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Sample records for 6-year exposure analysis

  1. Underground Corrosion of Activated Metals, 6-Year Exposure Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. K. Adler Flitton; T. S. Yoder

    2006-03-01

    The subsurface radioactive disposal site located at the Idaho National Laboratory contains neutronactivated metals from non-fuel nuclear-reactor-core components. A long-term underground corrosion test is being conducted to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements in the surrounding arid vadose zone environment. The test uses nonradioactive metal coupons representing the prominent neutron-activated materials buried at the disposal location, namely, Type 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403), Type 316L stainless steel (S31603), nickel-chromium alloy (UNS NO7718), beryllium, aluminum 6061-T6 (A96061), and a zirconium alloy (UNS R60804). In addition, carbon steel (the material presently used in the cask disposal liners and other disposal containers) and a duplex stainless steel (UNS S32550) are also included in the test. This paper briefly describes the ongoing test and presents the results of corrosion analysis from coupons exposed underground for 1, 3, and 6 years.

  2. The Role of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Parasympathetic Functioning from 3 to 6 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Abar, Beau; Sheinkopf, Stephen; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Seifer, Ronald; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada-Ellzey, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hinckley, Matt; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    We employed latent growth curve analysis to examine trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) from 3 to 6 years among children with varying levels of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,121 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. Overall, there were significant individual differences in the trajectories of RSA reactivity, but not baseline RSA, across development. Greater levels of prenatal substance exposure, and less exposure to early adversity, were associated with increased RSA reactivity at 3 years, but by 6 years, both were associated with greater RSA reactivity. Prenatal substance exposure had an indirect influence through early adversity on growth in RSA reactivity. Results are in support of and contribute to the framework of allostatic load. PMID:24002807

  3. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: Adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 6years.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Morris J; Meador, Kimford J; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

    2013-11-01

    The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6years of age in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate exposure should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine

  4. IQ at 6 years after in utero exposure to antiepileptic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Gus A.; Briggs, Maria; Cheyne, Christopher P.; Cohen, Morris J.; García-Fiñana, Marta; Gummery, Alison; Kneen, Rachel; Loring, David W.; Mawer, George; Meador, Kimford J.; Shallcross, Rebekah; Clayton-Smith, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To delineate the risk to child IQ associated with frequently prescribed antiepileptic drugs. Methods: Children born to women with epilepsy (n = 243) and women without epilepsy (n = 287) were recruited during pregnancy and followed prospectively. Of these, 408 were blindly assessed at 6 years of age. Maternal and child demographics were collected and entered into statistical models. Results: The adjusted mean IQ was 9.7 points lower (95% confidence interval [CI] −4.9 to −14.6; p < 0.001) for children exposed to high-dose (>800 mg daily) valproate, with a similar significant effect observed for the verbal, nonverbal, and spatial subscales. Children exposed to high-dose valproate had an 8-fold increased need of educational intervention relative to control children (adjusted relative risk, 95% CI 8.0, 2.5–19.7; p < 0.001). Valproate at doses <800 mg daily was not associated with reduced IQ, but was associated with impaired verbal abilities (−5.6, 95% CI −11.1 to −0.1; p = 0.04) and a 6-fold increase in educational intervention (95% CI 1.4–18.0; p = 0.01). In utero exposure to carbamazepine or lamotrigine did not have a significant effect on IQ, but carbamazepine was associated with reduced verbal abilities (−4.2, 95% CI −0.6 to −7.8; p = 0.02) and increased frequency of IQ <85. Conclusions: Consistent with data from younger cohorts, school-aged children exposed to valproate at maternal doses more than 800 mg daily continue to experience significantly poorer cognitive development than control children or children exposed to lamotrigine and carbamazepine. PMID:25540307

  5. Persistence of Breakage in Specific Chromosome Bands 6 Years after Acute Exposure to Oil

    PubMed Central

    Francés, Alexandra; Hildur, Kristin; Barberà, Joan Albert; Rodríguez-Trigo, Gema; Zock, Jan-Paul; Giraldo, Jesús; Monyarch, Gemma; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Emma; de Castro Reis, Fernanda; Souto, Ana; Gómez, Federico P.; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Templado, Cristina; Fuster, Carme

    2016-01-01

    Background The identification of breakpoints involved in chromosomal damage could help to detect genes involved in genetic disorders, most notably cancer. Until now, only one published study, carried out by our group, has identified chromosome bands affected by exposure to oil from an oil spill. In that study, which was performed two years after the initial oil exposure in individuals who had participated in clean-up tasks following the wreck of the Prestige, three chromosomal bands (2q21, 3q27, 5q31) were found to be especially prone to breakage. A recent follow-up study, performed on the same individuals, revealed that the genotoxic damage had persisted six years after oil exposure. Objectives To determine whether there exist chromosome bands which are especially prone to breakages and to know if there is some correlation with those detected in the previous study. In addition, to investigate if the DNA repair problems detected previously persist in the present study. Design Follow-up study performed six years after the Prestige oil spill. Setting Fishermen cooperatives in coastal villages. Participants Fishermen highly exposed to oil spill who participated in previous genotoxic study six years after the oil. Measurements Chromosome damage in peripheral lymphocytes. For accurate identification of the breakpoints involved in chromosome damage of circulating lymphocytes, a sequential stain/G-banding technique was employed. To determine the most break-prone chromosome bands, two statistical methods, the Fragile Site Multinomial and the chi-square tests (where the bands were corrected by their length) were used. To compare the chromosome lesions, structural chromosome alterations and gaps/breaks between two groups of individuals we used the GEE test which takes into account a possible within-individual correlation. Dysfunctions in DNA repair mechanisms, expressed as chromosome damage, were assessed in cultures with aphidicolin by the GEE test. Results Cytogenetic

  6. An Analysis of Bone Donor Deferral Rates in Scotland - a 6-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Galea, George

    2011-12-01

    BACKGROUND: The Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service (SNBTS) is the main provider of tissues in Scotland. Tissue collection programmes were established in the mid-1990s, and the range of tissues collected has increased progressively over the years. MATHODS: Whilst the majority of tissues are obtained from cadaveric donations, bone is collected only from living donors who are usually patients undergoing primary hip replacement surgery (surgical donors). The bone is collected in an operating theatre, and, once stored, no further processing takes place prior to issue. Bone that fails for any reason (quality, microbiology or virological nonnegative result) is discarded. RESULTS: The deferral rate amongst live surgical bone donors in Scotland is around 65%, and it has been slowly and progressively rising from around 55% over the past few years. This needed investigated, particularly because comparisons with blood donors show that the deferral rate amongst bone donors is more than double that of first-time blood donors (29.7%). Our processes and systems are standardised, and our cohort of bone bank nurses have all been similarly trained and competency assessed. Moreover our data collection was done in a uniform fashion. It was therefore possible to conduct a 6-year audit on bone donor deferrals. It was found that a history of transfusion (16%), history of malignancy (18%) and bone quality (26%) were the main reasons for bone donor deferrals, accounting for 60% of all deferrals. CONCLUSIONS: When these are taken into account, the residual deferral rates become very similar numerically to blood donors. It is important to note however that there are significant differences between the blood and bone donor cohorts. This study also highlighted some of deferral reasons. Particularly malignancy is a cause of significant numbers of deferrals, and the evidence of transmissibility of malignancy through bone donation is not strong. More robust risk assessments should be

  7. Decreased lung function and exposure to diisocyanates (HDI and HDI-BT) in car repair painters: Observations on re-examination 6 years after initial study

    SciTech Connect

    Tornling, G.; Alexandersson, R.; Hedenstierna, G.; Plato, N. )

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-six car painters and 115 control persons participated in a follow-up investigation 6 years after the initial study, including measurement of lung function (dynamic spirometry and nitrogen washout test) and estimation of exposure to diisocyanates based on individual working routines, use of respiratory protection equipment, and measurements. The mean exposure for the car painters was 0.0015 mg/m3 hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI) and 0.09 mg/m3 hexamethylenediisocyanate-biurettrimer (HDI-BT), but frequently there were peak exposures exceeding 2.0 mg/m3 HDI-BT for at least 30 sec. Compared with smoking controls, the smoking car painters had greater yearly reduction in FVC (95 versus 38 ml), FEV1 (61 versus 28 ml), and VC (77 versus 30 ml). The nonsmoking car painters showed no differences in lung volumes compared with their nonsmoking controls. The impairment correlated well with the frequency of high peak exposures to HDI-BT, but not with the mean exposure to diisocyanates.

  8. Prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressant exposure and serotonin transporter promoter genotype (SLC6A4) influence executive functions at 6 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Weikum, Whitney M.; Brain, Ursula; Chau, Cecil M. Y.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Diamond, Adele; Oberlander, Tim F.

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants and maternal depression may affect prefrontal cognitive skills (executive functions; EFs) including self-control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. We examined long-term effects of prenatal SRI exposure on EFs to determine whether effects are moderated by maternal mood and/or genetic variations in SLC6A4 (a gene that codes for the serotonin transporter [5-HTT] central to the regulation of synaptic serotonin levels and behavior). Children who were exposed to SRIs prenatally (SRI-exposed N = 26) and non-exposed (N = 38) were studied at age 6 years (M = 6.3; SD = 0.5) using the Hearts & Flowers task (H&F) to assess EFs. Maternal mood was measured during pregnancy (3rd trimester) and when the child was age 6 years (Hamilton Depression Scale). Parent reports of child behavior were also obtained (MacArthur Health & Behavior Questionnaire). Parents of prenatally SRI-exposed children reported fewer child externalizing and inattentive (ADHD) behaviors. Generalized estimate equation modeling showed a significant 3-way interaction between prenatal SRI exposure, SLC6A4 variant, and maternal mood at the 6-year time-point on H&F accuracy. For prenatally SRI-exposed children, regardless of maternal mood, the H&F accuracy of children with reduced 5HTT expression (a short [S] allele) remained stable. Even with increasing maternal depressive symptoms (though all below clinical threshold), EFs of children with at least one short allele were comparable to children with the same genotype whose mothers reported few if any depressive symptoms—in this sense they showed resilience. Children with two long (L) alleles were more sensitive to context. When their mothers had few depressive symptoms, LL children showed extremely good EF performance—better than any other group. When their mothers reported more depressive symptoms, LL children's EF performance was worse than that of any other group. In the face of

  9. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This proceedings chapter will discuss the state-of-the-science regarding the evaluation of exposure as it relates to water quality criteria (WQC), sediment quality guidelines (SQG), and wildlife criteria (WC). Throughout this discussion, attempts are made to identify the methods ...

  10. Determinants of Wood Dust Exposure in the Danish Furniture Industry—Results from Two Cross-Sectional Studies 6 Years Apart

    PubMed Central

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Jacobsen, Gitte; Erlandsen, Mogens; Mikkelsen, Anders B.; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This paper investigates determinants of wood dust exposure and trends in dust level in the furniture industry of Viborg County, Denmark, using data from two cross-sectional studies 6 years apart. Methods: During the winter 1997/1998, 54 factories were visited (hereafter study 1). In the winter 2003/2004, 27 factories were revisited, and personal dust measurements were repeated. In addition, 14 new factories were included (hereafter study 2). A total of 2303 woodworkers participated in study 1, and 2358 measurements from 1702 workers were available. From study 2, 1581 woodworkers participated and 1355 measurements from 1044 workers were available. Information on occupational variables describing potential determinants of exposures like work task, exhaust ventilation, enclosure and cleaning procedures were collected. A total of 2627 measurements and 1907 persons were included in the final mixed model in order to explore determinants of exposure and trends in dust level. Results: The overall inhalable wood dust concentration (geometric means (geometric standard deviation)) has decreased from 0.95 mg/m3 (2.05) in study 1 to 0.60 mg/m3 (1.63) in study 2, representing a 7% annual decrease in dust concentration, which was confirmed in the mixed model. From study 1 to study 2 there has been a change towards less manual work and more efficient cleaning methods, but on the contrary also more inadequate exhaust ventilation systems. The following determinants were found to ‘increase’ dust concentration: sanding; use of compressed air; use of full-automatic machines; manual work; cleaning of work pieces with compressed air; kitchen producing factories and small factories (<20 employees). The following determinants of exposure were found to ‘decrease’ dust concentration: manual assembling/packing; sanding with adequate exhaust ventilation; adequate exhaust ventilation; vacuum cleaning of machines and special cleaning staff. Conclusions: Despite a substantial

  11. Longitudinal analysis of ear infection and hearing impairment: findings from 6-year prospective cohorts of Australian children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Middle ear infection is common in childhood. Despite its prevalence, there is little longitudinal evidence about the impact of ear infection, particularly its association to hearing loss. By using 6-year prospective data, we investigate the onset and impact over time of ear infection in Australian children. Methods We analyse 4 waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) survey collected in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. There are two age cohorts in this study (B cohort aged 0/1 to 6/7 years N=4242 and K cohort aged 4/5 to 10/11 years N=4169). Exposure was parent-reported ear infection and outcome was parent-reported hearing problems. We modelled ear infection onset and subsequent impact on hearing using multivariate logistic regressions, reporting Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) and Confidence Intervals (95% CI). Separate analyses were reported for indigenous and non-indigenous children. Results Associations of ear infections between waves were found to be very strong both among both indigenous and non-indigenous children in the two cohorts. Reported ear infections at earlier wave were also associated with hearing problems in subsequent wave. For example, reported ear infections at age 4/5 years among the K cohort were found to be predictors of hearing problems at age 8/9 years (AOR 4.0, 95% CI 2.2-7.3 among non-indigenous children and AOR 7.7 95% CI 1.0-59.4 among indigenous children). Number of repeated ear infections during the 6-year follow-up revealed strong dose–response relationships with subsequent hearing problems among non-indigenous children (AORs ranged from 4.4 to 31.7 in the B cohort and 4.4 to 51.0 in the K cohort) but not statistically significant among indigenous children partly due to small sample. Conclusions This study revealed the longitudinal impact of ear infections on hearing problems in both indigenous and non-indigenous children. These findings highlight the need for special attention and follow-up on children

  12. Antibiotic Exposure by 6 Months and Asthma and Allergy at 6 Years: Findings in a Cohort of 1,401 US Children

    PubMed Central

    Risnes, Kari R.; Belanger, Kathleen; Murk, William; Bracken, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have reported that antibiotic use may be associated with increased risk of childhood asthma. Respiratory tract infections in small children may be difficult to distinguish from early symptoms of asthma, and studies may have been confounded by “protopathic” bias, where antibiotics are used to treat early symptoms of asthma. These analyses of a cohort including 1,401 US children assess the association between antibiotic use within the first 6 months of life and asthma and allergy at 6 years of age between 2003 and 2007. Antibiotic exposure was associated with increased risk of asthma (adjusted odds ratio = 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 2.16). The odds ratio if asthma was first diagnosed after 3 years of age was 1.66 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.79) and, in children with no history of lower respiratory infection in the first year of life, the odds ratio was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.12, 3.46). The adverse effect of antibiotics was particularly strong in children with no family history of asthma (odds ratio = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.58) (Pinteraction = 0.03). The odds ratio for a positive allergy blood or skin test was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.10, 2.28). The results show that early antibiotic use was associated with asthma and allergy at 6 years of age, and that protopathic bias was unlikely to account for the main findings. PMID:21190986

  13. Exposure from the Chernobyl accident had adverse effects on erythrocytes, leukocytes, and, platelets in children in the Narodichesky region, Ukraine: A 6-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Stepanova, Eugenia; Karmaus, Wilfried; Naboka, Marina; Vdovenko, Vitaliy; Mousseau, Tim; Shestopalov, Viacheslav M; Vena, John; Svendsen, Erik; Underhill, Dwight; Pastides, Harris

    2008-01-01

    Background After the Chernobyl nuclear accident on April 26, 1986, all children in the contaminated territory of the Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, were obliged to participate in a yearly medical examination. We present the results from these examinations for the years 1993 to 1998. Since the hematopoietic system is an important target, we investigated the association between residential soil density of 137Caesium (137Cs) and hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte counts in 1,251 children, using 4,989 repeated measurements taken from 1993 to 1998. Methods Soil contamination measurements from 38 settlements were used as exposures. Blood counts were conducted using the same auto-analyzer in all investigations for all years. We used linear mixed models to compensate for the repeated measurements of each child over the six year period. We estimated the adjusted means for all markers, controlling for potential confounders. Results Data show a statistically significant reduction in red and white blood cell counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin with increasing residential 137Cs soil contamination. Over the six-year observation period, hematologic markers did improve. In children with the higher exposure who were born before the accident, this improvement was more pronounced for platelet counts, and less for red blood cells and hemoglobin. There was no exposure×time interaction for white blood cell counts and not in 702 children who were born after the accident. The initial exposure gradient persisted in this sub-sample of children. Conclusion The study is the first longitudinal analysis from a large cohort of children after the Chernobyl accident. The findings suggest persistent adverse hematological effects associated with residential 137Cs exposure. PMID:18513393

  14. Hospitalizations for vaccine preventable pneumonias in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a 6-year analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample

    PubMed Central

    Stobaugh, Derrick J; Deepak, Parakkal; Ehrenpreis, Eli D

    2013-01-01

    Background Pneumonias are among the most common causes of hospitalization among inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Guidelines published in 2004 advocate vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza virus. We sought to examine trends in hospitalizations for vaccine preventable pneumonias among IBD patients since the availability of published guidelines, and to identify whether Haemophilus influenzae is a causative organism for pneumonia hospitalizations among IBD patients. Methods This cross-sectional study on the Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify admissions for pneumonias in patients with IBD between 2004 and 2009. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed comparing IBD patients to controls, accounting for potential confounders. Results There were more admissions for S. pneumoniae pneumonia than influenza virus or H. influenzae (787, 393, and 183 respectively). Crohn’s disease (CD) as well as ulcerative colitis (UC) patients did not demonstrate increased adjusted odds of hospitalization for S. pneumoniae pneumonia (1.08; confidence interval [CI] 0.99–1.17 compared to 0.93; CI 0.82–1.06 respectively). Increased adjusted odds for hospitalization for pneumonias due to influenza virus were seen among UC patients in the bottom quartile of income (1.86; CI 1.46–2.37). Adjusted odds for H. influenzae pneumonia admission in patients with UC and CD patients were increased compared to controls (1.42; CI 1.13–1.79 and 1.28; CI 1.06–1.54, respectively). Conclusion The study identified lowest income UC patients as having higher adjusted odds, and these patients should be targeted for influenza virus vaccination. Additionally, H. influenzae may be another vaccine preventable cause for pneumonia among IBD patients. PMID:23818801

  15. Analysis of 6-year fluid electric conductivity logs to evaluate the hydraulic structure of the deep drill hole at Outokumpu, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Kukkonen, Ilmo T.; Niemi, Auli

    2015-11-01

    Over the last two decades, the flowing fluid electric conductivity (FFEC) logging method has been applied in boreholes in the well-testing mode to evaluate the transmissivity, hydraulic head, and formation water electrical conductivity as a function of depth with a resolution of about 10-20 cm. FFEC profiles along the borehole are obtained under both shut-in and pumping conditions in a logging procedure that lasts only 3 or 4 days. A method for analyzing these FFEC logs has been developed and successfully employed to obtain formation parameters in a number of field studies. The present paper concerns the analysis of a unique set of FFEC logs that were taken from a deep borehole reaching down to 2.5 km at Outokumpu, Finland, over a 6-year time period. The borehole intersects paleoproterozoic metasedimentary, granitoid, and ophiolite-derived rocks. After the well was drilled, completed, and cleaned up, FFEC logs were obtained after 7, 433, 597, 948, and 2036 days. In analyzing these five profiles, we discovered the need to account for salinity diffusion from water in the formation to the borehole. Analysis results include the identification of 15 hydraulically conducting zones along the borehole, the calculation of flow rates associated with these 15 zones, as well as the estimation of the variation of formation water electrical conductivity as a function of depth. The calculated flow rates were used to obtain the tentative hydraulic conductivity values at these 15 depth levels.

  16. Analysis of 6-year fluid electric conductivity logs to evaluate the hydraulic structure of the deep drill hole at Outokumpu, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Kukkonen, Ilmo T.; Niemi, Auli

    2016-07-01

    Over the last two decades, the flowing fluid electric conductivity (FFEC) logging method has been applied in boreholes in the well-testing mode to evaluate the transmissivity, hydraulic head, and formation water electrical conductivity as a function of depth with a resolution of about 10-20 cm. FFEC profiles along the borehole are obtained under both shut-in and pumping conditions in a logging procedure that lasts only 3 or 4 days. A method for analyzing these FFEC logs has been developed and successfully employed to obtain formation parameters in a number of field studies. The present paper concerns the analysis of a unique set of FFEC logs that were taken from a deep borehole reaching down to 2.5 km at Outokumpu, Finland, over a 6-year time period. The borehole intersects paleoproterozoic metasedimentary, granitoid, and ophiolite-derived rocks. After the well was drilled, completed, and cleaned up, FFEC logs were obtained after 7, 433, 597, 948, and 2036 days. In analyzing these five profiles, we discovered the need to account for salinity diffusion from water in the formation to the borehole. Analysis results include the identification of 15 hydraulically conducting zones along the borehole, the calculation of flow rates associated with these 15 zones, as well as the estimation of the variation of formation water electrical conductivity as a function of depth. The calculated flow rates were used to obtain the tentative hydraulic conductivity values at these 15 depth levels.

  17. Analysis of early bacterial communities on volcanic deposits on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima), Japan: a 6-year study at a fixed site.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Reiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Nanba, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Microbial colonization on new terrestrial substrates represents the initiation of new soil ecosystem formation. In this study, we analyzed early bacterial communities growing on volcanic ash deposits derived from the 2000 Mount Oyama eruption on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima), Japan. A site was established in an unvegetated area near the summit and investigated over a 6-year period from 2003 to 2009. Collected samples were acidic (pH 3.0-3.6), did not utilize any organic substrates in ECO microplate assays (Biolog), and harbored around 106 cells (g dry weight)(-1) of autotrophic Fe(II) oxidizers by most-probable-number (MPN) counts. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, and the Leptospirillum groups I, II and III were found to be abundant in the deposits by clone library analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The numerical dominance of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was also supported by analysis of the gene coding for the large subunit of the form I ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). Comparing the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from samples differing in age, shifts in Fe(II)-oxidizing populations seemed to occur with deposit aging. The detection of known 16S rRNA gene sequences from Fe(III)-reducing acidophiles promoted us to propose the acidity-driven iron cycle for the early microbial ecosystem on the deposit. PMID:22075623

  18. Post-exposure rate of tuberculosis infection among health care workers measured with tuberculin skin test conversion after unprotected exposure to patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: 6-year experience in an Italian teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study assesses the risk of LTBI at our Hospital among HCWs who have been exposed to TB patients with a delayed diagnosis and respiratory protection measures were not implemented. Methods All HCWs exposed to a patient with cultural confirmed pulmonary TB and respiratory protection measures were not implemented were included. Data on TST results performed in the past (defined as T0) were recorded. TST was performed twice: first, immediately after exposure to an index patient (T1) and three months later (T2). The period of time between T0 and T1 was used to calculate he annual rate of tuberculosis infection (ARTI), while le period of time between T1 and T2 was used to calculate the post exposure annual rate of tuberculosis infection (PEARTI). Results Fourteen index patients were admitted; sputum smear was positive in 7 (58.3%), 4 (28.6%) were non-Italian born patients. 388 HCWs were exposed to index patients, a median of 27 (12-39) HCW per each index patient. One hundred eighty (46.4%) HCWs received BCG in the past. One hundred twenty two HCWs (31%) were TST positive at a previous routine screening and not evaluated in this subset. Among the remaining 255 HCWs with negative TST test in the past, TST at T1 was positive in 11 (4.3%). ARTI was 1.6 (95% CI 0.9-2.9) per 100 PY. TST at T2 was positive in 9 (3.7%) HCWs, that were TST negative at T1. PEARTI was 26 (95% CI 13.6-50) per 100 PY. At univariate analysis, older age was associated with post exposure latent tuberculosis infection (HR 1.12; 95% CI 1.03-1.22, p=0.01). Conclusions PEARTI was considerably higher among HCWs exposed to index patients than ARTI. These data underscore the overwhelming importance of performing a rapid diagnosis, as well as implementing adequate respiratory protection measures when TB is suspected. PMID:24919953

  19. An outcome of Surgically Treated Head and Neck Cancer in one of the tertiary Referral Center in the East Coast of Malaysia: A 6-year Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    ABDULLAH, Kahairi; RAJA LOPE AHMAD, Raja Ahmad; ASHA’ARI, Zamzil Amin; RAZALI, Mohd Sayuti; LEMAN, Wan Islah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surgical management of head and neck cancer is undoubtedly challenging, and we would like to see the outcome of managing such cases at one of the tertiary referral center in the East Coast of Malaysia. Methods: A 6-year retrospective analysis of surgically treated head and neck cancer cases in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA) Kuantan, Pahang was conducted. Results: The total number of patients reviewed was 55 and mean age of the patients was 59 years (SD 12). The larynx was the most common surgically treated site (29.1%), followed by the oral cavity (16.4%) and the paranasal sinuses (14.5%). Majority of the patients presented with stage III (32.8%) and stage IV (41.8%) cancer. Post-operative local complications (23.6%) and wound breakdown was identified as the most common cause (20%). Low hemoglobin level prior to surgery was associated with anemia after surgery (P = 0.007) and prolonged hospital stay (P = 0.030). Tumor recurrence was observed in 21.8% of the cases. Advanced stage tumor had more percentage of positive margin than early stage tumor i.e., 23% in early stage versus 58% in advanced stage (P = 0.050). Conclusion: Surgical management of head and neck cancer in this center has an acceptable outcome. PMID:25977619

  20. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS), first published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides interactive computer software for formulating aquatic ecosystem models and rapidly evaluating the fate, transport, and exposure concentrations of synthetic organic chemicals--pesti...

  1. Advantages of the use of deciduous teeth, hair, and blood analysis for lead and cadmium bio-monitoring in children. A study of 6-year-old children from Krakow (Poland).

    PubMed

    Barton, Henryk J

    2011-11-01

    The population of about 300 6-year-old preschool children was studied for lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in deciduous teeth, scalp hair, and capillary blood. Zinc (Zn) content in hair was also measured due to its possible interferences with the elements studied. The Pb and Cd contents were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction, and Zn, by flame method. Metal levels found were comparable to those in European countries. Positive correlations between Pb and Cd in the same and different tissues were widespread (r=0.23-0.68). A positive correlation was found between Pb in teeth and blood (r=0.65, p<0.001). Pb blood threshold 100 μg L(-1) referred to 2.6 μg g(-1) Pb in teeth. Predictability of this Pb teeth limit was 14% vs. 5% for Pb blood. Strong negative correlation was found between hair Pb and Zn (r=-0.68, p<0.001). Enhanced Cd and Zn levels in hair were associated with the household drinking water hardness. The associations with some other environmental and behavioral factors were also presented and discussed. The results proved the advantage of analysis of primary teeth for Pb exposure screening of preschool children. PMID:21086189

  2. Injury risk of a 6-year-old wheelchair-seated occupant in a frontal motor vehicle impact--'ANSI/RESNA WC-19' sled testing analysis.

    PubMed

    Ha, DongRan; Bertocci, Gina

    2007-09-01

    Children with disabilities are transported on a daily basis to schools and developmental facilities. When they travel, they often remain seated in their wheelchairs in vehicles. To study injury risk of pediatric wheelchair users in motor vehicle crashes, three of the same pediatric manual wheelchairs were sled impact tested with a seated Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD using a 20 g/48 km/h frontal crash pulse. The sled test results were compared to kinematic limitations and injury criteria specified in the ANSI/RESNA WC-19, FMVSS 213 and FMVSS 208. All sled test results were below the limits specified in the ANSI/RESNA WC-19 standard and FMVSS 213. All tests exceeded the N(ij) limit of 1 specified in FMVSS 208, and one test exceeded the limit of peak neck tension force. Chest deflection resulting from one of three tests was at the limit specified in FMVSS 208. Our results suggest that children with disabilities who remain seated in their wheelchairs in vehicles may be at risk of neck injury in a frontal impact motor vehicle crash. However, limitations in the biofidelity of the Hybrid III ATD neck raise concern as to the translatability of these findings to the real world. Additional studies are needed to investigate the influence of neck properties and ATD neck biofidelity on injury risk of children who travel seated in their wheelchairs. PMID:17251048

  3. Continuous evidence of fast HIV disease progression related to class-wide resistance to antiretroviral drugs: a 6 year follow-up analysis of a large observational database.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Zaccarelli; Federica, Forbici; Patrizia, Lorenzini; Francesca, Ceccherini-Silberstein; Valerio, Tozzi; Paola, Trotta Maria; Patrizia, Marconi; Pasquale, Narciso; Federico, Perno Carlo; Andrea, Antinori

    2007-08-20

    Class-wide resistance (CWR) was increasingly associated with a higher risk of HIV progression after 72 months of follow-up among 1392 patients genotypic-tested after failure (AIDS risk 13% for no CWR to 34% for three CWR; AIDS/death risk 21-54%). At multivariate analysis, the detection of two and three CWR was significantly associated with a two and threefold increased risk, respectively, of death and AIDS/death, suggesting that extended resistance is a marker of disease progression in long-term observation. PMID:17690586

  4. Root Resorption a 6-Year Follow-up Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Caroline; Closs, Luciane; Barletta, Fernando; Reston, Eduardo; Tovo, Maximiano F; Lambert, Paula

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the clinical course of a pediatric patient developing cervical external root resorption (CERR). An 11-year old male patient had sustained dental trauma and was diagnosed with crown fracture affecting the incisal and middle thirds of the maxillary right permanent central incisor and the maxillary right permanent lateral incisor with pulp exposure and CERR after 24 months. Diagnosis and treatment of CERR are a challenge for dental practitioners. In this case, preservation of natural dentition is shown as a successful treatment in a 6-year follow-up. PMID:25870717

  5. Bioplastique at 6 years: clinical outcome studies.

    PubMed

    Ersek, R A; Gregory, S R; Salisbury, A V

    1997-11-01

    Bioplastique is a biphasic polymer for the permanent augmentation of some soft tissues. It was developed in 1987, and clinical studies at this institution were begun in 1990. The combination of low molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone and solid polymer particles allows the implantation of permanent polymer spheres through a small needle under local anesthesia. In this study 127 cases are reviewed of consecutive patients who have received Bioplastique for scar revision, wrinkles, and augmentation for soft-tissue defects at 6 years after application. All patients who had not been in for follow-up recently were contacted by mail and questioned on the permanence of augmentation and migration of particles. About 30 percent of the patients were unreachable and had their charts reviewed for permanence and migration of particles. In eight of these cases, Bioplastique was removed because of overcorrection, two of them may have had infection. Bioplastique has gained wide use throughout the world and although some complications have been reported, in general, it functions quite well when used in selected cases. PMID:9385974

  6. Measurement methods for human exposure analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, P J

    1995-01-01

    The general methods used to complete measurements of human exposures are identified and illustrations are provided for the cases of indirect and direct methods used for exposure analysis. The application of the techniques for external measurements of exposure, microenvironmental and personal monitors, are placed in the context of the need to test hypotheses concerning the biological effects of concern. The linkage of external measurements to measurements made in biological fluids is explored for a suite of contaminants. This information is placed in the context of the scientific framework used to conduct exposure assessment. Examples are taken from research on volatile organics and for a large scale problem: hazardous waste sites. PMID:7635110

  7. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged <5 years living in Flint (2) and an increase in water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged <6 years were advised to consume bottled water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged <6 years before, during, and after the switch in water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged <6 years, 284 (3.0%) BLLs were ≥5 µg/dL during April 25, 2013-March 16, 2016. The adjusted probability of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL was 46% higher during the period after the switch from DWA to FWS (and before the January 2, 2015, water advisory) than during the period before the

  8. MEXAMS (METALS EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MEXAMS, the Metals Exposure Analysis Modeling System, provides an enhanced capability for assessing the impact of priority pollutant metals on aquatic systems. It allows the user to consider the complex chemistry affecting the behavior of metals in conjunction with the transport ...

  9. EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

  10. HUMAN EXPOSURE ANALYSIS, AN INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relatively new and expanding field of human exposure analysis has its genesis in the environmental movement and the interest of scientists and the public in understanding the interaction between anthropogenic and biogenic chemicals and people. The universe is full of chemi...

  11. Probabilistic Exposure Analysis for Chemical Risk Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Bogen, Kenneth T.; Cullen, Alison C.; Frey, H. Christopher; Price, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the state of the science of probabilistic exposure assessment (PEA) as applied to chemical risk characterization. Current probabilistic risk analysis methods applied to PEA are reviewed. PEA within the context of risk-based decision making is discussed, including probabilistic treatment of related uncertainty, interindividual heterogeneity, and other sources of variability. Key examples of recent experience gained in assessing human exposures to chemicals in the environment, and other applications to chemical risk characterization and assessment, are presented. It is concluded that, although improvements continue to be made, existing methods suffice for effective application of PEA to support quantitative analyses of the risk of chemically induced toxicity that play an increasing role in key decision-making objectives involving health protection, triage, civil justice, and criminal justice. Different types of information required to apply PEA to these different decision contexts are identified, and specific PEA methods are highlighted that are best suited to exposure assessment in these separate contexts. PMID:19223660

  12. Parental Control, Nurturance, Self-Efficacy, and Screen Viewing among 5- to 6-Year-Old Children: A Cross-Sectional Mediation Analysis To Inform Potential Behavior Change Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Lesley; Zahra, Jesmond; Thompson, Janice L.; Sebire, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Children's screen viewing (SV) is associated with higher levels of childhood obesity. Many children exceed the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline of 2 hours of television (TV) per day. There is limited information about how parenting styles and parental self-efficacy to limit child screen time are associated with children's SV. This study examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children and whether any effects were mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. Methods: Data were from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013. Child and parent SV were reported by a parent, who also provided information about their parenting practices and self-efficacy to restrict SV. A four-step regression method examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children. Mediation by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was examined using indirect effects. Results: On a weekday, 90% of children watched TV for <2 hours per day, decreasing to 55% for boys and 58% for girls at weekends. At the weekend, 75% of children used a personal computer at home, compared with 61% during the week. Self-reported parental control, but not nurturance, was associated with children's TV viewing. Parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was independently associated with child weekday TV viewing and mediated associations between parental control and SV. Conclusions: Parental control was associated with lower levels of SV among 5- to 6-year-old children. This association was partially mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. The development of strategies to increase parental self-efficacy to limit screen-time may be useful. PMID:25584518

  13. Association of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake during Infancy with Dental Caries in 6-year-olds

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei; Onufrak, Stephen; Li, Ruowei

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake during infancy is associated with dental caries by age 6, a longitudinal analysis of 1,274 U.S. children was conducted using data from the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the 2012 Follow-up Study at 6 years of age. The exposure variables were maternal-reported SSB intakes during infancy (i.e., any SSB intake during infancy, age at SSB introduction during infancy, and average frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months of age). The outcome variable was maternal-reported dental caries of their 6-year-old in his/her lifetime. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for associations of SSB intake during infancy with having dental caries among 6-year-olds after controlling for baseline characteristics of children and mothers and child's tooth brushing habits and sweet food intake at follow-up. Based on maternal recall, almost 40% of 6-year-olds had dental caries in their lifetime. Adjusted odds of having dental caries was significantly associated with higher frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months (aOR=1.83 for ≥3 times/week, vs. none). Any SSB intake during infancy and age at SSB introduction during infancy were not associated with dental caries. In conclusion, frequent SSB intake during 10-12 months of age significantly increased the likelihood of having dental caries among 6-year-olds. Late infancy may be an important time for mothers to establish healthy beverage practices for their children. These findings can be used to inform efforts to reduce dental caries among children. PMID:25713788

  14. A new mask exposure and analysis facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    te Sligte, Edwin; Koster, Norbert; Deutz, Alex; Staring, Wilbert

    2014-10-01

    The introduction of ever higher source powers in EUV systems causes increased risks for contamination and degradation of EUV masks and pellicles. Appropriate testing can help to inventory and mitigate these risks. To this end, we propose EBL2: a laboratory EUV exposure system capable of operating at high EUV powers and intensities, and capable of exposing and analyzing EUV masks. The proposed system architecture is similar to the EBL system which has been operated jointly by TNO and Carl Zeiss SMT since 2005. EBL2 contains an EUV Beam Line, in which samples can be exposed to EUV irradiation in a controlled environment. Attached to this Beam Line is an XPS system, which can be reached from the Beam Line via an in-vacuum transfer system. This enables surface analysis of exposed masks without breaking vacuum. Automated handling with dual pods is foreseen so that exposed EUV masks will still be usable in EUV lithography tools to assess the imaging impact of the exposure. Compared to the existing system, large improvements in EUV power, intensity, reliability, and flexibility are proposed. Also, in-situ measurements by e.g. ellipsometry is foreseen for real time monitoring of the sample condition. The system shall be equipped with additional ports for EUVR or other analysis tools. This unique facility will be open for external customers and other research groups.

  15. A Gunpowder Tattoo in a 6-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Seth; Barros, Brittany; Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2016-05-01

    Gunpowder tattoos result from explosion and subsequent traumatic implantation of pigmented granules into varying layers of the skin. This report details the case of a 6-year-old with a gunpowder tattoo on the face. PMID:27040733

  16. Chloroform: exposure estimation, hazard characterization, and exposure-response analysis.

    PubMed

    Meek, M E; Beauchamp, R; Long, G; Moir, D; Turner, L; Walker, M

    2002-01-01

    Chloroform has been assessed as a Priority Substance under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The general population in Canada is exposed to chloroform principally through inhalation of indoor air, particularly during showering, and through ingestion of tap water. Data on concentrations of chloroform in various media were sufficient to serve as the basis for development of deterministic and probabilistic estimates of exposure for the general population in Canada. On the basis of data acquired principally in studies in experimental animals, chloroform causes hepatic and renal tumors in mice and renal tumors in rats. The weight of evidence indicates that chloroform is likely carcinogenic only at concentrations that induce the obligatory precursor lesions of cytotoxicity and proliferative regenerative response. Since this cytotoxicity is primarily related to rates of formation of reactive, oxidative metabolites, dose response has been characterized in the context of rates of formation of reactive metabolites in the target tissue. Results presented here are from a "hybrid" physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) animal model that was revised to permit its extension to humans. The relevant measure of exposure response, namely, the mean rate of metabolism in humans associated with a 5% increase in tumor risk (TC05), was estimated on the basis of this PBPK model and compared with tissue dose measures resulting from 24-h multimedia exposure scenarios for Canadians based on midpoint and 95th percentiles for concentrations in outdoor air, indoor air, air in the shower compartment, air in the bathroom after showering, tap water, and food. Nonneoplastic effects observed most consistently at lowest concentrations or doses following repeated exposures of rats and mice to chloroform are cytotoxicity and regenerative proliferation. As for cancer, target organs are the liver and kidney. In addition, chloroform has induced nasal lesions in rats and mice exposed by both

  17. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS): USER MANUAL AND SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Analysis Modeling System, first published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides interactive computer software for formulating aquatic ecosystem models and rapidly evaluating the fate, transport, and exposure concentrations of synthetic organic chemicals - pesticides, ...

  18. ALVEOLAR BREATH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined an alveolar breath collection ...

  19. Tsunamis: Global Exposure and Local Risk Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbitz, C. B.; Løvholt, F.; Glimsdal, S.; Horspool, N.; Griffin, J.; Davies, G.; Frauenfelder, R.

    2014-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami led to a better understanding of the likelihood of tsunami occurrence and potential tsunami inundation, and the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) was one direct result of this event. The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction (UN-ISDR) adopted HFA in January 2005 in order to reduce disaster risk. As an instrument to compare the risk due to different natural hazards, an integrated worldwide study was implemented and published in several Global Assessment Reports (GAR) by UN-ISDR. The results of the global earthquake induced tsunami hazard and exposure analysis for a return period of 500 years are presented. Both deterministic and probabilistic methods (PTHA) are used. The resulting hazard levels for both methods are compared quantitatively for selected areas. The comparison demonstrates that the analysis is rather rough, which is expected for a study aiming at average trends on a country level across the globe. It is shown that populous Asian countries account for the largest absolute number of people living in tsunami prone areas, more than 50% of the total exposed people live in Japan. Smaller nations like Macao and the Maldives are among the most exposed by population count. Exposed nuclear power plants are limited to Japan, China, India, Taiwan, and USA. On the contrary, a local tsunami vulnerability and risk analysis applies information on population, building types, infrastructure, inundation, flow depth for a certain tsunami scenario with a corresponding return period combined with empirical data on tsunami damages and mortality. Results and validation of a GIS tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment model are presented. The GIS model is adapted for optimal use of data available for each study. Finally, the importance of including landslide sources in the tsunami analysis is also discussed.

  20. Reliability and Validity of "Parents' Evaluation of Responsible Behaviors of 5-6 Year Old Children" Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Ozgul; Dagal, Asude B.

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at developing a scale (Parents' Evaluation of Responsible Behaviors of 5-6 Year Old Children) for measuring parents' evaluation of their 5-6 year-old children's responsible behaviors. The construct validity of the scale was tested by Factor Analysis. Factor analysis determined that the scale can be clustered under 10 factors.…

  1. 18.6-year Earth tide regulates geyser activity.

    PubMed

    Rinehart, J S

    1972-07-28

    Over 40 years of records from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, show that the 18.6-year tidal component strongly regulates the frequencies of eruption of Grand and Steamboat geysers. The frequency of Grand Geyser increases with increasing tidal force and that of Steamboat Geyser decreases, which suggests that tidal dilatation is one factor affecting heat flow to a geyser. PMID:17813197

  2. Time series analysis of personal exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality using an exposure simulator

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Howard H.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Frey, H. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a modeling framework for estimating the acute effects of personal exposure to ambient air pollution in a time series design. First, a spatial hierarchical model is used to relate Census tract-level daily ambient concentrations and simulated exposures for a subset of the study period. The complete exposure time series is then imputed for risk estimation. Modeling exposure via a statistical model reduces the computational burden associated with simulating personal exposures considerably. This allows us to consider personal exposures at a finer spatial resolution to improve exposure assessment and for a longer study period. The proposed approach is applied to an analysis of fine particulate matter of <2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and daily mortality in the New York City metropolitan area during the period 2001–2005. Personal PM2.5 exposures were simulated from the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation. Accounting for exposure uncertainty, the authors estimated a 2.32% (95% posterior interval: 0.68, 3.94) increase in mortality per a 10 μg/m3 increase in personal exposure to PM2.5 from outdoor sources on the previous day. The corresponding estimates per a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 ambient concentration was 1.13% (95% confidence interval: 0.27, 2.00). The risks of mortality associated with PM2.5 were also higher during the summer months. PMID:22669499

  3. A TIERED APPROACH TO PERFORMING UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS IN CONDUCTING EXPOSURE ANALYSIS FOR CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WHO/IPCS draft Guidance Document on Characterizing and Communicating Uncertainty in Exposure Assessment provides guidance on recommended strategies for conducting uncertainty analysis as part of human exposure analysis. Specifically, a tiered approach to uncertainty analysis ...

  4. Analysis of exposure due to work on activated components

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    In this brief note the author summarized analysis of the exposure incurred in various maintenance jobs involving activated accelerator and beam line components at Fermilab. A tabulation was made of parameters associated with each job. Included are rather terse descriptions of the various tasks. The author presented various plots of the quantities in the table. All exposure rates are mR/hr while all exposures accumulated are mR. The exposure rates were generally measured at the Fermilab standard one foot distance from the activated component. Accumulated exposures are taken from the self-reading pocket dosimeter records maintained by the radiation control technicians.

  5. Taxometric Analyses of Specific Language Impairment in 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollaghan, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether language scores at age 6 years suggest that specific language impairments (SLIs) distribute in a categorical or in a dimensional fashion. Method: A taxometric analysis of language scores from 601 six-year-old children who were free of neonatal risk factors was performed. From among 4 candidate indicators of SLI, 2…

  6. Risk analysis for worker exposure to benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallenbeck, William H.; Flowers, Roxanne E.

    1992-05-01

    Cancer risk factors (characterized by route, dose, dose rate per kilogram, fraction of lifetime exposed, species, and sex) were derived for workers exposed to benzene via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure at the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) and at leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites were evaluated. At the current PEL of 1 ppm, the theoretical lifetime excess risk of cancer from benzene inhalation is ten per 1000. The theoretical lifetime excess risk for worker inhalation exposure at LUST sites ranged from 10 to 40 per 1000. These results indicate that personal protection should be required. The theoretical lifetime excess risk due to soil ingestion is five to seven orders of magnitude less than the inhalation risks.

  7. In situ measurements of radiofrequency exposure levels in Greece from 2008 to 2013: a multi-parametric annual analysis.

    PubMed

    Christopoulou, Maria; Karabetsos, Efthymios

    2015-04-01

    From 2008 through 2013, more than 6,000 in situ frequency selective audits, in the proximity of base stations, were conducted throughout Greece by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (EEAE), in order to verify exposure limit compliance. EEAE is the competent national authority for protection of the general public against artificially produced non-ionizing radiation. This paper presents the first post processing and multi-parametric year statistical analysis of in situ measurement data corresponding to 4,705 audits in the whole country, compared to general public exposure levels, according to Greek legislation. The aim is to derive nationwide conclusions for the characterization of general public exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, during the last 6 years. The results' presentation includes electric field exposure ratios referring to broadband and frequency selective measurements at the highest exposure measurement point. Statistical analysis is applied to assist the data presentation and evaluation, based on selected criteria and classification parameters, including: (i) year (2008-2013); (ii) environment (urban/suburban/rural); (iii) frequency bands of selected common telecommunication services (e.g., TV, FM, GSM, DCS, UMTS); and (iv) number of service providers installed at the same site. In general, measurement results revealed that the vast majority of exposure values were below reference levels for general public exposure, as defined by Greek legislation. Data are constantly updated with the latest measurements, including emerging wireless technologies. PMID:25726724

  8. Multiple Radiolucencies of the Jaws in a 6 Year Old.

    PubMed

    Hansford, John T; Kelsch, Robert D; Wiltz, Mauricio

    2015-11-01

    Radiolucencies of the jaws are a common finding. Mostly, they are isolated findings associated with inflammatory processes and consistent with inflammatory periapical disease, such as periapical cysts and periapical granulomas. If associated with the crowns of unerupted teeth, they may represent dentigerous cysts. However, occasionally, larger lytic/radiolucent lesions are identified; even more infrequently, these radiographic findings may be multiple and concurrent. The purpose of this report is to present the case of a 6-year-old female patient with no known concomitant syndrome who presented with multiple intraoral swellings and to discuss the treatment of multiple, bilateral mandibular and maxillary radiolucencies. PMID:26749783

  9. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL FOR EXAMS 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS), published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides rapid evaluations of the behavior of synthetic organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. EXAMS combines laboratory data describing reactivity and thermodynamic properties of chemicals wit...

  10. Impulse oscillometry and respiratory symptoms in World Trade Center responders, 6 years post-9/11.

    PubMed

    Mauer, Matthew P; Cummings, Karen R

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated whether impulse oscillometry (IOS) testing revealed signs of respiratory disease in New York State (NYS) World Trade Center (WTC) responders in comparison with unexposed NYS employees. It also compared self-reported respiratory symptoms between the two groups, 6 years post-9/11. For this evaluation participants completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding respiratory symptoms. IOS testing included measures of resistance and reactance to assess for peripheral versus central airway effects. Two hundred forty-eight subjects (99 exposed and 149 unexposed) were included in the final analysis. Since September 11, 2001, NYS responders were more likely to report new or worsening cough in the absence of a respiratory infection, cough consistent with chronic bronchitis, current respiratory symptoms, or lower respiratory symptoms in the last 12 months. Significant associations were found between IOS indices and gender, smoking history, and obesity. When comparing exposed and unexposed participants, there were no significant differences in the geometric means of the IOS indices. Responders who used a respirator with canister demonstrated significantly lower respiratory resistance at 5 and 20 Hz (R5 and R20). While this study has provided no evidence of an association between WTC exposure and peripheral airways disease in this cohort of responders, results do suggest that use of a respirator with canister may be protective for central airways in responders exposed to dust and smoke. This emphasizes the importance of stressing proper respirator use in planning responses to future disasters. Our control data also provide useful reference values for future IOS research. PMID:20012641

  11. Cavitary lung lesion 6 years after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Subbiah, Arun Kumar; Arava, Sudheer; Bagchi, Soumita; Madan, Karan; Das, Chandan J; Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar

    2016-06-24

    The differential diagnoses of a cavitary lung lesion in renal transplant recipients would include infection, malignancy and less commonly inflammatory diseases. Bacterial infection, Tuberculosis, Nocardiosis, fungal infections like Aspergillosis and Cryptococcosis need to be considered in these patients. Pulmonary cryptococcosis usually presents 16-21 mo after transplantation, more frequently in patients who have a high level of cumulative immunosuppression. Here we discuss an interesting patient who never received any induction/anti-rejection therapy but developed both BK virus nephropathy as well as severe pulmonary Cryptococcal infection after remaining stable for 6 years after transplantation. This case highlights the risk of serious opportunistic infections even in apparently low immunologic risk transplant recipients many years after transplantation. PMID:27358792

  12. Cavitary lung lesion 6 years after renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Arun Kumar; Arava, Sudheer; Bagchi, Soumita; Madan, Karan; Das, Chandan J; Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The differential diagnoses of a cavitary lung lesion in renal transplant recipients would include infection, malignancy and less commonly inflammatory diseases. Bacterial infection, Tuberculosis, Nocardiosis, fungal infections like Aspergillosis and Cryptococcosis need to be considered in these patients. Pulmonary cryptococcosis usually presents 16-21 mo after transplantation, more frequently in patients who have a high level of cumulative immunosuppression. Here we discuss an interesting patient who never received any induction/anti-rejection therapy but developed both BK virus nephropathy as well as severe pulmonary Cryptococcal infection after remaining stable for 6 years after transplantation. This case highlights the risk of serious opportunistic infections even in apparently low immunologic risk transplant recipients many years after transplantation. PMID:27358792

  13. EHRA research network surveys: 6 years of EP wires activity.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Chen, Jian; Dagres, Nikolaos; Estner, Heidi; Hernandez-Madrid, Antonio; Hocini, Meleze; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Pison, Laurent; Potpara, Tatjana; Proclemer, Alessandro; Sciaraffia, Elena; Todd, Derick; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina

    2015-11-01

    Clinical practice should follow guidelines and recommendations mainly based on the results of controlled trials, which are often conducted in selected populations and special conditions, whereas clinical practice may be influenced by factors different from controlled scientific studies. Hence, the real-world setting is better assessed by the observational registries enrolling patients for longer periods of time. However, this may be difficult, expensive, and time-consuming. In 2009, the Scientific Initiatives Committee of the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) has instigated a series of surveys covering the controversial issues in clinical electrophysiology (EP). With this in mind, an EHRA EP research network has been created, which included EP centres in Europe among which the surveys on 'hot topic' were circulated. This review summarizes the overall experience conducting EP wires over the past 6 years, categorizing and assessing the topics regarding clinical EP, and evaluating the acceptance and feedback from the responding centres, in order to improve participation in the surveys and better address the research needs and aspirations of the European EP community. PMID:26589904

  14. Cementless bulk alumina socket: preliminary results at 6 years.

    PubMed

    Hamadouche, M; Nizard, R S; Meunier, A; Bizot, P; Sedel, L

    1999-09-01

    To avoid polyethylene wear observed in total hip replacement, an alumina-alumina combination has been used since 1977. The aim of this study is to report the results of a hybrid alumina-alumina total hip arthroplasty with a cementless press-fit bulk alumina socket and a cemented titanium alloy stem in 55 patients (62 hips) operated on between 1982 and 1990. The bearing surfaces were a 32-mm alumina head articulating within the alumina socket. Four failures occurred: 3 aseptic loosenings of the socket and 1 femoral head fracture. Considering aseptic loosening as the endpoint, the survival rate was 93.2% after 6 years. At a mean of 72.1 months' follow-up, 92.4% of the surviving hips were graded as very good or good using the Merle d'Aubigné-Postel hip score. Radiolucent lines were observed on the acetabular side in 68.1 of the hips. The future of this interface, which is probably fibrous, remains questionable. With the exception of 1 femoral head fracture, all revisions were related to failure of the bony fixation of the socket, and no problem was encountered related to the alumina-alumina friction coupling. Alumina sockets with other types of cementless fixation have therefore been designed and are presently under clinical investigation. PMID:10512442

  15. Body Size and Intelligence in 6-year-olds

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Marie D.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Willford, Jennifer A.; Leech, Sharon L.; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Children born to teenage mothers are at risk for more physical and cognitive problems than those born to adult mothers. Our objective was to examine differences in size and intelligence between two cohorts of offspring born to adolescent (n = 357) and adult mothers (n = 668) who attended the same prenatal clinic. Methods Two prospective study cohorts were assessed children from gestation through age 6 years. The adult cohort was studied in the mid-1980’s and the teen cohort was evaluated in the mid-1990’s. Both samples were of low socio-economic status. The same study design and measures allowed us to adjust for the covariates of size and IQ. Results Offspring of adolescent mothers had a significantly smaller mean head circumference (5 mm) (HC) and higher body mass index (BMI) than offspring of adult mothers. Offspring of adolescent mothers scored significantly lower than the offspring of adult mothers on the Stanford-Binet (SBIS) composite score (4 points), and the quantitative (6.2 points), verbal reasoning (4.8 points), and short-term memory (3.9 points) area scores. Additional predictors of child IQ were maternal IQ, home environment, race, and number of siblings. When child HC was entered into our final regression model for the SBIS, maternal age and HC significantly predicted the composite score, the verbal reasoning, and short-term memory area scores. A 1 cm decrease in HC predicted a 1 point decrease in the SBIS composite score. Conclusions Compared to offspring of adult women, children of adolescent mothers have lower mean scores on cognitive measures, smaller head circumference, and higher BMI. These differences were significant after adjusting for differences between the two groups. Adolescent mothers and their children would benefit from interventions such as parenting support, education about nutritional needs, and advice on enriching the environments of their children. PMID:18683038

  16. SMOS Instrument Performance and Calibration After 6 Years in Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, R.

    2015-12-01

    ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission has been in orbit for over 6 years, and its Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) in two dimensions keeps working well. The data for this whole period has been recently reprocessed with the new fully polarimetric version (v620) of the Level-1 processor which also includes refined calibration schema for the antenna losses. This reprocessing has allowed the assessment of an improved performance benchmark. The long term drift exhibited by the previous processor version has been significantly mitigated thanks to a better calibration of the antenna losses and the use of only the most accurate Noise Injection Radiometer. These improvements have also reduced the orbital and seasonal variations, although residual drifts still remain, in particular during the satellite eclipse season. The spatial tilt existing in the images produced with the previous version of the Level-1 processor has been considerably decreased, removing the negative trend at low incidence angles and reducing the overall standard deviation of the spatial ripples. The expected improvement in the 3rd and 4th Stokes, after correcting the use of the cross-polar antenna patterns, has been confirmed, enabling accurate retrieval of the Faraday rotation angle. Finally, a better Sun and RFI flagging strategy has been implemented, allowing for the removal of the corrupted data. A problem which still persist in the new Level-1 data is the land-sea contamination. However, recent progress in the calibration investigations has shed new light on the origin of the land-sea contamination, linking it to visibility amplitude calibration errors. Thus, future versions of the Level-1 processor will have very much reduced land-sea contamination. An overview of the results and the progress achieved in both calibration and image reconstruction will be presented in this contribution.

  17. Recovery of the 6-year signal in length of day and its long-term decreasing trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Pengshuo; Liu, Genyou; Liu, Lintao; Hu, Xiaogang; Hao, Xiaoguang; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Zhimin; Wang, Binbin

    2015-10-01

    There is a significant 6-year oscillation signal (called 6-year signal in this paper) existing in the interannual variations of length of day (LOD). It is unclear to understand its nature variation features. This paper extracts quantitatively the 6-year signal, from 1962~2012, using normal Morlet wavelet (NMWT) method combining wavelet packet and Fourier analysis technique, for the first time, and we investigate it in both time and frequency domains. The results indicate that the amplitude of a 6-year signal shows a long-term decreasing trend and the total amplitude reduction is about 0.05 ms during the past 50 years. The ratio of above reduction to the mean amplitude of 0.124 ms reaches 40 %. For interpreting the phenomenon on the above long-term decreasing trend, this paper proposes two alternatives; however, there is still no firm conclusion and it is required to be further explored.

  18. Association between Arsenic Exposure and Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Tzu-Ching; Huang, Jhih-Wei; Guo, How-Ran

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the association between arsenic exposure and diabetes mellitus (DM) yielded inconsistent results. Epidemiologic data on the associations between arsenic exposures via inhalation and DM are limited. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of DM associated with arsenic exposure. We searched the related literature through a systematic approach and analyzed the data according to the exposure route (inhalation and ingestion). We used random-effect models to estimate the summary relative risks (RRs) for DM associated with arsenic exposure and used I2 statistics to assess the heterogeneity of studies. We identified 38 relevant studies, of which the 32 on the ingestion route showed a significant association between arsenic exposure and DM (RR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.27–1.93). Focusing on the 24 studies in which the diagnosis of DM was confirmed using laboratory tests or medical records, we found that the summary RR was 1.71 (95% CI 1.32–2.23), very close to the overall estimates. We concluded that ingested arsenic is associated with the development of DM, but the heterogeneity among the studies may affect the results. PMID:26000288

  19. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS): USER MANUAL AND SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS) was designed for rapid evaluation of the behavior of synthetic organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. From the chemistry of a compound and the relevant transport and physical/chemical characteristics of the ecosystem, EXAMS computes...

  20. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that u...

  1. Space Shuttle and Space Station Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Sham, Catherine C.; Kroll, Quin D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the modeling techniques and important parameters to define a rigorous but practical procedure that can verify the compliance of RF exposure to the NASA standards for astronauts and electronic equipment. The electromagnetic modeling techniques are applied to analyze RF exposure in Space Shuttle and Space Station environments with reasonable computing time and resources. The modeling techniques are capable of taking into account the field interactions with Space Shuttle and Space Station structures. The obtained results illustrate the multipath effects due to the presence of the space vehicle structures. It's necessary to include the field interactions with the space vehicle in the analysis for an accurate assessment of the RF exposure. Based on the obtained results, the RF keep out zones are identified for appropriate operational scenarios, flight rules and necessary RF transmitter constraints to ensure a safe operating environment and mission success.

  2. Isocyanate and VOC exposure analysis using Flexane®.

    PubMed

    Blake, Charles L; Johnson, Giffe T; Abritis, Alison J; Lieckfield, Robert; Harbison, Raymond D

    2012-08-01

    Flexane® 80 is a trowelable urethane product used in combination with cleaners and primers to effect rubber conveyor belt repairs. These products are of concern due to the potential for worker exposure to isocyanates and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Small chamber experiments were used to identify chemicals liberated to the ambient air from each of the Flexane®-related products. A new sample collection method using treated cotton sleeves as a surrogate skin surface to assess potential dermal exposure to isocyanates during mixing and application of the Flexane® product was validated. Six simulations of a worst case scenario were performed by an experienced belt repair technician in a walk-in laboratory exposure chamber. Analysis of air samples from the large chamber simulations did not detect airborne isocyanates. The average airborne VOC concentrations were below established occupational exposure levels. Dermal sleeve samples detected intermittent and low levels of isocyanates from self-application while wearing gloves having surface residues of uncured Flexane®. The data strongly suggest that the normal and intended use of Flexane® putty, and its associated products under worst case or typical working conditions is not likely to result in worker VOC or isocyanate exposure levels sufficient to produce adverse health effects. PMID:22627177

  3. Selective single blastocyst transfer study: 604 cases in 6 years

    PubMed Central

    Sadasivam, Nirmala; Sadasivam, Narayanan M.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the credibility of single blastocyst transfer (SBT) method in selected group of patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of SBT cases based on computerized data in a private Fertility research centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 604 cases of SBTs, done during June 2000 to June 2006, have been analyzed retrospectively to assess the credibility of the method as a method of choice in selective high fertile group of patients. Women between 28 and 42 years have been included in the retrospective analysis, who had adequate number of eggs for fertilization, between 6 and 12. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Grade I blastocyst transfer resulted in 46.6% of clinical pregnancy and grade II blastocyst transfer resulted in 17.4% of clinical pregnancy rates. Overall pregnancy rate was 64%. Pregnancy loss, as early and late fetal wastages, was 11.06%. PMID:19562057

  4. Candida quercitrusa Candidemia in a 6-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Rostad, Christina A.; Hilinski, Joseph A.; Stanley, Theresa; Jerris, Robert C.; Wilkey, Kathy; Pincus, David H.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first case of candidemia due to Candida quercitrusa in a pediatric patient. The identification of the isolate was protracted and ultimately dependent upon sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region. To further define the antifungal susceptibility characteristics of this species, we performed antifungal susceptibility testing of clinical and type strains. In light of the antifungal susceptibility testing results, we caution against the use of fluconazole for treating C. quercitrusa infections. PMID:26063864

  5. TRIAGE DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR PARTIAL-BODY EXPOSURE: DICENTRIC ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Maria; Pellmar, Terry C.

    2009-01-01

    Partial-body biodosimetry is likely to be required after a radiological or nuclear exposure. Clinical signs and symptoms, distribution of dicentrics in circulating blood cells, organ-specific biomarkers, physical signals in teeth and nails all can provide indications of non-homogeneous exposures. Organ specific biomarkers may provide early warning regarding physiological systems at risk after radiation injury. Use of a combination of markers and symptoms will be needed for clinical insights for therapeutic approaches. Analysis of dicentrics, a marker specific for radiation injury, is the “Gold standard” of biodosimetry and can reveal partial-body exposures. Automation of sample processing for dicentric analysis can increase throughput with customization of off-the-shelf technologies for cytogenetic sample processing and information management. Automated analysis of the metaphase spreads is currently limited but improvements are in development. Our efforts bridge the technological gaps to allow the use of dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) for risk-based stratification of mass casualties. This article summarizes current knowledge on partial-body cytogenetic dose assessment synthesizing information leading to the proposal of an approach to triage dose prediction in radiation mass casualties, based on equivalent whole-body doses under partial-body exposure conditions and assesses the validity of using this model. An initial screening using only 20 metaphase spreads per subject can confirm irradiation above 2-Gy. A subsequent increase to 50 metaphases improves dose determination to allow risk stratification for clinical triage. Metaphases evaluated for inhomogeneous distribution of dicentrics can reveal partial-body exposures. We tested the validity of this approach in an in vitro model that simulates partial-body irradiation by mixing irradiated and un-irradiated lymphocytes in various proportions. Our preliminary results support the notion that this approach will

  6. Magic Memories: Young Children's Verbal Recall after a 6-Year Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Fiona; Simcock, Gabrielle; Hayne, Harlene

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbal memory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled the…

  7. Data analysis techniques: a tool for cumulative exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Lalloué, Benoît; Monnez, Jean-Marie; Padilla, Cindy; Kihal, Wahida; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Deguen, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Everyone is subject to environmental exposures from various sources, with negative health impacts (air, water and soil contamination, noise, etc.or with positive effects (e.g. green space). Studies considering such complex environmental settings in a global manner are rare. We propose to use statistical factor and cluster analyses to create a composite exposure index with a data-driven approach, in view to assess the environmental burden experienced by populations. We illustrate this approach in a large French metropolitan area. The study was carried out in the Great Lyon area (France, 1.2 M inhabitants) at the census Block Group (BG) scale. We used as environmental indicators ambient air NO2 annual concentrations, noise levels and proximity to green spaces, to industrial plants, to polluted sites and to road traffic. They were synthesized using Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA), a data-driven technique without a priori modeling, followed by a Hierarchical Clustering to create BG classes. The first components of the MFA explained, respectively, 30, 14, 11 and 9% of the total variance. Clustering in five classes group: (1) a particular type of large BGs without population; (2) BGs of green residential areas, with less negative exposures than average; (3) BGs of residential areas near midtown; (4) BGs close to industries; and (5) midtown urban BGs, with higher negative exposures than average and less green spaces. Other numbers of classes were tested in order to assess a variety of clustering. We present an approach using statistical factor and cluster analyses techniques, which seem overlooked to assess cumulative exposure in complex environmental settings. Although it cannot be applied directly for risk or health effect assessment, the resulting index can help to identify hot spots of cumulative exposure, to prioritize urban policies or to compare the environmental burden across study areas in an epidemiological framework. PMID:25248936

  8. High-latitude oceanic variability associated with the 18. 6-year nodal tide

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, T.C. )

    1993-03-15

    Ocean temperatures in the upper 250 m in the northern North Pacific (60[degree]N, 149[degree]W) increased by more than 1[degree]C from 1972 to 1986 but are now decreasing. Subsurface temperature anomalies are well correlated ([approx] 0.58) with the air temperature anomalies at Sitka, Alaska; hence the coastal air temperatures can be used as a proxy data set to extend the ocean temperature time series back to 1828. Up to 30% of the low-frequency variance can be accounted for with the 18.6-year nodal signal. Additionally, spectral analysis of these air temperature variations indicates a significant low-frequency peak in the range of the 18.6-year signal. Similar low-frequency signals have been reported for Hudson Bay air temperatures since 1700, for sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic from 1876 to 1939, and for sea level in the high-latitude southern hemisphere. The water column temperature variations presented here are the first evidence that the upper ocean is responding to this very long period tidal forcing. An enhanced high-latitude response to the 18.6-year forcing is predicted by equilibrium tide theory, and it should be most evident at latitudes poleward of about 50[degree]. These low-frequency ocean-atmosphere variations must be considered in high-latitude assessments of global climate change, since they are of the same magnitude as many of the predicted global changes. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. RECONSTRUCTING EXPOSURE SCENARIOS USING DOSE BIOMARKERS - AN APPLICATION OF BAYESIAN UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We use Bayesian uncertainty analysis to explore how to estimate pollutant exposures from biomarker concentrations. The growing number of national databases with exposure data makes such an analysis possible. They contain datasets of pharmacokinetic biomarkers for many polluta...

  10. MANAGEMENT AND DISSEMINATION OF HUMAN EXPOSURE DATABASES AND OTHER DATABASES NEEDED FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING AND ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) have performed a number of large human exposure measurement studies during the past decade. It is the goal of the NERL to make the data available to other researchers for analysis in order to further the scientific ...

  11. The Worker Exposure Failure Modes and Effects Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2005-05-15

    The Worker Exposure Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (WE-FMEA) is a new approach to quantitatively evaluate worker risks from possible failures of co-located equipment in the complex environment of a magnetic or inertial fusion experiment. For next-step experiments such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) or the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the systems and equipment will be larger, handle more throughput or power, and will, in general, be more robust than past experiments. These systems and equipment are necessary to operate the machine, but the rooms are congested with equipment, piping, and cables, which poses a new level of hazard for workers who will perform hands-on maintenance. The WE-FMEA systematically analyzes the nearby equipment and the work environment for equipment failure or inherent hazards, and then develops exposure scenarios. Once identified, the exposure scenarios are evaluated for the worker hazards and quantitative worker risk is calculated. Then risk scenarios are quantitatively compared to existing statistical data on worker injuries; high-risk scenarios can be identified and addressed in more detail to determine the proper means to reduce, mitigate, or protect against the hazard. The WE-FMEA approach is described and a cooling system maintenance example is given.

  12. Census tract analysis of lead exposure in Rhode Island children.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J D; Bailey, A; Simon, P; Blake, M; Dalton, M A

    1997-01-01

    significant and robust predictor; we suggest that vacancy is an ecological marker for the deterioration of leadbased paint, with higher vacancy neighborhoods containing houses in poorer condition. In Rhode Island, census tracts with high vacancy rates also have high rates of recent immigration, making immigrant groups vulnerable to lead exposure. Small-areas analysis may be useful in directing resources to high risk areas, explaining the sociocultural forces which produce such exposure and analyzing the effects of housing policy over time in states with high screening penetration. PMID:9339229

  13. Occupational Exposure to HDI: Progress and Challenges in Biomarker Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Flack, Sheila L.; Ball, Louise M.; Nylander-French, Leena A.

    2010-01-01

    1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) is extensively used in the automotive repair industry and is a commonly reported cause of occupational asthma in industrialized populations. However, the exact pathological mechanism remains uncertain. Characterization and quantification of biomarkers resulting from HDI exposure can fill important knowledge gaps between exposure, susceptibility, and the rise of immunological reactions and sensitization leading to asthma. Here, we discuss existing challenges in HDI biomarker analysis including the quantification of N-acetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (monoacetyl-HDA) and N,N′-diacetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (diacetyl-HDA) in urine samples based on previously established methods for HDA analysis. In addition, we describe the optimization of reaction conditions for the synthesis of monoacetyl-HDA and diacetyl-HDA, and utilize these standards for the quantification of these metabolites in the urine of three occupationally exposed workers. Diacetyl-HDA was present in untreated urine at 0.015 – 0.060 μg/l. Using base hydrolysis, the concentration range of monoacetyl-HDA in urine was 0.19 – 2.2 μg/l, 60-fold higher than in the untreated samples on average. HDA was detected only in one sample after base hydrolysis (0.026 μg/l). In contrast, acid hydrolysis yielded HDA concentrations ranging from 0.36 to 10.1 μg/l in these three samples. These findings demonstrate HDI metabolism via N-acetylation metabolic pathway and protein adduct formation resulting from occupational exposure to HDI. PMID:20176515

  14. Occupational exposure to HDI: progress and challenges in biomarker analysis.

    PubMed

    Flack, Sheila L; Ball, Louise M; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2010-10-01

    1,6-Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) is extensively used in the automotive repair industry and is a commonly reported cause of occupational asthma in industrialized populations. However, the exact pathological mechanism remains uncertain. Characterization and quantification of biomarkers resulting from HDI exposure can fill important knowledge gaps between exposure, susceptibility, and the rise of immunological reactions and sensitization leading to asthma. Here, we discuss existing challenges in HDI biomarker analysis including the quantification of N-acetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (monoacetyl-HDA) and N,N'-diacetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (diacetyl-HDA) in urine samples based on previously established methods for HDA analysis. In addition, we describe the optimization of reaction conditions for the synthesis of monoacetyl-HDA and diacetyl-HDA, and utilize these standards for the quantification of these metabolites in the urine of three occupationally exposed workers. Diacetyl-HDA was present in untreated urine at 0.015-0.060 μg/l. Using base hydrolysis, the concentration range of monoacetyl-HDA in urine was 0.19-2.2 μg/l, 60-fold higher than in the untreated samples on average. HDA was detected only in one sample after base hydrolysis (0.026 μg/l). In contrast, acid hydrolysis yielded HDA concentrations ranging from 0.36 to 10.1 μg/l in these three samples. These findings demonstrate HDI metabolism via N-acetylation metabolic pathway and protein adduct formation resulting from occupational exposure to HDI. PMID:20176515

  15. Occupational Radiation Exposure Analysis of US ITER DCLL TBM

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, Brad J; Cadwallader, Lee C; Dagher, Mohamad

    2007-08-01

    This report documents an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis that was performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for anticipated maintenance activities for this TBM concept and its ancillary systems. The QADMOD code was used to model the PbLi cooling loop of this TBM concept by specifying gamma ray source terms that simulated radioactive material within the piping, valves, heat exchanger, permeator, pump, drain tank, and cold trap of this cooling system. Estimates of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and the time required to perform these tasks where developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This report details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

  16. PRELIMINARY TESTING, EVALUATION, AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR THE TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents an initial testing and sensitivity analysis of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Exposure Assessment Model (TEEAM). TEEAM calculates the exposure concentrations of contaminants in plants and animals in terrestrial ecosystems. he project was performed in two phases. ...

  17. Human performance analysis of industrial radiography radiation exposure events

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, W.J.; Hill, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    A set of radiation overexposure event reports were reviewed as part of a program to examine human performance in industrial radiography for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Incident records for a seven year period were retrieved from an event database. Ninety-five exposure events were initially categorized and sorted for further analysis. Descriptive models were applied to a subset of severe overexposure events. Modeling included: (1) operational sequence tables to outline the key human actions and interactions with equipment, (2) human reliability event trees, (3) an application of an information processing failures model, and (4) an extrapolated use of the error influences and effects diagram. Results of the modeling analyses provided insights into the industrial radiography task and suggested areas for further action and study to decrease overexposures.

  18. Statistical analysis of honeybee survival after chronic exposure to insecticides.

    PubMed

    Dechaume Moncharmont, François-Xavier; Decourtye, Axel; Hennequet-Hantier, Christelle; Pons, Odile; Pham-Delègue, Minh-Hà

    2003-12-01

    Studies concerning long-term survival of honeybees raise the problem of the statistical analysis of mortality data. In the present study, we used a modeling approach of survival data of caged bees under chronic exposure to two pesticides (imidacloprid and deltamethrin). Our model, based on a Cox proportional hazard model, is not restricted to a specific hazard functional form, such as in parametric approaches, but takes into account multiple covariates. We consider not only the pesticide treatment but also a nuisance variable (variability between replicates). Moreover, considering the occurrence of social interactions, the model integrates the fact that bees do not die independently of each other. We demonstrate the chronic toxicity induced by imidacloprid and deltamethrin. Our results also underline the role of the replicate effect, the density-dependent effect, and their interactions with the treatment effect. None of these parameters can be neglected in the assessment of chronic toxicity of pesticides to the honeybee. PMID:14713054

  19. ANALYSIS OF DISCRIMINATING FACTORS IN HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT AFFECT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurately modeling exposure to particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants ultimately involves the utilization of human location-activity databases to assist in understanding the potential variability of microenvironmental exposures. This paper critically considers and stati...

  20. THE ROLE OF EXPOSURE ANALYSIS IN HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will cover the basic methodologies used for assessing human exposures to environmental pollutants, and some of the scientific challenges involved in conducting exposure and risk assessments in support of regulatory evaluations.

  1. NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS) DATA ANALYSIS WORK GROUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three field studies were under conducted the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey. These studies measured exposures in three study regions - Arizona, the six EPA Region V States (Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota), and Baltimore and four surrounding cou...

  2. MicroExposure Monte Carlo analysis modeling PCB exposures through fish ingestion from the Upper Hudson River

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, E.S.; Price, P.S.; McCrodden, J.L.; Ducey, J.S.; Keenan, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    The risks associated with exposures to mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the consumption of fish in the vicinity of Superfund sites traditionally have been evaluated by using simple algebraic equations to calculate the dose received by a highly successful angler. A Lifetime Average Daily Dose (LADD) is estimated using default assumptions concerning the quantity of fish consumed, an angler`s body weight, an angler`s exposure duration, and a static measure of PCB levels in fish. Recent changes in EPA`s policies and guidelines, however, have focused on improving the management of environmental risks by providing decision-makers with a distribution of possible risks rather than a single point estimate. MicroExposure Monte Carlo analysis is a recent development in probabilistic exposure assessment in which a LADD for a given angler is calculated as the sum of many individual doses received over the course of a lifetime from individual exposure events. Data on concentrations of PCBs in individual fish are thereby incorporated into the analysis as are other temporal changes in the various exposure parameters. In this paper, the MicroExposure Monte Carlo model is applied to characterize the distribution of PCB dose rates in a hypothetical population of recreational anglers who might potentially consume fish from the Upper Hudson River in the absence of a fishing ban. The analysis uses probabilistic techniques to account for temporal and age-related changes in exposure parameters and as a means of properly considering meal-to-meal variation in fish concentrations, cooking practices, and fish species.

  3. Gestational Weight Gain and Overweight in Children Aged 3–6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lianhong; Liu, Jufen; Ye, Rongwei; Liu, Jianmeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG) was associated with increased odds of childhood overweight after accounting for pre-pregnancy BMI. Methods In a prospective cohort study based on a premarital and perinatal health care system in China, data of 100 612 mother-child pairs were obtained. The main exposure was GWG as both a continuous and categorical variable. The outcome measure was overweight, defined by age- and sex-specific cutoff values for body mass index (BMI) in children aged 3–6 years. Results A 1-kg increase in maternal GWG was associated with an increase of 0.009 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.007–0.010, P < 0.001) in children’s mean BMI; in the subgroup of pre-pregnancy overweight/obese mothers, the increase in children’s BMI was 0.028 (95% CI, 0.017–0.039, P < 0.001). Excessive GWG played an important role in childhood overweight when adequate GWG was used as the reference, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12–1.29). The risk was highest (OR 2.22; 95% CI, 1.79–2.76) in the children of mothers who were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. Conclusions Greater maternal GWG was associated with greater offspring BMI, and the risk of overweight was doubled in children whose mothers were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. As a result, maintenance of appropriate weight gain during pregnancy and prophylaxis of maternal overweight/obesity before pregnancy should be a strategy for preventing childhood overweight/obesity. PMID:26119288

  4. Individual exposure to air pollution and lung function in Korea: spatial analysis using multiple exposure approaches.

    PubMed

    Son, Ji-Young; Bell, Michelle L; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2010-11-01

    Interpolation methods can estimate individual-level exposures to air pollution from ambient monitors; however, few studies have evaluated how different approaches may affect health risk estimates. We applied multiple methods of estimating exposure for several air pollutants. We investigated how different methods of estimating exposure may influence health effect estimates in a case study of lung function data, forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1), and forced vital capacity (FVC), for 2102 cohort subjects in Ulsan, Korea, for 2003-2007. Measurements from 13 monitors for particulate matter <10 μm (PM(10)), ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide were used to estimate individual-level exposures by averaging across values from all monitors, selecting the value from the nearest monitor, inverse distance weighting, and kriging. We assessed associations between pollutants and lung function in linear regression models, controlling for age, sex, and body mass index. Cross-validation indicated that kriging provided the most accurate estimated exposures. FVC was associated with all air pollutants under all methods of estimating exposure. Only ozone was associated with FEV1. An 11 ppb increase in lag-0-2 8-h maximum ozone was associated with a 6.1% (95% confidence interval 5.0, 7.3%) decrease in FVC and a 0.50% (95% confidence interval 0.03, 0.96%) decrease in FEV1, based on kriged exposures. Central health effect estimates were generally higher using exposures based on averaging across all monitors or kriging. Results based on the nearest monitor approach had the lowest variance. Findings suggest that spatial interpolation methods may provide better estimates than monitoring values alone by reflecting the spatial variability of individual-level exposures and generating estimates for locations without monitors. PMID:20832787

  5. A Bayesian analysis of plutonium exposures in Sellafield workers.

    PubMed

    Puncher, M; Riddell, A E

    2016-03-01

    The joint Russian (Mayak Production Association) and British (Sellafield) plutonium worker epidemiological analysis, undertaken as part of the European Union Framework Programme 7 (FP7) SOLO project, aims to investigate potential associations between cancer incidence and occupational exposures to plutonium using estimates of organ/tissue doses. The dose reconstruction protocol derived for the study makes best use of the most recent biokinetic models derived by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) including a recent update to the human respiratory tract model (HRTM). This protocol was used to derive the final point estimates of absorbed doses for the study. Although uncertainties on the dose estimates were not included in the final epidemiological analysis, a separate Bayesian analysis has been performed for each of the 11 808 Sellafield plutonium workers included in the study in order to assess: A. The reliability of the point estimates provided to the epidemiologists and B. The magnitude of the uncertainty on dose estimates. This analysis, which accounts for uncertainties in biokinetic model parameters, intakes and measurement uncertainties, is described in the present paper. The results show that there is excellent agreement between the point estimates of dose and posterior mean values of dose. However, it is also evident that there are significant uncertainties associated with these dose estimates: the geometric range of the 97.5%:2.5% posterior values are a factor of 100 for lung dose, 30 for doses to liver and red bone marrow, and 40 for intakes: these uncertainties are not reflected in estimates of risk when point doses are used to assess them. It is also shown that better estimates of certain key HRTM absorption parameters could significantly reduce the uncertainties on lung dose in future studies. PMID:26584413

  6. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF HUMAN BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID AFTER SUBSGEMENTAL EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Matthew W.; Will Thompson, J.; Que, Loretta G.; Yang, Ivana V.; Schwartz, David A.; Arthur Moseley, M.; Marshall, Harvey E.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of airway fluid, as sampled by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), provides a minimally invasive route to interrogate lung biology in health and disease. Here, we used immunodepletion, coupled with gel- and label-free LC-MS/MS, for quantitation of the BAL fluid (BALF) proteome in samples recovered from human subjects following bronchoscopic instillation of saline, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or house dust mite antigen into three distinct lung subsegments. Among more than 200 unique proteins quantified across nine samples, neutrophil granule-derived and acute phase proteins were most highly enriched in the LPS-exposed lobes. Of these, peptidoglycan response protein 1 was validated and confirmed as a novel marker of neutrophilic inflammation. Compared to a prior transcriptomic analysis of airway cells in this same cohort, the BALF proteome revealed a novel set of response factors. Independent of exposure, the enrichment of tracheal-expressed proteins in right lower lung lobes suggests a potential for constitutive intralobar variability in the BALF proteome; sampling of multiple lung subsegments also appears to aid in the identification of protein signatures that differentiate individuals at baseline. Collectively, this proof-of-concept study validates a robust workflow for BALF proteomics and demonstrates the complementary nature of proteomic and genomic techniques for investigating airway (patho)physiology. PMID:23550723

  7. ANALYSIS OF HUMAN ACTIVITY DATA FOR USE IN MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activity data are a critical part of exposure models being developed by the US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). An analysis of human activity data within NERL's Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) was performed in two areas relevant to exposure ...

  8. Association of Secondhand Smoke Exposure with Pediatric Invasive Bacterial Disease and Bacterial Carriage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Chang; Middaugh, Nicole A.; Howie, Stephen R. C.; Ezzati, Majid

    2010-01-01

    Background A number of epidemiologic studies have observed an association between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and pediatric invasive bacterial disease (IBD) but the evidence has not been systematically reviewed. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of SHS exposure and two outcomes, IBD and pharyngeal carriage of bacteria, for Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae). Methods and Findings Two independent reviewers searched Medline, EMBASE, and selected other databases, and screened articles for inclusion and exclusion criteria. We identified 30 case-control studies on SHS and IBD, and 12 cross-sectional studies on SHS and bacterial carriage. Weighted summary odd ratios (ORs) were calculated for each outcome and for studies with specific design and quality characteristics. Tests for heterogeneity and publication bias were performed. Compared with those unexposed to SHS, summary OR for SHS exposure was 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.52–2.69) for invasive meningococcal disease, 1.21 (95% CI 0.69–2.14) for invasive pneumococcal disease, and 1.22 (95% CI 0.93–1.62) for invasive Hib disease. For pharyngeal carriage, summary OR was 1.68 (95% CI, 1.19–2.36) for N. meningitidis, 1.66 (95% CI 1.33–2.07) for S. pneumoniae, and 0.96 (95% CI 0.48–1.95) for Hib. The association between SHS exposure and invasive meningococcal and Hib diseases was consistent regardless of outcome definitions, age groups, study designs, and publication year. The effect estimates were larger in studies among children younger than 6 years of age for all three IBDs, and in studies with the more rigorous laboratory-confirmed diagnosis for invasive meningococcal disease (summary OR 3.24; 95% CI 1.72–6.13). Conclusions When considered together with evidence from direct smoking and biological mechanisms, our systematic review and meta-analysis indicates that SHS exposure may be

  9. Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Wu, J D; Milton, D K; Hammond, S K; Spear, R C

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis. PMID:10028893

  10. Mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills among 6-Year-Old Flemish Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaele, Bart; Cools, Wouter; de Decker, Steve; de Martelaer, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) in 6- to 6.5-year-old Flemish pre-school children. The subjects were 236 6-year-old children (138 boys, 98 girls; mean age 6 years 2.4 months, SD 2.4). Children were individually assessed with the Motoriktest fur Vier- bis Sechsjahrige Kinder (MOT 4-6) in four…

  11. Population exposure to ultraviolet radiation in Finland 1920-1995: Exposure trends and a time-series analysis of exposure and cutaneous melanoma incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Kojo, Katja . E-mail: katja.kojo@uta.fi; Jansen, Christer T.; Nybom, Pia; Huurto, Laura; Laihia, Jarmo; Ilus, Taina; Auvinen, Anssi

    2006-05-15

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the principal cause of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). However, the relation between CMM and UVR exposure is not clear. We present the trends of population exposure to UVR and conduct a time-series analysis of the relation between UVR exposure and incidence of CMM. Data on CMM incidence were obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Clothing coverage of the body was scored from archival photographs and the proportion of uncovered skin was used as a measure of solar exposure. Information on the number of sunny resort holidays, duration of annual holidays, and sunscreen sales were obtained from various sources. Exposed skin area doubled from 1920 to 1985. The average duration of annual holidays increased 30-fold. The number of sunny resort holidays and the sales of sunscreens increased rapidly from 1980. CMM was most strongly associated with solar exposure of 5-19 years earlier. There is a considerable decrease in clothing coverage during the 20th century. UVR exposure preceding CMM occurrence 4 years or less does not appear relevant, whereas the period 5-19 years prior to CMM occurrence might be the most relevant period. However, findings of ecological studies may not be applicable at the individual level.

  12. Brain Structural Integrity and Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Forecast 6 Year Longitudinal Growth in Children's Numerical Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Kochalka, John; Ngoon, Tricia J.; Wu, Sarah S.; Qin, Shaozheng; Battista, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Early numerical proficiency lays the foundation for acquiring quantitative skills essential in today's technological society. Identification of cognitive and brain markers associated with long-term growth of children's basic numerical computation abilities is therefore of utmost importance. Previous attempts to relate brain structure and function to numerical competency have focused on behavioral measures from a single time point. Thus, little is known about the brain predictors of individual differences in growth trajectories of numerical abilities. Using a longitudinal design, with multimodal imaging and machine-learning algorithms, we investigated whether brain structure and intrinsic connectivity in early childhood are predictive of 6 year outcomes in numerical abilities spanning childhood and adolescence. Gray matter volume at age 8 in distributed brain regions, including the ventrotemporal occipital cortex (VTOC), the posterior parietal cortex, and the prefrontal cortex, predicted longitudinal gains in numerical, but not reading, abilities. Remarkably, intrinsic connectivity analysis revealed that the strength of functional coupling among these regions also predicted gains in numerical abilities, providing novel evidence for a network of brain regions that works in concert to promote numerical skill acquisition. VTOC connectivity with posterior parietal, anterior temporal, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices emerged as the most extensive network predicting individual gains in numerical abilities. Crucially, behavioral measures of mathematics, IQ, working memory, and reading did not predict children's gains in numerical abilities. Our study identifies, for the first time, functional circuits in the human brain that scaffold the development of numerical skills, and highlights potential biomarkers for identifying children at risk for learning difficulties. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Children show substantial individual differences in math abilities and ease of math

  13. [Sinonasal carcinoma and exposure to wood and leather dust: analysis of 36 cases].

    PubMed

    Bracci, M; Mariotti, L; Staffolani, S; Strafella, E; Carlucci, C; Pasquini, E; Tarchini, P; Re, M; Santarelli, L

    2012-01-01

    In order to define the best strategies of prevention and diagnosis of sinonasal cancer, the aim of our study was the investigation of the etiological and prognostic factors related to 36 cases. The enrolled cases were composed mostly of men working in the footwear industry, with a mean age of 63.7 years and mean exposure of 34.6 years. The period between the start of exposure and the appearance of the neoplasm was of 44.6 years, the time between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis was of 10.8 months. Our results suggest that a diagnosis within 6 months after the onset of symptoms is associated with a lower tumor stage, a better survival and to a lower rate of recurrence. Nasal obstruction (58.3%) and epistaxis (52.7%) are the main initial symptoms. In order to obtain an early diagnosis, in addition to periodic clinical controls, a proper information of workers is required. PMID:23405730

  14. Energy density and 6-year anthropometric changes in a middle-aged adult cohort.

    PubMed

    Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Estaquio, Carla; Czernichow, Sébastien; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Bertrais, Sandrine

    2009-07-01

    Dietary energy density (ED) may be a good predictor of weight gain because of its association with the regulation of appetite control signals. Among the participants of the 'SUpplementation en VItamines et Mineraux AntioXydants' prospective study, 2707 subjects were included in the present study. Changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist:hip ratio were calculated using measured data collected in 1995/1996 and 2001/2002. The mean changes in various anthropometric indicators according to baseline body-weight status (BMI < or > or = 25 kg/m2) and sex-specific tertiles of baseline ED level or 6-year changes in ED were compared by covariance analysis. In overweight subjects, weight gain was positively associated with high dietary ED at baseline (P for trend = 0.03) and with increasing ED during the follow-up (P for trend = 0.0008). Both the WC and HC changes were also positively related to baseline ED and change in ED in overweight subjects. However, the relationships observed for the WC and HC changes were no longer significant after adjustment for weight change. These results support the hypothesis of a deleterious effect of high-energy-dense diets on weight change for overweight subjects. This relationship could be mediated by physical activity level. Further research needs to be performed in other populations to determine whether ED could be effective strategies to prevent weight gain. PMID:19138440

  15. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Leiva, E.; Mujica, V.; Orrego, R.; Wehinger, S.; Soto, A.; Icaza, G.; Vásquez, M.; Díaz, L.; Andrews, M.; Arredondo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01). The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. Conclusion. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients. PMID:25215305

  16. Grammatical outcomes of 3- & 6-year-old children who are hard of hearing

    PubMed Central

    Koehlinger, Keegan M.; Owen Van Horne, Amanda J; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Spoken language skills of 3- and 6-year-old children who are hard of hearing (HH) were compared to those of children with normal hearing (NH). Method Language skills were measured via MLU in words and percent correct use of finite verb morphology in obligatory contexts based on spontaneous conversational samples gathered from 185 children (145 HH; 40 NH). Aided speech intelligibility index (aided SII), better ear pure tone average (BE-PTA), maternal education, and age of amplification were used to predict outcomes within the HH group. Results On average, the HH group had MLUws that were .25-.5 words shorter than the NH group at both ages and they produced fewer obligatory verb morphemes. After age, aided SII and age of amplification predicted MLUw. Aided SII and PTA were not interchangeable in this analysis. Age followed by either PTA or aided SII best predicted verb morphology use. Conclusions Children who are HH lag behind their NH peers in grammatical aspects of language. Although some children appear to catch up, more than half the children who were HH fell below the 25th percentile. Continued monitoring of language outcomes is warranted since children who are HH are at increased risk for language learning difficulties. PMID:23882004

  17. Observing the Interstellar Medium Flow over the Past 6 Years with IBEX-Lo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, T.; Moebius, E.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S.; Heirtzler, D.; Kubiak, M. A.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N.; Wurz, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has observed the interstellar neutral (ISN) gas flow over the past 6 years during the winter/spring when the Earth's motion opposes the ISN flow direction. Since IBEX observes near the perihelion of the interstellar atom trajectories, we are able to use an analytical model (Lee et al. 2012) based upon orbital mechanics to determine characteristics of the interstellar flow. The interstellar inflow latitude, velocity, and temperature are coupled to the inflow longitude and are restricted by the IBEX observations to a narrow valley in this parameter space (McComas et al. 2012). In our original analysis we found that the small spacecraft spin axis pointing out of the ecliptic plane had a significant influence on the determination of the ISN inflow vector (Möbius et al. 2012; Bzowski et al. 2012). Introducing the spacecraft spin axis tilt into the analytical model has shown that IBEX observations with various spin axis tilt orientations can help restrict the natural degeneracy of the ISN flow parameters as a function of inflow longitude. The IBEX operations team was able to successfully point the spin axis to be in the ecliptic during the 2012 and 2013 seasons and about 5 degrees below the ecliptic during the 2014 season. With this robust data set we are able to further test and develop the analytical model while producing a more comprehensive analysis of the ISN Flow parameters. We found that in its current implementation the analytical model describes the ISN flow most precisely for the spin axis orientation exactly in the ecliptic. This analysis refines the derived ISN flow parameters with a possible reconciliation between velocity vectors found with IBEX and Ulysses, but at a substantially higher temperature than previously reported.

  18. Role of Exposure Analysis in Solving the Mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Long, David T.; Voice, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the role of exposure analysis in assessing whether ochratoxin A aristolochic acid are the agents responsible for causing Balkan endemic nephropathy. We constructed a framework for exposure analysis using the lessons learned from the study of endemic goiter within the context of an accepted general model. We used this framework to develop an exposure analysis model for Balkan endemic nephropathy, evaluated previous findings from the literature on ochratoxin A and aristolochic acid in the context of this model, discussed the strength of evidence for each, and proposed approaches to address critical outstanding questions. The pathway for exposure to ochratoxin A is well defined and there is evidence that humans have ingested ochratoxin A. Factors causing differential exposure to ochratoxin A and how ochratoxin A is implicated in Balkan endemic nephropathy are not defined. Although there is evidence of human exposure to aristolochic acid and that its effects are consistent with Balkan endemic nephropathy, a pathway for exposure to aristolochic acid has been suggested but not demonstrated. Factors causing differential exposure to aristolochic acid are not known. Exposure analysis results suggest that neither ochratoxin A nor aristolochic acid can be firmly linked to Balkan endemic nephropathy. However, this approach suggests future research directions that could provide critical evidence on exposure, which when linked with findings from the health sciences, may be able to demonstrate the cause of this disease and provide a basis for effective public health intervention strategies. One of the key unknowns for both agents is how differential exposure can occur. PMID:17589972

  19. An Analysis of Sound Exposure in a University Music Rehearsal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Joe; Thrasher, Michael; Fumo, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high sound levels may lead to a variety of hearing abnormalities, including Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL). Pre-professional university music majors may experience frequent exposure to elevated sound levels, and this may have implications on their future career prospects (Jansen, Helleman, Dreschler & de Laat, 2009). Studies…

  20. MIXED MODELS ANALYSIS OR URBANIZATION LEVEL ON CHLORPYRIFOS EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) pilot studies were conducted from 1995 through 1997 to examine human population exposure to a wide range of environmental contaminants. In one of the studies, NHEXAS-Maryland, a longitudinal design was used to repeatedly m...

  1. Analysis of the individual risk of altitude decompression sickness under repeated exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. Vasantha; Horrigan, David J.; Waligora, James M.; Gilbert, John H.

    1991-01-01

    In a case-control study, researchers examined the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) in individual subjects with higher number of exposures. Of the 126 subjects, 42 showed one or more episodes of DCS. Examination of the exposure-DCS relationship by odds ratio showed a linear relationship. Stratification analysis showed that sex, tissue ratio, and the presence of Doppler microbubbles were cofounders of this risk. A higher number of exposures increased the risk of DCS in this analysis.

  2. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judy; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2016-05-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were measured by bioelectrical impedance using equations developed for this Danish population. The association between leucine and LBM changes was examined using multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA analyses adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for baseline LBM, sex, age, energy intake and physical activity, leucine intake was associated with LBM change in those older than 65 years (n 79), with no effect seen in those younger than 65 years. Older participants in the highest quartile of leucine intake (7·1 g/d) experienced LBM maintenance, whereas lower intakes were associated with LBM loss over 6 years (for trend: β=0·434, P=0·03). Sensitivity analysis indicated no effect modification of sex or the presence of CVD. Greater leucine intake in conjunction with adequate total protein intake was associated with long-term LBM retention in a healthy older Danish population. This study corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results. PMID:26979049

  3. Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls: A Neuropsychologic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Olivier; Muckle, Gina; Bastien, Célyne H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives A large body of literature documents the effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on cognitive development of children. Despite this fact, no integrative synthesis has been published yet to identify the cognitive functions that are particularly affected. Our aim is to review this literature in an attempt to identify the cognitive profile associated with prenatal PCB exposure. Data sources Studies were identified by searching the PubMed database for articles published before June 2008. We reviewed data from nine prospective longitudinal birth cohorts for different aspects of cognition. Data extraction Associations between indicators of prenatal PCB exposure and performance on cognitive tasks reported in the selected studies are summarized and classified as general cognitive abilities, verbal or visual–spatial skills, memory, attention, and executive functions. Data synthesis The most consistent effects observed across studies are impaired executive functioning related to increased prenatal PCB exposure. Negative effects on processing speed, verbal abilities, and visual recognition memory are also reported by most studies. Converging results from different cohort studies in which exposure arises from different sources make it unlikely that co-exposure with another associated contaminant is responsible for the observed effects. Conclusion Prenatal PCB exposure appears to be related to a relatively specific cognitive profile of impairments. Failure to assess functions that are specifically impaired may explain the absence of effects found in some studies. Our findings have implications in the selection of cognitive assessment methods in future studies. PMID:19165381

  4. REVIEW OF NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQS) FOR CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) - EXPOSURE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the review process, a CO Exposure Analysis will also be conducted to assess the extent of human exposure posed by current ambient CO concentrations and, upon meeting the current CO NAAQS. The results of this analysis will be incorporated into the Staff Paper. (This w...

  5. Transmittance Variations Analysis in Sunglasses Lenses Post Sun Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, A. D.; Gomes, L. M.; Ventura, L.

    2016-07-01

    The hypothesis that sunglass ultraviolet (UV) protection can degrade with Sun exposure has never been proven experimentally. No sunglasses standards take into account UV transmittance changes after long Sun exposure. We selected 12 sunglass lenses and measured transmittance values from 280 nm to 780 nm. After 50 hours of exposure, new transmittance measurements were taken and transmittance variations inferior to 0.2% were observed. The exposition continues longer and more lenses will be tested to obtain conclusive results. We hope to obtain experimental data to confirm UV protection loss hypothesis and obtain a relation between Sun and solar simulator exposition

  6. Retrospective Exposure Assessment for Occupational Disease of an Individual Worker Using an Exposure Database and Trend Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Derrick A; Yang, Rui Rain; Verma, Dave K; Luo, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines a hierarchy of data required for retrospective exposure assessment for occupational disease of an individual worker. It then outlines in a step-wise manner how trend analysis using a relatively large exposure database can be used to estimate such exposure. The process of how a large database containing exposure measurements can be prepared for estimating historic occupational exposures of individual workers in relation to their illnesses is described. The asbestos subset from a large government collected air monitoring database called Medical Surveillance (MESU) was selected to illustrate the cleaning and analysis processes. After unidentifiable values were removed, the cleaned dataset was examined for possible sources of variability such as changes to sampling protocol. Limit of detection (LOD) values were substituted for all non-detectable values prior to the calculation of descriptive statistic using left censored analysis methods (i.e., maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), Kaplan Meier (KM), and simple substitution). The JoinPoint Regression Program was used to perform trend analysis and calculate an annual percentage change (APC) value for the available sampling period. An asbestos case study is presented to illustrate how the APC can then be combined with more recent job and/or process specific exposure data to estimate historic levels. The MESU asbestos dataset contained 1,610 samples from 1984-1995. An average of 17% of this data was left censored. The asbestos air sampling methods in Ontario changed around 1990. LOD values of 0.06 f/cc and 0.02 f/cc were substituted for LOD values pre- and post-1990, respectively. The annual mean fiber levels for the MLE method were an average of 44% lower than KM and substitution methods. The corresponding APC for MLE method was -6.5% and -7.7% for KM and simple substitution. The findings of this paper illustrate how the temporal trend of an exposure databases can be used to efficiently estimate

  7. Fault tree analysis for exposure to refrigerants used for automotive air conditioning in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jetter, J J; Forte, R; Rubenstein, R

    2001-02-01

    A fault tree analysis was used to estimate the number of refrigerant exposures of automotive service technicians and vehicle occupants in the United States. Exposures of service technicians can occur when service equipment or automotive air-conditioning systems leak during servicing. The number of refrigerant exposures of service technicians was estimated to be 135,000 per year. Exposures of vehicle occupants can occur when refrigerant enters passenger compartments due to sudden leaks in air-conditioning systems, leaks following servicing, or leaks caused by collisions. The total number of exposures of vehicle occupants was estimated to be 3,600 per year. The largest number of exposures of vehicle occupants was estimated for leaks caused by collisions, and the second largest number of exposures was estimated for leaks following servicing. Estimates used in the fault tree analysis were based on a survey of automotive air-conditioning service shops, the best available data from the literature, and the engineering judgement of the authors and expert reviewers from the Society of Automotive Engineers Interior Climate Control Standards Committee. Exposure concentrations and durations were estimated and compared with toxicity data for refrigerants currently used in automotive air conditioners. Uncertainty was high for the estimated numbers of exposures, exposure concentrations, and exposure durations. Uncertainty could be reduced in the future by conducting more extensive surveys, measurements of refrigerant concentrations, and exposure monitoring. Nevertheless, the analysis indicated that the risk of exposure of service technicians and vehicle occupants is significant, and it is recommended that no refrigerant that is substantially more toxic than currently available substitutes be accepted for use in vehicle air-conditioning systems, absent a means of mitigating exposure. PMID:11332544

  8. Body shape and size in 6-year old children: assessment by three-dimensional photonic scanning

    PubMed Central

    Santos, L P; Ong, K K; Day, F; Wells, J C K; Matijasevich, A; Santos, I S; Victora, C G; Barros, A J D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Body shape and size are typically described using measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, which predict disease risks in adults. However, this approach may underestimate the true variability in childhood body shape and size. Objective: To use a comprehensive three-dimensional photonic scan approach to describe variation in childhood body shape and size. Subjects/Methods: At age 6 years, 3350 children from the population-based 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study were assessed by three-dimensional photonic scanner, traditional anthropometry and dual X-ray absorptiometry. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on height and 24 photonic scan variables (circumferences, lengths/widths, volumes and surface areas). Results: PCA identified four independent components of children's body shape and size, which we termed: Corpulence, Central:peripheral ratio, Height and arm lengths, and Shoulder diameter. Corpulence showed strong correlations with traditional anthropometric and body composition measures (r>0.90 with weight, BMI, waist circumference and fat mass; r>0.70 with height, lean mass and bone mass); in contrast, the other three components showed weak or moderate correlations with those measures (all r<0.45). There was no sex difference in Corpulence, but boys had higher Central:peripheral ratio, Height and arm lengths and Shoulder diameter values than girls. Furthermore, children with low birth weight had lower Corpulence and Height and arm lengths but higher Central:peripheral ratio and Shoulder diameter than other children. Children from high socio-economic position (SEP) families had higher Corpulence and Height and arm lengths than other children. Finally, white children had higher Corpulence and Central:peripheral ratio than mixed or black children. Conclusions: Comprehensive assessment by three-dimensional photonic scanning identified components of childhood body shape and size not captured by traditional anthropometry or

  9. Improved 6-year overall survival in AT/RT - results of the registry study Rhabdoid 2007.

    PubMed

    Bartelheim, Kerstin; Nemes, Karolina; Seeringer, Angela; Kerl, Kornelius; Buechner, Jochen; Boos, Joachim; Graf, Norbert; Dürken, Matthias; Gerss, Joachim; Hasselblatt, Martin; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Teichert von Luettichau, Irene; Nagel, Inga; Nygaard, Randi; Oyen, Florian; Quiroga, Eduardo; Schlegel, Paul-Gerhardt; Schmid, Irene; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Siebert, Reiner; Solano-Paez, Palma; Timmermann, Beate; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Frühwald, Michael Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are characterized by mutations and subsequent inactivation of SMARCB1 (INI1, hSNF5), a predilection for very young children and an unfavorable outcome. The European Registry for rhabdoid tumors (EU-RHAB) was established to generate a common European database and to establish a standardized treatment regimen as the basis for phase I/II trials. Thus, genetic analyses, neuropathologic and radiologic diagnoses, and a consensus treatment regimen were prospectively evaluated. From 2005 to 2009, 31 patients with AT/RT from four countries were recruited into the registry study Rhabdoid 2007 and treated with systemic and intraventricular chemotherapy. Eight patients received high-dose chemotherapy, 23 radiotherapy, and 17 maintenance therapy. Reference evaluations were performed in 64% (genetic analyses, FISH, MLPA, sequencing) up to 97% (neuropathology, INI1 stain). Germ-line mutations (GLM) were detected in 6/21 patients. Prolonged overall survival was associated with age above 3 years, radiotherapy and achievement of a complete remission. 6-year overall and event-free survival rates were 46% (±0.10) and 45% (±0.09), respectively. Serious adverse events and one treatment-related death due to insufficiency of a ventriculo peritoneal shunt (VP-shunt) and consecutive herniation were noted. Acquisition of standardized data including reference diagnosis and a standard treatment schedule improved data quality along with a survival benefit. Treatment was feasible with significant but manageable toxicity. Although our analysis is biased due to heterogeneous adherence to therapy, EU-RHAB provides the best available basis for phase I/II clinical trials. PMID:27228363

  10. Association between cadmium exposure and renal cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ju kun; Luo, Hong; Yin, Xin hai; Huang, Guang lei; Luo, Si yang; Lin, Du ren; Yuan, Dong Bo; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jian guo

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant and has been a recognized carcinogen for several decades. Many observational studies reported Cd exposure might be one cause of renal cancer. However, these findings are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between cadmium exposure and renal cancer risk. A comprehensive PubMed and Embase search was conducted to retrieve observational studies meeting our meta-analysis criteria. A combined odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to assess the association between Cd exposure and renal cancer risk. The meta-analysis showed that a high Cd exposure significantly increased renal cancer 1.47 times (OR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.27 to 1.71, for highest versus lowest category of cadmium categories). The significant association remained consistent when stratified by geographic region and gender, however mixed results were produced when stratified by sample size, study design, NOS score, adjustment for covariates, effects measure, and exposure type. Our results indicated that a high Cd exposure was associated with increased renal cancer risk and the association was higher for occupational exposure compared with non-occupational exposure. This meta-analysis suggests that a high Cd exposure may be a risk factor for renal cancer in occupational population. PMID:26656678

  11. Quantitative Plasma Biomarker Analysis in HDI Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Flack, Sheila L.; Fent, Kenneth W.; Trelles Gaines, Linda G.; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Whittaker, Steve; Ball, Louise M.; Nylander-French, Leena A.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of amines in biological samples is important for evaluating occupational exposure to diisocyanates. In this study, we describe the quantification of 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) levels in hydrolyzed plasma of 46 spray painters applying 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI)-containing paint in vehicle repair shops collected during repeated visits to their workplace and their relationship with dermal and inhalation exposure to HDI monomer. HDA was detected in 76% of plasma samples, as heptafluorobutyryl derivatives, and the range of HDA concentrations was ≤0.02–0.92 μg l−1. After log-transformation of the data, the correlation between plasma HDA levels and HDI inhalation exposure measured on the same workday was low (N = 108, r = 0.22, P = 0.026) compared with the correlation between plasma HDA levels and inhalation exposure occurring ∼20 to 60 days before blood collection (N = 29, r = 0.57, P = 0.0014). The correlation between plasma HDA levels and HDI dermal exposure measured on the same workday, although statistically significant, was low (N = 108, r = 0.22, P = 0.040) while the correlation between HDA and dermal exposure occurring ∼20 to 60 days before blood collection was slightly improved (N = 29, r = 0.36, P = 0.053). We evaluated various workplace factors and controls (i.e. location, personal protective equipment use and paint booth type) as modifiers of plasma HDA levels. Workers using a downdraft-ventilated booth had significantly lower plasma HDA levels relative to semi-downdraft and crossdraft booth types (P = 0.0108); this trend was comparable to HDI inhalation and dermal exposure levels stratified by booth type. These findings indicate that HDA concentration in hydrolyzed plasma may be used as a biomarker of cumulative inhalation and dermal exposure to HDI and for investigating the effectiveness of exposure controls in the workplace. PMID:19805392

  12. Advanced Exposure Metrics For Chemical Risk Analysis: Systems Biology and 'Omic-based Biomarkers for Exposure Reconstruction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct measurement of human exposure to environmental contaminants in real time (when the exposure is actually occurring) is rare and difficult to obtain. This frustrates both exposure assessments and investigations into the linkage between chemical exposure and human disease. ...

  13. The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Mark A.; Yershova, Kseniya; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Paykina, Natalya; Yenokyan, Gayane; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; McCracken, James T.; Kollins, Scott H.; Murray, Desiree W.; Wigal, Sharon; Kastelic, Elizabeth; McGough, James J.; dosReis, Susan; Bauzo-Rosario, Audrey; Stehli, Annamarie; Posner, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity and diagnosis from ages 3 to 5 up to 9 to 12 years during a 6-year follow-up after the original Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method: A total of 207 participants (75% male) from the original PATS, assessed at baseline (mean age,…

  14. Pyramid Educational Method for 3 to 6-Year-Old Children: Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kuyk, Jef J.

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Pyramid method, an educational method for 3- to 6-year-olds. The Pyramid method seeks to improve young children's chances for a successful primary school career, particularly among ethnic minorities (of Turkish, Moroccan, Cape Verdian, and Surinam origins) and Dutch children of poorly educated parents.…

  15. Tetralogy of Fallot in a 6-year-old albino ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    Laniesse, Delphine; Hébert, Julie; Larrat, Sylvain; Hélie, Pierre; Pouleur-Larrat, Bénédicte; Belanger, Marie C.

    2014-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot associated with bidirectional shunting across a large ventricular septal defect, was found in a 6-year-old ferret. The prognosis associated with tetralogy of Fallot is usually poor. This case is interesting given the advanced age of the ferret. The bidirectional shunting, responsible for an acyanotic disease, may explain the unexpected prolonged survival in this ferret. PMID:24790231

  16. Voucher Users and Revitalized Public-Housing Residents 6 Years after Displacement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Fred; Lewinson, Terri; Aszman, Jennifer; Wolk, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A total of 6 years after displacement by a Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere (HOPE VI) project, this research examines residents who returned to the redeveloped community and residents who decided to keep their vouchers and were living in private sector housing. Respondents were compared on the following variables: application…

  17. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 6 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Young children under age 6 years appear to be particularly vulnerable, with 48 percent living in…

  18. Intonation Facilitates Contrast Resolution: Evidence from Japanese Adults and 6-Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Kiwako; Jincho, Nobuyuki; Minai, Utako; Yamane, Naoto; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments tested how pitch prominence on a prenominal adjective affects contrast resolution in Japanese adult and 6-year old listeners. Participants located two animals in succession on displays with multiple colored animals. In Experiment 1, adults' fixations to the contrastive target (pink cat [right arrow] GREEN cat) were…

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Abuse-Specific Attributions of Blame over 6 Years Following Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of change in attributions for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) over a 6-year period and whether such patterns were related to abuse severity, age, gender, and subsequent symptoms of depression and PTSD. Methodology: One-hundred and sixty children, 8-15 years old, were interviewed within 8…

  20. Soil-profile distribution of inorganic N during 6 years of integrated crop-livestock management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive accumulation of soil nitrate-N can threaten water and air quality. How integrated crop-livestock systems might influence soil-profile nitrate-N accumulation has not been investigated. Therefore, we determined soil nitrate-N accumulation during 6 years of evaluation of diverse cropping sy...

  1. Phonological Awareness Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children with Mild to Moderate Phonological Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gernand, Keri Leigh; Moran, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Standardized and nonstandardized assessments of phonological awareness skills were administered to two groups of 6-year-old children. Group 1 passed a language screening but exhibited mild or moderate phonological impairments on the "Assessment of Phonological Processes--Revised." Group 2 passed a language screening and exhibited no phonological…

  2. The Microgenetic Emergence of Cooperative Play in 6-Year-Olds Developmentally At-Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Aalsvoort, Geerdina M.; van der Leeden, Rien

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative play was investigated by a controlled pre/post-test intervention design with 28 dyads of 6-year-old students developmentally at-risk. Selection was based upon cut-off scores on a language development test and a nonverbal IQ test, and same-sex pairs were matched within classrooms. Co-variables were: socio economic status, free play time…

  3. A Learning Trajectory in 6-Year-Olds' Thinking about Generalizing Functional Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Maria; Brizuela, Bárbara M.; Gardiner, Angela Murphy; Sawrey, Katie; Newman-Owens, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The study of functions is a critical route into teaching and learning algebra in the elementary grades, yet important questions remain regarding the nature of young children's understanding of functions. This article reports an empirically developed learning trajectory in first-grade children's (6-year-olds') thinking about generalizing functional…

  4. Multiple Intelligences of 6-Year-Old Children Attending Preschool in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uysal, Ebru; Akyol, Aysel Koksal

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to examine 6-year-old pupils attending different preschool institutions in Turkey in view of the multiple-intelligences theory. This research aims at determining whether the gender of pupils attending different preschool institutions leads to differences in their verbal-linguistics, mathematical-logical, visual-spatial,…

  5. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  6. Organophosphate Insecticide Metabolites in Prenatal and Childhood Urine Samples and Intelligence Scores at 6 Years of Age: Results from the Mother–Child PELAGIE Cohort (France)

    PubMed Central

    Cartier, Chloé; Warembourg, Charline; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd; Lacroix, Agnès; Rouget, Florence; Monfort, Christine; Limon, Gwendolina; Durand, Gaël; Saint-Amour, Dave; Cordier, Sylvaine; Chevrier, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides (OP) during pregnancy impairs neurodevelopment in children. Objectives: We evaluated associations between biomarkers of prenatal and postnatal OP exposure and cognitive function of 6-year-olds in a French longitudinal birth cohort. Methods: In 2002–2006, the PELAGIE mother–child cohort enrolled pregnant women from Brittany. For a random subcohort, we measured nonspecific dialkylphosphate metabolites (DAP) of OP in one maternal urine sample, collected before 19 weeks’ gestation, and in one urine sample collected from their 6-year-old children. Six subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV) were administered when the children were 6 years of age to evaluate cognitive function (n = 231). Linear regression models controlling for factors including maternal intelligence and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment score were used. Results: WISC-IV scores were not significantly associated with prenatal or childhood total DAP metabolites. WISC verbal comprehension score was significantly higher in association with the highest maternal urinary concentrations of diethylphosphate (DE) metabolites (5.5; 95% CI: 0.8, 10.3 for > 13.2 nmol/L vs. < LOQ), whereas WISC working memory score was significantly lower in association with the highest urinary concentrations of DE metabolites at age 6 years (–3.6; 95% CI: –7.8, –0.6 for > 11.1 nmol/L vs. < LOD). Conclusion: We found no evidence that prenatal OP exposure adversely affected cognitive function in 6-year-olds, perhaps because of the population’s socioeconomic status, which was higher than in previous studies, though other causal and noncausal explanations are also possible. The negative association between WISC score and concurrent DE urinary concentrations requires replication by longitudinal studies investigating childhood OP exposure. Citation: Cartier C, Warembourg C, Le Maner

  7. Measuring Exposure in Hurricane Katrina: A Meta-Analysis and an Integrative Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    To date there is no consensus on the operationalization of exposure severity in the study of the impact of natural disasters. This is problematic because incomplete and inconsistent measurement of exposure limits the internal and external validity of disaster studies. The current paper examined the predictive validity of severity measures in two interrelated studies of Hurricane Katrina survivors. First, in a meta-analysis of eight studies that measured both exposure severity and posttraumatic stress, the effect size was estimated to be r = .266. The moderating effects of sample and study characteristics were examined and we found that minority status and number of stressors assessed were significant moderators. Second, in an integrative data analysis of five independent samples of Hurricane Katrina survivors, the impact of specific disaster-related stressors on mental health was compared. Threat to physical integrity of self and others were found to have the strongest association with posttraumatic stress (PTS) and general psychological distress (GPD). The lack of basic necessities, such as food, water, and medical care, and loss of pet were also found to be strongly associated with both PTS and GPD. The results from the two studies are integrated and their implication for disaster research and relief are discussed. PMID:24713851

  8. Measuring exposure in Hurricane Katrina: a meta-analysis and an integrative data analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Christian S; Rhodes, Jean E

    2014-01-01

    To date there is no consensus on the operationalization of exposure severity in the study of the impact of natural disasters. This is problematic because incomplete and inconsistent measurement of exposure limits the internal and external validity of disaster studies. The current paper examined the predictive validity of severity measures in two interrelated studies of Hurricane Katrina survivors. First, in a meta-analysis of eight studies that measured both exposure severity and posttraumatic stress, the effect size was estimated to be r = .266. The moderating effects of sample and study characteristics were examined and we found that minority status and number of stressors assessed were significant moderators. Second, in an integrative data analysis of five independent samples of Hurricane Katrina survivors, the impact of specific disaster-related stressors on mental health was compared. Threat to physical integrity of self and others were found to have the strongest association with posttraumatic stress (PTS) and general psychological distress (GPD). The lack of basic necessities, such as food, water, and medical care, and loss of pet were also found to be strongly associated with both PTS and GPD. The results from the two studies are integrated and their implication for disaster research and relief are discussed. PMID:24713851

  9. Network-Level Connectivity Dynamics of Movie Watching in 6-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Robert W.; Short, Sarah J.; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Better understanding of the developing brain’s functional mechanisms is critical for improving diagnosis and treatment of different developmental disorders. Particularly, characterizing how the developing brain dynamically reorganizes during different cognitive states may offer novel insight into the neuronal mechanisms of cognitive deficits. Imaging the brain during naturalistic conditions, like movie watching, provides a highly practical way to study young children’s developing functional brain systems. In this study we compared the network-level functional organization of 6-year-old children while they were at rest with their functional connectivity as they watched short video clips. We employed both a data-driven independent component analysis (ICA) approach and a hypothesis-driven seed-based analysis to identify changes in network-level functional interactions during the shift from resting to video watching. Our ICA results showed that naturally watching a movie elicits significant changes in the functional connectivity between the visual system and the dorsal attention network when compared to rest (t(32) = 5.02, p = 0.0001). More interestingly, children showed an immature, but qualitatively adult-like, pattern of reorganization among three of the brain’s higher-order networks (frontal control, default-mode and dorsal attention). For both ICA and seed-based approaches, we observed a decrease in the frontal network’s correlation with the dorsal attention network (ICA: t(32) = −2.46, p = 0.02; Seed-based: t(32) = −1.62, p =0.12) and an increase in its connectivity with the default mode network (ICA: t(32) = 2.84, p = 0.008; Seed-based: t(32) = 2.28, p =0.03), which is highly consistent with the pattern observed in adults. These results offer improved understanding of the developing brain’s dynamic network-level interaction patterns during the transition between different brain states and call for further studies to examine potential alterations to

  10. Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R.

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

  11. Pesticide flow analysis to assess human exposure in greenhouse flower production in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R

    2013-04-01

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

  12. Selective Exposure and Foreign News: A Multivariate Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun Kap

    This multivariate study examined attitudinal and demographic variables affecting the degree of foreign news exposure on the basis of the data collected from 102 daily newspaper readers in Carbondale, Illinois. The data were obtained in personal interviews with the respondents. The ultimate goal of the study was to contribute to the investigation…

  13. Causal Analysis of the Unanticipated Extremity Exposure at HFEF

    SciTech Connect

    David E. James; Charles R. Posegate; Thomas P. Zahn; Alan G. Wagner

    2011-11-01

    This report covers the unintended extremity exposure to an operator while handling a metallurgical mount sample of irradiated fuel following an off-scale high beta radiation reading of the sample. The decision was made to continue working after the meter indicated high off-scale by the HPT Supervisor, which resulted in the operator at the next operation being exposed.

  14. ANALYSIS AND PRODUCTS FROM NHEXAS -- NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) was developed as a federal interagency research effort to examine the full range of environmental pollutants and chemicals (volatile organic chemicals, metals, and pesticides) that humans are exposed to in daily life. The pu...

  15. ANALYSIS OF NASAL TISSUE FOR BIOMARKERS OF CHLORINE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both 3-chloro-tyrosine (CT) and 3,5-dichloro-tyrosine (dCT) are sensitive and specific biomarkers for evaluating exposure to chlorine gas (Cl2) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Previous investigations have focused on the formation of CT and dCT resulting from biochemical responses ...

  16. SMELTING PLANT CADMIUM/ARSENIC EXPOSURE COHORT ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's proposed IRIS cancer assessment (as well as OSHA, NIOSH and the European Union assessments) classify cadmium as a probable human carcinogen by inhalation exposure, based principally on data from the Globe Manufacturing facility located in the Western U.S. A major confoundi...

  17. 77 FR 37717 - Electrical Cable Test Results and Analysis During Fire Exposure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... COMMISSION Electrical Cable Test Results and Analysis During Fire Exposure AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... during Fire Exposure (ELECTRA-FIRE), A Consolidation of the Three Major Fire-Induced Circuit and Cable... conducted to realistically explore the electrical functionality of electrical cables under severe...

  18. The CryoSat Interferometer after 6 years in orbit: calibration and achievable performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; De Bartolomei, Maurizio; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku-band pulse width limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter). When commanded in SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) mode, through coherent along-track processing of the returns received from two antennas, the interferometric phase related to the first arrival of the echo is used to retrieve the angle of arrival of the scattering in the across-track direction. In fact, the across-track echo direction can be derived by exploiting the precise knowledge of the baseline vector (i.e. the vector between the two antennas centers of phase) and simple geometry. The end-to-end calibration strategy for the CryoSat interferometer consists on in-orbit calibration campaigns following the approach described in [1]. From the beginning of the CryoSat mission, about once a year the interferometer calibration campaigns have been periodically performed by rolling left and right the spacecraft of about ±0.4 deg. This abstract is aimed at presenting our analysis of the calibration parameters and of the achievable performance of the CryoSat interferometer over the 6 years of mission. Additionally, some further studies have been performed to assess the accuracy of the roll angle computed on ground as function of the aberration (the apparent displacement of a celestial object from its true position, caused by the relative motion of the observer and the object) correction applied to the attitude quaternions, provided by the Star Tracker mounted on-board. In fact, being the roll information crucial to obtain an accurate estimate of the angle of arrival, the data from interferometer calibration campaigns have been used to verify how the application of the aberration correction affects the roll information and, in turns, the measured angle of arrival. [1] Galin, N.; Wingham, D.J.; Cullen, R.; Fornari, M.; Smith, W.H.F.; Abdalla, S., "Calibration of the CryoSat-2 Interferometer and Measurement of Across

  19. Proteomic analysis of adducted butyrylcholinesterase for biomonitoring organophosphorus exposures

    PubMed Central

    Marsillach, Judit; Hsieh, Edward J.; Richter, Rebecca J.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) compounds include a broad group of toxic chemicals such as insecticides, chemical warfare agents and antiwear agents. The liver cytochromes P450 bioactivate many OPs to potent inhibitors of serine hydrolases. Cholinesterases were the first OP targets discovered and are the most studied. They are used to monitor human exposures to OP compounds. However, the assay that is currently used has limitations. The mechanism of action of OP compounds is the inhibition of serine hydrolases by covalently modifying their active-site serine. After structural rearrangement, the complex OP inhibitor-enzyme is irreversible and will remain in circulation until the modified enzyme is degraded. Mass spectrometry is a sensitive technology for analyzing protein modifications, such as OP-adducted enzymes. These analyses also provide some information about the nature of the OP adduct. Our aim is to develop high-throughput protocols for monitoring OP exposures using mass spectrometry. PMID:23123252

  20. Skin burns after laser exposure: histological analysis and predictive simulation.

    PubMed

    Museux, Nathanaëlle; Perez, Laetitia; Autrique, Laurent; Agay, Diane

    2012-08-01

    Thermal effects of laser irradiation on skin are investigated in this paper. The main purpose is to determine the damage level induced by a laser exposure. Potential burns induced by two lasers (wavelength 808nm and 1940nm) are studied and animal experimentations are performed. Several exposure durations and laser powers are tested. Based on previous works, a mathematical model dedicated to temperature prediction is proposed and finite-element method is implemented. This numerical predictive tool based on the bioheat equation takes into account heat losses due to the convection on skin surface, blood circulatory and also evaporation. Thermal behavior of each skin layer is also described considering distinct thermal and optical properties. Since the mathematical model is able to estimate damage levels, histological analyses were also carried through. It is confirmed that the mathematical model is an efficient predictive tool for estimation of damage caused by lasers and that thermal effects sharply depend on laser wavelength. PMID:22237052

  1. Spectroscopic analysis of bedrock exposures in the Martian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, D.; Aharonson, O.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    The THEMIS instrument aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft has provided a new view of the martian surface with 100 m/pixel daytime and nighttime multispectral infrared imaging. Numerous exposures of bedrock have been identified using THEMIS data. These exposures are found in a variety of southern highlands terrains, including crater floors and intercrater plains. We are characterizing the composition, thermophysical properties, and morphology of extensive, largely sediment-free bedrock surfaces in the intercrater plains of Mars. More than 30 spatially-contiguous, extensive, non-crater related bedrock surfaces with low albedo values (<0.16) have been identified to date. These bedrock exposures are investigated using THEMIS daytime and nighttime IR mosaics, MOC wide angle 256 ppd mosaic, MOLA elevation data binned at 128 ppd, and TES detector field-of-view overlays (full spatial resolution) of albedo and spectral emissivity. THEMIS and TES data are used for derivation of surface emissivity and estimation of mineral abundance allowing classification into units based on composition, morphology, texture and other noted characteristics. Building on previous global studies, we use infrared and VIS/NIR spectral data to determine surface mineralogy and examine how representative the martian surface layer is of near-surface underlying bedrock units. This study, for the first time, systematically probes a window into the stratigraphy and composition of globally distributed ancient terrains on Mars.

  2. Esophagus cancer and occupational exposure to asbestos: results from a meta-analysis of epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Tang, S P; Wang, K Z

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between occupational asbestos exposure and esophagus cancer (EC) is not fully understood. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association. We systematically searched databases of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science for studies with quantitative estimates of asbestos exposure and EC mortality. Pooled standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Twenty cohort studies on EC and asbestos exposure were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, occupational exposure to asbestos was associated with an excess risk of EC (SMR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.13-1.38, P < 0.001), with little evidence of heterogeneity among studies (I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.682). Being male, exposure to chrysotile or mixed asbestos, working at textile industry, long study follow-up (≥20 years), Asia, Europe and America cohorts with larger cohort size (>500), and high-exposure group all contribute to significantly higher SMR. Publication bias was not detected (Egger's test P-value = 0.374). This meta-analysis suggested that occupational asbestos exposure might be associated with an increased risk of EC in male. High-exposure level of asbestos could contribute to significantly higher risk of EC mortality. PMID:25758922

  3. UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS OF TCE USING THE DOSE EXPOSURE ESTIMATING MODEL (DEEM) IN ACSL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ACSL-based Dose Exposure Estimating Model(DEEM) under development by EPA is used to perform art uncertainty analysis of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PSPK) model of trichloroethylene (TCE). This model involves several circulating metabolites such as trichloroacet...

  4. Resource allocation to kin, friends, and strangers by 3- to 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Kin altruism has been widely observed across species, including humans. However, few studies have discussed the development of kin altruism or its relationship with theory of mind. In this study, 3- to 6-year-old children allocated resources between themselves and kin, a friend, or a stranger in three allocation tasks where the allocation either incurred a cost, incurred no cost, or conferred a disadvantage. The results showed that, compared with 3- and 4-year-olds, 5- and 6-year-olds acted more altruistically toward kin and that kin altruism was uncorrelated with theory of mind. These findings suggest that, within the context of resource allocation, kin altruism emerges toward the end of early childhood and probably differs from other prosocial behavior that relies solely on the understanding of others' perspectives. PMID:27336694

  5. Prediction of Preadolescent Overweight and Poor Cardiometabolic Outcome in Children up to 6 Years of Age: Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wijga, Alet; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Heijmans, Martijn W; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Twisk, Jos WR; Raat, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Background Dynamic risk estimations may enable targeting primary prevention of overweight and overweight-related adverse cardiometabolic outcome in later life, potentially serving as a valuable addition to universal primary prevention. This approach seems particularly promising in young children, as body mass index (BMI) changes at a young age are highly predictive of these outcomes, and parental lifestyle interventions at a young age are associated with improved long-term outcome. Objective This paper describes the design of our study, which aims to develop digitized tools that can be implemented in the Dutch Child Health Care (CHC) system or by pediatricians for children up to 6 years of age. These tools will enable (1) dynamically predicting the development of overweight, hypertension or prehypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values, and high total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio by early adolescence and (2) identifying children who are likely to have poor cardiometabolic outcome by the age of 5-6 years and by the age of 10 years. Methods Data will be obtained from the Generation R (n=7893) and Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA; n=3963) cohorts, two Dutch prenatally recruited cohorts. We will select candidate predictors that can be assessed during the first visit and/or during subsequent visits to the CHC center or pediatrician, including sex; parental age, education level, and BMI; smoking exposure; ethnicity; birth weight; gestational age; breastfeeding versus formula feeding; and growth data through the age of 6 years. We will design dynamic prediction models that can be updated with new information obtained during subsequent CHC visits, allowing each measurement to be added to the model. Performance of the model will be assessed in terms of discrimination and calibration. Finally, the model will be validated both internally and externally using the combined cohort data and then converted into a computer

  6. Trend of soft contact lens prescribing in an optometry centre in India: a 6-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Sanker, Nijil; Noushad, Babu

    2013-08-01

    This six-year retrospective longitudinal study was conducted to examine the changes in the pattern of prescribing soft contact lenses in an optometry centre located in a University in South India. Details regarding the type of lenses, lens material, wearing pattern and the clinical diagnoses were analyzed from January 2006 to December 2011. A total of 1273 soft contact lens fits (n=1273) were analyzed. Two-third of the total lenses dispensed was for females and their mean age (24.0±8.3 yrs) was less than that of male (27.0±11.2 yrs) lens users. Nearly 70% of them had myopia and 48% wore conventional soft contact lenses. During the studied six years, the percentage of conventional lenses declined by 60%. This study demonstrated a gradual and significant increase in popularity of disposable contact lenses and silicone hydrogel lens material which is comparable to the global trend. PMID:23611793

  7. Estimation and correlation of cigarette smoke exposure in Canadian smokers as determined by filter analysis and biomarkers of exposure.

    PubMed

    Morin, André; Shepperd, Christopher J; Eldridge, Alison C; Poirier, Nicole; Voisine, Richard

    2011-12-01

    A clinical study conducted in Canada compared two methods of estimating exposure to cigarette smoke in 192 volunteer subjects: 43 smokers of 4-6 mg, 49 of 8-12 mg and 50 of 14-15 mg ISO tar yield cigarettes and 50 non-smokers. Estimates of mouth level exposure (MLE) to nicotine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), pyrene and acrolein were obtained by chemical analysis of spent cigarette filters. Estimates of smoke constituent uptake were achieved by analysis of urinary biomarkers for total nicotine equivalents (nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine plus their glucuronide conjugates), NNK (total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) plus glucuronide), pyrene (1-hydroxy pyrene plus glucuronide) and acrolein (3-hydroxylpropyl-mercapturic acid) plus the nicotine metabolite cotinine in plasma and saliva. The objective of our study was to confirm the correlations between measures of human exposure obtained by filter analysis and biomarkers. Significant correlations (p<0.001) were found between MLE and the relevant biomarker for each smoke constituent. The adjusted values of the Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were 0.80 (nicotine), 0.77 (acrolein) and 0.44 (pyrene). NNK correlations could not be obtained because of the low NNK yield of Canadian cigarettes. Unexpectedly high levels of acrolein biomarker found in non-smokers urine on one of the two days sampled emphasised the need for more than one sampling occasion per period and an awareness of non-tobacco sources of smoke constituents under investigation. No consistent dose response, in line with ISO tar yield smoked, of MLE estimates was found for nicotine, pyrene and acrolein and respective biomarkers. The influence of demographics on our results has also been examined. PMID:20937342

  8. New results from FRECOPA analysis. [long duration exposure facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durin, Christian

    1992-01-01

    Given Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) new situation (5.8 years mission), CNES decided to set up a team to analyze FRECOPA systems (AO 138). We studied the kinematic system first. We observed damage on the DELRIN gears and lubricant ageing. The results are based on comparative appraisals between components after flight and those stored on ground in laboratory conditions. We observed also the aluminum surface treatment in the exposed areas and we measured the thermo-optical properties changes. Now, with all the results stored, we try to give a ruling on the use of FRECOPA materials in space environment.

  9. Analysis of School Commuting Data for Exposure Modeling Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Jianping; McCurdy, Thomas; Burke, Janet; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Liu, Cheng; Nutaro, James J; Patterson, Lauren A

    2010-01-01

    Human exposure models often make the simplifying assumption that school children attend school in the same census tract where they live. This paper analyzes that assumption and provides information on the temporal and spatial distributions associated with school commuting. The data were obtained using Oak Ridge National Laboratory s LandScan USA population distribution model (Bhaduri et al., 2007) applied to Philadelphia PA. It is a high-resolution model used to allocate individual school-aged children to both a home and school location, and to devise a minimum-time home-to school commuting path (called a trace) between the two locations. LandScan relies heavily on Geographic Information System (GIS) data. Our GIS analyses found that in Philadelphia: (1) about 32% of the students walk across 2 or more census tracts and 40% of them walk across 4 or more census blocks; (2) 60% drive across 4 or more census tracts going to school and 50% drive across 10 or more census blocks; (3) five-minute commuting time intervals result in misclassification as high as 90% for census blocks, 70% for block groups, and 50% for census tracts; (4) a one-minute time interval is needed to reasonably resolve time spent in the various census unit designations; (5) approximately 50% of both schoolchildren s homes and schools are located within 160 m of highly-traveled roads, and 64% of the schools are located within 200 m. These findings are very important when modeling school children s exposures, especially when ascertaining the impacts of near-roadway concentrations on their total daily body burden. Since many school children also travel along these streets and roadways to get to school, a majority of children in Philadelphia are in mobile-source dominated locations most of the day. We hypothesize that exposures of school children in Philadelphia to benzene and particulate matter will be much higher than if home and school locations and commuting paths at a 1-minute time resolution are

  10. Individual Differences in Growth in Executive Function across the Transition to School Predict Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors and Self-Perceived Academic Success at 6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Claire; Ensor, Rosie

    2011-01-01

    Building on an existing latent variable analysis of executive function (EF) in children (N=191, 57% boys and 43% girls) making the transition to school (Hughes et al. (2010), "Developmental Neuropsychology", vol. 35, pp. 20-36), the current study both documented average developmental improvements from 4 to 6 years of age and examined individual…

  11. Determinants of incident hyperglycemia 6 years after delivery in young rural Indian mothers: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study (PMNS)

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Smita R.; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Joshi, Niranjan V.; Lubree, Himangi G.; Deshpande, Vaishali U.; Pasarkar, Rashmi V.; Bhat, Dattatray S.; Naik, Sadanand S.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study determinants of incident hyperglycaemia in rural Indian mothers 6 years after delivery. Research Design and Methods: The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study (PMNS) collected information in 6 villages near Pune on pre-pregnant characteristics, and nutrition, physical activity and glucose tolerance during pregnancy. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was repeated 6 years after delivery. Results: Five hundred and ninety seven mothers had an OGTT at 28 weeks gestation; 3 had gestational diabetes (GDM, WHO 1999 criteria). Six years later, 42 of 509 originally normal glucose tolerant mothers were hyperglycemic (8 diabetic, 20 IGT and 14 IFG). The hyperglycemic women had shorter legs and thicker skinfolds before pregnancy (p<0.01, both) and were less active and more hyperglycemic (2-hour plasma glucose 4.8 vs. 4.4 mmol/L, p<0.001) during pregnancy. They had gained more weight during follow up (6.0 vs. 2.7 kg, p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that total leucocyte count and blood pressure during pregnancy were additional independent predictors of 2h glucose concentration at follow up. Conclusions: Our results suggest that compromised linear growth, adiposity, inflammation and less physical activity predispose to hyperglycemia in young rural Indian women. International cutpoints of diabetes risk factors are largely irrelevant in these women PMID:17620450

  12. Effects function analysis of ELF magnetic field exposure in the electric utility work environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Nair, I; Sahl, J

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete understanding of the relation between power-frequency fields and biological responses raises problems in defining an appropriate metric for exposure assessment and epidemiological studies. Based on evidence from biological experiments, one can define alternative metrics or effects functions that embody the relationship between field exposure patterns and hypothetical health effects. In this paper, we explore the application of the "effects function" approach to occupational exposure data. Our analysis provides examples of exposure assessments based on a range of plausible effects functions. An EMDEX time series data set of ELF frequency (40-800 Hz) magnetic field exposure measurements for electric utility workers was analyzed with several statistical measures and effects functions: average field strength, combination of threshold and exposure duration, and field strength changes. Results were compared for eight job categories: electrician, substation operator, machinist, welder, plant operator, lineman/splicer, meter reader, and clerical. Average field strength yields a different ranking for these job categories than the ranks obtained using other biologically plausible effects functions. Whereas the group of electricians has the highest exposure by average field strength, the group of substation operators has the highest ranking for most of the other effects functions. Plant operators rank highest in the total number of field strength changes greater than 1 microT per hour. The clerical group remains at the lowest end for all of these effects functions. Our analysis suggests that, although average field strength could be used as a surrogate of field exposure for simply classifying exposure into "low" and "high," this summary measure may be misleading in the relative ranking of job categories in which workers are in "high" fields. These results indicate the relevance of metrics other than average field strength in occupational exposure assessment and

  13. Biological monitoring of nitroglycerin exposure by urine analysis.

    PubMed

    Akrill, Peter; Guiver, Robert; Cocker, John

    2002-08-01

    Historically biological monitoring to assess exposure has been difficult due to the rapid half-life of NG. However, the recent development of a method to assess NG and its metabolites (glycerol dinitrates, GDNs) in urine has made biological monitoring more feasible. The data reported here result from samples taken from three sites using NG. Two of the sites are munitions manufacturing sites and the other site is a pharmaceutical manufacturing site. The range of urinary GDN concentrations found in the samples at the two munitions sites were 0.9-18, and 0-4.7 micromol/mol creatinine, and at the pharmaceutical site were 0-0.9 micromol/mol creatinine). The presence of nitroglycols in the urine of workers despite the use of personal protective equipment and local exhaust ventilation shows the usefulness of biological monitoring to assess the efficacy of any controls in place and the potential of dermal absorption of NG. PMID:12191888

  14. The evaluation of mood condition among depressed adolescent students in Isfahan after 6 years

    PubMed Central

    Shakibaei, Fereshteh; Alikhani, Mahmood; Mahaki, Behzad; Sichani, Naeimeh Karimian; Tabatabaei, Haleh Dormiani

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study has carried out to find the recovery rate, depression recurrence, changing of diagnose into bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and appearing other psychiatric disorders including obsessive compulsive disorder, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), substance induced disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorders after 6 years among students having major depression disorder in Isfahan and its relation to some demographic factors. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, 278 students studying in guidance school, in 2006 being 11–16-year-old and were diagnosed to have major depressive disorder participated. Data collection was done by completing children depression on inventory, Young Maria Rating Scale and also final diagnosis determination through interview by psychiatrists. To analyze the data, in addition to use descriptive statistics, multinomial and multiple logistic regressions were used to evaluate the relationships. All the analyses were done using SPSS 20. Results: About 34.9 of adolescents have suffered from depression after 6 years. Depression in 12.2% has been changed into BMD. The BMD morbidity chance was less in girls rather than depression one. The ratio of drug abuse in girls was less than boys (odds ratio [OR] = 0.471, P = 0.046). Students received no treatment or only pharmacotherapy, were more caught by ODD in comparison with those cases who received both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (P = 0.005, 0.038 and OR = 4.29 and 5.88). Conclusion: About half of students after 6 years are caught by depression or BMD. It reveals the importance of this disorder and its role in making behavioral problems for adolescents in their future. PMID:27308266

  15. Alcohol Challenge Responses Predict Future Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms: A 6-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrea C.; McNamara, Patrick J.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Cao, Dingcai

    2014-01-01

    Background Propensity for alcohol misuse may be linked to an individuals’ response to alcohol. This study examined the role of alcohol response phenotypes to future drinking problems. Methods One hundred four young heavy social drinkers participated in a within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled laboratory alcohol challenge study with 6-year follow-up. Participants were examined for subjective responses before and after receiving an intoxicating dose of alcohol (.8 g/kg) or a placebo beverage, given in random order. Follow-up was conducted in 5 waves over 6 years after the sessions to assess drinking behaviors and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms. Retention was high with 98% (509 of 520) of possible follow-ups completed. Results Greater sensitivity to alcohol, in terms of stimulation and rewarding effects (like, want more) and lower sensitivity to alcohol sedation predicted greater number of AUD symptoms through 6 years of follow-up. Cluster analyses revealed that for half the sample, increasing levels of stimulation and liking were predictors of more AUD symptoms with the other half divided between those showing like and want more and want more alone as significant predictors. Conclusions The findings extend previous findings and offer new empirical insights into the propensity for excessive drinking and alcohol problems. Heightened alcohol stimulation and reward sensitivity robustly predicted more alcohol use disorder symptoms over time associated with greater binge-drinking frequency. These drinking problems were maintained and progressed as these participants were entering their third decade of life, a developmental interval when continued alcohol misuse becomes more deviant. PMID:24094754

  16. Pesticide exposure and risk of Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dandan; Zhang, Yunjian; Liu, Liegang; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that lifelong cumulative exposure to pesticides may generate lasting toxic effects on the central nervous system and contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of reports indicate a potential association between long-term/low-dose pesticide exposure and AD, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify this association. Relevant studies were identified according to inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed-effects models. A total of seven studies were included in our meta-analysis. A positive association was observed between pesticide exposure and AD (OR = 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.67; n = 7). The summary ORs with 95% CIs from the crude and adjusted effect size studies were 1.14 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.38; n = 7) and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.09, 1.71; n = 5), respectively. The sensitivity analyses of the present meta-analysis did not substantially modify the association between pesticide exposure and AD. Subgroup analyses revealed that high-quality studies tended to show significant relationships. The present meta-analysis suggested a positive association between pesticide exposure and AD, confirming the hypothesis that pesticide exposure is a risk factor for AD. Further high-quality cohort and case-control studies are required to validate a causal relationship. PMID:27581992

  17. Pesticide exposure and risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dandan; Zhang, Yunjian; Liu, Liegang; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that lifelong cumulative exposure to pesticides may generate lasting toxic effects on the central nervous system and contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A number of reports indicate a potential association between long-term/low-dose pesticide exposure and AD, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify this association. Relevant studies were identified according to inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed-effects models. A total of seven studies were included in our meta-analysis. A positive association was observed between pesticide exposure and AD (OR = 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.67; n = 7). The summary ORs with 95% CIs from the crude and adjusted effect size studies were 1.14 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.38; n = 7) and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.09, 1.71; n = 5), respectively. The sensitivity analyses of the present meta-analysis did not substantially modify the association between pesticide exposure and AD. Subgroup analyses revealed that high-quality studies tended to show significant relationships. The present meta-analysis suggested a positive association between pesticide exposure and AD, confirming the hypothesis that pesticide exposure is a risk factor for AD. Further high-quality cohort and case-control studies are required to validate a causal relationship. PMID:27581992

  18. The association between noise exposure and blood pressure and ischemic heart disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    van Kempen, Elise E M M; Kruize, Hanneke; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Ameling, Caroline B; Staatsen, Brigit A M; de Hollander, Augustinus E M

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that noise exposure is associated with blood pressure changes and ischemic heart disease risk, but epidemiologic evidence is still limited. Furthermore, most reviews investigating these relations were not carried out in a systematic way, which makes them more prone to bias. We conducted a meta-analysis of 43 epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1999 that investigate the relation between noise exposure (both occupational and community) and blood pressure and/or ischemic heart disease (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes 410-414). We studied a wide range of effects, from blood pressure changes to a myocardial infarction. With respect to the association between noise exposure and blood pressure, small blood pressure differences were evident. Our meta-analysis showed a significant association for both occupational noise exposure and air traffic noise exposure and hypertension: We estimated relative risks per 5 dB(A) noise increase of 1.14 (1.01-1.29) and 1.26 (1.14-1.39), respectively. Air traffic noise exposure was positively associated with the consultation of a general practitioner or specialist, the use of cardiovascular medicines, and angina pectoris. In cross-sectional studies, road traffic noise exposure increases the risk of myocardial infarction and total ischemic heart disease. Although we can conclude that noise exposure can contribute to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, the evidence for a relation between noise exposure and ischemic heart disease is still inconclusive because of the limitations in exposure characterization, adjustment for important confounders, and the occurrence of publication bias. PMID:11882483

  19. A Case of Infantile Kyrle-Flegel Disease in a 6-Year-Old Yemeni Girl.

    PubMed

    Alshami, Mohammad Ali; Mohana, Mona Jameel

    2016-01-01

    Kyrle disease (KD) and Flegel disease (FD) are rare variants of primary perforating dermatoses, characterized by transepidermal elimination of abnormal endogenous materials. We describe a 6-year-old Yemeni girl with a 2-year history of generalized asymptomatic, small, reddish-brown keratotic papules with a lenticular central keratotic plug. Although these features are synonymous with FD, the histology of a punch biopsy was consistent with KD. The patient was otherwise healthy, and no family members had a history of similar diseases. The patient was diagnosed with KD-FD, owing to the manifestation of features associated with both diseases. PMID:26933407

  20. [Extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6 year-old child].

    PubMed

    de Lama Caro-Patón, G; García-Salido, A; Iglesias-Bouzas, M I; Guillén, M; Cañedo-Villaroya, E; Martínez-Romera, I; Serrano-González, A; Casado-Flores, J

    2014-11-01

    Thrombocytosis is usually a casual finding in children. Reactive or secondary thrombocytosis is the more common form, being the infections diseases the most prevalent cause of it. Regarding the number of platelets there are four degrees of thrombocytosis; in its extreme degree the number of platelets exceeds 1,000,000/mm(3). We describe a case of extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6-year-old child. He required critical care admission for diagnosis and treatment (maximum number of platelets 7,283,000/mm(3)). We review the different causes of thrombocytosis in childhood, the differential diagnosis, and the available treatments in case of extreme thrombocytosis. PMID:24315421

  1. Numerical analysis of TDS spectra under high and low flux plasma exposure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorev, P.; Buzi, L.; Bakaeva, A.; Terentyev, D.; De Temmerman, G.; Van Oost, G.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.

    2016-02-01

    A recently developed numerical model, based on the dislocation-driven nucleation of gas bubbles, is used to analyse experimental results on deuterium retention in tungsten under ITER relevant plasma exposure conditions. Focus is placed on understanding the relation between exposure temperature and flux on primary features of thermal desorption spectra: peak positions and intensities of the desorption flux. The model allows one to relate the peak positions with the size of plasma induced deuterium bubbles and envisage exposure conditions (temperature and flux) for their formation. Based on the performed analysis, dedicated experimental conditions to validate the model are proposed.

  2. Personal Breathing Zone Exposures among Hot-Mix Asphalt Paving Workers; Preliminary Analysis for Trends and Analysis of Work Practices That Resulted in the Highest Exposure Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Linda V.; Snawder, John E.; Kriech, Anthony J.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; McClean, Michael D.; Herrick, Robert F.; Blackburn, Gary R.; Olsen, Larry D.

    2015-01-01

    An exposure assessment of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) paving workers was conducted to determine which of four exposure scenarios impacted worker exposure and dose. Goals of this report are to present the personal-breathing zone (PBZ) data, discuss the impact of substituting the releasing/cleaning agent, and discuss work practices that resulted in the highest exposure concentration for each analyte. One-hundred-seven PBZ samples were collected from HMA paving workers on days when diesel oil was used as a releasing/cleaning agent. An additional 36 PBZ samples were collected on days when B-100 (100% biodiesel, containing no petroleum-derived products) was used as a substitute releasing/cleaning agent. Twenty-four PBZ samples were collected from a reference group of concrete workers, who also worked in outdoor construction but had no exposure to asphalt emissions. Background and field blank samples were also collected daily. Total particulates and the benzene soluble fraction were determined gravimetrically. Total organic matter was determined using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection and provided qualitative information about other exposure sources contributing to worker exposure besides asphalt emissions. Thirty-three individual polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were determined using GC with time-offlight mass spectrometry; results were presented as either the concentration of an individual PAC or a summation of the individual PACs containing either 2- to 3-rings or 4- to 6-rings. Samples were also screened for PACs containing 4- to 6-rings using fluorescence spectroscopy. Arithmetic means, medians, and box plots of the PBZ data were used to evaluate trends in the data. Box plots illustrating the diesel oil results were more variable than the B-100. Also, the highest diesel oil results were much higher in concentration than the highest B-100 results. An analysis of the highest exposure results and field notes revealed a probable association between

  3. Analysis of retinoids by direct exposure probe mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Papa, V M; Hupert, J; Friedman, H; Ng, P S; Robbins, E F; Mobarhan, S

    1988-10-01

    Recently, our laboratory has investigated the depletion of Vitamin A and its metabolites in experimental animals. High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure retinal oxidase activity by monitoring the conversion of retinaldehyde (RALD) to retinoic acid (ROIC). In order to obtain more information about these compounds, a Direct Exposure Probe mass spectrometric method was developed to confirm the presence of ROIC and RALD in HPLC peaks. A rapid negative ion chemical ionization (NICI) method using ammonia as reagent gas was developed to detect the presence of ROIC and RALD with picogram sensitivity. The ROIC and RALD peaks were collected from HPLC, extracted with hexane, evaporated under nitrogen and reconstituted in ethanol before placing onto a rhenium filament with current programmed from 0-1.3 A at 50 mA/sec. The instrument employed was a Finnigan 4510 operated in the NICI mode and scanned from m/z 100-650 with a source temperature of 80 C. Other parameters were electron energy 140 eV and filament current at 0.25 mA. Prominent ions were generated at m/z 284 and m/z 300 for RALD and ROIC which were subsequently monitored in the selected ion monitoring mode. In summary, we have developed a rapid retinoid identification method (2.5 minutes) which is more sensitive (pg vs ng) than HPLC and does not require elaborate sample preparation or derivitization. This method can be used as an important adjunct to HPLC enzyme studies. PMID:3242687

  4. Maternal self-efficacy and feeding practices in children aged 3-6 years

    PubMed Central

    Doaei, Saeid; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition in childhood has an important role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother’s lifestyle has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child. This paper aimed to investigate the association between mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle with feeding practices in children aged 3- 6 years. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was carried out in 30 primary schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child’s demographics. Aspects of mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle and mother’s control practices were assessed using Weight Efficacy Lifestyle (WEL) questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices questionnaire (CFPQ) respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. The role of mother’s weight efficacy in predicting child’s feeding practices was assessed using linear regression. Results: Results showed that mother’s weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices. The mothers with similar weight efficacy lifestyle applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety, environmental control, child involvement and less emotion regulation using foods. Conclusion: ‎ ‏ ‏‎ The result of the ‎study showed that maternal ‎lifestyle was associated with ‎child feeding practices.‎ PMID:27006673

  5. Wrist fracture in a 6-year-old girl after an accidental electric shock at low voltages.

    PubMed

    Peyron, P A; Cathala, P; Vannucci, C; Baccino, E

    2015-03-01

    Bone injuries related to electric shocks are usually seen with high-voltage current exposure or with additional traumas, such as falls. Few cases of fractures after electric shocks at low-voltages (with no direct blunt trauma) are reported in the literature. They result from electrically-induced tetanic muscle contractions. Most of them involve the proximal appendicular skeleton, while distal fractures of limbs are uncommon. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl who suffered local superficial burns of the hand and a distal radius buckle-type fracture after sustaining a 230-V electric shock. The accident occurred while the girl was touching with the right hand the metallic stand of a non-insulated street lamp. She felt a sudden jolt and managed to pull her hand free quickly, without falling or losing consciousness. The superficial burns of the hand were consistent with Jellinek's electric marks, while the buckle fracture of the radius was consistent with a forceful contraction of the flexor muscles of the hand. Only four cases of radius fractures resulting from accidental electric shocks at low voltages have been previously reported in the literature. All of them involved pediatric patients, suggesting that a child's vulnerability to this kind of fracture may exist. The present case is the youngest one ever described. PMID:24733506

  6. Assessing and reporting uncertainties in dietary exposure analysis: Mapping of uncertainties in a tiered approach.

    PubMed

    Kettler, Susanne; Kennedy, Marc; McNamara, Cronan; Oberdörfer, Regina; O'Mahony, Cian; Schnabel, Jürgen; Smith, Benjamin; Sprong, Corinne; Faludi, Roland; Tennant, David

    2015-08-01

    Uncertainty analysis is an important component of dietary exposure assessments in order to understand correctly the strength and limits of its results. Often, standard screening procedures are applied in a first step which results in conservative estimates. If through those screening procedures a potential exceedance of health-based guidance values is indicated, within the tiered approach more refined models are applied. However, the sources and types of uncertainties in deterministic and probabilistic models can vary or differ. A key objective of this work has been the mapping of different sources and types of uncertainties to better understand how to best use uncertainty analysis to generate more realistic comprehension of dietary exposure. In dietary exposure assessments, uncertainties can be introduced by knowledge gaps about the exposure scenario, parameter and the model itself. With this mapping, general and model-independent uncertainties have been identified and described, as well as those which can be introduced and influenced by the specific model during the tiered approach. This analysis identifies that there are general uncertainties common to point estimates (screening or deterministic methods) and probabilistic exposure assessment methods. To provide further clarity, general sources of uncertainty affecting many dietary exposure assessments should be separated from model-specific uncertainties. PMID:25890086

  7. Rating locomotive crew diesel emission exposure profiles using statistics and Bayesian Decision Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Paul; Bullock, William H

    2014-01-01

    For more than 20 years CSX Transportation (CSXT) has collected exposure measurements from locomotive engineers and conductors who are potentially exposed to diesel emissions. The database included measurements for elemental and total carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatics, aldehydes, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide. This database was statistically analyzed and summarized, and the resulting statistics and exposure profiles were compared to relevant occupational exposure limits (OELs) using both parametric and non-parametric descriptive and compliance statistics. Exposure ratings, using the American Industrial Health Association (AIHA) exposure categorization scheme, were determined using both the compliance statistics and Bayesian Decision Analysis (BDA). The statistical analysis of the elemental carbon data (a marker for diesel particulate) strongly suggests that the majority of levels in the cabs of the lead locomotives (n = 156) were less than the California guideline of 0.020 mg/m(3). The sample 95th percentile was roughly half the guideline; resulting in an AIHA exposure rating of category 2/3 (determined using BDA). The elemental carbon (EC) levels in the trailing locomotives tended to be greater than those in the lead locomotive; however, locomotive crews rarely ride in the trailing locomotive. Lead locomotive EC levels were similar to those reported by other investigators studying locomotive crew exposures and to levels measured in urban areas. Lastly, both the EC sample mean and 95%UCL were less than the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference concentration of 0.005 mg/m(3). With the exception of nitrogen dioxide, the overwhelming majority of the measurements for total carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatics, aldehydes, and combustion gases in the cabs of CSXT locomotives were either non-detects or considerably less than the working OELs for the years represented in the database. When compared to the previous American

  8. Statistical Methods and Software for the Analysis of Occupational Exposure Data with Non-detectable Values

    SciTech Connect

    Frome, EL

    2005-09-20

    Environmental exposure measurements are, in general, positive and may be subject to left censoring; i.e,. the measured value is less than a ''detection limit''. In occupational monitoring, strategies for assessing workplace exposures typically focus on the mean exposure level or the probability that any measurement exceeds a limit. Parametric methods used to determine acceptable levels of exposure, are often based on a two parameter lognormal distribution. The mean exposure level, an upper percentile, and the exceedance fraction are used to characterize exposure levels, and confidence limits are used to describe the uncertainty in these estimates. Statistical methods for random samples (without non-detects) from the lognormal distribution are well known for each of these situations. In this report, methods for estimating these quantities based on the maximum likelihood method for randomly left censored lognormal data are described and graphical methods are used to evaluate the lognormal assumption. If the lognormal model is in doubt and an alternative distribution for the exposure profile of a similar exposure group is not available, then nonparametric methods for left censored data are used. The mean exposure level, along with the upper confidence limit, is obtained using the product limit estimate, and the upper confidence limit on an upper percentile (i.e., the upper tolerance limit) is obtained using a nonparametric approach. All of these methods are well known but computational complexity has limited their use in routine data analysis with left censored data. The recent development of the R environment for statistical data analysis and graphics has greatly enhanced the availability of high-quality nonproprietary (open source) software that serves as the basis for implementing the methods in this paper.

  9. FIELD VALIDATION OF EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MODELS. VOLUME 2. ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the second of two volumes describing a series of dual tracer experiments designed to evaluate the PAL-DS model, a Gaussian diffusion model modified to take into account settling and deposition, as well as three other deposition models. In this volume, an analysis of the d...

  10. Influence of maternal xylitol consumption on mother-child transmission of mutans streptococci: 6-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Söderling, E; Isokangas, P; Pienihäkkinen, K; Tenovuo, J; Alanen, P

    2001-01-01

    Xylitol is effective as a noncariogenic or even cariostatic sugar substitute. Habitual xylitol consumption appears to select for mutans streptococci (MS) which shed easily into saliva from plaque. We have earlier shown that habitual xylitol consumption of mothers was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the probability of mother-child transmission of MS assessed at 2 years of age. The aim of the present study was to assess the children's MS counts 1 and 4 years after the maternal xylitol consumption had been discontinued. At baseline, during pregnancy, all mothers (n = 195) showed high salivary levels of MS. The mothers were randomly assigned to xylitol, fluoride (F) and chlorhexidine (CHX) groups. In the xylitol group, the mothers chewed xylitol-sweetened gum, for 21 months, starting 3 months after delivery. In the two control groups, the mothers received CHX or F varnish treatments at 6, 12 and 18 months after delivery. At the 2-year examination, 169 mother-child pairs participated. At the 3-year and 6-year examinations, there were 159 and 147 children in the study, respectively. For children's MS analyses, visible plaque was collected using toothpicks at the age of 3 and paraffin-stimulated saliva at the age of 6. The persons involved in the collection and analysis of the microbiological samples were blinded as to the study design and group. Both the plaque and salivary MS were cultured on Mitis salivarius agars containing bacitracin. In all groups, the colonization percentages increased during the follow-up. At the 3-year examination, the children's risk of having MS colonization was 2.3-fold in the F group (95% CI 1.3-4.2) compared to the xylitol group. This difference was statistically significant. Even at 6 years of age, the salivary MS levels were significantly lower in the xylitol group than in the other groups (ANOVA, p<0.001). In conclusion, the earlier demonstrated, xylitol-associated reduction in the probability of mother

  11. SURROGATE TISSUE ANALYSIS: MONITORING TOXICANT EXPOSURE AND HEALTH STATUS OF INACCESSIBLE TISSUES THROUGH THE ANALYSIS OF ACCESSIBLE TISSUES AND CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surrogate Tissue Analysis: Monitoring Toxicant Exposure And Health Status Of Inaccessible Tissues Through The Analysis Of Accessible Tissues And Cells*
    John C. Rockett1, Michael E. Burczynski 2, Albert J. Fornace, Jr.3, Paul.C. Herrmann4, Stephen A. Krawetz5, and David J. Dix1...

  12. NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS): ANALYSIS OF EXPOSURE PATHWAYS AND ROUTES FOR ARSENIC AND LEAD IN EPA REGION 5

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Phase I field study conducted in EPA Region 5 (Great Lakes Area) provides extensive exposure data on a representative sample of approximately 250 residents of the region. Associated environmental media and biomarker (blood...

  13. Radiation Exposure Effects and Shielding Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, Richard; Armendariz, Lupita (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotube materials promise to be the basis for a variety of emerging technologies with aerospace applications. Potential applications to human space flight include spacecraft shielding, hydrogen storage, structures and fixtures and nano-electronics. Appropriate risk analysis on the properties of nanotube materials is essential for future mission safety. Along with other environmental hazards, materials used in space flight encounter a hostile radiation environment for all mission profiles, from low earth orbit to interplanetary space.

  14. Selenium Exposure and Cancer Risk: an Updated Meta-analysis and Meta-regression

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xianlei; Wang, Chen; Yu, Wanqi; Fan, Wenjie; Wang, Shan; Shen, Ning; Wu, Pengcheng; Li, Xiuyang; Wang, Fudi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between selenium exposure and cancer risk. We identified 69 studies and applied meta-analysis, meta-regression and dose-response analysis to obtain available evidence. The results indicated that high selenium exposure had a protective effect on cancer risk (pooled OR = 0.78; 95%CI: 0.73–0.83). The results of linear and nonlinear dose-response analysis indicated that high serum/plasma selenium and toenail selenium had the efficacy on cancer prevention. However, we did not find a protective efficacy of selenium supplement. High selenium exposure may have different effects on specific types of cancer. It decreased the risk of breast cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, and prostate cancer, but it was not associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, and skin cancer. PMID:26786590

  15. Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on dopamine system development: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Glatt, S J; Bolaños, C A; Trksak, G H; Jackson, D

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the effects of prenatal cocaine (PCOC) exposure on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in animal models of maternal drug abuse, yet independent examinations of striatal dopamine (DA) receptors and tissue DA levels have produced equivocal results. The current meta-analysis provides a quantitative review of the literature on these topics, and analyzes potential moderators of the effects of PCOC exposure on these variables. The results indicate that the effects of PCOC exposure on striatal DA levels, D1 and D2 receptor-binding densities, and D2 receptor-binding affinity are negligible when collapsed over age, sex, species, and several other methodological variables. However, effects of PCOC exposure on some dopaminergic measures were significantly influenced by factors such as age and sex. As expected, and as suggested by the selectivity and specificity of PCOC-induced changes reported in the published literature, the direction and magnitude of differences between genders or age groups in this study were not systematic across all dependent measures. Generally, PCOC exposure was more often linked to decreases, rather than increases, in the selected dependent measures. These findings indicate that PCOC exposure produces selective alterations in striatal dopaminergic system function which do not appear under all experimental circumstances, but which may be important factors in behavioral alterations seen in selected groups after PCOC exposure. PMID:11106856

  16. Exposure Measurement Error in PM2.5 Health Effects Studies: A Pooled Analysis of Eight Personal Exposure Validation Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure measurement error is a concern in long-term PM2.5 health studies using ambient concentrations as exposures. We assessed error magnitude by estimating calibration coefficients as the association between personal PM2.5 exposures from validation studies and typ...

  17. Meta-analysis of residential exposure to radon gas and lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Pavia, Maria; Bianco, Aida; Pileggi, Claudia; Angelillo, Italo F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relation between residential exposure to radon and lung cancer. METHODS: A literature search was performed using Medline and other sources. The quality of studies was assessed. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of lung cancer among categories of levels of exposure to radon were extracted. For each study, a weighted log-linear regression analysis of the adjusted odds ratios was performed according to radon concentration. The random effect model was used to combine values from single studies. Separate meta-analyses were performed on results from studies grouped with similar characteristics or with quality scores above or equal to the median. FINDINGS: Seventeen case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quality scoring for individual studies ranged from 0.45 to 0.77 (median, 0.64). Meta-analysis based on exposure at 150 Bq/m3 gave a pooled odds ratio estimate of 1.24 (95% CI, 1.11-1.38), which indicated a potential effect of residential exposure to radon on the risk of lung cancer. Pooled estimates of fitted odds ratios at several levels of randon exposure were all significantly different from unity--ranging from 1.07 at 50 Bq/m3 to 1.43 at 250 Bq/m3. No remarkable differences from the baseline analysis were found for odds ratios from sensitivity analyses of studies in which > 75% of eligible cases were recruited (1.12, 1.00-1.25) and studies that included only women (1.29, 1.04-1.60). CONCLUSION: Although no definitive conclusions may be drawn, our results suggest a dose-response relation between residential exposure to radon and the risk of lung cancer. They support the need to develop strategies to reduce human exposure to radon. PMID:14758433

  18. Dietary Quality and 6-Year Anthropometric Changes in a Sample of French Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Assmann, Karen E.; Lassale, Camille; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the role of dietary quality in the progression of adiposity in populations already affected by overweight or obesity is crucial for the guidance of secondary prevention strategies. Objective To examine the association of diet quality, as reflected by the French Nutrition and Health Programme (Programme National Nutrition Santé, PNNS) – Guideline Score (GS), with 6-year-changes in weight and waist circumference. Design and Methods Subjects were 1029 male and 450 female participants of the SUplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort (1994–2002) with anthropometric variables at baseline and follow-up and available data for estimating diet quality at baseline. We employed analysis of variance and covariance models to investigate anthropometric changes (% of the initial value) by categories of the PNNS-GS, which contains both dietary components and a physical activity component, and of a modified score (mPNNS-GS) containing dietary components only. Results In men, a low (<6 points) PNNS-GS was associated with greater 6-year weight gain (adjusted mean: 3.63% [95% confidence interval: 2.87%; 4.39%]) as compared to a high (≥9 points) PNNS-GS (2.10% [1.39%; 2.81%]); p = 0.01. Results for the mPNNS-GS were very similar. In women, no associations between diet scores and weight change were observed. No significant relation between dietary quality and change in waist circumference was present among either men or women. Conclusions These results support a beneficial role of high dietary quality – as characterized by good adherence to official French nutritional guidelines – in secondary obesity prevention, among men. PMID:24516542

  19. Assessing population exposure for landslide risk analysis using dasymetric cartography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ricardo A. C.; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Zezere, Jose L.

    2015-04-01

    Exposed Population is a major topic that needs to be taken into account in a full landslide risk analysis. Usually, risk analysis is based on an accounting of inhabitants number or inhabitants density, applied over statistical or administrative terrain units, such as NUTS or parishes. However, this kind of approach may skew the obtained results underestimating the importance of population, mainly in territorial units with predominance of rural occupation. Furthermore, the landslide susceptibility scores calculated for each terrain unit are frequently more detailed and accurate than the location of the exposed population inside each territorial unit based on Census data. These drawbacks are not the ideal setting when landslide risk analysis is performed for urban management and emergency planning. Dasymetric cartography, which uses a parameter or set of parameters to restrict the spatial distribution of a particular phenomenon, is a methodology that may help to enhance the resolution of Census data and therefore to give a more realistic representation of the population distribution. Therefore, this work aims to map and to compare the population distribution based on a traditional approach (population per administrative terrain units) and based on dasymetric cartography (population by building). The study is developed in the Region North of Lisbon using 2011 population data and following three main steps: i) the landslide susceptibility assessment based on statistical models independently validated; ii) the evaluation of population distribution (absolute and density) for different administrative territorial units (Parishes and BGRI - the basic statistical unit in the Portuguese Census); and iii) the dasymetric population's cartography based on building areal weighting. Preliminary results show that in sparsely populated administrative units, population density differs more than two times depending on the application of the traditional approach or the dasymetric

  20. Precocious puberty presenting with menarche at the age of 6 years - a case report.

    PubMed

    Banu, J; Sultana, P; Chowdhury, M A

    2014-07-01

    Precocious puberty or central precocious puberty can be very confusing and truly unexpected. After all who know children could go into puberty too early? There is treatment for this condition. Present report has stated that central precocious puberty is becoming more frequent. Many factors may contribute to children who exhibit signs of early precocious puberty. Here we are reporting a case of premature menarche of 6 years old girl who initially presented with continuous per vaginal bleeding for 3 months as a onset of menarche later on after clinical examination and investigations she was diagnosed a precocious puberty due to juvenile premature hypothyroidism. After the successful treatment with thyroxin, level of TSH gradually was decreased and subsequently normal. There after per vaginal bleeding stopped and clinically improved. PMID:25178615

  1. Phthiriasis palpebrarum misdiagnosed as allergic blepharoconjunctivitis in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jun Wen; Li, Li; Luo, Da Wei

    2014-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an infestation of the eyelashes caused by the louse Pthirus pubis (Linnaeus, 1758). We report a case of phthiriasis palpebrarum in a 6-year-old girl, which was initially misdiagnosed as allergic blepharoconjunctivitis. Parasites and their nits were found adhering to the eyelashes and eyelids of her right eye as well as scalp hairs. No abnormality was found in the left eye. The histopathology exam revealed the presence of adults and eggs of Pthirus pubis. We mechanically removed all the eyelashes of the right eye at their base, with lice and nits. The scalp was shaved and washed with phenothrin shampoo. No recurrence was found during 3 months of follow-up. Removal of the eyelashes, cutting of scalp hairs, and phenothrin shampoo may be effective in treating phthiriasis palpebrarum. In cases of blepharoconjunctivitis, eyelids and eyelashes should be carefully examined by slit lamp to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:24909484

  2. Psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma of mandible in a 6-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, B S; Purohit, Sharad; Kiran, Sheetal; Mahita, V Naga

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile ossifying fibroma (JOF) is a rare fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw occurs at the early age of onset frequently under 15 years with a propensity to recur. It appears as a unilobulated/multilobulated lesion at an early stage followed by radiopaque appearance surrounded by radiolucent rimming at advanced stages. The psammomatous type of JOF (PsJOF) principally involves the bones of the orbit and paranasal sinuses. However in some cases, maxilla or rarely the mandible may be pretentious. Here, we report a challenging case of PsJOF in a 6-year-old child with a complaint of swelling imitating a cystic lesion in left back region of the lower jaw for 2 months. The authors propose that a careful examination and correlations of clinical, radiological, and histopathological features are essential to arrive at correct diagnosis and play a vital role in management of such patients. PMID:27134454

  3. Psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma of mandible in a 6-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, B. S.; Purohit, Sharad; Kiran, Sheetal; Mahita, V. Naga

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile ossifying fibroma (JOF) is a rare fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw occurs at the early age of onset frequently under 15 years with a propensity to recur. It appears as a unilobulated/multilobulated lesion at an early stage followed by radiopaque appearance surrounded by radiolucent rimming at advanced stages. The psammomatous type of JOF (PsJOF) principally involves the bones of the orbit and paranasal sinuses. However in some cases, maxilla or rarely the mandible may be pretentious. Here, we report a challenging case of PsJOF in a 6-year-old child with a complaint of swelling imitating a cystic lesion in left back region of the lower jaw for 2 months. The authors propose that a careful examination and correlations of clinical, radiological, and histopathological features are essential to arrive at correct diagnosis and play a vital role in management of such patients. PMID:27134454

  4. Trajectories of maternal depression and offspring psychopathology at 6 years: 2004 Pelotas cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Joseph; Cooper, Peter J.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Barros, Fernando C.; Santos, Iná S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have addressed the course and severity of maternal depression and its effects on child psychiatric disorders from a longitudinal perspective. This study aimed to identify longitudinal patterns of maternal depression and to evaluate whether distinct depression trajectories predict particular psychiatric disorders in offspring. Methods Cohort of 4231 births followed-up in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months and 6 years after delivery. Psychiatric disorders in 6-year-old children were evaluated through the development and well-being assessment (DAWBA) instrument. Trajectories of maternal depression were calculated using a group-based modelling approach. Results We identified five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: a “low” trajectory (34.8%), a “moderate low” (40.9%), a “increasing” (9.0%), a “decreasing” (9.9%), and a “high-chronic” trajectory (5.4%). The probability of children having any psychiatric disorder, as well as both internalizing and externalizing problems, increased as we moved from the “low” to the “high-chronic” trajectory. These differences were not explained by maternal and child characteristics examined in multivariate analyses. Limitations Data on maternal depression at 3-months was available on only a sub-sample. In addition, we had to rely on maternal report of child’s behavior alone. Conclusions The study revealed an additive effect on child outcome of maternal depression over time. We identified a group of mothers with chronic and severe symptoms of depression throughout the first six years of the child life and for this group child psychiatric outcome was particularly compromised. PMID:25553403

  5. Changes in caries experience among 6-year-olds in Blekinge, Sweden between 1994 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Holst, Annalena; Braune, Karin; Kjellberg, Maria

    2004-01-01

    For 6-year-old children in the County of Blekinge, the goal was that > 65 percent should have dmft = 0 in the year 2000. To formulate this goal a study on prevalence and distribution of caries in 6-year-old children was performed in 1994. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the dental health goal for the year 2000 was achieved and compare clinical data regarding oral status in children in 1994 and in 2000. The material comprised a random sample of 225 children. The studyfrom year 1994, which included 213 children, was repeated. A clinical investigation was performed and completed with bite-wing radiographs on individual indication, whenever the proximal surfaces could not be inspected clinically due to close and broad contact. In addition, the parents were asked questions about toothbrushing and use of fluoride tablets. 53 percent of the children showed healthy teeth with no initial caries lesions or restorations compared to 35 percent in 1994. The pattern of dental health was still very skewed among the children. The children with nine or more decayed surfaces increased from 2 percent in 1994 to almost 4 percent in 2000. The number of fissure sealings performed had increased between 1994 and 2000 by almost 50 percent in both primary molars and first permanent molars. However,the use of fluoride tablets had decreased from 20 percent in 1994 to 7 percent of the children in 2000. The data showed a decline in prevalence of dmf teeth and an increase in the percent of caries-free children but the difference was not significant on the 5% level. However, as 47% of the children were in need of restorative treatment, our dental health goal was not achieved. We also recommend that our preventive program with focus on primary prevention and individual risk assessment should also be targeted at the whole population of pre-school children and their parents. PMID:15506690

  6. The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Mark A.; Yershova, Kseniya; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Paykina, Natalya; Yenokyan, Gayane; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; McCracken, James T.; Kollins, Scott H.; Murray, Desiree W.; Wigal, Sharon; Kastelic, Elizabeth; McGough, James J.; dosReis, Susan; Bauzó-Rosario, Audrey; Stehli, Annamarie; Posner, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity and diagnosis from ages 3–5 to 9–12 years during a 6-year follow-up after the original Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method 207 participants (75% male) from the original PATS, assessed at Baseline (mean age 4.4 years, when all met criteria for ADHD) and 3-months later (prior to medication treatment), were re-evaluated in three follow-up assessment visits (Year 3, mean age 7.4 years; Year 4, 8.3 years and Year 6, 10.4 years). Parents and teachers rated symptom severity and clinicians established psychiatric diagnoses. Analyses examined longitudinal changes in symptom severity and ADHD diagnosis. Results Parent- and teacher-rated symptom severity decreased from Baseline to Year 3 but remained relatively stable and in the moderate-to-severe clinical range through Year 6. Girls showed generally steeper decreases in symptom T-scores. At Year 6, 89% (160/180) of remaining participants met ADHD symptom and impairment diagnostic criteria. Comorbidity of oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder was associated with a 30% higher risk of having an ADHD diagnosis at Year 6 in the multiple logistic model. Medication status during follow-up, on vs. off, did not predict symptom severity change from Year 3 to Year 6 after adjustment for other variables. Conclusions ADHD in preschoolers is a relatively stable diagnosis over a 6-year period. The course is generally chronic, with high symptom severity and impairment, in very young children with moderate-to-severe ADHD, despite treatment with medication. Development of more effective ADHD intervention strategies is needed for this age group. PMID:23452683

  7. Breastfeeding and Later Psychosocial Development of Children at 6 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruowei; Perrine, Cria G.; Schieve, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of breastfeeding duration with psychosocial development at 6 years of age. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2005–2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II and its 2012 Year 6 Follow-Up (N = 1442). Our breastfeeding duration variable combined overall and exclusive breastfeeding reported during infancy (never breastfed, breastfed <6 months, breastfed ≥6 months + exclusive breastfeeding <3 months, and breastfed ≥6 months + exclusive breastfeeding ≥3 months). Maternal responses to the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were used to create our child psychosocial outcome domains (emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, prosocial behavior, and total difficulties). Separate multivariable logistic regression models controlling for maternal sociodemographic characteristics, maternal mental health, and child characteristics were used to assess the likelihood of having difficulties on the 6 domains based on breastfeeding duration. RESULTS: Compared with children who were never breastfed, those who were breastfed for ≥6 months and exclusively breastfed for ≥3 months had decreased odds of difficulties with emotional symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27–0.99), conduct problems (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.10–0.54), and total difficulties (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18–0.85) before adjustment. These associations were no longer significant after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Although in our unadjusted analyses we observed significant associations between breastfeeding duration and later psychosocial development, including decreased odds of emotional, conduct, and total difficulties at 6 years of age, these findings were no longer detectable after adjusting for the many potential confounding factors that play a role in psychosocial development. PMID:25183753

  8. Changes in BMI over 6 years: the role of demographic and neighborhood characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Berry, TR; Spence, JC; Blanchard, C; Cutumisu, N; Edwards, J; Nykiforuk, C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To undertake a 6-year longitudinal investigation of the relationship between the built environment (perceived and objectively measured) and change in body mass index (BMI). Specifically, this research examined whether change in BMI was predicted by objectively measured neighborhood walkability and socioeconomic status (SES), and perceived neighborhood characteristics (for example, crime, traffic and interesting things to look at) in addition to other factors such as age, gender, education, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption and smoking. Design Longitudinal study Subjects 500 adults who provided complete data in 2002 and 2008 and who did not move over the course of the study (47.8% female; age in 2002: 18–90 years). Measurements Telephone surveys in 2002 and 2008 measuring perceptions of their neighborhood environment and demographic factors. Objective measures of neighborhood characteristics were calculated using census data and geographical information systems in 2006. Results Age, neighborhood SES and perceived traffic were significantly related to increased BMI over the 6 years. Younger participants and those in lower SES neighborhoods were more likely to have increased BMI. Agreement with the statement that traffic made it difficult to walk also predicted increased BMI. Conclusion This study adds to the literature to show that BMI increased in low SES neighborhoods. Although more research is needed to fully understand how neighborhood SES contributes to obesity, it is without question that individuals in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods face more barriers to health than their wealthier counterparts. This study also calls into question the relationship between walkability and changes in BMI and emphasizes the necessity of longitudinal data rather than relying on cross-sectional research. PMID:20157324

  9. Children's Judgments of Emotion from Conflicting Cues in Speech: Why 6-Year-Olds Are So Inflexible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxer, Matthew; Morton, J. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Six-year-old children can judge a speaker's feelings either from content or paralanguage but have difficulty switching the basis of their judgments when these cues conflict. This inflexibility may relate to a lexical bias in 6-year-olds' judgments. Two experiments tested this claim. In Experiment 1, 6-year-olds (n = 40) were as inflexible when…

  10. Hair analysis as an indicator of exposure to uranium.

    PubMed

    Kehagia, K; Bratakos, S; Kolovou, M; Potiriadis, C

    2011-03-01

    Medical examinations performed on four monks of a monastery in the northern Greece revealed heavy metal contamination. Hair analysis, performed by a toxicological laboratory abroad, indicated, among other, the presence of uranium. The uranium concentrations determined in a laboratory of "Elemental Hair Analysis' indicated a uranium level that was about five times the maximum value of the reference range, which has been adopted by the measuring laboratory. After these diagnostic findings, on request of 10 monks, uranium determination in hair and urine samples was performed by means of alpha spectrometry in GAEC's laboratory. The measured uranium concentrations in hair varied from 0.15 to 2.10 mBq g(-1), which correspond to 12.1 and 170 ng g(-1), respectively. The uranium concentrations in urine were between 41 and 174 ng d(-1). For comparison purposes, urine and non-dyed hair samples from the staff of the laboratory were analysed. Because one of the major sources of uranium intake is through drinking water, water samples were also analysed. The mean value of the uranium concentration in the two drinking water samples collected from the residence area was found to be 2.35 μg l(-1). PMID:21044996

  11. Exposure-response analysis and risk assessment for lung cancer in relationship to silica exposure: a 44-year cohort study of 34,018 workers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuewei; Steenland, Kyle; Rong, Yi; Hnizdo, Eva; Huang, Xiji; Zhang, Hai; Shi, Tingming; Sun, Yi; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong

    2013-11-01

    Crystalline silica has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France); however, few previous studies have provided quantitative data on silica exposure, silicosis, and/or smoking. We investigated a cohort in China (in 1960-2003) of 34,018 workers without exposure to carcinogenic confounders. Cumulative silica exposure was estimated by linking a job-exposure matrix to work history. Cox proportional hazards model was used to conduct exposure-response analysis and risk assessment. During a mean 34.5-year follow-up, 546 lung cancer deaths were identified. Categorical analyses by quartiles of cumulative silica exposure (using a 25-year lag) yielded hazard ratios of 1.26, 1.54, 1.68, and 1.70, respectively, compared with the unexposed group. Monotonic exposure-response trends were observed among nonsilicotics (P for trend < 0.001). Analyses using splines showed similar trends. The joint effect of silica and smoking was more than additive and close to multiplicative. For workers exposed from ages 20 to 65 years at 0.1 mg/m(3) of silica exposure, the estimated excess lifetime risk (through age 75 years) was 0.51%. These findings confirm silica as a human carcinogen and suggest that current exposure limits in many countries might be insufficient to protect workers from lung cancer. They also indicate that smoking cessation could help reduce lung cancer risk for silica-exposed individuals. PMID:24043436

  12. Exposure-Response Analysis and Risk Assessment for Lung Cancer in Relationship to Silica Exposure: A 44-Year Cohort Study of 34,018 Workers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuewei; Steenland, Kyle; Rong, Yi; Hnizdo, Eva; Huang, Xiji; Zhang, Hai; Shi, Tingming; Sun, Yi; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    Crystalline silica has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France); however, few previous studies have provided quantitative data on silica exposure, silicosis, and/or smoking. We investigated a cohort in China (in 1960–2003) of 34,018 workers without exposure to carcinogenic confounders. Cumulative silica exposure was estimated by linking a job-exposure matrix to work history. Cox proportional hazards model was used to conduct exposure-response analysis and risk assessment. During a mean 34.5-year follow-up, 546 lung cancer deaths were identified. Categorical analyses by quartiles of cumulative silica exposure (using a 25-year lag) yielded hazard ratios of 1.26, 1.54, 1.68, and 1.70, respectively, compared with the unexposed group. Monotonic exposure-response trends were observed among nonsilicotics (P for trend < 0.001). Analyses using splines showed similar trends. The joint effect of silica and smoking was more than additive and close to multiplicative. For workers exposed from ages 20 to 65 years at 0.1 mg/m3 of silica exposure, the estimated excess lifetime risk (through age 75 years) was 0.51%. These findings confirm silica as a human carcinogen and suggest that current exposure limits in many countries might be insufficient to protect workers from lung cancer. They also indicate that smoking cessation could help reduce lung cancer risk for silica-exposed individuals. PMID:24043436

  13. Tracking personal exposure to particulate diesel exhaust in a diesel freight terminal using organic tracer analysis

    PubMed Central

    SHEESLEY, REBECCA J.; SCHAUER, JAMES J.; GARSHICK, ERIC; LADEN, FRANCINE; SMITH, THOMAS J.; BLICHARZ, ANDREW P.; DEMINTER, JEFFREY T.

    2008-01-01

    Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the work-related exposure to carbonaceous fine PM in a freight terminal. The data were used to test the proposed personal exposure model in this occupational setting: Personal exposure=urban background+work site background+personal activity To accurately assess the impact of PM emission sources, particularly motor vehicle exhaust, and organic elemental carbon (OCEC) analysis and nonpolar organic molecular marker analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) were conducted on all of the PM samples. EC has been used as a tracer for diesel exhaust in urban areas, however, the emission profile for diesel exhaust is dependent upon the operating conditions of the vehicle and can vary considerably within a fleet. Hopanes, steranes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes were measured by TD-GCMS. Hopanes are source-specific organic molecular markers for lubricating oil present in motor vehicle exhaust. The concentrations of OC, EC and the organic tracers were averaged to obtain average profiles to assess differences in the personal, worksite area and urban background samples, and were also correlated individually by sample time to evaluate the exposure model presented above. Finally, a chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the motor vehicle and cigarette-smoke components of the measured OC and EC for the average personal exposure, worksite area and urban background samples. PMID:18322451

  14. Occupational exposure to pesticides and prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Ofir Guiron, Talia; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies on exposure to pesticides and risk of prostate cancer (PC) provide inconsistent results. We aimed to explore various potential sources of heterogeneity not previously assessed and to derive updated risk estimates from homogenous studies. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases for case-control and cohort studies published from 1985 to April 2014. We assessed the quality of the articles using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled estimates were calculated using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was explored using subset analyses and metaregression. Fifty-two studies were included in the review and 25 in the meta-analysis. No association was found between low exposure to pesticides and PC, but association was significant for high exposure, pooled OR 1.33 (1.02 to 1.63), I(2)=44.8%, p=0.024. Heterogeneity was explained by a number of variables including method used to assess exposure. Pooled OR was weak and non-significant for studies measuring serum pesticide level, 1.12 (0.74 to 1.50), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.966. For studies applying self-reporting of exposure, pooled estimate was 1.34 (0.91 to 1.77), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.493, while a high significant association was detected for grouped exposure assessment, 2.24 (1.36 to 3.11), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.955. In spite of a weak significant association detected when pooling ORs for high occupational exposure to pesticides, the magnitude of the association was related to the method of exposure assessment used by the original studies. A family history-pesticide exposure interaction was also observed for a number of pesticides. PMID:26644457

  15. Infant emotional distress, maternal restriction at a home meal, and child BMI gain through age 6years in the Colorado Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Hittner, James B; Johnson, Cassandra; Tripicchio, Gina; Faith, Myles S

    2016-04-01

    Infant temperament and parental feeding practices may be risk factors for childhood obesity, however most studies have relied upon parent-report assessments. We tested whether infant emotional distress and maternal restrictive feeding at 12-months of age, assessed observationally at a home feeding interaction, predicted child BMI through age 6years. We conducted a prospective observational study of 86 children (34 girls and 52 boys, from 55 adoptive and 31 non-adoptive families) enrolled in the Colorado Adoption Project. Mother-infant feeding interactions were video-recorded during a home snack or meal at year 1, and child anthropometrics (length or height, and weight) were assessed at years 1 through 6. The main outcome measures were child weight-for-length at year 1 and body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2)) at years 2-6. Results of generalized linear models indicated that greater infant emotional distress at 12-months predicted greater increases in child weight status through age 6years, B=0.62 and odds ratio (OR)=1.87. In separate analyses, restrictive feeding interacted with child sex in predicting weight status trajectories (p=.012). Male infants whose mothers displayed any compared to no restriction at year 1 showed a downward BMI trajectory from 2 to 6years; for female infants, exposure to any compared to no restriction prompts predicted increasing BMI from 4 to 6years. In sum, early obesity prevention strategies should pay greater attention to infant temperament, especially distress and negative affect, and how parents respond to such cues. Additionally, 'responsive feeding' strategies that provide an alternative to restriction warrant greater research during infancy. PMID:26872074

  16. Association between pesticide exposure and risk of kidney cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Hu, Yingfang; Liang, Zhen; Liu, Ben; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the correlation between pesticide exposure and kidney cancer. We conducted a systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Medline (updated to March 1, 2015) to identify all relevant studies. References of the retrieved articles were also identified. Fixed- or random-effect models were used to summarize the estimates of relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval for the association between exposure of pesticide and risk of kidney cancer. The pooled RR estimate indicated that pesticide exposure might have an elevated risk for kidney cancer (RR =1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.19). In a subgroup analysis of high quality articles, we detected that pesticide exposure is a significant risk factor for kidney cancer in a subgroup analysis of case-control studies, (Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale score >6) (RR =1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.51). North America studies, odds ratio studies, and studies with effect estimate adjusted for more than two confounder studies. In conclusion, pesticide exposure may be a risk factor for kidney cancer. PMID:27418833

  17. Occupational trichloroethylene exposure and non‐Hodgkin's lymphoma: a meta‐analysis and review

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, J H; Kelsh, M A; Mink, P J; Alexander, D D; Kalmes, R M; Weingart, M; Yost, L; Goodman, M

    2006-01-01

    Methods Meta‐analysis and review of 14 occupational cohort and four case‐control studies of workers exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) to investigate the relation between TCE exposure and the risk of non‐Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Studies were selected and categorised based on a priori criteria, and results from random effects meta‐analyses are presented. Results The summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) for the group of cohort studies that had more detailed information on TCE exposure was 1.29 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.66) for the total cohort and 1.59 (95% CI 1.21 to 2.08) for the seven studies that identified a specific TCE exposed sub‐cohort. SRREs for three studies with cumulative exposure information were 1.8 (95% CI 0.62 to 5.26) for the lowest exposure category and 1.41 (95% CI 0.61 to 3.23) for the highest category. Comparison of SRREs by levels of TCE exposure did not indicate exposure‐response trends. The remaining cohort studies that identified TCE exposure but lacked detailed exposure information had an SRRE of 0.843 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.98). Case‐control studies had an SRRE of 1.39 (95% CI 0.62 to 3.10). Statistically significant findings for the Group 1 studies were driven by the results from the subgroup of multiple industry cohort studies (conducted in Europe) (SRRE = 1.86; 95% CI 1.27 to 2.71). The SRRE for single industry cohort studies was not significantly elevated (SRRE = 1.25; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.79). Conclusions Interpretation of overall findings is hampered by variability in results across the Group 1 studies, limited exposure assessments, lack of evidence of exposure response trends, lack of supportive information from toxicological and mechanistic data, and absence of consistent findings in epidemiologic studies of exposure and NHL. Although a modest positive association was found in the TCE sub‐cohort analysis, a finding attributable to studies that included workers from multiple industries, there is insufficient evidence to

  18. Analysis of finite dose dermal absorption data: Implications for dermal exposure assessment

    PubMed Central

    Frasch, H Frederick; Dotson, G Scott; Bunge, Annette L; Chen, Chen-Peng; Cherrie, John W; Kasting, Gerald B; Kissel, John C; Sahmel, Jennifer; Semple, Sean; Wilkinson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    A common dermal exposure assessment strategy estimates the systemic uptake of chemical in contact with skin using the fixed fractional absorption approach: the dermal absorbed dose is estimated as the product of exposure and the fraction of applied chemical that is absorbed, assumed constant for a given chemical. Despite the prominence of this approach there is little guidance regarding the evaluation of experiments from which fractional absorption data are measured. An analysis of these experiments is presented herein, and limitations to the fixed fractional absorption approach are discussed. The analysis provides a set of simple algebraic expressions that may be used in the evaluation of finite dose dermal absorption experiments, affording a more data-driven approach to dermal exposure assessment. Case studies are presented that demonstrate the application of these tools to the assessment of dermal absorption data. PMID:23715085

  19. Personal Exposure to Mixtures of Volatile Organic Compounds: Modeling and Further Analysis of the RIOPA Data

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Su, Feng-Chiao; Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Jia, Chunrong

    2015-01-01

    known to affect VOC exposures, many personal, environmental, and socioeconomic determinants remain to be identified, and the significance and applicability of the determinants reported in the literature are uncertain. To help answer these unresolved questions and overcome limitations of previous analyses, this project used several novel and powerful statistical modeling and analysis techniques and two large data sets. The overall objectives of this project were (1) to identify and characterize exposure distributions (including extreme values), (2) evaluate mixtures (including dependencies), and (3) identify determinants of VOC exposure. METHODS VOC data were drawn from two large data sets: the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study (1999–2001) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; 1999–2000). The RIOPA study used a convenience sample to collect outdoor, indoor, and personal exposure measurements in three cities (Elizabeth, NJ; Houston, TX; Los Angeles, CA). In each city, approximately 100 households with adults and children who did not smoke were sampled twice for 18 VOCs. In addition, information about 500 variables associated with exposure was collected. The NHANES used a nationally representative sample and included personal VOC measurements for 851 participants. NHANES sampled 10 VOCs in common with RIOPA. Both studies used similar sampling methods and study periods. Specific Aim 1 To estimate and model extreme value exposures, extreme value distribution models were fitted to the top 10% and 5% of VOC exposures. Health risks were estimated for individual VOCs and for three VOC mixtures. Simulated extreme value data sets, generated for each VOC and for fitted extreme value and lognormal distributions, were compared with measured concentrations (RIOPA observations) to evaluate each model’s goodness of fit. Mixture distributions were fitted with the conventional finite mixture of normal distributions and the

  20. Biomonitoring of concurrent mycotoxin exposure among adults in Sweden through urinary multi-biomarker analysis.

    PubMed

    Wallin, S; Gambacorta, L; Kotova, N; Lemming, E Warensjö; Nälsén, C; Solfrizzo, M; Olsen, M

    2015-09-01

    Mycotoxin producing moulds may contaminate numerous agricultural commodities either before harvest or during storage. A varied diet consisting of different foods may therefore be contaminated with a range of mycotoxins. The aim of the present study was to study concurrent exposure to mycotoxins through urinary multi-biomarker analysis, as well as its possible associations with the diet. Urinary samples from 252 adults, participating in the Swedish national dietary survey Riksmaten 2010-11, were collected together with a 4-day diet record. Concurrent mycotoxin exposure was studied using a multi-biomarker LC-MS/MS method. The results revealed that exposure to mycotoxins is common and concurrent exposure to more than one toxin was found in 69% of the study population. However, when comparing the number of toxins detected with the reported consumption data it was difficult to distinguish food patterns which would indicate an increased risk of exposure to many mycotoxins simultaneously. This is the first study to investigate concurrent mycotoxin exposure and urinary levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), nivalenol (NIV), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), α-zearalenol (α-ZOL), β-zearalenol (β-ZOL) and de-epoxydeoxynivalenol (DOM-1) among adults in Sweden. PMID:26070503

  1. An overview of new insights from 6 years of salinity data from SMOS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, R.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of salt held in surface seawater are becoming ever-more important for oceanographers and climatologists to gain a deeper understanding of ocean circulation and Earth's water cycle. ESA's SMOS mission is proving essential for this aim. Launched in 2009, SMOS has provided the longest continuous record (now ~6 years) of sea-surface salinity measurements from space. The salinity of surface seawater is controlled largely by the balance between evaporation and precipitation, but freshwater from rivers and the freezing and melting of ice also cause changes in concentrations. Along with temperature, salinity drives ocean circulation - the thermohaline circulation - which, in turn, plays a key role in the global climate. With a wealth of salinity data from SMOS now in hand complemented by measurements from the NASA-CONAE Aquarius satellite, which uses a different measuring technique. In this talk we shall provide an overview of how the SMOS mission - now celebrating 6 years in orbit - is providing detailed global measurements of SSS. An ensemble of key ocean processes for climate and biochemistry can now be determined and monitored for the first time from space : the detailed salinity structure of tropical instability waves along the equator and the salt exchanged across major oceanic current fronts, the occurrences of large-scale salinity anomalies in the Pacific and Indian oceans related to important climate indexes are also well-evidenced in the six year-long data. In addition, the dispersal of freshwater into the ocean from the major large tropical rivers (Amazon, Orinoco and Congo), their impact on tropical cyclone (TC) intensification and the oceanic imprints of the intense rainfall in the ITCZ and under TC can now be regularly monitored to better understand the variability of the oceanic part of the global water cycle. We will present how SMOS data, along with concurrent in situ Argo ocean-profile data, other satellite observations of sea

  2. EXPERIENCES WITH USING PROBABILISTIC EXPOSURE ANALYSIS METHODS IN THE U.S. EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade various Offices and Programs within the U.S. EPA have either initiated or increased the development and application of probabilistic exposure analysis models. These models have been applied to a broad range of research or regulatory problems in EPA, such as e...

  3. Spatial Exposure Analysis for Threatened and Endangered Species from Changing Pesticide Use Pattern in Southern Georgia

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent decades, pesticide use patterns and crop distributions have changed; however, because there has not been a significant increase in usage disclosures, it is difficult to estimate the changes in potential exposure zones, this analysis focuses on the intersection of agricu...

  4. CASE STUDIES AND MODEL TESTING OF THE METALS EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (MEXAMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metals Exposure Analysis Modeling System (MEXAMS), linking a complex speciation model with an aquatic transport/fate model, should help discriminate between the fraction of metal that is dissolved and in bioavailable form and the fraction that is complexed and rendered relati...

  5. GENOMIC AND PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF SURROGATE TISSUES FOR ASSESSING TOXIC EXPOSURES AND DISEASE STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic and Proteomic Analysis of Surrogate Tissues for Assessing Toxic Exposures and Disease States
    David J. Dix and John C. Rockett
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, USEPA, ...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis N Appendix N TO Part 25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. N Appendix N TO Part 25—Fuel Tank...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis N Appendix N TO Part 25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. N Appendix N TO Part 25—Fuel Tank...

  8. A Meta-Analysis Summarizing the Effects of Pornography II: Aggression after Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines by meta-analysis the effect that exposure to pornography produces on aggressive behavior under laboratory conditions considering a variety of possible moderating conditions. Demonstrates a homogeneous set of results showing that pictorial nudity reduces subsequent violent behavior, but that depictions of nonviolent sexual behavior and…

  9. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF SURROGATE TISSUES FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES AND FUTURE DISEASE STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic Analysis of Surrogate Tissues for Assessing Environmental Exposures and Future Disease States

    John C. Rockett, Chad R. Blystone, Amber K. Goetz, Rachel N. Murrell, Hongzu Ren, Judith E. Schmid, Jessica Stapelfeldt, Lillian F. Strader, Kary E. Thompson, Douglas B. T...

  10. Feeling Validated versus Being Correct: A Meta-Analysis of Selective Exposure to Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, William; Albarracin, Dolores; Eagly, Alice H.; Brechan, Inge; Lindberg, Matthew J.; Merrill, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analysis assessed whether exposure to information is guided by defense or accuracy motives. The studies examined information preferences in relation to attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors in situations that provided choices between congenial information, which supported participants' pre-existing attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors, and…

  11. Design and Evaluation of a Breath Analysis System for Occupational Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Soldat, Kelvin L.; Thrall, Karla D.

    2001-06-01

    Exposure assessment is an integral part of industrial hygiene and occupational health. To ensure the health and safety of workers, integrated industrial hygiene methodologies often include biological monitoring strategies. Exhaled breath is an ideal matrix for measuring volatile biomarkers, particularly since the non-invasive collection of breath may improve volunteer participation. A real-time, field-portable system was developed to analyze undiluted exhaled air from experimental animals and humans. The system combines (1) an ion-trap mass spectrometer capable of atmospheric sampling; (2) a breath interface for continual analysis of the exhaled breath stream; (3) chemical dosimeters that are analyzed in the field/workplace; and (4) physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to estimate total exposure and internal target tissue dosimetry. The intent of this development was to provide new instrumentation to evaluate volatile chemical exposures as part of a daily monitoring pro gram. For example, the system was designed to monitor a worker every time they enter and leave a work environment - a vast improvement over current 8-hr integrated monitoring strategies. To evaluate the system in actual work environments, field tests were conducted using volunteers providing exhaled breath samples before and after each specific job task. In these field studies, several volunteers had post-task breath levels higher than pre-task levels. Compared to the breath analysis findings, chemical dosimeters underpredicted exposures, particularly for longer sampling intervals where the volume of air sampled may have diluted exposures. The results of these field studies illustrate the utility of monitoring workers for exposures at numerous times throughout the day, particularly when job-specific tasks may indicate a potential for exposure.

  12. Tracking personal exposure to particulate diesel exhaust in a diesel freight terminal using organic tracer analysis.

    PubMed

    Sheesley, Rebecca J; Schauer, James J; Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Smith, Thomas J; Blicharz, Andrew P; Deminter, Jeffrey T

    2009-02-01

    Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the work-related exposure to carbonaceous fine PM in a freight terminal. The data were used to test the proposed personal exposure model in this occupational setting: To accurately assess the impact of PM emission sources, particularly motor vehicle exhaust, and organic elemental carbon (OCEC) analysis and nonpolar organic molecular marker analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) were conducted on all of the PM samples. EC has been used as a tracer for diesel exhaust in urban areas, however, the emission profile for diesel exhaust is dependent upon the operating conditions of the vehicle and can vary considerably within a fleet. Hopanes, steranes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes were measured by TD-GCMS. Hopanes are source-specific organic molecular markers for lubricating oil present in motor vehicle exhaust. The concentrations of OC, EC and the organic tracers were averaged to obtain average profiles to assess differences in the personal, worksite area and urban background samples, and were also correlated individually by sample time to evaluate the exposure model presented above. Finally, a chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the motor vehicle and cigarette-smoke components of the measured OC and EC for the average personal exposure, worksite area and urban background samples. PMID:18322451

  13. Analysis of Nerve Agent Metabolites from Hair for Long-Term Verification of Nerve Agent Exposure.

    PubMed

    Appel, Amanda S; McDonough, John H; McMonagle, Joseph D; Logue, Brian A

    2016-06-21

    Several methods for the bioanalysis of nerve agents or their metabolites have been developed for the verification of nerve agent exposure. However, parent nerve agents and known metabolites are generally rapidly excreted from biological matrixes typically used for analysis (i.e., blood, urine, and tissues), limiting the amount of time after an exposure that verification is feasible. In this study, hair was evaluated as a long-term repository of nerve agent hydrolysis products. Pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA; hydrolysis product of soman) and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA; hydrolysis product of sarin) were extracted from hair samples with N,N-dimethylformamide and subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Limits of detection for PMPA and IMPA were 0.15 μg/kg and 7.5 μg/kg and linear ranges were 0.3-150 μg/kg and 7.5-750 μg/kg, respectively. To evaluate the applicability of the method to verify nerve agent exposure well after the exposure event, rats were exposed to soman, hair was collected after approximately 30 days, and stored for up to 3.5 years prior to initial analysis. PMPA was positively identified in 100% of the soman-exposed rats (N = 8) and was not detected in any of the saline treated animals (N = 6). The hair was reanalyzed 5.5 years after exposure and PMPA was detected in 6 of the 7 (one of the soman-exposed hair samples was completely consumed in the analysis at 3.5 years) rat hair samples (with no PMPA detected in the saline exposed animals). Although analysis of CWA metabolites from hair via this technique is not appropriate as a universal method to determine exposure (i.e., it takes time for the hair to grow above the surface of the skin and typical analysis times are >24 h), it complements existing methods and could become the preferred method for verification of exposure if 10 or more days have elapsed after a suspected exposure. PMID:27161086

  14. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Childhood Leukemia and Parental Occupational Pesticide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wigle, Donald T.; Turner, Michelle C.; Krewski, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of childhood leukemia and parental occupational pesticide exposure. Data sources Searches of MEDLINE (1950–2009) and other electronic databases yielded 31 included studies. Data extraction Two authors independently abstracted data and assessed the quality of each study. Data synthesis Random effects models were used to obtain summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There was no overall association between childhood leukemia and any paternal occupational pesticide exposure (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.88–1.34); there were slightly elevated risks in subgroups of studies with low total-quality scores (OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 0.99–1.95), ill-defined exposure time windows (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.00–1.85), and exposure information collected after offspring leukemia diagnosis (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.05–1.70). Childhood leukemia was associated with prenatal maternal occupational pesticide exposure (OR = 2.09; 95% CI, 1.51–2.88); this association was slightly stronger for studies with high exposure-measurement-quality scores (OR = 2.45; 95% CI, 1.68–3.58), higher confounder control scores (OR = 2.38; 95% CI, 1.56–3.62), and farm-related exposures (OR = 2.44; 95% CI, 1.53–3.89). Childhood leukemia risk was also elevated for prenatal maternal occupational exposure to insecticides (OR = 2.72; 95% CI, 1.47–5.04) and herbicides (OR = 3.62; 95% CI, 1.28–10.3). Conclusions Childhood leukemia was associated with prenatal maternal occupational pesticide exposure in analyses of all studies combined and in several subgroups. Associations with paternal occupational pesticide exposure were weaker and less consistent. Research needs include improved pesticide exposure indices, continued follow-up of existing cohorts, genetic susceptibility assessment, and basic research on childhood leukemia initiation and progression. PMID:20019898

  15. Modelling ecological and human exposure to POPs in Venice lagoon - Part II: Quantitative uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in coupled exposure models.

    PubMed

    Radomyski, Artur; Giubilato, Elisa; Ciffroy, Philippe; Critto, Andrea; Brochot, Céline; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The study is focused on applying uncertainty and sensitivity analysis to support the application and evaluation of large exposure models where a significant number of parameters and complex exposure scenarios might be involved. The recently developed MERLIN-Expo exposure modelling tool was applied to probabilistically assess the ecological and human exposure to PCB 126 and 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the Venice lagoon (Italy). The 'Phytoplankton', 'Aquatic Invertebrate', 'Fish', 'Human intake' and PBPK models available in MERLIN-Expo library were integrated to create a specific food web to dynamically simulate bioaccumulation in various aquatic species and in the human body over individual lifetimes from 1932 until 1998. MERLIN-Expo is a high tier exposure modelling tool allowing propagation of uncertainty on the model predictions through Monte Carlo simulation. Uncertainty in model output can be further apportioned between parameters by applying built-in sensitivity analysis tools. In this study, uncertainty has been extensively addressed in the distribution functions to describe the data input and the effect on model results by applying sensitivity analysis techniques (screening Morris method, regression analysis, and variance-based method EFAST). In the exposure scenario developed for the Lagoon of Venice, the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and PCB 126 in human blood turned out to be mainly influenced by a combination of parameters (half-lives of the chemicals, body weight variability, lipid fraction, food assimilation efficiency), physiological processes (uptake/elimination rates), environmental exposure concentrations (sediment, water, food) and eating behaviours (amount of food eaten). In conclusion, this case study demonstrated feasibility of MERLIN-Expo to be successfully employed in integrated, high tier exposure assessment. PMID:27432731

  16. Occurrence of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma 6 years after amelioration of primary cold agglutinin disease by rituximab therapy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Shinichiro; Sugita, Yasumasa; Sakai, Shio; Takeda, Yusuke; Abe, Daijiro; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Nakaseko, Chiaki

    2012-10-01

    Cold agglutinin disease (CAD) is a rare autoimmune hemolytic anemia, classified into primary and secondary types. Secondary CAD accompanies infection or malignant disease, most often lymphoma, whereas primary CAD frequently represents a lymphoproliferative bone marrow disorder characterized by clonal expansion of B cells. Here, I describe a case of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) developed 6 years after amelioration of primary CAD by rituximab monotherapy. A 54-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with primary CAD characterized by a small fraction of B lymphocytes and kappa laterality in the peripheral blood. M-protein was not detected by immuno-electrophoresis. The patient achieved remission following two courses of rituximab monotherapy. The level of IgM was specifically decreased, although levels of IgG and IgA were slightly increased. Six years after rituximab monotherapy, she developed LPL without CAD recurrence. Flow cytometry performed on bone marrow specimens revealed that lymphoma cells were positive for CD19 and CD20 with kappa laterality. The lymphoma may have transformed from clonal B lymphocytes at presentation of CAD. Rituximab monotherapy induced remission of CAD by specific decrease of IgM level, but did not eliminate the clonal B lymphocytes that may have progressed to LPL. This experience may provide clues toward the understanding of the pathophysiology of primary CAD with clonal lymphoproliferative disease of the bone marrow. PMID:22878940

  17. Helicobacter pylori infection with a duodenal ulcer in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Hajikano, Miharu; Katsube, Yasuhiro; Takita, Yuko; Okada, Takuya; Asai, Makiko; Fujimatsu, Mariko; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Kamisago, Mitsuhiro; Fujita, Takehisa; Shioya, Takeshi; Tokunaga, Akira

    2006-10-01

    A 6-year-old boy was hospitalized because of dark feces and facial pallor of 1 weeks duration. Other gastrointestinal symptoms, including vomiting and abdominal pain, were absent, but he felt dizziness when standing and fatigue on effort. Hematologic studies revealed iron-deficiency anemia, and endoscopy showed gastric erosions and a duodenal ulcer. All test results for Helicobacter pylori infection, including H. pylori antigen in stool, anti-H. pylori IgG immunoassay in serum, and the (13)C-urea breath test, were positive. Because an H. pylori-associated gastric ulcer had been diagnosed with endoscopy in the patients father 3 years earlier, father-son transmission was suspected. The patient was treated with triple-agent eradication therapy (proton pump inhibitor [lansoprazol], amoxicillin, and clarithromycin) for 2 weeks. One month after therapy was completed, eradication of H. pylori was confirmed by negative results on the stool antigen test. Peptic ulcer disease can occur in young children, as in this case. The stool antigen test kit is a useful and reliable method that can be used even in preschool children to diagnose H. pylori infection. PMID:17106182

  18. Duration of periventricular densities in preterm infants and neurological outcome at 6 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Jongmans, M; Henderson, S; de Vries, L; Dubowitz, L

    1993-01-01

    Parenchymal echogenicities that break down into extensive cystic lesions are generally followed by severe motor deficit. However, the effect of echodensities in the periventricular white matter, so called 'flares', on later development is less well documented. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of neonatal flares in preterm infants on neurological status and motor competence at 6 years of age and to see to what extent outcome was related to duration of flares. Forty four children with flares, subdivided into three groups according to the duration of flares, and 62 children with normal scans were assessed on Touwen's neurological examination, the Movement ABC, and the British Ability Scales. No differences in cognitive abilities were found between the groups. The results of the motor assessments showed that performance decreased significantly with increasing duration of flares. In addition, there was a suggestion that this trend was stronger in measures assessing lower limb function than those of upper limb. Teachers were also able to identify differences between the groups of children on the basis of their motor performance in school. PMID:8346967

  19. [Caries prevention strategies for 6-year-olds. A randomized controlled study].

    PubMed

    Vermaire, J H; van Loveren, C

    2015-04-01

    A randomized controlled study of caries prevention strategies was conducted on patients with a mixed socioeconomic status in a large general dental practice in the Netherlands. A group of children following a non-operative caries treatment programme (NOCTP) was compared to a control group and a group that also received 2 topical fluoride applications (IPFA) as a supplement to the control programme (receiving a dental check-up twice a year with topical fluoride applications and routinely sealing of the first permanent molars). A total of 230 6-year-old children were randomly assigned to one of these groups. After 3 years, 179 children were studied again (54 NOCTP, 62 IPFA and 63 controls). Caries-increment was lowest in the NOCTP group (0.15 DMFS). In the IPFA group and the control group DMFS-increments were 0.34 and 0.47 respectively. Although the results of this study are very promising, a follow-up study on a larger scale is required to make clear whether the application of NOCTP is more effective than standard prevention in general practice. PMID:26210120

  20. Inflamed molluscum contagiosum in a 6-year-old boy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Diaconu, Radu; Oprea, Bogdan; Vasilescu, Maria Mirela; Niculescu, Elena Carmen; Ciobanu, Mircea Ovidiu; Diaconu, Carmen; Gheonea, Cristian; Stănescu, Georgeta Ligia

    2015-01-01

    The precise prevalence of molluscum contagiosum (MC) is still unknown. The pediatric studies showed a cumulative incidence of 17% in children less than 15 years, but there are no studies available for Romania. The papular skin lesions are generally less than 5 mm, but the immunocompromised patients may develop large uncommon lesions. The pediatric cases are located mostly on the limbs, trunk or the face. The lab investigations are not usually required because the clinical features are typical. A biopsy followed by a light microscopy may help in some cases. We are presenting the case of a 6-year-old boy suffering from MC since almost a year. When examined in our clinic, the child developed 2 to 4 mm dome-shaped flesh-colored papules with central umbilication on his trunk diagnosed as MC. The microscopic examination revealed bud-like proliferation of the epidermis, molluscum bodies and moderate chronic inflammation of the dermis. In about one month of treatment, all the lesions disappeared without other local or general complications. PMID:26429183

  1. Cholestasis and protein-losing enteropathy secondary to hyperthyroidism in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Lamia; Charfi, Manel; Maalej, Bayen; Majdoub, Imen; Safi, Faiza; Fourati, Hela; Hentati, Yosr; Daoud, Emna; Mnif, Zeineb; Abid, Mohamed; Mahfoudh, Abdelmajid

    2014-09-01

    Hepatic dysfunctions are not infrequent in patients with hyperthyroidism. These disorders may be related to the effects of the excess thyroid hormone secretion, to the uses of antithyroid drugs, or to the presence of concomitant hepatic diseases. Our aim is to describe the clinical and biochemical features of liver dysfunction related to thyrotoxicosis. We report here a case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted for jaundice and pruritus as a result of the development of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. On physical examination at admission, she was found to have jaundice and hepatomegaly. Laboratory data show cholestasis and protein-losing enteropathy. Investigations exclude other causes of hepatic disorder. One month after the initiation of antithyroid drug, the patient became euthyroid with improvement in jaundice and pruritus and normalization of hepatic tests and alpha antitrypsine clearance. In conclusion, the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism may be delayed in patients in whom the primary manifestations were pruritus and jaundice. The physician should suspect thyrotoxicosis prior to hepatitis or skin manifestations. PMID:24825088

  2. Variable Stars in the 3.6 Year DIRBE Near-Infrared Light Curve Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Price, S. D.; Smith, B. J.; Kuchar, T. A.; Mizuno, D. R.; Webb, J.

    2011-05-01

    The 3.6 year light curve archive created by Price et al. (2010) from the cryo+post-cryo Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) mission contains a wealth of variable star information at 1.25, 2.2, 3.5, and 4.9 microns. Of the 2700 objects in the archive, over 500 show strong variability and another 75 show potential variability. We have combined visible observations obtained during the DIRBE extended mission with the infrared archive to investigate wavelength-dependent phase lags between the visible and the near-IR maxima, extending the study of Smith et al. (2006) to those stars with periods longer than the 300 day cryo mission. Of those 518 stars exhibiting strong near-infrared variability, 200 have visible light curves in the American Association of Variable Star Observers database during the DIRBE mission. Because viewing geometry for both the visible observers and DIRBE mission limited the opportunities for observing the stars, the light curves were inspected to determine if the peaks were defined well enough to determine phase lags among the five wavebands. For those objects that have sufficient data, we investigate a number of methods to best estimate the peaks and thus find the phase lags, if any. We have also examined the differences in phase dependence on variable type, e.g. Miras, SRa's, SRb's, and carbon stars. The DIRBE light curve data are available to the community through the Vizier service at the Centre de Donnees Astronomique de Strasbourg.

  3. A New Explanation of Globular Cluster Color Bimodality: 6-year Results and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2012-05-01

    The colors of globular clusters (GCs) in most large early-type galaxies are bimodal. This is generally taken as evidence for the presence of two GC subpopulations with different geneses, and thus forms a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. However, Yoon et al. (2006, Science 311, 1129) showed that the metallicity-color relations are highly inflected due to two complementary effects: (i) the integrated color of main-sequence and giant-branch is a mild nonlinear function of metallicity, and (ii) the rapid change in color due to the onset of the hot horizontal-branch further strengthens the non-linearity. Such nonlinear nature creates ''bimodal'' color distributions of old GCs from a broad underlying metallicity spread, even if it is unimodal. In this contribution, we summarize the 6-year results of theoretical and observational studies on the ''nonlinear color-metallicity relation'' scenario for the GC color bimodality and its implications on galaxy formation theories. We show that the hypothesis gives remarkably simple and cohesive explanations for all the key observations, including the close link of the GC color distributions to the host galaxy properties and the curious discrepancy in metallicity distribution functions between GC systems and their host galaxies’ constituent stars.

  4. Kerosene poisoning in childhood: a 6-year prospective study at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Fagbule, D O; Joiner, K T

    1992-01-01

    In a 6-year prospective study of kerosene poisoning in children admitted to the Department of Paediatrics, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), between January 1982 and December 1987, 109 cases were seen. They were aged 6 months to 9 years, with a male: female ratio of 1.8:1. Majority (79.8%) were below 2 years. Many households (52.3%) stored the agent in familiar beverage or household containers placed on kitchen or bedroom floors, within easy reach of infants and toddlers. Seventy-six (69.7%) cases had home remedies, palm oil being the most common accounting for 55.3%. More than half of the cases (56.9%) presented within 12 hours of the accident due to persistent cough and dyspnoea. Respiratory complications viz pneumonia, pleural effusion and pulmonary oedema were the most common, evident in 67.3% of those who had chest radiographs. Approximately, three quarters (74.3%) of patients with radiologic abnormalities had palm oil alone or in combination with milk as home remedies. Severity of poisoning was influenced by the type of home remedy and the interval between accident and admission (P less than 0.05; P less than 0.01 respectively). Presence of radiological or CNS abnormality or both was associated with a higher morbidity. The only death in the study had complications referable to both systems. Ways of minimizing the risk of kerosene poisoning and its attendant morbidity are discussed. PMID:1390371

  5. 6-Year Periodicity and Variable Synchronicity in a Mass-Flowering Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kakishima, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Jin; Murata, Hiroko; Murata, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Periodical organisms, such as bamboos and periodical cicadas, are very famous for their synchronous reproduction. In bamboos and other periodical plants, the synchronicity of mass-flowering and withering has been often reported indicating these species are monocarpic (semelparous) species. Therefore, synchronicity and periodicity are often suspected to be fairly tightly coupled traits in these periodical plants. We investigate the periodicity and synchronicity of Strobilanthes flexicaulis, and a closely related species S. tashiroi on Okinawa Island, Japan. The genus Strobilanthes is known for several periodical species. Based on 32-year observational data, we confirmed that S. flexicaulis is 6-year periodical mass-flowering monocarpic plant. All the flowering plants had died after flowering. In contrast, we found that S. tashiroi is a polycarpic perennial with no mass-flowering from three-year individual tracking. We also surveyed six local populations of S. flexicaulis and found variation in the synchronicity from four highly synchronized populations (>98% of plants flowering in the mass year) to two less synchronized one with 11–47% of plants flowering before and after the mass year. This result might imply that synchrony may be selected for when periodicity is established in monocarpic species. We found the selective advantages for mass-flowering in pollinator activities and predator satiation. The current results suggest that the periodical S. flexicaulis might have evolved periodicity from a non-periodical close relative. The current report should become a key finding for understanding the evolution of periodical plants. PMID:22163279

  6. Development and validation of a frontal impact 6-year-old occupant and wheelchair computer model.

    PubMed

    Ha, DongRan; Bertocci, Gina; Jategaonkar, Rohit

    2007-01-01

    Many children with disabilities use their wheelchair as a vehicle seat when traveling. To date, few studies have focused on pediatric wheelchair users in transit. A computer model representing a manual pediatric wheelchair seated with a Hybrid III 6-year-old anthropomorphic test device subjected to a 20-g/48-kph (30-mph) frontal crash was developed in MADYMO. The wheelchair was secured using a 4-point tiedown system, and the occupant was restrained using a 3-point belt system. The time history profiles of the computer model were tuned to those of the sled tests. The peak value for key variables was compared between the sled tests and the model. To evaluate model variable time histories, Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) between the sled test and the model outcome measures were determined. The correlation coefficients ranged from .86 to .95, with an average r of .91. This indicates that there are "high" correlations between the model and sled tests across all variables. The pediatric wheelchair model developed and validated in this study will provide a foundation for studying the response of a manual pediatric wheelchair in frontal impacts and associated injury risks for pediatric wheelchair users. PMID:18335711

  7. 3.6 YEARS OF DIRBE NEAR-INFRARED STELLAR LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Stephan D.; Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Kuchar, Thomas A.; Mizuno, Donald R. E-mail: smithbj@etsu.ed

    2010-10-15

    The weekly averaged near-infrared fluxes for 2652 stars were extracted from the cold and warm era all-sky maps of the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). Since the DIRBE program only archived the individual Calibrated Infrared Observations for the 10 month cold era mission, the weekly averaged fluxes were all that were available for the warm era. The steps required to extract stellar fluxes are described as are the adjustments that were necessary to correct the results for several systematic effects. The observations are at a cadence of once a week for 3.6 years ({approx}1300 days), providing continuous sampling on variable stars that span the entire period for the longest fundamental pulsators. The stars are divided into three categories: those with large amplitude of variability, smaller amplitude variables, and sources whose near-infrared brightness do not vary according to our classification criteria. We show examples of the results and the value of the added baseline in determining the phase lag between the visible and infrared.

  8. [Cooperation among pharmaceutical, medical and nursing schools aimed at 6-year pharmaceutical education].

    PubMed

    Ono, Hideki; Kurono, Yukihisa

    2012-01-01

    Eleven universities which have pharmacy, medical or nursing school, have cooperated in an attempt to build the human and material systems for 6-year pharmacy education and to apply them to practical pharmacy educations. Members are Nagoya City University, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, University of Shizuoka, Aichi Gakuin University, Kinjo Gakuin University, Meijo University, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Mie University, Aichi Medical University and Fujita Health University. Tokai Cooperation Center for Clinical Pharmacy Education, the steering committee and 5 subcommittees established following projects; 1) WEB-based system for supplementary lesson of natural science (for freshmen), 2) FD (Faculty Development) activity (for teachers), 3) WEB-based data-base system of disease case for PBL (Problem-based Learning) and methods for practice of physical assessment (for 4th grade students), 4) WEB-based system for practical pharmacy training (for 5th grade students), 5) Matching and WEB system for graduation practice at university hospital (for 6th grade students). PMID:22214575

  9. Residential exposure to electromagnetic fields and childhood leukaemia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Angelillo, I. F.; Villari, P.

    1999-01-01

    Although individual epidemiological investigations have suggested associations between residential exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and childhood leukaemia, overall the findings have been inconclusive. Several of these studies do, however, lend themselves to application of the meta-analysis technique. For this purpose we carried out searches using MEDLINE and other sources, and 14 case-control studies and one cohort study were identified and evaluated for epidemiological quality and included in the meta-analysis. Relative risk estimates were extracted from each of the studies and pooled. Separate meta-analyses were performed on the basis of the assessed EMF exposure (wiring configuration codes, distance to power distribution equipment, spot and 24-h measures of magnetic field strength (magnetic flux density) and calculated magnetic field). The meta-analysis based on wiring configuration codes yielded a pooled relative risk estimate of 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-2.04, P = 0.024) and for that for exposure to 24-h measurements of magnetic fields, 1.59 (95% CI = 1.14-2.22, P = 0.006), indicating a potential effect of residential EMF exposure on childhood leukaemia. In most cases, lower risk estimates were obtained by pooling high-quality studies than pooling low-quality studies. There appears to be a clear trend for more recent studies to be of higher quality. Enough evidence exists to conclude that dismissing concerns about residential EMFs and childhood leukaemia is unwarranted. Additional high-quality epidemiological studies incorporating comparable measures for both exposure and outcomes are, however, needed to confirm these findings and, should they prove to be true, the case options for minimizing exposure should be thoroughly investigated to provide definitive answers for policy-makers. PMID:10612886

  10. Media exposure and smoking intention in adolescents: a moderated mediation analysis from a cultivation perspective.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Salmon, Charles T; Pang, Joyce S; Cheng, Wendy J Y

    2015-02-01

    The study tested a moderated mediation model to examine the mechanisms underlying the link between media exposure and adolescent smoking intention by utilizing a modification of cultivation theory. A total of 12,586 non-current smoker adolescents in California were included in the analysis. Results showed that media exposure was positively related to smoking intention via perceived prevalence of peer smoking when friend disapproval of cigarette use was low. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms regarding the media effects on smoking intention, but the findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small effect size. PMID:24058128

  11. Exposure to Organochlorine Pollutants and Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mengling; Chen, Kun; Yang, Fangxing; Liu, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Objective Though exposure to organochlorine pollutants (OCPs) is considered a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2DM), epidemiological evidence for the association remains controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis was applied to quantitatively evaluate the association between exposure to OCPs and incidence of T2DM and pool the inconsistent evidence. Design and Methods Publications in English were searched in MEDLINE and WEB OF SCIENCE databases and related reference lists up to August 2013. Quantitative estimates and information regarding study characteristics were extracted from 23 original studies. Quality assessments of external validity, bias, exposure measurement and confounding were performed, and subgroup analyses were conducted to examine the heterogeneity sources. Results We retrieved 23 eligible articles to conduct this meta-analysis. OR (odds ratio) or RR (risk ratio) estimates in each subgroup were discussed, and the strong associations were observed in PCB-153 (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.19–1.94), PCBs (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.53–2.99), and p,p′-DDE (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.15–1.54) based on a random-effects model. Conclusions This meta-analysis provides quantitative evidence supporting the conclusion that exposure to organochlorine pollutants is associated with an increased risk of incidence of T2DM. PMID:25329153

  12. Environmental Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingwen; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Lin, Kun; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Association between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and breast cancer risk has been widely studied, but the results remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the evidences from observational studies on PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Methods Relevant studies with data on internal PCB dose were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI databases through November 2014. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to assess the association between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and publication bias test were also performed. To further explore the association between specific groups of PCB congeners and breast cancer, we examined the PCB congeners classified, according to their structural, biological and pharmacokinetics properties, as group I (potentially estrogenic), group II (potentially anti-estrogenic and immunotoxic, dioxin-like), and group III (phenobarbital, CYP1A and CYP2B inducers, biologically persistent). Results Of 660 studies screened, 25 studies which met criteria were selected, involving a total of 12866 participants (6088 cases and 6778 controls) from eight countries. The results showed that the risk of breast cancer was associated with group II (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08–1.40) and group III (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09–1.43) PCBs, but not with group I (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 0.97–1.24) PCBs or total PCB exposure (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.97–1.22). Conclusions Our meta-analysis based on the selected studies found group II and group III PCB exposure might contribute to the risk of breast cancer. More studies in developing countries with higher PCB levels are needed, as well as studies to explore the relationships between mixtures of organochlorine compounds and breast cancer risk. PMID:26555153

  13. Cancer and occupational exposure to inorganic lead compounds: a meta-analysis of published data.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, H; Boffetta, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To review and summarise the epidemiological evidence on the carcinogenicity of occupational exposure to inorganic lead. METHODS--Case-control and cohort studies were reviewed and combined for meta-analysis. Fixed and random effect methods were used to estimate the summary effects. RESULTS--The combined results show a significant excess risk of overall cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, and bladder cancer, with relative risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) in the meta-analysis of 1.11 (1.05-1.17), 1.33 (1.18-1.49), 1.29 (1.10-1.50), and 1.41 (1.16-1.71) respectively. The RR (95% CI) for kidney cancer was also high, but did not reach significance (1.19 (0.96-1.48)). A separate analysis of studies of heavily exposed workers provided slightly increased RRs for cancers of the stomach (1.50) and lung (1.42). CONCLUSIONS--The findings from the workers with heavy exposure to lead provided some evidence to support the hypothesis of an association between stomach and lung cancer and exposure to lead. The main limitation of the present analysis is that the excess risks do not take account of potential confounders, because little information was available for other occupational exposures, smoking, and dietary habits. To some extent, the risk of lung cancer might be explained by confounders such as tobacco smoking and exposure to other occupational carcinogens. The excess risk of stomach cancer may also be explained, at least in part, by non-occupational factors. For bladder and kidney cancers, the excess risks are only suggestive of a true effect because of possible publication bias. PMID:7757170

  14. Lung Cancer and Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide and Traffic: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Laden, Francine; Cohen, Aaron J.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Brauer, Michael; Loomis, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is an important public health issue. Here, we present a systematic review and meta-analysis of research examining the relationship of measures of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and of various measures of traffic-related air pollution exposure with lung cancer. Methods We conducted random-effects meta-analyses of studies examining exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and NOx and its association with lung cancer. We identified 20 studies that met inclusion criteria and provided information necessary to estimate the change in lung cancer per 10-μg/m3 increase in exposure to measured NO2. Further, we qualitatively assessed the evidence of association between distance to roadways and traffic volume associated with lung cancer. Results The meta-estimate for the change in lung cancer associated with a 10-μg/m3 increase in exposure to NO2 was 4% (95% CI: 1%, 8%). The meta-estimate for change in lung cancer associated with a 10-μg/m3 increase in NOx was similar and slightly more precise, 3% (95% CI: 1%, 5%). The NO2 meta-estimate was robust to different confounding adjustment sets as well as the exposure assessment techniques used. Trim-and-fill analyses suggest that if publication bias exists, the overall meta-estimate is biased away from the null. Forest plots for measures of traffic volume and distance to roadways largely suggest a modest increase in lung cancer risk. Conclusion We found consistent evidence of a relationship between NO2, as a proxy for traffic-sourced air pollution exposure, with lung cancer. Studies of lung cancer related to residential proximity to roadways and NOx also suggest increased risk, which may be attributable partly to air pollution exposure. The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter as carcinogenic (Group 1). These meta-analyses support this conclusion, drawing particular attention to traffic-sourced air

  15. The effects of children's exposure to domestic violence: a meta-analysis and critique.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, David A; Crooks, Claire V; Lee, Vivien; McIntyre-Smith, Alexandra; Jaffe, Peter G

    2003-09-01

    A wide range of children's developmental outcomes are compromised by exposure to domestic violence, including social, emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and general health functioning. However, there are relatively few empirical studies with adequate control of confounding variables and a sound theoretical basis. We identified 41 studies that provided relevant and adequate data for inclusion in a meta-analysis. Forty of these studies indicated that children's exposure to domestic violence was related to emotional and behavioral problems, translating to a small overall effect (Zr = .28). Age, sex, and type of outcome were not significant moderators, most likely due to considerable heterogeneity within each of these groups. Co-occurrence of child abuse increased the level of emotional and behavioral problems above and beyond exposure alone, based on 4 available studies. Future research needs are identified, including the need for large-scale longitudinal data and theoretically guided approaches that take into account relevant contextual factors. PMID:14620578

  16. An analysis of employee exposure to organic dust at large-scale composting facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, P.; Allen, J. A.; Wildsmith, J. D.; Jones, K. P.

    2009-02-01

    The occupational health implications from exposure to dust, endotoxin and 1-3 β Glucan at commercial composting sites are uncertain. This study aims to establish employee exposure levels to inhalable and respirable dust, endotoxin and 1-3 β Glucan during various operational practices in the composting process. Personal samples were collected and the inhalable and respirable dust fractions were determined by gravimetric analysis. Endotoxin concentrations were determined using a Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay (LAL). 1-3 β Glucan levels were estimated using a specific blocking agent to establish the contribution that these compounds gave to the original endotoxin assay. Employees' exposure to dust was found to be generally lower than the levels stipulated in the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) 2002 (as amended), (median inhalable fraction 1.08 mg/m3, min 0.25 mg/m3 max 10.80 mg/m3, median respirable fraction 0.05 mg/m3, min 0.02 mg/m3, max 1.49 mg/m3). Determination of the biological component of the dust showed that employees' exposures to endotoxin were elevated (median 31.5 EU/m3, min 2.00 EU/m3, max 1741.78 EU/m3), particularly when waste was agitated (median 175.0 EU/m3, min 2.03 EU/m3, max 1741.78 EU/m3). Eight out of 32 (25%) of the personal exposure data for endotoxin exceeded the 200 EU/m3 temporary legal limit adopted in the Netherlands and thirteen out of 32 (40.6%) exceeded the suggested 50 EU/m3 guidance level suggested to protect workers from respiratory health effects. A significant correlation was observed between employee inhalable dust exposure and personal endotoxin concentration (r = 0.728, p<0.05) and also personal endotoxin exposure and 1-3 β Glucan concentration (r = 0.817, p<0.05). Further work is needed to explore the possibility of using inhalable dust concentration as a predictor for personal endotoxin exposure. The general dust levels stipulated in the COSHH Regulations 2002 (as amended) are inadequate for

  17. A meta-analysis of leukaemia risk from protracted exposure to low-dose gamma radiation

    PubMed Central

    Schubauer-Berigan, M K

    2010-01-01

    Context More than 400 000 workers annually receive a measurable radiation dose and may be at increased risk of radiation-induced leukaemia. It is unclear whether leukaemia risk is elevated with protracted, low-dose exposure. Objective We conducted a meta-analysis examining the relationship between protracted low-dose ionising radiation exposure and leukaemia. Data sources Reviews by the National Academies and United Nations provided a summary of informative studies published before 2005. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for additional occupational and environmental studies published between 2005 and 2009. Study selection We selected 23 studies that: (1) examined the association between protracted exposures to ionising radiation and leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic subtype; (2) were a cohort or nested case–control design without major bias; (3) reported quantitative estimates of exposure; and (4) conducted exposure–response analyses using relative or excess RR per unit exposure. Methods Studies were further screened to reduce information overlap. Random effects models were developed to summarise between-study variance and obtain an aggregate estimate of the excess RR at 100 mGy. Publication bias was assessed by trim and fill and Rosenthal's file drawer methods. Results We found an ERR at 100 mGy of 0.19 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.32) by modelling results from 10 studies and adjusting for publication bias. Between-study variance was not evident (p=0.99). Conclusions Protracted exposure to low-dose gamma radiation is significantly associated with leukaemia. Our estimate agreed well with the leukaemia risk observed among exposed adults in the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors, providing increased confidence in the current understanding of leukaemia risk from ionising radiation. However, unlike the estimates obtained from the LSS, our model provides a precise, quantitative summary of the direct estimates of excess risk from studies of

  18. Tooth matrix analysis for biomonitoring of organic chemical exposure: Current status, challenges, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Andra, Syam S; Austin, Christine; Arora, Manish

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence supports associations between prenatal exposure to environmental organic chemicals and childhood health impairments. Unlike the common choice of biological matrices such as urine and blood that can be limited by short half-lives for some chemicals, teeth provide a stable repository for chemicals with half-life in the order of decades. Given the potential of the tooth bio-matrix to study long-term exposures to environmental organic chemicals in human biomonitoring programs, it is important to be aware of possible pitfalls and potential opportunities to improve on the current analytical method for tooth organics analysis. We critically review previous results of studies of this topic. The major drawbacks and challenges in currently practiced concepts and analytical methods in utilizing tooth bio-matrix are (i) no consideration of external (from outer surface) or internal contamination (from micro-odontoblast processes), (ii) the misleading assumption that whole ground teeth represent prenatal exposures (latest formed dentine is lipid rich and therefore would absorb and accumulate more organic chemicals), (iii) reverse causality in exposure assessment due to whole ground teeth, and (iv) teeth are a precious bio-matrix and grinding them raises ethical concerns about appropriate use of a very limited resource in exposure biology and epidemiology studies. These can be overcome by addressing the important limitations and possible improvements with the analytical approach associated at each of the following steps: (i) tooth sample preparation to retain exposure timing, (ii) organics extraction and pre-concentration to detect ultra-trace levels of analytes, (iii) chromatography separation, (iv) mass spectrometric detection to detect multi-class organics simultaneously, and (v) method validation, especially to exclude chance findings. To highlight the proposed improvements we present findings from a pilot study that utilizes tooth matrix biomarkers

  19. Detection of CMV DNA in the perilymph of a 6-year-old boy with congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Foulon, Ina; Soetens, Oriane; Vleurinck, Leen; Gordts, Frans; Leus, Astrid; Naessens, Anne

    2016-06-01

    We present the case of a 6-year-old boy who received a cochlear implant for profound sensorineural hearing loss after being born with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Even after 6 years, CMV DNA was still found in the perilymph of the cochlea. Our case shows that CMV DNA can be present in the cochlea years after congenital CMV infection, and it can explain why progressive and/or late-onset hearing loss occurs in these children. PMID:27304443

  20. Changes in Sedentary Behaviours and Associations with Physical Activity through Retirement: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Menai, Mehdi; Fezeu, Léopold; Charreire, Hélène; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Simon, Chantal; Weber, Christiane; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Hercberg, Serge; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Changes in sedentary behaviours and physical activity according to retirement status need to be better defined. Retirement is a critical life period that may influence a number of health behaviours. We assessed past-year sedentary behaviours (television, computer and reading time during leisure, occupational and domestic sitting time, in h/week) and physical activity (leisure, occupational and domestic, in h/week) over 6 years (2000–2001 and 2007) using the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire in 2,841 participants (mean age: 57.3±5.0 y) of the SU.VI.MAX (Supplementation with Antioxidants and Minerals) cohort. Analyses were performed according to retirement status. Subjects retired in 2001 and 2007 (40%) were those who spent most time in sedentary behaviour and in physical activity during and outside leisure (p<0.001). Leisure-time sedentary behaviours increased in all subjects during follow-up (p<0.001), but subjects who retired between 2001 and 2007 (31%) were those who reported the greatest changes (+8.4±0.42 h/week for a combined indicator of leisure-time sedentary behaviour). They also had the greatest increase in time spent in leisure-time physical activity (+2.5±0.2 h/week). In subjects not retired 2001 and 2007 (29%), changes in time spent watching television were found positively associated with an increase in occupational physical activity (p = 0.04) and negatively associated with changes in leisure-time physical activity (p = 0.02). No consistent association between changes in sedentary behaviours and changes in physical activity was observed in subjects retired in 2001 and 2007. Public health interventions should target retiring age populations not only to encourage physical activity but also to limit sedentary behaviours. PMID:25259801

  1. A 6 year Geohelminth infection profile of children at high altitude in Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Wilson, Godwin; Chawla, Kiran; VS, Binu; Shivananda, PG

    2008-01-01

    Background Geohelminth infections are a major problem of children from the developing countries. Children with these infections suffer from developmental impairments and other serious illnesses. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of geohelminth infection, infection intensity as well as the change in the intensity in children from Western Nepal over years. Methods This 6-year hospital based prospective study at the Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara included children (< 15 years) visiting the hospital from Kaski and 7 surrounding districts. Samples were also collected from children in the community from different medical camps. Three stool samples from every child were processed using direct and concentration methods. The Kato-Katz technique was used for measuring the intensity of infection. Results The overall prevalence in hospital - attending children was 9.2% with 7.6% in preschool (0 – 5 y) and 11.0% in school-age (6 – 15 y) children, and in community 17.7% with 14.8% in pre-school and 20.5% in school-age children. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma deodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis were the common geohelminths with a gradual decrease in worm load over the years. School-age children were found to be significantly more prone to geohelminth infection as compared to preschool children, but no statistical difference was detected by gender, district as well as season. Conclusion This heavy infection of geohelminths in children should be corrected by appropriate medication and maintaining strict personal hygiene. Health education, clean water, good sewage management and a congenial environment should be ensured to minimise infection. PMID:18366807

  2. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I.; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E.; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2016-01-01

    High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been observed in infants in Nordic countries, likely due to vitamin D supplement use. Internationally, little is known about tracking vitamin D status from infancy to childhood. Following up 1-year-old infants in our national longitudinal cohort, our aims were to study vitamin D intake and status in healthy 6-year-old Icelandic children (n = 139) and to track vitamin D status from one year of age. At six years, the mean 25(OH)D level was 56.5 nmol/L (SD 17.9) and 64% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L). A logistic regression model adjusted for gender and breastfeeding showed that higher total vitamin D intake (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08–1.49), blood samples collected in summer (OR = 8.88, 95% CI = 1.83–43.23) or autumn (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.16–27.32) compared to winter/spring, and 25(OH)D at age one (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.002–1.04) were independently associated with vitamin D sufficiency at age six. The correlation between 25(OH)D at age one and six was 0.34 (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that vitamin D status in infancy, current vitamin D intake and season are predictors of vitamin D status in early school age children. Our finding of vitamin D status tracking from infancy to childhood provides motivation for further studies on tracking and its clinical significance. PMID:26861385

  3. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy.

    PubMed

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2016-02-01

    High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been observed in infants in Nordic countries, likely due to vitamin D supplement use. Internationally, little is known about tracking vitamin D status from infancy to childhood. Following up 1-year-old infants in our national longitudinal cohort, our aims were to study vitamin D intake and status in healthy 6-year-old Icelandic children (n = 139) and to track vitamin D status from one year of age. At six years, the mean 25(OH)D level was 56.5 nmol/L (SD 17.9) and 64% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L). A logistic regression model adjusted for gender and breastfeeding showed that higher total vitamin D intake (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.49), blood samples collected in summer (OR = 8.88, 95% CI = 1.83-43.23) or autumn (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.16-27.32) compared to winter/spring, and 25(OH)D at age one (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.002-1.04) were independently associated with vitamin D sufficiency at age six. The correlation between 25(OH)D at age one and six was 0.34 (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that vitamin D status in infancy, current vitamin D intake and season are predictors of vitamin D status in early school age children. Our finding of vitamin D status tracking from infancy to childhood provides motivation for further studies on tracking and its clinical significance. PMID:26861385

  4. A 6-year follow-up study of adult patients with congenitally corrected transposition.

    PubMed

    Koželj, Mirta; Cvijić, Marta; Berden, Pavel; Podnar, Tomaž

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the development of heart failure in patients with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries in a medium-term follow-up, to identify the impact of tricuspid regurgitation on the development of heart failure, and to determine the most reliable marker for its identification. The prospective 6-year follow-up study included 19 adult patients. All patients were evaluated clinically by the determination of N-terminal pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide levels, exercise stress testing, echocardiography magnetic resonance, or CT. Among them, two patients died of heart failure. There was a decline in exercise capacity and systolic systemic ventricular function (p=0.011). Systemic ventricular ejection fraction decreased (48.3±13.7 versus 42.7±12.7%, p=0.001). Tissue Doppler imaging showed a decline in peak tricuspid systolic annular velocity (10.3±2.0 versus 8.3±2.5 cm/second, p=0.032) and peak tricuspid early diastolic annular velocity (14.6±4.3 versus 12.0±4.5 cm/second, p=0.048). The tricuspid regurgitation did not increase significantly. N-terminal pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide levels increased (127.0 ng/L(82.3-305.8) versus 226.0 ng/L(112.5-753.0), p=0.022). Progressive exercise intolerance in congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries appears to be driven mainly by a progression in systemic right ventricular dysfunction. Tricuspid regurgitation is likely to play a role, especially in patients with structural abnormalities of the tricuspid valve - Ebstein anomaly. The N-terminal pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide levels and tissue Doppler parameters appear sensitive in detecting changes over time and may guide management. PMID:25522750

  5. EQAS for peripheral blood morphology in Spain: a 6-year experience.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, G; Merino, A; Domingo, A; Jou, J M; Reverter, J C

    2008-12-01

    The Spanish haematology external quality assessment scheme (EQAS), established in 1984, is run by the Spanish Haematology and Haemotherapy Association (AEHH) [Quality Assurance in Health Care 3 (1991) 75] and functions to evaluate the quality and reproducibility of the assessment of diagnostic samples by clinical laboratories. The Hospital Clinic of the University of Barcelona (HCB) serves as the EQAS Coordination Centre and follows the guidelines established by the International Committee for Standardization in Haematology [Annali dell'Istituto superiore di Sanità 31 (1995) 95; International Journal of Hematology 68 (1998) 45]. During the period 2001-2006, replicates of 25 different blood films were sent to 604 EQAS participants for cell morphology evaluation. Some patient details corresponding to the samples were disclosed, such us age, sex, haemoglobin value and white blood cell count. The participants were asked to select up to four significant morphology features using a coding list, provided by the Coordination Centre, which included significant morphological alterations that appear in haematopoietic cells. For each survey, individual results were assessed against the morphological reference results (MRR) established by the Cytology Group of the AEHH ('true' answers). This paper describes the organization of the 6-year-long study and the evaluation of laboratory performance for blood smear interpretation by the Spanish haematology EQAS. Different performance levels were detected relative to the laboratory category. Laboratories providing services to hospitalized patients showed higher performances compared with laboratories providing services to nonhospitalized patients. Pathological lymphoid cells were the most difficult to identify by the participants. To improve the results in EQAS peripheral blood morphology, the development of specific cytology educational trainings is discussed. PMID:18983297

  6. The dancing sky: 6 years of night-sky observations at Cerro Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patat, F.

    2008-04-01

    Aims: This work provides the results of the first six years of operation by the systematic night-sky monitoring at ESO-Paranal (Chile). Methods: The UBVRI night-sky brightness was estimated on about 10 000 VLT-FORS1 archival images, obtained on more than 650 separate nights, distributed over 6 years, and covering the descent from maximum to minimum of sunspot cycle n. 23. Additionally, a set of about 1000 low-resolution, optical, night-sky spectra were extracted and analysed. Results: The unprecedented database discussed in this paper has led to detecting a clear seasonal variation of the broad-band night-sky brightness in the VRI passbands, similar to the well-known semi-annual oscillation of the Na I D doublet. The spectroscopic data demonstrate that this seasonality is common to all spectral features, with the remarkable exception of the OH rotational-vibrational bands. A clear dependency on the solar activity is detected in all passbands and is particularly pronounced in the U band, where the sky brightness decreased by ~0.6 mag arcsec-2 from maximum to minimum of solar cycle n. 23. No correlation is found between solar activity and the intensity of the Na I D doublet and the OH bands. A strong correlation between the intensity of N I 5200 Å and [OI]6300, 6364 Å is reported here for the first time. The paper also addresses the determination of the correlation time-scales with solar activity and the possible connection with the flux of charged particles emitted by the Sun. Based on observations with ESO Telescopes at Paranal Observatory.

  7. Fever of Unknown Origin in Children: A 6 year- Experience in a Tertiary Pediatric Egyptian Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Rasha H; Fouda, Ashraf E; Kandil, Shaimaa M

    2014-01-01

    Background Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is among the most conditions which poses challenge in diagnosis. The presence of information on regional patterns of FUO will shorten the time for diagnosis and reduces health services costs. There are almost no previous studies describing the etiology of FUO in children of Egypt or nearby countries. Aim of the Study To determine different causes of FUO and the possible diagnostic procedures. Methods Data of patients with FUO, presented to the Infectious Diseases Unit of Mansoura University Children Hospital, were retrospectively collected in a 6 year-period from May 2006 to May 2011. The study included children with a fever of 38.3° C or more documented by a health care provider and for which the cause could not be identified after 3 weeks of evaluation as an outpatient or after a week of evaluation in hospital. Patients were then categorized into 5 groups. Results 127 patients met the diagnostic criteria. Infectious diseases were the commonest causes of FUO in 46 cases (36.22%) followed by the miscellaneous causes in 38 cases (29.9%). Meanwhile, collagen vascular diseases and malignancy were diagnosed in 13 cases (10.2%) and 10 cases (7.87%) respectively. While, 20 cases (15.75%) remained undiagnosed. Conclusions Infectious diseases are the commonest cause of FUO. The delay in diagnosis was due to atypical presentations or inappropriate use of antibiotic prior to the referral. Non infectious causes, malignancy and collagen or vascular disorders were diagnosed in rest of the patients. However, about 15% of our patients remained undiagnosed. The diagnosis was established by non-invasive means in more than two-third of the cases. PMID:24899875

  8. Does D-cycloserine enhance exposure therapy for anxiety disorders in humans? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Helga; Figueira, Ivan; Lopes, Alessandra; Gonçalves, Raquel; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Ventura, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of anxiety is on the edge of a new era of combinations of pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions. A new wave of translational research has focused on the use of pharmacological agents as psychotherapy adjuvants using neurobiological insights into the mechanism of the action of certain psychological treatments such as exposure therapy. Recently, d-cycloserine (DCS) an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis has been applied to enhance exposure-based treatment for anxiety and has proved to be a promising, but as yet unproven intervention. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of DCS in the enhancement of exposure therapy in anxiety disorders. A systematic review/meta-analysis was conducted. Electronic searches were conducted in the databases ISI-Web of Science, Pubmed and PsycINFO. We included only randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with humans, focusing on the role of DCS in enhancing the action of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. We identified 328 references, 13 studies were included in our final sample: 4 on obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2 on panic disorder, 2 on social anxiety disorder, 2 on posttraumatic stress disorder, one on acrophobia, and 2 on snake phobia. The results of the present meta-analysis show that DCS enhances exposure therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders (Cohen d =  -0.34; CI: -0.54 to -0.14), facilitating the specific process of extinction of fear. DCS seems to be effective when administered at a time close to the exposure therapy, at low doses and a limited number of times. DCS emerges as a potential new therapeutic approach for patients with refractory anxiety disorders that are unresponsive to the conventional treatments available. When administered correctly, DCS is a promising strategy for augmentation of CBT and could reduce health care costs, drop-out rates and bring faster relief to patients. PMID:24991926

  9. Does D-Cycloserine Enhance Exposure Therapy for Anxiety Disorders in Humans? A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Helga; Figueira, Ivan; Lopes, Alessandra; Gonçalves, Raquel; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Ventura, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of anxiety is on the edge of a new era of combinations of pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions. A new wave of translational research has focused on the use of pharmacological agents as psychotherapy adjuvants using neurobiological insights into the mechanism of the action of certain psychological treatments such as exposure therapy. Recently, d-cycloserine (DCS) an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis has been applied to enhance exposure-based treatment for anxiety and has proved to be a promising, but as yet unproven intervention. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of DCS in the enhancement of exposure therapy in anxiety disorders. A systematic review/meta-analysis was conducted. Electronic searches were conducted in the databases ISI-Web of Science, Pubmed and PsycINFO. We included only randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with humans, focusing on the role of DCS in enhancing the action of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. We identified 328 references, 13 studies were included in our final sample: 4 on obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2 on panic disorder, 2 on social anxiety disorder, 2 on posttraumatic stress disorder, one on acrophobia, and 2 on snake phobia. The results of the present meta-analysis show that DCS enhances exposure therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders (Cohen d =  −0.34; CI: −0.54 to −0.14), facilitating the specific process of extinction of fear. DCS seems to be effective when administered at a time close to the exposure therapy, at low doses and a limited number of times. DCS emerges as a potential new therapeutic approach for patients with refractory anxiety disorders that are unresponsive to the conventional treatments available. When administered correctly, DCS is a promising strategy for augmentation of CBT and could reduce health care costs, drop-out rates and bring faster relief to patients. PMID:24991926

  10. Respirable quartz dust exposure and airway obstruction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Brüske, Irene; Thiering, Elisabeth; Heinrich, Joachim; Huster, Katharina M; Nowak, Dennis

    2014-08-01

    Studies on exposure to respirable quartz dust at the workplace and the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were selected into a systematic review and meta-analysed to obtain an overall estimate of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) reduction. PubMed and Embase were searched from 1970 to 2010. In total, 257 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were identified that reported on inorganic dust exposure and had available lung function data. Of the 55 publications which met our inclusion criteria, 11 reported on associations with occupational exposure to respirable quartz dust. The combined average effect estimate of respirable quartz dust on spirometric parameters was obtained using a random effects model meta-analysis. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed via the I(2) statistic. Most studies found a significant negative association of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC related to increasing exposure to crystalline quartz at the workplace. One study found an effect only for smokers, and one did not observe such an effect at all. The meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies showed that the mean ratio FEV1 to FVC was reduced and FEV1 of workers exposed to respirable quartz dust was 4.6% less than predicted compared with workers with no/low exposure. Both results showed a statistically significant difference. Occupational exposure to respirable quartz dust was associated with a statistically significant decrease in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC, revealing airway obstruction consistent with COPD. PMID:24863263

  11. Prenatal Stress and Balance of the Child's Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System at Age 5-6 Years

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Aimée E.; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Autonomic nervous system (ANS) misbalance is a potential causal factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. The ANS may be programmed during pregnancy due to various maternal factors. Our aim is to study maternal prenatal psychosocial stress as a potential disruptor of cardiac ANS balance in the child. Methods Mothers from a prospective birth cohort (ABCD study) filled out a questionnaire at gestational week 16 [IQR 12–20], that included validated instruments for state anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related anxiety, parenting daily hassles and job strain. A cumulative stress score was also calculated (based on 80th percentiles). Indicators of cardiac ANS in the offspring at age 5–6 years are: pre-ejection period (PEP), heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac autonomic balance (CAB), measured with electrocardiography and impedance cardiography in resting supine and sitting positions. Results 2,624 mother-child pairs, only single births, were available for analysis. The stress scales were not significantly associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.17). Accumulation of maternal stress was also not associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.07). Conclusion Results did not support the hypothesis that prenatal maternal psychosocial stress deregulates cardiac ANS balance in the offspring, at least in rest, and at the age of five-six years. PMID:22272345

  12. Complexities of sibling analysis when exposures and outcomes change with time and birth order.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka I; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Divan, Hozefa A; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the complexities of performing a sibling analysis with a re-examination of associations between cell phone exposures and behavioral problems observed previously in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Children (52,680; including 5441 siblings) followed up to age 7 were included. We examined differences in exposures and behavioral problems between siblings and non-siblings and by birth order and birth year. We estimated associations between cell phone exposures and behavioral problems while accounting for the random family effect among siblings. The association of behavioral problems with both prenatal and postnatal exposure differed between siblings (odds ratio (OR): 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-1.66) and non-siblings (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.36-1.74) and within siblings by birth order; the association was strongest for first-born siblings (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 0.86-3.42) and negative for later-born siblings (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.31-1.25), which may be because of increases in cell phone use with later birth year. Sibling analysis can be a powerful tool for (partially) accounting for confounding by invariant unmeasured within-family factors, but it cannot account for uncontrolled confounding by varying family-level factors, such as those that vary with time and birth order. PMID:24064530

  13. Effects of vehicle-ride exposure on cervical pathology: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    KOLLOCK, Roger; GAMES, Kenneth; WILSON, Alan E.; SEFTON, JoEllen M.

    2015-01-01

    Research to date on the effect vehicle-ride exposure has on the development of cervical pathologies in mounted Warfighters is conflicting. The purpose of this study was to determine if the literature suggests a definite effect of vehicle-ride exposure on cervical pathology. Databases were searched using multiple combinations of select terms. Twelve studies meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that overall vehicle-ride exposure was likely to increase cervical pathology (p=0.01, odds ratio=1.59, 95% CI=1.16−2.17). Using vehicle type as a moderator it was found that vehicle-ride exposure in ground-based vehicles (p=0.01, odds ratio=2.33, 95% CI=1.41−3.85) and fixed-wing aircraft (p=0.01, odds ratio =1.59, 95% CI=1.13−2.23) were likely to increase cervical pathology. Using operator/other personnel moderator it was found that in the populations tested, fighter pilots or fighter jet weapons systems operators were more likely to develop a cervical pathology (p<0.001, odds ratio=1.78, 95% CI=1.26−2.50). The available studies indicate an increase in cervical pathology for personnel exposed to ground-based vehicles and fixed-wing aircraft. PMID:25739897

  14. Indoor exposure to airborne endotoxin: a review of the literature on sampling and analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Paba, Emilia; Tranfo, Giovanna; Corsetti, Federica; Marcelloni, Anna Maria; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of exposure to airborne endotoxins has been studied for several years, especially in occupational environments, but a large number of procedures are used for sampling and analysis. This lack of standardization makes it very difficult to compare results and set internationally accepted threshold limit values (TLVs) or occupational exposure limits (OELs) for endotoxin exposure. This paper reviews the methods reported, using advanced bibliographical search techniques: 82 papers published from 2004 to the present were selected to analyze methods for the assessment of human exposure to airborne endotoxins, with particular reference to occupational settings, and to examine their performance and critical points. Only few studies have focused on the standardization of sampling and analysis methods. The European Committee for Standardization Guidelines coincide with the procedures most frequently applied, but this does not guarantee the best results in terms of recovery and reproducibility. The factor that mainly affects endotoxin measurements is the extraction method, the main concern being the presence in the samples of a fraction insoluble in aqueous media. If substantial differences in the proportions of this fraction in different environments are confirmed in the future, the contribution of insoluble endotoxins cannot be neglected. PMID:23385433

  15. Use of multiparameter analysis to quantitate hematological damage from exposure to a chemical (ethylene oxide)

    SciTech Connect

    Popp, D.M.; Popp, R.A.; Lock, S.; Mann, R.C.; Hand, R.E. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Mice exposed to 255 ppm ethylene oxide (EtO) for 6 h/d were removed for analysis after 1,2,4,8 and 14 d (sequential exposure) and 4,6,8 and 10 wk (5 d/wk). Prior to sacrifice, blood was removed from the orbital sinus for blood cell counts, hemoglobin determination, and hematocrit. A blood film was made for differential leukocyte counts. Bone marrow was flushed from femurs and tibias and counted, and aliquots were used for stem-cell assay (CFU-S) or flow cytometry (FCM) analysis. One aliquot of marrow was stained with propidium iodide for cell-cycle analysis and another was reacted with fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody for B-cell analysis. The preparations were analyzed for forward and 90/sup 0/ scatter and fluorescence on an Ortho 50H cytofluorograph. Perturbations of peripheral leukocytes occurred after one exposure. After multiple exposures, hematocrit, red-cell number, and hemoglobin were generally depressed, with transient compensatory bursts, and bone marrow cellularity and CFU-S were below normal. However, white-cell numbers fluctuated dramatically during the exposure period. There was a shift in differential toward granulocytes, at times resulting in severely depressed numbers of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. The FCM analysis showed an early depletion of granulocytes in the bone marrow followed by replacement and a relative lymphocyte deficit, especially pronounced at 10 wk. The B-cell changes reflected general lymphocyte perturbations. Shifts in numbers of cells in S and G/M were observed, consistent with a moderate bone marrow response to cell loss.

  16. IMPORTANT EXPOSURE FACTORS FOR CHILDREN AN ANALYSIS OF LABORATORY AND OBSERVATIONAL FIELD DATA CHARACTERIZING CUMULATIVE EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an effort to facilitate more realistic risk assessments that take into account unique childhood vulnerabilities to environmental toxicants, the U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) developed a framework for systematically identifying and addressing the most ...

  17. Is house dust the missing exposure pathway for PBDEs? An analysis of the urban fate and human exposure to PBDEs.

    PubMed

    Jones-Otazo, Heather A; Clarke, John P; Diamond, Miriam L; Archbold, Josephine A; Ferguson, Glenn; Harner, Tom; Richardson, G Mark; Ryan, John Jake; Wilford, Bryony

    2005-07-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) body burdens in North America are 20 times that of Europeans and some "high accumulation" individuals have burdens up to 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than median values, the reasons for which are not known. We estimated emissions and fate of sigma PBDEs (minus BDE-209) in a 470 km2 area of Toronto, Canada, using the Multi-media Urban Model (MUM-Fate). Using a combination of measured and modeled concentrations for indoor and outdoor air, soil, and dust plus measured concentrations in food, we estimated exposure to sigma PBDEs via soil, dust, and dietary ingestion and indoor and outdoor inhalation pathways. Fate calculations indicate that 57-85% of PBDE emissions to the outdoor environment originate from within Toronto and that the dominant removal process is advection by air to downwind locations. Inadvertent ingestion of house dust is the largest contributor to exposure of toddlers through to adults and is thus the main exposure pathway for all life stages other than the infant, including the nursing mother, who transfers PBDEs to her infant via human milk. The next major exposure pathway is dietary ingestion of animal and dairy products. Infant consumption of human milk is the largest contributor to lifetime exposure. Inadvertent ingestion of dust is the main exposure pathway for a scenario of occupational exposure in a computer recycling facility and a fish eater. Ingestion of dust can lead to almost 100-fold higher exposure than "average" for a toddler with a high dust intake rate living in a home in which PBDE concentrations are elevated. PMID:16082939

  18. Occupational exposure to asbestos and cardiovascular related diseases: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Yi; Luo, Xin; Zhang, Zhihong; Cui, Xiuqing; Liu, Yuewei; Chen, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos has become one of the leading causes of death among occupational workers in the world. The association between asbestos and cardiovascular disease is less reported. We performed a meta-analysis to quantify the association between asbestos exposure and the mortality of cardiovascular related diseases. We performed a systematic review in the PubMed database before December 2014. All cohort studies citing the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of cardiovascular related diseases in workers exposed to asbestos were collected. We then calculated the pooled standardized mortality ratios of such diseases. Sixteen studies were included. The combined results from all studies indicated the pooled SMR estimate for cardiovascular related diseases was 1.11 (95% CI, 1.01–1.22). This meta-analysis showed that asbestos exposure significantly increased the risk of cardiovascular related diseases in exposed workers. PMID:26844169

  19. Image analysis of atmospheric corrosion of field exposure high strength aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Lei; Song, Shizhe; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Zheng; Lu, Feng

    2008-08-01

    The corrosion morphology image acquisition system which can be used in the field was established. In Beijing atmospheric corrosion exposure station, the image acquisition system was used to capture the early stage corrosion morphology of five types of high strength aluminium alloy specimens. After the denoise treatment, wavelet-based image analysis method was applied to decompose the improved images and energies of sub-images were extracted as character information. Based on the variation of image energy values, the corrosion degree of aluminium alloy specimens was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The conclusion was basically identical with the result based on the corrosion weight loss. This method is supposed to be effective to analysis and quantify the corrosion damage from image of field exposure aluminium alloy specimens.

  20. Analysis of Noise Exposure Measurements Made Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limardo, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique workplace environment for U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts to conduct research and live for a period of six months or more. Noise has been an enduring environmental physical hazard that has been a challenge for the U.S. space program since before the Apollo era. Noise exposure in ISS poses significant risks to the crewmembers, such as; hearing loss (temporary or permanent), possible disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and communication, possible interference with crew task performance, and possible reduction in alarm audibility. Acoustic measurements are made aboard ISS and compared to requirements in order to assess the acoustic environment to which the crewmembers are exposed. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the noise exposure monitoring program as well as an assessment of the acoustic dosimeter data collected to date. The hardware currently being used for monitoring the noise exposure onboard ISS will be discussed. Acoustic data onboard ISS has been collected since the beginning of ISS (Increment 1, November 2000). Noise exposure data analysis will include acoustic dosimetry logged data from crew-worn during work and sleep periods and also fixed-location measurements from Increment 1 to present day. Noise exposure levels (8-, 16- and 24-hr), LEQ, will also be provided and discussed in this paper. Discussions related to hearing protection will also be included. Future directions and recommendations for the noise exposure monitoring program will be highlighted. This acoustic data is used to ensure a safe and healthy working and living environment for the crewmembers aboard the ISS.

  1. Analysis of Noise Exposure Measurements Acquired Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limardo, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique workplace environment for U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts to conduct research and live for a period of six months or more. Noise has been an enduring environmental physical hazard that has been a challenge for the U.S. space program since before the Apollo era. Noise exposure in ISS poses significant risks to the crewmembers, such as; hearing loss (temporary or permanent), possible disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and communication, possible interference with crew task performance, and possible reduction in alarm audibility. Acoustic measurements were made onboard ISS and compared to requirements in order to assess the acoustic environment to which the crewmembers are exposed. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the noise exposure monitoring program as well as an assessment of the acoustic dosimeter data collected to date. The hardware currently being used for monitoring the noise exposure onboard ISS will be discussed. Acoustic data onboard ISS has been collected since the beginning of ISS (Increment 1, November 2001). Noise exposure data analysis will include acoustic dosimetry logged data from crew-worn dosimeters during work and sleep periods and also fixed-location measurements from Increment 1 to present day. Noise exposure levels (8-, 16- and 24-hr), LEQ, will also be provided and discussed in this paper. Future directions and recommendations for the noise exposure monitoring program will be highlighted. This acoustic data is used to ensure a safe and healthy working and living environment for the crewmembers onboard the ISS.

  2. "A Great First Step into Research": Stepping Into Research Is an Effective and Sustainable Model for Research Training in Clinical Settings: A Report of 6-Year Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Harding, Katherine E; Shields, Nora; Whiteside, Mary; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2016-01-01

    Cultivating a dynamic research culture is critical to growing the allied health professions. The Stepping into Research training program was developed in 2008 using small group training and mentoring to train allied health clinicians at a large health service in basic research skills. This paper describes the outcomes 6 years after its implementation, including translation of the program to a second health service. This mixed-methods observational evaluation included (1) quantitative data on research outputs (publications, conference presentations- and enrolment in further research training) and (2) qualitative analysis of the experiences of the first cohort of participants following translation of the program to a second site, with comparison to a previous evaluation conducted at the first site. Of the 55 participants enrolled in the program over 6 years, 49 completed the basic program resulting in 22 academic publications, 21 conference presentations, and 5 PhD enrolments. Qualitative data suggest the first cohort of participants and mentors at both sites experienced similar benefits and challenges. The Stepping into Research program has led to tangible research outcomes, has been sustained over 6 years, and been translated to a second health service. Questions remain about the impact of the program on clinical outcomes and research culture. PMID:27585613

  3. Association between Occupational Exposure to Wood Dust and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Sardón, Montserrat; Chamorro, Antonio-J.; Hernández-García, Ignacio; Iglesias-de-Sena, Helena; Martín-Rodero, Helena; Herrera, Cristian; Marcos, Miguel; Mirón-Canelo, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review to analyze the association between occupational exposure to wood dust and cancer. Methods A systematic literature search of entries made in the MEDLINE-PubMed database between 1957 and 2013 was conducted to identify studies that had assessed the relationship between occupational exposure to wood dust and different types of cancer. A meta-analysis of selected case-control and cohort studies was subsequently performed. Results A total of 114 studies were identified and 70 were selected for review. Of these, 42 studies focused on the relationship between wood dust and nasal cancer (n = 22), lung cancer (n = 11), and other types of cancer (n = 9). Low-to-moderate quality evidence that wood dust acts as a carcinogen was obtained, and a stronger association between wood dust and nasal adenocarcinoma was observed. A lesser association between wood dust exposure and lung cancer was also observed. Several studies suggested that there is a relationship between wood dust and the onset of other cancers, although there was no evidence to establish an association. A meta-analysis that included four case-controls studies showed that workers exposed to wood dust exhibited higher rates of nasal adenocarcinoma than other workers (odds ratio = 10.28; 95% confidence interval: 5.92 and 17.85; P<0,0001), although a large degree of heterogeneity was found. Conclusions Low-to-moderate quality evidence supports a causal association between cancer and occupational exposure to wood dust, and this association was stronger for nasal adenocarcinoma than for lung cancer. There was no evidence of an association between wood dust exposure and the other cancers examined. PMID:26191795

  4. Vulnerability of Thai rice production to simultaneous climate and socioeconomic changes: a double exposure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangpenchan, R.

    2011-12-01

    This research explores the vulnerability of Thai rice production to simultaneous exposure by climate and socioeconomic change -- so-called "double exposure." Both processes influence Thailand's rice production system, but the vulnerabilities associated with their interactions are unknown. To understand this double exposure, I adopts a mixed-method, qualitative-quantitative analytical approach consisting of three phases of analysis involving a Vulnerability Scoping Diagram, a Principal Component Analysis, and the EPIC crop model using proxy datasets collected from secondary data sources at provincial scales.The first and second phases identify key variables representing each of the three dimensions of vulnerability -- exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity indicating that the greatest vulnerability in the rice production system occurs in households and areas with high exposure to climate change, high sensitivity to climate and socioeconomic stress, and low adaptive capacity. In the third phase, the EPIC crop model simulates rice yields associated with future climate change projected by CSIRO and MIROC climate models. Climate change-only scenarios project the decrease in yields by 10% from the current productivity during 2016-2025 and 30% during 2045-2054. Scenarios applying both climate change and improved technology and management practices show that a 50% increase in rice production is possible, but requires strong collaboration between sectors to advance agricultural research and technology and requires strong adaptive capacity in the rice production system characterized by well-developed social capital, social networks, financial capacity, and infrastructure and household mobility at the local scale. The vulnerability assessment and climate and crop adaptation simulations used here provide useful information to decision makers developing vulnerability reduction plans in the face of concurrent climate and socioeconomic change.

  5. Hair analysis of opiates in mothers and newborns for evaluating opiate exposure during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Vinner, Elisabeth; Vignau, Jean; Thibault, Denise; Codaccioni, Xavier; Brassart, Claudie; Humbert, Luc; Lhermitte, Michel

    2003-04-23

    The increasing interest in toxicological hair analysis as a marker of human exposure to xenobiotics such as illicit substances or therapeutic drugs, has been made feasible by the extension of mass spectrometry, a highly sensitive method of detection. A newborn exposed to drugs in utero can suffer from a varying degree of withdrawal syndrome, a few days after birth. If of opiate origin, the withdrawal syndrome can be treated with morphine, among other therapeutics, but it is not easy to diagnose because of atypical symptoms presented by neonates and especially when maternal drug addiction has not been revealed. To assess and measure toxicological factors linked with the appearance and the severity of this syndrome, maternal and neonatal matrices such as urine, meconium and hair were collected during a protocol approved by the ethical committee. Opiates in particular were measured with GC-MS and potential combined dependences (cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine, LSD and benzodiazepines) and/or substitutive therapeutics (methadone or buprenorphine) were also assessed in 17 mother/neonate couples. Gestational opiate exposure profiles were drawn up and linked with the observed withdrawal syndromes. A withdrawal syndrome seems to appear more frequently after foetal exposure to an association of opiates/substitutive molecules (8 out of 10 withdrawal syndromes observed in this study), although the impact of cocaine and benzodiazepines must also be taken into account. The results obtained in neonatal hair make it possible to affirm foetal drug exposure and are in accordance, for the majority, with the appearance of a neonatal withdrawal syndrome (NWS). Neonatal hair analysis could contribute to assess in utero exposure to opiates, particularly when results in urine and meconium are negative or when these matrices are not available. PMID:12742690

  6. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dan; Zhou, Tingting; Tao, Yun; Feng, Yaqian; Shen, Xiaoli; Mei, Surong

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) could increase non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. However, results from epidemiological studies investigating this association remain controversial. We thus conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the association between OCP exposure and NHL risk. Relevant publications were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase and identified according to the inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies (6 nested case-control, 1 case-cohort, and 6 case-control) were selected for this meta-analysis. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate the relationship between OCPs exposure and NHL risk. The summary OR for included studies was 1.40 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.56). No overall significant heterogeneity in the OR was observed (Ph = 0.253, I2 = 12.6%). Furthermore, OR estimates in subgroup analyses were discussed, and strong associations were observed for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.66), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.87), chlordane (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.48), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB, OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.99). This meta-analysis had suggested that total OCPs of interest was significantly positively associated with NHL risk. PMID:27185567

  7. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Zhou, Tingting; Tao, Yun; Feng, Yaqian; Shen, Xiaoli; Mei, Surong

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) could increase non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. However, results from epidemiological studies investigating this association remain controversial. We thus conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the association between OCP exposure and NHL risk. Relevant publications were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase and identified according to the inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies (6 nested case-control, 1 case-cohort, and 6 case-control) were selected for this meta-analysis. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate the relationship between OCPs exposure and NHL risk. The summary OR for included studies was 1.40 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.56). No overall significant heterogeneity in the OR was observed (Ph = 0.253, I(2) = 12.6%). Furthermore, OR estimates in subgroup analyses were discussed, and strong associations were observed for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.66), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.87), chlordane (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.48), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB, OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.99). This meta-analysis had suggested that total OCPs of interest was significantly positively associated with NHL risk. PMID:27185567

  8. Osseointegrated implants in vertical ridge augmentation with a nonresorbable membrane: a retrospective study of 75 implants with 1 to 6 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Filippo; Grossi, Giovanni Battista; Fimanò, Maurizio; Maiorana, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate 75 implants inserted in vertically augmented bone at the time of or prior to implant placement after 1 to 6 years of prosthetic loading. The study included 21 patients (29 surgical sites). The vertical procedure was performed combining a titanium-reinforced expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane with autograft (7 sites), allograft (5 sites), or auto-xenograft (17 sites). Healing was uneventful in 24 surgical sites. Three sites showed premature exposure, and two sites presented an abscess. Two implants were lost, for a cumulative survival rate of 93.6%. Mean bone remodeling at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years was 0.34, 0.72, 1.04, 0.84, 0.56, and 0.61 mm, respectively. The implant success rate was higher with a simultaneous approach (82.5%) compared with a staged approach (66.8%). Implants surrounded by keratinized mucosa revealed a higher success rate (82.1%) than those without it (58.4%). PMID:25734704

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Low Dose Arsenic and Ionizing Radiation Exposure on Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Susanne R.; Santana, Alison R.; Li, Dan; Rice, Robert H.; Rocke, David M.; Goldberg, Zelanna

    2008-01-01

    Human exposure to arsenic and ionizing radiation occur environmentally at low levels. While the human health effects of arsenic and ionizing radiation have been examined separately, there is little information regarding their combined effects at doses approaching environmental levels. Arsenic toxicity may be affected by concurrent ionizing radiation especially given their known individual carcinogenic actions at higher doses. We found that keratinocytes responded to either low dose arsenic and/or low dose ionizing radiation exposure, resulting in differential proteomic expression based on 2DGE, immunoblotting and statistical analysis. Seven proteins were identified that passed a rigorous statistical screen for differential expression in 2DGE and also passed a strict statistical screen for follow-up immunoblotting. These included: α-enolase, epidermal-fatty acid binding protein, heat shock protein 27, histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1, lactate dehydrogenase A, protein disulfide isomerase precursor and S100A9. Four proteins had combined effects that were different than would be expected based on the response to either individual toxicant. These data demonstrate a possible reaction to the combined insult that is substantially different from that of either separate treatment. Several proteins had different responses than what has been seen from high dose exposures, adding to the growing literature suggesting that the cellular responses to low dose exposures are distinct. PMID:19294697

  10. Intervention strategies for carcass disposal: pareto analysis of exposures for exotic disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Delgado, João; Longhurst, Phil; Hickman, Gordon A W; Gauntlett, Daniel M; Howson, Simon F; Irving, Phil; Hart, Alwyn; Pollard, Simon J T

    2010-06-15

    An enhanced methodology for the policy-level prioritization of intervention options during carcass disposal is presented. Pareto charts provide a semiquantitative analysis of opportunities for multiple exposures to human health, animal health, and the wider environment during carcass disposal; they identify critical control points for risk management and assist in waste technology assessment. Eighty percent of the total availability of more than 1300 potential exposures to human, animal, or environmental receptors is represented by 16 processes, these being dominated by on-farm collection and carcass processing, reinforcing the criticality of effective controls during early stages of animal culling and waste processing. Exposures during mass burials are dominated by ground- and surface-water exposures with noise and odor nuisance prevalent for mass pyres, consistent with U.K. experience. Pareto charts are discussed in the context of other visualization formats for policy officials and promoted as a communication tool for informing the site-specific risk assessments required during the operational phases of exotic disease outbreaks. PMID:20536266

  11. Lung cancer risk after exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Ben; Hutchinson, Emma; Unwin, John; Fletcher, Tony

    2004-06-01

    Typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures are established lung carcinogens, but the quantitative exposure-response relationship is less clear. To clarify this relationship we conducted a review and meta-analysis of published reports of occupational epidemiologic studies. Thirty-nine cohorts were included. The average estimated unit relative risk (URR) at 100 Mu g/m (superscript)3(/superscript) years benzo[a]pyrene was 1.20 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.29] and was not sensitive to particular studies or analytic methods. However, the URR varied by industry. The estimated means in coke ovens, gasworks, and aluminum production works were similar (1.15-1.17). Average URRs in other industries were higher but imprecisely estimated, with those for asphalt (17.5; CI, 4.21-72.78) and chimney sweeps (16.2; CI, 1.64-160.7) significantly higher than the three above. There was no statistically significant variation of URRs within industry or in relation to study design (including whether adjusted for smoking), or source of exposure information. Limited information on total dust exposure did not suggest that dust exposure was an important confounder or modified the effect. These results provide a more secure basis for risk assessment than was previously available. PMID:15198916

  12. Exposure uniformity analysis and optimization for scanning mirror system in Hefei lithography beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Congliang; Yin, Chuanshi; Liu, Tonghui; Zhong, Aijuan; Qian, Shinan

    2001-10-01

    It is a new technology to use synchrotron radiation lithography for making large scale integral circuit. Synchrotron radiation lithography System is composed of lithography beam line and exposure chamber. A scanning mirror system is making the largest linear exposure area for integrate circuit. By means of increasing control fineness and optimizing scanning frequency in on-line control system, the uniformity of exposure grating is improved quite well. It is opening good idea for every scientist and technician to continue study. It is shown that inspect and control system is still reliable, noise reduced and very convenient after several years operation. It shows operating status of each equipment and vacuum figures on beam line and station, mirror scanning linearity, exposure time, beam current, and so on. Some successful soft X-ray lithography sub-micrometer results are achieved by different users in this system, they are showing very good resolution, more clear leakage and enough depth for example. A convenient and smart optimum analysis system will be developed soon. It is easy to find very good oscillation frequency for mirror vibrating, and the strong interference from current monitor in synchrotron radiation storage ring is reduced very well. Convenient, compact, reliability and safety are the basic but important idea of system design, and what is higher level consideration for getting fine result of micro lithography. There will have enough database space for a different kind user to storage on- line test datum in system.

  13. Exposure to violent video games and aggression in German adolescents: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Möller, Ingrid; Krahé, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to violent electronic games and aggressive cognitions and behavior was examined in a longitudinal study. A total of 295 German adolescents completed the measures of violent video game usage, endorsement of aggressive norms, hostile attribution bias, and physical as well as indirect/relational aggression cross-sectionally, and a subsample of N=143 was measured again 30 months later. Cross-sectional results at T1 showed a direct relationship between violent game usage and aggressive norms, and an indirect link to hostile attribution bias through aggressive norms. In combination, exposure to game violence, normative beliefs, and hostile attribution bias predicted physical and indirect/relational aggression. Longitudinal analyses using path analysis showed that violence exposure at T1 predicted physical (but not indirect/relational) aggression 30 months later, whereas aggression at T1 was unrelated to later video game use. Exposure to violent games at T1 influenced physical (but not indirect/relational) aggression at T2 via an increase of aggressive norms and hostile attribution bias. The findings are discussed in relation to social-cognitive explanations of long-term effects of media violence on aggression. PMID:19016226

  14. The use of Monte Carlo analysis for exposure assessment of an estuarine food web

    SciTech Connect

    Iannuzzi, T.J.; Shear, N.M.; Harrington, N.W.; Henning, M.H.

    1995-12-31

    Despite apparent agreement within the scientific community that probabilistic methods of analysis offer substantially more informative exposure predictions than those offered by the traditional point estimate approach, few risk assessments conducted or approved by state and federal regulatory agencies have used probabilistic methods. Among the likely deterrents to application of probabilistic methods to ecological risk assessment is the absence of ``standard`` data distributions that are considered applicable to most conditions for a given ecological receptor. Indeed, point estimates of ecological exposure factor values for a limited number of wildlife receptors have only recently been published. The Monte Carlo method of probabilistic modeling has received increasing support as a promising technique for characterizing uncertainty and variation in estimates of exposure to environmental contaminants. An evaluation of literature on the behavior, physiology, and ecology of estuarine organisms was conducted in order to identify those variables that most strongly influence uptake of xenobiotic chemicals from sediments, water and food sources. The ranges, central tendencies, and distributions of several key parameter values for polychaetes (Nereis sp.), mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in east coast estuaries were identified. Understanding the variation in such factors, which include feeding rate, growth rate, feeding range, excretion rate, respiration rate, body weight, lipid content, food assimilation efficiency, and chemical assimilation efficiency, is critical to the understanding the mechanisms that control the uptake of xenobiotic chemicals in aquatic organisms, and to the ability to estimate bioaccumulation from chemical exposures in the aquatic environment.

  15. Long duration exposure facility post-flight thermal analysis: Orbital/thermal environment data package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrios, William M.

    1990-01-01

    A post flight mission thermal environment for the Long Duration Exposure Facility was created as part of the thermal analysis data reduction effort. The data included herein is the thermal parameter data used in the calculation of boundary temperatures. This boundary temperature data is to be released in the near future for use by the LDEF principal investigators in the final analysis of their particular experiment temperatures. Also included is the flight temperature data as recorded by the LDEF Thermal Measurements System (THERM) for the first 90 days of flight.

  16. SFDT-1 Camera Pointing and Sun-Exposure Analysis and Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Joseph; Dutta, Soumyo; Striepe, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) vehicle was developed to advance and test technologies of NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Technology Demonstration Mission. The first flight test (SFDT-1) occurred on June 28, 2014. In order to optimize the usefulness of the camera data, analysis was performed to optimize parachute visibility in the camera field of view during deployment and inflation and to determine the probability of sun-exposure issues with the cameras given the vehicle heading and launch time. This paper documents the analysis, results and comparison with flight video of SFDT-1.

  17. A generalized approach to the thermal analysis of the Long Duration Exposure Facility's flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampair, Thomas R.

    1993-01-01

    The generalized method employed in the thermal analysis of a Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight experiment is presented. The method consists of thermal math model development, defining the orbital heating rates, and applying the appropriate temperature boundary conditions. This approach has proven to be an accurate method for predicting experiment component temperatures for the worst case orbital environments and calculating daily average component temperatures for any part or all time portions of the 5.8 year mission. The application of this method to the thermal analysis of the Ultra-Heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei experiment (UHCRE) is presented as an example of this approach.

  18. Tracing fetal and childhood exposure to lead using isotope analysis of deciduous teeth.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Thomas J; Dirks, Wendy; Roberts, Nick M W; Patel, Jaiminkumar G; Hodgson, Susan; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja; Walton, Pamela; Parrish, Randall R

    2016-04-01

    We report progress in using the isotopic composition and concentration of Pb in the dentine and enamel of deciduous teeth to provide a high resolution time frame of exposure to Pb during fetal development and early childhood. Isotope measurements (total Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb, (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratios) were acquired by laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry at contiguous 100 micron intervals across thin sections of the teeth; from the outer enamel surface to the pulp cavity. Teeth samples (n=10) were selected from two cohorts of children, aged 5-8 years, living in NE England. By integrating the isotope data with histological analysis of the teeth, using the daily incremental lines in dentine, we were able to assign true estimated ages to each ablation point (first 2-3 years for molars, first 1-2 years for incisors+pre-natal growth). Significant differences were observed in the isotope composition and concentration of Pb between children, reflecting differences in the timing and sources of exposure during early childhood. Those born in 2000, after the withdrawal of leaded petrol in 1999, have the lowest dentine Pb levels (<0.2µgPb/g) with (208)Pb/(206)Pb (mean ±2σ: 2.126-2.079) (208)Pb/(206)Pb (mean ±2σ: 0.879-0.856) ratios that correlate very closely with modern day Western European industrial aerosols (PM10, PM2.5) suggesting that diffuse airborne pollution was probably the primary source and exposure pathway. Legacy lead, if present, is insignificant. For those born in 1997, dentine lead levels are typically higher (>0.4µgPb/g) with (208)Pb/(206)Pb (mean ±2σ: 2.145-2.117) (208)Pb/(206)Pb (mean ±2σ: 0.898-0.882) ratios that can be modelled as a binary mix between industrial aerosols and leaded petrol emissions. Short duration, high intensity exposure events (1-2 months) were readily identified, together with evidence that dentine provides a good proxy for childhood changes in the isotope composition of blood Pb. Our pilot study confirms that

  19. Integrating Landsat and California pesticide exposure estimation at aggregated analysis scales: Accuracy assessment of rurality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vopham, Trang Minh

    Pesticide exposure estimation in epidemiologic studies can be constrained to analysis scales commonly available for cancer data - census tracts and ZIP codes. Research goals included (1) demonstrating the feasibility of modifying an existing geographic information system (GIS) pesticide exposure method using California Pesticide Use Reports (PURs) and land use surveys to incorporate Landsat remote sensing and to accommodate aggregated analysis scales, and (2) assessing the accuracy of two rurality metrics (quality of geographic area being rural), Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes and the U.S. Census Bureau urban-rural system, as surrogates for pesticide exposure when compared to the GIS gold standard. Segments, derived from 1985 Landsat NDVI images, were classified using a crop signature library (CSL) created from 1990 Landsat NDVI images via a sum of squared differences (SSD) measure. Organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbamate Kern County PUR applications (1974-1990) were matched to crop fields using a modified three-tier approach. Annual pesticide application rates (lb/ac), and sensitivity and specificity of each rurality metric were calculated. The CSL (75 land use classes) classified 19,752 segments [median SSD 0.06 NDVI]. Of the 148,671 PUR records included in the analysis, Landsat contributed 3,750 (2.5%) additional tier matches. ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) rates ranged between 0 and 1.36 lb/ac and census tract rates between 0 and 1.57 lb/ac. Rurality was a mediocre pesticide exposure surrogate; higher rates were observed among urban areal units. ZCTA-level RUCA codes offered greater specificity (39.1-60%) and sensitivity (25-42.9%). The U.S. Census Bureau metric offered greater specificity (92.9-97.5%) at the census tract level; sensitivity was low (≤6%). The feasibility of incorporating Landsat into a modified three-tier GIS approach was demonstrated. Rurality accuracy is affected by rurality metric, areal aggregation, pesticide chemical

  20. Time location analysis for exposure assessment studies of indoor workers based on active RFID technology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fu-Chuan; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu; Chao, Huan-Ping; Wang, Peng-Yau

    2010-02-01

    In this article, we describe the development of a radio frequency identification exposure monitoring system (RFEMS) suitable for tracking and identifying workers' locations in indoor workplaces. Five workers in southern Taiwan wore the RFEMS integrated into their equipment vests. Location and exposure data were transferred to data analysis software for visualization and tabular analysis in real-time. Data were grouped into seven task activity location categories to determine the time spent and percentage reception in each location. The RFEMS could also synchronously indicate the surrounding conditions using various sensors. Additional experiments were focused on locating of boundaries and determining the instrument stability, power sustainability, and reception efficiency in typical environments. The RFEMS instruments provided adequate range for locating (typically ca. 6-45 m in each zone), allowing us to locate subjects within distinct microenvironments and to distinguish between the activities of a variety of workers, the average time activity pattern (TAP) recording deviation for both human observations and RFEMS was ca. 0.21-1.57%. Power consumption experiments revealed that the system could be sustained for more than 124 h. A pilot field test indicated that the RFEMS offers a new level of accuracy for direct quantification of time activity patterns in exposure assessments of indoor workers over long periods of time. PMID:20145895

  1. Systematic review and meta-analysis of glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ellen T.; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This systematic review and meta-analysis rigorously examines the relationship between glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancer (LHC) including NHL, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia. Meta-relative risks (meta-RRs) were positive and marginally statistically significant for the association between any versus no use of glyphosate and risk of NHL (meta-RR = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0–1.6, based on six studies) and MM (meta-RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0–1.9; four studies). Associations were statistically null for HL (meta-RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.7–1.6; two studies), leukemia (meta-RR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6–1.5; three studies), and NHL subtypes except B-cell lymphoma (two studies each). Bias and confounding may account for observed associations. Meta-analysis is constrained by few studies and a crude exposure metric, while the overall body of literature is methodologically limited and findings are not strong or consistent. Thus, a causal relationship has not been established between glyphosate exposure and risk of any type of LHC. PMID:27015139

  2. Systematic review and meta-analysis of glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ellen T; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis rigorously examines the relationship between glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancer (LHC) including NHL, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia. Meta-relative risks (meta-RRs) were positive and marginally statistically significant for the association between any versus no use of glyphosate and risk of NHL (meta-RR = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-1.6, based on six studies) and MM (meta-RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-1.9; four studies). Associations were statistically null for HL (meta-RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.7-1.6; two studies), leukemia (meta-RR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6-1.5; three studies), and NHL subtypes except B-cell lymphoma (two studies each). Bias and confounding may account for observed associations. Meta-analysis is constrained by few studies and a crude exposure metric, while the overall body of literature is methodologically limited and findings are not strong or consistent. Thus, a causal relationship has not been established between glyphosate exposure and risk of any type of LHC. PMID:27015139

  3. Immunochemical analysis of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, a biomarker of forestry worker exposure to pyrethroid insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ki Chang; Gee, Shirley J.; Kim, Hee-Joo; Aronov, Pavel A.; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides widely used in forestry, agricultural, industrial, and residential applications have potential for human exposure. Short sample preparation time and sensitive, economical high-throughput assays are needed for biomonitoring studies that analyze a large number of samples. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for determining 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a general urinary biomarker of exposure to some pyrethroid insecticides. A mixed-mode solid-phase extraction reduced interferences from acid hydrolyzed urine and gave 110±6% recoveries from spiked samples. The method limit of quantification was 2 μg/L. Urine samples were collected from forestry workers that harvest pine cone seeds where pyrethroid insecticides were applied at ten different orchards. At least four samples for each worker were collected in a 1-week period. The 3-PBA in workers classified as high, low, or no exposure based on job analysis over all sampling days was 6.40± 9.60 (n=200), 5.27±5.39 (n=52), and 3.56±2.64 ng/mL (n=34), respectively. Pair-wise comparison of the differences in least squares means of 3-PBA concentrations among groups only showed a significant difference between high and no exposure. Although this difference was not significant when 3-PBA excretion was normalized by creatinine excretion, the general trend was still apparent. No significant differences were observed among days or orchards. This ELISA method using a 96-well plate was performed as a high-throughput tool for analyzing around 300 urine samples measured in triplicate to provide data for workers exposure assessment. PMID:21717113

  4. Management of Sjogren's Syndrome Patient: A Case Report of Prosthetic Rehabilitation with 6-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    de Mendonça Invernici, Marcos; Vale Nicolau, Gastão; Naval Machado, Maria Ângela; Soares de Lima, Antônio Adilson

    2014-01-01

    Completely and partially edentulous patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS) experience severe hyposalivation, xerostomia, and considerable difficulty in using tissue-supported prosthesis. This clinical paper describes the management, treatment, and 6-year follow-up of a patient diagnosed with SS type II, who uses corticosteroids and antihyperglycemic drugs. The patient received restorative, periodontal, and surgical treatments followed by implant-supported fixed prosthesis. Radiographic evaluation and probing depth showed gingival health and no bone loss after 6 years. Treatment with implant-retained dental prosthesis greatly increased comfort and function, offering an alternative to patients with SS. PMID:25478245

  5. FAULT TREE ANALYSIS FOR EXPOSURE TO REFRIGERANTS USED FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fault tree analysis was used to estimate the number of refrigerant exposures of automotive service technicians and vehicle occupants in the United States. Exposures of service technicians can occur when service equipment or automotive air-conditioning systems leak during servic...

  6. Indoor exposure to formaldehyde and relation to asthma-related illness – a systematic review and meta-analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formaldehyde exposure is associated with asthma-like symptoms in occupational settings, but does exposure at lower concentrations in residential settings contribute to the current high burden of this respiratory disease? We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of asth...

  7. Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure and Cancer Outcomes in a Contaminated Community: A Geographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Weinberg, Janice M.; Webster, Thomas F.; Fletcher, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been linked to cancer in occupational mortality studies and animal toxicologic research. Objective: We investigated the relationship between PFOA exposure and cancer among residents living near the DuPont Teflon-manufacturing plant in Parkersburg, West Virginia (WV). Methods: Our analyses included incident cases of 18 cancers diagnosed from 1996 through 2005 in five Ohio (OH) counties and eight WV counties. For analyses of each cancer outcome, controls comprised all other cancers in the study data set except kidney, pancreatic, testicular, and liver cancers, which have been associated with PFOA in animal or human studies. We applied logistic regression models to individual-level data to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and confidence intervals (CIs). For the combined analysis of OH and WV data, the exposure of interest was resident water district. Within OH, geocoded addresses were integrated with a PFOA exposure model to examine the relationship between cancer odds and categories of estimated PFOA serum. Results: Our final data set included 7,869 OH cases and 17,238 WV cases. There was a positive association between kidney cancer and the very high and high serum exposure categories [AOR = 2.0 (95% CI: 1.0, 3.9) n = 9 and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.3, 3.2) n = 22, respectively] and a null association with the other exposure categories compared with the unexposed. The largest AOR was for testicular cancer with the very high exposure category [2.8 (95% CI: 0.8, 9.2) n = 6], but there was an inverse association with the lower exposure groups, and all estimates were imprecise because of small case numbers. Conclusions: Our results suggest that higher PFOA serum levels may be associated with testicular, kidney, prostate, and ovarian cancers and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Strengths of this study include near-complete case ascertainment for state residents and well-characterized contrasts in predicted PFOA serum levels from six

  8. Exposure models for the prior distribution in bayesian decision analysis for occupational hygiene decision making.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Kim, Seung Won; Feigley, Charles E; Harper, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces two semi-quantitative methods, Structured Subjective Assessment (SSA) and Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials, in conjunction with two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations for determining prior probabilities. Prior distribution using expert judgment was included for comparison. Practical applications of the proposed methods were demonstrated using personal exposure measurements of isoamyl acetate in an electronics manufacturing facility and of isopropanol in a printing shop. Applicability of these methods in real workplaces was discussed based on the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Although these methods could not be completely independent of expert judgments, this study demonstrated a methodological improvement in the estimation of the prior distribution for the Bayesian decision analysis tool. The proposed methods provide a logical basis for the decision process by considering determinants of worker exposure. PMID:23252451

  9. Crowd-based breath analysis: assessing behavior, activity, exposures, and emotional response of people in groups.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jonathan; Pleil, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    A new concept for exhaled breath analysis has emerged wherein groups, or even crowds of people are simultaneously sampled in enclosed environments to detect overall trends in their activities and recent exposures. The basic idea is to correlate the temporal profile of known breath markers such as carbon dioxide, isoprene, or acetone with all other volatile organics in the air space. Those that trend similarly in time are designated as breath constituents. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop technology for assessing group based behaviors, chemical exposures or even changes in stress or mood. Applications are myriad ranging from chemical dose/toxicity screening to health and stress status for national security diagnostics. The basic technology employs real-time mass spectrometry capable of simultaneously measuring volatile chemicals and endogenous breath markers. PMID:27341381

  10. Exposure Models for the Prior Distribution in Bayesian Decision Analysis for Occupational Hygiene Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Kim, Seung Won; Feigley, Charles E.; Harper, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces two semi-quantitative methods, Structured Subjective Assessment (SSA) and Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials, in conjunction with two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations for determining prior probabilities. Prior distribution using expert judgment was included for comparison. Practical applications of the proposed methods were demonstrated using personal exposure measurements of isoamyl acetate in an electronics manufacturing facility and of isopropanol in a printing shop. Applicability of these methods in real workplaces was discussed based on the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Although these methods could not be completely independent of expert judgments, this study demonstrated a methodological improvement in the estimation of the prior distribution for the Bayesian decision analysis tool. The proposed methods provide a logical basis for the decision process by considering determinants of worker exposure. PMID:23252451

  11. Epileptiform activity in the electroencephalogram of 6-year-old children of women with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Syam, Unnikrishnan Krishnan; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To study the epileptiform discharges (EDs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of 6-8-year-old children of women with epilepsy (WWE). Materials and Methods: All children born to women with epilepsy and prospectively followed up through the Kerala Registry of Epilepsy and Pregnancy (KREP), aged 6–8 years, were invited (n = 532). Out of the 254 children who responded, clinical evaluations and a 30-min digital 18 channel EEG were completed in 185 children. Results: Of the 185 children examined, 37 (20%) children (19 males, 18 females) had ED in their EEG. The EDs were generalized in 7 children, and focal in 30 children. The EDs were present in the sleep record only of 16 (43%) children and in the awake record only of 6 (16%) children. Out of the 94 children for whom seizure history was available, 7 children (7.4%) had seizures (neonatal seizures: 4, febrile seizure: 1, and single nonfebrile seizure: 2) and none had history of epilepsy or recurrent nonfebrile seizures. The odds ratio (OR) for occurrence of ED in the EEG was significantly higher for children of WWE [OR = 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-6.0] when compared to the published data for age-matched children of mothers without epilepsy. There was no association between the occurrence of ED and the children's maternal characteristics [epilepsy syndrome, seizures during pregnancy, maternal intelligence quotient (IQ)] or the children's characteristics [antenatal exposure to specific antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), birth weight, malformations, IQ]. Conclusion: Children of WWE have a higher risk of epileptiform activity in their EEG when compared to healthy children in the community though none had recurrent seizures. PMID:27570381

  12. Systemic Hypertension and Transient Ischemic Attack in a 6-Year-Old Girl with Fibromuscular Dysplasia Treated with Percutaneous Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Foa-Torres, Gustavo; Ganame, Javier; Juaneda, Ernesto; Peirone, Alejandro; Barcudi, Maria Silvina; Achaval, Alberto

    2010-02-15

    We describe a 6-year-old girl with arterial hypertension secondary to fibromuscular dysplasia with stenoses of both renal arteries and transient ischemic attack due to extracranial right internal carotid artery subtotal occlusion as well as left internal carotid artery stenosis. She was treated with percutaneous angioplasty of both renal and both carotid arteries.

  13. A Study of Identification and Achievement Profiles of Performance Task-Identified Gifted Students over 6 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; Feng, Annie Xuemei; de Brux, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the trend of identification and achievement patterns of performance task-identified students over a span of 6 years (2000-2005), in comparison to profiles of students who were identified exclusively through traditional ability and achievement tests. The study findings suggested that the performance-based protocols were…

  14. A Pilot Study on the Gross Motor Proficiency of Hong Kong Preschoolers Aged 5 to 6 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung; Schiller, Wendy

    2001-01-01

    Used the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency to examine the gross motor proficiency of Hong Kong 5- to 6-year-old preschoolers. Found that both age groups scored well below norms in running speed and agility and well above norms on balance, bilateral coordination, strength, and upper-limb coordination. Boys were superior to girls on…

  15. Temporal Learning in 4 1/2- and 6-Year-Old Children: Role of Instructions and Prior Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droit, Sylvie; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined the role of prior temporal knowledge of 4 1/2- and 6-year-olds through the use of high-rate, interval, and minimal instructions in a fixed-interval training schedule. Determined that the subjects' learning depended on their verbal self-control skills. (BC)

  16. A Study on the Relationship between the Rhythm and Mathematics Skills of 5-6 Year Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertoglu, Ercan

    2010-01-01

    This is a relational scan study aiming to question the relationship between rhythm skills which are the most fundamental element in musical development and mathematics ability. Also within the general aims of the study is to examine whether this relationship varies with respect to the personal characteristics of 5-6 year olds. It has been…

  17. Brief Family Intervention Effects on Adolescent Substance Initiation: School-Level Growth Curve Analyses 6 Years Following Baseline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol; Azevedo,Kari

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the effects of 2 brief family-focused interventions on the trajectories of substance initiation over a period of 6 years following a baseline assessment. The 2 interventions, designed for general-population families of adolescents, were the 7-session Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP) (Molgaard & Spoth, 2001) and the…

  18. Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…

  19. Effects of Delays on 6-Year-Old Children's Self-Generation and Retention of Knowledge through Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga, Nicole L.; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    The current research was an investigation of the effect of delay on self-generation and retention of knowledge derived through integration by 6-year-old children. Children were presented with novel facts from passages read aloud to them (i.e., "stem" facts) and tested for self-generation of new knowledge through integration of the facts. In…

  20. A Common Representational System Governed by Weber's Law: Nonverbal Numerical Similarity Judgments in 6-Year-Olds and Rhesus Macaques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kerry E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    This study compared nonverbal numerical processing in 6-year-olds with that in nonhuman animals using a numerical bisection task. In the study, 16 children were trained on a delayed match-to-sample paradigm to match exemplars of two anchor numerosities. Children were then required to indicate whether a sample intermediate to the anchor values was…

  1. Childhood Peer Rejection and Aggression as Predictors of Adolescent Girls' Externalizing and Health Risk Behaviors: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2004-01-01

    This 6-year longitudinal study examined girls' peer-nominated social preference and aggression in childhood as predictors of self- and parent-reported externalizing symptoms, substance use (i.e.. cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use), and sexual risk behavior in adolescence. Participants were 148 girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds, who were…

  2. Acquisition of the Concept of Teaching and Its Relationship with Theory of Mind in French 3- to 6-Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensalah, Leila; Olivier, Marie; Stefaniak, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how and when preschoolers master the concept of teaching, particularly in relation to the acquisition of theory of mind (ToM). We investigated the relationship between the two in children aged 3-6 years old. One hundred and seventeen French preschool pupils answered questions about different teaching situations illustrated in…

  3. Just What Are Rural Premedical Students Thinking? A Report of the First 6 Years of a Pathways Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, William J.; Fricker, R. Steve; Crump, Allison M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess outcomes of the first 6 years of a program designed to facilitate medical school admission for rural premedical students. Methods: Students completing the University of Louisville School of Medicine Trover Rural Scholar program were surveyed using a 23-item survey. Findings: Twenty-two of the 24 (92%) students responded.…

  4. Motor Coordination Difficulties in 5-6-Year-Old Children with Severe Behavioural and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Synnove; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Ellertsen, Bjorn; Nodland, Magne; Larsen, Tommy Bade

    2006-01-01

    Incidence, severity and types of motor difficulties in children with severe behavioural and emotional problems were evaluated. A group of 6-year-olds (n = 29) with such problems and controls (n = 29) were compared on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC). The groups were compared on total scores as well as manual dexterity, ball…

  5. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis, gallium-67 lung scanning and soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels in asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Delclos, G L; Flitcraft, D G; Brousseau, K P; Windsor, N T; Nelson, D L; Wilson, R K; Lawrence, E C

    1989-04-01

    This study examined different markers of lung immunologic and inflammatory responses to previous asbestos exposure. We performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and gallium-67 (67Ga) lung scans and measured serum and BAL soluble interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) levels in 32 subjects with a history of significant asbestos exposure, 14 without (EXP) and 18 with (ASB) radiographic evidence of asbestosis. BAL analysis revealed increases in neutrophils in both ASB and EXP when compared to controls (P less than 0.01), which persisted after adjustment for smoking category. Although significant abnormalities of macrophage and total lymphocyte profiles were not found in the study population, lymphocyte subpopulation analysis revealed elevation of BAL T4/T8 ratios in the entire study group (ASB + EXP) when compared to controls (P less than 0.05), independent of smoking category. 67Ga lung scan activity was increased in 56% of ASB and in 36% of EXP: no correlations between positive scans and different radiological and functional parameters could be found. There was no significant elevation of mean SACE, serum, or BAL IL-2R levels in any of the study categories. These data suggest that asbestos exposure may be associated with parenchymal inflammation, even in the absence of clinical criteria for asbestosis. Abnormalities of gallium uptake and of BAL analysis reflect the clinically inapparent inflammation. The increased BAL T4/T8 ratios observed suggest that abnormal local pulmonary immunoregulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related lung diseases. PMID:2538325

  6. Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged 0–6 Years Old in Hunan Province, China from 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Kewei; Wu, Xiaoli; Xiao, Zhenghui; Lu, Xiulan; Zhu, Yimin; Zuo, Chao; Yang, Yongjia; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to describe blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in children aged 0–6 years old and to analyze the BLL trend in children from 2009 to 2013 in China. Methods A total of 124,376 children aged 0–6 years old were recruited for this study from January 1st 2009 to December 31st 2013. Their blood lead levels were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results The median BLL was 64.3 μg/L (IQR: 49.6–81.0), and the range was 4.3–799.0 μg/L. Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (66.0 μg/L) than in girls (61.9 μg/L) (P<0.001). The overall prevalence of BLLs≥100 μg/L was 10.54% in children aged 0–6 years in Hunan Province. Between 2009 and 2013, the prevalence of EBLLs (≥100 μg/L) decreased from 18.31% to 4.26% in children aged 0–6 years and increased with age. The prevalence of EBLLs has dramatically decreased in two stages (2009–2010 and 2012–2013), with a slight fluctuation in 2010 and 2011. Conclusions Both BLLs and the prevalence of EBLLs in children aged 0–6 years old declined substantially from 2009 to 2013 in Hunan Province; however, both remain at unacceptably high levels compared to developed countries. Comprehensive strategies are required to further reduce blood lead levels in children. PMID:25830596

  7. Lung Cancer Risk after Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Ben; Hutchinson, Emma; Unwin, John; Fletcher, Tony

    2004-01-01

    Typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures are established lung carcinogens, but the quantitative exposure–response relationship is less clear. To clarify this relationship we conducted a review and meta-analysis of published reports of occupational epidemiologic studies. Thirty-nine cohorts were included. The average estimated unit relative risk (URR) at 100 μg/m3 years benzo[a]pyrene was 1.20 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11–1.29] and was not sensitive to particular studies or analytic methods. However, the URR varied by industry. The estimated means in coke ovens, gasworks, and aluminum production works were similar (1.15–1.17). Average URRs in other industries were higher but imprecisely estimated, with those for asphalt (17.5; CI, 4.21–72.78) and chimney sweeps (16.2; CI, 1.64–160.7) significantly higher than the three above. There was no statistically significant variation of URRs within industry or in relation to study design (including whether adjusted for smoking), or source of exposure information. Limited information on total dust exposure did not suggest that dust exposure was an important confounder or modified the effect. These results provide a more secure basis for risk assessment than was previously available. PMID:15198916

  8. Transcriptomic analysis in the developing zebrafish embryo after compound exposure: Individual gene expression and pathway regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hermsen, Sanne A.B.; Pronk, Tessa E.; Brandhof, Evert-Jan van den; Ven, Leo T.M. van der; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2013-10-01

    The zebrafish embryotoxicity test is a promising alternative assay for developmental toxicity. Classically, morphological assessment of the embryos is applied to evaluate the effects of compound exposure. However, by applying differential gene expression analysis the sensitivity and predictability of the test may be increased. For defining gene expression signatures of developmental toxicity, we explored the possibility of using gene expression signatures of compound exposures based on commonly expressed individual genes as well as based on regulated gene pathways. Four developmental toxic compounds were tested in concentration-response design, caffeine, carbamazepine, retinoic acid and valproic acid, and two non-embryotoxic compounds, D-mannitol and saccharin, were included. With transcriptomic analyses we were able to identify commonly expressed genes, which were mostly development related, after exposure to the embryotoxicants. We also identified gene pathways regulated by the embryotoxicants, suggestive of their modes of action. Furthermore, whereas pathways may be regulated by all compounds, individual gene expression within these pathways can differ for each compound. Overall, the present study suggests that the use of individual gene expression signatures as well as pathway regulation may be useful starting points for defining gene biomarkers for predicting embryotoxicity. - Highlights: • The zebrafish embryotoxicity test in combination with transcriptomics was used. • We explored two approaches of defining gene biomarkers for developmental toxicity. • Four compounds in concentration-response design were tested. • We identified commonly expressed individual genes as well as regulated gene pathways. • Both approaches seem suitable starting points for defining gene biomarkers.

  9. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Miscarriage and Maternal Exposure to Tobacco Smoke During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pineles, Beth L.; Park, Edward; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize the relationship between smoking and miscarriage. We searched the PubMed database (1956–August 31, 2011) using keywords and conducted manual reference searches of included articles and reports of the US Surgeon General. The full text of 1,706 articles was reviewed, and 98 articles that examined the association between active or passive smoking and miscarriage were included in the meta-analysis. Data were abstracted by 2 reviewers. Any active smoking was associated with increased risk of miscarriage (summary relative risk ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.30; n = 50 studies), and this risk was greater when the smoking exposure was specifically defined as during the pregnancy in which miscarriage risk was measured (summary relative risk ratio = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.44; n = 25 studies). The risk of miscarriage increased with the amount smoked (1% increase in relative risk per cigarette smoked per day). Secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy increased the risk of miscarriage by 11% (95% CI: 0.95, 1.31; n = 17 studies). Biases in study publication, design, and analysis did not significantly affect the results. This finding strengthens the evidence that women should not smoke while pregnant, and all women of reproductive age should be warned that smoking increases the risk of miscarriage. PMID:24518810

  10. Comparison of discriminant analysis methods: Application to occupational exposure to particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M. Rosário; Carolino, E.; Viegas, Carla; Viegas, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Health effects associated with occupational exposure to particulate matter have been studied by several authors. In this study were selected six industries of five different areas: Cork company 1, Cork company 2, poultry, slaughterhouse for cattle, riding arena and production of animal feed. The measurements tool was a portable device for direct reading. This tool provides information on the particle number concentration for six different diameters, namely 0.3 µm, 0.5 µm, 1 µm, 2.5 µm, 5 µm and 10 µm. The focus on these features is because they might be more closely related with adverse health effects. The aim is to identify the particles that better discriminate the industries, with the ultimate goal of classifying industries regarding potential negative effects on workers' health. Several methods of discriminant analysis were applied to data of occupational exposure to particulate matter and compared with respect to classification accuracy. The selected methods were linear discriminant analyses (LDA); linear quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), robust linear discriminant analysis with selected estimators (MLE (Maximum Likelihood Estimators), MVE (Minimum Volume Elipsoid), "t", MCD (Minimum Covariance Determinant), MCD-A, MCD-B), multinomial logistic regression and artificial neural networks (ANN). The predictive accuracy of the methods was accessed through a simulation study. ANN yielded the highest rate of classification accuracy in the data set under study. Results indicate that the particle number concentration of diameter size 0.5 µm is the parameter that better discriminates industries.

  11. Metabolomic analysis of rat plasma following chronic low-dose exposure to dichlorvos.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Wang, H; Xu, W; Hao, D; Du, L; Zhao, X; Sun, C

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to assess the metabolomic profile and related histopathological outcomes of rat plasma after chronic low-dose exposure to dichlorvos (DDVP). A total of 120 male Wistar rats were treated with 0, 2.4, 7.2, and 21.6 mg/kg of body weight/day DDVP continuously for 24 weeks by drinking water. Rat plasma samples were collected at different time-points to measure the metabolomic profiles by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Liver tissue analysis was performed to correlate histopathological outcome status to plasma metabolomics. Significant changes in some of the metabolites were found in all the treated groups compared with the control group. LysoPC (15:0/0:0), LysoPC (16:0/0:0), LysoPC (17:0/0:0), LysoPC (0:0/18:0), sphingosine, sphinganine, C16 sphinganine, C17 sphinganine, and arachidonic acid were decreased in the treated groups. LysoPE (16:0/0:0) was increased after dosing with DDVP. Histopathological test outcomes coincided with the plasma metabolomic-profile analysis results obtained by UPLC-MS. The livers were damaged following chronic exposure to DDVP. Abnormal changes in some lipids in the plasma, such as LysoPC (0:0/18:0), were closely related to liver dysfunction. Therefore, metabolomic analysis provides the unique advantages of unveiling the mechanisms of DDVP. PMID:23060408

  12. The beryllium quandary: will the lower exposure limits spur new developments in sampling and analysis?

    SciTech Connect

    Brisson, Michael

    2013-06-03

    At the time this article was written, new rulemakings were under consideration at OSHA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that would propose changes to occupational exposure limits for beryllium. Given these developments, it’s a good time to review the tools and methods available to IHs for assessing beryllium air and surface contamination in the workplace—what’s new and different, and what’s tried and true. The article discusses limit values and action levels for beryllium, problematic aspects of beryllium air sampling, sample preparation, sample analysis, and data evaluation.

  13. Prenatal Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure and Child Neurodevelopment at 24 Months: An Analysis of Four Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Stephanie M.; Bradman, Asa; Wolff, Mary S.; Rauh, Virginia A.; Harley, Kim G.; Yang, Jenny H.; Hoepner, Lori A.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Yolton, Kimberly; Vedar, Michelle G.; Xu, Yingying; Hornung, Richard W.; Wetmur, James G.; Chen, Jia; Holland, Nina T.; Perera, Frederica P.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are used in agriculture worldwide. Residential use was common in the United States before 2001. Objectives: We conducted a pooled analysis of four birth cohorts (children’s centers; n = 936) to evaluate associations of prenatal exposure to OPs with child development at 24 months. Methods: Using general linear models, we computed site-specific and pooled estimates of the association of total dialkyl (ΣDAP), diethyl (ΣDEP), and dimethylphosphate (ΣDMP) metabolite concentrations in maternal prenatal urine with mental and psychomotor development indices (MDI/PDI) and evaluated heterogeneity by children’s center, race/ethnicity, and PON1 genotype. Results: There was significant heterogeneity in the center-specific estimates of association for ΣDAP and ΣDMP and the MDI (p = 0.09, and p = 0.05, respectively), as well as heterogeneity in the race/ethnicity-specific estimates for ΣDAP (p = 0.06) and ΣDMP (p = 0.02) and the MDI. Strong MDI associations in the CHAMACOS population per 10-fold increase in ΣDAP (β = –4.17; 95% CI: –7.00, –1.33) and ΣDMP (β = –3.64; 95% CI: –5.97, –1.32) were influential, as were associations among Hispanics (β per 10-fold increase in ΣDAP = –2.91; 95% CI: –4.71, –1.12). We generally found stronger negative associations of ΣDAP and ΣDEP with the 24-month MDI for carriers of the 192Q PON1 allele, particularly among blacks and Hispanics. Conclusions: Data pooling was complicated by center-related differences in subject characteristics, eligibility, and changes in regulations governing residential use of OPs during the study periods. Pooled summary estimates of prenatal exposure to OPs and neurodevelopment should be interpreted with caution because of significant heterogeneity in associations by center, race/ethnicity, and PON1 genotype. Subgroups with unique exposure profiles or susceptibilities may be at higher risk for adverse neurodevelopment following prenatal

  14. Analysis and Exposure Assessment of Perchlorate in Korean Dairy Products with LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sung-Hee; Lee, Ji-Woo; Mandy, Pawlas

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Perchlorate is an emerging contaminant that is found everywhere, including various foods. Perchlorate is known to disturb the production of thyroid hormones and leads to mental disorders in fetuses and infants, as well as metabolic problems in adults. In this study, we attempted to establish an LC-MS/MS method for measuring perchlorate in dairy products and used this developed method to investigate perchlorate levels in Korean milk and yogurt samples. Methods The developed method of perchlorate analysis requires a shaker and 1% acetic acid/acetonitrile as the extracting solvent. Briefly, the samples were extracted and then centrifuged (4000 rpm, 1hour), and the supernatant was then passed through a Envi™ Carb SPE cartridge that had been prewashed sequentially with 6 mL of acetonitrile and 6 mL of 1% acetic acid in water. The final volume of the sample extract was adjusted to 40 mL with reagent water and the final sample was filtered through a 0.20-µm pore size PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) syringe filter prior to LC-MS/MS. Results The average levels of perchlorate in milk and yogurt samples were 5.63 ± 3.49 µg/L and 3.65 ± 2.42 µg/L, respectively. The perchlorate levels observed in milk samples in this study were similar to those reported from China, Japan, and the United States. Conclusions The exposure of Koreans to perchlorate through the consumption of dairy products was calculated based on the results of this study. For all age groups, the calculated exposure to perchlorate was below the reference of dose (0.7 µg/kg-day) proposed by the National Academy of Science, USA, but the perchlorate exposure of children was higher than that of adults. Therefore, further investigation of perchlorate in other food samples is needed to enable a more exact assessment of exposure of children to perchlorate. PMID:22125772

  15. Markers of Vitamin D Exposure and Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zgaga, Lina; O'Sullivan, Fiona; Cantwell, Marie M; Murray, Liam J; Thota, Prashanthi N; Coleman, Helen G

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D has been associated with reduced risk of many cancers, but evidence for esophageal cancer is mixed. To clarify the role of vitamin D, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association of vitamin D exposures and esophageal neoplasia, including adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), Barrett's esophagus, and squamous dysplasia. Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched from inception to September 2015. Fifteen publications in relation to circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D; n = 3], vitamin D intake (n = 4), UVB exposure (n = 1), and genetic factors (n = 7) were retrieved. Higher [25(OH)D] was associated with increased risk of cancer [adenocarcinoma or SCC, OR = 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.74], with the majority of participants coming from China. No association was observed between vitamin D intake and risk of cancer overall (OR, 1.03; 0.65-1.42); however, a nonsignificantly increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR, 1.45; 0.65-2.24) and nonsignificantly decreased risk for SCC (OR, 0.80; 0.48-1.12) were observed. One study reported a decreased risk of adenocarcinoma with higher UVB exposure. A decreased risk was found for VDR haplotype rs2238135(G)/rs1989969(T) carriers (OR, 0.45; 0.00-0.91), and a suggestive association was observed for rs2107301. In conclusion, no consistent associations were observed between vitamin D exposures and occurrence of esophageal lesions. Further adequately powered, well-designed studies are needed before conclusions can be made. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 877-86. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27030602

  16. A Preliminary Analysis of Noise Exposure and Medical Outcomes for Department of Defense Military Musicians.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cindy; Beamer, Sharon; Hall, Shane; Helfer, Thomas; Kluchinsky, Timothy A

    2015-01-01

    Noise exposure is a known occupational health hazard to those serving in the military. Previous military epidemiology studies have identified military occupations at risk of noise induced hearing loss (NIHL); however, musicians have not been specifically mentioned. The focus of military NIHL studies is usually on those service members of the combat arms occupations. This project was a preliminary examination of Department of Defense (DoD) active duty military musicians in regard to their noise exposure, annual hearing test rates, and hearing injury rates using available data sources. The analysis concluded that DoD military musicians are an underserved population in terms of hearing conservation efforts. Noise surveillance data extracted from the Defense Occupational and Environmental Health Readiness System-Industrial Hygiene showed that every musician similar exposure group (SEG) with noise survey data from 2009 to 2013 exceeded the occupation exposure level adopted by DoD Instruction 6055.12. However, only a small percentage of all DoD active duty military musicians (5.5% in the peak year of 2012) were assigned to a SEG that was actually surveyed. Hearing test data based on Current Procedural Terminology coding extracted from the Military Health System revealed that the percentage of musicians with annual hearing tests increased over the 5 years studied in all services except the Air Force. During 2013, the data showed that the Navy had the highest percentage of musicians with annual hearing tests at 70.9%, and the Air Force had the lowest at 11.4%. The Air Force had the highest percentage of hearing injuries of those musicians with annual hearing tests for all 5 years analyzed. Although noise surveillance and annual hearing tests are being conducted, they occur at a much lower rate than required for a population that is known to be overexposed to noise. PMID:26276949

  17. Renal Effects and Carcinogenicity of Occupational Exposure to Uranium: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stammler, Leonhard; Uhl, Andreas; Mayer, Benjamin; Keller, Frieder

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Uranium is a heavy metal with alpha radioactivity. We state the hypothesis that uranium exposure is harmful to human kidneys and carcinogenic to body tissues. Therefore, we review epidemiological studies from people with known long-lasting uranium exposure. Materials and Methods Three meta-analyses are performed using clinical studies published in the PubMed database and applying RevMan 5.3 from the Cochrane Collaboration to calculate the outcome. The first two meta-analyses examine the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and the standardized incidence ratio for any cancers of uranium workers who were operating in areas ranging from uranium processing to the assembly of final uranium products. The third meta-analysis evaluates the nephrotoxic risk in uranium workers as well as soldiers and of individuals with exposure to drinking water containing uranium. Results Overall and contrasting to our hypothesis, the tumor risk is significantly lower for uranium workers than for control groups (SMR = 0.90 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.84 to 0.96). In addition and also contrasting to our hypothesis, the risk of nephrotoxicity is not increased either. This holds for both the incidence and the mortality due to renal cell carcinoma or due to acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease. In contrast, a significantly better creatinine clearance is found for the uranium cohort as compared to the control groups (mean difference = 7.66 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.12 to 15.2). Conclusion Our hypothesis that a chronic uranium exposure is associated with an increased risk of cancer mortality or of kidney failure is refuted by clinical data. The decreased risk may result from better medical surveillance of uranium workers. PMID:27275162

  18. A comprehensive 6-year retrospective study on medialisation thyroplasty in the Indian population.

    PubMed

    Nerurkar, Nupur Kapoor; Pawar, Shweta Mahadev; Dighe, Shalaka Nilesh

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a series of patients who have undergone medialisation thyroplasty (with or without arytenoid adduction) at our centre with respect to demographics, aetiology for unilateral vocal fold paralysis, pre- and postoperative maximum phonation time, amount of anterior and posterior medialisation required and complications. A comparative analysis with international studies was also performed. A retrospective analysis was performed on 67 patients, who underwent medialisation thyroplasty at our centre from August 2008 to August 2014. All the medialisation thyroplasty were performed using Netterville's technique. The average anterior medialisation needed was 2.25 mm (SD 1.05 mm) while the average posterior medialisation needed was 6.75 mm (SD 1.79 mm). Our study is the first to determine the amount of anterior and posterior medialisation needed in the Indian population. Mean anterior and posterior medialisation required was found to be the same, regardless of the age, gender of the patient and side of surgery. PMID:27002319

  19. Estimation of food portion sizes frequently consumed by children 3-6 years old in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Keiko; Haga, Megumi; Adachi, Miyuki; Sakai, Haruko; Takahashi, Chieko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    No study has documented Japanese children's food portion sizes. Since this information is essential to establish valid measurement tools and effective education methods for dietary intake, we measured them using one-day, semi-weighed diet records (DRs) for 489 Japanese children aged 3-6 y. Each food's frequency of appearance on the DRs was counted. If a child consumed a certain food more than once per day, an average weight for that food was calculated and used in the portion size calculation as that child's representative value. In total, 67 food items were consumed by twenty or more children. We calculated the mean, standard deviation, median, minimum, and maximum portion size values for these food items. In addition to these 67 items, Chinese noodles and water were included in the analysis. The most frequently consumed food was well-milled rice (mean portion size for rice=79 g), which was consumed by 350 children, followed by soy sauce (4 g), eggs (26 g), and carrots (9 g). Among the five most frequently consumed foods, portion sizes of rice and pork but not milk, eggs, or carrots significantly increased with age, height, and weight. In multivariate linear regression analysis, however, the significant relationships between rice portion size and age were not observed. Regarding pork, only the relationship with height was significant. A sex difference was detected in the rice and milk portion sizes. Most of portion sizes observed here were apparently smaller than those reported among United Kingdom children. This study provides important basic information for the implementation of quantitative nutritional research and educational efforts for Japanese preschool children. PMID:25866301

  20. Long-term noise exposure and the risk for type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dzhambov, Angel Mario

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading causes for disability and mortality in modern societies. Apart from personal factors its incidence might be influenced by environmental risks such as air pollution and noise. This paper reports a systematic review and meta-analysis on the risk for type 2 diabetes due to long-term noise exposure. Electronic searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Internet yielded 9 relevant studies (5 for residential and 4 for occupational exposure). They were checked against a predefined list of safeguards against bias producing individual quality scores, which were then fed to MetaXL to conduct a quality effects meta-analysis. People exposed at their homes to roughly L(den) > 60 dB had 22% higher risk (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.37) for type 2 diabetes in comparison to those exposed to L(den) < 64 dB; when studies reporting contentious exposure categories were excluded, there was still 19% risk (95% CI: 1.05-1.35) for L(den) = 60-70 dB versus L(den) < 60 dB. In occupational environment there was not significant risk (relative risk [RR] = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.78-1.06) for < 85 dB versus >85 dB. There was no heterogeneity in the two groups (I² = 0.00). The results should be interpreted with caution due to methodological discrepancies across the studies; however, they are indicative of the close links that noise pollution might have not only to cardiovascular diseases but to endocrine dysfunction as well. PMID:25599755

  1. Paternal exposure to Agent Orange and spina bifida: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Anh Duc; Taylor, Richard; Roberts, Christine L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies that examine the association between Agent Orange (AO) exposure and the risk of spina bifida. Relevant studies were identified through a computerized literature search of Medline and Embase from 1966 to 2008; a review of the reference list of retrieved articles and conference proceedings; and by contacting researchers for unpublished studies. Both fixed-effects and random-effects models were used to pool the results of individual studies. The Cochrane Q test and index of heterogeneity (I(2)) were used to evaluate heterogeneity, and a funnel plot and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias. Seven studies, including two Vietnamese and five non-Vietnamese studies, involving 330 cases and 134,884 non-cases were included in the meta-analysis. The overall relative risk (RR) for spina bifida associated with paternal exposure to AO was 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.48-2.74), with no statistical evidence of heterogeneity across studies. Non-Vietnamese studies showed a slightly higher summary RR (RR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.38-3.56) than Vietnamese studies (RR = 1.92 95% CI: 1.29-2.86). When analyzed separately, the overall association was statistically significant for the three case-control studies (Summary Odds Ratio = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.31-3.86) and the cross sectional study (RR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.31-2.96), but not for the three cohort studies (RR: 2.11; 95% CI: 0.78-5.73). Paternal exposure to AO appears to be associated with a statistically increased risk of spina bifida. PMID:19894129

  2. Long-term noise exposure and the risk for type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dzhambov, Angel Mario

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading causes for disability and mortality in modern societies. Apart from personal factors its incidence might be influenced by environmental risks such as air pollution and noise. This paper reports a systematic review and meta-analysis on the risk for type 2 diabetes due to long-term noise exposure. Electronic searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Internet yielded 9 relevant studies (5 for residential and 4 for occupational exposure). They were checked against a predefined list of safeguards against bias producing individual quality scores, which were then fed to MetaXL to conduct a quality effects meta-analysis. People exposed at their homes to roughly Lden > 60 dB had 22% higher risk (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.37) for type 2 diabetes in comparison to those exposed to Lden < 64 dB; when studies reporting contentious exposure categories were excluded, there was still 19% risk (95% CI: 1.05-1.35) for Lden = 60-70 dB versus Lden < 60 dB. In occupational environment there was not significant risk (relative risk [RR] = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.78-1.06) for < 85 dB versus >85 dB. There was no heterogeneity in the two groups (I2 = 0.00). The results should be interpreted with caution due to methodological discrepancies across the studies; however, they are indicative of the close links that noise pollution might have not only to cardiovascular diseases but to endocrine dysfunction as well. PMID:25599755

  3. Analysis of Intervention Strategies for Inhalation Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Associated Lung Cancer Risk Based on a Monte Carlo Population Exposure Assessment Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bin; Zhao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to evaluate and compare interventions for reducing exposure to air pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a widely found air pollutant in both indoor and outdoor air. This study presents the first application of the Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model to quantify the effects of different intervention strategies on inhalation exposure to PAHs and the associated lung cancer risk. The method was applied to the population in Beijing, China, in the year 2006. Several intervention strategies were designed and studied, including atmospheric cleaning, smoking prohibition indoors, use of clean fuel for cooking, enhancing ventilation while cooking and use of indoor cleaners. Their performances were quantified by population attributable fraction (PAF) and potential impact fraction (PIF) of lung cancer risk, and the changes in indoor PAH concentrations and annual inhalation doses were also calculated and compared. The results showed that atmospheric cleaning and use of indoor cleaners were the two most effective interventions. The sensitivity analysis showed that several input parameters had major influence on the modeled PAH inhalation exposure and the rankings of different interventions. The ranking was reasonably robust for the remaining majority of parameters. The method itself can be extended to other pollutants and in different places. It enables the quantitative comparison of different intervention strategies and would benefit intervention design and relevant policy making. PMID:24416436

  4. Outdoor Particulate Matter Exposure and Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Neela; Cohen, Aaron; Laden, Francine; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Samet, Jonathan M.; Vineis, Paolo; Forastiere, Francesco; Saldiva, Paulo; Yorifuji, Takashi; Loomis, Dana

    2014-01-01

    -Nielsen O, Samet JM, Vineis P, Forastiere F, Saldiva P, Yorifuji T, Loomis D. 2014. Outdoor particulate matter exposure and lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 122:906–911; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408092 PMID:24911630

  5. A meta-analysis of exposure to particulate matter and adverse birth outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to provide summarized evidence on the association between maternal exposure to particulate air pollution and birth weight (BW) and preterm birth (PTB) after taking into consideration the potential confounding effect of maternal smoking. Methods We systematically searched all published cohort and case-control studies examining BW and PTB association with particulate matter (PM, less than or equal to 2.5μm and 10.0 μm in diameter, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively) from PubMed and Web of Science, from January 1980 to April 2015. We extracted coefficients for continuous BW and odds ratio (OR) for PTB from each individual study, and meta-analysis was used to combine the coefficient and OR of individual studies. The methodological quality of individual study was assessed using a standard protocol proposed by Downs and Black. Forty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Results In random effects meta-analyses, BW as a continuous outcome was negativelyassociated with 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 (-10.31 g; 95% confidence interval [CI], -13.57 to -3.13 g; I-squared=0%, p=0.947) and PM2.5 (-22.17 g; 95% CI, -37.93 to -6.41 g; I-squared=92.3%, p <0.001) exposure during entire pregnancy, adjusted for maternal smoking. A significantly increased risk of PTB per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.41; I-squared=0%, p =0.977) and PM2.5 (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.22; I-squared=92.5%, p <0.001) exposure during entire pregnancy was observed. Effect size of change in BW per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM tended to report stronger associations after adjustment for maternal smoking. Conclusions While this systematic review supports an adverse impact of maternal exposure to particulate air pollution on birth outcomes, variation in effects by exposure period and sources of heterogeneity between studies should be further explored. PMID:26796890

  6. Environmental and occupational exposure to benzene by analysis of breath and blood.

    PubMed

    Perbellini, L; Faccini, G B; Pasini, F; Cazzoli, F; Pistoia, S; Rosellini, R; Valsecchi, M; Brugnone, F

    1988-05-01

    Benzene exposure of chemical workers was studied, during the entire workshift, by continuous monitoring of workplace benzene concentration, and 16 hours after the end of the workshift by the measurement of alveolar and blood benzene concentrations and excretion of urinary phenol. Exposure of hospital staff was studied by measuring benzene concentrations in the alveolar and blood samples collected during the hospital workshift. Instantaneous environmental air samples were also collected, at the moment of the biological sampling, for all the subjects tested. A group of 34 chemical workers showed an eight hour exposure to benzene, as a geometric mean, of 1.12 micrograms/l which corresponded, 16 hours after the end of the workshift, to a geometric mean benzene concentration of 70 ng/l in the alveolar air and 597 ng/l in the blood. Another group of 27 chemical workers (group A) turned out to be exposed to an indeterminable eight hour exposure to benzene that corresponded, the morning after, to a geometric mean benzene concentration of 28 ng/l in the alveolar air and 256 ng/l in the blood. The group of hospital staff (group B) had a benzene concentration of 14 ng/l in the alveolar air and 269 ng/l in the blood. Instantaneous environmental samples showed that in the infirmaries the geometric mean benzene concentration was 58 ng/l during the examination of the 34 chemical workers, 36 ng/l during the examination of the 27 chemical workers (group A), and 5 ng/l during the examination of the 19 subjects of the hospital staff (group B). Statistical analysis showed that the alveolar and blood benzene concentrations in the 34 workers exposed to 1.12 microgram/l of benzene differed significantly from those in groups A and B. It was found, moreover, that the alveolar and blood benzene concentrations were higher in the smokers in groups A and B but not in the smokers in the group of 34 chemical workers. The slope of the linear correlation between the alveolar and the instantaneous

  7. Evidence for 18.6 year Mn signal in temperature and drought conditions in North America since AD 1800

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    It is found that, since 1800, the mean discrepancy in epoch between maxima in temperature and maxima in the Drought Area Index (DAI) for the western United States with respect to maxima in the lunar modal tide is 0.9 and 0.1 year, respectively. It is suggested, in light of the fact that a cluster of nine stations in western Canada yields the 18.6-year lunar nodal term out of phase with 30 stations in eastern North America, that (1) enhanced drought conditions in the western United States are neither recurrent nor rhythmic on a time scale of 20 years, but rather periodic with a period of 18.6 years, and (2) the Rocky Mountain system is an influence for atmospheric tidal phenomena at epochs of maximum in the lunar nodal tide as well as for maxima in the temperature records of the DAI.

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies of the Association Between Chronic Occupational Exposure to Lead and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, James; Cashman, Neil R.; Little, Julian; Krewski, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The association between occupational exposure to lead and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was examined through systematic review and meta-analyses of relevant epidemiological studies and reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Methods: Relevant studies were searched in multiple bibliographic databases through September 2013; additional articles were tracked through PubMed until submission. All records were screened in DistillerSR, and the data extracted from included articles were synthesized with meta-analysis. Results: The risk of developing ALS among individuals with a history of exposure to lead was almost doubled (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.39 to 2.36) on the basis of nine included case-control studies with specific lead exposure information, with no apparent heterogeneity across included studies (I2 = 14%). The attributable risk of ALS because of exposure to lead was estimated to be 5%. Conclusions: Previous exposure to lead may be a risk factor for ALS. PMID:25479292

  9. The Lasting Influences of Early Food-Related Variety Experience: A Longitudinal Study of Vegetable Acceptance from 5 Months to 6 Years in Two Populations.

    PubMed

    Maier-Nöth, Andrea; Schaal, Benoist; Leathwood, Peter; Issanchou, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Children's vegetable consumption falls below current recommendations, highlighting the need to identify strategies that can successfully promote better acceptance of vegetables. Recently, experimental studies have reported promising interventions that increase acceptance of vegetables. The first, offering infants a high variety of vegetables at weaning, increased acceptance of new foods, including vegetables. The second, offering an initially disliked vegetable at 8 subsequent meals markedly increased acceptance for that vegetable. So far, these effects have been shown to persist for at least several weeks. We now present follow-up data at 15 months, 3 and 6 years obtained through questionnaire (15 mo, 3y) and experimental (6y) approaches. At 15 months, participants who had been breast-fed were reported as eating and liking more vegetables than those who had been formula-fed. The initially disliked vegetable that became accepted after repeated exposure was still liked and eaten by 79% of the children. At 3 years, the initially disliked vegetable was still liked and eaten by 73% of the children. At 6 years, observations in an experimental setting showed that children who had been breast-fed and children who had experienced high vegetable variety at the start of weaning ate more of new vegetables and liked them more. They were also more willing to taste vegetables than formula-fed children or the no or low variety groups. The initially disliked vegetable was still liked by 57% of children. This follow-up study suggests that experience with chemosensory variety in the context of breastfeeding or at the onset of complementary feeding can influence chemosensory preferences for vegetables into childhood. PMID:26968029

  10. The Lasting Influences of Early Food-Related Variety Experience: A Longitudinal Study of Vegetable Acceptance from 5 Months to 6 Years in Two Populations

    PubMed Central

    Maier-Nöth, Andrea; Schaal, Benoist; Leathwood, Peter; Issanchou, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Children’s vegetable consumption falls below current recommendations, highlighting the need to identify strategies that can successfully promote better acceptance of vegetables. Recently, experimental studies have reported promising interventions that increase acceptance of vegetables. The first, offering infants a high variety of vegetables at weaning, increased acceptance of new foods, including vegetables. The second, offering an initially disliked vegetable at 8 subsequent meals markedly increased acceptance for that vegetable. So far, these effects have been shown to persist for at least several weeks. We now present follow-up data at 15 months, 3 and 6 years obtained through questionnaire (15 mo, 3y) and experimental (6y) approaches. At 15 months, participants who had been breast-fed were reported as eating and liking more vegetables than those who had been formula-fed. The initially disliked vegetable that became accepted after repeated exposure was still liked and eaten by 79% of the children. At 3 years, the initially disliked vegetable was still liked and eaten by 73% of the children. At 6 years, observations in an experimental setting showed that children who had been breast-fed and children who had experienced high vegetable variety at the start of weaning ate more of new vegetables and liked them more. They were also more willing to taste vegetables than formula-fed children or the no or low variety groups. The initially disliked vegetable was still liked by 57% of children. This follow-up study suggests that experience with chemosensory variety in the context of breastfeeding or at the onset of complementary feeding can influence chemosensory preferences for vegetables into childhood. PMID:26968029

  11. Telemonitoring in Cystic Fibrosis: A 4-year Assessment and Simulation for the Next 6 Years

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Innovative technologies and informatics offer a wide range of services to health districts, doctors, nurses, and patients, and is changing the traditional concept of health care. In the last few years, the availability of portable devices, their easiness to transport and use, and the capability to collect and transmit various clinical data have resulted in the fast development of telemedicine. However, despite its potential impact in improving patient conditions, and its cost effectiveness reported in literature, telemedicine is not in daily practice. Objective The aim of this study is to provide evidence of the positive impact of telemonitoring proving the sustainability of an application by sending spirometry outcomes from patients’ homes to the hospital doctors via the Internet, and from doctors to patients by an additional phone call solution. Methods We examined collected data related to clinical improvement of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The patients were followed-up at home using telemonitoring for a period of 10 years, with the aims to prove the sustainability of the methodology (transmissions of spirometry from the patients' home to the doctors and feedback from the doctors to the patients by phone call from the hospital). We stored and analyzed all spirometry transmissions received, and tested the possible presence to decrease the costs between the standard clinical trial (only ambulatory visits) and standard clinical trial with telemonitoring for the follow-up of patients with CF (telemedicine). This was done through an economic analysis of the costs for patients followed at home by telemonitoring. We assessed four years of observation and a simulation of total long-term costs between 2010 and 2020. Results We discovered a potential saving of €40,397.00 per patient for 10 years, actualized at €36,802.97 for the follow-up of all patients enrolled. Conclusions The results from the study suggest that telemedicine can improve the

  12. The place of arthrography in the diagnosis and management of meniscal injuries--a 6-year review.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, S E; Chandy, J; Aldridge, M J

    1991-01-01

    Four hundred and eighty-seven consecutive knee arthrograms, performed over a 6-year period, are reviewed. Their accuracy is compared with arthroscopy and, where appropriate, with arthrotomy. The increasing accuracy of arthrography has resulted in the acceptance of this method of imaging as a useful and accurate means of examining meniscal injuries in the knee. This has led to far fewer surgical procedures and an overall saving of resources. PMID:2013891

  13. Hair analysis to document a clinical case of TCDD over-exposure.

    PubMed

    Cirimele, V; Villain, M; Salquèbre, G; Staub, C; Kintz, P

    2008-03-21

    Dioxins and related compounds (furans) are persistent environmental contaminants that cause adverse biological effects. Their influence on humans is still unclear, except for accidental high-dose exposure. Chronic exposure to these compounds seems to be involved in cancer, endocrine disruption and neurobehavioral effects. For several years, a large concern about the potential health risks of dioxins is emerging in Europe and United States. The case of a 50-year-old man victim of an acute over-exposure to tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or Seveso dioxin) is reported here with particular focus on hair investigations. The developed method involved the decontamination of the hair strand using picograde level methylene chloride, the homogenization of hair segments with scissors and their extraction in presence of 13C12-marked dioxin congeners under reflux of toluene using a Soxhlet, 8h at 130 degrees C. After reduction of the toluene fraction to 1 ml and addition of purification marker (37Cl4-2,3,7,8-TCDD), dioxins purification was achieved using three successive columns: silica, alumina/sodium sulfate and carbon/Celite columns. Finally, the toluene eluent was evaporated and the extract injected in the analytical system. After chromatographic separation, detection was achieved in single ion monitoring mode using a high resolution mass spectrometer operating in electron impact ionization mode (40 eV, minimal resolution of 10,000). The analysis of the first hair segment (0-6 cm) revealed the presence of 2,3,7,8-TCDD at 65 fg/mg when the distal one remained negative (LOQ=0.3 fg/mg). All other congeners (n=16) were in the range of those determined in the general population (0.62 and 0.89 fg/mg in the two hair segments, respectively). The extremely low dioxin levels generally found in hair specimens (low fg/mg range) lead us to analyze them using the very sensitive and specific gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry apparatus. From the best of our knowledge

  14. Changes in Cortical Thickness in 6-Year-Old Children Open Their Mind to a Global Vision of the World

    PubMed Central

    Poirel, Nicolas; Leroux, Elise; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier; Simon, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    Even if objectively presented with similar visual stimuli, children younger than 6 years of age exhibit a strong attraction to local visual information (e.g., the trees), whereas children older than 6 years of age, similar to adults, exhibit a visual bias toward global information (e.g., the forest). Here, we studied the cortical thickness changes that underlie this bias shift from local to global visual information. Two groups, matched for age, gender, and handedness, were formed from a total of 30 children who were 6 years old, and both groups performed a traditional global/local visual task. The first group presented a local visual bias, and the other group presented a global visual bias. The results indicated that, compared with the local visual bias group, children with a global visual bias exhibited (1) decreased cortical thickness in the bilateral occipital regions and (2) increased cortical thickness in the left frontoparietal regions. These findings constitute the first structural study that supports the view that both synaptic pruning (i.e., decreased cortical thickness) and expansion mechanisms (i.e., increased cortical thickness) cooccur to allow healthy children to develop a global perception of the visual world. PMID:25110675

  15. Oral Health in 4-6 Years Children with Cleft Lip/Palate: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Amandeep; Lakhanpal, Manav; Rao, Nanak Chand; Gupta, Nidhi; Vashisth, Shelja

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oro-facial clefts are a major public health problem. Children with clefts rarely escape dental complications. Aims: This study was to determine differences in the dental caries experience, gingival health, and prevalence malocclusion, enamel defects and oral mucosal lesions among 4-6 year old children with and without cleft in Panchkula. Materials and Methods: The sampling frame consisted of 4-6 year old children with clefts visiting Swami Devi Dyal Hospital and Dental College, Panchkula, India. As a control group an age (±3 months) and gender-matched sample from the same geographical areas were recruited. Dental caries status, gingival health status, developmental defect of enamel, malocclusion and oral mucosal health were assessed and compared between the two groups. Results: Significant differences in dental caries and gingival health status were found between children with and without cleft. Anterior open-bite, increased overjet and oral mucosal lesions (P < 0.05) were more prevalent among children with clefts. Children with and without clefts had similar developmental defects of enamel (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Differences of oral health status exist among 4-6 year old children with and without clefts. Children fare worse in terms of dental caries, gingival health, oral mucosal health and malocclusion. PMID:25006561

  16. Is Exposure to Poultry Harmful to Child Nutrition? An Observational Analysis for Rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Headey, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Although strategic thinking on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has prioritized reducing exposure to human feces in order to limit diarrheal infections, recent research suggests that elevated exposure to livestock–particularly poultry and poultry feces–may be an important risk factor for diarrhea, environmental enteric disorder (EED) and respiratory infections, all of which may seriously retard linear growth in young children. Yet a very different literature on nutrition-sensitive agriculture suggests that livestock ownership is highly beneficial for child growth outcomes through its importance for increasing consumption of nutrient-rich animal sourced foods, such as eggs. Together, these two literatures suggest that the net nutritional benefit of poultry ownership is particularly ambiguous and potentially mediated by whether or not children are highly exposed to poultry. We test this novel hypothesis using a large agricultural survey of rural Ethiopian households that includes measures of child height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ), ownership of poultry and other types of livestock, and an indicator of whether livestock are kept within the main household dwelling overnight. We used least squares regression analysis to estimate unadjusted and adjusted models that control for a wide range of potentially confounding factors. We find that while poultry ownership is positively associated with child HAZ [β = 0.291, s.e. = 0.094], the practice of corralling poultry in the household dwelling overnight is negatively associated with HAZ [β = -0.250, s.e. = 0.118]. Moreover, we find no negative associations between HAZ and corralling other livestock species indoors. These results suggest that while poultry ownership can be beneficial to child growth, overly close exposure to poultry poses a concurrent risk factor for undernutrition, most likely because of increased risk of infection. PMID:27529178

  17. Toxicoproteomic analysis of pulmonary carbon nanotube exposure using LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Gina M.; Taylor, Alexia J.; McClure, Christina D.; Parsons, Gregory N.; Bonner, James C.; Bereman, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Toxicoproteomics is a developing field that utilizes global proteomic methodologies to investigate the physiological response as a result of adverse toxicant exposure. The aim of this study was to compare the protein secretion profile in lung bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from mice exposed to non-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (U-MWCNTs) or MWCNTs functionalized by nanoscale Al2O3 coatings (A-MWCNT) formed using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Proteins were identified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and quantified using a combination of two label-free proteomic methods: spectral counting and MS1 peak area analysis. On average 465 protein groups were identified per sample and proteins were first screened using spectral counting and the Fisher’s exact test to determine differentially regulated species. Significant proteins by Fisher’s exact test (p<0.05) were then verified by integrating the intensity under the extracted ion chromatogram from a single unique peptide for each protein across all runs. A two sample t-test based on integrated peak intensities discovered differences in 27 proteins for control versus U-MWCNT, 13 proteins for control versus A-MWCNT, and 2 proteins for U-MWCNT versus A-MWCNT. Finally, an in-vitro binding experiment was performed yielding 4 common proteins statistically different (p<0.05) for both the in-vitro and in-vivo study. Several of the proteins found to be significantly different between exposed and control groups are known to play a key role in inflammatory and immune response. A comparison between the in-vitro and in-vivo CNT exposure emphasized a true biological response to CNT exposure. PMID:25598225

  18. Is Exposure to Poultry Harmful to Child Nutrition? An Observational Analysis for Rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Headey, Derek; Hirvonen, Kalle

    2016-01-01

    Although strategic thinking on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has prioritized reducing exposure to human feces in order to limit diarrheal infections, recent research suggests that elevated exposure to livestock-particularly poultry and poultry feces-may be an important risk factor for diarrhea, environmental enteric disorder (EED) and respiratory infections, all of which may seriously retard linear growth in young children. Yet a very different literature on nutrition-sensitive agriculture suggests that livestock ownership is highly beneficial for child growth outcomes through its importance for increasing consumption of nutrient-rich animal sourced foods, such as eggs. Together, these two literatures suggest that the net nutritional benefit of poultry ownership is particularly ambiguous and potentially mediated by whether or not children are highly exposed to poultry. We test this novel hypothesis using a large agricultural survey of rural Ethiopian households that includes measures of child height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ), ownership of poultry and other types of livestock, and an indicator of whether livestock are kept within the main household dwelling overnight. We used least squares regression analysis to estimate unadjusted and adjusted models that control for a wide range of potentially confounding factors. We find that while poultry ownership is positively associated with child HAZ [β = 0.291, s.e. = 0.094], the practice of corralling poultry in the household dwelling overnight is negatively associated with HAZ [β = -0.250, s.e. = 0.118]. Moreover, we find no negative associations between HAZ and corralling other livestock species indoors. These results suggest that while poultry ownership can be beneficial to child growth, overly close exposure to poultry poses a concurrent risk factor for undernutrition, most likely because of increased risk of infection. PMID:27529178

  19. LC–MS-MS Analysis of Urinary Biomarkers of Imazalil Following Experimental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Faniband, Moosa H.; Littorin, Margareta; Ekman, Eva; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.

    2015-01-01

    Imazalil (IMZ) is a fungicide used in the cultivation of vegetables, such as cucumbers, in green houses or post-harvest on fruit to avoid spoilage due to fungal growth. Agricultural workers can be occupationally exposed to IMZ and the general public indirectly by the diet. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an LC–MS-MS method for the analysis of IMZ in human urine. The method used electrospray ionization and selected reaction monitoring in the positive mode. Excellent linearity was observed in the range 0.5–100 ng/mL. The limit of detection of the method was 0.2 ng/mL, and the limit of quantitation 0.8 ng/mL. The method showed good within-run, between-run and between-batch precision, with a coefficient of variation <15%. The method was applied to analyze urine samples obtained from two human volunteers following experimental oral and dermal exposure. The excretion of IMZ seemed to follow a two-compartment model and first-order kinetics. In the oral exposure, the elimination half-life of IMZ in the rapid excretion phase was 2.6 and 1.9 h for the female and the male volunteer, respectively. In the slower excretion phase, it was 7.6 and 13 h, respectively. In the dermal exposure, the excretion seemed to follow a single-compartment model and first-order kinetics. The elimination half-life was 10 and 6.6 h for the female and the male volunteer, respectively. Although the study is limited to two volunteers, some information on basic toxicokinetics and metabolism of IMZ in humans is presented. PMID:26324206

  20. LC-MS-MS Analysis of Urinary Biomarkers of Imazalil Following Experimental Exposures.

    PubMed

    Faniband, Moosa H; Littorin, Margareta; Ekman, Eva; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lindh, Christian H

    2015-01-01

    Imazalil (IMZ) is a fungicide used in the cultivation of vegetables, such as cucumbers, in green houses or post-harvest on fruit to avoid spoilage due to fungal growth. Agricultural workers can be occupationally exposed to IMZ and the general public indirectly by the diet. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an LC-MS-MS method for the analysis of IMZ in human urine. The method used electrospray ionization and selected reaction monitoring in the positive mode. Excellent linearity was observed in the range 0.5-100 ng/mL. The limit of detection of the method was 0.2 ng/mL, and the limit of quantitation 0.8 ng/mL. The method showed good within-run, between-run and between-batch precision, with a coefficient of variation <15%. The method was applied to analyze urine samples obtained from two human volunteers following experimental oral and dermal exposure. The excretion of IMZ seemed to follow a two-compartment model and first-order kinetics. In the oral exposure, the elimination half-life of IMZ in the rapid excretion phase was 2.6 and 1.9 h for the female and the male volunteer, respectively. In the slower excretion phase, it was 7.6 and 13 h, respectively. In the dermal exposure, the excretion seemed to follow a single-compartment model and first-order kinetics. The elimination half-life was 10 and 6.6 h for the female and the male volunteer, respectively. Although the study is limited to two volunteers, some information on basic toxicokinetics and metabolism of IMZ in humans is presented. PMID:26324206

  1. Exposure to Tobacco on the Internet: Content Analysis of Adolescents' Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Brian P.; Klein, Jonathan D.; Salazar, Laura F.; Daluga, Nichole A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We performed a content analysis of all Web pages viewed by a random sample of adolescents to describe exposure to tobacco- and smoking-related text and images. METHODS Adolescents (14 –17 years of age) with home Internet access were recruited. Internet-tracking software was installed on home computers used by 346 eligible consenting participants. All Web pages viewed by adolescent participants were captured during a 30-day period for each subject. Keywords on smoking and tobacco were used to identify tobacco images or text. RESULTS The 346 participants viewed 1.2 million Web pages, of which 8702 (0.72%) contained tobacco or smoking content. Exposure to tobacco content did not vary according to smoking status. Content was protobacco on 1916 pages, antitobacco on 1572, and complex or unclear on 5055. Social networking sites, mainly MySpace, represented 53% of pages (n = 4612) on which tobacco content was found. All pages with smoking content contained references in text, and 256 (3%) contained images. Many (43%) of the adolescents were exposed to pro-tobacco imagery (median: 3 pages per month). Cigarettes were mentioned on 20% of pages. Tobacco products were sold on 50 pages, and 242 pages contained links to tobacco products sold on other pages. On social networking sites, 4121 pages included a mention of smoking status in the authors' individual profiles, with 23% of authors identifying themselves as smokers. CONCLUSIONS Many adolescents are consistently exposed to tobacco content on the Internet, but the volume of exposure is limited and not all content represents protobacco content. PMID:19620193

  2. Quality Matters: Systematic Analysis of Endpoints Related to "Cellular Life" in Vitro Data of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure.

    PubMed

    Simkó, Myrtill; Remondini, Daniel; Zeni, Olga; Scarfi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Possible hazardous effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) at low exposure levels are controversially discussed due to inconsistent study findings. Therefore, the main focus of the present study is to detect if any statistical association exists between RF-EMF and cellular responses, considering cell proliferation and apoptosis endpoints separately and with both combined as a group of "cellular life" to increase the statistical power of the analysis. We searched for publications regarding RF-EMF in vitro studies in the PubMed database for the period 1995-2014 and extracted the data to the relevant parameters, such as cell culture type, frequency, exposure duration, SAR, and five exposure-related quality criteria. These parameters were used for an association study with the experimental outcome in terms of the defined endpoints. We identified 104 published articles, from which 483 different experiments were extracted and analyzed. Cellular responses after exposure to RF-EMF were significantly associated to cell lines rather than to primary cells. No other experimental parameter was significantly associated with cellular responses. A highly significant negative association with exposure condition-quality and cellular responses was detected, showing that the more the quality criteria requirements were satisfied, the smaller the number of detected cellular responses. According to our knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of specific RF-EMF bio-effects in association to exposure quality, highlighting the need for more stringent quality procedures for the exposure conditions. PMID:27420084

  3. Quality Matters: Systematic Analysis of Endpoints Related to “Cellular Life” in Vitro Data of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Simkó, Myrtill; Remondini, Daniel; Zeni, Olga; Scarfi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Possible hazardous effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) at low exposure levels are controversially discussed due to inconsistent study findings. Therefore, the main focus of the present study is to detect if any statistical association exists between RF-EMF and cellular responses, considering cell proliferation and apoptosis endpoints separately and with both combined as a group of “cellular life” to increase the statistical power of the analysis. We searched for publications regarding RF-EMF in vitro studies in the PubMed database for the period 1995–2014 and extracted the data to the relevant parameters, such as cell culture type, frequency, exposure duration, SAR, and five exposure-related quality criteria. These parameters were used for an association study with the experimental outcome in terms of the defined endpoints. We identified 104 published articles, from which 483 different experiments were extracted and analyzed. Cellular responses after exposure to RF-EMF were significantly associated to cell lines rather than to primary cells. No other experimental parameter was significantly associated with cellular responses. A highly significant negative association with exposure condition-quality and cellular responses was detected, showing that the more the quality criteria requirements were satisfied, the smaller the number of detected cellular responses. According to our knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of specific RF-EMF bio-effects in association to exposure quality, highlighting the need for more stringent quality procedures for the exposure conditions. PMID:27420084

  4. A MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF GENE EXPRESSION IN THE EMBRYONIC FORELIMB OF THE C57BL/6J MOUSE REVEALS SIGNIFICANT ALTERATIONS METABOLIC AND DEVELOPMENTAL REGULATION FOLLOWING ETHANOL EXPOSURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The observation of transcriptional changes following embryonic ethanol exposure may provide significant insights into the biological response to ethanol exposure. In this study, we used microarray analysis to examine the transcriptional response of the developing limb to a dose ...

  5. Toxicogenomic analysis of exposure to TCDD, PCB126 and PCB153: identification of genomic biomarkers of exposure to AhR ligands

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Two year cancer bioassays conducted by the National Toxicology Program have shown chronic exposure to dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) to lead to the development of both neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions in the hepatic tissue of female Sprague Dawley rats. Most, if not all, of the hepatotoxic effects induced by DLC's are believed to involve the binding and activation of the transcription factor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Toxicogenomics was implemented to identify genomic responses that may be contributing to the development of hepatotoxicity in rats. Results Through comparative analysis of time-course microarray data, unique hepatic gene expression signatures were identified for the DLCs, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (100 ng/kg/day) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) (1000 ng/kg/day) and the non-DLC 2,2',4,4',5,5',-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) (1000 μg/kg/day). A common time independent signature of 41 AhR genomic biomarkers was identified which exhibited at least a 2-fold change in expression following subchronic (13-wk) and chronic (52-wk) p.o. exposure to TCDD and PCB126, but not the non DLC, PCB153. Real time qPCR analysis validated that 30 of these genes also exhibited at least a 2-fold change in hepatic expression at 24 hr following a single exposure to TCDD (5 μg/kg, po). Phenotypic anchoring was conducted which identified forty-six genes that were differently expressed both following chronic p.o. exposure to DLCs and in previously reported studies of cholangiocarcinoma or hepatocellular adenoma. Conclusions Together these analyses provide a comprehensive description of the genomic responses which occur in rat hepatic tissue with exposure to AhR ligands and will help to isolate those genomic responses which are contributing to the hepatotoxicity observed with exposure to DLCs. In addition, the time independent gene expression signature of the AhR ligands may assist in identifying other agents with the potential

  6. Association between the French nutritional guideline-based score and 6-year anthropometric changes in a French middle-aged adult cohort.

    PubMed

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Castetbon, Katia; Estaquio, Carla; Czernichow, Sébastien; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2009-09-15

    In light of increasing obesity among the elderly, understanding the role of nutritional guidelines in preventing weight gain is of major importance. The authors evaluated the impact of the French Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS)-Guideline Score (GS) (maximum score, 15 points) on anthropometric changes in a large population-based study. Subjects in the present analysis (n = 3,531) were participants in the SUplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) study (1994-2002) and had available data for estimating the PNNS-GS and anthropometric data at baseline and 6 years later. Data were analyzed by using multivariate linear regression models for the association with anthropometric changes and multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios of becoming overweight or obese. The authors found a significant negative association between PNNS-GS and changes in markers of anthropometry. In addition, better adherence to the PNNS-GS was associated with a lower incidence of overweight (odds ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.88, 0.99) and obesity (odds ratio = 0.89, 95% confidence interval: 0.80, 0.99) after a 6-year follow-up period. These observations support the role of nutritional guidelines in prevention of age-related weight increase and development of obesity. PMID:19656810

  7. Extended high-angular-frequency analysis of turbulence effects on short-exposure imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofsted, David H.

    2014-04-01

    An improved analysis of optical turbulence effects on short-exposure passive (SE) imaging is described, resulting in a new analytic expression for the SE modulation transfer function (MTF). This analysis expands on a 2011 study that examined characteristics of a tilt-phase component discovered in the standard theory of SE turbulence effects characterization. The analysis introduces an improved integration technique and a reformulated phase structure function, facilitating computation of a 38,007 element database of MTF results at low- to high-angular frequencies covering a wide range of diffraction and turbulence conditions. Analysis of this database is described, yielding a new analytic SE MTF, accurate to a root-mean-square error of 0.000218 versus the database. Comparisons show that the new expression is well correlated to an alternative computationally intensive method, and it is a factor 29 to 64 improvement over prior analytic expressions. Limits of applicability of the approach for incoherent imaging are also discussed. The low-computational cost of the new method is suitable for systems performance modeling of turbulence impacts, including path-varying turbulence scenarios.

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Children's Object-to-Mouth Frequency Data for Estimating Non-Dietary Ingestion Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    To improve estimates of non-dietary ingestion in probabilistic exposure modeling, a meta-analysis of children's object-to-mouth frequency was conducted using data from seven available studies representing 438 participants and ~ 1500 h of behavior observation. The analysis repres...

  9. Stomach cancer and occupational exposure to asbestos: a meta-analysis of occupational cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, L; Rushton, L

    2015-01-01

    Background: A recent Monographs Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there is limited evidence for a causal association between exposure to asbestos and stomach cancer. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate this association. Random effects models were used to summarise the relative risks across studies. Sources of heterogeneity were explored through subgroup analyses and meta-regression. Results: We identified 40 mortality cohort studies from 37 separate papers, and cancer incidence data were extracted for 15 separate cohorts from 14 papers. The overall meta-SMR for stomach cancer for total cohort was 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.03–1.27), with heterogeneous results across studies. Statistically significant excesses were observed in North America and Australia but not in Europe, and for generic asbestos workers and insulators. Meta-SMRs were larger for cohorts reporting a SMR for lung cancer above 2 and cohort sizes below 1000. Conclusions: Our results support the conclusion by IARC that exposure to asbestos is associated with a moderate increased risk of stomach cancer. PMID:25928706

  10. Asbestos exposure and cancer mortality among petroleum refinery workers: a Poisson regression analysis of updated data.

    PubMed

    Montanaro, Fabio; Ceppi, Marcello; Puntoni, Riccardo; Silvano, Stefania; Gennaro, Valerio

    2004-04-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between asbestos exposure and respiratory cancer mortality among maintenance workers and other blue-collar workers at an Italian oil refinery. The cohort contained 931 men, 29,511 person-years, and 489 deaths. Poisson regression analysis using white-collar workers as an internal referent group provided relative risk estimates (RRs) for main causes of death, adjusted for age, age at hiring, calendar period, length of exposure, and latency. Among maintenance workers, RRs for all tumors (RR = 1.50), digestive system cancers (RR = 1.41), lung cancers (RR = 1.53), and nonmalignant respiratory diseases (RR = 1.71) were significantly increased (p < 0.05); no significant excess was found for all causes and among maintenance (RR = 1.12) and other blue-collar workers (RR = 1.01). Results confirm the increased risk of death from respiratory diseases and cancer among maintenance workers exposed to asbestos, whereas other smoking-related diseases (circulatory system) were not statistically different among groups. PMID:16189991

  11. Hepatic proteome analysis of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after exposure to environmental concentrations of human pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Miriam; Alonso, Esteban; Aparicio, Irene; Santos, Juan Luis; Leaver, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals are pseudopersistent aquatic pollutants with unknown effects at environmentally relevant concentrations. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were exposed to Acetaminophen: 54.77 ± 34.67; Atenolol: 11.08 ± 7.98, and Carbamazepine: 7.85 ± 0.13 μg·L(-1) for 5 days. After Acetaminophen treatment, 19 proteins were differently expressed, of which 11 were significant with respect to the control group (eight up-regulated and three down-regulated). After Atenolol treatment, seven differently expressed proteins were obtained in comparison with the control, of which six could be identified (four up-regulated and two down-regulated). Carbamazepine exposure resulted in 15 differently expressed proteins compared with the control, with 10 of them identified (seven up-regulated and three down-regulated). Out of these, three features were common between Acetaminophen and Carbamazepine and one between Carbamazepine and Atenolol. One feature was common across all treatments. Principal component analysis and heat map clustering showed a clear grouping of the variability caused by the applied treatments. The obtained data suggest (1) that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of the pharmaceuticals alters the hepatic protein expression profile of the Atlantic salmon; and (2) the existence of treatment specific processes that may be useful for biomarker development. PMID:25394398

  12. Hepatic Proteome Analysis of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) After Exposure to Environmental Concentrations of Human Pharmaceuticals*

    PubMed Central

    Hampel, Miriam; Alonso, Esteban; Aparicio, Irene; Santos, Juan Luis; Leaver, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are pseudopersistent aquatic pollutants with unknown effects at environmentally relevant concentrations. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were exposed to Acetaminophen: 54.77 ± 34.67; Atenolol: 11.08 ± 7.98, and Carbamazepine: 7.85 ± 0.13 μg·L−1 for 5 days. After Acetaminophen treatment, 19 proteins were differently expressed, of which 11 were significant with respect to the control group (eight up-regulated and three down-regulated). After Atenolol treatment, seven differently expressed proteins were obtained in comparison with the control, of which six could be identified (four up-regulated and two down-regulated). Carbamazepine exposure resulted in 15 differently expressed proteins compared with the control, with 10 of them identified (seven up-regulated and three down-regulated). Out of these, three features were common between Acetaminophen and Carbamazepine and one between Carbamazepine and Atenolol. One feature was common across all treatments. Principal component analysis and heat map clustering showed a clear grouping of the variability caused by the applied treatments. The obtained data suggest (1) that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of the pharmaceuticals alters the hepatic protein expression profile of the Atlantic salmon; and (2) the existence of treatment specific processes that may be useful for biomarker development. PMID:25394398

  13. A worldwide analysis of human exposure to floods by using satellite nighttime lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, Serena; Montanari, Alberto; Laio, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The recent occurrence of flood events across the globe, which represent the first cause of economic losses and human fatalities among natural disasters, has highlighted the urgent need of mitigation strategies to reduce flood risk. To date, expeditious procedures for a worldwide detailed spatio-temporal identification of human exposure to floods are still incomplete. To this end, we propose the use of satellite images of nighttime lights to identify the areas across the globe most at risk for flood damages. Nightlights are indeed a widely used proxy for population density and economic activity. Worldwide nocturnal lights along the river network, available as yearly average values from 1992 to 2012 at 1 km2 resolution, are first analysed from a temporal perspective in order to estimate their temporal trends. Our results revealed that the temporal evolution of nightlights can be reasonably associated with the temporal pattern of human exposure to floods. Nightlights are then correlated with global data of economic losses caused by flooding events. Our outcomes showed that nocturnal lights close to rivers are consistently related to flood damages. In particular, we found that increasing nightlights are associated to flood damage intensification. Our analysis may thus provide valuable information for better understanding the interactions between hydrology and society and identifying priorities for flood risk management.

  14. Occupational Exposure to Asbestos and Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, M. Constanza; Straif, Kurt; Reina, Margarita; Al-Alem, Umaima; Demers, Paul A.; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A recent Monographs Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is sufficient evidence for a causal association between exposure to asbestos and ovarian cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate this association. Data sources: Searches of PubMed and unpublished data yielded a total of 18 cohort studies of women occupationally exposed to asbestos. Data extraction: Two authors independently abstracted data; any disagreement was resolved by consulting a third reviewer. Data synthesis: All but one study reported standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) comparing observed numbers of deaths with expected numbers for the general population; the exception was a study that reported standardized incidence ratios. For simplicity, we refer to all effect estimates as SMRs. The overall pooled SMR estimate for ovarian cancer was 1.77 (95% confidence interval, 1.37–2.28), with a moderate degree of heterogeneity among the studies (I2 = 35.3%, p = 0.061). Effect estimates were stronger for cohorts compensated for asbestosis, cohorts with estimated lung cancer SMRs > 2.0, and studies conducted in Europe compared with other geographic regions. Effect estimates were similar for studies with and without pathologic confirmation, and we found no evidence of publication bias (Egger’s test p-value = 0.162). Conclusions: Our study supports the IARC conclusion that exposure to asbestos is associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer. PMID:21642044

  15. ChIP-Seq analysis of the adult male mouse brain after developmental exposure to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Christina R; Weber, Jessica A; Labrecque, Matthew; Hessinger, Justin M; Edwards, Jeremy S; Allan, Andrea M

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to the common environmental contaminant arsenic impacts the epigenetic landscape, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, of several cell types. Developmental arsenic exposure (DAE) increases acetylation and methylation of histone proteins and the protein expression of several chromatin-modifying enzymes in the dentate gyrus (DG) subregion of the adult male mouse brain [26]. To complement and support these data, ChIP-Seq analysis of DNA associated with trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) derived from the adult male DG after DAE was performed. DAE induced differential H3K4me3 enrichment on genes in pathways associated with cellular development and growth, cell death and survival, and neurological disorders, particularly as they relate to cancer, in the adult male brain. Comparison of H3K4me3 enrichment in controls revealed mechanisms that are potentially lacking in arsenic-exposed animals, including neurotransmission, neuronal growth and development, hormonal regulation, protein synthesis, and cellular homeostasis. New pathways impacted by arsenic include cytoskeleton organization, cell signaling, and potential disruption of immune function and warrant further investigation using this DAE paradigm in the mouse brain. PMID:26543888

  16. Analysis of the passive stabilization of the long duration exposure facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. H.; Vishwanath, N. S.

    1977-01-01

    The nominal Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) configurations and the anticipated orbit parameters are presented. A linear steady state analysis was performed using these parameters. The effects of orbit eccentricity, solar pressure, aerodynamic pressure, magnetic dipole, and the magnetically anchored rate damper were evaluated to determine the configuration sensitivity to variations in these parameters. The worst case conditions for steady state errors were identified, and the performance capability calculated. Garber instability bounds were evaluated for the range of configuration and damping coefficients under consideration. The transient damping capabilities of the damper were examined, and the time constant as a function of damping coefficient and spacecraft moment of inertia determined. The capture capabilities of the damper were calculated, and the results combined with steady state, transient, and Garber instability analyses to select damper design parameters.

  17. Vibration analysis of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) using SPAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edighoffer, H.

    1980-01-01

    The structural modeling of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) utilizing the SPAR system of computer programs for vibration analysis is discussed. The technical areas of interest were: (1) development of the LDEF finite element model; (2) derivation of tray effective panel stiffness matrix using finite element tray models; (3) assessment of attachment conditions and end fitting flexibility by comparing SPAR with test static displacements; (4) SPAR grouping; and (5) derivation of the LDEF frequencies and mode shapes and comparing them with tests. Special detailed finite element modeling was required to obtain good agreement between analytical and test vibration modes. An orthotropic panel in the overall model was developed. Orthotropic stiffness for this panel were obtained from finely detailed statically loaded SPAR models which included stiffness and allowed for partial relative sliding of the tray clamping attachments. Sensitivity to LDEF joint boundary conditions was determined, and static test data proved valuable in assessing modeling of local end fittings.

  18. ANALYSIS OF NHEXAS DATA FROM THE CHILDREN,S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY IN MINNESOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The "Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study" (MNCPES) evaluated the feasibility of conducting a multipathway exposure monitoring study with a sample of children, and implemented a strategy for collection and integration of survey information (e.g., pesticide usage and acti...

  19. ANALYSIS OF NHEXAS DATA FROM THE CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY IN MINNESOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The "Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study" (MNCPES) evaluated the feasibility of conducting a multipathway exposure monitoring study with a sample of children, and implemented a strategy for collection and integration of survey information (e.g., pesticide usage and act...

  20. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS FROM PERSONAL AND AMBIENT AIR SAMPLING: RESULTS OF THE 1998 BALTIMORE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated epidemiological-exposure panel study was conducted during July-August 1998 which focused upon establishing relationships between potential human exposures to particulate matter (PM) and related co-pollutants with detectable health effects. The study design incorpo...

  1. Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Infant Growth: A Pooled Analysis of Seven European Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Iszatt, Nina; Stigum, Hein; Verner, Marc-André; White, Richard A.; Govarts, Eva; Murinova, Lubica Palkovicova; Schoeters, Greet; Trnovec, Tomas; Legler, Juliette; Pelé, Fabienne; Botton, Jérémie; Chevrier, Cécile; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Ranft, Ulrich; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Klümper, Claudia; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-01-01

    . 2015. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and infant growth: a pooled analysis of seven European birth cohorts. Environ Health Perspect 123:730–736; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1308005 PMID:25742056

  2. A Bayesian analysis of uncertainties on lung doses resulting from occupational exposures to uranium.

    PubMed

    Puncher, M; Birchall, A; Bull, R K

    2013-09-01

    In a recent epidemiological study, Bayesian estimates of lung doses were calculated in order to determine a possible association between lung dose and lung cancer incidence resulting from occupational exposures to uranium. These calculations, which produce probability distributions of doses, used the human respiratory tract model (HRTM) published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) with a revised particle transport clearance model. In addition to the Bayesian analyses, point estimates (PEs) of doses were also provided for that study using the existing HRTM as it is described in ICRP Publication 66. The PEs are to be used in a preliminary analysis of risk. To explain the differences between the PEs and Bayesian analysis, in this paper the methodology was applied to former UK nuclear workers who constituted a subset of the study cohort. The resulting probability distributions of lung doses calculated using the Bayesian methodology were compared with the PEs obtained for each worker. Mean posterior lung doses were on average 8-fold higher than PEs and the uncertainties on doses varied over a wide range, being greater than two orders of magnitude for some lung tissues. It is shown that it is the prior distributions of the parameters describing absorption from the lungs to blood that are responsible for the large difference between posterior mean doses and PEs. Furthermore, it is the large prior uncertainties on these parameters that are mainly responsible for the large uncertainties on lung doses. It is concluded that accurate determination of the chemical form of inhaled uranium, as well as the absorption parameter values for these materials, is important for obtaining unbiased estimates of lung doses from occupational exposures to uranium for epidemiological studies. Finally, it should be noted that the inferences regarding the PEs described here apply only to the assessments of cases provided for the epidemiological study, where central

  3. Long duration exposure facility post-flight thermal analysis, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrios, William M.; Sampair, Thomas R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of the post-flight thermal analysis of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission are presented. The LDEF mission thermal analysis was verified by comparing the thermal model results to flight data from the LDEF Thermal Measurements System (THERM). Post-flight calculated temperature uncertainties have been reduced to under +/- 18 F from the pre-flight uncertainties of +/- 40 F. The THERM consisted of eight temperature sensors, a shared tape recorder, a standard LDEF flight battery, and an electronics control box. The temperatures were measured at selected locations on the LDEF structure interior during the first 390 days of flight and recorded for post-flight analysis. After the LDEF retrieval from Space on 12 Jan. 1990, the tape recorder was recovered from the spacecraft and the data reduced for comparison to the LDEF predicted temperatures. The LDEF mission temperatures were calculated prior to the LDEF deployment on 7 Apr. 1980, and updated after the LDEF retrieval with the following actual flight parameter data: including thermal fluxes, spacecraft attitudes, thermal coatings degradation, and contamination effects. All updated data used for the calculation of post-flight temperatures is also presented in this document.

  4. Long duration exposure facility post-flight thermal analysis, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrios, William M.; Sampair, Thomas R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of the post-flight thermal analysis for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission are presented. The LDEF mission thermal analysis was verified by comparing the thermal model results to flight data from the LDEF Thermal Measurements System (THERM). Post-flight calculated temperature uncertainties have been reduced to under +/- 18 F from the pre-flight uncertainties of +/- 40 F. The THERM consisted of eight temperature sensors, a shared tape recorder, a standard LDEF flight battery, and an electronics control box. The temperatures were measured at selected locations on the LDEF structure interior during the first 390 days of flight and recorded for post-flight analysis. After the LDEF retrieval from Space on 12 Jan. 1990, the tape recorder was recovered from the spacecraft and the data reduced for comparison to the LDEF predicted temperatures. The LDEF mission temperatures were calculated prior to the LDEF deployment on 7 Apr. 1980, and updated after the LDEF retrieval with the following actual flight parameter data: thermal fluxes, spacecraft attitudes, thermal coatings degradation, and contamination effects. All updated data used for calculation of post-flight temperatures is also presented in this document.

  5. Neonatal hair analysis contribution to establishing a gestational drug exposure profile and predicting a withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vinner, Elisabeth; Vignau, Jean; Thibault, Denise; Codaccioni, Xavier; Brassart, Claudie; Humbert, Luc; Lhermitte, Michel

    2003-08-01

    Recently, interest in hair analysis in such fields as drug abuse, driving, or for clinical purposes (determination of drug-exposed neonates especially) has grown because of the highly sensitive method of detection (GC-MS) that can now be applied. Neonates born to drug-addicted mothers can suffer from neonatal withdrawal syndrome (NWS), which requires morphine treatment in its severe forms. To assess and measure toxicologic factors predicting the appearance and the severity of this syndrome, matrices such as urine, meconium, and hair are necessary. Cannabinoids, opiates, cocaine (and its metabolites), and methadone in particular were determined in the various matrices collected in 17 mother/neonate pairs. An immunologic screening method was used, and quantification was achieved with GC-MS. In spite of some bias (color, length, race) that might hinder an accurate interpretation, the results of hair analysis makes it possible to confirm a fetal drug exposure and to reinforce the diagnosis of the NWS observed, particularly when results obtained in other matrices are negative. Hair analysis contributes to our ability to predict a NWS. PMID:12883224

  6. Systems analysis of the mechanisms of cardiac diastolic function changes after microgravity exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Richard; Coleman, Thomas; Steven, Platts; Martin, David

    Detailed information concerning cardiac function was collected by two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography at 10 days before flight and 3h after landing in astronauts returning from shuttle missions. A comparative analysis of this data suggests that cardiac diastolic function is reduced after microgravity exposure with little or no change in systolic function as measured by ejection fraction However, the mechanisms responsible for these adaptations have not been determined. In this study, an integrative computer model of human physiology that forms the framework for the Digital Astronaut Project (Guyton/Coleman/Summers Model) was used in a systems analysis of the echocardiographic data in the context of general cardiovascular physiologic functioning. The physiologic mechanisms involved in the observed changes were then determined by a dissection of model interrelationships. The systems analysis of possible physiologic mechanisms involved reveals that a loss of fluid from the myocardial interstitial space may lead to a stiffening of the myocardium and could potentially result in some of the cardiac diastolic dysfunction seen postflight. The cardiovascular dynamics may be different during spaceflight.

  7. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of early exposure results with the MACCS Reactor Accident Consequence Model

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; McKay, M.D.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the early health effects associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 34 imprecisely known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: number of early fatalities, number of cases of prodromal vomiting, population dose within 10 mi of the reactor, population dose within 1000 mi of the reactor, individual early fatality probability within 1 mi of the reactor, and maximum early fatality distance. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: scaling factor for horizontal dispersion, dry deposition velocity, inhalation protection factor for nonevacuees, groundshine shielding factor for nonevacuees, early fatality hazard function alpha value for bone marrow exposure, and scaling factor for vertical dispersion.

  8. Biomarker Utility Analysis Using an Exposure-PBPK/PD Model: A Carbaryl Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are two common biomarkers: markers of exposure and markers of health effects. The strength of the correlation between exposure or effect and a biomarker measurement determines the utility of a biomarker for assessing exposures or risks. In the current study, a linked expo...

  9. The Zweymüller threaded cup: a choice in revision? Migration analysis and follow-up after 6 years.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Jörg Hartmut; Matziolis, Georg; Tuischer, Jens; Leutloff, Dirk; Duda, Georg Norbert; Perka, Carsten

    2006-06-01

    Excellent long-term results are reported for threaded cups with an osteointegrable surface in primary interventions. So far, little data are available on the use of such implants in revision cases. We investigated 30 loosened Aesculap PM threaded cups (Tuttlingen, Germany) with a smooth surface, revised with a conical, corundum-blasted Zweymüller threaded cup (Zweymüller Alloclassic CSF cup, Zimmer, Warsaw, Ind). Aseptic radiological loosening was seen in 8% of cases, and a survival rate of 95% was achieved after 6.1 years. Average migration was 1.4 mm cranially and 0.7 mm medially. The Harris hip score improved from 42 points preoperatively to 75 points at follow-up. Good medium-term results are possible after revision using a threaded cup with an osteointegrable surface, but not if segmental acetabular margin defects are present. PMID:16781400

  10. Analysis of putative resistance gene loci in UK field populations of Haemonchus contortus after 6years of macrocyclic lactone use.

    PubMed

    Laing, Roz; Maitland, Kirsty; Lecová, Lenka; Skuce, Philip J; Tait, Andy; Devaney, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    Sheep farmers in the UK rely on strategic anthelmintic use to treat and control gastrointestinal roundworms in their flocks. However, resistance to these drugs is now widespread and threatens the sustainability of sheep production. The mechanisms underlying resistance to the most commonly used class, the macrocyclic lactones, are not known and sensitive diagnostic tools based on molecular markers are not currently available. This prohibits accurate surveillance of resistance or assessment of strategies aimed at controlling its spread. In this study, we examined four UK field populations of Haemonchus contortus, differing in macrocyclic lactone treatment history, for evidence of selection at 'candidate gene' loci identified as determining macrocyclic lactone resistance in previously published research. Individual worms were genotyped at Hc-lgc-37, Hc-glc-5, Hc-avr-14 and Hc-dyf-7, and four microsatellite loci. High levels of polymorphism were identified at the first three candidate gene loci with remarkably little polymorphism at Hc-dyf-7. While some between-population comparisons of individual farms with and without long-term macrocyclic lactone use identified statistically significant differences in allele frequency and/or fixation index at the Hc-lgc-37, Hc-glc-5 or Hc-avr-14 loci, we found no consistent evidence of selection in other equivalent comparisons. While it is possible that different mechanisms are important in different populations or that resistance may be conferred by small changes at multiple loci, our findings suggest that these are unlikely to be major loci conferring macrocyclic lactone resistance on UK farms or suitable for diagnostic marker development. More powerful approaches, using genome-wide or whole genome sequencing, may be required to define macrocyclic lactone resistance loci in such genetically variable populations. PMID:27179994

  11. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5–6 year olds

    PubMed Central

    Sebire, Simon J.; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L.; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5–6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. Methods 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5–6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Results Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Conclusions Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5–6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. PMID:26647364

  12. Predictors of adolescent outcomes among 4-6-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Lee, Steve S; Sibley, Margaret H; Applegate, Brooks; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E

    2016-02-01

    Children who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with functional impairment in at least one setting at 4-6 years of age were followed prospectively through age 18 years. On average, the 125 children (107 boys) with ADHD at baseline improved over time, but still continued to exhibit more symptoms, functional impairment, and risky behavior through adolescence than demographically matched healthy comparison children. These findings support the predictive validity of the diagnosis of ADHD at younger ages by demonstrating that the symptoms and impairment are enduring. Nonetheless, there were marked variations in developmental outcomes. Among children with ADHD, higher numbers of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms and higher number of concurrent symptoms (oppositional, conduct disorder, anxiety, and depression) measured at baseline each predicted higher future levels of the same dimension of symptoms. In addition, higher baseline levels of inattention, oppositional, conduct disorder, and anxiety symptoms predicted greater future functional impairment. Among children with ADHD, girls and children from families with lower family incomes had relatively poorer outcomes. Although outcomes varied along a continuum, approximately 10% of the children with ADHD at 4-6 years could be classified as functioning in the normative range on multiple measures during 15-18 years. Although this finding awaits replication, lower levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms at 4-6 years predicted more normative functioning during adolescence. These findings suggest that ADHD identified in early childhood predicts an increased likelihood of functional impairment through adolescence for most, but not all, children. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26854503

  13. Impaired Renal Function Further Increases Odds of 6-Year Coronary Artery Calcification Progression in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maahs, David M.; Jalal, Diana; Chonchol, Michel; Johnson, Richard J.; Rewers, Marian; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) independently predict coronary artery calcification (CAC) progression, and to determine how eGFR changes over 6 years in adults with type 1 diabetes compared with nondiabetic adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study participants (n = 1,066) with complete data for eGFR assessment at baseline and 6 years were included. Three Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations (serum creatinine, cystatin C, and both) were used to estimate eGFR. The association of baseline ACR and eGFR with CAC progression was analyzed using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS Increasing categorical baseline ACR (<10, 10–30, and >30 µg/mg) predicted CAC progression in participants with type 1 diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; 95% CI, 1.50–3.09; 7.19 [3.90–13.26]; and 18.09 [8.48–38.62]), respectively, compared with nondiabetic subjects. Baseline eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 also predicted CAC progression (OR, 5–7, compared with nondiabetic participants). ORs for CAC progression were higher in women than in men when using the cystatin C–based Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations. Participants with type 1 diabetes had greater eGFR decreases over 6 years than nondiabetic participants using cystatin C–based equations. CONCLUSIONS Although increasing ACR or decreasing eGFR predicts CAC progression, coronary atherosclerosis progresses faster in people with type 1 diabetes even in the absence of diabetic kidney disease. These findings emphasize the interaction between kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes and highlight the public health importance of lowering cardiorenal risk in people with type 1 diabetes. PMID:23835686

  14. Determinants of exposure to metalworking fluid aerosols: a literature review and analysis of reported measurements.

    PubMed

    Park, Donguk; Stewart, Patrica A; Coble, Joseph B

    2009-04-01

    An extensive literature review of published metalworking fluid (MWF) aerosol measurement data was conducted to identify the major determinants that may affect exposure to aerosol fractions (total or inhalable, thoracic and respirable) and mass median diameters (MMDs). The identification of determinants was conducted through published studies and analysis of published measurement levels. For the latter, weighted arithmetic means (WAMs) by number of measurements were calculated and compared using analysis of variance and t-tests. The literature review found that the major factors affecting aerosol exposure levels were, primarily, decade, type of industry, operation and fluid and engineering control measures. Our analysis of total aerosol levels found a significant decline in measured levels from an average of 5.36 mg m(-3) prior to the 1970s and 2.52 mg m(-3) in the 1970s to 1.21 mg m(-3) in the 1980s, 0.50 mg m(-3) in the 1990s and 0.55 mg m(-3) in the 2000s. Significant declines from the 1990s to the 2000s also were found in thoracic fraction levels (0.48 versus 0.40 mg m(-3)), but not for the respirable fraction. The WAMs for the auto (1.47 mg m(-3)) and auto parts manufacturing industry (1.83 mg m(-3)) were significantly higher than that for small-job machine shops (0.68 mg m(-3)). In addition, a significant difference in the thoracic WAM was found between the automotive industry (0.46 mg m(-3)) and small-job machine shops (0.32 mg m(-3)). Operation type, in particular, grinding, was a significant factor affecting the total aerosol fraction [grinding operations (1.75 mg m(-3)) versus other machining (0.95 mg m(-3))], but the levels associated with these operations were not statistically different for either the thoracic or the respirable fractions. Across all decades, the total aerosol fraction for straight oils (1.49 mg m(-3)) was higher than for other fluid types (soluble = 1.08 mg m(-3), synthetic = 0.52 mg m(-3) and semisynthetic = 0.50 mg m(-3)). Fluid type

  15. Determinants of Exposure to Metalworking Fluid Aerosols: A Literature Review and Analysis of Reported Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Park, Donguk; Stewart, Patrica A.; Coble, Joseph B.

    2009-01-01

    An extensive literature review of published metalworking fluid (MWF) aerosol measurement data was conducted to identify the major determinants that may affect exposure to aerosol fractions (total or inhalable, thoracic and respirable) and mass median diameters (MMDs). The identification of determinants was conducted through published studies and analysis of published measurement levels. For the latter, weighted arithmetic means (WAMs) by number of measurements were calculated and compared using analysis of variance and t-tests. The literature review found that the major factors affecting aerosol exposure levels were, primarily, decade, type of industry, operation and fluid and engineering control measures. Our analysis of total aerosol levels found a significant decline in measured levels from an average of 5.36 mg m−3 prior to the 1970s and 2.52 mg m−3 in the 1970s to 1.21 mg m−3 in the 1980s, 0.50 mg m−3 in the 1990s and 0.55 mg m−3 in the 2000s. Significant declines from the 1990s to the 2000s also were found in thoracic fraction levels (0.48 versus 0.40 mg m−3), but not for the respirable fraction. The WAMs for the auto (1.47 mg m−3) and auto parts manufacturing industry (1.83 mg m−3) were significantly higher than that for small-job machine shops (0.68 mg m−3). In addition, a significant difference in the thoracic WAM was found between the automotive industry (0.46 mg m−3) and small-job machine shops (0.32 mg m−3). Operation type, in particular, grinding, was a significant factor affecting the total aerosol fraction [grinding operations (1.75 mg m−3) versus other machining (0.95 mg m−3)], but the levels associated with these operations were not statistically different for either the thoracic or the respirable fractions. Across all decades, the total aerosol fraction for straight oils (1.49 mg m−3) was higher than for other fluid types (soluble = 1.08 mg m−3, synthetic = 0.52 mg m−3 and semisynthetic = 0.50 mg m−3

  16. Profiles of Community Violence Exposure Among African American Youth: An Examination of Desensitization to Violence Using Latent Class Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K; Dickson, Daniel; Pierre, Cynthia

    2016-07-01

    The current study employed latent class analysis (LCA) to identify distinct profiles of community violence exposure and their associations to desensitization outcomes in 241 African American early adolescents (M age = 12.86, SD = 1.28) in the sixth through eighth grade from under-resourced urban communities. Participants self-reported on their exposure to community violence, as well as on depressive and anxiety symptoms. The LCA revealed three distinct classes: a class exposed to low levels of violence (low exposure class), a class exposed to moderately high levels of victimization (victimization class), and a class exposed to high levels of all types of violence (high exposure class). Consistent with predictions, the high exposure class showed the lowest levels of depressive symptoms, suggesting a desensitization outcome. Gender and age were also examined in relation to the classes, and age was significantly associated with an increased risk of being a member of the high exposure class relative to the low exposure class. Using person-based analyses to examine desensitization outcomes provides useful information for prevention and intervention efforts, as it helps to identify a specific subgroup of youth that may be more likely to show desensitization outcomes in the context of community violence. PMID:25716195

  17. Narrow-implant-retained overdenture in an atrophic mandibular ridge: a case report with 6-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Carlos Roberto Garcia; Martins-Junior, Paulo Antonio; Araujo, Roberto Carlos de; Sa, Marcos Augusto de; Wassall, Thomaz; Ferreira, Anderson Jose

    2015-01-01

    When atrophic jaws compromise oral rehabilitation with conventional implants, narrow-diameter implants can be used. This case report describes treatment of an edentulous 75-year-old diabetic woman with a severely resorbed mandibular ridge. Her mandibular dentition was restored with an overdenture supported by 3 narrow implants and 1 mini implant. Her maxillary dentition was restored with a conventional complete denture. A 6-year clinical and radiographic follow-up confirmed that the narrow implants had provided effective stability for the overdenture, providing improvements in phonetics and masticatory ability at a low cost. PMID:26545281

  18. Environmental occurrence, analysis and human exposure to the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A)-A review.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    TBBP-A is a high production volume chemical applied widely as a flame retardant in printed circuit boards. Recent studies have raised concern over potential harmful implications of TBBP-A exposure in human and wildlife, leading to its classification under group 2A "Probably carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This article provides a comprehensive review of the available literature on TBBP-A analysis, environmental levels and human exposure. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been identified as the method of choice for robust, accurate and sensitive analysis of TBBP-A in different matrices. TBBP-A has been detected in almost all environmental compartments all over the world, rendering it a ubiquitous contaminant. Human exposure studies revealed dust ingestion and diet as the major pathways of TBBP-A exposure in the general population. Toddlers are likely to be more exposed than adults via accidental indoor dust ingestion. Moreover, exposure to TBBP-A may occur prenatally and via breast milk. There are no current restrictions on the production of TBBP-A in the EU or worldwide. However, more research is required to characterise human exposure to TBBP-A in and around production facilities, as well as in e-waste recycling regions. PMID:27266836

  19. Advances in cosmogenic surface exposure dating: Using combined in situ 14C-10Be analysis for deglaciation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippe, Kristina; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Kober, Florian; Christl, Marcus; Fogwill, Christopher; Turney, Chris; Rood, Dylan; Lupker, Maarten; Schlücher, Christian; Wieler, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides are routinely used to investigate deglaciation histories by exposure dating of rock surfaces after glacier retreat. For bedrock surfaces that have been efficiently eroded by glacier ice, the most commonly applied cosmogenic 10Be isotope has proven to give reliable estimates of the integrated time of surface exposure since major ice decay. Due to its long half-life (~1.4 Ma), however, 10Be does not record short episodes of intermittent surface cover, e.g. during phases of glacier readvance, which might have interrupted the general deglaciation trend. To detect such cases of "complex exposure", 10Be-based dating can be combined with the analysis of the short-lived (5730 a) in situ cosmogenic 14C nuclide. We present two examples, in which combined in situ 14C-10Be analysis has been successfully applied to reconstruct in detail post-LGM surface exposures histories - in the Swiss Alps [1] and in Antarctica [2]. In a study on the Gotthard Pass, Central Swiss Alps, in situ 14C-10Be exposure dating was combined with extensive mapping of glacial erosional features. Data from both cosmogenic nuclides are in overall good agreement with each other confirming continuous exposure of the Gotthard Pass area throughout the Holocene. Some slightly younger in situ 14C ages compared to the corresponding 10Be ages are interpreted to result from partial surface shielding due to snow cover. Constraining the average Holocene snow depth from the in situ 14C data allowed to apply an appropriate snow shielding correction for the 10Be exposure ages. Integration of the snow-corrected exposure ages with field observations provided a detailed chronology of a progressive downwasting of ice from the maximum LGM ice volume with a gradual reorganization of the ice flow pattern and a southward migration of the ice divide. In a study on the evolution and reorganization of ice streams entering the Weddell Sea, Antarctica, during the last deglaciation, ice sheet modelling was

  20. Sensitivity analysis for direct and indirect effects in the presence of exposure-induced mediator-outcome confounders

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Yasutaka

    2014-01-01

    Questions of mediation are often of interest in reasoning about mechanisms, and methods have been developed to address these questions. However, these methods make strong assumptions about the absence of confounding. Even if exposure is randomized, there may be mediator-outcome confounding variables. Inference about direct and indirect effects is particularly challenging if these mediator-outcome confounders are affected by the exposure because in this case these effects are not identified irrespective of whether data is available on these exposure-induced mediator-outcome confounders. In this paper, we provide a sensitivity analysis technique for natural direct and indirect effects that is applicable even if there are mediator-outcome confounders affected by the exposure. We give techniques for both the difference and risk ratio scales and compare the technique to other possible approaches. PMID:25580387

  1. Exposure Reconstruction and Risk Analysis for Six Semiconductor Workers With Lymphohematopoietic Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rachael M.; Dell, Linda; Torres, Craig; Simmons, Catherine E.; Poole, James; Boelter, Fred W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether workplace exposures to recognized lymphohematopoietic carcinogens were possibly related to cancers in six semiconductor-manufacturing workers. Methods: A job-exposure matrix was developed for chemical and physical process agents and anticipated by-products. Potential cumulative occupational exposures of the six cases were reconstructed. The role of workplace exposures in cancer was evaluated through quantitative risk assessment and by comparison with epidemiological literature. Results: Two workers were potentially exposed to agents capable of causing their diagnosed cancers. Reconstructed exposures were similar to levels in outdoor environments and lower than exposures associated with increased risks in epidemiological studies. Cancer risks were estimated to be less than 1 in 10,000 persons. Conclusions: The development of cancer among the six workers was unlikely to be explained by occupational exposures to recognized lymphohematopoietic carcinogens. PMID:25719533

  2. General and specific attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder factors of children 4 to 6 years of age: An exploratory structural equation modeling approach to assessing symptom multidimensionality.

    PubMed

    Arias, Víctor B; Ponce, Fernando P; Martínez-Molina, Agustín; Arias, Benito; Núñez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We tested first-order factor and bifactor models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to adequately summarize the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, (DSM-IV-TR) symptoms observed in a Spanish sample of preschoolers and kindergarteners. Six ESEM and CFA models were estimated based on teacher evaluations of the behavior of 638 children 4 to 6 years of age. An ESEM bifactor model with a central dimension plus 3 specific factors (inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) showed the best fit and interpretability. Strict invariance between the sexes was observed. The bifactor model provided a solution to previously encountered inconsistencies in the factorial models of ADHD in young children. However, the low reliability of the specific factors casts doubt on the utility of the subscales for ADHD measurement. More research is necessary to clarify the nature of G and S factors of ADHD. PMID:26726819

  3. FISH analysis of translocations induced by chronic exposure to Sr radioisotopes: second set of analysis of the Techa River Cohort.

    PubMed

    Vozilova, Alexandra V; Shagina, Natalia B; Degteva, Marina O; Moquet, Jayne; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Darroudi, Firouz

    2014-06-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridisation analysis of stable translocations was performed for 26 residents living along the Techa River (Russia), who were predominantly (95%) exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes ((89)Sr and (90)Sr) resulting in exposure of their red bone marrow (RBM). Analysis was conducted at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Public Health England and Leiden University Medical Center. Each laboratory scored 1000 cells per donor, which resulted in ∼1000 genome equivalents (GE) per donor. The age-dependent spontaneous level of translocations for each donor was evaluated on the basis of data published by Sigurdson et al. (International study of factors affecting human chromosome. Mutat. Res. 2008;652: :112-121). Reconstruction of doses was performed with the 'Techa River Dosimetry System' developed in 2009. In the studied donors, the range of individual cumulated RBM dose was from 0.3 to 3.7 Gy. Analysis of the yield of stable translocations dependent on the individual RBM dose from (89,90)Sr showed a linear dose-response relationship of 0.007 ± 0.002 translocation/GE cell/Gy (R = 0.61, p = 0.001). This set of results was in a good agreement with the previous data reported for 18 donors by Vozilova et al. (Preliminary FISH-based assessment of external dose for residents exposed on the Techa River. PMID:24743760

  4. The Effects of SPARK Physical Education Program on Fundamental Motor Skills in 4-6 Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Reza; Ziaee, Vahid; Akbari, Hakimeh; Haji-Hosseini, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SPARK Physical Education (PE) program on fundamental motor skills in 4-6 year children. SPARK (Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids) is an evidence based PE program designed in order to promote the lifelong wellbeing. Methods In total, 90 children aged 4 to 6 years were selected randomly. The children were allocated into 3 groups with separate PE programs: 1-SPARK, 2-Gymnastics and 3-Routine activity. Using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2), a pretest was done in all groups. Afterwards, SPARK and Gym PE programs were performed for 8 weeks and 3 sessions each week. The third group used to do the routine physical education program in their daycare. After 8 weeks (24 sessions), the post tests were done for all groups with the same scoring system as the pretest. Findings The results showed that the SPARK program had a higher efficacy on the promotion of the fundamental motor skills comparing to the routine physical education programs or gymnastics PE group. Conclusion SPARK can be used as an appropriate alternative in order to promote the children's motor skills. PMID:23724186

  5. Portion Size Variably Affects Food Intake of 6-year-old and 4-year-old Children in Kunming, China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey; Conroy, Katharine; Wen, Hongmei; Rui, Li; Humphries, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Age and portion size have been found to influence food intake in American children but have not been examined in an international context. This study evaluated the association between age and the effects of portion size on the food intake of kindergarteners in Kunming, China. Using a within-subjects crossover design in a classroom setting, 173 children in two age groups, mean age 4.2 years and 6.1 years, were served a predefined reference, small (-30%) and large (+30%) portion of rice, vegetables, and a protein source during lunchtime over three consecutive days. Each portion was weighed before and after the meal to determine amount of food consumed. Linear mixed modeling, controlling for repeated measures and clustering by classroom, was used to compare food intake under small and large portion size conditions to the reference portion. Children ate significantly less food when served small portions. When served a large portion, 6-year-old children increased food intake while 4-year-old children decreased food intake in comparison to the reference portion. Findings indicate that portion size affects food intake in Chinese children 4- to 6-years old. Older children show larger increases in food intake with increased portion size than do younger children. PMID:23702260

  6. Profile analysis of after-effects experienced during exposure to several virtual reality environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Jones, Marshall B.; Lilienthal, Michael G.; Harm, Deborah L.

    1994-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms are an unwanted by-product of exposure to virtual environments. This problem is not new and was reported in the early flight simulators and experiments on ego motions and vection. The cardinal symptom of motion sickness is, of course, vomiting, but this symptom is ordinarily preceded by a variety of other symptoms. In his classic studies of motion sickness conducted before and during World War II, G. R. Wendt introduced a three point scale to score motion sickness beyond a vomit/no vomit dichotomy. Later, Navy scientists developed a Motion Sickness Questionnaire (MSQ), originally for use in a slowly rotating room. In the last 20 years the MSQ has been used in a series of studies of air, sea, and space sickness. Only recently, however, has it been appreciated that symptom patterns in the MSQ are not uniform but vary with the way sickness is induced. In seasickness, for example, nausea is the most prominent symptom. In Navy simulators, however, the most common symptom is eye strain, especially when cathode ray tubes are employed in the simulation. The latter result was obtained in a survey of over 1,500 pilot exposures. Using this database, Essex scientists conducted a factor analysis of the MSQ. We found that signs and symptoms of motion sickness fell mainly into three clusters: 1) oculomotor disturbance, 2) nausea and related neurovegetative problems, and 3) disorientation, ataxia, and vertigo. We have since rescored the MSQ results obtained in Navy simulators in terms of these three components. We have also compared these and other profiles obtained from three different vitual reality systems to profiles obtained in sea sickness, space sickness, and alcohol intoxication. We will show examples of these various profiles and point out simularities and differences among them which indicate aspects of what might be called 'virtual-reality sickness'.

  7. Formaldehyde exposure and leukemia: a new meta-analysis and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luoping; Steinmaus, Craig; Eastmond, David A; Xin, Xianjun K; Smith, Martyn T

    2009-01-01

    Formaldehyde is an economically important chemical, to which more than 2 million U.S. workers are occupationally exposed. Substantially more people are exposed to formaldehyde environmentally, as it is generated by automobile engines, is a component of tobacco smoke and is released from household products, including furniture, particleboard, plywood, and carpeting. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recently classified formaldehyde as a human carcinogen that causes nasopharyngeal cancer and also concluded that there is "strong but not sufficient evidence for a causal association between leukemia and occupational exposure to formaldehyde". Here, we review the epidemiological studies published to date on formaldehyde-exposed workers and professionals in relation to lymphohematopoietic malignances. In a new meta-analysis of these studies, focusing on occupations known to have high formaldehyde exposure, we show that summary relative risks (RRs) were elevated in 15 studies of leukemia (RR=1.54; confidence interval (CI), 1.18-2.00) with the highest relative risks seen in the six studies of myeloid leukemia (RR=1.90; 95% CI, 1.31-2.76). The biological plausibility of this observed association is discussed and potential mechanisms proposed. We hypothesize that formaldehyde may act on bone marrow directly or, alternatively, may cause leukemia by damaging the hematopoietic stem or early progenitor cells that are located in the circulating blood or nasal passages, which then travel to the bone marrow and become leukemic stem cells. To test these hypotheses, we recommend that future studies apply biomarkers validated for other chemical leukemogens to the study of formaldehyde. PMID:18674636

  8. Indoor-to-outdoor particle concentration ratio model for human exposure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Young; Ryu, Sung Hee; Lee, Gwangjae; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2016-02-01

    This study presents an indoor-to-outdoor particle concentration ratio (IOR) model for improved estimates of indoor exposure levels. This model is useful in epidemiological studies with large population, because sampling indoor pollutants in all participants' house is often necessary but impractical. As a part of a study examining the association between air pollutants and atopic dermatitis in children, 16 parents agreed to measure the indoor and outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations at their homes for 48 h. Correlation analysis and multi-step multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to develop the IOR model. Temperature and floor level were found to be powerful predictors of the IOR. Despite the simplicity of the model, it demonstrated high accuracy in terms of the root mean square error (RMSE). Especially for long-term IOR estimations, the RMSE was as low as 0.064 and 0.063 for PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. When using a prediction model in an epidemiological study, understanding the consequence of the modeling error and justifying the use of the model is very important. In the last section, this paper discussed the impact of the modeling error and developed a novel methodology to justify the use of the model.

  9. Nickel exposure promotes osmoregulatory disturbances in Oreochromis niloticus gills: histopathological and energy dispersive spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Marcato, A C C; Yabuki, A T; Fontanetti, C S

    2014-11-01

    Water is an essential factor for maintaining the vital functions of living beings. Nickel is the 24th most abundant element on Earth; it is a heavy metal that is genotoxic and mutagenic in its chloride form. Due to industrial use, its concentration in surface sediments increased considerably. Fish develop characteristics that make them excellent experimental models for studying aquatic toxicology. They are particularly useful because they can alert of the potential danger of chemical substances or environmental pollution. Due to water quality impairment and because there are few published studies that relate nickel to tissue alteration, this study aimed to examine the consequences of nickel in an aquatic environment. For this analysis, individuals of Oreochromis niloticus were exposed for 96 h to three different concentrations of nickel dissolved in water according to the standard established by Brazilian law and compared them to a control group. After exposure, the gills were analyzed using X-ray microanalysis, ultramorphology, and histological and histochemical analysis. The results demonstrated that all the concentrations used in the experiment altered the histophysiology of the individuals exposed. In conclusion, the nickel presents a toxic potential to fish, even at the lowest concentration tested, which is equivalent to half of the concentration allowed by law. The CONAMA resolution should be revised for this parameter because of the interference of this metal in the histophysiology of the tested organism. PMID:24996943

  10. Mass spectrometry data from proteomic analysis of human skin keratins after exposure to UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seon Hwa; Matsushima, Keita; Miyamoto, Kohei; Oe, Tomoyuki

    2016-06-01

    A mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic methodology was employed to monitor oxidative modifications in keratins, the main constituents of human skin ("Non-invasive proteomic analysis of human skin keratins: screening of methionine oxidation in keratins by mass spectrometry" [1], "UV irradiation-induced methionine oxidation in human skin keratins: mass spectrometry-based non-invasive proteomic analysis" [2]). Human skin proteins were obtained non-invasively by tape stripping and solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer, followed by purification and digestion using the filter-aided sample preparation method. The tryptic peptides were then analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, tandem MS (MS/MS), and LC/ESI-selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/MS. The MS/MS data were generated to confirm amino acid sequences and oxidation sites of tryptic peptides D(290)VDGAYMTK(298) (P1) and N(258)MQDMVEDYR(267) (P2), which contain the most susceptible oxidation sites (Met(259), Met(262), and Met(296) in K1 keratin) upon UVA irradiation [2]. Subsequently, quantitative determination of the relative oxidation levels of P1 and P1 [2] was achieved by LC/ESI-SRM/MS analyses of P1 and P2 together with their oxidized forms after exposure to UVA radiation or treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). PMID:26958637

  11. Analysis of the occupational, consumer and environmental exposure to engineered nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Bernd; Brouwer, Connie; Geertsma, Robert E; Heugens, Evelyn H W; Ross, Bryony L; Toufektsian, Marie-Claire; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Aitken, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Humans and the environment can come into contact with nanomaterials through a wide range of applications during all stages of the life cycle of nanoproducts. The aim of this commentary is to present an assessment of the potential for exposure and thus identify possible environmental, health and safety (EHS) issues for nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors. We analysed all life cycle stages with regard to potential for exposure of workers, consumers/patients, and the environment. A wide variety of nanomaterials are used of which many have negligible potential for exposure, while others have medium or even high potential for exposure. Based on the likelihood of exposure, it appears that in general most attention should be paid to the agrifood, chemistry/materials, textiles and health sectors; and less to the information and communication technology (ICT), security and energy sectors. Toxicity and exposure are both important; however, the EHS impact of nanomaterials is always dependent on their particular use. PMID:22783888

  12. Amount, content and context of infant media exposure: A parental questionnaire and diary analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Rachel; Danziger, Catherine; Hilliard, Marisa; Andolina, Carolyn; Ruskis, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that there are long-term consequences of early media exposure. The present study examined the amount, content, and context of television exposure across the infancy period in the United States. Parents of 308 infants aged 6 to 18 months completed questionnaires detailing parental attitudes regarding their children’s television use and 24-hour television diaries to provide an accurate measurement of household television usage. Television exposure during infancy varied as a function of infant age, sibling status, socioeconomic status and parental attitudes toward television. Regression analyses indicated that parental attitudes were not associated with the amount of television exposure, but were associated with the content of television exposure. These findings indicate that television exposure changes rapidly across infancy and is associated with parental attitudes. PMID:20890405

  13. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of chronic exposure results with the MACCS reactor accident consequence model

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Rollstin, J.A.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the chronic exposure pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 75 imprecisely known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: crop growing season dose, crop long-term dose, water ingestion dose, milk growing season dose, long-term groundshine dose, long-term inhalation dose, total food pathways dose, total ingestion pathways dose, total long-term pathways dose, total latent cancer fatalities, area-dependent cost, crop disposal cost, milk disposal cost, population-dependent cost, total economic cost, condemnation area, condemnation population, crop disposal area and milk disposal area. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: dry deposition velocity, transfer of cesium from animal feed to milk, transfer of cesium from animal feed to meat, ground concentration of Cs-134 at which the disposal of milk products will be initiated, transfer of Sr-90 from soil to legumes, maximum allowable ground concentration of Sr-90 for production of crops, fraction of cesium entering surface water that is consumed in drinking water, groundshine shielding factor, scale factor defining resuspension, dose reduction associated with decontamination, and ground concentration of 1-131 at which disposal of crops will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season.

  14. Children's exposure to intimate partner violence: A meta-analysis of longitudinal associations with child adjustment problems.

    PubMed

    Vu, Nicole L; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Rosenfield, David

    2016-06-01

    This meta-analysis reviewed 74 studies that examined longitudinal associations between children's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and their adjustment problems. Results indicated that children's exposure to IPV is linked prospectively with child externalizing, internalizing, and total adjustment problems. Moreover, the magnitude of the association between IPV exposure and child externalizing and internalizing problems strengthens over time. In addition, associations are stronger between IPV exposure and child externalizing and internalizing problems when IPV is conceptualized broadly rather than narrowly (physical IPV+psychological and/or sexual IPV versus physical IPV only), and when information on IPV and child adjustment problems is obtained from the same source, rather than independent sources. When IPV exposure is measured at younger ages, compared to older ages, the association between IPV and child externalizing problems is greater. However, when child adjustment problems are measured at older ages, compared to younger ages, the association between IPV and child internalizing problems is greater. Child sex, sample type, and whether only the male partner's violence or both partners' violence was measured did not predict the association between children's exposure to IPV and later adjustment problems. The findings have both research and clinical implications regarding the long-term adjustment of children exposed to IPV and the conceptualization and measurement of resilience subsequent to IPV. PMID:27136293

  15. A rapid screening tool for psychological distress in children 3–6years old: results of a validation study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mental health needs of young children in humanitarian contexts often remain unaddressed. The lack of a validated, rapid and simple tool for screening combined with few mental health professionals able to accurately diagnose and provide appropriate care mean that young children remain without care. Here, we present the results of the principle cross-cultural validation of the “Psychological Screening for Young Children aged 3 to 6” (PSYCAa3-6). The PSYCa 3–6 is a simple scale for children 3 to 6 years old administered by non-specialists, to screen young children in crises and thereby refer them to care if needed. Methods This study was conducted in Maradi, Niger. The scale was translated into Hausa, using corroboration of independent translations. A cross-cultural validation was implemented using quantitative and qualitative methods. A random sample of 580 mothers or caregivers of children 3 to 6 years old were included. The tool was psychometrically examined and diagnostic properties were assessed comparing the PSYCa 3–6 against a clinical interview as the gold standard. Results The PSYCa 3–6 Hausa version demonstrated good concurrent validity, as scores correlated with the gold standard and the Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale (CGI-S) [rho = 0.41, p-value = 0.00]. A reduction procedure was used to reduce the scale from 40 to 22 items. The test-retest reliability of the PSYCa 3–6 was found to be high (ICC 0.81, CI95% [0.68; 0.89]). In our sample, although not the purpose of this study, approximately 54 of 580 children required subsequent follow-up with a psychologist. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first validation of a screening scale for children 3 to 6 years old with a cross-cultural validation component, for use in humanitarian contexts. The Hausa version of the PSYCa 3–6 is a reliable and a valuable screening tool for psychological distress. Further studies to replicate our findings and additional

  16. ANALYSIS OF ANDROGEN- AND EGF-RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN THE FETAL RAT PHALLUS AFTER EXPOSURE TO VINCLOZOLIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of Androgen- and EGF-Receptor Expression in the Fetal Rat Phallus After Exposure to Vinclozolin
    Cynthia Wolf1,2, Barbara Abbott1, Gerald A. LeBlanc2, and L. Earl Gray, Jr.1
    1USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTD, RTP, NC 27711, 2NCSU, Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Ral...

  17. Perspective: Crowd-based breath analysis: assessing behavior, activity, exposures, and emotional response of people in groups

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new concept for exhaled breath analysis has emerged wherein groups, or even crowds of people are simultaneously sampled in enclosed environments to detect overall trends in their activities and recent exposures. The basic idea is to correlate the temporal profile of known breat...

  18. ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKER ANALYSIS OF LOW VOLUME RESIDENTIAL SAMPLES FOR SOURCE APPORTIONMENT IN THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract describes a poster on results for organic speciation analysis for Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) to be presented at the 2006 International Aerosol Conference sponsored by the American Association for Aerosol Research in St. Paul, Minnesota on Se...

  19. Relationships between Adolescent Sexual Outcomes and Exposure to Sex in Media: Robustness to Propensity-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven C.; Elliott, Marc N.; Miu, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent sexual health is a substantial problem in the United States, and two recent studies have linked adolescent sexual behavior and/or outcomes to youths' exposure to sex in the media. Both studies had longitudinal survey designs and used covariate-adjusted regression analysis. Steinberg and Monahan (2011) reanalyzed data from one of these…

  20. Expression profiling and gene ontology analysis in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) liver following exposure to pulp and paper mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Costigan, Shannon L; Werner, Julieta; Ouellet, Jacob D; Hill, Lauren G; Law, R David

    2012-10-15

    Many studies link pulp and paper mill effluent (PPME) exposure to adverse effects in fish populations present in the mill receiving environments. These impacts are often characteristic of endocrine disruption and may include impaired reproduction, development and survival. While these physiological endpoints are well-characterized, the molecular mechanisms causing them are not yet understood. To investigate changes in gene transcription induced by exposure to a PPME at several stages of treatment, male and female fathead minnows (FHMs) were exposed for 6 days to 25% (v/v) secondary (biologically) treated kraft effluent (TK) or 100% (v/v) combined mill outfall (CMO) from a mill producing both kraft pulp and newsprint. The gene expression changes in the livers of these fish were analyzed using a 22K oligonucleotide microarray. Exposure to TK or CMO resulted in significant changes in the expression levels of 105 and 238 targets in male FHMs and 296 and 133 targets in females, respectively. Targets were then functionally analyzed using gene ontology tools to identify the biological processes in fish hepatocytes that were affected by exposure to PPME after its secondary treatment. Proteolysis was affected in female FHMs exposed to both TK and CMO. In male FHMs, no processes were affected by TK exposure, while sterol, isoprenoid, steroid and cholesterol biosynthesis and electron transport were up-regulated by CMO exposure. The results presented in this study indicate that short-term exposure to PPMEs affects the expression of reproduction-related genes in the livers of both male and female FHMs, and that secondary treatment of PPMEs may not neutralize all of their metabolic effects in fish. Gene ontology analysis of microarray data may enable identification of biological processes altered by toxicant exposure and thus provide an additional tool for monitoring the impact of PPMEs on fish populations. PMID:22728206

  1. Multidimensional analysis of the effect of occupational exposure to organic solvents on lung cancer risk: the ICARE study

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Francesca; Liverani, Silvia; Guida, Florence; Matrat, Mireille; Cenée, Sylvie; Azizi, Lamiae; Menvielle, Gwenn; Sanchez, Marie; Pilorget, Corinne; Lapôtre-Ledoux, Bénédicte; Luce, Danièle; Richardson, Sylvia; Stücker, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between lung cancer and occupational exposure to organic solvents is discussed. Since different solvents are often used simultaneously, it is difficult to assess the role of individual substances. Objectives The present study is focused on an in-depth investigation of the potential association between lung cancer risk and occupational exposure to a large group of organic solvents, taking into account the well-known risk factors for lung cancer, tobacco smoking and occupational exposure to asbestos. Methods We analysed data from the Investigation of occupational and environmental causes of respiratory cancers (ICARE) study, a large French population-based case–control study, set up between 2001 and 2007. A total of 2276 male cases and 2780 male controls were interviewed, and long-life occupational history was collected. In order to overcome the analytical difficulties created by multiple correlated exposures, we carried out a novel type of analysis based on Bayesian profile regression. Results After analysis with conventional logistic regression methods, none of the 11 solvents examined were associated with lung cancer risk. Through a profile regression approach, we did not observe any significant association between solvent exposure and lung cancer. However, we identified clusters at high risk that are related to occupations known to be at risk of developing lung cancer, such as painters. Conclusions Organic solvents do not appear to be substantial contributors to the occupational risk of lung cancer for the occupations known to be at risk. PMID:26911986

  2. How Universal Are Free Will Beliefs? Cultural Differences in Chinese and U.S. 4- and 6-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Wente, Adrienne O; Bridgers, Sophie; Zhao, Xin; Seiver, Elizabeth; Zhu, Liqi; Gopnik, Alison

    2016-05-01

    This study explores the development of free will beliefs across cultures. Sixty-seven Chinese 4- and 6-year-olds were asked questions to gauge whether they believed that people could freely choose to inhibit or act against their desires. Responses were compared to those given by the U.S. children in Kushnir, Gopnik, Chernyak, Seiver, and Wellman (). Results indicate that children from both cultures increased the amount of choice they ascribed with age. For inhibition questions, Chinese children ascribed less choice than the U.S. children. Qualitative explanations revealed that the U.S. children were also more likely to endorse notions of autonomous choice. These findings suggest both cultural differences and similarities in free will beliefs. PMID:27189395

  3. The development of joke and irony understanding: a study with 3- to 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Angeleri, Romina; Airenti, Gabriella

    2014-06-01

    Previous research suggests that comprehending ironic utterances is a relatively late-developing skill, emerging around 5-6 years of age. This study investigated whether younger children might show an earlier understanding when ironic utterances are performed in familiar communicative situations, and investigated the relationships among irony comprehension, language, and theory of mind (ToM) abilities. A group of 100 children aged 3.0-6.5 years was presented with 4 types of puppet scenarios depicting different communicative interactions: control, joke, contingent irony and background irony stories. Results suggested that (a) even younger children easily understand jokes, and may sometimes understand ironies; (b) children's comprehension of irony continues to develop across early childhood; and (c) receptive vocabulary scores had simultaneous effects on irony comprehension and ToM performance. PMID:24364812

  4. [A 6-year-old girl who exhibited residual reading disorder during the course of acute encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Nagaharu, Sachiko; Inaba, Yuji; Motobayashi, Mitsuo; Misawa, Yuka; Fukuyama, Tetsuhiro; Higuchi, Tsukasa; Harada, Machiko

    2012-11-01

    We assessed a 6-year-old girl who developed status epilepticus and exhibited transient aphasia during the course of acute encephalopathy with late reduced diffusion, and who had a residual reading disorder in the recovery period. The aphasia appeared to be fluent aphasia and anomia, suggesting that the reading disorder during the recovery process was due to impairment of the phonological process. There were no biphasic seizures during the course of the patient's illness, but this case was acute encephalopathy with febrile convulsive status epilepticus (AEFCSE) from the standpoint of the characteristic imaging findings. Lesions in the left parietal and temporal lobes were detected on MRI diffusion-weighted images and by SPECT and MRS, and they appeared to be the lesions responsible for the aphasia and residual reading disorder. This case appears to be important from the standpoint of assessing the pathophysiology and the treatment of coexisting illness observed in acute encephalopathy. PMID:23240531

  5. IceCube results from point-like source searches using 6 years of through-going muon data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coenders, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory located at the geographic South Pole was designed to study and discover high energy neutrinos coming from both galactic and extra-galactic astrophysical sources. Track-like events induced by charged-current muon-neutrino interactions close to the IceCube detector give an angular resolution better than 1∘ above TeV energies. We present here the results of searches for point-like astrophysical neutrino sources on the full sky using 6 years of detector livetime, of which three years use the complete IceCube detector. Within 2000 days of detector livetime, IceCube is sensitive to a steady flux substantially below E2∂ϕ/∂E = 10-12 TeV cm-2 s-1 in the northern sky for neutrino energies above 10 TeV.

  6. Effects of the Variation in Brain Tissue Mechanical Properties on the Intracranial Response of a 6-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shihai; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiangnan; Ruan, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue mechanical properties are of importance to investigate child head injury using finite element (FE) method. However, these properties used in child head FE model normally vary in a large range in published literatures because of the insufficient child cadaver experiments. In this work, a head FE model with detailed anatomical structures is developed from the computed tomography (CT) data of a 6-year-old healthy child head. The effects of brain tissue mechanical properties on traumatic brain response are also analyzed by reconstruction of a head impact on engine hood according to Euro-NCAP testing regulation using FE method. The result showed that the variations of brain tissue mechanical parameters in linear viscoelastic constitutive model had different influences on the intracranial response. Furthermore, the opposite trend was obtained in the predicted shear stress and shear strain of brain tissues caused by the variations of mentioned parameters. PMID:26495031

  7. The relation between measures of cognitive and motor functioning in 5- to 6-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Tino; Hughes, Charmayne M L

    2016-07-01

    Specific relations between executive functions (working memory capacity, planning and problem-solving, inhibitory control) and motor skill performance (anticipatory motor planning, manual dexterity) were examined in 5- to 6-year-old children (N = 40). Results showed that the two motor skill components were not correlated. Additionally, it was found that response planning performance was a significant predictor of anticipatory motor planning performance, whereas inhibitory control and working memory capacity measures were significant predictors of manual dexterity scores. Taken together, these results suggest that cognitive and motor skills are linked, but that manual dexterity and anticipatory motor planning involve different specialized skills. The current study provides support for specific relations between cognitive and motor performance, which has implications for early childhood cognitive-motor training and intervention programs. PMID:25820330

  8. Assessment of working memory components at 6years of age as predictors of reading achievements a year later.

    PubMed

    Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-05-01

    The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97 children. Among all working memory components, phonological complex memory contributed most to predicting all three reading abilities. A capacity measure of phonological complex memory, based on passing a minimum threshold in those tasks, contributed to the explained variance of decoding and reading comprehension. Findings suggest that a minimal ability of phonological complex memory is necessary for children to attain a normal reading level. Adding assessment of phonological complex memory, before formal teaching of reading begins, to more common measures might better estimate children's likelihood of future academic success. PMID:21115182

  9. Effects of the Variation in Brain Tissue Mechanical Properties on the Intracranial Response of a 6-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shihai; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiangnan; Ruan, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue mechanical properties are of importance to investigate child head injury using finite element (FE) method. However, these properties used in child head FE model normally vary in a large range in published literatures because of the insufficient child cadaver experiments. In this work, a head FE model with detailed anatomical structures is developed from the computed tomography (CT) data of a 6-year-old healthy child head. The effects of brain tissue mechanical properties on traumatic brain response are also analyzed by reconstruction of a head impact on engine hood according to Euro-NCAP testing regulation using FE method. The result showed that the variations of brain tissue mechanical parameters in linear viscoelastic constitutive model had different influences on the intracranial response. Furthermore, the opposite trend was obtained in the predicted shear stress and shear strain of brain tissues caused by the variations of mentioned parameters. PMID:26495031

  10. Immediate Nonfunctional Loading of Two Single-Maxillary Postextractive Implants: 6-Year Postloading Results of Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Ariano, Vincenzo; Mancini, Manuele; Cardi, Andrea; Condò, Roberta; Cerroni, Loredana; Pasquantonio, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare crestal bone loss of single-maxillary immediate postextractive implants and immediate nonfunctional loading (INFL) during 72 months of follow-up. Material and Methods. Two single titanium implants (Certain Prevail, Biomet 3I, USA) were placed in two patients using INFL technique. Implant stability and crestal bone level were measured on periapical radiographs at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Results. All osseointegrated implants were clinically successful after 6 years of functional loading. Conclusion. Within the limit of the present case report, the paper supports the concept that INFL of single dental implant can be a successful treatment procedure. PMID:27293915

  11. Analysis of aggregate exposure to chlorpyrifos in the NHEXAS-Maryland investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yaohong; MacIntosh, David L; Camann, David E; Ryan, P Barry

    2002-01-01

    As part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) in Maryland, we collected indoor air, carpet dust, exterior soil, and duplicate diet samples from a stratified random sample of 80 individuals to evaluate aggregate daily exposure, contributions of specific pathways of exposure, and temporal variation in exposure to chlorpyrifos. We collected samples from each participant in up to six equally spaced sampling cycles over a year and analyzed them for chlorpyrifos. We used chlorpyrifos concentrations in each medium and self-reported rates of time spent inside at home, time and frequency of contact with carpet, frequency of contact with soil, and weights of the duplicate diet samples to derive exposure to chlorpyrifos from each medium as well as average daily aggregate exposure (nanograms per day). The mean aggregate daily exposure to chlorpyrifos of 36 measurements obtained from 31 people was 1,390 ng/day (SD, 2,770 ng/day). Exposure from inhalation of indoor air accounted for 84.7% of aggregate daily exposure to chlorpyrifos on average. Chlorpyrifos concentrations in indoor air and carpet dust and the corresponding exposure rates were significantly correlated. Repeated short-term measurements of chlorpyrifos in carpet dust from individual residences were strongly correlated over time (reliability coefficient, R = 0.90), whereas the short-term measurements of chlorpyrifos in indoor air (R = 0.55) and solid food (R = 0.03) had moderate to weak reliability. Exposure to chlorpyrifos through those media and in aggregate based on direct measurements reported in this study can be used to understand better the accuracy of pesticide safety assessments. PMID:11882473

  12. The effect of age, sex and obesity on fundamental motor skills among 4 to 6 years-old children

    PubMed Central

    Vameghi, Roshanak; Shams, Amir; Shamsipour Dehkordi, Parvane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of age, sex and obesity on Fundamental Motor Skills (FMS) in 4 to 6 years-old children. Methodology: A total of 400 preschool children (200 boys and 200 girls) between the ages of 4 to 6 years old participated in this research. Subjects were selected through multi-stage cluster random sampling. Fundamental motor skills (FMS) were assessed with using the OSU-SIGMA scale. Body mass index (BMI) was directly measured from height(m)2/weight(kg) for each child and based on CDC growth charts, normal weight, overweight and obesity were defined. Results: The results showed that age and sex variables were a significant effect on walking and running skills, but BMI was not significant (P>0.05). Also, these variables had a significant effect on jumping, skipping, hopping and ladder climbing. In both ages, boys in jumping and ladder climbing skills were better than girls, but the girls were better in skipping and hopping skills (P<0.05). Moreover, the results showed that age and BMI variables have a significant effect on stair climbing skill, but sex was not significant (P>0.05). For object control skills, the results showed that age and sex variables were a significant effect on catching and throwing skills, but BMI was not significant (P>0.05). Finally, the age, sex and BMI variables were a significant effect on kicking and sticking skills. Conclusion: This research demonstrated that boys performed better than girls, and both overweight and obese children have lower performance than normal children. PMID:24353582

  13. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-representative surveys

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100) and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700). Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. Results The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p < 0.01. Obese girls could jump 1.6-1.7 inches shorter than normal weight peers (p < 0.01). Other gross motor skills and fine motor skills of young children were not consistently related to BMI z-scores and obesity. Conclusions Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight. PMID:22420636

  14. Pre- and Postnatal Determinants of Deciduous Molar Hypomineralisation in 6-Year-Old Children. The Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    Elfrink, Marlies E. C.; Moll, Henriette A.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; ten Cate, Jacob M.; Veerkamp, Jaap S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Deciduous Molar Hypomineralisation (DMH) and Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) are common developmental disturbances in pediatric dentistry. Their occurrence is related. The same determinants as suggested for MIH are expected for DMH, though somewhat earlier in life. Perinatal medical problems may influence the prevalence of DMH but this has not been studied sufficiently. Objective This study aimed to identify possible determinants of DMH in a prospective cohort study among 6-year-old children. Study Design This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. The the data were used to identify the determinants of DMH. Clinical photographs of clean, moist teeth were taken with an intra-oral camera in 6690 children (mean age 6.2 years; 49.9% girls). Data on possible determinants that had occurred during pregnancy and/or the child's first year of life were on the basis of manual standardized measurements (like length and weight) and questionnaires. Multivariate analyse with backward and forward selection was performed. Results A number of factors in the pre-, peri- and postnatal phase were found to be associated with DMH. After multivariate logistic regression analyses, Dutch ethnic background, low birth weight, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and fever episodes in the first year of the child's life were found to play a role in the development of DMH in 6-year-old children. Conclusion This study shows that Dutch ethnicity, low birth weight, alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy and any fever in the first year of the child's life are associated with DMH. Not only childhood factors but also prenatal lifestyle factors need to be taken into account when studying determinants for DMH. PMID:24988443

  15. Improvements in Lung Function and Height among Cohorts of 6-Year-Olds with Cystic Fibrosis from 1994 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    VanDevanter, Donald R.; Pasta, David J.; Konstan, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize spirometry and height changes in cohorts of 6-year-olds with cystic fibrosis (CF). Study design Global Lung Initiative (GLI) forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC and CDC height-for-age (HFA) Z-scores were generated for 6-year-olds in the from the CF Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) each year from 1994 and 2012. Z-score mean differences were analyzed by t-test and time trends of means by least squares regression for all children and for subgroups (sex, F580del mutation genotype, Medicaid insurance, and prenatal/newborn screening identification). Z-score distributions were compared by two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Results 11,670 children with CF were studied, of whom 50.5% were males, 50.2% had the F508del/F508del genotype, and 46.6% were insured by Medicaid. Mean HFA, FEV1 and FVC Z-scores increased significantly over the period in the entire population and all subgroups (P<0.001), but FEV1/FVC Z-scores were below normal and did not change significantly. In 2012, children identified by screening had significantly higher mean HFA (P=0.002), FEV1 (P<0.001) and FVC (P<0.001) Z-scores than those not screened, with 90% of FVC and 71.4% of FEV1 Z-scores greater than predicted by the Normal distribution; FEV1/FVC Z-scores were not different between screening groups. Conclusions Consistent, significant increases in HFA, FEV1, and FVC occurred from 1994–2012, but FEV1/FVC, a measure of airway obstruction, did not appreciably change. FVC and FEV1 Z-score distributions suggest that normative equation reference populations under-predict lung volumes of children with CF, but the reason(s) for this remain unclear. PMID:25134852

  16. Recurrent acute-onset Cushing's syndrome 6 years after removal of a thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma: from ectopic ACTH to CRH.

    PubMed

    Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Asa, Sylvia L; Arola, Johanna; Sane, Timo

    2013-03-01

    We describe a rare case of ectopic Cushing's syndrome that recurred 6 years after resection of a thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma. We discuss reasons for the differing clinical presentations, management, hormone profiles, as well as immunopathology. A 41-year-old male developed acute-onset Cushing's syndrome. Clinical presentation and laboratory results were compatible with ectopic adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) production. Computerized tomography (CT) showed a 3.6 cm thymic tumor which was successfully resected. Plasma ACTH (P-ACTH) normalized the first postoperative day. Histopathology demonstrated a well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma with diffuse positivity for ACTH and focal corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) reactivity in a few scattered cells. The patient was in remission for 6 years. He then again presented with acute-onset Cushing's syndrome. Fluorine-labeled dihydroxyphenylalanine ((18)F-DOPA) PET/CT showed local uptake in the mediastinum and he underwent repeat resection. However, P-ACTH remained increased (613 ng/l) and 24-h urinary cortisol was 36,720 nmol, suggesting incomplete tumor removal or metastatic spread. Metyrapone treatment was initiated but then withdrawn because the patient spontaneously recovered and cortisol metabolism gradually normalized within 3 weeks. Histopathology demonstrated a recurrent neuroendocrine carcinoma with the same features as the previous lesion but this time CRH was strongly positive in more numerous cells. Normalization of P-ACTH after primary surgery was compatible with ectopic ACTH production. However, the delayed fall in P-ACTH and serum cortisol is compatible with ectopic CRH production and stimulation of pituitary ACTH secretion, which gradually resolved. Although ectopic CRH production is very rare, the unusual dynamics illustrated here should raise the possibility of CRH production by a neuroendocrine tumor. PMID:23233312

  17. Dietary intake in 6-year-old children from southern Poland: part 1 - energy and macronutrient intakes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The studies on dietary intake in Polish children are sparse and the information about dietary intake in 6-year-olds in Europe is limited. The published studies on dietary intake in children rarely provide information on the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water. The purpose of the study was to analyse energy and macronutrient intakes in 6-year-old children from southern Poland. Methods The studied population comprised 120 children, 64 girls and 56 boys. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated from a three-day food record. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Results Intakes of energy (kJ, kcal), plant protein (g), total fat (g), saturated fatty acids (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal), monounsaturated fatty acids (g) and starch (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in boys, while intakes of sucrose (% of energy, g/1000 kcal) and total water (g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in girls. The children’s diets were characterised by excessive intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, sucrose, and by inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, available carbohydrates and starch. Conclusions The observed adverse characteristics of the children’s diets are similar to those observed in the diets of children in other European countries and show the need to work out a common educational programme to improve nutrition in young European children. It is also important to provide the lacking information about the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water in young children. PMID:25086600

  18. Work Incapacity and Treatment Costs After Severe Accidents: Standard Versus Intensive Case Management in a 6-Year Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Stefan M; Andermatt, Peter; Tobler, Benno L; Spinnler, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Purpose Case management is widely accepted as an effective method to support medical rehabilitation and vocational reintegration of accident victims with musculoskeletal injuries. This study investigates whether more intensive case management improves outcomes such as work incapacity and treatment costs for severely injured patients. Methods 8,050 patients were randomly allocated either to standard case management (SCM, administered by claims specialists) or intensive case management (ICM, administered by case managers). These study groups differ mainly by caseload, which was approximately 100 cases in SCM and 35 in ICM. The setting is equivalent to a prospective randomized controlled trial. A 6-year follow-up period was chosen in order to encompass both short-term insurance benefits and permanent disability costs. All data were extracted from administrative insurance databases. Results Average work incapacity over the 6-year follow-up, including contributions from daily allowances and permanent losses from disability, was slightly but insignificantly higher under ICM than under SCM (21.6 vs. 21.3 % of pre-accident work capacity). Remaining work incapacity after 6 years of follow-up showed no difference between ICM and SCM (8.9 vs. 8.8 % of pre-accident work incapacity). Treatment costs were 43,500 Swiss Francs (CHF) in ICM compared to 39,800 in SCM (+9.4 %, p = 0.01). The number of care providers involved in ICM was 10.5 compared to 10.0 in ICM (+5.0 %, p < 0.001). Conclusions Contrary to expectations, ICM did not reduce work incapacity as compared to SCM, but did increase healthcare consumption and treatment costs. It is concluded that the intensity of case management alone is not sufficient to improve rehabilitation and vocational reintegration of accident victims. PMID:26687330

  19. Volatile N-nitrosamines in environmental tobacco smoke: Sampling, analysis, emission factors, and indoor air exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Mahanama, K.R.R.; Daisey, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    A more convenient sampling and analysis method for the volatile N-nitrosamines (VNA) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), using commercially available Thermosorb/N cartridges, was developed and validated. Using the method, emission factors for the two major VNA in ETS were determined in a room-sized environmental chamber for six commercial cigarette brands, which together accounted for 62.5% of the total market in California in 1990. The average emission factors were 565{+-}115 and 104{+-}20 ng per cigarette for N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine, respectively. The emission factors were used to estimate VNA exposures from ETS in a typical office building and an average residence. Indoor concentrations of N,N-dimethylnitrosamine from ETS for these modeled scenarios were less than 10% of the reported median outdoor concentration. This median outdoor concentration, however, includes many measurements made in source-dominated areas and may be considerably higher than one based on more representative sampling of outdoor air. 35 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. [The physiological analysis of cross adaptation to regular cold exposure and physical activities].

    PubMed

    Son'kin, V D; Iakushkin, A V; Akimov, E B; Andreev, R S; Kalenov, Iu N; Kozlov, A V

    2014-01-01

    Research is devoted to the comparative analysis of results of cold adaptation and physical training. The adaptive shifts occurring in an organism under the influence of a hardening (douche by a cold shower 2 times a day 2 minutes long within 6 weeks) and running training on the treadmill (30 minutes at 70-80% of individual VO2max, 3 times a week, within 6 weeks) were compared at 6 the same subjects. The interval between the two cycles of training was no less than 3 months. The indicators registered during ramp test and standard cold exposure test before and after each cycle of trainings were compared. It is shown that patterns of adaptive shifts at adaptation to factors of various modality strongly differ. Shifts at adaptation to physical activities were as a whole more expressed, than at adaptation to regular cold exposition. An individual variety of adaptive reactions suggests the feasibility of developing new approaches to the theory of the adaptation, connected with studying of physiological individuality. PMID:25711113

  1. Mass spectrometry data from proteomic analysis of human skin keratins after exposure to UV radiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon Hwa; Matsushima, Keita; Miyamoto, Kohei; Oe, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    A mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic methodology was employed to monitor oxidative modifications in keratins, the main constituents of human skin (“Non-invasive proteomic analysis of human skin keratins: screening of methionine oxidation in keratins by mass spectrometry” [1], “UV irradiation-induced methionine oxidation in human skin keratins: mass spectrometry-based non-invasive proteomic analysis” [2]). Human skin proteins were obtained non-invasively by tape stripping and solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer, followed by purification and digestion using the filter-aided sample preparation method. The tryptic peptides were then analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, tandem MS (MS/MS), and LC/ESI-selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/MS. The MS/MS data were generated to confirm amino acid sequences and oxidation sites of tryptic peptides D290VDGAYMTK298 (P1) and N258MQDMVEDYR267 (P2), which contain the most susceptible oxidation sites (Met259, Met262, and Met296 in K1 keratin) upon UVA irradiation [2]. Subsequently, quantitative determination of the relative oxidation levels of P1 and P1 [2] was achieved by LC/ESI-SRM/MS analyses of P1 and P2 together with their oxidized forms after exposure to UVA radiation or treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). PMID:26958637

  2. Feeling Validated Versus Being Correct:A Meta-Analysis of Selective Exposure to Information

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores; Eagly, Alice H.; Brechan, Inge; Lindberg, Matthew J.; Merrill, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis assessed whether exposure to information is guided by defense or accuracy motives. The studies examined information preferences in relation to attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors in situations that provided choices between congenial information, which supported participants' pre-existing attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors, and uncongenial information, which challenged these tendencies. Analyses indicated a moderate preference for congenial over uncongenial information (d. = 0.36). As predicted, this congeniality bias was moderated by variables that affect the strength of participants' defense motivation and accuracy motivation. In support of the importance of defense motivation, the congeniality bias was weaker when participants' attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors were supported prior to information selection, when participants' attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors were not relevant to their values or not held with conviction, when the available information was low in quality, when participants' closed-mindedness was low, and when their confidence in the attitude, belief, or behavior was high. In support of the importance of accuracy motivation, an uncongeniality bias emerged when uncongenial information was relevant to accomplishing a current goal. PMID:19586162

  3. Retail Tobacco Exposure: Using Geographic Analysis to Identify Areas With Excessively High Retail Density

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There is great disparity in tobacco outlet density (TOD), with density highest in low-income areas and areas with greater proportions of minority residents, and this disparity may affect cancer incidence. We sought to better understand the nature of this disparity by assessing how these socio-demographic factors relate to TOD at the national level. Methods: Using mixture regression analysis and all of the nearly 65,000 census tracts in the contiguous United States, we aimed to determine the number of latent disparity classes by modeling the relations of proportions of Blacks, Hispanics, and families living in poverty with TOD, controlling for urban/rural status. Results: We identified six disparity classes. There was considerable heterogeneity in relation to TOD for Hispanics in rural settings. For Blacks, there was no relation to TOD in an urban moderate disparity class, and for rural census tracts, the relation was highest in a moderate disparity class. Conclusions: We demonstrated the utility of classifying census tracts on heterogeneity of tobacco risk exposure. This approach provides a better understanding of the complexity of socio-demographic influences of tobacco retailing and creates opportunities for policy makers to more efficiently target areas in greatest need. PMID:23999651

  4. Reading ability and print exposure: item response theory analysis of the author recognition test.

    PubMed

    Moore, Mariah; Gordon, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    In the author recognition test (ART), participants are presented with a series of names and foils and are asked to indicate which ones they recognize as authors. The test is a strong predictor of reading skill, and this predictive ability is generally explained as occurring because author knowledge is likely acquired through reading or other forms of print exposure. In this large-scale study (1,012 college student participants), we used item response theory (IRT) to analyze item (author) characteristics in order to facilitate identification of the determinants of item difficulty, provide a basis for further test development, and optimize scoring of the ART. Factor analysis suggested a potential two-factor structure of the ART, differentiating between literary and popular authors. Effective and ineffective author names were identified so as to facilitate future revisions of the ART. Analyses showed that the ART is a highly significant predictor of the time spent encoding words, as measured using eyetracking during reading. The relationship between the ART and time spent reading provided a basis for implementing a higher penalty for selecting foils, rather than the standard method of ART scoring (names selected minus foils selected). The findings provide novel support for the view that the ART is a valid indicator of reading volume. Furthermore, they show that frequency data can be used to select items of appropriate difficulty, and that frequency data from corpora based on particular time periods and types of texts may allow adaptations of the test for different populations. PMID:25410405

  5. Wildfire exposure analysis on the national forests in the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    PubMed

    Ager, Alan A; Buonopane, Michelle; Reger, Allison; Finney, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    We analyzed wildfire exposure for key social and ecological features on the national forests in Oregon and Washington. The forests contain numerous urban interfaces, old growth forests, recreational sites, and habitat for rare and endangered species. Many of these resources are threatened by wildfire, especially in the east Cascade Mountains fire-prone forests. The study illustrates the application of wildfire simulation for risk assessment where the major threat is from large and rare naturally ignited fires, versus many previous studies that have focused on risk driven by frequent and small fires from anthropogenic ignitions. Wildfire simulation modeling was used to characterize potential wildfire behavior in terms of annual burn probability and flame length. Spatial data on selected social and ecological features were obtained from Forest Service GIS databases and elsewhere. The potential wildfire behavior was then summarized for each spatial location of each resource. The analysis suggested strong spatial variation in both burn probability and conditional flame length for many of the features examined, including biodiversity, urban interfaces, and infrastructure. We propose that the spatial patterns in modeled wildfire behavior could be used to improve existing prioritization of fuel management and wildfire preparedness activities within the Pacific Northwest region. PMID:23078351

  6. Analysis of the relation between exposure parameters and critical dimension by response surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Dong-Soo; Sohn, Young-Soo; Bak, Heungin; Oh, Hye-Keun

    2001-08-01

    It is important to know the relationship between the soft bake conditions and the Dill exposure parameters in order to control the lithographic process well. It has been reported that exposure parameter A can be significantly affected by the soft bake conditions, while the exposure parameters B and C show no dependency on the soft bake conditions. The exposure parameters have been considered less important in 193 nm chemically amplified resist (CAR) simulation. Since the critical dimension variation depends on the exposure parameters, if we know the relationship between them it would be helpful in developing resist and resist process. In this paper the profiles of a 193nm CAR were simulated with the various Dill exposure parameters and the results were analyzed by response surface model. The response surface methodology (RSM) approach was used to analyze the influence of independent factors on a dependent response, and to optimize each process. A method of steepest ascent was utilized to produce first-order models, which were verified by lack of fit testing. As optimum operation points were approached, a second-order model was fitted and analyzed. The Dill exposure parameter C affects critical dimension greatly whereas A and B have much less effect. Among parameters other than exposure parameters, PEB time and PEB temperature are great factors to affect critical dimension. Even small change of them can make great critical dimension changes. Process optimization for the target response value as well as process latitude was possible through the use of the response surface.

  7. A within-subject analysis of d-amphetamine exposure on delay discounting in rats.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Jonathan M; Krebs, Christopher A; Anderson, Karen G

    2012-10-01

    Studies concerning the relation between stimulant drug exposure and subsequent delay discounting (impulsive choice) have resulted in mixed findings that could be related to the type of stimulant drug exposure or the use of between-subject comparisons. The purpose of the present study was to examine effects of prior D-amphetamine exposure on subsequent delay discounting using a within-subject assessment. Two groups of rats were trained under a discrete-trials choice procedure until delay discounting was stable. One group of rats then received repeated administration of 3.0 mg/kg D-amphetamine in their home cage for 14 consecutive days, while the other group received saline. After a three-week drug-free period, delay discounting was reassessed. No significant differences in area under the curve within (before or after drug exposure) or between (saline or D-amphetamine) groups were found. Thus, delay discounting was not systematically affected following termination of repeated 3.0 mg/kg D-amphetamine exposure in the present experimental arrangement. The current results, coupled with past research, indicate that there may be a distinction between cocaine exposure and D-amphetamine exposure on subsequent delay discounting; however, within-subject comparisons of cocaine exposure on delay discounting are warranted. PMID:22750554

  8. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF CHEMICAL EXPOSURE CRITERIA FOR COMPARING SITES AND WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology was developed for deriving quantitative exposure criteria useful for comparing a site or watershed to a reference condition. The prototype method used indicators of exposures to oil contamination and combustion by-products, naphthalene and benzo(a)pyrene metabolites...

  9. Amount, Content and Context of Infant Media Exposure: A Parental Questionnaire and Diary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Rachel; Danzinger, Catherine; Hilliard, Marissa E.; Andolina, Carolyn; Ruskis, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that there are long-term consequences of early media exposure. This study examined the amount, content and context of television exposure across the infancy period in the USA. Parents of 308 infants aged 6-18 months completed questionnaires detailing parental attitudes regarding their children's television use and…

  10. AGE-RELATED TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental exposures is poorly understood. To investigate-the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of an acute exposure to the volatile organic compound, toluene (0.0 or 1.0 g/kg), i...

  11. STRATEGIC PLAN FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS) PILOT STUDY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) in the early 1990's. It was a population-based pilot study of the exposure of over 500 people in three areas of the U.S....

  12. STRATEGIC PLAN FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS) PILOT STUDY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) in the early 1990's. It was a population-based pilot study of the exposure of over 500 people in three areas of the U....

  13. An analysis of collegiate band directors' exposure to sound pressure levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roebuck, Nikole Moore

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a significant but unfortunate common occupational hazard. The purpose of the current study was to measure the magnitude of sound pressure levels generated within a collegiate band room and determine if those sound pressure levels are of a magnitude that exceeds the policy standards and recommendations of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). In addition, reverberation times were measured and analyzed in order to determine the appropriateness of acoustical conditions for the band rehearsal environment. Sound pressure measurements were taken from the rehearsal of seven collegiate marching bands. Single sample t test were conducted to compare the sound pressure levels of all bands to the noise exposure standards of OSHA and NIOSH. Multiple regression analysis were conducted and analyzed in order to determine the effect of the band room's conditions on the sound pressure levels and reverberation times. Time weighted averages (TWA), noise percentage doses, and peak levels were also collected. The mean Leq for all band directors was 90.5 dBA. The total accumulated noise percentage dose for all band directors was 77.6% of the maximum allowable daily noise dose under the OSHA standard. The total calculated TWA for all band directors was 88.2% of the maximum allowable daily noise dose under the OSHA standard. The total accumulated noise percentage dose for all band directors was 152.1% of the maximum allowable daily noise dose under the NIOSH standards, and the total calculated TWA for all band directors was 93dBA of the maximum allowable daily noise dose under the NIOSH standard. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the room volume, the level of acoustical treatment and the mean room reverberation time predicted 80% of the variance in sound pressure levels in this study.

  14. Confounding Factors in the Transcriptome Analysis of an In-Vivo Exposure Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Wackers, Paul F. K.; van Oostrom, Conny; Jonker, Martijs J.; Dekker, Rob J.; Rauwerda, Han; Ensink, Wim A.; de Vries, Annemieke; Breit, Timo M.

    2016-01-01

    Confounding factors In transcriptomics experimentation, confounding factors frequently exist alongside the intended experimental factors and can severely influence the outcome of a transcriptome analysis. Confounding factors are regularly discussed in methodological literature, but their actual, practical impact on the outcome and interpretation of transcriptomics experiments is, to our knowledge, not documented. For instance, in-vivo experimental factors; like Individual, Sample-Composition and Time-of-Day are potentially formidable confounding factors. To study these confounding factors, we designed an extensive in-vivo transcriptome experiment (n = 264) with UVR exposure of murine skin containing six consecutive samples from each individual mouse (n = 64). Analysis Approach Evaluation of the confounding factors: Sample-Composition, Time-of-Day, Handling-Stress, and Individual-Mouse resulted in the identification of many genes that were affected by them. These genes sometimes showed over 30-fold expression differences. The most prominent confounding factor was Sample-Composition caused by mouse-dependent skin composition differences, sampling variation and/or influx/efflux of mobile cells. Although we can only evaluate these effects for known cell type specifically expressed genes in our complex heterogeneous samples, it is clear that the observed variations also affect the cumulative expression levels of many other non-cell-type-specific genes. ANOVA ANOVA analysis can only attempt to neutralize the effects of the well-defined confounding factors, such as Individual-Mouse, on the experimental factors UV-Dose and Recovery-Time. Also, by definition, ANOVA only yields reproducible gene-expression differences, but we found that these differences were very small compared to the fold changes induced by the confounding factors, questioning the biological relevance of these ANOVA-detected differences. Furthermore, it turned out that many of the differentially expressed

  15. Influence of exposure assessment and parameterization on exposure response. Aspects of epidemiologic cohort analysis using the Libby Amphibole asbestos worker cohort.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Thomas F; Kopylev, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of occupational epidemiology studies identified two important exposure data quality factors in predicting summary effect measures for asbestos-associated lung cancer mortality risk: sufficiency of job history data and percent coverage of work history by measured exposures. The objective was to evaluate different exposure parameterizations suggested in the asbestos literature using the Libby, MT asbestos worker cohort and to evaluate influences of exposure measurement error caused by historically estimated exposure data on lung cancer risks. Focusing on workers hired after 1959, when job histories were well-known and occupational exposures were predominantly based on measured exposures (85% coverage), we found that cumulative exposure alone, and with allowance of exponential decay, fit lung cancer mortality data similarly. Residence-time-weighted metrics did not fit well. Compared with previous analyses based on the whole cohort of Libby workers hired after 1935, when job histories were less well-known and exposures less frequently measured (47% coverage), our analyses based on higher quality exposure data yielded an effect size as much as 3.6 times higher. Future occupational cohort studies should continue to refine retrospective exposure assessment methods, consider multiple exposure metrics, and explore new methods of maintaining statistical power while minimizing exposure measurement error. PMID:24496219

  16. Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess trihalomethane exposures during competitive swimming training.

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, A B; Pleil, J D; Berkoff, D C

    1997-01-01

    Alveolar breath sampling was used to assess trihalomethane (THM) exposures encountered by collegiate swimmers during a typical 2-hr training period in an indoor natatorium. The breath samples were collected at regular intervals before, during, and for 3 hr after a moderately intense training workout. Integrated and grab whole-air samples were collected during the training period to help determine inhalation exposures, and pool water samples were collected to help assess dermal exposures. Resulting breath samples collected during the workout demonstrated a rapid uptake of two THMs (chloroform and bromodichloromethane), with chloroform concentrations exceeding the natatorium air levels within 8 min after the exposure began. Chloroform levels continued to rise steeply until they were more than two times the indoor levels, providing evidence that the dermal route of exposure was relatively rapid and ultimately more important than the inhalation route in this training scenario. Chloroform elimination after the exposure period was fitted to a three compartment model that allowed estimation of compartmental half-lives, resulting minimum bloodborne dose, and an approximation of the duration of elevated body burdens. We estimated the dermal exposure route to account for 80% of the blood chloroform concentration and the transdermal diffusion efficiency from the water to the blood to in excess of 2%. Bromodichloromethane elimination was fitted to a two compartment model which provided evidence of a small, but measurable, body burden of this THM resulting from vigorous swim training. These results suggest that trihalomethane exposures for competitive swimmers under prolonged, high-effort training are common and possibly higher than was previously thought and that the dermal exposure route is dominant. The exposures and potential risks associated with this common recreational activity should be more thoroughly investigated. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure

  17. Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) during motor vehicle refueling

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, A.B.; Pleil, J.D.

    1996-07-01

    In this study we present a sampling and analytical methodology that can be used to assess consumers` exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) that may result from routine vehicle refueling operations. The method is based on the collection of alveolar breath samples using evacuated one-liter stainless steel canisters and analysis using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a patented `valveless` cryogenic preconcentrator. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, a series of breath samples was collected from two individuals (the person pumping the fuel and a nearby observer) immediately before and for 64 min after a vehicle was refueled with premium grade gasoline. Results demonstrate low levels of MTBE in both subjects` breaths before refueling, and levels that increased by a factor of 35 to 100 after the exposure. Breath elimination models fitted to the post exposure measurements indicate that the half-life of MTBE in the first physiological compartment was between 1.3 and 2.9 min. Analysis of the resulting models suggests that breath elimination of MTBE during the 64 min monitoring period was approximately 155 {mu}g for the refueling subject while it was only 30 {mu}g for the nearby observer. This analysis also shows that the post exposure breath elimination of other gasoline constituents was consistent with previously published observations. 20 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Leukemia risk associated with benzene exposure in the pliofilm cohort: I. Mortality update and exposure distribution.

    PubMed

    Paxton, M B; Chinchilli, V M; Brett, S M; Rodricks, J V

    1994-04-01

    The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recently completed a vital status update adding 6 years of observation on the rubber workers known as the Pliofilm cohort. Using traditional standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis, we investigate the impact of the additional information gathered in the NIOSH update. We also compare the effect of using three sets of job-, plant-, and year-specific exposure estimates on the evaluation of benzene's leukemogenicity. The lack of any additional cases of multiple myeloma does not support trends toward elevated risks for this endpoint (as had been observed earlier), and there is no indication of increased incidences of solid tumors (as predicted by animal studies). Qualitatively, which exposure estimates are used does not alter the conclusions. The data added in the update did not greatly modify the estimated relative risk of leukemia associated with benzene exposure, but did confirm previous findings that occupational exposure to high concentrations had leukemogenic potential. The fact that leukemia has not been observed in any individual who started employment in Pliofilm production after 1950 suggests that the observed leukemia cases could be a response to very high levels of benzene exposure that occurred during the early years of this manufacturing process. PMID:8008923

  19. Analysis of an Environmental Exposure Health Questionnaire in a Metropolitan Minority Population Utilizing Logistic Regression and Support Vector Machines

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chau-Kuang; Bruce, Michelle; Tyler, Lauren; Brown, Claudine; Garrett, Angelica; Goggins, Susan; Lewis-Polite, Brandy; Weriwoh, Mirabel L; Juarez, Paul D.; Hood, Darryl B.; Skelton, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze a 54-item instrument for assessment of perception of exposure to environmental contaminants within the context of the built environment, or exposome. This exposome was defined in five domains to include 1) home and hobby, 2) school, 3) community, 4) occupation, and 5) exposure history. Interviews were conducted with child-bearing-age minority women at Metro Nashville General Hospital at Meharry Medical College. Data were analyzed utilizing DTReg software for Support Vector Machine (SVM) modeling followed by an SPSS package for a logistic regression model. The target (outcome) variable of interest was respondent's residence by ZIP code. The results demonstrate that the rank order of important variables with respect to SVM modeling versus traditional logistic regression models is almost identical. This is the first study documenting that SVM analysis has discriminate power for determination of higher-ordered spatial relationships on an environmental exposure history questionnaire. PMID:23395953

  20. Transcriptome analysis of the copepod Eurytemora affinis upon exposure to endocrine disruptor pesticides: Focus on reproduction and development.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Eléna; Forget-Leray, Joëlle; Duflot, Aurélie; Olivier, Stéphanie; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Danger, Jean-Michel; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline

    2016-07-01

    Copepods-which include freshwater and marine species-represent the most abundant group of aquatic invertebrates. Among them, the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis is widely represented in the northern hemisphere estuaries and has become a species of interest in ecotoxicology. Like other non-target organisms, E. affinis may be exposed to a wide range of chemicals such as endocrine disruptors (EDs). This study investigated the gene expression variation in E. affinis after exposure to ED pesticides-chosen as model EDs-in order to (i) improve the knowledge on their effects in crustaceans, and (ii) highlight relevant transcripts for further development of potential biomarkers of ED exposure/effect. The study focused on the reproduction function in response to ED. Copepods were exposed to sublethal concentrations of pyriproxyfen (PXF) and chlordecone (CLD) separately. After 48h, males and females (400 individuals each) were sorted for RNA extraction. Their transcriptome was pyrosequenced using the Illumina(®) technology. Contigs were blasted and functionally annotated using Blast2GO(®). The differential expression analysis between ED- and acetone-exposed organisms was performed according to sexes and contaminants. Half of the 19,721 contigs provided by pyrosequencing were annotated, mostly (80%) from arthropod sequences. Overall, 2,566 different genes were differentially expressed after ED exposures in comparison with controls. As many genes were differentially expressed after PXF exposure as after CLD exposure. In contrast, more genes were differentially expressed in males than in females after both exposures. Ninety-seven genes overlapped in all conditions. Finally, 31 transcripts involved in reproduction, growth and development, and changed in both chemical exposures were selected as potential candidates for future development of biomarkers. PMID:27111276

  1. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Meintjes, E M; Narr, K L; van der Kouwe, A J W; Molteno, C D; Pirnia, T; Gutman, B; Woods, R P; Thompson, P M; Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM) methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6-11.0 years) and controls (n = 16, 9.5-11.0 years). Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1) the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2) the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3) the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4) the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA) regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent. PMID:25057467

  2. Association of Exposure to Particular Matter and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaole; Lian, Hui; Ruan, Yanping; Liang, Ruijuan; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Routledge, Michael; Fan, Zhongjie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long time exposure to particular matter has been linked to myocardial infarction, stroke and blood pressure, but its association with atherosclerosis is not clear. This meta-analysis was aimed at assessing whether PM2.5 and PM10 have an effect on subclinical atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Methods: Pubmed, Ovid Medline, Embase and NICK between 1948 and 31 March 2015 were searched by combining the keywords about exposure to the outcome related words. The random-effects model was applied in computing the change of CIMT and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The effect of potential confounding factors was assessed by stratified analysis and the impact of traffic proximity was also estimated. Results: Among 56 identified studies, 11 articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. In overall analysis increments of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 and PM10 were associated with an increase of CIMT (16.79 μm; 95% CI, 4.95–28.63 μm and 4.13 μm; 95% CI, −5.79–14.04 μm, respectively). Results shown in subgroup analysis had reference value for comparing with those of the overall analysis. The impact of traffic proximity on CIMT was uncertain. Conclusions: Exposure to PM2.5 had a significant association with CIMT and for women the effect may be more obvious. PMID:26501300

  3. Comparative international analysis of radiofrequency exposure surveys of mobile communication radio base stations

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Jack T; Joyner, Ken H

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of data from surveys of radio base stations in 23 countries across five continents from the year 2000 onward and includes over 173,000 individual data points. The research compared the results of the national surveys, investigated chronological trends and compared exposures by technology. The key findings from this data are that irrespective of country, the year and cellular technology, exposures to radio signals at ground level were only a small fraction of the relevant human exposure standards. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in exposure levels since the widespread introduction of 3G mobile services, which should be reassuring for policy makers and negate the need for post-installation measurements at ground level for compliance purposes. There may be areas close to antennas where compliance levels could be exceeded. Future potential work includes extending the study to additional countries, development of cumulative exposure distributions and investigating the possibility of linking exposure measurements to population statistics to assess the distribution of exposure levels relative to population percentiles. PMID:22377680

  4. Relationships Between Adolescent Sexual Outcomes and Exposure to Sex in Media: Robustness to Propensity-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Collins, Rebecca L; Martino, Steven C; Elliott, Marc N; Miu, Angela

    2011-03-01

    Adolescent sexual health is a substantial problem in the U.S., and two recent studies have linked adolescent sexual behavior and/or outcomes to youths' exposure to sex in the media. Both studies had longitudinal survey designs and used covariate-adjusted regression analysis. Steinberg and Monahan (2010) reanalyzed data from one of these studies (Brown et al., 2006) using a propensity-score approach, arguing that this method better addresses the possibility of unobserved confounders. Based on their reanalysis, which found no relationship between media exposure and sexual behavior, they concluded that "Adolescents' Exposure to Sexy Media Does Not Hasten the Initiation of Sexual Intercourse." We subject data from the second study (Collins et al., 2004; Chandra et al., 2008) to reanalysis using a propensity-score approach. We find only modest reductions in two of the three previously documented associations, and no reduction in the third. Based on these findings, we conclude that there is an association between exposure to sex in the media and adolescent sexual outcomes. While the evidence does not prove causality, it is sufficient to advise caution among parents, develop interventions for youth, and work with media producers and distributors to reduce youth exposure to sexual content. PMID:24839301

  5. Association between Workplace Risk Factor Exposure and Sleep Disturbance: Analysis of the 2nd Korean Working Conditions Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Sleep is essential for human beings to live and work properly. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between occupational exposures to workplace risk factors and sleep disturbance in Korean workers. Methods The data were drawn from the second Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS); a total of 7,112 paid workers were analyzed. The independent variables were occupational exposures such as physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial risk factor in the workplace, and psychosocial risk factor was divided into five categories (job demand, job control, social support, job insecurity, lack of reward). We estimated the relationship between various occupational exposures and sleep disturbance using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The results showed that people who exposed to physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial (high job demand, inadequate social support, lack of reward) risk factors were more likely to increase the risk of sleep disturbance. Furthermore, after adjusting for general and occupational characteristics, we found significant positive associations between exposures to physical (odds ratios [OR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.07) and psychosocial (high job demand (OR 2.93, 95% CI 2.16-3.98), inadequate social support (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.14-2.15), lack of reward (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.08-1.96)) risk factors and sleep disturbance. Conclusion These results suggest that occupational exposures to physical and psychosocial workplace risk factors are significantly related to sleep disturbance. PMID:24472113

  6. Relationships Between Adolescent Sexual Outcomes and Exposure to Sex in Media: Robustness to Propensity-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven C.; Elliott, Marc N.; Miu, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent sexual health is a substantial problem in the U.S., and two recent studies have linked adolescent sexual behavior and/or outcomes to youths' exposure to sex in the media. Both studies had longitudinal survey designs and used covariate-adjusted regression analysis. Steinberg and Monahan (2010) reanalyzed data from one of these studies (Brown et al., 2006) using a propensity-score approach, arguing that this method better addresses the possibility of unobserved confounders. Based on their reanalysis, which found no relationship between media exposure and sexual behavior, they concluded that “Adolescents' Exposure to Sexy Media Does Not Hasten the Initiation of Sexual Intercourse.” We subject data from the second study (Collins et al., 2004; Chandra et al., 2008) to reanalysis using a propensity-score approach. We find only modest reductions in two of the three previously documented associations, and no reduction in the third. Based on these findings, we conclude that there is an association between exposure to sex in the media and adolescent sexual outcomes. While the evidence does not prove causality, it is sufficient to advise caution among parents, develop interventions for youth, and work with media producers and distributors to reduce youth exposure to sexual content. PMID:24839301

  7. World Trade Center Disaster Exposure-Related Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Responders and Civilians: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bian; Tarigan, Lukman H.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Kim, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR) was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.32), with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers) had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87) compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR = 2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12). The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six) most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts. PMID:25047411

  8. World Trade Center disaster exposure-related probable posttraumatic stress disorder among responders and civilians: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bian; Tarigan, Lukman H; Bromet, Evelyn J; Kim, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR) was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.32), with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers) had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87) compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR = 2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12). The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six) most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts. PMID:25047411

  9. Kinematic Comparison of Pediatric Human Volunteers and the Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Anthropomorphic Test Device

    PubMed Central

    Seacrist, Thomas; Balasubramanian, Sriram; García-España, J. Felipe; Maltese, Matthew R.; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Kent, Richard W.; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    The Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD has been benchmarked against adult-scaled component level tests but the lack of biomechanical data hinders the effectiveness of the procedures used to scale the adult data to the child. Whole body kinematic validation of the pediatric ATD through limited comparison to post mortem human subjects (PMHS) of similar age and size has revealed key differences attributed to the rigidity of the thoracic spine. As restraint systems continue to advance, they may become more effective at limiting peak loads applied to occupants, leading to lower impact environments for which the biofidelity of the ATD is not well established. Consequently, there is a growing need to further enhance the assessment of the pediatric ATD by evaluating its biofidelity at lower crash speeds. To this end, this study compared the kinematic response of the Hybrid III 6 year old ATD against size-matched male pediatric volunteers (PVs) (6–9 yrs) in low-speed frontal sled tests. A 3-D near-infrared target tracking system quantified the position of markers at seven locations on the ATD and PVs (head top, opisthocranion, nasion, external auditory meatus, C4, T1, and pelvis). Angular velocity of the head, seat belt forces, and reaction forces on the seat pan and foot rest were also measured. The ATD exhibited significantly greater shoulder and lap belt, foot rest, and seat pan normal reaction loads compared to the PVs. Contrarily, PVs exhibited significantly greater seat pan shear. The ATD experienced significantly greater head angular velocity (11.4 ± 1.7 rad/s vs. 8.1 ± 1.4 rad/s), resulting in a quicker time to maximum head rotation (280.4 ± 2.5 ms vs 334.2 ± 21.7 ms). The ATD exhibited significantly less forward excursions of the nasion (171.7 ± 7.8 mm vs. 199.5 ± 12.3 mm), external auditory meatus (194.5 ± 11.8 mm vs. 205.7 ± 10.3 mm), C4 (127.0 ± 5.2 mm vs. 183.3 ± 12.8 mm) and T1 (111.1 ± 6.5 mm vs. 153.8 ± 10.5 mm) compared to the PVs. These analyses

  10. Analysis of the asbestos permissible-exposure-level threshold standard. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.W.

    1991-06-01

    This thesis examines the reasoning of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) decision to set stringent exposure levels for airborne asbestos in the work place. Technical recommendations from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Bureau of Mines, and the American conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists were presented to OSHA for consideration. OSHA and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set industry standards for permissible exposure levels (PEL) of airborne asbestos. Exposure to asbestos poses a health hazard to workers, their families, and consumers of asbestos products. Because it poses an unreasonable risk human life, OSHA has repeatedly lowered the Permissible Exposure Levels and the EPA will ban the manufacture, importation, processing and commercial distribution of asbestos containing products from the United States in phases by 1997. These decisions may have been made too hastily because of the long latency (15-40 years) period before cancer develops, and the added risks that smoking imposes.

  11. Occupational Exposure to Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Health Care Providers: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Varun; Seth, Anju; Chandra, Jagdish; Gupta, Rohini; Kumar, Praveen; Dutta, Ashok Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the population at risk, risk factors, and outcome of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids in health care providers. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of two and half year data of ongoing surveillance of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids in a tertiary care hospital. Results: 103 Health Care Providers (HCP) reported an occupational exposure to blood and body fluids during the period under review. These comprised 72 (69.9%) doctors, 20 (19.4%) nursing personnel, and 11 (10.6%) cleaning staff. Of the doctors, 65% were interns. 53.4% HCP had work experience of less than one year. Circumstances of exposure included clinical procedures (48%), sweeping/handling used sharps (29%), recapping (16%), and surgery (6.9%). 74.3% of the exposures were due to non-compliance with universal precautions and were thus preventable. The device most frequently implicated in causing injury was hollow bore needle (n=85, 82.5%). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status of the source was positive in 6.8% cases, negative in 53.4% cases, and unknown in remaining 39.8% cases. Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) was indicated in 100 (97.08%) cases and was initiated within 2 h of exposure in 26.8% HCP. In 23.2% HCP, PEP initiation was delayed beyond 72 h of exposure due to late reporting. Thirteen HCP received expanded and the remaining received basic regime. Of the 82 HCP followed up, 15 completed the full course, while 55 stopped PEP after the first dose due to negative source status. Twelve HCP with exposure to blood of unknown HIV status discontinued PEP despite counseling. Complete follow-up for seroconversion was very poor among the HCP. HIV status at 6 month of exposure is not known for any HCP. Conclusions: Failure to follow universal precautions including improper disposal of waste was responsible for majority of occupational exposures. HCP need to be sensitized regarding hospital waste management, management of occupational exposure

  12. Constructing Predictive Estimates for Worker Exposure to Radioactivity During Decommissioning: Analysis of Completed Decommissioning Projects - Master Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dettmers, Dana Lee; Eide, Steven Arvid

    2002-10-01

    An analysis of completed decommissioning projects is used to construct predictive estimates for worker exposure to radioactivity during decommissioning activities. The preferred organizational method for the completed decommissioning project data is to divide the data by type of facility, whether decommissioning was performed on part of the facility or the complete facility, and the level of radiation within the facility prior to decommissioning (low, medium, or high). Additional data analysis shows that there is not a downward trend in worker exposure data over time. Also, the use of a standard estimate for worker exposure to radioactivity may be a best estimate for low complete storage, high partial storage, and medium reactor facilities; a conservative estimate for some low level of facility radiation facilities (reactor complete, research complete, pits/ponds, other), medium partial process facilities, and high complete research facilities; and an underestimate for the remaining facilities. Limited data are available to compare different decommissioning alternatives, so the available data are reported and no conclusions can been drawn. It is recommended that all DOE sites and the NRC use a similar method to document worker hours, worker exposure to radiation (person-rem), and standard industrial accidents, injuries, and deaths for all completed decommissioning activities.

  13. Analysis of gene expression in mouse brain regions after exposure to 1.9 GHz radiofrequency fields

    PubMed Central

    McNamee, James P.; Bellier, Pascale V.; Konkle, Anne T. M.; Thomas, Reuben; Wasoontarajaroen, Siriwat; Lemay, Eric; Gajda, Greg B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To assess 1.9 GHz radiofrequency (RF) field exposure on gene expression within a variety of discrete mouse brain regions using whole genome microarray analysis. Materials and methods: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 1.9 GHz pulse-modulated or continuous-wave RF fields for 4 h/day for 5 consecutive days at whole body average (WBA) specific absorption rates of 0 (sham), ∼0.2 W/kg and ∼1.4 W/kg. Total RNA was isolated from the auditory cortex, amygdala, caudate, cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and medial prefrontal cortex and differential gene expression was assessed using Illumina MouseWG-6 (v2) BeadChip arrays. Validation of potentially responding genes was conducted by RT-PCR. Results: When analysis of gene expression was conducted within individual brain regions when controlling the false discovery rate (FDR), no differentially expressed genes were identified relative to the sham control. However, it must be noted that most fold changes among groups were observed to be less than 1.5-fold and this study had limited ability to detect such small changes. While some genes were differentially expressed without correction for multiple-comparisons testing, no consistent pattern of response was observed among different RF-exposure levels or among different RF-modulations. Conclusions: The current study provides the most comprehensive analysis of potential gene expression changes in the rodent brain in response to RF field exposure conducted to date. Within the exposure conditions and limitations of this study, no convincing evidence of consistent changes in gene expression was found in response to 1.9 GHz RF field exposure. PMID:27028625

  14. Maternal Benzene Exposure during Pregnancy and Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Zhu, Jie; Bi, Yongyi; Bai, YuE; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of childhood leukemia is increasing rapidly all over the world. However, studies on maternal benzene exposure during pregnancy and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have not been systematically assessed. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between maternal solvent, paint, petroleum exposure, and smoking during pregnancy and risk of childhood ALL. Methods Relevant studies up to September 1st, 2013 were identified by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library and the Web of Science databases. The effects were pooled using either fixed or random effect models based on the heterogeneity of the studies. Results Twenty-eight case-control studies and one cohort study were included for analysis, with a total of 16,695 cases and 1,472,786 controls involved. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for ALL was 1.25 (1.09, 1.45) for solvent, 1.23 (1.02, 1.47) for paint, 1.42 (1.10, 1.84) for petroleum exposure, and 0.99 (0.93, 1.06) for maternal smoking during pregnancy. No publication bias was found in this meta-analysis and consistent results were observed for subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Childhood ALL was associated with maternal solvent, paint, and petroleum exposure during pregnancy. No association was found between ALL and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Avoidance of maternal occupational and environmental benzene exposure during pregnancy could contribute to a decrease in the risk of childhood ALL. PMID:25333868

  15. Is there an association between aircraft noise exposure and the incidence of hypertension? A meta-analysis of 16784 participants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Di; Song, XuPing; Cui, Qi; Tian, Jinhui; Wang, Quan; Yang, Kehu

    2015-01-01

    To determine if aircraft noise exposure causes an increased incidence of hypertension among residents near airports. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate the association between aircraft noise exposure and the incidence of hypertension. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database were searched without any restrictions. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted. The pooled ORs were calculated using both the fixed effects model and random effects model. All analyses were performed using STATA version 12.0 software (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). We examined five studies, comprising a total of 16,784 residents. The overall OR for hypertension in residents with aircraft noise exposure was 1.63 (95% CI, 1.14-2.33), and one of our included studies showed that there was no evidence that aircraft noise is a risk factor for hypertension in women. According to our subgroup analysis, the summary OR for the incidence was 1.31 (95% CI, 0.85-2.02) with I2 of 80.7% in women and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.15-1.60) with moderate heterogeneity in men. The pooled OR for the incidence of hypertension in residents aged over 55 years and under 55 years was 1.66 (95% CI, 1.21-2.27) with no heterogeneity and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.33-2.39) with I2 of 29.4%, respectively. The present meta-analysis suggests that aircraft noise could contribute to the prevalence of hypertension, but the evidence for a relationship between aircraft noise exposure and hypertension is still inconclusive because of limitations in study populations, exposure characterization, and adjustment for important confounders. PMID:25774612

  16. Is there an association between aircraft noise exposure and the incidence of hypertension? A meta-analysis of 16784 participants

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Di; Song, XuPing; Cui, Qi; Tian, Jinhui; Wang, Quan; Yang, Kehu

    2015-01-01

    To determine if aircraft noise exposure causes an increased incidence of hypertension among residents near airports. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate the association between aircraft noise exposure and the incidence of hypertension. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database were searched without any restrictions. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted. The pooled ORs were calculated using both the fixed effects model and random effects model. All analyses were performed using STATA version 12.0 software (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). We examined five studies, comprising a total of 16,784 residents. The overall OR for hypertension in residents with aircraft noise exposure was 1.63 (95% CI, 1.14-2.33), and one of our included studies showed that there was no evidence that aircraft noise is a risk factor for hypertension in women. According to our subgroup analysis, the summary OR for the incidence was 1.31 (95% CI, 0.85-2.02) with I2 of 80.7% in women and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.15-1.60) with moderate heterogeneity in men. The pooled OR for the incidence of hypertension in residents aged over 55 years and under 55 years was 1.66 (95% CI, 1.21-2.27) with no heterogeneity and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.33-2.39) with I2 of 29.4%, respectively. The present meta-analysis suggests that aircraft noise could contribute to the prevalence of hypertension, but the evidence for a relationship between aircraft noise exposure and hypertension is still inconclusive because of limitations in study populations, exposure characterization, and adjustment for important confounders. PMID:25774612

  17. The incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Montevideo Uruguay as determined by meconium analysis.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Janine R; Magri, Raquel; Gareri, Joey N; Koren, Gideon

    2010-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a wide range of deficits known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Epidemiologic studies regarding alcohol consumption in pregnancy have concentrated on North America, but recent reports have suggested that consumption is significant in many parts of the world. In Uruguay, alcohol consumption has changed into more risky and dangerous patterns and thus has a theoretical risk of having a high rate of prenatal alcohol exposure. This study characterizes the incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Montevideo, Uruguay, using a novel biomarker, fatty acid ethyl esters, in meconium as well as a survey to mothers. Nine hundred five meconium samples were collected from Hospital Pereira Rossell and Hospital de Clínicas in Montevideo, Uruguay. A maternal questionnaire was also completed. Meconium was analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters using liquid-liquid and solid phase extraction with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Meconium was also analyzed for other drugs of abuse using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forty-four percent of meconium samples were above the positive cutoff for fatty acid ethyl esters and represent those newborns with risky prenatal exposure during the final two trimesters of pregnancy. Infants with prenatal alcohol exposure were more likely to have prenatal exposure to tobacco (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.20) or any illicit drug (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-5.31). Ethyl linoleate was a significant predictor of infant birth weight along with prenatal tobacco exposure, maternal body mass index, and infant sex. This study highlights a 44% incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:20445483

  18. Analysis of real-time mixture cytotoxicity data following repeated exposure using BK/TD models.

    PubMed

    Teng, S; Tebby, C; Barcellini-Couget, S; De Sousa, G; Brochot, C; Rahmani, R; Pery, A R R

    2016-08-15

    Cosmetic products generally consist of multiple ingredients. Thus, cosmetic risk assessment has to deal with mixture toxicity on a long-term scale which means it has to be assessed in the context of repeated exposure. Given that animal testing has been banned for cosmetics risk assessment, in vitro assays allowing long-term repeated exposure and adapted for in vitro - in vivo extrapolation need to be developed. However, most in vitro tests only assess short-term effects and consider static endpoints which hinder extrapolation to realistic human exposure scenarios where concentration in target organs is varies over time. Thanks to impedance metrics, real-time cell viability monitoring for repeated exposure has become possible. We recently constructed biokinetic/toxicodynamic models (BK/TD) to analyze such data (Teng et al., 2015) for three hepatotoxic cosmetic ingredients: coumarin, isoeugenol and benzophenone-2. In the present study, we aim to apply these models to analyze the dynamics of mixture impedance data using the concepts of concentration addition and independent action. Metabolic interactions between the mixture components were investigated, characterized and implemented in the models, as they impacted the actual cellular exposure. Indeed, cellular metabolism following mixture exposure induced a quick disappearance of the compounds from the exposure system. We showed that isoeugenol substantially decreased the metabolism of benzophenone-2, reducing the disappearance of this compound and enhancing its in vitro toxicity. Apart from this metabolic interaction, no mixtures showed any interaction, and all binary mixtures were successfully modeled by at least one model based on exposure to the individual compounds. PMID:27317371

  19. Physical exposure of sign language interpreters: baseline measures and reliability analysis.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Alain; Larivière, Christian; Imbeau, Daniel; Durand, Marie-José

    2005-07-01

    Measurement of physical exposure to musculoskeletal disorder risk factors must generally be performed directly in the field to assess the effectiveness of ergonomic interventions. To perform such an evaluation, the reliability of physical exposure measures under similar field conditions must be known. The objectives of this study were to estimate the reliability of physical exposure measures performed in the field and to establish the baseline values of physical exposure in sign language interpreters (SLI) before the implementation of an intervention. The electromyography (EMG) of the trapezius muscles as well as the wrist motions of the dominant arm were measured using goniometry on nine SLI on four different days. Several exposure parameters, proposed in the literature, were computed and the generalizability theory was used as a framework to assess reliability. Overall, SLI showed a relatively low level of trapezius muscle activity, but with little time at rest, and highly dynamic wrist motions. Electromyography exposure parameters showed poor to moderate reliability, while goniometry parameter reliability was moderate to excellent. For EMG parameters, performing repeated measurements on different days was more effective in increasing reliability than extending the duration of the measurement over one day. For goniometry, repeating measurements on different days was also effective in improving reliability, although good reliability could be obtained with a single sufficiently long measurement period. PMID:15830245

  20. [Exposure to animals and non-Hodgkin lymphomas: pilot analysis about 261 cases].

    PubMed

    Jeanne, Aurélie; Aras, Myriam; Eisinger, François; Bellagamba, Gauthier; Garciaz, Sylvain; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Bouabdallah, Réda

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated a possible link between the occupational or domestic exposure to animals and a histological subgroup of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (LNH) (diffuse large B-cell lymphomas [LDGCB], follicular lymphomas [LF], indolent non-follicular LNH [LNHINF] and T-cell LNH). This retrospective, descriptive study was carried out over one year in a regional cancer research center. Data on occupational and domestic exposures to animals, from patients treated for a LNH, was collected via a questionnaire. Among the 261 participants, 73.9% reported they had been exposed to animals, 5% were exposed at work, whereas 72.4% were exposed in a domestic setting. The occupational exposure tended to be more frequent in the subgroup of patients with a LF (P = 0.06). The domestic exposure was less frequent (P = 0.04) in patients with LDGCB (63.0%) than in patients with a small cell LNH B (LF and LNHINF) (76.0%). Although there was no obvious link between occupational or domestic exposure to animals and one of the four histological subgroups of LNH, domestic exposure seemed less common among LDGCB patients. These results need to be confirmed by further studies. PMID:24691187

  1. An analysis of mercury exposures among the adult population in New York State.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Alicia M; Gelberg, Kitty H

    2013-06-01

    The extent of methylmercury exposures among adults in New York State (NYS) has not been well characterized. Over the past few years, the NYS Heavy Metals Registry (HMR) has seen an increase in both blood mercury tests being reported, and nonoccupational exposures to mercury, which appear primarily due to fish consumption. This study will, (1) Characterize the adults who are tested for blood mercury in NYS; (2) Examine the circumstances for blood mercury testing; and (3) Characterize this population in terms of exposure history, specifically those individuals who are non-occupationally exposed through a diet of seafood consumption in reference to blood mercury levels. Data available from HMR laboratory results, including basic demographics and test results, were combined with data from telephone interviews. The interview contains information on the reasons for testing, possible sources of exposure, and the individual's work and home environment. Approximately 99 % of adults reported to the HMR, with identifiable exposures to mercury, had non-occupational exposures resulting from seafood consumption. Common types of fish consumed include salmon, tuna, and swordfish, with 90 % of adults eating seafood a few times or more per week. Information will be provided on the reasons for being tested and the range of blood mercury levels in relation to their seafood consumption. NYS residents who frequently eat fish should be aware of what types of fish contain mercury and avoid or reduce consumption of fish with high mercury levels. PMID:23264151

  2. Meta-analysis of the association between short-term exposure to ambient ozone and respiratory hospital admissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Meng; Cohan, Daniel S.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-04-01

    Ozone is associated with health impacts including respiratory outcomes; however, results differ across studies. Meta-analysis is an increasingly important approach to synthesizing evidence across studies. We conducted meta-analysis of short-term ozone exposure and respiratory hospitalizations to evaluate variation across studies and explore some of the challenges in meta-analysis. We identified 136 estimates from 96 studies and investigated how estimates differed by age, ozone metric, season, lag, region, disease category, and hospitalization type. Overall results indicate associations between ozone and various kinds of respiratory hospitalizations; however, study characteristics affected risk estimates. Estimates were similar, but higher, for the elderly compared to all ages and for previous day exposure compared to same day exposure. Comparison across studies was hindered by variation in definitions of disease categories, as some (e.g., asthma) were identified through >= 3 different sets of ICD codes. Although not all analyses exhibited evidence of publication bias, adjustment for publication bias generally lowered overall estimates. Emergency hospitalizations for total respiratory disease increased by 4.47% (95% interval: 2.48, 6.50%) per 10 ppb 24 h ozone among the elderly without adjustment for publication bias and 2.97% (1.05, 4.94%) with adjustment. Comparison of multi-city study results and meta-analysis based on single-city studies further suggested publication bias.

  3. Childhood lead exposure in France: benefit estimation and partial cost-benefit analysis of lead hazard control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lead exposure remains a public health concern due to its serious adverse effects, such as cognitive and behavioral impairment: children younger than six years of age being the most vulnerable population. In Europe, the lead-related economic impacts have not been examined in detail. We estimate the annual costs in France due to childhood exposure and, through a cost benefit analysis (CBA), aim to assess the expected social and economic benefits of exposure abatement. Methods Monetary benefits were assessed in terms of avoided national costs. We used results from a 2008 survey on blood-lead (B-Pb) concentrations in French children aged one to six years old. Given the absence of a threshold concentration being established, we performed a sensitivity analysis assuming different hypothetical threshold values for toxicity above 15 μg/L, 24 μg/L and 100 μg/L. Adverse health outcomes of lead exposure were translated into social burden and economic costs based on literature data from literature. Direct health benefits, social benefits and intangible avoided costs were included. Costs of pollutant exposure control were partially estimated in regard to homes lead-based paint decontamination, investments aiming at reducing industrial lead emissions and removal of all lead drinking water pipes. Results The following overall annual benefits for the three hypothetical thresholds values in 2008 are: €22.72 billion, €10.72 billion and €0.44 billion, respectively. Costs from abatement ranged from €0.9 billion to 2.95 billion/year. Finally, from a partial CBA of lead control in soils and dust the estimates of total net benefits were € 3.78 billion, € 1.88 billion and €0.25 billion respectively for the three hypothesized B-Pb effect values. Conclusions Prevention of childhood lead exposure has a high social benefit, due to reduction of B-Pb concentrations to levels below 15 μg/L or 24 μg/L, respectively. Reducing only exposures above 100 μg/L B-Pb has

  4. Gestational Hypertension and Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ledda, Caterina; Fiore, Maria; Santarelli, Lory; Bracci, Massimo; Mascali, Giuseppe; D'Agati, Maria Grazia; Busà, Alfredo; Ferrante, Margherita; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered during pregnancy, complicating 2-3% of pregnancies. High blood pressure (BP) with diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg and/or systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg arising after week 22 of pregnancy and resolving after delivery is defined as gestational hypertension (GHY). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether occupational and/or environmental exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticide affects GHY. Women at approximately 22 weeks of gestation were recruited. OP pesticide exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy was classified into four categories: no exposure, indirect exposure, domestic exposure, and occupational exposure. Application of the exclusion criteria left 2203 participants (mean age 30.4 ± 11.6 years). Data analysis showed that in women with indirect OP pesticide exposure the incidence of GHY was slightly higher than that in the world population, whereas domestic exposure involved a 7% increase and occupational exposure a 12% increase. Analysis of the pesticides used by participants highlighted a possible role for malathion and diazinon (adjusted OR 1.09 and 1.14, resp.). Further investigation of exposed workers and the general population is clearly warranted given the broad diffusion of OP pesticides and their possible public health impact, maybe by including a wider range of health outcomes. PMID:26339602

  5. Inflexible parents, inflexible kids: a 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kathryn E; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L

    2012-08-01

    Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined the longitudinal relationships between perceived parenting style and psychological flexibility among students at five Australian schools (N= 749) over 6 years, beginning in Grade 7 (50.3% female, mean age 12.39 years). Parenting style was measured in Grades 7 and 12, and psychological flexibility from Grade 9 through 12. Psychological flexibility decreased, on average, with age. Multi-level modelling indicated that authoritarian parenting (low warmth, high control) in Grade 7 predicted later (low) psychological flexibility. Moreover, increases in authoritarian parenting and decreases in authoritative parenting (high warmth and control) were associated with adolescent psychological flexibility across the high school years. Change in parenting predicted future psychological flexibility but did not predict change over time. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that adolescent psychological flexibility in Grade 9 predicted later decreases in authoritarian and increases in authoritative parenting. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how parenting changes and the consequences of such change for the development of psychological flexibility. PMID:22311519

  6. Prevalence of onchocerciasis in the Fundong Health District, Cameroon after 6 years of continuous community-directed treatment with ivermectin

    PubMed Central

    Kamga, Henri Lucien Fouamno; Shey, Dickson Nsagha; Assob, Jules Clement Nguedia; Njunda, Anna Longdoh; Nde Fon, Peter; Njem, Peter Kindong

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Onchocerciasis is one of the leading infectious causes of blindness affecting over 37 million people of which 99% are in Africa. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of onchocerciasis in the Fundong Health District, a locality where community-directed treatment with ivermectin has been carried out for 6 consecutive years. Methods Questionnaires covering participants’ identity, Rapid Epidemiological Assessment (REA) for onchocerciasis and parasitological parameters were distributed to participants. Skin snip (SS) was collected for laboratory investigation. Results A total of 404 participants belonging to 200 households were randomly selected from the Fundong Health District, of which 134 (33.2%) were males and 270(66.8%) were females, 14 (3.5%) had microfilaredermia and 15(3.7%) had nodules. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of microfilaredermia with respect to age of participants (X2=2.749, P=0.601). There was however a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of nodule and impaired vision/eye itching (IVIE) with respect to age (X2=24.67, P<0.001). The greatest rate of infection was found among farmers (2.5%) followed by students (0.7%) and businessmen (0.25%). Conclusion This study shows that the study area is now hypo-endemic for onchocerciasis, following 6 years of continuous treatment with ivermectin. Careful monitoring of onchocerciasis should however be continued to avoid that the area returns to its initial hyper endemicity. PMID:22187616

  7. Radiation recall dermatitis occurring 6 years and 4 months after breast-conserving surgery: A case report

    PubMed Central

    UBUKATA, MAMIKO; KAMIO, TAKAKO; OHCHI, TETSUYA; NOGUCHI, EIICHIRO; TSUKADA, HIROKO; KAMEOKA, SHINGO

    2016-01-01

    Currently in Japan, breast-conserving therapy, consisting of breast-conserving surgery and post-operative radiation therapy, is performed frequently for the treatment of invasive breast cancer. It has been demonstrated that radiation therapy not only prevents recurrence in the preserved breast, but that it also contributes to improved patient survival. The present study describes the case of a 37-year-old woman with radiation recall dermatitis that occurred 6 years and 4 months after breast-conserving surgery. Erythema with a relatively distinct border was observed at the irradiated site on the left breast; eczema was diagnosed by a dermatologist. Inflammatory breast cancer was ruled out, since chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound and bone scintigraphy were negative. Following ~1 month of topical corticosteroid application and oral second generation antihistamine treatment, the erythema was alleviated and the subjective symptoms also disappeared. Only a few cases of radiation recall dermatitis have been described in the fields of radiology and dermatology, but not yet in the surgical field. In the future, the incidence of radiation recall dermatitis is predicted to increase due to the increasing number of patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy. Whether in the surgical, radiological or dermatological field, if erythema is detected at the irradiated site during post-operative follow-up, routine care should be provided, keeping in mind the possibility of radiation recall dermatitis and inflammatory breast cancer. PMID:27123065

  8. Coexistence of celiac disease and systemic lupus erythematosus in a 6-year-old girl-case report.

    PubMed

    Crişcov, Geanina Irina; Stana, A B; Ioniue, Ileana Katerina; Alexoae, Mihaela Monica; Moraru, Evelina

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a serious and potentially fatal syndrome characterized by an autoimmune assault on various organs and systems that may include the skin, joints, central nervous system, heart and kidneys. Recent research shows that gluten sensitivity causes more than just celiac disease and gluten has been linked to numerous autoimmune conditions. We report here a 6-year-old girl presenting with malaise, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, abdominal distension. After three weeks she developed other symptoms such as arthralgias, malar rash, being finally diagnosed with SLE and possible autoimmune hepatitis. The suspicion of celiac disease was based on a combination of symptoms (poor growth, iron deficiency anemia, chronic abdominal pain, abdominal distension, constipation, "sad child"), IgA deficiency, in the presence of SLE diagnosis. Positive diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed by the presence of an anti IgG anti-transglutaminase antibodies titer of 120 EU/ml (normally less than 20 EU/ml). Small bowel biopsy showed a IIIB1 stage according to the Marsh classification. Three methylprednisolone pulses were promptly administered, followed by oral prednisone (2 mg/kg bw/day) with a good outcome. PMID:25970948

  9. Multidisciplinary approach on rehabilitation of primary teeth traumatism repercussion on the permanent successor: 6-year follow-up case report.

    PubMed

    Mello-Moura, A C V; Bonini, G A V C; Suga, S S; Navarro, R S; Wanderley, M T

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic lesions in primary teeth are frequent in pediatric patients and can cause problems both to the deciduous tooth and permanent successor. The impact strength on deciduous tooth can reach the growing permanent tooth, affecting its morphology, structure and position, or even hampering its proper development. This report describes an aesthetic-functional rehabilitation process in an 8 year 10 month old boy during a multidisciplinary treatment held at the Clinical Center of Dental Trauma in Primary Teeth of the Pediatric Dentistry of Dental College of University of São Paulo, Brazil. The patient presented bilateral posterior cross bite and the permanent left upper central incisor with ectopic eruption and enamel hypoplasy, preceded by avulsion of element 61, occurred when the patient was 1.6 years old. After diagnosis and treatment planning, a quick expansion of jaws was recommended with Hass-type rapid expander and orthodontic leveling with fixed braces. Due to the ectopic eruption, the gingival contour had been altered and hypertrophia was found, compromising aesthetics and avoiding local hygienic procedures. Gingivoplasty was carried out with high-intensity Diode Laser, followed by aesthetic restoration with compound resin. It was concluded that after deciduous teeth traumatism it is important that the patient undergoes clinic and radiographic assistance until the permanent teeth erupt so that an adequate multidisciplinary treatment can be offered to the patient. PMID:19736508

  10. Effects of delays on 6-year-old children’s self-generation and retention of knowledge through integration

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Nicole L.; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    The present research was an investigation of the effect of delay on self-generation and retention of knowledge derived through integration by 6-year-old children. Children were presented with novel facts from passages read aloud to them (stem facts) and tested for self-generation of new knowledge through integration of the facts. In Experiment 1, children integrated the stem facts at Session 1 and retained the self-generated memory traces over 1 week. In Experiment 2, 1-week delays were imposed either between the to-be-integrated facts (between-stem delay) or after the stem facts but before the test (before-test delay). Integration performance was diminished in both conditions. Moreover, memory for individual stem facts was lower in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1, suggesting that self-generation through integration promoted memory for explicitly taught information. The results indicate the importance of tests for promoting self-generation through integration as well as for retaining newly self-generated and explicitly taught information. PMID:23563162

  11. The influence of intersensory discrepancy on visuo-haptic integration is similar in 6-year-old children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovic, Bianca; Drewing, Knut

    2014-01-01

    When participants are given the opportunity to simultaneously feel an object and see it through a magnifying or reducing lens, adults estimate object size to be in-between visual and haptic size. Studies with young children, however, seem to demonstrate that their estimates are dominated by a single sense. In the present study, we examined whether this age difference observed in previous studies, can be accounted for by the large discrepancy between felt and seen size in the stimuli used in those studies. In addition, we studied the processes involved in combining the visual and haptic inputs. Adults and 6-year-old children judged objects that were presented to vision, haptics or simultaneously to both senses. The seen object length was reduced or magnified by different lenses. In the condition inducing large intersensory discrepancies, children's judgments in visuo-haptic conditions were almost dominated by vision, whereas adults weighted vision just by ~40%. Neither the adults' nor the children's discrimination thresholds were predicted by models of visuo-haptic integration. With smaller discrepancies, the children's visual weight approximated that of the adults and both the children's and adults' discrimination thresholds were well predicted by an integration model, which assumes that both visual and haptic inputs contribute to each single judgment. We conclude that children integrate seemingly corresponding multisensory information in similar ways as adults do, but focus on a single sense, when information from different senses is strongly discrepant. PMID:24523712

  12. Clinical characteristics and antimicrobial patterns in complicated intra-abdominal infections: a 6-year epidemiological study in southern China.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wenwei; Xue, Huiling; Chen, Yunqin; Gao, Weiguo; Li, Xiaoyan; Wei, Jia; Wen, Zehuai

    2016-03-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAIs) are a common and important cause of morbidity worldwide. In this study, the clinical features, microbiological profiles, antimicrobial patterns and treatments of 3233 cIAI patients (mean age, 47.6 years; 54.7% male) with 3531 hospitalisations from 2008-2013 were retrospectively investigated. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (47.6%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.9%), Enterococcus faecalis (10.4%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.8%). Ciprofloxacin, aminoglycoside (gentamicin), piperacillin/tazobactam and carbapenems exhibited activity against 53%, 76%, 88% and 100% of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Enterobacteriaceae isolates, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates exhibited 100%, 95%, 88%, 71% and 76% susceptibility to aminoglycoside (gentamicin), ciprofloxacin, meropenem, imipenem and ceftazidime, respectively, and Enterococcus remained 100% susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. β-Lactam antibacterials other than penicillin (specifically third-generation cephalosporins) and imidazole derivatives (ornidazole and metronidazole) were the most common first-line treatments. Patients subjected to regimen change after initial antibiotic treatment had predisposing conditions (e.g. older age, more severe co-morbidities) and a higher incidence of P. aeruginosa infection; in addition, these patients encountered a higher average cost of care and worse clinical outcomes compared with those without medication modification. Taken together, these findings indicate the importance of appropriate initial empirical therapy and suggest the use of combination therapy comprising cephalosporins and metronidazole. PMID:26899413

  13. The 3-6-year results of a modular noncemented low-bending stiffness hip implant. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Cameron, H U

    1993-06-01

    A review of the 3-6-year clinical and radiographic results of a modular noncemented stem has been carried out. This is a three-part stem consisting of a head, stem, and proximal sleeve. The stems are split distally like a clothespin in the coronal plane to reduce bending stiffness. No mechanical failures have occurred, including no bead separation from the single-layer porous-coated taper lock sleeves. Of the 48 cases, 13 had smooth stems distally while the rest were fluted. Five of the fluted stems were solid, that is, nonsplit. Clinical results are 93.7% excellent, 4.2% good, and 2.1% poor with the Harris hip rating. There have been no revisions. Thigh pain incidence with the distal split stem was 4.4%. Radiographic follow-up evaluations revealed nonprogressive radiolucency around one of the ingrowth sleeves. When inserted in varus the smooth stems developed some radiolucency around the distal end. Fluting of the stem appeared to prevent this. PMID:8326303

  14. Effects of Exposure Measurement Error in the Analysis of Health Effects from Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Lisa K.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Laden, Francine; Suh, Helen H.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2011-01-01

    In large epidemiological studies, many researchers use surrogates of air pollution exposure such as geographic information system (GIS)-based characterizations of traffic or simple housing characteristics. It is important to evaluate quantitatively these surrogates against measured pollutant concentrations to determine how their use affects the interpretation of epidemiological study results. In this study, we quantified the implications of using exposure models derived from validation studies, and other alternative surrogate models with varying amounts of measurement error, on epidemiological study findings. We compared previously developed multiple regression models characterizing residential indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations to models with less explanatory power that may be applied in the absence of validation studies. We constructed a hypothetical epidemiological study, under a range of odds ratios, and determined the bias and uncertainty caused by the use of various exposure models predicting residential indoor exposure levels. Our simulations illustrated that exposure models with fairly modest R2 (0.3 to 0.4 for the previously developed multiple regression models for PM2.5 and NO2) yielded substantial improvements in epidemiological study performance, relative to the application of regression models created in the absence of validation studies or poorer-performing validation study models (e.g. EC). In many studies, models based on validation data may not be possible, so it may be necessary to use a surrogate model with more measurement error. This analysis provides a technique to quantify the implications of applying various exposure models with different degrees of measurement error in epidemiological research. PMID:19223939

  15. Large-Scale Analysis of Acute Ethanol Exposure in Zebrafish Development: A Critical Time Window and Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shaukat; Champagne, Danielle L.; Alia, Alia; Richardson, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    Background In humans, ethanol exposure during pregnancy causes a spectrum of developmental defects (fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS). Individuals vary in phenotypic expression. Zebrafish embryos develop FAS-like features after ethanol exposure. In this study, we ask whether stage-specific effects of ethanol can be identified in the zebrafish, and if so, whether they allow the pinpointing of sensitive developmental mechanisms. We have therefore conducted the first large-scale (>1500 embryos) analysis of acute, stage-specific drug effects on zebrafish development, with a large panel of readouts. Methodology/Principal Findings Zebrafish embryos were raised in 96-well plates. Range-finding indicated that 10% ethanol for 1 h was suitable for an acute exposure regime. High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that this produced a transient pulse of 0.86% concentration of ethanol in the embryo within the chorion. Survivors at 5 days postfertilisation were analysed. Phenotypes ranged from normal (resilient) to severely malformed. Ethanol exposure at early stages caused high mortality (≥88%). At later stages of exposure, mortality declined and malformations developed. Pharyngeal arch hypoplasia and behavioral impairment were most common after prim-6 and prim-16 exposure. By contrast, microphthalmia and growth retardation were stage-independent. Conclusions Our findings show that some ethanol effects are strongly stage-dependent. The phenotypes mimic key aspects of FAS including craniofacial abnormality, microphthalmia, growth retardation and behavioral impairment. We also identify a critical time window (prim-6 and prim-16) for ethanol sensitivity. Finally, our identification of a wide phenotypic spectrum is reminiscent of human FAS, and may provide a useful model for studying disease resilience. PMID:21625530

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

  17. Effectiveness Analysis of Filters Used with Radon Detectors under Extreme Environmental Conditions for Long-term Exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, V.; Font, Ll.; Baixeras, C.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Bach, J.; Grossi, C.; Vargas, A.

    Active and passive radon detectors have been exposed with different filter configurations at the INTE radon chamber controlled conditions. Correction factors and delay times of the radon diffusion through each filter have been determined. Additionally, some of the studied filter/detector configurations have been used to measure radon in several workplaces and outdoor sites under real extreme environmental conditions. Analysis of these detectors showed partial degradation, so used filters seem not to be protective enough for long-term exposures.

  18. Meta-analysis of benzene exposure and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: biases could mask an important association

    PubMed Central

    Steinmaus, C; Smith, A H; Jones, R M; Smith, M T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Benzene is a widely recognised cause of leukaemia but its association with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is less well established. The goal of this project is to review the current published literature on this association. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies of benzene exposure and NHL and a meta-analysis of NHL and refinery work, a potential source of benzene exposure. Results In 22 studies of benzene exposure, the summary relative risk for NHL was 1.22 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.47; one-sided p value = 0.01). When studies that likely included unexposed subjects in the “exposed” group were excluded, the summary relative risk increased to 1.49 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.97, n = 13), and when studies based solely on self-reported work history were excluded, the relative risk rose to 2.12 (95% CI 1.11 to 4.02, n = 6). In refinery workers, the summary relative risk for NHL in all 21 studies was 1.21 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.46; p = 0.02). When adjusted for the healthy worker effect, this relative risk estimate increased to 1.42 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.69). Conclusions The finding of elevated relative risks in studies of both benzene exposure and refinery work provides further evidence that benzene exposure causes NHL. In addition, the finding of increased relative risks after removing studies that included unexposed or lesser exposed workers in “exposed” cohorts, and increased relative risk estimates after adjusting for the healthy worker effect, suggest that effects of benzene on NHL might be missed in occupational studies if these biases are not accounted for. PMID:18417556

  19. Analysis of Eisenia fetida earthworm responses to sub-lethal C60 nanoparticle exposure using (1)H-NMR based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Lankadurai, Brian P; Nagato, Edward G; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2015-10-01

    The enhanced production and environmental release of Buckminsterfullerene (C60) nanoparticles will likely increase the exposure and risk to soil dwelling organisms. We used (1)H NMR-based metabolomics to investigate the response of Eisenia fetida earthworms to sub-lethal C60 nanoparticle exposure in both contact and soil tests. Principal component analysis of (1)H NMR data showed clear separation between controls and exposed earthworms after just 2 days of exposure, however as exposure time increased the separation decreased in soil but increased in contact tests suggesting potential adaptation during soil exposure. The amino acids leucine, valine, isoleucine and phenylalanine, the nucleoside inosine, and the sugars glucose and maltose emerged as potential bioindicators of exposure to C60 nanoparticles. The significant responses observed in earthworms using NMR-based metabolomics after exposure to very low concentrations of C60 nanoparticles suggests the need for further investigations to better understand and predict their sub-lethal toxicity. PMID:26024814

  20. Thyroid Cancer after Childhood Exposure to External Radiation: An Updated Pooled Analysis of 12 Studies.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Lene H S; Holmberg, Erik; Anderson, Harald; Pottern, Linda; Sadetzki, Siegal; Adams, M Jacob; Sakata, Ritsu; Schneider, Arthur B; Inskip, Peter; Bhatti, Parveen; Johansson, Robert; Neta, Gila; Shore, Roy; de Vathaire, Florent; Damber, Lena; Kleinerman, Ruth; Hawkins, Michael M; Tucker, Margaret; Lundell, Marie; Lubin, Jay H

    2016-05-01

    Studies have causally linked external thyroid radiation exposure in childhood with thyroid cancer. In 1995, investigators conducted relative risk analyses of pooled data from seven epidemiologic studies. Doses were mostly <10 Gy, although childhood cancer therapies can result in thyroid doses >50 Gy. We pooled data from 12 studies of thyroid cancer patients who were exposed to radiation in childhood (ages <20 years), more than doubling the data, including 1,070 (927 exposed) thyroid cancers and 5.3 million (3.4 million exposed) person-years. Relative risks increased supralinearly through 2-4 Gy, leveled off between 10-30 Gy and declined thereafter, remaining significantly elevated above 50 Gy. There was a significant relative risk trend for doses <0.10 Gy (P < 0.01), with no departure from linearity (P = 0.36). We observed radiogenic effects for both papillary and nonpapillary tumors. Estimates of excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) were homogeneous by sex (P = 0.35) and number of radiation treatments (P = 0.84) and increased with decreasing age at the time of exposure. The ERR/Gy estimate was significant within ten years of radiation exposure, 2.76 (95% CI, 0.94-4.98), based on 42 exposed cases, and remained elevated 50 years and more after exposure. Finally, exposure to chemotherapy was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, with results supporting a nonsynergistic (additive) association with radiation. PMID:27128740