11% Cu and 0.010 to 0.017% P with a nickel content of 0.63 to 0.65%. Impurity contents of the weld metal are 0.11 to 0.14% Cu and 0.025 to 0.039% P with a nickel content of 0.59%.

  20. Fabrication of stainless steel foil utilizing chromized steel strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loria, Edward A.

    1980-10-01

    Stainless steel foil has properties which are, in many respects, unmatched by alternative thin films. The high strength to weight ratio and resistance to corrosion and oxidation at elevated temperatures are generally advantageous. The aerospace and automotive industries have used Type 430 and 304 foil in turbine engine applications. Foil around 2 mils (5.1 × 10-3 cm) thick has been appropriate for the recuperator or heat exchanger and this product has also been used in honeycomb and truss-core structures. Further, such foil has been employed as a wrap to protect tool steel parts from contamination during heat treating. A large part of the high cost of producing stainless steel foil by rolling is due to the complicated and expensive rolling mill and annealing equipment involved. A method will be described which produces (solid) stainless steel foil from chromized (coated) steel which can be cheaper than the conventional processing stainless steel, such as Type 430, from ingot to foil. Also, the material is more ductile and less work hardenable during processing to foil and consequently intermediate annealing treatments are eliminated and scrap losses minimized.

  1. Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluwadare, G. O.; Agbaje, O.

    The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2♦, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

  2. Great Lakes Steel -- PCI facility

    SciTech Connect

    Eichinger, F.T.; Dake, S.H.; Wagner, E.D.; Brown, G.S.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the planning, design, and start-up of the 90 tph PCI facility for National Steel`s Great Lakes Steel Division in River Rouge, MI. This project is owned and operated by Edison Energy Services, and was implemented on a fast-track basis by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Babcock Material Handling, and Babcock and Wilcox. This paper presents important process issues, basic design criteria, an the challenges of engineering and building a state-of-the-art PCI facility in two existing plants. Pulverized coal is prepared at the River Rouge Power Plant of Detroit Edison, is pneumatically conveyed 6,000 feet to a storage silo at Great Lakes Steel, and is injected into three blast furnaces.

  3. Corrosion resistance of stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    This book reviews the mechanisms and forms of corrosion and examines the corrosion of stainless steels and similar chromium-bearing nickel containing higher alloys, detailing various corrosive environments including atmospheric and fire-side corrosion, corrosion by water and soil, and corrosion caused by particular industrial processes. It provides information on specific groups and grades of stainless steels; summarizes typical applications for specific stainless alloys; describes common corrosion problems associated with stainless steels; presents the acceptable isocorrosion parameters of concentration and temperature for over 250 chemicals for which stainless steels are the preferred materials of construction; discusses product forms and their availability; elucidates fabrication, welding, and joining techniques; and covers the effects of pickling and passivation.

  4. Hydrogen embrittlement of structural steels.

    SciTech Connect

    Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-06-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines, however it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a key failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. Applying appropriate structural integrity models coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of safety margins against fatigue crack growth in hydrogen containment structures. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of micromechanics models, which provide important insights such as the hydrogen distribution near defects in steel structures. The principal objective of this project is to enable application of structural integrity models to steel hydrogen pipelines. The new American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B31.12 design code for hydrogen pipelines includes a fracture mechanics-based design option, which requires material property inputs such as the threshold for rapid cracking and fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic loading. Thus, one focus of this project is to measure the rapid-cracking thresholds and fatigue crack growth rates of line pipe steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas. These properties must be measured for the base materials but more importantly for the welds, which are likely to be most vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement. The measured properties can be evaluated by predicting the performance of the pipeline

  5. Wear of steel by rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gent, A. N.; Pulford, C. T. R.

    1978-01-01

    Wear of a steel blade used as a scraper to abrade rubber surfaces has been found to take place much more rapidly on a cis-polyisoprene (natural rubber) surface than on a cis-polybutadiene surface, and much more rapidly in an inert atmosphere than in air. These observations are attributed to the direct attack upon steel of free-radical species generated by mechanical rupture of elastomer molecules during abrasion.

  6. Fatigue handbook: Offshore steel structures

    SciTech Connect

    Almarnaess, A.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of Offshore Steel Structures; Loads on Ocean Structures; Fracture Mechanics As a Tool in Fatigue Analysis; Basic Fatigue Properties of Welded Joints; Significance of Defects; Improving the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints; Effects of Marine Environment and Cathodic Protection on Fatigue of Structural Steels Fatigue of Tubular Joints; Unstable Fracture; Fatigue Life Calculations; and Fatigue in Building Codes Background and Applications.

  7. Analysis of plasma nitrided steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.; Ferrante, J.; Honecy, F.; Hoffman, R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of plasma nitrided steels can be divided to two main categories - structural and chemical. Structural analysis can provide information not only on the hardening mechanisms but also on the fundamental processes involved. Chemical analysis can be used to study the kinetics for the nitriding process and its mechanisms. In this paper preliminary results obtained by several techniques of both categories are presented and the applicability of those techniques to the analysis of plasma-nitrided steels is discussed.

  8. Process Hood Stand Support Steel

    SciTech Connect

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-04-03

    This package is written to comply with EN-6-035-00 for upgrade dedication of commercial grade items (CGI). The SNF-5953 CGI package provides the Technical evaluation to identify the critical characteristics and the acceptance criteria associated with the safety function of the Hood Stand Support Steel. Completion of the technical and quality requirements identified in the dedication package will provide enough data to be reasonably assured that CGI Hood Stand Support Steel will perform its SC function.

  9. Development of New Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Buck

    2005-08-30

    A new family of innovative martensitic stainless steels, 521-A, 521-B, and 521-C has been developed by Advanced Steel Technology, LLC (Trafford, PA) as high strength fastener (bolt) materials for use at moderate temperatures in turbine engines, including steam turbines, gas turbines, and aircraft engines. The primary objective of the development program was to create a martensitic stainless steel with high strength at moderate temperatures, and which could replace the expensive nickel-based superalloy IN 718 in some fasteners applications. A secondary objective was to replace conventional 12Cr steels such as AISI 422 used as blades, buckets and shafts that operate at intermediate temperatures in turbine engines with stronger steel. The composition of the new alloys was specifically designed to produce excellent mechanical properties while integrating heat treatment steps into production to reduce energy consumption during manufacturing. As a result, production costs and energy consumption during production of rolled bar products is significantly lower than conventional materials. Successful commercialization of the new alloys would permit the installed cost of certain turbine engines to be reduced without sacrificing high availability or operational flexibility, thereby enhancing the global competitiveness of U.S. turbine engine manufacturers. Moreover, the domestic specialty steel industry would also benefit through increased productivity and reduced operating costs, while increasing their share of the international market for turbine engine fasteners, blades, buckets and shafts.

  10. Remagnetization and Cementation of Unconsolidated Sediments in the Mallik 5L-38 Well (Canadian Arctic) by Solute Exclusion During Gas Hydrate Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, T. S.; Enkin, R. J.; Esteban, L.

    2007-05-01

    Bulk magnetic properties provide a sensitive measure of sedimentary diagenesis related to the stability and growth of gas hydrates. The deposit at Mallik (Mackenzie Delta, Canadian Arctic) occurs in unconsolidated Tertiary sands, but is absent in interstratified silt layers. A detailed sampling of the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 5L-38 core tested the use of magnetic properties for detecting diagenetic changes related to the hydrate. Petrographic studies reveal that the sands are well sorted and clean, with quartz > chert >> muscovite and little fines content. Excepting a few rare bands of indurated dolomite in the midst of the gas hydrate zone, there is little or no cementation in the sands. Detrital magnetite is the dominant magnetic mineral, comprising up to a few percent of the sand grain population. In contrast, the muddier layers have a somewhat different detrital grain composition, richer in lithic (sedimentary and metamorphic) grains, feldspar, and clays. They are extensively diagenetically altered (to as much as 30- 40%) and cemented with carbonates, clays, chlorite and the iron sulphide greigite (the dominant magnetic mineral). The greigite is recognized by its isotropic creamy-white reflectance, cubic to prismatic habit, and characteristic tarnish to faintly bluish bireflectant mackinawite. Habits range from disseminated cubes and colliform masses to inflationary massive sulphide veins and clots. Rare detrital grains of magnetite were observed among the silt grains, but never in a reaction relationship or overgrown. Instead the greigite has nucleated separately, in tensional fractures and granular masses up to 4 mm across. In this particular sediment sequence, being so quartz and chert rich, there is insufficient local source for the introduced cements (calcite, dolomite, greigite, clays, jarosite), so ions must have been introduced by fluid flow. Magnetic studies reveal a bi-modal character related to the lithology (sands versus silts) and their magnetic

  11. Hydrogen Permeation in Nanostructured Bainitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazum, Oluwole; Beladi, Hossein; Timokhina, Ilana B.; He, Yinghe; Bobby Kannan, M.

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogen permeation of nanostructured bainitic steel, produced at two different transformation temperatures, i.e., 473.15 K (200 °C) BS-200 and 623.15 K (350 °C) BS-350, was determined using Devanathan-Stachurski hydrogen permeation cell and compared with that of mild steel. Nanostructured bainitic steel showed lower effective diffusivity of hydrogen as compared to the mild steel. The BS-200 steel, which exhibited higher volume fraction of bainitic ferrite phase, showed lower effective diffusivity than BS-350 steel. The finer microstructural constituents (bainitic ferrite laths and retained austenite films) and higher dislocation density in the bainitic ferrite phase of BS-200 steel can be attributed to its lower effective diffusivity as compared to BS-350 steel and mild steel.

  12. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  13. Microbial corrosion of stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Ibars, J R; Moreno, D A; Ranninger, C

    1992-11-01

    Stainless steel, developed because of their greater resistance to corrosion in different aggressive environments, have proved to be affected, however, by various processes and types of corrosion. Some of these types of corrosion, mainly pitting, is activated and developed in the presence of microorganisms, which acting in an isolated or symbiotic way, according to their adaptation to the environment, create a favorable situation for the corrosion of these steel. The microorganisms that are involved, mainly bacteria of both the aerobic and anaerobic type, modify the environment where the stainless steel is found, creating crevices, differential aeration zones or a more aggressive environment with the presence of metabolites. In these circumstances, a local break of the passive and passivating layer is produced, which is proper to these types of steel and impedes the repassivation that is more favorable to corrosion. In the study and research of these types of microbiologically influenced corrosion are found electrochemical techniques, since corrosion is fundamentally an electrochemical process, and microbiological techniques for the identification, culture, and evaluation of the microorganisms involved in the process, as well as in the laboratory or field study of microorganism-metal pairs. Microstructural characterization studies of stainless steel have also been considered important, since it is known that the microstructure of steel can substantially modify their behavior when faced with corrosion. As for surface analysis studies, it is known that corrosion is a process that is generated on and progresses from the surface. The ways of dealing with microbiologically influenced corrosion must necessarily include biocides, which are not always usable or successful, the design of industrial equipment or components that do not favor the adherence of microorganisms, using microstructures in steel less sensitive to corrosion, or protecting the materials. PMID:1492953

  14. Multicomponent Synthesis and Evaluation of New 1,2,3-Triazole Derivatives of Dihydropyrimidinones as Acidic Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel.

    PubMed

    González-Olvera, Rodrigo; Román-Rodríguez, Viridiana; Negrón-Silva, Guillermo E; Espinoza-Vázquez, Araceli; Rodríguez-Gómez, Francisco Javier; Santillan, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    An efficient one-pot synthesis of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives of dihydropyrimidinones has been developed using two multicomponent reactions. The aldehyde-1,2,3-triazoles were obtained in good yields from in situ-generated organic azides and O-propargylbenzaldehyde. The target heterocycles were synthesized through the Biginelli reaction in which the aldehyde-1,2,3-triazoles reacted with ethyl acetoacetate and urea in the presence of Ce(OTf)₃ as the catalyst. The corrosion inhibition of steel grade API 5 L X52 in 1 M HCl by the synthesized compounds was investigated using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The measurements revealed that these heterocycles are promising candidates to inhibit acidic corrosion of steel. PMID:26907242

  15. 38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN BOILER PLANT LOCATED EAST OF MAIN STEEL PLANT, 1909. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  16. Anodized Steel Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Sagu, Jagdeep S; Wijayantha, K G Upul; Bohm, Mallika; Bohm, Siva; Kumar Rout, Tapan

    2016-03-01

    Steel was anodized in 10 M NaOH to enhance its surface texture and internal surface area for application as an electrode in supercapacitors. A mechanism was proposed for the anodization process. Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) studies of anodized steel revealed that it contains a highly porous sponge like structure ideal for supercapacitor electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that the surface of the anodized steel was Fe2O3, whereas X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that the bulk remained as metallic Fe. The supercapacitor performance of the anodized steel was tested in 1 M NaOH and a capacitance of 18 mF cm(-2) was obtained. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed that there was a large psueudocapacitive contribution which was due to oxidation of Fe to Fe(OH)2 and then further oxidation to FeOOH, and the respective reduction of these species back to metallic Fe. These redox processes were found to be remarkably reversible as the electrode showed no loss in capacitance after 10000 cycles. The results demonstrate that anodization of steel is a suitable method to produce high-surface-area electrodes for supercapacitors with excellent cycling lifetime. PMID:26891093

  17. Carbide transformations in constructional steels

    SciTech Connect

    Vinokur, B.B.

    1986-01-01

    In connection with the type of carbides formed in general purpose constructional steels or on the mechanisms of carbide transformations and the influence of carbide formation on the properties, this work presents an investigation that was made of medium-carbon chrome-nickel and chrome-manganese steels with 1, 2, and 3% Cr, 1% Ni, and 1% Mn additionally alloyed with 0.25-2% Mo or W (every 0.25%). All of the steels were hardened from temperatures providing the fullest solution of carbides in austenite and were tempered at 400-650/sup 0/C every 25-50/sup 0/C. The composition of the carbides and their type were established by chemical, x-ray diffraction, and microdiffraction methods and the mechanism of the carbide transformations was determined on the basis of the changes in distortions of the second and third order of the matrix electrical resistance, and coercive force of the steel. All of the carbideforming elements present in steel participate in saturation of the carbides, as a result of which the formation of a special carbide is eased and the degree of alloying of the matrix increases. In the carbide transformation with a certain share of carbide phase an increase or retarding of the reduction in strength with an increase in tempering temperature with constant plasticity and impact strength is possible.

  18. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Workers erect the first fabricated steel girders to arrive at the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. Steel work began at the construction site Oct. 29 and is scheduled to continue into next spring.

  19. High-temperature brazing of stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Heisman, R. M.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Prevention of iron contamination of platens is eliminated by placing alumina/silica ceramic-fiber blankets between platens and carbon-steel plate. Carbon-steel plates provide rigidity and improve heat transfer.

  20. ESF GROUND SUPPORT - STRUCTURAL STEEL ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    T. Misiak

    1996-06-26

    The purpose and objective of this analysis are to expand the level of detail and confirm member sizes for steel sets included in the Ground Support Design Analysis, Reference 5.20. This analysis also provides bounding values and details and defines critical design attributes for alternative configurations of the steel set. One possible configuration for the steel set is presented. This analysis covers the steel set design for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) entire Main Loop 25-foot diameter tunnel.

  1. Metallography of maraging 350 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, S.M.; Merten, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for etching maraging 350 steel with Glyceregia is described. Surface activation procedures are integral to this technique. Microstructural features revealed by this technique are compared with those obtained with Kalling's reagent, Fry's reagent, and 5% Nital, three etchants commonly used to reveal microstructures of maraging steels. Features which may be simultaneously revealed using Glyceregia include prior austenite grain boundaries, martensitic structure, precipitates, titanium carbo-nitrides, and reverted austenite. The other etchants examined in this investigation typically reveal only a few of the microstructural features detailed above at any one time. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-09-11

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate.

  3. Steel industry wastes. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Vachon, D.T.; Schmidt, J.W.; Schmidtke, N.W.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with waste processing of steel industry wastes is presented. The costs for the U.S. steel industry to comply with environmental standards are such that water reuse and recycling may be necessary. The review examines conventional coke plant wastewater treatments such as flotation, phenol extraction, ammonia stripping, and biological nitrification, and alternative treatment processes for blast furnace scrubber blowdown such as alkaline chlorination, ozonation, and reverse osmosis. A review of pickling operations and finishing processes is also included with their appropriate waste methods highlighted.

  4. Susceptibility of irradiated steels to hydrogen embrittlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossin, A. D.

    1968-01-01

    Investigation determined whether irradiated pressure-vessel steels 4340 and 212-B are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement and to catastrophic failure. Hydrogen-charging conditions which completely embrittled 4340 steel had negligible effect on 212-B steel in tensile and delayed-failure tests.

  5. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Fabricated steel began arriving by truck Oct. 24 for construction of the A-3 Test Stand that will be used to test the engine for the nation's next generation of moon rockets. Within days workers from Lafayette Steel Erector Inc. began assembling the 16 steel stages needed on the foundation and footings poured in the previous year.

  6. Steeling and Resilience in Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, Donalyn

    2014-01-01

    Steel is an incredibly strong alloy of iron and carbon. Due to its incredible strength and durability, this resilient material is commonly used for constructing buildings. The transitive verb "steeling" is defined in Miriam-Webster dictionary as "to fill with resolution or determination, as in, she 'steeled herself to face the…

  7. Teaching Steel Connections Using an Interactive Virtual Steel Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moaveni, Saeed; Chou, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Steel connections play important roles in the integrity of a structure, and many structural failures are attributed to connection failures. Connections are the glue that holds a structure together. The failures of the Hartford Coliseum in 1977, the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Kansas City in 1980, and the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis in 2007 are all…

  8. Superhard Nanocrystalline Homometallic Stainless Steel on Steel for Seamless Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Eric J.; Hafley, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to deposit nanocrystalline stainless steel onto steel substrates (homometallic) for enhanced wear and corrosion resistance. Homometallic coatings provide superior adhesion, and it has been shown that ultrafine-grained materials exhibit the increased hardness and decreased permeability desired for protective coatings. Nanocrystals will be produced by controlling nucleation and growth and use of an ion beam during deposition by e-beam evaporation or sputtering. Phase I is depositing 31 6L nanocrystalline stainless steel onto 31 6L stainless steel substrates. These coatings exhibit hardnesses comparable to those normally obtained for ceramic coatings such ZrO2, and possess the superior adhesion of seamless, homometallic coatings. Hardening the surface with a similar material also enhances adhesion, by avoiding problems associated with thermal and lattice mismatch. So far we have deposited nanocrystalline homometallic 316L stainless steel coatings by varying the ions and the current density of the ion beams. For all deposition conditions we have produced smooth, uniform, superhard coatings. All coatings exhibit hardness of at least 200% harder than that of bulk materials. Our measurements indicate that there is a direct relationship between nanohardness and the current density of the ion beam. Stress measurements indicate that stress in the films is increasingly proportional to current density of the ion beam. TEM, XPS, and XRD results indicate that the coated layers consist of FCC structure nanocrystallites with a dimension of about 10 to 20 nm. The Ni and Mo concentration of these coating are lower than those of bulk 316L but the concentration of Cr is higher.

  9. GALVANIZED STEEL: NATIONAL DISTRIBUTION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a field survey done to observe the extent and application of bare galvanized steel in the United States. or purposes of the analysis, the conterminous 48 states were grouped into four regions. ndustrial and rural areas were considered In the study which exam...

  10. Precision machining of steel decahedrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernathy, W. J.; Sealy, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Production of highly accurate decahedron prisms from hardened stainless steel is discussed. Prism is used to check angular alignment of mounting pads of strapdown inertial guidance system. Accuracies obtainable using recommended process and details of operation are described. Photographic illustration of production device is included.

  11. Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Platt, J A; Guzman, A; Zuccari, A; Thornburg, D W; Rhodes, B F; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

    1997-07-01

    The corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical and immersion (crevice) corrosion tests in 37 degrees C, 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical testing indicates that 2205 has a longer passivation range than 316L. The corrosion rate of 2205 was 0.416 MPY (milli-inch per year), whereas 316L exhibited 0.647 MPY. When 2205 was coupled to 316L with equal surface area ratio, the corrosion rate of 2205 reduced to 0.260 MPY, indicating that 316L stainless steel behaved like a sacrificial anode. When 316L is coupled with NiTi, TMA, or stainless steel arch wire and was subjected to the immersion corrosion test, it was found that 316L suffered from crevice corrosion. On the other hand, 2205 stainless steel did not show any localized crevice corrosion, although the surface of 2205 was covered with corrosion products, formed when coupled to NiTi and stainless steel wires. This study indicates that considering corrosion resistance, 2205 duplex stainless steel is an improved alternative to 316L for orthodontic bracket fabrication when used in conjunction with titanium, its alloys, or stainless steel arch wires. PMID:9228844

  12. 60 Years of duplex stainless steel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, J.; Liljas, M.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the history of wrought duplex stainless steel development and applications is described. Ferritic-austenitic stainless steels were introduced only a few decades after stainless steels were developed. The paper gives details from the first duplex stainless steels in the 1930`s to the super duplex stainless steel development during the 1980`s. During the years much effort has been devoted to production and welding metallurgy as well as corrosion research of the duplex stainless steels. Therefore, duplex stainless steels are to-day established in a wide product range. Numerous important applications are exemplified. In most cases the selection of a duplex steel has been a result of the combination high strength excellent corrosion resistance. In the pulp and paper industry the most interesting use is as vessel material in digesters. For chemical process industry, the duplex steels are currently used in heat exchangers. The largest application of duplex steels exists in the oil and gas/offshore industry. Hundreds of kms of pipelines are installed and are still being installed. An increased use of duplex steels is foreseen in areas where the strength is of prime importance.

  13. Dendritic inhomogeneity of stainless maraging steels

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnikova, S.I.; Drobot, A.V.; Shmelev, A.Y.; Vukelich, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors investigated dendritic inhomogeneity in industrial ingots 630 mm (steel I) in diameter and 500 mm (steel II) in diameter. The variation in the degree of dendritic inhomogeneity was investigated over the height of the ingots and across the sections on an MS-46 microprobe. It was established that the elements can be placed in the following order in accordance with the degree of reduction in the liquation factor: titanium, molybdenum, nickel, chromium, and cobalt. Titanium and molybdenum exhibit forward liquation in both steels, and chromium in steel II. The distribution of nickel and chromium in the steel I ingots and cobalt in the steel II ingots is unconventional. Dendritic inhomogeneity, which must be considered in assigning the heat treatment for finished articles, develops during the crystallization of stainless maraging steels.

  14. STEFINS: a steel freezing integral simulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M.V.

    1980-09-01

    STEFINS (STEel Freezing INtegral Simulation) is a computer program for the calculation of the rate of solidification of molten steel on solid steel. Such computations arize when investigating core melt accidents in fast reactors. In principle this problem involves a coupled two-dimensional thermal and hydraulic approach. However, by physically reasonable assumptions a decoupled approach has been developed. The transient solidification of molten steel on a cold wall is solved in the direction normal to the molten steel flow and independent from the solution for the molten steel temperature and Nusselt number along the direction of flow. The solutions to the applicable energy equations have been programmed in cylindrical and slab geometries. Internal gamma heating of steel is included.

  15. Nickel release from stainless steels.

    PubMed

    Haudrechy, P; Mantout, B; Frappaz, A; Rousseau, D; Chabeau, G; Faure, M; Claudy, A

    1997-09-01

    In 1994, a study of nickel release and allergic contact dermatitis from nickel-plated metals and stainless steels was published in this journal. It was shown that low-sulfur stainless steel grades like AISI 304, 316L or 430 (S < or = 0.007%) release less than 0.03 microgram/cm2/week of nickel in acid artificial sweat and elicit no reactions in patients already sensitized to nickel. In contrast, nickel-plated samples release around 100 micrograms/cm2/week of Ni and high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303-S approximately 0.3%) releases about 1.5 micrograms/cm2/week in this acid artificial sweat. Applied on patients sensitized to nickel, these metals elicit positive reactions in 96% and 14%, respectively, of the patients. The main conclusion was that low-sulfur stainless steels like AISI 304, 316L or 430, even when containing Ni, should not elicit nickel contact dermatitis, while metals having a mean corrosion resistance like a high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303) or nickel-plated steel should be avoided. The determining characteristic was in fact the corrosion resistance in chloride media, which, for stainless steels, is connected, among other factors, to the sulfur content. Thus, a question remained concerning the grades with an intermediate sulfur content, around 0.03%, which were not studied. They are the object of the study presented in this paper. 3 tests were performed: leaching experiments, dimethylglyoxime and HNO3 spot tests, and clinical patch tests; however, only stainless steels were tested: a low-sulfur AISI 304 and AISI 303 as references and 3 grades with a sulfur content around 0.03%: AISI 304L, AISI 304L added with Ca, AISI 304L+Cu. Leaching experiments showed that the 4 non-resulfurised grades released less than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week in acid sweat while the reulfurized AISI 303 released around or more than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week. This is explained by the poorer corrosion resistance of the resulfurized grade. Yet all these grades had the same

  16. Steel project fact sheet: Steel reheating for further processing

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Steel reheating is an energy-intensive process requiring uniform temperature distribution within reheating furnaces. Historically, recuperators have ben used to preheat combustion air, thereby conserving energy. More recent innovations include oxygen enrichment and the use of regenerative burners, which provide higher preheat air temperatures than recuperators. These processes have limitations such as equipment deterioration, decreasing energy efficiency over time, high maintenance costs, and increased NO{sub x} emissions with increased air preheat temperature, unless special equipment is used. Praxair, Inc., supplier of oxygen and other industrial gases to the steel industry, proposes to introduce an innovative oxy-fuel burner technology (using 100% oxygen) to the steel reheating industry. Oxy-fuel combustion reduces or eliminates nitrogen in combustion air and substantially reduces waste heat carried out with flue gas. Based on technology currently used in the glass, hazardous waste, and aluminum industries, Praxair has developed and patented low temperature, oxy-fuel burners that can be used in high temperature industrial furnaces where temperature uniformity is critical and extremely low NO{sub x} emissions are desired. The technical goal of the project is to demonstrate the use of oxy-fuel burners in a slab reheat furnace while reducing energy consumption by 45% and NO{sub x} emissions by 90% within the converted furnace zones. Successful implementation of this technology also will eliminate the need to periodically replace recuperators and install NO{sub x} removal equipment.

  17. A mortality study among mild steel and stainless steel welders.

    PubMed Central

    Moulin, J J; Wild, P; Haguenoer, J M; Faucon, D; De Gaudemaris, R; Mur, J M; Mereau, M; Gary, Y; Toamain, J P; Birembaut, Y

    1993-01-01

    A mortality study was carried out in conjunction with the European mortality study among welders coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The study was aimed at assessing risks for lung cancer in relation to exposure to asbestos, welding fumes containing chromium and nickel, and tobacco smoke. The study included a cohort of 2721 welders and an internal comparison group of 6683 manual workers employed in 13 factories in France. The mortality of the two cohorts was studied from 1975 to 1988 by the historical prospective method. Job histories of welders were traced including welding processes used, metals welded, and proportion of worktime spent in welding. Data on smoking habits were collected from medical records. The observed number of deaths were compared with those expected (standardised mortality ratio (SMR)) based on national rates with adjustments for age, sex, and calendar time. The smoking habits of 87% of the whole study population were known. The distribution of welders and controls according to smoking was not statistically different. The overall mortality was slightly higher for welders (SMR = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.89-1.18) than for controls (SMR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99). For lung cancer, the SMR was 1.24 (95% CI 0.75-1.94) for welders, whereas the corresponding value was lower for controls (SMR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.68-1.26). The SMR for lung cancer was 1.59 among non-shipyard mild steel welders (95% CI 0.73-3.02). This contrasted with the results for all stainless steel welders (SMR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.19-2.69), and for stainless steel welders predominantly exposed to chromium VI (SMR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.12-3.71). Moreover, SMRs for lung cancer for mild steel welders tended to increase with duration of exposure and time since first exposure, leading to significant excesses for duration > or = 20 years and latency > or = 20 years. Such a pattern was not found for stainless steel welders. PMID:8457490

  18. Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-10-01

    ITP conducted a study on energy use and potential savings, or "bandwidth" study, in major steelmaking processes. Intended to provide a realistic estimate of the potential amount of energy that can be saved in an industrial process, the "bandwidth" refers to the difference between the amount of energy that would be consumed in a process using commercially available technology versus the minimum amount of energy needed to achieve those same results based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study (PDF 133 KB) also estimates steel industry energy use in the year 2010, and uses that value as a basis for comparison against the minimum requirements. This energy savings opportunity for 2010 will aid focus on longer term R&D.

  19. Underwater wet welding of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, S.; Liu, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    Underwater wet welding is conducted directly in water with the shielded metal arc (SMA) and flux cored arc (FCA) welding processes. Underwater wet welding has been demonstrated as an acceptable repair technique down to 100 meters (325 ft.) in depth, but wet welds have been attempted on carbon steel structures down to 200 meters (650 ft.). The primary purpose of this interpretive report is to document and evaluate current understanding of metallurgical behavior of underwater wet welds so that new welding consumables can be designed and new welding practices can be developed for fabrication and repair of high strength steel structures at greater depths. First the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy behaviors of underwater weldments are discussed. Second, modifications of the welding consumables and processes are suggested to enhance the ability to apply wet welding techniques.

  20. Longer Life for Steel Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    IC 531 is a coating manufactured and marketed by Inorganic Coatings, Inc. The coating was developed by Goddard to protect structures at Kennedy Space Center. It is a high ratio potassium silicate formula. The coating is water based, nontoxic, and nonflammable. It generates no volatile organic compounds nor hazardous chemical waste, and bonds to steel in 30 minutes. At the present time, no one can say for sure how long IC 531's effective lifetime is. Some of the original Goddard test applications of 1976 are still going strong after lengthy exposure to the Sun, salt and moisture. Says IC in company literature: 'IC 531 offers virtually permanent protection for steel. We predict it will protect structures for well beyond 25 years. If necessary, it is infinitely maintainable; if damaged, it can easily be touched up with more IC 531.'

  1. Welding of high chromium steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W B

    1928-01-01

    A brief description is given of different groups of high chromium steels (rustless iron and stainless steels) according to their composition and more generally accepted names. The welding procedure for a given group will be much the same regardless of the slight variations in chemical composition which may exist within a certain group. Information is given for the tensile properties (yield point and ultimate strength) of metal sheets and welds before and after annealing on coupons one and one-half inches wide. Since welds in rustless iron containing 16 to 18 percent chromium and 7 to 12 percent nickel show the best combination of strength and ductility in the 'as welded' or annealed condition, it is considered the best alloy to use for welded construction.

  2. Bond characteristics of steel fiber and deformed reinforcing steel bar embedded in steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslani, Farhad; Nejadi, Shami

    2012-09-01

    Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) is a relatively new composite material which congregates the benefits of the self-compacting concrete (SCC) technology with the profits derived from the fiber addition to a brittle cementitious matrix. Steel fibers improve many of the properties of SCC elements including tensile strength, ductility, toughness, energy absorption capacity, fracture toughness and cracking. Although the available research regarding the influence of steel fibers on the properties of SFRSCC is limited, this paper investigates the bond characteristics between steel fiber and SCC firstly. Based on the available experimental results, the current analytical steel fiber pullout model (Dubey 1999) is modified by considering the different SCC properties and different fiber types (smooth, hooked) and inclination. In order to take into account the effect of fiber inclination in the pullout model, apparent shear strengths (τ (app)) and slip coefficient (β) are incorporated to express the variation of pullout peak load and the augmentation of peak slip as the inclined angle increases. These variables are expressed as functions of the inclined angle (ϕ). Furthurmore, steel-concrete composite floors, reinforced concrete floors supported by columns or walls and floors on an elastic foundations belong to the category of structural elements in which the conventional steel reinforcement can be partially replaced by the use of steel fibers. When discussing deformation capacity of structural elements or civil engineering structures manufactured using SFRSCC, one must be able to describe thoroughly both the behavior of the concrete matrix reinforced with steel fibers and the interaction between this composite matrix and discrete steel reinforcement of the conventional type. However, even though the knowledge on bond behavior is essential for evaluating the overall behavior of structural components containing reinforcement and steel fibers

  3. Bond characteristics of steel fiber and deformed reinforcing steel bar embedded in steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslani, Farhad; Nejadi, Shami

    2012-09-01

    Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) is a relatively new composite material which congregates the benefits of the self-compacting concrete (SCC) technology with the profits derived from the fiber addition to a brittle cementitious matrix. Steel fibers improve many of the properties of SCC elements including tensile strength, ductility, toughness, energy absorption capacity, fracture toughness and cracking. Although the available research regarding the influence of steel fibers on the properties of SFRSCC is limited, this paper investigates the bond characteristics between steel fiber and SCC firstly. Based on the available experimental results, the current analytical steel fiber pullout model (Dubey 1999) is modified by considering the different SCC properties and different fiber types (smooth, hooked) and inclination. In order to take into account the effect of fiber inclination in the pullout model, apparent shear strengths ( τ ( app)) and slip coefficient ( β) are incorporated to express the variation of pullout peak load and the augmentation of peak slip as the inclined angle increases. These variables are expressed as functions of the inclined angle ( ϕ). Furthurmore, steel-concrete composite floors, reinforced concrete floors supported by columns or walls and floors on an elastic foundations belong to the category of structural elements in which the conventional steel reinforcement can be partially replaced by the use of steel fibers. When discussing deformation capacity of structural elements or civil engineering structures manufactured using SFRSCC, one must be able to describe thoroughly both the behavior of the concrete matrix reinforced with steel fibers and the interaction between this composite matrix and discrete steel reinforcement of the conventional type. However, even though the knowledge on bond behavior is essential for evaluating the overall behavior of structural components containing reinforcement and steel fibers

  4. Steel Collet For Welding Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.; Burley, Richard K.; Fogul, Irving

    1992-01-01

    Improved steel collet holds electrode for tungsten inert-gas welding but allows quick and easy replacement. Also ensures reliable arc starting. Slip-on compression ring compresses tapered section of body of collet around inner end of welding electrode. Collet mounted in receptacle below stack of lenses and filters in coaxial-vision welding torch. Blind hole in collet protects outermost lens from damage by electrode.

  5. Determination of zirconium in steels.

    PubMed

    Iyer, C S; Asari, T P

    1989-03-01

    The determination of zirconium in the range 0.01-0.20% is required for some special alloy steels. A method has been developed, based on initial removal of iron as its chloro-complex by extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone, followed by further extraction after addition of potassium thiocyanate, and determination of the zirconium left in the aqueous phase, with Arsenazo III. The absorbance is measured at 665 nm. PMID:18964725

  6. Nano-composite stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Blue, Craig A.; Peter, William H.; Chen, Wei; Aprigliano, Louis F.

    2015-07-14

    A composite stainless steel composition is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. % ranges: 25 to 28 Cr; 11 to 13 Ni; 7 to 8 W; 3.5 to 4 Mo; 3 to 3.5 B; 2 to 2.5 Mn; 1 to 1.5 Si; 0.3 to 1.7 C; up to 2 O; balance Fe. The composition has an austenitic matrix phase and a particulate, crystalline dispersed phase.

  7. A study of Damascus steel

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, P.

    1995-02-16

    The Damascus sword has been an article of fascination for many years to blade collectors and metallurgists alike. The blades were given their name by Europeans who encountered these blades which originated from Damascus, Syria. They are best known for the appearance of the blade face. Genuine Damascus blades show swirling patterns of alternating light and dark regions which are due to the microstructure of the steel. The microstructure consists of arrays of well rounded cementite patterns in a matrix of either pearlite, bainite, or martensite. When this structure is etched the matrix will turn dark leaving the cementite particles light. Although many blades were produced over the centuries, while some of the process is known the making of a genuine Damascus blade today is generally considered a lost art. Many scientists have studied the subject in an attempt to understand the complex process by which the clustered arrays of cementite particles develop in the steel blades. The most prominent theories to date are presented in the General Introduction to this thesis. The thesis is divided into four main parts. In the first part, four proposed mechanisms of cementite cluster sheet formation as they relate to the banding theory are introduced. Experiments to investigate these mechanisms are presented. In Part II, collaborative research focused on the methodology of the reconstructed process for making Damascus steel is presented. In the third part, a study into the graphitization of the reconstructed blades is presented. In Part IV, experimental attempts at producing Damascus steel ingots in the laboratory are presented.

  8. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF 347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  9. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  10. Microstructures in laser welded high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, P.; Bellingeri, S.; Massimino, F.; Baldissin, D.; Battezzati, L.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the effect of laser welding on the microstructure was studied for three Advanced High Strength Steels: transformation induced plasticity steel (TRIP), dual phase steel (DP) and martensitic steel. Two sheets of the same steel were laser welded and a microstructural study was performed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. For all samples the welded zone was constituted by martensite and the heat affected zone shows a continuous change in microstructure depending on temperatures reached and on the different cooling rates. The change in mechanical properties in the welded area was followed by Vickers micro-hardness measurements. Quasi binary phase diagrams were calculated and, according to position of T0 lines, it was deduced that austenite is the primary phase forming during rapid solidification for all steels.

  11. A Method for Imaging Steel Bars Behind a Ferrous Steel Boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, B.; Miller, G.; Zaid, M.; Gaydecki, P.

    2006-03-06

    A system for detecting steel objects behind ferrous steel boundaries is described. It may be used to image steel reinforcing bars in concrete, where a steel sheet exists between the bars and the surface. The sensor comprises a transmitter, receiver and a dummy coil, which cancels cross-talk and enhances the signal from the bars. It is possible to penetrate a 2mm thick sheet at 125 Hz and image 16 mm diameter bars placed underneath.

  12. A Method for Imaging Steel Bars Behind a Ferrous Steel Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, B.; Miller, G.; Zaid, M.; Gaydecki, P.

    2006-03-01

    A system for detecting steel objects behind ferrous steel boundaries is described. It may be used to image steel reinforcing bars in concrete, where a steel sheet exists between the bars and the surface. The sensor comprises a transmitter, receiver and a dummy coil, which cancels cross-talk and enhances the signal from the bars. It is possible to penetrate a 2mm thick sheet at 125 Hz and image 16 mm diameter bars placed underneath.

  13. The Structure and Mechanical Properties of Bridge Steel Weldings With Glass-Steel Liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzalev, V. N.; Semukhin, B. S.; Danilov, V. I.

    2016-04-01

    A new technology is developed for welding multi-span bridge constructions. The mechanical properties and structure of the low-carbon bridge steel welds have been studied. The welding parameters and application of steel-glass liners provide for long-term service of steel constructions in conformity with the welding industry specifications.

  14. Corrosion of stainless steel, 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sedriks, A.J.

    1996-10-01

    The book describes corrosion characteristics in all the major and minor groups of stainless steels, namely, in austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, duplex, and precipitation hardenable steels. Several chapters are spent on those special forms of corrosion that are investigated in the great detail in stainless steels, namely, pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. The influences of thermal treatment (heat affected zone cases), composition, and microstructure on corrosion are given good coverage. Corrosive environments include high temperature oxidation, sulfidation as well as acids, alkalis, various different petroleum plant environments, and even human body fluids (stainless steels are commonly used prosthetic materials).

  15. Fracture Toughness of Functionally Graded Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, Ali; Mohandesi, Jamshid Aghazadeh; Riahi, Shadi

    2012-04-01

    In this study, fracture toughness of functionally graded steels in both crack divider and crack arrester configurations has been studied. Spot-welded plain carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel with different thicknesses and arrangements were used as electrodes of electroslag remelting to produce functionally graded steels. Fracture toughness of the specimens in crack divider configuration was found to depend on the arrangements of the primary electrodes' pieces together with the type of the containing phases. In crack arrester configuration, the fracture toughness was found to depend on the crack tip position and the distance of the crack tip with respect to the bainitic or martensitic intermediate layers.

  16. Use of ferritic steels in breeder reactors worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Patriarca, P.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of LMFBR reactor steam generator materials is reviewed. Tensile properties of stainless steel-304, stainless steel-316, chromium-molybdenum steels, and Incoloy 800H are presented for elevated temperatures.

  17. North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Crucible Steel Plant, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  18. 37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT AT TIME OF ITS OPENING, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  19. 30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING CREW, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Colletion, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  20. Steel shear walls, behavior, modeling and design

    SciTech Connect

    Astaneh-Asl, Abolhassan

    2008-07-08

    In recent years steel shear walls have become one of the more efficient lateral load resisting systems in tall buildings. The basic steel shear wall system consists of a steel plate welded to boundary steel columns and boundary steel beams. In some cases the boundary columns have been concrete-filled steel tubes. Seismic behavior of steel shear wall systems during actual earthquakes and based on laboratory cyclic tests indicates that the systems are quite ductile and can be designed in an economical way to have sufficient stiffness, strength, ductility and energy dissipation capacity to resist seismic effects of strong earthquakes. This paper, after summarizing the past research, presents the results of two tests of an innovative steel shear wall system where the boundary elements are concrete-filled tubes. Then, a review of currently available analytical models of steel shear walls is provided with a discussion of capabilities and limitations of each model. We have observed that the tension only 'strip model', forming the basis of the current AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls, is not capable of predicting the behavior of steel shear walls with length-to-thickness ratio less than about 600 which is the range most common in buildings. The main reasons for such shortcomings of the AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls is that it ignores the compression field in the shear walls, which can be significant in typical shear walls. The AISC method also is not capable of incorporating stresses in the shear wall due to overturning moments. A more rational seismic design procedure for design of shear walls proposed in 2000 by the author is summarized in the paper. The design method, based on procedures used for design of steel plate girders, takes into account both tension and compression stress fields and is applicable to all values of length-to-thickness ratios of steel shear walls. The method is also capable of including the effect of

  1. Evaluation of Steel Cleanliness in a Steel Deoxidized Using Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Cedeño, Edgar-Ivan; Herrera-Trejo, Martín; Castro-Román, Manuel; Castro-Uresti, Fabián; López-Cornejo, Monserrat

    2016-06-01

    The effect of magnesium in the aluminum used as a deoxidizer on the cleanliness of steel was studied throughout a steelmaking route for the production of thin slabs. Two deoxidizers with different Mg contents were used. The Mg content of a "typical" deoxidizer was ~0.5 wt pct Mg, whereas that for an alternative deoxidizer was ~2 wt pct Mg. The inclusion population at different stages of the steelmaking process was characterized in terms of chemical composition, number, and size distribution. The inclusion modification path shows that the solid Al2O3 and Al2O3-MgO inclusions formed in the early stage of the steel ladle treatment are modified into Al2O3-MgO-CaO liquid and MgO-Al2O3-liquid inclusions. Although some slight differences were observed in the ladle furnace samples, the chemical composition of inclusions was similar in the samples taken at the mold of the continuous casting, regardless of the deoxidizer used. Gumbel, generalized extreme value (GEV), and generalized Pareto (GP) distributions were used for the description of the size distribution. The GEV and GP distributions resulted in proper distributions to describe the evolution of size distribution throughout the steelmaking process. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences between inclusion size distributions resulting from the use of either deoxidizer were found.

  2. Chromizing of 3Cr Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, Vilupanur; Harrison, Bradley; Koch, Jordan; Ly, Alexander; Schissler, Andrew; Pint, Bruce A; Haynes, James A

    2011-01-01

    Grade 315 steel (Fe-2.9 Cr-1.7 W-0.7 Mo-0.3 Mn-0.3 Si-0.2 V-0.1 Ni-0.13 C-0.01 N) was chromized by the halide-activated pack cementation (HAPC) process. Key process parameters, i.e., coating temperatures and pack compositions, were investigated. Ammonium chloride-activated packs in the 700-1000 C range produced coatings nominally in the 1-8 {micro}m range, as determined by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Coatings applied in the 900-1000 C temperature range resulted in Cr-rich coatings. The predominant phase in the coating was identified as Cr23C6 by X-ray diffraction. In addition, the presence of chromium nitride, Cr2N, was observed in the coating. The power generation industry is faced with an ever-increasing demand for energy while simultaneously having to reduce carbon emissions. These goals can be facilitated by increasing plant efficiency through the use of higher operating temperatures and pressures. Traditional construction materials, e.g., the ferritic Grade 22 high strength low alloy steel, are limited to operations below {approx} 550 C. Therefore, new materials are required for future plants designed to operate up to 650 C and possibly higher. These new materials need to have improved tensile strength, ductility, toughness, corrosion resistance, and creep properties at elevated temperatures. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is investigating the oxidation and creep behavior of various coatings on Grade 315 steel (Fe-2.9 Cr-1.7 W-0.7 Mo-0.3 Mn-0.3 Si-0.2 V-0.1 Ni-0.13 C-0.01 N), a super-bainitic steel developed for superior creep properties. Thin, chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) aluminide coatings were used to compensate for the reduced corrosion and oxidation resistance that resulted from the low chromium content of the alloy. However, the aluminized Grade 315 alloys performed less-than-favorably under conditions relevant to fossil boilers, leading to the conclusion that higher chromium contents are required for the formation of

  3. Is stainless steel really "stainless"?

    PubMed

    Porteous, Joan

    2011-06-01

    Initial purchase and replacement costs for surgical instrumentation are significant components in today's operating room budgets. OR staff and medical device reprocessing personnel work together as a team to ensure effective management of this valuable commodity. The purpose of this article is to discuss the composition of stainless steel surgical instruments, to identify processes to minimize damage to instruments caused by staining, corrosion, and pitting, and to utilize that information to describe effective measures to manage instrumentation in both the OR and reprocessing areas. PMID:21823503

  4. Help for the Steel Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-01-01

    A collaboration between NASA Lewis Research Center (LRC) and Gladwin Engineering resulted in the adaptation of aerospace high temperature metal technology to the continuous casting of steel. The continuous process is more efficient because it takes less time and labor. A high temperature material, once used on the X-15 research plane, was applied to metal rollers by a LRC developed spraying technique. Lewis Research Center also supplied mold prototype of metal composites, reducing erosion and promoting thermal conductivity. Rollers that previously cracked due to thermal fatigue, lasted longer. Gladwin's sales have increased, and additional NASA-developed innovations are anticipated.

  5. Clean steel technology -- Fundamental to the development of high performance steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.D.

    1999-07-01

    The use of clean steel technology (low sulfur with calcium treatment for inclusion shape control) is a fundamental building block in the development of high performance plate steels. A brief review will be presented of the benefits of calcium treatment and its effect on non-metallic inclusions (sulfides and oxides) and reducing sulfur levels. During the past thirty years the requirements for low sulfur levels have been reduced from 0.010% maximum to 0.001% maximum. The effects of clean steel practices on specific properties will be reviewed including tensile ductility, Charpy V-notch and fracture toughness, fatigue crack propagation and hydrogen-induced-cracking resistance. Traditional low sulfur plate steel applications have included pressure vessels. offshore platforms, plastic injection molds and line-pipe skelp. More recent applications will be discussed including bridge steels, high strength structural steels to 130 ksi (897 MPa) minimum yield strength, 9% nickel steels for cryogenic applications, and military armor.

  6. Corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel and electroplating steel in aqueous solution: AC impedance study and XPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrini, M.; Fontaine, G.; Gengembre, L.; Traisnel, M.; Lerasle, O.; Genet, N.

    2008-08-01

    The efficiency of a new triazole derivative, namely, 2-{(2-hydroxyethyl)[(4-methyl-1 H-1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl]amino}ethanol (TTA) has been studied for corrosion inhibition of galvanized steel and electroplating steel in aqueous solution. Corrosion inhibition was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). These studies have shown that TTA was a very good inhibitor. Data obtained from EIS show a frequency distribution and therefore a modelling element with frequency dispersion behaviour, a constant phase element (CPE) has been used. The corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel and electroplating steel in aqueous solution was also investigated in the presence of 4-methyl-1 H-benzotriazole (TTA unsubstituted) by EIS. These studies have shown that the ability of the molecule to adsorb on the steel surface was dependent on the group in triazole ring substituent. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analysis with TTA shows that it chemisorbed on surface of galvanized steel and electroplating steel.

  7. VOLATILIZED LUBRICANT EMISSIONS FROM STEEL ROLLING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the volatilization of lubricants used in steel rolling. Data from nine steel mills were used to: define the volatilized portion of lubricants used in rolling; and prepare total oil, grease, and hydraulic material balances for actual and typi...

  8. Forming "dynamic" membranes on stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, C. A.; Gaddis, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    "Dynamic" zirconium polyacrylic membrane is formed directly on stainless steel substrate without excessive corrosion of steel. Membrane is potentially useful in removal of contaminated chemicals from solution through reversed osmosis. Application includes use in filtration and desalination equipment, and in textile industry for separation of dyes from aqueous solvents.

  9. METHOD FOR JOINING ALUMINUM TO STAINLESS STEEL

    DOEpatents

    Lemon, L.C.

    1960-05-24

    Aluminum may be joined to stainless steel without the use of flux by tinning the aluminum with a tin solder containing 1% silver and 1% lead, tinning the stainless steel with a 50% lead 50% tin solder, and then sweating the tinned surfaces together.

  10. Instabilities in stabilized austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayer, Raghavan; Klein, C. F.; Marzinsky, C. N.

    1992-09-01

    The effect of aging on the precipitation of grain boundary phases in three austenitic stainless steels (AISI 347, 347AP, and an experimental steel stabilized with hafnium) was investigated. Aging was performed both on bulk steels as well as on samples which were subjected to a thermal treatment to simulate the coarse grain region of the heat affected zone (HAZ) during welding. Aging of the bulk steels at 866 K for 8000 hours resulted in the precipitation of Cr23C6 carbides, σ, and Fe2Nb phases; the propensity for precipitation was least for the hafnium-stabilized steel. Weld simulation of the HAZ resulted in dissolution of the phases present in the as-received 347 and 347AP steels, leading to grain coarsening. Subsequent aging caused extensive grain boundary Cr23C6 carbides and inhomogeneous matrix precipitation. In addition, steel 347AP formed a precipitate free zone (PFZ) along the grain boundaries. The steel containing hafnium showed the best microstructural stability to aging and welding.

  11. A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. ); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. )

    1992-01-01

    In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

  12. A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J.

    1992-08-01

    In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

  13. Method for welding chromium molybdenum steels

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.

    1986-01-01

    Chromium-molybdenum steels exhibit a weakening after welding in an area adjacent to the weld. This invention is an improved method for welding to eliminate the weakness by subjecting normalized steel to a partial temper prior to welding and subsequently fully tempering the welded article for optimum strength and ductility.

  14. Ellie Mannette: Master of the Steel Drum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svaline, J. Marc

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Elliot ("Ellie") Mannette who has played a major role in the development and application of steel drums. States that he has spent most of his life designing and teaching the steel drums. Covers interview topics and background information on Mannette. (CMK)

  15. African Drum and Steel Pan Ensembles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunkett, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to develop both African drum and steel pan ensembles providing information on teacher preparation, instrument choice, beginning the ensemble, and lesson planning. Includes additional information for the drum ensembles. Lists references and instructional materials, sources of drums and pans, and common note layout/range for steel pan…

  16. Low Mn alloy steel for cryogenic service

    DOEpatents

    Morris, J.W. Jr.; Niikura, M.

    A ferritic cryogenic steel which has a relatively low (about 4 to 6%) manganese content and which has been made suitable for use at cryogenic temperatures by a thermal cycling treatment followed by a final tempering. The steel includes 4 to 6% manganese, 0.02 to 0.06% carbon, 0.1 to 0.4% molybdenum and 0 to 3% nickel.

  17. Development of low activation Ferritic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, T.; Abe, F.; Araki, H.; Okada, M.

    1986-11-01

    Fe-(2-15)%Cr-(0-4)%W-0.1%C and Fe-9%Cr-(0-l)%V-0.1%C steels were prepared on the basis of reduced activation of ferritic steels. Tempering characteristics of these alloys were studied as a preliminary evaluation of mechanical properties. Alloys except for 12-15%Cr, 9%Cr-4%W, and 9%Cr-1%V showed a single phase of martensite. Carbides which precipitated in as-tempered steels are M 23C 6, M 6C, and W 2C for Cr-W steels and M 23C 6 and V 4C 3 for Cr-V steels. The toughness of the alloys was examined with Charpy impact test. The minimum DBTT (ductile-brittle transition temperature) was observed at around 0.25 at% of W or V concentration for 9%Cr steels. 9%Cr-V steels were superior to commercial 9%Cr-2%Mo steel in the point of toughness. The order of alloying element with a low DBTT was V > Mo > W.

  18. Chem I Supplement: Chemistry of Steel Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Neal

    1980-01-01

    Provides information about the chemistry of steel making applicable to teaching secondary school science. Generalized chemical reactions describe the manufacture of steel from iron ore. Also discussed are raw materials, processing choices, and how various furnaces (blast, direct reduction, open hearth, basic oxygen, electric) work. (CS)

  19. Addressing case specific biogas plant tasks: industry oriented methane yields derived from 5L Automatic Methane Potential Test Systems in batch or semi-continuous tests using realistic inocula, substrate particle sizes and organic loading.

    PubMed

    Kolbl, Sabina; Paloczi, Attila; Panjan, Jože; Stres, Blaž

    2014-02-01

    The primary aim of the study was to develop and validate an in-house upscale of Automatic Methane Potential Test System II for studying real-time inocula and real-scale substrates in batch, codigestion and enzyme enhanced hydrolysis experiments, in addition to semi-continuous operation of the developed equipment and experiments testing inoculum functional quality. The successful upscale to 5L enabled comparison of different process configurations in shorter preparation times with acceptable accuracy and high-through put intended for industrial decision making. The adoption of the same scales, equipment and methodologies in batch and semi-continuous tests mirroring those at full scale biogas plants resulted in matching methane yields between the two laboratory tests and full-scale, confirming thus the increased decision making value of the approach for industrial operations. PMID:24368269

  20. Aerosol filtration with steel fiber filters

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.

    1993-04-01

    We have conducted an experimental study of aerosol penetration through a new high efficiency steel fiber filter and filter media that we developed in cooperation with Pall Corporation. Our previous studies have shown that sintered steel fiber media have significant improvements in higher filter efficiency and lower pressure drop than the previous steel filter technology based on sintered powder metal media. In the present study, we have measured the penetration of dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols through flat sheet samples, pleated cartridge filters and a 1000 cfm filter having 64 cartridges housed in a 2 {times} 2 {times} 1 ft. frame. The steel fiber media used in our study consists of 2 {mu}m diameter stainless steel (316L) fibers sintered together into sheets.

  1. Aerosol filtration with steel fiber filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.

    1993-04-01

    An experimental study has been conducted of aerosol penetration through a new high efficiency steel fiber filter and filter media that was developed in cooperation with Pall Corporation. Previous studies have shown that sintered steel fiber media have significant improvements in higher filter efficiency and lower pressure drop than the previous steel filter technology based on sintered powder metal media. In the present study, measurements were made of the penetration of dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols through flat sheet samples, pleated cartridge filters, and a 1000 cfm filter having 64 cartridges housed in a 2 x 2 x 1 ft. frame. The steel fiber media used in our study consists of 2 micron diameter stainless steel (316 L) fibers sintered together into sheets.

  2. Hydrogen transport in iron and steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louthan, M. R., Jr.; Derrick, R. G.; Donovan, J. A.; Caskey, G. R., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The permeabilities of protium, deuterium, and tritium in foil specimens of Marz grade iron, 4130 steel, Armco iron, HP-9-4-20, and T-1 steels were studied at hydrogen pressures between 0.02 and 0.5 MPa over the temperature range 260-700 K. The permeability was measured by a pressure-rise method, deuterium counting with a detector, and radioactivity counting. Good agreement is found between the measurement techniques used. It is shown that the permeabilities of protium, deuterium, and tritium in iron and T-1 steel at temperatures as low as 260 K are in good agreement with the equation proposed by Gonzalez (1967). However, the permeabilities of HP-9-4-20 and 4130 steel to hydrogen are typically lower than predicted. The isotope effect on hydrogen permeability of HP-9-4-20, 4130 and T-1 steels, and high-purity iron can be estimated by an inverse square root of mass correction.

  3. Advances in crosswell electromagnetics steel cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P E; Kirkendall, B A; Lewis, J P

    1999-03-01

    The Crosswell electromagnetic (EM) induction technique ideally measures the resistivity distribution between boreholes which may often be cased with carbon steel. Quantification of the effect of such steel casing on the induced field is the most significant limitation of the technique. Recent data acquired at a site in Richmond, California quantify the effect of steel casing on induction measurements and demonstrate this effect to be separable. This unique site contains adjacent steel and plastic wells in which frequency soundings demonstrate low spectrum (1.0 - 50 Hz) measurements an effective means of isolating the casing response from, the formation response. It is also shown that the steel casing effect on the induction coil is highly localized, and limited to less than 0.30 meters above and below the coil.

  4. Interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Dunwoody, John T; Mason, Richard E; Freibert, Franz J; Willson, Stephen P; Veirs, Douglas K; Worl, Laura A; Archuleta, Alonso; Conger, Donald J

    2010-01-01

    Long-term storage of excess plutonium is of great concern in the U.S. as well as abroad. The current accepted configuration involves intimate contact between the stored material and an iron-bearing container such as stainless steel. While many safety scenario studies have been conducted and used in the acceptance of stainless steel containers, little information is available on the physical interaction at elevated temperatures between certain forms of stored material and the container itself. The bulk of the safety studies has focused on the ability of a package to keep the primary stainless steel containment below the plutonium-iron eutectic temperature of approximately 410 C. However, the interactions of plutonium metal with stainless steel have been of continuing interest. This paper reports on a scoping study investigating the interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal in a pseudo diffusion couple at temperatures above the eutectic melt-point.

  5. Fatigue of stainless steel in hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, G.; Altstetter, C.

    1983-10-01

    The fatigue crack growth rates of two austenitic stainless steel alloys, AISI 301 and 302, were compared in air, argon, and hydrogen environments at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Under the stresses at the crack tip the austenite in type 301 steel transformed martensitically to a’ to a greater extent than in type 302 steel. The steels were also tested in the cold worked condition under hydrogen or argon. Hydrogen was found to have a deleterious effect on both steels, but the effect was stronger in the unstable than in the stable alloy. Cold work decreased fatigue crack growth rates in argon and hydrogen, but the decrease was less marked in hydrogen than in argon. Metallographic, fractographic, and microhardness surveys in the vicinity of the fatigue crack were used to try to understand the reasons for the observed fatigue behavior.

  6. The comparison of frictional resistance in titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets using stainless steel and TMA archwires: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Syed Altaf; Kumar, Vadivel; Jayaram, Prithviraj

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the frictional resistance of titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA) archwires. Materials and Methods: We compared the frictional resistance in 0.018 slot and 0.022 slot of the three brackets – titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel – using stainless steel archwires and TMA archwires. An in vitro study of simulated canine retraction was undertaken to evaluate the difference in frictional resistance between titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and TMA archwires. Results and Conclusion: We compared the frictional resistance of titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and TMA archwires, with the help of Instron Universal Testing Machine. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Student's “t” test, and post hoc multiple range test at level of <0.05 showed statistically significant difference in the mean values of all groups. Results demonstrated that the titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets of 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch slot had no significant variations in frictional résistance. The self-ligating bracket with TMA archwires showed relatively less frictional resistance compared with the other groups. The titanium bracket with TMA archwires showed relatively less frictional resistance compared with the stainless steel brackets. PMID:23066253

  7. An understanding of HSLA-65 plate steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, K.

    2006-02-01

    HSLA-65 plate steels can be produced using one of five plate manufacturing techniques: normalizing, controlled rolling (CR), controlled rolling followed by accelerated cooling (CR-AC), direct quenching and tempering (DQT), or conventional quenching and tempering (Q&T). The HSLA-65 steels are characterized by low carbon content and low alloy content, and they exhibit a low carbon equivalent that allows improved plate weldability. These characteristics in turn (a) provide the steel plate with a refined microstructure that ensures high strength and toughness; (b) eliminate or substantially reduce the need for preheating during welding; (c) resist susceptibility to hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC) in the weld heat affected zone (HAZ) when fusion (arc) welded using low heat-input conditions; and (d) depending on section thickness, facilitate high heat-input welding (about 2 kJ/mm) without significant loss of strength or toughness in the HAZ. However, application of this plate manufacturing process and of these controls produces significant differences in the metallurgical structure and range of mechanical properties of the HSLA-65 plate steels both among themselves and versus conventional higher strength steel (HSS) plates. For example, among the HSLA-65 plate steels, those produced by Q&T exhibit minimal variability in mechanical properties, especially in thicker plates. Besides variability in mechanical properties depending on plate thickness, the CR and CR-AC plate steels exhibit a relatively higher yield strength to ultimate tensile strength (YS/UTS) ratio than do DQT and Q&T steels. Such differences in processing and properties of HSLA-65 plate steels could potentially affect the selection and control of various secondary fabrication practices, including arc welding. Consequently, fabricators must exercise extreme caution when transferring allowable limits of certified secondary fabrication practices from one type of HSLA-65 plate steel to another, even for the

  8. Recycling steel from grinding swarf

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, H.; Matthews, M.A.; Warner, L.S.

    1998-12-31

    Two cleaning processes have been investigated for removing contaminants (cutting oil with phosphorus ester) from high speed steel (HSS) griding swarf. One process uses an aqueous surfactant washing technique, and the second process uses supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) extraction. Both technical and preliminary financial analysis are performed to have a better evaluation of these two competing cleaning technologies. Bench scale aqueous washings have shown that the required phosphorus removal is easily obtained, but a sufficient oil removal is more difficult. The experimental results also indicate a strong dependence of the aqueous washing efficiency on the choice of a suitable surfactant. SCCO{sub 2} extraction at 80 C and 340 atm shows that approximately 80% of the oil can be removed from swarf during a 60-minute process to produce a batch of recyclable steel, and that the phosphorus removal also reaches the required level. The cost of processing swarf using either aqueous surfactant washing or SCCO{sub 2} extraction in a 3,000,000 lbs per year plant is analyzed and the market forces impacting the feasibility of recycling on a commercial basis are reviewed. Commercial scale recycling is, in part, dependent upon resolution of regulatory uncertainty on the definition of swarf. States regulating swarf as hazardous provide a significant financial incentive to recycle. In states that regulate swarf as a solid waste, low disposal costs provide a disincentive that must be balanced with the possible hidden, future liabilities of landfill disposal.

  9. Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Casuccio; Michael Potter; Fred Schwerer; Dr. Richard J. Fruehan; Dr. Scott Story

    2005-12-30

    The objective of this study was to develop the Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCATTM) to permit steelmakers to evaluate the quality of the steel through the analysis of individual inclusions. By characterizing individual inclusions, determinations can be made as to the cleanliness of the steel. Understanding the complicating effects of inclusions in the steelmaking process and on the resulting properties of steel allows the steel producer to increase throughput, better control the process, reduce remelts, and improve the quality of the product. The ASCAT (Figure 1) is a steel-smart inclusion analysis tool developed around a customized next-generation computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (NG-CCSEM) hardware platform that permits acquisition of inclusion size and composition data at a rate never before possible in SEM-based instruments. With built-in customized ''intelligent'' software, the inclusion data is automatically sorted into clusters representing different inclusion types to define the characteristics of a particular heat (Figure 2). The ASCAT represents an innovative new tool for the collection of statistically meaningful data on inclusions, and provides a means of understanding the complicated effects of inclusions in the steel making process and on the resulting properties of steel. Research conducted by RJLG with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and SMA (Steel Manufactures of America) members indicates that the ASCAT has application in high-grade bar, sheet, plate, tin products, pipes, SBQ, tire cord, welding rod, and specialty steels and alloys where control of inclusions, whether natural or engineered, are crucial to their specification for a given end-use. Example applications include castability of calcium treated steel; interstitial free (IF) degasser grade slag conditioning practice; tundish clogging and erosion minimization; degasser circulation and optimization; quality assessment/steel cleanliness; slab, billet

  10. Cryogenic treatment of steels. (Latest citations from Metadex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of cryogenic temperatures to improve the properties of steels. Stainless steels, tool steels, electrical steels, and metal matrix composites are discussed. Citations cover fatigue life, wear resistance, tool life, and increased high temperature ductility. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Cryogenic treatment of steels. (Latest citations from Metadex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of cryogenic temperatures to improve the properties of steels. Stainless steels, tool steels, electrical steels, and metal matrix composites are discussed. Citations cover fatigue life, wear resistance, tool life, and increased high temperature ductility. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  13. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  14. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  15. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  16. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  17. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  18. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  19. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  20. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  1. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  2. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  3. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  4. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.757 - Open web steel joists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open web steel joists. 1926.757 Section 1926.757 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.757 Open web steel joists. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, where steel joists are...

  6. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  7. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  8. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  9. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.757 - Open web steel joists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open web steel joists. 1926.757 Section 1926.757 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.757 Open web steel joists. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, where steel joists are...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.757 - Open web steel joists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open web steel joists. 1926.757 Section 1926.757 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.757 Open web steel joists. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, where steel joists are...

  12. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  13. Duplex stainless steels for osteosynthesis devices.

    PubMed

    Cigada, A; Rondelli, G; Vicentini, B; Giacomazzi, M; Roos, A

    1989-09-01

    The austenitic stainless steels used today for the manufacture of osteosynthesis devices are sensitive to crevice corrosion. In this study the corrosion properties of some duplex stainless steels were evaluated and compared to traditional austenitic stainless steels. According to our results the following ranking was established: 23Cr-4Ni less than AISI 316L less than ASTM F138 less than 22Cr-5Ni-3Mo less than 27Cr-31Ni-3.5Mo less than 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N. In particular the results showed that the high-performance 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N duplex stainless steel, with high molybdenum and nitrogen contents, can be considered not susceptible to crevice corrosion in the human body. The duplex stainless steels have also better mechanical properties at the same degree of cold working compared with austenitic stainless steels. Hence the 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N duplex stainless steel can be considered a convenient substitute of ASTM F138 for orthopedic and osteosynthesis devices. PMID:2777835

  14. Magnetic sheet steel lamination detection, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carignan, F. J.; Syniuta, W. D.

    1980-08-01

    Research to assess the feasibility of a nondestructive magnetic inspection technique for detecting defective sheet steel is reported. A major problem in the deep drawing and stamping industry is the failure of sheet steel due to laminations which occur when the steel is formed into various shapes or processed further. A continuous nondestructive testing method was developed based upon differences in magnetic properties of acceptable steel and defective steel. The technique assumes an increase in the magnetic hardness of the defect compared to the base material. Experimental results obtained with the artificial flaw demonstrate that it is possible to sense magnetic differences in sheet steel if the differences are large enough. However, as the differences in magnetic hardness diminish, or where thin surface defects or internal laminations occur, detection becomes increasingly difficult. Moreoever, it has not been established that all sheet steel defects are magnetically harder than unflawed material. It was concluded that the technique, which can detect only some flaws and is incapable of detecting many important defects, would be only marginally useful.

  15. Recycling galvanized steel: Operating experience and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.

    1993-08-01

    In response to the increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last decade and the problems associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The dezinced ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap, with a design capacity of 48,000 tonnes annually, has been in operation in East Chicago, Indiana since early in 1993. The first 450 t of scrap degalvanized in the pilot plant have residual zinc below 0.01% and sodium dragout below 0.01%. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials, environmental compliance, and opportunity costs to steel- and iron-makers. Availability of clean degalvanized scrap may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant and EAF shops to produce flat products without use of high quality scrap alternatives such as DRI, pig iron, or iron carbide. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap. The quantities of zinc available by the year 2000 from prompt and obsolete automotive scrap win approach 25% of zinc consumed in the major automotive production centers of the world. Zinc recycling from galvanized steel scrap, either before or after scrap melting, will have to be implemented.

  16. Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

    1988-03-01

    Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

  17. Strain hardening of steel EP836

    SciTech Connect

    Lyadskaya, A.A.; Lappa, R.M.; Spuskanyuk, V.Z.

    1986-03-01

    The authors investigate the effect of different combinations of cold hydraulic pressing and heat treatment on the physical and mechanical properties of steel EP836 (03N17K10V10MT), containing 0.03% C, 16-17% Ni, 10-11.5% Co, 9.5-11.5% W, 1% Ti, 1% Mo, and 0.15% A1. Deformation of the unaged steel resulted in insignificant hardening without a decrease in plasticity; this agrees with the results of investigations of other steels of this class.

  18. Reducing corrosion in aluminum-steel joints

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This article examines how galvanic corrosion in aluminum-intensive steel structures can be controlled, without losing performance, by using transition materials. The topics of the article include the transition material concept, corrosion resistance, experimental conditions, and the results of the experiment including mass loss of lap joints, strength retention, joining methods. The results show how use of steel-clad aluminum transition material in joining aluminum and steel deals successfully addresses the problems of joining and durability associated with increasing use of aluminum on automobiles.

  19. Hydrogen Susceptibility of Nanostructured Bainitic Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peet, Mathew James; Hojo, Tomohiko

    2016-02-01

    Nanostructured steels with an ultimate tensile strength of 1.6 GPa were produced with austenite content varying from 0 to 35 vol pct. The effect on the mechanical properties was assessed after saturating the steel with hydrogen. Elongation was reduced to 2 to 5 pct and UTS to 65 to 70 pct of prior value. Thermal desorption measurements confirmed the higher solubility of hydrogen in the steel with higher austenite content. The level of hydrogen saturation was found to correlate to the total area of grain boundaries rather than to the volume fraction of retained austenite.

  20. Tritiated Water Interaction with Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-05-01

    Experiments conducted to study tritium permeation of stainless steel at ambient and elevated temperatures revealed that HT converts relatively quickly to HTO. Further, the HTO partial pressure contributes essentially equally with elemental tritium gas in driving permeation through the stainless steel. Such permeation appears to be due to dissociation of the water molecule on the hot stainless steel surface. There is an equilibrium concentration of HTO vapor above adsorbed gas on the walls of the experimental apparatus evident from freezing transients. The uptake process of tritium from the carrier gas involves both surface adsorption and isotopic exchange with surface bound water.

  1. Steel Foil Improves Performance Of Blasting Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Perry, Ronnie; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1990-01-01

    Blasting caps, which commonly include deep-drawn aluminum cups, give significantly higher initiation performance by application of steel foils on output faces. Steel closures 0.005 in. (0.13 mm) thick more effective than aluminum. Caps with directly bonded steel foil produce fragment velocities of 9,300 ft/s (2.8 km/s) with large craters and unpredictable patterns to such degree that no attempts made to initiate explosions. Useful in military and aerospace applications and in specialized industries as mining and exploration for oil.

  2. Ultrasonic attenuation in pearlitic steel.

    PubMed

    Du, Hualong; Turner, Joseph A

    2014-03-01

    Expressions for the attenuation coefficients of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves are developed for steel with pearlitic microstructure. This type of lamellar duplex microstructure influences attenuation because of the lamellar spacing. In addition, longitudinal attenuation measurements were conducted using an unfocused transducer with 10 MHz central frequency on the cross section of a quenched railroad wheel sample. The dependence of longitudinal attenuation on the pearlite microstructure is observed from the changes of longitudinal attenuation from the quenched tread surface to deeper locations. The results show that the attenuation value is lowest and relatively constant within the quench depth, then increases linearly. The experimental results demonstrate a reasonable agreement with results from the theoretical model. Ultrasonic attenuation provides an important non-destructive method to evaluate duplex microstructure within grains which can be implemented for quality control in conjunction with other manufacturing processes. PMID:24268679

  3. Bouncing steel balls on water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Podesta, Michael

    2007-09-01

    The 'skimming' of stones on water is a subject of perennial fascination for children and adults alike. In this article I describe the construction of an apparatus for safely and reproducibly demonstrating a similar phenomenon: the bouncing of 25 mm diameter steel balls from a water surface. The 'bouncing' is technically known as a ricochet and the article recounts the use of the effect in the Second World War in the 'Dam Busting' air raids of 1943. A number of calculations are made which allow an estimate of the projectile speed and energy, and the use of simple experimental techniques for validating these estimates is suggested. The role of spin is discussed, and a literature review collates the available empirical and theoretical results concerning the incident angle and speed for successful ricochet of spinning and non-spinning projectiles.

  4. Modernization of Controls Improves Productivity and Reduces Energy Costs at a Large Steel Plant (Weirton Steel Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-04-01

    In 1996 and 1997, Weirton Steel upgraded the utilities control systems at its main steel manufacturing plant in Weirton, WV. In response to increasing energy costs and the need to remain competitive in the steel industry, Weirton Steel commissioned a comprehensive energy management study of the facility, which provided the basis for an energy management control strategy.

  5. Microstructural characterization in dissimilar friction stir welding between 304 stainless steel and st37 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jafarzadegan, M.; Feng, A.H.; Abdollah-zadeh, A.; Saeid, T.; Shen, J.; Assadi, H.

    2012-12-15

    In the present study, 3 mm-thick plates of 304 stainless steel and st37 steel were welded together by friction stir welding at a welding speed of 50 mm/min and tool rotational speed of 400 and 800 rpm. X-ray diffraction test was carried out to study the phases which might be formed in the welds. Metallographic examinations, and tensile and microhardness tests were used to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint. Four different zones were found in the weld area except the base metals. In the stir zone of the 304 stainless steel, a refined grain structure with some features of dynamic recrystallization was evidenced. A thermomechanically-affected zone was characterized on the 304 steel side with features of dynamic recovery. In the other side of the stir zone, the hot deformation of the st37 steel in the austenite region produced small austenite grains and these grains transformed to fine ferrite and pearlite and some products of displacive transformations such as Widmanstatten ferrite and martensite by cooling the material after friction stir welding. The heat-affected zone in the st37 steel side showed partially and fully refined microstructures like fusion welding processes. The recrystallization in the 304 steel and the transformations in the st37 steel enhanced the hardness of the weld area and therefore, improved the tensile properties of the joint. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FSW produced sound welds between st37 low carbon steel and 304 stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SZ of the st37 steel contained some products of allotropic transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material in the SZ of the 304 steel showed features of dynamic recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The finer microstructure in the SZ increased the hardness and tensile strength.

  6. Project B: Improved Liquid Steel Feed For Slab Casters

    SciTech Connect

    Brent S. Isaacson; Mike Slepian; Thomas Richter

    1998-10-01

    This report describes the completion of the development of an electromagnetic valve to control liquid steel flow for improved liquid steel feeding for slab casters. Achievements result from a joint research effort between Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, North American Refractories and U.S. Steel. This effort is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and fifteen North American steel makers.

  7. Steel monoleg design tries for concrete advantages

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    The conceptual design of a fixed steel monoleg structure designed for North Sea water depths of 80-250 meters is described. The design was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and funded in part by the European Economic Community. The design aims to give a steel structure some of the advantages of concrete condeeps. Maintenance should be minimized by enclosing the risers inside a monopod. The single-shell, variable geometry of the column structure should also serve to equalize stresses, unlike a conventional space frame where stresses tend to concentrate around the nodes. Construction and installation could be vertical, as in condeep style, or horizontal, as in steel jackets. Thus the fixed steel platform could be either barge-towed and upended with ballast tanks or floated out vertically as built and towed, like a condeep, to a mating with an integrated deck before final tow and installation by simple ballasting.

  8. Corrosion behavior of sensitized duplex stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Torres, F J; Panyayong, W; Rogers, W; Velasquez-Plata, D; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

    1998-01-01

    The present work investigates the corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel in 0.9% NaCl solution after various heat-treatments, and compares it to that of 316L austenitic stainless steel. Both stainless steels were heat-treated at 500, 650, and 800 degrees C in air for 1 h, followed by furnace cooling. Each heat-treated sample was examined for their microstructures and Vickers micro-hardness, and subjected to the X-ray diffraction for the phase identification. Using potentiostatic polarization method, each heat-treated sample was corrosion-tested in 37 degrees C 0.9% NaCl solution to estimate its corrosion rate. It was found that simulated sensitization showed an adverse influence on both steels, indicating that corrosion rates increased by increasing the sensitization temperatures. PMID:9713683

  9. The interphase precipitation reaction in HSLA steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Judith A.

    1991-01-01

    An in-depth study of the interphase precipitation reaction in model vanadium steels has shown that the reaction may not just be confined to HSLA steels, but may be part of a general class of banded microstructures which are common to both eutectoid and eutectic systems. A new mass transport theory has been developed in which the interphase precipitation reaction in Fe-C-V steels is treated as a generalized type of cooperative growth. In addition to predicting the spacings of sheets of interphase precipitates and the precipitate sizes in steels, this theory is providing new insights into the origin of banded structures occurring in eutectic systems at solid-liquid interface boundary velocities faster than those required for coupled growth, but slower than those required to produce the extended metastable solid solution.

  10. Adhesive bonding between polyamide and steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettegren', V. I.; Bashkarev, A. Ya.; Savitskii, A. V.; Shcherbakov, I. P.; Sytov, V. V.; Mamalimov, R. I.

    2015-08-01

    Fluorescence and IR absorption spectra are taken of coatings obtained by applying polyamide 6 powder on a steel substrate heated above the polymer melting point and subsequently cooling to room temperature. It follows from the coating spectra that the energy of a π* → n transition in the C—O bonds of polyamide decreases. Simultaneously, the maximum of a band assigned to the deformation vibrations of N—H bonds shifts toward longer wavelengths. These effects are explained by the formation of coordination bonds between Fe2+ ions having diffused from the steel into the polymer and nitrogen atoms entering into polyamide 6 molecules. As a result, a coordination-compound-saturated diffusion layer up to 100 µm thick arises near the steel surface. Coordination compounds squeeze the framework of the polyamide 6 molecule roughly by 0.06%. Eventually, a polyamide layer that is stronger than the surroundings appears at the polyamide 6—steel interface.