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Sample records for 6-month exclusive breastfeeding

  1. Exclusive or Partial Breastfeeding for 6 Months Is Associated With Reduced Milk Sensitization and Risk of Eczema in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chih-Yung; Liao, Sui-Ling; Su, Kuan-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Han; Hua, Man-Chin; Lai, Shen-Hao; Chen, Li-Chen; Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Jing-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is insufficient evidence to confirm the association between breastfeeding and allergic outcomes later in life. This study aimed to determine the relationships between different breastfeeding patterns and allergen sensitizations and risk of developing atopic diseases in early childhood. A total of 186 children from a birth cohort in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese Children study for a 4-year follow-up period were enrolled. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and specific IgE antibodies against food and inhalant allergens were measured sequentially at 6 months as well as at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 years of age. A significantly lower prevalence of milk sensitization was found in children at ages 1 and 1.5 years who were exclusively or partially breastfed for ≥6 months. Breastfeeding6 months was significantly associated with a reduced risk of developing eczema but not allergic rhinitis and asthma at ages 1 and 2 years. Compared with exclusive breastfeeding6 months, partial breastfeeding <6 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing eczema at ages 1 and 2 years. As with exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding for at least 6 months appears to be associated with a reduced prevalence of milk sensitization as well as a reduced risk of developing eczema in early childhood. PMID:27082611

  2. Factors influencing breastfeeding exclusivity during the first 6 months of life in developing countries: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Olukunmi Omobolanle; Dagvadorj, Amarjagal; Anigo, Kola Mathew; Ota, Erika; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    Breastfeeding is the most advantageous feeding option for infants, and epidemiological studies provide evidence for its promotion. The objective of this review was to comprehensively delineate the barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding of infants aged 0-6 months old by mothers in developing countries. A search of CINAHL, MEDLINE and PsycINFO was carried out to retrieve studies from January 2001 to January 2014. Using our inclusion criteria, we selected studies that described barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding. Qualitative and quantitative studies were considered. Twenty-five studies involving 11 025 participants from 19 countries were included. Barriers and facilitators of exclusive/full breastfeeding were identified, analysed tabulated and summarised in this review. Maternal employment was the most frequently cited barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. Maternal perceptions of insufficient breast milk supply was pervasive among studies while medical barriers related to illness of mothers and/or infants as well as breast problems, rather than health care providers. Socio-cultural factors such as maternal and significant other's beliefs about infant nutrition also often constitute strong barriers to exclusive breastfeeding. Despite these barriers, mothers in developing countries often possess certain personal characteristics and develop strategic plans to enhance their success at breastfeeding. Health care providers should be informed about the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding and provide practical anticipatory guidance targeted at overcoming these barriers. In so doing, health care providers in developing countries can contribute to improving maternal and child health outcomes. PMID:25857205

  3. Exclusive or Partial Breastfeeding for 6 Months Is Associated With Reduced Milk Sensitization and Risk of Eczema in Early Childhood: The PATCH Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chih-Yung; Liao, Sui-Ling; Su, Kuan-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Han; Hua, Man-Chin; Lai, Shen-Hao; Chen, Li-Chen; Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Jing-Long

    2016-04-01

    There is insufficient evidence to confirm the association between breastfeeding and allergic outcomes later in life. This study aimed to determine the relationships between different breastfeeding patterns and allergen sensitizations and risk of developing atopic diseases in early childhood. A total of 186 children from a birth cohort in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese Children study for a 4-year follow-up period were enrolled. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and specific IgE antibodies against food and inhalant allergens were measured sequentially at 6 months as well as at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 years of age. A significantly lower prevalence of milk sensitization was found in children at ages 1 and 1.5 years who were exclusively or partially breastfed for ≥6 months. Breastfeeding6 months was significantly associated with a reduced risk of developing eczema but not allergic rhinitis and asthma at ages 1 and 2 years. Compared with exclusive breastfeeding6 months, partial breastfeeding <6 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing eczema at ages 1 and 2 years. As with exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding for at least 6 months appears to be associated with a reduced prevalence of milk sensitization as well as a reduced risk of developing eczema in early childhood. PMID:27082611

  4. Factors associated to breastfeeding cessation before 6 months.

    PubMed

    Roig, Antoni Oliver; Martínez, Miguel Richart; García, Julio Cabrero; Hoyos, Santiago Pérez; Navidad, Ginesa Laguna; Alvarez, Juan Carlos Flores; Pujalte, María Del Mar Calatayud; De León González, Ricardo García

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to identify the determinants of full breastfeeding (FBF) and any breastfeeding (ABF) cessation before 6 months, through a six-month follow-up of 248 mothers going a postpartum visit. Data were collected by personal interview during the first month and telephone interviews at four and six months postpartum. Coxs proportional hazards model was used. Not having previous ABF experience, previous ABF duration breastfeeding should be intensified for mothers with poorer access to information and with negative or without ABF previous experience. The use of pacifiers and not-medically indicated breast milk substitutes should be controlled. PMID:20721426

  5. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amarpreet; Singh, Karnail; Pannu, M. S.; Singh, Palwinder; Sehgal, Neeraj; Kaur, Rupinderjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mother's milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001), bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012), bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005), otitis media (p value = 0.003), and skin diseases (p value = 0.047). Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414), bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705), bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706), meningitis (p value 0.043), and septicemia (p value 0.04). Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants. PMID:27190526

  6. Becoming a role model: the breastfeeding trajectory of Hong Kong women breastfeeding longer than 6 months.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Marie; Dodgson, Joan E; Choi, Vinkline Wing Kay

    2004-07-01

    While a substantial proportion of breastfeeding women stop early in the postpartum period, some women are able to breastfeed for longer periods. The aim of this research was to explore the experience of breastfeeding with a subsample of Hong Kong women who have breastfed for longer than 6 months. Participants (n=17) were recruited from a larger infant-feeding study (n=360) conducted in tertiary-care hospitals in Hong Kong. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted and content analysis was used to analyse the data. Data analysis revealed four themes that encompassed the women's experiences: (1) making the decision, (2) maintaining family harmony, (3) overcoming barriers, and (4) sustaining lactation. Antenatally, participants anticipated that breastfeeding would be very 'difficult' and described how the practice did not fit with the image of a professional woman in Hong Kong. Despite family opposition, frequently from their mother-in-law, and lack of societal acceptance, difficulties were overcome by what the Chinese people call hung-sum or determination. This study highlights unique cultural and social findings affecting breastfeeding women in Hong Kong which may be useful to health-care providers working with Chinese women locally and internationally. PMID:15120982

  7. Breast-feeding among the urban poor in southern Brazil: reasons for termination in the first 6 months of life.

    PubMed Central

    Martines, J. C.; Ashworth, A.; Kirkwood, B.

    1989-01-01

    A study of breast-feeding practices over the first 6 months of life among a cohort of urban poor infants in southern Brazil indicated that the median duration of breast-feeding was 18 weeks, and at 6 months 41% of the infants were still being breast-fed. The duration of breast-feeding was significantly associated with the following: the infant's sex, mother's colour, type of first feed, timing of the first breast-feed, breast-feeding regimen and frequency of breast-feeding at 1 month, and the use of hormonal contraceptives by the mother. The following were significant risk factors for early termination of breast-feeding: the infant's sex, type of first feed, use of supplementary feeds, frequency of breast-feeding, feeding regimen, weight-for-age, and weight-for-age after controlling for birth weight. Dissatisfaction with their infant's growth rate was the most frequent reason given by mothers for supplementing the diets of infants who were exclusively breast-fed in the first 3 months of life. Also, the mothers' perception that their milk output was inadequate was the most frequent reason expressed for stopping breast-feeding in the first 4 months. The roles of health services and family support in providing favourable conditions for increasing the duration of breast-feeding in the study population are discussed, as well as the possibility of bias being introduced into studies of the relationship between infant feeding and growth by the effect of the infant's rate of growth on the mother's decision to continue breast-feeding. PMID:2743537

  8. Breastfeeding behavior among adolescents: Initiation, duration, and exclusivity

    PubMed Central

    Sipsma, Heather L.; Magriples, Urania; Divney, Anna; Gordon, Derrick; Gabzdyl, Elizabeth; Kershaw, Trace

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Despite a substantial amount of evidence on breastfeeding among non-adolescent mothers, research and strategies uniquely designed to target adolescent mothers are critical as their rates of breastfeeding are disproportionately low and their transition to parenthood is often unlike that of older mothers. Literature to date, however, offers limited evidence for designing effective interventions. Therefore, we aim to fill this gap in the literature by examining breastfeeding behaviors among a cohort of female adolescents as they transition to parenthood. Methods Data are derived from a longitudinal cohort of pregnant adolescent females (ages 14-21) and their male partners followed from pregnancy through 6 months postpartum. Means and frequencies were used to describe breastfeeding experiences, breastfeeding behaviors, and sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors independently associated with breastfeeding initiation, exclusive breastfeeding, and breastfeeding duration. Results Approximately 71% initiated breastfeeding. Intending to breastfeed, having had complications in labor and delivery, and lower social support were associated with greater odds of breastfeeding initiation. Of the adolescent mothers who initiated breastfeeding, 84% had stopped by 6 months postpartum and among those, average breastfeeding duration was 5 weeks. Participants who exclusively breastfed had longer breastfeeding duration, and participants who had experienced intimate partner violence had shorter breastfeeding duration. Obese women and women who had more difficulty breastfeeding had lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions Enhanced clinical support and the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding should be considered when designing interventions to improve breastfeeding rates among adolescent mothers. PMID:23725911

  9. Travelers' Health: Travel and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... providers should explain clearly to breastfeeding mothers the value of continuing breastfeeding during travel. For the first 6 months of life, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended. This is especially important during travel because exclusive breastfeeding means feeding only ...

  10. Predictors of the duration of exclusive breastfeeding among first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    Semenic, Sonia; Loiselle, Carmen; Gottlieb, Laurie

    2008-10-01

    Few women currently meet revised WHO recommendations to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months postpartum. In this prospective study we aimed to determine the influence of socio-demographic, psychosocial, and perinatal factors on the length of exclusive breastfeeding among 189 Canadian primiparous mothers. A majority of the participants did not meet their exclusive breastfeeding goals, and only 5% breastfed exclusively for a full 6 months. Breastfeeding self-efficacy, in-hospital formula supplementation, prenatal class attendance, and type of delivery independently predicted exclusive breastfeeding duration. Findings underscore the complex interplay of factors influencing breastfeeding, highlight the early postpartum weeks as a critical period for the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding, and suggest the need for a continuum of pre- and postnatal strategies for prolonging the exclusive breastfeeding period. PMID:18324667

  11. Fathers as supporters for improved exclusive breastfeeding in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Bich, Tran Huu; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Målqvist, Mats

    2014-08-01

    To determine the extent of exclusive breastfeeding practices among mothers of 4 and 6 month old infants whose fathers received breastfeeding education materials and counseling services. A quasi-experimental design was used. At the baseline, 251 and 241 couples were recruited into the intervention and control sites respectively. Fathers in the intervention area received breastfeeding education materials, counseling services at commune health centers and household visits. In the control site, where mothers routinely receive services on antenatal and postpartum care, fathers did not receive any intervention services on promoting breastfeeding. Primary indicators were exclusive breastfeeding at 4 and 6 months. At 6 months of age, based on 24-hour recall, 16.0% (38/238) of mothers in the intervention group were exclusively breastfeeding their children, compared to 3.9% (10/230) of those mothers in the control group (p < 0.001). Significant differences were found based on last-week recall (8.8% in the intervention group vs. 1.3% in the control group, p < 0.001) and since-birth recall (6.7% in the intervention group vs. 0.9% in the control group, p < 0.01). At 4 months of age, based on since birth recall, the breastfeeding proportion was significantly higher in the intervention group than in control group (20.6% in the intervention group vs. 11.3% in the control group, p < 0.01). An intervention targeting fathers might be effective in increasing exclusive breastfeeding practices at 4 and 6 months. To improve exclusive breastfeeding, health care staff working in maternal and child health units, should consider integrating fathers with services delivered to mothers and children. PMID:24162509

  12. Implementation of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Network and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Passanha, Adriana; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Venâncio, Sônia Isoyama; dos Reis, Márcia Cristina Guerreiro

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between the level of implementation of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Network and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 916 infants < 6 months, in Ribeirao Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011. Data on breastfeeding, place of outpatient care and other characteristics were collected during the National Vaccination Campaign. The factor studied is where outpatient care took place: Private; Non-Network Public; Public with Network Workshop; and Public certified by Network. The individualized effect of the factor studied on the outcome was analyzed using Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS The comparison between private (reference category) and other outpatient care showed significant dose-response relationship with a progressive increase in the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in public non-Network, public with Network Workshop and public accredited by Network outpatient care (p = 0.047). As regards the Basic Health Units accredited by Network category, the Prevalence Ratio of exclusive breastfeeding was equal to 1.47 (95%CI 1.00;2.17), after adjustment for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants < 6 months was higher in places accredited by the Brazilian Breastfeeding Network, which evinces the importance of investing in accreditation of Basic Units of Health by this strategy. PMID:24626552

  13. Early interruption of exclusive breastfeeding and associated factors, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Venancio, Sonia I; Saldiva, Silvia Regina D M; Mondini, Lenise; Levy, Renata B; Escuder, Maria Mercedes L

    2008-05-01

    Many reports about breastfeeding prevalence and factors associated with weaning have been published in the scientific literature. However, the influence of newborn feeding practices on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding has received less attention. This study provides information about the introduction of liquids, other than the mother's milk, to infants in the first 6 months and factors associated with this practice. PMID:18436968

  14. Benefits of a Dedicated Breastfeeding Facility and Support Program for Exclusive Breastfeeding among Workers in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Basrowi, Ray W; Sulistomo, Astrid B; Adi, Nuri Purwito

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A mother's working environment is believed to be a major determinant of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practice. We aimed to define the influence of a facility dedicated to breastfeeding and a breastfeeding support program at the workplace on breastfeeding practice. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in five workplaces. The inclusion criteria were female workers whose last child was between 6 and 36 months old. Observational data were obtained and a questionnaire was filled out. The World Health Organization definition for EBF was used. Results Data from 186 subjects (74 office workers and 112 factory workers) were collected. Just over half (52%) of the mothers were between 20 and 46 years old, 75.3% had graduated from high school and university, 12.9% had more than two children and 36.0% owned a house. The prevalence of EBF during the last 6 months was 32.3%. A proper dedicated breastfeeding facility was available for 21.5% of the mothers, but only 7.5% had been in contact with a breastfeeding support program. The presence of a dedicated breastfeeding facility increased EBF practice almost threefold, by an odds ratio (OR) of 2.74 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.34-5.64 (p<0.05). Knowledge of the breastfeeding support program increased EBF practice by almost six times (OR, 5.93; 95% CI, 1.78-19.79) (p<0.05). Conclusion Our findings suggest that Governments should make it obligatory for employers to offer a breastfeeding support program and a dedicated breastfeeding facility at the workplace as these simple measures significantly increase EBF. PMID:26157694

  15. Effect of early mother-baby close contact over the duration of exclusive breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Kamala; Sharma, Anna; Dhungel, Sachin

    2005-12-01

    This is a prospective study involving ninety-two lactating mother- infant pairs in the first six months of birth. They were followed-up up to six months for various perinatal factors determining the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Early postpartum mother-baby skin-to-skin contact had a powerful influence (P<0.001) over the duration of exclusive breastfeeding up to 4-6 months and was found to be more significant than early initiation of breastfeeding (P<0.05). Mode of delivery did not have any significant effect (P<0.5) over the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Thus health care centers can easily adopt a policy to allow few minutes of early postpartum mother-baby skin-to-skin contact and early initiation of breastfeeding to all vaginal as well as caesarian deliveries to promote breastfeeding. PMID:16519083

  16. Exclusive Breastfeeding Experiences among Mexican American Women

    PubMed Central

    Wambach, Karen; Domian, Elaine Williams; Page-Goertz, Sallie; Wurtz, Heather; Hoffman, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    Background According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hispanic breastfeeding mothers begin early formula supplementation at higher rates than other ethnic groups, which can lead to shorter breastfeeding duration and decreased exclusive breastfeeding. Acculturation, the process of adopting beliefs and behaviors of another culture, appears to influence breastfeeding practices of Hispanic women in the United States. Little is known about Mexican American mothers’ formula use and exclusive breastfeeding within the context of acculturation. Objective Our study identified perceived benefits and barriers to exclusive breastfeeding and levels of acculturation among Mexican American women living in a Midwestern city. Methods We used a qualitative descriptive design integrating Pender’s Health Promotion Model concepts. Individual interviews were conducted in English or Spanish (N = 21). The revised Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans was used to examine acculturation levels. Results Acculturation scores indicated that the majority (66%) of the sample was “very Mexican oriented.” Most women exclusively breastfed, with a few using early supplementation for “insufficient milk production.” Three themes emerged: (1) It is natural that a woman give life and also provide the best food for her baby; (2) Breastfeeding is ultimately a woman’s decision but is influenced by tradition, guidance, and encouragement; and (3) Breast milk is superior but life circumstances can challenge one’s ability to breastfeed. Conclusion Strong familial/cultural traditions supported and normalized breastfeeding. Barriers to exclusive breastfeeding were similar to breastfeeding women in general, in the United States. Findings support the need for culturally competent and individualized lactation care. PMID:26289059

  17. Trends in exclusive breastfeeding: findings from the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Labbok, Miriam H; Wardlaw, Tessa; Blanc, Ann; Clark, David; Terreri, Nancy

    2006-08-01

    This article presents trends and differentials in exclusive breastfeeding patterns that occurred in developing settings during the 1990s and considers these trends in relation to the breastfeeding-support activities in that decade. Between 1990 and 2000, the data suggest that exclusive breast-feeding levels in the developing world increased 15% overall among infants younger than 4 months (from 46% to 53%) and among infants older than 6 months (from 34% to 39%). The increase in urban areas is of special note. Urban areas are presumed to be most susceptible to the ambient health system and social and commercial pressures against breastfeeding; the support activities of the 1990s (eg, the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative and the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes) were developed to address these pressures. Given this, implementation of the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, which supports these proven interventions, should be effective in further increasing optimal breast-feeding practices. PMID:16885487

  18. Profiles of eight working mothers who practiced exclusive breastfeeding in Depok, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Wibowo, Yulianti; Fahmida, Umi; Roshita, Airin

    2012-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding practice is generally low because of multifaceted factors internally within mothers themselves and also the surroundings. In addition, studies have consistently found that maternal employment outside the home is related to shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding. With all these challenges, it is interesting that there are some mothers who manage to exclusively breastfeed their infants. Therefore, this report aims at exploring the characteristics of working mothers who are able to practice exclusive breastfeeding. The original study population was non-working and working mothers who have infants around 1 to 6 months old. The study design is an observational study with a mixed methods approach using a quantitative study (survey) and qualitative methods (in-depth interview) in sequential order. In addition, in-depth interviews with family members, midwives, supervisors at work, and community health workers were also included to accomplish a holistic picture of the situation. The study concludes that self-efficacy and confidence of the breastfeeding mothers characterize the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. Good knowledge that was acquired way before the mothers got pregnant suggests a predisposing factor to the current state of confidence. Home support from the father enhances the decision to sustain breastfeeding. PMID:21777072

  19. Exclusive breastfeeding and its effect on growth of Malawian infants: results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kuchenbecker, J; Jordan, I; Reinbott, A; Herrmann, J; Jeremias, T; Kennedy, G; Muehlhoff, E; Mtimuni, B; Krawinkel, M B

    2015-01-01

    Background: For the optimal nutrition of children under 2 years of age, it is considered important that they be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months before being given complementary food. Aims and Objectives: A cross-sectional nutritional baseline survey was undertaken in 2011 in the Kasungu and Mzimba Districts of Malawi to assess the nutritional status of children under 2 years of age and its determinants in order to prepare a nutrition education intervention programme. The intention of this study was to assess the nutritional status of infants aged 0–<6 months with regard to food intake. Methods: Interviews were conducted on randomly selected families with children under 2 years; anthropometric measurements were obtained from mothers and their children. Only infants between 0 and <6 months were selected for analysis (n  =  196). An ANCOVA test was performed on age of the infant with mothers’ height and weight as covariates. Results: Prevalence of stunting (infants’ length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) <−2SD) was 39%, wasting (WLZ <−2SD) 2%, and underweight (WAZ <−2SD) 13%. Of the infants under 6 months, 43% were exclusively breastfed. Predominant breastfeeding and mixed breastfeeding were less common (21% and 36%, respectively). The ANCOVA confirmed the association between exclusive breastfeeding and LAZ and WAZ: exclusively breastfed infants had a higher mean (SE) LAZ (−1·13, 0·12) and WAZ (−0·41, 0·13) than infants not being exclusively breastfed (−1·59, 0·11, and −0·97, 0·11, respectively). There was no overall significant association between breastfeeding practice and WLZ. Conclusion: Exclusive breastfeeding of infants under 6 months is associated with higher mean LAZ and WAZ. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding in low-income countries is important in preventing growth retardation. PMID:25005815

  20. The impact of perinatal depression on exclusive breastfeeding: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Atif; Hafeez, Assad; Bilal, Rakshanda; Sikander, Siham; Malik, Abid; Minhas, Fareed; Tomenson, Barbara; Creed, Francis

    2016-07-01

    Perinatal depression is associated with infant undernutrition. We hypothesised that perinatal depression was associated with early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding and reduced quantity of breast milk in rural Pakistan. We used a prospective cohort design to study a population-based sample of 132 depressed and 147 non-depressed women from the third trimester of pregnancy to 6 months post-natal. Current major depressive episode was measured in the third trimester and 6 months post-natal using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Diagnosis. In a convenience sample of 24 depressed and 31 non-depressed exclusively breastfeeding mothers, breast milk quantity was assessed (mL kg(-1) infant weight per 24 h) at 4 months using the dose-to-mother deuterium dilution method. We administered also the Perception of Insufficient Milk questionnaire at 6 months post-natal. Depression was associated with fewer days of exclusive breastfeeding (91.8 (SD = 47.1) vs. 108.7 days (SD = 54.3) (95% CI: 3.4 to 30.3 P = 0.014). Women with persistent depression ceased exclusive breastfeed earliest. There was no difference in the quantity of breast milk produced by depressed and non-depressed mothers: 89.3 (SD = 38.1) vs. 83.9 (29.0) ml/kg infant wt/24 hours, P = 0.57. Depressed mothers were significantly more likely to report insufficient milk: PIM scores were 34.4 (SD = 14.3) for depressed and 39.7 (SD = 10.4) for non-depressed women (P = 0.004). In Cox regression PIM score mediated the association between depression and early cessation of breastfeeding. In this area of rural Pakistan, perinatal depression is associated with early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding and this is associated with mothers' perceptions of insufficiency of breast milk but not reduced milk production. PMID:25682731

  1. A systematic review of structured compared with non-structured breastfeeding programmes to support the initiation and duration of exclusive and any breastfeeding in acute and primary health care settings.

    PubMed

    Beake, Sarah; Pellowe, Carol; Dykes, Fiona; Schmied, Virginia; Bick, Debra

    2012-04-01

    Policies and guidelines have recommended that structured programmes to support breastfeeding should be introduced. The objective of this review was to consider the evidence of outcomes of structured compared with non-structured breastfeeding programmes in acute maternity care settings to support initiation and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Quantitative and qualitative studies were considered. Primary outcomes of interest were initiation of breastfeeding and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Studies that only considered community-based interventions were excluded. An extensive search of literature published in 1992-2010 was undertaken using identified key words and index terms. Methodological quality was assessed using checklists developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Two independent reviewers conducted critical appraisal and data extraction; 26 articles were included. Because of clinical and methodological heterogeneity of study designs, it was not possible to combine studies or individual outcomes in meta-analyses. Most studies found a statistically significant improvement in breastfeeding initiation following introduction of a structured breastfeeding programme, although effect sizes varied. The impact on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and duration of any breastfeeding to 6 months was also evident, although not all studies found statistically significant differences. Despite poor overall study quality, structured programmes compared with standard care positively influence the initiation and duration of exclusive breastfeeding and any breastfeeding. In health care settings with low breastfeeding initiation and duration rates, structured programmes may have a greater benefit. Few studies controlled for any potential confounding factors, and the impact of bias has to be considered. PMID:22188596

  2. A population-based survey on infant feeding practice (0-2 years) in Hong Kong: breastfeeding rate and patterns among 3,161 infants below 6 months old.

    PubMed

    Lee, Warren T K; Lui, Susan S H; Chan, Veronica; Wong, Eric; Lau, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of breastfeeding for the first 6 months in infants has been low in Hong Kong since the 1970s. In order to develop effective breastfeeding policies and promotion programs, an appraisal of feeding practices and factors related to initiation and early cessation of breastfeeding is necessary. A survey with a population-based representative sample was conducted to determine social-demographic, personal and cultural factors that influenced decision, duration and practice of infant feeding among infants 0-24 months old. This paper focuses on infants below 6 months old to study factors related to decision, duration and practice of breastfeeding. In 1993, 7,298 healthy infants were recruited from 46 Maternal-and-Child-Health-Clinics (MCHC) throughout Hong Kong, of whom 3161 were below 6 months old. The mother reported her feeding decision, duration and practice in a questionnaire. Breastfeeding rate was found to be very low (8.4%) for infants below 6 months old. Only 50.9% infants were breastfed. Infant formulae were widely given among partially breastfed infants. 45% mothers were full-time employed. Most mothers were aware of the benefits of breastfeeding to the infants and themselves. Husbands (43.3%) were regarded the most influential on initiation and duration on breastfeeding. Restricted food varieties (54%), sore nipple and breast engorgement (67%), perceived home confinement (41.5%) and perceived inadequate milk supply (31.7%) were major concerns upon breastfeeding. Furthermore, 76.9% mothers turned to MCHC staff for advice when they encountered difficulties during breastfeeding. In conclusion, the survey collected population-based representative data on factors determining initiation and early cessation of breastfeeding in Hong Kong in 1993. The findings will serve as a cornerstone in understanding the evolution of breastfeeding practice in Hong Kong. It merits further study to investigate how the confounders interplay to modulate initiation, duration

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Peer Counselling for the Promotion of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Chola, Lumbwe; Fadnes, Lars T.; Engebretsen, Ingunn M. S.; Nkonki, Lungiswa; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tumwine, James K.; Tylleskar, Thorkild; Robberstad, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    Background Community based breastfeeding promotion programmes have been shown to be effective in increasing breastfeeding prevalence. However, there is limited data on the cost-effectiveness of these programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper evaluates the cost-effectiveness of a breastfeeding promotion intervention targeting mothers and their 0 to 6 month old children. Methods Data were obtained from a community randomized trial conducted in Uganda between 2006–2008, and supplemented with evidence from several studies in sub-Saharan Africa. In the trial, peer counselling was offered to women in intervention clusters. In the control and intervention clusters, women could access standard health facility breastfeeding promotion services (HFP). Thus, two methods of breastfeeding promotion were compared: community based peer counselling (in addition to HFP) and standard HFP alone. A Markov model was used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios between the two strategies. The model estimated changes in breastfeeding prevalence and disability adjusted life years. Costs were estimated from a provider perspective. Uncertainty around the results was characterized using one-way sensitivity analyses and a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Findings Peer counselling more than doubled the breastfeeding prevalence as reported by mothers, but there was no observable impact on diarrhoea prevalence. Estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were US$68 per month of exclusive or predominant breastfeeding and U$11,353 per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted. The findings were robust to parameter variations in the sensitivity analyses Conclusions Our strategy to promote community based peer counselling is unlikely to be cost-effective in reducing diarrhoea prevalence and mortality in Uganda, because its cost per DALY averted far exceeds the commonly assumed willingness-to-pay threshold of three times Uganda’s GDP per capita (US$1653). However, since the

  4. Breastfeeding-Friendly Primary Care Unit Initiative and the relationship with exclusive breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Ana Lúcia Naves; de Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto; de Moraes, José Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and the association with the Breastfeeding-Friendly Primary Care Unit Initiative. METHODS Cross-sectional study, whose data source were research on feeding behaviors in the first year of life conducted in the vaccination campaigns of 2003 and 2006, at the municipality of Barra Mansa, RJ, Southeastern Brazil. For the purposes of this study, infants under six months old, accounting for a total of 589 children in 2003 and 707 children in 2006, were selected. To verify the relationship between being followed-up by Breastfeeding-Friendly Primary Care Unit Initiative units and exclusive breastfeeding practice, only data from the 2006 inquiry was used. Variables that in the bivariate analysis were associated (p-value ≤ 0.20) with the outcome (exclusive breastfeeding practice) were selected for multivariate analysis. Prevalence ratios (PR) of exclusive breastfeeding were obtained by Poisson Regression with robust variance through a hierarchical model. The final model included the variables that reached p-value ≤ 0.05. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding increased from 30.2% in 2003 to 46.7% in 2006. Multivariate analysis showed that mother's low education level reduced exclusive breastfeeding practice by 20.0% (PR = 0.798; 95%CI 0.684;0.931), cesarean delivery by 16.0% (PR = 0.838; 95%CI 0.719;0.976), and pacifier use by 41.0% (PR = 0.589; 95%CI 0.495;0.701). In the multiple analysis, each day of the infant's life reduced exclusive breastfeeding prevalence by 1.0% (PR = 0.992; 95%CI 0.991;0.994). Being followed-up by Breastfeeding-Friendly Primary Care Initiative units increased exclusive breastfeeding by 19.0% (PR = 1.193; 95%CI 1.020;1.395). CONCLUSIONS Breastfeeding-Friendly Primary Care Unit Initiative contributed to the practice of exclusive breastfeeding and to the advice for pregnant women and nursing mothers when implemented in the primary health care network.

  5. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in an urban population of primiparas in Lebanon: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The proportion of mothers who exclusively breastfeed their babies up to 6 months remains low. Determinants of breastfeeding practices have been largely documented in high-income countries. Little evidence exists on possible predictors of breastfeeding behaviors in the Middle East. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of breastfeeding in Beirut and determine the factors that impact breastfeeding behavior in this population. Methods Data for this longitudinal study is nested within a randomized controlled trial (RCT) assessing the impact of a 24-hour hotline and postpartum support film on postpartum stress. Healthy first-time mothers delivering in the capital Beirut between March and July 2009, were interviewed at 1–3 days and 8–12 weeks post delivery. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 8–12 weeks postpartum. Results The overall breastfeeding rate at 8–12 weeks postpartum was 67%. The exclusive breastfeeding rate was 27.4%. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding included maternal work (OR=3.92; p-value<0.001), planned pregnancy (OR=2.42, p-value=0.010), intention to breastfeed (OR=3.28; p-value=0.043), source of maternal emotional support (OR = 1.87, p-value=0.039) and the use the postpartum support video, the hotline service or both (OR=2.55, p-value=0.044; OR=3.87, p-value=0.004 and OR=4.13, p-value=0.003). Conclusions The proportion of healthy first-time mothers who exclusively breastfeed in Beirut is extremely low. Factors associated with breastfeeding behavior are diverse. Future research and interventions should target different levels of the maternal-child pair’s ecosystem. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00857051 PMID:23902627

  6. Ecology and policy for exclusive breastfeeding in Colombia: a proposal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Breastfeeding promotion is one of the most important strategies against infant mortality and to control child undernourishment. Despite policies and plans to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia, its practice is low and its duration is short. Objective: To propose an ecology framework to interpret and incorporate contextual, interpersonal, and individual factors associated with the practice of breastfeeding and duration. Thereby, the plans and policies addressed to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia could be reinforced. Conclusions: To implement an ecology framework for Breastfeeding in Colombia, it is necessary to identify the effect of contextual factors in the biggest cultural regions of Colombia, to recognize the limitations of Infant-Friendly Hospital Initiatives to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration, to execute prospective studies in order to identify factors associated with breastfeeding duration, to design and implement plans and policies based on comprehensive planning strategies of healthcare interventions, to develop appropriate and cost-effective extra-institutional strategies aimed at prolonging the duration of breastfeeding, and to implement more reliable breastfeeding surveillance systems. PMID:24893193

  7. Association between Severe Dehydration in Rotavirus Diarrhea and Exclusive Breastfeeding among Infants at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Prasetyo, Dwi; Sabaroedin, Iesje Martiza; Ermaya, Yudith Setiati; Soenarto, Yati

    2015-01-01

    Background. Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute diarrhea in children. Infants who are exclusively breastfed develop fewer infections and have less severe illnesses. This study aimed to determine association between severe dehydration in rotavirus diarrhea and exclusive breastfeeding. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study in infants ≤ 6 months old with acute diarrhea in Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. Results. From 134 infants ≤ 6 months old with acute diarrhea enrolled from April 2009 to December 2012, there were 88 (65.6%) boys and 46 (34.4%) girls in this study. Rotavirus was detected in 60 (44.8 %), 32 (53.3%) of whom were exclusively breastfed. From rotavirus positive subjects, severe dehydration occurred in 4 (12.6%) exclusively breastfed infants and 6 (21.5%) not exclusively breastfed infants. No significant association was found between severe dehydration and exclusive breastfeeding (p = 0.491) in rotavirus diarrhea. Conclusions. In rotavirus diarrhea, there was no significant association between exclusive breastfeeding and severe dehydration. PMID:26612990

  8. Breastfeeding: population-based perspectives.

    PubMed

    Labbok, Miriam H

    2013-02-01

    From a population perspective, the achievement of the goals of exclusive breastfeeding throughout the first 6 months of life and continued breastfeeding with the introduction of age-appropriate complementary feeding for infant feeding, women and families must be inspired and empowered to overcome health system, sociocultural, and economic/political barriers. This article discusses trends in breastfeeding, influences on the reacceptance of a breastfeeding norm, and breastfeeding as a social and public health issue. The goal is to create an enabling environment for optimal breastfeeding in health care and social norms, and to adjust the social and political realities to support an economic milieu that favors breastfeeding. PMID:23178058

  9. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Mariana Campos Martins; Assis, Karine Franklin; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cury, Alexandre Faisal; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90), 47.6% (n = 80), and 69.6% (n = 117), respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process. PMID:26039402

  10. Improving Breastfeeding Behaviors: Evidence from Two Decades of Intervention Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Cynthia P.

    This report summarizes research on interventions intended to improve four key breastfeeding behaviors: early initiation of breastfeeding, feeding of colostrum to newborns, exclusive breastfeeding for the first 0-6 months, and continued breastfeeding through the second year and beyond. It clarifies what is known about improving these practices in…

  11. Food insecurity is associated with attitudes towards exclusive breastfeeding among women in urban Kenya.

    PubMed

    Webb-Girard, Aimee; Cherobon, Anne; Mbugua, Samwel; Kamau-Mbuthia, Elizabeth; Amin, Allison; Sellen, Daniel W

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to document whether food insecurity was associated with beliefs and attitudes towards exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among urban Kenyan women. We conducted structured interviews with 75 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected and 75 HIV-status unknown, low-income women who were either pregnant or with a child ≤24 months and residing in Nakuru, Kenya to generate categorical and open-ended responses on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards EBF and food insecurity. We facilitated six focus group discussions (FGD) with HIV-affected and HIV-status unknown mothers (n = 50 women) to assess barriers and facilitators to EBF. Of 148 women with complete interview data, 77% were moderately or severely food insecure (FIS). Women in FIS households had significantly greater odds of believing that breast milk would be insufficient for 6 months [odds ratio (OR), 2.6; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.0, 6.8], that women who EBF for 6 months would experience health or social problems (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.0, 7.3), that women need adequate food to support EBF for 6 months (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.0, 6.7) and that they themselves would be unable to follow a counsellor's advice to EBF for 6 months (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3, 8.3). Qualitative analysis of interview and FGD transcripts indicated that the maternal experience of hunger contributes to perceived milk insufficiency, anxiety about infant hunger and a perception that access to adequate food is necessary for successful breastfeeding. The lived experience of food insecurity among a sample of low-income, commonly FIS, urban Kenyan women reduces their capacity to implement at least one key recommended infant feeding practices, that of EBF for 6 months. PMID:20874844

  12. Exclusive Breastfeeding, Prevalence and Maternal Concerns: Saudi and Egyptian Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nafee Elsayed, Hoda Mohamed; Al-Dossary, Latifa Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk is rich in nutrients and anti-bodies and contains the right quantities of sugar, water, fat and protein that promotes not only growth and development of infants but also important for their survive. Exclusive breastfeeding is enough to the needs of infants less than six months without any addition. Several studies mentioned that the…

  13. Exclusive breastfeeding practice in Nigeria: a bayesian stepwise regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Gayawan, Ezra; Adebayo, Samson B; Chitekwe, Stanley

    2014-11-01

    Despite the importance of breast milk, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in Nigeria is far lower than what has been recommended for developing countries. Worse still, the practise has been on downward trend in the country recently. This study was aimed at investigating the determinants and geographical variations of EBF in Nigeria. Any intervention programme would require a good knowledge of factors that enhance the practise. A pooled data set from Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 1999, 2003, and 2008 were analyzed using a Bayesian stepwise approach that involves simultaneous selection of variables and smoothing parameters. Further, the approach allows for geographical variations at a highly disaggregated level of states to be investigated. Within a Bayesian context, appropriate priors are assigned on all the parameters and functions. Findings reveal that education of women and their partners, place of delivery, mother's age at birth, and current age of child are associated with increasing prevalence of EBF. However, visits for antenatal care during pregnancy are not associated with EBF in Nigeria. Further, results reveal considerable geographical variations in the practise of EBF. The likelihood of exclusively breastfeeding children are significantly higher in Kwara, Kogi, Osun, and Oyo states but lower in Jigawa, Katsina, and Yobe. Intensive interventions that can lead to improved practise are required in all states in Nigeria. The importance of breastfeeding needs to be emphasized to women during antenatal visits as this can encourage and enhance the practise after delivery. PMID:24619227

  14. Maternal, infant, and household factors are associated with breast-feeding trajectories during infants' first 6 months of life in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Sabrina; Frongillo, Edward A; Devine, Carol M; Alam, Dewan S; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2009-08-01

    Women's breast-feeding patterns are complex, and existing definitions of breast-feeding behavior do not capture this complexity adequately. We used results from a prior qualitative study to define trajectories for feeding during the first half of infancy, and then examined household-, maternal-, and infant-level determinants of these trajectories using logistic regression analysis. The 1472 women in the study cohort lived in rural Bangladesh and were participants in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab trial. The 3 infant feeding trajectories included women who fed only breast milk and water [full breast-feeding trajectory (FBT)]; offered mixed feeding continuously when their babies were 0-4 mo old [continuous mixed feeding trajectory (CMFT)]; and practiced any other type of breast-feeding [intermittent feeding trajectory (IFT)], which was the normative feeding behavior in this community. In adjusted regression models, women who lived in rural areas [odds ratio (OR), 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2, 3.4], came from the poorest households (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.5, 7.7), and offered prelacteal (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.7) were more likely to be in the FBT. Women from the richest households (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1, 2.6), employed mothers (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1, 2.6), and older mothers (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.0, 1.1) were more likely to be in the CMFT, and women with higher birth-weight infants (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8) were less likely to be in the CMFT. Thus, these trajectories were associated with distinct groups of women and these results provide information useful for developing interventions to improve breast-feeding practices. PMID:19549754

  15. Attitudes towards exclusive breastfeeding and other infant feeding options--a study from Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Emmanuela A; Béquet, Laurence; Ekouévi, Didier K; Krawinkel, Michael

    2005-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS-pandemic causes many problems for the most affected societies and their health care systems. One of these is the 'parent to child transmission' (PTCT) through breastmilk and its prevention (PPTCT). As economic and hygienic conditions do not always assure safe replacement feeding in developing countries, a WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF-expert panel proposed methods to reduce the risk of PTCT but to use breastmilk for infant feeding. The study presented here aimed at identifying the expected acceptance of such a concept by addressing the attitudes of women in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Interviews were performed with 150 mothers and 60 pregnant women. The vast majority regarded breastfeeding as the appropriate method of infant feeding, although the idea of exclusive breastfeeding was not well accepted. Water, especially, was felt to be a necessary supplement. In case of a suggested HIV-infection of the mother, 74 per cent of the women voted for weaning after 3 months. Eighty-three per cent accepted the exclusive use of breastmilk substitutes from birth. Seventy-six per cent were ready to boil their milk for pasteurization. Only 37 per cent considered a wet-nurse to breastfeed their child. As mixed breastfeeding implies a highest risk of PTCT of HIV, the most favoured option-exclusive breastfeeding and early weaning-requires some effort to convince women that breastmilk is a sufficient source of nutrients, fluid and energy for their child and that this feeding should preferably be practised up to 6 months of age. For affluent women, breastmilk substitutes can also be considered as a means of PPTCT in overall resource-poor countries. For the majority of women, there is no real alternative to breastfeeding and to the use of breastmilk for which appropriate technologies of PPTCT are to be developed with respect to national, local and household specifications. PMID:15890725

  16. Exclusive breastfeeding prenatal intentions among HIV-positive mothers in Blantyre, Malawi: a correlation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding is an important component of child survival and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-poor settings like Malawi. In Malawi, children under the age of six months are exclusively breastfed for an average duration of 3.7 months. This falls short of the recommendations by the World Health Organization as well as the Malawi Ministry of Health that mothers exclusively breastfeed for the first six months of the child’s life. Understanding factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding duration among HIV-positive mothers is important in promoting exclusive breastfeeding among these mothers. An exploratory study was therefore conducted to determine factors that influence HIV-positive mothers’ prenatal intended duration of exclusive breastfeeding and their likelihood to exclusively breastfeed for six months. Methods This paper is based on data from a longitudinal, descriptive and correlation study that was conducted at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi between May 12, 2009 and March 22, 2010. Theory of Planned Behavior guided the study. A face-to-face survey was utilized to collect data from a convenience sample of 110 HIV-positive mothers who were at least 36 weeks pregnant at baseline. A modified and pre-tested breastfeeding attrition prediction tool was used to measure exclusive breastfeeding beliefs, intentions and external influences at baseline. Data were analyzed using descriptive and association statistics. Additionally, multiple regressions were run to determine significant predictors of HIV-positive mothers’ prenatal intended duration of exclusive breastfeeding and their likelihood to exclusively breastfeed for six months. Results Results revealed high exclusive breastfeeding prenatal intentions among HIV-positive mothers. Prenatal intended duration of exclusive breastfeeding was positively associated with normative, control beliefs and negatively associated with positive beliefs

  17. What works to improve duration of exclusive breastfeeding: lessons from the exclusive breastfeeding promotion program in rural Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Susiloretni, Kun Aristiati; Hadi, Hamam; Prabandari, Yayi Suryo; Soenarto, Yati S; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to identify determinants of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at the individual, family, community, and organizational level. This study was a secondary analysis of data from a multilevel promotion of EBF program in two rural public health centers (PHCs) in the Demak district, Central Java, Indonesia. The program was a quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest control group. A total of 599 participants were enrolled, consisting of 163 mother infant pairs, 163 fathers, 163 grandmothers, 82 community leaders, and 28 midwives. EBF duration and its determinants were measured and analyzed using Cox proportional-hazard model. Mothers with a high level of breastfeeding knowledge had the greatest EBF duration. Mothers who had a knowledge score >80 had a 73 % (HR 0.27, 95 % CI 0.15, 0.48) greater chance of EBF compared to mothers who had a knowledge score of <60. Factors which shortened EBF duration were grandmother's lack of support for EBF (HR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.33, 3.14), received formula samples at discharge (HR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.25, 3.16), and maternal experience of breast engorgement (HR 1.97, 95 % CI 1.32, 2.94). High maternal breastfeeding knowledge was the only factor associated with longer duration of EBF. Barriers to EBF were breast engorgement, receiving formula samples at discharge, and a grandmother's lack of support for EBF. PMID:25487415

  18. Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Print | Home > A-Z Health Topics > Breastfeeding Breastfeeding Photo credit: DFW Bellies & Babies The experience of ... nursing moms in the workplace Pregnancy Subscribe to breastfeeding email updates Email Content last updated: July 21, ...

  19. Exclusive breast-feeding practice and associated factors in Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aghaji, Margaret N

    2002-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 235 infant-mother pairs in five Baby Friendly pairs in five Baby Friendly Hospitals in Enugu-Nigeria in 1998. The aims were to study their breast-feeding practices and associated factors. The exclusive breast-feeding rate was 33.3% while the predominant breast-feeding rate was 50.2%. Factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding included infants' birth order (P = 0.015), fathers' education (P =0.0244), mothers' education (P = 0.000001), occupation (P = 0.0069) and parity (P = 0.004). However, the infants' age (P = 0.054) and sex (P = 0.403), mothers' age (P = 0.2005), number of breast-feeding counseling attendances (P = 0.0883) and the breast-feeding initiator (P = 0.473) were comparable irrespective of breast-feeding practice. In the mothers' perspectives, the commonest reasons for not breastfeeding exclusively included; insufficient breast milk (58,37.0%) and the sociocultural practice of giving water to babies because of the hot climate (52,33.1%). For an improvement in the exclusive breast-feeding rate of this population, health workers should highlight to mothers the dangers of water supplementation and the dynamics of breastmilk supply through health education, home visits and the formation of community based lactation support groups. PMID:12081350

  20. Predicting intentions to continue exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months: a comparison among racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yeon; Wunderlich, Shahla M; Fly, Alyce D

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how mothers of different races/ethnicities make decisions to continue exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for 6 months under the Theory of Planned Behavior. Participants were recruited from hospitals and WIC clinics in Central Indiana and Southern New Jersey from 2008 to 2009. Mothers (N=236: 93 non-Hispanic African American, 72 non-Hispanic white, 71 Hispanic/Latina) completed a self-administered questionnaire that measured theoretical constructs and beliefs related to their intention to practice EBF for 6 months. Intentions to continue EBF for 6 months were similar (P=0.15) across racial/ethnic groups. Significant proportions of the intention (P<0.001) were explained by the three theoretical constructs (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control). The relative importance of each construct in predicting the intention varied by group. The most influential predictors (P<0.001) were attitude for white mothers, subjective norm for African American mothers, and perceived behavioral control for Latina mothers. Latent beliefs strongly associated with attitude in white mothers were 'bonding with the baby' and 'easy feeding.' Beliefs held by family members and the general public contributed to the subjective norm of African American mothers. Perceived behavioral control in Latina mothers was highly correlated with 'pumping breast milk'. Development of policy and intervention programs that focus on shaping strong predictors and beliefs within racial/ethnic groups could reduce disparities in EBF rates and establish EBF for 6 months as a cultural norm. PMID:21057864

  1. Host defense benefits of breastfeeding for the infant. Effect of breastfeeding duration and exclusivity.

    PubMed

    Heinig, M J

    2001-02-01

    Breastfeeding confers lifesaving protection against infectious illness among disadvantaged populations. As a result, breastfeeding promotion has an important part in child health programs throughout the world. In this article, the evidence regarding the host defense benefits of breastfeeding for term infants of normal birth weight is reviewed, with an emphasis on recent information from industrialized countries regarding how the degree and duration of breastfeeding affect infant health. PMID:11236719

  2. Early interruption of exclusive breastfeeding: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study.

    PubMed

    Patil, Crystal L; Turab, Ali; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Nesamvuni, Cebisa; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Bose, Anuradha; Islam, M Munirul; Ahmed, A M Shamsir; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; de Moraes, Milena Lima; Caulfield, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    We report the infant feeding experiences in the first month of life for 2,053 infants participating in "Malnutrition and Enteric Infections: Consequences for Child Health and Development" (MAL-ED). Eight sites (in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Brazil, Peru, South Africa, Tanzania), each followed a cohort of children from birth (by day 17), collecting detailed information on infant feeding practices, diet and illness episodes. Mothers were queried twice weekly regarding health status, breastfeeding and the introduction (or no) of non-breast milk liquids and foods. Here, our goal is to describe the early infant feeding practices in the cohort and evaluate factors associated with termination of exclusive breastfeeding in the first month of life. With data from enrollment to a visit at 28-33 days of life, we characterized exclusive, predominant or partial breastfeeding (using a median of 6-9 visits per child across the sites). Only 6 of 2,053 infants were never breastfed. By one month, the prevalences of exclusive breastfeeding were < 60% in 6 of 8 sites, and of partial breastfeeding (or no) were > 20% in 6 of 8 sites. Logistic regression revealed that prelacteal feeding (given to 4-63% of infants) increased the likelihood of partial breastfeeding (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.48 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 2.10), as did the withholding of colostrum (2-16% of infants) (OR: 1.63:1.01, 2.62), and being a first-time mother (OR: 1.38:1.10, 1.75). Our results reveal diversity across these sites, but an overall trend of early transition away from exclusive breastfeeding in the first month of life. Interventions which introduce or reinforce the WHO/UNICEF Ten Steps for Successful Breastfeeding are needed in these sites to improve breastfeeding initiation, to reinforce exclusive breastfeeding and delay introduction of non-breast milk foods and/or liquids. PMID:26825923

  3. Perceptions of caregivers about health and nutritional problems and feeding practices of infants: a qualitative study on exclusive breast-feeding in Kwale, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the significant positive effect of exclusive breast-feeding on child health, only 32% of children under 6 months old were exclusively breast-fed in Kenya in 2008. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions and feeding practices of caregivers of children under 6 months old with special attention to the caregivers’ indigenous knowledge, perceptions about the health and nutritional problems of their infants, and care-seeking behaviors that affect feeding practices. Methods The study was exploratory and used an inductive approach. In all, 32 key informants, including mothers, mothers-in-law, and traditional healers, were interviewed in-depth. The number of participants in free-listing of perceived health problems of babies, in ranking of the perceived severity of these health problems, and in free-listing of food and drink given to children under 6 months old were 29, 28, and 32, respectively. Additionally, 28 babies under 6 months old were observed at home with regard to feeding practices. Data obtained using these methods were triangulated to formulate an ethnomedical explanatory model for mothers who do not practice exclusive breast-feeding. Results The informants stated that various types of food, drink, and medicine were given to infants under 6 months old. Direct observation also confirmed that 2- to 3-month-old babies were given porridge, water, juice, herbal medicine, and over-the-counter medicine. Mothers’ perceptions of insufficient breast milk production and a lack of proper knowledge about the value of breast milk were identified in key informant interviews, free-listing, and ranking as important factors associating with the use of food and drink other than breast milk; in addition, perceived ill health of babies appears to be associated with suboptimal practice of exclusive breast-feeding. Caregivers used various folk and popular medicines from the drugstore, their own backyard or garden, and traditional healers so that the

  4. Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    Breastfeeding offers many benefits to your baby. Breast milk contains the right balance of nutrients to help ... should breastfeed. If you are having problems with breastfeeding, contact a lactation consultant. NIH: National Institute of ...

  5. Using cognitive-behavioural techniques to improve exclusive breastfeeding in a low-literacy disadvantaged population.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Atif; Haq, Zaeem; Sikander, Siham; Ahmad, Ikhlaq; Ahmad, Mansoor; Hafeez, Assad

    2012-01-01

    Despite being an important component of Pakistan's primary health care programme, the rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months remain among the lowest in the world. Low levels of literacy in women and deeply held cultural beliefs and practices have been found to contribute to the ineffectiveness of routine counselling delivered universally by community health workers in Pakistan. We aimed to address this by incorporating techniques of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) into the routine counselling process. We conducted qualitative studies of stakeholders' opinions (mothers, community health workers, their trainers and programme managers) and used this data to develop a psycho-educational approach that combined education with techniques of CBT that could be integrated into the health workers' routine work. The workers were trained to use this approach and feedback was obtained after implementation. The new intervention was successfully integrated into the community health worker programme and found to be culturally acceptable, feasible and useful. Incorporating techniques of CBT into routine counselling may be useful to promote health behaviours in traditional societies with low literacy rates. PMID:22066882

  6. Breastfeeding knowledge and beliefs among adults in eastern Tobago.

    PubMed

    Bovell-Benjamin, A C; Benjamin, W; Ivey, M; Simeon, D T

    2001-11-01

    Using a cross-sectional survey, the knowledge and beliefs about breastfeeding were evaluated among adults in Eastern Tobago (N = 509). Of the respondents, 95%, 69%, and 48% indicated that a baby should be exclusively breastfed at birth, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively. The baby's mother was thought to have the greatest influence on breastfeeding decisions. Of the respondents, 63% and 80% were unaware of expressed breast milk and cup-feeding a neonate, whereas 82% believed that a solely breastfed baby should receive water. Additionally, 23% and 44% felt that breastfeeding should be terminated before 6 months and between 6 and 12 months, respectively. Inadequate maternal nutrition and employment were reported as the principal factors affecting breastfeeding. There is a lack of knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of lactation and about the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. These findings are useful for guiding the development and implementation of interventions to promote breast-feeding in Tobago. PMID:11847898

  7. [Breastfeeding: health benefits for child and mother].

    PubMed

    Turck, D; Vidailhet, M; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Girardet, J-P; Goulet, O; Hankard, R; Rieu, D; Simeoni, U

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of breastfeeding in France is one of the lowest in Europe: 65% of infants born in France in 2010 were breastfed when leaving the maternity ward. Exclusive breastfeeding allows normal growth until at least 6 months of age, and can be prolonged until the age of 2 years or more, provided that complementary feeding is started after 6 months. Breast milk contains hormones, growth factors, cytokines, immunocompetent cells, etc., and has many biological properties. The composition of breast milk is influenced by gestational and postnatal age, as well as by the moment of the feed. Breastfeeding is associated with slightly enhanced performance on tests of cognitive development. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 3 months is associated with a lower incidence and severity of diarrhoea, otitis media and respiratory infection. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 4 months is associated with a lower incidence of allergic disease (asthma, atopic dermatitis) during the first 2 to 3 years of life in at-risk infants (infants with at least one first-degree relative presenting with allergy). Breastfeeding is also associated with a lower incidence of obesity during childhood and adolescence, as well as with a lower blood pressure and cholesterolemia in adulthood. However, no beneficial effect of breastfeeding on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been shown. Maternal infection with hepatitis B and C virus is not a contraindication to breastfeeding, as opposed to HIV infection and galactosemia. A supplementation with vitamin D and K is necessary in the breastfed infant. Very few medications contraindicate breastfeeding. Premature babies can be breastfed and/or receive mother's milk and/or bank milk, provided they receive energy, protein and mineral supplements. Return to prepregnancy weight is earlier in breastfeeding mothers during the 6 months following delivery. Breastfeeding is also associated with a decreased risk of breast and ovarian cancer in the

  8. The extended Theory of Planned Behavior in explaining exclusive breastfeeding intention and behavior among women in Kelantan, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan; Bakar, Mohd Isa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to utilize an extended Theory of Planned Behavior in identifying predictors of exclusive breastfeeding intention and behavior among women in Kelantan, Malaysia. SUBJECTS/METHODS A prospective cohort study was conducted, recruiting pregnant womenthrough two-stage cluster sampling. Their exclusive breastfeeding intention, attitude, perceived norm, perceived behavioral control and past behavior were obtained at baseline through interviewer-guided questionnaire. At one month after delivery, another interview was conducted to determine the two additional variables in the extended theory, which were their postpartum support and breastfeeding difficulty. The behavior, which was the actual duration of exclusive breastfeeding, was obtained from the second follow-up at six months. Pearson correlation and two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS A total of 200 women completed the study follow-up. Their median intended exclusive breastfeeding duration was 4.0 (IQR 5) months, and the median actual duration was 1.0 (IQR 4) month. The Theory of Planned Behavior explained 51.0% of the variance in intention, with perceived behavioral control and attitude were the significant predictors. It also explained 10.0% of the variance in behavior, but the addition of postpartum support and breastfeeding difficulty increased the amount of explained variance in behavior by 6.0%. The significant predictors of exclusive breastfeeding behavior were intention, postpartum support and breastfeeding difficulty. CONCLUSION The extended Theory of Planned Behaviorhad a good predictive ability in explaining exclusive breastfeedingintention and behavior. The women's intention to practice exclusive breastfeeding may be improved by improving their perceived behavioral control and attitude. Providing correct postpartum support and skills to handle breastfeeding difficulties after delivery will improve their exclusive breastfeeding

  9. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Timor-Leste: findings from Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Vishnu; da Cruz, Jonia Lourenca Nunes Brites; Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H

    2014-04-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is known to have nutritional and health benefits. This study investigated factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged five months or less in Timor-Leste. The latest data from the national Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010 were analyzed by binary logistic regression. Of the 975 infants included in the study, overall 49% (95% confidence interval 45.4% to 52.7%) were exclusively breastfed. The exclusive breastfeeding prevalence declined with increasing infant age, from 68.0% at less than one month to 24.9% at five months. Increasing infant age, mothers with a paid occupation, who perceived their newborn as non-average size, and residence in the capital city Dili, were associated with a lower likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding. On the other hand, women who could decide health-related matters tended to breastfeed exclusively, which was not the case for others whose decisions were made by someone else. The results suggested the need of breastfeeding promotion programs to improve the exclusive breastfeeding rate. Antenatal counseling, peer support network, and home visits by health workers could be feasible options to promote exclusive breastfeeding given that the majority of births occur at home. PMID:24756151

  10. Breastfeeding Practices, Demographic Variables, and Their Association with Morbidities in Children

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dipen V.; Bansal, Satvik C.; Nimbalkar, Archana S.; Phatak, Ajay G.; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M.; Desai, Rajendra G.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate feeding practices are the key contributor to reducing morbidities and mortalities in under-five children. A cross-sectional questionnaire based survey of mothers of children aged less than 5years was conducted in 781 mothers. More than half of mothers (57.5%) started feeding within an hour of birth, 55.9% gave exclusive breastfeeding for six months, 89.1% of the mothers stopped breastfeeding before two years of age, 18.2% of the mothers bottle-fed the babies, and 15.6% had problems during breastfeeding in first 6 months. Early initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth promoted exclusive breastfeeding, and breastfeeding for longer duration. Exclusive breastfeeding increased frequency of feeds. Multivariable logistic regression showed that initiation of breastfeeding after an hour of birth (p = 0.035), not providing exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (p < 0.0001), unemployed mothers (p = 0.035), having two or more kids (p = 0.001), and complementary feeds given by person other than mother (p = 0.007) increased hospitalization. Starting breastfeeding after an hour of birth (p = 0.045), severe malnutrition (p = 0.018), and breastfeeding for < two years (p = 0.026) increased rates of diarrhea. Breastfeeding practices were not optimum and interventions to improve these practices need to be strengthened. PMID:26347823

  11. Breastfeeding prevalence and practices among Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Indian mothers.

    PubMed

    Foo, L L; Quek, S J S; Ng, S A; Lim, M T; Deurenberg-Yap, M

    2005-09-01

    The National Breastfeeding Survey 2001 was the first comprehensive study on breastfeeding conducted on a national level in Singapore. It aimed to establish the prevalence of breastfeeding among Chinese, Malay and Indian mothers and to identify factors influencing breastfeeding. A total of 2098 mothers were interviewed in this two-phase study, with the first interview conducted 2 months after delivery and the second interview 6 months after birth among mothers who were still breastfeeding at 2 months. Frequency distributions of breastfeeding prevalence and types of breastfeeding practices at different time intervals (from birth to 6 months) were produced. Multivariate logistic regression was carried out to construct a model with predictive information on factors which influence continued breastfeeding till 2 months and 6 months after delivery respectively. The study found that about 94.5% of the mothers attempted breastfeeding. At 1 month, 71.6% were still breastfeeding, 49.6% continued to do so at 2 months, and 29.8% persisted till 4 months. By 6 months, the breastfeeding prevalence rate fell to 21.1%. The results of this study show higher breastfeeding prevalence rates compared to past studies in Singapore. Despite this, exclusive breastfeeding is still not a common practice. Various factors were found to be significant in influencing mothers' decision to breastfeed. Factors such as ethnicity, age, educational attainment, religion and baby's sex are non-modifiable in the short term or at an individual level. However, factors such as awareness of breastfeeding benefits, advice from health professionals and previous breastfeeding experience are potentially modifiable. Efforts aimed at promoting breastfeeding in Singapore need to take these modifiable factors into consideration so as to better tailor health promotion efforts on breastfeeding to women. PMID:15814526

  12. Developmental milestones record - 6 months

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Growth milestones for children - 6 months ... the weight on hands (often occurs by 4 months) Able to pick up a dropped object Able ...

  13. Effects of promoting increased duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding on adiposity and insulin-like growth factor-I at age 11.5 years: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Richard M; Patel, Rita; Kramer, Michael S.; Guthrie, Lauren; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Sergeichick, Natalia; Gusina, Nina; Foo, Ying; Palmer, Tom; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W; Davey Smith, George; Oken, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Importance Evidence that increased duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding reduces child obesity risk is based on observational studies that are prone to confounding. Objective To investigate effects of an intervention to promote increased duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding on child adiposity and circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I (which regulates growth). Design Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Setting 31 Belarusian maternity hospitals and their affiliated polyclinics, randomized to usual practices (n=15) or a breastfeeding promotion intervention (n=16). Participants 17,046 breastfeeding mother-infant pairs enrolled in 1996/7, of whom 13,879 (81.4%) were followed-up between January 2008 and December 2010 at a median age of 11.5 years. Intervention Breastfeeding promotion intervention modeled on the WHO/UNICEF Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI), fat and fat-free mass indices (FMI and FFMI), percent body fat, waist circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, overweight and obesity, and whole-blood IGF-I. Primary analysis was based on modified intention-to-treat (without imputation), accounting for clustering within hospitals/clinics. Results The experimental intervention substantially increased breastfeeding duration and exclusivity (43% vs. 6% and 7.9% vs. 0.6% exclusively breastfed at 3 and 6 months, respectively) versus the control intervention. Cluster-adjusted mean differences in outcomes at 11.5 years between experimental vs. control groups were: 0.19 kg/m2 (95% 4 CI: −0.09, 0.46) for BMI; 0.12 kg/m2 (−0.03, 0.28) for FMI; 0.04 kg/m2 (−0.11, 0.18) for FFMI; 0.47% (−0.11, 1.05) for % body fat; 0.30 cm (−1.41, 2.01) for waist circumference; −0.07 mm (−1.71, 1.57) for triceps and −0.02 mm (−0.79, 0.75) for subscapular skinfold thicknesses; and −0.02 standard deviations (−0.12, 0.08) for IGF-I. The cluster-adjusted odds ratio for overweight / obesity (BMI

  14. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life in Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira; de Carvalho, Márcia Lazaro; de Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life in Brazil. METHODS Systematic review of epidemiological studies conducted in Brazil with exclusive breastfeeding as outcome. Medline and LILACS databases were used. After the selection of articles, a hierarchical theoretical model was proposed according to the proximity of the variable to the outcome. RESULTS Of the 67 articles identified, we selected 20 cross-sectional studies and seven cohort studies, conducted between 1998 and 2010, comprising 77,866 children. We identified 36 factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding, being more often associated the distal factors: place of residence, maternal age and education, and the proximal factors: maternal labor, age of the child, use of a pacifier, and financing of primary health care. CONCLUSIONS The theoretical model developed may contribute to future research, and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding may subsidize public policies on health and nutrition. PMID:26759970

  15. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding is associated with differences in infants’ brain responses to emotional body expressions

    PubMed Central

    Krol, Kathleen M.; Rajhans, Purva; Missana, Manuela; Grossmann, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Much research has recognized the general importance of maternal behavior in the early development and programing of the mammalian offspring’s brain. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration, the amount of time in which breastfed meals are the only source of sustenance, plays a prominent role in promoting healthy brain and cognitive development in human children. However, surprisingly little is known about the influence of breastfeeding on social and emotional development in infancy. In the current study, we examined whether and how the duration of EBF impacts the neural processing of emotional signals by measuring electro-cortical responses to body expressions in 8-month-old infants. Our analyses revealed that infants with high EBF experience show a significantly greater neural sensitivity to happy body expressions than those with low EBF experience. Moreover, regression analyses revealed that the neural bias toward happiness or fearfulness differs as a function of the duration of EBF. Specifically, longer breastfeeding duration is associated with a happy bias, whereas shorter breastfeeding duration is associated with a fear bias. These findings suggest that breastfeeding experience can shape the way in which infants respond to emotional signals. PMID:25657620

  16. The Effectiveness of Lactation Consultants and Lactation Counselors on Breastfeeding Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanjay; Patel, Shveta

    2016-08-01

    Breastfeeding for all infants starting at birth and continuing until at least 6 months of age has been recommended by the World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics. The health benefits to infants and mothers have been demonstrated in many studies. Dedicated lactation specialists may play a role in providing education and support to pregnant women and new mothers wishing to breastfeed to improve breastfeeding outcomes. The objective of this review was to assess if lactation education or support programs using lactation consultants or lactation counselors would improve rates of initiation and duration of any breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding compared with usual practice. A systematic literature review of the evidence was conducted using electronic databases. The review was limited to randomized trials and yielded 16 studies with 5084 participants. It was found that breastfeeding interventions using lactation consultants and counselors increase the number of women initiating breastfeeding (odds ratio [OR] for any initiation vs not initiating breastfeeding = 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.67). The interventions improve any breastfeeding rates (OR for any breastfeeding up to 1 month vs not breastfeeding = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.09-2.04). In addition, there were beneficial effects on exclusive breastfeeding rates (OR for exclusive breastfeeding up to 1 month vs not exclusive breastfeeding = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.20-2.44). Most of the evidence would suggest developing and improving postpartum support programs incorporating lactation consultants and lactation counselors. PMID:26644419

  17. Exclusive breastfeeding is inversely associated with risk of childhood overweight in a large Chinese cohort.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Liu, Huijuan; Li, Jing; Chen, Yu; Wei, Chunlei; Shen, Genmei; Zhu, Shanlin; Chen, Hua; Zhao, Yi-Min; Huang, Tao; Li, Duo

    2014-09-01

    The association between breastfeeding status and childhood overweight is inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between exclusive breastfeeding and childhood overweight risk in children 4-5 y of age in Southeast China. Among 97,424 children enrolled between 1999 and 2009 in the Jiaxing Birth Cohort, 42,550 of them were included in the final analysis with complete records on breastfeeding status and anthropometric measurements at 4-5 y of age (48-60 mo). Overweight and being at risk of overweight were identified as a body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-score ≥ 2 and between 1 and 2, respectively. After 4-5 y of follow-up, 4845 (11.4%) children were identified as being at risk of overweight, and 1343 (3.16%) children were overweight. Adjusting for important child and maternal characteristics, longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with lower risk of childhood overweight (P-trend = 0.009) and being at risk of overweight (P-trend < 0.001). Children exclusively breastfed for 3-5 mo and ≥6 mo had 13% (RR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.99) and 27% (RR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.95) lower risk of becoming overweight compared with children exclusively breastfed for <1 mo, respectively. In boys, there were inverse associations of 3-5 mo (RR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.98) or ≥6 mo (RR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.91) of exclusive breastfeeding against becoming overweight, but there were no significant associations in girls (3-5 mo: RR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.76, 1.22; ≥6 mo: RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.60, 1.41). In conclusion, the present findings suggest that longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding is associated with lower risk of becoming overweight in Chinese children. PMID:25008581

  18. Maternal and Hospital Factors Associated with First-Time Mothers' Breastfeeding Practice: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzu-I; Huang, Shu-Her; Lee, Shoou-Yih D

    2015-01-01

    Continuity of breastfeeding is infrequent and indeterminate. Evidence is lacking regarding factors associated with breastfeeding at different postpartum time points. This prospective study investigated the change in, and correlates of, breastfeeding practices after delivery at a hospital and at 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum among first-time mothers. We followed a cohort of 300 primiparous mothers of Taiwan who gave birth at two hospitals during 2010-2011. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine factors that were correlated with breastfeeding practices. In the study sample, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding during the hospital stay was 66%; it declined to 37.5% at 1 month and 30.2% at 3 months postpartum. Only 17.1% of women reported continuing breastfeeding at 6 months. Early initiation of breastfeeding, rooming-in practice, and self-efficacy were significantly related to exclusive breastfeeding during the hospital stay. After discharge, health literacy, knowledge, intention, and self-efficacy were positively and significantly associated with breastfeeding exclusivity. Later initiation (hazard ratio=1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.05, 1.97), shorter intention (hazard ratio=1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.13, 1.68), and self-efficacy (hazard ratio=0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.96, 0.99) were important predictors of breastfeeding cessation within 6 months of delivery. Continuous breastfeeding practice for 6 months is challenging and difficult for new mothers. Results showed that factors related to breastfeeding varied over time after delivery. Interventions seeking to sustain breastfeeding should consider new mothers' needs and barriers at different times. PMID:26110594

  19. Assessing exclusive breastfeeding practices, dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) of nursing mothers in Ekiti State of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the infants. The benefits of breastfeeding practices to infants and mothers are well documented. However, information on breastfeeding practices and its effect on body mass index (BMI) of mothers are scarce, particularly in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess breastfeeding practices and its association with BMI of mothers. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among breastfeeding mothers that attended postnatal clinic of the state specialist hospitals and maternity centers in the study location. The specialist hospital and two-third of the nine maternity centers were purposively selected because of their health facilities and personnel. The mother-child pairs (200 respondents) were randomly selected from the study locations. Information on demographic characteristic, socio-economic parameters, nutritional knowledge of breastfeeding and dietary intakes of mothers were collected using questionnaires. BMI of mothers was determined as described by World Health Organization. Age distribution of mothers was between 25-34 years; and almost half of respondents had good educational background and were engaged in different occupations. The respondent monthly income ranged between = N = 3500 - 26000 ($26.92 - $200); and their dietary intakes varied between starchy and protein-based food. The result also showed that the respondent consumed enough nutrients to meet up the recommended daily allowance for protein, carbohydrate, fat, zinc, magnesium, sodium and phosphorous requirements. The BMI classifications showed that over three-fifth of respondents were normal, while the remaining were underweight (6%) and overweight/obese (26.5%). Also, large proportion of respondents engaged in exclusive breastfeeding and with good knowledge of breastfeeding practices. Statistically, exclusive breastfeeding practices had no correlation between the BMI and frequency of

  20. Breastfeeding promotion interventions and breastfeeding practices: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF) rates remain low in both low-income and high-income countries despite World Health Organization recommendations for EBF till 6 months. Breastfeeding has been shown to have a protective effect against gastrointestinal infections, among other benefits. Large-scale interventions focusing on educating mothers about breastfeeding have the potential to increase breastfeeding prevalence, especially EBF, up to recommended standards and also to decrease infant morbidity. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted for RCTs and quasi-experimental studies comparing breastfeeding education or support to routine care. The effect of interventions was observed for exclusive, predominant, partial and no breastfeeding rates. The time intervals of interest were day 1, <1 month, and 1 to 5 months. Outcome-specific evidence was graded according to the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) rules using the adapted Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria and recommendations were made from studies in developing countries for inclusion into the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model. Results After reviewing 4600 abstracts, 372 studies were selected for full text screening and 110 of these studies were finally included. Statistically significant increases in EBF rates as a result of breastfeeding promotion interventions were observed: 43% at day 1, 30% at <1 month, and 90% at 1-5 months. Rates of ‘no breastfeeding’ reduced by 32% at 1 day, 30% at <1 month, and 18% at 1-5 months. The effect of interventions on the rates of predominant and partial breastfeeding were non-significant. Conclusion Breastfeeding education and/or support increased EBF rates and decreased no breastfeeding rates at birth, <1 month and 1-5 months. Combined individual and group counseling appeared to be superior to individual or group counseling alone. Interventions in developing countries had a greater impact than

  1. Differences in the Protective Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Child Overweight and Obesity by Mother's Race.

    PubMed

    Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Wu, Pan; Trabulsi, Jillian

    2016-09-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between infant feeding and risk of child overweight and obesity across race and ethnicity in a diverse community-based cohort. Methods 2172 mother baby dyads were drawn from a prospective cohort constructed using data from electronic medical records linked to birth records. The primary exposure was exclusive breastfeeding at 2 months of age; outcome was BMI Z-score and BMI ≥ 85th percentile (overweight and obese) at 4 years of age. Regression models were adjusted for confounding using covariance balanced propensity score and inverse probability weighting. Results At age 4, exclusively breast fed children had lower BMI Z-score (-0.109, SE = 0.048) and a decreased odds of a BMI ≥ 85th percentile (0.832; 95 % CI 0.792, 0.994), when compared to those exclusively formula-fed or had mixed feeding. Race and ethnicity significantly moderated these associations. Sub-population analysis showed the effect was significant for BMI Z-score (p = 0.0002) and BMI ≥ 85th percentile (p < 0.0001) only for children of NH white mothers. For children of NH black mothers exclusive breastfeeding was not associated with a significant difference in BMI Z-score, however there was an increased odds of overweight or obesity (p = 0.0145). Conclusions The protective effect of breastfeeding against early childhood overweight and obesity may differ by race and ethnicity. This suggests that programs aiming to reduce obesity by increasing rates of breastfeeding may have limited impact for some groups and should be coupled with other racially and ethnically focused efforts to encourage healthy feeding practices in infancy and early childhood. PMID:27178429

  2. A complex breastfeeding promotion and support intervention in a developing country: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding has countless benefits to mothers, children and community at large, especially in developing countries. Studies from Lebanon report disappointingly low breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Evidence reveals that antenatal breastfeeding education, professional lactation support, and peer lay support are individually effective at increasing breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, particularly in low-income settings. Given the complex nature of the breastfeeding ecosystem and its barriers in Lebanon, we hypothesize that a complex breastfeeding support intervention, which is centered on the three components mentioned above, would significantly increase breastfeeding rates. Methods/Design A multi-center randomized controlled trial. Study population: 443 healthy pregnant women in their first trimester will be randomized to control or intervention group. Intervention: A “prenatal/postnatal” professional and peer breastfeeding support package continuing till 6 months postpartum, guided by the Social Network and Social Support Theory. Control group will receive standard prenatal and postnatal care. Mothers will be followed up from early pregnancy till five years after delivery. Outcome measures: Total and exclusive breastfeeding rates, quality of life at 1, 3 and 6 months postpartum, maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes at 6 months postpartum, maternal exclusive breastfeeding rates of future infants up to five years from baseline, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses of the intervention. Statistical analysis: Descriptive and regression analysis will be conducted under the intention to treat basis using the most recent version of SPSS. Discussion Exclusive breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health measure that has a significant impact on infant morbidity and mortality. In a country with limited healthcare resources like Lebanon, developing an effective breastfeeding promotion and support intervention that is

  3. Costs of Promoting Exclusive Breastfeeding at Community Level in Three Sites in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nkonki, Lungiswa Leonora; Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Jackson, Debra; Chola, Lumbwe; Doherty, Tanya; Chopra, Mickey; Robberstad, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based peer support has been shown to be effective in improving exclusive breastfeeding rates in a variety of settings. Methods We conducted a cost analysis of a community cluster randomised-controlled trial (Promise-EBF), aimed at promoting exclusive infant feeding in three sites in South Africa. The costs were considered from the perspective of health service providers. Peer supporters in this trial visited women to support exclusive infant feeding, once antenatally and four times postpartum. Results The total economic cost of the Promise-EBF intervention was US$393 656, with average costs per woman and per visit of US$228 and US$52, respectively. The average costs per woman and visit in an operational ‘non research’ scenario were US$137 and US$32 per woman and visit, respectively. Investing in the promotion of exclusive infant feeding requires substantial financial commitment from policy makers. Extending the tasks of multi-skilled community health workers (CHWs) to include promoting exclusive infant feeding is a potential option for reducing these costs. In order to avoid efficiency losses, we recommend that the time requirements for delivering the promotion of exclusive infant feeding are considered when integrating it within the existing activities of CHWs. Discussion This paper focuses on interventions for exclusive infant feeding, but its findings more generally illustrate the importance of documenting and quantifying factors that affect the feasibility and sustainability of community-based interventions, which are receiving increased focus in low income settings. PMID:24427264

  4. Tongue-tie and breastfeeding: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Janet; Miles, Sandra C; Fulbrook, Paul

    2011-03-01

    In Australia, initial exclusive breastfeeding rates are 80%, reducing to 14% at 6 months. One factor that contributes to early breastfeeding cessation is infant tongue-tie, a congenital abnormality occurring in 2.8-10.7% of infants, in which a thickened, tightened or shortened frenulum is present. Tongue-tie is linked to breastfeeding difficulties, speech and dental problems. It may prevent the baby from taking enough breast tissue into its mouth to form a teat and the mother may experience painful, bleeding nipples and frequent feeding with poor infant weight gain; these problems may contribute to early breastfeeding cessation. This review of research literature analyses the evidence regarding tongue-tie to determine if appropriate intervention can reduce its impact on breastfeeding cessation, concluding that, for most infants, frenotomy offers the best chance of improved and continued breastfeeding. Furthermore, studies have demonstrated that the procedure does not lead to complications for the infant or mother. PMID:21608523

  5. Potential effectiveness of Community Health Strategy to promote exclusive breastfeeding in urban poor settings in Nairobi, Kenya: a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kimani-Murage, E W; Norris, S A; Mutua, M K; Wekesah, F; Wanjohi, M; Muhia, N; Muriuki, P; Egondi, T; Kyobutungi, C; Ezeh, A C; Musoke, R N; McGarvey, S T; Madise, N J; Griffiths, P L

    2016-04-01

    Early nutrition is critical for later health and sustainable development. We determined potential effectiveness of the Kenyan Community Health Strategy in promoting exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in urban poor settings in Nairobi, Kenya. We used a quasi-experimental study design, based on three studies [Pre-intervention (2007-2011; n=5824), Intervention (2012-2015; n=1110) and Comparison (2012-2014; n=487)], which followed mother-child pairs longitudinally to establish EBF rates from 0 to 6 months. The Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition (MIYCN) study was a cluster randomized trial; the control arm (MIYCN-Control) received standard care involving community health workers (CHWs) visits for counselling on antenatal and postnatal care. The intervention arm (MIYCN-Intervention) received standard care and regular MIYCN counselling by trained CHWs. Both groups received MIYCN information materials. We tested differences in EBF rates from 0 to 6 months among four study groups (Pre-intervention, MIYCN-Intervention, MIYCN-Control and Comparison) using a χ(2) test and logistic regression. At 6 months, the prevalence of EBF was 2% in the Pre-intervention group compared with 55% in the MIYCN-Intervention group, 55% in the MIYCN-Control group and 3% in the Comparison group (P<0.05). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, the odds ratio for EBF from birth to 6 months was 66.9 (95% CI 45.4-96.4), 84.3 (95% CI 40.7-174.6) and 3.9 (95% CI 1.8-8.4) for the MIYCN-Intervention, MIYCN-Control and Comparison group, respectively, compared with the Pre-intervention group. There is potential effectiveness of the Kenya national Community Health Strategy in promoting EBF in urban poor settings where health care access is limited. PMID:26708714

  6. Rates and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breast feeding at 42 days postnatal in six low and middle-income countries: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Early initiation of breastfeeding after birth and exclusive breastfeeding through six months of age confers many health benefits for infants; both are crucial high impact, low-cost interventions. However, determining accurate global rates of these crucial activities has been challenging. We use population-based data to describe: (1) rates of early initiation of breastfeeding (defined as within 1 hour of birth) and of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum; and (2) factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Methods Prospectively collected data from women and their live-born infants enrolled in the Global Network’s Maternal and Newborn Health Registry between January 1, 2010-December 31, 2013 included women-infant dyads in 106 geographic areas (clusters) at 7 research sites in 6 countries (Kenya, Zambia, India [2 sites], Pakistan, Argentina and Guatemala). Rates and risk factors for failure to initiate early breastfeeding were investigated for the entire cohort and rates and risk factors for failure to maintain exclusive breastfeeding was assessed in a sub-sample studied at 42 days post-partum. Result A total of 255,495 live-born women-infant dyads were included in the study. Rates and determinants for the exclusive breastfeeding sub-study at 42 days post-partum were assessed from among a sub-sample of 105,563 subjects. Although there was heterogeneity by site, and early initiation of breastfeeding after delivery was high, the Pakistan site had the lowest rates of early initiation of breastfeeding. The Pakistan site also had the highest rate of lack of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Across all regions, factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding included nulliparity, caesarean section, low birth weight, resuscitation with bag and mask, and failure to place baby on the mother’s chest after delivery. Factors associated with failure to

  7. Surveying the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of District of Columbia ACOG members related to breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Sims, Alexandra M; Long, Sahira A; Tender, Jennifer A F; Young, Michal A

    2015-01-01

    Although the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months, only 14.6% of babies born in the District of Columbia (DC) reached this goal. Breastfeeding support from providers has been shown to increase exclusive breastfeeding. We aim (1) to describe breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes, (2) to determine the presence of breastfeeding in routine prenatal discussions, and (3) to determine the knowledge of facility adoption of the Perinatal Care (PC) Core Measure Set among DC ACOG members. A survey sent to DC ACOG members assessed knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to breastfeeding and evaluated participants' barriers to breastfeeding counseling, management of breastfeeding challenges, and awareness of facility adoption of the PC Core Measure Set. All 29 respondents reported breastfeeding as the best infant nutrition and that physicians should encourage breastfeeding. However, despite 75% reporting counseling most of their patients regarding breastfeeding, only 27% reported that most of their patients were breastfeeding at the postpartum visit. Participants scored 83% correct on knowledge-based questions. Perceived barriers to breastfeeding counseling included lack of time (66%), reimbursement (10%), and competence in managing breastfeeding problems (7%). Most respondents were unsure of both adoption of, and breastfeeding data collection for, the PC Core Measure Set (52% and 55%, respectively). Participants had knowledge gaps and identified barriers to discussing breastfeeding. There was limited awareness of hospital data collection about breastfeeding. These results indicate a need for more breastfeeding education among DC obstetricians-gynecologists and better outreach about the PC Core Measure Set. PMID:25389912

  8. Counselling sessions increased duration of exclusive breastfeeding: a randomized clinical trial with adolescent mothers and grandmothers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Considering that adolescent mothers may be more vulnerable to discontinuing exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) before 6 months and that their mothers may exert a negative influence on this practice, this study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the efficacy of breastfeeding counselling for adolescent mothers and their mothers in increasing EBF duration. Methods A clinical trial was performed in 323 adolescent mothers with newborns and their mothers randomized in four groups: (1) not living with mother, without intervention; (2) not living with mother, with intervention; (3) living with mother, without intervention, (4) living with mother, with intervention. The intervention consisted of five counselling sessions directed to mother and grandmother, in the maternity hospital and on follow-up. Information about feeding practices during the newborn’s first six months of life was collected monthly by telephone. Intervention’s efficacy was measured through Cox regression and comparison of exclusive breastfeeding medians and survival curves for the different groups. Results The intervention increased the duration of EBF by67 days for the group which included grandmothers (HR = 0.64; CI 95% = 0.46-0.90) and 46 days for the group which did not include grandmothers (HR = 0.52; CI 95% = 0.36-0.76). Conclusions Counselling sessions in the first four months of children’s lives proved to be effective in increasing EBF duration among adolescent mothers. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00910377. PMID:25033743

  9. [Consequences of exclusive breast-feeding in vegan mother newborn--case report].

    PubMed

    Mariani, A; Chalies, S; Jeziorski, E; Ludwig, C; Lalande, M; Rodière, M

    2009-11-01

    We report on the case of an infant who was hospitalized because of failure to thrive, megaloblastic anemia, and delayed psychomotor development. He was 10 months old and had been exclusively breast-fed by his vegan mother. Investigations showed vitamin B(12) deficiency with hematocytopenia and pervasive developmental disorders as well as vitamin K and vitamin D deficiencies. The infant's mother presented the same deficiencies. Introduction of vitamin supplementation normalized the biological disorders, and the infant showed weight gain and neurological improvement. This case highlights that a vegan diet during pregnancy followed by exclusive breast-feeding can induce nutritional deficiencies in the newborn, with clinical consequences. Detecting mother and child vitamin deficiencies and preventing them is essential. PMID:19748244

  10. Peer Support and Exclusive Breastfeeding Duration in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sudfeld, Christopher R.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of peer support on duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Data Sources Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials were searched from inception to April 2012. Methods Two authors independently searched, reviewed, and assessed the quality of randomized controlled trials utilizing peer support in LMICs. Meta-analysis and metaregression techniques were used to produce pooled relative risks and investigate sources of heterogeneity in the estimates. Results Eleven randomized controlled trials conducted at 13 study sites met the inclusion criteria for systematic review. We noted significant differences in study populations, peer counselor training methods, peer visit schedule, and outcome ascertainment methods. Peer support significantly decreased the risk of discontinuing EBF as compared to control (RR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.61–0.82; I2 = 92%). The effect of peer support was significantly reduced in settings with >10% community prevalence of formula feeding as compared to settings with <10% prevalence (p = 0.048). There was no evidence of effect modification by inclusion of low birth weight infants (p = 0.367) and no difference in the effect of peer support on EBF at 4 versus 6 months postpartum (p = 0.398). Conclusions Peer support increases the duration of EBF in LMICs; however, the effect appears to be reduced in formula feeding cultures. Future studies are needed to determine the optimal timing of peer visits, how to best integrate peer support into packaged intervention strategies, and the effectiveness of supplemental interventions to peer support in formula feeding cultures. PMID:23028810

  11. The Influence of Seasonality and Community-Based Health Worker Provided Counselling on Exclusive Breastfeeding - Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Aritra; Chatterjee, Rahul; Karthick, Morchan; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Chaudhuri, Indrajit

    2016-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) during the first six months of life is considered a high impact but low-cost measure for reducing the morbidity and mortality among children. The current study investigated the association of seasonality and frontline worker(FLW) provided counselling with practice of EBF in Bihar, India. Methods We used the ‘Lot Quality Assurance Sampling’ technique to conduct a multi-stage sampling survey in 8 districts of Bihar. Regarding EBF, mothers of 0–5 (completed) months old children were asked if they had given only breastmilk to their children during the previous day, while mothers of 6–8 (completed) months old children were inquired about the total duration of EBF. We tested for association between EBF during the previous day with season of interview and EBF for full 6 months with nursing season. We also assessed if receiving counselling on EBF and complementary feeding had any association with relevant EBF indicators. Results Among the under-6 month old children, 76% received EBF during the previous day, whereas 92% of 6–8 (completed) months old children reportedly received EBF for the recommended duration. Proportion of 0–5 (completed) month old children receiving only breastmilk (during last 24 hours) decreased significantly with increasing age and with change of season from colder to warmer months. Odds of receiving only breastmilk during the previous day was significantly higher during the winter months (Adjusted odds ratio(AOR) = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.37, 1.63) compared to summer. Also, the children nursed primarily during the winter season had higher odds of receiving EBF for 6 months (AOR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.43, 2.52) than those with non-winter nursing. Receiving FLW-counselling was positively associated with breastfeeding exclusively, even after adjusting for seasonality and other covariates (AOR = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.67, 1.98). Conclusions Seasonality is a significant but non-modifiable risk factor for EBF. However

  12. Breast-feeding: A commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Braegger, Christian; Decsi, Tamas; Kolacek, Sanja; Koletzko, Berthold; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis A; Puntis, John; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2009-07-01

    This medical position article by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition summarises the current status of breast-feeding practice, the present knowledge on the composition of human milk, advisable duration of exclusive and partial breast-feeding, growth of the breast-fed infant, health benefits associated with breast-feeding, nutritional supplementation for breast-fed infants, and contraindications to breast-feeding. This article emphasises the important role of paediatricians in the implementation of health policies devised to promote breast-feeding.The European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition recognises breast-feeding as the natural and advisable way of supporting the healthy growth and development of young children. This article delineates the health benefits of breast-feeding, reduced risk of infectious diarrhoea and acute otitis media being the best documented. Exclusive breast-feeding for around 6 months is a desirable goal, but partial breast-feeding as well as breast-feeding for shorter periods of time are also valuable. Continuation of breast-feeding after the introduction of complementary feeding is encouraged as long as mutually desired by mother and child.The role of health care workers, including paediatricians, is to protect, promote, and support breast-feeding. Health care workers should be trained in breast-feeding issues and counselling, and they should encourage practices that do not undermine breast-feeding. Societal standards and legal regulations that facilitate breast-feeding should be promoted, such as providing maternity leave for at least 6 months and protecting working mothers. PMID:19502997

  13. Effects of promoting longer-term and exclusive breastfeeding on childhood eating attitudes: a cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Skugarevsky, Oleg; Wade, Kaitlin H; Richmond, Rebecca C; Martin, Richard M; Tilling, Kate; Patel, Rita; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Sergeichick, Natalia; Davey Smith, George; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily; Kramer, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Observational studies suggest that breastfeeding benefits later maternal child-feeding practices, which in turn may contribute to positive eating attitudes. We investigated the effect of a randomized intervention to increase duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding on pre-adolescent eating attitudes. Methods: Long-term follow-up of the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT), a cluster-randomized trial in 31 maternity hospitals and affiliated polyclinics in Belarus. Sites were randomly assigned an experimental intervention to promote longer duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding in mothers who initiated breastfeeding (n = 16 sites), or a control intervention of continuing usual care (n = 15 sites); 17 046 healthy infants were enrolled in 1996–7, of whom 13 751 (80.7%) completed the Children’s Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) at 11.5 years of age. A ChEAT score ≥22.5 (85th percentile) was used as an indicator of problematic eating attitudes. Analysis was based on intention-to-treat, accounting for clustering within hospitals/clinics. Results: Compared with the control arm, the experimental intervention substantially increased breastfeeding exclusivity (43.3% vs 6.4% exclusively breastfed at 3 months of age) and duration of any breastfeeding throughout infancy. The proportion of children with ChEAT scores ≥22.5 was lower in the experimental than control arm (boys 11.4% vs 17.2%; girls 18.5% vs 23.4%) [cluster-adjusted odds ratio (OR), boys: 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21,0.93; girls: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.27,0.99). Results were robust to adjustment for potential confounders and using a ChEAT score ≥25.5 (91st percentile) as the outcome (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.28,1.03). Conclusions: An intervention to improve the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding among term infants in Belarus was associated with a reduction in problematic eating attitudes at 11.5 years of age. PMID:24706729

  14. Effect of breastfeeding promotion interventions on breastfeeding rates, with special focus on developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Given the recognized benefits of breastfeeding for the health of the mother and infants, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first six months of life. However, the prevalence of EBF is low globally in many of the developing and developed countries around the world. There is much interest in the effectiveness of breastfeeding promotion interventions on breastfeeding rates in early infancy. Methods A systematic literature was conducted to identify all studies that evaluated the impact of breastfeeding promotional strategies on any breastfeeding and EBF rates at 4-6 weeks and at 6 months. Data were abstracted into a standard excel sheet by two authors. Meta-analyses were performed with different sub-group analyses. The overall evidence were graded according to the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) rules using the adapted Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria and recommendations made from developing country studies for inclusion into the Live Saved Tool (LiST) model. Results After reviewing 968 abstracts, 268 studies were selected for potential inclusion, of which 53 randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials were selected for full abstraction. Thirty two studies gave the outcome of EBF at 4-6 weeks postpartum. There was a statistically significant 43% increase in this outcome, with 89% and 20% significant increases in developing and developed countries respectively. Fifteen studies reported EBF outcomes at 6 months. There was an overall 137% increase, with a significant 6 times increase in EBF in developing countries, compared to 1.3 folds increase in developed country studies. Further sub-group analyses proved that prenatal counseling had a significant impact on breastfeeding outcomes at 4-6 weeks, while both prenatal and postnatal counseling were important for EBF at 6 months. Conclusion Breastfeeding promotion interventions increased

  15. Breastfeeding practices among mothers in an urban polyclinic.

    PubMed

    Siah H Yadav, C K; Yadav, H

    2002-06-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study on breast feeding practices in an urban clinic was conducted among 136 mothers aged between 21-49 years who were interviewed using a questionnaire. Malays constituted 61% of the respondents, Chinese 22.8% and Indians 16.2%. Mojority of these were working mothers and although the initiation of breastfeeding was high (99.3%), exclusive breastfeeding was only 12.5%. A large proportion (33.8%) dtopped prior to 3 months. Majority of the Chinese mothers (61.3%) stipped before 3 months as compared to the Indian (40.9%) and Malay (21.7%) mothers (p<0.001). Mean age of introducing complementary foods at 3 months is below the accepted age of 4 to 6 months for weaning. Ever-breast feeding rate is high in this urban setting but more efforts are needed to effect a higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding and longer duration of breastfeeding. PMID:24326649

  16. 'This little piranha': a qualitative analysis of the language used by health professionals and mothers to describe infant behaviour during breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Burns, Elaine; Fenwick, Jenny; Sheehan, Athena; Schmied, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life offers the recommended best start in the life for a newborn baby. Yet, in Australia only a small number of babies receive breast milk exclusively for the first 6 months. Reasons for the introduction of formula milk are multi-factorial including access to appropriate support and the woman's experience of breastfeeding. The language and practices of health professionals can impact upon how a woman feels about breastfeeding and her breastfeeding body. One aspect of breastfeeding support that has had scarce attention in the literature is the language used by health professionals to describe the behaviour of the breastfeeding infant during the early establishment phase of breastfeeding. This paper reveals some of the ways in which midwives, lactation consultants and breastfeeding women describe the newborn baby during the first week after birth. The study was conducted at two maternity units in New South Wales. Interactions between midwives and breastfeeding women were observed and audio recorded on the post-natal ward and in women's homes, in the first week after birth. The transcribed data were analysed using discourse analysis searching for recurring words, themes and metaphors used in descriptions of the breastfeeding baby. Repeated negative references to infant personality and unfavourable interpretations of infant behaviour influenced how women perceived their infant. The findings revealed that positive language and interpretations of infant breastfeeding behaviour emerged from more relationship-based communication. PMID:26059182

  17. Barriers to best outcomes in breastfeeding for Māori: mothers' perceptions, whānau perceptions, and services.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Waldon, John; Manaena-Biddle, Harangi; Holdaway, Maureen; Cunningham, Chris

    2009-08-01

    This research explores the perceptions of New Zealand Māori women and their whānau (customary Māori extended family) toward barriers to achieving best outcomes in infant feeding: exclusively breastfed infants at 6 months. Interviews are undertaken with 59 Māori women who have given birth in the previous 3 years and 27 whānau members. Although mothers and whānau members feel positively toward breastfeeding and generally expect to breastfeed exclusively, these expectations are unmet in many cases because of lack of support when establishing breastfeeding; lack of support when life circumstances change; lack of timely, culturally relevant, and comprehensible information; confusion about smoking while breastfeeding; uncertainty about the safety of bed-sharing, and perceived lack of acceptability of breastfeeding in public. The relatively high rates of tobacco use by Māori create a tension for breastfeeding mothers, cited by some as a reason for ending breastfeeding prematurely. PMID:19286841

  18. Factors are not the same for risk of stopping exclusive breast-feeding and introducing different types of liquids and solids in HIV-affected communities in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Grace S; Lartey, Anna; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Mazur, Robert E; Brakohiapa, Lucy; Birks, Katherine A

    2016-07-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) for 6 months supports optimal infant growth, health and development. This paper examined whether maternal HIV status was associated with EBF and other infant feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled after HIV counselling, and their babies were followed up for up to 1 year. Data on household socio-economics and demographics, maternal characteristics and infants' daily diet were available for 482 infants and their mothers (150 HIV-positive (HIV-P), 170 HIV-negative (HIV-N) and 162 HIV-unknown (HIV-U)). Survival analyses estimated median EBF duration and time to introduction of liquids and foods; hazards ratios (HR) used data from 1-365 and 1-183 d, adjusting for covariates. Logistic regression estimated the probability of EBF for 6 months. Being HIV-P was associated with a shorter EBF duration (139 d) compared with HIV-N (163 d) and HIV-U (165 d) (P=0·004). Compared with HIV-N, being HIV-P was associated with about a 40 % higher risk of stopping EBF at any time point (HR 1·39; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·84; P=0·018) and less than half as likely to complete 6 months of EBF (adjusted OR 0·42; 95 % CI 0·22, 0·81; P=0·01). Being HIV-P tended to be or was associated with a higher risk of introducing non-milk liquids (HR 1·34; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·83; P=0·068), animal milks (HR 2·37; 95 % CI 1·32, 4·24; P=0·004) and solids (HR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·10, 2·22; P=0·011) during the first 6 months. Weight-for-age Z-score was associated with EBF and introducing formula. Different factors (ethnicity, food insecurity, HIV testing strategy) were associated with the various feeding behaviours, suggesting that diverse interventions are needed to promote optimal infant feeding. PMID:27149980

  19. Breastfeeding and Later Psychosocial Development of Children at 6 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruowei; Perrine, Cria G.; Schieve, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of breastfeeding duration with psychosocial development at 6 years of age. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2005–2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II and its 2012 Year 6 Follow-Up (N = 1442). Our breastfeeding duration variable combined overall and exclusive breastfeeding reported during infancy (never breastfed, breastfed <6 months, breastfed ≥6 months + exclusive breastfeeding <3 months, and breastfed ≥6 months + exclusive breastfeeding ≥3 months). Maternal responses to the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were used to create our child psychosocial outcome domains (emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, prosocial behavior, and total difficulties). Separate multivariable logistic regression models controlling for maternal sociodemographic characteristics, maternal mental health, and child characteristics were used to assess the likelihood of having difficulties on the 6 domains based on breastfeeding duration. RESULTS: Compared with children who were never breastfed, those who were breastfed for ≥6 months and exclusively breastfed for ≥3 months had decreased odds of difficulties with emotional symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27–0.99), conduct problems (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.10–0.54), and total difficulties (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18–0.85) before adjustment. These associations were no longer significant after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Although in our unadjusted analyses we observed significant associations between breastfeeding duration and later psychosocial development, including decreased odds of emotional, conduct, and total difficulties at 6 years of age, these findings were no longer detectable after adjusting for the many potential confounding factors that play a role in psychosocial development. PMID:25183753

  20. Exclusive Breastfeeding and Under-Five Mortality, 2006-2014: A Cross-National Analysis of 57 Low- and-Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Azuine, Romuladus E.; Murray, Janna; Alsafi, Noor; Singh, Gopal K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the long-term, cross-national, and population-level impacts of exclusive breastfeeding on major global child health indicators. We investigated the overall and independent associations between exclusive breastfeeding and under-five mortality in 57 low- and-middle-income countries. Methods: Data were obtained from the latest World Health Organization, United Nations, and United Nations Children’s Fund databases for 57 low- and middle-income countries covering the periods 2006-2014. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate the effects of exclusive breastfeeding on under-five mortality after adjusting for differences in socioeconomic, demographic, and health-related factors. Results: In multivariate models, exclusive breastfeeding was independently associated with under-five mortality after adjusting for sociodemographic and health systems-related factors. A 10 percentage-points increase in exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a reduction of 5 child deaths per 1,000 live births. A one-unit increase in Human Development Index was associated with a decrease of 231 under-five child deaths per 1,000 live births. A $100 increase in per capita health care expenditure was associated with a decrease of 2 child deaths per 1,000 live births. One unit increase in physician density was associated with 2.8 units decrease in the under-five mortality rate. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Population-level health system and socioeconomic factors exert considerable effect on the association between exclusive breastfeeding and under-five mortality. Given that the health policy and socioeconomic indicators shown to influence exclusive breastfeeding and under-five mortality are modifiable, policy makers could potentially target specific policies and programs to address national-level deficiencies in these sectors to reduce under-five mortality in their countries.

  1. Is there any relation between Duration of breastfeeding and anemia?

    PubMed Central

    Dalili, H; Baghersalimi, A; Dalili, S; Pakdaman, F; Hassanzadeh Rad, A; Abbasi Kakroodi, M; Rezvany, SM; Koohmanaei, Sh

    2015-01-01

    Background In the early months of life, Breastfeeding increases chance of survival, reduces recovery time after disease and mortality due to infections such as diarrhea and acute respiratory infections. However, infants who are exclusively breast-fed for more than 6 months in developing countries may be at increased risk of anemia. Therefore, the aim of study was to assess the relation between duration of breastfeeding and anemia. Materials and Methods In this analytical cross-sectional study, 400 neonates registered in primary health care system since birth time. Complete blood count and serum ferritin were obtained. Data were analyzed by chi- square test and regression analysis. P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant and 95% confidence interval was noted. Results Results of this study showed that 199 infants were anemic (Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration <11 mg/dl). Ten percent of anemic patients reported Ferritin< 12ng/dl and %25 of anemic children had iron deficiency anemia (IDA). In Binominal logistic regression, merely kind of delivery and duration of breastfeeding were effective factors. Binominal logistic regression also showed that natural vaginal delivery and exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months had a significant influence on anemia. Exclusive breast feeding for 6 months or more increased the likelihood of anemia. In addition, 4 months exclusive breastfeeding decreased 0.686 fold the likelihood of anemia. Conclusion According to the results, it seems that revision of health program recommendations for iron supplementation can be constructive. National planning to promote the level of knowledge regarding natural vaginal delivery and appropriate period for clamping can be recommended. PMID:26985355

  2. Combined effects of maternal age and parity on successful initiation of exclusive breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Kitano, Naomi; Nomura, Kyoko; Kido, Michiko; Murakami, Keiko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ueno, Masami; Sugimoto, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Maternal age at first childbirth has increased in most developed countries in the past 20 years. The purpose of this study is to investigate effects of maternal age at delivery and parity on successful initiation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). This retrospective study investigated 1193 singleton dyads with vaginal-delivered at 37–42 gestational weeks during January and December in 2011 at one large “Baby-Friendly” certified hospital in Japan. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to evaluate individual and combined effects of maternal age and parity on successful initiation of EBF after adjusted for pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, pregnancy complications, mothers' underlying illness, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, gestational week at delivery, child's sex and nurturing support from grandparents. Success rates of EBF at one month after child delivery was 69.4% in primiparous aged ≥ 35 (group A: n = 284), 73.5% in multiparous aged ≥ 35 (group B: n = 268), 74.3% in primiparous aged < 35 (group C: n = 432), and 82.3% in multiparous aged < 35 (group D: n = 209). Older maternal age and primiparous became independently associated with EBF initiation. The combined effect for successful initiation of EBF was the lowest in group A referent to group D both at discharge and at one month (odds ratio (OR) 5.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0–11.9, and OR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4–3.4, respectively). Primiparous mothers in late child-bearing aged 35 years or older are at the greatest risk of EBF initiation. PMID:26844198

  3. Combined effects of maternal age and parity on successful initiation of exclusive breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Naomi; Nomura, Kyoko; Kido, Michiko; Murakami, Keiko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ueno, Masami; Sugimoto, Mitsuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Maternal age at first childbirth has increased in most developed countries in the past 20 years. The purpose of this study is to investigate effects of maternal age at delivery and parity on successful initiation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). This retrospective study investigated 1193 singleton dyads with vaginal-delivered at 37-42 gestational weeks during January and December in 2011 at one large "Baby-Friendly" certified hospital in Japan. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to evaluate individual and combined effects of maternal age and parity on successful initiation of EBF after adjusted for pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, pregnancy complications, mothers' underlying illness, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, gestational week at delivery, child's sex and nurturing support from grandparents. Success rates of EBF at one month after child delivery was 69.4% in primiparous aged ≥ 35 (group A: n = 284), 73.5% in multiparous aged ≥ 35 (group B: n = 268), 74.3% in primiparous aged < 35 (group C: n = 432), and 82.3% in multiparous aged < 35 (group D: n = 209). Older maternal age and primiparous became independently associated with EBF initiation. The combined effect for successful initiation of EBF was the lowest in group A referent to group D both at discharge and at one month (odds ratio (OR) 5.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0-11.9, and OR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4-3.4, respectively). Primiparous mothers in late child-bearing aged 35 years or older are at the greatest risk of EBF initiation. PMID:26844198

  4. Management of acute malnutrition in infants aged under 6 months (MAMI): Current issues and future directions in policy and research

    PubMed Central

    Kerac, Marko; Mwangome, Martha; McGrath, Marie; Haider, Rukhsana; Berkley, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, some 4.7 million infants aged under 6 months are moderately wasted and 3.8 million are severely wasted. Traditionally, they have been overlooked by clinicians, nutritionists, and policy makers. Objective To present evidence and arguments for why treating acute malnutrition in infants under 6 months of age is important and outline some of the key debates and research questions needed to advance their care. Methods Narrative review. Results and conclusions Treating malnourished infants under 6 months of age is important to avoid malnutrition-associated mortality in the short term and adverse health and development outcomes in the long term. Physiological and pathological differences demand a different approach from that in older children; key among these is a focus on exclusive breastfeeding wherever possible. New World Health Organization guidelines for the management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) include this age group for the first time and are also applicable to management of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). Community-based breastfeeding support is the core, but not the sole, treatment. The mother–infant dyad is at the heart of approaches, but wider family and community relationships are also important. An urgent priority is to develop better case definitions; criteria based on mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) are promising but need further research. To effectively move forward, clinical trials of assessment and treatment are needed to bolster the currently sparse evidence base. In the meantime, nutrition surveys and screening at health facilities should routinely include infants under 6 months of age in order to better define the burden and outcomes of acute malnutrition in this age group. PMID:25993754

  5. Limited Amount of Formula May Facilitate Breastfeeding: Randomized, Controlled Trial to Compare Standard Clinical Practice versus Limited Supplemental Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Straňák, Zbyněk; Feyereislova, Simona; Černá, Marcela; Kollárová, Jana; Feyereisl, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Breastfeeding is known to reduce infant morbidity and improve well-being. Nevertheless, breastfeeding rates remain low despite public health efforts. Our study aims to investigate the effect of controlled limited formula usage during birth hospitalisation on breastfeeding, using the primary hypothesis that early limited formula feeds in infants with early weight loss will not adversely affect the rate of exclusive or any breastfeeding as measured at discharge, 3 and 6 months of age. Material and Methods We randomly assigned 104 healthy term infants, 24 to 48 hours old, with ≥ 5% loss of birth weight to controlled limited formula (CLF) intervention (10 ml formula by syringe after each breastfeeding, discontinued at onset of lactation) or control group (standard approach, SA). Groups were compared for demographic data and breastfeeding rates at discharge, 3 months and 6 months of age (p-values adjusted for multiple testing). Results Fifty newborns were analysed in CLF and 50 in SA group. There were no differences in demographic data or clinical characteristics between groups. We found no evidence of difference between treatment groups in the rates of exclusive as well as any breastfeeding at discharge (p-value 0.2 and >0.99 respectively), 3 months (p-value 0.12 and 0.10) and 6 months of infants’ age (p-value 0.45 and 0.34 respectively). The percentage weight loss during hospitalisation was significantly higher in the SA group (7.3% in CLF group, 8.4% in SA group, p = 0.002). Conclusion The study shows that controlled limited formula use does not have an adverse effect on rates of breastfeeding in the short and long term. Larger studies are needed to confirm a possible potential in controlled limited formula use to support establishing breastfeeding and to help to improve the rates of breastfeeding overall. Trial Registration ISRCTN registry ISRCTN61915183 PMID:26918700

  6. Risk Factors for Discontinuation of Exclusive Breastfeeding by One Month of Postnatal Age Among High Risk Newborns: An Institution Based Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandrika, Parul; Gathwala, Geeta; Narwal, Varun; Chaturvedi, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    Background Beyond one month of age, there is generally a drop in the proportion of mothers providing exclusive breastfeeding to their infants. Infants with morbidities during neonatal period have been observed to be at higher risk of discontinuation. Objective To enumerate the prevalent factors behind discontinuation of breastfeeding among high risk newborns by first month of life. Materials and Methods A case control study conducted at high risk newborn followup clinic of a teaching medical institute in northern India between January and May 2013. Infants were divided on the basis of continuation (controls) or discontinuation (cases) of exclusive breastfeeding at one month of age. The socio-demographic factors along with maternal and neonatal medical factors were compared among groups. Results During the study period, 112 newborns were screened. Forty seven cases and thirty eight controls were enrolled and finally evaluated. Female gender of newborn, less educated mothers and large families were observed to be associated with discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding during first month of life among high risk newborns. Requirement of parenteral fluids during hospital stay emerged as the only independent medical reason. Conclusion As in healthy newborns, the socio-cultural factors overshadow the medical reasons for discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding during first month of life among high risk newborns. PMID:26266176

  7. Evaluating motivational interviewing to promote breastfeeding by rural Mexican-American mothers: the challenge of attrition.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Susan L; Aguirre, Trina M; Koehler, Ann E; Rodehorst, T Kim

    2015-03-01

    Although most Hispanic/Latino-American mothers initiate breastfeeding, duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding remain low. We explored whether a motivational interviewing (MI) intervention could help rural Mexican-American mothers continue breastfeeding. We used a two-group (MI intervention n = 26, attention control [AC] n = 27) repeated measures experimental design. Assessments and interventions occurred at 3 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks postpartum (time points when mothers are particularly vulnerable to discontinuing breastfeeding), with a final phone assessment at 6 months postpartum. We collected demographic data and measured intent to breastfeed for 6 months (intent question), self-efficacy (Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form), and collected breastfeeding information (breastfeeding assessment questionnaire). Independent t-tests and Mann Whitney U non-parametric tests were used to evaluate group differences (α = 0.05). High levels of attrition by week 6 impaired our ability to evaluate the potential of our MI intervention. No significant differences were found between groups for any of the outcome variables (intent to breastfeed for 6 months, breastfeeding self-efficacy, and duration of breastfeeding). Though the mothers intended to breastfeed for 6 months and were confident in their ability to do so, most did not breastfeed for 6 months. At 6 months, mothers receiving the MI intervention had breastfed an average of 90 days compared to 82 days for those receiving the AC sessions and 22% of the mothers in each group were still breastfeeding at some level. Because of the impact of attrition during this study, we discuss factors that contributed to attrition and approaches to lessen this problem in future studies. Such efforts may require a greater investment of time and resources and should be budgeted accordingly. Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to help rural Mexican-American mothers meet their breastfeeding goals, thus

  8. Enforcing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes for Better Promotion of Exclusive Breastfeeding: Can Lessons Be Learned?

    PubMed

    Barennes, Hubert; Slesak, Guenther; Goyet, Sophie; Aaron, Percy; Srour, Leila M

    2016-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding, one of the best natural resources, needs protection and promotion. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code), which aims to prevent the undermining of breastfeeding by formula advertising, faces implementation challenges. We reviewed frequently overlooked challenges and obstacles that the Code is facing worldwide, but particularly in Southeast Asia. Drawing lessons from various countries where we work, and following the example of successful public health interventions, we discussed legislation, enforcement, and experiences that are needed to successfully implement the Code. Successful holistic approaches that have strengthened the Code need to be scaled up. Community-based actions and peer-to-peer promotions have proved successful. Legislation without stringent enforcement and sufficient penalties is ineffective. The public needs education about the benefits and ways and means to support breastfeeding. It is crucial to combine strong political commitment and leadership with strict national regulations, definitions, and enforcement. National breastfeeding committees, with the authority to improve regulations, investigate violations, and enforce the laws, must be established. Systematic monitoring and reporting are needed to identify companies, individuals, intermediaries, and practices that infringe on the Code. Penalizing violators is crucial. Managers of multinational companies must be held accountable for international violations, and international legislative enforcement needs to be established. Further measures should include improved regulations to protect the breastfeeding mother: large-scale education campaigns; strong penalties for Code violators; exclusion of the formula industry from nutrition, education, and policy roles; supportive legal networks; and independent research of interventions supporting breastfeeding. PMID:26416439

  9. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding: a study of two sub-districts in the Atwima Nwabiagya District of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ayawine, Alice; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth Ayuurebobi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Optimal breastfeeding rates have not been encouraging globally with sub-optimal feeding being customized in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, in the Atwima Nwabiagya district of Ghana, the message of Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF) has caught up well with many nursing mothers. we examined the determinants of EBF vis-à-vis performance of a community based growth promotion strategy in the Atwima Nwabiagya district of the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional comparative study design to analyze the impact of a community based growth promotion strategy on exclusive breast feeding in Abuakwa and Barekese, both in the Atwima Nwabiagya district of Ghana. Simple random sampling was used to select three communities each from the two sub-districts. Data collection tool employed was a standard questionnaire consisting of closed-ended questions. The variables were EBF knowledge level of mothers, cultural practices affecting EBF practice, occupational hindrances and the level of community participation in EBF activities. Results In all three hundred (300) nursing mothers of babies (0-12 months) were purposively interviewed. Results showed that mother's level of knowledge about EBF was good as such the practice was high. In addition, cultural practices in the area did not deter mothers from practicing exclusive breastfeeding. Two factors were associated with EBF in the univariate logistic model. Unmarried mothers were less likely to practice EB compared with mothers who were married (OR = 0.46, 95% 0.28, 0.77). Also the duration of breast feeding was associated wit EBF. The adjusted odds ratio was 0.41(95% CI: 0.32, 0.54) in favor of three months compared with six months. Conclusion The Community Based Growth Promotion strategy has had a positive impact on the practice of EBF in the district. It is recommended that the collapsed initiative be reawaken if the stakes are to be maintained. There is also the need to address mothers

  10. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Roslyn C; Kearney, John M

    2008-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has been little improvement in breast-feeding duration rates. There is wide geographical variation in terms of breast-feeding initiation both internationally and in Ireland. Some of these differences in breast-feeding rates may be associated with differing socio-economic characteristics. A recent cross-sectional prospective study of 561 pregnant women attending a Dublin hospital and followed from the antenatal period to 6 months post partum has found that 47% of the Irish-national mothers initiated breast-feeding, while only 24% were still offering 'any' breast milk to their infants at 6 weeks. Mothers' positive antenatal feeding intention to breast-feed is indicated as one of the most important independent determinants of initiation and 'any' breast-feeding at 6 weeks, suggesting that the antenatal period should be targeted as an effective time to influence and affect mothers' attitudes and beliefs pertaining to breast-feeding. These results suggest that the 'cultural' barrier towards breast-feeding appears to still prevail in Ireland and consequently an environment that enables women to breast-feed is far from being achieved. Undoubtedly, a shift towards a more positive and accepting breast-feeding culture is required if national breast-feeding rates are to improve. PMID:18715521

  11. Breastfeeding knowledge among health workers in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sonal; Rollins, Nigel C; Bland, Ruth

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a rapid assessment of breastfeeding knowledge amongst health workers in an area of high HIV prevalence. A cross-sectional survey using semi-structured questionnaires and problem-based scenarios was carried out. Responses were compared to those recommended in the World Health Organization (WHO) Breastfeeding Counselling Course. The setting was a rural area of KwaZulu Natal, with a population of 220 000 people. At the time of the study approximately 36 per cent of pregnant women were HIV-infected and no programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission was in place. A convenient sample of 71 healthcare workers (14 doctors, 25 professional nurses, 16 staff nurses, and 16 community health workers) were included in the study. Over 50% of respondents had given breastfeeding advice to clients over the previous month. However, there were significant discrepancies in breastfeeding knowledge compared to WHO recommendations. Ninety-three per cent (n = 13) of doctors knew that breastfeeding should be initiated within 30 min of delivery, but 71 per cent (n = 10) would recommend water, and 50 per cent (n = 7) solids to breastfed infants under 6 months of age. Fifty-seven per cent (n = 8) considered glucose water necessary for neonatal jaundice, constipation, and for infants immediately after delivery. Only 44 per cent (n = 7) of staff nurses and 56 per cent (n = 14) of professional nurses knew that breastfeeding should be on demand. The majority would recommend water, formula milk, and solids to breastfed infants under 6 months of age, and glucose water for neonatal jaundice and immediately after delivery. Knowledge of community health workers differed most from WHO recommendations: only 37 per cent (n = 6) knew that breastfeeding should be initiated within 30 min of delivery, 68 per cent (n = 11) thought breastfeeding should be on schedule and not on demand, and the majority would recommend supplements to infants under 6 months of age. Few

  12. Committee Opinion No. 658 Summary: Optimizing Support For Breastfeeding As Part Of Obstetric Practice.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Although most women in the United States initiate breastfeeding, more than one half wean earlier than they desire. As reproductive health experts and advocates for women's health who work in conjunction with other obstetric and pediatric health care providers, obstetrician-gynecologists are uniquely positioned to enable women to achieve their infant feeding goals. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, with continued breastfeeding as complementary foods are introduced through the infant's first year of life, or longer as mutually desired by the woman and her infant. Because lactation is an integral part of reproductive physiology, all obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should develop and maintain knowledge and skills in anticipatory guidance, physical assessment and support for normal breastfeeding physiology, and management of common complications of lactation. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should support each woman's informed decision about whether to initiate or continue breastfeeding, recognizing that she is uniquely qualified to decide whether exclusive breastfeeding, mixed feeding, or formula feeding is optimal for her and her infant. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should support women in integrating breastfeeding into their daily lives in the community and in the workplace. The offices of obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should be a resource for breastfeeding women through the infant's first year of life, and for those who continue beyond the first year. PMID:26942386

  13. Committee Opinion No. 658: Optimizing Support for Breastfeeding as Part of Obstetric Practice.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Although most women in the United States initiate breastfeeding, more than one half wean earlier than they desire. As reproductive health experts and advocates for women's health who work in conjunction with other obstetric and pediatric health care providers, obstetrician-gynecologists are uniquely positioned to enable women to achieve their infant feeding goals. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, with continued breastfeeding as complementary foods are introduced through the infant's first year of life, or longer as mutually desired by the woman and her infant. Because lactation is an integral part of reproductive physiology, all obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should develop and maintain knowledge and skills in anticipatory guidance, physical assessment and support for normal breastfeeding physiology, and management of common complications of lactation. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should support each woman's informed decision about whether to initiate or continue breastfeeding, recognizing that she is uniquely qualified to decide whether exclusive breastfeeding, mixed feeding, or formula feeding is optimal for her and her infant. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should support women in integrating breastfeeding into their daily lives in the community and in the workplace. The offices of obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should be a resource for breastfeeding women through the infant's first year of life, and for those who continue beyond the first year. PMID:26942393

  14. Barriers to breastfeeding in the African American population of Shelby County, Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Ware, Julie L; Webb, Larita; Levy, Marian

    2014-10-01

    Breastfeeding is recommended exclusively for the first 6 months of life, with continuation after the addition of complementary foods for at least 1 year of life. Breastfeeding rates are low in the Southeastern United States, especially among African Americans. Disparities in breastfeeding rates between African Americans and whites are especially pronounced in Memphis (Shelby County), TN. Our research objectives were to explore this disparity using focus groups, specifically to identify perceived barriers, and also to seek possible solutions from the target population. Focus groups were conducted in nine community settings within the county. Groups primarily consisted of women of childbearing years, but groups with men, grandmothers, and teens were also conducted. Common barriers for breastfeeding that were identified included pain, embarrassment with public nursing, going back to work, concern about "partying" and breastfeeding, and "just not wanting to" breastfeed. A notable finding was a substantial concern about sexuality and breastfeeding. As a possible solution, participants recommended putting breastfeeding educational materials widely across the county in many venues. Barriers to breastfeeding in Memphis are similar to those in other areas, with key concerns about sexuality and partying. Involving the target population yielded specific recommendations to improve breastfeeding promotion efforts. PMID:24972117

  15. Prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among women in Kilimanjaro region, Northern Tanzania: a population based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is a simple and cost-effective intervention to improve child health and survival. Effective EBF has been estimated to avert 13% - 15% of under-five mortality and contribute to reduce mother to child transmission of HIV. The prevalence of EBF for infant less than six months is low in most developing countries, including Tanzania (50%). While the Tanzania Demographic Health Survey collects information on overall EBF prevalence, it does not evaluate factors influencing EBF. The aim of this paper was to determine the prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding in urban and rural areas in Kilimanjaro region. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2010 to March 2011 among women with infants aged 6–12 months in Kilimanjaro. Multi-stage proportionate to size sampling was used to select participants from all the seven districts of the region. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, reproductive, alcohol intake, breastfeeding patterns and nutritional data during the interviews. Estimation on EBF was based on recall since birth. Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain independent predictors of EBF. Results A total of 624 women participated, 77% (483) from rural areas. The prevalence of EBF up to six months in Kilimanjaro region was 20.7%, without significant differences in the prevalence of EBF up to six months between urban (22.7%) and rural areas (20.1%); (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5,1.4). In multivariable analysis, advice on breastfeeding after delivery (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.5, 4.6) was positively associated with EBF up to six months. Compared to married/cohabiting and those who do not take alcohol, single mothers (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.9) and mothers who drank alcohol (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.3, 0.7) had less odds to practice EBF up to six months. Conclusion Prevalence of EBF up to six months is still low in

  16. Maternity Care Practices and Breastfeeding Among Adolescent Mothers Aged 12-19 Years--United States, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Olaiya, Oluwatosin; Dee, Deborah L; Sharma, Andrea J; Smith, Ruben A

    2016-01-22

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants be breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months of life, and that mothers continue breastfeeding for at least 1 year. However, in 2011, only 19.3% of mothers aged ≤20 years in the United States exclusively breastfed their infants at 3 months, compared with 36.4% of women aged 20-29 years and 45.0% of women aged ≥30 years. Hospitals play an essential role in providing care that helps mothers establish and continue breastfeeding. The U.S. Surgeon General and numerous health professional organizations recommend providing care aligned with the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), including adherence to the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding (Ten Steps), as well as not providing gift packs containing infant formula. Implementing BFHI-aligned maternity care improves duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding among mothers; however, studies have not examined associations between BFHI-aligned maternity care and breastfeeding outcomes solely among adolescent mothers (for this report, adolescents refers to persons aged 12-19 years). Therefore, CDC analyzed 2009-2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data and determined that among adolescent mothers who initiated breastfeeding, self-reported prevalence of experiencing any of the nine selected BFHI-aligned maternity care practices included in the PRAMS survey ranged from 29.2% to 95.4%. Among the five practices identified to be significantly associated with breastfeeding outcomes in this study, the more practices a mother experienced, the more likely she was to be breastfeeding (any amount or exclusively) at 4 weeks and 8 weeks postpartum. Given the substantial health advantages conferred to mothers and children through breastfeeding, and the particular vulnerability of adolescent mothers to lower breastfeeding rates, it is important for hospitals to provide evidence-based maternity practices related to breastfeeding as part of their

  17. What health service support do families need for optimal breastfeeding? An in-depth exploration of young infant feeding practices in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Bazzano, Alessandra N; Oberhelman, Richard A; Potts, Kaitlin Storck; Taub, Leah D; Var, Chivorn

    2015-01-01

    Background Appropriate and timely breastfeeding practices markedly improve lifelong health outcomes for newborns, children, and mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding is reported to be widely practiced in Cambodia, and important progress has been made toward achieving improved child health outcomes, but newborn mortality has been slow to reduce and breastfeeding practices remain suboptimal. Methods Formative research was conducted in Takeo province, Cambodia to describe the practical, cultural, and social factors underlying current breastfeeding behaviors to inform the design of a newborn survival intervention that may improve breastfeeding. In-depth interviews, observations, a collection of visual media, and focus groups were employed to gather qualitative data. Results The results revealed knowledge and practice gaps in behavior that likely contribute to breastfeeding barriers, particularly in the areas of infant latch, milk production, feeding frequency, and the use of breast milk substitutes. The predominant theme identified in the research was a dearth of detailed information, advice, and counseling for mothers beyond the message to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months. Conclusion Future newborn survival interventions and postnatal care counseling in this area must go beyond the exclusive breastfeeding message. To achieve further impact, it will be necessary to disseminate comprehensive and locally appropriate information on breastfeeding and to improve counseling in order to support successful breastfeeding and to contribute to population-level health gains. PMID:25733931

  18. Does breastfeeding increase risk of early childhood caries?

    PubMed

    Paglia, L

    2015-09-01

    According to the WHO, "breastfeeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development. Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months of age, with continued breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to two years of age or beyond". However, several studies have reported prolonged and unrestricted breastfeeding as a potential risk factor for primary tooth caries (ECC). On-demand breastfeeding, particularly while lying down at night, would seem to cause ECC because milk remains in the baby's mouth for long periods of time. There is lack of evidence that human milk is cariogenic; other factors, such as oral hygiene, may be more influential in caries development than on-demand breastfeeding. Moreover the biomechanics of breastfeeding differs from those of bottle feeding and milk is expressed into the soft palate and swallowed without remaining on teeth. Indeed we cannot forget that the main factor influencing caries development in infants is the presence of bacteria streptococcus mutans that thrives in a combination of sugars, small amounts of saliva and a low pH. Today the question is open and recently Chaffee, Felines, Vitolo et al. [2014] have found that breastfeeding for 24 months or longer increases the prevalence of severe early childhood caries in low-income families in Porto Alegre, Brazil. These results do not claim that prolonged breastfeeding is the cause of tooth decay; we can expect an association with food for infants often rich in refined sugars, which cause the reduction of the protective effect of saliva on the deciduous teeth enamel. In Japan, Kato, Yorifuji, Yamakawa et al. [2015] have found that infants who had been breastfed for at least 6 or 7 months, both exclusively and partially, were at elevated risk of dental caries at the age of 30 months compared with those who had been exclusively fed with formula. The authors themselves say, however, that further studies

  19. Breast-feeding duration: influence on taste acceptance over the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Camille; Chabanet, Claire; Laval, Caroline; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2013-03-28

    Early feeding experiences, e.g. related to milk feeding, can affect later food and taste preferences. However, consequences of breast-feeding on taste acceptance are under-investigated. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of exclusive breast-feeding duration (DEB) on taste acceptance at 6 and 12 months in the same infants (n 122). Mothers recorded the DEB. Acceptance of solutions of each of the five basic tastes relative to water was evaluated in the laboratory at 6 and 12 months by the ingestion ratio (IR). Kendall correlations were calculated between the DEB and the IR. Only 16 % completed at least 6 months of exclusive breast-feeding; 79 % had begun complementary feeding by 6 months. At 6 months, infants preferred sweet, salty and umami solutions over water and were indifferent to sour and bitter solutions. The longer an infant was breast-fed, the more s/he accepted the umami solution at 6 months. At 12 months, infants preferred sweet and salty solutions over water and were indifferent to sour, bitter and umami solutions. The relationship between the DEB and acceptance of the umami solution was not observed at 12 months. No relationship was observed between the DEB and sweet, salty, sour and bitter taste acceptance at 6 or 12 months. The association between the DEB and umami taste acceptance at 6 months may relate to the higher glutamate content of human milk compared with formula milk. Beyond the acknowledged metabolic benefits of breast-feeding, this suggests that prolonged breast-feeding could also be associated with an impact on sensory preference at the beginning of complementary feeding. PMID:22874663

  20. Exclusive breast-feeding duration is associated with attitudinal, socioeconomic and biocultural determinants in three Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Lutter, C; Segall, A M; Rivera, A; Treviño-Siller, S; Sanghvi, T

    1995-12-01

    International health organizations have recommended exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) (i.e., breast milk as the only source of food) as the optimal infant feeding method during the first 4-6 mo of life. Therefore, it is important to document the determinants of EBF in different populations. Low-income urban women from Brazil (n = 446, 2 maternity wards), Honduras (n = 1582, 3 maternity wards) and Mexico (n = 765, 3 maternity wards) were interviewed at birth and in their homes at 1 mo and 2-4 mo after delivery. Multivariate survival analyses (Cox model) indicated that planned duration of EBF (all 3 countries), having a female infant, and not being employed (Brazil and Honduras), lower socioeconomic status (Honduras and Mexico) and higher birth weight (control hospital in Brazil and Honduras) were positively associated (P < or = 0.10) with EBF. Women who delivered in the maternity wards that had more developed breast-feeding promotion programs were more successful with EBF. The association between maternal education and EBF was modified by the maternity ward in Mexico and Honduras. Being > or = 18 y and having a partner living (Brazil) or not (Mexico) living at home were positively associated with EBF. These findings can contribute toward the design of EBF promotion efforts in Latin America. PMID:7500175

  1. Maternal return to paid work and breastfeeding practices in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Tomomi; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Sawasdivorn, Siraporn; Boonshuyar, Chaweewon

    2015-03-01

    This study explored the association between mothers' work-related factors and breastfeeding practices in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected from 84 working mothers with a child aged 6 to 24 months who visited the breastfeeding mobile clinic at a nursery goods exhibition. Thai interviewers collected data using a structured questionnaire. Analysis of the data showed that exclusive breastfeeding for 3 months was 78.6%, and for 6 months it was 38.1%. Mothers who returned to work 3 months or more after giving birth exclusively breastfed more than the mothers who returned to work in less than 3 months (crude odds ratio [OR] = 4.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39-13.05; adjusted OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 1.15-14.95). Moreover, mothers who worked at self-employed or family-owned businesses and some mothers working at private companies showed tendencies of returning to work in less than 3 months. Results suggest that longer maternity leave would help extend the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. In addition, the improvement of a breastfeeding supportive environment in the workplace would be valuable and may be an effective means to improve breastfeeding practices and infant health. PMID:22815310

  2. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: promoting and supporting breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Lessen, Rachelle; Kavanagh, Katherine

    2015-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that exclusive breastfeeding provides optimal nutrition and health protection for the first 6 months of life, and that breastfeeding with complementary foods from 6 months until at least 12 months of age is the ideal feeding pattern for infants. Breastfeeding is an important public health strategy for improving infant and child morbidity and mortality, improving maternal morbidity, and helping to control health care costs. Research continues to support the positive effects of human milk on infant and maternal health, as it is a living biological fluid with many qualities not replicable by human milk substitutes. Recent research advancements include a greater understanding of the human gut microbiome, the protective effect of human milk for premature infants and those born to women experiencing gestational diabetes mellitus, the relationship of breastfeeding with human immunodeficiency virus, and the increased ability to characterize cellular components of human milk. Registered dietitian nutritionists and nutrition and dietetics technicians, registered, should continue efforts to shift the norm of infant feeding away from use of human milk substitutes and toward human milk feeds. The role of registered dietitian nutritionists and nutrition and dietetics technicians, registered, in breastfeeding promotion and support, in the context of the professional code of ethics and the World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes, are discussed in the "Practice Paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding," published on the Academy website at: www.eatright.org/positions. PMID:25721389

  3. Development and implementation of a novel online breastfeeding support resource: the Maternal Virtual Infant Nutrition Support Clinic.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan-Morphet, Nicola; Yuen, Doris; Rai, Esther; Angelini, Michelle; Christmas, Melissa; da Silva, Orlando

    2014-12-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is the optimal method of infant feeding for the first 6 months of life for both term and preterm infants. This recommendation is based on indisputable evidence that breastfeeding offers numerous infant and maternal health benefits. Several trials have shown the beneficial effect of peer and/or professional support on the duration of any breastfeeding up to 6 months. Although many well-established programs exist that provide this support in-person or via telephone, the Internet is a relatively new means to deliver breastfeeding help. Yet, mothers have a vast presence online and a clear desire to seek healthcare information on the Internet. The availability and accessibility of interactive communication technologies via the internet provide the opportunity for developing new methods of healthcare delivery. Our project uses information technology to deliver an innovative and cost-effective way to support breastfeeding mothers. Our new online breastfeeding support clinic has the potential to improve access to specialized professional breastfeeding support in combination with interactive peer support. This new online clinic can be readily implemented to all regions in Canada with reliable Internet access, with the potential to significantly impact the health of all Canadian infants and their families. PMID:25244066

  4. Infant feeding practices and maternal socio-demographic factors that influence practice of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in Nnewi South-East Nigeria: a cross-sectional and analytical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is an underlying factor in more than 50% of the major cause of infant mortality-Pneumonia, diarrhoeal disease and measles which account for 70% of infant mortality. Therefore, programs to promote adequate nutrition for age can help reduce mortality from these disease conditions and indispensible to achievement of MDG 4. Aim To describe the feeding practices of infants below six months of age and determine maternal socio-demographic factors that influences the practice of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among mothers in Nnewi, south-east Nigeria. Methods Four hundred mother-infant pairs attending the infant welfare clinic of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University teaching hospital (NAUTH) during 2012 were consecutively recruited after meeting the study inclusion criteria. Data on breastfeeding were based on infant feeding practice in the previous 24 hours. Exclusive breastfeeding was defined as infant feeding with only breast milk. Results Awareness (95.3%) and knowledge (82.0%) of EBF was high among surveyed mother but the practice of EBF (33.5%) was very low. Positive attitude towards EBF practice was shown by many (71.0%) of surveyed mothers. EBF practice decreased with increasing infant age, OR 0.72 (95% CI 0.34, 1.51) for 1–2 months, OR 0.58 (95% CI 0.23, 1.44) for 3–4 months and OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.06, 0.73) for 5–6 months compared to infants < 1 month old. Maternal education, socioeconomic class, mode of delivery and infants first feed were retained as important maternal predictors of EBF practice after adjustment for confounders. Decreased likelihood of EBF practice was found among mothers of lower educational attainment, OR 0.33 (95% CI 0.13, 0.81), mothers who delivered through caesarean section, OR 0.38 (95% CI 0.18, 0.84), mothers of higher socio-economic status [(middle class, OR 0.46 (95% CI 0.22, 0.99) and upper class, OR 0.32 (95% CI 0.14, 0.74)] while increased likelihood of EBF practice was seen in mothers who gave their

  5. Exclusive Breastfeeding and Other Foods in the First Six Months of Life: Effects on Nutritional Status and Body Composition of Brazilian Children

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Taís C. A.; Vieira, Sarah A.; Priore, Silvia E.; Ribeiro, Andréia Q.; Lamounier, Joel A.; Franceschini, Sylvia C. C.; Sant'Ana, Luciana F. R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effect of exclusive breastfeeding and consumption of other foods in the first six months of life in the nutritional status and body composition of children. Methods. A retrospective cohort study with 185 children aged from 4 to 7 years was monitored during the first months of life in a program of support to breastfeeding. We evaluated weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition by using DEXA. The nutritional status was assessed by the BMI/age index. The parameters of adiposity were classified by using as the cutoff point, the 85th percentile of the sample itself, according to gender and age. Confounding factors considered were variables related to maternal, pregnancy, birth, sociodemographic, health, lifestyle, and diet. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed, the latter by means of multiple logistic regression. Results. The median exclusive breastfeeding was 3 months. Of the children, 42.7% received cow's milk and 35.7% received infant formula. Regarding nutritional status, 21.1% of the children showed changes. The variables of infant feeding were not independently associated with nutritional status and body composition of the children and there were no differences between the groups studied. Conclusion. Breastfeeding was not a protective factor to overweight and body fat in children. PMID:23193378

  6. Benefits from longer breastfeeding: do we need to revise the recommendations?

    PubMed

    Krawinkel, Michael B

    2011-10-01

    The evidence is well established that breastfeeding results in a reduction of certain health risks. Debate has arisen, however, about the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. The general recommendation is to breastfeed newborn babies for 6 months exclusively and then to introduce complementary foods and continue breastfeeding. In industrialized countries, earlier introduction of complementary foods is recommended for preventing food allergy. There are data suggesting such a risk reduction and therefore the argument must be taken seriously. Considering the evidence about earlier introduction of complementary foods, it remains unclear how long the children have been exclusively and partially breastfed. It may well be that children who are breastfed exclusively for 3 months or less benefit from an introduction of complementary foods as long as they still receive partial breastfeeding. If this is true, it remains the first priority to advertise for longer breastfeeding, and only if this fails, the mothers may be advised to introduce complementary foods at a time when they still breastfeed. PMID:21939907

  7. Effect of Pattern and Duration of Breastfeeding on the Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables among Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The duration and pattern of breastfeeding can influence the consumption of fruits and vegetables in later childhood. Objective To investigate the association between pattern and duration of breastfeeding and consumption of fruits and vegetables in children aged between 4 and 7 years. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis using data from a former randomized clinical trial with 323 adolescent mothers, their children, and maternal grandmothers, when they cohabited. Information on infant feeding was collected monthly during the first 6 months of life, every two months until the child was 1 year old over and when children were between 4 and 7 years old. The associations between duration of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding and consumption of fruits and vegetables were tested by a logistic regression model. Results Approximately 60% and 45% of children consumed fruits and vegetables, respectively, five or more times a week. Consumption of vegetables among 4-7-year-old children was higher in children who were breastfed for 12 months or longer (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.49–4.93); however, exclusive breastfeeding duration did not have a significant association with consumption of vegetables (OR 1.5; 95%CI 0.70–3.04). There was no association between weekly consumption of fruits and duration of breastfeeding (OR 1.3; 95%CI 0.71–2.30) or exclusive breastfeeding (OR 0.7; 95%CI 0.34–1.44). Conclusions Longer duration of breastfeeding was positively associated with consumption of vegetables in children aged 4–7 years; however, there was no association with consumption of fruits. Exclusive breastfeeding duration did not have influence on consumption of fruits or vegetables. PMID:26844543

  8. Breastfeeding Outcome Comparison by Parity

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Eric W.; Beiler, Jessica S.; Rose, Chelsea M.; Paul, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Anecdotally, breastfeeding experiences differ between those who have previously nursed an infant and those who are primiparous. This analysis contrasted breastfeeding outcomes between primiparous women and those with previous experience spanning from maternity stay through 6 months postpartum. Study Design: A secondary analysis was conducted of data collected in a randomized, controlled trial with mothers and “well” newborns ≥34 weeks of gestation comparing two post–hospital discharge care models. Mothers completed an in-person interview during the postpartum stay and phone surveys at 2 weeks, 2 months, and 6 months where questionnaires related to breastfeeding were completed. All participants intended to breastfeed. Chi-squared and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to test for differences between parity groups. Breastfeeding duration by parity group was compared using a Kaplan–Meier plot and a logrank test. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the relationship between breastfeeding duration and parity after adjusting for covariates. Results: Among 1,099 mothers available for analysis, 542 (49%) were primiparous. Multiparous mothers had a longer intended breastfeeding duration (median, 9 vs. 6 months; p<0.001). Following delivery, primiparous mothers had a longer median time to first breastfeeding attempt (119 vs. 96 minutes; p<0.001) and were more likely to have eight or fewer feeding attempts in the first 24 hours (33% vs. 44%; p<0.001)). More primiparous women reported early breastfeeding problems (35% vs. 20%; p<0.001) and mixed feeding at hospital discharge (39% vs. 23%; p<0.001) despite reporting less breastfeeding-associated pain during the first week (p=0.04). Multiparous women were more likely to breastfeed through 6 months (p<0.001). In a multivariable Cox model for breastfeeding duration, an interaction existed between intended breastfeeding duration and parity (p=0.006); among those intending to breastfeed

  9. Effectiveness of an implementation strategy for a breastfeeding guideline in Primary Care: cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The protection and promotion of breastfeeding is considered a priority in Europe where only 22% of infants less than 6 months old are exclusively breastfed. In Spain this percentage reaches 24.8% but in our city it falls to 18.26%. Various studies emphasise that the improvement of these results should be based upon the training of health professionals. Following the recommendations of a breastfeeding guide can modify the practice of health professionals and improve results with respect to exclusively or predominatly breastfed children at 6 months of age. Method/Design This study involves a community based cluster randomized trial in primary healthcare centres in Leganés (Madrid, Spain). The project aims to determine whether the use of an implementation strategy (including training session, information distribution, opinion leader) of a breastfeeding guideline in primary care is more effective than usual diffusion. The number of patients required will be 240 (120 in each arm). It will be included all the mothers of infants born during the study period (6 months) who come to the health centre on the first visit of the child care programme and who give their consent to participate. The main outcome variable is the exclusive o predominant breastfeeding at 6 moths of age.. Main effectiveness will be analyzed by comparing the percentage of infants with exclusive or predominant breastfeeding at 6 months between the intervention group and the control group. All statistical tests will be performed with intention to treat. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors or factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in this analysis. Discussion Strategies need to be found which facilitate the giving of effective advice on breastfeeding by professionals and which provide support to women during the breastfeeding period. By applying the guide's recommendations, clinical

  10. Evaluation of breastfeeding promotion, support, and knowledge of benefits on breastfeeding outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kornides, Melanie; Kitsantas, Panagiota

    2013-09-01

    We examined how prenatal exposure to breastfeeding information from various media sources, maternal knowledge of benefits, family and clinician support, and peer practices influence breastfeeding outcomes in early infancy. Initiation of breastfeeding, any breastfeeding at two months, and exclusivity of breastfeeding at two months were examined in a cohort of US women using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II. Descriptive statistics, chi-square analyses and logistic regression were conducted. Approximately 85 percent of the women initiated breastfeeding. At two months, 63.8 percent continued breastfeeding, while only 38.1 percent breastfed exclusively. Mothers with greater knowledge about breastfeeding benefits were 11.2 (95% CI: 6.87-18.45) times more likely to initiate breastfeeding and 5.62 (95% CI: 4.19-7.54) times more likely to breastfeed at two months than those with lower levels of knowledge. Women whose families prenatally supported exclusive breastfeeding were 8.21(5.12-13.2) times more likely to initiate and continue breastfeeding (OR 3.21, 95% CI: 2.51-4.11). Clinicians who supported breastfeeding only also increased the odds of a woman initiating breastfeeding (OR 1.95, 95% CI: 1.31-2.88). Interventions to increase maternal knowledge of breastfeeding benefits and family and clinician support of breastfeeding in the prenatal period may help increase breastfeeding rates. The encouragement of breastfeeding needs to be a priority among health care providers to improve the health of mothers and infants. PMID:23439591

  11. Telephone Peer Counseling of Breastfeeding Among WIC Participants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Ted; Sibley, Kelly; Arnold, Diane; Altindag, Onur

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The US Surgeon General has recommended that peer counseling to support breastfeeding become a core service of the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). As of 2008, 50% of WIC clients received services from local WIC agencies that offered peer counseling. Little is known about the effectiveness of these peer counseling programs. Randomized controlled trials of peer counseling interventions among low-income women in the United States showed increases in breastfeeding initiation and duration, but it is doubtful that the level of support provided could be scaled up to service WIC participants nationally. We tested whether a telephone peer counseling program among WIC participants could increase breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1948 WIC clients recruited during pregnancy who intended to breastfeed or were considering breastfeeding to 3 study arms: no peer counseling, 4 telephone contacts, or 8 telephone contacts. RESULTS: We combined 2 treatment arms because there was no difference in the distribution of peer contacts. Nonexclusive breastfeeding duration was greater at 3 months postpartum for all women in the treatment group (adjusted relative risk: 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–1.34) but greater at 6 months for Spanish-speaking clients only (adjusted relative risk: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.10–1.51). The likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding cessation was less among Spanish-speaking clients (adjusted odds ratio: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.68–0.89). CONCLUSIONS: A telephone peer counseling program achieved gains in nonexclusive breastfeeding but modest improvements in exclusive breastfeeding were limited to Spanish- speaking women. PMID:25092936

  12. Traditional Oral Remedies and Perceived Breast Milk Insufficiency Are Major Barriers to Exclusive Breastfeeding in Rural Zimbabwe123

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Amy; Mbuya, Mduduzi N.N.; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Chasekwa, Bernard; Humphrey, Jean H.; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Pelto, Gretel; Gerema, Grace; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Only 5.8% of Zimbabwean infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life despite substantial investment in exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) promotion throughout the country. We conducted a survey of 295 mothers of infants <6 mo of age who were recruited from rural immunization clinics and outreach sites in the Midlands Province of Zimbabwe. We explored infant feeding knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and details regarding facilitators for EBF mothers and first foods fed by non-EBF mothers to identify and understand barriers to EBF. Among mothers of infants <1 mo, 1 to <2 mo, and 2–6 mo of age, 54%, 30%, and 12%, respectively, were practicing EBF. In adjusted multivariate analyses, EBF practice was positively associated with belief in the sufficiency of EBF (P = 0.05), belief in the avoidance of cooking oil feeding (a common traditional practice) in the first 6 mo (P = 0.001), and perceived pressure from others regarding infant feeding and traditional medicine use (P = 0.03). Psychosocial support and viewing breast milk as sufficient were reported as primary facilitators of EBF practice. Maternal responses to open-ended questions identified protection, nutrition, and crying as the main reasons for EBF interruption. During the first 2 mo of life, “protection feedings” using traditional oral remedies (such as cooking oil and water) to prevent or treat perceived illness, specifically colic and sunken/depressed fontanel, made up 78.5% of the non-breast milk feeds. From the second month of life, “nutrition feedings,” mainly of water and porridge, were given when mothers believed their breast milk was insufficient in quantity or quality to meet the hunger or thirst needs of their infants. Our findings underscore the importance of exploring cultural beliefs and practices as they pertain to infant feeding and care and present insights for designing and targeting EBF promotion interventions. PMID:24828026

  13. Traditional oral remedies and perceived breast milk insufficiency are major barriers to exclusive breastfeeding in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Desai, Amy; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Chasekwa, Bernard; Humphrey, Jean H; Moulton, Lawrence H; Pelto, Gretel; Gerema, Grace; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2014-07-01

    Only 5.8% of Zimbabwean infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life despite substantial investment in exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) promotion throughout the country. We conducted a survey of 295 mothers of infants <6 mo of age who were recruited from rural immunization clinics and outreach sites in the Midlands Province of Zimbabwe. We explored infant feeding knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and details regarding facilitators for EBF mothers and first foods fed by non-EBF mothers to identify and understand barriers to EBF. Among mothers of infants <1 mo, 1 to <2 mo, and 2-6 mo of age, 54%, 30%, and 12%, respectively, were practicing EBF. In adjusted multivariate analyses, EBF practice was positively associated with belief in the sufficiency of EBF (P = 0.05), belief in the avoidance of cooking oil feeding (a common traditional practice) in the first 6 mo (P = 0.001), and perceived pressure from others regarding infant feeding and traditional medicine use (P = 0.03). Psychosocial support and viewing breast milk as sufficient were reported as primary facilitators of EBF practice. Maternal responses to open-ended questions identified protection, nutrition, and crying as the main reasons for EBF interruption. During the first 2 mo of life, "protection feedings" using traditional oral remedies (such as cooking oil and water) to prevent or treat perceived illness, specifically colic and sunken/depressed fontanel, made up 78.5% of the non-breast milk feeds. From the second month of life, "nutrition feedings," mainly of water and porridge, were given when mothers believed their breast milk was insufficient in quantity or quality to meet the hunger or thirst needs of their infants. Our findings underscore the importance of exploring cultural beliefs and practices as they pertain to infant feeding and care and present insights for designing and targeting EBF promotion interventions. PMID:24828026

  14. Breastfeeding Among U.S. Children Born 2000 - 2009, CDC National Immunization Survey

    MedlinePlus

    ... Any" and "exclusive" breastfeeding rates by socio-demographics Breastfeeding among U.S. Children Born 2002–2013, CDC National ... Were Breastfed, by Birth Year a,b Any Breastfeeding Exclusive Breastfeeding c a Breastfeeding rates through 2008 ...

  15. Breastfeeding - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - breastfeeding ... The following organizations are good resources for information on breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems : La Leche League International Inc. -- www.lalecheleague.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  16. Role of breast-feeding in the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Huffman, S L; Combest, C

    1990-09-01

    Recent studies have again shown the beneficial effects of breast-feeding in preventing morbidity and mortality from diarrhoea in infants. A case-control study in Brazil has shown that young infants who are not breast-fed have a 25-time greater risk of dying of diarrhoea than those who are exclusively breast-fed. A longitudinal study in the urban slums of Lima, Peru found that exclusively breast-fed infants have a reduced risk of diarrhoeal morbidity when compared with infants receiving only water in addition to breast-milk. Both these studies, along with numerous others in developing countries, point to the need to extend the duration of exclusive breast-feeding to at least 4-6 months. A review of concerned studies throughout the world shows that even in malnourished women, breast-milk output is sufficient to maintain growth of infants up to this age. The addition of early food supplements to infants fed under prevailing environmental conditions in developing countries leads to their increased diarrhoeal attacks and associated reduced food intake. This results in worsened nutritional status of the affected infants. Breast-feeding helps maintain hydration status during diarrhoeal episodes. Studies in Peru, India, and Nigeria have shown that breast-feeding can be continued during diarrhoea when the infants often refuse other foods, specially non-human milk. Thus, breast-feeding is important in providing necessary calories and protein during a time when a loss of appetite for other foods is common. Diarrhoeal disease control programmes need to modify service delivery to ensure that breast-feeding mothers are not separated from their infants while being treated with oral rehydration therapy (ORT) as inpatients or outpatients. Oral rehydration solution (ORS) should be given to infants with cup and spoon rather than bottles, in order not to interfere with suckling. When in a health system bottles are used for treatment, an implicit credibility is given to their role in

  17. Rates of breastfeeding and exposure to socio-economic adversity amongst children with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Gore, Nick; Emerson, Eric; Brady, Serena

    2015-04-01

    Children with intellectual disability are at increased risk of experiencing poor health relative to their typically developing peers. Previous research indicates that exposure to socio-economic disadvantage contributes towards this disparity but that additional factors (including parenting practices) may be involved in mediating/moderating pathways. This study examined duration of breastfeeding amongst children with and without intellectual disability by a secondary analysis of data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Children with intellectual disability were significantly less likely to have been ever breastfed; breastfed exclusively or at all at 3 months or breastfed at all at 6 months relative to children without intellectual disability. None of these differences remained significant when other psycho-social risk factors for reduced breastfeeding were controlled for. The study adds to both the sparse literature on breastfeeding practices amongst families of children with intellectual disability and research demonstrating relationships between socio-economic disadvantage and wellbeing for children with intellectual disability. PMID:25613368

  18. Breastfeeding for diabetes prevention.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Resham Raj; Shrestha, Dina

    2016-09-01

    Breastfeeding has been consistently observed to improve metabolism in mothers and their offspring. Apart from mother child bonding and nutritional benefits; it is associated with a decreased risk of acquiring metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in mothers, obesity and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in their children. Early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding should therefore be highly encouraged and strongly supported. PMID:27582164

  19. Efficacy of e-technologies in improving breastfeeding outcomes among perinatal women: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ying; Htun, Tha P; Tam, Wai S W; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee

    2016-07-01

    A growing line of research has highlighted that e-technologies may play a promising role in improving breastfeeding outcomes. The objective of this review was to synthesise the best of available evidence by conducting a meta-analysis to evaluate whether e-technologies have had any effect in improving breastfeeding outcomes among perinatal women. The review was conducted using nine electronic databases to search for English-language research studies from 2007 to 2014. A 'risk of bias' table was used to assess methodological quality. Meta-analysis was performed with the RevMan software. The Q test and I(2) test was used to assess the heterogeneity. The test of overall effect was assessed using z-statistics at P < 0.05. Of 1842 studies identified through electronic searches and reference lists, 16 experimental studies were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Half of the selected studies had a low risk of bias, from which a total of 5505 women in six countries in these studies were included. Meta-analyses revealed that e-technologies significantly improved exclusive breastfeeding initiation (z = 6.90, P < 0.00001), exclusive breastfeeding at 4 weeks (z = 2.12, P = 0.03) and 6 months (z = 3.2, P = 0.001), breastfeeding attitude (z = 3.01, P = 0.003) and breastfeeding knowledge (z = 4.54, P = < 0.00001) in subgroup analyses. This review provides support for the development of web-based, texting messaging, compact disc read-only memory, electronic prompts and interactive computer agent interventions for promoting and supporting breastfeeding. PMID:26194599

  20. Factors affecting actualisation of the WHO breastfeeding recommendations in urban poor settings in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Wekesah, Frederick; Wanjohi, Milka; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C; Musoke, Rachel N; Norris, Shane A; Madise, Nyovani J; Griffiths, Paula

    2015-07-01

    Poor breastfeeding practices are widely documented in Kenya, where only a third of children are exclusively breastfed for 6 months and only 2% in urban poor settings. This study aimed to better understand the factors that contribute to poor breastfeeding practices in two urban slums in Nairobi, Kenya. In-depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted with women of childbearing age, community health workers, village elders and community leaders and other knowledgeable people in the community. A total of 19 IDIs, 10 FGDs and 11 KIIs were conducted, and were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were coded in NVIVO and analysed thematically. We found that there was general awareness regarding optimal breastfeeding practices, but the knowledge was not translated into practice, leading to suboptimal breastfeeding practices. A number of social and structural barriers to optimal breastfeeding were identified: (1) poverty, livelihood and living arrangements; (2) early and single motherhood; (3) poor social and professional support; (4) poor knowledge, myths and misconceptions; (5) HIV; and (6) unintended pregnancies. The most salient of the factors emerged as livelihoods, whereby women have to resume work shortly after delivery and work for long hours, leaving them unable to breastfeed optimally. Women in urban poor settings face an extremely complex situation with regard to breastfeeding due to multiple challenges and risk behaviours often dictated to them by their circumstances. Macro-level policies and interventions that consider the ecological setting are needed. PMID:25521041

  1. Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect.

    PubMed

    Victora, Cesar G; Bahl, Rajiv; Barros, Aluísio J D; França, Giovanny V A; Horton, Susan; Krasevec, Julia; Murch, Simon; Sankar, Mari Jeeva; Walker, Neff; Rollins, Nigel C

    2016-01-30

    The importance of breastfeeding in low-income and middle-income countries is well recognised, but less consensus exists about its importance in high-income countries. In low-income and middle-income countries, only 37% of children younger than 6 months of age are exclusively breastfed. With few exceptions, breastfeeding duration is shorter in high-income countries than in those that are resource-poor. Our meta-analyses indicate protection against child infections and malocclusion, increases in intelligence, and probable reductions in overweight and diabetes. We did not find associations with allergic disorders such as asthma or with blood pressure or cholesterol, and we noted an increase in tooth decay with longer periods of breastfeeding. For nursing women, breastfeeding gave protection against breast cancer and it improved birth spacing, and it might also protect against ovarian cancer and type 2 diabetes. The scaling up of breastfeeding to a near universal level could prevent 823,000 annual deaths in children younger than 5 years and 20,000 annual deaths from breast cancer. Recent epidemiological and biological findings from during the past decade expand on the known benefits of breastfeeding for women and children, whether they are rich or poor. PMID:26869575

  2. Infant and young child feeding in the Peruvian Amazon: the need to promote exclusive breastfeeding and nutrient-dense traditional complementary foods.

    PubMed

    Roche, Marion L; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Tuesta, Irma; Kuhnlein, Harriet V

    2011-07-01

    The study objective was to understand the role of traditional Awajún foods in dietary quality and the potential impacts on growth of Awajún infants and young children 0-23 months of age. Research took place in April and May of 2004, along the Cenepa River in six Awajún communities. Anthropometry estimated nutritional status for 32 infants (0-23 months). Repeat dietary recalls and infant feeding histories were completed with 32 mothers. Adequacy of the complementary foods was compared with World Health Organization guidelines. Anthropometry indicated a high prevalence of stunting (39.4% of infants and young children), with nutritional status declining with age. Half of the Awajún mothers practised exclusive breastfeeding. Dietary recalls and infant food histories suggested that many of the infants were getting adequate nutrition from complementary foods and breastfeeding; however, there was variation in breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices among the mothers. Complementary feeding for young children 12-23 months generally met nutrient recommendations, but mean intakes for iron, zinc, calcium and vitamin A were inadequate in infants 6-11 months. Traditional foods provided 85% of energy and were more nutrient dense than market foods. Appropriate infant and complementary feeding was found among some women; however, given the range of feeding practices and introduction of market foods, health promotion targeting infant and young child feeding is warranted. PMID:21689271

  3. ‘I thought it would keep them all quiet’. Women's experiences of breastfeeding as illusions of compliance: an interpretive phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Rachael L; Greatrex-White, Sheila; Fraser, Diane M

    2015-01-01

    Aims To explore the experiences of breastfeeding women. Background There is a plethora of data demonstrating that human breast milk provides complete nutrition for human infants. While the rate of initiation of breastfeeding in the United Kingdom has shown a steady increase in the last 25 years, rates of exclusive breastfeeding in the early weeks and months over the same time period have shown only marginal increases. This study was designed to extend current knowledge around breastfeeding experiences, decisions and behaviours. Design Qualitative, interpretive phenomenological approach. Methods Data were collected between July 2009–January 2010 through in-depth interviews with 22 women from a city in the East Midlands where the prevalence of breastfeeding has showed a decreasing trend. Data were collected between 3–6 months after the birth of their youngest baby. Findings Analysis of data uncovered a key theme: illusions of compliance. The findings revealed that women's breastfeeding behaviours were socially mediated. They adopted a good mother image by conforming to the moral obligation to breastfeed immediately after their babies were born. Those women who struggled to establish breastfeeding tried to hide their difficulties rather than admit that they were not coping. Conclusion This study provides insights into women's infant feeding decisions and behaviours, building on understandings of ‘good mothering’ in the wider literature. Importantly we highlight some of the previously unknown strategies that women employed to portray themselves as calm, coping and in control when in reality they were struggling and not enjoying breastfeeding. PMID:25482589

  4. Maternal, Infant Characteristics, Breastfeeding Techniques, and Initiation: Structural Equation Modeling Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Htun, Tha Pyai; Lim, Peng Im; Ho-Lim, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among maternal and infant characteristics, breastfeeding techniques, and exclusive breastfeeding initiation in different modes of birth using structural equation modeling approaches. Methods We examined a hypothetical model based on integrating concepts of a breastfeeding decision-making model, a breastfeeding initiation model, and a social cognitive theory among 952 mother-infant dyads. The LATCH breastfeeding assessment tool was used to evaluate breastfeeding techniques and two infant feeding categories were used (exclusive and non-exclusive breastfeeding). Results Structural equation models (SEM) showed that multiparity was significantly positively associated with breastfeeding techniques and the jaundice of an infant was significantly negatively related to exclusive breastfeeding initiation. A multigroup analysis in the SEM showed no difference between the caesarean section and vaginal delivery groups estimates of breastfeeding techniques on exclusive breastfeeding initiation. Breastfeeding techniques were significantly positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding initiation in the entire sample and in the vaginal deliveries group. However, breastfeeding techniques were not significantly associated with exclusive breastfeeding initiation in the cesarean section group. Maternal age, maternal race, gestations, birth weight of infant, and postnatal complications had no significant impacts on breastfeeding techniques or exclusive breastfeeding initiation in our study. Overall, the models fitted the data satisfactorily (GFI = 0.979–0.987; AGFI = 0.951–0.962; IFI = 0.958–0.962; CFI = 0.955–0.960, and RMSEA = 0.029–0.034). Conclusions Multiparity and jaundice of an infant were found to affect breastfeeding technique and exclusive breastfeeding initiation respectively. Breastfeeding technique was related to exclusive breastfeeding initiation according to the mode of birth. This

  5. Attitude and Practices of Mothers on Breastfeeding Attended at a Tertiary Hospital in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Akhtaruzzaman, M; Hossain, M A; Karim, M R; Khan, R H; Islam, M S; Ahamed, F; Khan, N; Ahammed, S U; Dhar, S K; Mahmud, A A; Khan, A K; Nahar, S

    2015-07-01

    This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Pediatric Out Patient Department (OPD) of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH) from November 2013 to April 2014 to assess the knowledge and practices of the mothers about breastfeeding. Four hundred mothers having children 6 months to 2 years of age attended at OPD of MMCH for any cause were included in the study by systematic random sampling. A structured, pre-tested, interview schedule was used to collect data from mothers. All mothers were continuing to breastfeed their children. Two hundred and seventy-two (68.00%) infants received breast feeding within 1 hour after birth, while 128(32.00%) infants received breast feeding after 1 hour of birth. Of 128, in 48(37.50%) cases, mother's illness was the reason for delay in initiation of breast feeding, whereas in 70(54.69%) cases, it was due to reduced milk production on mother's statement. Pre-lacteal feeding was given in 96(24.00%) children. Among them honey was given in 24(25.00%) cases, cow's milk was given in 14(14.58%) cases, sugar water was given in 18(18.75%) cases and formula milk was given in 40(41.67%) cases. One hundred and twenty-eight (32.00%) mothers started to give their child food other than breast milk before 3 months of age and 148(37.00) mothers started to give their child food other than breast milk before 6 months of age. The reason for starting to give their child food other than breast milk before 6 months of age was mother's assumption of milk insufficiency in 166(60.14%) cases and baby's cry for hunger in 110(39.86%) cases. Formula milk was given in 120(30.00%) infants before 6 months of age. Among them 96(80.00%) mothers prepared it with larger amount of water. Plain water was given in 240(60.00%) children before the age of 6 months. One hundred and twenty-four (31.00%) children were exclusively breastfeed for first 6 months of age. Breastfeeding is almost universal in Bangladesh but the exclusive breastfeeding rate is alarmingly

  6. Breastfeeding and Everyday Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding and everyday life More breastfeeding topics ); } Breastfeeding Breastfeeding and everyday life Most breastfeeding moms do not ... support to help women breastfeed successfully. Subscribe to breastfeeding email updates Email Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | ...

  7. Is baby-friendly breastfeeding support in maternity hospitals associated with breastfeeding satisfaction among Japanese mothers?

    PubMed

    Hongo, Hiroko; Nanishi, Keiko; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2015-06-01

    While the World Health Organization's Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative has increased breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, a survey found that only 8.5 % of maternity hospitals in 31 developed countries could be designated baby-friendly. Baby-friendly breastfeeding support is sometimes criticized as mother unfriendly. This study examined whether baby-friendly breastfeeding support was associated with breastfeeding satisfaction, duration, and exclusivity among Japanese mothers. In this cross-sectional study, 601 breastfeeding Japanese mothers completed questionnaires at their infants' 4-month health checkups at two wards in Yokohama, Japan; 363 were included in the analysis. Baby-friendly breastfeeding support was measured based on the WHO's "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding." We measured satisfaction using two subscales of the Japanese version of the Maternal Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale. The association of baby-friendly support with maternal satisfaction was assessed using multiple linear regression, while the prevalence ratios (PRs) for breastfeeding were estimated using Poisson regression. Mothers were stratified by prepartum exclusive breastfeeding intention (yes, n = 256; no, n = 107). Mothers who experienced early skin-to-skin contact with their infants were more likely to report breastfeeding satisfaction than those who did not. Among mothers without exclusive breastfeeding intention, those who were encouraged to feed on demand were more likely to be breastfeeding without formula at 1 month (PR 2.66 [95 % CI 1.32, 5.36]) and to perceive breastfeeding as beneficial for their baby (regression coefficient = 3.14 [95 % CI 0.11, 6.17]) than those who were not so encouraged. Breastfeeding satisfaction was a useful measure of breastfeeding outcome. Early skin-to-skin contact and encouragement to feed on demand in the hospital facilitate breastfeeding satisfaction. PMID:25366103

  8. Developmental Readiness of Normal Full Term Infants To Progress from Exclusive Breastfeeding to the Introduction of Complementary Foods: Reviews of the Relevant Literature Concerning Infant Immunologic, Gastrointestinal, Oral Motor and Maternal Reproductive and Lactational Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Audrey J., Ed.; Morrow, Ardythe L., Ed.

    This review of the developmental readiness of normal, full-term infants to progress from exclusive breastfeeding to the introduction of complementary foods is the result of the international debate regarding the best age to introduce complementary foods into the diet of the breastfed human infant. After a list of definitions, four papers focus on:…

  9. Factors that influence breastfeeding decisions among special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children participants from Central Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Murimi, Mary; Dodge, Candace Mire; Pope, Janet; Erickson, Dawn

    2010-04-01

    Although human milk provides optimal nutrition for infants, fewer than one third of US infants are breastfed exclusively for 6 months or more. The objectives of this study were to determine the factors that have the greatest impact on the decisions to breastfeed, and to determine the effect of formula provided by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on the initiation and duration of breastfeeding among WIC participants in a rural parish in central Louisiana. A cross-sectional study was done between September 2007 and March 2008 among 130 WIC participants. Approximately half (51%) of the participants reported breastfeeding their youngest child for a mean of 15.7+/-14.9 weeks, with more white mothers breastfeeding than did African-American mothers or other races (P<0.01). Significantly more people reported that incentives provided to encourage breastfeeding did not affect their decision to breastfeed than those who said incentives affected their decision to breastfeed (P<0.029). Finally, study participants who were breastfed as a child were significantly more likely to breastfeed their children than those who were not breastfed as a child (P<0.022). The majority (96%) of the participants in this study indicated that WIC is providing effective and clear education about the benefits of breastfeeding, and that this advice influenced their decision to breastfeed their children. These findings underscore the importance of emphasizing the health benefits of breastfeeding to increase initiation and duration rates among WIC participants. PMID:20338290

  10. Breastfeeding policy: a globally comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Raub, Amy; Earle, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the extent to which national policies guaranteeing breastfeeding breaks to working women may facilitate breastfeeding. Methods An analysis was conducted of the number of countries that guarantee breastfeeding breaks, the daily number of hours guaranteed, and the duration of guarantees. To obtain current, detailed information on national policies, original legislation as well as secondary sources on 182 of the 193 Member States of the United Nations were examined. Regression analyses were conducted to test the association between national policy and rates of exclusive breastfeeding while controlling for national income level, level of urbanization, female percentage of the labour force and female literacy rate. Findings Breastfeeding breaks with pay are guaranteed in 130 countries (71%) and unpaid breaks are guaranteed in seven (4%). No policy on breastfeeding breaks exists in 45 countries (25%). In multivariate models, the guarantee of paid breastfeeding breaks for at least 6 months was associated with an increase of 8.86 percentage points in the rate of exclusive breastfeeding (P < 0.05). Conclusion A greater percentage of women practise exclusive breastfeeding in countries where laws guarantee breastfeeding breaks at work. If these findings are confirmed in longitudinal studies, health outcomes could be improved by passing legislation on breastfeeding breaks in countries that do not yet ensure the right to breastfeed. PMID:24052676

  11. Breastfeeding and cognitive development of children: assessment at one year of age.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M M; Ahmed, N U; Khan, F H; Jahan, R; Yasmeen, H N; Chowdhury, M A

    2012-04-01

    Breastfeeding is the fundamental component of child survival strategy. It significantly influences neurological development of children. The study was conducted to assess whether exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding improves children's cognitive development, including low birth weight (LBW) babies, in a developing country setting like Bangladesh. This observational study was done on a cohort of newborn infants who were discharged from the special care baby unit of Dhaka Shishu Hospital during January 2006 to December 2008 with proper counseling about exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding. Their neuro-developmental follow-up was started at 4 weeks postnatal age and continued at 3-monthly intervals up to 1 year of age. At each visit, cognitive development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID II). Cognitive development was compared between the babies of exclusive vs. non exclusive breastfeeding, normal weight vs. low birth weight and male vs. female babies. A total of 105 cases were successfully followed-up during this period. Out of these 47(44.8%) babies were exclusively breastfed up to 6 month of age and 58(55.2%) were in nonexclusive group. Overall Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) was slightly more (108.40 ± 23.06 vs. 103.23 ± 19.87) in the exclusive breast fed babies in comparison to nonexclusive breast fed babies, but was significantly more in babies having birth weight >2.5 kg in comparison to those having birth weight of <2.5 kg. Other parameters of cognitive development were more or less same in both normal and LBW groups. Mental and motor development was same in both boys and girls. In behavior ratings, cooperation was significantly high (5.89 ± 2.54 vs. 4.71 ± 3.13, p=0.05) and vocalization (5.89 ± 1.07 vs. 4.58 ± 1.16) was also high, though not significant, in girls than boys. PMID:22561777

  12. Exclusive breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS: a crossectional survey of mothers attending prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV clinics in southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Aishat, Usman; David, Dairo; Olufunmilayo, Fawole

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prevention of Mother-To-Child-Transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) guideline recommends replacement feeding where it is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe. Where this is un-achievable, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is recommended during the first six months of life. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 HIV-positive using a two-stage sampling technique. Data on socio-demographics, infant feeding choice and factors influencing these choices were collected using semi-structured questionnaires. Results Majority of the mothers (86.0%) were married and aged 31.0 ± 5.7years. Slightly above half (53.0%) had≤2 children and more than two-third had disclosed their HIV status to their spouses. About two-third (61.0%) were traders with 75.0% earning monthly income ≤N5,000.00k. Half of the mothers had ≥4 antenatal care visits and 85.0% had infant feeding counselling. Infant feeding choices among the mothers were EBF (61.0%), ERF (26.0%) and MF (13.0%). The choice of EBF was influenced by spouse influence (84.0%), family influence (81.0%) and fear of stigmatisation (53.0%). Predictors of EBF were; monthly income (AOR = 2.6, C.I. =1.4-4.5), infant feeding counselling (AOR = 2.7, C.I. = 1.6-6.9) and fear of stigmatisation (AOR = 7. 2, C.I. = 2.1-23.6). Conclusion HIV positive mothers are faced with multiple challenges as they strive to practice exclusive breastfeeding. More extensive and comprehensive approach of infant feeding counseling with emphasis on behavioural change programmes in the context of HIV/AIDS within communities is advocated. PMID:26587157

  13. Trends and determinants for early initiation of and exclusive breastfeeding under six months in Vietnam: results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Quyen Thi-Tu; Lee, Hwa-Young; Le, Anh Thi-Kim; Van Dung, Do; Vu, Lan Thi-Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence that breastfeeding (BF) significantly benefits mothers and infants in various ways. Yet the proportion of breastfed babies in Vietnam is low and continues to decline. This study fills an important evidence gap in BF practices in Vietnam. Objective This paper examines the trend of early initiation of BF and exclusive BF from 2000 to 2011 in Vietnam and explores the determinants at individual and contextual levels. Design Data from three waves of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey were combined to estimate crude and adjusted trends over time for two outcomes – early initiation of BF and exclusive BF. Three-level logistic regressions were fitted to examine the impacts of both individual and contextual characteristics on early initiation of BF and exclusive BF in the 2011 data. Results Both types of BF showed a decreasing trend over time after controlling for individual-level characteristics but this trend was more evident for early initiation of BF. Apart from child's age, individual-level characteristics were not significant predictors of the BF outcomes, but provincial characteristics had a strong association. When controlling for individual-level characteristics, mothers living in provinces with a higher percentage of mothers with more than three children were more likely to have initiated early BF (odds ratio [OR]: 1.06; confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.11) but less likely to exclusively breastfeed their babies (OR: 0.94; CI: 0.88–1.01). Mothers living in areas with a higher poverty rate were more likely to breastfeed exclusively (OR: 1.07; CI: 1.02–1.13), and those who delivered by Caesarean section were less likely to initiate early BF. Conclusions Our results suggest that environmental factors are becoming more important for determining BF practices in Vietnam. Intervention programs should therefore not only consider individual factors, but should also consider the potential impact of contextual factors on BF

  14. Safety for Your Child: Birth to 6 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Safety for Your ...

  15. Feeding patterns and diet - children 6 months to 2 years

    MedlinePlus

    ... You can start to introduce solid foods at age 6 months. Most of your baby's calories should still come from breast milk or formula. Breast milk is not a good source of iron. So after 6 months, your baby will start ...

  16. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers.

    PubMed

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent mothers included social and cultural norms. Personal beliefs about being a good mother were important to intention and initiation of breastfeeding. Promoting maternal competence was found to be essential to breastfeeding initiation and continuation for adolescent mothers. Support from partners and professionals also led to positive attitudes toward breastfeeding initiation and continuation. PMID:26957895

  17. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent mothers included social and cultural norms. Personal beliefs about being a good mother were important to intention and initiation of breastfeeding. Promoting maternal competence was found to be essential to breastfeeding initiation and continuation for adolescent mothers. Support from partners and professionals also led to positive attitudes toward breastfeeding initiation and continuation. PMID:26957895

  18. Toxoplasmosis and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ...

  19. Breastfeeding patterns and exposure to suboptimal breastfeeding among children in developing countries: review and analysis of nationally representative surveys

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Jeremy A; Betrán, Ana Pilar; Victora, Cesar G; de Onís, Mercedes; Barros, Aluísio JD

    2004-01-01

    Background Suboptimal breastfeeding is associated with higher mortality among infants and young children in the developing world. We describe patterns in 'exclusive breastfeeding' and 'any breastfeeding' rates and quantify exposure to suboptimal breastfeeding among children aged two years or younger in developing countries. Methods We reviewed nationally representative surveys that collected data on breastfeeding rates in 94 developing countries. Surveys were categorized by completeness and comprehensiveness of data. Complete and comprehensive data were analysed with minimum chi-square regression. With a fitting procedure, estimated parameters were used to impute missing observations for incomplete or non-comprehensive surveys. Breastfeeding indicators were calculated and are reported for 135 developing countries by UN region. Results Amongst infants aged six months or younger in the developing world, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding is 39% and the prevalence of no breastfeeding is 5.6%. The prevalence of continued breastfeeding is 86% and 68% for infants and children aged 6–11 and 12–23 months, respectively, in the developing world. Imputation expands population coverage of indicators, especially for infants. Breastfeeding trends are highly linear and estimated parameters defining the age-specific attrition hazard are robust. Survey-reported rates, particularly for exclusive breastfeeding, appear to have systematic upward bias, and exposure estimates must be considered conservative. Conclusions Compliance with breastfeeding recommendations in developing countries is low, and more attention should be given to increasing breastfeeding – especially exclusive breastfeeding – and to monitoring trends. Although the introduction of more standardized and better validated survey instruments is desirable, since data coverage, completeness and comprehensiveness are extensive, global exposure assessment is relatively robust. Moreover, the regularity of

  20. Influence of the support offered to breastfeeding by maternity hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Passanha, Adriana; Benício, Maria Helena D’Aquino; Venâncio, Sônia Isoyama; dos Reis, Márcia Cristina Guerreiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the support offered by maternity hospitals is associated with higher prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study including a representative sample of 916 infants less than six months who were born in maternity hospitals, in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, 2011. The maternity hospitals were evaluated in relation to their fulfillment of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Data were collected regarding breastfeeding patterns, the birth hospital and other characteristics. The individualized effect of the study factor on exclusive and predominant breastfeeding was analyzed using Poisson multiple regression with robust variance. RESULTS Predominant breastfeeding tended to be more prevalent when the number of fulfilled steps was higher (p of linear trend = 0.057). The step related to not offering artificial teats or pacifiers to breastfed infants and that related to encouraging the establishment of breastfeeding support groups were associated, respectively, to a higher prevalence of exclusive (PR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.04;1.54) and predominant breastfeeding (PR = 1.55; 95%CI 1.01;2.39), after an adjustment was performed for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS We observed a positive association between support offered by maternity hospitals and prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. These results can be useful to other locations with similar characteristics (cities with hospitals that fulfill the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding) to provide incentive to breastfeeding, by means of promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding in maternity hospitals. PMID:26759966

  1. Polish women's experiences of breastfeeding in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Szafranska, Marcelina; Gallagher, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding among Polish mothers at three-four months (38.6 per cent) is in keeping with the low rates of breastfeeding in Ireland overall (Begley et al 2008), and suggests that Polish women have begun to adopt the infant feeding practices of Irish women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence Polish women's decisions to initiate and continue breastfeeding in Ireland. A descriptive qualitative approach was utilised to explore participants' perspectives of breastfeeding. Results showed that professional and family support are key to a successful breastfeeding experience for these mothers. Recommendations include further individualised support in order to meet the needs of Polish women breastfeeding in Ireland. PMID:26975131

  2. Antiretroviral treatment is associated with iron deficiency in HIV-infected Malawian women that is mitigated with supplementation, but is not associated with infant iron deficiency during 24 weeks of exclusive breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Widen, Elizabeth M; Bentley, Margaret E; Chasela, Charles S; Kayira, Dumbani; Flax, Valerie L; Kourtis, Athena P; Ellington, Sascha R; Kacheche, Zebrone; Tegha, Gerald; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles M; Allen, Lindsay H; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Adair, Linda S

    2015-01-01

    Objective In resource-limited settings without safe alternatives to breastfeeding, the WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding and antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis. Given the high prevalence of anemia among HIV-infected women, mothers and their infants (via fetal iron accretion) may be at risk of iron deficiency. We assessed the effects of maternal micronutrient-fortified lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and maternal ARV treatment or infant ARV prophylaxis on maternal and infant iron status during exclusive breastfeeding from birth to 24 weeks. Methods The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study was a randomized controlled trial conducted in Lilongwe, Malawi from 2004-2010. HIV-infected mothers (CD4>200 cells/ul) and their infants were randomly assigned to 28-week interventions: maternal-LNS/maternal-ARV (n=424), maternal-LNS/infant-ARV (n=426), maternal-LNS (n=334), maternal-ARV (n=425), infant-ARV (n=426), or control (n=334). Longitudinal models tested intervention effects on hemoglobin (Hb). In a subsample (n=537) with multiple iron indicators, intervention effects on Hb, transferrin receptors (TfR) and ferritin were tested with linear and Poisson regression. Results In longitudinal models, LNS effects on maternal and infant Hb were minimal. In subsample mothers, maternal ARVs were associated with tissue iron depletion (TfR>8.3 mg/L) (Risk ratio (RR): 3.1, p<0.01), but not in ARV-treated mothers receiving LNS (p=0.17). LNS without ARVs, was not associated with iron deficiency or anemia (p>0.1). In subsample infants, interventions were not associated with impaired iron status (all p-values>0.1). Conclusions Maternal ARV treatment with protease inhibitors is associated with maternal tissue iron depletion; but LNS mitigates adverse effects. ARVs do not appear to influence infant iron status; however, extended use needs to be evaluated. PMID:25723140

  3. BREASTFEEDING IN THE PERINATAL PERIOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human milk is recognized by the American Academy of Pediatrics as the optimal feeding for all infants, although supplementation with specially formulated human milk fortifiers is required to meet the nutritional needs of premature newborns. Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first six mo...

  4. Reliability of gait in multiple sclerosis over 6 months.

    PubMed

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Klaren, Rachel E; Pilutti, Lara A; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Motl, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Gait impairment is ubiquitous in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is often characterized by alterations in spatiotemporal parameters of gait. There is limited information concerning reliability of spatiotemporal gait parameters over clinical timescales (e.g. 6 months). The current report provides novel evidence that gait parameters of 74 ambulatory persons with MS with mild-to-moderate disability are reliable over 6-months (ICC's for overall sample range from 0.56 to 0.91) in the absence of any intervention above and beyond standard care. Such data can inform clinical decision-making and power analyses for designing RCTs (i.e., sample size estimates) involving persons with MS. PMID:25772669

  5. Breastfeeding Practices During the First Month Postpartum and Associated Factors: Impact on Breastfeeding Survival

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Wambach, Karen Ann; Mortazavi, Saideh Sadat; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The introduction of fluids to infants during the first days postpartum, which may be harmful to infant health, is a common practice in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to find the prevalence of breastfeeding practices using monthly dietary recall and factors associated with introduction of fluids during the first month of life and determine the effects of these supplementations on breastfeeding survival. Patients and Methods: This longitudinal study carried out in Shahroud, Iran from May 2011 to October 2013. Using convenient sampling strategy, 358 mothers in their third trimester of pregnancy were enrolled in the study and completed the questionnaires. Then the data regarding the introduction of fluids during first month postpartum was collected. We followed women monthly up to breastfeeding cessation. Kaplan-Meier and time-to-event methods were used to assess breastfeeding survival. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify the variables that determined breastfeeding practices at the first month postpartum. The Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of variables on breastfeeding survival. Results: The prevalence of exclusive, predominant, and partial breastfeeding during the first month postpartum were 33.1%, 58.2%, and 8.6%, respectively. Predominant breastfeeding was associated with the lack of breastfeeding experience (OR = 1.93; 95% CI [1.02 - 3.66]). Partial breastfeeding was associated with the maternal age ≥ 30 y (OR = 5.96; CI [1.66 - 21.37]), family income higher than the mean (OR = 3.39; 95% CI [1.17 - 9.81]), and breastfeeding difficulties score higher than mean (OR = 3.09; 95% CI [1.10 - 8.71]). The Cox regression analysis revealed that breastfeeding practices at the first month was associated with an increased risk for breastfeeding discontinuation. The hazard ratio of breastfeeding discontinuation for predominant and partial breastfeeding groups were 1.11 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.51; P = 0.49) and 2

  6. Bobbi Be Best: the development and evaluation of an audio program and discussion guide to promote exclusive breastfeeding in Cameroon, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Reinsma, Kathryn; Bolima, Nancy; Fonteh, Florence; Okwen, Patrick; Siapco, Gina; Yota, Daniel; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-09-01

    One risk factor for infant and childhood morbidity is not exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) during the first six months of life. Entertainment Education (EE) is a communication strategy consisting of placing educational information into television, movies, and radio programs. In developing countries this form of behavioral change communication has proven effective in addressing health-related issues; however, no research has determined if EE is effective in promoting EBF. The objective of this research was to develop an EE audio program and discussion guide and to determine if a series of four 15-minute episodes and post-listening discussion improved knowledge, perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and intention and decreased misconceptions and perceived barriers toward EBF in the Kumbo West Health District, Cameroon. Pregnant women and their partners were assigned to either the control group (N = 116; 74 women, 42 partners) or intervention group (N = 148; 99 women, 49 partners) based on expected date of delivery. All control and intervention group participants completed a questionnaire prior to listening to the first and after the last episode. Pre- and post-listening questionnaires were used to determine changes in the EBF knowledge, misconceptions, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and intention variables as a result of exposure to the audio program. The Wilcoxon Sign Rank test showed significant improvement in all of the variables, except perceived barriers, within the intervention group (p < 0.05) and the Mann-Whitney test indicated significant differences between the control and intervention group in all of the variables (p < 0.05), indicating that using an audio program and discussion guide based on the EE model is an effective tool for promoting EBF in this setting. The strength of this approach is that it goes beyond simply telling women about what constitutes EBF, but addresses misconceptions and perceived barriers that may prevent women from practicing EBF for

  7. Interactive Effects of Early Exclusive Breastfeeding and Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Weight Status on Young Children’s BMI – A Chinese Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Baomin; Liang, Xiong; Adair, Linda; Thompson, Amanda; Zhang, Jianduan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess if the maternal pre-pregnancy weight status (MPWS) alters the association of early infant feeding pattern (at one and third months) with infant body mass index (BMI) in the first two years of life. Methods A cohort of 2,220 neonates were recruited in a community-based study conducted in China. Body weight and length were measured at birth, at age one and two, with BMI calculated accordingly. The BMI z-scores (BMI-Z) were computed according to the World Health Organization Growth Standard (2006). Feeding patterns were classified as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), mixed feeding (MF), and formula feeding (FF). General linear models (GLM) were employed to estimate main and interaction effects of EBF and MPWS on children’s BMI-Z. Results No main effect of MPWS was found on child BMI-Z at ages one and two, nor the feeding patterns. An interaction between MPWS and feeding patterns was detected (p<0.05). For children who were formula fed during the first month, those who were born to overweight/obesity (OW/OB) mothers had a significantly greater BMI-Z at ages one and two, compared with those with underweight/normal weight (UW/NW) mothers. FF children had greater BMI-Z at ages one and two compared with their EBF and MF counterparts, when they were born to OW/OB mothers. Conclusions Maternal pre-pregnancy weight control and early initiation of EBF for children are essential for healthy development in children’s BMI, hence the prevention of early life obesity. PMID:26641272

  8. Breastfeeding and protection against diarrhea: an integrative review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Floriacy Stabnow; Santos, Felipe César Stabnow; dos Santos, Leonardo Hunaldo; Leite, Adriana Moraes; de Mello, Débora Falleiros

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify, in national and international journals, the studies conducted in Brazil related to breast feeding and reducing cases of diarrhea in children under 2 years of age, featuring health interventions more used. Methods Descriptive study, based on an integrative review of literature from PubMed and LILACS data published between January 1992 and August 2011. The keywords “breastfeeding AND diarrhea” was searched in Portuguese, English and Spanish in PubMed and LILACS. The guiding question was: “What was knowledge produced about breast feeding and prevention of diarrhea in children under 2 years between 1992 and 2011 in studies conducted in Brazil?” Results We selected 11 studies that showed the importance of breast feeding in the prevention and protection against diarrhea in children under 6 months, especially among children in exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion Public health policies should be directed to the context of each locality, in order to reduce the problems that involve the early weaning. PMID:26061078

  9. US National Breastfeeding Monitoring and Surveillance: Current Status and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Donna J.; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Eleven federally-funded datasets assessing breastfeeding behaviors in the US (Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Infant Feeding Practices Survey II, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Immunization Survey, National Survey of Children's Health, National Survey of Early Childhood Health, National Survey of Family Growth, Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System, Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Survey, and WIC Participant and Program Characteristics) were reviewed to evaluate the breastfeeding variables (initiation, duration and exclusivity) and determine if relevant breastfeeding determinants were collected to evaluate breastfeeding practices from a health disparities perspective. The datasets utilized inconsistent breastfeeding definitions, limited ethnic descriptors, and varied regarding availability of relevant determinants. Multiple datasets collect breastfeeding data, but a coordinated US breastfeeding monitoring and surveillance system does not exist. Suggestions to improve this system include: standardizing breastfeeding definitions, expanding ethnic/racial descriptors, collecting additional relevant variables, and reducing recall periods. PMID:19286840

  10. Exclusive breastfeeding practices in relation to social and health determinants: a comparison of the 2006 and 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first six months can have a significant impact on reducing child morbidity and mortality rates. The objective of this study was to compare the determinants of and trends in EBF in infants ≤5 months from the 2006 and 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys. Methods Data on mother/infant pairs having infants of ≤5 months from 2006 (n = 482) and 2011 (n = 227) were analysed. The EBF rate, determinants of EBF, and changes in EBF rates between the 2006 and 2011 surveys were examined using Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Results The EBF rate for ≤5 months in 2006 was 53.2% (95% CI, 47.1%-59.3%) and 66.3% (95% CI, 56.6%-74.8%) in 2011. In 2006, infants ≤4 months were more likely to be EBF [(aOR) 3.086, 95% CI (1.825-5.206)] after controlling for other factors. A geographic effect was also found in this study, with the odds of EBF higher for infants from the Hills [aOR 3.426, 95% CI (1.568-7.474)] compared to those form the mountains. The odds of EBF were also higher for higher order infants [aOR 1.968, 95% CI (1.020-3.799)]. Infants whose fathers belonged to non-agricultural occupation were less likely to be provided with EBF. Infants who were delivered in the home were more likely to experience EBF [aOR 1.886; 95% CI (1.044-3.407)]. In 2011, infants of age ≤4 months were more likely [aOR 4.963, 95% CI (2.317-10.629)] to have been breastfed exclusively. While there was an increase in the EBF rate between 2006 and 2011 surveys, the significant increase was noticed only among the infants of four months [32.0%; 95% CI (19.9%-47.0%)] in 2006 to [65.5%; 95% CI (48.1-79.6)] in 2011. Conclusions The proportion of infants who were EBF was higher in Nepal in 2011survey compared to 2006 survey; however, this is still below the recommended WHO target of 90%. Infant’s age, ecological region, parity and father’s occupation were associated with EBF. Further interventions such as peer

  11. Guttural pouch mycosis in a 6-month-old filly

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A 6-month-old filly was presented with unilateral epistaxis. Based on clinical signs, endoscopic examination, and postmortem examination, guttural pouch mycosis was diagnosed. The young age of the filly and the fact that this was the 2nd diagnosis of guttural pouch mycosis on this farm was unusual. PMID:16604984

  12. Lessons Learned in a Breastfeeding Media Campaign.

    PubMed

    Ware, Julie L; Mzayek, Fawaz; Levy, Marian

    2016-09-01

    Breastfeeding is well accepted as the optimal nutrition for babies. The American Academy of Pediatrics states that infant feeding should no longer be thought of as a lifestyle choice, but rather as a public health issue. In Shelby County, Tennessee, rates of breastfeeding continue to be disparately low. To address this public health problem, a focus group study was conducted with the Shelby County population least likely to breastfeed. Following participants' suggestion to use a billboard campaign with pictures of local mothers and families, one highway billboard and ten bus stop signs were placed around the city in areas of the lowest breastfeeding rates. Self-administered surveys were completed by convenience sampling in target population areas with women least likely to breastfeed, both before placing the signs and 6 months later. No significant differences were noted in knowledge, attitudes, or practices after the media campaign, but trends toward increased intention to breastfeed were noted among expectant mothers. With collapsed data (pre and post), a majority of participants believed that breastfeeding is the best way to feed a baby and they were significantly more likely to plan to breastfeed if they knew about health benefits to the baby and to themselves. If they had heard about breastfeeding on the TV or radio, they were more likely to believe breastfeeding is important for long-term health. These findings suggest that a media campaign could have a complementary role in promoting breastfeeding among women with low initiation rates. PMID:27463248

  13. Legislation should support optimal breastfeeding practices and access to low-cost, high-quality complementary foods: Indonesia provides a case study.

    PubMed

    Soekarjo, Damayanti; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2011-10-01

    It is important to support women to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months and continue breastfeeding for 24 months and beyond. It is also necessary to provide the poor with access to affordable ways to improve the quality of complementary foods. Currently, many countries do not have the legal and policy environment necessary to support exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Legislative and policy changes are also necessary for introducing complementary food supplements, allowing them to be marketed to those who need them, and ensuring that marketing remains appropriate and in full compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. This paper aims to illustrate the above with examples from Indonesia and to identify legislative requirements for supporting breastfeeding and enabling appropriate access to high-quality complementary food supplements for children 6-24 months of age. Requirements include improved information, training, monitoring and enforcement systems for the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes; implementation and monitoring of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative; establishment of a registration category for complementary food supplements to enhance availability of high-quality, low-cost fortified products to help improve young child feeding; clear identification and marketing of these products as complementary food supplements for 6-24-month-olds so as to promote proper use and not interfere with breastfeeding. PMID:21929639

  14. Transforming a care delivery model to increase breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Magri, Eileen P; Hylton-McGuire, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the process of changing the care delivery model for maternity practice in a New York State Regional Perinatal Center to support exclusive breastfeeding, defined as providing nothing other than human milk feedings. Barriers exist in hospitals that inhibit exclusive breastfeeding of newborns at the time of discharge and fail to meet the recommendations outlined by the World Health Organization and New York State Department of Health. All aspects of mother/baby care were evaluated to meet the recommendations and increase exclusive breastfeeding. Transforming the care delivery model for mothers and babies began in 2010 with an invitation to participate in the New York State Breastfeeding Quality Improvement in Hospitals Learning Collaborative. Twelve hospitals were selected to participate with the following objectives: increase exclusive breastfeeding; improve hospital breastfeeding policies, practices, and systems that are consistent with New York State hospital regulations, laws and recommended best practices; increase staff skills and knowledge of breastfeeding and lactation support through education; empower, educate, and support new mothers to successfully breastfeed and change the culture and social norm relative to breastfeeding. The transformation of the care delivery model resulted in an increase in exclusive breastfeeding from 6% to 44%. PMID:23399862

  15. Survey on breastfeeding among Chinese female physicians and nurses.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yan-qiong; Xu, You-xian; Zhang, Qing

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigated knowledge of and beliefs about breastfeeding among Chinese female physicians and nurses and their breastfeeding practices. This study documented knowledge, attitudes and practices of breastfeeding among Chinese medical staff. A total of 367 female physicians and nurses completed a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire; 96.2% indicated that breastfeeding was natural, but 29.2% thought it difficult. Only 18.5% of the participants questioned breastfeeding women on feeding status, and 12.8% gave breastfeeding advice when asked. After graduation from school, 79.3% of the participants stated that they did not receive training in breastfeeding. In personal practice, 69.2% initiated breastfeeding; 19.1% were still breastfeeding at 4 months, and only three nurses continued breastfeeding for more than 1 year. In conclusion, breastfeeding-related knowledge is surprisingly poor, and attitudes are less positive. The exclusive breastfeeding rate was found to be low among Chinese female physicians and nurses. The findings highlight the need to re-educate medical staff on breastfeeding, and imply the need for Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative implementation/training. PMID:22827770

  16. Lactation and appetite-regulating hormones: increased maternal plasma peptide YY concentrations 3-6 months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Vila, Greisa; Hopfgartner, Judith; Grimm, Gabriele; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Clodi, Martin; Luger, Anton

    2015-10-28

    Breast-feeding is associated with maternal hormonal and metabolic changes ensuring adequate milk production. In this study, we investigate the impact of breast-feeding on the profile of changes in maternal appetite-regulating hormones 3-6 months postpartum. Study participants were age- and BMI-matched lactating mothers (n 10), non-lactating mothers (n 9) and women without any history of pregnancy or breast-feeding in the previous 12 months (control group, n 10). During study sessions, young mothers breast-fed or bottle-fed their babies, and maternal blood samples were collected at five time points during 90 min: before, during and after feeding the babies. Outcome parameters were plasma concentrations of ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), leptin, adiponectin, prolactin, cortisol, insulin, glucose and lipid values. At baseline, circulating PYY concentrations were significantly increased in lactating mothers (100·3 (se 6·7) pg/ml) v. non-lactating mothers (73·6 (se 4·9) pg/ml, P=0·008) and v. the control group (70·2 (se 9) pg/ml, P=0·021). We found no differences in ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin values. Baseline prolactin concentrations were over 4-fold higher in lactating mothers (P<0·001). Lactating women had reduced TAG levels and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, but increased waist circumference, when compared with non-lactating women. Breast-feeding sessions further elevated circulating prolactin (P<0·001), but induced no acute effects on appetite-regulating hormones. In summary, one single breast-feeding session did not acutely modulate circulating appetite-regulating hormones, but increased baseline PYY concentrations are associated with prolonged lactation. PYY might play a role in the coordination of energy balance during lactation, increasing fat mobilisation from maternal depots and ensuring adequate milk production for the demands of the growing infant. PMID:26299586

  17. Theory-Based Design and Development of a Socially Connected, Gamified Mobile App for Men About Breastfeeding (Milk Man)

    PubMed Central

    White, Becky K; Martin, Annegret; White, James A; Burns, Sharyn K; Maycock, Bruce R; Giglia, Roslyn C

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite evidence of the benefits of breastfeeding, <15% of Australian babies are exclusively breastfed to the recommended 6 months. The support of the father is one of the most important factors in breastfeeding success, and targeting breastfeeding interventions to the father has been a successful strategy in previous research. Mobile technology offers unique opportunities to engage and reach populations to enhance health literacy and healthy behavior. Objective The objective of our study was to use previous research, formative evaluation, and behavior change theory to develop the first evidence-based breastfeeding app targeted at men. We designed the app to provide men with social support and information aiming to increase the support men can offer their breastfeeding partners. Methods We used social cognitive theory to design and develop the Milk Man app through stages of formative research, testing, and iteration. We held focus groups with new and expectant fathers (n=18), as well as health professionals (n=16), and used qualitative data to inform the design and development of the app. We tested a prototype with fathers (n=4) via a think-aloud study and the completion of the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). Results Fathers and health professionals provided input through the focus groups that informed the app development. The think-aloud walkthroughs identified 6 areas of functionality and usability to be addressed, including the addition of a tutorial, increased size of text and icons, and greater personalization. Testers rated the app highly, and the average MARS score for the app was 4.3 out of 5. Conclusions To our knowledge, Milk Man is the first breastfeeding app targeted specifically at men. The development of Milk Man followed a best practice approach, including the involvement of a multidisciplinary team and grounding in behavior change theory. It tested well with end users during development. Milk Man is currently being trialed as part

  18. Effect of Breastfeeding Promotion on Early Childhood Caries and Breastfeeding Duration among 5 Year Old Children in Eastern Uganda: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Birungi, Nancy; Fadnes, Lars T.; Okullo, Isaac; Kasangaki, Arabat; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Ndeezi, Grace; Tumwine, James K.; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lie, Stein Atle; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2015-01-01

    Background Although several studies have shown short term health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), its long term consequences have not been studied extensively in low-income contexts. This study assessed the impact of an EBF promotion initiative for 6 months on early childhood caries (ECC) and breastfeeding duration in children aged 5 years in Mbale, Eastern Uganda. Methods Participants were recruited from the Ugandan site of the PROMISE- EBF cluster randomised trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150). A total of 765 pregnant women from 24 clusters were included in the ratio 1:1 to receive peer counselled promotion of EBF as the intervention or standard of care. At the 5 year follow-up, ECC was recorded under field conditions using the World Health Organization’s decayed missing filled tooth (dmft) index. Adjusted negative binomial and linear regression were used in the analysis. Results Mean breastfeeding duration in the intervention and control groups (n=417) were 21.8 (CI 20.7–22.9) and 21.3(CI 20.7–21.9) months, respectively. The mean dmft was 1.5 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9) and 1.7 (SD 2.9) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Corresponding prevalence estimates of ECC were 38% and 41%. Negative binomial regression analysis adjusted for cluster effects and loss-to-follow-up by inverse probability weights (IPW) showed an incidence-rate ratio (IRR) of 0.91 (95% CI 0.65–1.2). Comparing the effect of the trial arm on breastfeeding duration showed a difference in months of 0.48 (-0.72 to 1.7). Conclusion PROMISE EBF trial did not impact on early childhood caries or breastfeeding duration at 5 years of age. This study contributes to the body of evidence that promotion of exclusive breastfeeding does not raise oral health concerns. However, the high burden of caries calls for efforts to improve the oral health condition in this setting. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00397150 PMID:25938681

  19. Maternal regulation of infant reactivity from 2 to 6 months.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Laudan B; Putnam, Samuel P; Stifter, Cynthia A

    2004-07-01

    Previous research has investigated the effect of maternal soothing behaviors on reducing infant reactivity but not the differential effects of specific maternal behaviors on infant stress responses. The present study investigated maternal regulation of 2- and 6-month-olds' responses to an inoculation and found a significant decline with age in both the intensity and duration of infants' crying. Maternal affection and touching decreased from 2 to 6 months, whereas maternal vocalizing and distraction behaviors increased. At both ages, the combination of maternal holding/rocking and vocalizing was associated with decreases in all levels of infant reactivity. Neither strategy alone, however, was found to be effective. Feeding/ pacifying behaviors were effective only when initial distress was at a low or moderate level, which suggests that the effectiveness of maternal regulatory behaviors may depend on the intensity of infants' crying. PMID:15238037

  20. Determinants of breastfeeding initiation among mothers in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended as the optimal way to feed infants for the first six months of life. While overall breastfeeding rates are high, exclusive breastfeeding is relatively uncommon among Middle Eastern women. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of breastfeeding amongst women in the six governorates of Kuwait and the factors associated with the initiation of breastfeeding. Methods A sample of 373 women (aged 17-47 years), recruited shortly after delivery from four hospitals in Kuwait, completed a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify those factors independently associated with the initiation of breastfeeding. Results In total, 92.5% of mothers initiated breastfeeding and at discharge from hospital the majority of mothers were partially breastfeeding (55%), with only 30% of mothers fully breastfeeding. Prelacteal feeding was the norm (81.8%) and less than 1 in 5 infants (18.2%) received colostrum as their first feed. Only 10.5% of infants had been exclusively breastfed since birth, the remainder of the breastfed infants having received either prelacteal or supplementary infant formula feeds at some time during their hospital stay. Of the mothers who attempted to breastfeed, the majority of women (55.4%) delayed their first attempt to breastfeed until 24 hours or more after delivery. Breastfeeding at discharge from hospital was positively associated with paternal support for breastfeeding and negatively associated with delivery by caesarean section and with the infant having spent time in the Special Care Nursery. Conclusions The reasons for the high use of prelacteal and supplementary formula feeding warrant investigation. Hospital policies and staff training are needed to promote the early initiation of breastfeeding and to discourage the unnecessary use of infant formula in hospital, in order to support the establishment of exclusive

  1. Breastfeeding After Cesarean Delivery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Breastfeeding After ...

  2. Overcoming breastfeeding problems

    MedlinePlus

    Plugged milk ducts; Nipple soreness when breastfeeding; Breastfeeding - overcoming problems; Let-down reflex ... Breastfeeding (nursing) your baby can be a good experience for both the mother and the baby. It ...

  3. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  4. Breastfeeding Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ029 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Breastfeeding Your Baby • How long should I breastfeed my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit me? • ...

  5. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called ...

  6. Breastfeeding Report Card 2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Breastfeeding Report Cards Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... National Immunization Survey data from 2014 and 2015. Breastfeeding Report Card, 2016 Download report [PDF-2.72MB] ...

  7. Benefits of breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    Experts say that breastfeeding your baby is good for you and your baby. If you breastfeed for any length of time, no matter ... is, you and your baby will benefit from breastfeeding. Learn about breastfeeding your baby and decide if ...

  8. Breastfeeding on prime-time in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castello Branco, H

    1990-01-01

    An example of the potential power of mass media in helping implement health programs, Brazil conducted a highly successful advertising campaign aimed at increasing the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding. The advertising campaign formed part of the 1981-84 breastfeeding program, which included -- among other things -- implementing maternity laws, establishing support groups for breastfeeding mothers, and disseminating information to policymakers. While several methods to inform parents had been tried, all had encountered resistance. An intensive mass media campaign changed all that. In 1982, 100 television channels began airing frequent, prime- time commercials -- an effort supplemented by radio sports, posters, and print advertisements. The airing of commercials followed extensive research and pretesting of the material, and were intended to help break down social barrier to breastfeeding, which included: women's fears that their breast size made then incapable of breastfeeding; employers' lack of support for working mothers; the lack of unity among doctors that breastfeeding is right for every child; and "machismo" -- men's attitude that the breast is only a sexual object. In order to establish a common goal, all spots ended with the slogan: "Breastfeeding -- 6 months that build up a life." And to establish credibility, the commercials featured well-known Brazilian celebrities. A spot aimed at facilitating the act for other women showed a popular actress breastfeeding her own child; another commercial showed a well- known singer and male role model asking fathers to support breastfeeding. An evaluation conducted in 1987 indicated significant positive changes due to the advertising campaign, demonstrating the potential of mass media in raising public awareness. PMID:12343009

  9. Exclusive Breastfeeding and Cognition, Executive Function, and Behavioural Disorders in Primary School-Aged Children in Rural South Africa: A Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rochat, Tamsen J.; Houle, Brian; Stein, Alan; Coovadia, Hoosen; Coutsoudis, Anna; Desmond, Chris; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bland, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is associated with early child health; its longer-term benefits for child development remain inconclusive. We examine the associations between EBF, HIV exposure, and other maternal/child factors and the cognitive and emotional-behavioural development of children aged 7–11 y. Methods and Findings The Vertical Transmission Study (VTS) supported EBF in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women; between 2012 and 2014, HIV-negative VTS children (332 HIV exposed, 574 HIV unexposed) were assessed in terms of cognition (Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Second Edition [KABC-II]), executive function (Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment Second Edition [NEPSY-II]), and emotional-behavioural functioning (parent-reported Child Behaviour Checklist, [CBCL]). We developed population means by combining the VTS sample with 629 same-aged HIV-negative children from the local demographic platform. For each outcome, we split the VTS sample into scores above or at/below each population mean and modelled each outcome using logistic regression analyses, overall and stratified by child sex. There was no demonstrated effect of EBF on overall cognitive functioning. EBF was associated with fewer conduct disorders overall (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.44 [95% CI 0.3–0.7], p ≤ 0.01), and there was weak evidence of better cognition in boys who had been exclusively breastfed for 2–5 mo versus ≤1 mo (Learning subscale aOR 2.07 [95% CI 1.0–4.3], p = 0.05). Other factors associated with better child cognition were higher maternal cognitive ability (aOR 1.43 [95% CI 1.1–1.9], p = 0.02, Sequential; aOR 1.74 [95% CI 1.3–2.4], p < 0.001, Planning subscales) and crèche attendance (aOR 1.96 [95% CI 1.1–3.5], p = 0.02, Sequential subscale). Factors positively associated with executive function were home stimulation (aOR 1.36 [95% CI 1.0–1.8], p = 0.04, Auditory Attention; aOR 1.35 [95% CI 1.0–1.8], p = 0.05, Response Set) and crèche (a

  10. Position Statement on Breastfeeding from the Italian Pediatric Societies.

    PubMed

    Davanzo, Riccardo; Romagnoli, Costantino; Corsello, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Position Statement on Breastfeeding of The Italian Pediatric Societies (SIP, SIN, SICupp, SIGENP) recognizes breastfeeding as an healthy behaviour with many short and long term benefits for both mother and infant.While protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding, neonatologists and pediatricians need specific knowledge, skills and a positive attitude toward breastfeeding. In Maternity Hospitals and in Neonatal Units, appropriate organizative interventions should be applied in order to facilitate the beginning of breastfeeding and the use of mother's/human milk.The Italian Pediatric Societies indicate the desiderable goal of around 6 months exclusive breastfeeding if the infant grows properly according to WHO Growth Charts. In principle, complementary feeding should not be anticipated before 6 months as a nutritional strategy pretending to prevent allergy and/or celiac disease. Eventually, long term breastfeeding should be supported meeting mother's desire. PMID:26498033

  11. ABM Clinical Protocol #18: Use of Antidepressants in Breastfeeding Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Sriraman, Natasha K.; Melvin, Kathryn; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    A central goal of The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols for managing common medical problems that may impact breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient. PMID:26204124

  12. Do 6-month-olds understand that speech can communicate?

    PubMed

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Martin, Alia; Onishi, Kristine H

    2014-11-01

    Adults and 12-month-old infants recognize that even unfamiliar speech can communicate information between third parties, suggesting that they can separate the communicative function of speech from its lexical content. But do infants recognize that speech can communicate due to their experience understanding and producing language, or do they appreciate that speech is communicative earlier, with little such experience? We examined whether 6-month-olds recognize that speech can communicate information about an object. Infants watched a Communicator selectively grasp one of two objects (target). During test, the Communicator could no longer reach the objects; she turned to a Recipient and produced speech (a nonsense word) or non-speech (coughing). Infants looked longer when the Recipient selected the non-target than the target object when the Communicator spoke but not when she coughed - unless the Recipient had previously witnessed the Communicator's selective grasping of the target object. Our results suggest that at 6 months, with a receptive vocabulary of no more than a handful of commonly used words, infants possess some abstract understanding of the communicative function of speech. This understanding may provide an early mechanism for language and knowledge acquisition. PMID:24835877

  13. Malignant hyperthermia in a 6-month-old infant

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, PR; Rundla, M; Jain, N; Mathur, V

    2016-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare hypermetabolic disorder of skeletal muscles that manifests as a life-threatening crisis in susceptible individuals, after exposure to triggering agents, most commonly halothane and succinylcholine. MH presents with multiple nonspecific signs and laboratory findings such as tachycardia, hyperthermia, hypercarbia, acidosis, and muscle rigidity. Caffeine halothane contracture test is not available at most centers in India. Larach et al. have described a clinical grading scale for determining the MH raw score based on clinical findings and biochemical tests. The high degree of suspicion, early recognition and aggressive treatment should commence immediately. It is imperative to avoid triggering agents, such as volatile anesthetics and succinylcholine, and promote the use of total intravenous anesthesia in MH susceptible patients. We report a case of 6-month-old child undergoing laparotomy under general anesthesia, who presented with signs and symptoms of MH, had MH rank 5 and raw score 36. PMID:27375398

  14. Malignant hyperthermia in a 6-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Mathur, P R; Rundla, M; Jain, N; Mathur, V

    2016-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare hypermetabolic disorder of skeletal muscles that manifests as a life-threatening crisis in susceptible individuals, after exposure to triggering agents, most commonly halothane and succinylcholine. MH presents with multiple nonspecific signs and laboratory findings such as tachycardia, hyperthermia, hypercarbia, acidosis, and muscle rigidity. Caffeine halothane contracture test is not available at most centers in India. Larach et al. have described a clinical grading scale for determining the MH raw score based on clinical findings and biochemical tests. The high degree of suspicion, early recognition and aggressive treatment should commence immediately. It is imperative to avoid triggering agents, such as volatile anesthetics and succinylcholine, and promote the use of total intravenous anesthesia in MH susceptible patients. We report a case of 6-month-old child undergoing laparotomy under general anesthesia, who presented with signs and symptoms of MH, had MH rank 5 and raw score 36. PMID:27375398

  15. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. Methods We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Results Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Conclusions Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context. PMID:21878101

  16. The religious and cultural bases for breastfeeding practices among the Hindus.

    PubMed

    Laroia, Nirupama; Sharma, Deeksha

    2006-01-01

    In Hindu communities, breastfeeding is nearly universal and continues for most children beyond infancy. This review examines the religious and cultural basis for the contemporary breastfeeding practices amongst the Hindu. Practices at the time of birth and feeding rituals like prelacteal feeds, importance and timing of complementary feeds, and protections for the breastfeeding mother are examined from the published medical literature and available religious texts. Hindu Vedic literature and ancient ayurvedic texts underscore the importance of breastfeeding in the Hindu society. Although almost every Hindu child gets some breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding for the recommended duration and early initiation of breastfeeding are not that common. As birth of a baby is a celebration for family and society, breastfeeding is strongly influenced by cultural and religious ceremonies. In today's context, although women may receive guidance from health care professionals, relatives--especially grandmothers--have an important influence on breastfeeding practices. PMID:17661569

  17. Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (63 ... to get enough calcium during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Breastfeeding and Bone Health Breastfeeding also affects a mother’s ...

  18. Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. Protecting, promoting, and supporting breastfeeding in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Naylor, A J

    2001-04-01

    The BFHI is a global UNICEF/WHO-sponsored effort to promote breastfeeding by ensuring that all women are provided with sound information regarding their infant feeding choices and that those who elect to breastfeed their infants are given physiologically sound, evidence-based advice and skilled assistance prenatally and as they begin nursing their infants during their postpartum hospital or birth center stay. The initiative is based on ten policy or procedure statements, The Ten Steps, which were jointly developed and published in 1989 by the sponsoring agencies in consultation with international experts. In 1990, the Ten Steps were accepted as the central theme of the Innocenti Declaration and, later that year, endorsed at the World Summit on Children. In 1992, UNICEF and WHO launched a major international campaign to encourage all hospitals with maternity services to accept the Ten Steps as basic maternity and newborn infant care policies and procedures. These Ten Steps were reviewed briefly in this article. Official designation as Baby Friendly requires a careful assessment completed by a trained external team to confirm that the institution is truly carrying out all Ten Steps and conforming to the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. During the 8 years since the initiative began, more than 15,000 hospitals in 136 countries have been designated as Baby Friendly. Twenty-seven of these officially designated institutions are in the United States, where the campaign has been active only since 1996. The BFHI is considered one of the most successful international efforts ever performed to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding. Although it does not ensure that mothers will aspire to or achieve the widely accepted goal of approximately 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding, it helps mothers to initiate exclusive nursing, an essential step in the right direction. PMID:11339166

  19. Breastfeeding and maternal health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Ranadip; Sinha, Bireshwar; Sankar, Mari Jeeva; Taneja, Sunita; Bhandari, Nita; Rollins, Nigel; Bahl, Rajiv; Martines, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effect of breastfeeding on long-term (breast carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus) and short-term (lactational amenorrhoea, postpartum depression, postpartum weight change) maternal health outcomes. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library and CABI databases. Outcome estimates of odds ratios or relative risks or standardised mean differences were pooled. In cases of heterogeneity, subgroup analysis and meta-regression were explored. Results Breastfeeding >12 months was associated with reduced risk of breast and ovarian carcinoma by 26% and 37%, respectively. No conclusive evidence of an association between breastfeeding and bone mineral density was found. Breastfeeding was associated with 32% lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Exclusive breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding were associated with longer duration of amenorrhoea. Shorter duration of breastfeeding was associated with higher risk of postpartum depression. Evidence suggesting an association of breastfeeding with postpartum weight change was lacking. Conclusion This review supports the hypothesis that breastfeeding is protective against breast and ovarian carcinoma, and exclusive breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding increase the duration of lactational amenorrhoea. There is evidence that breastfeeding reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, an association between breastfeeding and bone mineral density or maternal depression or postpartum weight change was not evident. PMID:26172878

  20. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, M. L.; Morrow, R. C.; Calva, J. J.; Ortega-Gallegos, H.; Weller, S. C.; Ruiz-Palacios, G. M.; Morrow, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding. The responses to pilot interviews were used to develop a standardized questionnaire regarding reasons for infant feeding choice, sources of advice, and barriers to breastfeeding. We interviewed a random sample of 150 mothers with a child < 5 years of age; 136 (91%) of them had initiated breastfeeding; but only 2% exclusively breastfed up to 4 months. The mothers consistently stated that the child's nutrition, health, growth, and hygiene were the main reasons for the type of feeding selected; cost, comfort, and the husband's opinion were less important. Physicians were ranked as the most important source of advice. Reduction or cessation of breastfeeding occurred on the doctor's advice (68%); or when the mothers encountered local folk illnesses such as "coraje" (52%) or "susto" (54%), which are associated with anger or fright; or had "not enough milk" (62%) or "bad milk" (56%); or because of illness of the mother (56%) or child (43%). During childhood illnesses and conditions, breastfeeding was reduced and the use of supplementary foods was increased. This study emphasizes the importance of cultural values in infant feeding choices, defines specific barriers to breastfeeding, and provides a basis for interventions to promote exclusive breastfeeding in the study population. PMID:10327711

  1. Perceived stress among a workforce 6 months following hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Leon, Kyla A; Hyre, Amanda D; Ompad, Danielle; Desalvo, Karen B; Muntner, Paul

    2007-12-01

    To determine stress levels among a workforce 6 months after hurricane Katrina made landfall, a web-based survey that included the four-item Perceived Stress Scale was administered to employees of the largest employer in New Orleans. An overall Perceived Stress Scale score was obtained by pooling responses for the four items. Among 1,542 adult respondents, 24.1% stated they felt that they were "fairly often" or "very often" unable to control the important things in their life and 21.4% considered that their difficulties were "fairly often" or "very often" piling up so high that they could not overcome them. Also, 6.1% reported that they "almost never" or "never" felt confident about their ability to handle their personal problems and 15.2% indicated that things were "almost never" or "never" going their way. The overall mean Perceived Stress Scale score was 6.3 (standard deviation = 3.1; range = 0-16). Higher stress scale scores, indicating more stress, were present for women, and for participants with lower income, displaced longer than 3 months, who were more afraid of losing their life during hurricane Katrina and its immediate aftermath, and who knew someone that died during the storm. Additionally, participants who were living in a relative of friend's house or in a temporary trailer at the time of the survey had higher stress scores compared to their counterparts who had returned to live in their pre-hurricane residence. There was a direct association between higher stress scores and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Employers and health care providers should be apprised of the need for monitoring stress and offering counseling opportunities for returning workforces following future large-scale disasters. PMID:17932611

  2. Health workers' support for breastfeeding in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    OlaOlorun, Funmilola Morinoye; Lawoyin, Taiwo Olubanke

    2006-05-01

    Breastfeeding in Nigeria is universal, and exclusive breastfeeding was introduced in 1992, yet no study has assessed health workers' support for breastfeeding at the grassroots level. This study assessed health workers' tangible support for breastfeeding at primary care facilities in Ibadan and factors affecting it, including knowledge of and attitudes toward breastfeeding. Among the 386 workers, there was moderate support for breastfeeding (median score = 15.0, maximum = 20). Following multivariate analysis, young age of worker (20-29 years; odds ratio [OR] = 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-6.8), more than 5 years of post-training experience (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2-4.4), senior profession (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0-4.4), high breastfeeding knowledge scores (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.5), and sufficient opportunities to practice tangible breastfeeding support (OR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.4-7.7) were found to predict tangible breastfeeding support. Deliberate efforts should be made to incorporate continuing education workshops to better prepare health professionals for their role in providing tangible breastfeeding support at the primary care level. PMID:16684907

  3. [Influence of primary care personnel on breastfeeding duration].

    PubMed

    Jovani Roda, L; Gutiérrez Culsant, P; Aguilar Martín, C; Navarro Caballé, R; Mayor Pegueroles, I; Jornet Torrent, Y

    2002-12-01

    Background Breastfeeding duration in Spanish neonates does not fulfill the recommendations of the World Health Organization.ObjectiveTo report the results of a policy of breastfeeding support in a primary care center.Material and methodsWe performed a before-and-after intervention study of all mothers of children born in Ulldecona who decided to breast feed in 1992, 1993, 1996 and 1997 (control group: 125 infants), and from August 1999-August 2001 (72 infants). Study variable: in May 1999 a breastfeeding support policy was initiated in the primary care center.ResultsBreastfeeding duration increased (in the control group the mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 18.8 weeks; from 1999 to 2001 it was 28 weeks). Negative factors for breastfeeding were the birth of twins, introduction of a supplement, and education (there was an inverse relationship between greater education and breastfeeding duration). Duration of breastfeeding was longer in Moroccan mothers. Sex, gestational age, weight, type of delivery, separation between mother and neonate, maternal age, previous children, and work outside the home did not influence breastfeeding duration. Simple lineal regression revealed that the intervention was effective (P 0.046). Early hypogalactia and breast problems decreased, and voluntary weaning increased (P < 0.001).ConclusionThe primary care team plays key role in the maintenance of breastfeeding and in the well-being of the mother and neonate. PMID:12466076

  4. The cost of not breastfeeding in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Dylan; Horton, Susan; Siregar, Adiatma Yudistira Manogar; Pitriyan, Pipit; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Mathisen, Roger; Phan, Linh Thi Hong; Rudert, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Rates of exclusive breastfeeding are slowly increasing, but remain suboptimal globally despite the health and economic benefits. This study estimates the costs of not breastfeeding across seven countries in Southeast Asia and presents a cost-benefit analysis of a modeled comprehensive breastfeeding strategy in Viet Nam, based on a large programme. There have been very few such studies previously for low- and middle-income countries. The estimates used published data on disease prevalence and breastfeeding patterns for the seven countries, supplemented by information on healthcare costs from representative institutions. Modelling of costs of not breastfeeding used estimated effects obtained from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Modelling of cost-benefit for Viet Nam used programme data on costs combined with effects from a large-scale cluster randomized breastfeeding promotion intervention with controls. This study found that over 12 400 preventable child and maternal deaths per year in the seven countries could be attributed to inadequate breastfeeding. The economic benefits associated with potential improvements in cognition alone, through higher IQ and earnings, total $1.6 billion annually. The loss exceeds 0.5% of Gross National Income in the country with the lowest exclusive breastfeeding rate (Thailand). The potential savings in health care treatment costs ($0.3 billion annually) from reducing the incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia could help offset the cost of breastfeeding promotion. Based on the data available and authors’ assumptions, investing in a national breastfeeding promotion strategy in Viet Nam could result in preventing 200 child deaths per year and generate monetary benefits of US$2.39 for every US$1, or a 139% return on investment. These encouraging results suggest that there are feasible and affordable opportunities to accelerate progress towards achieving the Global Nutrition Target for exclusive breastfeeding by 2025. PMID:27107295

  5. Reduced breastfeeding rates among obese mothers: a review of contributing factors, clinical considerations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bever Babendure, Jennie; Reifsnider, Elizabeth; Mendias, Elnora; Moramarco, Michael W; Davila, Yolanda R

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with significantly lower rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration and exclusivity. Increasing rates of obesity among reproductive-age women has prompted the need to carefully examine factors contributing to lower breastfeeding rates in this population. Recent research has demonstrated a significant impact of breastfeeding to reduce the risk of obesity in both mothers and their children. This article presents a review of research literature from three databases covering the years 1995 to 2014 using the search terms of breastfeeding and maternal obesity. We reviewed the existing research on contributing factors to lower breastfeeding rates among obese women, and our findings can guide the development of promising avenues to increase breastfeeding among a vulnerable population. The key findings concerned factors impacting initiation and early breastfeeding, factors impacting later breastfeeding and exclusivity, interventions to increase breastfeeding in obese women, and clinical considerations. The factors impacting early breastfeeding include mechanical factors and delayed onset of lactogenesis II and we have critically analyzed the potential contributors to these factors. The factors impacting later breastfeeding and exclusivity include hormonal imbalances, psychosocial factors, and mammary hypoplasia. Several recent interventions have sought to increase breastfeeding duration in obese women with varying levels of success and we have presented the strengths and weaknesses of these clinical trials. Clinical considerations include specific techniques that have been found to improve breastfeeding incidence and duration in obese women. Many obese women do not obtain the health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding and their children are more likely to also be overweight or obese if they are not breastfed. Further research is needed into the physiological basis for decreased breastfeeding among obese women along with effective

  6. Barriers to breastfeeding in a resident clinic.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amy M; Correll, Alissa; Greene, John F; Hein, Debra; McLaughlin, Tara

    2013-06-01

    Despite the known health benefits for mother and infant, compliance with exclusive breastfeeding continues to challenge many healthcare providers. In an ongoing attempt to maintain the goals of the Healthy People 2010 initiative, our institution set out to identify patients with suboptimal breastfeeding rates in order to recognize potential barriers. Review of breastfeeding rates at the time of discharge noted significantly lower participation by clinic patients. In order to develop successful interventions, the aim of this study was to survey clinic patients to determine their intentions, attitudes, and obstacles to the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. In total, 188 surveys were completed during a 2-month time period. Respondents were primarily Hispanic (76.4% vs. 9.6% black and 8.4% white) and multiparous (57.5%) with a mean age of 25.7 years (range, 15-39 years old). Although 95.3% of respondents indicated that they believed breastmilk provided adequate nutrition, only 35.3% planned on exclusively breastfeeding. Access to free formula through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children was the most common reason not to breastfeed (48.3%), followed by fear of pain and the need to return to work/school. Patients reported that the person with the greatest influence on their decision to breastfeed was their partner/spouse. Access to a lactation counselor was the most popular intervention requested, even among experienced multiparous patients (78.9% of whom had previously breastfed). In conclusion, the survey indicated that planned exclusive breastfeeding rates are low among this inner-city resident clinic and interventions should include involvement of the partners/spouses and access to lactational support. PMID:22871145

  7. What about Breastfeeding?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fundraising Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts What about Breastfeeding? skip to submenu Parents & Individuals Information for Parents & Individuals What about Breastfeeding? To download the PDF version of this factsheet, ...

  8. Fathers Can Support Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... System Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Fathers Supporting Breastfeeding Last Published: 05/26/2016 Email Updates Click ... in each of the materials. FATHERS CAN SUPPORT BREASTFEEDING Poster - FNS 354 Be a Part of the ...

  9. Your Guide to Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... group. 6 • Search your phone book or the Internet for a breastfeeding center near you. These centers ... website at http:// www.llli.org/. • Search the Internet for breastfeeding message boards and chats. (These resources ...

  10. Frequency of “Nursing Strike” among 6-Month-Old Infants, at East Tehran Health Center and Contributing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nayyeri, Fatemeh; Raji, Farima; Haghnazarian, Edith; Shariat, Mamak; Dalili, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Objective: An abrupt refusal by the infant to breastfeed is often called “nursing strike”. In fact a common reason for cessation of nursing is infant’s refusal to breast feed. This problem can often be overcome. This paper has aimed to identify the causes of “breast feeding refusal” or “nursing strike” in 6 month old infants visiting the East Tehran health center for their scheduled vaccination of 6 months old. Materials and methods: Totally 175 six month old infants were enrolled in this study. A questionnaire was filled by mother for each child and later the infants with “nursing strike” were compared with all others. Results: In this study prevalence of breast feeding refusal in infants was 24%.There was significant relation between the “breastfeeding refusal” and maternal academic education or working status. In this study mothers reported various reasons associated with “refusal breast feeding. According to the mothers playful infant and nasal obstructions were the probable causes for refusal. Conclusion: There is a diverse variety of factors influencing nursing strike. Most of these factors can be prevented by identifying the background reasons and proper training. PMID:26622313

  11. Ankyloglossia its impact breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Henry, Lydia; Hayman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article contrasts two very different experiences of one mother breastfeeding her two sons to demonstrate the potential impact of ankyloglossia on breastfeeding. When too restrictive, ankyloglossia, also known as tongue-tie, can cause the newborn to ineffectively suckle at the breast. Breastfeeding difficulties can occur, such as long feedings or damaged nipples. When nurses, lactation consultants and other providers recognize this situation, they can refer women for further care and treatment, which can ultimately lead to breastfeeding success. PMID:24750651

  12. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have a positive early

  13. Constraints, synergies and avenues for scaling up breastfeeding, antibiotics for pneumonia and IMCI interventions in the Cusco region, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Gericke, Christian A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this qualitative case study was to assess the feasibility of scaling up exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, antibiotics for pneumonia and integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) child interventions in three districts of the Cusco region, Peru. Methods: During field visits, constraints, synergies and solutions to the implementation of the selected interventions were collected through observational recording and interviews of mothers, health workers, and health managers/decision makers. Results are presented for each intervention according to the health system level where they occurred: mother/community, health worker, health centre, and political/managerial levels. Findings: This case study demonstrates that it is feasible to scale up exclusive breastfeeding, antibiotics for pneumonia and IMCI interventions in poverty-stricken rural areas of a low-income country. Factors that helped and hindered the implementation were identified for each intervention. Conclusions: The need for a coherent multi-sector approach that includes regulation, implementation and monitoring of health policies and education of all involved stakeholders was apparent. This study also demonstrates that global health interventions need to undergo local adaptation. Identifying local constraints and facilitating factors in a systematic way as proposed in this study is a useful step to increase their effectiveness and reach at the local level and to identify areas for improvement in the original intervention policies. PMID:24358831

  14. Breastfeeding and its gamut of benefits.

    PubMed

    Gertosio, Chiara; Meazza, Cristina; Pagani, Sara; Bozzola, Mauro

    2016-06-01

    Maternal milk is recommended as the optimal and exclusive source of early nutrition for all infants from birth and until at least their sixth month of age. Their nutritional virtues are due to potent immune factors and a unique composition which evolves in tandem with the infant's growth and developmental needs. Breast milk promotes sensory and cognitive development, and protects the infant against infectious and chronic diseases. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant mortality due to common childhood illnesses such as diarrhea or pneumonia, and improves recovery time during illness. Breastfeeding provides numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both the baby and its mother. Beyond the immediate benefits for infants, breastfeeding also contributes to a lifetime of good health. In this review we describe the influence of breastfeeding on mental and psychomotor development, on the risk of endocrine disorders, pediatric cancers and allergic diseases for the breastfed child. More prospective studies with comparable methodologies and longer periods of follow-up are necessary to allow firm conclusions on the effects of breastfeeding in some of these aspects. PMID:26023793

  15. Factors associated with breastfeeding cessation in nursing mothers in a peer support programme in Eastern Lancashire

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates worldwide and in recent years the Government has made breastfeeding promotion one of its priorities. The UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative is likely to increase breastfeeding initiation but not duration. Other strategies which involve provision of support for breastfeeding mothers in the early weeks after birth are therefore required to encourage UK mothers to breastfeed for the recommended duration. This paper examines the effects of maternal socio-demographic factors, maternal obstetric factors, and in-hospital infant feeding practices on breastfeeding cessation in a peer support setting. Methods Data on mothers from Blackburn with Darwen (BwD) and Hyndburn in Eastern Lancashire who gave birth at the Royal Blackburn Hospital and initiated breastfeeding while in hospital were linked to the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). The data were analysed to describe infant feeding methods up to 6 months and the association between breastfeeding cessation, and maternal factors and in-hospital infant feeding practices. Results The mean breastfeeding duration was 21.6 weeks (95% CI 20.86 to 22.37 weeks) and the median duration was 27 weeks (95% CI 25.6 to 28.30 weeks). White mothers were 69% more likely to stop breastfeeding compared with non-White mothers (HR: 0.59; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.67 [White mothers were the reference group]). Breastfeeding cessation was also independently associated with parity and infant feeding practices in hospital. There were no significant associations between breastfeeding cessation and marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding initiation and socio-economic deprivation. Conclusion In this study ethnicity, parity and in-hospital infant feeding practices remained independent predictors of breastfeeding cessation in this peer support setting. However other recognised predictors such as marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding initiation and socio

  16. Contraception and Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Pieh Holder, Kelly Lynne

    2015-12-01

    Postpartum contraception is important to lengthening birth intervals and improving the health of women and children. For breastfeeding women the choice and timing of contraception may influence breastfeeding and infant growth patterns. Nonhormonal methods of contraception are the preferred choice for breastfeeding women. Progestin-only methods comprise a viable next option. Combined hormonal methods of contraception containing estrogen and progestin may be considered as a third option for birth control in breastfeeding women. The objective of this chapter is to review the current literature and recommendations for the use of hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception while breastfeeding. PMID:26457854

  17. Breastfeeding social marketing: lessons learned from USDA's "Loving Support" campaign.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-10-01

    Social marketing involves the application of commercial marketing principles to advance the public good. Social marketing calls for much more than health communications campaigns. It involves four interrelated tasks: audience benefit, target behavior, essence (brand, relevance, positioning), and developing the "4Ps" (product, price, place, promotion) marketing mix. The ongoing U.S. Department of Agriculture "Loving Support Makes Breastfeeding Work" campaign was launched in 1997 based on social marketing principles to increase breastfeeding initiation rates and breastfeeding duration among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Since then there have been improvements in breastfeeding duration in the country, and the majority of WIC women now initiate breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in public places is still not well accepted by society at large, and any and exclusive breastfeeding durations remain exceedingly low. Lessons learned from "Loving Support" and other campaigns indicate that it is important to design social marketing campaigns to target the influential societal forces (e.g., family and friends, healthcare providers, employers, formula industry, legislators) that affect women's decision and ability to breastfeed for the recommended amount of time. This will require formative research that applies the social-ecological model to different population segments, taking and identifying the right incentives to nudge more women to breastfeed for longer. Any new breastfeeding campaign needs to understand and take into account the information acquisition preferences of the target audiences. The vast majority of WIC women have mobile devices and are accessing social media. The Brazilian experience indicates that making breastfeeding the social norm can be done with a solid social marketing strategy. This is consistent with the recently released "Six Steps to Achieve Breastfeeding Goals for WIC Clinics," which identifies

  18. Breastfeeding in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Fok, D

    1997-01-01

    This paper traces the trends of breastfeeding in Singapore for the past 40 years, describes the recent breastfeeding education efforts and makes recommendations after drawing inferences from the results of the Breastfeeding Mothers' Support Group's (BMSG) February 1996 survey and other local studies. Although the BMSG and other local studies' sample sizes are small, there are recurring themes in the factors affecting the breastfeeding rates in Singapore. The consistent patterns are that the well-to-do breastfeed more than the poor, the Chinese breastfeed less than the other ethnic groups and the more educated mothers breastfeed more than the less educated ones. Target groups for breastfeeding education are identified--the less the less educated mothers, the Chinese mothers and the working mothers. Hospitals are encouraged to become baby-friendly in their practices. The next step after raising public awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding is to increase the present breastfeeding duration of two months to six months. PMID:9699470

  19. Breastfeeding-Associated Hypernatremia: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Lavagno, Camilla; Camozzi, Pietro; Renzi, Samuele; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2016-02-01

    There are increasing reports on hypernatremia, a potentially devastating condition, in exclusively breastfed newborn infants. Our purposes were to describe the clinical features of the condition and identify the risk factors for it. We performed a review of the existing literature in the National Library of Medicine database and in the search engine Google Scholar. A total of 115 reports were included in the final analysis. Breastfeeding-associated neonatal hypernatremia was recognized in infants who were ≤ 21 days of age and had ≥ 10% weight loss of birth weight. Cesarean delivery, primiparity, breast anomalies or breastfeeding problems, excessive prepregnancy maternal weight, delayed first breastfeeding, lack of previous breastfeeding experience, and low maternal education level were significantly associated with breastfeeding-associated hypernatremia. In addition to excessive weight loss (≥ 10%), the following clinical findings were observed: poor feeding, poor hydration state, jaundice, excessive body temperature, irritability or lethargy, decreased urine output, and epileptic seizures. In conclusion, the present survey of the literature identifies the following risk factors for breastfeeding-associated neonatal hypernatremia: cesarean delivery, primiparity, breastfeeding problems, excessive maternal body weight, delayed breastfeeding, lack of previous breastfeeding experience, and low maternal education level. PMID:26530059

  20. [Use of pacifiers and breastfeeding].

    PubMed

    Lozano de la Torre, M J; Pallás Alonso, C R; Hernández Aguilar, M T; Aguayo Maldonado, J; Arena Ansótegui, J; Ares Segura, S; Gómez Papí, A; Díaz Gómez, M; Jiménez Moya, A; Landa Rivera, L; Landa Velillas, J J; Martín-Calama Valero, J; Martín Morales, M; Paricio Talayero, J M; Romero Escós, M D

    2011-04-01

    Pacifiers are widely used in developed societies. They are used for soothing infants, reducing their stress and pain during procedures and to help them sleep. The use of pacifiers has been associated, however, with a shorter duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding, with higher rates of otitis media and dental problems, as well as a higher risk of accidents during infancy. Recent studies have also described a relationship between pacifier use and SIDS, especially when used during infant́s sleep. Other described benefits are analgesia and stimulation of non-nutritive sucking in preterm and term infants. There is, at present, wide debate and controversy on whether or not to recommend its use; thus it seems important for professionals and parents to be aware of the risks and benefits associated to its use, particularly related to breastfeeding. Due to the existing controversy of scientific findings, the Committee on Breastfeeding of the Spanish Paediatrics Society, publishes this review, trying to summarise present evidence with the objective of, after analysing scientific results and recommendations, making recommendations regarding the use of the pacifier in the breastfed infant. PMID:21256098

  1. Breastfeeding difficulties and supports and risk of postpartum depression in a cohort of womenwho have given birth in Calgary: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Kathleen H.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Musto, Richard; Adair, Carol E.; Tough, Suzanne C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A link exists between breastfeeding difficulties and postpartum depression, and evidence shows that some breastfeeding promotion initiatives may increase maternal stress and contribute to risk of the condition. We conducted a prospective cohort study to determine whether breastfeeding difficulties affect the risk of postpartum depression and whether breastfeeding support modifies the relationship between breastfeeding difficulties and postpartum depression. Methods: Between June and October 2010, we recruited 442 women who intended to breastfeed from all maternity hospitals in Calgary within 72 hours of giving birth to full-term, singleton infants. We administered questionnaires at birth and 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum, measuring breastfeeding difficulties, exposure to breastfeeding supports and postpartum depression. We used qualitative inquiry to measure breastfeeding support experiences. Postpartum depression was defined as a score of 10 or greater on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale or a self-reported diagnosis of depression in the first 6 months postpartum. Results: A total of 386 women (87.3%) reported moderate to severe breastfeeding difficulties and 437 (98.9%) received some form of breastfeeding advice, help or support. Among women with breastfeeding difficulties, those who did not report a negative breastfeeding support experience were at decreased risk of postpartum depression (risk ratio 0.36). In the final regression model a negative breastfeeding support experience was a significant effect modifier of the relationship between breastfeeding difficulties and postpartum depression. Interpretation: The quality of breastfeeding support is important not only for breastfeeding promotion but also for maternal mental health. Educating front-line caregivers to ensure that support experiences of breastfeeding women are positive can reduce the risk of postpartum depression. PMID:27280109

  2. Secular trends in breastfeeding in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Saldiva, Sílvia Regina Dias Médici; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document the secular trend in breastfeeding in Brazil. Data bases from seven national surveys conducted from 1975 to 2008 were reanalyzed. To obtain compatible data from the different surveys, children in the same age group and the same indicators were analyzed, using the same statistical techniques. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2.5 to 11.3 months, and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in infants under six months of age increased from 3.1% to 41.0% in the period. The results indicate important challenges in accelerating the rhythm at which this practice in Brazil moves towards meeting international recommendations. PMID:24626558

  3. [Secular trends in breastfeeding in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Saldiva, Sílvia Regina Dias Médici; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to document the secular trend in breastfeeding in Brazil. Data bases from seven national surveys conducted from 1975 to 2008 were reanalyzed. To obtain compatible data from the different surveys, children in the same age group and the same indicators were analyzed, using the same statistical techniques. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2.5 to 11.3 months, and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in infants under six months of age increased from 3.1% to 41.0% in the period. The results indicate important challenges in accelerating the rhythm at which this practice in Brazil moves towards meeting international recommendations. PMID:24626558

  4. FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... ברוכים הבאים HOŞ GELDİNİZ FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding Breastfeeding and tattooing are enjoying resurgence in popularity. ... Is it safe to get a tattoo while breastfeeding? Tattoos are created by injecting ink into the ...

  5. Breastfeeding and feminism.

    PubMed

    Van Esterik, P

    1994-12-01

    Breastfeeding empowers women and contributes to gender equality; therefore, it is an important feminist, human rights, and women's issue. Although seldom addressed as a feminist issue, breastfeeding is paradigmatically one because it requires rethinking basic issues such as the sexual division of labor, the fit between women's productive and reproductive lives, and the role of physiological processes in defining gender ideology. The conceptual problems which emerge in the fit between breastfeeding promotion and feminist theory include the place of motherhood; technology versus liberation; fear of biological determinism; breasts and sexuality; locating guilt; personal choice; romanticizing breastfeeding; and conceptualizing women's work. Feminist theorists who take up breastfeeding as an issue and medical researchers who address questions raised by feminist theory have the occasion to produce a non-dualistic feminist problematic that would draw together a wide range of theories and practices that go beyond breastfeeding and mothering. The failure to develop this analysis could have serious consequences. PMID:7713306

  6. Maternal obesity and breast-feeding practices among white and black women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jihong; Smith, Michael G; Dobre, Mirela A; Ferguson, James E

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increase in obesity among women of reproductive ages, few studies have considered maternal obesity as a risk factor for breast-feeding success. We tested the hypothesis that women who are obese (BMI = 30-34.9) and very obese (BMI >or=35) before pregnancy are less likely to initiate and maintain breast-feeding than are their normal-weight counterparts (BMI = 18.5-24.9) among white and black women. Data from 2000 to 2005 South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) were used. The overall response rate was 71.0%; there were 3,517 white and 2,846 black respondents. Black women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding and breast-fed their babies for a shorter duration than white women. Compared to normal-weight white women, very obese white women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding (odds ratio: 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42, 0.94) and more likely to discontinue breast-feeding within the first 6 months (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.39, 2.58). Among black women, prepregnancy BMI was neither associated with breast-feeding initiation nor with breast-feeding continuation within the first 6 months. Because very obese white women are less likely to initiate or continue breast-feeding than other white women, health professionals should be aware that very obese white women need additional breast-feeding support. Lower rates of breast-feeding among black women suggest that they should continue to be the focus of the programs and policies aimed at breast-feeding promotion in the United States. PMID:19521347

  7. Breastfeeding practices of ethnic Indian immigrant women in Melbourne, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The health benefits of breastfeeding are well documented in public health and medical literature worldwide. Despite this, global rates of breastfeeding steadily decline during the first couple of months postpartum. Although immigrant women have higher initiation rates and a longer duration of breastfeeding overall, breastfeeding practices are compromised because of a myriad of socioeconomic and cultural factors, including the acculturation process. The objective of this study was to show how acculturation and cultural identity influenced breastfeeding practices among Indian immigrants in Melbourne, Australia. Methods Twelve case studies were employed to gather narratives of women’s lived experiences. Ethnographic field research methods were used to collect data, including participant observation, semi-structured interviews, case studies, and life histories. This provided in-depth information from women on various aspects of the immigrant experience of motherhood, including infant care and feeding. Participants were opportunistically recruited from Indian obstetricians and gynaecologists. Women identifying as ethnic Indian and in their third trimester of pregnancy were recruited. Interviews were conducted in women’s homes in metropolitan Melbourne over a 12 month period between 2004 and 2005. Data were coded and analysed thematically. Results All women identified as ethnic Indian and initiated breastfeeding in accordance with their cultural identity. Social support and cultural connectivity impacted positively on duration of breastfeeding. However, acculturation (adopting Australian cultural values and gender norms, including returning to paid employment) negatively influenced breastfeeding duration. In addition, the high reliance of recent immigrants on the advice of healthcare professionals who gave inconsistent advice negatively affected exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions For ethnic Indian immigrant women breastfeeding practice is closely linked

  8. Epidural analgesia, neonatal care and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Zuppa, Antonio Alberto; Alighieri, Giovanni; Riccardi, Riccardo; Cavani, Maria; Iafisco, Alma; Cota, Francesco; Romagnoli, Costantino

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study is to evaluate the correlation between epidural analgesia during labor, start of breastfeeding and type of maternal-neonatal care.Two different assistance models were considered: Partial and Full Rooming-in.In this cohort study, 2480 healthy infants were enrolled, 1519 in the Partial Rooming-in group and 1321 in the Full Rooming-in group; 1223 were born to women subjected to epidural analgesia in labor.In case of Partial Rooming-in the rate of exclusive or prevailing breastfeeding is significant more frequent in newborns born to mothers who didn't receive analgesia. Instead, in case of Full Rooming-in the rate of exclusive or prevailing breastfeeding is almost the same and there's no correlation between the use or not of epidural analgesia.The good start of lactation and the success of breastfeeding seems to be guaranteed by the type of care offered to the couple mother-infant, that reverses any possible adverse effects of the use of epidural analgesia in labor. PMID:25432659

  9. ABM clinical protocol #21: guidelines for breastfeeding and substance use or substance use disorder, revised 2015.

    PubMed

    Reece-Stremtan, Sarah; Marinelli, Kathleen A

    2015-04-01

    A central goal of The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols for managing common medical problems that may impact breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient. PMID:25836677

  10. ABM Clinical Protocol #21: Guidelines for Breastfeeding and Substance Use or Substance Use Disorder, Revised 2015

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A central goal of The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols for managing common medical problems that may impact breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient. PMID:25836677

  11. Factors affecting breast-feeding among Hong Kong Chinese.

    PubMed

    Koo, L C; Wong, V C; Ho, C Y

    1986-12-01

    413 mothers attending maternal and child health (MCH) clinics located throughout Kowloon and Hong Kong Island were surveyed in the summer of 1983 to evaluate the impact of programs to promote breastfeeding and to facilitate understanding of other social, cultural, economic, attitudinal, or hospital factors which may influence the choice of infant feeding patterns among postnatal mothers. The interviews were limited to mothers who had given birth within the last 2 years. The mothers ranged in age from 17-42 years. Of the total sample of 413 babies, 116 (28.1%) had been breastfed at least once, and these infants were counted as incidence cases. Among these 116 breastfed infants, the duration of breastfeeding was estimated among 88 of the infants whose breastfeeding had ceased. The remaining 28 were excluded from the analysis because they were still young and breastfeeding was continuing at the time of the interview. The mean duration of breastfeeding was 10 weeks but about 1/3 of these babies had been breastfed for less than 1 week. 61% of the breastfed babies stopped breastfeeding after 1 month of age; only 11 babies had been breastfed for over 6 months. There was no difference in the incidence or duration of breastfeeding among male and female infants. The incidence of breastfeeding was found to be directly related to increasing levels of education in either parent. The middle income group had both the lowest incidence and shortest duration of breastfeeding in comparison with other groups. Although the incidence of breastfeeding was highest among the highest income group, only 11.1% had the infant breastfeeding for 7 or more weeks. Breastfed infants in the families with the lowest income level had some 51.7% of their breastfed infants feeding on the breast for more than 7 weeks. Approximately 30% of the mothers believed that breast milk was superior to infant formulas, and 2/3 of these mothers actually breastfed their babies. The lowest rates for breastfeeding (14

  12. Duration of breastfeeding in preterm infants followed at a secondary referral service

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Brunnella Alcantara Chagas; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Carlos, Carla Fernanda Lisboa Valente; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Identify and analyze variables associated with shorter duration of breastfeeding in preterm infants. Methods: Retrospective cohort of premature infants followed up at secondary referral service in the period of 2010-2015. Inclusion: first appointment in the first month of corrected age and have undergone three or more consultations. Exclusion: diseases that impaired oral feeding. Outcome: duration of breastfeeding. A total of 103 preterm infants were evaluated, accounting for 28.8% of the preterm infants born in the municipality in that period, with a power of study of 80%. Descriptive analysis, t-test, chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were used. p-values <0.05 were considered significant. Results: The median duration of breastfeeding among preterm infants was 5.0 months. The risk of breastfeeding discontinuation among preterm infants with gestational age <32 weeks was 2.6-fold higher than for those born at 32 weeks or more and the risk of breastfeeding interruption in preterm infants who were receiving breastfeeding supplementation in the first outpatient visit was 3-fold higher when compared to those who were exclusively breastfed in the first consultation. Conclusions: The median duration of breastfeeding in preterm infants was below the recommended one and discontinuation was associated with gestational <32 weeks and the fact that the infant was no longer receiving exclusive breastfeeding in the first outpatient visit. When these two variables were associated, their negative effect on the median duration of breastfeeding was potentiated. PMID:26614258

  13. Attitudes of expectant fathers regarding breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Freed, G L; Fraley, J K; Schanler, R J

    1992-08-01

    Fathers participate in choosing the feeding method for their newborns. However they traditionally have not been included in most breast-feeding education programs. To examine expectant fathers' attitudes and knowledge regarding breast-feeding, we surveyed 268 men during the first session of their childbirth education classes at five private hospitals in Houston, Texas. The study population was 81% white, 8% black, and 6% hispanic. Ninety-seven percent (n = 259) of the total were married. Fifty-eight percent (n = 156) reported that their spouses planned to breast-feed exclusively; several significant differences existed between these men and those who reported plans for exclusive formula feeding. The breast-feeding group was more likely to believe breast-feeding is better for the baby (96% vs 62%; P less than .0001), helps with infant bonding (92% vs 53%; P less than .0001), and protects the infant from disease (79% vs 47% P less than .001). The breast-feeding group was also more likely to want their partner to breast-feed (90% vs 13%; P less than .0001) and to have respect for breast-feeding women (57% vs 16%; P less than .0001). Conversely, those in the formula feeding group were more likely to think breast-feeding is bad for breasts (52% vs 22%; P less than .01), makes breasts ugly (44% vs 23%; P less than .05), and interferes with sex (72% vs 24%; P less than .0001). The majority of both groups indicated breast-feeding was not acceptable in public (breast-feeding = 71%, formula feeding = 78%, P less than .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1641286

  14. Can breastfeeding promote child health equity? A comprehensive analysis of breastfeeding patterns across the developing world and what we can learn from them

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2010 more than 7.7 million children died before their fifth birthday. Over 98% of these deaths occurred in developing countries, and recent estimates have attributed hundreds of thousands of these deaths to suboptimal breastfeeding. Methods This study estimated prevalence of suboptimal breastfeeding for 137 developing countries from 1990 to 2010. These estimates were compared against WHO infant feeding recommendations and combined with effect sizes from existing literature to estimate associated disease burden using a standard comparative risk assessment approach. These prevalence estimates were disaggregated by wealth quintile and linked with child mortality rates to assess how improved rates of breastfeeding may affect child health inequalities. Results In 2010, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding ranged from 3.5% in Djibouti to 77.3% in Rwanda. The proportion of child Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) attributable to suboptimal breastfeeding is 7.6% at the global level and as high as 20.2% in Swaziland. Suboptimal breastfeeding is a leading childhood risk factor in all developing countries and consistently ranks higher than water and sanitation. Within most countries, breastfeeding prevalence rates do not vary considerably across wealth quintiles. Conclusions Breastfeeding is an effective child health intervention that does not require extensive health system infrastructure. Improvements in rates of exclusive and continued breastfeeding can contribute to the reduction of child mortality inequalities in developing countries. PMID:24305597

  15. Support for healthy breastfeeding mothers with healthy term babies

    PubMed Central

    Renfrew, Mary J; McCormick, Felicia M; Wade, Angela; Quinn, Beverley; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background There is extensive evidence of important health risks for infants and mothers related to not breastfeeding. In 2003, the World Health Organization recommended infants be exclusively breastfed until six months of age, with breastfeeding continuing as an important part of the infant’s diet till at least two years of age. However, breastfeeding rates in many countries currently do not reflect this recommendation. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of support for breastfeeding mothers. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (3 October 2011). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing extra support for healthy breastfeeding mothers of healthy term babies with usual maternity care. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results Of the 67 studies that we assessed as eligible for inclusion, 52 contributed outcome data to the review (56,451 mother-infant pairs) from 21 countries. All forms of extra support analysed together showed an increase in duration of ‘any breastfeeding’ (includes partial and exclusive breastfeeding) (risk ratio (RR) for stopping any breastfeeding before six months 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 0.96). All forms of extra support together also had a positive effect on duration of exclusive breastfeeding (RR at six months 0.86, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.91; RR at four to six weeks 0.74, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.89). Extra support by both lay and professionals had a positive impact on breastfeeding outcomes. Maternal satisfaction was poorly reported. Authors’ conclusions All women should be offered support to breastfeed their babies to increase the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding. Support is likely to be more effective in settings with high initiation rates, so efforts to increase the uptake of breastfeeding should be in place. Support may be offered either by

  16. A Social Media Campaign to Promote Breastfeeding among Saudi Women: A Web-based Survey Study.

    PubMed

    Bahkali, Salwa; Alkharjy, Nora; Alowairdy, Maryam; Househ, Mowafa; Da'ar, Omar; Alsurimi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged breastfeeding can prevent or limit the severity of a variety of diseases and conditions. Although evidence clearly shows that there are health benefits for breastfeeding, adherence to breastfeeding remains a key challenge facing maternal health providers in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of a social media platform (Twitter) to promote breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. Between February 10 and March 25, 2015, a web-based questionnaire was administered to evaluate the impacts of a Twitter based educational campaign on the awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior for women in Saudi Arabia. The overall response rate among mothers with a newborn child was 83% (n=484). The results showed an increase in the knowledge and awareness of breastfeeding practices and adherence among Twitter followers. The initiation rate of breastfeeding had slightly increased among women who never had previously breastfed. More women reported their willingness to continue exclusive breastfeeding and to stop bottle-feeding. Results also show that an integration of professional breastfeeding support, public health education programs through social media could be an effective tool in promoting breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on designing and implementing a social media based educational outreach program to increase women's awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior in Saudi Arabia. PMID:26153006

  17. Breastfeeding at 6 weeks and predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Chye, J K; Zain, Z; Lim, W L; Lim, C T

    1997-10-01

    Despite the numerous changes made in accordance with the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, the low rates of breastfeeding have persisted. This study aims to examine the current trend in infant feeding, and the influences of some perinatal and sociodemographic factors on breastfeeding. Five-hundred mothers with singleton pregnancies and healthy infants were interviewed at 6 weeks post-partum. Only 124 (25 per cent) mothers were practising exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), and 132 (26 per cent) mothers were using exclusive infant formula feeding (EIF). On logistic regression analyses, mothers who followed EBF were more likely to have had antenatal plans to breastfeed (Odds ratio 2.44, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.75-3.45), not in paid employment post-natally (OR 1.76, 95 per cent CI 1.31-2.36), of older age group (> 27 years) (OR 1.48, 95 per cent CI 1.13-1.93), had female infants (OR 1.38, 95 per cent CI 1.05-1.80) and of Indian ethnicity (compared to Chinese) (OR 3.87, 95 per cent CI 2.16-6.89). Breastfeeding difficulties were associated with decreased odds of EBF (OR 0.21, 95 per cent CI 0.13-0.34). Parental education, fathers' ages and incomes, primigravida status, Caesarean section, present of episiotomy, late first breastfeed, phototherapy, and length of hospital stay were not significant predictors of failure of EBF. In comparison, predictive factors for increased use of EIF were mothers who have had breastfeeding difficulties, < or = 9 years of schooling, and of Chinese descent. In conclusions, the overall rate of EBF by 6 weeks of age in infants born in this urban hospital had remained poor. The adverse factors for EBF identified in this study warrant further in-depth studies to determine effective ways of improving EBF rates. PMID:9364127

  18. Fluconazole use during breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Yusuf Cem; Koren, Gideon; Ito, Shinya; Bozzo, Pina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Question I have a patient with persistent breast and nipple thrush. Other therapies have failed, so I have decided to treat her with a loading dose of 400 mg of oral fluconazole followed by 100 mg twice daily for at least 2 weeks. Is there any need for her to interrupt breastfeeding during this treatment? Answer Available data regarding fluconazole use during breastfeeding are reassuring. Fluconazole is also used in the treatment of fungal diseases in infants and has a good safety profile. Therefore, there is no need to interrupt breastfeeding when a mother is treated with fluconazole. PMID:26759844

  19. Another Breastfeeding Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2011-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses the latest breastfeeding controversy—a new doll that is intended to help little girls learn to breastfeed. The goal of the doll’s manufacturers is to spread the word that breastfeeding is a normal, natural way to feed a baby. Its purpose is to raise awareness about the positive health benefits associated with breastfeeding. But not everyone seems to agree. Pros and cons are presented. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote natural, safe, and healthy birth.

  20. Breastfeeding practices that support women with diabetes to breastfeed.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Anne; Dunne, Fidelma

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this literature review was to identify breastfeeding practices that support women with diabetes to breastfeed. A search was undertaken of CINAHL and Medline databases to identify studies that inform breastfeeding practice for women with diabetes. This resulted in 14 studies (19 records). Most studies focused on women with GDM and T1D with some consideration of T2D. The review has been organised using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, to enable a clear focus on the needs of women while identifying supportive practices. The key findings of this review are that breastfeeding as the first feed and exclusive breastfeeding are beneficial to meeting physiological needs. Preparations such as having food nearby and having someone to call on can help meet the woman's safety and security needs. A sense of love and belonging is supported by the practice of an early first breastfeed, but antenatal breast milk expression is currently not recommended. The woman's self-esteem can be enhanced through informed multidisciplinary support. Finally, self-actualisation or success with breastfeeding has been achieved by women with diabetes. Common breastfeeding concerns rather than diabetes have been identified as reasons for cessation of breastfeeding. Practices that support women deal with these concerns are recommended. PMID:26278351

  1. Breastfeeding Practices of Japanese Mothers in the South Bay Area of Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongo, Hiroko

    A study investigated the attitudes of Japanese breastfeeding mothers in the South Bay area in Los Angeles. The sample consisted of 20 Japanese mothers over the age of 18 who were born in Japan, who recently came to the United States, and whose youngest child has been breastfed for at least 6 months. Subjects were interviewed in their native…

  2. Latinas and Postpartum Depression: Role of Partner Relationship, Additional Children, and Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassert, Silva; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson

    2011-01-01

    Breastfeeding, additional children, and partner relationship predicted postpartum depression among 59 Latinas who had an infant who was 6 months old or younger. The most powerful predictor was conflict with partner. Counselors working with Latinas experiencing postpartum depression should explore the partner relationship, particularly relationship…

  3. The Ife South Breastfeeding Project: training community health extension workers to promote and manage breastfeeding in rural communities.

    PubMed Central

    Davies-Adetugbo, A. A.; Adebawa, H. A.

    1997-01-01

    Reported are the results of a project to promote exclusive breastfeeding in rural communities through the training of community health extension workers in rural Nigeria. A workshop for the trainers was organized for health workers in the study area; subsequently, these trainers ran district-level training workshops. In the study area perinatal facilities, early initiation of breastfeeding has increased compared with those in the control area (P < 0.001). Also, the trained health workers had significantly better knowledge about breastfeeding than their untrained colleagues in both the study (P < 0.001) and control areas (P < 0.001), and more often recommended timely initiation and exclusive breastfeeding than the controls (P < 0.001). A multivariate analysis showed that the training programme and the study area were the only significant variables that were predictors of breastfeeding knowledge (P < 0.001). Appropriate education of health extension workers can therefore contribute significantly to the promotion of breastfeeding in rural communities. PMID:9342891

  4. Breastfeeding practices in Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Guldan, G S; Zhang, M; Zeng, G; Hong, J; Yang, Y

    1995-03-01

    Barriers to increased breastfeeding rates in Chengdu, Sichuan were investigated in 1992 and 1993. Responses of focus groups showed that ignorance about breastfeeding and belief that the mother's milk was inadequate, and lack of support from their families, places of employment, and the health system acted as barriers to the women's breastfeeding their infants up to the age of four to six months. Subsequently, 363 mothers of 4- to 12-month-old Chengdu infants were surveyed. Although most mothers in both studies said breastmilk was the best food for their infant up to age of four to six months, only about half of the mothers breastfed for longer than one month. Both studies showed that infants who roomed with their mothers after birth were more likely to have been put to their mother's breast earlier, fed colostrum, breastfed somewhat longer, and exclusively breastfed for a somewhat longer period, although their mothers' infant feeding knowledge did not differ. The researchers conclude that Chengdu health workers should teach parents and parents-to-be more about breastfeeding, and that rooming-in be expanded in Chengdu hospitals. PMID:7718100

  5. Breastfeeding - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel better and decrease your risk of getting cancer from smoking. Your baby will not get any nicotine or other chemicals from cigarettes in your breast milk. Know about your medicines and breastfeeding. Many medicines ...

  6. Timing of breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... night. Babies digest breast milk more quickly than formula. Breastfeeding babies need to eat often. During growth ... enough milk. Resist supplementing your baby's diet with formula feedings for the first 4 to 6 weeks. ...

  7. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... breastfeed your baby or bottle feed using infant formula . Health experts agree that breastfeeding is the healthiest ... is hungry. You do not need to make formula before feeding, worry about clean water, or carry ...

  8. Dad's Role in Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Dad's Role in Breastfeeding Page Content Article Body Let’s say you and ... you can be when the time comes. Successful nursing depends on a host of factors, many of ...

  9. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    MedlinePlus

    ... feedings can cause more pain and harm your milk supply. Try changing positions each time you breastfeed. ... tips: After breastfeeding, express a few drops of milk and gently rub the milk on your nipples ...

  10. Timing of breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... work. Your body needs energy to produce enough milk. Be sure to eat well, rest, and sleep. ... 2 hours, day and night. Babies digest breast milk more quickly than formula. Breastfeeding babies need to ...

  11. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ePublications News About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby ...

  12. FAQ: Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... I am pregnant or breastfeeding, should I use insect repellents? Yes. Protecting yourself from mosquito bites is the ... as long-sleeve shirts and long pants, use insect repellents. Repellents containing active ingredients which have been registered ...

  13. Serious Illnesses and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... concerns about the safety of breastfeeding after breast enlargement with breast implants. But there is no evidence ... have been cut. In certain cases of breast enlargement, the women had underdeveloped breast tissue, which was ...

  14. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir While ... provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize additional ...

  15. Women's experiences of their osteoporosis diagnosis at the time of diagnosis and 6 months later: a phenomenological hermeneutic study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Carrinna; Konradsen, Hanne; Abrahamsen, Bo; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a phenomenological hermeneutic study of experiences of women who were recently diagnosed with osteoporosis. The research objective was to investigate women's experiences of living with osteoporosis during the first 6 months after diagnosis when treatment was first prescribed. Fifteen women were included in the study. The inclusion criteria were a DXA scan at one of the two hospitals showing a T-score below -2.5 (lower back or hip), age 65 years or older; no previous known osteoporotic fracture; at least one of the known risk factors for osteoporosis; and prescription of anti-osteoporotic treatment. Exclusion criteria were previous diagnosis of osteoporosis or previous treatment with anti-osteoporotic medication. Data were collected through in-depth interviews shortly after diagnosis and 6 months later. The performed analyses were inspired by Paul Ricoeur's theory of interpretation of texts comprising three levels: naïve reading, structural analysis, and critical interpretation and discussion. Three key themes emerged: 1) being diagnosed, 2) being prescribed medical treatment, and 3) being on the path of learning to live with osteoporosis. The findings suggest a need for improved support for the patients to gain understanding of their diagnosis and the risk of osteoporotic fracture as well as to learn to live with osteoporosis. The study highlights new health promotion areas for targeting interventions at newly diagnosed patients, helping them accept and interpret the diagnosis, and the medical treatment. PMID:24559545

  16. Multivariate Analysis of State Variation in Breastfeeding Rates in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Dee, Deborah L.; Belanoff, Candice; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the impact of sociodemographic and behavioral factors and state legislation on breastfeeding initiation (child ever fed breastmilk) and duration. Methods. We used data from a nationally representative study of children aged 6 to 71 months (N = 33 121); we calculated unadjusted and adjusted state estimates for breastfeeding initiation and duration. We used logistic regression models to examine factors associated with never breastfeeding or breastfeeding less than 6 months. We conducted a multilevel analysis of state legislation's role. Results. There were wide state variations in breastfeeding initiation and duration. The western and northwestern states had the highest rates. Covariate adjustment accounted for 25% to 30% of the disparity. Multivariate analysis showed that the adjusted odds of not being breastfed were 2.5- to 5.15-times greater in southern states compared with Oregon (reference). Children in states without breastfeeding legislation had higher odds of not being breastfed. Conclusions. Sociodemographic and maternal factors do not account for most breastfeeding rate variation. The association with breastfeeding legislation should be explored and may reflect cultural norms. PMID:18703441

  17. Community breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Vari, Patty; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Olsen, Glenn; Anderson, Cindy; Holm, Jeffrey; Peterson, Heidi; Henly, Susan

    2013-07-01

    The cultural norms of a society have a powerful influence over health behavior decisions such as choosing an infant feeding method. The objective of this study was to explore the community breastfeeding perspective by examining breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs, experiences, and behaviors of a U.S. university community through an online survey. Linear and logistic regressions were used to determine predictors of those who had breastfed and those with positive breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs. Through the findings, the researchers suggest that exposure to breastfeeding and increasing positive breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs are important as the focus for public breastfeeding campaigns. PMID:23391135

  18. Infant formula samples: perinatal sources and breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Amanda; Bolin, Jocelyn H; Chezem, Jo Carol

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to describe sources of infant formula samples during the perinatal period and assess their associations with breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum. Subjects included expectant mothers who anticipated breast-feeding at least 1 month. Infant feeding history and sources of formula samples were obtained at 1 month postpartum. Associations between sources and breast-feeding outcomes were assessed using partial correlation. Of the 61 subjects who initiated breast-feeding, most were white (87%), married (75%), college-educated (75%), and planned exclusive breast-feeding (82%). Forty-two subjects (69%) continued breast-feeding at 1 month postpartum. Subjects received formula samples from the hospital (n = 40; 66%), physician's office (n = 10; 16%), and mail (n = 41; 67%). There were no significant correlations between formula samples from the hospital, physician's office, and/or mail and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month (P > .05). In addition to the hospital, a long-standing source of formula samples, mail was also frequently reported as a route for distribution. The lack of statistically significant associations between formula samples and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month may be related to small sample size and unique characteristics of the group studied. PMID:24164818

  19. Breastfeeding FAQs: Pain and Discomfort

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding FAQs: Pain and Discomfort KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding ... have. Is it normal to have cramps while nursing? Yes. During the first few days to weeks ...

  20. A model to examine the validity of the 6-month abstinence criterion for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yates, W R; Martin, M; LaBrecque, D; Hillebrand, D; Voigt, M; Pfab, D

    1998-04-01

    Six months of abstinence from alcohol is a commonly used criterion for liver transplantation eligibility for patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. There is limited evidence to document the validity of this criterion with regard to risk of alcoholism relapse. Ninety-one patients with alcoholic cirrhosis were interviewed for relapse risk using the High Risk Alcoholism Relapse (HRAR) Scale. The HRAR model can be used to predict relapse risk independent of duration of sobriety and therefore can be used to examine the validity of the 6 months of abstinence criteria in this clinical population. The two methods demonstrated poor to fair agreement. Agreement was highest with a cutoff allowing a 5% 6-month relapse risk when 79% agreement (c = 0.56) was demonstrated between the two methods. Using the 6-month abstinence criterion alone disallows a significant number of candidates who have a low relapse risk based on their HRAR score. The validity of the 6-month abstinence criterion is supported somewhat by comparison with the HRAR model. However, use of the 6-month abstinence criterion alone forces a significant number of patients with a low relapse risk by HRAR to wait for transplant listing. A relapse risk model based on an estimate of alcoholism severity in addition to duration of sobriety may more accurately select patients who are most likely to benefit from liver transplantation. PMID:9581661

  1. Programmes to promote breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Jelliffe, E F

    1986-03-01

    Modern concepts about the development of breastfeeding programs are presented focusing on the need for community analysis, the importance of changing attitudes and stimulating motivation in the general public, and both small-scale and national level programs. Some form of community analysis is essential to develop a breastfeeding program. Information needs to be gathered on the prevalence of breastfeeding and the main social factors influencing the lactation reflexes, maternal knowledge about practical management, and the health of mothers. Experience suggests that this can most usefully be obtained by covering 4 topics: general information and attitudes, health services, women in the work force, and the influence of the infant food industry. From all 4 sources, information needs to be gathered on anxiety inducing factors and the limitation of opportunities for sucking, on the knowledge of the practical management of breastfeeding (modern versus traditional methods) by mothers, and on maternal health and nutrition. Breastfeeding programs need to change attitudes and to simulate motivation in the general public and particularly among mothers and fathers. In addition, programs need to convince and motivate other groups whose actions can support breastfeeding or make its accomplishment easier or more difficult. These groups include policymakers and legislators, health workers of various types, research scientists, and industrialists and the infant food industry. For the health professional, there are several procedures which need to be modified, including "rooming-in." Breastfeeding programs have been undertaken successfully on a relatively small scale, often in hospitals, by modifying existing maternity unit practices. The most significant "package" of activities for the hospital is "rooming-in." Positive results are available from hospitals in several European and various less technically developed countries. Various countries have shown an increase in breastfeeding

  2. Breastfeeding trends in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chua, S; Viegas, O A; Counsilman, J J; Ratnam, S S

    1989-01-01

    About 60% of well-to-do mothers in Singapore initiate breastfeeding. This value compares favourably with the 36% recently recorded for poor mothers, but is still unacceptably low compared to the 85-95% of well-to-do mothers and 90% of poor mothers who breastfed in the 1950s and 1960s. There has been a general decline in the incidence of breastfeeding over the last 35 years. Differences between the well-to-do and poor groups were initially small. A pronounced decline in the incidence of breastfeeding among the well-to-do mothers followed; a reversal in this downward trend in well-to-do mothers over the past 10 years has narrowed, and indeed reversed, the difference between the two groups. Similar trends can be found for the duration of breastfeeding. Whilst the overall decline probably reflects increasing affluence and 'Westernization' of the population the variation between these two economic groups is probably a result of differences in education. Among the three major ethnic communities, Chinese favoured breastfeeding least and Malays favoured it most. The differences are believed to be related to cultural differences and the ability of traditional practices and beliefs among the ethnic groups to resist the modern trend towards bottlefeeding. PMID:2919314

  3. Frequently Asked Questions about Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... FACT SHEET FROM THE OFFICE ON WOMEN’S HEALTH Breastfeeding The experience of breastfeeding is special for so many reasons: the joyful ... her child. Here, you’ll find facts about breastfeeding and get practical tips on how to make ...

  4. Supporting Breastfeeding in Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Breastfeeding, natural and healthy though it is, can be tough, particularly in communities where there is little encouragement for breastfeeding mothers. In one survey, when asked to identify the barriers to breastfeeding, mothers most often cited busy schedules, embarrassment, and lack of support (Best Start Social Marketing 1997). Child care…

  5. Perception of neon color spreading in 3-6-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2009-12-01

    Although lots of studies about neon color spreading have been reported, few of these studies have focused on the perceptual development of it in human infants. Therefore, this study explores the perceptual development of neon color spreading in infants. In experiment 1, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in static conditions. In experiment 2, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in moving conditions. Our results suggest that while only 5-6-month-old infants show a preference for neon color spreading in the static condition, 3-4-month-old infants also prefer neon color spreading if motion information is available. PMID:19836080

  6. People's initiative to counteract misinformation and marketing practices: the Pembo, Philippines, breastfeeding experience, 2006.

    PubMed

    Salud, M A Lourdes B; Gallardo, Josephine I; Dineros, Juliana A; Gammad, Alma F; Basilio, Juanita; Borja, Vicenta; Iellamo, Alessandro; Worobec, Lana; Sobel, Howard; Olivé, Jean-Marc

    2009-08-01

    The Philippines is among 42 countries accounting for 90% of under 5-year-old deaths. Only 16% of 4 to 5 month old Filipinos exclusively breastfeed. In 2006, almost $100 million was spent advertising formula in the Philippines. To counter widespread misinformation and improve breastfeeding a peer counseling intervention was developed to target mothers with infants less than 2 months of age who were not exclusively breastfeeding or had difficulty breastfeeding. Participants received 3 peer counseling visits. At baseline and 3 weeks later, 24-hour food recalls for infants were collected. The number of exclusively formula-fed infants decreased seven-fold (P < .001). Mixed-fed infants decreased 37% (P < .001). Overall, of the 148 nonexclusively breastfeeding infants, 69.5% had changed feeding methods after 3 home visits, 76% of whom to exclusive breastfeeding. Community-based peer counseling was associated with a drastic improvement of exclusive breastfeeding practices. This intervention evolved and became sustainable by engaging political figures, cities, and communities throughout the process. In 2 years, the Department of Health, World Health Organization (WHO) program has scaled up to improve health service delivery for 161,612 persons in depressed urban communities in the Philippines. PMID:19383634

  7. Validation of Association between Breastfeeding Duration, Facial Profile, Occlusion, and Spacing: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mohit; Nehra, Karan; Jayan, Balakrishna; Poonia, Anish; Bhattal, Hiteshwar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: This cross-sectional retrospective study was designed to assess the relationships among breastfeeding duration, nonnutritive sucking habits, convex facial profile, nonspaced dentition, and distoclusion in the deciduous dentition. Materials and methods: A sample of 415 children (228 males, 187 females) aged 4 to 6 years from a mixed Indian population was clinically examined by two orthodontists. Information about breastfeeding duration and nonnutritive sucking habits was obtained by written questionnaire which was answered by the parents. Results: Chi-square test did not indicate any significant association among breastfeeding duration, convex facial profile, and distoclusion. Statistically significant association was observed between breastfeeding duration and nonspaced dentition and also between breastfeeding duration and nonnutritive sucking habits. Nonnutritive sucking habits had a statistically significant association with distoclusion and convex facial profile (odds ratio 7.04 and 4.03 respectively). Nonnutritive sucking habits did not have a statistically significant association with nonspaced dentition. Conclusion: The children breastfed < 6 months had almost twofold increased probability for developing sucking habits and nonspaced dentition, respectively, than the children who had breastfeeding > 6 months duration. It can also be hypothesized that nonnutritive sucking habits may act as a dominant variable in the relationship between breastfeeding duration and occurrence of convex facial profile and distoclusion in deciduous dentition. How to cite this article: Agarwal SS, Sharma M, Nehra K, Jayan B, Poonia A, Bhattal H. Validation of Association between Breastfeeding Duration, Facial Profile, Occlusion, and Spacing: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):162-166. PMID:27365941

  8. Cannabis and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Garry, Aurélia; Rigourd, Virginie; Amirouche, Ammar; Fauroux, Valérie; Aubry, Sylvie; Serreau, Raphaël

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breastfeeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breastfeeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk. PMID:20130780

  9. Surgical Retrieval of Tooth Fragment from Lower Lip and Reattachment after 6 Months of Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Kalpana; Srivastava, Ankit; Maheshwari, Neha

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dental traumas are one of the most frequent facial traumas especially in children. Maxillary incisors are the most frequently involved teeth. Here we present, a report of a child who sustained a crown fracture with lost portion of tooth embedded in her lower lip for 6 months. The fragment was surgically retrieved and successfully reattached to the fractured 21 using acid-etch resin technique. How to cite this article: Marwaha M, Bansal K, Srivastava A, Maheshwari N. Surgical Retrieval of Tooth Fragment from Lower Lip and Reattachment after 6 Months of Trauma. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):145-148. PMID:26379385

  10. Improved Squat and Gait Biomechanics 6-Months Post-Arthroscopic Surgery for Femoroacetabular Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Cvetanovich, Gregory; Farkas, Gary Jordan; Rajan, Kumar; Espinoza, Alejandro; Nho, Shane Jay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess gait and squat biomechanics 6-months following arthroscopic surgery for femoroacetabular impingement. Methods: Symptomatic patients with clinical and radiographic diagnosis of FAI who had failed non-operative treatment underwent gait and squat analysis preoperatively and at 6-months postoperatively following arthroscopic surgery for FAI. Age- and BMI-matched controls without radiographic FAI or other lumbar or lower extremity pathology underwent a single analysis for comparison. Comparisons between preoperative and 6-month postoperative gait and squat parameters as well as comparison to the control group were performed using paired and independent sample t-tests. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Fifteen FAI patients and 9 controls were analyzed. Age for the patients vs. controls was 28.7±9.6 y vs. 27.8±6.5 y (p>0.05), respectively; while BMI was 23.5±5.1 kg/m2 vs. 22.8±3.5 kg/m2 (p>0.05). All gait parameters were unchanged between preoperative and 6-month postoperative testing (p>0.05), with a trend toward significance for hip external rotation moment (p=0.056) (Table 1). Squat testing revealed that FAI arthroscopic surgery increased maximum hip extension (p=0.011), with a trend toward significance for hip adduction moment (p=0.059). All other squat parameters did not differ from preoperative to 6-month follow-up (p>0.05). Compared to the control group, preoperative FAI patients had reduced hip external rotation moment during gait (p=0.024), with a trend toward significance for hip abduction moment (p=0.082). No other gait or squat differences were detected between FAI patients preoperatively or 6-months postoperatively compared to controls (p>0.05). Conclusion: Biomechanical gait and squat analysis at 6-month follow-up from arthroscopic FAI surgery revealed a tendency to improve external hip rotation during gait and maximum hip extension and hip adduction during squat. Arthroscopic surgery for FAI may