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Sample records for 6-sulphatoxymelatonin urinary excretion

  1. Hypoxia-induced changes in recovery sleep, core body temperature, urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin and free cortisol after a simulated long-duration flight.

    PubMed

    Coste, Olivier; Van Beers, Pascal; Touitou, Yvan

    2009-12-01

    Fatigue and sleep disorders often occur after long-haul flights, even when no time zones are crossed. In this controlled study, we assessed the effects of two levels of hypoxia (at 8000 ft and 12 000 ft) on recovery sleep. Core body temperature (CBT), a circadian marker, urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin and free cortisol were studied in 20 young healthy male volunteers exposed for 8 h (08:00-16:00 hours) in a hypobaric chamber to a simulated cabin altitude of 8000 ft and, 4 weeks later, 12 000 ft. Each subject served as his own control. Sleep was recorded by polysomnography for three consecutive nights for each exposure. CBT was monitored by telemetry during the three 24-h cycles (control, hypoxic exposure and recovery). Free urinary cortisol and 6-sulphatoxymelatonin levels were assayed twice daily between 08:00 and 20:00 hours (day) and between 20:00 and 08:00 hours (night). We showed significant changes in circadian patterns of CBT at both altitudes, suggesting a phase delay, and changes in recovery sleep but only at 12 000 ft. We observed an increase in sleep onset latency which correlated positively with the increase in CBT levels during the first recovery night and a decrease in the duration of stage N(2) (formerly S(2)), which correlated negatively with the mid-range crossing time, a reliable phase marker of CBT rhythm. This study shows clearly the impact of hypobaric hypoxia on circadian time structure during air flights leading to a phase delay of CBT, independent of jet lag and consequences on sleep during recovery. PMID:19765206

  2. Urinary Adiponectin Excretion

    PubMed Central

    von Eynatten, Maximilian; Liu, Dan; Hock, Cornelia; Oikonomou, Dimitrios; Baumann, Marcus; Allolio, Bruno; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Morcos, Michael; Campean, Valentina; Amann, Kerstin; Lutz, Jens; Heemann, Uwe; Nawroth, Peter P.; Bierhaus, Angelika; Humpert, Per M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Markers reliably identifying vascular damage and risk in diabetic patients are rare, and reports on associations of serum adiponectin with macrovascular disease have been inconsistent. In contrast to existing data on serum adiponectin, this study assesses whether urinary adiponectin excretion might represent a more consistent vascular damage marker in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adiponectin distribution in human kidney biopsies was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and urinary adiponectin isoforms were characterized by Western blot analysis. Total urinary adiponectin excretion rate was measured in 156 patients with type 2 diabetes who had a history of diabetic nephropathy and 40 healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Atherosclerotic burden was assessed by common carotid artery intima-media-thickness (IMT). RESULTS A homogenous staining of adiponectin was found on the endothelial surface of glomerular capillaries and intrarenal arterioles in nondiabetic kidneys, whereas staining was decreased in diabetic nephropathy. Low-molecular adiponectin isoforms (∼30–70 kDa) were detected in urine by Western blot analysis. Urinary adiponectin was significantly increased in type 2 diabetes (7.68 ± 14.26 vs. control subjects: 2.91 ± 3.85 μg/g creatinine, P = 0.008). Among type 2 diabetic patients, adiponectinuria was associated with IMT (r = 0.479, P < 0.001) and proved to be a powerful independent predictor of IMT (β = 0.360, P < 0.001) in multivariable regression analyses. In a risk prediction model including variables of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study coronary heart disease risk engine urinary adiponectin, but not the albumin excretion rate, added significant value for the prediction of increased IMT (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS Quantification of urinary adiponectin excretion appears to be an independent indicator of vascular damage potentially identifying an increased risk for vascular events. PMID:19509019

  3. Urinary porphyrin excretion in hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Vogeser, M; Jacob, K; Zachoval, R

    1999-08-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in porphyria cutanea tarda in some populations suggests a close link between viral hepatitis and alteration of porphyrin metabolism. Moreover, there is evidence of a role of porphyrinopathies in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to obtain data on the prevalence and patterns of heme metabolism alterations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Urinary porphyrin excretion was prospectively studied in 100 consecutive outpatients with chronic hepatitis C infection without signs of photosensitivity, using an ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography method. Increased total porphyrin excretion was found in 41 patients, with predominant excretion of coproporphyrins (whole study group: mean 146 microg/g creatinine, interquartile range 76-186; normal < 150), in 10 patients excretion exceeded 300 microg/g creatinine. In the majority of all patients studied (75/100) an increased ratio of the relatively hydrophobic coproporphyrin isomer I to isomer III was found. In just one case, urinary porphyrin pattern characteristic for chronic hepatic porphyria was present (uroporphyrin > coproporphyrin, heptacarboxyporphyrin III increased) but the total porphyrin excretion was only slightly elevated in this case. In the whole group, total urinary porphyrin excretion correlated well with serum bilirubin and was inversely correlated with albumin and thrombin time. In conclusion, secondary coproporphyrinuria occurs frequently in heptatitis C infection, whereas in Germany, preclinical porphyria cutanea tarda seems to be rare in these patients. PMID:10536928

  4. Use of nocturnal melatonin concentration and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion to evaluate melatonin status in children with severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Bagci, Soyhan; Yildizdas, Dincer; Horoz, Ozden Ozgür; Reinsberg, Jochen; Bartmann, Peter; Mueller, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether nocturnal melatonin concentration (NMC) and urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) excretion can predict melatonin status in patients with severe sepsis in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Blood samples for the determination of NMC were obtained from each patient at 3 a.m. Urine samples for the determination of aMT6s excretion were obtained from each patient at 12 h intervals. We obtained 89 blood and 178 urine samples from 23 septic patients, and 52 blood and 104 urine samples from 13 non-septic patients. The NMC of septic patients in a state of septic shock was significantly higher than that of septic patients not in septic shock (p = 0.017) and those of non-septic patients (p = 0.019). In contrast, there was no significant difference for nocturnal (NaMT6s) and total aMT6s (TaMT6s) excretion between septic patients with and without septic shock and non-septic patients (p > 0.05). The NMC was significantly higher in septic patients in shock with and without hepatic dysfunction (HD) than in non-septic patients (p = 0.004 and p = 0.024, respectively). NaMT6s and TaMT6s excretion was significantly lower in septic patients with HD than in septic patient without HD (p = 0.040 and p = 0.029, for NaMT6s and TaMT6s, respectively). Our results showed that an elevated NMC may not reflect an increased MT production in septic patients in septic shock. It seems that, to evaluate the melatonin status of septic PICU patients, it is necessary to collect both serum and urine samples. PMID:22308859

  5. Clinical study of urinary excretion of Ga-67

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Ibuka, K.; Hashizume, T.; Noguchi, A.; Kojima, J.; Sasakuma, F.; Ishigami, S. )

    1990-04-01

    Ga-67 urinary excretion was examined in 59 patients. The 72-hour urinary excretion rate ranged from 4.3 to 67.8% of the injected dose. Within the first 24 hours, 60.9% of the 72-hour urinary excretion was excreted. There was no significant difference in the Ga-67 urinary excretion rate between males and females, nor between the Ga-67 positive and negative cases. A significant negative correlation was found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and the unsaturated iron binding capacity. Notably, four patients with hyperferremia, which was considered secondary to leukemia and/or chemotherapy or liver cirrhosis, excreted more than 46.8% of Ga-67 within 72 hours. A significant negative correlation was also found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and age. Urinary excretion of Ga-67 may be related to the glomerular filtration rate, which decreases with age.

  6. Effects of methylxanthines on urinary prostaglandin E excretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Kogo, H; Aizawa, Y

    1981-04-01

    Effect of methylxanthines (theophylline, theobromine and caffeine) on urinary prostaglandin E (PGE) excretion in male rats was studied. Oral administration of xanthines significantly increased the urinary excretion of PGE. Dose-response studies showed that the maximal excretion of urinary PGE and water was obtained by administration of theophylline (50 mg/kg), where the increase in PGE was about 20 times that of the control. The excretion of urinary sodium, potassium and chloride was also markedly increased by xanthines, particularly, theophylline. Increases in urinary PGE excretion, urine volume and electrolytes excretion were inhibited by 10 mg/kg of indomethacin administered prior to theophylline. The increase of urinary PGE excretion after theophylline administration (50 mg/kg) preceded increases in water and sodium excretion. These results suggest that renal PGE mediates, at least in part, the diuretic effect of theophylline. PMID:7311144

  7. Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption.

    PubMed

    Meharg, A A; Williams, P N; Deacon, C M; Norton, G J; Hossain, M; Louhing, D; Marwa, E; Lawgalwi, Y; Taggart, M; Cascio, C; Haris, P

    2014-11-01

    Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ∼40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed that there was considerable variation (up to 13-fold) for an individual's total arsenic urine content, and that there was a time dependent variation in urinary total arsenic content. This calls into question the robustness of routinely used first pass/spot check urine sampling for arsenic analysis. PMID:25145278

  8. Contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. P.; Goodman, H. O.; Assimos, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate excreted in urine has a significant impact on calcium oxalate supersaturation and stone formation. Dietary oxalate is believed to make only a minor (10 to 20%) contribution to the amount of oxalate excreted in urine, but the validity of the experimental observations that support this conclusion can be questioned. An understanding of the actual contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion is important, as it is potentially modifiable. METHODS: We varied the amount of dietary oxalate consumed by a group of adult individuals using formula diets and controlled, solid-food diets with a known oxalate content, determined by a recently developed analytical procedure. Controlled solid-food diets were consumed containing 10, 50, and 250 mg of oxalate/2500 kcal, as well as formula diets containing 0 and 180 mg oxalate/2500 kcal. Changes in the content of oxalate and other ions were assessed in 24-hour urine collections. RESULTS: Urinary oxalate excretion increased as dietary oxalate intake increased. With oxalate-containing diets, the mean contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion ranged from 24.4 +/- 15.5% on the 10 mg/2500 kcal/day diet to 41.5 +/- 9.1% on the 250 mg/2500 kcal/day diet, much higher than previously estimated. When the calcium content of a diet containing 250 mg of oxalate was reduced from 1002 mg to 391 mg, urinary oxalate excretion increased by a mean of 28.2 +/- 4.8%, and the mean dietary contribution increased to 52.6 +/- 8.6%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that dietary oxalate makes a much greater contribution to urinary oxalate excretion than previously recognized, that dietary calcium influences the bioavailability of ingested oxalate, and that the absorption of dietary oxalate may be an important factor in calcium oxalate stone formation.

  9. Urinary Albumin Excretion and Vascular Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Increased urinary albumin excretion is a marker of CV risk. There are only few data on urinary albumin excretion in RA patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate urinary albumin excretion in RA patients and analyze, whether there is an association between urinary albumin excretion and vascular function as measured by the augmentation index (AIx). In a total of 341 participants (215 with RA, 126 without RA) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was determined and the AIx was measured. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test was used to cluster patient groups whose distributions of ACR can be considered to be equal. A crude analysis showed a median ACR of 6.6 mg/g in the RA group and 5.7 mg/g in patients without RA (P > 0.05). In order to account for diabetes (DM) we formed 4 distinct patient groups. Group 1: RA-/DM- (n = 74); group 2: RA+/DM- (n = 195); group 3: RA-/DM+ (n = 52); group 4: RA+/DM+ (n = 20). Clustering of these groups revealed two distinct patient groups: those without RA and DM, and those with either RA or DM or both. The latter group showed statistically significant higher ACR (median 8.1 mg/g) as the former (median 4.5 mg/g). We found no significant correlation between AIx and ACR. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with RA or DM or both is higher than in subjects without RA and DM. This can be seen as a sign of vascular alteration and increased CV risk in these patients. PMID:26955238

  10. Urinary Albumin Excretion and Vascular Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pieringer, Herwig; Brummaier, Tobias; Piringer, Bettina; Auer-Hackenberg, Lorenz; Hartl, Andreas; Puchner, Rudolf; Pohanka, Erich; Schmid, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Increased urinary albumin excretion is a marker of CV risk. There are only few data on urinary albumin excretion in RA patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate urinary albumin excretion in RA patients and analyze, whether there is an association between urinary albumin excretion and vascular function as measured by the augmentation index (AIx). In a total of 341 participants (215 with RA, 126 without RA) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was determined and the AIx was measured. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test was used to cluster patient groups whose distributions of ACR can be considered to be equal. A crude analysis showed a median ACR of 6.6 mg/g in the RA group and 5.7 mg/g in patients without RA (P > 0.05). In order to account for diabetes (DM) we formed 4 distinct patient groups. Group 1: RA-/DM- (n = 74); group 2: RA+/DM- (n = 195); group 3: RA-/DM+ (n = 52); group 4: RA+/DM+ (n = 20). Clustering of these groups revealed two distinct patient groups: those without RA and DM, and those with either RA or DM or both. The latter group showed statistically significant higher ACR (median 8.1 mg/g) as the former (median 4.5 mg/g). We found no significant correlation between AIx and ACR. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with RA or DM or both is higher than in subjects without RA and DM. This can be seen as a sign of vascular alteration and increased CV risk in these patients. PMID:26955238

  11. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY ARSENIC ON URINARY ARSENIC METABOLITE EXCRETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Influence of Dietary Arsenic on Urinary Arsenic Metabolite Excretion

    Cara L. Carty, M.S., Edward E. Hudgens, B.Sc., Rebecca L. Calderon, Ph.D., M.S.P.H., Richard Kwok, M.S.P.H., Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch/HSD, NHEERL/US EPA; David J. Thomas, Ph.D., Pharmacokinetics...

  12. Elevated urinary excretion of aluminium and iron in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher; Mamutse, Godwin; Korchazhkina, Olga; Pye, Eleanor; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Polwart, Anthony; Hawkins, Clive

    2006-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, immune-mediated, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system of as yet unknown aetiology. A consensus of opinion has suggested that the disorder is the result of an interplay between environmental factors and susceptibility genes. We have used a battery of analytical techniques to determine if the urinary excretion of i) markers of oxidative damage; ii) iron and iii) the environmental toxin aluminium and its antagonist, silicon, are altered in relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Urinary concentrations of oxidative biomarkers, MDA and TBARS, were not found to be useful indicators of inflammatory disease in MS. However, urinary concentrations of another potential marker for inflammation and oxidative stress, iron, were significantly increased in SPMS (P<0.01) and insignificantly increased in RRMS (P>0.05). Urinary concentrations of aluminium were also significantly increased in RRMS (P<0.001) and SPMS (P <0.05) such that the levels of aluminium excretion in the former were similar to those observed in individuals undergoing metal chelation therapy. The excretion of silicon was lower in MS and significantly so in SPMS (P<0.05). Increased excretion of iron in urine supported a role for iron dysmetabolism in MS. Levels of urinary aluminium excretion similar to those seen in aluminium intoxication suggested that aluminium may be a hitherto unrecognized environmental factor associated with the aetiology of MS. If aluminium is involved in MS then an increased dietary intake of its natural antagonist, silicon, might be a therapeutic option. PMID:17086897

  13. Urinary excretion of meperidine and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Yeh, S Y; Krebs, H A; Changchit, A

    1981-08-01

    The urine of male and female mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, cats, and dogs, given meperidine hydrochloride, 20--40 mg/kg ip, was analyzed by GLC for meperidine, normeperidine, p-hydroxymeperidine, and total (free and conjugated) meperidinic and normeperidinic acids. More than 90% of the excreted drugs was found in the 24-hr urine. Meperidine was observed in the urine of mice, rats, guinea pigs, and cats, but only a trace amount was observed in the urine of rabbits and dogs. Normeperidine, p-hydroxymeperidine (except in the mice), and total meperidinic and normeperidinic acids were observed in all species. All of the species studied have the capacity to N-demethylate meperidine to normeperidine and to hydrolyze meperidine and normeperidine to their respective acids. The male has a higher N-demethylating activity that the female with the exception of mice. Ester hydrolysis is a major metabolic pathway for meperidine metabolism. PMID:7310653

  14. Impact of Aging on Urinary Excretion of Iron and Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Pfrimer, Karina; Micheletto, Rutinéia Fátima; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Padovan, Gilberto João; Moriguti, Julio Cesar; Ferriolli, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    PROJECT Data about the influence of aging on urinary excretion of iron and zinc are scarce. The objective of the present study was to compare the concentration of zinc and iron in the urine of healthy elderly subjects and younger adults. PROCEDURE Seven healthy elderly subjects and seven younger adults were selected and submitted to biochemical, clinical, and nutritional tests. After a fasting period, 12-hour urine was collected for the determination of iron and zinc concentrations by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS Urinary zinc and iron concentrations of the elderly subjects were not significantly different from that of younger adults. However, the total zinc and iron urinary clearance in 24 hours for the elderly was significantly higher compared with that of younger adults. CONCLUSION There is an increase in urinary iron and zinc clearance with aging. The values reported in this manuscript may be used as references in future studies. PMID:24932105

  15. Blood pressure, sodium intake, insulin resistance, and urinary nitrate excretion.

    PubMed

    Facchini, F S; DoNascimento, C; Reaven, G M; Yip, J W; Ni, X P; Humphreys, M H

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships among various humoral factors thought to be involved in the regulation of blood pressure during high NaCl intake. Nineteen healthy subjects underwent sequential 5-day periods ingesting a low-sodium (25 mmol/d) or high-sodium (200 mmol/d) diet. Insulin resistance was assessed by the steady-state plasma glucose concentration at the end of a 3-hour insulin suppression test. Insulin resistance correlated inversely with natriuresis (P=0.04) and directly with increase in weight (P=0.03). The increase in mean arterial pressure associated with the high-sodium diet correlated directly with the gain in weight (P<0.05) and inversely with the increase in urinary nitrate excretion (P<0.0001). In a multiple regression model, more than 2/3 of the variance in mean arterial pressure was accounted for by the gain in weight and change in urinary nitrate excretion. The steady-state plasma glucose concentrations obtained with the 2 diets were similar, indicating that insulin resistance was unaffected by sodium intake. During high sodium intake, plasma renin activity and aldosterone decreased and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide increased; these changes did not correlate with the change in mean arterial pressure, insulin resistance, or change in urinary nitrate excretion. To the extent that urinary nitrate excretion reflects activity of the endogenous nitric oxide system, these results suggest that the salt sensitivity of mean arterial pressure may be related to blunted generation of endogenous nitric oxide. The results also demonstrate that insulin-resistant individuals have an impaired natriuretic response to high sodium intake. PMID:10205239

  16. Urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol excretion in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, C; Frey, B M; Bird, H A

    1997-01-01

    The objective was to analyse whether the activity of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4 is altered by disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol excretion, expressed as a fraction of the urinary creatinine output, was measured in 21 patients with RA treated with three different disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) over 24 weeks. There were no correlations between urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol/creatinine (6 beta-OHC/Creat) ratio and measurements of disease activity such as plasma viscosity, Ritchie articular index and early morning stiffness. In addition, the three DMARDs sulphasalazine, sodium aurothiomalate and D-penicillamine, smoking and the intake of various CYP3A4 substrates had no consistent detectable effect on the 6 beta-OHC/Creat ratio. There is no evidence that the dosage of drugs metabolized by the CYP3A4 isoenzyme needs to be adjusted for disease activity in RA. PMID:9117175

  17. Urinary calcium excretion in postmenopausal African American women

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, John F.; Shieh, Albert; Mikhail, Mageda; Islam, Shahidul

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to develop a reference range for urine calcium excretion (both 24-hour and fasting) for African American women compared to White women. In addition, the variables that determine urine calcium excretion were identified. Material: Data were analyzed for baseline studies of healthy postmenopausal volunteers who participated in seven separate studies conducted at one site. Methods: Some studies included fasting urine Ca/Cr and others 24-hour urine calcium excretion. 24-hour urine calcium was considered with and without correction for urinary creatinine excretion. Calcium was measured initially by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and more recently by an automated method (ADVIA 2400 Chemistry System). Results: Participants were considered healthy based on history and physical and routine laboratory studies. Those screened who had a history of nephrolithiasis were excluded. A reference range for 24-hour urine calcium and fasting urine calcium/creatinine was developed. Reference intervals of 11 – 197 mg/24-hour urine calcium excretion and of 0.007 – 0.222 of fasting Ca/Cr were found for African American women compared to 21 – 221 mg/24 hours and 0.019 – 0.264 in White women, respectively. Urine creatinine excretion was higher in African Americans consistent with their higher muscle mass. Conclusion: Urine calcium excretion is lower in postmenopausal African American than White women. The reference range developed should be considered in the diagnosis of hypocalciuric states and may also be useful in the diagnosis of hypercalciuria. PMID:26226948

  18. Factors affecting urinary excretion of testosterone metabolites conjugated with cysteine.

    PubMed

    Fabregat, Andreu; Marcos, Josep; Segura, Jordi; Ventura, Rosa; Pozo, Oscar J

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of the athlete steroidal passport in doping control analysis aims to detect intra-individual changes in the steroid profile related to the abuse of anabolic steroids. In this context, the study of intrinsic variations associated with each marker is of utmost importance. In the present work, the influence of several factors in the excretion of the recently reported testosterone metabolites conjugated with cysteine (Δ(1) -AED; 1,4-androstadien-3,17-dione, Δ(6) -AED; 4,6-androstadien-3,17-dione, Δ(6) -T; 4,6-androstadien-17β-ol-3-one, and Δ(15) -AD; 15-androsten-3,17-dione) is evaluated for the first time. Degradation experiments at 37 °C proved that, although the cysteinyl moiety is released, the variation for urinary Δ(1) -AED/Δ(6) -AED, Δ(1) -AED/Δ(6) -T ratios is less than 30%. Moreover, freeze/thaw cycle testing resulted in RSDs values below 15% for all the analytes. Regarding infradian variability, moderate variations (below 40%) were observed. Additionally, notable alterations in the excretion of these compounds have been observed in the earliest stages of pregnancy. UGT2B17 polymorphism, responsible for the low T/E ratio found in some population, does not influence the excretion of cysteinyl compounds whereas the intake of exogenous substances (alcohol or 5α-reductase inhibitors) dramatically affects their excretion. The urinary concentrations of Δ(1) -AED, Δ(6) -AED, and Δ(15) -AD decreased (<50 %) after the ethanol intake, whereas after the administration of dutasteride, an important increase was observed for the concentrations of Δ(6) -AED, Δ(6) -T and Δ(15) -AD. Overall, the presented data describes the stability of the urinary cysteinyl steroids under the influence of many factors, proving their potential as suitable parameters to be included in the steroidal module of the athlete's biological passport. PMID:25917157

  19. Demographic, Dietary, and Urinary Factors and 24-h Urinary Calcium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Higher urinary calcium is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis. This study delineated associations between demographic, dietary, and urinary factors and 24-h urinary calcium. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Cross-sectional studies were conducted of 2201 stone formers (SF) and 1167 nonstone formers (NSF) in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (men) and Nurses' Health Studies I and II (older and younger women). Results: Median urinary calcium was 182 mg/d in men, 182 mg/d in older women, and 192 mg/d in younger women. Compared with NSF, urinary calcium as a fraction of calcium intake was 33 to 38% higher in SF (P values ≤0.01). In regression analyses, participants were combined because associations with urinary calcium were similar in each cohort and in SF and NSF. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of calcium intake excreted 18 mg/d more urinary calcium than those in the lowest (P trend =0.01). Caffeine and family history of nephrolithiasis were positively associated, whereas urinary potassium, thiazides, gout, and age were inversely associated, with urinary calcium. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartiles of urinary magnesium, sodium, sulfate, citrate, phosphorus, and volume excreted 71 mg/d, 37 mg/d, 44 mg/d, 61 mg/d, 37 mg/d, and 24 mg/d more urinary calcium, respectively, than participants in the lowest (P values trend ≤0.01). Conclusions: Intestinal calcium absorption and/or negative calcium balance is greater in SF than NSF. Higher calcium intakes at levels typically observed in free-living individuals are associated with only small increases in urinary calcium. PMID:19820135

  20. Urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion increases with repeated weight training exercise.

    PubMed

    Pivarnik, J M; Hickson, J F; Wolinsky, I

    1989-06-01

    This investigation examines the effect of progressive resistance weight training exercise on urinary 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) excretions in untrained subjects. For 19 consecutive days, 11 males were fed a weight maintenance, lactovegetarian diet which contained the Recommended Dietary Allowance (0.8g.kg-1.d-1) for protein. No exercise was performed for the first 7 d of the study. Subjects were strength tested on day 8 and performed upper and lower body weight training exercises from days 9-19. Complete, 24-h urine collections were obtained from each subject on a daily basis. Samples were assayed for creatinine and 3-MH. Stable baseline 3-MH values were present during the pre-exercise control period. Significant increases in 3-MH occurred by study day 11, which was the third day of weight training exercise. This was true regardless of whether the data were expressed by daily excretions (microM.d-1; P less than 0.01), per unit of body weight (microM.kg-1.d-1; P less than 0.005), or per unit of creatinine excretion (microM.g Creat-1.d-1; P less than 0.001). Since urinary 3-MH is an index of actin and myosin catabolism, these data support the hypothesis that the rate of skeletal muscle degradation is increased during strength building exercises. PMID:2733577

  1. Intake and urinary excretion of sodium chloride under varying conditions of effort and environment heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, E.; Adar, R.; Tennenbaum, J.; Kesten, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intake and urinary excretion of sodium were investigated in a group of young, healthy and acclimated men. The sodium excretions of workers and of machinists in the engine rooms of a ship were also investigated.

  2. Variability of urinary salt excretion estimated by spot urine in treated hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Kimika; Sakaki, Minako; Sakata, Satoko; Oniki, Hideyuki; Tominaga, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Among the several methods used to assess salt intake, estimating 24 h urinary salt excretion by spot urine seems appropriate for clinical practice. In this study, we investigated variability in urinary salt excretion using spot urine in hypertensive outpatients. Participants included 200 hypertensive patients who underwent spot urinary salt excretion at least three times during the observation period. Mean urinary salt excretion and the coefficient of the variation were 8.62 ± 1.96 g/day and 19.0 ± 10.2%, respectively. In the analysis of participants who underwent assessment of urinary salt excretion at least eight times (n = 54), a significant reduction in mean urinary salt excretion was found at the 5th measurement. On the contrary, the coefficient of the variation of urinary salt excretion continued to increase until the 5th measurement, and became stable thereafter. Mean urinary salt excretion was positively correlated with mean clinic diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.27, p < 0.05). Clinic diastolic blood pressure in the high urinary salt excretion group (≥ 10 g/day) was significantly higher than that of the low group (76.2 ± 7.5 vs 73.4 ± 8.3 mmHg, p < 0.05). Mean urinary salt excretion in summer was significantly lower than that of the other seasons (7.75 ± 1.94 vs 9.09 ± 2.68 (spring), 8.72 ± 2.12 (autumn), 8.92 ± 2.17 (winter) g/day, p < 0.01). In conclusion, repeated measurements of urinary salt excretion using spot urine are required to assess daily salt intake of hypertensive patients. PMID:26395949

  3. Urinary angiotensinogen excretion is associated with blood pressure in obese young adults.

    PubMed

    Sato, Emiko; Mori, Takefumi; Satoh, Michihiro; Fujiwara, Mutsuko; Nakamichi, Yoshimi; Oba, Ikuko; Ogawa, Susumu; Kinouchi, Yoshitaka; Sato, Hiroshi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Hida, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Intrarenal RAS has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. It was recently reported that urinary angiotensinogen excretion levels are associated with intrarenal RAS. However, few markers predicting intrarenal RAS have been investigated in obese young subjects. The present study evaluated the association between blood pressure and intrarenal RAS activity, inflammation and oxidative stress in obese young adults. Urinary angiotensinogen excretion and urinary monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and urinary thiobarbituric acid reaction substance (TBARS) as markers of intrarenal RAS activity, inflammation, and oxidative stress, respectively, were determined from morning urine of 111 young male adults. Participants were divided into two groups based on the body mass index (BMI). Natural log-transformed urinary angiotensinogen excretion level was significantly associated with blood pressure, MCP-1 excretion, and TBARS excretion elevation in the obese group (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)). Multivariable analyses showed that every 1 standard deviation increase in natural-log transformed urinary angiotensinogen and MCP-1 excretion, but not TBARS excretion level was associated with elevated blood pressure in the obese group. These results indicate that urinary angiotensinogen and MCP-1 excretion were associated with blood pressure elevation in this population of obese young adults. It suggested that inappropriate RAS activity and inflammation precedes hypertension in obese young subjects and urinary angiotensinogen could be a screening maker for hypertension in young obese subjects. PMID:26825581

  4. [Either calcium carbonate or sevelamer decreases urinary oxalate excretion in chronic renal failure patients].

    PubMed

    Caravaca, F; Ruiz, A B; Escola, J M; Hernández Gallego, R; Cerezo, I; Fernández, N; Barroso, S; Martín, M V

    2007-01-01

    The rate of oxalate absorbed from intestine is highly influenced by calcium intake in healthy subjects. It is unknown whether commonly used phosphate binders modify intestinal absorption and renal excretion of oxalate in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This study aims to determine if calcium carbonate or sevelamer influences on urinary oxalate excretion. Twenty patients with CKD (stage 4 and 5 pre-dialysis) were included. Two treatment (1500 mg of calcium carbonate or 2400 mg of sevelamer), two-period (21 days each), crossover study with balanced assignment of the order of administration, and two washout periods were the main characteristics of this study design. Laboratory analyses in each phase included: serum creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, bicarbonate, total cholesterol, and 24 h urinary excretion of oxalate, creatinine, and urea. Creatinine clearance, protein catabolic rate (PNNA), total urinary oxalate excretion, and urinary oxalate / creatinine ratio were determined. Seventeen patients completed both treatment sequences. Total urinary oxalate excretion and urinary oxalate / creatinine ratios decreased significantly with respect to washout periods either after sevelamer or calcium carbonate treatment. The decrease in urinary oxalate excretion was greater after calcium carbonate (41.2+/-17.4%) than after sevelamer treatment (30.4+/-23.8%). There were not significant changes in renal function or PNNA values throughout the study periods. In conclusion, either calcium carbonate or sevelamer significantly reduces urinary oxalate excretion in CKD patients. Further studies will be needed to ascertain whether the type of phosphate binder influences on the accumulation of oxalate in CKD patients. PMID:17944584

  5. Urinary excretion of amphetamine after termination of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Smith-Kielland, A; Skuterud, B; Mørland, J

    1997-09-01

    Important issues in urinary drug testing are the variability between consecutive urine specimens, the duration of positive specimens after last intake, and the usefulness of creatinine concentration to correct for variability in urine concentration. These issues were addressed in the present study with amphetamine as the drug of abuse. Drug users who were starting their sentences in prison participated in the study. Urine specimens were collected 1 to 5 times per day. Screening was performed by EMIT d.a.u. (cutoff, 0.30 microgram/mL) and EMIT II (cutoff, 1.00 microgram/mL), and confirmation was performed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Creatinine and pH were recorded. Amphetamine was demonstrated in seven subjects. The highest concentration was 135 micrograms/mL. The last positive-screened specimen was observed by EMIT d.a.u. after almost 9 days of imprisonment and by EMIT II after 3 days. Large concentration differences could be found between consecutive specimens, accompanied by considerable differences in creatinine and pH. The individual curves were generally smoother after creatinine correction of concentrations. As expected, urinary pH was observed to influence the excretion. PMID:9288582

  6. [SKIERS URINARY CATECHOLAMINES EXCRETION AT REST AND BY COMPETITIVE LOADS LENGTH VARIETY].

    PubMed

    Chinkin, A S

    2015-11-01

    While night sleeps urinary noradrenaline excretion of skilled skiers less than their untrained peers, but the difference in excretion of adrenaline is not revealed. By increasing the distance and time to overcome it during skiing catecholamine excretion is increased both - totally and per minute. Most urinary catecholamines detected at a distance of 50 km in low sliding: increased excretion of adrenaline - 84 times, and noradrenaline -95 times. These results shows that high qualificated skier's functional reserve of the sympathoadrenal system, is mobilize at long competitions for ten times higher than in rest. PMID:26995960

  7. Persistence of urinary excretion products of benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Uziel, M.; Haglund, R.; White, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Persistence of DNA-adducts has been observed in a variety of experimental circumstances and has been suggested as one potential mechanism for explaining the long-term delay before expression of proliferative disease. In this concept, a stable DNA-adduct, which is a remnant of a prior exposure in a nondividing cell, would not express the genotoxic effect until the cells were stimulated to divide, and thus explain the long-term delay in expression of cancer. An alternative view of the observation of persistent DNA-adducts, described in this communication, is the continuing replenishment of DNA adducts by formation and turnover of these adducts from exposure to a constant supply of the ultimate carcinogenic species derived from a prior exposure. It is of interest to note that virtually all experiments where ''persistent'' adducts have been observed have been high dose exposures. During the course of experiments designed to develop improved methods for detection of DNA adducts and related derivatives derived from polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), we observed that there was a continuous excretion of urinary derivatives of the injected benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) beyond the initial burst of detoxification. This report describes the time dependent distribution of those derivatives in blood, urine, feces, and at the site of injection. 11 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Urinary excretion of diazepam metabolites in healthy volunteers and drug users.

    PubMed

    Smith-Kielland, A; Skuterud, B; Olsen, K M; Mørland, J

    2001-05-01

    Urinary excretion profiles of diazepam metabolites were investigated. The subjects were healthy volunteers receiving one single 10-mg dose of diazepam or drug abusers starting a prison sentence. Urinary excretion of metabolites was analysed by immunological screening, liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Relating the metabolite concentration to creatinine concentration in the specimens decreased sample-to-sample variations. In some cases such correction could protect a subject from erroneous accusations of a new intake. PMID:11386610

  9. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    PubMed

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values <0.040). Similar inverse associations were observed for paraxanthine and theophylline. Adjusted night-time systolic blood pressure in the first (lowest), second, third, and fourth (highest) quartile of paraxanthine urinary excretions were 110.3, 107.3, 107.3, and 105.1 mm Hg, respectively (P trend <0.05). No associations of urinary excretions with diastolic blood pressure were generally found, and theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure. PMID:25489060

  10. Short communication: Individual cow variation in urinary excretion of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Løvendahl, Peter; Sehested, Jakob

    2016-06-01

    Some dairy cows excrete large amounts of P through their urine; thus, it was speculated that a genetic defect related to their efficiency in uptake of P or recirculation of P could cause such an effect. This speculation was pursued in a cross sectional study on 139 cows (103 Holstein and 36 Jersey) from an experimental herd using repeated sampling of urine (301 samples) to investigate sources of variation in urinary P concentration (Pu). Urine samples were taken on 6 testing sessions spread over 2 mo. Each sample was obtained by mild manual stimulation of the rear udder escutcheon area. The samples were immediately assayed for pH, stored frozen, and assayed for inorganic P and creatinine. Concentrations of P and creatinine in urine, the ratio of Pu to creatinine, and pH were analyzed using a linear mixed model. The model included fixed effects of breed, parity number, and sampling session. Stage of lactation was fitted as Wilmink-type lactation curves. Random effects included additive polygenic ancestry, permanent animal effects, and residual. The distribution of Pu approximated normality except for a single sample with very high Pu and very low pH. This sample came from a cow diagnosed independently with ketosis. For the remaining samples, it was shown that Pu has low to moderate heritability (0.12) and is only moderately repeatable (0.21). Based on a small data set, it is tentatively concluded that individual differences between cows exist in their Pu, and individual differences presumably result from genetic differences. However, it remains unclear if cows with genetically lower or higher Pu will perform better on a low-P diet. PMID:26995137

  11. The kinetics of urinary fumonisin B1 excretion in humans consuming maize-based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins found in maize. The purpose of this study was to 1) determine the relationship between FB1, FB2, and FB3 intake and urinary excretion in humans, 2) validate a method to isolate urinary FB on C18-SPE cartridges for international shipment, and 3) test the method using s...

  12. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Anita; Bonny, Olivier; Guessous, Idris; Suter, Paolo M.; Conen, David; Erne, Paul; Binet, Isabelle; Gabutti, Luca; Gallino, Augusto; Muggli, Franco; Hayoz, Daniel; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. Design, settings, participants, & measurements Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root–transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dependent variable with a focus on month-specific vitamin D tertiles and serum calcium in the Swiss Survey on Salt Study. Results In total, 624 men and 669 women were studied with mean ages of 49.2 and 47.0 years, respectively (age range=15–95 years). Mean urinary calcium excretion was higher in men than in women (183.05 versus 144.60 mg/24 h; P<0.001). In adjusted models, the association (95% confidence interval) of square root urinary calcium excretion with protein–corrected serum calcium was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.34) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in women and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, −0.11 to 1.29) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in men. Men in the third 25(OH)D3 tertile had higher square root urinary calcium excretion than men in the first tertile (0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 1.63 mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter), and the corresponding association was 0.32 (95% confidence interval, −0.22 to 0.85) mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter in women. These sex differences were more marked under conditions of high urinary sodium or urea excretions. Conclusions There was a positive association of serum calcium with urinary calcium excretion in women but not men. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 was associated with urinary calcium excretion in men but not women. These results suggest important sex differences in the hormonal and dietary control of urinary calcium excretion. PMID:25518946

  13. Evaluation of urinary porphyrin excretion in neonates born to mothers exposed to airborne hexachlorobenzene.

    PubMed Central

    Ozalla, Dolores; Herrero, Carmen; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; To-Figueras, Jordi; Toll, Agustí; Sala, Maria; Grimalt, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier; Lecha, Màrius; Sunyer, Jordi

    2002-01-01

    The existence of a link between hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and porphyria cutanea tarda has been known for a long time. However, the epidemiologic data on effects on health caused by prenatal exposure have not provided convincing evidence that HCB alters porphyrin metabolism. Our objectives were to analyze urinary porphyrin excretion and HCB in maternal serum and fetal cord blood in neonates born in a village (Flix) near a chlorinated solvent factory, to detect possible adverse effects in urinary porphyrin excretion caused by prenatal exposure, and to assess their relationship with HCB blood levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Porphyria Unit at a tertiary care facility in Barcelona, Spain, and the Pediatric Unit of the Móra d'Ebre Hospital, the reference hospital of the study area. We included in the study all neonates (n = 68) born in Móra d'Ebre Hospital 1997-1999 and their mothers. We obtained 68 urine specimens of singleton neonates on the third day after birth to test for urinary porphyrin excretion. We obtained 52 fetal cord blood and 56 maternal serum samples for HCB analysis. Total urinary porphyrins were quantified using spectrofluorometry. Porphyrin profile was determined by HPLC. Serum HCB was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection. In total population, median HCB levels were 1.08 ng/mL in cord blood and 3.31 ng/mL in maternal serum. Total urinary porphyrin concentration was 37.87 micromol/mol creatinine. Coproporphyrin I and coproporphyrin III were the major porphyrins excreted. We found no positive relationship between urinary porphyrin excretion and HCB levels. However, we observed an association between maternal smoking and coproporphyrin excretion. Although high environmental levels of HCB are reported in the town of Flix, we found no alteration in urinary porphyrin excretion. PMID:11836151

  14. Variation of ²¹⁰Po daily urinary excretion for male subjects at environmental level.

    PubMed

    Hölgye, Z; Hýža, M; Mihalík, J; Rulík, P; Škrkal, J

    2015-05-01

    (210)Po was determined in 24-h urine of seven healthy males from Prague, Czech Republic, for ten consecutive days. The results show that for each volunteer, the urinary excretion of (210)Po changed only little from day to day in the studied time period. For two volunteers, the difference in the daily excreted (210)Po activity for two consecutive days was not significant, given the 95% confidence interval (two sigma) of the activity measurements. The same is valid for the excretion data of the other volunteers, except for some days where the differences were slightly higher. The range of daily urinary excretion of (210)Po of each volunteer in the studied time period was quite narrow. Among the volunteers, the maximum daily urinary excretion value of (210)Po was at most about a factor of 2.5 higher than the lowest excretion value. An attempt to explain the observed small inter-individual variability of (210)Po excretion in daily urine is made. PMID:25712002

  15. Urinary excretion of glycosaminoglycans in malignant diseases of the haemopoietic and lymphatic tissues.

    PubMed

    Friman, C; Juvani, M

    1975-01-01

    A study has been made of the urinary excretion of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in 50 patients with malignancies, including 6 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), 11 with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), 10 with chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL), 10 with multiple myeloma (MM), 7 with Hodgkin's disease and 6 with mycosis fungoides (MF). The total urinary GAG were isolated by precipitation with cetyltrimethyl-ammoniumbromide (CTAB), and assayed in terms of their hexuronic acid content. A statistically highly significant increase in the excretion of total GAG was observed in all the disorders studied, except Hodgkin's disease, the highest value being seen in myeloid leukaemia (ML). Constant amounts of non-dialysable urinary GAG were electrophoresed in 0.5 M lithium acetate on cellulose acetate strips, and stained with alcian blue. The densitometric tracing derived from the electrophoresis strips were analysed with a Du Pont Curve Resolver. The electrophoretic data suggested the existence of a qualitative deviation in GAG excretion in CLL and in MF, in that patients with these diseases excreted on an average larger than normal amounts of slowly migrating GAG fractions. Pooled crude urinary GAG material from patients with CLL, MF, AML and CML and from control subjects was further purified and subjected to analytical studies. These indicated that a similar qualitative urinary GAG distribution exists in ML and in controls, whereas the urinary GAG in CLL and MF patients contained relatively more dermatan sulphate (DS, in terms of iduronate) than those of the controls. PMID:126635

  16. Effect of iron poly (sorbitolgluconic acid) complex on urinary cellular excretion.

    PubMed

    Elliott, H L; Lawrence, J R; Campbell, B C; Goldberg, A; Smart, L E

    1981-01-01

    The intramuscular injection of 250 mg iron poly (sorbitol-gluconic acid) complex caused no increase in urinary cellular or bacterial excretion in 8 patients with chronic pyelonephritis, 4 patients with non-infective renal disease, and 4 controls. However, in 4 patients with chronic infective disease of the renal tract given 500 g there was a significant increase in cellular excretion. This response was not seen in 2 control patients, nor in 2 patients with non-infective renal disease. Using a differential staining technique, this increase in urinary cellular excretion was found to be due, not to leucocytes, but to renal tubular cells. The precise significance of this is unclear, but there would be concern that the high concentration of excreted iron was providing a 'toxic' insult to susceptible, infection-damaged cells. PMID:7226874

  17. Urinary excretion of phenolic acids in rats fed cranberry, blueberry, or black raspberry powder.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Ramesh; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L

    2014-05-01

    Dietary polyphenolics can be converted into smaller phenolic acids (PA) by microorganisms in the colon and may contribute to health benefits associated with the parent polyphenolics. Urinary excretion of 18 PA and their conjugates was studied, using HPLC-MS/MS, in rats fed AIN93G-based diets containing 5% (dry weight basis) of either cranberry (CB), blueberry (BB), or black raspberry (BRB). Hippuric, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were excreted in greatest quantity in the urine over a 24 h period in all diets. Primary PA excreted in the berry diets were 4-hydroxycinnamic acid for CB; chlorogenic, ferulic, and 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acids for BB; and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic, 3-hydroxybenzoic, and 3-hydroxycinnamic acids for BRB. PA were present in conjugated form with cinnamic acid derivatives being 50-70% and phenylacetic acid derivatives conjugated <10%. Conjugated, and not just the free, PA are significant contributors to total urinary excretion. PMID:24180593

  18. Action of steroids on H+ and NH+4 excretion in the toad urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Frazier, L W; Zachariah, N Y

    1979-09-14

    This study was done to determine if steroid compounds will stimulate the urinary bladder of the toad to increase its capacity to acidify the urine and excrete NH+4. Aldosterone, 17 beta-estradiol, dexamethasone, pregnenolone, and cholesterol were tested on the bladder. All compounds tested were found to stimulate the rate of acidification by the bladder, above that of a paired control hemibladder. In contrast, only the steroids aldosterone and 17 beta-estradiol were found to stimulate NH+4 excretion in the bladder. Cycloheximide was found to block the action of aldosterone on the NH+4 excretion, but did not have a significant effect on the stimulation of acidification by aldosterone. We conclude that steroids stimulate H+ and NH+4 excretion in the toad urinary bladder. In addition, the NH+4 excretory system seems to be more specific to this effect than is the H+ excretory system. PMID:113550

  19. Increased Klk9 Urinary Excretion Is Associated to Hypertension-Induced Cardiovascular Damage and Renal Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez-Medela, Ana M.; García-Sánchez, Omar; Quirós, Yaremi; Blanco-Gozalo, Victor; Prieto-García, Laura; Sancho-Martínez, Sandra M.; Romero, Miguel; Duarte, Juan M.; López-Hernández, Francisco J.; López-Novoa, José M.; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early detection of hypertensive end-organ damage and secondary diseases are key determinants of cardiovascular prognosis in patients suffering from arterial hypertension. Presently, there are no biomarkers for the detection of hypertensive target organ damage, most outstandingly including blood vessels, the heart, and the kidneys. We aimed to validate the usefulness of the urinary excretion of the serine protease kallikrein-related peptidase 9 (KLK9) as a biomarker of hypertension-induced target organ damage. Urinary, plasma, and renal tissue levels of KLK9 were measured by the Western blot in different rat models of hypertension, including angiotensin-II infusion, DOCA-salt, L-NAME administration, and spontaneous hypertension. Urinary levels were associated to cardiovascular and renal injury, assessed by histopathology. The origin of urinary KLK9 was investigated through in situ renal perfusion experiments. The urinary excretion of KLK9 is increased in different experimental models of hypertension in rats. The ACE inhibitor trandolapril significantly reduced arterial pressure and the urinary level of KLK9. Hypertension did not increase kidney, heart, liver, lung, or plasma KLK9 levels. Hypertension-induced increased urinary excretion of KLK9 results from specific alterations in its tubular reabsorption, even in the absence of overt nephropathy. KLK9 urinary excretion strongly correlates with cardiac hypertrophy and aortic wall thickening. KLK9 appears in the urine in the presence of hypertension as a result of subtle renal handling alterations. Urinary KLK9 might be potentially used as an indicator of hypertensive cardiac and vascular damage. PMID:26469898

  20. Effect of dietary caffeine and theophylline on urinary calcium excretion in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Whiting, S J; Whitney, H L

    1987-07-01

    The chronic effects of dietary caffeine or theophylline on urinary calcium excretion were investigated in the adult male rat. When caffeine was added at two concentrations, 0.75 and 1.50 g/kg diet, 24-h urinary calcium excretion rose 300 and 450% on d 7, and 200 and 330% on d 14, respectively. There were no changes in the 24-h urinary excretion of phosphate, sulfate, sodium and cAMP nor did urine volume change. The high dose of caffeine was compared to an equimolar dose of theophylline (1.39 g/kg diet) in both Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats. Urinary calcium excretion in theophylline-treated rats was significantly greater than in caffeine-treated rats on all sampling days and in both strains of rat; the calciuric effect lasted at least 22 d. When rats were given indomethacin (3.3 mg/kg diet) the calciuria induced by caffeine and theophylline was abolished, and sodium excretion in all groups was reduced by 35-50%, but urine volume was unchanged. The calciuria of methylxanthine feeding may result from a prostaglandin-mediated process distinct from diuresis. PMID:3612301

  1. Urinary isoflavonoid excretion as a biomarker of dietary soy intake during two randomized soy trials.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yukiko; Beckford, Fanchon; Franke, Adrian A; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated urinary isoflavonoid excretion as a biomarker of dietary isoflavone intake during two randomized soy trials (13-24 months) among 256 premenopausal women with a total of 1,385 repeated urine samples. Participants consumed a high-soy diet (2 servings/day) and a low-soy diet (<3 servings/week), completed 7 unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls, and donated repeated urine samples, which were analyzed for isoflavonoid excretion by liquid chromatography methods. We computed Spearman correlation coefficients and applied logistic regression to estimate the area under the curve. Median overall daily dietary isoflavone intakes at baseline, during low- and high-soy diet were 2.3, 0.2, and 60.4 mg aglycone equivalents, respectively. The corresponding urinary isoflavonoid excretion values were 0.4, 1.0, and 32.4 nmol/mg creatinine. Across diets, urinary isoflavonoid excretion was significantly associated with dietary isoflavone intake (rs=0.51, AUC=0.85; p<0.0001) but not within diet periods (rs=0.05-0.06, AUC=0.565-0.573). Urinary isoflavonoid excretion is an excellent biomarker to discriminate between low- and high-soy diets across populations, but the association with dietary isoflavone intake is weak when the range of soy intake is small. PMID:24901088

  2. The variability and dietary dependence of urinary oxalate excretion in recurrent calcium stone formers.

    PubMed

    Brown, J M; Stratmann, G; Cowley, D M; Mottram, B M; Chalmers, A H

    1987-07-01

    Twenty-two recurrent calcium stone formers had 24-h urinary oxalate excretions on their home diets which were significantly greater than those of 30 normal subjects (0.48 +/- 0.23 mmol/d; mean +/- SD compared with 0.31 +/- 0.11; P less than 0.01). The stone formers also demonstrated marked day to day variability in oxalate excretion indicating that a single normal urinary oxalate measurement did not exclude significant hyperoxaluria at other times. On a hospital diet containing 1000 mg calcium per day, urinary oxalate excretion fell significantly from 0.48 +/- 0.23 mmol/d to 0.32 +/- 0.12; P less than 0.01. As the urinary calcium excretion in and out of hospital was similar, it seems unlikely that low calcium intake at home was responsible for the hyperoxaluria. All patients had recurrent symptomatic stone disease and had been advised to avoid foods rich in oxalate. Whilst poor compliance is a possible explanation for the variability in oxalate excretion, we believe it is more likely that there is an inadvertent intake of oxalogenic precursors in their diet. As normal subjects do not demonstrate hyperoxaluria on similar home diets, stone formers may have a metabolic defect in the handling of these precursors. PMID:3662388

  3. Assessment of urinary excretion of antimalarial drugs in large-scale chemotherapeutic eradication projects.

    PubMed

    BRUCE-CHWATT, L J

    1959-01-01

    Assessment of the urinary excretion of an antimalarial drug is a useful means of checking the amount of drug administered and the regularity of intake. The author describes the various methods available for the qualitative and quantitative estimation of antimalarial drugs in urine and discusses their relative merits, with special reference to their suitability for use in the field. He points out the difficulties involved in estimating the urinary excretion of antimalarials in large-scale chemotherapeutic eradication projects and stress the importance of simplifying testing techniques as far as possible. PMID:13805135

  4. Clinical usefulness of urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion in indicating muscle protein breakdown.

    PubMed Central

    Elia, M; Carter, A; Bacon, S; Winearls, C G; Smith, R

    1981-01-01

    Urinary excretion of the post-translationally modified amino-acid 3-methylhistidine, derived from the contractile proteins actin and myosin, was measured in patients with conditions associated with nitrogen loss. The ratio of 3-methylhistidine:creatinine excretion, a measure of the fractional catabolic rate of myofibrillar protein was increased in severe injury, thyrotoxicosis, neoplastic disease, prednisolone administration, and sometimes Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In myxoedema, osteomalacia, and hypothermia the ratio was decreased; and starvation, elective operations, and rheumatoid arthritis had little effect. Provided that the diet is meat free, measurement of urinary 3-methylhistidine may provide useful information on the cause of protein loss. PMID:6780020

  5. D-penicillamine does not increase urinary bismuth excretion in patients treated with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate.

    PubMed Central

    Nwokolo, C U; Pounder, R E

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four urinary bismuth excretion was measured in five patients who had been treated with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate, before and after single 1 g oral dose of D-penicillamine. Before dosing with D-penicillamine, the median 24 h urinary bismuth output was 55 micrograms 24 h-1 (range 17-156 micrograms 24 h-1) and following dosing with D-penicillamine the median 24 h urinary bismuth output was 53 micrograms 24 h-1 (range 12-156 micrograms 24 h-1). D-penicillamine does not facilitate the urinary excretion of bismuth, hence it is unsuitable for use as an oral chelator in patients with bismuth intoxication. PMID:2291879

  6. Urinary dopamine in man and rat: effects of inorganic salts on dopamine excretion.

    PubMed

    Ball, S G; Oats, N S; Lee, M R

    1978-08-01

    1. Plasma and urine free dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) were measured in six normal male volunteer subjects and the urinary clearance of dopamine was calculated for each subject. 2. The excretion rates for free dopamine in man were greater than could be explained by simple renal clearance. It was concluded that free dopamine must, therefore, be formed in the kidney. 3. Changes in urinary dopamine excretion were studied in four groups of rats initially maintained on low sodium diet and then given equimolar dietary supplements of NaCl, NaHCO3, KCl or NH4Cl, to study the specificity of the previously observed increase in dopamine excretion after increased dietary NaCl. 4. The mean dopamine excretion increased significantly in rats given NaCl, KCl and NH4Cl, whereas dopamine excretion decreased in those given NaHCO3. 5. The failure of dopamine excretion to rise in response to loading with NaHCO3 was unexpected, and argues against a simple effect of volume expansion by the sodium ion. The increase in dopamine excretion with KCl and NH4Cl showed that this response was not specific to the sodium ion. PMID:28196

  7. Urinary excretion of dietary Maillard reaction products in healthy adult female cats.

    PubMed

    van Rooijen, C; Bosch, G; Butré, C I; van der Poel, A F B; Wierenga, P A; Alexander, L; Hendriks, W H

    2016-01-01

    During processing of foods, the Maillard reaction occurs, resulting in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRP). Varying amounts of MRP have been found in commercially processed pet foods. Dietary MRP can be absorbed and contribute to the endogenous pool of MRP and possibly the etiology of age-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine urinary excretion of dietary MRP in cats fed commercial moist and dry foods. A pilot study with 10 cats, conducted to determine the adaptation time required for stable urinary excretion of MRP when changing to a diet with contrasting MRP content, showed an adaptation time of 1 d for all components. In the main study, 6 commercially processed dry and 6 moist diets were fed to 12 adult female cats in 2 parallel randomized, 36-d Latin square designs. The 24-h urine was collected quantitatively using modified litter boxes, and fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine (CML), and lysinoalanine (LAL) were analyzed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) - mass spectrometer. Daily urinary excretion of FL and CML showed a positive relationship with daily intake in the dry ( = 0.03 and < 0.01, respectively) and moist ( < 0.01) foods. For LAL, no significant relationship was observed. Urinary recovery (% ingested) showed a negative relationship with daily intake for FL, CML, and LAL in the dry foods ( < 0.01, < 0.01, and = 0.08, respectively) and for CML and LAL in the moist foods ( < 0.01). The observed increase in urinary excretion with increasing dietary intake indicates that dietary MRP were absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of cats and excreted in the urine. The adaptation time with change in diet indicates a likely effective excretion of MRP. Minimum apparent absorption of FL, CML, and LAL was found to range between 8% and 23%, 25% and 73%, and 6% and 19%, respectively. The observed decrease in urinary recovery suggests a limiting factor in digestion, absorption, metabolism

  8. Urinary excretion of guanidinoacetic acid in rats with diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kiyatake, I; Nakamura, T; Koide, H

    2006-01-01

    Urinary guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is a sensitive marker for gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats. This study assesses the usefulness of GAA concentrations in the diagnosis of renal tubular injury in diabetic nephropathy. Serum, urine, and renal cortex samples were obtained from rats 1, 2, and 3 weeks after streptozotocin injection (65 mg/kg body weight). Guanidinoacetic acid levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity in urine was determined by an enzymatic method. GAA levels in serum, urine, and renal cortex were significantly decreased in diabetic rats compared with those in control rats. In contrast, urinary NAG activity was significantly increased in diabetic rats. Decreases in serum, urine, and renal cortical GAA levels were attenuated by insulin treatment. These results indicate that a high serum glucose level may affect GAA synthesis in the renal cortex and that urinary GAA may be a clinically useful indicator of renal tubular injury in diabetic nephropathy. PMID:16538977

  9. Urinary Excretion of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arellano-Buendía, Abraham Said; García-Arroyo, Fernando Enrique; Cristóbal-García, Magdalena; Loredo-Mendoza, María Lilia; Tapia-Rodríguez, Edilia; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Osorio-Alonso, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that tubular damage precedes glomerular damage in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, we evaluated oxidative stress and urinary excretion of tubular proteins as markers of tubular dysfunction. Methods. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin administration (50 mg/kg). Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD); additionally, expression levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and oxidized protein (OP) were quantified. Whole glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured. Urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), osteopontin (uOPN), and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) was also determined. Results. Diabetic rats showed an increase in uNGAL excretion 7 days following induction of diabetes. Diuresis, proteinuria, albuminuria, creatinine clearance, and GFR were significantly increased by 30 days after induction. Furthermore, there was an increase in both CAT and SOD activity, in addition to 3-NT, 4-HNE, and OP expression levels. However, GPx activity was lower. Serum levels of NGAL and OPN, as well as excretion levels of uNGAL, uOPN, and uNAG, were increased in diabetics. Tubular damage was observed by 7 days after diabetes induction and was further aggravated by 30 days after induction. Conclusion. The tubular dysfunction evidenced by urinary excretion of NGAL precedes oxidative stress during diabetes. PMID:25243053

  10. Urinary glucaric acid excretion in rheumatoid arthritis: influence of disease activity and disease modifying drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Addyman, R; Beyeler, C; Astbury, C; Bird, H A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if a correlation exists between cytochrome P-450 enzyme induction and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), measuring urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid (GA) as an index of phase II drug metabolism. METHODS: Patients with RA were treated with sulphasalazine, sodium aurothiomalate, or D-penicillamine in standard dose regimens, for 24 weeks. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) or non-inflammatory arthritis (NIA) acted as controls. The urinary GA:creatinine ratio was measured at 0, 12, and 24 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: Patients with RA had a slightly greater urinary GA:creatinine ratio than patients with AS or NIA at baseline; this increased during treatment with disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Sulphasalazine treatment had a greater effect on GA excretion than sodium aurothiomalate or D-penicillamine; this difference was statistically significant between weeks 0 and 12 (p = 0.01). Gamma glutamyltranspeptidase concentration showed a weak correlation with GA excretion between weeks 0 and 12 (p = 0.03), but all other measurements of changes in disease activity (plasma viscosity, C reactive protein, platelets, and articular index) were found not to correlate with GA excretion between weeks 0-12 or 0-24. CONCLUSION: The increased excretion of GA in patients with RA receiving DMARD treatment is probably the result of an indirect effect on hepatic metabolism bearing no relationship to disease activity. PMID:8774168

  11. Urinary trimethylselenonium excretion by the rat: effect of level and source of selenium-75

    SciTech Connect

    Nahapetian, A.T.; Janghorbani, M.; Young, V.R.

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore in rats the urinary metabolites of selenium (Se), by using (/sup 75/Se)selenomethionine, (/sup 75/Se)selenocystine, and (/sup 75/Se)selenite, and to assess the effects of low and high levels of Se intake on trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) excretion in urine. Male adult rats were adapted for 6 weeks to a commercial rat laboratory stock diet (0.25 ppm Se). They were then starved for 24 hours and given an oral dose of either low (16 micrograms Se/kg body weight) or high (1500 micrograms Se/kg body weight) Se as the test Se compounds. Appearance of radioactivity in TMSe and non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine was monitored for 48 hours. About 40% of the /sup 75/Se dose was excreted in urine. TMSe was the major urinary Se metabolite at high, and a minor urinary Se metabolite at low dose levels of Se and for all three Se test compounds. At least 80% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 26-42% of the orally administered /sup 75/Se were excreted as non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine under the latter condition. It is hypothesized that at a requirement intake of Se either a trace or no TMSe is excreted in urine, and it becomes a major excretory metabolite of Se when the dietary trace mineral intake exceeds a requirement level, probably serving as a means of detoxification.

  12. SALT LOADING INCREASES URINARY EXCRETION OF LINOLEIC ACID DIOLS AND TRIOLS IN HEALTHY HUMAN SUBJECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urinary linoleate (LA) metabolite excretion was investigated in subjects exposed to a salt loading/salt depletion regimen. Twelve healthy subjects were recruited from the New Orleans population (pre-Katrina) and admitted to Tulane-LSU Charity Hospital GCRC after a 5-day outpatient lead in phase on a...

  13. Association of Urinary Sodium Excretion With Insulin Resistance in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Yoon Hong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Yong Gyu; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Seon Mee; Kim, Yang Hyun; Nam, Ga Eun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High sodium intake is a well-known risk factor for elevated blood pressure and is responsible for a higher incidence of cardiovascular events. Reports have suggested an association of sodium intake with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. However, evidence on an association between sodium intake assessed on the basis of urinary sodium excretion and IR in adolescents is scarce. The present study aimed at investigating the association between urinary sodium excretion and IR among South Korean adolescents. This population-based, cross-sectional study analyzed the data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009 to 2010. The data of a total of 1353 adolescents (779 boys and 574 girls) were included in the final analysis. Spot urine samples were collected, and urinary sodium excretion was estimated by using the urinary sodium concentration (U[Na+]), U[Na+] to urinary creatinine ratio (U[Na+]/Cr), and U[Na+] to specific gravity unit (SGU) ratio (U[Na+]/SGU). IR was assessed by using the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk for a high HOMA-IR according to urinary sodium excretion. The mean levels of U[Na+], U[Na+]/Cr, and U[Na+]/SGU were significantly higher in subjects in the highest HOMA-IR quartile (Q4) than in subjects in the lowest, second, or third quartiles (Q1–3) of HOMA-IR. The mean values of HOMA-IR and several cardiometabolic parameters tended to progressively increase with the U[Na+], U[Na+]/Cr, and U[Na+]/SGU quartiles. Q3 of U[Na+] was at a significantly higher risk than Q1 of U[Na+] of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR, after adjustment for confounding variables. Q3 and Q4 of U[Na+]/Cr and U[Na+]/SGU, respectively, had significantly higher risks, than the respective Q1s, of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR. The risk of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR demonstrated significantly

  14. The effect of phototherapy on urinary calcium excretion in term neonates.

    PubMed

    Asl, Afshin Safaei; Zarkeshl, Marjaneh; Heidarzadeh, Abtin; Maleknejad, Shohreh; Hagikhani, Kaveh

    2016-05-01

    Phototherapy is the most common, most effective, and least dangerous treatment method for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and is the treatment of the first choice for neonatal icterus. Hypocalcemia is one of the lesser-known complications of phototherapy. Some studies have shown a relationship between increased urinary calcium excretion and phototherapy-induced hypocalcemia. We aimed to assess the effect of phototherapy on urinary calcium excretion in term neonates. This before-after study was performed on 80 term neonates having hyper- bilirubinemia referred to the 17(th) Shahrivar Hospital, Rasht, Guilan Province, Northern Iran, over a one-year period from May 2013 to May 2014. Electrocardiography was performed to measure QTc in all neonates at admission and 48 h after phototherapy. Blood and urine samples were taken from all neonates before and 48 h after phototherapy. Phototherapy was performed using four lamps with similar wavelengths from a distance of 20 cm. The serum and urinary calcium and sodium levels and urinary creatinine level before and after phototherapy were measured and compared. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 16. The mean age of the study subjects was 7.01 ± 4.13 days. We did not find any significant difference between urinary calcium levels (P = 0.0001), urinary creatinine levels (P = 0.954), or the calcium/creatinine ratio (P = 0.086) before and after phototherapy. The neonates' mean ± standard deviation plasma as well as urinary sodium levels differed before and after phototherapy; the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.658). Phototherapy might increase urinary calcium excretion although it does not cause hypocalcemia. PMID:27215239

  15. Urinary trimethylselenonium excretion by the rat: effect of level and source of /sup 75/Se

    SciTech Connect

    Nahapetian, A.T.; Janghorbani, M.; Young, V.R.

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore in rats the urinary metabolites of selenium (Se), by using (/sup 75/Se)selenomethionine, (/sup 75/Se)selenocystine, and (/sup 75/Se)selenite, and to assess the effects of low and high levels of Se intake on trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) excretion in urine. Male adult rats were adapted for 6 weeks to a commercial rat laboratory stock diet (0.25 ppm Se). They were then starved for 24 hours and given an oral dose of either low (16 micrograms Se/kg body weight) or high (1500 micrograms Se/kg body weight) Se as the test Se compounds. Appearance of radioactivity in TMSe and non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine was monitored for 48 hours. About 40% of the /sup 75/Se dose was excreted in urine. TMSe was the major urinary Se metabolite (57-69% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 16-25% of oral /sup 75/Se dose) at high, and a minor urinary Se metabolite (10% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 3-4% of oral /sup 75/Se dose) at low dose levels of Se and for all three Se test compounds. At least 80% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 26-42% of the orally administered /sup 75/Se were excreted as non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine under the latter condition. It is hypothesized that at a requirement intake of Se either a trace or no TMSe is excreted in urine, and it becomes a major excretory metabolite of Se when the dietary trace mineral intake exceeds a requirement level, probably serving as a means of detoxification.

  16. Testosterone urinary excretion rate increases during hypergravity in male monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strollo, F.; Barger, L.; Fuller, C.

    2000-01-01

    Real and simulated microgravity impairs T secretion both in animals and in the human. To verify whether hypergravity might enhance T secretion as a consequence of an opposite mechanical effect, 6 male monkeys were centrifuged at 2 G for 3 weeks after a 1 G stabilization period lasting 3 weeks and then taken back to 1 G for 1 week and urine were collected daily for T excretion measurement. Significantly higher level were observed during the initial 2 G phase as compared to pre- and post centrifugation periods and the trend was the same during the remaining 2 G period. This may reflect changes in testicular perfusion rather than endocrine adaptation per se.

  17. Urinary isoflavonoid and lignan excretion on a Western diet: relation to soy, vegetable, and fruit intake.

    PubMed

    Lampe, J W; Gustafson, D R; Hutchins, A M; Martini, M C; Li, S; Wähälä, K; Grandits, G A; Potter, J D; Slavin, J L

    1999-08-01

    Dietary isoflavone and lignan phytoestrogens are potential chemopreventive agents. This has led to a need to monitor exposure to these compounds in human populations and to determine which components of a mixed diet contribute to the exposure. Typically, urinary isoflavonoid excretion is associated with soy consumption and that of lignans is associated with whole grains. However, other plant foods are known to contain phytoestrogen precursors. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between urinary isoflavonoid and lignan excretion and intakes of vegetables and fruits (V&F). Isoflavonoids (genistein, daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, and equol) and lignans (enterolactone, enterodiol, and matairesinol) were measured in urine collected for 3 days from 49 male and 49 female volunteers (age, 18-37 years) reporting a wide range of habitual V&F intakes. Dietary intakes were assessed using 5-day diet records and a food frequency questionnaire. V&F groupings (total V&F, total V, total F, soyfoods, and V&F grouped by botanical families) were used to assess the relationship between V&F intake and urinary isoflavonoid and lignan excretion. Pearson correlations were performed. Intake of soyfoods was correlated significantly with urinary genistein (r = 0.40; P = 0.0001), O-desmethylangolensin (r = 0.37; P = 0.0002), daidzein (r = 034; P = 0.0007), and the sum of isoflavonoids (r = 0.39; P = 0.0001). There was no association between equol excretion and soy intake or between the isoflavonoids and any other V&F groupings. In addition, isoflavonoid excretion was correlated positively with intake of high-fat and processed meats, particularly among men who did not consume soy. This suggests that, even in the United States, on a Western diet, soyfoods are the primary contributors to isoflavone intake; however, additional "hidden sources" of soy may also contribute to exposure. In contrast, a variety of fiber-containing foods contributed to lignan excretion; the sum of

  18. Possible parameters in the urinary excretion of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Cawley, C.N.; Lewis, B.A.; Cannon, L.A.

    1985-11-01

    Because of its mobility in both physical and biological systems, tritium is interesting both as a tracer and as an issue in health physics. Because tritium is extremely difficult to contain, it is one of the major radionuclides of concern if released to the environment from nuclear facilities. Relatively very large releases are tolerated because the beta particle has low energy and, therefore, the radioisotope is not a health hazard unless deposited internally. Moreover, on release to the environment, tritium enters the hydrologic cycle and is diluted and dispersed widely through the hydrosphere. It is likely that tritium uptake and loss in humans is more complex than generally believed and may be more functionally related to physiological processes, such as the bicarbonate and electrolyte balances, than to ambient environmental conditions such as temperature. Despite the many uncertainties in the analyses of experimental data on tritium contamination and excretion, it is likely that further investigations will establish both a better understanding of the tritium health hazard and the physiological processes governing excretion and, perhaps, its indefinite recycling through metabolic pools.

  19. Excretion of urinary cadmium, copper, and zinc in cadmium-exposed and nonexposed subjects, with special reference to urinary excretion of beta2-microglobulin and metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Maki; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Suwazono, Yasushi; Uetani, Mirei; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Inaba, Takeya; Kido, Teruhiko; Shaikh, Zahir A; Nogawa, Koji

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the association between urinary excretion of cadmium (U-Cd), copper (U-Cu), and zinc (U-Zn) and the severity of two different indicators of renal toxicity (urinary excretion of beta2-microglobulin [U-beta2-MG] and metallothionein [U-MT]) in Cd-exposed subjects compared to controls, and to assess the physiologic mechanisms by which the exposure to environmental Cd affects U-Cd, U-Cu, and U-Zn. The target population included 3508 Cd-exposed and 294 nonexposed participants who received a health survey conducted among the population of the Kakehashi River basin. Increases of U-Cd, U-beta2-MG, and U-MT in the Cd-exposed population were observed relative to excretion of these substances in controls. Regression analysis using a general linear model revealed that the correlations between U-Cd or U-Cu, and U-beta2-MG and between U-Cd, U-Cu or U-Zn, and U-MT were statistically significant in both sexes, but the correlation between U-Zn and U-beta2-MG excretion was significant only in men. These results suggest U-Cd and U-Cu is affected by dysfunction in renal tubular absorption (indicated by U-beta2-MG), whereas not only U-Cd and U-Cu but also U-Zn appear to be a function of renal cellular desquamation (indicated by U-MT). PMID:16327056

  20. Increased urinary excretion of platelet activating factor in mice with lupus nephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Macconi, D.; Noris, M.; Benfenati, E.; Quaglia, R.; Pagliarino, G. ); Remuzzi, G. Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo )

    1991-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) is present in urine from humans and experimental animals in normal conditions. Very little is known about changes in PAF urinary excretion under pathologic conditions and no data are available about the origin of PAF in the urine. In the present study we explored the possibility that immunologic renal disease is associated with an increase in PAF urinary excretion using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. To clarify the renal or extrarenal origin of urinary PAF we evaluated whether exogenously administered PAF (1-(1{prime},2{prime}-{sup 3}H)alkyl) is filtered through the glomerulus and excreted in the urine. The results show that: (1) urine from mice with lupus nephritis in the early phase of the disease contained amounts of PAF comparable to those excreted in normal mouse urine, (2) PAF levels increased when animals started to develop high grade proteinuria, (3) after intravenous injection of ({sup 3}H) PAF In nephritic mice, a negligible amount of ({sup 3}H) ether lipid, corresponding to ({sup 3}H)1-alkyl -2-acyl-3-phosphocholine (alkyl-2-acyl-GPC), was recovered from the 24 h urine extract.

  1. Geographical and temporal differences in the urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic: a Belgian population study.

    PubMed Central

    Buchet, J P; Staessen, J; Roels, H; Lauwerys, R; Fagard, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This Belgian study assessed the geographical and temporal differences in the exposure of the population to inorganic arsenic, a known carcinogen. METHODS: In the CadmiBel study (1985-9) the 24 h urinary arsenic excretion was measured, as an index of recent exposure, in industrialised cities (Liège: n = 664, Charleroi: n = 291), in a rural control area (Hechtel-Eksel: n = 397), and in rural districts in which the population had possibly been exposed through the drinking water or the emissions of nonferrous smelters (Wezel: n = 93, Lommel: n = 111, and Pelt: n = 133). In the PheeCad study, in 1991-5, the rural areas (n = 609) were re-examined together with an urban control area (Leuven: n = 152). RESULTS: The CadmiBel results showed that after adjustment for sex, age, and body mass index, the 24 h arsenic excretion was on average low in Liège (91 nmol), Charleroi (155 nmol), Hechtel-Eksel (144 nmol), and Wezel (158 nmol), whereas the highest excretions were found in Lommel (570 nmol) and Pelt (373 nmol). During the PheeCad study, the mean 24 h arsenic excretion in the rural areas ranged from 81 to 111 nmol. This was lower than six years earlier and similar to the excretion in the control town (108 nmol). Longitudinal studies in 529 people living in the rural areas confirmed that their 24 h arsenic excretion had decreased (P < 0.001) from 222 to 100 nmol. As well as the drinking water, industry was likely to be a source of the increased exposure in Lommel and Pelt in 1985-9, because at that time the urinary arsenic excretion did not follow the regional differences in the arsenic content of the drinking water, because the fall in the arsenic excretion over time coincided with the implementation by industry of stricter environmental regulations, because in individual subjects the urinary arsenic excretion was inversely correlated with the distance to the nearest smelter, and because an increased arsenic excretion was only found downwind from the main

  2. Urinary nitrate excretion is increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and reduced by prednisolone.

    PubMed Central

    Stichtenoth, D O; Fauler, J; Zeidler, H; Frölich, J C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine daily production of nitric oxide (NO) measured as urinary nitrate excretion, and the effect of prednisolone in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS--Twenty four hour urinary nitrate was measured by gas chromatography in 10 patients with RA, before and two to four weeks after commencement of prednisolone 0.5 mg/kg body weight, and in 18 healthy controls. RESULTS--Before the start of prednisolone treatment the urinary nitrate excretion in patients with RA was 2.7-fold greater (p < 0.001) than that in healthy volunteers. After prednisolone it decreased significantly, by 28%, at which time inflammatory activity (as indicated by C reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, joint count, and early morning stiffness) was also reduced considerably. Despite this decrease, the urinary nitrate excretion in patients with RA remained twice that in the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS--Our data suggest that the endogenous production of NO is enhanced in patients with RA. Furthermore, the results indicate that, in parallel with suppression of inflammation, this increased NO synthesis could be reduced by prednisolone treatment. PMID:7492221

  3. Identifying plasma glycerol concentration associated with urinary glycerol excretion in trained humans.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jeff L; Harmon, Molly E; Robergs, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Glycerol has been used as a means to legitimately hyperhydrate the body in an attempt to offset the deleterious effects of dehydration. It has the potential to mask blood doping practices and as a result has been added to the WADA prohibited substance list. The purpose of this study was to identify the plasma glycerol concentration coinciding with urinary glycerol excretion. Twelve healthy, trained male subjects completed five separate trials under resting conditions. For each trial, subjects consumed a different glycerol dose (0.025, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, or 0.20 g glycerol/kg LBM) of a 5% glycerol solution in order to determine at what plasma glycerol concentration an increase in urine glycerol concentration becomes apparent. Based on regression analysis, plasma glycerol concentrations > 0.327 ± 0.190 mmol/L and a glycerol dose > 0.032 ± 0.010 g glycerol/kg LBM would be associated with urinary glycerol excretion. There were significant linear relationships between peak plasma glycerol concentration and time to reach peak plasma glycerol concentration to the ingested glycerol doses. Our findings illustrate the importance of considering the effect of urinary glycerol excretion on legitimate hyperhydration regimens as well as suggesting that it is possible to detect surreptitious use of glycerol as a masking agent through urinary analysis. PMID:22080901

  4. The loss of circadian rhythmicity of urinary solute excretion in idiopathic stone formers.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, H; Vaidyanathan, S; Wangoo, D; Thind, S K; Nath, R; Malakondaiah, G C; Krishan, K

    1989-10-01

    Circadian rhythmicity in urinary volume and excretion of creatinine, calcium, oxalate, uric acid and phosphate was studied in 15 idiopathic stone formers and in 17 control subjects who were age-matched, related adult males, living in the same house and engaged in similar occupations to those of the stone patients, but who had no clinically obvious stone disease. Three-hourly urine samples were collected and creatinine, calcium, oxalate, uric acid and inorganic phosphate were estimated. The time series of data were analysed by cosinor rhythmometry. Circadian rhythmicity has been described in urinary volume and urinary excretion of creatinine, calcium, oxalate, uric acid and inorganic phosphate in normal subjects, but it was not detected in the stone formers. The control subjects exhibited a circadian rhythmicity only in urinary volume and creatinine excretion. Thus they occupied a position midway between healthy adults, who exhibit circadian rhythmicity in all of the above parameters, and the stone formers, who appear to have lost it altogether. PMID:2819381

  5. 24h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Subsequent Change in Weight, Waist Circumference and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Heitmann, Berit L.

    2013-01-01

    Background In the same period as the increasing obesity epidemic, there has been an increased consumption of highly processed foods with a high salt content, and a few studies have suggested that a diet with a high salt content may be associated with obesity. Objective To investigate the association between 24 h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), body fat (BF) and fat free mass (FFM) among adults. Design A longitudinal population study based on the Danish part of the MONICA project, with examinations in 1987–1988 and 1993–1994. Complete information on 24 h urinary sodium excretion along with repeated measures of obesity, as well as on potential confounders, was obtained from 215 subjects. Linear regression was used to examine the association between sodium excretion, as a measure of salt consumption, and subsequent changes in BW, WC, BF and FFM, and further evaluated by restricted cubic splines. Stepwise adjustments were made for selected covariates. Results Neither the crude nor the adjusted models showed any statistically significant associations between sodium excretion and change in BW or WC. Likewise, we found no significant association between sodium excretion and change in BF and FFM in the unadjusted models. However, after adjusting for potential baseline confounders and the concurrent BW change, we found a significant increase in BF of 0.24 kg (P = 0.015, CI: 0.05 to 0.43) per 100 mmol increase in 24 h urinary sodium excretion (equivalent to 6 g of salt), during the 6-year study period. Moreover, during the same period, we found a significant association with FFM of −0.21 kg (P = 0.041, CI: −0.40 to −0.01). Conclusions These results suggest that a diet with a high salt content may have a negative influence on development in body composition by expanding BF and reducing FFM. PMID:23936079

  6. Predictors of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced reduction of urinary albumin excretion in nondiabetic patients.

    PubMed

    van de Wal, Ruud M A; Gansevoort, Ron T; van der Harst, Pim; Boomsma, Frans; Thijs Plokker, H W; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; de Jong, Paul E; van Gilst, Wiek H; Voors, Adriaan A

    2006-11-01

    Urinary albumin excretion is a predictor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We investigated which parameters determine baseline urinary albumin excretion in nondiabetic subjects, without renal disease. In addition, we evaluated the parameters that predict the albuminuria-lowering efficacy of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. In this substudy of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular Endstage Disease Intervention Trial, 384 microalbuminuric patients were included. Patient and biochemical characteristics were obtained at baseline and after 3 months of double-blinded, randomized treatment (fosinopril 20 mg or placebo). Mean age was 51.1+/-11.5 years, and 65.6% were male. Median urinary albumin excretion was 22.2 mg per 24 hours. At baseline, mean arterial pressure (beta(standardized)=0.161; P=0.006), urinary sodium excretion (beta(standardized)=0.154; P=0.011), and estimated renal function were independently associated with albumin excretion. In these predominantly normotensive to prehypertensive subjects, fosinopril reduced albumin excretion by 18.5% versus a 6.1% increase on placebo after 3 months (P<0.001). Fosinopril use and blood pressure reduction independently predicted the change in urinary albumin excretion. Baseline urinary albumin excretion independently predicted the antialbuminuric effect of fosinopril (beta(standardized)=-0.303; P<0.001). In conclusion, at baseline, sodium intake and blood pressure were positively associated with urinary albumin excretion. Fosinopril reduced albuminuria more than might be expected from its blood pressure-lowering effect alone, and this effect was more outspoken in subjects with higher baseline albumin excretion. Based on our data, we hypothesize that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition may result in superior cardiovascular protection when compared with other blood pressure-lowering agents in subjects with higher baseline levels of albuminuria. PMID:17000930

  7. Abnormal catecholamine urinary excretion after emotional stimulus in patients with cerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Stoica, E; Enulescu, O

    1981-01-01

    The epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) urinary excretion before and after a mild "emotional stimulus" (ES) was determined in 22 patients with cerebral infarction and 30 patients with cerebral hemorrhage, as well as in 18 normotensive and 18 hypertensive controls. In patients with cerebral infarction, the majority normotensive, the "emotional stimulus" induced a significant increase in NE excretion, but non-significant alterations in E excretion. Similar changes were noted in normotensive controls. In patients with cerebral hemorrhage, almost all hypertensive, and in hypertensive controls, ES brought about a consistent rise in E excretion without influencing significantly the NE excretion. The presence of a constant increase in E excretion after a mild emotion not only in patients with cerebral hemorrhage but also in subjects with uncomplicated essential hypertension, suggests that the E release found in patients with cerebral hemorrhage is related to the hypertensive state pre-existing the stroke rather than to hemorrhagic stroke itself. The pattern of catecholamine discharge in hypertensive patients might play a part in the occurrence of cerebral hemorrhagic accidents. The epinephrine discharges induce sudden increases in systolic blood pressure which could lead to the rupture of cerebral vessels with hyalinotic or atherosclerotic alterations. PMID:7245303

  8. Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of vitamins, minerals and nitrogen by Eskimos.

    PubMed

    Ellestad-Sayed, J; Hildes, J A; Schaefer, O; Lobban, M C

    1975-12-01

    In 1971-1972, urines were collected over 24 hours from ambulatory Iglooligmiut who ranged in age from 6 to 76 years. Collections were made every 3-4 months over a calendar year. The mean of each individual's two to four collections was used as the best estimate of that person's average daily excretion for nitrogen, thiamin, riboflavin, N'-methylnicotinamide, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. The excretion of the three B vitamins by all age groups was high when compared with interpretive standards. Urea nitrogen comprised 80-90% of total nitrogen excreted by all age groups. Twenty-four-hour mineral excretions did not differ with age and sex group except that adult men excreted significantly more phosphorus. Urinary urea nitrogen and phosphorus were linearly related, suggesting that they have a common source; namely, meat. Winter was generally the season of lowest excretion of the nutrients assayed. Since these nutrients are available from imported foods, particularly during the winter, it would appear that even in the winter the Iglooligmiut are more dependent on hunting and fishing for sources of these nutrients than on the well-stocked commercial grocery outlets. PMID:803002

  9. Decreased urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion following alfuzosin treatment on ureteral stent-related symptoms: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shucheng; Yu, Ying; Gao, Yang; Yang, Xiong; Pang, Zili

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate changes in ureteral stent-related symptoms and urinary glycosaminoglycan (GAG) excretion after alfuzosin treatment, and to further investigate the relationship between stent-related symptoms and loss of urinary GAGs. Seventy consecutive patients scheduled for unilateral retrograde ureteroscopy with stent placement were recruited. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with alfuzosin 10 mg/day or placebo for 3 weeks starting on the third postoperative day. The ureteral stent was removed when treatment stopped. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), visual analog scale (VAS) score, and urinary GAG excretion were determined before treatment at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after treatment, and at 3 weeks after stent removal. Fifty-nine patients completed the study. IPSS, VAS score, and urinary GAG excretion were significantly lower in the alfuzosin group, compared with the placebo group, at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after treatment (P < 0.01). In both groups, IPSS, VAS score, and urinary GAG excretion were significantly lower at 3 weeks after stent removal compared with those before stent removal. No significant differences in IPSS, VAS score, or urinary GAG excretion were observed between the two groups at baseline and 3 weeks after stent removal (P > 0.05). Positive correlations were found between urinary GAG excretion (R (2) = 0.65, P < 0.001) and IPSS and between urinary GAG excretion and VAS score (R (2) = 0.33, P < 0.001). Stent placement contributes to loss of urinary GAGs. However, alfuzosin effectively reduces such loss and improves ureteral stent-related symptoms. Loss of urinary GAGs plays a role in these symptoms. PMID:26242466

  10. Air pollution and urinary thioether excretion in children of Barcelona

    SciTech Connect

    Mallol, J.; Nogues, M.R. )

    1991-06-01

    The polluted environment found in highly industrialized areas and in big cities contains a great quantity of electrophilic (EC) and proelectrophilic (PEC) compounds, which largely contribute to the development of several pathological processes in humans. EC and PEC can be coupled to the cysteine moiety of glutathione spontaneously or by the glutathione S-transferase system (GST), giving nontoxic metabolites that can be eliminated as urinary thioethers (UT). Therefore one approach to establishing the degree of impact of EC and PEC on the human body is the analysis of UT in the population living in polluted environments. The work presented here has been carried out in the city of Barcelona with a group of 50 children living in a polluted area, over a 12-mo period. Our results demonstrate that UT are significantly higher when the amounts of air pollutants (AP) increase; although the level of contamination never exceeded the established safe limits, UT reached values similar to those found in people smoking more than 10 cigarettes/d. These results may contribute to establishing the maximal levels of contamination compatible with a healthy life, on the basis of patterns of true salubrity rather than on political and economic criteria.

  11. Urinary excretion of mevalonic acid as an indicator of cholesterol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lindenthal, B; Simatupang, A; Dotti, M T; Federico, A; Lütjohann, D; von Bergmann, K

    1996-10-01

    Urinary excretion of mevalonic acid was investigated as an indicator of cholesterol synthesis. In normolipemic volunteers, excretion of mevalonic acid averaged 3.51 +/- 0.59 (SD) micrograms/kg x day1; (n = 24) and was not different from patients with hypercholesterolemia (3.30 +/- 0.92 micrograms/kg x day1; n = 24). In patients with cerebrotendineous xanthomatosis, the excretion was significantly higher (8.55 +/- 1.92 micrograms/kg x day1; n = 6, P < 0.001) but comparable to volunteers treated with cholestyramine (6.69 +/- 2.6 micrograms/kg x day1; n = 5). A significant correlation was found between 24-h excretion of mevalonic acid and cholesterol synthesis (r = 0.835; n = 35; P < 0.001). The coefficient of variation of excretion of mevalonic acid during 3 consecutive days was small (9.8%; n = 7). However, urinary output of mevalonic acid was significantly higher during the night (164 +/- 14 micrograms/12-h) than during the day (129 +/- 9 micrograms/12-h; n = 11; P < 0.05). In patients treated with simvastatin (40 mg/day) for 6 weeks, the ratio of mevalonic acid to creatinine in a morning urine sample decreased significantly compared to pretreatment values (110 +/- 25 micrograms/g vs. 66 +/- 25 micrograms/g; P < 0.001). Furthermore, the ratio of mevalonic acid to creatinine in a morning urine sample correlated with the ratio from the 24-h collection period (r = 0.714; n = 34; P < 0.001). The results indicate that the analysis of urinary mevalonic acid, either in 24-h collection or in a single morning sample, is an attractive method for evaluation of long and very short term changes of the rates of cholesterol synthesis. PMID:8906596

  12. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286–4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the

  13. Active tumor-targeting luminescent gold clusters with efficient urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; He, Hua; Wang, Yanan; Wang, Junying; Sun, Xing; Xu, Hai; Nau, Werner M; Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Fang

    2016-07-28

    We present novel active targeting luminescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs), which are prepared through a one-pot procedure by using a pentapeptide (CRGDS) for stabilization and tumor recognition. CRGDS-AuNCs exhibit a high tumor-specific retention with an exceptionally high tumor-to-liver uptake ratio of 9.3. Their small hydrodynamic diameter and zwitterionic surface facilitate urinary excretion, which reaches 82% within 24 h after injection. PMID:27354156

  14. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion and dietary intake: a cross-sectional analysis in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Padrão, Patrícia; Pinho, Olívia; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Santos, Rute; Moreira, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the leading cause for heart disease and stroke, for mortality and morbidity worldwide, and a high sodium-to-potassium intake ratio is considered a stronger risk factor for hypertension than sodium alone. Objective This study aims to evaluate sodium and potassium urinary excretion, and assess the food sources of these nutrients in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Design A cross-sectional study with a sample of 250 Portuguese adolescents. Sodium and potassium excretion were measured by one 24-h urinary collection, and the coefficient of creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. Dietary sources of sodium and potassium were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Results Valid urine collections were provided by 200 adolescents (118 girls) with a median age of 14.0 in both sexes (p=0.295). Regarding sodium, the mean urinary excretion was 3,725 mg/day in boys and 3,062 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 9.8% of boys and 22% of girls met the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for sodium intake. Concerning potassium, the mean urinary excretion was 2,237 mg/day in boys and 1,904 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 6.1% of boys and 1.7% of girls met the WHO recommendations for potassium intake. Major dietary sources for sodium intake were cereal and cereal products (41%), meat products (16%), and milk and milk products (11%); and for potassium intake, main sources were milk and milk products (21%), meat products (17%), and vegetables (15%). Conclusions Adolescents had a high-sodium and low-potassium diet, well above the WHO recommendations. Health promotion interventions are needed in order to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake. PMID:27072344

  15. Urinary iron excretion induced by intravenous infusion of deferoxamine in beta-thalassemia homozygous patients.

    PubMed

    Boturao-Neto, E; Marcopito, L F; Zago, M A

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify noninvasive methods to evaluate the severity of iron overload in transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia and the efficiency of intensive intravenous therapy as an additional tool for the treatment of iron-overloaded patients. Iron overload was evaluated for 26 beta-thalassemia homozygous patients, and 14 of them were submitted to intensive chelation therapy with high doses of intravenous deferoxamine (DF). Patients were classified into six groups of increasing clinical severity and were divided into compliant and non-compliant patients depending on their adherence to chronic chelation treatment. Several methods were used as indicators of iron overload. Total gain of transfusion iron, plasma ferritin, and urinary iron excretion in response to 20 to 60 mg/day subcutaneous DF for 8 to 12 h daily are useful to identify iron overload; however, urinary iron excretion in response to 9 g intravenous DF over 24 h and the increase of urinary iron excretion induced by high doses of the chelator are more reliable to identify different degrees of iron overload because of their correlation with the clinical grades of secondary hemochromatosis and the significant differences observed between the groups of compliant and non-compliant patients. Finally, the use of 3-9 g intravenous DF for 6-12 days led to a urinary iron excretion corresponding to 4.1 to 22.4% of the annual transfusion iron gain. Therefore, continuous intravenous DF at high doses may be an additional treatment for these patients, as a complement to the regular subcutaneous infusion at home, but requires individual planning and close monitoring of adverse reactions. PMID:12426631

  16. Oral intake of ranitidine increases urinary excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2016-06-01

    The H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, is among the most widely used pharmaceuticals to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcers. While previous studies have demonstrated that amines can form N-nitrosamines when exposed to nitrite at stomach-relevant pH, N-nitrosamine formation from ranitidine, an amine-based pharmaceutical, has not been demonstrated under these conditions. In this work, we confirmed the production of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potent carcinogen, by nitrosation of ranitidine under stomach-relevant pH conditions in vitro We also evaluated the urinary NDMA excretion attributable to ingestion of clinically used ranitidine doses. Urine samples collected from five female and five male, healthy adult volunteers over 24-h periods before and after consumption of 150mg ranitidine were analyzed for residual ranitidine, ranitidine metabolites, NDMA, total N-nitrosamines and dimethylamine. Following ranitidine intake, the urinary NDMA excreted over 24h increased 400-folds from 110 to 47 600ng, while total N-nitrosamines increased 5-folds. NDMA excretion rates after ranitidine intake equaled or exceeded those observed previously in patients with schistosomiasis, a disease wherein N-nitrosamines are implicated as the etiological agents for bladder cancer. Due to metabolism within the body, urinary NDMA measurements represent a lower-bound estimate of systemic NDMA exposure. Our results suggest a need to evaluate the risks attributable to NDMA associated with chronic consumption of ranitidine, and to identify alternative treatments that minimize exposure to N-nitrosamines. PMID:26992900

  17. Behavioral and Perceived Stressor Effects on Urinary Catecholamine Excretion in Adult Samoans

    PubMed Central

    Bergey, Meredith R.; Steele, Matthew S.; Bereiter, David A.; Viali, Satupaitea; McGarvey, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The effects of perceptions and behaviors related to culturally-patterned socioeconomic obligations on catecholamine excretion rates were studied in a cross-sectional sample of Samoan adults. Methods 378 participants, ages 29-62 years, from 9 villages throughout Samoa, provided timed overnight urine specimens, and self-reported perceptions and behaviors associated with contributions to one's family, aiga, and chief, matai, and communal gift exchanges, fa'alavelave. Urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine excretion rates were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Age (≤40 vs. >40 years) and gender-specific regression models were estimated to detect associations with catecholamine excretion. Results Young women who contribute more to their matai, who consider fa'alavelave to be a financial strain, and who view their contribution to their matai to be ‘just right’, had significantly higher residence-adjusted norepinephrine excretion. Young women who contribute more to their matai, who consider fa'alavelave to be a financial strain, and who consider their contribution to their aiga not to be a burden, had higher epinephrine excretion. Older men who contribute more to their aiga and who perceive their contribution to their aiga to be ‘just right’ had increased residence-adjusted epinephrine excretion. Conclusions Individual-level perceptions and behaviors related to traditional socioeconomic obligations are a significant correlate of increased overnight catecholamine excretion rates. Higher excretion rates may be attributed to psychosocial stress arousal associated with a discordance between personal desires for upward social mobility, and family and community-based socioeconomic obligations. Changes in patterns of individual-level psychosocial stress arousal may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk in modernizing Samoans. PMID:21793091

  18. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yaguang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Chen, Hui; Bo, Jian; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    24-h urinary sodium excretion is the gold standard for evaluating dietary sodium intake, but it is often not feasible in large epidemiological studies due to high participant burden and cost. Three methods-Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka-have been proposed to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these methods have not been validated in the general Chinese population. This aim of this study was to assess the validity of three methods for estimating 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples against measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion in a Chinese sample population. Data are from a substudy of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study that enrolled 120 participants aged 35 to 70 years and collected their morning fasting urine and 24-h urine specimens. Bias calculations (estimated values minus measured values) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity of the three estimation methods. 116 participants were included in the final analysis. Mean bias for the Kawasaki method was -740 mg/day (95% CI: -1219, 262 mg/day), and was the lowest among the three methods. Mean bias for the Tanaka method was -2305 mg/day (95% CI: -2735, 1875 mg/day). Mean bias for the INTERSALT method was -2797 mg/day (95% CI: -3245, 2349 mg/day), and was the highest of the three methods. Bland-Altman plots indicated that all three methods underestimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urines all underestimated true 24-h urinary sodium excretion in this sample of Chinese adults. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was least biased, but was still relatively inaccurate. A more accurate method is needed to estimate the 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine for assessment of dietary sodium intake in China. PMID:26895296

  19. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yaguang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Chen, Hui; Bo, Jian; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    24-h urinary sodium excretion is the gold standard for evaluating dietary sodium intake, but it is often not feasible in large epidemiological studies due to high participant burden and cost. Three methods—Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka—have been proposed to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these methods have not been validated in the general Chinese population. This aim of this study was to assess the validity of three methods for estimating 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples against measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion in a Chinese sample population. Data are from a substudy of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study that enrolled 120 participants aged 35 to 70 years and collected their morning fasting urine and 24-h urine specimens. Bias calculations (estimated values minus measured values) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity of the three estimation methods. 116 participants were included in the final analysis. Mean bias for the Kawasaki method was -740 mg/day (95% CI: -1219, 262 mg/day), and was the lowest among the three methods. Mean bias for the Tanaka method was -2305 mg/day (95% CI: -2735, 1875 mg/day). Mean bias for the INTERSALT method was -2797 mg/day (95% CI: -3245, 2349 mg/day), and was the highest of the three methods. Bland-Altman plots indicated that all three methods underestimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urines all underestimated true 24-h urinary sodium excretion in this sample of Chinese adults. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was least biased, but was still relatively inaccurate. A more accurate method is needed to estimate the 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine for assessment of dietary sodium intake in China. PMID:26895296

  20. Ecological and sociodemographic effects on urinary catecholamine excretion in adult Samoans

    PubMed Central

    Bergey, Meredith R.; Steele, Matthew S.; Bereiter, David A.; Viali, Satupaitea; McGarvey, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ecological and sociodemographic correlates of stress may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk in modernizing Samoans. Aim The effects of peri-urban vs rural residence, education, occupation, caffeine intake and cigarette consumption on urinary catecholamine excretion were studied in Samoan adults. Subjects and methods Five hundred and seven participants, aged 29–69 years, were randomly selected from nine villages throughout Samoa. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaire. Epinephrine and norepinephrine excretion rates were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in overnight urine samples. Age (≤40 vs >40 years) and gender-specific regression models were estimated to detect associations with BMI-adjusted catecholamine excretion. Results Norepinephrine was significantly higher in peri-urban young men and older women. Epinephrine was significantly higher in peri-urban older men. Adjustment for caffeine attenuated the relationship between residence and norepinephrine in young women. Conclusion General residential exposure to modernization in urban villages is a significant correlate of increased overnight catecholamine excretion rates and is consistent with past studies. Caffeine consumption in younger women plays a complex role in stress-related catecholamine excretion. Further studies of individual level attitudinal and behavioural factors in Samoans are needed to understand psychosocial stress, physiologic arousal and health. PMID:20836724

  1. Urinary corticosteroid excretion predicts left ventricular mass and proteinuria in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Freel, E Marie; Mark, Patrick B; Fraser, Robert; Patel, Rajan K; Dargie, Henry G; Connell, John M C; Jardine, Alan G

    2012-09-01

    Blockade of the MR (mineralocorticoid receptor) in CKD (chronic kidney disease) reduces LVMI [LV (left ventricular) mass index] and proteinuria. The MR can be activated by aldosterone, cortisol and DOC (deoxycorticosterone). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of mineralocorticoids on LVMI and proteinuria in patients with CKD. A total of 70 patients with CKD and 30 patients with EH (essential hypertension) were recruited. Patients underwent clinical phenotyping; biochemical assessment and 24 h urinary collection for THAldo (tetrahydroaldosterone), THDOC (tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone), cortisol metabolites (measured using GC-MS), and urinary electrolytes and protein [QP (proteinuira quantification)]. LVMI was measured using CMRI (cardiac magnetic resonance imaging). Factors that correlated significantly with LVMI and proteinuria were entered into linear regression models. In patients with CKD, significant predictors of LVMI were male gender, SBP (systolic blood pressure), QP, and THAldo and THDOC excretion. Significant independent predictors on multivariate analysis were THDOC excretion, SBP and male gender. In EH, no association was seen between THAldo or THDOC and LVMI; plasma aldosterone concentration was the only significant independent predictor. Significant univariate determinants of proteinuria in patients with CKD were THAldo, THDOC, USod (urinary sodium) and SBP. Only THAldo excretion and SBP were significant multivariate determinants. Using CMRI to determine LVMI we have demonstrated that THDOC is a novel independent predictor of LVMI in patients with CKD, differing from patients with EH. Twenty-four hour THAldo excretion is an independent determinant of proteinuria in patients with CKD. These findings emphasize the importance of MR activation in the pathogenesis of the adverse clinical phenotype in CKD. PMID:22397469

  2. Urinary excretion of uranium in adult inhabitants of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Malátová, Irena; Bečková, Věra; Kotík, Lukáš

    2016-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine and evaluate urinary excretion of uranium in the general public of the Czech Republic. This value should serve as a baseline for distinguishing possible increase in uranium content in population living near legacy sites of mining and processing uranium ores and also to help to distinguish the proportion of the uranium content in urine among uranium miners resulting from inhaled dust. The geometric mean of the uranium concentration in urine of 74 inhabitants of the Czech Republic was 0.091 mBq/L (7.4 ng/L) with the 95% confidence interval 0.071-0.12 mBq/L (5.7-9.6 ng/L) respectively. The geometric mean of the daily excretion was 0.15 mBq/d (12.4 ng/d) with the 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.20 mBq/d (9.5-16.1 ng/d) respectively. Despite the legacy of uranium mines and plants processing uranium ore in the Czech Republic, the levels of uranium in urine and therefore, also human body content of uranium, is similar to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA. Significant difference in the daily urinary excretion of uranium was found between individuals using public supply and private water wells as a source of drinking water. Age dependence of daily urinary excretion of uranium was not found. Mean values and their range are comparable to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA. PMID:26650830

  3. Urinary isothiocyanate excretion, brassica consumption, and gene polymorphisms among women living in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Fowke, Jay H; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Dai, Qi; Shintani, Ayumi; Conaway, C Clifford; Chung, Fung-Lung; Cai, Qiuyin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2003-12-01

    Alternative measures of Brassica vegetable consumption (e.g., cabbage) may clarify the association between Brassica and cancer risk. Brassica isothiocyanates (ITCs) are excreted in urine and may provide a sensitive and food-specific dietary biomarker. However, the persistence of ITCs in the body may be brief and dependent on the activity of several Phase II enzymes, raising questions about the relationship between a single ITC measure and habitual dietary patterns. This study investigates the association between urinary ITC excretion and habitual Brassica consumption, estimated by a food frequency questionnaire, among healthy Chinese women enrolled in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Participants (n = 347) completed a validated food frequency questionnaire querying habitual dietary intake during the prior 5 years and provided a fasting first-morning urine specimen. Genetic deletion of glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1/GSTT1), and single nucleotide substitutions in GSTP1 (A313G) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1: C609T), were identified from blood DNA. Urinary ITC excretion levels were marginally higher with the GSTT1-null or GSTP1-G/G genotypes (P = 0.07, P = 0.05, respectively). Mean habitual Brassica intake was 98.3 g/day, primarily as bok choy, and Brassica intake significantly increased across quartile categories of ITC levels. The association between habitual Brassica intake and urinary ITC levels was stronger among women with GSTT1-null or GSTP1-A/A genotypes, or NQO1 T-allele, and the interaction was statistically significant across GSTP1 genotype. In conclusion, a single urinary ITC measure, in conjunction with markers of Phase II enzyme activity, provides a complementary measure of habitual Brassica intake among Shanghai women. PMID:14693750

  4. Impact of supervised cardiac rehabilitation on urinary albumin excretion in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Sahika; Ueda, Yuka; Ise, Takayuki; Yagi, Shusuke; Iwase, Takashi; Nishikawa, Koji; Yamaguchi, Koji; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Katoh, Shinsuke; Akaike, Masashi; Yasui, Natsuo; Sata, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    Urinary albumin excretion is a predictor of cardiovascular death. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) with exercise training (ET) has been shown to improve exercise capacity and prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it remains unclear whether CR reduces urinary albumin excretion in CVD patients. We performed a retrospective, observational study using data obtained from 98 male CVD patients without macroalbuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 30 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) who participated in CR with ET during hospitalization. Twenty-three patients continued supervised ET for 6 months (supervised group) and 75 patients quit supervised ET (non-supervised group). The supervised ET program consisted of 60 minutes of supervised sessions 1-3 times a week and 30-60 minutes of home exercise at least twice a week. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) was significantly decreased in the supervised group at 6 months after enrollment (43 ± 71 mg/g to 17 ± 20 mg/g creatinine, P < 0.05) but not in the non-supervised group. eGFR was unchanged in the supervised group but was significantly decreased in the non-supervised group (72 ± 18 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) to 67 ± 17 mL/minute/1.73 m(2), P < 0.001). The results of multiple regression analysis showed that only supervised ET was an independent contributor to ΔACR. CR with supervised ET decreased urinary albumin excretion without deterioration of renal function. These findings suggest that continuation of a supervised ET program is associated with reduction in the development of CVD and reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in CVD patients. PMID:25742947

  5. Cortisol-mediated synchronization of circadian rhythm in urinary potassium excretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore-Ede, M. C.; Schmelzer, W. S.; Kass, D. A.; Herd, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Conscious chair-acclimatized squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) studied with lights on (600 lx) from 0800 to 2000 hr daily (LD 12:12) display a prominent circadian rhythm in renal potassium excretion. The characteristics of this rhythm were reproduced in adrenalectomized monkeys by infusing 5 mg cortisol and 0.001 mg aldosterone, or 5 mg cortisol alone, between 0800 and 0900 kr daily. When the timing of cortisol administration (with or without aldosterone) was phase-delayed by 8 hr, the urinary potassium rhythm resynchronized by 80% of the cortisol phase shift, but only after a transient response lasting 3-4 days. With the same daily dose of adrenal steroids given as a continuous infusion throughout each 24 hr, urinary potassium excretion showed free-running oscillations no longer synchronized to the light-dark cycle. These results indicate that the circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol concentration acts as an internal mediator in the circadian timing system, synchronizing a potentially autonomous oscillation in renal potassium excretion to environmental time cues and to other circadian rhythms within the animal.

  6. Urinary excretion of hydroxylysine and its glycosides as an index of collagen degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Krane, S M; Kantrowitz, F G; Byrne, M; Pinnell, S R; Singer, F R

    1977-01-01

    Urimary excretion of hydroxyprolin (Hyp) is one index of total collagen degradation, from all sources. Since some of the Hyp released from collagen may be further metabolized before it is excreted, other markers are necessary to measure collagen breakdown. Excretion of the glycosides of hydroxylysine (Hyl), glucosyl galactosyl hydroxylysine (Hy1[Gl)cGa1]), and galactosyl hydroxylysine (Hyl[Ga)]), more accurately reflects collagen metabolism since these products occur in specificratios in different tissue collagens and are themselves metabolized only to a minor degree. The ratios of total Hy1/Hyp and Hyl(GlcGal)/Hyl(Ga1) were measured in the urine of norma. subjects and of patients with Paget's disease of bone, hyperphosphatasia, and extensive thermal burns. In patients with extensive thermal burns the pattern of urinary Hy1 and its glycosides was consistent with degradation of collagen in dermis and fascia. When bone collagen degradation was dominant, the pattern of urinary metabolites reflected that source. Pagetic bone collagen has an amino acid composition similar to normal bone and Hy1(G1cGa1/Hyl(G1) of 0.396-0.743,vs. normal of 0.474+/-0.088. In untreated patients with severe Paget's disease of bone or hyperphosphatasia (urinary Hyp greater than 2.0 micronmol/mg creatinine) urinary Hyl/Hyp averaged 0.052+/-0.042 (0.042+/-0.009 in normal bone) and Hy1(G1cGa1)/Hy1(Ga1) 0.601+/-0.017 (0.47+/-0.009 in normal bone). When bone resorption was decreased sufficiently with calcitonin or disodium etidronate in these patients, both the urinary ratios of Hy1/Hyp and Hy1(G1cGa1)/Hyl(Gal) rose. In normal subjects treated with calcitonin and excreting relatively little Hyp, the ratio of Hy1/H)P approached 0.7 and Hy1(G1ycGa1)/Hy1(Ga1) approached 3.5. There increased ratios reveal the existence of a source of collagen breakdown other than skin or bone. The first subcompoent of complement, Clq, which has collagen-like sequences, relatively high amounts of Hy1, and most of the

  7. The effect of zinc supplementation on the urinary excretion of elements in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Eskici, Gunay; Gunay, Mehmet; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to find out how oral zinc supplementation to elite athletes affects the element changes in the urine. The study registered 10 female athletes who were on the women's volleyball team of Gazi University Sports Club and whose mean age, weight, and height were 14.2±0.42 years, 59.8±7.79kg and 173.6±6.15 cm. The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee. The athletes who continued their daily routine training sessions (6 days/week) were supplemented with 220mg/day oral zinc sulfate for 4 weeks. In order to induce exhaustion, the subjects were put to a 20-meter shuttle run test before and after supplementation. A total, 7 times urine samples were collected follows as pre and post exercise before the start of the experiment and at the end (4 times), at the end of first, second and third week (3 times). Urinary levels of magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium (mg/dl), as well as zinc, copper, and selenium (μg/dl) were analyzed in the atomic emission device (ICP-MS). Arithmetic means and standard errors of the data were calculated. Kruskal Wallis test was used to determine differences between weeks. Values for which p<0,05 were considered significant. When compared to resting values, urinary excretion of copper and selenium decreased in exercise (p<0,05), but increased with zinc supplementation (p<0,05). Pre- and post-supplementation exercise resulted in reduced urinary zinc excretion (p<0,05). Zinc supplementation increased urinary zinc excretion in one-week intervals over the course of 4 weeks (p<0,05), and reduced selenium levels (p<0,05). When zinc is supplemented to athletes, the relation between the duration and dose of supplementation is important. The results of the study indicated that zinc does not have any negative effect on the urinary excretion of the concerned elements. It can thus be concluded that athletes may benefit from zinc support. PMID:26826808

  8. Transient Exposure of Enalapril Normalizes Prenatal Programming of Hypertension and Urinary Angiotensinogen Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Asifhusen; Elmaghrabi, Ayah; Legan, Susan K.; Gattineni, Jyothsna; Baum, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Maternal low protein diet programs offspring to develop hypertension as adults. Transient exposure to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers can result in improvement in hypertension. Male rats whose mothers received a low protein diet during the last half of pregnancy were given either vehicle, continuous enalapril (CE) in their drinking water or were given transient enalapril exposure (TE) after weaning at 21 days of age. The TE group had enalapril in their drinking water for 21 days starting from day 21 of life. All rats were studied at 6 months of age. Vehicle treated rats whose mothers were fed a low protein diet were hypertensive, had albuminuria, and demonstrated upregulation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system as evidenced by higher urinary angiotensinogen and urinary angiotensin II levels. In low protein rats both continuous and transient exposure to enalapril normalized blood pressure, urinary angiotensinogen and urinary angiotensin II levels at 6 months of age, but only continuous administration of enalapril decreased urinary albumin excretion. These data support the importance of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system in mediating hypertension in programmed rats and transient exposure to enalapril can reprogram the hypertension and dysregulation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system. PMID:26719973

  9. Urinary chromium excretion in response to an insulin challenge is not a biomarker for chromium status.

    PubMed

    Love, Sharifa T; Di Bona, Kristin R; Sinha, Sarmistha Halder; McAdory, DeAna; Skinner, Brittany R; Rasco, Jane F; Vincent, John B

    2013-04-01

    Over 50 years ago, chromium (Cr) was proposed to be an essential trace element; however, recent studies indicate that this status should be removed as the effects of Cr supplementation appear to be pharmacological rather than nutritional. The pharmacological basis for Cr's effects can explain the inability of investigators to discover a biomarker for Cr status. One potential biomarker has not been examined to date. Cr is known to be mobilized in the body in response to insulin (or insulin release in response to a glucose challenge), resulting in an increase in urinary Cr excretion. The magnitude of increase in urinary Cr loss as a function of dietary Cr intake was tested as a potential biomarker for Cr. Zucker lean rats housed in carefully controlled metal-free conditions were provided a series of purified diets containing variable Cr contents (from 16 μg/kg diet to 2,000 μg/kg) for 23 weeks. The 16 μg/kg diet contained less Cr than any diet examined to date. Urine samples were collected before and after insulin and glucose challenges (0, 2, 6, and 12 h postinjection). Urinary Cr levels were analyzed by the standard method of addition using graphite furnace atomic absorption. The rate of urinary Cr loss after a glucose or insulin challenge was found to not be dependent on the Cr content of the rats' diets. Blood iron levels of the rats were also measured to determine if the addition of Cr to the diet altered iron status. The Cr content of the diet was found to have no affect on blood iron levels. Overall, the study demonstrated that insulin-stimulated urinary Cr excretion cannot be used as a biomarker for Cr status. PMID:23296902

  10. Urinary excretion values in 2-day food-deprived, unrestrained chimpanzees.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnew, J. J.; Sabbot, I. M.; Hoshizaki, T.; Mandell, A. J.; Spooner, C. E.; Marcus, I.; Adey, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the baseline 24-hr urinary excretion values in the young, unrestrained chimpanzee, and also changes in urinary values, if any, induced by the two-day food deprivation stress. Urine was analyzed for volume, osmolarity, creatinine, creatine, urea nitrogen, 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), calcium, and inorganic phosphorus. Significant increases due to food deprivation stress were observed for volume, creatine, urea nitrogen, 17-OHCS, VMA, and phosphorus values, with significant decreases in osmolarity and calcium. All values approached normal levels by the second poststress day. No significant changes were observed in creatinine. A comparison is drawn between human and chimpanzee adaptation to stress.

  11. [The effect of dopaminergic stimulation and inhibition on the urinary excretion of aldosterone and kallikrein in spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    PubMed

    Minuz, P; Gangi, F; Degan, M; Lechi, C; Delva, P; Lechi, A

    1983-10-30

    The effect on the electrolyte balance of a dopaminergic agonist (bromocriptine) and an antagonist (metoclopramide) and their effect on renal aldosterone and kallikrein excretion were investigated. Ten normotensive Wistar rats and ten spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-Wistar Kioto) were treated with BCR (4 mg/Kg weight b.i.d.) for 4 days; after a week of pharmacological wash-out they received MCP (0,5 mg/Kg weight b.i.d.) for 4 days. Before and after treatment and at the 2nd and 4th day of each treatment diuresis, urinary excretion of aldosterone, kallikrein, sodium, potassium and proteins were measured. During the 24-hour urine collections the rats were kept in separate metabolic cages with free access to food and water. Kallikrein urinary excretion was lower in SHR than in normotensive rats under basal conditions (p 0.05); urinary sodium, potassium, proteins and sodium/potassium rate were also reduced in SHR. After treatment with bromocriptine a further reduction in urinary kallikrein excretion was observed in SHR. After MCP all the parameters were unchanged both in normotensive rats and in SHR, but SHR showed a significant correlation between aldosterone and kallikrein excretion (p less than 0,001); in this condition it seems that in SHR the control exerted by aldosterone on kallikrein excretion is greater than the one exerted by dopamine. It may indicate a defect of the natriuretic and vasodilator dopaminergic system in spontaneously hypertensive rats. PMID:6559080

  12. Urinary excretion and daily intake rates of diethyl phthalate in the general Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Saravanabhavan, Gurusankar; Walker, Mike; Guay, Mireille; Aylward, Lesa

    2014-12-01

    We have analyzed the trends in the body-weight-adjusted urinary monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations and the diethyl ethyl phthalate (DEP) daily intake estimates in the general Canadian population (aged 6-49 years) using the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007-2009 dataset. The creatinine correction approach, as well as the urine volume approach in a simple one compartment model were used to calculate the daily urinary MEP excretion rates and DEP intake rates in individual survey participants. Using multiple regression models, we have estimated least square geometric means (LSGMs) of body-weight-adjusted MEP concentration, daily excretion and intake rates among different age groups and sex. We observed that body weight affects the trends in the MEP concentrations significantly among children (aged 6-11 years), adolescents (aged 12-19 years) and adults (aged 20-49 years). The body-weight-adjusted MEP concentrations in children were significantly higher than those in adults. On the other hand the DEP daily intakes in children were significantly lower than those in adults. We did not observe any differences in the DEP daily intake rates between males and females. Although the urinary MEP concentrations are correlated well with DEP daily intake estimates in the overall population, one should be cautious when directly using the urinary concentrations to compare the intake trends in the sub-populations (e.g. children vs. adults) as these trends are governed by additional physiological factors. The DEP daily intake calculated using the creatinine approach and that using the urine volume approach were similar to each other. The estimated geometric mean and 95th percentile of DEP daily intake in the general Canadian population are 2 and 20 μg/kg-bw/day, respectively. These daily intake estimates are significantly lower than the US Environmental Protection Agency's oral reference dose of 800 μg/kg-bw/day. PMID:25217994

  13. Urinary sodium excretion in patients with nephrotic syndrome, and its circadian variation.

    PubMed

    Koopman, M G; Koomen, G C; van Acker, B A; Arisz, L

    1994-02-01

    We analysed sodium excretion and its circadian variation in 70 patients with nephrotic syndrome and 19 healthy controls over 1-3 days, with a regimen of bed rest and constant sodium intake around the clock. We sampled urine and blood and took their blood pressure every 3 h. We also scored 60 renal biopsies for presence of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Peripheral oedema was estimated in 37 patients. Fifty-nine patients excreted > 10 mmol sodium per 24 h, in equilibrium with dietary intake. In group A (n = 24), sodium excretion followed a normal circadian rhythm, with a daytime peak. In group B (n = 35), 29 had reversed circadian rhythm with a night-time peak, and 6 had no apparent rhythm. Nephrotic syndrome was more severe in group B than in A (serum albumin 19.5 vs. 24.1 g/l, p < 0.05; oedema 7.0 vs. 3.8 kg, p < 0.01). Group B also had signs of more advanced renal disease (GFR 49 vs. 99 ml/min; number of biopsies with tubulo-interstitial damage: 20/28 vs. 4/23; p < 0.001). Reversed sodium rhythm was associated with reversed circadian rhythms for GFR, effective renal plasma flow and urine flow, and blunting or reversal of the day-night differences in blood pressure and plasma renin activity. Eleven patients had urinary sodium excretion < 1 mmol/24 h. With respect to severity of nephrosis, they resembled group B, but GFR and incidence of tubulointerstitial lesions were like group A. Half of the patients with nephrotic syndrome had reversed circadian rhythm for sodium excretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8153287

  14. [Pitfalls in measuring urinary proteins: age-related changes in urinary creatinine excretion that affect the urine protein/creatinine ratio].

    PubMed

    Yuno, Tomoji; Hisada, Yukimasa; Nishimura, Yasuyuki

    2011-02-01

    Knowing the amount of protein excreted in the urine is important in determining the severity and activity of renal diseases. In general, screening tests have been carried out using the urine dipstick. However, there are limitations in determining the amount of urinary protein excretion using qualitative tests for protein in spot urine samples due to the concentration and dilution of urine. Therefore, when using spot urine samples, it is helpful to calculate the urine protein/creatinine ratio (P/C) by simultaneous measurement of urinary creatinine for determining daily protein excretion. We examined P/C measurements using the dipstick method in 22,718 subjects who visited our hospital for health examinations. The results showed positive rates for qualitative urinary protein (1 + and more) of 4.2% for males and 2.7% for females. Also positive rates for P/C (150 mg/g.cre and more) were found of 7.7% for males and 10.2% for females. The results showed a reversal of positive rates for males and females compared with the results of qualitative urinary protein. In addition, P/C showed a higher positive rate in 70 years old or older both for males and females. The distribution of urinary creatinine levels simultaneously measured by dipstick method showed that the percentage of diluted urine with urinary creatinine level less than 50 mg/dL was 6.8% for males and 18.3% for females overall. Females showed a higher rate and the percentage tended to increase with age both for males and females. From these results, it was suggested that changes in urinary creatinine excretion with age that affect the P/C ratio are large. We then measured the albumin excretion rate in the 24-hour urine as well as examined the correlation between the urinary creatinine concentration and albumin index with regard to age and sex in 1,280 diabetic patients. The results showed that daily urinary creatinine excretion overall in males, overall in females, in males over 80 years old and in females over

  15. Effect of an acute oral ibuprofen intake on urinary aquaporin-2 excretion in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, R S; Bentzen, H; Bech, J N; Pedersen, E B

    2001-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase and thereby block the prostaglandin (PG) synthesis in the kidneys. In animals, PG interferes with the formation of aquaporin 2 in the distal renal tubules. The purpose was to measure the effect of ibuprofen on urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 (u-AQP2), urinary output, urinary osmolality (u-osm) and plasma concentration of vasopressin (AVP) in a dose-response study using placebo and ibuprofen 600mg and 1200mg. In 12 healthy subjects, urine was collected in 6 periods between 07.00 h and 13.00 h, and blood samples were drawn at 60-min intervals. The study medication was given 10 h and 1 h before the study. U-AQP2 and AVP were determined by radioimmunoassays. U-AQP2 decreased 33% in the placebo group and increased 47% in the ibuprofen groups. There was a highly significant difference between the placebo group, on the one hand, and the ibuprofen groups, on the other. There was a small but significant increase in AVP in the placebo group and the 600 mg ibuprofen group, but not in the 1200 mg ibuprofen group. Urinary output was at maximum after 2 h, with a 394%, 1020% and 714% increase for placebo, 600 mg ibuprofen and 1200 mg ibuprofen, respectively. U-osm decreased during the experiment in all three groups. Inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by ibuprofen affects the distal part of the nephron by increasing u-AQP2. This increase was not related to changes in AVP, urinary output or urinary osmolality. We suggest that the increased excretion of AQP2 can be explained by an increase in the ratio of AQP2 that is shed into the urine because the endocytic retrieval of AQP2 from the apical membrane is impaired. This could not be revealed by changes in the osmoregulatory system by the low doses of ibuprofen used in the present study. PMID:11768323

  16. Urinary guanidinoacetic acid excretion as an indicator of gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiyatake, Ikuo; Nakamura, Tsukasa; Koide, Hikaru

    2004-07-01

    The kidney is the main site of guanidinoacetic acid synthesis and excretion. The aim of this study was to examine whether urinary guanidinoacetic acid is a sensitive indicator for diagnosis of early-stage gentamicin nephrotoxicity. Early-stage renal injury was induced in rats by a single intravenous injection of 5, 10, or 30 mg/kg body weight gentamicin. Twenty-four hours after injection all rats were killed. Blood, urine and tissue guanidino compound concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Glycine amidinotransferase activity in tissues was assayed according to the method of Pilsum. Urinary guanidinoacetic acid excretion was decreased in 5 mg/kg gentamicin-treated rats in comparison to that in control rats, whereas urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity and beta2-microglobulin were unchanged. Guanidinoacetic acid concentration and glycine amidinotransferase activity in the kidney were significantly decreased in 5, 10, and 30 mg/kg gentamicin-treated rats; the decreases were dose-dependent. These results suggest that the urine guanidinoacetic acid concentration is a more sensitive indicator of renal injury than conventional indicators such as urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and beta2-microglobulin. PMID:15462098

  17. Urinary Excretion of Phenolic Acids by Infants and Children: A Randomised Double-Blind Clinical Assay

    PubMed Central

    Uberos, J.; Fernández-Puentes, V.; Molina-Oya, M.; Rodríguez-Belmonte, R.; Ruíz-López, A.; Tortosa-Pinto, P.; Molina-Carballo, A.; Muñoz-Hoyos, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present study, which is part of the ISRCTN16968287 clinical assay, is aimed at determining the effects of cranberry syrup or trimethoprim treatment for UTI. Methods: This Phase III randomised clinical trial was conducted at the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital (Granada, Spain) with a study population of 192 patients, aged between 1 month and 13 years. Criteria for inclusion were a background of recurrent UTI, associated or otherwise with vesico-ureteral reflux of any degree, or renal pelvic dilatation associated with urinary infection. Each child was randomly given 0.2 mL/Kg/day of either cranberry syrup or trimethoprim (8 mg/mL). The primary and secondary objectives, respectively, were to determine the risk of UTI and the levels of phenolic acids in urine associated with each intervention. Results: With respect to UTI, the cranberry treatment was non-inferior to trimethoprim. Increased urinary excretion of ferulic acid was associated with a greater risk of UTI developing in infants aged under 1 year (RR 1.06; CI 95% 1.024–1.1; P = 0.001). Conclusions: The results obtained show the excretion of ferulic acid is higher in infants aged under 1 year, giving rise to an increased risk of UTI, for both treatment options. PMID:23641168

  18. Urinary excretion of mutagens, thioethers and D-glucaric acid in workers exposed to bitumen fumes.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, R; Monarca, S; Scassellati Sforzolini, G; Savino, A; Bauleo, F A; Angeli, G

    1989-01-01

    The authors carried out biological monitoring of the mutagenic/carcinogenic hazards associated with exposure to bitumen fumes during paving operations, analysing some biological parameters in the urine of a group of exposed workers. The urine samples were studied for mutagenicity by the Ames test and for thioethers concentration. D-Glucaric acid urine excretion was also determined to investigate the enzymatic induction potential of bitumens. Even though, in a previous environmental monitoring phase, a low content of mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds was found in bitumen and air samples, urinary mutagenicity data of exposed workers were statistically higher than those of a group of unexposed subjects. The urinary mutagenicity increased further if exposure to bitumens was associated with cigarette smoking. Thioethers were higher only in subjects exposed simultaneously to bitumens and cigarettes. D-Glucaric acid excretion did not increase significantly. The authors think that this type of coupled environmental and biological monitoring is a valid tool for a better evaluation of the mutagenic/carcinogenic exposure to bitumens or similar complex mixtures. PMID:2707871

  19. Plutonium fecal and urinary excretion functions: Derivation from a systematic whole-body retention function

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, C. . Dept. of Advanced Technology); Lee, D. . Regulatory Research, Nuclear Safety Technology Div.)

    1999-06-01

    Liver-bile secretion directly influences the content of plutonium in feces. To assess the reliability of plutonium metabolic models and to improve the accuracy of interpreting plutonium fecal data, the authors developed a compartmental model that simulates the metabolism of plutonium in humans. With this model, they can describe the transport of plutonium contaminants in the systemic organs and tissues of the body, including fecal and urine excretions, without using elaborate kinetic information. The parameter values of the models, which describe the translocation rates and recycling of plutonium in the body, can be derived from a multi-term exponential systemic function for whole-body retention. The analytical derivations and algorithms for solving translocation parameter values are established for the model and illustrated by applying them to the biokinetics and bioassay of plutonium. This study describes how to (1) design a physiological model for incorporating liver biliary secretion and for obtaining a fecal-excretion function, (2) develop an analytical solution for identifying the translocation-parameter values incorporating the recycling of plutonium in the body, and (3) derive a set of urinary and fecal excretion-functions from a published systemic whole-body retention function, generally acknowledged to be accurate, as a real and practical example.

  20. Urinary MDMA, MDA, HMMA, and HMA Excretion Following Controlled MDMA Administration to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Tsadik T.; Barnes, Allan J.; Lowe, Ross H.; Spargo, Erin A. Kolbrich; Milman, Garry; Pirnay, Stephane O.; Gorelick, David A.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), or ecstasy, is excreted as unchanged drug, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and free and glucuronidated/sulfated 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA) metabolites. The aim of this paper is to describe the pattern and timeframe of excretion of MDMA and its metabolites in urine. Placebo, 1.0 mg/kg, and 1.6 mg/kg oral MDMA doses were administered double-blind to healthy adult MDMA users on a monitored research unit. All urine was collected, aliquots were hydrolyzed, and analytes quantified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Median Cmax, Tmax, ratios, first and last detection times, and detection rates were determined. Sixteen participants provided 916 urine specimens. After 1.6 mg/kg, median Cmax were 21,470 (MDMA), 2229 (MDA), 20,793 (HMMA), and 876 ng/mL (HMA) at median Tmax of 13.9, 23.0, 9.2 and 23.3 h. In the first 24 h, 30.2–34.3% total urinary excretion occurred. HMMA last detection exceeded MDMA’s by more than 33 h after both doses. Identification of HMMA as well as MDMA increased the ability to identify positive specimens but required hydrolysis. These MDMA, MDA, HMMA, and HMA pharmacokinetic data may be useful for interpreting workplace, drug treatment, criminal justice, and military urine drug tests. Measurement of urinary HMMA provides the longest detection of MDMA exposure yet is not included in routine monitoring procedures. PMID:19874650

  1. Urinary Sodium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Chinese Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. Results The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8±3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. PMID:25083775

  2. Chronic metabolic acidosis reduces urinary oxalate excretion and promotes intestinal oxalate secretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Whittamore, Jonathan M; Hatch, Marguerite

    2015-11-01

    Urinary oxalate excretion is reduced in rats during a chronic metabolic acidosis, but how this is achieved is not clear. In this report, we re-examine our prior work on the effects of a metabolic acidosis on urinary oxalate handling [Green et al., Am J Physiol Ren Physiol 289(3):F536-F543, 2005], offering a more detailed analysis and interpretation of the data, together with new, previously unpublished observations revealing a marked impact on intestinal oxalate transport. Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with 0.28 M ammonium chloride in their drinking water for either 4 or 14 days followed by 24 h urine collections, blood-gas and serum ion analysis, and measurements of (14)C-oxalate fluxes across isolated segments of the distal colon. Urinary oxalate excretion was significantly reduced by 75% after just 4 days compared to control rats, and this was similarly sustained at 14 days. Oxalate:creatinine clearance ratios indicated enhanced net re-absorption of oxalate by the kidney during a metabolic acidosis, but this was not associated with any substantive changes to serum oxalate levels. In the distal colon, oxalate transport was dramatically altered from net absorption in controls (6.20 ± 0.63 pmol cm(-2) h(-1)), to net secretion in rats with a metabolic acidosis (-5.19 ± 1.18 and -2.07 ± 1.05 pmol cm(-2) h(-1) at 4 and 14 days, respectively). Although we cannot rule out modifications to bi-directional oxalate movements along the proximal tubule, these findings support a gut-kidney axis in the management of oxalate homeostasis, where this shift in renal handling during a metabolic acidosis is associated with compensatory adaptations by the intestine. PMID:26162424

  3. Aspartame ingestion increases urinary calcium, but not oxalate excretion, in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, U N; Dumoulin, G; Henriet, M T; Regnard, J

    1998-01-01

    Aspartame is the artificial sweetener most extensively used as a substitute for glucose or sucrose in the food industry, particularly in soft drinks. As glucose ingestion increases calciuria and oxaluria, the two main determinants of urinary calcium-oxalate saturation, we considered it worthwhile to determine whether aspartame ingestion also affects calcium-oxalate metabolism. Our study compares the effects of the ingestion of similarly sweet doses of aspartame (250 mg) and glucose (75 g) on calcium and oxalate metabolisms of seven healthy subjects. Urinary calcium excretion increased after the intake of both aspartame (+86%; P < 0.01) and glucose (+124%; P < 0.01). This may be due to the rise in calcemia observed after both aspartame (+2.2%; P < 0.05) and glucose ingestion (+1.8%; P < 0.05). The increased calcemia may be linked to the decrease in phosphatemia that occurred after both aspartame (P < 0.01) and glucose (P < 0.01) load. Aspartame did not alter glycemia or insulinemia, whereas glucose intake caused striking increases in both glycemia (+59%; P < 0.001) and insulinemia (+869%; P < 0.01). Although insulin was considered the main calciuria-induced factor after glucose load, it is unlikely that this mechanism played a role with aspartame. Urinary oxalate excretion did not change after aspartame, whereas it increased (+27%; P < 0.05) after glucose load. Thus, as aspartame induced a similar increase in calciuria as did glucose but, conversely, no change in oxaluria, substituting glucose by aspartame in soft drinks may appear to be of some potential benefit. PMID:9435435

  4. Dietary fibers reduce the urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene following intravenous administration of pyrene.

    PubMed

    Viau, C; Zaoui, C; Charbonneau, S

    2004-03-01

    During biological monitoring of exposure to a chemical, a possible source of interindividual variability in the measurement of a urinary metabolite that undergoes enterohepatic cycling is the presence of dietary fiber in the gastrointestinal tract. This study examined the effect of diets containing either the insoluble fiber Alphacel (nonnutritive bulk cellulose) or the soluble pectin (from citrus fruit, MW 20,000-40,000). Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats received one of the following diets: poor (5% w/w) or rich (15% w/w) in Alphacel, poor (5% w/w) or rich (15% w/w) in pectin, or no fiber (NF). Five micromol/kg of pyrene was administered by iv injection immediately after feeding the animals with their respective diet, and urine and feces collections started for the determination of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a metabolite of pyrene. The type of fiber had no influence on the results. The rats receiving diets both poor and rich in fiber excreted less 1-OHP (18 +/- 8 and 15 +/- 7 pmol per g of rat, respectively) in the 24-h urine samples than the NF group (28 +/- 6 pmol/g). There was a nonstatistically significant trend towards increased fecal and total (urinary + fecal) 1-OHP excretion with increasing amount of fiber in the diet. An in vitro experiment showed an inverse correlation (r(2) = 0.98) between the amount of Alphacel in suspension in a 1-OHP aqueous solution and the recovery of 1-OHP from the soluble fraction. The reduction in urinary output of the metabolite due to fiber reaching approximately 40% may contribute to its interindividual variability observed in occupational and environmental studies. PMID:14691205

  5. [Effect of methylxanthines on urinary prostaglandin E excretion of rats acutely loaded with salt and water (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Kogo, H; Aizawa, Y

    1981-04-01

    The effect of methylxanthines (theophylline, theobromine, caffeine) on urinary prostaglandin E (PGE) excretion in rats was investigated. Male rats, weighing 270-300g only were used. Food was withdrawn 3 hr before the experiment and water intake was free during the test period. In saline or water loaded experiments, 0.9%, 9% NaCl solution or water containing each drug was administered orally in a volume of 2.5 ml/100g. The urinary PGE was measured by bioassay using rat stomach fundus strip. In rats loaded with isotonic saline, the urinary PGE excretion was increased by methylxanthines and the greatest effect was seen with theophylline. The effect of theophylline on PGE excretion was evident in non-loaded and isotonic saline-loaded rats. In particular, the percentages of PGE, sodium and chloride in the urine were remarkably increased, as compared with findings in the control. In non-loaded and isotonic saline-loaded rats, the urinary PGE excretion induced by theophylline correlated significantly with the sodium and chloride excretion. These results suggest the participation of renal PGE in the effects of theophylline on kidney function. PMID:7286846

  6. Human urinary excretion profile after smoking and oral administration of ( sup 14 C)delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E.; Gillespie, H.K.; Halldin, M.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The urinary excretion profiles of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 1-THC) metabolites have been evaluated in two chronic and two naive marijuana users after smoking and oral administration of ({sup 14}C)delta 1-THC. Urine was collected for five days after each administration route and analyzed for total delta 1-THC metabolites by radioactivity determination, for delta 1-THC-7-oic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography, and for cross-reacting cannabinoids by the EMIT d.a.u. cannabinoid assay. The average urinary excretion half-life of {sup 14}C-labeled delta 1-THC metabolites was calculated to be 18.2 +/- 4.9 h (+/- SD). The excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings were similar to the excretion profile of {sup 14}C-labeled metabolites in the naive users. However, in the chronic users the excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings did not resemble the radioactive excretion due to the heavy influence from previous Cannabis use. Between 8-14% of the radioactive dose was recovered in the urine in both user groups after oral administration. Lower urinary recovery was obtained both in the chronic and naive users after smoking--5 and 2%, respectively.

  7. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  8. Urinary CYP Eicosanoid Excretion Correlates with Glomerular Filtration in African-Americans with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dreisbach, Albert W; Smith, Stanley V; Kyle, Patrick B; Ramaiah, Manjunath; Amenuke, Margaret; Garrett, Michael R; Lirette, Seth T; Griswold, Michael E; Roman, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), i.e., 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), play an important role in the regulation of renal tubular and vascular function. The present study for the first time profiled HETEs and epoxygenase derived dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid diHETEs levels in spot urines and plasma in 262 African American patients from the University of Mississippi Chronic Kidney Disease Clinic and 31 African American controls. Significant correlations in eGFR and urinary 20-HETE/creatinine and 19-HETE/ creatinine levels were observed. The eGFR increased by 17.47 [p=0.001] and 60.68 [(p=0.005] ml/min/ for each ng/mg increase in 20-HETE and 19-HETE levels, respectively. Similar significant positive associations were found between the other urinary eicosanoids and eGFR and also with 19-HETE/urine creatinine concentration and proteinuria. We found that approximately 80% of plasma HETEs and 30% diHETEs were glucuronidated and the fractional excretion of 20-HETE was less than 1%. These results suggest that there is a significant hepatic source of urinary 20-HETE glucuronide and EETs with extensive renal biotransformation to metabolites which may play a role in the pathogenesis of CKD. PMID:25151892

  9. Urinary Acid Excretion Can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and a dietary countermeasure would be ideal. We present here preliminary data from a study where we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crewmembers (n=5) were asked to consume a prescribed diet with either a low (0.3-0.6) or high (1.0-1.3) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K) before and during space flight for 4-d periods. Diets were controlled for energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium. 24-h urine samples were collected on the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions. 24-h urinary acid excretion, which was predicted by dietary potential renal acid load, was correlated with urinary n-telopeptide (NTX, Pearson R = 0.99 and 0.80 for the high and low APro:K sessions, respectively, p<0.001). The amount of protein when expressed as the percentage of total energy (but not as total grams) was also correlated with urinary NTX (R = 0.66, p<0.01). These results, from healthy individuals in a unique environment, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. The study was funded by the NASA Human Research Program.

  10. Urinary Excretion of N-Nitroso Compounds in Rats Fed Sodium Nitrite and/or Hot Dogs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite-treated meat is a reported risk factor for colon cancer. Mice that ingested sodium nitrite (NaNO2) or hot dogs (a nitrite-treated product) showed increased fecal excretion of apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC). Here, we investigated for the first time whether rats excrete increased amounts of ANC in their urine after they are fed NaNO2 and/or hot dogs. Rats were treated for 7 days with NaNO2 in drinking water or were fed hot dogs. Their 24 h urine samples were analyzed for ANC by thermal energy analysis on days 1–4 after nitrite or hot dog treatment was stopped. For two rats fed 480 mg NaNO2/L drinking water, mean urinary ANC excretion on days 1–4 was 30, 5.2, 2.5, and 0.8 nmol/day, respectively. For two to eight rats/dose given varied NaNO2 doses, mean urinary ANC output on day 1 increased from 0.9 (for no nitrite) to 37 (for 1000 mg NaNO2/L drinking water) nmol ANC/day. Urine samples of four rats fed 40–60% hot dogs contained 12–13 nmol ANC on day 1. Linear regression analysis showed highly significant correlations between urinary ANC excretion on day 1 after stopping treatment and varied (a) NaNO2 level in drinking water for rats fed semipurified or commercials diet and (b) hot dog levels in the diet. Some correlations remained significant up to 4 days after nitrite treatment was stopped. Urinary output of ANC precursors (compounds that yield ANC after mild nitrosation) for rats fed semipurified or commercial diet was 11–17 or 23–48 μmol/day, respectively. Nitrosothiols and iron nitrosyls were not detected in urinary ANC and ANCP. Excretion of urinary ANC was about 60% of fecal ANC excretion for 1 to 2 days after NaNO2 was fed. Administered NaNO2 was not excreted unchanged in rat urine. We conclude that urinary ANC excretion in humans could usefully be surveyed to indicate exposure to N-nitroso compounds. PMID:25183213

  11. Urinary sodium or potassium excretion and blood pressure in adults of Shandong province, China: preliminary results of the SMASH project.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Guo, Xiaolei; Ma, Jixiang; Zhang, Jiyu; Tang, Junli; Yan, Liuxia; Xu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaofei; Ren, Jie; Lu, Zilong; Zhang, Gaohui; Dong, Jing; Xu, Aiqiang

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the urinary electrolyte excretion and assess the relationship between dietary sodium or potassium intake and blood pressure within a population of 18-69 adults in Shandong province, China. Random samples of 2184 adults enrolled in the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt reduction and Hypertension project were collected from 20 countries or districts. Electrolyte intake was estimated by 24-hour urine collections, and urinary volume or creatinine was measured to estimate the accuracy of the collection. Anthropometry was measured with standard procedures. Regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. The mean sodium excretion was 241.8 ± 7.9 mmol among men and 222.3 ± 7.9 mmol among women, respectively. The 24-hour average potassium excretion was 39.9 ± 0.9 and 41.8 ± 1.1 mmol, respectively. Some resident and geographic differences were found for 24-hour urinary electrolyte. Regression analysis showed increments of 1.15 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.67 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure per gram increment in urinary sodium excretion. For each increment of 1-g potassium excretion per day, there was a decrement of 0.81 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.76 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure. The highest blood pressure was observed in the group with lowest potassium and the highest sodium excretion, which was 13.6 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 7.3 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure difference from group with highest potassium excretion and lowest sodium excretion (P < .0001 for interaction). The Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt reduction and Hypertension project results show a substantially higher sodium excretion and a lower potassium excretion than recommended in Shandong adults. The sodium or potassium intake is positively association with blood pressure. These results support the recommended approaches to lower the risk of

  12. Urinary excretion of enzymes following repeated parenteral administration of cadmium to rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, F.W.; King, L.J.; Parke, D.V.

    1980-06-01

    The effect of daily parenteral administration of cadmium (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg) on the urinary excretion of enzymes has been studied in the young male rat. Aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, ..gamma..-glutamyl transpeptidase, and leucine aminopeptidase all showed an initial significant increase around the second day of dosage, the intensity of which was dose related. A second phase of enzymuria occurred later, the onset of which was dose related. High-dose-group animals (3.0 mg/kg) exhibited this increase around Day 15, while the median (1.5 mg/kg) and low- (0.75 mg/kg)dose-group animals developed enzymuria around Days 21 and 38, respectively. This second phase of elevated enzyme levels in the urine was persistent, and is believed to represent the development of renal damage.

  13. Urinary insulin-like growth factor-II excretion in healthy infants and children with normal and abnormal growth.

    PubMed

    Quattrin, T; Albini, C H; Sportsman, C; Shine, B J; MacGillivray, M H

    1993-10-01

    The output of urinary IGF-II was measured by RIA in 12-h overnight urine samples obtained from 22 preterm and 15 full-term infants, 40 normal children, 18 children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency, and 25 patients with idiopathic short stature. GH deficiency was defined as a peak to GH provocative tests < or = 9.9 micrograms/L during two provocative tests. The authenticity of urinary IGF-II was confirmed by size exclusion chromatography. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance using the Student Neuman-Keuls test to detect intergroup differences at the level of p < 0.05. The preterm and full-term infants excreted significantly higher amounts of urinary IGF-II (18.4 +/- 1.7 and 5.7 +/- 1.0 pmol/kg, respectively) compared with normal children (2.4 +/- 0.25 pmol/kg; p < 0.001). The output of urinary IGF-II in preterm infants was greater than that observed in full-term infants (F = 84.7, p < 0.001). The control children excreted significantly more IGF-II (2.4 +/- 0.2 pmol/kg) than children with GH deficiency (0.9 +/- 0.1 pmol/kg) or idiopathic short stature (1.0 +/- 0.1 pmol/kg; F = 13.5; p < 0.001). Analysis of urinary IGF-II excretion based on creatinine output yielded similar results. Data on urinary IGF-I and GH previously published were correlated and compared with the excretion pattern of urinary IGF-II.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8255673

  14. Nifedipine lowers cocaine-induced brain and liver enzyme activity and cocaine urinary excretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Vitcheva, Vessela; Simeonova, Rumyana; Karova, Dima; Mitcheva, Mitka

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to see how nifedipine counters the effects of cocaine on hepatic and brain enzymatic activity in rats and whether it affects urinary excretion of cocaine. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups of six: control, nifedipine group (5 mg kg-1i.p. a day for five days); cocaine group (15 mg kg-1i.p. a day for five days), and the nifedipine+cocaine group. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, we measured neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity in the brain and cytochrome P450 quantity, ethylmorphine-N-demethylase, and anilinehydroxylase activity in the liver. Urine samples were collected 24 h after the last cocaine and cocaine+nifedipine administration. Urinary cocaine concentration was determined using the GC/MS method.Cocaine administration increased brain nNOS activity by 55 % (p<0.05) in respect to control, which indicates the development of tolerance and dependence. In the combination group, nifedipine decreased the nNOS activity in respect to the cocaine-only group.In the liver, cocaine significantly decreased and nifedipine significantly increased cytochrome P450, ethylmorphine-N-demethylase, and anilinehydroxylase in respect to control. In combination, nifedipine successfully countered cocaine effects on these enzymes.Urine cocaine excretion in the cocaine+nifedipine group significantly dropped (by 35 %) compared to the cocaine-only group.Our results have confirmed the effects of nifedipine against cocaine tolerance and development of dependence, most likely due to metabolic interactions between them. PMID:21705300

  15. Association between Urinary Albumin Excretion and Intraocular Pressure in Type 2 Diabetic Patients without Renal Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin A.; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure (IOP) in type 2 diabetes patients without renal impairment. Methods We explored the effects of albuminuria on high IOP in 402 non-glaucomatous type 2 diabetes without renal impairment who participated in the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between log-transformed albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) tertiles and an IOP of ≥18 mmHg after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, body mass index, triglycerides, area of residence, and education level. Results Subjects with a high IOP ≥18 mmHg were more likely to be current smokers (P = 0.038), heavy drinkers (P = 0.006), and to have high systolic blood pressure (P = 0.016), triglycerides (P = 0.008), and a higher log-transformed ACR (P = 0.022).In multivariate regression analysis, ACR tertile was associated with the prevalence of high IOP significantly (P = 0.022). The associations between ACR tertiles and high IOP were significant in overweight patients and those with abdominal obesity (P = 0.003 and 0.003, respectively). In contrast, there were no associations in the subgroup of patients who were not overweight and those without abdominal obesity (P = 0.291 and 0.561, respectively). Conclusions Urinary albumin excretion is associated with high IOP in the type 2 diabetes population without renal insufficiency. The effect of the albuminuria on IOP was evident in a subgroup of patients with components of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24788677

  16. The impact of antihypertensive drug groups on urinary albumin excretion in a non-diabetic population

    PubMed Central

    Monster, Taco B M; Janssen, Wilbert M T; de Jong, Paul E; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T W

    2002-01-01

    Aims Microalbuminuria (30–300 mg 24 h−1) is recognized to be independently associated with renal and cardiovascular risk. Antihypertensives may lower microalbuminuria. We questioned whether the use of different antihypertensive drug classes in general practice influences microalbuminuria as related to blood pressure in nondiabetic subjects. Methods To study this, we used the data from 6836 subjects of an on-going population based study, focused on the meaning of microalbuminuria (PREVEND). Odds ratios, adjusted for age, sex, blood pressure, cholesterol level, smoking and the use of other antihypertensive or cardiovascular drugs, were calculated to determine the association of drug groups with microalbuminuria. Influence of antihypertensives on the relation between blood pressure and (log) urinary albumin excretion was determined by comparing linear regression lines. Results Microalbuminuria was significantly associated with the use of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (odds ratio: 1.76 [1.22–2.54]), but not with other antihypertensive drug groups. The linear regression line of the relation between blood pressure and (log) urinary albumin excretion was significantly steeper (P = 0.0047) for users of calcium channel blockers, but not for other antihypertensives, compared with subjects using no antihypertensive. Users of a combination of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and diuretics however, had a less steep regression line (P = 0.037). Conclusions This study suggests a disadvantageous effect of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers on microalbuminuria compared with other antihypertensive drug groups. Thus, if microalbuminuria is causally related to an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, dihydropyridines do not seem to be agents of choice to lower blood pressure. Furthermore, the combination of renin-angiotensin system inhibition and diuretics seems to act synergistically. PMID:11849192

  17. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 attenuates urinary prostanoid excretion without affecting renal renin expression.

    PubMed

    Kammerl, M C; Nüsing, R M; Seyberth, H W; Riegger, G A; Kurtz, A; Krämer, B K

    2001-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) on the secretion and expression of renin in the kidney cortex. For this purpose renocortical COX-2 expression was moderately stimulated by a low-salt diet or strongly stimulated (increase in mRNA about fivefold) by the combination of a low-salt diet and the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril in male Sprague-Dawley rats. None of these manoeuvres changed medullary COX-2 expression or cortical or medullary COX-1 expression. Treatment with low salt plus ramipril but not with low salt alone led to a three- to fourfold increase of the urinary output of all major prostanoids. The selective COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib (10 mg/kg per day) markedly lowered basal urinary prostanoid excretion and blunted the stimulation of prostanoid excretion during treatment with low salt plus ramipril. The stimulation of renin secretion by the low-salt diet but not by low salt plus ramipril was attenuated by rofecoxib. The low-salt diet led to a moderate increase of renin gene expression, and additional treatment with ramipril caused a 15-fold increase of renin mRNA. However, no effect of rofecoxib on renin gene expression was observed in any group. These findings suggest that stimulation of COX-2 in the renal cortex leads to the increased formation of all major prostanoids. COX-2-derived prostanoids may play a role in the regulation of renin secretion but not in renin gene expression during the intake of a low-salt diet. However, no major relevance of COX-2-derived prostanoids to renin secretion or renin gene expression during ramipril treatment or a combination of ramipril and a low-salt diet was found. PMID:11680616

  18. The urinary excretion of orally administered pteroyl-l-glutamic acid by the rat

    PubMed Central

    Blair, J. A.; Dransfield, E.

    1971-01-01

    1. The urinary excretion of folates after oral administration of [2-14C]pteroyl-l-glutamic acid was studied by assaying the radioactivity in the urine and in materials purified and characterized by t.l.c. 2. Radioactivity excreted was 6.8, 5.9 and 30.7% of the oral dose in the first 24h after doses of 3.1, 32 and 320μg/kg respectively. 3. Extensive decomposition of urinary folates to pteroyl-l-glutamic acid was prevented by antioxidants or collection of urine frozen. 4. At the three dosages, two major and one minor radioactive compounds were isolated. One of the major metabolites was 5-methyltetrahydropteroylglutamic acid. The others were unidentified but were not pteroylglutamic acid, 7,8-dihydro-, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-, 5- or 10-formyl-tetrahydro-, 5,10-methylidyne-tetrahydro-, 5-formimidoyl-tetrahydro-, 5,10-methylene-tetrahydro-, 5-methyltetrahydro-pteroylglutamic acid, nor any decomposition products of these compounds formed during isolation. Labelled unconjugated pteridines were absent. 5. Labelled pteroyl-l-glutamic acid was displaced by oral administration of unlabelled pteroyl-l-glutamic acid (1.6mg/kg) when given 3.5h after, but not when given 24h after the labelled dose. 6. The results show that orally administered [2-14C]pteroyl-l-glutamic acid is absorbed without metabolism and is then metabolized into naturally occurring tetrahydro-folates. 7. These findings are discussed with reference to previous work. PMID:5124394

  19. Arsenic levels in the groundwater of Korea and the urinary excretion among contaminated area.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Duck; Choi, Seong-Jin; Choi, Byung-Sun; Lee, Choong-Ryeol; Kim, Heon; Kim, Yong-Dae; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Young-Jo; Kang, Seojin; Lim, Kyung-Min; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Drinking water is a main source of human exposure to arsenic. Hence, the determination of arsenic in groundwater is essential to assess its impact on public health. Here, we report arsenic levels in the groundwater of 722 sites covering all six major provinces of Korea. Water was sampled in two occasions (summer, 722 sites and winter, 636 sites) and the arsenic levels were measured with highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method (limit of detection, 0.1 μg/l) to encompass the current drinking water standard (<10 μg/l). Seasonal variation was negligible, but the geographical difference was prominent. Total arsenic in groundwater ranged from 0.1 to 48.4 μg/l. A 88.0-89.0% of sites were <2.0 μg/l and the remaining ones generally did not exceed 10 μg/l (6.4-7.0%, 2.0-4.9 μg/l; 2.4-3.0%, 5.0-9.9 μg/l). However, some areas (1.0-9.2%) exhibited >10 μg/l. Notably, urinary arsenic excretion of people around these regions was markedly higher compared with non-contaminated areas (<5 μg/l) (79.7±5.2 μg/g (N=122) vs 68.4±5.4 μg/g (N=65) creatinine, P=0.052). All stratified analysis also revealed higher urinary excretion, where a statistically significant difference was noted for non-smokers (85.9±12.7 vs 54.0±6.3, P=0.030), suggesting that arsenic-contaminated groundwater may contribute to its systemic exposure. PMID:27049535

  20. Intersalt: an international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. Results for 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion. Intersalt Cooperative Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The relations between 24 hour urinary electrolyte excretion and blood pressure were studied in 10,079 men and women aged 20-59 sampled from 52 centres around the world based on a highly standardised protocol with central training of observers, a central laboratory, and extensive quality control. Relations between electrolyte excretion and blood pressure were studied in individual subjects within each centre and the results of these regression analyses pooled for all 52 centres. Relations between population median electrolyte values and population blood pressure values were also analysed across the 52 centres. Sodium excretion ranged from 0.2 mmol/24 h (Yanomamo Indians, Brazil) to 242 mmol/24 h (north China). In individual subjects (within centres) it was significantly related to blood pressure. Four centres found very low sodium excretion, low blood pressure, and little or no upward slope of blood pressure with age. Across the other 48 centres sodium was significantly related to the slope of blood pressure with age but not to median blood pressure or prevalence of high blood pressure. Potassium excretion was negatively correlated with blood pressure in individual subjects after adjustment for confounding variables. Across centres there was no consistent association. The relation of sodium to potassium ratio to blood pressure followed a pattern similar to that of sodium. Body mass index and heavy alcohol intake had strong, significant independent relations with blood pressure in individual subjects. PMID:3416162

  1. Tissue accumulation and urinary excretion of Cr in chromium picolinate (CrPic)-supplemented lambs.

    PubMed

    Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Lima, Bárbara Alcântara Ferreira; Braz, Shélida Vasconcelos; Mustafa, Vanessa da Silva; McManus, Concepta; Paim, Tiago do Prado; Campeche, Aline; Gomes, Edgard Franco; Louvandini, Helder

    2016-05-01

    Chromium (Cr) concentrations in liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lymph node, skeletal muscle, bone, testis and urine of lambs were measured to trace the biodistribution and bioaccumulation of Cr after oral supplementation with chromium picolinate (CrPic). Twenty-four Santa Inês lambs were treated with four different concentrations of CrPic: placebo, 0.250, 0.375 and 0.500 mg of CrPic/animal/day for 84 days. The basal diet consisted of Panicum maximum cv Massai hay and concentrate. Cr concentrations were measured by ICP-MS measuring (52)Cr as collected mass. There was a positive linear relationship between dose administered and the accumulation of Cr in the heart, lungs and testis. Urinary excretion of Cr occurred in a time and dose-dependent manner, so the longer or more dietary Cr provided, the greater excretion of the element. As some non-carcass components (such as lungs or heart) are added to bone and visceral meal to feed animals, there is a risk of bioaccumulation and biomagnification due to Cr offered as CrPic in the diet. PMID:27049124

  2. The association of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to salt with 24-hour urinary sodium excretion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aim Salt reduction efforts usually have a strong focus on consumer education. Understanding the association between salt consumption levels and knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt should provide insight into the likely effectiveness of education-based programs. Methods A single 24-hour urine sample and a questionnaire describing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was obtained from 306 randomly selected participants and 113 volunteers from a regional town in Australia. Results Mean age of all participants was 55 years (range 20–88), 55% were women and mean 24-hour urinary salt excretion was 8.8(3.6) g/d. There was no difference in salt excretion between the randomly selected and volunteer sample. Virtually all participants (95%) identified that a diet high in salt can cause serious health problems with the majority of participants (81%) linking a high salt diet to raised blood pressure. There was no difference in salt excretion between those who did 8.7(2.1) g/d and did not 7.5(3.3) g/d identify that a diet high in salt causes high blood pressure (p = 0.1). Nor was there a difference between individuals who believed they consumed “too much” 8.9(3.3) g/d “just the right amount” 8.4(2.6) g/d or “too little salt” 9.1(3.7) g/d (p = 0.2). Likewise, individuals who indicated that lowering their salt intake was important 8.5(2.9) g/d vs. not important 8.8(2.4) g/d did not have different consumption levels (p = 0.4). Conclusion The absence of a clear association between knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt and actual salt consumption suggests that interventions focused on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours alone may be of limited efficacy. PMID:24708561

  3. Diabetic Kidney Disease in FVB/NJ Akita Mice: Temporal Pattern of Kidney Injury and Urinary Nephrin Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jae-Hyung; Paik, Seung-Yeol; Mao, Lan; Eisner, William; Flannery, Patrick J.; Wang, Liming; Tang, Yuping; Mattocks, Natalie; Hadjadj, Samy; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Ruiz, Phillip; Gurley, Susan B.; Spurney, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Akita mice are a genetic model of type 1 diabetes. In the present studies, we investigated the phenotype of Akita mice on the FVB/NJ background and examined urinary nephrin excretion as a marker of kidney injury. Male Akita mice were compared with non-diabetic controls for functional and structural characteristics of renal and cardiac disease. Podocyte number and apoptosis as well as urinary nephrin excretion were determined in both groups. Male FVB/NJ Akita mice developed sustained hyperglycemia and albuminuria by 4 and 8 weeks of age, respectively. These abnormalities were accompanied by a significant increase in systolic blood pressure in 10-week old Akita mice, which was associated with functional, structural and molecular characteristics of cardiac hypertrophy. By 20 weeks of age, Akita mice developed a 10-fold increase in albuminuria, renal and glomerular hypertrophy and a decrease in the number of podocytes. Mild-to-moderate glomerular mesangial expansion was observed in Akita mice at 30 weeks of age. In 4-week old Akita mice, the onset of hyperglycemia was accompanied by increased podocyte apoptosis and enhanced excretion of nephrin in urine before the development of albuminuria. Urinary nephrin excretion was also significantly increased in albuminuric Akita mice at 16 and 20 weeks of age and correlated with the albumin excretion rate. These data suggest that: 1. FVB/NJ Akita mice have phenotypic characteristics that may be useful for studying the mechanisms of kidney and cardiac injury in diabetes, and 2. Enhanced urinary nephrin excretion is associated with kidney injury in FVB/NJ Akita mice and is detectable early in the disease process. PMID:22496773

  4. Urinary excretion of magnesium and calcium as an index of absorption is not affected by lactose intake in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Brink, E J; van Beresteijn, E C; Dekker, P R; Beynen, A C

    1993-05-01

    The effect of lactose on the urinary excretion of Mg and Ca, as an index of absorption, was studied in a double-blind, crossover study during three 1-week periods. Twenty-four healthy, lactose-tolerant, adult volunteers maintained their habitual diets with the exception that all lactose-containing dairy products in the diet were replaced by 600 g/d of three specially prepared dairy products. These products were based on either lactose-enriched cow's milk or lactose-enriched, lactase (EC 3.2.1.23)-treated cow's milk, with or without added Mg, and were given in turn during 1 week. Lactose intake was increased by 127 mmol/d (46 g/d) while taking the lactose-enriched products. While taking the Mg-enriched products, Mg intake was increased by 2.8 mmol/d (69 mg/d) which was equivalent to 17% of the habitual Mg intake. Apart from the lactose and Mg intake, nutrient intake was comparable during the three dietary periods. Urinary excretions of Mg and Ca were used as indicators for their absorption. Mg supplementation significantly increased urinary Mg excretion by 0.97 mmol/d (equivalent to an increase of 18%, P < 0.001), indicating that urinary Mg excretion is a valid indicator for intestinal Mg absorption. Hydrolysis of lactose did not affect urinary excretion of Mg and Ca, which implies that lactose intake does not affect the absorption of Mg and Ca in healthy adults. PMID:8329360

  5. Increased urinary excretion of hydroxyproline in runners training in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Perdelli, F; Gallelli, G; Cristina, M L; Sartini, M; Panatto, D; Reggiani, E; Orlando, P

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated urinary excretion of hydroxyproline in 120 subjects to test the hypothesis that physical activity is associated with increased exposure to pollution derived from traffic exhaust. The study population comprised active noncompetitive runners (i.e., 21.1% trained < 2.5 hr/wk, 20% trained for 2.5-5.0 hr/wk, and 54.4% trained > 5 hr/wk) who lived in Genoa, an urban area of Northern Italy. The mean hydroxyproline value (24.39 +/- 8.38 standard deviation] mg/24 hr x m2) in a group of 69 runners who trained in tracks and streets located in downtown Genoa was higher (p < .05) than the mean value recorded in a group of 21 runners (13.33 +/- 2.51 mg/24 hr x m2) who trained mainly in a rural environment of Genoa. The difference was even greater (p < .01) when a third comparable group of 30 nonrunners was considered (mean = 12.54 +/- 3.41 [standard deviation] mg/24 hr x m2). In the urban environment, urinary levels of hydroxyproline were correlated significantly with intensity and frequency of running, but they were unrelated to smoking status. PMID:11128874

  6. Effect of Ramipril on Urinary Protein Excretion in Maintenance Renal Transplant Patients Converted to Sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Mandelbrot, D A; Alberú, J; Barama, A; Marder, B A; Silva, H T; Flechner, S M; Flynn, A; Healy, C; Li, H; Tortorici, M A; Schulman, S L

    2015-12-01

    This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of ramipril on urinary protein excretion in renal transplant patients treated with sirolimus following conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor. Patients received ramipril or placebo for up to 6 weeks before conversion and 52 weeks thereafter. Doses were increased if patients developed proteinuria (urinary protein/creatinine ratio ≥0.5); losartan was given as rescue therapy for persistent proteinuria. The primary end point was time to losartan initiation. Of 295 patients randomized, 264 met the criteria for sirolimus conversion (ramipril, 138; placebo, 126). At 52 weeks, the cumulative rate of losartan initiation was significantly lower with ramipril (6.2%) versus placebo (23.2%) (p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed between ramipril and placebo for change in glomerular filtration rate from baseline (p = 0.148) or in the number of patients with biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (13 vs. 5, respectively; p = 0.073). One patient in the placebo group died due to cerebrovascular accident. Treatment-emergent adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of sirolimus and were not potentiated by ramipril co-administration. Ramipril was effective in reducing the incidence of proteinuria for up to 1 year following conversion to sirolimus in maintenance renal transplant patients. PMID:26176342

  7. Sub-nephrotoxic cisplatin sensitizes rats to acute renal failure and increases urinary excretion of fumarylacetoacetase.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Vicente, Laura; Sánchez-Juanes, Fernando; García-Sánchez, Omar; Blanco-Gozalo, Víctor; Pescador, Moisés; Sevilla, María A; González-Buitrago, José Manuel; López-Hernández, Francisco J; López-Novoa, José Miguel; Morales, Ana Isabel

    2015-04-16

    Nephrotoxicity limits the therapeutic efficacy of the antineoplastic drug cisplatin. Due to dosage adjustment and appropriate monitoring, most therapeutic courses with cisplatin produce no or minimal kidney damage. However, we studied whether even sub-nephrotoxic dosage of cisplatin poses a potential risk for the kidneys by predisposing to acute kidney injury (AKI), specifically by lowering the toxicity threshold for a second nephrotoxin. With this purpose rats were treated with a single sub-nephrotoxic dosage of cisplatin (3mg/kg, i.p.) and after two days, with a sub-nephrotoxic regime of gentamicin (50mg/kg/day, during 6 days, i.p.). Control groups received only one of the drugs or the vehicle. Renal function and renal histology were monitored throughout the experiment. Cisplatin treatment did not cause any relevant functional or histological alterations in the kidneys. Rats treated with cisplatin and gentamicin, but not those under single treatments, developed an overt renal failure characterized by both renal dysfunction and massive tubular necrosis. In addition, the urinary excretion of fumarylacetoacetase was increased in cisplatin-treated animals at subtoxic doses, which might be exploited as a cisplatin-induced predisposition marker. In fact, the urinary level of fumarylacetoacetase prior to the second nephrotoxin correlated with the level of AKI triggered by gentamicin in predisposed animals. PMID:25677510

  8. Urinary excretion of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinoids in frequent and infrequent drug users.

    PubMed

    Smith-Kielland, A; Skuterud, B; Mørland, J

    1999-09-01

    Urinary excretion of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) and cannabinoids was monitored in prison inmates. Urinary specimens were collected up to five times per day. EMIT (cutoff 20 ng/mL; EMIT20) and gas chromatography (GC) (cutoff 10.3 ng/mL, LOD 1.4 ng/mL) were used for cannabinoid screening and THCCOOH confirmation, respectively. Urinary creatinine concentrations were recorded. Of the samples with positive EMIT screens, 78% were confirmed by GC analysis. The plotting of THCCOOH/creatinine ratios (THCCOOH/C) versus time gave smoother excretion curves than THCCOOH concentrations alone. Based on THCCOOH/C the first 5 days after the last reported intake, the mean urinary excretion half-life was 1.3 days in infrequent users, and a median of 1.4 days was found in frequent users. In the latter group, apparent terminal urinary excretion half-lives up to 10.3 days were observed. The last positive specimens were found after 4 days for THCCOOH with cutoff 15.0 ng/mL (NIDA/SAMSHA), 5 days for THCCOOH with cutoff 10.3 ng/mL, and 12 days for cannabinoids (EMIT20) in infrequent users and after 17, 22, and 27 days, respectively, in frequent users. Increases in urinary cannabinoids were sometimes found without concomitant increase in THCCOOH or THCCOOH/C. One subject admitted new cannabis intake, after which marked increases in THCCOOH and THCCOOH/C were observed. In others, new intake was suspected. Considerable variations between consecutive specimens were also observed in THCCOOH concentration and THCCOOH/C ratio without suspicion of a new intake. PMID:10488918

  9. Urinary excretion of 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid in dystimic/depressed, adult obese women: what correlations to hepatic steatosis?

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Savastano, S; Colao, A; Polichetti, G; Capone, D

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of serotonin at CNS level is influenced by diet. Moreover, insulin resistance is associated with lower serotonin levels. Visceral obesity, strictly linked to hepatic steatosis is specifically associated with mild to severe somatic affective-depressive symptom clusters. Previous data support the view that depression involves serotonergic systems, reflecting low levels of urinary 5- hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The 24-h urinary excretion of 5-HIAA was evaluated in 76 dystimic/depressed, obese/overweight females, divided into two groups, i.e., on a hyper-caloric diet, associated with a life style characterized by leisure time sedentary behavior (LTSB, 35 women), or on a normo-caloric diet, assisted by program-based strategies aimed at promoting physical activity participation (PAP, 41 women). Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was carried out to score the severity of dystimia/depression. Anthropometric measures, metabolic indices, severity of hepatic steatosis at sonography and HOMA were studied. Urinary levels of 5-HIAA in controls and PAP groups were comparable with a great overlap, while in the LTSB group the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA was significantly reduced in respect to that of the PAP group and obviously compared to that of the control group, 3.4±1.4 mg/L versus 6.2±2.7 mg/L and 6.4±2.6 mg/L, respectively, ANOVA test, P= 0.001. Among metabolic indices, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid were not able to predict urinary concentrations of 5-HIAA, which were not associated with hepatic steatosis; vice versa, ferritin levels, and mainly HOMA values, were independent predictors of the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA (β=0.235 and 0.45, respectively). Dystimia/depression severity was negatively predicted by urinary 5-HIAA levels in the sense that the highest BDI values were forecast by the lowest values of urinary 5-HIAA (β= -0.72).The importance of measuring the 24-h urinary excretion of 5-HIAA in follow-ups could rely

  10. Urinary excretion of polyethylene glycol 3350 and sulfate after gut lavage with a polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution.

    PubMed

    Brady, C E; DiPalma, J A; Morawski, S G; Santa Ana, C A; Fordtran, J S

    1986-06-01

    Ingestion of an electrolyte lavage solution containing polyethylene glycol 3350 and sulfate is an effective method of cleansing the colon for diagnostic studies. Polyethylene glycol and sulfate are considered poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Because of the quantities administered, concern exists about potential toxicity of absorption of even a small percentage, particularly for polyethylene glycol. We measured the urinary excretion of both polyethylene glycol and sulfate in normal subjects and inflammatory bowel patients. Absorption of polyethylene glycol can be assessed by measuring recovery in urine, as 85%-96% of an intravenous load is excreted in urine. Similarly, appreciable sulfate absorption would exceed renal tubular reabsorption and result in increased urinary excretion. Mean percent polyethylene glycol load recovered in urine was minimal and similar for normal (0.06%) and inflammatory bowel (0.09%) subjects. Urinary sulfate excretion after lavage was also similar for both groups and was not different from baseline. These results do not suggest the likelihood of toxicity due to polyethylene glycol 3350 or sulfate absorption during gut lavage with this solution. PMID:3699408

  11. Hepatic drug-oxidizing enzyme systems and urinary D-glucaric acid excretion in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Tokola, O; Pelkonen, O; Karki, N T; Luoma, P

    1975-01-01

    Drug-oxidizing enzyme systems in liver biopsy samples and the urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid were studied in two different groups of patients with cardiac insufficiency. 2. In one group of six patients, the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes had decreased considerably as compared with the control values, but in four liver samples from patients treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents for their diabetes, activities were higher than in control samples from ten patients. 3. In the other group of seven patients, the urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid (isolated by ion-exchange chromatography) was 60% lower than in the control group of nine humans, whereas in four patients taking antiepileptic agents excretion rate was higher than control values. 4. Because the age distribution was markedly different between cardiac insufficiency and control groups, it is difficult to conclude, if the impairment of drug metabolism was a consequence of the old age or of the disease process. However, drug-oxidizing enzyme systems seem to be inducible also in old age. 5. The results support further the opinion that the urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid may be one useful index in assessing an individual's capacity to metabolize foreign compounds especially in the patients with lowered drug metabolizing capacity. PMID:786355

  12. Elevated urinary testosterone excretion and decreased maternal caregiving effort in marmosets when conception occurs during the period of infant dependence

    PubMed Central

    Fite, Jeffrey E.; French, Jeffrey A.; Patera, Kimberly J.; Hopkins, Elizabeth C.; Rukstalis, Michael; Ross, Corinna N.

    2010-01-01

    The proximate mechanisms that regulate transitions in mammalian female reproductive effort have not been widely studied. However, variation in circulating levels of the androgenic steroid hormone testosterone (T) appears to mediate a trade-off between investment in current and future offspring in males. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility that T is also associated with transitions in the reproductive effort of females, by examining the relationship between urinary T excretion, maternal caregiving behavior, and the timing of the postpartum conception in female Wied's black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii). We examined the maternal carrying effort and peripartum T profiles of six females across two conditions: (1) when they conceived during the period of infant dependence (DPID), such that gestation was coupled with lactation; and (2) when the same females conceived after the period of infant dependence (APID). We also assessed the relationship between postpartum T levels and caregiving effort. When female marmosets conceived DPID, they dramatically reduced their caregiving effort, and had higher levels of urinary T, relative to when they conceived APID. Further, the litter-to-litter changes in maternal caregiving effort that we observed were related to variation in urinary T excretion; as weekly levels of urinary T excretion increased, concurrent caregiving effort declined. Our results suggest that variation in T secretion may regulate transitions in female reproductive behavior, and that the regulation of male and female parental behavior may be mediated by homologous neuroendocrine mechanisms. PMID:15579264

  13. Absolute bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and urinary excretion of the novel antimigraine agent almotriptan in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Jansat, Josep M; Costa, Joan; Salvà, Pau; Fernandez, Francisco J; Martinez-Tobed, Antonio

    2002-12-01

    Absolute bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and urinary excretion of almotriptan, a novel 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonist, were studied in 18 healthy males following single intravenous (i.v.) (3 mg), subcutaneous (s.c.) (6 mg), and oral (25 mg) doses. Volunteers received each dose in a randomized sequence separated by a 7-day washout. Blood and urine samples for pharmacokinetic evaluations were taken for up to 24 hours after dosing. The disposition kinetics of almotriptan after i.v. and s.c. administration showed biphasic decline described by a two-compartment model. The fastest disposition phase was well observed, although estimates of the rate constant showed high variability. After s.c. administration of almotriptan, the bioavailability was 100% with a time to maximum plasma concentration (tmax) of 5 to 15 minutes, whereas after oral administration, the bioavailability was about 70% with a tmax of 1.5 to 3.0 hours. No significant differences were observed between administration routes in the elimination half-life (t(1/2), obtaining mean values ranging from 3.4 to 3.6 hours. The volume of distribution, total clearance, and t(1/2) indicated that almotriptan was extensively distributed and rapidly cleared from the body irrespective of dose or route of administration. The primary route of elimination was renal clearance (approximately 50%-60% of total body clearance). About 65% of the i.v. and s.c. dose and 45% of the oral dose were excreted unchanged in urine in 24 hours, with nearly 90% of this in the first 12 hours. Renal clearance was approximately 2- to 3-fold that of the glomerular filtration rate in man, suggesting that almotriptan is eliminated in part by renal tubular secretion. PMID:12463724

  14. Effect of Discontinuation of Fluoride Intake from Water and Toothpaste on Urinary Excretion in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Carolina C.; Paiva, Saul M.; Cury, Jaime A.

    2011-01-01

    As there is no homeostatic mechanism for maintaining circulating fluoride (F) in the human body, the concentration may decrease and increase again when intake is interrupted and re-started. The present study prospectively evaluated this process in children exposed to F intake from water and toothpaste, using F in urine as a biomarker. Eleven children from Ibiá, Brazil (with sub-optimally fluoridated water supply) aged two to four years who regularly used fluoridated toothpaste (1,100 ppm F) took part in the study. Twenty-four-hour urine was collected at baseline (Day 0, F exposure from water and toothpaste) as well as after the interruption of fluoride intake from water and dentifrice (Days 1 to 28) (F interruption) and after fluoride intake from these sources had been re-established (Days 29 to 34) (F re-exposure). Urinary volume was measured, fluoride concentration was determined and the amount of fluoride excreted was calculated and expressed in mg F/day. Urinary fluoride excretion (UFE) during the periods of fluoride exposure, interruption and re-exposure was analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. Mean UFE was 0.25 mg F/day (SD: 0.15) at baseline, dropped to a mean of 0.14 mg F/day during F interruption (SD: 0.07; range: 0.11 to 0.17 mg F/day) and rose to 0.21 (SD: 0.09) and 0.19 (SD: 0.08) following F re-exposure. The difference between baseline UFE and the period of F interruption was statistically significant (p < 0.05), while the difference between baseline and the period of F re-exposure was non-significant (p > 0.05). The findings suggest that circulating F in the body of young children rapidly decreases in the first 24 hours and again increases very fast after discontinuation and re-exposure of F from water and toothpaste. PMID:21776221

  15. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis. The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04). UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE. PMID:26496329

  16. Water intake and excretion, urinary solute excretion and some stress indicators in mink (Mustela vison): effect of ambient temperature and quantitative water supply to lactating females.

    PubMed

    Tauson, A H

    1998-12-01

    Lactation is a physiologically demanding period in mink production, during which kit and dam losses may occur. Ambient temperature and quantitative water supply are thought to affect animal performance and well-being, but conclusive data in the literature are sparse. Therefore, effects of ambient temperature (Ta; low, about 5 degrees; medium, about 15 degrees; high, average 20-25 degrees) and water supply (ad libitum (N), or 10% extra supplementation in the food (E)) were investigated regarding effects on quantitative water intake and excretion, urine osmolality and solute excretion, and urinary cortisol and catecholamines as stress indicators in an experiment with twelve lactating mink with litters of three to seven kits in three consecutive periods, lasting 3, 3 and 2 d respectively. Kit ages ranged from 15 to 20 d at the end of the experiment. Water requirement for milk production (factorial calculations) and water available for evaporation (balance component) were estimated. Period, and hence mainly Ta, had a significant influence on intake of metabolizable energy, quantitative water intake and excretion, but there was less effect of water supply. The total water intake and excretion were very high in relation to the weight of the animals as an effect of lactation. Water intake and excretion, and urinary Na excretion, seemed to be less accurately regulated compared with corresponding functions in non-lactating animals. Rectal temperature increased with increasing Ta, possibly as a means of decreasing evaporative water loss. Water output in milk was estimated to increase from 118 g/d at low Ta to 134 g/d at high Ta. The amounts of water available for evaporation were estimated to be 42, 58 and 69 g/kg0.75 at low, medium and high Ta. Cortisol data did not indicate that the animals experienced negative stress. It was concluded that prolonged periods of high Ta may be hazardous for lactating mink because of decreased intake of metabolizable energy resulting in

  17. A Case of Hypophosphatemia with Increased Urinary Excretion of Phosphorus Associated with Ibrutinib

    PubMed Central

    Wysokinska, Ewa M.; Thompson, Amanda M.; Franco Palacios, Carlos R.

    2016-01-01

    Ibrutinib, an irreversible oral inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, has been used in the treatment of patients with multiple hematologic malignancies. A 59-year-old male with chronic lymphocytic leukemia was treated with 420 mg/day of ibrutinib. No evidence of bruising or diarrhea was noted. The treatment was complicated by a transient increase in creatinine (from a baseline of 1.2 to 1.5 mg/dl) and potassium (reaching a peak of 6.5 mEq/l). Uric acid and calcium levels were normal. The patient developed hypophosphatemia (prior to initiation of therapy the serum phosphorus was 2.9 mg/dl). No metabolic acidosis was noted. Urinalysis showed no glucosuria or proteinuria. Urinary fraction of excretion of phosphate was found to be 345% (normal <5%). Because of these changes, ibrutinib was held, and the patient was given kayexalate. Serum potassium normalized. Serum phosphorus was checked a couple of weeks later and also normalized. A lower dose of ibrutinib (140 mg/day) was restarted. Upon follow-up, the phosphorus level has been between 2.9 and 3.2 mg/dl. No further evidence of hyperkalemia has been noted. Renal function has remained at baseline. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing the mechanism of hypophosphatemia in a patient treated with ibrutinib. PMID:27194982

  18. A Case of Hypophosphatemia with Increased Urinary Excretion of Phosphorus Associated with Ibrutinib.

    PubMed

    Wysokinska, Ewa M; Thompson, Amanda M; Franco Palacios, Carlos R

    2016-01-01

    Ibrutinib, an irreversible oral inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, has been used in the treatment of patients with multiple hematologic malignancies. A 59-year-old male with chronic lymphocytic leukemia was treated with 420 mg/day of ibrutinib. No evidence of bruising or diarrhea was noted. The treatment was complicated by a transient increase in creatinine (from a baseline of 1.2 to 1.5 mg/dl) and potassium (reaching a peak of 6.5 mEq/l). Uric acid and calcium levels were normal. The patient developed hypophosphatemia (prior to initiation of therapy the serum phosphorus was 2.9 mg/dl). No metabolic acidosis was noted. Urinalysis showed no glucosuria or proteinuria. Urinary fraction of excretion of phosphate was found to be 345% (normal <5%). Because of these changes, ibrutinib was held, and the patient was given kayexalate. Serum potassium normalized. Serum phosphorus was checked a couple of weeks later and also normalized. A lower dose of ibrutinib (140 mg/day) was restarted. Upon follow-up, the phosphorus level has been between 2.9 and 3.2 mg/dl. No further evidence of hyperkalemia has been noted. Renal function has remained at baseline. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing the mechanism of hypophosphatemia in a patient treated with ibrutinib. PMID:27194982

  19. Association between serum uric acid, urinary albumin excretion, and glycated hemoglobin in Type 2 diabetic patient

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Sunita; Dubey, Raju Kumar; Gautam, Narayan; Agrawal, Krishna Kumar; Jayan, Archana; Shrestha, Sujata; Jha, Amit Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease characterized by insulin deficiency or peripheral resistance resulting in hyperglycemia. Poor glycemic control leads to diabetic complications. Hyperuricemia has been reported with increased risk of renal insufficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum uric acid concentration, degree of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in Type 2 DM (T2DM) patients. Materials and Methods: Serum uric acid concentrations, urine microalbumin, and HbA1c were measured in fifty T2DM patients. We then evaluated relationship between uric acid concentrations, degree of UAE and glycemic control as well as other confounding variables. Results: Serum uric acid concentration correlated positively with UAE (r = 0.323, P < 0.05), age (r = 0.337, P < 0.05), age at onset (r = 0.341, P < 0.05), and duration of DM (r = 0.312, P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that serum uric acid concentration (β = 0.293, P < 0.0001), duration of DM (β = 0.261, P < 0.0001), HbA1c (β = 0.173, P < 0.005), and systolic blood pressure (β = 0.268, P < 0.005) were independent determinants of UAE. Conclusions: Serum uric acid concentration is associated with microalbuminuria and HbA1c in T2DM patients. PMID:27226687

  20. A Mimic of Intra-abdominal Malignancy: Physiological Urinary Excretion of FDG in the Rare Adult Vesicourachal Diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Te-Chun; Sun, Shung-Shung; Lin, Chen-Yuan; Wu, Yu-Chin; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-06-01

    Urachal remnant anomalies are rare, and vesicourachal diverticulum is the most uncommon subtype of these anomalies. We present such a rare case of vesicourachal diverticulum that is incidentally discovered during the staging surveillance of a known esophageal cancer with F-FDG PET/CT. The physiological urinary excretion of radiopharmaceutical in the vesicourachal diverticulum mimics intra-abdominal malignancy, which resolves spontaneously in the follow-up FDG PET/CT. PMID:26825197

  1. Whole-body retention, and urinary and fecal excretion of mercury after subchronic oral exposure to mercuric chloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Morcillo, M A; Santamaria, J

    1995-10-01

    The effects of long-term daily intake of mercury on its urinary and fecal excretion, whole-body retention, and blood concentration in male rats were observed. The animals were exposed to mercuric, chloride labeled with 203Hg via drinking water for 8 weeks (5, 50 and 500 microM Hg). 203Hg in urine, feces and blood was quantified. The blood mercury concentration did not keep a linear relationship with the increasing dose. The percentage of the total amount of mercury intake which is excreted by the fecal route in rats exposed to 500 microM Hg was significantly lower than in those exposed to 5 and 50 microM. The daily dose percentage of mercury excreted in urine increased with dose size. The results show that the absorption fraction of mercury through the gastrointestinal tract (30-40%) was higher than values previously reported. PMID:7580050

  2. Stereoselectivity in the urinary excretion of the mercapturates of (R-) and (S-) alpha-bromoisovalerylurea in man.

    PubMed Central

    te Koppele, J M; Schipper, C; Breimer, D D; Mulder, G J

    1989-01-01

    1. alpha-Bromoisovalerylurea (BIU) is a racemic drug that is metabolized by glutathione conjugation. The urinary excretion of the separate diastereomeric mercapturates formed from (S)- and (R)-BIU in healthy young human volunteers was investigated. 2. A pronounced stereoselectivity was observed: the mercapturate formed from R-BIU was excreted with a t1/2 of 1.5 +/- 0.4 h, while that from S-BIU showed a t1/2 of 3.1 +/- 1.3 h. Moreover, 22.5 +/- 4.3 and 5.7 +/- 1.6% of the dose, respectively, was excreted as each mercapturate diastereomer in 24 h. 3. This is the first example of stereoselectivity in the elimination of a substrate for glutathione conjugation in man. PMID:2775620

  3. Supplementation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) with condensed tannin-containing pellets of sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata): Effects on ruminant urinary urea excretion and digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some feedstuffs that contain condensed tannins can reduce urinary urea excretion without compromising nutrition for ruminant livestock. This results in reducing environmental impact, improving productivity and enhancing sustainability of ruminant farming operations. In some situations there are adva...

  4. Effect of dietary supplementation of gallic acid on nitrogen balance, nitrogen excretion pattern and urinary nitrogenous constituents in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chen; Yang, Kai; Zhao, Guangyong; Lin, Shixin; Xu, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the trial was to study the effects of dietary supplementation of gallic acid (GA) on nitrogen (N) balance, N excretion pattern and urinary N constituents in beef cattle. In a 4 × 4 Latin square design, four male 30-month-old Simmental cattle (443 ± 22 kg live weight) received four levels of GA (purity ≥ 98.5%), i.e. 0, 5.3, 10.5, 21.1 g/kg DM, added to a basal ration. Each experimental period lasted 17 d, consisting of 12 d adaptation and 5 d sampling. The results showed that supplementation of GA at 5.3, 10.5 or 21.1 g/kg DM did not affect the N balance but regulated the N excretion pattern by increasing the ratio of faecal N/urinary N and decreasing the ratio of urinary urea N/total urinary N in beef cattle fed at maintenance level. PMID:27494638

  5. A study on the effect of the internal exposure to (210)Po on the excretion of urinary proteins in rats.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Baki; Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Daka, Joseph; Yusuf, Hamdi; Wyatt, Heather; Surette, Joel; Priest, Nick; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of a noninvasive urine specimen for the detection of proteins as indicators of internal exposure to ionizing radiation. Three groups of rats (five in each group) were intravenously injected with 1601 ± 376, 10,846 ± 591 and 48,467 ± 2812 Bq of (210)Po in citrate form. A sham-exposed control group of five rats was intravenously injected with sterile physiological saline. Daily urine samples were collected over 4 days following injection. Purification and pre-concentration of urinary proteins were carried out by ultrafiltration using a 3000 Da molecular weight cutoff membrane filter. The concentration of common urinary proteins, namely albumin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary excretion of albumin decreased dose-dependently (p < 0.05) 96 h post-injection relative to the control group. In contrast, no statistically significant effects were observed for other proteins tested. The dose-dependent decrease in urinary excretion of albumin observed in this study underscores the need for further research, which may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers that would reflect the changes in the primary target organs for deposition of (210)Po. PMID:26961776

  6. Intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary excretion of the rare sugar D-psicose

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Hossain, Akram; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Hirata, Yuko; Dong, Youyi; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Sui, Li; Nonaka, Machiko; Ueno, Masaki; Nishimoto, Kazuyuki; Suda, Hirofumi; Morimoto, Kenji; Shimonishi, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Madoka; Song, Tao; Konishi, Ryoji; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary elimination of the rare sugar D-psicose, a 3-carbon stereoisomer of D-fructose that is currently being investigated and which has been found to be strongly effective against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Methods This study was performed using radioactive D-psicose, which was synthesized enzymatically from radioactive D-allose. Concentrations in whole blood, urine, and organs were measured at different time points until 2 hours after both oral and intravenous administrations and 7 days after a single oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to Wistar rats. Autoradiography was also performed by injecting 100 mg/kg body weight of 14C-labeled D-psicose or glucose intravenously to C3H mice. Results Following oral administration, D-psicose easily moved to blood. The maximum blood concentration (48.5±15.6 μg/g) was observed at 1 hour. Excretion to urine was 20% within 1 hour and 33% within 2 hours. Accumulation to organs was detected only in the liver. Following intravenous administration, blood concentration was decreased with the half-life=57 minutes, and the excretion to urine was up to almost 50% within 1 hour. Similarly to the results obtained with oral administration, accumulation to organs was detected only in the liver. Seven days after the single-dose oral administration, the remaining amounts in the whole body were less than 1%. Autoradiography of mice showed results similar to those in rats. High signals of 14C-labeled D-psicose were observed in liver, kidney, and bladder. Interestingly, no accumulation of D-psicose was observed in the brain. Conclusion D-psicose was absorbed well after oral administration and eliminated rapidly after both oral and intravenous administrations, with short duration of action. The study provides valuable pharmacokinetic data for further drug development of D-psicose. Because the findings were mainly based on animal

  7. The comparative effects of feeding ammonium carbonate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride on urinary calcium excretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Whiting, S J; Cole, D E

    1987-11-01

    When either sulfate or chloride is added to the diet, the resulting acid load causes a rise in urinary calcium excretion. There is, however, the possibility that sulfate, which has been shown to complex renal tubular calcium, will further decrease renal calcium reabsorption and thus produce a greater calciuria than chloride. Because addition of a fixed cation (e.g., sodium) to the diet may also stimulate calciuresis, experiments were conducted using metabolizable ammonium to minimize cation effects. Ammonium salts of sulfate, chloride, and carbonate (control) were added to the diets of male rats at 0.3 mequiv./g weight of diet. Twenty-four hour excretion rates of calcium, sulfate, chloride, and net acid were measured at various intervals up to 1 month. As expected, the chloride and sulfate diets were both associated with significantly elevated urine calcium and net acid excretion as compared with controls. However, those fed sulfate exhibited significantly less calcium and acid excretion and absorbed a smaller proportion of the anion load than those given chloride. In a second experiment, the amounts of supplemental sulfate and chloride were adjusted so that total absorptions were similar. At 2 weeks, both calcium and acid excretions in the fixed anion groups were no longer significantly different. Thus, in chronic feeding trials, there appears to be no measurable difference in the calciuretic properties of sulfate and chloride anions. PMID:3449184

  8. Tissue residues and urinary excretion of zilpaterol in sheep treated for 10 days with dietary zilpaterol.

    PubMed

    Shelver, Weilin L; Smith, David J

    2006-06-14

    Zilpaterol is a beta-adrenergic growth promoter approved in Mexico and South Africa for use in cattle. Understanding the rates of zilpaterol depletion from tissues and urine is of interest for the development of strategies to detect the off-label use of zilpaterol. Eight sheep were fed 0.15 mg/kg/day dietary zilpaterol hydrochloride (Zilmax) for 10 consecutive days; two sheep each were slaughtered 0, 2, 5, and 9 days after discontinuation of exposure to the zilpaterol-containing diet. Tissue zilpaterol levels rapidly decreased during the withdrawal period. On the basis of LC-MS/MS-ES (external standard) measurements, liver zilpaterol residues in sheep were 29.3, 1.5, 0.13, and 0.10 ng/g after 0, 2, 5, and 9 day withdrawal periods, respectively; kidney residues were 29.6, 1.10, and 0.09 ng/g and below the detection limit; and muscle residues were 13.3, 0.86, 0.12, and 0.08 ng/g at the same respective withdrawal periods. Between-animal variation in urinary zilpaterol concentrations during the feeding period was considerable, although zilpaterol concentrations converged somewhat as steady state was reached. During the first 3 days of the withdrawal period, zilpaterol elimination followed a first-order excretion pattern, having an average elimination half-life of 15.3 +/- 1.8 h. Urinary zilpaterol concentrations during the withdrawal period were determined using ELISA, HPLC-fluorescence, LC-MS/MS-ES (external standard), and LC-MS/MS-IS (internal standard). Comparison of these methods showed a high correlation with each other. With the exception of LC-MS/MS-IS, the regression coefficients of the linear equations with a zero intercept were between 0.90 and 1.25, indicating the near equivalence of the methods. Because of its simplicity, ELISA is a convenient assay for determining zilpaterol levels in urine giving similar results to HPLC-fluorescence and LC-MS/MS-ES without requiring the extensive cleanup of the latter methods. PMID:16756341

  9. Urinary Creatinine Excretion, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis, and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with CKD: The CRIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Dawei; Anderson, Amanda H.; Leonard, Mary B.; Reese, Peter P.; Delafontaine, Patrice; Horwitz, Edward; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Navaneethan, Sankar; Ojo, Akinlolu; Porter, Anna C.; Sondheimer, James H.; Sweeney, H. Lee; Townsend, Raymond R.; Feldman, Harold I.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Previous studies in chronic disease states have demonstrated an association between lower urinary creatinine excretion (UCr) and increased mortality, a finding presumed to reflect the effect of low muscle mass on clinical outcomes. Little is known about the relationship between UCr and other measures of body composition in terms of the ability to predict outcomes of interest. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Using data from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC), the relationship between UCr, fat free mass (FFM) as estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and (in a subpopulation) whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry assessment of appendicular lean mass were characterized. The associations of UCr and FFM with mortality and ESRD were compared using Cox proportional hazards models. Results A total of 3604 CRIC participants (91% of the full CRIC cohort) with both a baseline UCr and FFM measurement were included; of these, 232 had contemporaneous dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements. Participants were recruited between July 2003 and March 2007. UCr and FFM were modestly correlated (rho=0.50; P<0.001), while FFM and appendicular lean mass were highly correlated (rho=0.91; P<0.001). Higher urinary urea nitrogen, black race, younger age, and lower serum cystatin C level were all significantly associated with higher UCr. Over a median (interquartile range) of 4.2 (3.1–5.0) years of follow-up, 336 (9.3%) participants died and 510 (14.2%) reached ESRD. Lower UCr was associated with death and ESRD even after adjustment for FFM (adjusted hazard ratio for death per 1 SD higher level of UCr, 0.63 [95% confidence interval, 0.56 to 0.72]; adjusted hazard ratio for ESRD per 1 SD higher level of UCr, 0.70 [95% confidence interval, 0.63 to 0.75]). Conclusions Among a cohort of individuals with CKD, lower UCr is associated with death and ESRD independent of FFM as assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. PMID

  10. Urinary excretion of LH and testosterone from male rats during exposure to increased gravity: post-spaceflight and centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Morey-Holton, E.

    2000-01-01

    A dissociation between plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) appears to exist during exposure to altered gravity. The pulsatile nature of LH release and the diurnal variability of T secretion may mask or bias the effects of altered gravity on the pituitary-gonadal axis when analyzing plasma concentrations. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the excretion of urinary LH and T in male Sprague-Dawley rats during exposure to increased gravity upon return to Earth following a 14-day spaceflight (n = 6) and by 12 days of centrifugation at 2g (n = 8). Excreted LH and T were elevated on the first 3 days postflight. Excreted T was elevated between Days 1 and 8 of centrifugation; however, excreted LH was reduced on Days 2 and 3 compared with control animals. Excreted LH and T were significantly correlated (R = 0.731 and 0.706, respectively) in postspaceflight and centrifuged animals. Correlation curves had similar slopes (0.0213 and 0.023, respectively), but different y-intercepts (-1.43 and 3.32, respectively). The sustained increase in excreted T during centrifugation suggests that the pituitary-gonadal axis in postspaceflight animals may adapt quicker to increased gravity. The upward shift in the correlation curve exhibited by the centrifuged animals suggests that the sensitivity of LH-induced T release is increased in these animals. The previous dissociation between plasma LH and T during altered gravity was not observed in the present study in which excreted LH and T were measured.

  11. Excretion Profiles and Half-Lives of Ten Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolites after Dietary Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa; Bartell, Scott; Pittman, Erin N.; Trinidad, Debra A.; McClean, Michael; Webster, Thomas F.; Sjödin, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be assessed by biomonitoring of their urinary mono-hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PAHs). Limited information exists on the human pharmacokinetics of OH-PAHs. This study aimed to investigate the excretion half-life of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR), the most used biomarker for PAH exposure, and 9 other OH-PAHs following a dietary exposure in 9 non-smoking volunteers with no occupational exposure to PAHs. Each person avoided food with known high PAH-content during the study period, except for a high PAH-containing lunch (barbecued chicken) on the first day. Individual urine samples (n = 217) were collected from 15 hours before to 60 hours following the dietary exposure. Levels of all OH-PAHs in all subjects increased rapidly by 9–141 fold after the exposure, followed by a decrease consistent with first order kinetics, and returned to background levels 24–48 hours after the exposure. The average time to reach maximal concentration ranged from 3.1 h (1-naphthol) to 5.5 h (1-PYR). Creatinine-adjusted urine concentrations for each metabolite were analyzed using a non-linear mixed effects model including a term to estimate background exposure. The background-adjusted half-life estimate was 3.9 h for 1-PYR and ranged 2.5–6.1 h for the other 9 OH-PAHs, which in general, were shorter than those previously reported. The maximum concentrations after the barbecued chicken consumption were comparable to the levels found in reported occupational settings with known high PAH exposures. It is essential to consider the relatively short half-life, the timing of samples relative to exposures, and the effect of diet when conducting PAH exposure biomonitoring studies. PMID:22663094

  12. Can urinary excretion rate of 8-isoprostrane and malonaldehyde predict postoperative cognitive dysfunction in aging?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qinghao; Wang, Jiawan; Wu, Anshi; Zhang, Rujin; Li, Lei; Yue, Yun

    2013-09-01

    Oxidative stress has been associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about oxidative stress in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in aging. The aim of this study was to investigate urinary excretion rate of 8-isoprostane:creatinine (U8-isoPG:Cr) and malonaldehyde:creatinine (UMDA:Cr) to predict short-term POCD in elderly patients undergoing general and orthopedic surgery. 72 patients aged above 65 years were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Each patient underwent cognitive testing to determine POCD performed by an investigator before surgery and 1 week after surgery. Morning urine was collected at baseline, 1, 2, and 7 days postoperatively. U8-isoPG was performed using enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and UMDA levels were measured by chemiluminescence detection. Creatinine levels were also analyzed if differences in the oxidative biomarkers were observed in the urine creatinine concentration. (1). Of 72 patients who completed cognitive testing, postoperative cognitive dysfunction was detected in 29.2 % (n = 21) of patients in 7 days. (2) U8-isoPG:Cr levels in 7 days postoperatively were significantly higher in POCD patients compared with the non-POCD group (p = 0.01). When measuring change from baseline, U8-isoPG:Cr levels were higher than that of control groups (p = 0.01). (3) UMDA:Cr levels were significantly elevated in 1 and 2 days postoperatively in both groups (p < 0.05). U8-isoPG:Cr level seems to be a valuable marker to detect lipid peroxidation early in POCD patients. However, it will also be important to take into account or reduce potential confounders to improve the identification of changes in the status of oxidative stress as a marker for POCD. PMID:23380806

  13. The impact of hormonal contraceptives on blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion and glomerular filtration rate

    PubMed Central

    Atthobari, Jarir; Gansevoort, Ron T; Visser, Sipke T; de Jong, Paul E; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T W

    2007-01-01

    Aim In short-term studies, hormonal contraceptives (HC) have been suggested to induce a rise in blood pressure (BP) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE), while the effect of HC in renal function (GFR) is still under debate. Data on long-term and withdrawal effects of HC use on these outcomes are, however, not available. We therefore studied whether the start and cessation of HC induce changes in BP, UAE and GFR. Methods We used data from the PREVEND Study, a prospective cohort of subjects aged 28–75 years. Eligible were women aged ≤ 45 years with complete clinical and pharmacy data on baseline and follow-up screening (4 years later). Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of HC on BP, UAE and GFR in those who started (n = 73), stopped (n = 117) or continued (n = 183) with those who never used HC (n = 286) as the reference group. Results BP increased among starters and fell in stoppers. These changes compared with never-users were statistically significant, even after adjustment for relevant variables. UAE increased by 14.2% in starters (P = 0.074) and fell by 10.6% in stoppers (P = 0.021), while GFR fell by 6.3% in starters (P < 0.001) and did not change in stoppers. The effects of stopping HC on UAE and GFR were significantly different compared with changes among never-users, even after adjustment for other variables (P = 0.023 and 0.036, respectively). Conclusions The start of HC was independently associated with worsening of BP, UAE and GFR, while stopping HC use resulted in an improvement. These data suggest that long-term HC use (aged 28–45 years) may be deleterious from the cardiovascular and renal point of view, but stopping may result in correction of these effects. PMID:17274790

  14. Factors affecting carisoprodol metabolism in pain patients using urinary excretion data.

    PubMed

    Tse, Stephanie A; Atayee, Rabia S; Ma, Joseph D; Best, Brookie M

    2014-04-01

    Carisoprodol is a skeletal muscle relaxant prescribed to treat pain. Carisoprodol is metabolized to meprobamate, an active metabolite with anxiolytic effects, by the genetically polymorphic CYP2C19 enzyme. Concomitant use of CYP2C19 substrates or inhibitors may alter carisoprodol metabolism, with therapeutic and/or toxic implications for effectively treating patients with pain. This was a retrospective analysis of urinary excretion data collected from patients with pain from March 2008 to May 2011. Carisoprodol and meprobamate urine concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the metabolic ratio (MR) of meprobamate to carisoprodol concentrations was determined in 14,965 subjects. The MR geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of the young group (105, 95% CI = 99.1-113) were ∼47.4% higher than the middle-aged group (71.9, 95% CI = 70-73.8) and nearly two times higher than the elderly group (54.4, 95% CI = 51.3-57.6). Females had a 20.7% higher MR compared with males. No significant change in the MR was observed with overall CYP2C19 inhibitor or substrate use. However, evaluation of individual inhibitors showed co-administration with esomeprazole or fluoxetine was associated with a 31.8 and 24.6% reduction in MR, respectively, compared with controls (P < 0.05). Omeprazole did not significantly affect the MR. Patient-specific factors such as age, sex and co-medications may be important considerations for effective carisoprodol therapy. PMID:24488112

  15. Role of 1,25-Dihydroxy Vitamin D3 and Parathyroid Hormone in Urinary Calcium Excretion in Calcium Stone Formers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Yong-June; Yun, Seok Joong; Shin, Kyung-Sub; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To find out the possible role of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and parathyroid hormone (PTH) as intrinsic factors in urinary calcium stone formers (SFs), we investigated their relationship with serum and urinary biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods A total of 326 calcium SFs (male: 204, female: 122) were enrolled and underwent outpatient metabolic evaluations including 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTH as well as serum and 24-hour urinary biochemical parameters. As control, 163 age- and sex-matched (2:1) individuals (non-SFs) who have never urinary stone episode were included. Results 1,25(OH)2D3 level was positively correlated with urinary calcium excretion (r=0.347, p<0.001). The hypercalciuric group and recurrent SFs had higher serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels than the normocalciuric group (p<0.001) and first SFs (p=0.050). In the adjusted multiple linear regression analysis, serum 1,25(OH)2D3 level (β=0.259, p<0.001) and serum PTH level (β=-0.160, p<0.001) were significantly correlated with urinary calcium excretion. The patients in highest tertile of 1,25(OH)2D3 had a more than 3.1 fold risk of hypercalciuria than those in the lowest tertile (odds ratio=3.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.431-6.888, p=0.004). No correlation was observed between PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3 (R=0.005, p=0.929) in calcium SFs, while a negative correlation was found in controls (R=-0.269, p=0.001). Conclusion 1,25(OH)2D3 was closely correlated with urinary calcium excretion, and high 1,25(OH)2D3 levels were detected in the hypercalciuric group and in recurrent SFs. However, 1,25(OH)2D3 was not correlated with PTH in calcium SFs. These findings suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 might be important intrinsic factor for altered calcium regulation in SFs. PMID:25048492

  16. Effects of topiroxostat and febuxostat on urinary albumin excretion and plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Murase, Takayo; Nampei, Mai; Morimoto, Nobutaka; Ashizawa, Naoki; Iwanaga, Takashi; Sakamoto, Ryusuke

    2016-06-01

    Topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitor, has been shown to decrease the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio compared with placebo in hyperuricemic patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease. Thus, we aimed to ascertain the albuminuria-lowering effect of topiroxostat in diabetic mouse. Db/db mice were fed standard diets with or without topiroxostat (0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3mg/kg/day) and febuxostat (0.1, 0.3, and 1mg/kg/day) for four weeks. Urinary albumin and purine bodies levels, XOR activities, and drug concentrations in the liver, kidney, and plasma were measured. Moreover, the XOR inhibitory activity of each XOR inhibitor was evaluated with or without an exogenous protein in vitro. Topiroxostat decreased dose-dependently the urinary albumin excretion, but febuxostat did not show such a tendency. Treatment with topiroxostat inhibited plasma XOR activity with dose-dependent increase in plasma purine levels, which was not observed by febuxostat. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis revealed that topiroxostat and febuxostat concentration in each tissue showed a good correlation with both the hypouricemic effect and plasma drug concentration, whereas the change in albuminuria correlated neither with the change in uric acid nor with drug concentration in plasma. However, the change in urinary albumin and plasma XOR activity showed good correlation in topiroxostat group. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 value) of febuxostat against plasma XOR in vitro was 12-fold higher than that of topiroxostat, and increased by approximately 13-fold by interfering with an exogenous protein. Topiroxostat caused reduced urinary albumin excretion, in which potent inhibition of the plasma XOR activity might be involved. PMID:27038523

  17. Effects of saline loading during head down tilt on ANP and cyclic GMP levels and on urinary fluid excretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummer, C.; Lang, R. E.; Baisch, F.; Blomqvist, G.; Heer, M.; Gerzer, R.

    In the present study the renal and humoral effects of acute saline infusions were investigated in six healthy male volunteers before, during and after a ten day period of -6° head-down-tilt (HDT). During the whole 23-day study period the subjects received a standardized diet including 40 ml water and 125 mg NaCl per kg body weight per day. After the infusion of 0.9% saline (22 ml/kg within 20 minutes) plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels were only slightly increased (not significant) at the end of the infusion, while plasma cyclic GMP levels were significantly increased by about 40% (p<0.05) one hour later. No difference was observed in the plasma ANP and cyclic GMP changes between the pre-HDT, the HDT and the post-HDT infusion experiment. Urine flow, sodium excretion and urinary cyclic GMP excretion were significantly increased (p<0.05 and below) by 100 to 300% during the second and third hour after each saline infusion. However, during these short-term periods only 20% of the infused water and less than 20% of the infused sodium were excreted. Furthermore, a significantly increased volume, sodium and cyclic GMP excretion was observed for over 48 hours after each fluid load experiment. These data suggest that HDT does not induce major alterations in the regulation of an acute saline infusion and plasma ANP does not play a major role in the diuretic/natriuretic effects of volume loading.

  18. Urinary excretion of adrenal steroids, catecholamines and electrolytes in man, before and after acclimatization to cold in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Budd, G. M.; Warhaft, N.

    1970-01-01

    1. Urine samples were collected from four men before and during test cold exposures in Melbourne, Australia, and Mawson, Antarctica. Changes in the response of body temperature to the test exposures showed that the men had acclimatized to cold at Mawson. 2. Excretion rates of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids and 17-ketosteroids were significantly greater at Mawson than in Melbourne, in both the pre-exposure and exposure periods. 3. Excretion rates of noradrenaline, adrenaline, sodium, potassium and creatinine did not differ significantly between Mawson and Melbourne, nor did urine flow rates. 4. During the cold exposure significant increases occurred, to the same extent at Mawson as in Melbourne, in urine flow rate and in all measured urinary constituents except creatinine. PMID:5501486

  19. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8–53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7–45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885–4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654–4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4–23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1–4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33–1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34–2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49–2.53, P < 0

  20. [Pulse wave velocity and urinary albumin excretion in hypertensive patients treated with perindopril].

    PubMed

    Toblli, Jorge E; Bellido, Claudio A; Iavícoli, Oscar R; Costa, Marta; Forcada, Pedro; Piñeiro, Daniel J; Lerman, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressures and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) have been recognized as predictors for cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, arterial compliance (AC) disorders assessed by increased aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) are closely related to changes in blood pressure and strongly correlated with cardiovascular mortality and presence or extent of atherosclerosis. Our purpose in the present study was to determine a relationship between AC using PWV and UAE in a group of non-smoking patients with essential hypertension, and the level of interaction of ACE inhibition on these two variables. A total of 70 non-smoking never treated hypertensive patients (33 men and 37 women), aged 50 +/- 7 years (range 35-69), have been enrolled in this study. All of them underwent PWV by a computerized device (Complior) and UAE determination by radial immunodiffusion method, on baseline and after six months of treatment with perindopril (4.6 +/- 1.4 mg/day). We have found a significant decrease of systolic blood pressure (160.2 +/- 10.6 vs. 131.9 +/- 7.1 mmHg, p < 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (100.6 +/- 5 vs. 81.6 +/- 4.8 mmHg, p < 0.01), PWV (13.4 +/- 1 vs. 9.1 +/- 0.9 m/sec, p < 0.01), and UAE (42.2 +/- 19.3 vs. 11.1 +/- 3.6 mg/day, p < 0.01) at the end of the sixth month when they were compared to baseline values. Furthermore, renal function was also improved by the treatment at the end of the study as illustrated by creatinine clearance (87.5 + 22.5 vs. 102.1 + 23.5 ml/min, p < 0.01). Moreover, a high positive correlation between UAE and PWV at the beginning of the study (r = 0.81; p < 0.01) and after six months of treatment (r = 0.66; p < 0.01) was observed. In addition, PWV vs. UAE, differences between sixth month and baseline have shown a high correlation (r = 0.67; p < 0.01) and using a multiple regression test we found that PWV (t ratio 5.76; p < 0.001) was the most important and significant independent variable that correlates with UAE. These results

  1. Polymorphisms in the WNK1 Gene Are Associated with Blood Pressure Variation and Urinary Potassium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Stephen; Farrall, Martin; Wallace, Chris; Hoti, Mimoza; Burke, Beverley; Howard, Philip; Onipinla, Abiodun; Lee, Kate; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Dobson, Richard; Brown, Morris; Samani, Nilesh J.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Connell, John M.; Lathrop, G. Mark; Kooner, Jaspal; Chambers, John; Elliott, Paul; Clarke, Robert; Collins, Rory; Laan, Maris; Org, Elin; Juhanson, Peeter; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Eyheramendy, Susana; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Ji, Chen; Iacone, Roberto; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Kumari, Meena; Marmot, Michael; Brunner, Eric; Caulfield, Mark; Munroe, Patricia B.

    2009-01-01

    WNK1 - a serine/threonine kinase involved in electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure (BP) control - is an excellent candidate gene for essential hypertension (EH). We and others have previously reported association between WNK1 and BP variation. Using tag SNPs (tSNPs) that capture 100% of common WNK1 variation in HapMap, we aimed to replicate our findings with BP and to test for association with phenotypes relating to WNK1 function in the British Genetics of Hypertension (BRIGHT) study case-control resource (1700 hypertensive cases and 1700 normotensive controls). We found multiple variants to be associated with systolic blood pressure, SBP (7/28 tSNPs min-p = 0.0005), diastolic blood pressure, DBP (7/28 tSNPs min-p = 0.002) and 24 hour urinary potassium excretion (10/28 tSNPs min-p = 0.0004). Associations with SBP and urine potassium remained significant after correction for multiple testing (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01 respectively). The major allele (A) of rs765250, located in intron 1, demonstrated the strongest evidence for association with SBP, effect size 3.14 mmHg (95%CI:1.23–4.9), DBP 1.9 mmHg (95%CI:0.7–3.2) and hypertension, odds ratio (OR: 1.3 [95%CI: 1.0–1.7]).We genotyped this variant in six independent populations (n = 14,451) and replicated the association between rs765250 and SBP in a meta-analysis (p = 7×10−3, combined with BRIGHT data-set p = 2×10−4, n = 17,851). The associations of WNK1 with DBP and EH were not confirmed. Haplotype analysis revealed striking associations with hypertension and BP variation (global permutation p<10−7). We identified several common haplotypes to be associated with increased BP and multiple low frequency haplotypes significantly associated with lower BP (>10 mmHg reduction) and risk for hypertension (OR<0.60). Our data indicates that multiple rare and common WNK1 variants contribute to BP variation and hypertension, and provide compelling evidence to initiate further

  2. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed Central

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; Fabianova, E

    1997-01-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)--prior to the start of each shift. Results from a small number of cascade impactor air samples indicated that approximately 90% of total particle mass and arsenic was present in particle size fractions >/= 3.5 micron. The 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) mean arsenic air concentration was 48.3 microg/m3 (range 0.17-375.2) and the mean sum of urinary arsenic (SigmaAs) metabolites was 16.9 microg As/g creatinine (range 2.6-50.8). For an 8-hr TWA of 10 microg/m3 arsenic from coal fly ash, the predicted mean concentration of the SigmaAs urinary metabolites was 13.2 microg As/G creatinine [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.1-16.3). Comparisons with previously published studies of exposure to arsenic trioxide vapors and dusts in copper smelters suggest that bioavailability of arsenic from airborne coal fly ash (as indicated by urinary excretion) is about one-third that seen in smelters and similar settings. Arsenic compound characteristics, matrix composition, and particle size distribution probably play major roles in determining actual uptake of airborne arsenic. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 2. PMID:9347899

  3. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; Fabianova, E

    1997-08-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)--prior to the start of each shift. Results from a small number of cascade impactor air samples indicated that approximately 90% of total particle mass and arsenic was present in particle size fractions >/= 3.5 micron. The 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) mean arsenic air concentration was 48.3 microg/m3 (range 0.17-375.2) and the mean sum of urinary arsenic (SigmaAs) metabolites was 16.9 microg As/g creatinine (range 2.6-50.8). For an 8-hr TWA of 10 microg/m3 arsenic from coal fly ash, the predicted mean concentration of the SigmaAs urinary metabolites was 13.2 microg As/G creatinine [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.1-16.3). Comparisons with previously published studies of exposure to arsenic trioxide vapors and dusts in copper smelters suggest that bioavailability of arsenic from airborne coal fly ash (as indicated by urinary excretion) is about one-third that seen in smelters and similar settings. Arsenic compound characteristics, matrix composition, and particle size distribution probably play major roles in determining actual uptake of airborne arsenic. PMID:9347899

  4. Glycerol administration before endurance exercise: metabolism, urinary glycerol excretion and effects on doping-relevant blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; de Marees, Markus; Geyer, Hans; Thevis, Mario; Mester, Joachim; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2014-03-01

    Glycerol is prohibited as a masking agent by the World Anti-Doping Agency and a urinary threshold has recently been recommended. However, little is known about urinary glycerol excretion after exercise, when (1) exogenous glycerol is metabolized increasingly and (2) endogenous glycerol levels are elevated. The purpose of the placebo-controlled cross-over study was to determine the effects of pre-exercise glycerol administration on glycerol metabolism, urinary excretion, and selected blood parameters. After administration of glycerol (G; 1.0 g/kg body weight (BW) + 25 ml fluid/kg BW) or placebo (P; 25 ml fluid/kg), 14 cyclists exercised 90 min at 60% VO2max . Samples were taken at 0 h (before administration), 2.5 h (before exercise), 4 h (after exercise) and 6.5 h and additional urine samples were collected until 24 h. Exercise increased endogenous plasma glycerol (0.51 ± 0.21 mmol/l) but peak concentrations were much higher in G (2.5 h: 15.6 ± 7.8 mmol/l). Urinary glycerol increased rapidly (58,428 ± 71,084 µg/ml after 2.5 h) and was significantly higher than in P until 13.6 ± 0.9 h (p < 0.01). In comparison with placebo administration, G caused significantly greater changes in plasma volume and haemoglobin concentrations after 2.5 h. BW and urine production were significantly different between P and G after 2.5 h and post-exercise. Despite exercise-induced increases in endogenous glycerol in the control group, urinary excretion remained well below the previously recommended threshold. In addition, exercise-related glycerol degradation did not appear to negatively affect the detection of exogenously administered glycerol. PMID:23359436

  5. Technical Basis Document: A Statistical Basis for Interpreting Urinary Excretion of Plutonium Based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for Selected Atoll Populations in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K; Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Martinelli, R E; Marchetti, A A; Kehl, S R; Langston, R G

    2007-05-01

    We have developed refined statistical and modeling techniques to assess low-level uptake and urinary excretion of plutonium from different population group in the northern Marshall Islands. Urinary excretion rates of plutonium from the resident population on Enewetak Atoll and from resettlement workers living on Rongelap Atoll range from <1 to 8 {micro}Bq per day and are well below action levels established under the latest Department regulation 10 CFR 835 in the United States for in vitro bioassay monitoring of {sup 239}Pu. However, our statistical analyses show that urinary excretion of plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) from both cohort groups is significantly positively associated with volunteer age, especially for the resident population living on Enewetak Atoll. Urinary excretion of {sup 239}Pu from the Enewetak cohort was also found to be positively associated with estimates of cumulative exposure to worldwide fallout. Consequently, the age-related trends in urinary excretion of plutonium from Marshallese populations can be described by either a long-term component from residual systemic burdens acquired from previous exposures to worldwide fallout or a prompt (and eventual long-term) component acquired from low-level systemic intakes of plutonium associated with resettlement of the northern Marshall Islands, or some combination of both.

  6. Urinary excretions of 34 dietary polyphenols and their associations with lifestyle factors in the EPIC cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Achaintre, David; Rothwell, Joseph A; Rinaldi, Sabina; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Leitzmann, Michael; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Auffret, Aurélie; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin

    2016-01-01

    Urinary excretion of 34 dietary polyphenols and their variations according to diet and other lifestyle factors were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 475 adult participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study. A single 24-hour urine sample was analysed for each subject from 4 European countries. The highest median levels were observed for phenolic acids such as 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (157 μmol/24 h), followed by 3-hydroxyphenylacetic, ferulic, vanillic and homovanillic acids (20-50 μmol/24 h). The lowest concentrations were observed for equol, apigenin and resveratrol (<0.1 μmol/24 h). Urinary polyphenols significantly varied by centre, followed by alcohol intake, sex, educational level, and energy intake. This variability is largely explained by geographical variations in the diet, as suggested by the high correlations (r > 0.5) observed between urinary polyphenols and the intake of their main food sources (e.g., resveratrol and gallic acid ethyl ester with red wine intake; caffeic, protocatechuic and ferulic acids with coffee consumption; and hesperetin and naringenin with citrus fruit intake). The large variations in urinary polyphenols observed are largely determined by food preferences. These polyphenol biomarkers should allow more accurate evaluation of the relationships between polyphenol exposure and the risk of chronic diseases in large epidemiological studies. PMID:27273479

  7. Urinary excretions of 34 dietary polyphenols and their associations with lifestyle factors in the EPIC cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Achaintre, David; Rothwell, Joseph A.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Leitzmann, Michael; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Auffret, Aurélie; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin

    2016-01-01

    Urinary excretion of 34 dietary polyphenols and their variations according to diet and other lifestyle factors were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 475 adult participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study. A single 24-hour urine sample was analysed for each subject from 4 European countries. The highest median levels were observed for phenolic acids such as 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (157 μmol/24 h), followed by 3-hydroxyphenylacetic, ferulic, vanillic and homovanillic acids (20–50 μmol/24 h). The lowest concentrations were observed for equol, apigenin and resveratrol (<0.1 μmol/24 h). Urinary polyphenols significantly varied by centre, followed by alcohol intake, sex, educational level, and energy intake. This variability is largely explained by geographical variations in the diet, as suggested by the high correlations (r > 0.5) observed between urinary polyphenols and the intake of their main food sources (e.g., resveratrol and gallic acid ethyl ester with red wine intake; caffeic, protocatechuic and ferulic acids with coffee consumption; and hesperetin and naringenin with citrus fruit intake). The large variations in urinary polyphenols observed are largely determined by food preferences. These polyphenol biomarkers should allow more accurate evaluation of the relationships between polyphenol exposure and the risk of chronic diseases in large epidemiological studies. PMID:27273479

  8. Urinary excretion of the acrylonitrile metabolite 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid is correlated with a variety of biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and consumption

    PubMed Central

    Minet, Emmanuel; Cheung, Francis; Errington, Graham; Sterz, Katharina; Scherer, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Acrylonitrile is an IARC class 2B carcinogen present in cigarette smoke. Urinary 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) is an acrylonitrile metabolite and a potential biomarker for acrylonitrile exposure. The objective of this work was to study the dose response of CEMA in urine of non-smokers and smokers of different ISO tar yield cigarettes. We observed that smokers excreted >100-fold higher amounts of urinary CEMA than non-smokers. The CEMA levels in smokers were significantly correlated with ISO tar yield, daily cigarette consumption, and urinary biomarkers of smoke exposure. In conclusion, urinary CEMA is a suitable biomarker for assessing smoking-related exposure to acrylonitrile. PMID:21108560

  9. Additional short-term plutonium urinary excretion data from the 1945-1947 plutonium injection studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W.D.; Gautier, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The amount of plutonium excreted per day following intravenous injection was shown to be significantly higher than predicted by the Langham power function model. Each of the Los Alamos National Laboratory notebooks used to record the original analytical data was studied for details that could influence the findings. It was discovered there were additional urine excretion data for case HP-3. This report presents the additional data, as well as data on case HP-6. (ACR)

  10. Effect of 4 weeks of basic military training on peripheral blood leucocytes and urinary excretion of catecholamines and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Makras, Polyzois; Koukoulis, George N; Bourikas, George; Papatheodorou, George; Bedevis, Konstantinos; Menounos, Panagiotis; Pappas, Dimitrios; Kartalis, George

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we assessed the effects of a 4 week basic military physical training programme for male recruits of the Hellenic Air Force on the number and distribution of circulating immune cells and adrenergic and adrenocortical hormonal responses. One group of recruits (exercised, n = 48) participated in moderate intermittent physical exercise, whereas a second group (non-exercised controls, n = 9) performed only light work in the barracks. Both groups participated in the same non-physical, classroom-type training and testing. Military training by the exercised group resulted in significant increases in CD4+ T-lymphocytes, renal cortisol excretion and the urinary noradrenaline/adrenaline ratio, together with reductions in neutrophils and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. In the exercised group, the urinary noradrenaline/adrenaline ratio correlated positively with the training-induced changes in CD4+ T-lymphocytes and negatively with changes in the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. No significant relationship was found between training-induced increases in cortisol excretion and any of the peripheral blood cell alterations. Our results indicate that 4 weeks of military training consisting of intermittent moderate exercise resulted in a significant increase in CD4+ T-lymphocytes and reduction in neutrophils. These changes were probably driven by alterations in hormonal status, including the significant impact of sympathetic nervous system activation. PMID:16195034

  11. [Study of serum concentrations and urinary excretion of secnidazole after oral administration in man. Comparison with tinidazole].

    PubMed

    Populaire, P; Decouvelaere, B; Renard, A; Pasquier, P

    1980-11-01

    Secnidazole, a derivative of 5-nitro imidazole exhibits trichomonacid, amoebicid and antimicrobial properties; it has been studied in view of its biological fate in healthy volunteers (man and woman) comparatively with tinidazole. Both products were administered orally to the same volunteers at the single dose level of 2 g. The seric concentrations and the pharmacokinetic profile were determined up to the 72nd hour after drug administration. The whole urinary excretion (unchanged product + metabolites) during the same period was determined in percent of the administered dose level. Secnidazole is particularly different from tinidazole owing to its slower blood clearance. The apparent average half-life in the ten volunteers (5 men and 5 women) is about 17 hours for secnidazole and 13 hours for tinidazole. However, for both drugs, a difference between men and women was demonstrated: in female volunteers, the decrease in blood concentrations occurs a little quicker than in male volunteers. Regarding urinary excretion, it is also a little greater in female volunteers than in male volunteers. PMID:7003510

  12. INCREASED LEVELS OF MEDIAN URINARY IODINE EXCRETION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN THE SUBURBAN AREA, KHON KAEN, THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Apirajkamol, Nahatai; Panamonta, Ouyporn; Panamonta, Manat

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is associated with a low IQ in children and is an important public health problem in northeastern Thailand. Despite campaigns to reduce IDD in northeastern Thailand, studies showed people in this region continue to have the lowest median urinary iodine (UI) excretion and Intelligence Quotient scores. We conducted a cross sectional study of median urinary iodine excretion among primary school children in suburban Khon Kaen Province, in northeastern Thailand, during December 2012 to evaluate the current status of IDD in this population. We studied 377 school children. Urine samples were collected and measured for UI using a simple microplate method. The median UI level was 229.0 μg/l (range 15.0-1,124.1). Forty school children (10.6%) had UI levels less than 100 μg/l and 10 children (2.7%) had UI levels less than 50 μg/l. One hundred nine children (28.9%) had UI levels greater than 300 μg/l. Our study shows that there are still children in the study population and study area with inadequate UI levels. Programs to prevent IDD need to include this population in this area. PMID:27086431

  13. Effect of rosuvastatin or atorvastatin on urinary albumin excretion and renal function in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Sorof, Jonathan; Berne, Christian; Siewert-Delle, Annica; Jørgensen, Leif; Sager, Philip

    2006-04-01

    The effect of rosuvastatin or atorvastatin on urinary albumin excretion (UAE) was determined in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, response-based design compared rosuvastatin 10mg (titrated to 40 mg) with atorvastatin 10mg (titrated to 80 mg) in type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia, with dose titration to an LDL-C target of <3.0 mmol/L. Overnight timed urine collections were obtained at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks to UAE. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Patients with paired, UAE collections of at least 8h duration were analyzed (n=344). No significant change from baseline in UAE was observed for either treatment group or between-treatment groups at 16 weeks, and median UAE for both treatment groups remained within normal limits (rosuvastatin 4.5 microg/min, atorvastatin 5.0 microg/min). A similar absence of change from baseline was observed for 51 patients with UAE above the normal range at study entry (>20 microg/min). No significant change in GFR from baseline after 16 weeks was observed for either treatment group. These data provide reassurance that type 2 diabetic patients can be treated with higher efficacy statins without clinically meaningful effects on urinary albumin excretion. PMID:16246447

  14. Metabolism and urinary excretion kinetics of di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHTP) in three male volunteers after oral dosage.

    PubMed

    Lessmann, Frederik; Schütze, André; Weiss, Tobias; Langsch, Angelika; Otter, Rainer; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2016-07-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHTP) is used as a substitute for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), an ortho-phthalate-based plasticizer that is classified and labeled due to its toxicity to reproduction. In this study the metabolism and urinary excretion kinetics of DEHTP were investigated by single oral dosage of 50 mg DEHTP to three male volunteers (resulting in individual dosages between 0.55 and 0.59 mg/kg body weight). Separate urine samples were consecutively collected for 48 h. In analogy to DEHP, we quantified specific side-chain-oxidized monoester metabolites of DEHTP (5OH-MEHTP, 5oxo-MEHTP, 5cx-MEPTP and 2cx-MMHTP) by HPLC-MS/MS with online sample clean-up and isotope dilution. All postulated metabolites were detectable in all samples after dosage. The predominant, specific urinary metabolite was 5cx-MEPTP representing about 13.0 % of the applied dose as mean of the three volunteers (range 7.0-20.4 %) in urine, followed by 5OH-MEHTP (mean: 1.8 %; range 1.3-2.4 %) and 5oxo MEHTP (mean: 1.0 %; range 0.6-1.6 %). 2cx-MMHTP was a minor metabolite representing only 0.3 % (range 0.2-0.4 %). In total, about 16.1 % of the dose was recovered in urine as the above investigated specific metabolites within 48 h with the major share (95 %) being excreted within the first 24 h. Investigation of the glucuronidation patterns revealed that the carboxy-metabolites are excreted almost completely in their free form (>90 %), whereas for 5OH-MEHTP and 5oxo-MEHTP, glucuronidation is preferred (>70 %). With this study we provide reliable urinary excretion factors to calculate DEHTP intakes based on metabolite concentrations in environmental and occupational studies. PMID:27116293

  15. Urinary calcium excretion in non-lactating dairy cows in relation to intake of fat-coated rice bran.

    PubMed

    Martín-Tereso, J; Derks, M; van Laar, H; Mulder, K; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A

    2010-02-01

    At calving, many older cows fail to compensate the sudden demand of calcium by an adequate activation of intestinal absorption. This results in a variable degree of hypocalcaemia. Reducing intestinal availability of calcium during the close-up period can prevent milk fever. Fat-coated rice bran (FCRB) was investigated for its potential to reduce Ca availability in pre-calving cows. Fat-coated rice bran was incubated in situ to estimate ruminal degradation of dry matter and phytic acid. Also, seven dry multiparous dairy cows were used for a feeding trial in three periods of approximately 1 week each: P1: adaptation; P2: feeding of 2 kg of FCRB and P3: withdrawal of FCRB. Feed intake was recorded and daily urine samples were analysed for pH, Ca and creatinine. The bypass fraction of phytic acid (passage rate: 5%/h) was 30%. Fat-coated rice bran depressed dry matter intake in P2, resulting in a lower Ca intake. In P2 urine pH and calcium excretion were lower. Daily calcium excretion decreased after introduction of FCRB, peaked after withdrawal and dropped 2 days later. Changes in urinary Ca excretion by feeding FCRB indicate that FCRB affected Ca homeostasis in dry multiparous dairy cows. PMID:19364378

  16. Urinary protein excretion profile: A contribution for subclinical renal damage identification among environmental heavy metals exposure in Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlipp, C. R.; Bottini, P. V.; de Capitan, E. M.; Pinho, M. C.; Panzan, A. D. N.; Sakuma, A. M. A.; Paoliello, M. B.

    2003-05-01

    In Southeast Brazil. Ribeira Valley region has been a major public health concern due to he environmental heavy metals contamination indexes of vegetation, rocks and aquifers, caused by locai mining in the past. Human contamination low levels of heavy rnetals doesn't cause acute intoxication but ni chronic exposure, renal damage may occur with progressive tubuJointerstitial changes evolvil1g to glomemlar 1esiol1, ln this stndy we invesligated the relationship between thc profile of utillan, excreted proteins (glomerular or lubular origin) of arsenic and mercury and blood lead concentration in chiJdren and adults from highly e) qJosed regions of the Ribeira Valley. The subjects were classieed as GROUP 1 (GI; higher environmental risk n=333) and GROUP 2 (G2; lower risk of contamination. n=104). In order to determine the urinary excretion of total protein, albumin (MA, glomerular marker) and alpha i microglobulin (AIM, tubular marker) and the blood lead concentrations. random wine and blood samples were obtaiiied. Plasmatic lead levels were assessed by atomic absorption spectrometty with graphite fumace. Totai protein concentration (PROT) was assessed on a biochemical analyzer ,progallol red method). MA and AIM were determined by nephelometric method. Croup 1 showcd a higher frequency of altered urinary excretion of PROT (GI=3.4%; G2=1.0%), MA (Gl=9.0%; G2=5.1%) and AIM (Gt=7.5%, G2=3.8%), without significant differences between both groups. Elevated arscnic levels were more prevaient among subjects from Group 1 (2.8.8%) and demonstrated a significant corrolation with abiiormal iirinarv excretion of ilbumin and alpha-l-micrglobulin (p=0.019).Leadaand mercury levels showed no difference among the groups and no correlation will MAa and/or M. Oti-c dala suggests that abnormal itrinary protein excretion is relatively frequent in this population independently of the plasmatic or urinaryl heavy metal levels. The early detection of possible renal damage become necessary for

  17. Changes in urinary excretion of water and sodium transporters during amiloride and bendroflumethiazide treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Janni M; Mose, Frank H; Kulik, Anna-Ewa O; Bech, Jesper N; Fenton, Robert A; Pedersen, Erling B

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To quantify changes in urinary excretion of aquaporin2 water channels (u-AQP2), the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter (u-NKCC2) and the epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaC) during treatment with bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ), amiloride and placebo. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover study we examined 23 healthy subjects on a standardized diet and fluid intake. The subjects were treated with amiloride 5 mg, BFTZ 1.25 mg or placebo twice a day for 4.5 d before each examination day. On the examination day, glomerular filtration rate was measured by the constant infusion clearance technique with 51Cr-EDTA as reference substance. To estimate the changes in water transport via AQP2 and sodium transport via NKCC2 and ENaC, u-NKCC2, the gamma fraction of ENaC (u-ENaCγ), and u-AQP2 were measured at baseline and after infusion with 3% hypertonic saline. U-NKCC2, u-ENaCγ, u-AQP2 and plasma concentrations of vasopressin (p-AVP), renin (PRC), angiotensin II (p-ANG II) and aldosterone (p-Aldo) were measured, by radioimmunoassay. Central blood pressure was estimated by applanation tonometry and body fluid volumes were estimated by bio-impedance spectroscopy. General linear model with repeated measures or related samples Friedman’s two-way analysis was used to compare differences. Post hoc Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons of post infusion periods to baseline within each treatment group. RESULTS: At baseline there were no differences in u-NKCC2, u-ENaCγ and u-AQP2. PRC, p-Ang II and p-Aldo were increased during active treatments (P < 0.001). After hypertonic saline, u-NKCC2 increased during amiloride (6% ± 34%; P = 0.081) and increased significantly during placebo (17% ± 24%; P = 0.010). U-AQP2 increased significantly during amiloride (31% ± 22%; P < 0.001) and placebo (34% ± 27%; P < 0.001), while u-NKCC2 and u-AQP2 did not change significantly during BFTZ (-7% ± 28%; P = 0.257 and 5% ± 16%; P = 0

  18. Effect of cisplatin treatment on the urinary excretion of guanidinoacetic acid, creatinine and creatine in patients with urinary tract neoplasm, and on superoxide generation in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, M; Sugahara, K; Zhang, J; Shuin, T; Kodama, H

    2000-01-01

    Production of guanidinoacetic acid, a precursor of creatinine is known to be reduced by metabolic disturbance when kidney function is damaged, and thus it may be a sensitive marker of renal damage. Therefore, the urinary levels of guanidinoacetic acid, creatinine and creatine from patients with urinary tract neoplasm who received cisplatin treatment were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Following the administration of cisplatin, the urinary excretion of guanidinoacetic acid decreased significantly, and the low concentration was maintained for at least five days. The concentrations of creatinine and creatine gradually decreased until the third day after cisplatin administration, and slightly increased on the fifth day. As superoxide might be concerned in renal damage by cisplatin, the effect of cisplatin on superoxide generation was also investigated using human neutrophils. Cisplatin significantly enhanced phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced superoxide generation in a concentration-dependent manner, but had no effect on the superoxide generation induced by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and arachidonic acid. The superoxide generation increased by cisplatin was inhibited by staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, but was rather enhanced by genistein, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinase. PMID:11383133

  19. Urinary excretion of chromium following ingestion of chromite-ore processing residues in humans: implications for biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Gargas, M L; Norton, R L; Harris, M A; Paustenbach, D J; Finley, B L

    1994-12-01

    Biomonitoring programs for urinary chromium (Cr) typically attempt to evaluate occupational exposure via the inhalation route. This study investigated whether Cr can be detected in the urine of people following the ingestion of soils that contain relatively high concentrations of chromium in chromite ore processing residue (COPR). To evaluate the reasonableness of using urinary monitoring to assess environmental exposure, six volunteers ingested 400 mg of soil/day (low-dose group), two others ingested 2.0 g of soil/day (high-dose group) for 3 consecutive days, and one person ingested a placebo on each of 3 days. The soil and COPR mixture contained concentrations of total chromium (Cr) and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] of 103 +/- 20 and 9.3 +/- 3.8 mg/kg, respectively. Therefore, the low-dose group ingested 41 micrograms Cr/day [including 3.7 micrograms Cr(VI)] and the high-dose group ingested 206 micrograms Cr/day [including 18.6 micrograms Cr(VI)] on each of 3 consecutive days. All urine samples were collected and analyzed individually for total Cr on the day prior to dosing, during the 3 days of dosing, and up to the first void 48 h after the last dose. No significant increases in urinary Cr excretion were found when background excretion data were compared with data following each of the 3 days of dosing or in daily mean urine concentrations of the high- vs the low-dose groups. It appears that Cr present in a soil and COPR mixture at Cr doses up to 200 micrograms/day is not sufficiently bioavailable for biomonitoring of urine to be informative.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7846309

  20. Urinary C-type natriuretic peptide excretion: a promising biomarker to detect underlying renal injury and remodeling both acutely and chronically.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng; Liu, Si Yan; Zhang, Dong Dong; Xu, Yao; Xia, Xun

    2016-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) refers to a sudden decline in renal function. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that AKI is a risk factor for the future development or accelerated progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), whereas the actual distinction between AKI and CKD remains unknown. CNP is predominantly present in the kidney and possesses multiple renoprotective properties. Urinary CNP excretion tends to be high in AKI, whereas back to the baseline in CKD. The dynamic changes in urinary CNP excretion may help detect underlying renal injury and remodeling both acutely and chronically. PMID:27586401

  1. Dietary and inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and urinary excretion of monohydroxy metabolites – a controlled case study in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanyan; Ding, Junnan; Shen, Guofeng; Zhong, Junjun; Wang, Chen; Wei, Siye; Chen, Chaoqi; Chen, Yuanchen; Lu, Yan; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Daily dietary and inhalation exposures to 16 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and urinary excretion of 13 monohydroxy metabolites (OHPAHs) were monitored for 12 non-smoking university students in Beijing, China, during a controlled feeding experiment. The relationship between the urinary excretion of OHPAHs and the uptake of PAHs was investigated. The results suggest severe exposure of the subjects to PAHs via both dietary and inhalation pathways. Large increase of most urinary OHPAHs occurred after the ingestion of lamb kabob. Higher concentrations of OHPAHs were observed for female subjects, with the intakes of parent PAHs lower than those by males, likely due to the gender differences in metabolism. It appears that besides 1-PYR, metabolites of PHE could also be used as biomarkers to indicate the short-term dietary exposure to PAHs and urinary 3-BaA may serve as the biomarker for inhalation intake of high molecular weight PAHs. PMID:24177434

  2. Competitive inhibition of SGLT2 by tofogliflozin or phlorizin induces urinary glucose excretion through extending splay in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Takumi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Fukazawa, Masanori; Honda, Kiyofumi; Yamane, Mizuki; Yoshida, Ayae; Azabu, Hiroko; Kitamura, Hidekazu; Toyota, Naoto; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Yoshiki

    2014-06-15

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors showed a glucose lowering effect in type 2 diabetes patients through inducing renal glucose excretion. Detailed analysis of the mechanism of the glucosuric effect of SGLT2 inhibition, however, has been hampered by limitations of clinical study. Here, we investigated the mechanism of urinary glucose excretion using nonhuman primates with SGLT inhibitors tofogliflozin and phlorizin, both in vitro and in vivo. In cells overexpressing cynomolgus monkey SGLT2 (cSGLT2), both tofogliflozin and phlorizin competitively inhibited uptake of the substrate (α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside; AMG). Tofogliflozin was found to be a selective cSGLT2 inhibitor, inhibiting cSGLT2 more strongly than did phlorizin, with selectivity toward cSGLT2 1,000 times that toward cSGLT1; phlorizin was found to be a nonselective cSGLT1/2 inhibitor. In a glucose titration study in cynomolgus monkeys under conditions of controlled plasma drug concentration, both tofogliflozin and phlorizin increased fractional excretion of glucose (FEG) by up to 50% under hyperglycemic conditions. By fitting the titration curve using a newly introduced method that avoids variability in estimating the threshold of renal glucose excretion, we found that tofogliflozin and phlorizin lowered the threshold and extended the splay in a dose-dependent manner without significantly affecting the tubular transport maximum for glucose (TmG). Our results demonstrate the contribution of SGLT2 to renal glucose reabsorption (RGR) in cynomolgus monkeys and demonstrate that competitive inhibition of cSGLT2 exerts a glucosuric effect by mainly extending splay and lowering threshold without affecting TmG. PMID:24761001

  3. COMPARISON OF CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY, RESIDUE LEVELS, AND URINARY METABOLITE EXCRETION OF RATS EXPOSED TO ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blood cholinesterase activity, urinary levels of phenolic and organophosphorus metabolites, and residues of intact compounds in blood and fat were determined following exposure of rats to organophosphorus pesticides. The eight pesticides studied included representative halogenate...

  4. ESTIMATES OF AGE-SPECIFIC URINARY EXCRETION RATES FOR CREATININE AMONG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of this study suggest that naïve adjustment by creatinine concentration, without consideration of the age-dependence of the physiological mechanisms controlling its excretion, may introduce sizeable error and is inappropriate when comparing metabolite concentrations a...

  5. In vivo cross-match by chromium-51 urinary excretion from labeled erythrocytes: A case of anti-Gerbich

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, T.; Tauxe, W.N.; Ramsey, G. )

    1990-12-01

    We studied a patient with an alloantibody to the high-frequency red blood cell (RBC) antigen Gerbich. A nationwide search for rare Gerbich-negative blood (less than 1:45,000 donors) located only seven units, and our supply was quickly exhausted. By using an in vivo cross-matching method, we demonstrated that this anti-Gerbich did not cause RBC destruction. Regular Gerbich-positive transfusions could then proceed without hemolysis. This cross-match test was based on the determination of the urinary excretion rates of injected radioactive chromium-labeled donor erythrocytes by which it was possible to determine compatibility only 24 hr after the test was begun. The procedure provides an easy and accurate means for in vivo cross-matching of conventionally incompatible donor blood.

  6. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children’s discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother’s 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child’s salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  7. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    PubMed

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  8. Excretion of the urinary 5C- and 7C-aglycone metabolitesof vitamin K in response to changes in dietary phylloquinone and dihydrophyliquinone intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All K vitamins are metabolised by a common pathway and excreted in urine as conjugates of 7 Carbon (C)-aglycone and 5 C-aglycone. A new HPLC assay now allows these two metabolites to be accurately measured. Urinary output of the 5 Carbon- and 7 Carbon-aglycones was assessed in healthy subjects over...

  9. COMPARATIVE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC (IAS) AND ITS METHYLATED METABOLITES IN MICE FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE (ASV) AND ARSENITE (ASIII)

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARATIVE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC (iAs) AND ITS METHYLATED METABOLITES IN MICE FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE (AsV) AND ARSENITE (AsIII). E M Kenyon, L M Del Razo and M F Hughes. U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, RTP, NC, USA; ...

  10. Effects of dairy cow diet forage proportion on duodenal nutrient supply and urinary purine derivative excretion.

    PubMed

    Moorby, J M; Dewhurst, R J; Evans, R T; Danelón, J L

    2006-09-01

    Four mature Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square change-over design experiment made up of four 4-wk periods to investigate the relationship between microbial protein flow to the duodenum and excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in the urine. Four dietary treatments based on ad libitum access to ryegrass silage were offered, with a standard dairy concentrate included at different forage:concentrate (F:C) ratios, calculated on a dry matter basis: 80:20, 65:35, 50:50, and 35:65. Feed intakes increased as the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased, despite a concurrent decrease in silage intake. Increased feed intake led to increased nutrient flow to the duodenum. Milk yields increased as the diet F:C ratio decreased, with cows offered the 35:65 diet yielding nearly 8 kg/d more milk than cows offered the 80:20 diet; the concentrations of milk fat decreased and milk protein increased with a decreasing F:C ratio. Purine derivative excretion in the urine increased with an increasing proportion of concentrate in the diet, and there was a strong linear relationship between total PD excretion (allantoin and uric acid) and microbial N flow to the duodenum: microbial N (g/d) = 19.9 + 0.689 x total PD (mmol/d); R = 0.887. This strengthens the case for using PD excretion as a noninvasive marker of microbial protein flow from the rumen in dairy cows. PMID:16899691

  11. Relative bioavailability of terbutaline to the lung following inhalation, using urinary excretion

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrahim, Mohamed E; Assi, Khaled H; Chrystyn, Henry

    2011-01-01

    AIMS The aim of the study was to determine the relative lung and systemic bioavailability of terbutaline. METHODS On separate days healthy volunteers received 500 µg terbutaline study doses either inhaled from a metered dose inhaler or swallowed as a solution with and without oral charcoal. Urine samples were provided at timed intervals post dosing. RESULTS Mean (SD) urinary terbutaline 0.5 h post inhalation, in 12 volunteers, with (IC) and without (I) oral charcoal and oral (O) dosing was 7.4 (2.2), 6.5 (2.1) and 0.2 (0.2) µg. I and IC were similar and both significantly greater than O (P < 0.001). Urinary 24 h terbutaline post I was similar to IC + O. The method was linear and reproducible, similar to that of the urinary salbutamol method. CONCLUSIONS The urinary salbutamol pharmacokinetic method post inhalation applies to terbutaline. Terbutaline study doses can replace routine salbutamol during these studies when patients are studied. PMID:21395654

  12. The kinetics of urinary fumonisin excretion in humans consuming maize-based foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins found in maize worldwide. In Central America, South America and Mexico, maize-based foods are often a major part of the diet and FB intake can also be high. A study in Mexico found a significant correlation between urinary FB1 and maize tortilla consumption. The purpos...

  13. Turnover and urinary excretion of free and acetylated MS-222 rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, J.B.; Schoettger, R.A.; Willford, W.A.

    1968-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) anesthetized in 100 mg/liter of M.S. 222 at 12 C excreted the drug in free and acetylated forms via the urine during a 24-hr recovery period in freshwater. Of the M.S. 222 excreted, 77-96% was acetylated. Blood levels of free drug in anesthetized trout approximated 75% of the anesthetic concentration, but the amount of acetylated M.S. 222 was relatively insignificant. The blood and urine were cleared of the two fractions of M.S. 222 in 8 and 24 hr respectively. Low levels of aromatic amines of natural origin occurred in blood and urine and were subtracted from measurements of M.S. 222. Intraperitoneal injections of 10-100 mg/kg of M.S. 222 did not induce anesthesia; however, the 24-hr pattern of drug excretion was similar to that observed after anesthesia by immersion. Only 15-21 % of the injected dose was found in the urine, suggesting a second route of drug elimination.

  14. Study of urinary excretion of butobarbitone in man in relation to the percentage of ideal body weight.

    PubMed Central

    Cheymol, G; Bernheim, C; Besson, J; Dry, J; Portet, R

    1979-01-01

    1 Thirty-three patients with no evidence of endocrine disease, hepatic or renal insufficiency or sleep disorders, were classified in groups 1 to 4 in order of increasing of percentage of ideal body weight (IBW) respectively: less than 90% of IBW, 90--120%, 120--180%, and greater than 180% of IBW. After oral administration of 200 mg butobarbitone, concentration of the intact drug was measured by gas liquid chromatographic assay in urine samples collected during 72 h and at three times in blood. 2 A highly significant negative relationship was found between the cumulative excretion of butobarbitone with urine and the logarithm of the percentage of IBW. In contrast for a given weight, excretion of the drug with urine was found to be weakly correlated with the diuresis. 3 The cumulative urinary elimination of butobarbitone was significantly different between the groups studied, except of the difference between the group 2 and 3 of the patients. No significant difference was found between the renal clearances of butobarbitone in the four groups of subjects. 4 We conclude that redistribution of butobarbitone into adipose tissues can explain the obtained results and that obesity modifies the pharmacokinetics of the drug. PMID:34416

  15. [Changes in plasma pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion characteristics before and after combined administration of Ephedrae Herba-Gypsum Fibrosum].

    PubMed

    Huo, Hui-ling; Li, Han-cheng; Wei, Ping; Song, Shuai; Luo, Jia-bo

    2015-03-01

    In this study, UPLC-MS/MS was adopted to determine the contents of five ephedrine alkaloids (Norephedrine, Norpseudoephedrine, Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, Methylephedrine) in plasma and urine in rats after the combined administration of Ephedrae Herba-Gypsum Fibrosum and calculate relevant pharmacokinetic parameters, in order to discuss the effect of the combined administration of Ephedrae Herba-Gypsum Fibrosum on plasma pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion characteristics. According to the results, after being combined with Gypsum, the five ephedrine alkaloids showed similar pharmacokinetic changes, such as shortened t(max), accelerated absorption rate, but reduced AUC(0-t) and V(z)/F, which may be related to the increase in urine excretion. Besides, Gypsum was added to enhance C(max) of Pseudoephedrine and prolong MRT(0-t) of Methylephedrine, so as to enhance the anti-asthmatic effect of Ephedrae Herba and resist the toxic effect of Norephedrine and Ephedrine. This study proved the scientific compatibility of Ephedrae Herba-Gypsum Fibrosum and provided a reference for studies on the prescription compatibility regularity and relevant practices. PMID:26087564

  16. Daily intake and urinary excretion of genistein and daidzein by infants fed soy- or dairy-based infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Irvine, C H; Shand, N; Fitzpatrick, M G; Alexander, S L

    1998-12-01

    Our aims were to measure isoflavone intake from soy- and dairy-based infant formulas and breast milk and to assess the ability of infants to digest and absorb soy isoflavones by measuring daily urinary excretion rates. We recruited 29 infants: 4 received soy-based formula and 25 received dairy-based formula. We collected pooled urine samples from 3-5 disposable diapers worn during a 24-h period and developed and validated methods for extracting isoflavones from the diapers. Infants were studied every 1 or 2 wk, starting at 2-6 wk of age and continuing until 16 wk. Only soy-based formulas contained isoflavones in concentrations detectable by HPLC (limits: 0.05 mg/L for liquids and 0.1 mg/kg for solids). Soy-based formulas provided a mean (+/-SEM) daily dose of isoflavones (genistein plus daidzein) of 3.2 +/- 0.2 mg/kg body wt, which remained fairly constant (CV: 12%) regardless of age < or = 16 wk. Isoflavones were measurable in all samples from soy-fed infants, but not in urine from dairy-fed infants. Daily isoflavone excretion rates varied little among infants [range of mean individual values (mg x kg(-1) d(-1)): daidzein, 0.37 +/- 0.03 to 0.58 +/- 0.06; genistein, 0.15 +/- 0.03 to 0.32 +/- 0.04] and did not change with age < or = 16 wk. The mean percentage of the daily intake recovered in the urine of soy-fed infants was 38 +/- 4% for daidzein and 13 +/- 3% for genistein, and remained constant with age. These values are similar to those for adults and indicate that young infants are able to digest, absorb, and excrete genistein and daidzein from soy-based formulas as efficiently as do adults consuming soy products. PMID:9848517

  17. Association of Urinary Sodium Excretion With Insulin Resistance in Korean Adolescents: Results From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Chun, Yoon Hong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Yong Gyu; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Seon Mee; Kim, Yang Hyun; Nam, Ga Eun

    2016-04-01

    High sodium intake is a well-known risk factor for elevated blood pressure and is responsible for a higher incidence of cardiovascular events. Reports have suggested an association of sodium intake with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. However, evidence on an association between sodium intake assessed on the basis of urinary sodium excretion and IR in adolescents is scarce. The present study aimed at investigating the association between urinary sodium excretion and IR among South Korean adolescents.This population-based, cross-sectional study analyzed the data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009 to 2010. The data of a total of 1353 adolescents (779 boys and 574 girls) were included in the final analysis. Spot urine samples were collected, and urinary sodium excretion was estimated by using the urinary sodium concentration (U[Na]), U[Na] to urinary creatinine ratio (U[Na]/Cr), and U[Na] to specific gravity unit (SGU) ratio (U[Na]/SGU). IR was assessed by using the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk for a high HOMA-IR according to urinary sodium excretion.The mean levels of U[Na], U[Na]/Cr, and U[Na]/SGU were significantly higher in subjects in the highest HOMA-IR quartile (Q4) than in subjects in the lowest, second, or third quartiles (Q1-3) of HOMA-IR. The mean values of HOMA-IR and several cardiometabolic parameters tended to progressively increase with the U[Na], U[Na]/Cr, and U[Na]/SGU quartiles. Q3 of U[Na] was at a significantly higher risk than Q1 of U[Na] of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR, after adjustment for confounding variables. Q3 and Q4 of U[Na]/Cr and U[Na]/SGU, respectively, had significantly higher risks, than the respective Q1s, of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR. The risk of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR demonstrated significantly increasing trends with

  18. Urinary electrolyte excretion in 24 hours and blood pressure in the INTERSALT Study. I. Estimates of reliability. The INTERSALT Cooperative Research Group.

    PubMed

    Dyer, A R; Shipley, M; Elliott, P

    1994-05-01

    This is the first of two reports dealing with the reliability of measurements of 24-hour urinary electrolyte excretion and blood pressure and estimates of electrolyte-blood pressure associations in INTERSALT, an international study of the relations of electrolyte excretion and other factors to blood pressure, involving more than 10,000 persons from 52 centers in 32 countries. This first report describes methods for estimating reliability, taking into account age and sex, and provides estimates for several urinary variables, blood pressure, and pulse rate. The second report (Am J Epidemiol 1994; 139:940-51) uses these estimates of reliability and multivariate procedures to correct multiple regression coefficients from regressions of blood pressure on 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion, body mass index, and alcohol intake for "regression dilution bias." Age- and sex-adjusted estimates of reliability were computed from data on 805 INTERSALT participants with repeat measurements. These estimates ranged from 0.37 to 0.40 for 24-hour urinary sodium, from 0.47 to 0.52 for potassium, from 0.32 to 0.36 for the sodium:potassium ratio, from 0.64 to 0.69 for calcium, from 0.59 to 0.65 for creatinine, from 0.49 to 0.57 for urinary volume, from 0.49 to 0.51 for magnesium, from 0.58 to 0.62 for pulse, from 0.69 to 0.74 for systolic blood pressure, and from 0.63 to 0.67 for diastolic blood pressure. In addition, estimates of within- and between-person covariances among electrolytes indicated that about half of the observed covariance for sodium and potassium excretion in a single 24-hour urine collection was due to within-person covariation in excretion. PMID:8166143

  19. Effect of milk on the urinary excretion of microbial phenolic acids after cocoa powder consumption in humans.

    PubMed

    Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Llorach, Rafael; Khan, Nasiruddin; Monagas, Maria; Rotches-Ribalta, Maria; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa; Estruch, Ramon; Tinahones, Francisco J; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2010-04-28

    Health effects of cocoa flavonols depend on their bioavailability, which is strongly influenced by the food matrix and the degree of flavanol polymerization. The effect of milk on the bioavailability of cocoa flavanoids considering phase II metabolites of epicatechin has been the subject of considerable debate. This work studies the effect of milk at the colonic microbial metabolism level of the nonabsorbed flavanol fraction that reaches the colon and is metabolized by the colonic microbiota into various phenolic acids. Twenty-one human volunteers followed a diet low in polyphenols for at least 48 h before taking, in a random order, 40 g of cocoa powder dissolved either in 250 mL of whole milk or in 250 mL of water. Urine samples were collected before the intake and during three different periods (0-6, 6-12, and 12-24 h). Phenolic acids were analyzed by LC-MS/MS after solid-phase extraction. Of the 15 metabolites assessed, the excretion of 9 phenolic acids was affected by the intake of milk. The urinary concentration of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxyhippuric, hippuric, caffeic, and ferulic acids diminished after the intake of cocoa with milk, whereas urinary concentrations of vanillic and phenylacetic acids increased. In conclusion, milk partially affects the formation of microbial phenolic acids derived from the colonic degradation of procyanidins and other compounds present in cocoa powder. PMID:20222713

  20. Chemical synthesis of deuterated folate monoglutamate and in vivo assessment of urinary excretion of deuterated folates in man

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, J.F. III; Toth, J.P.

    1988-04-01

    The synthesis and in vivo application of stable-isotopically labeled folic acid was investigated to devise methods suitable for studies of folate metabolism in human subjects. Glutamate-labeled tetradeutero-pteroylglutamic acid (d4-folic acid) was prepared by mixed anhydride coupling of N10-trifluoroacetylpteroic acid and dimethyl L-(3,3,4,4-2H4)glutamic acid, saponification in sodium deuteroxide, and chromatographic purification. Retention of the isotopic label was verified by proton NMR and mass spectrometry of the para-aminobenzoylglutamic acid product of C9-N10 bond cleavage. A method was devised for determination of of isotopic enrichment of urinary d4-folates derived from orally administered d4-folic acid using affinity chromatographic purification, chemical cleavage of the C9-N10 bond, HPLC isolation of the p-(2H4)aminobenzoylglutamate product, followed by negative-ion chemical-ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Data concerning the urinary excretion of d4-folates derived from an oral dose of d4-folic acid in an adult human are presented.

  1. The increased excretion of urinary orosomucoid 1 as a useful biomarker for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Yu, Zhe; Chen, Pengliang; Lin, Guangzheng; Li, Tieqiu; Hou, Lina; Du, Yuejun; Tan, Wanlong

    2016-01-01

    Improving the early detection rate and prediction of bladder cancer remains a great challenge in management of this disease. To examine the value of urinary orosomucoid 1 (ORM1) for the early detection and surveillance of bladder cancer, two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOFMS) were applied to identify the differently expressed proteins in urine between bladder cancer and healthy controls. Thirteen different proteins including ORM1 were identified. After verification by western blotting, the ORM1 expressions were quantified in 186 urine samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) correcting for creatinine expression. ELISA quantification showed the urinary ORM1-Cr was found to be higher in bladder cancer patients compared to controls and benign cases (7172.23±3049.67 versus 2243.16±969.01, 2493.48±830.37 ng/ml, respectively, P<0.0001). Furthermore, the pearson correlation analysis indicated that urinary ORM1 had high positive correlation with the pathology classification of bladder cancer. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to calculate the cut-off value for early diagnosis of bladder cancer, and rendered an optimum cut-off value of 3912.97 ng/mg corresponding to 91.96% sensitivity and 94.34% specificity. Moreover, a cut-off value with 7351.28 ng/mg was utilized to distinguish infiltrating urothelial carcinoma from bladder cancer patients corresponding to 91.89% sensitivity and 90.67% specificity. In conclusion, our findings suggested the elevated urinary ORM1 could be a useful biomarker for bladder cancer. Further research is warranted to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of elevated ORM1. PMID:27186407

  2. Effects of repeated seafood consumption on urinary excretion of arsenic species by volunteers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byung-Sun; Choi, Seong-Jin; Kim, Dong-Won; Huang, Mingai; Kim, Na-Young; Park, Kyung-Su; Kim, Choong-Yong; Lee, Hyo-Min; Yum, Young-Na; Han, Eui-Sik; Kang, Tae-Seok; Yu, Il-Je; Park, Jung-Duck

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a known human carcinogen and widely distributed in the environment. The main route of As exposure in the general population is through food and drinking water. Seafood harvested in Korea contains high-level organoarsenics such as arsenobetaine, arsenocholine, and arsenosugars, which are much less harmful than inorganic arsenics. However, for those who eat large amounts of seafood it is important to understand whether seafood consumption affects urinary levels of inorganic As metabolites such as arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). In this study we investigated urinary As metabolites (inorganic As, MMA[V], DMA[V]) and some biological indexes such as AST, GSH, GPX, lipid peroxidation, and uric acid in volunteer study subjects (seven males and nine females). Total urinary As metabolites were analyzed by the hydride generation method, followed by arsenic speciation using HPLC with ICP-mass spectrometry. Study subjects refrained from eating seafood for 3 days prior to the first urine collection and then ingested seafood daily for 6 consecutive days. The first voided urine of the morning was collected from each subject the first day of the consecutive 6 days of seafood ingestion but prior to the first seafood meal. The first voided urine of the morning was also collected on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 14 after seafood ingestion. The daily mean intake of total As was 6.98 mg, comprised of 4.71 mg of seaweed (67%), 1.74 mg of flat fish (25%), and 0.53 mg of conch (8%). We observed a substantial increase in total urinary As metabolites for subjects consuming seafood from day 1, which recovered to control level at day 10. The increase in total urinary As metabolites was attributed to the increase in DMA, which is a more harmful metabolite than organoarsenics. However, no significant changes in response biological indexes were observed. These results suggest that it is necessary to evaluate As metabolism when

  3. Equol producer status, salivary estradiol profile and urinary excretion of isoflavones in Irish Caucasian women, following ingestion of soymilk.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michael C; O'Brien, Bridget; McCormack, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Equol production, isoflavone excretion, and the salivary estradiol profile among 36 females, native Irish Caucasian volunteers following ingestion of 200mL soymilk is reported. The soymilk contained daidzein (73+/-6.7mg) and genistein (86+/-10.2mg). Volunteers provided personal and family medical history. Dietary analysis revealed that all volunteers regularly consumed soy-based or soy-supplemented food products. The mean age, mean age at menarche, and body mass index of volunteers were 46.6+/-12.3 years, 13.1 years and 26.1, respectively. The average number of children per volunteer was 2.13. Twelve (34%) of the volunteers were found to be first-degree relatives of breast cancer patients. Following consumption of the soymilk, equol was detected in the urine of 18 (51%) of the volunteers. Mean urinary daidzein and genistein concentrations during the hours following soymilk ingestion were 13.5 and 16.7microg/mg creatinine, respectively, however, some volunteers excreted little (less than 4.0microg/mg) or no isoflavone. Salivary estradiol in most (24) volunteers had decreased from 51.5+/-28.67pmol/L pre-ingestion to 29.75+/-16.13pmol/L 5h after drinking the soymilk. However, the salivary estradiol in 12 subjects (34%) increased from 33.76+/-13.4pmol/L to 137.4+/-65.64pmol/L over the same period. Individuals whose salivary estradiol increased had significantly less children (1.58 (P<0.05)), were more likely to (a) return urine samples with low isoflavone content (50.3% compared to 25%), (b) to be equol producers (67% compared to 41.7%), and (c) to be first-degree relatives of breast cancer patients (41.7% compared to 25%). Volunteers who reported a first-degree link to breast cancer were more likely to have a higher body mass index (29.0 compared to 26.1 (P<0.05)), to be equol producers (75% compared to 51%), and to excrete isoflavones in low quantities only (60% compared to 50%). First-degree relatives also had fewer children (1.75 (P<0.05)). The results indicate a

  4. An interaction between the interleukin-6 -174G>C gene variant and urinary protein excretion influences plasma oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Jeffrey W; Hurel, Steven J; Acharya, Jayshree; Humphries, Steve E

    2004-01-01

    Background Microalbuminuria and subsequent progression to proteinuria and nephropathy is associated with increased oxidative stress, increased inflammatory cytokines and increased cardiovascular (CVD) risk. The common functional IL-6 -174G>C gene variant is also associated with elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines and CVD risk. Methods The aim of this study was to examine the association between the IL-6 -174G>C gene variant with plasma total antioxidant status (TAOS) in 552 subjects with type 2 diabetes in relation to urinary protein excretion. Results In subjects free from CVD, there was a significant interaction between urinary protein excretion (normoalbuminuria/ microalbuminuria/proteinuria) and the -174C allele (compared to -174GG) in determining plasma TAOS (p value for interaction = 0.03). In the -174C allele carriers there was a significant association between plasma TAOS and urinary protein excretion: normalbuminuria v microalbuminuria v proteinuria: 44.30% ± 11.32 vs. 39.74% ± 14.83 vs. 37.93% ± 16.42, ANOVA p = 0.025. In those with CVD, no interaction or association was observed with the -174C allele (p = 0.246). Conclusion The IL-6 -174G>C gene variant is associated with differences in plasma oxidative stress in response to altered protein excretion in subjects with type 2 diabetes. PMID:14992698

  5. Urinary excretion of glomerular basement membrane antigens in Alport's syndrome. A new diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Lubec, G; Balzar, E; Weissenbacher, G; Syré, G

    1978-05-01

    Alport's syndrome is defined by the combination of hereditary nephropathy and neurosensory deafness, and is diagnosed from the family history combined with renal electron microscopy. Immunoelectrophoresis of the urine of 8 of 12 children suspected of Alport's syndrome showed a precipitation line moving into the beta-zone, applying an antiglomerular basement membrane antibody derived from an immunised rabbit. All patients who showed the typical pattern of Alport's syndrome on renal electron microscopy were among the 8 cases whose urine gave this immunoelectrophoresis pattern. Additionally, 5 of the mothers of the 8 children excreted the same antigen in their urine. The urine of 30 healthy children and of 10 patients with the idiopathic nephrotic syndrome did not show the presence of this antigen. This characteristic sign of Alport's syndrome may therefore be useful for its detection. PMID:666354

  6. Plasma arginine and urinary nitrate and nitrite excretion in bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Heckmann, M; Kreuder, J; Riechers, K; Tsikas, D; Boedeker, R-H; Reiss, I; Gortner, L

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine whether preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and signs of increased pulmonary artery pressure have a deficiency of plasma arginine (ARG) and systemic nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Plasma amino acid concentrations, Doppler pulmonary systolic time intervals (ratio of acceleration time and ejection time corrected for heart rate: AT/ET(C)) and urinary nitrate and nitrite concentrations were determined at the 28th day postnatal age and at 36 weeks postmenstrual age in 73 preterm infants less than 30 weeks gestational age. The AT/ET(C) ratios were significantly lower in infants with BPD (n = 32) compared to controls. However, total amino acid concentrations, ARG intake as well as plasma ARG concentrations were not different between groups (median (interquartile-range) micromol/l): control: 58 (42.5-75.5) and 54.5 (42-71) at day 28 and 36 weeks; BPD: 54.5 (31.5-70.5) and 43 (35-62), respectively. Urinary nitrate and nitrite concentrations, were not different between groups at day 28, but significantly higher in infants with BPD at 36 weeks (p = 0.014). In conclusion, plasma ARG concentrations and systemic NO synthesis were not deficient in preterm infants with BPD and signs of elevated pulmonary artery pressure. PMID:14671435

  7. Urinary excretion of endogenous digitalis-like natriuretic substances in healthy subjects. Effect of sodium load.

    PubMed

    Asbert, M; Jiménez, W; La Villa, G; Clària, J; López, C; Ginés, P; Gaya, J; Castro, A; Rivera, F; Arroyo, V

    1990-09-01

    In the current study digoxin-like immunoreactivity (DLIA), Na-K-ATPase inhibition and natriuretic activity of urinary extracts from 10 healthy volunteers following a low and a high-sodium intake, respectively, were measured. Detectable urinary DLIA (46.1 +/- 5.6 ng eq digoxin/day), Na-K-ATPase inhibition (182.9 +/- 22.7 nmol eq oub/day) and natriuretic activity (UNaV: 0.38 +/- 0.11 microEq/min) were observed during the low-sodium diet period in all subjects. High-sodium diet was associated with a significant increase in DLIA (87.9 +/- 9.2 ng eq digoxin/day, p less than 0.001) which parallelled changes in Na-K-ATPase inhibition (359.8 +/- 51.9 nmol eq oub/day, p less than 0.005) and natriuretic activity (UNaV: 1.33 +/- 0.3 microEq/min, p less than 0.025). These results support the contention that DLIA is related to NH. PMID:1965341

  8. Continuous versus intermittent exercise effects on urinary excretion of albumin and total protein.

    PubMed

    Montelpare, W J; Klentrou, P; Thoden, J

    2002-09-01

    Several studies have reported post-exercise increases of urinary concentrations of plasma proteins. However, under normal conditions, through mechanisms of size and electrical charge selection, the kidney restricts the clearance of molecules as large as albumin. Post-exercise increases in albuminuria occur following the physiological stress of intense exercise, most likely as a result of the exercise induced blood acidity changes which lead to a change in the arrangement of the albumin molecule, and subsequently the filtration characteristics of the glomerular capillary wall. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the extent to which different types of exercise could induce a transient condition of post-exercise increases in the urinary output of total protein and albumin. All 14 males, who agreed to participate in the study, performed a continuous and an intermittent cycling protocol on a stationary bicycle ergometer. The results showed that: a) intermittent exercise had a greater influence than continuous exercise on the total output of urine albumin, and of urine total protein; b) concentrations of blood pH and blood lactate, were associated with changes in the clearance of urine albumin and urine total protein. Post-exercise proteinuria response seems to be transient and therefore renal trauma is not suspected at the early stages of observation. Furthermore, these results indicate that the kidney undergoes distinct physiological adjustments during exercise, and that these adjustments are relative to the intensity of the exercise stress. PMID:12413038

  9. Gender and age differences in mixed metal exposure and urinary excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, Marika; Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Yunus, Mohammad; Grander, Margaretha; Loennerdal, Bo; Vahter, Marie

    2011-11-15

    Background: Little is known about the variation in exposure to toxic metals by age and gender and other potential modifying factors. We evaluated age and gender differences by measurements of metal/element concentrations in urine in a rural population in Matlab, Bangladesh, in three age groups: 8-12 (N=238), 14-15 (N=107) and 30-88 (N=710) years of age, living in an area with no point sources of metal exposure but where elevated water arsenic concentrations are prevalent. Results: We found marked differences in urine concentrations of metals and trace elements by gender, age, tobacco use, socioeconomic and nutritional status. Besides a clearly elevated urinary arsenic concentration in all age groups (medians 63-85 {mu}g As/L), and despite the low degree of contamination from industries and traffic, the urine concentrations of toxic metals such as cadmium and lead were clearly elevated, especially in children (median 0.31 {mu}g Cd/L and 2.9 {mu}g Pb/L, respectively). In general, women had higher urinary concentrations of toxic metals, especially Cd (median 0.81 {mu}g/L) compared to men (0.66 {mu}g/L) and U (median 10 ng/L in women, compared to 6.4 ng/L in men), while men had higher urinary concentrations of the basic and essential elements Ca (69 mg/L in men, 30-50 years, compared to 52 mg/L in women), Mg (58 mg/L in men compared to 50 mg/L in women), Zn (182 {mu}g/L in men compared to 117 {mu}g/L in women) and Se (9.9 {mu}g/L in men compared to 8.7 {mu}g/L in women). Manganese was consistently higher in females than in males in all age groups, suggesting a biological difference between females and males in Mn metabolism. Increasing socioeconomic status decreased the toxic metal exposure significantly in children and especially in men. Poor iron status was detected in 17% of children, adolescents and women, but only in 6% of men. Also zinc deficiency was more prevalent in females than in males. Conclusions: Women and children seemed to be more at risk for toxic

  10. Biomonitoring the intake of garlic via urinary excretion of allyl mercapturic acid.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, H; Hageman, G J; Rauma, A L; Versluis-de Haan, G; van Herwijnen, M H; de Groot, J; Törrönen, R; Mykkänen, H

    2001-08-01

    Allium vegetables (onions, leeks, chives) and in particular garlic have been claimed to have health-promoting potential. This study was conducted to get insight into the perspectives for monitoring the intake of garlic by a biomarker approach. Chemically, the biomarker results from exposure to gamma-glutamyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine, which is first hydrolysed by gamma-glutamine-transpeptidase resulting in the formation of S-allyl-l-cysteine. The latter compound is subsequently N-acetylated by N-acetyltransferase into S-allyl-mercapturic acid (ALMA) and excreted into urine. The mercapturic acid was measured in urine using gaschromatography with mass spectrometry. Thus the intake of garlic was determined to check the compliance of garlic intake in a placebo-controlled intervention study. Results indicate that S-allyl-mercapturic acid could be detected in 15 out of 16 urine samples of garlic supplement takers, indicating good compliance. In addition, the intake of garlic was also monitored in a cross-section study of vegans versus controls in Finland, in which no differences in garlic consumption nor in ALMA output were recorded between vegans and controls. These data indicate good possibilities for further studies in the field of biomarkers to investigate the putative chemopreventive effects of garlic and garlic-containing products. PMID:11520428

  11. Elevated cholinesterase activity and increased urinary excretion of inorganic fluorides in the workers producing fluorine-containing plastic (polytetrafluoroethylene)

    SciTech Connect

    Baohui Xu |; Jiusun Zhang; Guaogeng Mao; Guifen Yang; Aini Chen; Aoyama, Kohji; Matsushita, Toshio; Ueda, Atsushi

    1992-07-01

    Fluoropolymers are widely used in thermal and electrical industries. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) plastic is a typical one. During its production, workers are occupationally exposed to many organic fluorides, especially tetrafluoroethylene, chlorodifluoromethane, PTFE and its thermal decomposition products. Of these compounds, it has been documented that following inhalation of combustion products of PTFE the focal hemorrhages, edema, fibrin deposition in lungs and renal infarcts were observed in rats. Odum and Green have demonstrated a marked damage to proximal tubule of kidney with no effects on the liver in rats exposed to 6000 ppm tetrafluoroethylene for 6 hr. The investigations of the hazards of these compounds to workers have been mainly focused on acute toxicity. There have been some reports that polymers and its pyrolysis caused polymer fume fever and pulmonary edema. In practice, workers engaged in PTFE manufacture are chronically exposed to the above-mentioned chemicals, but little was known about the hazards ascribed to these chemicals. To clarify the influences of the exposed chemicals on health in PTFE production we conducted a mass survey investigation in a PTFE production factory. As a result, in addition to the nephrotoxicity characterized by elevated ALP and NAG activities in urine, more interestingly, we have also found a reversible increase in cholinesterase (ChE) activity and enhanced urinary excretion of inorganic fluorides in workers engaged in PTFE production. We report here these findings and discuss their physiological significance. 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Vascular Type 1A Angiotensin II Receptors Control BP by Regulating Renal Blood Flow and Urinary Sodium Excretion.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Matthew A; Stegbauer, Johannes; Chen, Daian; Gomez, Jose A; Griffiths, Robert C; Azad, Hooman A; Herrera, Marcela; Gurley, Susan B; Coffman, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    Inappropriate activation of the type 1A angiotensin (AT1A) receptor contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension and its associated complications. To define the role for actions of vascular AT1A receptors in BP regulation and hypertension pathogenesis, we generated mice with cell-specific deletion of AT1A receptors in smooth muscle cells (SMKO mice) using Loxp technology and Cre transgenes with robust expression in both conductance and resistance arteries. We found that elimination of AT1A receptors from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) caused a modest (approximately 7 mmHg) yet significant reduction in baseline BP and exaggerated sodium sensitivity in mice. Additionally, the severity of angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension was dramatically attenuated in SMKO mice, and this protection against hypertension was associated with enhanced urinary excretion of sodium. Despite the lower BP, acute vasoconstrictor responses to Ang II in the systemic vasculature were largely preserved (approximately 80% of control levels) in SMKO mice because of exaggerated activity of the sympathetic nervous system rather than residual actions of AT1B receptors. In contrast, Ang II-dependent responses in the renal circulation were almost completely eliminated in SMKO mice (approximately 5%-10% of control levels). These findings suggest that direct actions of AT1A receptors in VSMCs are essential for regulation of renal blood flow by Ang II and highlight the capacity of Ang II-dependent vascular responses in the kidney to effect natriuresis and BP control. PMID:25855778

  13. Urinary excretion of radionuclides from Marshallese exposed to fallout from the 1954 Bravo nuclear test.

    PubMed

    Harris, Payne S; Simon, Steven L; Ibrahim, Shawki A

    2010-08-01

    Soon after the Bravo nuclear test at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands on 1 March 1954, urine samples were collected for analysis of excreted radioactivity from native residents exposed to radioactive fallout on two atolls as well as from U.S. military personnel on a third atoll. The earliest acquired samples, obtained by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), were assayed for various radionuclides and provided the first known measurements of (131)I in urine following exposure to fallout from a nuclear test. Over the course of 1954, many additional samples were collected by the LASL, as well as by the Atomic Energy Commission New York Operations Office's Health and Safety Laboratory and the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. Collectively, the groups sampled included Marshallese exposed on Rongelap and Ailinginae Atolls, American military weather observers temporarily resident on Rongerik Atoll, and sailors from the Japanese fishing vessel, the Lucky Dragon. While the bioassay measurement data and individual urine volumes have been crucial to various attempts to assess intakes of radioactivity and the related internal radiation doses among the Marshallese, those data have never been published in any peer-reviewed journal, but have been restricted to agency memoranda, laboratory reports, and summaries in some publications and book chapters. Reconstructions of internal doses to Marshallese in 1954 and in later years have depended on these data and, hence, they have considerable historical importance as well as importance to ongoing health risk projections for Marshallese. This paper presents much of the original data on urine volumes and radioactivity from the various assays of urine for radionuclides, and compares estimates of (131)I intakes made in 1954, 1985, 1987, and 2008. PMID:20622553

  14. URINARY EXCRETION OF RADIONUCLIDES FROM MARSHALLESE EXPOSED TO FALLOUT FROM THE 1954 BRAVO NUCLEAR TEST

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Payne S.; Simon, Steven L.; Ibrahim, Shawki A.

    2014-01-01

    Soon after the Bravo nuclear test at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands on 1 March 1954, urine samples were collected for analysis of excreted radioactivity from native residents exposed to radioactive fallout on two atolls as well as from U.S. military personnel on a third atoll. The earliest acquired samples, obtained by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), were assayed for various radionuclides and provided the first known measurements of 131I in urine following exposure to fallout from a nuclear test. Over the course of 1954, many additional samples were collected by the LASL, as well as by the Atomic Energy Commission New York Operations Office’s Health and Safety Laboratory and the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. Collectively, the groups sampled included Marshallese exposed on Rongelap and Ailinginae Atolls, American military weather observers temporarily resident on Rongerik Atoll, and sailors from the Japanese fishing vessel, the Lucky Dragon. While the bioassay measurement data and individual urine volumes have been crucial to various attempts to assess intakes of radioactivity and the related internal radiation doses among the Marshallese, those data have never been published in any peer-reviewed journal, but have been restricted to agency memoranda, laboratory reports, and summaries in some publications and book chapters. Reconstructions of internal doses to Marshallese in 1954 and in later years have depended on these data and, hence, they have considerable historical importance as well as importance to ongoing health risk projections for Marshallese. This paper presents much of the original data on urine volumes and radioactivity from the various assays of urine for radionuclides, and compares estimates of 131I intakes made in 1954, 1985, 1987, and 2008. PMID:20622553

  15. Urinary excretion of pregnanetriol and Δ5-pregnenetriol in two forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bongiovanni, Alfred M.; Eberlein, Walter R.; Moshang, Thomas

    1971-01-01

    Although congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency generally reveals a predominance of Δ5-3β-hydroxysteroids, on occasion substantial quantities of pregnanetriol have been found as well. It appears that the latter steroid more often occurs in the subjects who have survived beyond infancy. The use of the measurement of pregnanetriol alone may therefore not be relied upon as a sole determinant of the specific form of defective steroidal biogenesis. It is more characteristic of the 21-hydroxylase deficiency. However when both Δ5-pregnenetriol and pregnanetriol are measured the ratio of the former to the latter is always considerably below 1.0 in 21-hydroxylase deficiency and always above 1.0 in 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Furthermore, 11-ketopregnanetriol has been found only in the urine of subjects with the 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Thus, these two forms of defective steroidal biogenesis may be distinguished by the measurement of these three urinary steroidal metabolites. PMID:5129323

  16. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables

  17. B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Socha, Ewa; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-07-01

    Urinary dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential problems especially connected with energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, and nutritional individuality in autistic children. A diet rich in vitamins and macroelements is a new idea of intervention in autism. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and magnesium supplementation is effective in reducing the level of dicarboxylic acids in the urine of autistic children. We examined the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children before and after vitamin supplementation. Thirty children with autism received magnesium (daily dose, 200 mg), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine; daily dose, 500 mg), and vitamin B2 (riboflavin; daily dose, 20 mg). The treatment was provided for a period of 3 months. Organic acids were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Before supplementation, the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children were 41.47 ± 50.40 μmol/mmol creatinine, 15.61 ± 15.31 μmol/mmol creatinine, 8.02 ± 6.08 μmol/mmol creatinine; and after supplementation, the levels were 9.90 ± 8.26 μmol/mmol creatinine, 2.92 ± 2.41 μmol/mmol creatinine, and 2.57 ± 3.53 μmol/mmol creatinine, respectively. The results suggest that the supplementation reduces the level of dicarboxylic acid in the urine of autistic children. PMID:21840465

  18. Phthalate exposure in pregnant women and newborns - the urinary metabolite excretion pattern differs distinctly.

    PubMed

    Enke, Uta; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Pälmke, Claudia; Seyfarth, Lydia; Koch, Holger Martin

    2013-11-01

    Some phthalates are endocrine disruptors and reproductive and developmental toxicants. Data on newborn phthalate exposure and elimination characteristics are scarce. We determined 21 urinary phthalate metabolites (indicating exposure to 11 parent phthalates) in two study approaches: in the first approach we collected the urine of 20 healthy newborns at days 2-5 post partum together with 47 urine samples of 7 women during pregnancy. In the second fine tuned approach we collected first urine samples of 9 healthy newborns together with their mother's urine shortly before birth. To ensure full and contamination free collection of the newborns first urines we used special adhesive urine bags for children. All urine samples revealed ubiquitous exposures to phthalates comparable to other populations. Metabolite levels in the newborns first day urine samples were generally lower than in all other samples. However, the newborns urines (both first and day 2-5 urines) showed a metabolite pattern distinctly different from the maternal and general population samples: in the newborns urines the carboxy-metabolites of the long chain phthalates (DEHP, DiNP, DiDP) were the by far dominant metabolites with a relative share in the metabolite spectrum up to 6 times higher than in maternal urine. Oppositely, for the short chain phthalates (DBP, DiBP) oxidized metabolites seemed to be less favored than the simple monoesters in the newborns urines. The skewed metabolite distribution in the newborns urine warrants further investigation in terms of early phthalate metabolism, the quantity of internal phthalate exposure of the fetus/newborn and its possible health effects. PMID:23474103

  19. Effect of protein ingestion on urinary dopamine excretion. Evidence for the functional importance of renal decarboxylation of circulating 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine in man.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, M; Young, J B; Rosa, R M; Gunn, S; Epstein, F H; Landsberg, L

    1986-01-01

    Since dietary protein increases urinary dopamine (DA) excretion in animals, this study was undertaken to assess the role of DA production in the acute changes in renal function following protein ingestion in man. Excretion of DA, sodium, potassium, water, solute, and creatinine were measured in six normal men in 30-min intervals over 5 h after oral ingestion of protein and/or carbidopa, an inhibitor of DA formation from 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). Overall, protein increased urinary DA 50% (P = 0.031) while carbidopa reduced it 70% (P less than 0.0001), although suppression of DA excretion by carbidopa was not uniform over the 5 h of observation. Carbidopa doubled the level of DOPA in venous plasma and greatly magnified the DOPA response to protein. Inhibition of decarboxylase activity reduced excretion of sodium, potassium, solute and water after protein ingestion. These results indicate that extraneuronal DOPA decarboxylation in kidney contributes to acute protein-induced changes in renal function in man and suggest a general role for the decarboxylation of circulating DOPA in the expression of dopaminergic effects on the kidney in vivo. PMID:3097077

  20. Urinary Calcium and Oxalate Excretion in Healthy Adult Cats Are Not Affected by Increasing Dietary Levels of Bone Meal in a Canned Diet

    PubMed Central

    Passlack, Nadine; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A), 18.5 (B) and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C) and 16.1 (A), 17.6 (B) and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C). Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between), and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox), the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals. PMID:23940588

  1. Association between 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zeng; Guo, Xiaolei; Chen, Xiaorong; Tang, Junli; Yan, Liuxia; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Jiyu; Lu, Zilong; Dong, Jing; Xu, Jianwei; Cai, Xiaoning; Liang, Hao; Ma, Jixiang

    2015-03-28

    The association of 24 h urinary Na and potassium excretion with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been studied in China. The aim of the present study was to examine this association by analysing the data from 1906 study participants living in north China. To this end, 24 h urine samples were collected. Of the 1906 participants, 471 (24·7 %) had the MetS. The mean urinary Na and K excretion was 228·7 and 40·8 mmol/d, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the odds of the MetS significantly increased across the increasing tertiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·40 and 1·54, respectively). For the components of the MetS, the odds of central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG, but not the odds of low HDL-cholesterol and elevated fasting glucose, significantly increased with the successive tertiles of urinary Na excretion. Furthermore, for every 100 mmol/d increase in urinary Na excretion, the odds of the MetS, central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG was significantly increased by 29, 63, 22 and 21 %, respectively. However, urinary K excretion was not significantly associated with the risk of the MetS. These findings suggest that high Na intake might be an important risk factor for the MetS in Chinese adults. PMID:25743698

  2. Influence of Occupational and Environmental Exposure to Low Concentrations of Polychlorobiphenyls and a Smoking Habit on the Urinary Excretion of Corticosteroid Hormones.

    PubMed

    D'Errico, Maria Nicolà; Lovreglio, Piero; Drago, Ignazio; Apostoli, Pietro; Soleo, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    The effects of occupational exposure to low concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) on the urinary excretion of corticosteroid hormones were evaluated, taking into account the influence of cigarette smoking. The study included 26 males working as electrical maintenance staff in a steel factory, previously exposed to a mixture of PCBs (exposed workers), and 30 male workers with no occupational exposure to PCBs (controls). Serum PCBs (33 congeners), urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids, 17-ketosteroids (KS) and pregnanes, and their respective glucuronidated and sulfonated compounds, were determined for each subject. PCBs were significantly higher in the exposed workers than controls, and were correlated with age. Both the urinary concentrations of the total 17-KS and pregnanes, and those of some single steroids and their glucuronidated compounds, were significantly lower in the exposed workers than controls, but higher in smokers than the non-smokers + ex-smokers. Two-way analysis of variance showed a negative association between serum PCBs and both total glucuronidated 17-KS and total and glucuronidated pregnanes, and a positive association between cigarette smoking and both total and glucuronidated 17-KS. PCBs seem to act as endocrine disruptors by reducing the urinary excretion of corticosteroid hormones, particularly of the glucuronidated fraction. Cigarette smoking could boost these effects of PCBs in smokers. PMID:27023579

  3. Influence of Occupational and Environmental Exposure to Low Concentrations of Polychlorobiphenyls and a Smoking Habit on the Urinary Excretion of Corticosteroid Hormones

    PubMed Central

    D’Errico, Maria Nicolà; Lovreglio, Piero; Drago, Ignazio; Apostoli, Pietro; Soleo, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The effects of occupational exposure to low concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) on the urinary excretion of corticosteroid hormones were evaluated, taking into account the influence of cigarette smoking. The study included 26 males working as electrical maintenance staff in a steel factory, previously exposed to a mixture of PCBs (exposed workers), and 30 male workers with no occupational exposure to PCBs (controls). Serum PCBs (33 congeners), urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids, 17-ketosteroids (KS) and pregnanes, and their respective glucuronidated and sulfonated compounds, were determined for each subject. PCBs were significantly higher in the exposed workers than controls, and were correlated with age. Both the urinary concentrations of the total 17-KS and pregnanes, and those of some single steroids and their glucuronidated compounds, were significantly lower in the exposed workers than controls, but higher in smokers than the non-smokers + ex-smokers. Two-way analysis of variance showed a negative association between serum PCBs and both total glucuronidated 17-KS and total and glucuronidated pregnanes, and a positive association between cigarette smoking and both total and glucuronidated 17-KS. PCBs seem to act as endocrine disruptors by reducing the urinary excretion of corticosteroid hormones, particularly of the glucuronidated fraction. Cigarette smoking could boost these effects of PCBs in smokers. PMID:27023579

  4. Increased urinary excretion of toxic hydrazino metabolites of isoniazid by slow acetylators. Effect of a slow-release preparation of isoniazid.

    PubMed

    Peretti, E; Karlaganis, G; Lauterburg, B H

    1987-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that slow acetylators, who may have a greater risk of developing isoniazid hepatitis than rapid acetylators, are exposed to more acetylhydrazine and hydrazine, two toxic metabolites of isoniazid, the urinary excretion of hydrazino metabolites of isoniazid was measured following the ingestion of 300 mg isoniazid. Slow acetylators (n = 7) excreted significantly more isoniazid (32.4 vs 9.2% dose), acetylhydrazine (3.1 vs 1.6% dose), and hydrazine (1.0 vs 0.4% dose) in 24 h than rapid acetylators (n = 5), whereas the excretion of acetylisoniazid and diacetylhydrazine was significantly lower. As the acetylation (i.e. detoxification) of acetylhydrazine is inhibited in the presence of high concentrations of isoniazid, a study was also made of the effect of a slow-release preparation that results in lower plasma concentrations of isoniazid on the production of hydrazino metabolites. The ratio of acetylisoniazid to isoniazid in urine was significantly increased in slow acetylators from 0.84 to 1.02 following administration of the slow release preparation, indicating increased acetylation of isoniazid. However, the excretion of diacetylhydrazine relative to the excretion of acetylhydrazine and hydrazine did not change. It is concluded that exposure to toxic metabolites of isoniazid is increased in slow acetylators. Detoxification of the toxic metabolites was not enhanced by a slow-release preparation of isoniazid. PMID:3691615

  5. Effects of exposure to 16.7 Hz magnetic fields on urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion of Swiss railway workers.

    PubMed

    Pfluger, D H; Minder, C E

    1996-09-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the effects of 16.7 Hz electromagnetic-field exposure on pineal melatonin production in healthy humans. The study was based on comparing urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) levels of 108 male railway workers between leisure periods and days following the start of service on electrically powered engines (66 engineers) or working beneath transmission lines (42 railway employees such as train attendants and station managers; controls). A repeated measures design was used, i.e., each volunteer served as his own control. The exposure averaged 20 muTesla in the most exposed workers and around 1 muTesla in the least exposed. Apart from magnetic exposure the workers were subject to a shift work schedule with daily advances between 15 min and 1 hr. Melatonin was assessed by sampling urinary 6-OHMS both in the morning and the early evening. Evening 6-OHMS values appeared to be lowered by a factor of 0.81 (95%CI: 0.73-0.90) during work days compared to leisure days among engine drivers, but not in the controls. The lowering was not confined to certain types of shift work such as early, normal, or late shifts. During subsequent leisure periods evening values recovered significantly, mean ratio = 1.27 (95%CI: 1.03-1.56), i.e., the effects appeared to be reversible. In contrast, morning 6-OHMS samples of engineers and controls did not differ much between work and leisure days. There was, however, a tendency for a rebound of morning values in a leisure period following a work period both for engineers and controls. The observed pattern appears to be in line with predictions of the "phase response curve." No evidence for a dose-response relation was found. The results support the hypothesis that 16.7 Hz magnetic fields alter 6-OHMS excretion in humans exposed to magnetic fields. An alternative explanation that cannot be excluded in this study is that the difference between engineers and controls is due to differential exposure to day

  6. LP-925219 maximizes urinary glucose excretion in mice by inhibiting both renal SGLT1 and SGLT2

    PubMed Central

    Powell, David R; Smith, Melinda G; Doree, Deon D; Harris, Angela L; Xiong, Wendy W; Mseeh, Faika; Wilson, Alan; Gopinathan, Suma; Diaz, Damaris; Goodwin, Nicole C; Harrison, Bryce; Strobel, Eric; Rawlins, David B; Carson, Ken; Zambrowicz, Brian; Ding, Zhi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of oral anti-diabetic agents that improve glycemic control by inhibiting SGLT2-mediated renal glucose reabsorption. Currently available agents increase urinary glucose excretion (UGE) to <50% of maximal values because they do not inhibit SGLT1, which reabsorbs >50% of filtered glucose when SGLT2 is completely inhibited. This led us to test whether LP-925219, a small molecule dual SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitor, increases UGE to maximal values in wild-type (WT) mice. We first tested LP-925219 inhibition of glucose transport by HEK293 cells expressing SGLT1 or SGLT2, and then characterized LP-925219 pharmacokinetics. We found that LP-925219 was a potent inhibitor of mouse SGLT1 (IC50 = 22.6 nmol/L) and SGLT2 (IC50 = 0.5 nmol/L), and that a 10 mg/kg oral dose was bioavailable (87%) with a long half-life (7 h). We next delivered LP-925219 by oral gavage to WT, SGLT1 knockout (KO), SGLT2 KO, and SGLT1/SGLT2 double KO (DKO) mice and measured their 24-h UGE. We found that, in vehicle-treated mice, DKO UGE was maximal and SGLT2 KO, SGLT1 KO, and WT UGEs were 30%, 2%, and 0.2% of maximal, respectively; we also found that LP-925219 dosed at 60 mg/kg twice daily increased UGE of SGLT1 KO, SGLT2 KO, and WT mice to DKO UGE levels. These findings show that orally available dual SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitors can maximize 24-h UGE in mammals, and suggest that such agents merit further evaluation for their potential, in diabetic patients, to achieve better glycemic control than is achieved using selective SGLT2 inhibitors. PMID:26038705

  7. Interspecies scaling of excretory amounts using allometry - retrospective analysis with rifapentine, aztreonam, carumonam, pefloxacin, miloxacin, trovafloxacin, doripenem, imipenem, cefozopran, ceftazidime, linezolid for urinary excretion and rifapentine, cabotegravir, and dolutegravir for fecal excretion.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2016-09-01

    1. Interspecies allometry scaling for prediction of human excretory amounts in urine or feces was performed for numerous antibacterials. Antibacterials used for urinary scaling were: rifapentine, pefloxacin, trovafloxacin (Gr1/low; <10%); miloxacin, linezolid, PNU-142300 (Gr2/medium; 10-40%); aztreonam, carumonam, cefozopran, doripenem, imipenem, and ceftazidime (Gr3/high; >50%). Rifapentine, cabotegravir, and dolutegravir was used for fecal scaling (high; >50%). 2. The employment of allometry equation: Y = aW(b) enabled scaling of urine/fecal amounts from animal species. Corresponding predicted amounts were converted into % recovery by considering the respective human dose. Comparison of predicted/observed values enabled fold difference and error calculations (mean absolute error [MAE] and root mean square error [RMSE]). Comparisons were made for urinary/fecal data; and qualitative assessment was made amongst Gr1/Gr2/Gr3 for urine. 3. Average correlation coefficient for the allometry scaling was >0.995. Excretory amount predictions were largely within 0.75- to 1.5-fold differences. Average MAE and RMSE were within ±22% and 23%, respectively. Although robust predictions were achieved for higher urinary/fecal excretion (>50%), interspecies scaling was applicable for low/medium excretory drugs. 4. Based on the data, interspecies scaling of urine or fecal excretory amounts may be potentially used as a tool to understand the significance of either urinary or fecal routes of elimination in humans in early development. PMID:26711252

  8. LC-MS/MS determination and urinary excretion study of seven alkaloids in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of Shuanghua Baihe tablets.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Minlu; Liu, Ruijuan; Wu, Yao; Gu, Pan; Zheng, Lu; Liu, Yujie; Ma, Pengcheng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-25

    An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of magnoflorine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, epiberberine, palmatine and berberine in human urine. The sample preparation procedure involved the four-fold dilution of the urine samples with acetonitrile/water (1:3, v/v). The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hedera ODS-2 column under gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min with acetonitrile and water containing 0.5% formic acid as the mobile phase. The mass detection was performed in the positive mode. Calibration curves of the seven alkaloids showed good linearity (correlation coefficients>0.9973) over their concentration ranges. To meet the requirements of urinary excretion study for each alkaloid in human, the lower limit of quantification was set at different values from 0.05063 ng/mL to 2.034 ng/mL for the seven alkaloids, respectively. The intra- and inter-batch precision and accuracy were all within ± 15%. No matrix effect was observed for the analytes. The validated method was applied to the excretion study for the seven alkaloids in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of Shuanghua Baihe tablets. The average 72 h cumulative urinary excretion of magnoflorine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, epiberberine, palmatine and berberine accounted for 1.81%, 0.27%, 0.29%, 0.046%, 0.027%, 0.010% and 0.021% of the respective administered dose. PMID:26519688

  9. [Effect of lithium hydroxybutyrate on the circadian dynamics of the urinary excretion of Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) in rats depending on the circadian phase of the drug administration].

    PubMed

    Zamoshchina, T A; Meleshko, M V; Ivanova, E V

    2001-01-01

    In winter solstice, the urinary excretion of Li+ and Na+ in intact rats has a uniform circadian profile, while K+ and Ca2+ exhibit a 23-h and 24-h rhythm, respectively. The administration of lithium hydroxybutyrate (10 mg/kg, 6 days) at 8 a.m. forms the 24-h Li+ and Na+ excretion rhythm, while not significantly affecting the circadian profiles of K+ and Ca2+. The lithium loading at 8 p.m. made the circadian urinary excretion profiles of Ca2+ and Na+ uniform, while the excretion of Li+ and K+ acquired a 24-h rhythm. Irrespective of the circadian phase, the administration of lithium hydroxybutyrate decreased the average daily concentration of Na+ in the urine, while the average concentration of Ca2+ remains unchanged; the concentration of K+ decreases after lithium hydroxybutyrate injections in the morning. Upon the morning treatment, lithium cations are excreted faster than after the evening injections. PMID:11589102

  10. Effect of Pentoxifylline on Renal Function and Urinary Albumin Excretion in Patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease: The PREDIAN Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Fernández, Carmen; Muros de Fuentes, Mercedes; Chahin, Jesús; Méndez, María L.; Gallego, Eduardo; Macía, Manuel; del Castillo, Nieves; Rivero, Antonio; Getino, María A.; García, Patricia; Jarque, Ana; García, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of ESRD. We conducted an open-label, prospective, randomized trial to determine whether pentoxifylline (PTF), which reduces albuminuria, in addition to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade, can slow progression of renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and stages 3–4 CKD. Participants were assigned to receive PTF (1200 mg/d) (n=82) or to a control group (n=87) for 2 years. All patients received similar doses of RAS inhibitors. At study end, eGFR had decreased by a mean±SEM of 2.1±0.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the PTF group compared with 6.5±0.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the control group, with a between-group difference of 4.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.1 to 5.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2; P<0.001) in favor of PTF. The proportion of patients with a rate of eGFR decline greater than the median rate of decline (0.16 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per month) was lower in the PTF group than in the control group (33.3% versus 68.2%; P<0.001). Percentage change in urinary albumin excretion was 5.7% (95% CI, −0.3% to 11.1%) in the control group and −14.9% (95% CI, −20.4% to −9.4%) in the PTF group (P=0.001). Urine TNF-α decreased from a median 16 ng/g (interquartile range, 11–20.1 ng/g) to 14.3 ng/g (interquartile range, 9.2–18.4 ng/g) in the PTF group (P<0.01), with no changes in the control group. In this population, addition of PTF to RAS inhibitors resulted in a smaller decrease in eGFR and a greater reduction of residual albuminuria. PMID:24970885

  11. Daytime cold exposure and salt intake based on nocturnal urinary sodium excretion: A cross-sectional analysis of the HEIJO-KYO study.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Keigo; Obayashi, Kenji; Tone, Nobuhiro; Kurumatani, Norio

    2015-12-01

    Increased cardiovascular incidence in winter is partly explained by higher blood pressure due to cold exposure. Although higher salt intake induced by cold exposure has been reported in mice, the association remains unclear in humans. To investigate the association between salt intake and cold exposure in winter, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 860 elderly subjects (mean ± standard deviation: 72.0 ± 7.1 years). We determined ambient temperature at every 10 min according to indoor temperature measured in the subjects' home, outdoor temperature, and self-administered diary logging time spent outdoors. Salt intake was estimated by nocturnal sodium excretion rate of overnight urine collection. A 1°C lower daytime ambient temperature was significantly associated with a higher urinary sodium excretion rate by 0.07 mmol/h in the subsequent night independent of age, sex, body weight, alcohol intake, calcium channel blocker use, diabetes, household income, estimated glomerular filtration rate, daytime physical activity (p=0.02). After further adjustment for outdoor temperature and day length, the lowest tertile groups of ambient daytime temperature (10.1 ± 2.3°C) showed the nocturnal urinary sodium excretion rate was higher by 14.2% (7.62 vs. 6.54 mmol/h) compared with the highest tertile group (19.3 ± 1.8°C). Higher sodium excretion rate was associated with higher nighttime ambulatory blood pressure (p<0.01) and its lower nocturnal dipping (p<0.01). Significant association between higher salt intake and daytime cold exposure partly explain the mechanism of higher blood pressure in winter, and suggest that a reduction of cold exposure might be effective to decrease salt intake. PMID:26476000

  12. Urinary excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 (apolipoprotein H) and other markers of tubular malfunction in "non-tubular" renal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, F. V.; Lapsley, M.; Sansom, P. A.; Cohen, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1 assays can provide improved discrimination between chronic renal diseases which are primarily of tubular or glomerular origin. METHODS: Urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, alpha 1-microglobulin, beta 2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosa-minidase and albumin were measured in 51 patients with primary glomerular disease, 23 with obstructive nephropathy, and 15 with polycystic kidney disease, and expressed per mmol of creatinine. Plasma beta 2-glycoprotein-1 was assayed in 52 patients and plasma creatinine in all 89. The findings were compared between the diagnostic groups and with previously published data relating to primary tubular disorders. RESULTS: All 31 patients with plasma creatinine greater than 200 mumol/l excreted increased amounts of beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin, and 29 had increased N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase; the quantities were generally similar to those found in comparable patients with primary tubular pathology. Among 58 with plasma creatinine concentrations under 200 mumol/l, increases in beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin excretion were less common and much smaller, especially in those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. The ratios of the excretion of albumin to the other proteins provided the clearest discrimination between the patients with glomerular or tubular malfunction, but an area of overlap was present which embraced those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Increased excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 due to a raised plasma concentration or diminution of tubular reabsorption, or both, is common in all the forms of renal disease investigated, and both plasma creatinine and urinary albumin must be taken into account when interpreting results. Ratios of urinary albumin: beta 2-glycoprotein-1 greater than 1000 are highly suggestive

  13. [Effect of a diet containing calcium pantothenate on urinary vitamin excretion and on the liver and kidney total pantothenic acid level in rats].

    PubMed

    Lhuissier, M; Bringer, M

    1988-01-01

    Four groups of five adult rats weighing 310 g received during 20 days a diet containing 0, 1.68, 16.8 or 168 mumol of pantothenic acid per kg of diet. The daily urinary vitamin excretion was, in nmol per day: 32 +/- 8, 32 +/- 4, 180 +/- 23 and 2,100 +/- 91, respectively (mean +/- SEM). Liver and kidney pantothenic acid content was the same in all groups, in nmol per g of fresh tissue: 300 +/- 36 and 190 +/- 6, respectively (mean +/- SEM, n = 20). PMID:2978017

  14. Urinary excretion of platinum, arsenic and selenium of cancer patients from the Antofagasta region in Chile treated with platinum-based drugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arsenic exposure increases the risk of non-cancerous and cancerous diseases. In the Antofagasta region in Chile, an established relationship exists between arsenic exposure and the risk of cancer of the bladder, lung and skin. Platinum-based drugs are first-line treatments, and many works recognise selenium as a cancer-fighting nutrient. We characterised the short-term urinary excretion amounts of arsenic, selenium and platinum in 24-h urine samples from patients with lung cancer and those with cancer other than lung treated with cisplatin or/and carboplatin. As - Se - Pt inter-element relationships were also investigated. Results The amounts of platinum excreted in urine were not significantly different between patients with lung cancer and those with other cancers treated with cisplatin, despite the significant variation in platinum amounts supplied from platinum-based drugs. In general, the analytical amounts of excreted selenium were greater than those for arsenic, which could imply that platinum favours the excretion of selenium. For other types of cancers treated with drugs without platinum, excretion of selenium was also greater than that of arsenic, suggesting an antagonist selenium-anti-cancer drug relationship. Conclusions Regards the baseline status of patients, the analytical amounts of excreted Se is greater than those for As, particularly, for cisplatin chemotherapy. This finding could imply that for over the As displacement Pt favours the excretion of Se. The analytical amounts of excreted Se were greater than those for As, either with and without Pt-containing drugs, suggesting an antagonist Se-anti-cancer drug relationship. However, it seemed that differences existed between As - Se - Pt inter-element associations in patients treated for lung cancer in comparison with those treated for cancer other than lung. Therefore, knowledge obtained in this work, can contribute to understanding the arsenic cancer mechanism and the As - Se - Pt

  15. Relationships Between Blood Pressure and 24-Hour Urinary Excretion of Sodium and Potassium by Body Mass Index Status in Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liuxia; Bi, Zhenqiang; Tang, Junli; Wang, Linhong; Yang, Quanhe; Guo, Xiaolei; Cogswell, Mary E; Zhang, Xiaofei; Hong, Yuling; Engelgau, Michael; Zhang, Jiyu; Elliott, Paul; Angell, Sonia Y; Ma, Jixiang

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the impact of overweight/obesity on sodium, potassium, and blood pressure associations using the Shandong-Ministry of Health Action on Salt Reduction and Hypertension (SMASH) project baseline survey data. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected in 1948 Chinese adults aged 18 to 69 years. The observed associations of sodium, potassium, sodium-potassium ratio, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were stronger in the overweight/obese population than among those of normal weight. Among overweight/obese respondents, each additional standard deviation (SD) higher of urinary sodium excretion (SD=85 mmol) and potassium excretion (SD=19 mmol) was associated with a 1.31 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.37-2.26) and -1.43 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -2.23 to -0.63) difference in SBP, and each higher unit in sodium-potassium ratio was associated with a 0.54 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.75) increase in SBP. The association between sodium, potassium, sodium-potassium ratio, and prevalence of hypertension among overweight/obese patients was similar to that of SBP. Our study indicated that the relationships between BP and both urinary sodium and potassium might be modified by BMI status in Chinese adults. PMID:26332433

  16. The Tissue Distribution and Urinary Excretion Study of Gallic Acid and Protocatechuic Acid after Oral Administration of Polygonum Capitatum Extract in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Feng-Wei; Deng, Qing-Fang; Zhou, Xin; Gong, Xiao-Jian; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Hua-Guo; Zhao, Chao

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the tissue distribution and urinary excretion of gallic acid (GA) and protocatechuic acid (PCA) after rat oral administration of aqueous extract of Polygonum capitatum (P. capitatum, named Herba Polygoni Capitati in China). An UHPLC-MS/MS analytical method was developed and adopted for quantification of GA and PCA in different tissue homogenate and urine samples. Interestingly, we found that GA and PCA showed a relatively targeted distribution in kidney tissue after dosing 60 mg/kg P. capitatum extract (equivalent to 12 mg/kg of GA and 0.9 mg/kg of PCA). The concentrations of GA and PCA in the kidney tissue reached 1218.62 ng/g and 43.98 ng/g, respectively, at one hour after oral administration. The results helped explain the empirical use of P. capitatum for kidney diseases in folk medicine. Further studies on urinary excretion of P. capitatum extract indicated that GA and PCA followed a concentrated elimination over a 4-h period. The predominant metabolites were putatively identified to be 4-methylgallic acid (4-OMeGA) and 4-methylprotocatechuic acid (4-OMePCA) by analyzing their precursor ions and characteristic fragment ions using tandem mass spectrometry. However, the amount of unchanged GA and PCA that survived the metabolism were about 14.60% and 15.72% of the total intake, respectively, which is reported for the first time in this study. PMID:27023501

  17. [Urinary oestriol excretion and the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid in Bogota (2600 m) I. Normal pregnancy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sobrevilla, L A; Cristina Peña, M; Jaramillo, R

    1980-01-01

    We have studied 22 pregnancies in order to establish normal values for the urinary oestriol excretion in Bogotá, a city 2600 metres above sea level. The study subjects were normal pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic of the Hospital San José de Bogotá, and belong to a racially mixed community of medium to low socio-economic level. In the study, new born weight was found low (mean +/- SEM 2.97 +/-0.06 kg) while placental weight was high (0.6 +/- 0.02 kg) with a high placenta/newborn ratio. Maternal hemoglobin was elevated (12.8 +/- 0.2g/100 ml) reflecting the effect of altitude. In 66 determinations, oestriol excretion was more than 4mg/24 hours from week 31 to 36 and of more than 5 mg/24 hours from week 35 to 40. The decreased excretion of oestriol most likely reflects impaired intrauterine fetal growth, and is probably related to nutrional, racial and socio-economic factors as well as to the altitude. In five normal term pregnancies studied, the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio was of 2 or more and amniotic fluid creatinine was also elevated, indicating maturity of the pulmonary and renal enzyme systems of the fetus. PMID:7389997

  18. High urinary homoarginine excretion is associated with low rates of all-cause mortality and graft failure in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Frenay, Anne-Roos S; Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Beckmann, Bibiana; Soedamah-Muhtu, Sabita S; de Borst, Martin H; van den Berg, Else; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, Stephan J L; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2015-09-01

    Renal transplant recipients (RTR) have an increased cardiovascular risk profile. Low levels of circulating homoarginine (hArg) are a novel risk factor for mortality and the progression of atherosclerosis. The kidney is known as a major source of hArg, suggesting that urinary excretion of hArg (UhArg) might be associated with mortality and graft failure in RTR. hArg was quantified by mass spectrometry in 24-h urine samples of 704 RTR (functioning graft ≥1 year) and 103 healthy subjects. UhArg determinants were identified with multivariable linear regression models. Associations of UhArg with all-cause mortality and graft failure were assessed using multivariable Cox regression analyses. UhArg excretion was significantly lower in RTR compared to healthy controls [1.62 (1.09-2.61) vs. 2.46 (1.65-4.06) µmol/24 h, P < 0.001]. In multivariable linear regression models, body surface area, diastolic blood pressure, eGFR, pre-emptive transplantation, serum albumin, albuminuria, urinary excretion of urea and uric acid and use of sirolimus were positively associated with UhArg, while donor age and serum phosphate were inversely associated (model R (2) = 0.43). During follow-up for 3.1 (2.7-3.9) years, 83 (12 %) patients died and 45 (7 %) developed graft failure. UhArg was inversely associated with all-cause mortality [hazard risk (HR) 0.52 (95 % CI 0.40-0.66), P < 0.001] and graft failure [HR 0.58 (0.42-0.81), P = 0.001]. These associations remained independent of potential confounders. High UhArg levels are associated with reduced all-cause mortality and graft failure in RTR. Kidney-derived hArg is likely to be of particular importance for proper maintenance of cardiovascular and renal systems. PMID:26142633

  19. Benzo(a)pyrenediolepoxide-hemoglobin adducts and 3-hydroxy-benzo(a)pyrene urinary excretion profiles in rats subchronically exposed to benzo(a)pyrene.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, M; Viau, C

    1995-01-01

    The time profiles of benzo(a)pyrenediolepoxide (BaPDE)-hemoglobin (Hb) adduct formation and 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP) urinary excretion were studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to daily benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) intraperitoneal doses of 1.25, 6.25, and 31.25 mumol/kg administered Tuesday to Friday for 4 consecutive weeks. Blood was withdrawn weekly, on Tuesdays, prior to dosing. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected on Mondays (following 72 h without treatment) and Thursdays. Analytes were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/fluorescence. Exposure to BaP resulted in the accumulation of BaPDE-Hb adducts, reaching an average of 1.2 +/- 0.3, 8.3 +/- 1.9, and 38.2 +/- 6.1 pmol/g Hb for the 1.25, 6.25, and 31.25 mumol/kg per day doses after 4 weeks of treatment. The expected saw tooth excretion profile of 3-OHBaP was observed, with peaks on Thursdays and troughs on Mondays, and showed a progressive rise on both Mondays and Thursdays. Increase in Monday values with time suggested a possible increase in BaP body burden during exposure. To verify this aspect further, the urinary excretion kinetic of 3-OHBaP following acute intraperitoneal dosing (31.25 mumol/kg) was determined. Urine samples were collected at frequent timed intervals for up to 164 h post-dosing. Two-step elimination was observed, the second step having a half-life of 25 h, presumably linked to the slow release of BaP accumulated in fatty tissues upon repeated treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8534197

  20. DSR-71167, a novel mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist with carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity, separates urinary sodium excretion and serum potassium elevation in rats.

    PubMed

    Nariai, Tetsuro; Fujita, Katsuya; Kawane, Kenji; Mori, Masaya; Nakayama, Ryo; Matsuda, Koichi; Katayama, Seiji; Fukuda, Nobuhisa; Hori, Seiji; Iwata, Masato; Hasegawa, Futoshi; Suzuki, Kuniko; Kato, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists, such as spironolactone (SPI) and eplerenone (EPL), are useful for treating hypertension and heart failure. However, these two agents have the serious side effect of hyperkalemia. We hypothesized that adding the ability to inhibit carbonic anhydrase (CA) would reduce the risk of hyperkalemia associated with MR antagonists. We investigated the profiles of DSR-71167 [2-([(2,2-difluoroethyl)amino]methyl)-2'-fluoro-N-(3-methoxy-4-sulfamoylphenyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide hydrochloride; an MR antagonist with weak CA inhibitory activity] with regard to antimineralocorticoid actions by examining relationships between the urinary excretion of sodium (index of antimineralocorticoid action) in deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats and elevation of serum levels of potassium in potassium-loaded rats compared with a DSR-71167 derivative without CA inhibition (2-(hydroxymethyl)-N-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-2'-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide), SPI, and EPL. DSR-71167 dose-dependently increased urinary excretion of sodium in deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats without elevating serum levels of potassium in potassium-loaded rats. 2-(Hydroxymethyl)-N-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-2'-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide, SPI, and EPL elevated serum levels of potassium significantly in potassium-loaded rats at doses that increased MR inhibitory activity. We confirmed that DSR-71167 significantly increases urinary bicarbonate and decreases blood bicarbonate, as pharmacodynamic markers of CA inhibition, in intact rats. Chronic DSR-71167 administration showed antihypertensive effects in high salt-loaded Dahl hypertensive rats. These results demonstrate that DSR-71167 is a novel type of MR antagonist, with CA inhibitory activity, which is expected to become a safer MR antagonist with a low potential risk for hyperkalemia. PMID:25922341

  1. Association between 24h Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) Decline or Death in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and eGFR More than 30 ml/min/1.73m2

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Takanobu; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Katsuno, Takayuki; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Matsuo, Seiichi; Tsuboi, Naotake; Maruyama, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Data regarding the association between 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion with kidney outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus is currently scarce. Methods We conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort study in which 1230 patients with diabetes who had undergone a 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion test were analyzed. Patients with incomplete urine collection were excluded based on 24h urinary creatinine excretion. Outcomes were the composite of a 30% decline in eGFR or death. Multivariate cox regression analysis was used to investigate the association between urinary sodium and potassium excretion and outcomes. Results With a mean follow up period of 5.47 years, 130 patients reached the outcomes (30% decline in eGFR: 124, death: 6). Mean (SD) eGFR and 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion at baseline were 78.6 (19.5) ml/min/1.73m2, 4.50 (1.64) g/day, and 2.14 (0.77) g/day. Compared with sodium excretion < 3.0 g/day, no significant change in risk of outcomes was observed with increased increments of 1.0 g/day. Compared with potassium excretion of < 1.5 g/day, 2.0–2.5 g/day, and 2.5–3.0 g/day were significantly associated with a lower risk of outcomes (hazard ratio [HR], 0.49 and 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28 to 0.84 and 0.22 to 0.87). Conclusions 24h urinary sodium excretion was not significantly associated with a risk of 30% decline in eGFR or death in patients with diabetes. However, an increased risk of 30% decline in eGFR or death was significantly associated with 24h urinary potassium excretion < 1.5 g/day than with 2.0–2.5 g/day and 2.5–3.0 g/day. PMID:27136292

  2. Increased angiotensinogen expression, urinary angiotensinogen excretion, and tissue injury in nonclipped kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, Weijian; Miyata, Kayoko; Katsurada, Akemi; Satou, Ryousuke; Seth, Dale M; Rosales, Carla B; Prieto, Minolfa C; Mitchell, Kenneth D; Navar, L Gabriel

    2016-08-01

    In angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent hypertension, there is an angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent amplification mechanism enhancing intrarenal angiotensinogen (AGT) formation and secretion in the tubular fluid. To evaluate the role of increased arterial pressure, AGT mRNA, protein expression, and urinary AGT (uAGT) excretion and tissue injury were assessed in both kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip Sprague-Dawley hypertensive rats subjected to left renal arterial clipping (0.25-mm gap). By 18-21 days, systolic arterial pressure increased to 180 ± 3 mmHg, and uAGT increased. Water intake, body weights, 24-h urine volumes, and sodium excretion were similar. In separate measurements of renal function in anesthetized rats, renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate were similar in clipped and nonclipped kidneys and not different from those in sham rats, indicating that the perfusion pressure to the clipped kidneys remained within the autoregulatory range. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited increased urine flow and sodium excretion. The uAGT excretion was significantly greater in nonclipped kidneys compared with clipped and sham kidneys. AGT mRNA was 2.15-fold greater in the nonclipped kidneys compared with sham (1.0 ± 0.1) or clipped (0.98 ± 0.15) kidneys. AGT protein levels were also greater in the nonclipped kidneys. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited greater glomerular expansion and immune cell infiltration, medullary fibrosis, and cellular proliferation than the clipped kidneys. Because both kidneys have elevated ANG II levels, the greater tissue injury in the nonclipped kidneys indicates that an increased arterial pressure synergizes with increased intrarenal ANG II to stimulate AGT production and exert greater renal injury. PMID:27194718

  3. Kinetics of cortisol metabolism and excretion. A hypothetic model based on the cumulative urinary radioactivity in eight multiple pituitary deficient patients.

    PubMed

    Kraan, G P; Drayer, N M; de Bruin, R

    1992-04-01

    A new model is proposed to study the kinetics of [3H]cortisol metabolism by using urinary data only. The model consists of 5 pools, in which changes of the fractions of dose are given by a system of 5 ordinary differential equations. After i.v. administration of [3H]cortisol to 8 multiple pituitary deficient (MPD) patients (group I) the urines from each patient were collected in 9-15 portions during the following 3 days. From the urinary data the rate constants of cortisol metabolism were calculated. A published set of urinary data from patients with a normal cortisol metabolism (group II) was used for comparison. The overall half-life of the label in the circulation was 30 min for both groups; the half-life of the label excretion by both groups was 6 h and the time of maximal activity in the main metabolizing pool was 1.8 h in group I and 1.5 h in group II. The 20% of normal cortisol production rate (CPR) in the 8 MPD patients amounted to 7.2 +/- 1.9 mumol/(m2*d). Therefore, the low CPR but normal rate constants, i.e. a normal metabolic clearance rate of cortisol, in the MPD patients suggest a sensitive adjustment of the cortisol response in the target organs. PMID:1567783

  4. Twenty-four-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion and associated factors in Japanese secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Masayuki; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Shinozaki, Keiko

    2016-07-01

    Data on the sodium and potassium intake using dietary records among schoolchildren are sorely lacking in the Japanese literature. Some evidence indicates that sodium and potassium intake has been correctly measured, but information concerning these associated factors is scarce. The 24-h urine samples and first morning voiding (overnight) samples were collected twice from 68 secondary schoolchildren in Suo-Oshima Town, Japan. Sodium, potassium and creatinine concentrations were analyzed. Body height and weight were measured, and menstruation and physical activity were assessed via questionnaires. We analyzed the 24-h samples with a >20-h collecting period and no missed voiding. The 24-h sodium excretion was 163.2±36.8 and 149.8±45.1 mmol per 24 h for the boys and girls, respectively. Considering daily habits and loss from sweat, intake was assumed to be 10.6±1.2 and 10.0±2.4 g per day for the boys and girls, respectively. The 24-h potassium excretion was 43.4±10.8 and 45.8±14.4 mmol per 24 h for the boys and girls, respectively. Estimated usual potassium intake was 2195±401 and 2330±630 mg per day for the boys and girls, respectively. Sodium excretion was associated with sodium and potassium concentrations in overnight urine samples and physical activity. Potassium excretion was associated with height and physical activity. We described daily sodium and potassium excretion in Japanese secondary schoolchildren. Excretion was associated more with physical activity than with bodyweight. Therefore, the estimation methods used in adults are not applicable for use in adolescents. PMID:26935040

  5. [Circadian variations of urinary excretions of microproteins and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) during the ordinary activity day].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Ikawa, S

    1990-06-01

    The present investigation was performed to confirm the relationship between the circadian variation of microproteinuria and physical activity. Urine samples from 10 normal male volunteers, collected during six consecutive 4-h periods, were examined for albumin, alpha 1-, beta 2-microglobulin, NAG, electrolytes and hormones. The fluctuations in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) over 24-h were measured at 30-min and 1-h intervals, respectively. Energy expenditure (EE) was calculated using the equation of regression between HR and oxygen uptake measured on another day. The variations of HR (delta HR) and EE (delta EE) based on a 24-h average (bpm and kcal/kg/h) were used as indices of change in physical activity during an ordinary day. The correlation coefficients between delta HR and the variations of albumin (delta Alb) and beta 2-microglobulin (delta beta 2M) from the 24-h average (micrograms/h.cr 1 mg) were 0.619 and 0.670 (p less than 0.001), respectively. Increased excretions of both glomerular and tubular proteins were correlated with the increase in HR and/or EE during daytime activity. During rest time at night, the variations in alpha 1M, beta 2M and NAG excretion were different from the variations in albumin. A temporary inhibition of tubular protein excretion was observed only in the early morning (04:00-08:00), although albumin excretion was inhibited throughout the nighttime. These findings suggested that physical activity may influence the diurnal variations in protein excretions, that albuminuria may be more sensitive to daytime activity, and that fluctuation of tubular protein excretion may be preferably controlled by an endogenous mechanism. Timed overnight or first-morning urine may be recommendable as a sample for determination of microalbuminuria for screening of clinical diabetic nephropathy. PMID:1699014

  6. Measurements of daily urinary uranium excretion in German peacekeeping personnel and residents of the Kosovo region to assess potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU).

    PubMed

    Oeh, U; Priest, N D; Roth, P; Ragnarsdottir, K V; Li, W B; Höllriegl, V; Thirlwall, M F; Michalke, B; Giussani, A; Schramel, P; Paretzke, H G

    2007-08-01

    Following the end of the Kosovo conflict, in June 1999, a study was instigated to evaluate whether there was a cause for concern of health risk from depleted uranium (DU) to German peacekeeping personnel serving in the Balkans. In addition, the investigations were extended to residents of Kosovo and southern Serbia, who lived in areas where DU ammunitions were deployed. In order to assess a possible DU intake, both the urinary uranium excretion of volunteer residents and water samples were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). More than 1300 urine samples from peacekeeping personnel and unexposed controls of different genders and age were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. The urine measurements for 113 unexposed subjects revealed a daily uranium excretion rate with a geometric mean of 13.9 ng/d (geometric standard deviation (GSD)=2.17). The analysis of 1228 urine samples from the peacekeeping personnel resulted in a geometric mean of 12.8 ng/d (GSD=2.60). It follows that both unexposed controls and peacekeeping personnel excreted similar amounts of uranium. Inter-subject variation in uranium excretion was high and no significant age-specific differences were found. The second part of the study monitored 24 h urine samples provided by selected residents of Kosovo and adjacent regions of Serbia compared to controls from Munich, Germany. Total uranium and isotope ratios were measured in order to determine DU content. (235)U/(238)U ratios were within +/-0.3% of the natural value, and (236)U/(238)U was less than 2 x 10(-7), indicating no significant DU in any of the urine samples provided, despite total uranium excretion being relatively high in some cases. Measurements of ground and tap water samples from regions where DU munitions were deployed did not show any contamination with DU, except in one sample. It is concluded that both peacekeeping personnel and residents serving or living in the Balkans

  7. Bisphenol A exposure is associated with low-grade urinary albumin excretion in children of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Trasande, Leonardo; Attina, Teresa; Trachtman, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Urinary bisphenol A (BPA), a widely-used biomarker of exposure to BPA, has been associated with cardiometabolic derangements in laboratory studies and with low-grade albuminuria in Chinese adults. Despite the known unique vulnerability of children to environmental chemicals, no studies have examined associations of urinary BPA with albuminuria in children. Since exposure to BPA is widespread in the United States population, we examined data from 710 children in the 2009–10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with urinary BPA measurements and first morning urine samples with creatinine values. Controlled for a broad array of sociodemographic and environmental risk factors as well as insulin resistance and elevated cholesterol, children with the highest compared to the lowest quartile of urinary BPA had a significant 0.91 mg/g higher albumin-to-creatinine ratio, adjusted for the urinary BPA concentration. When the multivariable model was reprised substituting continuous measures of BPA, a significant 0.28 mg/g albumin-to-creatinine ratio increase was identified for each log unit increase in urinary BPA. Thus, an association of BPA exposure with low-grade albuminuria is consistent with previous results found in Chinese adults and documents this in children in the United States. Our findings broaden the array of adverse effects of BPA to include endothelial dysfunction as evidenced by the low-grade albuminuria and support proactive efforts to prevent harmful exposures. PMID:23302717

  8. Bisphenol A exposure is associated with low-grade urinary albumin excretion in children of the United States.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo; Attina, Teresa M; Trachtman, Howard

    2013-04-01

    Urinary bisphenol A (BPA), a widely used biomarker of exposure to BPA, has been associated with cardiometabolic derangements in laboratory studies and with low-grade albuminuria in Chinese adults. Despite the known unique vulnerability of children to environmental chemicals, no studies have examined associations of urinary BPA with albuminuria in children. As exposure to BPA is widespread in the United States population, we examined data from 710 children in the 2009-10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with urinary BPA measurements and first morning urine samples with creatinine values. Controlled for a broad array of sociodemographic and environmental risk factors as well as insulin resistance and elevated cholesterol, children with the highest compared with the lowest quartile of urinary BPA had a significant 0.91 mg/g higher albumin-to-creatinine ratio, adjusted for the urinary BPA concentration. When the multivariable model was reprised substituting continuous measures of BPA, a significant 0.28 mg/g albumin-to-creatinine ratio increase was identified for each log unit increase in urinary BPA. Thus, an association of BPA exposure with low-grade albuminuria is consistent with previous results found in Chinese adults and documents this in children in the United States. Our findings broaden the array of adverse effects of BPA to include endothelial dysfunction as evidenced by the low-grade albuminuria and support proactive efforts to prevent harmful exposures. PMID:23302717

  9. Plasma kinetics and urinary excretion of the flavanones naringenin and hesperetin in humans after ingestion of orange juice and grapefruit juice.

    PubMed

    Erlund, I; Meririnne, E; Alfthan, G; Aro, A

    2001-02-01

    The flavanones naringenin and hesperetin exhibit estrogenic, anticarcinogenic and antioxidative properties. Orange juice and grapefruit juice contain high amounts of these compounds, and therefore their intake from the diet can be relatively high. No data are available regarding plasma concentrations or plasma kinetics of flavanones. The objectives of this study were to develop methods allowing the analysis of naringenin and hesperetin from plasma and urine and to study their plasma kinetics and urinary excretion. We also wanted to assess whether plasma or urine flavanone concentrations can be used as biomarkers of intake. Healthy volunteers ingested orange juice (five women and three men) or grapefruit juice (two women and three men) once (8 mL/kg). Eleven blood samples and urine were collected between 0 and 24 h after juice administration. Flavanones were analyzed by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Naringenin and hesperetin were bioavailable from the studied juices, but interindividual variation in bioavailability was remarkable. The resulting plasma concentrations were comparatively high, and the peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) were 0.6 +/- 0.4 micromol/L (means +/- SD) for naringenin from orange juice and 6.0 +/- 5.4 micromol/L for naringenin from grapefruit juice. The corresponding value for hesperetin from orange juice was 2.2 +/- 1.6 micromol/L. The elimination half-lives were between 1.3 and 2.2 h, and therefore plasma concentrations reflect short-term intake. The relative urinary excretion varied depending on the flavanone source and dose and was 30.2 +/- 25.5% and 1.1 +/- 0.8% for naringenin from grapefruit juice and orange juice, respectively, and 5.3 +/- 3.1% for hesperetin from orange juice. The considerable difference in the relative urinary excretion of naringenin from the two juices was most likely caused by dose-dependent renal clearance rather than differences in bioavailability (as indicated by the similar C(max)-to-dose ratios). The

  10. Gastric cancer in Zambian adults: a prospective case-control study that assessed dietary intake and antioxidant status by using urinary isoprostane excretion123

    PubMed Central

    Asombang, Akwi W; Kayamba, Violet; Mwanza-Lisulo, Mpala; Colditz, Graham; Mudenda, Victor; Yarasheski, Kevin; Chott, Robert; Rubin, Deborah C; Gyawali, C Prakash; Sinkala, Edford; Mwanamakondo, Stayner; Anderson-Spearie, Catherine; Kelly, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is increasingly recognized in Zambia. Although nutritional factors contribute to gastric cancer risk, their effect in Zambia is unknown. Objective: The objective was to investigate the association between intake of dietary antioxidants, urinary 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-iso PGF2α) as a marker of oxidative stress, and gastric cancer. Design: This was a case-control study at the University Teaching Hospital in Zambia. Gastric cancer cases were compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Urine 8-iso PGF2α was measured primarily by ELISA, and by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in a subset, expressed as a ratio to creatinine. Blood was collected for Helicobacter pylori, HIV serology, gastrin-17, and pepsinogen 1 and 2 concentrations. Clinical and dietary data were collected by using questionnaires. Food items were broadly classified into 7 major categories (fruit, vegetables, fish, meat, insects, cereals, and starches). Results: Fifty cases with gastric cancer (mean age: 61 y; n = 31 males) and 90 controls (mean age: 54 y; n = 41 males) were enrolled. Median urinary 8-iso PGF2α excretion was higher in cases (0.014; IQR: 0.008–0.021) than in controls (0.011; IQR: 0.006–0.018; P = 0.039). On univariate analysis, habitual fruit intake was lower in cases than in controls during the dry season (P = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, smoking (OR: 7.22; IQR: 1.38–37.9) and gastric atrophy (OR: 2.43; IQR: 1.12–5.13) were independently associated with cancer, and higher fruit intake was protective (OR: 0.44; IQR: 0.20–0.95). Isoprostane excretion was inversely correlated with total fruit intake (ρ = −0.23; n = 140; P = 0.006). Conclusion: Urinary 8-iso PGF2α excretion was associated with the risk of gastric cancer, as were smoking and gastric atrophy, but increased fruit intake conferred protection. This trial was registered at www.pactr.org as ISRCTN52971746. PMID:23535107

  11. Simultaneous determination of corynoline and acetylcorynoline in human urine by LC-MS/MS and its application to a urinary excretion study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruijuan; Zheng, Lu; Cheng, Minlu; Wu, Yao; Gu, Pan; Liu, Yujie; Ma, Pengcheng; Ding, Li

    2016-03-01

    Corynoline and acetycorynoline, the major active components derived from Corydalis bungeana Herba, showed multiple pharmacological activities. However, quantification of the two compounds in human urine has not been reported. A simple liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of corynoline and acetycorynoline in human urine has been developed and fully validated. The analytes were extracted from urine samples by simple liquid-liquid extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hedera ODS-2C18 column with the mobile phase of water (containing 0.5% formic acid) and acetonitrile (28:72, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. A tandem mass spectrometric detection was conducted using multiple reaction monitoring via an electrospray ionization source in positive mode. The monitored ion transitions were m/z 368.1→289.1 for corynoline, m/z 410.2→289.2 for acetycorynoline and m/z 380.2→243.2 for donepezil (internal standard), respectively. The calibration curves were linear (correlation coefficients>0.9970) over the concentration ranges of 3.0-3000pg/mL for corynoline and 3.0-1000pg/mL for acetycorynoline. The established method was highly sensitive with the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 3.0pg/mL for both analytes. The intra- and inter-day precision was lower than 10% in terms of relative standard deviation for the low, medium, and high quality control samples, and lower than 16% for the LLOQ samples of the analytes. The accuracy was within ±10% in terms of relative error for both analytes. The method was successfully applied to a urinary excretion study after oral administration of the Chinese medicine formula Shuanghua Baihe tablets in healthy volunteers. The urinary excretion profiles of corynoline and acetycorynoline in human were first reported. The results of this study suggest that renal excretion was not the main excretion pathway of corynoline and acetycorynoline in humans. PMID:26882127

  12. Urinary output and fractional excretion of sodium and urea as indicators of transient versus intrinsic acute kidney injury during early sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) in sepsis is ill defined. We investigated parameters associated with low glomerular filtration, and their predictive value to discriminate transient from intrinsic septic AKI. Methods In 107 sepsis patients, AKI was defined by the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of Kidney Function, End-stage renal disease (RIFLE) urinary output or serum creatinine criterion, or both. Transient AKI (TAKI) versus intrinsic AKI was defined as RIFLE R, I, or F on the first day evolving to no AKI or not, respectively, over the following 5 days. Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa), urea (FEUrea), and NGAL (FENGAL) at admission (d0t0), 4 (d0t4), and 24 hours (d1) was determined. Results Including versus not including the urinary-output criterion of RIFLE increased AKI from 43% to 64.5%. Median uNGAL levels and FENGAL were lower in no AKI versus transient AKI when AKI was defined based on creatinine (P = 0.002 and P = 0.04, respectively), but not when based on urinary output (P = 0.9 and P = 0.49, respectively). FENa < 1% and FEUrea <35% was present in 77.3% and 63.2% of patients. Urinary NGAL was higher (P < 0.001) in those with high versus low fractional sodium excretion, but this was only in patients with transient or intrinsic AKI (P < 0.001 in subgroups), and not in patients without AKI. The negative predictive value for either intrinsic AKI or not restoring diuresis in patients with FENa > 0.36% and FEUrea > 31.5% was 92% and 94.5% respectively. Conclusions A low FENa and FEUrea is highly prevalent in the first hours of sepsis. In sepsis, oliguria is an earlier sign of impending AKI than increase in serum creatinine. A combination of a high FENa and a low FEUrea is associated with intrinsic AKI, whereas a combined high FENa and FEUrea is strongly predictive of transient AKI. PMID:24119730

  13. Enterohepatic circulation, urinary excretion and laxative action of some bisacodyl derivatives after intragastric administration in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sund, R B; Songedal, K; Harestad, T; Salvesen, B; Kristiansen, S

    1981-01-01

    Bisacodyl (BIS), the parent diphenol (DES) and its sulphuric acid di-ester (picosulphate = PICO) were given by stomach tube to fasted rats at a dose of 3.1 mumol/100 g rat. Bile was sampled in the periods 0-6, 6-12 and 12-18 hrs after drug administration, and assayed for total diphenol (= free + conjugated) by HPLC. Mean fractions (% of dose +/- S.E.M.) excreted in 5 rats per compound and period were: BIS 74.0 +/- 4.7, 51.9 +/- 7.9 and 30.8 +/- 2.5; DES 41.2 +/-4.3, 46.8 +/- 4.7 and 25.1 +/- 2.5; PICO 9.0 +/- 0.9, 26.0 +/- 5.4 and 19.6 +/- 3.1. Only minor amounts were excreted as free diphenol. Urine samples taken by bladder puncture and assayed as above furthermore showed that the renal excretion of total diphenol was insignificant compared to the amounts excreted in bile. Practically no diphenol was present in urine 0-6 hrs after the administration of PICO. In experiments with BIS and DES at 0.85 mumol/100 g, total diphenol excreted in bile during 0-6 hrs was: BIS 67.1 +/- 2.6 (n = 5); DES: 55.4 +/- 3.0 (5). - The latency time for laxative effect was studied in groups of 10 unfasted rats per compound. cumulative time response curves showed that PICO caused diarrhoea more promptly at 0.85 mumol/100 g than either BIS or DES. In most rats, this delayed action of BIS and DES persisted also at 1.7 mumol/100 g. At 3.1 mumol/100 g, however, the majority of the rats reacted as promptly to these two compounds as to PICO. These results are discussed in relation to the biliary excretion experiments, and interpreted in terms of the relative importance at the different dose levels of: 1. The enterohepatic recirculated fraction, and 2. The non-absorbed fraction, which passes directly to the large intestine. For PICO, the latter fraction is the single determinant of the effect, which is triggered when the di-ester is being hydrolyzed to active diphenol in this part of the GI-tract. PMID:7223440

  14. Intraarterial irradiation with rhenium-188 for inhibition of restenosis after PTCA - strategy and evaluation of Re-188-species for rapid urinary excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Guhlke, S.; Beets, A.L.

    1997-05-01

    Estimated costs for coronary restenosis therapy after PTCA are > $ 1 billion (U.S.). Radiation is a simple and effective tool for inhibition of neointimal proliferation an important component of restenosis. We propose use of Re-188 (t{sub {1/2}} 16.9 h, 2.1 MeV {beta}), obtained from decay of W-188 (T{sub {1/2}} 69 d). Our alumina-based W-188/Re-188 generator has a shelf-life of several months and we have developed an on-line tandem cation/anion exchange column system to concentrate to > 18.5 BGq/mL. Estimates for targeted regional dose of 8.4 rad/37 MBq/min/mL, which is > 1,400 cGy for about 370 MBq Re-188 for 5 min. Balloon inflation with Re-188 solutions is a new approach for more uniform vascular dose distribution as an alternative to use of radioactive wires or other linear sources. Rapid urinary excretion kinetics are important in the unlikely event of balloon rupture (<0.1%). We have therefore evaluated relative excretion kinetics of Re-188-perrhenate and -MAG3 in rats; Re-188-perrhenate was obtained from generator elution with 0.9% NaCl and re-188-MAG3 was prepared be reaction of the ligand with Sn(II)-reduced perrhenate. Fischer rats (n=4-5/group) were injected i.v. and urine and feces collected every 2 h for 12 h and then daily for 5 d. Both agents excreted > 90% in urine; biodistribution studies showed low organ uptake with intestines as the major site. Rhenium-188-MAG3 excreted more rapidly (2 h = 59.6{+-}18.5%) then Re-188-MAG3 excreted more rapidly (2 h = 68.3{+-}13.5%) in same model. Both Re-188 species are thus good candidates for balloon inflation. Studies are in progress in a swine model to evaluate the effectiveness of Re-188 for inhibition of restenosis.

  15. Evaluation of biochemical and clinical markers of endothelial dysfunction and their correlation with urinary albumin excretion in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Polat, Sefika Burcak; Ugurlu, Nagihan; Aslan, Nabi; Cuhaci, Neslihan; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2016-04-01

    Objective Endothelial dysfunction (ED) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. The purpose of the study was to determine flow mediated endothelial dependent vasodilatation (FMD) measurements and serum soluble (s) endothelin-1 (ET-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) levels in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) with or without increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and compare them with the healthy controls. Subjects and methods Seventy three patients with T1DM were enrolled. Patients were divided into two subgroups according to microalbumin measurements in 24-hr urine collections. The diabetic patients without microalbuminuria (41 patients) were defined as Group I and those with microalbuminuria (32 patients) were defined as group II. A hundred age and sex matched healthy subjects participated as the control group (Group III). Serum sET-1, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 levels and FMD measurements were determined in all participants. Results Median FMD measurement was significantly lower in the diabetic groups compared with the control group (6.6, 6.4 and 7.8% in Group I, II and III, respectively) (p < 0.05). FMD was negatively correlated with age (p = 0.042). Median serum sICAM-1 level was higher in the patient groups compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Median serum sVCAM-1 level was higher in the group of patients with increased albuminuria compared to the normoalbuinuric and the control group (p < 0.05). Serum sVCAM-1 level was found to be positively correlated with degree of urinary albumin excretion (p < 0.001). Conclusion We assume that sVCAM-1 may be used as a predictive marker for risk stratification for nephropathy development and progression. PMID:26886090

  16. Muscle protein turnover in cattle of differing genetic backgrounds as measured by urinary N tau-methylhistidine excretion

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, F.D.; Bergen, W.G.; Hawkins, D.R.

    1983-12-01

    N tau-methylhistidine (N tau MH) was used as an index for muscle protein degradation and this index was utilized to evaluate degradation rates in young growing cattle. Initially, two Charolais crossbred heifers, 12 months of age, were used to measure the recovery of radioactivity in the urine for a 120-hour period after intravenous injection of (/sup 14/C)N tau MH. Of the radioactivity injected into the animals, 89.7% was recovered after 120 hours. With rate and amount of clearance as the criteria, the excretion of N tau MH in urine appears to be a valid index of muscle protein degradation in cattle. Eight steers of two genetic types were used to evaluate the effect of frame size on turnover rates of muscle proteins with N tau MH as an index. Large frame cattle (LG) excreted more N tau MH per day throughout the trial. Total daily creatinine excretion was less for small frame (SM) cattle showing an increase with time in LG and SM cattle. N tau MH-to-creatinine ratios showed a decline with time. Fractional breakdown rates (FBR) and fractional synthesis rates (FSR) appeared to parallel each other with rates tending to decrease with age. No differences were observed between LG and SM cattle for FBR, FSR or fractional growth rate (FGR).

  17. Pentahaloethane-based chlorofluorocarbon substitutes and halothane: Correlation of in vivo hepatic protein trifluoroacetylation and urinary trifluoroacetic acid excretion with calculated enthalpies of activation

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.W.; Jones, J.P.; Martin, J.L.; LaRosa, A.C.; Olson, M.J.; Pohl, L.R.; Anders, M.W. )

    1992-09-01

    The hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123) and 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124) and the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) pentafluoroethane (HFC-125) are being developed as substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons that deplete stratospheric ozone. The structural similarity of these HCFCs and HFCs to halothane, which is hepatotoxic under certain circumstances, indicates that the metabolism and cellular interactions of HCFCs and HFCs must be explored. In a previous study [Harris et al. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 1407], similar patterns of trifluoroacetylated proteins (TFA-proteins) were detected by immunoblotting with anti-TFA-protein antibodies in livers of rats exposed to halothane or HCFC-123. The present study extends these results and demonstrates that in vivo TFA-protein formation resulting from a 6-h exposure to a 1% atmosphere of these compounds follows the trend: halothane approximately HCFC-123 much greater than HFC-124, greater than HFC-125. The calculated enthalpies of activation of halothane, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, and HFC-125 paralleled the observed rate of trifluoroacetic acid excretion in HCFC- or HFC-exposed rats. Exposure of rats to a range of HCFC-123 concentrations indicated that TFA-protein formation was saturated at an exposure concentration between 0.01% and 0.1% HCFC-123. Deuteration of HCFC-123 decreased TFA-protein formation in vivo. Urinary trifluoroacetic acid excretion by treated rats correlated with the levels of TFA-proteins found after each of these treatments.

  18. Biokinetics of ultrafine gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) relating to redistribution and urinary excretion: a long-term in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Naz, Farhat; Koul, Veena; Srivastava, Amita; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar; Dinda, Amit Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of ultrafine size have drawn attention for their use in drug delivery systems. Tissue toxicity may be an issue when AuNPs are used for such applications. We investigated the long-term biokinetics (90 d), redistribution, and urinary excretion of three different-sized (2 ± 0.5 nm, 5 ± 1 nm, and 10 ± 2 nm) AuNPs after a single intravenous (i.v.) administration of 1250 µg/kg dose in mice. ICP-AES analysis of lungs, liver, spleen, heart, kidney, brain, blood, and urine revealed highest accumulation of gold in spleen around 15 d after injection. A low concentration was detected in brain after 1 d without any residual AuNPs after 30 d. Ultrastructural study of brain tissue also showed few AuNPs in lysosome with no changes in cellular architecture. Renal retention of AuNPs was limited indicating low nephrotoxic potential. AuNPs were detectable in urine till 30 d after single injection indicating slow excretion from the body. No evidence of significant toxicity was observed in hemogram, serum biochemistry, and tissue histology. No mortality, changes in behavior, hair color, weight, and food intake was observed as compared to control mice. Therefore, we conclude that the ultrafine AuNPs are predominantly excreted in urine without any systemic toxicity following i.v. administration and are hence safe for use in drug delivery systems. PMID:26837799

  19. Tissue distribution and urinary excretion of dimethylated arsenic and its metabolites in dimethylarsinic acid- or arsenate-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, Blakely M.; Moore, Tanya; Conklin, Sean D.; Creed, John T.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Thomas, David J. . E-mail: thomas.david@epa.gov

    2007-07-15

    Adult female Fisher 344 rats received drinking water containing 0, 4, 40, 100, or 200 parts per million of dimethylarsinic acid or 100 parts per million of arsenate for 14 days. Urine was collected during the last 24 h of exposure. Tissues were then taken for analysis of dimethylated and trimethylated arsenicals; urines were analyzed for these arsenicals and their thiolated derivatives. In dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats, highest concentrations of dimethylated arsenic were found in blood. In lung, liver, and kidney, concentrations of dimethylated arsenic exceeded those of trimethylated species; in urinary bladder and urine, trimethylated arsenic predominated. Dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide were present in urine of dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats. Concentrations of dimethylated arsenicals were similar in most tissues of dimethylarsinic acid- and arsenate-treated rats, including urinary bladder which is the target for dimethylarsinic acid-induced carcinogenesis in the rat. Mean concentration of dimethylated arsenic was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in urine of dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than in arsenate-treated rats, suggesting a difference between treatment groups in the flux of dimethylated arsenic through urinary bladder. Concentrations of trimethylated arsenic concentrations were consistently higher in dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than in arsenate-treated rats; these differences were significant (P < 0.05) in liver, urinary bladder, and urine. Concentrations of dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide were higher in urine from dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than from arsenate-treated rats. Dimethylarsinic acid is extensively metabolized in the rat, yielding significant concentrations of trimethylated species and of thiolated derivatives. One or more of these metabolites could be the species causing alterations of cellular function that lead to tumors in the urinary bladder.

  20. Investigation of the quantitative metabolic fate and urinary excretion of 3-methyl-4-trifluoromethylaniline and 3-methyl-4-trifluoromethylacetanilide in the rat.

    PubMed

    Scarfe, G B; Lindon, J C; Nicholson, J K; Wright, B; Clayton, E; Wilson, I D

    1999-10-01

    The urinary metabolites of 3-methyl-4-trifluoromethylaniline in the rat were characterized and quantified using a combination of (19)F NMR, HPLC-NMR ((1)H and (19)F), and HPLC-mass spectrometry techniques. The major routes of metabolism were amine N-acetylation and methyl group C-oxidation to the benzyl alcohol (with subsequent glucuronide conjugation) and further to the corresponding benzoic acid derivative. Quantitatively only a small proportion of the urinary metabolites contained the free amino group, and these were products of ortho-hydroxylation (2 and 6 position) with additional conjugation to form the ether sulfates and glucuronides. An N-glucuronide of the parent compound was also identified. 3-Methyl-4-trifluoromethylacetanilide ((13)C-labeled in the acetyl group) gave virtually the same overall metabolite profile as 3-methyl-4-trifluoromethylaniline; however, a significant level of futile N-deacetylation and reacetylation occurred as ca. 50% of the excreted N-acetylated major metabolites contained no (13)C-label at the acetyl, having been replaced by an endogenous (12)C-acetyl source. This level of futile deacetylation is the highest yet reported for a substituted aniline/acetanilide and indicates a high degree of electronic activation of the amino group toward the acetyltransferase enzymes in vivo. PMID:10497144

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Urinary Phthalate Excretion in 58 Full-Term and 67 Preterm Infants from Birth through 14 Months

    PubMed Central

    Kuiri-Hänninen, Tanja; Main, Katharina M.; Dunkel, Leo; Sankilampi, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some phthalates have shown antiandrogenic effects in rat offspring. Premature infants may be exposed to high amounts of specific phthalates during hospitalization, and thus are potentially at risk. Objective: We evaluated longitudinal phthalate exposure and metabolism in full-term (FT) and preterm (PT) infants. Methods: Fifty-eight FT and 67 PT (gestational age, 24.7–36.6 weeks) infants were recruited at birth and followed until 14 months (nine times). Urinary concentrations of metabolites of diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate isomers (DiBP and DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) were measured in 894 samples. Daily intake and a hazard index for antiandrogenic effects were estimated, and excretion patterns of DEHP and DiNP metabolites were analyzed. Results: Metabolites of BBzP, DiNP, and DEHP were 5–50 times higher at day 7 (D7) and month 1 (M1) in PT than in FT infants. Thereafter, metabolite concentrations were similar between the two groups. The estimated hazard index for combined DiBP, DnBP, BBzP, and DEHP exposures 7 days after birth exceeded the antiandrogenic threshold in > 80% of PT and > 30% of FT infants, and after M2, in 30% of all infants. The excretion pattern of DEHP and DiNP metabolites changed with age. Conclusion: Most PT infants and approximately one-third of healthy FT newborns were exposed to phthalates during early life at a potentially harmful level according to the European Food Safety Authority’s recommended limits of daily exposure. Changes in the relative proportions of secondary phthalate metabolites over time were consistent with maturation of infant metabolic pathways during the first year of life. Further research is needed on the health effects of phthalate exposures and the influence of changes in metabolic capacity in neonates and infants. Citation: Frederiksen H, Kuiri-Hänninen T, Main KM, Dunkel L, Sankilampi U. 2014. A longitudinal

  2. Tamm-Horsfall protein in recurrent calcium kidney stone formers with positive family history: abnormalities in urinary excretion, molecular structure and function.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Markus; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Zipperle, Ljerka; Hess, Bernhard

    2007-04-01

    Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) powerfully inhibits calcium oxalate crystal aggregation, but structurally abnormal THPs from recurrent calcium stone formers may promote crystal aggregation. Therefore, increased urinary excretion of abnormal THP might be of relevance in nephrolithiasis. We studied 44 recurrent idiopathic calcium stone formers with a positive family history of stone disease (RCSF(fam)) and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (C). Twenty-four-hour urinary THP excretion was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Structural properties of individually purified THPs were obtained from analysis of elution patterns from a Sepharose 4B column. Sialic acid (SA) contents of native whole 24-h urines, crude salt precipitates of native urines and individually purified THPs were measured. THP function was studied by measuring inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation in vitro (pH 5.7, 200 mM sodium chloride). Twenty-four-hour urine excretion of THP was higher in RCSF(fam) (44.0 +/- 4.0 mg/day) than in C (30.9 +/- 2.2 mg/day, P = 0.015). Upon salt precipitation and lyophilization, elution from a Sepharose 4B column revealed one major peak (peak A, cross-reacting with polyclonal anti-THP antibody) and a second minor peak (peak B, not cross-reacting). THPs from RCSF(fam) eluted later than those from C (P = 0.021), and maximum width of THP peaks was higher in RCSF(fam )than in C (P = 0.024). SA content was higher in specimens from RCSF(fam) than from C, in native 24-h urines (207.5 +/- 20.4 mg vs. 135.2 +/- 16.1 mg, P = 0.013) as well as in crude salt precipitates of 24-h urines (10.4 +/- 0.5 mg vs. 7.4 +/- 0.9 mg, P = 0.002) and in purified THPs (75.3 +/- 9.3 microg/mg vs. 48.8 +/- 9.8 microg/mg THP, P = 0.043). Finally, inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal aggregation by 40 mg/L of THP was lower in RCSF(fam) (6.1 +/- 5.5%, range -62.0 to +84.2%) than in C (24.9 +/- 6.0%, range -39.8 to +82.7%), P = 0.022, and only 25 out of 44 (57%) THPs from RCSF

  3. Fluid reabsorption in Henle's loop and urinary excretion of sodium and water in normal rats and rats with chronic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Stumpe, Klaus O.; Lowitz, Hans D.; Ochwadt, Bruno

    1970-01-01

    The function of the short loops of Henle was investigated by micropuncture technique in normal rats, in rats with spontaneous hypertension, and in the untouched kidney of rats with experimental renal hypertension. All animals received a standard infusion of 1.2 ml of isotonic saline per hr. With increasing arterial blood pressure (range from 90 to 220 mm Hg), a continuous decrease in transit time of Lissamine green through Henle's loop from 32 to 10 sec was observed. Fractional water reabsorption along the loop declined progressively from 26 to 10%, and fractional sodium reabsorption decreased from 40 to 36% of the filtered load. The fluid volume in Henle's loop calculated from transit time and mean flow rate also decreased with increasing blood pressure. There was no change in superficial single nephron filtration rate but there was a slight increase in total glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Sodium and water reabsorption in the proximal tubule remained unchanged. Urine flow rate, sodium excretion, osmolar clearance, and negative free water clearance increased with increasing blood pressure. The osmolal urine to plasma (U/P) ratio declined but did not fall below a value of 1.5. It is concluded that the increase in sodium and water excretion with chronic elevation of arterial blood pressure is caused by a decrease of sodium and water reabsorption along the loop of Henle, presumably as a consequence of increased medullary blood pressure. PMID:5422022

  4. Increased urinary excretion of analogs of Krebs cycle metabolites and arabinose in two brothers with autistic features.

    PubMed

    Shaw, W; Kassen, E; Chaves, E

    1995-08-01

    A marked increase in analogs of Krebs cycle metabolites was found in the urine of two brothers with autistic features. These metabolites included citramalic, tartaric (3-OH-malic), and 3-oxoglutaric acids and compounds tentatively identified as a citric acid analog and partially identified as a phenylcarboxylic acid by the fragmentation pattern of the trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of the compounds and mass shifts of the same compounds derivatized with perdeuterated N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. The molecular mass of the TMS derivative of the tentatively identified citric acid analog was 596 Da, based on a finding of a significant M - 15 ion at m/z 581. The citric acid analog was excreted in quantities as high as 137 mmol/mol creatinine, based on the response factor of citric acid as a surrogate calibrator. A carbohydrate with a retention time and mass spectrum identical to arabinose was also found in high concentrations in the urine of these brothers. PMID:7628083

  5. Urinary excretion of methanol and 5-hydroxytryptophol as biochemical markers of recent drinking in the hangover state.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, P; Jones, A W; Helander, A

    1998-01-01

    Twenty healthy social drinkers (9 women and 11 men) drank either 50 g of ethanol (mean intake 0.75 g/kg) or 80 g (mean 1.07 g/kg) according to choice as white wine or export beer in the evening over 2 h with a meal. After the end of drinking, at bedtime, in the following morning after waking-up, and on two further occasions during the morning and early afternoon, breath-alcohol tests were performed and samples of urine were collected for analysis of ethanol and methanol and the 5-hydroxytryptophol (5-HTOL) to 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid (5-HIAA) ratio. The participants were also asked to quantify the intensity of hangover symptoms (headache, nausea, anxiety, drowsiness, fatigue, muscle aches, vertigo) on a scale from 0 (no symptoms) to 5 (severe symptoms). The first morning urine void collected 6-11 h after bedtime as a rule contained measurable amounts of ethanol, being 0.09 +/- 0.03 g/l (mean +/- SD) after 50 g and 0.38 +/- 0.1 g/l after 80 g ethanol. The corresponding breath-alcohol concentrations were zero, except for three individuals who registered 0.01-0.09g/l. Ethanol was not measurable in urine samples collected later in the morning and early afternoon. The peak urinary methanol occurred in the first morning void, when the mean concentration after 80 g ethanol was approximately 6-fold higher than pre-drinking values. This compares with a approximately 50-fold increase for the 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratio in the first morning void. Both methanol and the 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratio remained elevated above pre-drinking baseline values in the second and sometimes even the third morning voids. Most subjects experienced only mild hangover symptoms after drinking 50 g ethanol (mean score 2.4 +/- 2.6), but the scores were significantly higher after drinking 80 g (7.8 +/- 7.1). The most common symptoms were headache, drowsiness, and fatigue. A highly significant correlation (r = 0.62-0.75, P <0.01) was found between the presence of headache, nausea, and vertigo and the urinary

  6. Significance of dermal and respiratory uptake in creosote workers: exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene.

    PubMed Central

    Elovaara, E; Heikkilä, P; Pyy, L; Mutanen, P; Riihimäki, V

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate workers' exposure in a creosote impregnation plant by means of ambient and biological monitoring. METHODS--Naphthalene (vapour phase) and 10 large molecular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (particulate phase) were measured in the breathing zone air during an entire working week. 1-Hydroxypyrene (1-HP) was measured in 24 hour urine as a metabolite of the pyrene found in neat (dermal exposure) and airborne creosote. RESULTS--Naphthalene (0.4-4.2 mg/m3) showed 1000 times higher concentrations in air than did the particulate PAHs. In total, the geometric mean (range) of three to six ring PAHs was 4.8 (1.2-13.7) micrograms/m3; pyrene 0.86 (0.23-2.1) micrograms/m3, and benzo(a)pyrene 0.012 (0.01-0.05) micrograms/m3. There was no correlation between pyrene and gaseous naphthalene. The correlations between pyrene and the other nine particulate PAHs were strong, and gave a PAH profile that was similar in all air samples: r = 0.83 (three to six ring PAHs); r = 0.81 (three ring PAHs); r = 0.78 (four to six ring PAHs). Dermal exposure was probably very high in all workers, because the daily output of urinary 1-HP exceeded the daily uptake of inhaled pyrene by < or = 50-fold. Urinary 1-HP concentrations were very high, even on Monday mornings, when they were at their lowest (4-22 mumol/mol creatinine). 1-HP seldom showed any net increase over a workshift (except on Monday) due to its high concentrations (16 to 120 mumol/mol creatinine) in the morning samples. 1-HP was always lower at the end of the shift (19 to 85 mumol/mol creatinine) than in the evening (27 to 122), and the mean (SD) change over the working week (47 (18)) was greater than the change over Monday (35 (32)). The timing of 1-HP sampling is therefore very important. CONCLUSIONS--Urinary 1-HP proved to be a good biomarker of exposure to three to six ring PAHs but not to airborne naphthalene. Hence, biomonitoring based on 1-HP has to be completed with exposure assessment for

  7. The effects of a two-year randomized, controlled trial of whey protein supplementation on bone structure, IGF-1, and urinary calcium excretion in older postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kun; Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A; Devine, Amanda; Solah, Vicky; Binns, Colin W; Prince, Richard L

    2011-09-01

    The effects of dietary protein on bone structure and metabolism have been controversial, with evidence for and against beneficial effects. Because no long-term randomized, controlled studies have been performed, a two-year study of protein supplementation in 219 healthy ambulant women aged 70 to 80 years was undertaken. Participants were randomized to either a high-protein drink containing 30 g of whey protein (n = 109) or a placebo drink identical in energy content, appearance, and taste containing 2.1 g of protein (n = 110). Both drinks provided 600 mg of calcium. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric (DXA) hip areal bone mineral density (aBMD), 24-hour urinary calcium excretion, and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured at baseline and at 1 and 2 years. Quantitative computed tomographic (QCT) hip volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and a femoral neck engineering strength analysis were undertaken at baseline and at 2 years. Baseline average protein intake was 1.1 g/kg of body weight per day. There was a significant decrease in hip DXA aBMD and QCT vBMD over 2 years with no between-group differences. Femoral neck strength was unchanged in either group over time. The 24-hour urinary calcium excretion increased significantly from baseline in both groups at 1 year but returned to baseline in the placebo group at 2 years, at which time the protein group had a marginally higher value. Compared with the placebo group, the protein group had significantly higher serum IGF-1 level at 1 and 2 years (7.3% to 8.0%, p < .05). Our study showed that in protein-replete healthy ambulant women, 30 g of extra protein increased IGF-1 but did not have beneficial or deleterious effects on bone mass or strength. The effect of protein supplementation in populations with low dietary protein intake requires urgent attention. PMID:21590739

  8. Associations between Urinary Excretion of Cadmium and Renal Biomarkers in Nonsmoking Females: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Areas of South China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun-rui; Wang, Ping; Liang, Xu-xia; Tan, Chuen Seng; Tan, Jian-bin; Wang, Jing; Huang, Qiong; Huang, Rui; Li, Zhi-xue; Chen, Wen-cai; Wu, Shi-xuan; Ong, Choon Nam; Yang, Xing-fen; Wu, Yong-ning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the relationship between urinary excretion of cadmium (U-Cd) and biomarkers of renal dysfunction. Methods: One hundred eighty five non-smoking female farmers (aged from 44 to 71 years) were recruited from two rural areas with different cadmium levels of exposure in southern China. Morning spot urine samples were collected for detecting U-Cd, urinary creatinine (U-cre), β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), α1-microglobulin (α1-MG), metallothionein (MT), retinol binding protein (RBP), albumin (AB), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1). Spearman’s rank correlation was carried out to assess pairwise bivariate associations between continuous variables. Three different models of multiple linear regression (the cre-corrected, un-corrected and cre-adjusted model) were used to model the dose-response relationships between U-Cd and nine urine markers. Results: Spearman’s rank correlation showed that NAG, ALP, RBP, β2-MG and MT were significantly associated with U-Cd for both cre-corrected and observed data. Generally, NAG correlated best with U-Cd among the nine biomarkers studied, followed by ALP and MT. In the un-corrected model and cre-adjusted model, the regression coefficients and R2 of nine biomarkers were larger than the corresponding values in the cre-corrected model, indicating that the use of observed data was better for investigating the relationship between biomarkers and U-Cd than cre-corrected data. Conclusions: Our results suggest that NAG, MT and ALP in urine were better biomarkers for long-term environmental cadmium exposure assessment among the nine biomarkers studied. Further, data without normalization with creatinine show better relationships between cadmium exposure and renal dysfunction. PMID:26404328

  9. Changes in urinary amino acids excretion in relationship with muscle activity markers over a professional cycling stage race: in search of fatigue markers.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, Roberto; Barassi, Alessandra; Perego, Silvia; Sansoni, Veronica; Rossi, Alessandra; Damele, Clara Anna Linda; Melzi D'Eril, Gianlodovico; Banfi, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between metabolic effort, muscular damage/activity indices, and urinary amino acids profile over the course of a strenuous prolonged endurance activity, as a cycling stage race is, in order to identify possible fatigue markers. Nine professional cyclists belonging to a single team, competing in the Giro d'Italia cycling stage race, were anthropometrically characterized and sampled for blood and urine the day before the race started, and on days 12 and 23 of the race. Diet was kept the same over the race, and power output and energy expenditure were recorded. Sera were assayed for muscle markers (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities, and blood urea nitrogen), and creatinine, all corrected for plasma volume changes. Urines were profiled for amino acid concentrations, normalized on creatinine excretion. Renal function, in terms of glomerular filtration rate, was monitored by MDRD equation corrected on body surface area. Creatine kinase activity and blood urea were increased during the race as did serum creatinine while kidney function remained stable. Among the amino acids, taurine, glycine, cysteine, leucine, carnosine, 1-methyl histidine, and 3-methyl histidine showed a net decreased, while homocysteine was increased. Taurine and the dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) were significantly correlated with the muscle activity markers and the indices of effort. In conclusion, the metabolic profile is modified strikingly due to the effort. Urinary taurine and carnosine seem useful tools to evaluate the muscle damage and possibly the fatigue status on a long-term basis. PMID:26306846

  10. Activation of the Ca2+-sensing receptor increases renal claudin-14 expression and urinary Ca2+ excretion

    PubMed Central

    Dimke, Henrik; Desai, Prajakta; Borovac, Jelena; Lau, Alyssa; Pan, Wanling; Alexander, R. Todd

    2016-01-01

    Kidney stones are a prevalent clinical condition imposing a large economic burden on the health-care system. Hypercalciuria remains the major risk factor for development of a Ca2+-containing stone. The kidney’s ability to alter Ca2+ excretion in response to changes in serum Ca2+ is in part mediated by the Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR). Recent studies revealed renal claudin-14 (Cldn14) expression localized to the thick ascending limb (TAL) and its expression to be regulated via the CaSR. We find that Cldn14 expression is increased by high dietary Ca2+ intake and by elevated serum Ca2+ levels induced by prolonged 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 administration. Consistent with this, activation of the CaSR in vivo via administration of the calcimimetic cinacalcet hydrochloride led to a 40-fold increase in Cldn14 mRNA. Moreover, overexpression of Cldn14 in two separate cell culture models decreased paracellular Ca2+ flux by preferentially decreasing cation permeability, thereby increasing transepithelial resistance. These data support the existence of a mechanism whereby activation of the CaSR in the TAL increases Cldn14 expression, which in turn blocks the paracellular reabsorption of Ca2+. This molecular mechanism likely facilitates renal Ca2+ losses in response to elevated serum Ca2+. Moreover, dys-regulation of the newly described CaSR-Cldn14 axis likely contributes to the development of hypercalciuria and kidney stones. PMID:23283989

  11. Estimating daily salt intake based on 24 h urinary sodium excretion in adults aged 18–69 years in Shandong, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji-yu; Yan, Liu-xia; Tang, Jun-li; Ma, Ji-xiang; Guo, Xiao-lei; Zhao, Wen-hua; Zhang, Xiao-fei; Li, Jian-hong; Chu, Jie; Bi, Zhen-qiang

    2014-01-01

    Objective 24 h urinary sodium extretion was used to estimate the daily salt intake of shandong residents aged from 18 to 69 years in China. Setting 20 selected counties/districts in Shandong stratified by geographic region (Eastern, Central Southern and North Western) and residence type (urban vs rural). Participants Among 2184 randomly selected adults, 2061 provided usable 24 h urine samples. Urine volume <500 mL or male creatinine <3.81 (female creatinine <4.57) are not included in the analysis. Results The mean sodium level excreted over 24 h was 237.61 mmol (95% CI 224.77 to 250.44) mmol. Overall, the estimated mean salt intake was 13.90 g/day (95% CI 13.15 to 14.65). The mean salt intake among rural residents was higher than that among urban residents (14.00 vs 13.68 g; p<0.01). Salt intake in men was higher than that in women (14.40 vs 13.37 g; p<0.01). Approximately 96% of the survey participants had a dietary salt intake of ≥6 g/day. Conclusions The salt intake in Shandong is alarmingly higher than the current recommended amount (6 g/day). Thus, effective interventions to reduce salt intake levels to combat the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases need to be developed and implemented. PMID:25037642

  12. Simultaneous determination of rabeprazole and its two active metabolites in human urine by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and its application in a urinary excretion study.

    PubMed

    Simpemba, Ernest; Liu, Ruijuan; Sun, Chenglong; Agbokponto, Janvier Engelbert; Ding, Li

    2014-08-01

    A simple and rapid liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the determination of rabeprazole and its two active metabolites, rabeprazole thioether and desmethyl rabeprazole thioether, in human urine using donepezil as the internal standard. The sample preparation procedure involved a simple dilution of urine sample with methanol (1:3, v/v). The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hedera ODS-2 C18 column using a mixture of methanol/10 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution (containing 0.05% formic acid; 55:45, v/v) as the mobile phase. The method was validated over the concentration ranges of 0.15-100 ng/mL for rabeprazole, 0.30-400 ng/mL for rabeprazole thioether, and 0.05-100 ng/mL for desmethyl rabeprazole thioether. The established method was highly sensitive with a lower limit of quantification of 0.15 ng/mL for rabeprazole, 0.30 ng/mL for rabeprazole thioether, and 0.05 ng/mL for desmethyl rabeprazole thioether. The intra- and interbatch precision was <4.5% for the low, medium, and high quality control samples of all the analytes. The recovery of the analytes was in the range 95.4-99.0%. The method was successfully applied to a urinary excretion profiles after intravenous infusion administration of 20 mg rabeprazole sodium in healthy volunteers. PMID:24798930

  13. Loss of Renal Tubular PGC-1α Exacerbates Diet-Induced Renal Steatosis and Age-Related Urinary Sodium Excretion in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Kristoffer; Schnyder, Svenia; Cardel, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    The kidney has a high energy demand and is dependent on oxidative metabolism for ATP production. Accordingly, the kidney is rich in mitochondria, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a common denominator for several renal diseases. While the mitochondrial master regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is highly expressed in kidney, its role in renal physiology is so far unclear. Here we show that PGC-1α is a transcriptional regulator of mitochondrial metabolic pathways in the kidney. Moreover, we demonstrate that mice with an inducible nephron-specific inactivation of PGC-1α in the kidney display elevated urinary sodium excretion, exacerbated renal steatosis during metabolic stress but normal blood pressure regulation. Overall, PGC-1α seems largely dispensable for basal renal physiology. However, the role of PGC-1α in renal mitochondrial biogenesis indicates that activation of PGC-1α in the context of renal disorders could be a valid therapeutic strategy to ameliorate renal mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27463191

  14. Loss of Renal Tubular PGC-1α Exacerbates Diet-Induced Renal Steatosis and Age-Related Urinary Sodium Excretion in Mice.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Kristoffer; Schnyder, Svenia; Cardel, Bettina; Handschin, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The kidney has a high energy demand and is dependent on oxidative metabolism for ATP production. Accordingly, the kidney is rich in mitochondria, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a common denominator for several renal diseases. While the mitochondrial master regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is highly expressed in kidney, its role in renal physiology is so far unclear. Here we show that PGC-1α is a transcriptional regulator of mitochondrial metabolic pathways in the kidney. Moreover, we demonstrate that mice with an inducible nephron-specific inactivation of PGC-1α in the kidney display elevated urinary sodium excretion, exacerbated renal steatosis during metabolic stress but normal blood pressure regulation. Overall, PGC-1α seems largely dispensable for basal renal physiology. However, the role of PGC-1α in renal mitochondrial biogenesis indicates that activation of PGC-1α in the context of renal disorders could be a valid therapeutic strategy to ameliorate renal mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27463191

  15. Estimate of the time zero lung burden of depleted uranium in Persian Gulf War veterans by the 24-hour urinary excretion and exponential decay analysis.

    PubMed

    Durakovic, Asaf; Horan, Patricia; Dietz, Leonard A; Zimmerman, Isaac

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of depleted uranium (DU) in the respiratory system of Allied Forces Gulf War Veterans. Mass spectrometry (thermal ionization mass spectrometry) analysis of 24-hour urinary excretion of DU isotopes in five positive (238U/235U > 191.00) and six negative (238U/235U > 138.25) veterans was utilized in the mathematical estimation of the pulmonary burden at the time of exposure. A minimum value for the biological half-life of ceramic DU oxide in the lungs was derived from the Battelle report of the minimum dissolution half-time in simulated interstitial lung fluid corresponding to 3.85 years. The average DU concentration was 3.27 x 10(-5) mg per 24 hours in DU-positive veterans and 1.46 x 10(-8) mg in DU-negative veterans. The estimated lung burden was 0.34 mg in the DU-positive and 0.00015 mg in the DU-negative veterans. Our results provide evidence that the pulmonary concentration of DU at time zero can be quantitated as late as 9 years after inhalational exposure. PMID:12943033

  16. Screening for diets that reduce urinary nitrogen excretion and methane emissions while maintaining or increasing production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gregorini, Pablo; Beukes, Pierre C; Dalley, Dawn; Romera, Alvaro J

    2016-05-01

    Farmers face complex decisions at the time to feed animals, trying to achieve production goals while contemplating social and environmental constraints. Our purpose was to facilitate such decision making for pastoral dairy farmers, aiming to reduce urinary N (UN) and methane emissions (CH4), while maintaining or increasing milk production (MP). There is a number of feeds the farmers can choose from and combine. We used 50 feeds (forages and grains) combined systematically in different proportions producing 11,526 binary diets. Diets were screened, using an a posteriori approach and a Pareto front (PF) analysis of model (Molly) outputs. The objective was to identify combinations with the best possible compromise (i.e. frontier) between UN, CH4, and MP. Using high MP and low UN as objective functions, PF included 10, 14, 12 and 50 diets, for non-lactating, early-, mid- and late-lactation periods, with cereals and beets featuring strongly. Using the same objective functions, but including ryegrass as dietary base PF included 2, 4, 8 and 4 diets for those periods. Therefore, from a wide range of diets, farmers could choose from few feeds combined into binary diets to reduce UN while maintaining or increasing MP. If the intention is maintaining pasture-based systems, there are fewer suitable options. Reducing UN will simply require dilution of N supplied by pasture by supplementing low N conserved forages. The results also evidence the risk of pollution swapping, reaching the frontier means arriving at a point where trade-off decisions need to be made. Any further reduction in UN implies an increment in CH4, or reduction in CH4 emissions increases UN. There is no perfect diet to optimize all objectives simultaneously; but if the current diet is not in the frontier some options can offset pollution swapping. The choice is with the farmers and conditioned by their context. PMID:26874758

  17. Effect of Dietary Concentrate:forage Ratios and Undegraded Dietary Protein on Nitrogen Balance and Urinary Excretion of Purine Derivatives in Dorper×thin-tailed Han Crossbred Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tao; Deng, Kai-dong; Tu, Yan; Jiang, Cheng-gang; Zhang, Nai-feng; Li, Yan-ling; Si, Bing-wen; Lou, Can; Diao, Qi-yu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate dietary concentrate: forage ratios (C:F) and undegraded dietary protein (UDP) on nitrogen balance and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in lambs. Four Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred castrated lambs with 62.3±1.9 kg body weight at 10 months of age were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of two levels of C:F (40:60 and 60:40) and two levels of UDP (35% and 50% of CP), according to a complete 4×4 Latin-square design. Each experimental period lasted for 19 d. After a 7-d adaptation period, lambs were moved into individual metabolism crates for 12 d including 7 d of adaption and 5 d of metabolism trial. During the metabolism trial, total urine was collected for 24 h and spot urine samples were also collected at different times. Urinary PD was measured using a colorimetric method and creatinine was measured using an automated analyzer. Intake of dry matter (DM) (p<0.01) and organic matter (OM) (p<0.01) increased as the level of UDP decreased. Fecal N was not affected by dietary treatment (p>0.05) while urinary N increased as the level of UDP decreased (p<0.05), but decreased as dietary C:F increased (p<0.05). Nitrogen retention increased as dietary C:F increased (p<0.05). As dietary C:F increased, urinary excretion of PD increased (p<0.05), but was not affected by dietary UDP (p>0.05) or interaction between dietary treatments (p>0.05). Daily excretion of creatinine was not affected by dietary treatments (p<0.05), with an average value of 0.334±0.005 mmol/kg BW0.75. A linear correlation was found between total PD excretion and PDC index (R2 = 0.93). Concentrations of creatinine and PDC index in spot urine were unaffected by sampling time (p>0.05) and a good correlation was found between the PDC index (average value of three times) of spot urine and daily excretion of PD (R2 = 0.88). These results suggest that for animals fed ad libitum, the PDC index in spot urine is effective to

  18. Ruminal fermentation and degradation patterns, protozoa population, and urinary purine derivatives excretion in goats and wethers fed diets based on two-stage olive cake: effect of PEG supply.

    PubMed

    Yáñez Ruiz, D R; Moumen, A; Martín García, A I; Molina Alcaide, E

    2004-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted in Granadina goats and Segureña wethers fed at maintenance level to evaluate the effect of including a mixture of barley and a new by-product derived from olive oil extraction (two-stage dried olive cake) on ruminal degradation and passage kinetics (Exp. 1), fermentation pattern and protozoa population (Exp. 2), and urinary purine derivatives excretion (Exp. 3). Polyethylene glycol was supplied to the animals to evaluate the effects of tannins contained in the by-product. The experimental diets were as follows: alfalfa hay and alfalfa hay plus a concentrate, formulated with two-stage dried olive cake, barley, and a mineral-vitamin mixture either with or without the addition of polyethylene glycol to the drinking water. The inclusion of two-stage dried olive cake in the diet resulted in an increase of condensed tannins. Ruminal VFA concentration in goats and wethers increased (P < 0.05) and ammonia N (NH3-N) concentration decreased (P < 0.05). The inclusion of two-stage dried olive cake decreased (P < 0.001) urinary allantoin excretion only in wethers. Ruminal degradation profiles and fractional passage rates were similar in goats and wethers. The polyethylene glycol supply increased (P < 0.001) DM and N degradation rates in both animal species but did not modify the fractional passage rate. Ruminal fermentation patterns were also similar in goats and wethers and were affected by polyethylene glycol supply. In general, Entodiniomorphida and Holotricha protozoa counts were higher (P < 0.05) in the rumen of goats than of wethers. Protozoa count in wethers responded more to polyethylene glycol supply than in goats. The present work presents the first data obtained from a comparative study with sheep and goats concerning urinary excretion of purine derivatives. The excretion was similar in both animal species when fed alfalfa hay; however, polyethylene glycol affected only urinary allantoin excretion in wethers. Results suggest a

  19. Estimation of benchmark dose as the threshold levels of urinary cadmium, based on excretion of total protein, {beta} {sub 2}-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase in cadmium nonpolluted regions in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Etsuko . E-mail: ekoba@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Suwazono, Yasushi; Uetani, Mirei; Inaba, Takeya; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nogawa, Koji

    2006-07-15

    Previously, we investigated the association between urinary cadmium (Cd) concentration and indicators of renal dysfunction, including total protein, {beta} {sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta} {sub 2}-MG), and N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). In 2778 inhabitants {>=}50 years of age (1114 men, 1664 women) in three different Cd nonpolluted areas in Japan, we showed that a dose-response relationship existed between renal effects and Cd exposure in the general environment without any known Cd pollution. However, we could not estimate the threshold levels of urinary Cd at that time. In the present study, we estimated the threshold levels of urinary Cd as the benchmark dose low (BMDL) using the benchmark dose (BMD) approach. Urinary Cd excretion was divided into 10 categories, and an abnormality rate was calculated for each. Cut-off values for urinary substances were defined as corresponding to the 84% and 95% upper limit values of the target population who have not smoked. Then we calculated the BMD and BMDL using a log-logistic model. The values of BMD and BMDL for all urinary substances could be calculated. The BMDL for the 84% cut-off value of {beta} {sub 2}-MG, setting an abnormal value at 5%, was 2.4 {mu}g/g creatinine (cr) in men and 3.3 {mu}g/g cr in women. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the threshold level of urinary Cd could be estimated in people living in the general environment without any known Cd-pollution in Japan, and the value was inferred to be almost the same as that in Belgium, Sweden, and China.

  20. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: The 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data.In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8-53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7-45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample.The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885-4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654-4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4-23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1-4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33-1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34-2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49-2.53, P < 0.001) in women.In this nationwide

  1. Evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coke production and a graphite electrode manufacturing plant: assessment of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene as a biological indicator of exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Buchet, J P; Gennart, J P; Mercado-Calderon, F; Delavignette, J P; Cupers, L; Lauwerys, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Characterisation of the airborne concentration of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at various workplaces in a graphite electrode and a coke production plant. Validation of the urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (hydroxypyrene) as a biological marker of exposure to PAH. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of workers exposed to PAHs (106 in the graphite electrode producing plant and 16 in the coke works). METHODS--Personal air sampling during at least six hours per workshift using a glass fibre filter and a Chromosorb 102 solid sorbent tube and analysis of PAHs by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrofluorometric detection (SFD). Collection of spot urine samples before and after the shift and analysis of 1-hydroxypyrene by HPLC and SFD. RESULTS--The workers most exposed to PAHs were those occupied at the topside area of the coke oven plant and those working in the blending and impregnation areas of the graphite electrode producing plant (mean airborne concentration of total PAHs: 199 and 223 micrograms/m3 respectively). Except for naphthalene and perylene, the relative proportion of the different PAHs did not differ between the plants. Pyrene concentration in air was highly correlated with the total airborne PAH concentration (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001) and the correlation coefficients between hydroxypyrene concentration in postshift urine samples and pyrene or total PAHs in air were 0.67 (p < 0.0001) and 0.72 (p < 0.0001) respectively. Excretion of hydroxypyrene doubled when the exposure to pyrene in air increased 10-fold. The half life for the urinary excretion of hydroxypyrene was around 18 hours (95% confidence interval 16.1-19.8). Smoking habits only explained 2.3% of the variance in hydroxypyrene excretion compared with 45% for the pyrene concentration in air. CONCLUSION--The determination of the urinary excretion of hydroxypyrene in postshift urine samples can be used as a suitable biomarker to assess individual exposure to

  2. Purine and pyrimidine excretion in psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Simmonds, H. A.; Bowyer, A.

    1974-01-01

    1 Urinary purine excretion has been investigated in two healthy controls and two patients with psoriasis, one a hyperuricaemic, one a normouricaemic. No difference was detected between the patients and controls. Therapy with allopurinol effectively lowered blood and urinary uric acid levels and produced a deficit in total urinary oxypurine excretion in both controls and patients with psoriasis. The concomitant increase in xanthine excretion was greater than the increase in hypoxanthine excretion and xanthine/hypoxanthine ratios (average 0.70 and 1.0 prior to therapy) were increased by allopurinol to an average of 3.0 and 3.8 respectively in the two groups. Allopurinol also reduced the excretion of 8-hydroxy-7-methyl guanine but no effect on the excretion levels of other minor purine bases was noted. 2 Allopurinol was metabolized similarly by both patients and controls, 84% of the administered allopurinol being accounted for as urinary metabolites. 74% of the drug in the urine was excreted as oxipurinol, 26% as unchanged allopurinol plus allopurinol riboside, the remainder being oxipurinol riboside. 3 Pseudouridine excretion in 25 healthy controls was 86.5 ± 17.8 mg/24 hours. Pseudouridine excretion was not excessive in the patients with psoriasis and was not altered by allopurinol therapy. 4 No abnormality or difference in purine or pyrimidine excretion in either patient was detected prior to or during therapy which could be related to the epidermal lesion. PMID:22454896

  3. Ferrioxamine excretion in iron-loaded man

    SciTech Connect

    Pippard, M.J.; Callender, S.T.; Finch, C.A.

    1982-08-01

    Factors affecting iron excretion after subcutaneous desferrioxamine infusion were evaluated in individuals with iron overload. Urinary iron varied directly, whereas stool iron varied inversely with the level of erythropoiesis. Ascorbic acid greatly enhanced urinary iron excretion but had a less constant effect on stool iron. Stool iron losses contributed a greater proportion of total iron excretion at higher chelator dosage. These studies indicate the importance of biliary iron excretion in monitoring the effectiveness of desferrioxamine. They also suggest that large chelator doses may remove established iron overload much more rapidly than has previously been realized.

  4. Relationship of nutrition knowledge and self-reported dietary behaviors with urinary excretion of sodium and potassium: comparison between dietitians and nondietitians.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Minami; Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    The effectiveness of better nutrition knowledge and dietary behavior on healthier dietary intake is still controversial. We hypothesized that nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior are associated with sodium and potassium intake in adult women. A cross-sectional study was conducted at welfare facilities located in 20 areas of Japan. Ninety-nine female dietitians and 117 nondietitians aged 20 to 69 years participated. Sodium and potassium intake were assessed with two 24-hour urine collections and 4-day semiweighed diet records. Nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior were accessed with 3 questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to compare sodium and potassium excretion and selected nutrition and food intake between dietitians and nondietitians. After adjustment for age and smoking habit, sodium and potassium excretion did not significantly differ between the 2 groups (3857 vs 3959 mg/d, P = .57, and 2016 vs 1886 mg/d, P = .10, respectively). Sodium/potassium ratio was significantly lower in the dietitians (P = .044). The dietitians used food labels for sodium contents more often than the nondietitians and consumed more fruits and vegetables (P = .048 and P < .0001, respectively) and less sugar and confectionaries and fat and oils (P = .016 and P = .010, respectively). In conclusion, the higher level of nutritional knowledge and better dietary behavior were not associated with either sodium or potassium excretion but were moderately associated with sodium/potassium ratio. PMID:27101762

  5. Hippuric acid excretion after benzylamine ingestion in man.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, S G; Al-Ani, M R; Lawson, A

    1978-01-01

    The fate of 14C-benzylamine after oral administration as the hydrochloride has been investigated in two male volunteers. Over 98% of the administered radiolabel was excreted in the urine as 14C-hippuric acid within 24 hours. The rate of urinary hippuric acid excretion was extremely rapid, with more than 90% of the dose excreted after three hours. PMID:698137

  6. Airborne concentrations, skin contamination, and urinary metabolite excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among paving workers exposed to coal tar derived road tars

    SciTech Connect

    Jongeneelen, F.J.; Scheepers, P.T.; Groenendijk, A.; Van Aerts, L.A.; Anzion, R.B.; Bos, R.P.; Veenstra, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    The exposure of surface dressing workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was studied. Four different paving sites, at which coal tar-containing binders were applied, were selected as work sites with high exposure levels of PAH. Breathing zone airborne particulates, contamination of the skin with PAH, and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of the workers involved in chip sealing were determined. Substantial concentrations of cyclohexane-soluble airborne particulate matter were found (GM = 0.2 mg/m3, n = 28). Skin contamination was determined using two different methods: with exposure pads and by hand washing. Pads were mounted on several parts of the body: wrist, elbow, neck, shoulder, and ankle. The pads located on the wrist appeared to be the most contaminated (pyrene: GM = 22 ng/1.77 cm2, n = 40). The end-of-shift hand washing showed that the hands of the workers were contaminated with PAH (pyrene: GM = 70 micrograms, n = 35). Preshift hand washing showed far lower, but detectable, quantities of PAH on workers' hands (pyrene: GM = 5 micrograms, n = 35). Enhanced levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene among the workers were found. The highest levels were found in the end-of-shift urine samples. Correlations between the pyrene exposure variables were studied. Significant positive correlations were found between pyrene on the wrist pad versus end-of-shift urinary 1-hydroxypyrene; between pyrene on the hands versus end-of-shift urinary 1-hydroxypyrene; and between the two different skin contamination variables.

  7. Urinary nickel excretion in populations living in the proximity of two russian nickel refineries: a Norwegian-Russian population-based study.

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Sivertsen, T; Tchachtchine, V; Lund, E; Bykov, V; Thomassen, Y; Norseth, T

    1998-01-01

    The Russian nickel refineries located in the cities of Nikel and Zapolyarny close to the Norwegian border are responsible for extensive sulfur dioxide and nickel pollution, as well as severe ecological damage in both countries. The aim of our study was to investigate human nickel exposure in the populations living on both sides of the Norwegian-Russian border. The design was a cross-sectional population-based study of adults aged 18-69 years residing in Sor-Varanger municipality, Norway, and Nikel and Zapolyarny, Russia, during 1994 and 1995. Individual exposure to nickel was assessed by measurements of nickel in urine using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. For controls, urine was collected from adults in the Russian cities of Apatity and Umba (Kola Peninsula) and the Norwegian city of Tromso, all of which are locations without nearby point sources of nickel. Altogether 2,233 urine specimens were analysed for nickel. People living in Nikel had the highest concentrations (median 3.4 microg/l), followed by Umba (median 2.7 microg/l), Zapolyarny (median 2.0 microg/l), Apatity (median 1.9 microg/l), Tromso (median 1.2 microg/l), and Sor-Varanger (median 0.6 microg/l). Regardless of geographical location, the Russian study groups all had a higher urinary-nickel average than those in Norway (p<0.001). With the exception of Nikel, neither the Russian nor the Norwegian urinary-nickel levels were associated with residence location near a Russian nickel refinery. We concluded that industrial nickel pollution alone could not explain the observed discrepancy between Norway and Russia; we also discuss other possible nickel exposure sources that may account for the high urinary levels found in Russia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9681979

  8. Urinary Excretion of Select Dietary Polyphenol Metabolites Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Proximate but Not Remote Follow-Up in a Prospective Investigation in 2 Cohorts of US Women123

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Wedick, Nicole M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Pan, An; Townsend, Mary K; Cassidy, Aedin; Franke, Adrian A; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B; van Dam, Rob M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polyphenols are phytochemicals that possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and improve glucose metabolism in animal experiments, although data from prospective epidemiologic studies examining polyphenol intakes in relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk are inconsistent. Objectives: We examined urinary excretion of select flavonoid and phenolic acid metabolites, as biomarkers of intake, in relation to T2D risk. Methods: Eight polyphenol metabolites (naringenin, hesperetin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, catechin, epicatechin, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid) were quantified in spot urine samples by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry among 1111 T2D case-control pairs selected from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Results: Higher urinary excretion of hesperetin was associated with a lower T2D risk after multivariate adjustment: the OR comparing top vs. bottom quartiles was 0.68 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.96), although a linear trend was lacking (P = 0.30). The other measured polyphenols were not significantly associated with T2D risk after multivariate adjustment. However, during the early follow-up period [≤4.6 y (median) since urine sample collection], markers of flavanone intakes (naringenin and hesperetin) and flavonol intakes (quercetin and isorhamnetin) were significantly associated with a lower T2D risk. The ORs (95% CIs) comparing extreme quartiles were 0.61 (0.39, 0.98; P-trend: 0.03) for total flavanones and 0.55 (0.33, 0.92; P-trend: 0.04) for total flavonols (P-interaction with follow-up length: ≤0.04). An inverse association was also observed for caffeic acid during early follow-up only: the OR was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.84; P-trend: 0.03). None of these markers was associated with T2D risk during later follow-up. Metabolites of flavan-3-ols and ferulic acid were not associated with T2D risk in either period. Conclusions: These results suggest that specific flavonoid subclasses, including flavanones and flavonols, as well as

  9. Global, regional and national sodium intakes in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis of 24 h urinary sodium excretion and dietary surveys worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Powles, John; Fahimi, Saman; Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Ezzati, Majid; Engell, Rebecca E; Lim, Stephen S; Danaei, Goodarz; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate global, regional (21 regions) and national (187 countries) sodium intakes in adults in 1990 and 2010. Design Bayesian hierarchical modelling using all identifiable primary sources. Data sources and eligibility We searched and obtained published and unpublished data from 142 surveys of 24 h urinary sodium and 103 of dietary sodium conducted between 1980 and 2010 across 66 countries. Dietary estimates were converted to urine equivalents based on 79 pairs of dual measurements. Modelling methods Bayesian hierarchical modelling used survey data and their characteristics to estimate mean sodium intake, by sex, 5 years age group and associated uncertainty for persons aged 20+ in 187 countries in 1990 and 2010. Country-level covariates were national income/person and composition of food supplies. Main outcome measures Mean sodium intake (g/day) as estimable by 24 h urine collections, without adjustment for non-urinary losses. Results In 2010, global mean sodium intake was 3.95 g/day (95% uncertainty interval: 3.89 to 4.01). This was nearly twice the WHO recommended limit of 2 g/day and equivalent to 10.06 (9.88–10.21) g/day of salt. Intake in men was ∼10% higher than in women; differences by age were small. Intakes were highest in East Asia, Central Asia and Eastern Europe (mean >4.2 g/day) and in Central Europe and Middle East/North Africa (3.9–4.2 g/day). Regional mean intakes in North America, Western Europe and Australia/New Zealand ranged from 3.4 to 3.8 g/day. Intakes were lower (<3.3 g/day), but more uncertain, in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Between 1990 and 2010, modest, but uncertain, increases in sodium intakes were identified. Conclusions Sodium intakes exceed the recommended levels in almost all countries with small differences by age and sex. Virtually all populations would benefit from sodium reduction, supported by enhanced surveillance. PMID:24366578

  10. Development of a food compositional database for the estimation of dietary intake of phyto-oestrogens in a group of postmenopausal women previously treated for breast cancer and validation with urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Don B; Lloyd, Antony S; Lawrence, Judy M; Brown, Jonathan E; Storey, Lesley; Raats, Monique; Rainsbury, Richard M; Culliford, D J; Bailey-Horne, Victoria A; Parry, Barbara M

    2013-06-28

    The scientific literature contains evidence suggesting that women who have been treated for breast cancer may, as a result of their diagnosis, increase their phyto-oestrogen (PE) intake. In the present paper, we describe the creation of a dietary analysis database (based on Dietplan6) for the determination of dietary intakes of specific PE (daidzein, genistein, glycitein, formononetin, biochanin A, coumestrol, matairesinol and secoisolariciresinol), in a group of women previously diagnosed and treated for postmenopausal breast cancer. The design of the database, data evaluation criteria, literature data entry for 551 foods and primary analysis by LC–MS/MS of an additional thirty-four foods for which there were no published data are described. The dietary intake of 316 women previously treated for postmenopausal breast cancer informed the identification of potential food and beverage sources of PE and the bespoke dietary analysis database was created to, ultimately, quantify their PE intake. In order that PE exposure could be comprehensively described, fifty-four of the 316 subjects completed a 24 h urine collection, and their urinary excretion results allowed for the description of exposure to include those identified as ‘equol producers’. PMID:23286459

  11. Determination of cefadroxil in rat plasma and urine using LC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic and urinary excretion studies.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyo-Eon; Kim, In-Bong; Kim, Yu Chul; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Maeng, Han-Joo

    2014-02-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination of cefadroxil, a first-generation cephalosporin, in rat plasma and urine. Rat samples were deproteinized with methanol, and then injected into the LC-MS/MS system (electro-spray ionization, positive mode) for quantification. Drugs were separated on a Synergi™ 4 μm Polar-RP 80A column (150 mm × 2.0 mm, 4 μm) with a mixture of 0.1% formic acid and methanol (62:38, v/v) as the mobile phase at 0.2 mL/min. Detection was performed using multiple reaction-monitoring modes at m/z 364.1→208.1 (for cefadroxil) and m/z 368.1→174.2 (for cefaclor, the internal standard). Method was specific and linear over the concentration range of 10-10,000 ng/mL. Validation parameters for cefadroxil, including accuracy, precision, absolute matrix effect, and stability in rat plasma and urine, were acceptable according to the biological method validation guidelines of the FDA (2001) [16]. Cefadroxil levels in plasma up to 1440 min or 480 min and urine up to 96 h were quantifiable following oral and intravenous cefadroxil administrations to rats at a dose of 2mg/kg, each, suggesting that the method is appropriate for routine pharmacokinetic studies including urinary recovery in rats. PMID:24412692

  12. A polymorphism in metallothionein 1A (MT1A) is associated with cadmium-related excretion of urinary beta 2‐microglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Lijian; Chang, Xiuli; Rentschler, Gerda; Tian, Liting; Zhu, Guoying; Chen, Xiao; Jin, Taiyi; Broberg, Karin

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: Cadmium (Cd) toxicity of the kidney varies between individuals despite similar exposure levels. In humans Cd is mainly bound to metallothioneins (MT), which scavenge its toxic effects. Here we analyzed whether polymorphisms in MT genes MT1A and MT2A influence Cd-related kidney damage. Methods: In a cross-sectional study N = 512 volunteers were selected from three areas in South-Eastern China, which to varying degree were Cd-polluted from a smelter (control area [median Cd in urine U-Cd = 2.67 μg/L], moderately [U-Cd = 4.23 μg/L] and highly [U-Cd = 9.13 μg/L] polluted areas). U-Cd and blood Cd (B-Cd) concentrations were measured by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. MT1A rs11076161 (G/A), MT2A rs10636 (G/C) and MT2A rs28366003 (A/G) were determined by Taqman assays; urinary N-Acetyl-beta-(D)-Glucosaminidase (UNAG) by spectrometry, and urinary β2-microglobulin (UB2M) by ELISA. Results: Higher B-Cd (natural log-transformed) with increasing number of MT1A rs11076161 A-alleles was found in the highly polluted group (p-value trend = 0.033; all p-values adjusted for age, sex, and smoking). In a linear model a significant interaction between rs11076161 genotype and B-Cd was found for UNAG (p = 0.001) and UB2M concentrations (p = 0.001). Carriers of the rs11076161 AA genotype showed steeper slopes for the associations between Cd in blood and natural log-transformed UB2M (β = 1.2, 95% CI 0.72–1.6) compared to GG carriers (β = 0.30, 95% CI 0.15–0.45). Also for UNAG (natural log-transformed) carriers of the AA genotype had steeper slopes (β = 0.55, 95% CI 0.27–0.84) compared to GG carriers (β = 0.018, 95% CI − 0.79–0.11). Conclusions: MT1A rs11076161 was associated with B-Cd concentrations and Cd-induced kidney toxicity at high exposure levels. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium is toxic to the kidney but the susceptibility differs between individuals. ► The toxic effect of cadmium is scavenged by metallothioneins. ► A common variant of

  13. Evaluating the relationship between carisoprodol concentrations and meprobamate formation and inter-subject and intra-subject variability in urinary excretion data of pain patients.

    PubMed

    Tse, Stephanie A; Atayee, Rabia S; Best, Brookie M; Pesce, Amadeo J

    2012-05-01

    Using urinary carisoprodol data from pain patients, our objectives were to determine the relationship between carisoprodol concentration and its conversion to meprobamate, and quantify the intra-subject and inter-subject variability in carisoprodol metabolism. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantitate carisoprodol and meprobamate concentrations in urine specimens. The log creatinine-corrected carisoprodol versus log creatinine-corrected meprobamate showed a marginal positive relationship (R(2) = 0.395), with a 29.1-fold variance between subjects at the mean carisoprodol concentration. The geometric mean carisoprodol and meprobamate urine concentrations were 0.519 ± 3.38 mg and 28.2 ± 2.34 mg analyte per gram creatinine, respectively. The log metabolic ratio (MR) versus log creatinine-corrected carisoprodol displayed a marginal positive correlation. A subpopulation of outliers with higher carisoprodol and lower meprobamate levels were considered poor metabolizers and represented 0.483% (n = 21) of the study population. Using a curve-fit mathematical model, we estimated 0.318% (n = 10) to be ultra-rapid metabolizers. The inter-subject population geometric standard deviation (SD) of the MR was 3.64. The intra-subject geometric median and mean SD of the MR were 1.60 (interquartile range: 1.28, 2.07) and 1.72 ± 1.60, respectively. Inter-subject variability was 2.27 times greater than the median intra-subject variability. With a better understanding of urine carisoprodol and meprobamate concentrations and variability, urine drug testing provides a useful monitoring reference for clinicians. PMID:22511696

  14. Relation between creatinine and uric acid excretion.

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Y

    1992-01-01

    The relation between creatinine and uric acid metabolism was analysed in 77 male patients with primary gout and 62 healthy male subjects. Significant positive correlations between 24 hour urinary creatinine and uric acid excretion were shown in both groups. The mean urinary creatinine and uric acid excretions in the patients with gout were significantly increased as compared with those of normal male controls. These results suggest that there is a close correlation between creatinine and uric acid synthesis. In addition, it seems that accelerated uric acid synthesis seen in some patients with gout is due to increased creatinine synthesis. PMID:1540011

  15. Predicting nitrogen excretion from cattle.

    PubMed

    Reed, K F; Moraes, L E; Casper, D P; Kebreab, E

    2015-05-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) from cattle production facilities can lead to negative environmental effects, such as contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, leaching and runoff to aqueous ecosystems leading to eutrophication, and acid rain. To mitigate these effects and to improve the efficiency of N use, accurate prediction of N excretion and secretions are required. A genetic algorithm was implemented to select models to predict fecal, urinary, and total manure N excretions, and milk N secretions from 3 classes of animals: lactating dairy cows, heifers and dry cows, and steers. Two tiers of model classes were developed for each category of animals based on model input requirements. A total of 6 models for heifers and dry cows and steers and an additional 2 models for lactating dairy cattle were developed. Evaluation of the models using K-fold cross validation based on all data and using the most recent 6 yr of data showed better prediction for total manure N and fecal N compared with urinary N excretion, which was the most variable response in the database. Compared with extant models from the literature, the models developed in this study resulted in a significant improvement in prediction error for fecal and urinary N excretions from lactating cows. For total manure production by lactating cows, extant and new models were comparable in their prediction ability. Both proposed and extant models performed better than the prediction methods used by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the national inventory of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the proposed models are recommended for use in estimation of manure N from various classes of animals. PMID:25747829

  16. Vitamin C modulates lead excretion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lihm, Hoseob; Kim, Hyun; Chang, Heekyung; Yoon, Myunghee; Lee, Kayoung

    2013-01-01

    Lead, one of the most toxic heavy metals, takes longer time to be excreted from the body than other heavy metals. The purpose of this study is, by measuring lead excretion via urine and feces, to find out the effect of vitamin C in lead chelation. Thirty-six rats were randomly assorted into four groups. All 33 rats except for the control group were administered with lead, before orally administered with different doses of vitamin C per kilogram of body weight. The lead excretion levels in urine and feces as well as the survival rate were then measured for each group. The rats with lead administrations (10/13, 76.9%) with lead administrations only, 10/11 rats (90.9%) with lead administrations and low dose of vitamin C, 9/9 rats (100%) with lead administrations and high dose of vitamin C survived. Among the 29 surviving rats, low vitamin C intake group exhibited higher urinary excretion than the lead only group. The urinary excretion level in high dose vitamin C intakegroup was significantly higher than the lead only group. In addition, fecal lead excretion seemed to be increased in the high dose vitamin C intake group, compared to the group with lead administrations only with statistical significance. Through animal experiment, it was found out that administrating high dose of vitamin C accelerated the excretion of lead in body compared to low dose of vitamin C. PMID:24386596

  17. Abnormal urinary excretion of NKCC2 and AQP2 in response to hypertonic saline in chronic kidney disease: an intervention study in patients with chronic kidney disease and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal handling of sodium and water is abnormal in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that abnormal activity of the aquaporin-2 water channels (AQP2), the sodium-potassium-2chloride transporter (NKCC2) and/or the epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) contribute to this phenomenon. Methods 23 patients with CKD and 24 healthy controls at baseline and after 3% saline infusion were compared. The following measurements were performed: urinary concentrations of AQP2 (u-AQP2), NKCC2 (u-NKCC2), ENaC (u-ENaCγ), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by 51Cr-EDTA clearance, free water clearance (CH2O), urinary output (UO), fractional excretion of sodium (FENa), plasma concentrations of AVP, renin (PRC), Angiotensin II (ANG II), Aldosterone (Aldo) and body fluid volumes. Results At baseline, GFR was 34 ml/min in CKD patients and 89 ml/ml in controls. There were no significant differences in u-AQP2, u-NKCC2 or u-ENaCγ, but FENa, p-Aldo and p-AVP were higher in CKD patients than controls. In response to hypertonic saline, patients with CKD had an attenuated decrease in CH2O and UO. A greater increase in U-AQP2 was observed in CKD patients compared to controls. Furthermore, u-NKCC2 increased in CKD patients, whereas u-NKCC2 decreased in controls. Body fluid volumes did not significantly differ. Conclusions In response to hypertonic saline, u-NKCC2 increased, suggesting an increased sodium reabsorption via NKCC2 in patients with CKD. U-AQP2 increased more in CKD patients, despite an attenuated decrease in CH2O. Thus, though high levels of p-AVP and p-Aldo, the kidneys can only partly compensate and counteract acute volume expansion due to a defective tubular response. Trial registration Clinical trial no: NCT01623661. Date of trial registration: 18.06.2012. PMID:24970686

  18. Ability of self-reported estimates of dietary sodium, potassium and protein to detect an association with general and abdominal obesity: comparison with the estimates derived from 24 h urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-28

    As under-reporting of dietary intake, particularly by overweight and obese subjects, is common in dietary surveys, biases inherent in the use of self-reported dietary information may distort true diet-obesity relationships or even create spurious ones. However, empirical evidence of this possibility is limited. The present cross-sectional study compared the relationships of 24 h urine-derived and self-reported intakes of Na, K and protein with obesity. A total of 1043 Japanese women aged 18-22 years completed a 24 h urine collection and a self-administered diet history questionnaire. After adjustment for potential confounders, 24 h urine-derived Na intake was associated with a higher risk of general obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference≥80 cm; both P for trend=0·04). For 24 h urine-derived protein intake, positive associations with general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·02 and 0·053, respectively). For 24 h urine-derived K intake, there was an inverse association with abdominal obesity (P for trend=0·01). Conversely, when self-reported dietary information was used, only inverse associations between K intake and general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·04 and 0·02, respectively), with no associations of Na or protein intake. In conclusion, we found positive associations of Na and protein intakes and inverse associations of K intake with obesity when using 24 h urinary excretion for estimating dietary intakes. However, no association was observed based on using self-reported dietary intakes, except for inverse association of K intake, suggesting that the ability of self-reported dietary information using the diet history questionnaire for investigating diet-obesity relationships is limited. PMID:25782331

  19. Origin of Urinary Oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Ross P.; Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

    2007-04-01

    Urinary oxalate is mostly derived from the absorption of ingested oxalate and endogenous synthesis. The breakdown of vitamin C may also contribute small amounts to the urinary oxalate pool. The amount of oxalate absorbed is influenced by the oxalate content of the diet, the concentrations of divalent cations in the gut, the presence of oxalate-degrading organisms, transport characteristics of the intestinal epithelium, and other factors associated with the intestinal environment. Knowledge of pathways associated with endogenous oxalate synthesis is limited. Urinary oxalate excretion can be modified using strategies that limit dietary oxalate absorption and the ingestion of oxalogenic substrates such as hydroxyproline.

  20. 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ... by: Brent Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University ...

  1. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Urinary Incontinence What Is Urinary Incontinence? Urinary incontinence means a person leaks urine by ... about what you can do. Types of Urinary Incontinence There are different types of urinary incontinence. Stress ...

  2. Antidiuretic hormone excretion at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Harber, M J; Williams, J D; Morton, J J

    1981-01-01

    Urinary excretion of electrolytes, creatinine, urea, and antidiuretic hormone--measured as arginine vasopressin (AVP) by radioimmunoassay--was investigated in eight Himalayan mountaineers during ascent on foot from 1900- 5400 m. Specimens were collected from each individual whenever urine was voided, preserved with 1% boric acid, and subsequently pooled to give samples representative of 24-h collections. AVP was found to be reasonably stable under simulated conditions of storage. In all subjects, the observed AVP excretion rates were mostly in the lower region of the normal range and there was generally no correlation with altitude, urine osmolality, electrolyte excretion, or occurrence of AMS symptoms--even in a fatal case of cerebral oedema. It is concluded that AVP does not play a primary role in the changes in fluid balance which accompany either acclimatization to high altitude or the onset of AMS. PMID:7213286

  3. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    SciTech Connect

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2011-05-15

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: {yields} Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. {yields} We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. {yields} The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  4. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creati...

  5. Urinary incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of bladder control; Uncontrollable urination; Urination - uncontrollable; Incontinence - urinary ... Causes of urinary incontinence include: Blockage in the urinary system Brain or nerve problems Dementia or other mental health problems that make ...

  6. Coordinacy of lysosomal enzyme excretion in human urine.

    PubMed Central

    Paigen, K; Peterson, J

    1978-01-01

    Assay conditions have been developed for the determination of urinary beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, alpha-galactosidase, and beta-hexosaminidase using fluorometric substrates. The assay conditions for beta-glucuronidase overcome interference by both low and high molecular weight inhibitors, a problem that has confused earlier studies of enzyme excretion. The four lysosomal enzymes are excreted corrdinately: although their absolute levels (in units per milligram of creatinine) vary during the day and from one day to the next, the ratio of one enzyme to another remains relatively constant. The lack of correlation betweem plasma and urine enzyme levels, together with the high molecular weights of these enzymes, suggests that the urinary enzymes are not derived by glomerular filtration. The lack of coordinacy with lactate dehydrogenase suggests they are not derived from exfoliated cells. by analogy with experimental animals, they may be derived from lysosomes extruded into the lumen of the proximal tubule by epithelial cells. There is considerable variation among a population of 125 healthy adult subjects for total enzyme excretion. Both total enzyme excretion and coordinacy ratios are log-normally distributed, suggesting that they are the resultants of many factors, each of which has a relative, or proportional, effect on enzyme excretion. About one-half the population variation resides in a process common to the excretion of all four enzymes (possibly the lysosome extrusion pathway), and about one-half resides in factors affecting each enzyme independently. PMID:25285

  7. Controlled exercise effects on chromium excretion of trained and untrained runners consuming a constant diet

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.A.; Bryden, N.A.; Polansky, M.M.; Deuster, P.A.

    1986-03-05

    To determine if degree of training effects urinary Cr losses, Cr excretion of 8 adult trained and 5 untrained runners was determined on rest days and following exercise at 90% of maximal oxygen uptake on a treadmill to exhaustion with 30 second exercise and 30 second rest periods. Subjects were fed a constant daily diet containing 9 ..mu..g of Cr per 1000 calories to minimize changes due to diet. Maximal oxygen consumption of the trained runners was in the good or above range based upon their age and that of the untrained runners was average or below. While consuming the control diet, basal urinary Cr excretion of subjects who exercise regularly was significantly lower than that of the sedentary control subjects, 0.09 +/- 0.01 and 0.21 +/- 0.03 ..mu..g/day (mean +/- SEM), respectively. Daily urinary Cr excretion of trained subjects was significantly higher on the day of a single exercise bout at 90% of maximal oxygen consumption compared to nonexercise days, 0.12 +/- 0.02 and 0.09 +/- 0.01 ..mu..g/day, respectively. Urinary Cr excretion of 5 untrained subjects was not altered following controlled exercise. These data demonstrate that basal urinary Cr excretion and excretion in response to exercise are related to maximal oxygen consumption and therefore degree of fitness.

  8. Urinary thioether of employees of a chemical plant.

    PubMed Central

    Vainio, H; Savolainen, H; Kilpikari, I

    1978-01-01

    The thiols in the morning urine of 224 employees of a chemical plant were determined after alkaline hydrolysis of all urinary thioethers. The highest thioether excretion was found in rubber workers and radial tyre builders in comparison with clerks, plastic monomer mixers and footwear preparers. Smoking and medication tended to increase thioether excretion. Urinary thioether determination may prove to be a valuable tool in assessing exposure to mixtures of chemicals regardless of the route of absorption. PMID:698138

  9. Renal dopamine excretion in healthy volunteers after oral ingestion of L-dopa.

    PubMed

    Barthelmebs, M; Mbou, P; Stephan, D; Grima, M; Imbs, J L

    1993-01-01

    L-Dopa is converted to dopamine by aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). In the kidney, proximal tubular epithelial cells are rich in AADC and urinary free dopamine excretion is a marker for endorenal extraneuronal dopamine synthesis. The urinary free dopamine excretion was analysed in a double-blind cross-over study after oral ingestion of L-Dopa or a placebo in five healthy volunteers. The drug ingestions were separated by one week's wash-out. Since in a preliminary study, two volunteers ingesting a single L-Dopa dose of 500 mg with breakfast experienced nausea, the five volunteers of the present study were given 300 mg L-Dopa (50 mg at 9 am with breakfast, 100 mg before lunch and 150 mg before dinner) without any adverse effects. L-Dopa induced an increase in 24-h urinary dopamine excretion (HPLC with electrochemical detection). Free urinary dopamine (1900 micrograms/24 h) accounted for 0.8% of the daily oral L-Dopa dose and represented 10% of total urinary dopamine excretion. L-Dopa treatment had no significant effect on mean ambulatory arterial blood pressure and heart rate measured from 9 am to 6 pm (Spacelabs) or on 24 h urinary water and sodium excretion. PMID:8458598

  10. Urinary Fluoride Concentration in Children with Disabilities Following Long-Term Fluoride Tablet Ingestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Jung-Ren; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Hsiao, Szu-Yu; Huang, Shun-Te; Chen, Hong-Sen

    2011-01-01

    Urine is the most commonly utilized biomarker for fluoride excretion in public health and epidemiological studies. Approximately 30-50% of fluoride is excreted from urine in children. Urinary fluoride excretion reflects the total fluoride intake from multiple sources. After administering fluoride tablets to children with disabilities, urinary…

  11. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... you risk getting rashes, sores, skin infections and urinary tract infections. Also, you may find yourself avoiding friends and ... elderly and may be a sign of a urinary tract infection or an overactive bladder. Overflow incontinence This type ...

  12. Urinary Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Urinary Dysfunction Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction ... dysfunction is normal following initial therapy for localized prostate cancer. But it’s important to realize that not all ...

  13. Urinary catheters

    MedlinePlus

    ... that you use a catheter if you have: Urinary incontinence (leaking urine or being unable to control when ... Surgery Bladder Diseases Spinal Cord Injuries Urethral Disorders Urinary Incontinence Urine and Urination Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  14. Short communication: Evaluation of nitrogen excretion equations from cattle.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A C B; Reed, K F; Kebreab, E

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen excretion in dairy manure is a precursor for N2O and NH3 formation in livestock housing, manure storage facilities, and after manure is applied to land. Nitrous oxide is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, and reducing N output from dairy production facilities can reduce the amount of anthropogenic N2O entering the atmosphere. The objective of the study was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of extant prediction models for N excretion in feces and urine using extensive literature data. A total of 45 N excretion equations were evaluated for lactating cows, heifers, and nonlactating cows and steers. These equations were evaluated with 215 treatment means from 69 published studies collected over 20 yr from 1995 to 2015. Two evaluation methods were used: the root mean square prediction error and the concordance correlation coefficient. Equations constructed using a more rigorous development process fared better than older extant equations. Equations for heifers and nonlactating cows had greater error of prediction compared with equations used for lactating cows. This could be due to limited amount of data available for construction and evaluation of the equations. Urinary N equations had greater prediction errors than other forms of excretion, possibly due to high variability in urinary N excretion and challenges in urine collection. Fecal N equations had low error bias and reached an acceptable level of precision and accuracy. PMID:27320670

  15. Urinary excretion and metabolism of miglustat and valproate in patients with Niemann-Pick type C1 disease: One- and two-dimensional solution-state (1)H NMR studies.

    PubMed

    Probert, Fay; Ruiz-Rodado, Victor; Zhang, Xiaoyu; te Vruchte, Danielle; Claridge, Tim D W; Edgar, Mark; Tocchio, Anna Zonato; Lachmann, Robin H; Platt, Frances M; Grootveld, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C1 (NP-C1) disease is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease for which the only approved therapy is miglustat (MGS). In this study we explored the applications and value of both one- and two-dimensional high-resolution NMR analysis strategies to the detection and quantification of MGS and its potential metabolites in urine samples collected from NP-C1 disease patients (n=47), and also applied these techniques to the analysis of the anticonvulsant drug valproate and one of its major metabolites in ca. 30% of these samples (i.e. from those who were also receiving this agent for the control of epileptic seizures). A combination of high-resolution 1D and 2D TOCSY/NOESY techniques confirmed the identity of MGS in the urinary (1)H NMR profiles of NP-C1 patients treated with this agent (n=25), and its quantification was readily achievable via electronic integration of selected 1D resonance intensities. However, this analysis provided little or no evidence for its metabolism in vivo, observations consistent with those acquired in corresponding experiments performed involving an in vitro microsomal system. Contrastingly, the major valproate metabolite 1-O-valproyl-β-glucuronide was readily detectable and quantifiable in 14/47 of the urine samples investigated, despite some resonance overlap problems (identification of this agent was confirmed by experiments involving equilibration of these samples with β-glucuronidase, a process liberating free valproate). In order to facilitate and validate the detection of MGS in urine specimens, full assignments of the (1)H NMR spectra of MGS in both buffered aqueous (pH 7.10) and deuterated methanol solvent systems were also made. The pharmacological and bioanalytical significance of data acquired are discussed, with special reference to the advantages offered by high-resolution NMR analysis. PMID:26397207

  16. Compensatory biliary and urinary excretion of gadobenate ion after administration of gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance®) in cases of impaired hepatic or renal function: a mechanism that may aid in the prevention of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis?

    PubMed Central

    Lorusso, V; Pirovano, G

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether increased elimination of gadobenate ion via the hepatobiliary pathway might compensate for reduced/absent elimination via the urinary pathway in the event of compromised renal function, as a possible protective mechanism against nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Methods: 15 male Crl:CD® R(SD)Br rats (Charles River Italia, Como, Italy) randomized to three treatment groups: (1) animals with occluded bile ducts, (2) animals with occluded renal vessels and (3) control animals, each received 0.25 mmol kg−1 of bodyweight of gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance®; Bracco Imaging SpA, Milan, Italy). Urine and bile were collected from 0−30, 30−60, 60−120, 120−240 and 240−480 min after gadobenate dimeglumine administration prior to exsanguination. Determinations of gadobenate ion in blood, bile and urine were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Gadolinium (Gd3+) levels in excised liver and kidneys were determined by X-ray fluorescence. Results: The recovery of gadobenate ion in the urine of rats with bile duct occlusion was significantly higher than that in the urine of normal rats (89.1 ± 4.2% vs 60.6 ± 2.8%; p < 0.0001). Conversely, mean recovery in the bile of rats with renal vessel occlusion was significantly higher than that in the bile of normal rats (96.16 ± 0.55% vs 33.5 ± 4.7%; p < 0.0001). Gadobenate ion was not quantifiable in any group 8 h post-injection. Conclusion: Compensatory elimination may be an effective means to overcome compromised renal or hepatobiliary elimination. Advances in knowledge: The absence of NSF in at-risk patients administered with gadobenate dimeglumine may in part reflect greater Gd3+ elimination via the hepatobiliary route. PMID:25651409

  17. Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (“SONIC”) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in Victoria, Australia, using 24-hour urine collections. Secondary aims were to identify the dietary sources of sodium and potassium, examine the association between these electrolytes and cardiovascular risk factors, and assess children’s taste preferences and saltiness perception of manufactured foods. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of schoolchildren attending primary schools in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed one 24-hour urine collection, which was analyzed for sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Completeness of collections was assessed using collection time, total volume, and urinary creatinine. One 24-hour dietary recall was completed to assess dietary intake. Other data collected included blood pressure, body weight, height, waist and hip circumference. Children were also presented with high and low sodium variants of food products and asked to discriminate salt level and choose their preferred variant. Parents provided demographic information and information on use of discretionary salt. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sodium and potassium intakes. Linear and logistic regression models with clustered robust standard errors will be used to assess the association between electrolyte intake and health outcomes (blood pressure and body mass index/BMI z-score and waist circumference) and to assess differences in taste preference and discrimination between high and low sodium foods, and correlations between

  18. COMPARISON OF THE URINARY METABOLITES OF RATS, MICE, AND HUMANS AFTER ORAL ARSENIC EXPOSURE FOCUSING ON THIOARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary metabolites of arsenic are useful as biomarkers of exposure because ingested arsenic is excreted primarily in urine1. Complete urinary arsenic speciation can provide insight into possible metabolic pathways as well as potential exposure sources. The pattern of excreted me...

  19. Purine derivative excretion in dairy cows: endogenous excretion and the effect of exogenous nucleic acid supply.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M; Balcells, J; Guada, J A; Vicente, F

    2003-04-01

    An experiment was conducted with dairy cows to study the partitioning of excreted purine derivatives between urine and milk and to quantify the endogenous contribution following the isotopic labeling of microbial purine bases. Three lactating cows in their second lactation that had been cannulated in the rumen and the duodenum were fed a mixed diet (48:52, roughage/concentrate ratio) distributed in equal fractions every 2 h, and duodenal flow of purine bases was determined by the dual-phase marker system. Nitrogen-15 was infused continuously into the rumen to label microbial purine bases, and the endogenous fraction was determined from the isotopic dilution in urinary purine derivatives. Urinary and milk recovery of duodenal purine bases were estimated at early (wk 10) and late (wk 33) lactation by the duodenal infusion of incremental doses (75 and 150 mmol purine bases/d) of RNA from Torula yeast. Each period was 6 d, with RNA being infused during the last 4 d, followed by measurement of the flow of purine bases to the duodenum. The isotope dilution of purine derivatives in urine samples confirmed the presence of an endogenous fraction (512 +/- 36.43 micromol/W0.75 or 56.86 mmol/d) amounting to 26 +/- 3.8% of total renal excretion. Total excretion of purine derivatives in urine plus milk was linearly related to the duodenal input of purine bases, but the slopes differed (P < 0.005) between lactation stages resulting in a lower equimolar recovery in early (y = 58.86 (+/-3.89) +0.56 (+/-0.0164) x; r = 0.90) than late lactation (y = 58.86 (+/-3.89) + 0.70 (+/-0.046) x; r = 0.80). Excretion of purine derivatives through milk represented a minimum fraction of total excretion but responded significantly to the duodenal input of purine bases. No differences between lactation stages were detected, and variations in milk yield did modify significantly the amount of purine derivatives excreted through the milk. PMID:12741553

  20. Effects of microgravity on urinary osteopontin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyer, J. R.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Liu, H.; Whitson, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Increased risk of renal stone formation during space flight has been linked primarily to increased calcium excretion from bone demineralization induced by space flight. Other factors contributing to increased risk include increased urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation, while urinary citrate, magnesium and volume are all decreased. The aim of this study was to increase the predictive value of stone risk profiles for crew members during space flight by evaluating the excretion of urinary protein inhibitors of calcium crystallization so that more comprehensive stone risk profiles could relate mineral saturation to the concentrations of inhibitor proteins. Levels of urinary osteopontin (uropontin) are reported in a series of 14 astronauts studied before, during, and after space flights. During space flight, a compensatory increase in uropontin excretion was not observed. However, the uropontin excretion of a majority of astronauts was increased during the period after space flight and was maximal at 2 wk after landing. The downward shift in the molecular size of uropontin observed in samples obtained during space flight was shown to result from storage at ambient temperature during flight, rather than an effect of microgravity on uropontin synthesis.

  1. Evaluation of aldosterone excretion in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Abdel Mohsen, Abdel Hakeem; Taha, Gamal; Kamel, Bothina A; Maksood, Mohamed Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Data about aldosterone production and excretion in the neonatal period are still few and controversial. Our objectives are to assess urinary aldosterone excretion (UAE) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants and to identify clinical and biochemical variables that may influence this excretion. Thirty VLBW infants (14 males and 16 females), their gestational age <32 weeks and body weight <1500 g, were included in the study. Demographic and clinical data were recorded, within the first 72 h of life and urine and blood samples were collected for the measurement of urinary aldosterone and serum potassium, sodium, and chloride. The mean UAE value was 0.176 ± 0.05 μg/24 h and the mean absolute UAE was 1906 ± 271 pg/mL. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between UAE and gestational age and birth weight; also, infants with respiratory distress syndrome had higher urinary aldosterone levels than infants without respiratory distress. Only plasma sodium was a significant independent factor that negatively influenced UAE on linear regression analysis. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system of VLBW infants seems to be able, even immediately after birth, to respond to variations of plasma sodium concentrations; measurement of UAE constitutes an interesting method to determine aldosterone production in VLBW infants. PMID:27424689

  2. Excretion of depleted uranium by Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Toohey, R E

    2003-01-01

    During the Persian Gulf War, in 1991, approximately 100 US military personnel had potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU), including shrapnel wounds. In 1993, the US government initiated a follow-up study of 33 Gulf War veterans who had been exposed to DU, many of whom contained embedded fragments of DU shrapnel in their bodies. The veterans underwent medical evaluation, whole-body counting, and urinalysis for uranium by kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA). Data are available from seven individuals who exceeded the detection limit for whole-body counting and also had elevated urinary uranium. Urinary excretion rates, in microg U g(-1) creatinine, were determined in 1997 and 1999. The body contents, in mg DU, were determined in 1997; it is assumed there were no significant decreases in total body content in the interim. For the 1997 data, the mean fractional excretion was (2.4 +/- 2.8) x 10(-5) g(-1) creatinine, and for the 1999 data, the mean was (1.1 +/- 0.6) x 10(-5) g(-1) creatinine. However, these means are not significantly different, nor is there any correlation of excretion rate with body content. Thus, human data available to date do not provide any basis for determining the effects of particle surface area, composition and solubility, and biological processes such as encapsulation, on the excretion rate. PMID:14526951

  3. A Preliminary Immunologic Study of Urinary Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo, Raymond; Pollak, Victor E.

    1966-01-01

    The clearances of seven different proteins were measured by a quantitative immunodiffusion technique in 15 patients with proteinuria. All urines were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis. The renal histology was evaluated in each case, and no correlation was found between histologic changes and the urinary protein excretion. This observation was confirmed by both immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoretic techniques. No specific urinary protein excretion pattern was found in six patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. High-molecular-weight proteins were rarely found in urine, even when the glomerular basement membrane was definitely thickened. Low-molecular-weight proteins were often observed, but their clearances were variable. The results do not support the suggestion that protein clearances are valuable diagnostic and prognostic tools in renal diseases. They also do not support the view that glomerular filtration is the sole factor responsible for the final patterns of urinary proteins; tubular reabsorption is probably another important factor. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:20328484

  4. Urine excretion strategy for stem cell-generated embryonic kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Yokote, Shinya; Matsunari, Hitomi; Iwai, Satomi; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Uchikura, Ayuko; Fujimoto, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kei; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several recent attempts to generate, de novo, a functional whole kidney from stem cells using the organogenic niche or blastocyst complementation methods. However, none of these attempts succeeded in constructing a urinary excretion pathway for the stem cell-generated embryonic kidney. First, we transplanted metanephroi from cloned pig fetuses into gilts; the metanephroi grew to about 3 cm and produced urine, although hydronephrosis eventually was observed because of the lack of an excretion pathway. Second, we demonstrated the construction of urine excretion pathways in rats. Rat metanephroi or metanephroi with bladders (developed from cloacas) were transplanted into host rats. Histopathologic analysis showed that tubular lumina dilation and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in kidneys developed from cloacal transplants compared with metanephroi transplantation. Then we connected the host animal’s ureter to the cloacal-developed bladder, a technique we called the “stepwise peristaltic ureter” (SWPU) system. The application of the SWPU system avoided hydronephrosis and permitted the cloacas to differentiate well, with cloacal urine being excreted persistently through the recipient ureter. Finally, we demonstrated a viable preclinical application of the SWPU system in cloned pigs. The SWPU system also inhibited hydronephrosis in the pig study. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the SWPU system may resolve two important problems in the generation of kidneys from stem cells: construction of a urine excretion pathway and continued growth of the newly generated kidney. PMID:26392557

  5. Urine excretion strategy for stem cell-generated embryonic kidneys.

    PubMed

    Yokote, Shinya; Matsunari, Hitomi; Iwai, Satomi; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Uchikura, Ayuko; Fujimoto, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kei; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-10-20

    There have been several recent attempts to generate, de novo, a functional whole kidney from stem cells using the organogenic niche or blastocyst complementation methods. However, none of these attempts succeeded in constructing a urinary excretion pathway for the stem cell-generated embryonic kidney. First, we transplanted metanephroi from cloned pig fetuses into gilts; the metanephroi grew to about 3 cm and produced urine, although hydronephrosis eventually was observed because of the lack of an excretion pathway. Second, we demonstrated the construction of urine excretion pathways in rats. Rat metanephroi or metanephroi with bladders (developed from cloacas) were transplanted into host rats. Histopathologic analysis showed that tubular lumina dilation and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in kidneys developed from cloacal transplants compared with metanephroi transplantation. Then we connected the host animal's ureter to the cloacal-developed bladder, a technique we called the "stepwise peristaltic ureter" (SWPU) system. The application of the SWPU system avoided hydronephrosis and permitted the cloacas to differentiate well, with cloacal urine being excreted persistently through the recipient ureter. Finally, we demonstrated a viable preclinical application of the SWPU system in cloned pigs. The SWPU system also inhibited hydronephrosis in the pig study. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the SWPU system may resolve two important problems in the generation of kidneys from stem cells: construction of a urine excretion pathway and continued growth of the newly generated kidney. PMID:26392557

  6. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  7. Occupational cadmium exposure and calcium excretion, bone density, and osteoporosis in men.

    PubMed

    Nawrot, Tim; Geusens, Piet; Nulens, Tom S; Nemery, Benoit

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to cadmium has been associated with osteoporosis and fracture risk in women and the elderly, but studies in middle-aged men are lacking. In 83 male (ex)workers (mean age 45 years; range 24 to 64 years) in a radiator factory using cadmium-containing solder, we investigated the association between urinary cadmium excretion (as an index of lifetime body burden); bone mineral density (BMD) in the distal forearm, hip, and lumbar spine (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); and urinary calcium excretion. Geometric mean urinary cadmium concentration was 1.02 microg/g of creatinine (5th to 95th percentile 0.17 to 5.51 microg/g). BMD was negatively correlated with urinary exposure to cadmium. The partial correlation coefficients (r) adjusted for age, body-mass index, and current smoking were -0.30 (p = .008) for BMD in the forearm, -0.27 (p = .017) in the hip, and -0.17 (p = .15) in the spine. Urinary calcium correlated positively (r = 0.23, p = .044) with the urinary cadmium excretion. Adjusted for the same covariates, the risk of osteoporosis (defined as a T-score below -2.5 in at least one measured bone site) increased dose dependently. Compared with the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium, the risks were 4.8- and 9.9-fold higher in the middle and highest tertiles, respectively. Only four (5%) men had evidence of renal tubular dysfunction (beta(2)-microglobulin > 300 microg/g of creatinine). Even in the absence of renal tubular dysfunction, occupational exposure to cadmium is associated in men with lower BMD values, a higher risk of having osteoporosis, and a higher urinary calcium excretion, suggesting a direct osteotoxic effect of cadmium. PMID:20200937

  8. Urinary micafungin levels are sufficient to treat urinary tract infections caused by Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Grau, S; Luque, S; Echeverría-Esnal, D; Sorlí, L; Campillo, N; Montero, M; Álvarez Lerma, F; Plasencia, V; Horcajada, J P

    2016-08-01

    Six cases of patients diagnosed with urinary tract infection (UTI) successfully treated with micafungin are reported. Four were infected with fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. and two (with hepatic injury) were infected with fluconazole-sensitive Candida spp. Traditionally, echinocandins have not been considered for the treatment of UTIs. However, despite its low urinary excretion rate, therapeutic drug monitoring of micafungin urinary levels could be helpful in order to achieve optimal pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) indices for treating UTIs caused by Candida spp. resistant to fluconazole. PMID:27424599

  9. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can happen to anyone, but it becomes more common with age. Women experience ...

  10. Urinary excretion of phenolic acids in rats fed cranberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary flavonoids can be converted into phenolic acids by colonic microflora and be absorbed into the circulation and may contribute to the health-promoting effects of the parent compounds. The phenolic acids can be further metabolized in other tissues via methylation and conjugation with glucuroni...

  11. Biliary and renal excretions of cefpiramide in Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Muraoka, I; Hasegawa, T; Nadai, M; Wang, L; Haghgoo, S; Tagaya, O; Nabeshima, T

    1995-01-01

    Eisai hyperbilirubinemic mutant rats (EHBRs) with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia were recently derived from Sprague-Dawley rats (SDRs). The pharmacokinetic characteristics of the beta-lactam antibiotic cefpiramide (CPM), which is mainly excreted into bile, were investigated in 10- and 20-week-old EHBRs and were compared with those in 20-week-old healthy SDRs. The pharmacokinetic parameters of CPM after an intravenous administration of 20 mg/kg of body weight were estimated for each rat by noncompartmental methods. When compared with age-matched healthy SDRs, significant decreases (by approximately 30%) in the systemic clearance of CPM were observed in 20-week-old EHBRs. The biliary clearance of CPM in 20-week-old EHBRs markedly decreased to less than 10% of that in age-matched healthy SDRs, while total urinary recovery of unchanged CPM increased to threefold and renal clearance doubled. However, no significant differences in any of the pharmacokinetic parameters of CPM were observed between the two groups of EHBRs. There were no significant differences among the three groups in the steady-state volume of distribution of CPM. The present study indicates that hyperbilirubinemia induces an increase in the urinary excretion ability of CPM in return for a reduction in the biliary excretion. PMID:7695332

  12. Lanthanum Carbonate Reduces Urine Phosphorus Excretion: Evidence of High-Capacity Phosphate Binding

    PubMed Central

    Pennick, Michael; Poole, Lynne; Dennis, Kerry; Smyth, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of phosphate binders can be assessed by evaluating urinary phosphorus excretion in healthy volunteers, which indicates the ability of the phosphate binder to reduce gastrointestinal phosphate absorption. Healthy volunteers were enrolled into one of five separate randomized trials; four were open label and one double blind. Following a screening period of <28 days, participants received differing tablets containing lanthanum carbonate [LC, 3000 mg/day of elemental lanthanum (in one study other doses were also used)]. Participants received a standardized phosphate diet and remained in the relevant study center throughout the duration of each treatment period. The end point in all studies was the reduction in urinary phosphorus excretion. Reductions in mean 24-h urinary phosphorus excretion in volunteers receiving a lanthanum dose of 3000 mg/day were between 236 and 468 mg/day over the five separate studies. These data in healthy volunteers can be used to estimate the amount of reduction of dietary phosphate absorption by LC. The reduction in 24-h urinary phosphorus excretion per tablet was compared with published data on other phosphate binders. Although there are limitations, evidence suggests that LC is a very effective phosphate binder in terms of binding per tablet. PMID:22250993

  13. UREA PRODUCTION, RECYCLING AND EXCRETION IN FORAGE-FED BEEF STEERS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments with growing beef steers fed hays of warm season (gamagrass and switchgrass) or cool season (tall fescue) grasses showed a strong linear relationship between urea production by the animal and urinary urea excretion as functions of nitrogen (crude protein) intake. The nature of the r...

  14. EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTING RUMEN-PROTECTED METHIONINE ON PRODUCTION AND NITROGEN EXCRETION IN LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two 4 x 4 Latin square trials (4-week periods; 16 weeks total) were conducted to see if supplementing rumen-protected Met (RPM; fed as Mepron®) would allow feeding less crude protein (CP), thereby reducing urinary N excretion, but without losing production. In trial 1, 24 Holsteins were fed 4 diets ...

  15. Urinary kallikrein in the rat: stimulation with angiotensin infusion but depression with increasing sodium concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, I H; Lee, G; Brownlee, A A

    1994-01-01

    1. The kallikrein response to angiotensin II infusion in the conscious rat was studied to compare it with the response in the dog. 2. Active kallikrein was measured by the aprotinin-suppressible esterase technique in 20 min periods. Angiotensin (5 x 10(-9) to 5 x 10(-2) micrograms min-1) was infused in 10 mM saline in period 10 (group A), or in 90 mM saline in periods 10-12 (group B). 3. In group A, no dose of angiotensin was antinatriuretic. Natriuresis and urinary sodium concentration were dose dependent. 4. Kallikrein excretion was dose dependent with angiotensin (P < 0.0001) and inversely correlated with urinary sodium concentration (P = 0.011). In natriuretic and non-natriuretic rats, kallikrein excretion after angiotensin was inversely correlated with urinary sodium concentration in the preceding period. 5. In group B, natriuresis and urinary sodium concentration were dose dependent. Kallikrein excretion in periods 10-13 was inversely correlated with urinary sodium concentration in the preceding period (P = 0.0001) and inversely correlated with urinary osmolality in periods 9-13. 6. Infusion of angiotensin II at 5 x 10(-6) micrograms min-1 led to antinatriuresis. 7. Formulae were derived which enabled the opposing effects of angiotensin and urinary sodium concentration on kallikrein excretion to be separated. In group A both these effects were statistically significant only in the natriuretic rats (natriuresis > 20 mumols per period). In group B the formulae showed a dose-dependent rise in kallikrein excretion, which was counteracted by the decrease in kallikrein excretion associated with the increasing urinary sodium concentration. 8. With infusions of 0.9% saline, kallikrein excretion in periods 10-13 was inversely correlated with urinary sodium concentration in the preceding period (P = 0.001). 9. The overall effect in the rat differs from that in the dog, where kallikrein increases with angiotensin natriuresis and dilution of the urine occurs. PMID

  16. Variations of melatonin and stress hormones under extended shifts and radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, Katia Koicheva; Israel, Mishel Salvador

    2005-01-01

    We studied the time-of-day variations in urinary levels of 6-sulphatoxy-melatonin and three stress hormones in operators working fast-rotating extended shifts under radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The excretion rate of the hormones was monitored by radioimmunoassay and spectrofluorimetry at 4-hour intervals in a group of 36 male operators comprising 12 broadcasting station operators, 12 TV station operators, and a control group of 12 satellite station operators. Measuring the time-weighted average (TWA) of EMR exposure revealed a high-level of exposure in broadcasting station operators (TWAmean= 3.10 microW/ cm2, TWAmax = 137.00 microW/cm2), a low-level in TV station operators (TWAmean = 1.89 microW/cm2, TWAmax = 5.24 microW/cm2), and a very low level in satellite station operators. The differences among the groups remained the same after confounding factors were taken into account. Radiofrequency EMR had no effect on the typical diurnal pattern of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin. High-level radiofrequency EMR exposure significantly increased the excretion rates of cortisol (p < 0.001), adrenaline (p = 0.028), and noradrenaline (p < 0.000), whereas changes under low-level exposure did not reach significance. The 24-hour excretion of cortisol and noradrenaline correlated with TWAmean and TWAmax. In conclusion, the excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin retained a typical diurnal pattern under fast-rotating extended shifts and radiofrequency EMR, but showed an exposure-effect relation with stress hormones. PMID:16121836

  17. The absorption and excretion of fluoride and arsenic in humans.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yujian; Wu, Jiyao; Ng, Jack C; Wang, Guoquan; Lian, Wu

    2002-07-01

    The absorption and excretion of fluoride and arsenic were measured in a group of healthy volunteers given drinking water with naturally high concentration of fluoride (F 2.3 mg/l)(,) or high concentration of arsenic (As 0.15 mg/l), or high concentrations of both fluoride and arsenic (F 2.25 mg/l, As 0.23 mg/l and F 4.05 mg/l, As 0.58 mg/l), respectively. The results indicated that, for arsenic, the absorption rate, the proportion of urinary excretion and the biological-half-life did not show statistically significant differences between drinking water containing high arsenic alone and drinking water containing different levels of high arsenic and fluoride. Excretion and retention of arsenic were positively correlated to the total arsenic intake. Similar results were observed for fluoride. This suggests that there are different metabolic processes for arsenic and fluoride in respect to absorption and excretion; and no joint action can be attributed by these two elements. PMID:12076512

  18. Excretion of 14C-labeled cyanide in rats exposed to chronic intake of potassium cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Okoh, P.N.

    1983-09-15

    The excretion of an acute dose of 14C-labeled cyanide in urine, feces, and expired air was studied in rats exposed to daily intake of unlabeled KCN in the diet for 6 weeks. Urinary excretion was the main route of elimination of cyanide carbon in these rats, accounting for 83% of the total excreted radioactivity in 12 hr and 89% of the total excreted radioactivity in 24 hr. The major excretion metabolite of cyanide in urine was thiocyanate, and this metabolite accounted for 71 and 79% of the total urinary activity in 12 hr and 24 hr, respectively. The mean total activity excreted in expired air after 12 hr was only 4%, and this value did not change after 24 hr. Of the total activity in expired air in 24 hr, 90% was present as carbon dioxide and 9% as cyanide. When these results were compared with those observed for control rats, it was clear that the mode of elimination of cyanide carbon in both urine and breath was not altered by the chronic intake of cyanide.

  19. Can the manipulation of urinary pH by beverages assist with the prevention of stone recurrence?

    PubMed

    Siener, Roswitha

    2016-02-01

    The formation of various types of stones in the urinary tract is strongly influenced by urinary pH. An acidic urinary pH promotes the crystallization of uric acid and cystine, respectively. Moreover, changes in systemic acid-base homeostasis alter urinary excretion of citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium oxalate stone formation. The effect of beverages on urinary pH and citrate excretion is mainly determined by the presence of bicarbonate and citrate. The bicarbonate content of mineral water can replace alkalization therapy with potassium citrate and contribute to urine inhibitory power by increasing urinary pH and citrate excretion. Citrus juices are rich sources of citrate. Oral citrate is absorbed in the intestine and nearly completely metabolized to bicarbonate, providing an alkali load, which in turn increases urinary pH and citrate excretion. However, data from observational and interventional studies on the effect of different types of citrus juices on the risk of urinary stone formation are conflicting. In conclusion, favourable changes in urinary pH and citrate excretion can be attained by various beverages. However, the long-term efficacy of certain beverages for the recurrence prevention of different types of stones has yet to be determined. PMID:26614113

  20. Urinary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, P. R.

    1971-01-01

    The present incidence, clinical features and classification of urinary tuberculosis are discussed. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment. The indications for surgical intervention are reviewed and procedures briefly described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5169185

  1. Urinary Retention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bladder does not empty completely. A health care provider performs this test during an office visit. The patient often receives ... urodynamic tests to diagnose urinary retention. The health care provider will perform these tests during an office visit. For tests that use ...

  2. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults Making Your Wishes Known Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Urinary Incontinence Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...

  3. Dietary effect on urinary thioethers.

    PubMed

    Rosen, P B; Snodgrass, W R; Riggs, M

    1999-01-01

    Urinary thioethers are a biomarker for reactive metabolites, which are detoxified via glutathione. We conducted this study to establish the effect of diet on a sample of persons we screened to exclude exposure from such substances. Our second objective was to develop a distribution curve to be used for comparison to exposed populations. Volunteers were sought who did not work or live in locations where known toxic exposures were likely to occur. We mainly recruited office personnel and secretarial staff. We screened subjects for environmental exposures via a written questionnaire. Subjects gave us an initial random urine specimen before they were placed on a diet low in thioethers. We then measured urinary thioethers on these specimens with a modified Ellman technique. We compared 126 paired results. Results demonstrated that diet decreased urine thioether excretion in most cases (i.e., 75 of 126 had a decrease in thioethers). Initially, the difference in mean excretion at the time of prediet and postdiet, however, was not significant (p = .22). We removed 2 extreme outliers, the result of which was a significant difference in means (paired t test, p < .01). The standard deviation within each of the two groups did not differ significantly (p = .82). PMID:10634232

  4. Profile of urinary arsenic metabolites during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Hopenhayn, Claudia; Huang, Bin; Christian, Jay; Peralta, Cecilia; Ferreccio, Catterina; Atallah, Raja; Kalman, David

    2003-01-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (In-As) from drinking water is associated with different health effects, including skin, lung, bladder, and kidney cancer as well as vascular and possibly reproductive effects. In-As is metabolized through the process of methylation, resulting in the production and excretion of methylated species, mainly monomethylarsenate (MMA) and dimethylarsenate (DMA). Because a large percentage of the dose is excreted in urine, the distribution of urinary In-As, MMA, and DMA is considered a useful indicator of methylation patterns in human populations. Several factors affect these patterns, including sex and exposure level. In this study, we investigated the profile of urinary In-As, MMA, and DMA of pregnant women. Periodic urine samples were collected from early to late pregnancy among 29 pregnant women living in Antofagasta, Chile, who drank tap water containing 40 micro g/L In-As. The total urinary arsenic across four sampling periods increased with increasing weeks of gestation, from an initial mean value of 36.1 to a final value of 54.3 micro g/L. This increase was mainly due to an increase in DMA, resulting in lower percentages of In-As and MMA and a higher percentage of DMA. Our findings indicate that among women exposed to moderate arsenic from drinking water during pregnancy, changes occur in the pattern of urinary arsenic excretion and metabolite distribution. The toxicologic significance of this is not clear, given recent evidence suggesting that intermediate methylated species may be highly toxic. Nevertheless, this study suggests that arsenic metabolism changes throughout the course of pregnancy, which in turn may have toxicologic effects on the developing fetus. Key words: arsenic, arsenic metabolism, arsenic methylation, Chile, pregnancy, urinary arsenic. PMID:14644662

  5. Decreased excretion of glycosaminoglycans in patients with primary glomerular diseases.

    PubMed

    Tencer, J; Torffvit, O; Björnsson, S; Thysell, H; Grubb, A; Rippe, B

    1997-10-01

    Urine glycosaminoglycans (GAG) concentrations were measured in 150 patients with primary glomerulonephritides: endocapillary glomerulonephritis, mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, IgA nephropathy, membranous glomerulonephritis and minimal change nephropathy, and in 63 healthy controls and 19 patients with diabetes nephropathy. The urine GAG to creatinine ratios (GCR) were significantly reduced (p < 0.01) in all the glomerulonephritides investigated (0.20 mg/mmol in endocapillary glomerulonephritis, 1.60 mg/mmol in mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, 1.74 mg/mmol in IgA nephropathy, 1.09 mg/mmol in membranous nephropathy, and 1.16 mg/mmol in minimal change nephropathy) compared to healthy controls (2.87 mg/mmol) but not compared to diabetes patients (1.17 mg/mmol). Also, the GCR in a group of 23 non-albuminuric glomerulonephritis patients (1.98 mg/mmol) was shown to be significantly decreased (p < 0.01) compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the GCR was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in endocapillary glomerulonephritis than in any of the other diseases studied. The GAG excretion per functioning glomerular area, calculated as fractional GAG excretion (FGE), was decreased in all the glomerulonephritides investigated compared to both healthy controls and diabetes nephropathy. The decreased GAG excretion in glomerulonephritides, obtained in the present study, might be a consequence of decreased synthesis or turnover of GAG in the functioning nephrons whereas the mechanisms for the reduced GAG excretion in diabetes nephropathy might be of a different nature. Urinary GAG excretion in this group of glomerular disorders and particularly in endocapillary glomerulonephritis, may lead to new approaches in non-invasive renal diagnostics and, particularly with regard to the differentiation of acute and chronic forms of glomerulonephritides. PMID:9352154

  6. Absorption, metabolism and excretion of flavanones from single portions of orange fruit and juice and effects of anthropometric variables and contraceptive pill use on flavanone excretion

    PubMed Central

    Brett, Gary M.; Hollands, Wendy; Needs, Paul W.; Teucher, Birgit; Dainty, Jack R.; Davis, Barry D.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Kroon, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Oranges are rich sources of flavonoids that are bioactive and may protect against age-related diseases. The absorption of orange flavanones may be affected by factors such as processing and subject anthropometric variables, and the bioactivity of the absorbed phytochemicals depends on how they are metabolised during absorption. In a randomised cross-over study, twenty subjects consumed a single portion of orange fruit (150 g) or juice (300 g) that contained the flavanones narirutin and hesperidin, and an additional 109 subjects across a broad age range (18–80 years) consumed the juice. Flavanone metabolites were measured in regularly collected samples of plasma and urine. After consumption of fruit or juice, flavanone conjugates, but not the aglycones, were detected in plasma and urine. The flavanone conjugates were shown to include the 7- and 4′-O-monoglucuronides of naringenin, the 7- and 3′-O-monoglucuronides of hesperetin, two hesperetin diglucuronides and a hesperetin sulfo-glucuronide, but no aglycones or rutinosides. Analysis of the plasma pharmacokinetic and urinary excretion data on a dose-adjusted basis indicated no difference in absorption or excretion of either flavanone between the fruit and juice matrices. In the extended urinary excretion dataset the individual variation was very large (range 0–59 % urinary yield). There was a small but significant (P<0·05) decrease in the excretion of hesperetin (but not naringenin) with increasing age (P<0·05), but the effects of sex, BMI and contraceptive pill use were shown not to be associated with the variation in flavanone excretion. PMID:18710603

  7. [Acceleration of the excretion of monomeric 239Pu-citrate from the body as effected by pentacyne encapsulated in liposomes].

    PubMed

    Il'in, L A; Smirnov, A A; Ivannikov, A T; Parfenova, I M

    1983-01-01

    Liposomes, obtained by a modified procedure involving reverse phases, contained 2-3-times more 14C-pentacyne than the multilayer Banchem;s liposomes. Efficiency of pentacyne encapsulated in liposomes was higher, as compared with a non-encapsulated preparation in studies of urinary excretion of monomeric 239Pu-citrate in rats. Liposomal pentacyne increased most effectively the rate of the radionuclide excretion from liver tissue and skeleton as compared with the action of non-encapsulated complex-forming agent; as a result of which the radionuclide was excreted from liver tissue at a 1.6-2-times and from skeleton--with the 1.4-times higher rates. The both preparations increased the 239Pu excretion with urine and feces. The liposomal pentacyne accelerated an additional excretion of the nuclide with urine. PMID:6353751

  8. Ammonia excretion by Azobacter chroococcum

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, N.; Lakshminarayana, K.; Tauro, P.

    1981-02-01

    In recent years, research has focused attention on the development of biological systems for nitrogen fixation. In this report, two strains of Azotobacter chroococcum are identified which can excrete as much as 45 mg ammonia/ml of the culture broth in a sucrose supplemented synthetic medium.

  9. Comparative effects of chelating agents on distribution, excretion, and renal toxicity of inorganic mercury in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, S.; Shimada, H.; Kiyozumi, M. )

    1989-06-01

    The effects of three chelating agents, sodium N-benzyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate(NBG-DTC), 2,3-dimercaptopropanol(BAL), and D-penicillamine(D-PEN), on the distribution, excretion, and renal toxicity of inorganic mercury were compared in rats exposed to HgCl2. Rats were injected i.p. with 203HgCl2 (300 micrograms of Hg and 2 microCi of 203Hg/kg) and 30 min or 24 h later they were injected with a chelating agent (a quarter of an LD50). The injection of the chelating agents significantly enhanced the biliary and urinary excretions of mercury. BAL was the most effective for removal of mercury from the body at 30 min after mercury treatment. The extent of enhancing effect of the chelating agents for removal of mercury at 24 h after mercury was in the order NBG-DTC = BAL greater than D-PEN. The injection of BAL at 24 h after mercury treatment caused the redistribution of mercury to the heart and lung. NBG-DTC did not result in the redistribution of mercury to the heart, lung, and brain. Urinary excretion of protein and AST significantly increased 24-48 h after mercury treatment and decreased to the control values 72 h after mercury. The injection of the chelating agents at 30 min after mercury treatment significantly decreased the urinary excretion of protein and AST. In rats pretreated with mercury 24 h earlier, the chelating agents significantly decreased the urinary protein at 48 h after mercury treatment, but did not decrease the urinary AST. The results of this study indicate that the chelating agents are effective in removing mercury from the body, resulting in the protective effect against the mercury-induced renal damage.

  10. Stress urinary incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... you urinate. Urinalysis to check for urinary tract infection. Urinary stress test: You stand with a full bladder ... out of the bed or chair Unpleasant odors Urinary tract infections Vaginal discharge The condition may get in the ...

  11. Effect of metal chelators on excretion and tissue levels of essential trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, S.K.; Jain, V.K.; Mathur, A.K.

    1984-10-01

    The influence of one, three, and six doses of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and triethylenetetramine (TETA) on the urinary excretion of Ca, Cu, Fe, and Zn, and on their levels in liver, kidneys, heart, and serum in rats, was investigated to ascertain their suitability in amelioration of metal intoxication. While excretion of all the essential trace metals examined was enhanced significantly, the tissue and serum levels of some of them either increased or decreased after administration of the chelators. The results suggest depletion of some of the endogenous trace metals from the body and their intertissue redistribution following treatment with these chelating agents.

  12. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  13. Effect of dietary oxalate and calcium on urinary oxalate and risk of formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Massey, L K; Roman-Smith, H; Sutton, R A

    1993-08-01

    Dietary restriction of oxalate intake has been used as therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Although urinary oxalate is derived predominantly from endogenous synthesis, it may also be affected by dietary intake of oxalate and calcium. The risk of increasing urinary oxalate excretion by excessive consumption of dietary oxalate is greatest in individuals with a high rate of oxalate absorption, both with and without overt intestinal disease. Although oxalate-rich foods enhanced excretion of urinary oxalate in normal volunteers, the increase was not proportional to the oxalate content of the food. Only eight foods--spinach, rhubarb, beets, nuts, chocolate, tea, wheat bran, and strawberries--caused a significant increase in urinary oxalate excretion. Restriction of dietary calcium enhances oxalate absorption and excretion, whereas an increase in calcium intake may reduce urinary oxalate excretion by binding more oxalate in the gut. This review of the literature indicates that initial dietary therapy for stone-forming individuals can be limited to the restriction of foods definitely shown to increase urinary oxalate. The effects of oxalate-restricted diets on urinary oxalate should be evaluated by means of laboratory analyses of urine composition. Subsequent long-term therapy can be recommended if beneficial results are obtained from oxalate restriction at an appropriate calcium intake. PMID:8335871

  14. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Our ePublications > Urinary tract infection fact sheet ePublications Urinary tract infection fact sheet Print this fact sheet Urinary tract ... a doctor find out if I have a urinary tract infection (UTI)? To find out if you have a ...

  15. The Excretion of Renal Cells Following Necrosis of the Distal Segment of the Nephron by Hexadi-Methrine Bromide

    PubMed Central

    Davies, D. J.; Kennedy, A.; Roberts, C.

    1969-01-01

    The rate of excretion of renal cells was determined in rats with necrosis of the distal convoluted tubules and broad ascending limbs of the loops of Henle caused by injection of hexadimethrine bromide. The magnitude and the duration of abnormal cell excretion were correlated both with the dose of hexadimethrine and with the degree of damage that was evident on histological examination of the kidney. In general cell excretion studies provided a satisfactory indication of the degree of renal damage but the smallest lesions did not cause a significant increase in cell excretion and occasionally a rat with a very large lesion failed to show an increase in cell excretion rate. The changes in excretion rates observed in the present experiments were less than those found previously in animals with necrosis of proximal convoluted tubules caused by mercuric chloride. This is probably due firstly to the smaller number of cells in the distal nephron and secondly to the toxin causing disintegration of many of the cells. These findings have implications for the investigation of analgesic nephrotoxicity by measurement of urinary cell excretion rates. In order to appreciate the significance of increases in renal cell excretion following administration of various substances their site of action and the type of cell damage that they cause must first be established. ImagesFigs. 1-4 PMID:5792904

  16. The nature of urinary casts

    PubMed Central

    McQueen, E. G.

    1962-01-01

    The composition of hyaline casts has been investigated. The major constituent appears to be the urinary mucoprotein described by Tamm and Horsfall. Small amounts only of serum proteins are present. Neither the amounts excreted nor the concentration of Tamm-Horsfall protein appeared to determine the rate of cast formation. The only invariable association of hyaline cast formation was with the presence of significant amounts of serum proteins in the urine. In vitro it was found that aqueous solutions of serum albumin were particularly effective in producing precipitation of Tamm-Horsfall protein. This interaction was inhibited in normal urine but occurred to a greater extent in nephrotic urine and is suggested as the possible mechanism of hyaline cast formation. Images PMID:16810981

  17. Tissue dosimetry, metabolism and excretion of pentavalent and trivalent dimethylated arsenic in mice after oral administration

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Michael F. Devesa, Vicenta; Adair, Blakely M.; Conklin, Sean D.; Creed, John T.; Styblo, Miroslav; Kenyon, Elaina M.; Thomas, David J.

    2008-02-15

    Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) is a rat bladder carcinogen and the major urinary metabolite of administered inorganic arsenic in most mammals. This study examined the disposition of pentavalent and trivalent dimethylated arsenic in mice after acute oral administration. Adult female mice were administered [{sup 14}C]-DMA(V) (0.6 or 60 mg As/kg) and sacrificed serially over 24 h. Tissues and excreta were collected for analysis of radioactivity. Other mice were administered unlabeled DMA(V) (0.6 or 60 mg As/kg) or dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) (0.6 mg As/kg) and sacrificed at 2 or 24 h. Tissues (2 h) and urine (24 h) were collected and analyzed for arsenicals. Absorption, distribution and excretion of [{sup 14}C]-DMA(V) were rapid, as radioactivity was detected in tissues and urine at 0.25 h. For low dose DMA(V) mice, there was a greater fractional absorption of DMA(V) and significantly greater tissue concentrations of radioactivity at several time points. Radioactivity distributed greatest to the liver (1-2% of dose) and declined to less than 0.05% in all tissues examined at 24 h. Urinary excretion of radioactivity was significantly greater in the 0.6 mg As/kg DMA(V) group. Conversely, fecal excretion of radioactivity was significantly greater in the high dose group. Urinary metabolites of DMA(V) included DMA(III), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide. Urinary metabolites of DMA(III) included TMAO, dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide. DMA(V) was also excreted by DMA(III)-treated mice, showing its sensitivity to oxidation. TMAO was detected in tissues of the high dose DMA(V) group. The low acute toxicity of DMA(V) in the mouse appears to be due in part to its minimal retention and rapid elimination.

  18. Distinct Roles of Urinary Liver-Type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein in Non-Diabetic Patients with Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Naohiko; Yasuda, Takashi; Kamijo-Ikemori, Atsuko; Shibagaki, Yugo; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Various stresses including ischemia are known to up-regulate renal L-FABP gene expression and increase the urinary excretion of L-FABP. In diabetic patients with anemia, the urinary excretion of L-FABP is significantly increased. We studied the clinical significance of urinary L-FABP and its relationship with anemia in non-diabetic patients. Subjects and Methods A total of 156 patients were studied in this retrospective cross-sectional analysis. The associations between anemia and urinary L-FABP levels, and the predictors of urinary L-FABP levels in non-diabetic patients were evaluated. Results Urinary L-FABP levels were significantly higher in patients with anemia compared to those in patients without anemia. Similarly, the urinary L-FABP levels were significantly higher in patients with albuminuria compared to those in patients without albuminuria. Urinary L-FABP levels correlated with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios, estimated glomerular filtration rates, body mass index, and hemoglobin levels. Multivariate linear regression analysis determined that hemoglobin levels (β = -0.249, P = 0.001) and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (β = 0.349, P < 0.001) were significant predictors of urinary L-FABP levels. Conclusions Urinary L-FABP is strongly associated with anemia in non-diabetic patients. PMID:26010898

  19. Effect of 14 days of bed rest on urine metabolite excretion and plasma enzyme levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Newsom, B. D.

    1974-01-01

    After 1 week of ambulatory base-line measurement, a group of 8 men 19-26 years of age remained continuously recumbent for 14 days. Studies were continued for 1 week following the prolonged recumbency. Urine excretion rates for a number of constituents were determined 2 days before bed rest, on day 14 of bed rest, and day 6 after bed rest. Blood plasma samples were also obtained at these times, and analyzed for several enzymes. On day 14 of bed rest significant increases were observed in urine excretion of total osmotically-active substances, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, creatinine, hydroxyproline, and 17-OH corticosteroids. A decrease occurred in urinary glucose excretion. Plasma levels of alkaline phosphatase and LDH-3 were depressed, while plasma GPT was elevated. Many of these changes persisted on day 6 after bed rest, and are interpreted as concomitants of the disuse atrophy of the musculoskeletal system that characterizes prolonged bed rest and weightlessness.

  20. Cisplatin based chemotherapy in testicular cancer patients: long term platinum excretion and clinical effects.

    PubMed

    Hohnloser, J H; Schierl, R; Hasford, B; Emmerich, B

    1996-09-20

    Patients with advanced testicular cancer (TC) have a very good long-term prognosis owing to cisplatin-based polychemotherapy. Platinum is believed to be excreted at a rapid rate via urine within weeks after chemotherapy. As a new, highly sensitive method has become available detecting even natural background platinum levels in body fluids, this study was set up to analyze urinary and serum platinum levels in long-term survivors of testicular neoplasm after cisplatin based polychemotherapy and to correlate clinical data with urinary and serum platinum levels. Urinary platinum concentrations were measured in 64 healthy controls (C) and 22 male patients (TC) 150 to 3022 days after the last application of i.v. cisplatin using voltammetry after UV-photolysis. In the latter group (TC), serum platinum levels were measured as well. Clinical data were analysed as to long-term organ toxicity. Mean urinary platinum levels were 2700 times higher in the patient group (TC) than natural background noise (p < 0.0001). There was a decline of urinary and serum platinum levels over time, being significantly above normal even 8 years after cisplatin exposure. The only significant variables related to the urine platinum concentration were a) the interval between the last i.v. cisplatin application and time of study and b) the total dose given. Not significant were the number of chemotherapy cycles, pre-therapy renal disease, patient age, tumour resection before/after chemotherapy, site of pre/post therapy resection, clinical staging, histological subtypes or tumour markers. Post-therapy renal disease or peripheral nerve damage were not significantly associated with urinary platinum levels. Our data indicate that even 8 years after cisplatin based chemotherapy 500 times elevated urinary and serum platinum levels can be measured in testicular cancer patients. No organ toxicity related to long-term platinum excretion could be detected. This may be due to our small sample size. PMID

  1. Collagen cross-link excretion during space flight and bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Nillen, J. L.; Leblanc, A.; Lipton, A.; Demers, L. M.; Lane, H. W.; Leach, C. S.; LeBlanc, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Extended exposure to weightlessness results in bone loss. However, little information exists as to the precise nature or time course of this bone loss. Bone resorption results in the release of collagen breakdown products, including N-telopeptide and the pyridinium (PYD) cross-links, pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. Urinary pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline are known to increase during bed rest. We assessed excretion of PYD cross-links and N-telopeptide before, during, and after long (28-day, 59-day, and 84-day) Skylab missions, as well as during short (14-day) and long (119-day) bed-rest studies. During space flight, the urinary cross-link excretion level was twice those observed before flight. Urinary excretion levels of the collagen breakdown products were also 40-50% higher, during short and long bed rest, than before. These results clearly show that the changes in bone metabolism associated with space flight involve increased resorption. The rate of response (i.e. within days to weeks) suggests that alterations in bone metabolism are an early effect of weightlessness. These studies are important for a better understanding of bone metabolism in space crews and in those who are bedridden.

  2. Daily uranium excretion in German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans compared to ICRP model prediction.

    PubMed

    Oeh, U; Li, W B; Höllriegl, V; Giussani, A; Schramel, P; Roth, P; Paretzke, H G

    2007-01-01

    An investigation was performed to assess a possible health risk of depleted uranium (DU) for residents and German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans. In order to evaluate a possible DU intake, the urinary uranium excretions of volunteers were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In total, more than 1300 urine samples from soldiers, civil servants and unexposed controls of different genders and ages were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. All participating volunteers, aged 3-92 y, were grouped according to their gender and age for evaluation. The results of the investigation revealed no significant difference between the unexposed controls and the peacekeeping personnel. In addition, the geometric means of the daily urinary excretion in peacekeeping personnel, ranging from 3 to 23 ng d(-1) for different age groups, fall toward the lower end of renal uranium excretion values published for unexposed populations in literature. The measured data were compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection prediction for the intake of natural uranium by unexposed members of the public. The two data sets are in good agreement, indicating that no relevant intake of additional uranium, either natural or DU, has appeared for German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans. PMID:17567762

  3. Urine synaptopodin excretion is an important marker of glomerular disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon Kil; Kim, Seung Jung; Kim, Hye-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Podocytes play an important role in maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier and in formation of the slit diaphragm. Podocyte loss is associated with chronic kidney disease progression, but it is not clear whether urinary podocyte proteins in urine reflect the clinical extent of glomerular damage. We investigated the correlation between the amounts of urinary podocyte proteins and renal function and albuminuria. Methods: The study enrolled 33 patients with diabetic kidney disease or glomerular disease and measured urinary podocytes proteins using Western blotting. Urinary podocyte proteins were measured according to the density of the bands on Western blotting. We measured serum creatinine and the spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio as markers of renal damage, and compared the correlation of urinary podocyte protein in the glomerular disease patients. Results: The mean patient age was 49.3 ± 16.5 years, the mean serum creatinine level was 2.30 ± 1.76 mg/dL, and the mean albumin/creatinine ratio was 4.85 ± 3.52. Among the podocyte proteins, urine synaptopodin showed strong correlation with serum creatinine by multivariate regression analysis (p < 0.001) and showed linear correlation (r = 0.429, p < 0.01). Urine podocyte proteins were increased in patients with diabetes, and synaptopodin showed the greatest significant difference (7.68 ± 5.61 vs. 2.56 ± 3.11, p < 0.001), but this might be associated with renal impairment. The urine albumin excretion did not differ between the diabetics and non-diabetics (p = 0.73). Conclusions: Urine synaptopodin is associated with serum creatinine elevation in the patients with glomerulonephritis including diabetic kidney disease regardless of urine albumin excretion. We suggest that the urine synaptopodin level can predict glomerular damage independently of the urine albumin excretion. PMID:27604800

  4. Urinary and metabolic clearances of arginine vasopressin in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, A.M.; Steciak, E.

    1986-08-01

    Synthetic arginine vasopressin (AVP) was infused into 11 hydrated normal subjects at five different infusion rates ranging from 10 to 350 U kg min . Each infusion rate was continued for 1 h, and urinary determinations were made on the 30- to 60-min specimens during which time there was no further rise in plasma AVP. Urinary AVP concentrations ( U/ml) and excretion rates ( U/min) increased linearly with increasing infusion rates, and the concentration of AVP in urine increased 120 times more rapid than plasma. Urinary and metabolic clearances of AVP also increased linearly with the maximum urinary clearance being 60.6% of the creatinine clearance. The total metabolic clearance of AVP (including urinary clearance) was 17.8 times that of the urinary clearance of AVP alone. These data clarify the relationships between plasma and urinary AVP in normal hydrated subjects during AVP infusion under steady-state conditions and emphasize the potential advantage of measuring urinary AVP as a monitor of endogenous AVP secretion. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

  5. Excretion of artifactual endogenous digitalis-like factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.A.

    1986-07-01

    Radioimmunoassays have been used to detect digoxin-like immunoreactive factors (DLF) in the plasma and urine of hypertensive patients and rats with deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. DLF, partially purified from DOCA-HS urine by antidigoxin antibody immunoaffinity chromatography, was found to have a molecular weight <2000. When DOCA-HS rats were switched to the low-sodium chow, DLF excretion dropped precipitously. No measurable DLF was detected in the plasma of rats eating either chow. However, >95% of the urinary DLF could be attributed to a contaminant in the standard laboratory chow. These data document the importance of excluding nonspecific compounds and exogenous sources of DLF when sensitive radioligand and biologic assays are used to detect endogenous inhibitors of the sodium pump.

  6. Alpha- and gamma-tocotrienols are metabolized to carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman derivatives and excreted in human urine.

    PubMed

    Lodge, J K; Ridlington, J; Leonard, S; Vaule, H; Traber, M G

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding metabolism of vitamin E forms, especially the tocotrienols. Carboxyethyl-hydroxychromans (alpha- and gamma-CEHC) are human urinary metabolites of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols, respectively. To evaluate whether tocotrienols are also metabolized and excreted as urinary CEHC, urine was monitored following tocotrienol supplementation. Complete (24 h) urine collections were obtained for 2 d prior to (baseline), the day of, and 2 d after human subjects (n = 6) ingested tocotrienol supplements. The subjects consumed 125 mg gamma-tocotrienyl acetate the first week, then the next week 500 mg; then 125 mg alpha-tocotrienyl acetate was administered the third week, followed by 500 mg the fourth week. Urinary alpha- and gamma-CEHC were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Urinary gamma-CEHC levels rose about four- to sixfold in response to the two doses of gamma-tocotrienol and then returned to baseline the following day. Significant (P < 0.0001) increases in urinary alpha-CEHC were observed only following ingestion of 500 mg alpha-tocotrienyl acetate. Typically, 1-2% of alpha-tocotrienyl acetates or 4-6% of gamma-tocotrienyl acetates were recovered as their respective urinary CEHC metabolites. A gamma-CEHC excretion time course showed an increase in urinary gamma-CEHC at 6 h and a peak at 9 h following ingestion of 125 mg gamma-tocotrienyl acetate. In summary, tocotrienols, like tocopherols, are metabolized to CEHC; however, the quantities excreted in human urine are small in relation to dose size. PMID:11214728

  7. Longitudinal gonadal steroid excretion in free-living male and female meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Moss, A M; Clutton-Brock, T H; Monfort, S L

    2001-05-01

    Slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) are small, diurnal, cooperatively breeding mongooses of the family Herpestidae. A prerequisite to fully understanding the mating system of meerkats is the development of a normative reproductive-endocrine database. This study examined longitudinal gonadal steroid excretion in all adult and juvenile individuals of both sexes within a social group of free-living meerkats sampled across an entire breeding season. The specific objectives of this study were to (1) validate noninvasive (fecal and urinary) gonadal steroid hormone monitoring techniques in male (testosterone) and female (estrogens, progestagens) meerkats; (2) test the feasibility of using these noninvasive methods under field conditions; (3) characterize the endocrine correlates associated with the female reproductive cycle, including estrus, gestation, and postpartum estrus; (4) examine longitudinal androgen excretion in males; and (5) determine whether social status (i.e., dominant versus subordinate) affected gonadal steroid excretion. In females, the results demonstrated the physiological validity of noninvasive monitoring in meerkats by corresponding excretory hormone concentrations to major reproductive events (i.e., estrous, pregnancy, parturition). Hormone excretory patterns during estrous intervals suggested possible mechanisms whereby reproductive suppression may operate in female meerkats. In males, androgen excretion did not correspond to changes in reproductive and aggressive behaviors, suggesting that dominance, and hence breeding access to females, was not regulated strictly by gonadal steroid production. The consistency in androgen excretion among male meerkats indicated that reproductive suppression may be mediated by behavioral (i.e., intermale aggression) rather than physiological (i.e., depressed spermatogenesis) mechanisms. PMID:11316421

  8. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na+/K+-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:27043552

  9. Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007374.htm Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension To use the sharing features on ... may be because other problems are causing your urinary incontinence. Over time, some or all of the leakage ...

  10. Effects of kaliuretic peptide on sodium and water excretion in persons with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Nasser, A; Dietz, J R; Siddique, M; Patel, H; Khan, N; Antwi, E K; San Miguel, G I; McCormick, M T; Schocken, D D; Vesely, D L

    2001-07-01

    Kaliuretic peptide, a 20-amino acid peptide hormone synthesized in the heart, enhances urine flow twofold, whereas atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) enhances urine flow four- to 11-fold in healthy persons. The present investigation was designed to (1) determine whether kaliuretic peptide may have beneficial diuretic effects in persons with congestive heart failure (CHF), and (2) compare its beneficial effects with ANP in the treatment of CHF. Kaliuretic peptide (100 ng/kg body weight/min) given intravenously for 60 minutes to subjects with New York Heart Association class III CHF increased urine flow fourfold (p <0.001), which was maximal 212 hours after its infusion was stopped. Kaliuretic peptide enhanced sodium excretion threefold in subjects with CHF (p <0.01). Kaliuretic peptide increased the urinary excretion rate of potassium ion and fractional excretion of potassium 3.5- and twofold (p <0.05), respectively. ANP (same concentration) did not significantly enhance urine flow. ANP enhanced sodium excretion two- to sixfold in half of the CHF subjects, whereas it had no effect on sodium excretion in the other half. ANP did not significantly increase fractional excretion of sodium but did increase fractional excretion of potassium (p <0.05) during the first 20 minutes of its infusion. ANP-infused patients with CHF became hypotensive. None became hypotensive secondary to kaliuretic peptide. These data indicate that the diuretic properties of kaliuretic peptide in persons with CHF, as opposed to those of ANP, are not diminished (but rather are increased) compared with their effects in healthy persons. In patients with CHF, kaliuretic peptide causes a natriuresis-a feature not observed in those without sodium retention. PMID:11423053

  11. [Infection and urinary lithiasis].

    PubMed

    Bruyere, F; Traxer, O; Saussine, C; Lechevallier, E

    2008-12-01

    Urinary infection is a risk factor for lithiasis. Urinary tract infection is a factor of gravity of urinary stone. The stone can exist before the infection which colonizes the stone, infected stone. The infection can be the cause of the stone, infectious stone (struvite stone). Infectious stones can be secondary to a non urinary infectious agent, oxalobacter formigenes (OF) and nanobacteria. The first-line treatment of struvite stone is percutaneous surgery. Perioperative antibiotics, renal urines and stone cultures are obligatory. PMID:19033073

  12. Mechanism of Effect of Prostaglandin E1 on Renal Water Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Berl, T.; Schrier, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on renal water excretion in the anesthetized dog. Renal perfusion pressure was kept constant by adjustment of a suprarenal aortic clamp. In seven experiments the intravenous administration of PGE1 (7 μg/min) significantly increased urinary osmolality from 76 to 381 mosmol (P < 0.001) and decreased free water clearance from 2.2 to - 0.02 ml/min (P < 0.001). These effects promptly were reversed with cessation of the infusion. This antidiuretic effect occurred both in innervated and denervated kidneys and was not associated with changes in glomerular filtration rate, renal vascular resistance, or solute excretion rate. In 10 experiments in hypophysectomized dogs no effect of intravenous PGE1 on free water clearance and urinary osmolality was observed. The intrarenal administration of PGE1 (1 μg/min) to six water-loaded and two hypophysectomized dogs caused no systemic vascular changes and increased rather than decreased free water clearance (2.83 to 4.08 ml/min, P < 0.001). No significant change in urinary osmolality occurred. Glomerular filtration rate was not altered by the intrarenal infusion, but reversible changes in solute excretion rate and renal vascular resistance occurred. These results thus indicate that the antidiuresis associated with intravenous PGE1 is mediated primarily by the release of vasopressin rather than alterations in renal hemodynamics or solute excretion. The diuretic effect of intrarenal PGE1 occurs in the absence of vasopressin and is most likely mediated primarily by increased distal delivery of tubular fluid to the diluting segment of the nephron rather than changes in water permeability of the renal tubular epithelium. PMID:4683884

  13. Male urinary incontinence and the urinary sheath.

    PubMed

    Smart, Clare

    This article addresses the assessment and management of male incontinence with a specific focus on the use of the male external catheter (MEC) or urinary sheath. Education and expertise when dealing with a man with urinary incontinence, as well as a tactful and sensitive attitude towards this embarrassing problem, are essential for a successful outcome. The urinary sheath is often perceived by nurses and patients as a difficult product to master and is prone to failure owing to incorrect fitting and management. With correct usage it can make a great difference to a patient's quality of life and avoid problems often associated with urinary catheters and pads such as urinary infection and skin excoriation. Detailed assessment of the patient as well as his suitability for the MEC is essential for a successful outcome. PMID:24820510

  14. Vasopressin regulates renal calcium excretion in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hanouna, Guillaume; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Baud, Laurent; Letavernier, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Antidiuretic hormone or arginine vasopressin (AVP) increases water reabsorption in the collecting ducts of the kidney. Three decades ago, experimental models have shown that AVP may increase calcium reabsorption in rat kidney. The objective of this study was to assess whether AVP modulates renal calcium excretion in humans. We analyzed calcium, potassium, and sodium fractional excretion in eight patients affected by insipidus diabetes (nephrogenic or central) under acute vasopressin receptor agonist action and in 10 patients undergoing oral water load test affected or not by inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Synthetic V2 receptor agonist (dDAVP) reduced significantly calcium fractional excretion from 1.71% to 0.58% (P < 0.05) in patients with central diabetes insipidus. In patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (resistant to AVP), calcium fractional excretion did not change significantly after injection (0.48–0.68%, P = NS). In normal subjects undergoing oral water load test, calcium fractional excretion increased significantly from 1.02% to 2.54% (P < 0.05). Patients affected by SIADH had a high calcium fractional excretion at baseline that remained stable during test from 3.30% to 3.33% (P = NS), possibly resulting from a reduced calcium absorption in renal proximal tubule. In both groups, there was a significant correlation between urine output and calcium renal excretion. In humans, dDAVP decreases calcium fractional excretion in the short term. Conversely, water intake, which lowers AVP concentration, increases calcium fractional excretion. The correlation between urine output and calcium excretion suggests that AVP-related antidiuresis increases calcium reabsorption in collecting ducts. PMID:26620256

  15. Effects of pressure on the skin exerted by clothing on responses of urinary catecholamines and cortisol, heart rate and nocturnal urinary melatonin in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yuki; Kioka, Etsuko; Tokura, Hiromi

    2002-09-01

    The study investigated how the pressure exerted on the skin by clothing worn while working in the daytime affected the urinary excretion of adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol, heart rate, and also melatonin secretion at night. Nine young women (experiment I) and seven young women (experiment II) participated. Participants wore either a 100% cotton jacket (tight clothes, TC) or a 100% cotton T-shirt (loose clothes, LC). Loose-fitting, 100% cotton tank tops and panties were worn as underwear in both the TC and the LC groups. The main results can be summarized as follows: (1) urinary excretion of adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol was facilitated, and the amounts of urinary excretion were significantly higher when TC were worn. Heart rate was significantly higher in the TC group; (2) nocturnal urinary melatonin excretion was significantly greater in the TC group. These results are discussed in terms of an enhancement of diurnal sympathetic nervous system activity caused by pressure on the skin produced by tight clothing.

  16. An electrophoretic study of urinary protein in the rat.

    PubMed

    SELLERS, A L; ROBERTS, S; RASK, I; SMITH, S; MARMORSTON, J; GOODMAN, H C

    1952-05-01

    The nature of the proteins present in the urine of the normal rat has been investigated by electrophoretic analysis and by fractional precipitation of these proteins by ammonium sulfate. Components similar to serum alpha- and beta-globulin constitute the major portion of the urinary protein in both male and female rats. Following the intraperitoneal injection of renin, a massive proteinuria occurs. The proteins excreted are similar in proportion and electric mobility to those of normal rat serum. PMID:14927799

  17. AN ELECTROPHORETIC STUDY OF URINARY PROTEIN IN THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Alvin L.; Roberts, Sidney; Rask, Irene; Smith, Stephen; Marmorston, Jessie; Goodman, Howard C.

    1952-01-01

    The nature of the proteins present in the urine of the normal rat has been investigated by electrophoretic analysis and by fractional precipitation of these proteins by ammonium sulfate. Components similar to serum α- and β-globulin constitute the major portion of the urinary protein in both male and female rats. Following the intraperitoneal injection of renin, a massive proteinuria occurs. The proteins excreted are similar in proportion and electric mobility to those of normal rat serum. PMID:14927799

  18. Biological Monitoring of Human Exposure to Neonicotinoids Using Urine Samples, and Neonicotinoid Excretion Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Kouji H.; Tanaka, Keiko; Sakamoto, Hiroko; Imanaka, Mie; Niisoe, Tamon; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Okuda, Hiroko; Inoue, Sumiko; Kusakawa, Koichi; Oshima, Masayo; Watanabe, Kiyohiko; Yasojima, Makoto; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background Neonicotinoids, which are novel pesticides, have entered into usage around the world because they are selectively toxic to arthropods and relatively non-toxic to vertebrates. It has been suggested that several neonicotinoids cause neurodevelopmental toxicity in mammals. The aim was to establish the relationship between oral intake and urinary excretion of neonicotinoids by humans to facilitate biological monitoring, and to estimate dietary neonicotinoid intakes by Japanese adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and imidacloprid) microdoses were orally ingested by nine healthy adults, and 24 h pooled urine samples were collected for 4 consecutive days after dosing. The excretion kinetics were modeled using one- and two-compartment models, then validated in a non-deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid microdose study involving 12 healthy adults. Increased urinary concentrations of labeled neonicotinoids were observed after dosing. Clothianidin was recovered unchanged within 3 days, and most dinotefuran was recovered unchanged within 1 day. Around 10% of the imidacloprid dose was excreted unchanged. Most of the acetamiprid was metabolized to desmethyl-acetamiprid. Spot urine samples from 373 Japanese adults were analyzed for neonicotinoids, and daily intakes were estimated. The estimated average daily intake of these neonicotinoids was 0.53–3.66 μg/day. The highest intake of any of the neonicotinoids in the study population was 64.5 μg/day for dinotefuran, and this was <1% of the acceptable daily intake. PMID:26731104

  19. Pyridoxic acid excretion during low vitamin B-6 intake, total fasting, and bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coburn, S. P.; Thampy, K. G.; Lane, H. W.; Conn, P. S.; Ziegler, P. J.; Costill, D. L.; Mahuren, J. D.; Fink, W. J.; Pearson, D. R.; Schaltenbrand, W. E.

    1995-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 metabolism in 10 volunteers during 21 d of total fasting was compared with results from 10 men consuming a diet low only in vitamin B-6 (1.76 mumol/d) and with men consuming a normal diet during bed rest. At the end of the fast mean plasma concentrations of vitamin B-6 metabolites and urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid tended to be higher in the fasting subjects than in the low-vitamin B-6 group. The fasting subjects lost approximately 10% of their total vitamin B-6 pool and approximately 13% of their body weight. The low-vitamin B-6 group lost only approximately 4% of their vitamin B-6 pool. Compared with baseline, urinary excretion of pyridoxic acid was significantly increased during 17 wk of bed rest. There was no increase in pyridoxic acid excretion during a second 15-d bed rest study. These data suggest the possibility of complex interactions between diet and muscle metabolism that may influence indexes that are frequently used to assess vitamin B-6 status.

  20. Urinary ET-1, AVP and sodium in premature infants treated with indomethacin and ibuprofen for patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Zanardo, Vincenzo; Vedovato, Stefania; Lago, Paola; Trevisanuto, Daniele; Favaro, Flaviano; Faggian, Diego; Plebani, Mario

    2005-11-01

    The relative potency and interrelationship between vasoactive and natriuretic mediators are thought to be important in the transition from fetal to neonatal life. The relationship between urinary vasoactive factors and sodium excretion has not been adequately addressed in premature infants receiving indomethacin and ibuprofen for therapy of patent ductus arteriosus. Excretion rates of AVP, ET-1 and sodium were measured in premature infants with RDS receiving indomethacin or ibuprofen. Forty-four RDS premature infants (<34-week gestation) with PDA received either ibuprofen (n=22) in an initial dose of 10 mg/kg followed by two doses of 5 mg/kg each after 24 and 48 h or 3 doses at 12-h intervals of indomethacin (n=24), 0.2 mg/kg, infused continuously over a period of 15 min. Urinary ET-1, AVP and sodium excretion were measured before and after treatment. Indomethacin treatment caused a significant decrease in urinary ET-1 and AVP excretion (UET-1/Ucr 0.14+/-0.01 vs. 0.10+/-0.05 fenton/mmol; P<0.05; 24.42+/-6.18 vs. 12.63+/-3.06 pg/mmol; P<0.05, respectively), along with a significant reduction in urinary sodium (92.1+/-36.1 vs. 64.8+/-35.6 mmol/l; P<0.01), fractional excretion of sodium (6.8+/-37.1 vs. 4.5+/-37.1%; P<0.01) and urinary osmolality (276.2+/-103.9 vs. 226.4+/-60.3 mOsmol/kg; P<0.05). Ibuprofen treatment caused a significant decrease in urinary AVP (UAVP/Ucr 24.5+/-3.4 vs. 16.3+/-2.04 pg/mmol; P<0.01), along with a significant decrease in urinary sodium (78.0+/-8.4 vs. 57.0+/-8.0 mmol/l; P<0.05) and in fractional excretion of sodium (7.5+/-1.3 vs. 3.9+/-3.0%; P<0.05), while it did not modify urinary ET-1 excretion. The association of renal ET-1 and AVP activity with sodium excretion in premature infants treated with indomethacin and ibuprofen supports the hypothesis that these factors may play a role in the physiologic changes in sodium excretion. PMID:16133044

  1. Modelling phosphorus intake, digestion, retention and excretion in growing and finishing pigs: model description.

    PubMed

    Symeou, V; Leinonen, I; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-10-01

    Low phosphorus (P) digestibility combined with intensive pig production can increase P diffuse pollution and environmental load. The aim of this paper was to develop a deterministic, dynamic model able to represent P digestion, retention and ultimately excretion in growing and finishing pigs of different genotypes, offered access to diets of different composition. The model represented the limited ability of pig endogenous phytase activity to dephosphorylate phytate as a linear function of dietary calcium (Ca). Phytate dephosphorylation in the stomach by exogenous microbial phytase enzymes was expressed by a first order kinetics relationship. The absorption of non-phytate P from the lumen of the small intestine into the blood stream was set at 0.8 and the dephosphorylated phytate from the large intestine was assumed to be indigestible. The net efficiency of using digested P was set at 0.94 and assumed to be independent of BW, and constant across genotype and sex. P requirements for both maintenance and growth were made simple functions of body protein mass, and hence functions of animal genotype. Undigested P was assumed to be excreted in the feaces in both soluble and insoluble forms. If digestible P exceeded the requirements for P then the excess digestible P was excreted through the urinary flow; thus the model represented both forms of P excretion (soluble and insoluble) into the environment. Using a UK industry standard diet, model behaviour was investigated for its predictions of P digestibility, retention and excretion under different levels of inclusion of microbial phytase and dietary Ca, and different non-phytate P : phytate ratios in the diet, thus covering a broad space of potential diet compositions. Model predictions were consistent with our understanding of P digestion, metabolism and excretion. Uncertainties associated with the underlying assumptions of the model were identified. Their consequences on model predictions, as well as the model

  2. Serum uric acid levels in normal pregnancy with observations on the renal excretion of urate in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, James A.; Campbell, Stuart; Duncan, Anne M.; Greig, William R.; Buchanan, W. Watson

    1966-01-01

    Serum uric acid estimations were performed in 106 healthy pregnant women during early, middle, and late pregnancy, using an automated colorimetric method. The mean serum uric acid level was significantly lower during early and middle pregnancy than that of 64 age-matched female controls. The serum uric acid level was not significantly different in late pregnancy from the control group. Studies of the daily urinary urate excretion in 31 pregnant women showed normal urinary urate excretion in early pregnancy and enhanced renal loss of urate in middle and late pregnancy. It appears that the renal clearance of urate in pregnancy is high, especially in the middle period when the serum level is low in spite of the increased production of uric acid by the foetus. PMID:5919366

  3. Urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lauren N; Anger, Jennifer T

    2014-01-01

    Urinary incontinence affects women of all ages. History, physical examination, and certain tests can guide specialists in diagnosing stress urinary incontinence, urgency urinary incontinence, and mixed urinary incontinence. First line management includes lifestyle and behavior modification, as well as pelvic floor strength and bladder training. Drug therapy is helpful in the treatment of urgency incontinence that does not respond to conservative measures. In addition, sacral neuromodulation, intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA injections, and posterior tibial nerve stimulation can be used in select patient populations with drug refractory urgency incontinence. Midurethral synthetic slings, including retropubic and transobturator approaches, are safe and efficacious surgical options for stress urinary incontinence and have replaced more invasive bladder neck slings that use autologous or cadaveric fascia. Despite controversy surrounding vaginal mesh for prolapse, synthetic slings for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence are considered safe and minimally invasive. PMID:25225003

  4. Effect of disulfiram pretreatment on the tissue distribution, macromolecular binding, and excretion of (U-1,2-14C)dichloroethane in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Igwe, O.J.; Que Hee, S.S.; Wagner, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of disulfiram (DSF) pretreatment on the distribution of (14C)ethylene dichloride (EDC) in selected organs and/or tissues of control and EDC-pretreated rats was studied. The presence of EDC metabolites and their binding to an acid-insoluble extract of the tissues, as well as purified protein and DNA, were evaluated. Dietary DSF was found to modulate the distribution, excretion, and macromolecular binding of EDC and/or its metabolites at 4 and 24 hr following ip administration. The urinary excretion of (14C)EDC metabolites was not affected by subchronic inhalation exposure to nonradiolabeled EDC. However, DSF pretreatment increased the fat deposition of EDC and decreased the urinary excretion of its metabolites. DSF also increased the binding of EDC metabolites to DNA and decreased the binding to protein in the liver, kidneys, spleen, and testes. However, prior exposure to EDC alone increased the binding of its metabolites to DNA in the kidneys only.

  5. Urinary asbestos fibers and inorganic particles in past asbestos workers.

    PubMed

    Zaina, Sara; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Ballarin, Maria Nicoletta; Scoizzato, Luca; Carradori, Giorgio; Fedeli, Ugo; Capella, Silvana; Belluso, Elena

    2016-05-01

    To assess the validity of the procedure as a test of asbestos exposure, we compared urinary asbestos fibers with occupational and environmental exposure data in a random sample of 48 subjects with high past asbestos exposure. Occupational and environmental exposure was estimated on questionnaire, pleural plaques were diagnosed with computed tomography, and inorganic fibers and particles were identified by scanning electron microscope with an energy-dispersive spectrometry. Few urinary asbestos fibers (in 15% of workers and 17% of cases with pleural plaques) and high amount of urinary silicate (particularly nonfibrous particles) were detected. Asbestos undergoes dissolution in lung tissues, but the secondary minerals are largely unknown. These materials, possibly nonfibrous silicates or metals, could be excreted with urine. Therefore, another study including a control group is warranted to discriminate the occupational origin of minerals in the urine. PMID:25455013

  6. Partition of nitrogen excretion in urine and the feces of holstein replacement heifers.

    PubMed

    Marini, J C; Van Amburgh, M E

    2005-05-01

    Increasing public concern has been focused on animal production systems as a major nonpoint source of pollution. These studies were conducted to further our understanding of whole-animal N metabolism, N excretion, and its partition between feces and urine in growing dairy heifers. Isocaloric diets [2.31 Mcal of metabolizable energy (ME)/kg of dry matter (DM)], ranging from 12.4 to 34.2 g of N/kg of DM, were fed to Holstein heifers in 2 experiments at approximately 1.8 times maintenance. Diets were formulated to provide 54 to 143% of the ruminal ammonia requirements as predicted by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System. Increasing the N content of the diet increased urinary N excretion and N balance, but did not affect fecal N excretion. Holstein heifers fed low N diets were able to maintain growth rates consistent with current recommendations while at the same time reducing N excretion, in particular nitrogenous compounds that are readily converted to ammonia. However, more research is needed before this type of diet is recommended for growing heifers because of possible changes in body composition that may affect future milk production and performance. PMID:15829671

  7. Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Iris; Sylvester, Steven; Lai, Vivian W.-M.; Owen, Andrew; Reimer, Kenneth J. Cullen, William R.

    2007-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) often contain significant levels of potentially toxic elements, including arsenic. Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills were analyzed to determine the concentration, bioaccessibility (arsenic fraction soluble in the human gastrointestinal system) and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic. Arsenic excretion in urine (including speciation) and facial hair were studied after a one-time ingestion. The pills contained arsenic in the form of realgar, and although the total arsenic that was present in a single pill was high (28 mg), the low bioaccessibility of this form of arsenic predicted that only 4% of it was available for absorption into the bloodstream (1 mg of arsenic per pill). The species of arsenic that were solubilized were inorganic arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) but DMAA and MMAA were detected in urine. Two urinary arsenic excretion peaks were observed: an initial peak several (4-8) hours after ingestion corresponding to the excretion of predominantly As(III), and a larger peak at 14 h corresponding predominantly to DMAA and MMAA. No methylated As(III) species were observed. Facial hair analysis revealed that arsenic concentrations did not increase significantly as a result of the ingestion. Arsenic is incompletely soluble under human gastrointestinal conditions, and is metabolized from the inorganic to organic forms found in urine. Bioaccessible arsenic is comparable to the quantity excreted. Facial hair as a bio-indicator should be further tested.

  8. Methods to Evaluate Biliary Excretion of Drugs in Humans: an Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghibellini, Giulia; Leslie, Elaine M.; Brouwer, Kim L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Determining the biliary clearance of drugs in humans is very challenging because bile in not readily accessible due to the anatomy of the hepatobiliary tract. The collection of bile usually is limited to post-surgical patients with underlying hepatobiliary disease. In healthy subjects, feces typically are used as a surrogate to quantify the amount of drug excreted via non-urinary pathways. Nevertheless, it is very important to characterize hepatobiliary elimination because this is a potential site of drug interactions that might result in significant alterations in systemic or hepatic exposure. In addition to the determination of in vivo biliary clearance values of drugs, the availability of in vitro models that can predict the extent of biliary excretion of drugs in humans may be a powerful tool in the pre-clinical stages of drug development. In this review, recent advances in the most commonly used in vivo methods to estimate biliary excretion of drugs in humans are outlined. Additionally, in vitro models that can be employed to investigate the molecular processes involved in biliary excretion are discussed to present an updated picture of the new tools and techniques that are available to study the complex processes involved in hepatic drug transport. PMID:16749853

  9. Effect of zeolite nano-materials and artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaf extract on increase in urinary clearance of systematically absorbed nicotine.

    PubMed

    Malekshah, R E; Mahjub, R; Rastgarpanah, M; Ghorbani, M; Partoazar, A R; Mehr, S E; Dehpour, A R; Dorkoosh, F A

    2012-12-01

    Nicotine, the main pharmacologically active component in tobacco and cigarette, has some toxic effects and also high potential for addiction. In this study, the effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and zeolite nano-materials on urinary excretion of nicotine and consequently elimination of systematically absorbed nicotine was investigated. A simple, valid and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for determination of nicotine in rat urine according to guidelines for bioanalysis.It was found that nano-zeolites can cause increase in urinary concentration of nicotine due to its high surface adsorption. Artichoke leaf extract can cause increase in urinary excretion of nicotine in longer post administration times. It was observed that co-administration of nanozeolites and the leaf extract has the synergetic effect on increasing the urinary excretion of nicotine. PMID:23196970

  10. Estimated human excretion rates of natural estrogens calculated from their concentrations in raw municipal wastewater and its application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Lu, Gui-Ning; Yin, Hua; Dang, Zhi

    2015-06-01

    Natural estrogens are important endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), which may pose adverse effects on our environment. To avoid time-consuming sample preparation and chemical analysis, estimation of their concentrations in municipal wastewater based on their human urine/feces excretion rates has been generally adopted. However, the data of excretion rates available are very limited and show significant difference among countries. In the context of increasing reporting on the concentrations of natural estrogens in municipal wastewater around the world, this study presented a simple method to estimate their human excretion rates based on the concentrations of natural estrogens in raw sewage. The estimated human excretion rates of natural estrogens among ten countries were obtained, which totally covered over 33 million population. Among these, Brazilians had the largest excretion rates with estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) as 236.9 and 60 μg/day/P, respectively, while Iran had the lowest value of 2 μg/day/P for E1 and 0.5 μg/day/P for E2. The average estimated human excretion rates of E1, E2, and estriol (E3) are 17.3, 6.4, and 39.7 μg/day/P, respectively. When the estimated human excretion rates obtained were applied for prediction, the predicted results showed better accuracies than those based on human urinary/feces excretion rates. The method in this study is simple, cost-effective and time-saving, which may be widely applied. PMID:25801372

  11. Excretion of malondialdehyde, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone in the urine of rats following acute and chronic administration of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Moser, J; Bagchi, D; Akubue, P I; Stohs, S J

    1993-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that xenobiotics which induce oxidative stress result in an increased production and excretion of acetaldehyde (ACT), formaldehyde (FA), acetone (ACON) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the urine of rats. We have therefore examined the effect of acute and chronic ethanol administration on the excretion of these four lipid metabolites in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Urine samples were collected over dry ice for 6 hr time periods. Aliquots of urine were derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine HCl, and extracted with n-pentane. High pressure lipid chromatogrpahy (HPLC) was used to quantitate and the hydrazones of the four lipid metabolite products. Following a single, oral, acute dose of 5 g ethanol/kg, urinary excretion of ACT increased approximately 5.8-fold from 6 to 12 hr posttreatment, and decreased thereafter. FA excretion decreased by approximately 50% from 0 to 12 hr, returned to control values in the 18-24 hr urine samples, and was 1.3-fold greater than control values at 42-48 hr. ACON increased 3.1-fold over control values from 0 to 30 hr and remained elevated throughout the remaining 18 hr of the study. The excretion of MDA increased approximately 1.5-fold from 18 to 36 hr, then remained constant through the 48 hr time point. In a separate series of experiments, a chronic oral dose of 0.5 g ethanol/kg was administered to rats for 10 consecutive days and the urinary excretion of the lipid metabolites MDA, FA, ACT and ACON was examined for 11 days, beginning with the first day of ethanol administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8352840

  12. [LH excretion during the ovulatory cycle and during therapy with various estrogen-gestagen combinations].

    PubMed

    Göretzlehner, G; Wilken, H

    1972-11-01

    Immunochemical determination of urinary LH was carried out in 7 normally ovulating women and in 25 women treated with various combined, sequential, and depot hormonal contraceptives. In ovulatory cycles without hormone treatment an LH peak was always observed at midcycle. During treatment with Ovosiston, OZN, and Quinestrol-norethisterone acetate, no LH peak was seen. In women receiving sequential preparations (mestranol-chlormadinone acetate, estrone cyanate-chlormadinone acetate), elevated LH levels were observed during estrogen medication. LH excretion was suppressed after administration of chlormadinone acetate. LH levels were also slightly elevated before and after medication with Quinestrol-chlormadinone acatate (1 pill per month). PMID:4121480

  13. Two Cases of Hypophosphatemia with Increased Renal Phosphate Excretion in Legionella Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shuhei; Kono, Keiji; Fujii, Hideki; Nakai, Kentaro; Goto, Shunsuke; Nishi, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    We encountered 2 cases of hypophosphatemia due to Legionella pneumonia. Both cases showed increased urinary phosphate excretion and renal tubular dysfunction, which ameliorated with recovery from Legionella pneumonia. Serum fibroblast growth factor-23 level was suppressed, whereas serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels were normal. Delayed elevation of serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels was observed with improvement in renal tubular function. These findings suggested hypophosphatemia might be mediated by renal tubular dysfunction. PMID:27066493

  14. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePlus

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... can usually be found and treated before the kidneys become infected. If your doctor treats a urinary tract infection early and ... Tips on preventing urinary tract infections Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. Drinking cranberry juice may also help ...

  16. Urinary hypoxanthine and xanthine levels in acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Turgan, N; Boydak, B; Habif, S; Gülter, C; Senol, B; Mutaf, I; Ozmen, D; Bayindir, O

    1999-01-01

    Ischemia leads to impaired ATP metabolism, with increased production of purine degradation products, such as hypoxanthine and xanthine, which are useful markers of tissue hypoxia. These extracellular markers of ischemia have been studied extensively in many clinical conditions of oxidative stress, including perinatal asphyxia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cerebral ischemia, and preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of urinary hypoxanthine and xanthine as ischemia markers in acute coronary syndromes. Urinary excretion of hypoxanthine and xanthine was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography in 30 patients with acute coronary syndromes and in 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Serum and urine uric acid, creatinine, and urea concentrations were also determined. Hypoxanthine excretion was significantly elevated in patients compared with healthy controls (84.37+/-8.63 and 42.70+/-3.97 nmol/mg creatinine, mean+/-SEM, P<0.0001). Urinary xanthine levels were also increased in patients with acute coronary syndromes (100.13+/-12.14 and 34.74+/-4.07 nmol/mg creatinine patients and controls, respectively; P<0.0001). Hypoxanthine and xanthine excretion showed a strong positive correlation in both groups. Significant negative correlations between urinary hypoxanthine and uric acid and xanthine and uric acid were observed in the patients, but not in controls. In conclusion, increased levels of ATP degradation products hypoxanthine and xanthine are observed in various hypoxic clinical conditions. This study suggests that these parameters may be useful markers of ischemia in patients with acute coronary syndromes. PMID:10784378

  17. Prognosis in threatened abortion: a comparison between predictions made by sonar urinary hormone assays and clinical judgement.

    PubMed

    Duff, G B

    1975-11-01

    One hundred patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of threatened abortion were assessed by means of sonar, urinary oestrogen, pregnanediol and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) assays and clinical examination. Assay of oestrogen excretion was the most accurate (86-5 per cent) in predicting the ultimate outcome of pregnancy, but did not give as much information as sonar examination which gave an accurate prognosis in 84 per cent of cases and was much quicker to perform The reasons for the sonar failures are discussed. Assay of urinary pregnanediol excretion gave an accurate indication of outcome in 74 per cent of cases and 24-hour urinary HCG in 70 per cent although random urinary HCG estimations provided an accurate prediciton in only 54-5 per cent of cases. Clinical examination presented the usual difficulties in assessing uterine size and predicting abortion from the amount of bleeding and pain. PMID:1191599

  18. Potassium citrate decreases urine calcium excretion in patients with hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Hernandez, Natalia; Shoag, Jonathan; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2016-04-01

    Two previous studies (<10 patients each) have demonstrated that alkali therapy may reduce urine calcium excretion in patients with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The hypothesized mechanisms are (1) a decrease in bone turnover due to systemic alkalinization by the medications; (2) binding of calcium by citrate in the gastrointestinal tract; (3) direct effects on TRPV5 activity in the distal tubule. We performed a retrospective review of patients on potassium citrate therapy to evaluate the effects of this medication on urinary calcium excretion. A retrospective review was performed of a metabolic stone database at a tertiary care academic hospital. Patients were identified with a history of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and hypocitraturia who were on potassium citrate therapy for a minimum of 3 months. 24-h urine composition was assessed prior to the initiation of potassium citrate therapy and after 3 months of therapy. Patients received 30-60 mEq potassium citrate by mouth daily. Inclusion criterion was a change in urine potassium of 20 mEq/day or greater, which suggests compliance with potassium citrate therapy. Paired t test was used to compare therapeutic effect. Twenty-two patients were evaluated. Mean age was 58.8 years (SD 14.0), mean BMI was 29.6 kg/m(2) (SD 5.9), and gender prevalence was 36.4% female:63.6% male. Mean pre-treatment 24-h urine values were as follows: citrate 280.0 mg/day, potassium 58.7 mEq/day, calcium 216.0 mg/day, pH 5.87. Potassium citrate therapy was associated with statistically significant changes in each of these parameters-citrate increased to 548.4 mg/day (p < 0.0001), potassium increased to 94.1 mEq/day (p < 0.0001), calcium decreased to 156.5 mg/day (p = 0.04), pH increased to 6.47 (p = 0.001). Urine sodium excretion was not different pre- and post-therapy (175 mEq/day pre-therapy versus 201 mEq/day post-therapy, p = NS). Urinary calcium excretion decreased by a mean of 60 mg/day on potassium citrate therapy-a nearly 30

  19. Blood and urinary aggregator and inhibitor composition in controls and renal-stone patients from northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sriboonlue, P; Prasongwattana, V; Tungsanga, K; Tosukhowong, P; Phantumvanit, P; Bejraputra, O; Sitprija, V

    1991-01-01

    Renal-stone disease (RSD) is common in the rural communities of northeastern Thailand. We report the biochemical composition of blood and urine in 25 healthy city dwellers (G1), 12 healthy village dwellers (G2) and 25 village dwellers who had RSD (G3). They were male with a range of ages between 20 and 50 years and were free of renal failure, urinary infection, urinary obstruction and systemic illness. The results showed that hypocitraturia, hypokalemia and hypokaliuria were more common in the latter 2 groups. The 24-h urinary citrate excretion correlated significantly with urinary potassium in G3 cases (r = 0.704, p = 0.0002). After potassium chloride supplementation, serum and urinary potassium increased remarkably (p less than 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively), whereas urinary citrate remained unchanged. Our results suggest that the predominant abnormality in our RSD patients were hypocitraturia and potassium deficiency and that these may be related. PMID:1766498

  20. Serum and urinary lipoproteins in the human nephrotic syndrome: evidence for renal catabolism of lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, V.G.; Forte, T.; Licht, H.; Lewis, S.B.

    1982-03-01

    The urinary excretion of lipoproteins and the possibility of catabolic alterations on glomerular filtration were investigated in four nephrotic subjects difering in etiology, serum lipoprotein profile, and 24 hr urinary output of protein and lipids. The apolipoproteins and lipoproteins of urine were compared with those of serum with respect to distribution profile, physical properties, and composition. As expected from molecular sieving effects during glomerular filtration, the urinary HDL were more abundant than the lower density lipoproteins even when the plasma LDL was elevated markedly. Intact apolipoproteins were not found in the concentrated urinary fraction isolated by ultrafiltration between the limits of 10/sup 4/ and 5 x 10/sup 4/ daltons. On the basis of immunoreactivity, gel electrophoresis, and amino acid composition, apolipoproteins B and AI are the major and minor proteins, respectively, of urinary LDL, and apo B is the major protein of the urinary IDL and VLDL. Apolipoproteins AI, AII, CI, CIII, and possibly AIV were isolated from the urinary HDL. As much as 20% of the protein moiety of the urinary HDL appeared to be large apolipoprotien fragments with molecular weights and isoelectric points similar to those of apo CII and apo CIII. The lower density classes of urinary lipoproteins also appeared to have lost apo E and apo C's and to have undergone partial proteolysis.

  1. Urinary polypeptides related to collagen synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Krane, Stephen M.; Muñoz, Alberto J.; Harris, Edward D.

    1970-01-01

    Of the total urinary hydroxyproline in normal subjects and those with skeletal disorders, between 4 and 20% was nondialyzable. In some patients with Paget's disease of bone, hyperparathyroidism with osteitis fibrosa, hyperphosphatasia, and extensive fibrous dysplasia the total urinary hydroxyproline was sufficiently high to permit purification of this polypeptide hydroxyproline by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. The partially purified polypeptides had molecular weights between 4500 and 10,000 and amino acid compositions and physical properties resembling those of gelatin. The polypeptide fractions also contained neutral sugar and glucosamine. These fragments had been shown to be susceptible to cleavage by purified bacterial collagenase suggesting the presence of the sequence-Pro-X-Gly-Pro-Y-. After administration of proline-14C to patients with Paget's disease hydroxyproline-14C was excreted in the urine. The hydroxyproline-14C specific activity reached a peak in 2-4 hr and declined rapidly. The specific activity of the polypeptide (retentate) portion was severalfold greater than that of the raw urine and diffusate. When the labeled urines were subjected to gel filtration the hydroxyproline-14C fractions of highest molecular weight which were eluted first from the columns had the highest specific activities. Exposure of the hydroxyproline-14C-containing polypeptides to bacterial collagenase rendered them dialyzable. Four patients with hyperparathyroidism and osteitis fibrosa were studied before and after removal of a parathyroid adenoma, a period of transition from a predominance of bone collagen resorption to one of relatively increased bone collagen synthesis. The total urinary hydroxyproline fell rapidly after operation whereas the ratio of the polypeptide fraction to the total rose three- to fourfold. The results of these studies suggest that the urinary polypeptides represent fragments of collagen related to collagen synthesis. Changes in the

  2. Understanding Measurements of Intestinal Permeability in Healthy Humans with Urine Lactulose and Mannitol Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Nadeau, Ashley; Lamsam, Jesse; Nord, Sara Linker; Ryks, Michael; Burton, Duane; Sweetser, Seth; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Singh, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to understand the information from differential two-sugar excretion (2-SE) in measuring intestinal permeability. In a crossover study in 12 healthy volunteers, we compared urinary excretion ratios of lactulose (L) to mannitol [(M) LMR] after ingestion in liquid formulation (LF) or in delayed-release, methacrylate-coated capsules (CAP). Both formulations were radiolabeled. Urine was collected every 2 hours from 0–8h, and from 8–24h. Two hours after LF, gastric residual was 15.9 ± 6.2 % (SEM), and the percentage in colon was 49.6 ± 7.8 %; in 11/12 participants, liquid had entered colon within 2h. Average CAP arrival time in colon was 5.16 ± 0.46h (mode 6 h). After LF, mannitol was extensively absorbed in the first 8h; lactulose absorption was low thoughout the 24h. After the LF, the LMR (geometric mean, 95% CI/hour) in the 0–2h urine was 0.08 [0.05, 0.11]), which was lower than in 8–24h urine (0.32,[0.16, 0.46]; p<0.05). Urine LMRs at 8–24h were similar after LF or CAP. We concluded that, after LF, sugar excretion in 0–2h urine may reflect both SI and colon permeability. Colonic permeability is reflected by urine sugar excretion between 6 and 24h. CAP delivery reduces mannitol excreted at 0–6h, compared to LF. The 0 to 5 or 6h 2-SE urine likely reflects both SI and colon permeability; the higher LMR in the 8–24h urine relative to 0–2h urine should be interpreted with caution and does not mean that colon is more permeable than SI. PMID:19614866

  3. Excretion of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Gregori, Luisa; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Alexeeva, Irina; Budka, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    The route of transmission of most naturally acquired transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infections remains speculative. To investigate urine as a potential source of TSE exposure, we used a sensitive method for detection and quantitation of TSE infectivity. Pooled urine collected from 22 hamsters showing clinical signs of 263K scrapie contained 3.8 ± 0.9 infectious doses/mL of infectivity. Titration of homogenates of kidneys and urinary bladders from the same animals gave concentrations 20,000-fold greater. Histologic and immunohistochemical examination of these same tissues showed no indications of inflammatory or other pathologic changes except for occasional deposits of disease-associated prion protein in kidneys. Although the source of TSE infectivity in urine remains unresolved, these results establish that TSE infectivity is excreted in urine and may thereby play a role in the horizontal transmission of natural TSEs. The results also indicate potential risk for TSE transmission from human urine–derived hormones and other medicines. PMID:18760007

  4. Potassium Bicarbonate Supplementation Lowers Bone Turnover and Calcium Excretion in Older Men and Women: A Randomized Dose-Finding Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Harris, Susan S; Palermo, Nancy J; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Shea, M Kyla; Fielding, Roger A; Ceglia, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The acid load accompanying modern diets may have adverse effects on bone and muscle metabolism. Treatment with alkaline salts of potassium can neutralize the acid load, but the optimal amount of alkali is not established. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of two doses of potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) compared with placebo on biochemical markers of bone turnover, and calcium and nitrogen (N) excretion. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 244 men and women age 50 years and older were randomized to placebo or 1 mmol/kg or 1.5 mmol/kg of KHCO3 daily for 3 months; 233 completed the study. The primary outcomes were changes in 24-hour urinary N-telopeptide (NTX) and N; changes in these measures were compared across the treatment groups. Exploratory outcomes included 24-hour urinary calcium excretion, serum amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP), and muscle strength and function assessments. The median administered doses in the low-dose and high-dose groups were 81 mmol/day and 122 mmol/day, respectively. When compared with placebo, urinary NTX declined significantly in the low-dose group (p =0.012, after adjustment for baseline NTX, gender, and change in urine creatinine) and serum P1NP declined significantly in the low-dose group (p =0.004, adjusted for baseline P1NP and gender). Urinary calcium declined significantly in both KHCO3 groups versus placebo (p < 0.001, adjusted for baseline urinary calcium, gender, and changes in urine creatinine and calcium intake). There was no significant effect of either dose of KHCO3 on urinary N excretion or on the physical strength and function measures. KHCO3 has favorable effects on bone turnover and calcium excretion and the lower dose appears to be the more effective dose. Long-term trials to assess the effect of alkali on bone mass and fracture risk are needed. PMID:25990255

  5. Auditing urinary catheter care.

    PubMed

    Dailly, Sue

    Urinary catheters are the main cause of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections among inpatients. Healthcare staff can reduce the risk of patients developing an infection by ensuring they give evidence-based care and by removing the catheter as soon as it is no longer necessary. An audit conducted in a Hampshire hospital demonstrated there was poor documented evidence that best practice was being carried out. Therefore a urinary catheter assessment and monitoring tool was designed to promote best practice and produce clear evidence that care had been provided. PMID:22375340

  6. Variations in human urinary O-hydroxylysyl glycoside levels and their relationship to collagen metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Segrest, Jere P.; Cunningham, Leon W.

    1970-01-01

    Two O-hydroxylysyl glycosides, Hyl-Gal-Glc and Hyl-Gal, have been isolated from normal human urine and shown to be identical to two glycosides isolated from alkaline hydrolysates of collagen. A relatively sample and reproducible analytical procedure has been devised to measure the levels of these glycosides in human urine. By the use of this procedure it was shown that a normal diet has only a small effect on 24-hr urinary excretion levels of these glycosides indicating an endogenous origin. Urinary glycoside levels appear to be highest in children, roughly paralleling collagen turnover as indicated by urinary hydroxyproline levels. Collagen turnover equivalents calculated from urinary hydroxylysyl glycoside levels were found to be significantly larger than collagen turnover equivalents calculated from urinary hydroxyproline levels. This suggests that urinary glycosides are more quantitative indicators of collagen metabolism than urinary hydroxyproline. The ratio of Hyl-Gal-Glc to Hyl-Gal was measured in urines of diseased as well as normal individuals and a bimodal distribution was found. Alkaline hydrolysates of different human connective tissue collagens showed that only bone collagen, of the collagens examined, had a low ratio of Hyl-Gal-Glc to Hyl-Gal compared to human urine. Other collagens examined had higher ratios than found in human urine. On the basis of these results it is postulated that the bimodal distribution of glycoside ratios represents two populations of collagen turnover, the lower ratio population having a high bone collagen turnover, the lower ratio population having a high bone collagen turnover relative to the second population. Examination of the types of subjects making up the two populations supports this hypothesis. These data suggest that urinary O-hydroxylysyl glycoside excretion, in addition to providing a more quantitative estimate of collagen turnover than urinary hydroxyproline, may prove to be of value as a specific means of

  7. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage ( urinary incontinence ) caused by a ... into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the hospital. Or ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. You may have a UTI if you notice Pain or burning when you ...

  9. Percutaneous urinary procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lingeman JE. Surgical management of upper urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et ... CC, Nakada SY. Treatment selection and outcomes: renal calculi. Urol Clin North Am . 2007;34(3):409- ...

  10. [Excretion of zinc in lactating cows receiving various supply of zinc].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, W A; Kirchgessner, M

    1975-12-01

    Studies were carried out with 5 lactating cows receiving a semisynthetic diet to trace the pattern of zinc excretion in the faeces, urine and milk under conditions of Zn depletion and repletion. Faecal Zn concentrations were found to be drastically reduced during a 6-week period of Zn depletion. The Zn supply to the animals at different levels of Zn repletion (varying between 22 mg and 436 mg Zn per kg) was well reflected in the corresponding faecal Zn concentrations. Similarly, faecal Zn excretion expressed as the percentage of Zn supplied with the diet was shown to change with the level of Zn supply. In the range between 6 mg and 54 m Zn per kg of dietary dry matter the level of relative faecal Zn excretion increased from 42% to 56% whereas with higher Zn supplements (up to 436 mg/kg) only slight increases (up to 60%) were observed. This indicates that the organism exhibits a strong tendency to maintain a physiological balance; this tendency is all the more pronounced with increasing Zn depletion; thus after 19 weeks of Zn depletion as little as 25% of the administered amount of Zn was excreted in the faeces. The average minimum of urinary Zn concentrations was 0.25 mg Zn per litre. The Zn concentrations in urine were not found to be dependent on the Zn supply. The level of relative Zn excretion in the milk was markedly increased despite the reduced concentrations of milk Zn during the periods of Zn deficiency. At the beginning of Zn depletion rather more zinc was released with the milk than was taken up with the Zn deficient diet. The mean proportion of milk Zn in the total amount of dietary Zn over the 6-week depletion period was 91%. With Zn amounts of 22 mg, 54 mg, 87 mg, 108 mg, 130 mg and 436 mg per kg of diet 23.7%, 13.1%, 12.9%, 5.7%, 4.3%, and 1.7% of the dietary Zn were excreted with the milk. Thus, a relative decrease of Zn excretion in the milk was observed, i.e. relative to the level of Zn supplementation. PMID:1241940

  11. [Recurrent urinary tract infection].

    PubMed

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infection involves mainly women and exhibits an ecological as well as economical risk. 4% of all urinary tract infection are recurrent and usually secondary to general or local abnormalities. A multidisciplinary medical and surgical team (urology, nephrology, bacteriology, infectious disease) best performs diagnosis and treatment as well as rules out reversible etiology. Treatment relies on behavioral changes before offering cranberry products and/or antibioprophylaxis if necessary. PMID:25362782

  12. Association of urinary sodium/creatinine ratio with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: KNHANES 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Woo; Jeon, Jae-Han; Choi, Yeon-Kyung; Lee, Won-Kee; Hwang, In-Ryang; Kim, Jung-Guk; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2015-08-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that high sodium chloride intake increases urinary calcium excretion and may be a risk factor for osteoporosis. However, the effect of oral sodium chloride intake on bone mineral density (BMD) and risk of osteoporosis has been inadequately researched. The aim of the present study was to determine whether urinary sodium excretion (reflecting oral sodium chloride intake) associates with BMD and prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study involved a nationally representative sample consisting of 2,779 postmenopausal women who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys in 2008-2011. The association of urinary sodium/creatinine ratio with BMD and other osteoporosis risk factors was assessed. In addition, the prevalence of osteoporosis was assessed in four groups with different urinary sodium/creatinine ratios. Participants with osteoporosis had significantly higher urinary sodium/creatinine ratios than the participants without osteoporosis. After adjusting for multiple confounding factors, urinary sodium/creatinine ratio correlated inversely with lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.001). Similarly, when participants were divided into quartile groups according to urinary sodium/creatinine ratio, the average BMD dropped as the urinary sodium/creatinine ratio increased. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to quartile 1, quartile 4 had a significantly increased prevalence of lumbar spine osteoporosis (odds ratios 1.346, P for trend = 0.044). High urinary sodium excretion was significantly associated with low BMD and high prevalence of osteoporosis in lumbar spine. These results suggest that high sodium chloride intake decreases lumbar spine BMD and increases the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. PMID:25614039

  13. [Urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Hörl, W H

    2011-09-01

    Urinary tract infections occur very frequently in the community and in hospitalized patients and are mainly caused by Escherichia (E.) coli. Depending on virulence determinants of uropathogenic microorganisms and host-specific defense mechanisms, urinary tract infections can manifest as cystitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial interstitial nephritis), bacteremia or urosepsis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women should be treated for 3-7 days depending on the antibiotic therapy chosen, even if spontaneous remission rates of up to 40% have been reported. Antibiotics of the first choice for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are fluoroquinolones, pivmecillinam and fosfomycin. A huge problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms. Complicated urinary tract infections associated with anatomical and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and/or comorbidities such as diabetes or immunosuppressive therapy, need longer antibiotic treatment (e.g. 10-14 days) as well as interdisciplinary diagnostic procedures. Treatment of community acquired urosepsis includes cephalosporins of the third generation, piperacillin/tazobactam or ciprofloxacin. For nosocomial urosepsis the combination with an aminoglycoside or a carbapenem is recommended. PMID:21850538

  14. Urinary Protein Creatinine Ratio in Normal Zero to Three-Day-Old Indian Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Shivankur, Varun; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early neonates (1-7-day-old) may develop acute kidney injury or acute renal failure due to functional (pre-renal, may be caused by decreased renal perfusion), intrinsic (renal, may be caused by acute insult), or obstructive (due to anatomic urinary tract obstruction) causes. Urinary protein estimation is important for diagnosis, follow-up and prognosis of disease. The Protein Creatinine Ratio (PCR) has been successfully used to establish proteinuria in different types of patients. Aim This study was undertaken to establish normal PCR range in neonates, to rule out abnormal protein excretion in sick neonates. Materials and Methods A total of 37 normal early neonates of age 0-3 days were enrolled for this study. Random spot urine samples were collected in paediatric urine bags for protein and creatinine estimation. Results The urinary PCR varied between 0.1-0.8. The range of PCR values obtained was greater in 0-1 day old infants, compared to infants older than one day. Changes in PCR values were due to variations in the creatinine excretion. Conclusion Urinary PCR values ≤ 0.8 indicate normal protein excretion. However, reference intervals of PCR should be established for narrow age groups in case of early neonates, e.g. 0-6h, 6-12h, 12-24h, 24-72h old babies. PMID:27134859

  15. Metabolic fate of dietary carnitine in human adults: Identification and quantification of urinary and fecal metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Rebouche, C.J.; Chenard, C.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Results of kinetic and pharmacokinetic studies have suggested that dietary carnitine is not totally absorbed and is in part degraded in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. To determine the metabolic fate of dietary carnitine in humans, we administered orally a tracer dose of methyl-{sup 3}H L-carnitine with a meal to subjects who had been adapted to a low-carnitine diet or a high-carnitine diet. Urinary and fecal excretion of radiolabeled carnitine and metabolites was monitored for 5 to 11 d following administration of the test dose. Total radioactive metabolites excreted ranged from 13 to 34% (low carnitine diet) and 27 to 46% (high carnitine diet) of the ingested tracer. Major metabolites found were ({sup 3}H)trimethylamine N-oxide (8 to 39% of the administered dose; excreted primarily in urine) and ({sup 3}H)gamma-butyrobetaine (0.09 to 8% of the administered dose; excreted primarily in feces). Urinary excretion of total carnitine was 42 to 95% (high carnitine diet) and 190 to 364% (low carnitine diet) of intake. These results indicate that oral carnitine is 54 to 87% bioavailable from normal Western diets; the percentage of intake absorbed is related to the quantity ingested.

  16. Urinary acrylamide metabolites as biomarkers for short-term dietary exposure to acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Bjellaas, Thomas; Stølen, Linn Helene; Haugen, Margaretha; Paulsen, Jan Erik; Alexander, Jan; Lundanes, Elsa; Becher, Georg

    2007-06-01

    It has previously been reported that heat-treated carbohydrate rich foods may contain high levels of acrylamide resulting in consumers being inadvertently exposed to acrylamide. Acrylamide is mainly excreted in the urine as mercapturic acid derivatives of acrylamide and glycidamide. In a clinical study comprising of 53 subjects, the urinary excretion of these metabolites was determined using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with positive electrospray MS/MS detection. The median (range) total excretion of acrylamide in urine during 24 h was 16 (7-47) microg acrylamide for non-smokers and 74 (38-106) microg acrylamide for smokers, respectively. It was found that the median intake estimate in the study based on 24 h dietary recall was 21 (13-178) and 26 (12-67) for non-smokers and smokers, respectively. The median dietary exposure to acrylamide was estimated to be 0.47 (range 0.17-1.16) microg/kg body weight per day. In a multiple linear regression analysis, the urinary excretion of acrylamide metabolites correlated statistically significant with intake of aspartic acid, protein, starch and coffee. Consumption of citrus fruits correlated negatively with excretion of acrylamide metabolites. PMID:17258374

  17. Human metabolism and excretion kinetics of aniline after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Modick, Hendrik; Weiss, Tobias; Dierkes, Georg; Koslitz, Stephan; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger Martin

    2016-06-01

    Aniline is an important source material in the chemical industry (e.g., rubber, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals). The general population is known to be ubiquitously exposed to aniline. Thus, assessment of aniline exposure is of both occupational and environmental relevance. Knowledge on human metabolism of aniline is scarce. We orally dosed four healthy male volunteers (two fast and two slow acetylators) with 5 mg isotope-labeled aniline, consecutively collected all urine samples over a period of 2 days, and investigated the renal excretion of aniline and its metabolites by LS-MS/MS and GC-MS. After enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, N-acetyl-4-aminophenol was the predominant urinary aniline metabolite representing 55.7-68.9 % of the oral dose, followed by the mercapturic acid conjugate of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol accounting for 2.5-6.1 %. Acetanilide and free aniline were found only in minor amounts accounting for 0.14-0.36 % of the dose. Overall, these four biomarkers excreted in urine over 48 h post-dose represented 62.4-72.1 % of the oral aniline dose. Elimination half-times were 3.4-4.3 h for N-acetyl-4-aminophenol, 4.1-5.5 h for the mercapturic acid conjugate, and 1.3-1.6 and 0.6-1.2 h for acetanilide and free aniline, respectively. Urinary maximum concentrations of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol were reached after about 4 h and maximum concentrations of the mercapturic acid conjugate after about 6 h, whereas concentrations of acetanilide and free aniline peaked after about 1 h. The present study is one of the first to provide reliable urinary excretion factors for aniline and its metabolites in humans after oral dosage, including data on the predominant urinary metabolite N-acetyl-4-aminophenol, also known as an analgesic under the name paracetamol/acetaminophen. PMID:26233686

  18. Decreased nocturnal catecholamine excretion: parameter for an overtraining syndrome in athletes?

    PubMed

    Lehmann, M; Schnee, W; Scheu, R; Stockhausen, W; Bachl, N

    1992-04-01

    The effectiveness of high performance training should be examined at short intervals in order to recognize overtraining promptly. Field or laboratory tests can usually not be performed with such frequency. Easy-to-measure biological, training-relevant parameters are being sought to use in their place. Since the importance of the sympathetic nervous system for adaptation of stress and the relationship between physical training and the activity of the sympathetic nervous system are well accepted, and since an impairment of the sympathetic nervous system is assumed in an overtraining syndrome, we examined the relevance of nocturnal "basal" urinary excretion of free catecholamines with respect to its practical application: 1. during a pilot study (training of road and track cyclists before the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul), 2. through a 4-week prospective, experimental study in 1989 and 1990 (middle- and long-distance runners), 3. during the competitive season and winter break of a soccer team between August 1990 and April 1991. The following hypothesis was made: An overtraining or exhaustion syndrome in athletes may usually be accompanied by at least a 50% decrease in basal dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline excretion. When training is effective or the athletes are not exhausted, the decrease of the excretion rate--with the exception of dopamine--is more likely to be lower (noradrenaline, adrenaline). Generalization of these results requires further expansion of the experimental basis. PMID:1601559

  19. Ingestion and excretion of arsenic compounds present in edible brown algae, Hijikia fusiforme, by mice.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Satoshi; Nozawa, Shihoko; Hanaoka, Ken'ichi; Kaise, Toshikazu

    2010-02-01

    The element arsenic is a carcinogen and toxic for humans and other living organisms. Some seaweeds contain high amounts of inorganic arsenic (iAs). In particular, Hijikia fusiforme has a high iAs content of approximately 50%. In this study, we examined the absorption, metabolism, excretion, and accumulation of arsenic compounds in mice after the administration of Hijiki. The single-dose experiment, wherein a single dose of cooked Hijiki was administered to the mice, revealed that the urinary and fecal excretion of arsenic compounds was the highest on the first day of dosing, and it became clear that 66-92% of arsenic was excreted within 3 days after administration of the first dose. The repeated-dose experiment, wherein repeated doses of cooked or dried Hijiki were administered to the mice, arsenic was detected in all the tissues, but only approximately 5% of the administered dose of arsenic was detected as residual arsenic. These results suggest that the arsenic present in cooked Hijiki is accumulated in very small amounts in mice. PMID:19808076

  20. Naloxone increases water and electrolyte excretion after water loading in patients with cirrhosis and ascites.

    PubMed

    Leehey, D J; Gollapudi, P; Deakin, A; Reid, R W

    1991-11-01

    Endogenous opioids may be involved in the pathogenesis of ascites and edema in patients with liver cirrhosis. We administered the opioid antagonist naloxone (5 mg bolus followed by a 0.06 mg/min infusion) to eight male patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and ascites and to five healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects and determined the effects of naloxone on water and electrolyte excretion after a nonsustained water load (20 ml/kg). In comparison with saline vehicle infusion carried out in the same subjects, naloxone administration resulted in a 50% increase in urine output and creatinine clearance and twofold increases in sodium and potassium excretion in patients with cirrhosis. Fractional sodium and potassium excretion, minimal urinary osmolality, plasma vasopressin and aldosterone levels, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were not affected by naloxone treatment. The diuretic effect of naloxone was not observed in control subjects. Plasma naloxone levels were about six times higher in patients with cirrhosis than in control subjects (probably because of impaired metabolism of the drug) but only a weak correlation was found between drug levels and the degree of diuresis observed. The diuretic effect of naloxone may be related to an increase in glomerular filtration rate, possibly in conjunction with altered tubular reabsorption. PMID:1940589

  1. Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of fermented orange juice (poly)phenols in rats.

    PubMed

    Escudero-López, Blanca; Calani, Luca; Fernández-Pachón, María-Soledad; Ortega, Angeles; Brighenti, Furio; Crozier, Alan; Del Rio, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Two milliliters of a fermented, pasteurized orange juice containing ~1% alcohol and 2.3 μmol of (poly)phenolic compounds was fed to rats by gavage after which plasma and urine collected over a 36 h period were analyzed by UHPLC-mass spectrometry. The main constituents in the juice were hesperetin and naringenin-O-glycosides, apigenin-6,8-C-diglucoside, and ferulic acid-4'-O-glucoside. Plasma contained seven flavanone glucuronides, with the principal metabolites, naringenin-7-O-glucuronide, naringenin-4'-O-glucuronide, and an isosakuranetin-O-glucuronide, peaking 6 h after intake at concentrations of ~10 nmol/L. Urinary excretion of four hesperetin glucuronides was equivalent to 0.28% of intake while that of the two naringenin glucuronides was 2.8% of intake. The plasma and urine data suggest that while some absorption occurred in the small intestine, the main site of uptake was the colon. Urine also contained dihydroferulic acid-4'-O-glucuronide and dihydroferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate which were excreted in quantities corresponding to 48.2% of the ingested ferulic acid-4'-glucoside. This indicates that the hydroxycinnamate is much more bioavailable than the flavanones in the rat model. Conversion of the ferulic acid glucoside to the dihydroferulic acid metabolites involves the action of colonic microbial glycosidases and reductases/hydrogenases followed by postabsorption phase II metabolism before renal excretion. PMID:24255025

  2. Pharmacokinetics of oral 6-mercaptopurine: relationship between plasma levels and urine excretion of parent drug.

    PubMed

    Endresen, L; Lie, S O; Storm-Mathisen, I; Rugstad, H E; Stokke, O

    1990-05-01

    Plasma levels and cumulative urine excretion of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) were measured using a specific and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic assay in seven children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) as well as in one healthy volunteer. The dose of 6-MP varied in the range of 25-75 mg/m2 of body surface area and was administered with a standard breakfast. A 4- to 11-fold variation between individuals was found in the pharmacokinetic parameters: peak concentration, time to reach peak, area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), and fraction of dose excreted in the urine. Three repeated determinations in one individual revealed that AUC also varied more than sixfold following an overnight fast. In three individuals, the reducing agents glutathione (10 mg/kg) and ascorbic acid (15 mg/kg) were coadministered with 6-MP to evaluate their possible role in the protection of 6-MP from oxidation and degradation in the intestinal lumen. No consistent effect was observed, however, on the AUCs of either of these agents. A clear relationship was found between AUCs and the 24-h urinary excretion of unchanged drug (r = 0.9381), indicating that determinations of 6-MP in the urine may replace the painful procedure of repeated blood sampling. Further studies are necessary to determine the factors contributing to the unpredictable plasma levels following oral doses of 6-MP and to determine the value of pharmacokinetic monitoring in ALL patients. PMID:2349605

  3. Investigating the intra-individual variability in the human metabolic profile of urinary selenium.

    PubMed

    Lajin, Bassam; Kuehnelt, Doris; Jensen, Kenneth B; Francesconi, Kevin A

    2016-09-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient widely present in our diet. It plays its role through the selenoproteins. Previous reports have shown marked variation between individuals in the excretion of this trace element, but the intra-individual variability in selenium excretion has not been specifically investigated. The present study investigates the intra-individual variation in the urinary excretion of selenium in a group of healthy volunteers. We also discuss inter-individual variability trends. Urine samples were collected from healthy volunteers without selenium supplementation twice a day for 7 days and then once a week for an additional 7 weeks. A total of 168 urine samples were collected and analyzed for total selenium and individual selenium species using elemental mass spectrometry and HPLC/mass spectrometry, respectively. We found only modest day-to-day and week-to-week intra-individual variation of selenium excretion. Two commonly reported urine metabolites, selenosugar 1 and selenosugar 3, were detected in all urine samples, and our data suggest that selenosugar 3 is a deacetylated product of selenosugar 1 produced in a manner dependent on selenium intake. Trimethylselenonium displayed no intra-individual variability but considerable inter-individual variability in agreement with the involvement of genetic polymorphisms, as recently reported. Se-methylselenoneine was consistently detected in the urine of all volunteers and was a significant metabolite in one volunteer contributing up to 24% of total urinary selenium. Our data indicate that selenium urinary excretion is consistent within an individual, and that intra-individual variation in selenium excretion is unlikely to complicate future inter-individual variation studies. PMID:27473829

  4. Urinary catecholamines in iron deficiency anemia: effects of environmental temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.; Beard, J.L.

    1986-03-05

    Iron deficiency (ID) is associated with increased levels of norepinephrine (NE) in plasma and urine. They investigated the effect of 5-7 days exposure to three different environmental temperatures (10/sup 0/C, 24/sup 0/C, 30/sup 0/C) on urinary catecholamine levels to test the hypothesis that increased thermogenic activity is causal to this increased excretion in iron deficiency. Catecholamines were analyzed from acidified urine by HPLC-EC. The mean Hb in ID animals was 3.1 +/- .5 versus controls of 12.8 +/- 9. These data demonstrate that contrary to previous reports NE excretion is not normalized at a thermoneutral temperature and suggests a basic abnormality in peripheral SNS activity and NE metabolism in iron deficiency that is independent of environmental drive from thermogenesis.

  5. The Urinary Cytokine/Chemokine Signature of Renal Hyperfiltration in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Daneman, Denis; Dunger, David B.; Moineddin, Rahim; Dalton, R. Neil; Motran, Laura; Elia, Yesmino; Deda, Livia; Ostrovsky, Masha; Sochett, Etienne B.; Mahmud, Farid H.; Cherney, David Z. I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Urinary cytokine/chemokine levels are elevated in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) exhibiting renal hyperfiltration. Whether this observation extends to adolescents with T1D remains unknown. Our first objective was to determine the relationship between hyperfiltration and urinary cytokines/chemokines in normotensive, normoalbuminuric adolescents with T1D using GFRcystatin. Our second aim was to determine the relationship between urine and plasma levels of inflammatory biomarkers, to clarify the origin of these factors. Methods Urine and serum cytokines/chemokines (Luminex platform) and GFRcystatin were measured in normofiltering (n = 111, T1D-N, GFR<135 ml/min/1.73 m2) and hyperfiltering (n = 31, T1D-H, GFR≥135 ml/min/1.73 m2) adolescents with T1D (ages 10–16), and in age and sex matched healthy control subjects (HC, n = 59). Results We noted significant step-wise increases in urinary cytokine/chemokine excretion according to filtration status with highest levels in T1D-H, with parallel trends in serum analyte concentrations. After adjusting for serum glucose at the time of sampling, differences in urinary cytokine excretion were not statistically significant. Only serum IL-2 significantly differed between HC and T1D (p = 0.0076). Conclusions Hyperfiltration is associated with increased urinary cytokine/chemokine excretion in T1D adolescents, and parallel trends in serum cytokine concentration. The GFR-associated trends in cytokine excretion may be driven by the effects of ambient hyperglycemia. The relationship between hyperfiltration, glycemia, and variations in serum and urine cytokine expression and their impact on future renal and systemic vascular complications requires further study. PMID:25392936

  6. Urinary isoflavonoids and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective investigation in US women.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ming; Franke, Adrian A; Rosner, Bernard A; Giovannucci, Edward; van Dam, Rob M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Hu, Frank B; Sun, Qi

    2015-11-28

    To examine the association between urinary excretion of isoflavonoids and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), we conducted a nested case-control study among 1111 T2D pairs identified during 1995-2008 in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII, who were free of diabetes, CVD and cancer at urine sample collection. Urinary excretion of daidzein and genistein, as well as their metabolites O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA), dihydrogenistein (DHGE) and dihydrodaidzein (DHDE) was assayed using liquid chromatography MS. Self-reported T2D incident cases were confirmed using a validated questionnaire. Higher urinary excretion of daidzein and genistein was associated with a lower risk of T2D in the combined cohorts. Comparing extreme tertiles of the urinary markers, the OR of T2D were 0·71 (95 % CI 0·55, 0·93) for daidzein and 0·74 (95 % CI 0·56, 0·97) for genistein, although the test for linear trend was not significant for genistein (P trend=0·03 and 0·15, respectively). DMA, DHDE and DHGE were non-significantly associated with a lower T2D risk. The inverse association of daidzein with T2D risk was stronger among post-menopausal women who did not use hormone replacement therapy (P interaction=0·001): the OR was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·97) comparing extreme tertiles among these women. In conclusion, urinary excretion of isoflavones was associated with a lower T2D risk in US women, especially among post-menopausal women who did not use hormone. Further research is warranted to replicate these observations among western populations with similarly low overall isoflavone intake. PMID:26370252

  7. Urinary isoflavonoids and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Investigation in U.S. Women

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ming; Franke, Adrian A.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Giovannucci, Edward; van Dam, Rob M.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Hu, Frank B.; Sun, Qi

    2016-01-01

    To examine the association between urinary excretion of isoflavonoids and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), we conducted a nested case-control study among 1,111 T2D pairs identified during 1995 – 2008 in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHSII who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at urine sample collection. Urinary excretion of daidzein and genistein, as well as their metabolites O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA), dihydrogenistein (DHGE), dihydrodaidzein (DHDE) was assayed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Incident self-reported T2D cases were confirmed using a validated questionnaire. Higher urinary excretion of daidzein and genistein was associated with a lower risk of T2D in the combined cohorts. Comparing extreme tertiles of the urinary markers, the odds ratios (ORs) of T2D were 0.71 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.93) for daidzein and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.97) for genistein, although the test for linear trend was not significant for genistein (P for trend = 0.03 and 0.15, respectively). DMA, DHDE, and DHGE were non-significantly associated with a lower T2D risk. The inverse association of daidzein with T2D risk was stronger among postmenopausal women who did not use hormone replacement therapy (P for interaction = 0.001): the OR (95% CI) was 0.58 (0.34, 0.97) comparing extreme tertiles among these women. In conclusion, urinary excretion of isoflavones was associated with a lower T2D risk in U.S. women, especially among postmenopausal women who did not use hormone. Further research is warranted to replicate these observations among western populations with similarly low overall isoflavone intake. PMID:26370252

  8. Urinary pharmacokinetic methodology to determine the relative lung bioavailability of inhaled beclometasone dipropionate

    PubMed Central

    Said, Amira S A; Harding, Lindsay P; Chrystyn, Henry

    2012-01-01

    AIM Urinary pharmacokinetic methods have been identified to determine the relative lung and systemic bioavailability after an inhalation. We have extended this methodology to inhaled beclometasone dipropionate (BDP). METHOD Ethics Committee approval was obtained and all subjects gave consent. Twelve healthy volunteers received randomized doses, separated by >7 days, of 2000 µg BDP solution with (OralC) and without (Oral) 5 g oral charcoal, 10 100 µg inhalations from a Qvar® Easibreathe metered dose inhaler (pMDI) with (QvarC) and without (Qvar) oral charcoal and eight 250 µg inhalations from a Clenil® pMDI (Clenil). Subjects provided urine samples at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12 and 24 h post study dose. Urinary concentrations of BDP and its metabolites, beclometasone-17-monopropionate (17-BMP) and beclometasone (BOH) were measured. RESULTS No BDP, 17-BMP or BOH were detected in any samples post OralC dosing. Post oral dosing no BDP was detected in all urine samples and no 17-BMP or BOH was excreted in the first 30 min. Significantly more (P < 0.001) BDP, 17-BMP and BOH were excreted in the first 30 min and the cumulative 24 h urinary excretions post Qvar and Clenil compared with Oral. The mean ratio (90% confidence interval) of the 30 min urinary excretions for Qvar compared with Clenil was 231.4 (209.6, 255.7) %. CONCLUSION The urinary pharmacokinetic methodology to determine the relative lung and systemic bioavailability post inhalation, using 30 min and cumulative 24 h post inhalation samples, applies to BDP. The ratio between Qvar and Clenil is consistent with related clinical and lung deposition studies. PMID:22299644

  9. EVALUATION OF URINARY PAH METABOLITES AS BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE TO PM2.5 FROM COMBUSTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study determined the relationship between daily personal exposure to airborne fine particles (PM2.5) and the excretion of urinary PAH metabolites over a 10-day period of repeated measurements. The samples (n=60) were selected from a large series of exposure and health pane...

  10. Quantitation of proteinuria with urinary protein/creatinine ratios and random testing with dipsticks in nephrotic children.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, C; Zilleruelo, G; Freundlich, M; Strauss, J

    1990-02-01

    We examined the relative feasibility of using random urinary dipstick testing and urinary protein/creatinine ratios in the quantitation of proteinuria. Sixty-four children with relapsing nephrotic syndrome, ranging in age from 1 1/2 to 16 years, contributed 145 timed urine collections and 150 random specimens, which were analyzed by urinary protein dipstick, quantitation of protein and creatinine, or both. Total protein excretion was expressed as grams per surface area per day and the urinary protein/creatinine ratio as milligrams of protein per milligram of creatinine. Degrees of proteinuria were designated as physiologic (less than 0.1 gm/m2/day), intermediate (greater than 0.1 and less than 1.0 gm/m2/day), or nephrotic (greater than 1.0 gm/m2/day). The log regression analysis of the 24-hour urinary protein/creatinine ratio (y) and total protein excretion (x) was highly significant (r = 0.97; p less than 0.001). The upper and lower confidence limits of the urinary protein/creatinine ratio (1.0 and 0.1, respectively) closely approximated the designations for nephrotic and physiologic proteinuria, respectively. These values were therefore used to classify degrees of proteinuria by the urine protein/creatinine ratio. The validity of these tests was assessed by sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value, and compared with that of random testing by urinary dipstick. The urinary protein/creatinine ratio offered good reliability as a test for classifying degrees of proteinuria and accurately predicting nephrotic and physiologic proteinuria. The random dipstick testing was reliable only when results were distinctly positive and when sensitivity and specificity were low. The error in the total protein excretion value that was imposed by collection errors with high and low variations in the creatinine value (57% of samples) was largely corrected by normalization of the data by log transformation. When controlled for creatinine excretion, linear regression analysis

  11. Direct radioimmunoassay of urinary estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronides during the menstrual cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Stanczyk, F.Z.; Miyakawa, I.; Goebelsmann, U.

    1980-06-15

    Assays measuring immunoreactive estrone glucuronide (E/sub 1/G), estradiol-3-glucuronide (E/sub 2/-3G), estradiol-17..beta..-glucuronide (E/sub 2/-17G), estriol-3-glucuronide (E/sub 3/-3G), estriol-16..cap alpha..-glucuronide (E/sub 3/-16G), and pregnanediol-3..cap alpha..-glucuronide (Pd-3G) directly in diluted urine were developed and validated. These estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronide fractions were measured in aliquots of 24-hour and overnight samples of urine collected daily from seven women for one menstrual cycle. Urinary hormone excretion was correlated with daily serum estradiol (E/sub 2/), progesterone (P), and lutenizing hormonee (LH) levels. A sharp midcycle LH peak preceded by a preovulatory rise in serum E/sub 2/ and followed by luteal phase serum P levels were noted in each of the seven apparently ovulatory cycles. Twenty-four-hour and overnight urinary excretion patterns of estrogen glucuronides were similar to those of serum E/sub 2/. Of the five estrogen glucuronide fractions tested, excretion of E/sub 2/-17G exhibited the earliest and steepest ascending slope of the preovulatory estrogen surge and correlated best with serum E/sub 2/ levels. Urinary excretion of E/sub 1/-G, E/sub 2/-3G, and E/sub 3/-16G also showed an early and steep preovulatory rise and preceded that of E/sub 3/-3G, whereas urinary excretion of E/sub 3/-3G exhibited the poorest correlation with serum E/sub 2/ concentrations. The urinary excretion of Pd-3G rose parallel to serum P levels and was markedly elevated 2 to 3 days after the midcycle LH peak in both 24-hour and overnight collections of urine. These results indicate that among the urinary estrogen conjugate fractions tested, E/sub 2/-17G is the one that most suitably predicts ovulation.

  12. Quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible phosphorus and total calcium intakes and their retention and excretion in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Elsbernd, A J; Hansen, S L; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Patience, J F

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible P (STTD P) and total Ca intakes with their retention and excretion by growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. Forty-eight crossbred barrows (BW = 22.7 ± 2.9 kg) were allotted to 1 of 8 diets, housed individually in pens for 3 wk, and then moved to metabolism crates and allowed 4 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection of urine and fecal samples. Eight corn-soybean meal diets were formulated for similar NE, fat, and AA concentrations but to increase the STTD P from 0.16 to 0.62% using monocalcium phosphate. Dietary treatments were formulated for a constant Ca:STTD P ratio (2.2:1). The STTD P intake increased (P < 0.001) from 64 to 242% of the daily requirement (4.59 g/d of STTD P). Fecal and total excretion of P and Ca were linearly associated with mineral intake (P < 0.001). Constant urinary P excretion of 0.03 g/d P was observed, but at 4.96 g/d of STTD P intake, the urinary P excretion increased (P < 0.001). In contrast, Ca excretion in urine decreased (P < 0.001) with Ca intake, but constant excretion of 0.40 g/d Ca was reached at 17.97 g/d of Ca intake. The daily intakes of STTD P and Ca moderately explained the variation in urinary excretion of P (R2= 0.41) and Ca (R2= 0.64). The absorption and retention of P increased linearly (P< 0.001) with dietary P intake, whereas absorption and retention of Ca showed a quadratic response (P < 0.001). Absorption and retention of P and Ca were highly predictable from the STTD P and Ca intakes, with of 0.87 and 0.90, respectively. The femur mineral content (FMC) increased by 2.71 g with STTD P intake (P < 0.001) but reached a plateau (29.54 g of FMC) at 8.84 g/d of STTD P intake. The FMC was highly predictable from the STTD P intake (R2 = 0.89). The FMC affected the urinary P excretion ( P< 0.01), but moderately (R2= 0.19) explained the variation in urinary P. In conclusion, constant excretion of P in urine

  13. Urinary cadmium and mortality among inhabitants of a cadmium-polluted area in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nishijo, Muneko . E-mail: ni-koei@kanazawa-med.ac.jp; Morikawa, Yuko; Miura, Katsuyuki; Tawara, Kenji; Kuriwaki, Jun-ichi; Kido, Teruhiko; Ikawa, Akemi; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Nogawa, Koji

    2006-03-15

    The influence of cadmium (Cd) body burden on mortality remains controversial. Excess mortality and the dose-response relationship between mortality and urinary cadmium excretion were investigated in this study among environmentally exposed subjects. A 15-year follow-up study was carried out on 3119 inhabitants (1403 men and 1716 women) of the Cd-polluted Kakehashi River basin, whose urinary Cd concentration was examined in a 1981-1982 health impact survey. The mortality risk of high urinary Cd ({>=}10 {mu}g/g Cr) subjects after adjustment for age using Cox's proportional hazard model was higher than that of moderate urinary Cd (<10 {mu}g/g Cr) subjects in both sexes. When the subjects were divided into five groups according to the amount of urinary Cd (<3, 3-5, 5-10, 10-20, {>=}20 {mu}g/g Cr), the mortality risk was significantly increased among the subjects with urinary Cd{>=}3 {mu}g/g Cr in proportion to the increases in the amount of urinary Cd concentration after adjustment for age, especially in women. Furthermore, special causes of death among high and moderate urinary Cd were investigated, and mortality risk ratio for heart failure, which is a cause of death often diagnosed in cases with a gradual deterioration culminating in death, was significantly increased in both sexes, compared with the moderate urinary Cd subjects. Also, in women the mortality risk for renal diseases in the high urinary Cd subjects was significantly higher than that in the moderate urinary Cd subjects. These results suggest that a causal association between Cd body burden and mortality exists among inhabitants environmentally exposed to Cd but that no special disease may be induced except renal diseases.

  14. Pharmacological closure of patent ductus arteriosus: effects on pulse pressure and on endothelin-1 and vasopressin excretion.

    PubMed

    Zanardo, Vincenzo; Vedovato, Stefania; Chiozza, Laura; Faggian, Diego; Favaro, Flaviano; Trevisanuto, Daniele

    2008-06-01

    Widened pulse pressure is a classic sign of significant left-to-right shunting patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), but little evidence supports this statement in the early life of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) needing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the pharmacological treatment for PDA. Pulse pressure and urinary endothelin-1 (ET-1) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) vasoactive factors involved in the transitional circulation were measured before and after the NSAIDs treatment of 46 RDS premature infants receiving either ibuprofen (n = 22) or indomethacin (n = 24), with 28 responders and 18 nonresponders to the first NSAIDs course. We found that following pharmacological PDA closure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly increased, maintaining a stable pulse pressure. However, when pharmacological closure failed, the trend (nonsignificant) was for a more consistent increase in systolic than in diastolic blood pressure, which determined a statistically significant widening pulse pressure. In addition, urinary ET-1 excretion rates decreased significantly after PDA closure, whereas persistent more aggressive pharmacological therapy failed. Urinary AVP excretion rates decreased insignificantly after therapy, uninfluenced by the efficacy of the drugs. We concluded that widened pulse pressure is a clinical sign of failed PDA pharmacological closure in RDS premature infants. ET-1 levels remain elevated when NSAIDs fail to interrupt left-to-right PDA shunting that complicates recovery from RDS. PMID:18509786

  15. Absorption, biotransformation, and excretion of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Oehme, F W

    1980-08-01

    Foreign chemicals are continually present in the environment of man and animals. Mammalian systems are in a constant state of balance-the intake compensated for by the outflow. The intake is largely determined by the route of exposure and the chemical characteristics of the environmental compound. Under normal conditions of exposure to small or moderate amounts of environmental chemicals, the system is capable of biotransforming and detoxifying such materials into compounds more easily handled by the mammalian system. These are largely converted to more water-soluble materials and excreted in the urine, bile, and less commonly through other excretory routes. In situations of massive exposure to foreign materials, or when repeated exposure to moderate amounts of chemicals results in accumulation in body systems, toxicoses may result. These are essentially an overwhelming of the biological mechanisms for detoxifying and excreting such materials. The hazard associated with environmental chemicals is greatly increased if a preexisting disease modifies the normal biological detoxification processes. Therapy to assist intoxicated individuals is largely aimed at increasing excretory processes and maintaining or restoring the physiological balance between the amount of environmental chemical absorbed and the level capable of being excreted. PMID:7408430

  16. Chylomicrons enhance endotoxin excretion in bile.

    PubMed Central

    Read, T E; Harris, H W; Grunfeld, C; Feingold, K R; Calhoun, M C; Kane, J P; Rapp, J H

    1993-01-01

    Chylomicrons prevent endotoxin toxicity and increase endotoxin uptake by hepatocytes. As a consequence, less endotoxin is available to activate macrophages, thereby reducing tumor necrosis factor secretion. To determine whether the chylomicron-mediated increase in hepatocellular uptake of endotoxin results in increased endotoxin excretion into bile, we examined bile after endotoxin administration. A sublethal dose (7 micrograms/kg) of 125I-endotoxin was incubated with either rat mesenteric lymph containing nascent chylomicrons (500 mg of chylomicron triglyceride per kg of body weight) or an equal volume of normal saline (controls) for 3 h and then infused into male Sprague-Dawley rats. Bile samples were collected via a common bile duct catheter for 24 h. Infusion of endotoxin incubated with chylomicrons increased biliary excretion of endotoxin by 67% at 3 h (P < or = 0.006) and by 20% at 24 h (P < or = 0.01) compared with infusion of endotoxin incubated in saline. Endotoxin activity, as measured by the Limulus assay, was not detected in the bile of test animals. However, endotoxin activity was detected after hot phenol-water extraction of bile, demonstrating that endotoxin is inactive in the presence of bile but retains bioactivity after hepatic processing. Since the majority of an intravenous endotoxin load has been shown to be cleared by the liver, acceleration of hepatocyte clearance and biliary excretion of endotoxin may represent a component of the mechanism by which chylomicrons protect against endotoxin-induced lethality. PMID:8335381

  17. Development and Validation of a UPLC-MS/MS Method to Monitor Cephapirin Excretion in Dairy Cows following Intramammary Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Partha; Knowlton, Katharine F.; Shang, Chao; Xia, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Cephapirin, a cephalosporin antibiotic, is used by the majority of dairy farms in the US. Fecal and urinary excretion of cephapirin could introduce this compound into the environment when manure is land applied as fertilizer, and may cause development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics critical for human health. The environmental loading of cephapirin by the livestock industry remains un-assessed, largely due to a lack of appropriate analytical methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a cephapirin quantification method to capture the temporal pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion. The method includes an extraction with phosphate buffer and methanol, solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up, and quantification using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The LOQ values of the developed method were 4.02 µg kg−1 and 0.96 µg L−1 for feces and urine, respectively. This robust method recovered >60% and >80% cephapirin from spiked blank fecal and urine samples, respectively, with acceptable intra- and inter-day variation (<10%). Using this method, we detected trace amounts (µg kg−1) of cephapirin in dairy cow feces, and cephapirin in urine was detected at very high concentrations (133 to 480 µg L−1). Cephapirin was primarily excreted via urine and its urinary excretion was influenced by day (P = 0.03). Peak excretion (2.69 mg) was on day 1 following intramammary infusion and decreased sharply thereafter (0.19, 0.19, 0.08, and 0.17 mg on day 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively) reflecting a quadratic pattern of excretion (Quadratic: P = 0.03). The described method for quantification of cephapirin in bovine feces and urine is sensitive, accurate, and robust and allowed to monitor the pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows. This data will help develop manure segregation and treatment methods to minimize the risk of antibiotic loading to the environment

  18. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland) can cause lower urinary tract disease in cats. Although they are much less common causes, FLUTD ... your veterinarian about the best diet for your cat. Many commercial diets are acceptable, but some urinary ...

  19. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of surgeries that help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ... sling procedures are done to treat stress urinary incontinence. Before discussing surgery, your doctor will have you ...

  20. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007376.htm Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures To use the sharing features ... are types of surgeries that help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ...

  1. Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000134.htm Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge To use the sharing features ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al; Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  2. MedlinePlus: Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also in Spanish Stress incontinence Also in Spanish Suprapubic catheter care Also in Spanish Urge incontinence Also in ... catheterization - male Skin care and incontinence Stress incontinence Suprapubic catheter care Urge incontinence Urinary catheters Urinary catheters - what ...

  3. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education FAQs Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence FAQ166, July 2014 ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  4. Urinary fluoride as an exposure index in aluminum smelting.

    PubMed

    Seixas, N S; Cohen, M; Zevenbergen, B; Cotey, M; Carter, S; Kaufman, J

    2000-01-01

    Urinary fluoride was evaluated as an exposure index for a prospective study of asthma in an aluminum smelter. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the relationship between airborne exposure and urinary excretion over a workweek, and to describe exposures among jobs and over time. Thirty-two subjects were evaluated on Days 1 and 3 of a 3-day workweek. On each day, spot urine samples were collected prior to the start of work and again at the end of the shift. Samples were analyzed for fluoride and expressed as milligrams fluoride per gram of creatinine. Airborne exposures to total particulate, fluoride particulate, and hydrogen fluoride (HF; using a 37-mm filter cassette containing a filter and treated back-up pad) were also evaluated on each subject. In the second study, postshift urine samples were collected from asthma study volunteers in three surveys extending over 1.5 years and analyzed for fluoride. Average airborne exposures were 15.7, 4.1, and 0.7 mg/m3 for particulates, particulate fluorides and HF, respectively, and were substantially higher among carbon setters than other workers. However, average urine fluorides among the same workers were reasonably low, 1.3 and 3.0 mg/g creatinine in pre- and postshift urine samples, respectively. Carbon setters, who routinely wore respiratory protection during high exposure periods, had urinary fluoride levels similar to those of other potroom personnel. A significant variation in dose, as expressed by postshift urinary fluoride levels, was observed between potroom and nonpotroom jobs and over three survey periods. These results suggest that postshift urinary fluorides provide a reasonable exposure index for surveillance of exposure levels for an epidemiologic study, and that a substantial variation of exposure occurs between jobs and over time. Although urinary fluorides may be used for exposure surveillance, additional details on individual exposure agents and patterns of exposure over time are required for

  5. Drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Christine V; Zhang, Fan; Sinclair, David; Olliaro, Piero L

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by an intravascular infection with parasitic Schistosoma haematobium worms. The adult worms typically migrate to the venous plexus of the human bladder and excrete eggs which the infected person passes in their urine. Chronic infection can cause substantial morbidity and long-term complications as the eggs become trapped in human tissues causing inflammation and fibrosis. We summarised evidence of drugs active against the infection. This is new edition of a review first published in 1997. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE and LILACS and reference lists of articles up to 23 May 2014. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antischistosomal drugs and drug combinations compared to placebo, no intervention, or each other. Data collection and analysis Two researchers independently screened the records, extracted the data and assessed risk of bias. The primary efficacy outcomes were parasitological failure (defined as the continued presence of S. haematobium eggs in the urine at time points greater than one month after treatment), and percent reduction of egg counts from baseline. We presented dichotomous data as risk ratios (RR), and continuous data as mean difference (MD), alongside their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where appropriate we combined trials in meta analyses or tables. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included 30 RCTs enrolling 8165 participants in this review. Twenty-four trials were conducted in children in sub-Saharan Africa, and 21 trials were over 20 years old. Many studies were assessed as being at unclear risk of bias due to inadequate descriptions of study methods. Praziquantel On average, a single 40 mg/kg dose of praziquantel reduced the proportion of people still

  6. Influence of coffee on the excretion of noradrenaline and adrenaline in urine. A pilot study for the comparison of two methodical models.

    PubMed

    Klimmer, F; Neidhart, B; Legeler, T; Brockmann, W; Rutenfranz, J

    1984-01-01

    In field studies, the excretion rate of urinary catecholamines is very often used as an indicator of strain. Interfering effects which are due to caffeine, for example, can only be quantified if the influence of coffee consumption on the excretion of catecholamines is known quantitatively. This was the aim of our study with five subjects, on five consecutive working days, and with a strict standardization of nutrition. The urine samples were specified with respect to the following parameters: sampling period, volume, urine status, density, creatinine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline. Adrenaline showed a significant correlation with coffee consumption, whereas noradrenaline did not. Moreover, it could be demonstrated that relating the concentration of catecholamines to the creatinine excretion is insufficient for work physiology studies, especially if the urine sampling periods are as short as 2h. PMID:6511102

  7. The metabolism of 4-trifluoromethoxyaniline and [13C]-4-trifluoromethoxyacetanilide in the rat: detection and identification of metabolites excreted in the urine by NMR and HPLC-NMR.

    PubMed

    Tugnait, M; Lenz, E M; Phillips, P; Hofmann, M; Spraul, M; Lindon, J C; Nicholson, J K; Wilson, I D

    2002-06-01

    A combination of 19F, 1H NMR and HPLC-NMR spectroscopic approaches have been used to quantify and identify the urinary-excreted metabolites of 4-trifluoromethoxyaniline (4-TFMeA) and its [13C]-labelled acetanilide following i.p. administration at 50 mg/kg to rats. The major metabolite excreted in the urine for both compounds was a sulphated ring-hydroxylated metabolite (either 2- or 3-trifluoromethyl-5-aminosulphate) which accounted for approximately 32.3% of the dose following the administration of 4-TFMeA and approximately 29.9% following dosing of the acetanilide. The trifluoromethoxy-substituent appeared to be metabolically stable, with no evidence of O-detrifluoromethylation. There was no evidence of the excretion of N-oxanilic acids in urine, of the type seen with 4-trifluoromethylaniline. PMID:12039629

  8. Stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Heit, Michael

    2004-09-01

    Stress urinary incontinence, the complaint of involuntary leakage during effort or exertion, occurs at least weekly in one third of adult women. The basic evaluation of women with stress urinary incontinence includes a history, physical examination, cough stress test, voiding diary, postvoid residual urine volume, and urinalysis. Formal urodynamics testing may help guide clinical care, but whether urodynamics improves or predicts the outcome of incontinence treatment is not yet clear. The distinction between urodynamic stress incontinence associated with hypermobility and urodynamic stress incontinence associated with intrinsic sphincter deficiency should be viewed as a continuum, rather than a dichotomy, of urethral function. Initial treatment should include behavioral changes and pelvic floor muscle training. Estrogen is not indicated to treat stress urinary incontinence. Bladder training, vaginal devices, and urethral inserts also may reduce stress incontinence. Bulking agents reduce leakage, but effectiveness generally decreases after 1-2 years. Surgical procedures are more likely to cure stress urinary incontinence than nonsurgical procedures but are associated with more adverse events. Based on available evidence at this time, colposuspension (such as Burch) and pubovaginal sling (including the newer midurethral synthetic slings) are the most effective surgical treatments. PMID:15339776

  9. Urinary Tract Infections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  10. [Urinary catheter biofilm infections].

    PubMed

    Holá, V; Růzicka, F

    2008-04-01

    Urinary tract infections, most of which are biofilm infections in catheterized patients, account for more than 40% of hospital infections. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only infection but also other complications such as catheter blockage by bacterial encrustation, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis. About 50% of long-term catheterized patients face urinary flow obstruction due to catheter encrustation, but no measure is currently available to prevent it. Encrustation has been known either to result from metabolic dysfunction or to be of microbial origin, with urease positive bacterial species implicated most often. Infectious calculi account for about 15-20% of all cases of urolithiasis and are often associated with biofilm colonization of a long-term indwelling urinary catheter or urethral stent. The use of closed catheter systems is helpful in reducing such problems; nevertheless, such a system only delays the inevitable, with infections emerging a little later. Various coatings intended to prevent the bacterial adhesion to the surface of catheters and implants and thus also the emergence of biofilm infections, unfortunately, do not inhibit the microbial adhesion completely and permanently and the only reliable method for biofilm eradication remains the removal of the foreign body from the patient. PMID:18578409

  11. Feasibility of determining Pu-239 environmental and occupational levels in urinary excretion by fission track analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Krahenbuhl, M.P.; Seiger-Webster, C.M.; Henderson, C.L.; Smith, R.B.

    1997-03-01

    The results of bioassay programs for detecting human exposure to plutonium are currently playing a role that they were never intended or prepared to fulfill. With little resistance or support from the scientific community, the regulatory community established exposure limits for plutonium burdens based largely on imprecise inference of causes and effects; thus, to an extent, incomplete data and analysis formed the basis for most existing bioassay programs. At the time these early programs were developed, they were used only to determine the occupational exposure to radiation workers and populations unintentionally exposed to occupational levels during open air testing. The results from these programs are now used in litigation to determine cause, negligence and responsibility for health problems associated with the populations surrounding facilities that store, handle and process nuclear materials. As this role is beyond the scope of most bioassay programs` designs, concern for the use of existing bioassay programs in this manner is rising. It is imperative that defendable, scientifically-based, more sensitive techniques be researched and developed to measure the presence of Plutonium (Pu), which in turn can be used to establish and predict the health effects of a minimal Pu exposure. Currently, estimates to predict systemic deposition using urinalysis data are several times greater than the exposure levels measured by autopsy. The scientific research conducted in this study can serve to narrow this discrepancy and provide the regulatory community with a more reliable basis for establishing regulatory exposure limits and accurately predicting systemic deposition. Furthermore, this research and the continued development of more sophisticated detection techniques can serve to dispel general public concern over the possibility of radiation exposure from ongoing site remediation and closure efforts.

  12. ROLE OF PROTEIN BINDING IN THE URINARY EXCRETION OF PBDES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commercial chemical products used to prevent combustion of various

    consumer goods. Concern for PBDEs has risen due to their detection in the environment and in human biota,

    apparent persistence, and potential toxicity. The ...

  13. Nitrogen balance and mineral excretion in growing male pigs injected with a human growth hormone-releasing factor analog.

    PubMed Central

    Dubreuil, P; Abribat, T; Brazeau, P; Lapierre, H

    1998-01-01

    A human growth hormone-releasing factor analog ([Desamino-Tyr1,D-Ala2,Ala15] hGRF(1-29) NH2) has been reported to reduce feed intake and increase growth and feed efficiency in a dose-dependent manner in growing pigs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of this analog on nitrogen (N) balance and mineral excretion. Fifteen castrated male Yorkshire x Landrace pigs (45.9 +/- 1.4 kg) were randomly allotted to 2 groups: control (saline, n = 7) and GRF (6.66 micrograms/kg sc, TID, n = 8). The animals were injected for 20 consecutive days: feces and urine were collected during the last 10 d of injection. The animals had free access to water and food until satiety (approximately 15 min) at 07:00, 11:00, 15:00, 19:00, 23:00 and 07:00 h. The diet consisted of a hog fattening ration (18.0% crude protein). Blood samples were collected on the last day of the study by venipuncture. This analog increased (P < 0.05) insulin-like growth factor-1 and glucose serum concentrations and decreased (P < 0.05) serum urea nitrogen concentration and feed intake. The GRF-treated animals ingested less N, excreted less N in urine and feces to retain a similar amount of N than controls. The apparent coefficient of digestibility of the N has been slightly increased (P < 0.05) by GRF. Urinary excretion of P, K, and Cl decreased (P < 0.01) with GRF treatment. In conclusion, this GRF analog increased N digestibility and retention relative to N ingestion and reduced urinary N, P, K, and Cl excretion. PMID:9442933

  14. Phosphate excretion is decreased in older cardiac patients with normal kidney function: an emerging dietary risk factor?

    PubMed

    Jozefacki, Alexis; White, Christine A; Shobeiri, Navid S; Hopman, Wilma M; Johri, Amer M; Adams, Michael A; Holden, Rachel M

    2016-04-01

    Serum phosphate independently predicts cardiovascular events and mortality. Sixteen healthy adults and 9 adults with cardiovascular disease (CVD) ingested 500 mg of sodium phosphate after an over-night fast. In control subjects, the urine phosphate/creatinine ratio was significantly higher at 2 h (3.12 ± 1.02) than at baseline (1.98 ± 0.58, p < 0.001) but no change was observed in CVD patients. Decreased postprandial urinary excretion of phosphate could accelerate vascular calcification and may be an under-recognized risk factor for CVD. PMID:26944224

  15. Urinary porphyrins as biomarkers for arsenic exposure among susceptible populations in Guizhou Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, J.C.; Wang, J.P.; Zheng, B.S.; Zhai, C.; Maddalena, R.; Liu, F.; Moore, M.R.

    2005-08-07

    Coal from some areas in Guizhou Province contains elevated levels of arsenic. This has caused arsenicosis in individuals who use arsenic-contaminated coal for the purposes of heating, cooking and drying of food in poorly ventilated dwellings. The population at risk has been estimated to be approximately 200,000 people. We analyzed the porphyrin excretion profile using a HPLC method in urine samples collected from 113 villagers who lived in Xing Ren district, a coal-borne arsenicosis endemic area and from 30 villagers from Xing Yi where arsenicosis is not prevalent. Urinary porphyrins were higher in the arsenic exposed group than those in the control group. The correlation between urinary arsenic and porphyrin concentrations demonstrated the effect of arsenic on heme biosynthesis resulting in increased porphyrin excretion. Both uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin III showed significant increases in the excretion profile of the younger age ({lt} 20 years) arsenic-exposed group, suggesting that porphyrins could be used as early warning biomarkers of chronic arsenic exposure in humans. Greater increases of urinary arsenic and porphyrins in women, children and older age groups who spend much of their time indoors suggest that they might be at a higher risk. Whether elevated porphyrins could predict adverse health effects associated with both cancer and non-cancer end-points in chronically arsenic-exposed populations need further investigation.

  16. Effect of hyperoxaluria on the inhibitory activity of a 45-kD urinary protein.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Ramasamy; Balakrishnan, Selvakumar; Kalaiselvi, Periandavan

    2002-02-01

    Proteins are thought to play a major role in stone formation and structurally abnormal proteins have been reported to be present in the urine of stone formers. This study was aimed to determine whether hyperoxaluria modifies the kinetic properties of urinary inhibitory proteins. Hyperoxaluria was induced by feeding 1% ethylene glycol to rats. Oxalate, uric acid and calcium excretion were increased progressively during hyperoxaluria, while magnesium level was decreased. Urinary proteins were separated on a DEAE-cellulose column by eluting with stepwise increasing salt concentration in 0.05 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.0). Each protein fraction was studied for its crystallization inhibitory potential by the spectrophotometric method. The protein eluted in 0.3 M NaCl containing buffer had the maximal nucleation as well as inhibitory activity. The protein had a molecular weight of 45 kD. In hyperoxaluria, the urinary excretion of this protein significantly increased. In the crystal growth assay, the control rat 45-kD protein inhibited nucleation by 75% and aggregation by 100%. In contrast, it is very interesting to note that the protein derived from 28th day hyperoxaluric urine, behaved as a promoter of nucleation (-113%, percentage inhibition) and weak inhibitor of aggregation (28%). A significantly high negative correlation (r = -0.97) between oxalate excretion and the inhibitory activity of the 45-kD protein was observed suggesting a modification of the protein by oxalate. PMID:11818706

  17. Direct radioimmunoassay of urinary estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronides during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Stanczyk, F Z; Miyakawa, I; Goebelsmann, U

    1980-06-15

    Assays which measure immunoreactive metabolites of the major urinary estrogens directly are described, and their applicability to ovulation detection methods is discussed. The immunoreactive materials measured were estrone glucuronide (E1G), estradiol-3-glucuronide (E2-3G), estradiol-17beta-glucuronide (E2-17G), estriol-3-glucuronide (E3-3G), estriol-16alpha-glucuronide, and pregnanediol-3alpha-glucuronide (Pd-3G); these estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronide fractions were measured in portions of 24-hour and overnight samples of urine collected daily from 7 women throughout 1 menstrual cycle. The urinary excretions were correlated with daily serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone. The usual serum changes were noted preovulatorily in all 7 women, who were therefore considered ovulatory. 24-hour and overnight urinary excretion patterns of the estrogen glucuronides were similar to the serum estradiol pattern, and of the 5 estrogen glucuronide fractions, E2-17G showed the earliest and steepest ascending slope of preovulatory estrogen surge. Therefore, E2-17G is most suitable estrogen fraction for predicting ovulation. Pd-3G rose in parallel with progesterone serum levels and was markedly elevated 2-3 days after the midcycle luteinizing hormone peak; therefore, because milligram quantities of Pd-3G are excreted daily in urine, measurements of this glucuronide are most useful for ovulation detection by a simple immunochemical or enzymatic technique (dipstick). PMID:7386528

  18. Soy foods and urinary isoprostanes: results from a randomized study in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sen, Cherisse; Morimoto, Yukiko; Heak, Sreang; Cooney, Robert V; Franke, Adrian A; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2012-05-01

    In addition to their antiestrogenic effects, soy isoflavones may protect against cancer through alternate biological actions, for example, antioxidant properties. This randomized crossover study explored the relationship between dietary isoflavone intake through common soy foods and oxidative stress quantified by urinary isoprostane levels. Eighty-two women aged 39.2 ± 6.1 years were randomly selected to receive a high soy diet of 2 soy food servings per day and a low soy diet of <3 servings per week for 6 months each, separated by a 1-month washout period. Urine samples were collected at baseline and at the end of each dietary period. Urinary isoprostane levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and adjusted for creatinine levels. Mixed models using log-transformed values were applied to evaluate the effect of the high soy diet. Unadjusted isoprostane excretion levels were lower during the high rather than the low soy diet, but this effect was not statistically significant (p = 0.81). After adjustment for urinary creatinine, isoprostane excretion was slightly higher during the high soy diet (p = 0.02), an observation that was confirmed in a regression analysis between urinary isoflavones and isoprostanes during the high soy diet. The original association remained significant when restricted to adherent participants, however this effect disappeared after exclusion of three extreme values. In agreement with several previous reports, these findings do not support the hypothesis that soy exerts antioxidant effects, as measured by urinary isoprostane excretions, but additional markers of oxidative stress need to be investigated in future studies. PMID:22331037

  19. Ammonia excretion in aquatic and terrestrial crabs.

    PubMed

    Weihrauch, Dirk; Morris, Steve; Towle, David W

    2004-12-01

    The excretory transport of toxic ammonia across epithelia is not fully understood. This review presents data combined with models of ammonia excretion derived from studies on decapod crabs, with a view to providing new impetus to investigation of this essential issue. The majority of crabs preserve ammonotely regardless of their habitat, which varies from extreme hypersaline to freshwater aquatic environments, and ranges from transient air exposure to obligate air breathing. Important components in the excretory process are the Na+/K+(NH4+)-ATPase and other membrane-bound transport proteins identified in many species, an exocytotic ammonia excretion mechanism thought to function in gills of aquatic crabs such as Carcinus maenas, and gaseous ammonia release found in terrestrial crabs, such as Geograpsus grayi and Ocypode quadrata. In addition, this review presents evidence for a crustacean Rhesus-like protein that shows high homology to the human Rhesus-like ammonia transporter both in its amino acid sequence and in its predicted secondary structure. PMID:15579545

  20. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Stimulates Dopamine Tubular Transport by Organic Cation Transporters: A Novel Mechanism to Enhance Renal Sodium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás M.; Rukavina Mikusic, Natalia L.; Kravetz, María C.; Lee, Brenda M.; Carranza, Andrea; Del Mauro, Julieta S.; Pandolfo, Marcela; Gironacci, Mariela M.; Gorzalczany, Susana; Toblli, Jorge E.; Fernández, Belisario E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on organic cation transporters (OCTs) expression and activity, and its consequences on dopamine urinary levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity and renal function. Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with isotonic saline solution during 120 minutes and randomized in nine different groups: control, pargyline plus tolcapone (P+T), ANP, dopamine (DA), D-22, DA+D-22, ANP+D-22, ANP+DA and ANP+DA+D-22. Renal functional parameters were determined and urinary dopamine concentration was quantified by HPLC. Expression of OCTs and D1-receptor in membrane preparations from renal cortex tissues were determined by western blot and Na+, K+-ATPase activity was determined using in vitro enzyme assay. 3H-DA renal uptake was determined in vitro. Compared to P+T group, ANP and dopamine infusion increased diuresis, urinary sodium and dopamine excretion significantly. These effects were more pronounced in ANP+DA group and reversed by OCTs blockade by D-22, demonstrating that OCTs are implied in ANP stimulated-DA uptake and transport in renal tissues. The activity of Na+, K+-ATPase exhibited a similar fashion when it was measured in the same experimental groups. Although OCTs and D1-receptor protein expression were not modified by ANP, OCTs-dependent-dopamine tubular uptake was increased by ANP through activation of NPR-A receptor and protein kinase G as signaling pathway. This effect was reflected by an increase in urinary dopamine excretion, natriuresis, diuresis and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity. OCTs represent a novel target that links the activity of ANP and dopamine together in a common mechanism to enhance their natriuretic and diuretic effects. PMID:27392042

  1. Assessment of exposure to carbon disulfide in viscose production workers from urinary 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid determinations.

    PubMed

    Riihimäki, V; Kivistö, H; Peltonen, K; Helpiö, E; Aitio, A

    1992-01-01

    The follow-up of environmental carbon disulfide (CS2) exposure and urinary excretion of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) among 20 operatives over a 4-day working week in two viscose producing factories confirmed earlier observations that TTCA is a sensitive and reliable indicator of exposure to CS2. Exposure to as low as 0.5-1.0 ppm (1.6-3.2 mg/m3) of CS2 (8-hour time-weighted average [TWA]) was associated with detectable amounts of TTCA in end-of-shift urine. Moreover, the excretion of TTCA, relative to estimated CS2 uptake, appeared surprisingly constant in the studied work force. Approximately 3% (range 2-6.5%) of absorbed CS2 was detected in urine as TTCA. The proportional TTCA excretion did not show dose dependency in the estimated CS2 dose range which varied by about 20-fold. TTCA elimination exhibited both a fast (T 1/2 6 hour) and a slow (T 1/2 68 hour) phase. The slow elimination is compatible with a high lipid solubility and reversible protein binding of CS2. Consequently, urinary excretion of TTCA, relative to CS2 exposure, increased by about a third during the workweek. Urinary TTCA concentration of 4.5 mmol/mol creatinine in a postshift sample corresponded to a TWA exposure to 10 ppm CS2 towards the end of the working week. PMID:1415281

  2. Assessment of exposure to carbon disulfide in viscose production workers from urinary 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Riihimaeki, V.K.; Kivistoe, H.P.; Peltonen, K.; Helpioe, E.A.; Aitio, A. )

    1992-01-01

    The follow-up of environmental carbon disulfide (CS2) exposure and urinary excretion of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) among 20 operatives over a 4-day working week in two viscose producing factories confirmed earlier observations that TTCA is a sensitive and reliable indicator of exposure to CS2. Exposure to as low as 0.5-1.0 ppm (1.6-3.2 mg/m3) of CS2 (8-hour time-weighted average [TWA]) was associated with detectable amounts of TTCA in end-of-shift urine. Moreover, the excretion of TTCA, relative to estimated CS2 uptake, appeared surprisingly constant in the studied work force. Approximately 3% (range 2-6.5%) of absorbed CS2 was detected in urine as TTCA. The proportional TTCA excretion did not show dose dependency in the estimated CS2 dose range which varied by about 20-fold. TTCA elimination exhibited both a fast (T 1/2 6 hour) and a slow (T 1/2 68 hour) phase. The slow elimination is compatible with a high lipid solubility and reversible protein binding of CS2. Consequently, urinary excretion of TTCA, relative to CS2 exposure, increased by about a third during the workweek. Urinary TTCA concentration of 4.5 mmol/mol creatinine in a postshift sample corresponded to a TWA exposure to 10 ppm CS2 towards the end of the working week.

  3. A severe phenotype of Gitelman syndrome with increased prostaglandin excretion and favorable response to indomethacin

    PubMed Central

    Larkins, Nicholas; Wallis, Mathew; McGillivray, Barbara; Mammen, Cherry

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of Gitelman syndrome (GS) and Bartter syndrome has continued to evolve with the use of genetic testing to more precisely define the tubular defects responsible. GS is caused by mutations in the SLC12A3 gene encoding the Na+–Cl− co-transporter of the distal convoluted tubule (NCCT) and tends to be associated with a milder salt-losing phenotype. We describe two female siblings presenting in infancy with a severe salt-losing tubulopathy and failure to thrive due to compound heterozygous mutations in the SLC12A3 gene encoding the NCCT. Both children were treated with indomethacin resulting in improved linear growth and polyuria. Some atypical biochemical findings in our cases are discussed including raised urinary prostaglandin (PGE2) excretion that normalized with intravenous fluid repletion. PMID:25852896

  4. Azolimine: a nonsteroidal antagonist of the effects of mineralocorticoids on renal electrolyte excretion.

    PubMed

    Gussin, R Z; Ronsberg, M A; Stokey, E H; Cummings, J R

    1975-10-01

    Azolimine, CL 90,748, an imidazolidinone, displayed the capacity to antagonize the effects of mineralocorticoids on renal electrolyte excretion in several animal models. Although large doses of azolimine produced natriuresis in adrenalectomized rats in the absence of exogenous mineralocorticoid, its effectiveness was greater in the presence of a steroid agonist. However, in conscious dogs given an infusion of saline plus dextrose, azolimine was only effective when desoxycorticosterone (DCA) was administered. The drug, therefore, may not be a pure competitive antagonist of mineralocorticoid, but its greater efficacy in the presence of mineralocorticoid distinguishes it from noncompetitive mineralocorticoid antagonists as amiloride and triamterene. Azolimine significantly improved the urinary Na/K ratio when used in combination with thiazides, furosemide and other classical diuretics both in adrenalectomized, desoxycorticosterone-treated rats and in sodium-deficient rats. PMID:1181406

  5. Role played by the adenylcyclase-cAMP system of the rat septal area on Na+, K+ and water renal excretion.

    PubMed

    Camargo, L A; Saad, W A; Graeff, F G; Silva Neto, C R; Antunes-Rodrigues, J; Covian, M R

    1977-08-01

    In this study, the participation of the adenylcyclase--cAMP system of the rat septal area in the mediation of the natriuretic, kaliuretic and diuretic effects of noradrenaline (NA) was investigated. The intraseptal injection of 20 nmol of NA caused a significant increase in the urinary excretion of Na+ and K+ as well as in the urinary volume during the 2 hr period following the intracerebral injection which was blocked by 40 nmol of phentolamine, locally injected, 30 min before the catecholamine. In contrast, pretreatment with propranolol (100 nmol) potentiated the effects of NA on salt and water renal excretion. The intraseptal injection of 3.12 to 50 nmol of dibutryrl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (db cAMP) caused dose-dependent increase in natriuresis and kaliuresis, but a decrease in urinary volume. Under the same experimental conditions, caffeine administration (6.25 to 100 nmol) also induced dose-dependent increases in Na+ and K+ urinary output. These results indicate that the saluretic effect of NA may be mediated by an alpha receptor-induced activation of the adenylcyclase--cAMP system in the septal area. PMID:199910

  6. Bicarbonate promotes BK-α/β4-mediated K excretion in the renal distal nephron

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Ryan J.; Wen, Donghai; Hatcher, Lori I.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-activated K channels (BK), which are stimulated by high distal nephron flow, are utilized during high-K conditions to remove excess K. Because BK predominantly reside with BK-β4 in acid/base-transporting intercalated cells (IC), we determined whether BK-β4 knockout mice (β4KO) exhibit deficient K excretion when consuming a high-K alkaline diet (HK-alk) vs. high-K chloride diet (HK-Cl). When wild type (WT) were placed on HK-alk, but not HK-Cl, renal BK-β4 expression increased (Western blot). When WT and β4KO were placed on HK-Cl, plasma K concentration ([K]) was elevated compared wi