Science.gov

Sample records for 60-day no2 fumigation

  1. 75 FR 70264 - 60-day Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 60-day Notice AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. Agency Information Collection Request, 60-Day Public Comment Request. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(2)(2)(A) of the... collections must be directed to the OS Paperwork Clearance Officer at the above e-mail address within...

  2. 75 FR 35118 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ...The Department of State is seeking Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the information collection described below. The purpose of this notice is to allow 60 days for public comment in the Federal Register preceding submission to OMB. We are conducting this process in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Request for......

  3. 75 FR 39695 - 60-Day Notice; Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... within 60-days. Proposed Project: Evaluation of Pregnancy Prevention Approaches: First Follow-Up Data... collection. OAH is overseeing and coordinating adolescent pregnancy prevention evaluation efforts as part of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative. OAH is working collaboratively with the Office of...

  4. Immune response to 60-day head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jinping; Guo, Aihua; Zhong, Ping; Zhang, Hongyu; Wu, Feng; Wan, Yumin; Bai, Yanqiang; Chen, Shanguang; Li, Yinghui

    Introduction: Exposure of humans to spaceflight has resulted in disregulation of the immune system. Head-down bed rest (HDBR) has been extensively used as an earth-bound analog to study physiologic effects mimicking those occurring in weightlessness during spaceflight. It is uncertain how a prolonged period of bed rest affect human immune responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 60-day HDBR on immune function and EB virus reactivation in seven male volunteers. Methods: There were seven healthy male volunteers who were subjected to HDBR for 60d. Immunological parameters including leukocyte subset distribution, lymphocyte proliferation to mitogens, secreted cytokine profiles and EB virus reactivation were monitored. Results: Total WBC conunts increased significantly 10d post-HDBR as compared with pre-HDBR. At the same time, the relative percentage of neutrophils was also higher than pre-HDBR but not significant. MFI of CD11b in neutrophils was reduced obviously at thd end of HDBR. T Lymphocyte proliferations to PHA reduced at HDBR 30, HDBR 60 and 10d post-HDBR while IL-2 production decreased significantly at the same time. IFN-and IL-4 production trended to decrease at HDBR 30 and HDBR 60. The relative percentage of T lymphocyte subset, B lymphocyte and NK cells were not altered. EBV EA (early antigen) were negative and EBV VCA titers had no changes through HDBR. Conclusion: The results indicate that several immunological parameters (mainly cellular immunity) are altered significantly by prolonged HDBR, and these changes were similar to those happened in spaceflight.

  5. Disinfestation by Fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter by Neil Heather and Guy Hallman, in “Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers,” CABI Press, covers gaseous chemical treatments. Fumigants have been the mainstays of phytosanitary treatments for decades, but the loss of one key fumigant, ethylene dibromide, in the mid-1980’...

  6. Space and commodity fumigation research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumigation is widely used in the food industry as part of a pest management program for stored-product insect pests, but field research on fumigants, including new methyl bromide alternatives, is still limited. There are challenges to evaluating fumigant efficacy, and in this presentation I will re...

  7. 77 FR 65602 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: INTERNationalConnections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day... purpose of this notice is to allow 60 days for public comment preceding submission of the collection to.... Department of State's Student Programs, including internships, Pickerings, Rangels, Stay-in- Schools,...

  8. 78 FR 25090 - Proposed Collection, 60-day Comment Request: Certificate of Confidentiality Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection, 60-day Comment Request: Certificate of... Certificates of Confidentiality (CoCs). Written comments and/or suggestions from the public and affected... full effect if received within 60 days of the date of this publication. Proposed...

  9. 75 FR 39692 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... within 60-days. Proposed Project: Prevention and Wellness-Leveraging National Organizations OMB No. 0990... efforts beyond Recovery Act CPPW funding and support the National Prevention Media Initiative through...

  10. 78 FR 78375 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Certification of Domestic Violence, Dating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Certification of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Sexual Assault, or Stalking AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public and... Collection Title of Information Collection: Certification of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence,...

  11. 78 FR 30930 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Generic Clearance To Support Programs and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Generic Clearance To Support Programs and Administrative Operations at the National Cancer Institute (NCI)...

  12. 78 FR 40759 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Certificate of Housing Counseling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Certificate of Housing Counseling: Homeownership and Certificate of Housing Counseling: Home Retention AGENCY: Office of Housing Counseling, HUD...-8339. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Betsy Cromwell, Office of Housing Counseling, Department...

  13. 78 FR 71635 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative and Semi-Annual Reporting AGENCY: Office of Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION... Collection Title of Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative. OMB Approval...

  14. 78 FR 64524 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD Multifamily Rental Project Closing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD Multifamily Rental Project Closing Documents Renewal of Currently Approved Collection AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for... HUD's proposed renewal of its currently approved collection. DATES: Comments Due Date: December...

  15. 75 FR 5328 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... within 60-days. Proposed Project: State Health Information Exchange Cooperative Agreement Program--OMB No...: The purpose of the State Health Information Exchange Cooperative Agreement Program, as authorized by... State Designated Entities for planning and implementation of interoperable health information...

  16. 76 FR 59132 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... Pregnancy Prevention Initiative demonstrate effects on adolescent sexual risk behavior and teenage pregnancy... within 60 days. Proposed Project: Teen Pregnancy Prevention Replication Evaluation: Implementation Data... overseeing and coordinating adolescent pregnancy prevention evaluation efforts as part of the Teen...

  17. 75 FR 39694 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... within 60-days. Proposed Project: Evaluation of Pregnancy Prevention Approaches: Implementation Study... OMB on a new collection. OAH is overseeing and coordinating adolescent pregnancy prevention evaluation efforts as part of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative. OAH is working collaboratively with...

  18. 78 FR 71634 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Delta Community Capital Initiative Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Delta Community Capital Initiative... Collection Title of Information Collection: Delta Community Capital Initiative. OMB Approval Number:...

  19. Linear and nonlinear aspects of the tropical 30-60 day oscillation: A modeling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Duane E.; Stephens, Graeme L.

    1991-01-01

    The scientific problem focused on study of the tropical 30-60 day oscillation and explanation for this phenomenon is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: the scientific problem (the importance of low frequency oscillations; suggested mechanisms for developing the tropical 30-60 day oscillation); proposed research and its objective; basic approach to research; and results (satellite data analysis and retrieval development; thermodynamic model of the oscillation; the 5-level GCM).

  20. Model assessment of fumigant emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simulation models are useful for estimating the environmental fate and transport of pesticides. Soil fumigants such as methyl bromide are a special group of pesticides with high vapor pressure values. A main concern with fumigants is the large potential for atmospheric emissions. Because of the l...

  1. 42 CFR 484.225 - Annual update of the unadjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prospective 60-day episode payment rate. 484.225 Section 484.225 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Home Health Agencies § 484.225 Annual update of the unadjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate. (a) CMS updates the unadjusted national 60-day...

  2. 21 CFR 1316.97 - Initiating judicial forfeiture proceeding against a conveyance within 60 days of the filing of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initiating judicial forfeiture proceeding against a conveyance within 60 days of the filing of a claim and cost bond. 1316.97 Section 1316.97 Food and... of a conveyance within 60 days unless the court extends the 60-day period following a showing of...

  3. 76 FR 17418 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... illnesses (SMI), including individuals with co-occurring substance use disorders, by supporting communities... Individual Service Utilization 56 4 8 1,792 Data. Grantee Data Staff TRAC Indicators 56 1,000 5/60...

  4. 76 FR 17129 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... illnesses (SMI), including individuals with co-occurring substance use disorders, by supporting communities... 56 4 8 1,792 Service Utilization Data. Grantee Data Staff TRAC Indicators. 56 1,000 5/60...

  5. 78 FR 66041 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Requirements for Designating Housing Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Requirements for Designating Housing..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Room 4176, Washington, DC 20410-5000..., PIH, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., (L'Enfant Plaza, Room...

  6. 78 FR 52963 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements... Pollard, Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW... Support, Office of Multifamily Housing, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street,...

  7. 77 FR 43826 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... proposed information collection for the proper performance of the agency's functions; (2) the accuracy...

  8. 76 FR 71037 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is publishing... proposed information collection for the proper performance of the agency's functions; (2) the accuracy...

  9. 75 FR 6033 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... proposed information collection for the proper performance of the agency's functions; (2) the accuracy...

  10. 76 FR 6793 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... the above e-mail address within 60 days. Proposed Project: Research Evaluation and Impact Assessment of ARRA Comparative Effectiveness Research Portfolio (New)--OMB No. 0990-NEW- Assistant Secretary... research on effectiveness of health care interventions under real-world conditions in diverse...

  11. 76 FR 10367 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... within 60 days. Proposed Project: Research Evaluation and Impact Assessment of ARRA Comparative Effectiveness Research Portfolio (New)--OMB No. 0990-NEW- Assistant Secretary Planning and Evaluation (ASPE). Abstract: Researchers and policymakers have emphasized the need for research on effectiveness of...

  12. 78 FR 52208 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection Section 3 Business Registry Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection Section 3 Business Registry Surveys..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Room 4176, Washington, DC 20410-5000... Housing and Equal Opportunity, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Room...

  13. 78 FR 73233 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Online Application for Nonimmigrant Visa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Online Application for Nonimmigrant Visa AGENCY: Department of...: Online Application for Nonimmigrant Visa OMB Control Number: 1405-0182 Type of Request: Extension of...

  14. 78 FR 78998 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD Environmental Review Online System (HEROS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD Environmental Review Online... Environmental Review Online System (HEROS). OMB Approval Number: 2506-New. Type of Request: New. Description...

  15. 75 FR 15433 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... organizations. The survey will collect a small amount of descriptive information regarding the research setting... within 60 days. Proposed Project: Evaluation of Office for Human Research Protections Outreach Pamphlet on Public Participation in Research-- Office for Human Research. Abstract: This evaluation...

  16. 78 FR 78376 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Exigent Health and Safety Deficiency Correction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...HUD is seeking approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for the information collection described below. In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act, HUD is requesting comment from all interested parties on the proposed collection of information. The purpose of this notice is to allow for 60 days of public...

  17. 76 FR 20987 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  18. 77 FR 4561 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... requirements. The lack of general awareness and understanding about the nature and extent of racial and...

  19. 76 FR 67455 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... collected; and (4) the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology to... Health Information Technology. Abstract: As part of the Health Information Technology for Economic and... within 60 days. Proposed Project: Generic Clearance for Communications Testing for...

  20. 75 FR 13289 - Agency Information Collection Request, 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... requirements of Section 512 of the Recovery Act, set forth by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request, 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  1. 76 FR 35444 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  2. 75 FR 15432 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... within 60-days. Proposed Project: Girls at Greater Risk for Juvenile Delinquency and HIV Prevention... ``Girls at Greater Risk for Juvenile Delinquency and HIV Prevention Program''. The evaluation is designed to determine best practices and gender-responsive strategies for at-risk girls and...

  3. 78 FR 41074 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing...: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student Competition. OMB Approval Number: N/A. Type of Request: New. Form Number: N/A. Description of the need for the information and proposed use: The Innovation...

  4. 77 FR 20686 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: Two DDTC Brokering Collections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... comment on December 19, 2011 (see 76 FR 78578). On that occasion, public comment was sought in the context... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: Two DDTC Brokering Collections ACTION: Notice of request...

  5. 75 FR 38525 - Agency Information Collection Request: 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... response Total burden respondent respondents respondent (in hrs.) hours Evaluation performance State... proposed information collection for the proper performance of the agency's functions; (2) the accuracy of... within 60-days. Proposed Project: ONC State HIE Performance Measures and Progress Report--OMB No....

  6. 77 FR 43086 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... within 60 days. Proposed Project: Title: HHS 42 CFR subpart B; Sterilization of Persons in Federally... (``Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects''). The consent form solicits information to assure voluntary and informed consent to persons undergoing sterilization in programs of...

  7. 78 FR 78999 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Consolidated Public Housing Certification of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Consolidated Public Housing Certification of Completion AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public and Indian Housing, HUD. ACTION... Collection: Consolidated Public Housing Certification of Completion. OMB Approval Number: 2577-0021. Type...

  8. 76 FR 76732 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... within 60-days. Proposed Project: Public Health Service Polices on Research Misconduct (42 CFR part 93... Misconduct (Annual Report) form is to provide data on the amount of research misconduct activity occurring in... allegations of research misconduct that comply with the Public Health Service (PHS) Policies on...

  9. 78 FR 38996 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) Study (NCI) Summary: In compliance with the requirement...

  10. 76 FR 59130 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  11. 78 FR 76638 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Capital Fund Community and Education Training...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... for the development of facilities to provide early childhood education, adult education, and/or job... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Capital Fund Community and Education... Collection Title of Information Collection: Capital Fund Education and Training Community Facilities....

  12. 75 FR 25025 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Exchange Programs Alumni Web Site Registration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...The Department of State is seeking Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the information collection described below. The purpose of this notice is to allow 60 days for public comment in the Federal Register preceding submission to OMB. We are conducting this process in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Exchange Programs......

  13. 78 FR 40820 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Exchange Programs Alumni Web Site Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ...The Department of State is seeking Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the information collection described below. In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, we are requesting comments on this collection from all interested individuals and organizations. The purpose of this notice is to allow 60 days for public comment preceding submission of the collection to...

  14. 78 FR 45947 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 8 Renewal Policy Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 8 Renewal Policy Guide... Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Room 4176, Washington, DC 20410-5000; telephone 202-402-5564... and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Catherine Brennan at...

  15. 77 FR 14016 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... within 60 days. Proposed Project: Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Modeling Project--OMB No. 0990-New-Office...) approval of a new collection that will examine the service needs under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program as... available federal resources are directed to areas of greatest need. To supplement the analysis of...

  16. 76 FR 33398 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Passport Demand Forecasting Study Phase III...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... estimates on demand, and will gauge public reaction to economic and socio-demographic changes. Methodology...: Notice of request for public comments. SUMMARY: The Department of State is seeking Office of Management... is to allow 60 days for public comment in the Federal Register preceding submission to OMB. We...

  17. 76 FR 76165 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  18. 76 FR 36131 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... project period regarding: (1) Awareness and knowledge of risk factors and prevention methods for HIV/AIDS... within 60-days. Proposed Project: Cross-Site Evaluation of the Minority Serving Institutions' HIV/AIDS Demonstration Initiative and Capacity-building Project (New)--OMB No. 0990-NEW--Office of HIV/AIDS...

  19. 78 FR 44135 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Application for the Postdoctoral Research Associate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... data collection projects, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be submitted to the Office... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request:...

  20. 78 FR 24780 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ...The Department of State is seeking Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the information collection described below. In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, we are requesting comments on this collection from all interested individuals and organizations. The purpose of this notice is to allow 60 days for public comment preceding submission of the collection to...

  1. 78 FR 52996 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Voluntary Disclosures.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ...The Department of State is seeking Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the information collection described below. In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, we are requesting comments on this collection from all interested individuals and organizations. The purpose of this notice is to allow 60 days for public comment preceding submission of the collection to...

  2. 48 CFR 22.1014 - Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... opening or commencement of work. 22.1014 Section 22.1014 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1014 Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work. If a wage determination was obtained through the e98 process, and bid opening, or commencement of work...

  3. 77 FR 4819 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... 18, 1991 adoption of the common Federal Policy (56 FR 28003) by 15 departments and agencies... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... publishing the following summary of a proposed information collection request for public comment....

  4. 76 FR 1616 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  5. 75 FR 52345 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC), HHS In compliance with the requirement of section...

  6. 76 FR 17128 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  7. 77 FR 7581 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... understanding of oral disease and what constitutes health for the oral cavity, oral health training and support... within 60-days. Proposed Project: Survey of Primary Care Physicians on Oral Health for the Office on... OMB approval to conduct a new, one time survey of primary care physicians regarding oral health....

  8. 76 FR 17130 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... burden respondent respondents respondent (in hours) hours Survey Human Resource 3,000 1 30/60 1,500... Human Resource 20 1 45/60 15 Manager. Total 1,587 Seleda Perryman, Office of the Secretary, Paperwork... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office...

  9. 76 FR 55065 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  10. 76 FR 76164 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... within 60 days. Proposed Project: Evaluation of Pregnancy Prevention Approaches: First Follow-Up Data... adolescent pregnancy prevention evaluation efforts as part of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative. OAH... Families (ACF) on adolescent pregnancy prevention evaluation activities. OAH is overseeing the...

  11. 76 FR 33760 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... within 60-days. Proposed Project: The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) Teen Pregnancy Prevention... funding a total of 107 grantees to conduct teen pregnancy prevention programs. Grantees are funded to either replicate evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs (75 OAH grantees) or to...

  12. 75 FR 22806 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... is a biennial survey of the blood collection and utilization community to produce reliable...

  13. 75 FR 7268 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... within 60-days. Proposed Project: Evaluation of Medicare Personal Health Records Choice Pilot--OMB...

  14. 77 FR 5253 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  15. 78 FR 22271 - Proposed collection; 60-day comment request: NLM PEOPLE LOCATOR® System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed collection; 60-day comment request: NLM PEOPLE... Library of Medicine (NLM), National Institutes of Health (NIH), will publish periodic summaries of... comments in writing, or request more information on the proposed project, contact: David Sharlip,...

  16. 76 FR 10366 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... Evaluation (ASPE). Abstract: This research leverages best practices in behavior change, interaction...

  17. 76 FR 51980 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  18. 77 FR 65244 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Smart Traveler Enrollment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Smart Traveler Enrollment Program ACTION: Notice of request...: Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP) OMB Control Number: 1405-0152 Type of Request:...

  19. The 60-Day Temperature-Dependent Degradation of Midazolam and Lorazepam in the Prehospital Environment

    PubMed Central

    McMullan, Jason T.; Pinnawin, Ashley; Jones, Elizabeth; Denninghoff, Kurt; Siewart, Nicholas; Spaite, Daniel W.; Zaleski, Erin; Silbergleit, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background The choice of the optimal benzodiazepine to treat prehospital status epilepticus is unclear. Lorazepam is preferred in the emergency department, but concerns about nonrefrigerated storage limits emergency medical services (EMS) use. Midazolam is increasingly popular, but its heat stability is undocumented. Objective This study evaluated temperature-dependent degradation of lorazepam and midazolam after 60 days in the EMS environment. Methods Lorazepam or midazolam samples were collected prior to (n = 139) or after (n = 229) 60 days of EMS deployment during spring–summer months in 14 metropolitan areas across the United States. Medications were stored in study boxes that logged temperature every minute and were stored in EMS units per local agency policy. Mean kinetic temperature (MKT) exposure was derived for each sample. Drug concentrations were determined in a central laboratory by high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentration as a function of MKT was analyzed by linear regression. Results Prior to deployment, measured concentrations of both benzodiazepines were 1.0 relative to labeled concentration. After 60 days, midazolam showed no degradation (mean relative concentration 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–1.00) and was stable across temperature exposures (adjusted R2 –0.008). Lorazepam experienced little degradation (mean relative concentration 0.99, 95% CI 0.98–0.99), but degradation was correlated to increasing MKT (adjusted R2 0.278). The difference between the temperature dependence of degradation of midazolam and lorazepam was statistically significant (T = −5.172, p < 0.001). Conclusions Lorazepam experiences small but statistically significant temperature-dependent degradation after 60 days in the EMS environment. Additional study is needed to evaluate whether clinically significant deterioration occurs after 60 days. Midazolam shows no degradation over this duration, even in high-heat conditions. PMID:23148574

  20. Muscle proteins during 60-day bedrest in women: impact of exercise or nutrition.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Jennifer K; Haus, Jacob M; Trappe, Scott W; Trappe, Todd A

    2009-04-01

    Almost no data exist regarding skeletal muscle responses to real or simulated spaceflight in women. We determined the impact of 60-day bedrest (BR, n=8), 60-day bedrest with exercise-training (BRE, n=8), and 60-day bedrest with a leucine-enriched, high-protein diet (BRN, n=8) on muscle protein composition. Vastus lateralis and soleus muscle biopsies were analyzed for global protein fractions (mixed, sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar) and force-specific proteins (myosin, actin, collagen). Concentrations (micrograms per milligram muscle wet weight) of these proteins were maintained (P>0.05) in BR, despite large changes in quadriceps (-21%) and triceps surae (-29%) volume. Neither countermeasure influenced muscle protein content in either muscle (P>0.05), despite exacerbation (BRN) or prevention (BRE) of atrophy. Pre-bedrest comparisons showed less myofibrillar protein in the soleus (-16%, P<0.05), primarily due to less myosin (-12%, P<0.05) and more collagen (234%, P<0.05) than the vastus lateralis. Muscle protein composition is tightly regulated in lower limb muscles of women, despite the most extreme weightlessness-induced atrophy reported in humans. In contrast, men who underwent prolonged unloading were unable to proportionally regulate atrophy of the soleus. These findings have implications for astronauts and clinical conditions of sarcopenia regarding the maintenance of muscle function and prevention of frailty. PMID:19229964

  1. Methods To Reduce Soil Fumigation Emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fumigation is an important management practice for controlling soil pests in many high value crops including almonds. Reducing atmospheric emissions is necessary to minimize the environmental impact of soil fumigation. Water seals (sprinkling water on soil surface) to reduce fumigant emissions...

  2. 21 CFR 1316.97 - Initiating judicial forfeiture proceeding against a conveyance within 60 days of the filing of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... order the return of the conveyance and the return of any bond. ... a conveyance within 60 days of the filing of a claim and cost bond. 1316.97 Section 1316.97 Food and... proceeding against a conveyance within 60 days of the filing of a claim and cost bond. (a) The United...

  3. 21 CFR 1316.97 - Initiating judicial forfeiture proceeding against a conveyance within 60 days of the filing of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... order the return of the conveyance and the return of any bond. ... a conveyance within 60 days of the filing of a claim and cost bond. 1316.97 Section 1316.97 Food and... proceeding against a conveyance within 60 days of the filing of a claim and cost bond. (a) The United...

  4. Spot Fumigation: Fumigant Gas Dispersion and Emission Characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from fumigant pesticides is mandatory in California, especially in “nonattainment areas” that do not meet federal air quality standards such as in the San Joaquin Valley. A two-year field study was conducted to determine the feasibility of a s...

  5. Effects of radiobiological uncertainty on shield design for a 60-day lunar mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.; Schimmerling, Walter

    1993-01-01

    Some consequences of uncertainties in radiobiological risk due to galactic cosmic ray exposure are analyzed to determine their effect on engineering designs for a first lunar outpost - a 60-day mission. Quantitative estimates of shield mass requirements as a function of a radiobiological uncertainty factor are given for a simplified vehicle structure. The additional shield mass required for compensation is calculated as a function of the uncertainty in galactic cosmic ray exposure, and this mass is found to be as large as a factor of 3 for a lunar transfer vehicle. The additional cost resulting from this mass is also calculated. These cost estimates are then used to exemplify the cost-effectiveness of research.

  6. Left ventricular remodeling during and after 60 days of sedentary head-down bed rest.

    PubMed

    Westby, Christian M; Martin, David S; Lee, Stuart M C; Stenger, Michael B; Platts, Steven H

    2016-04-15

    Short periods of weightlessness are associated with reduced stroke volume and left ventricular (LV) mass that appear rapidly and are thought to be largely dependent on plasma volume. The magnitude of these cardiac adaptations are even greater after prolonged periods of simulated weightlessness, but the time course during and the recovery from bed rest has not been previously described. We collected serial measures of plasma volume (PV, carbon monoxide rebreathing) and LV structure and function [tissue Doppler imaging, three-dimensional (3-D) and 2-D echocardiography] before, during, and up to 2 wk after 60 days of 6° head down tilt bed rest (HDTBR) in seven healthy subjects (four men, three women). By 60 days of HDTBR, PV was markedly reduced (2.7 ± 0.3 vs. 2.3 ± 0.3 liters,P< 0.001). Resting measures of LV volume and mass were ∼15% (P< 0.001) and ∼14% lower (P< 0.001), respectively, compared with pre-HDTBR values. After 3 days of reambulation, both PV and LV volumes were not different than pre-HDTBR values. However, LV mass did not recover with normalization of PV and remained 12 ± 4% lower than pre-bed rest values (P< 0.001). As previously reported, decreased PV and LV volume precede and likely contribute to cardiac atrophy during prolonged LV unloading. Although PV and LV volume recover rapidly after HDTBR, there is no concomitant normalization of LV mass. These results demonstrate that reduced LV mass in response to prolonged simulated weightlessness is not a simple effect of tissue dehydration, but rather true LV muscle atrophy that persists well into recovery. PMID:26494448

  7. Innovative approaches to soil fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An apparatus was developed for injecting soil fumigants beneath raised planting beds covered by plastic mulch without disturbing the integrity of the beds. A mixture of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (Pic) (62:35) was combined with soil solarization, virtually impermeable films (VIF) ...

  8. Principal oscillation pattern analysis of the 30- to 60-day oscillation in the tropical troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Storch, Hans; Xu, Jinsong

    1990-09-01

    The “Principal Oscillation Pattern” technique is used to derive an index of the 30- to 60-day oscillation in the tropical troposphere. In the 200-mb equatorial velocity potential field, one dominant pair of POPS is found. Its properties compare very well with the properties of the oscillation identified in previous studies. In particular, a good correlation between the time evolution of the POP coefficients and area-averaged outgoing long-wave radiation (ORL) is found. The POPS are derived from a 2-year subinterval of the whole 5-year data set. This leaves independent data for subsequent verification. The patterns and their characteristic numbers are almost unchanged if the whole data set is analysed. Also, the analysis is insensitive to changes of the analysis area: if the analysis is limited to 90°-longitude equatorial sectors, the signal is also identified and its patterns are consistent with the patterns derived from the full data set. Interestingly, the signal is best defined in the eastern hemisphere. The POPS may be used to derive “associated correlation patterns” of other quantities in winter and summer separately. The path of the oscillation has a marked annual cycle: in northern winter it migrates from the Indian Ocean across northern Australia into the region of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) and in northern summer it moves from the Indian Ocean across South Asia along the intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) to South America. The POP coefficient may be seen as a bivariate index of the state (phase and strength) of the 30- to 60-day oscillation. Since the POP technique incorporates a prediction equation for the phase of the POP coefficients, the POP model allows for the prediction of the complex amplitude of the oscillation. In a sequence of forecast experiments, of which about two-thirds used independent data, the POP forecasts were found to be useful in about half of all cases for lead times of several days. The correlation and RMS

  9. 46 CFR 147A.41 - Person in charge of fumigation; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Person in charge of fumigation; flammable fumigants. 147A.41 Section 147A.41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS... refuse, oily waste, and other combustible material is removed; (2) Before fumigation, all fire...

  10. 46 CFR 147A.21 - Person in charge of fumigation; during fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... routes of access to the atmosphere must be opened, and if necessary, mechanical ventilation must be used... fumigation; during fumigation. (a) Until ventilation begins, or until the vessel leaves port, the person in...) If ventilation is completed before the vessel leaves port, the person in charge of fumigation...

  11. Pulsation-triggered Mass Loss from AGB Stars: The 60 Day Critical Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Low- and intermediate-mass stars eject much of their mass during the late, red giant branch (RGB) phase of evolution. The physics of their strong stellar winds is still poorly understood. In the standard model, stellar pulsations extend the atmosphere, allowing a wind to be driven through radiation pressure on condensing dust particles. Here, we investigate the onset of the wind, using nearby RGB stars drawn from the Hipparcos catalog. We find a sharp onset of dust production when the star first reaches a pulsation period of 60 days. This approximately coincides with the point where the star transitions to the first overtone pulsation mode. Models of the spectral energy distributions show stellar mass-loss rate suddenly increasing at this point, by a factor of ∼10 over the existing (chromospherically driven) wind. The dust emission is strongly correlated with both pulsation period and amplitude, indicating stellar pulsation is the main trigger for the strong mass loss, and determines the mass-loss rate. Dust emission does not strongly correlate with stellar luminosity, indicating radiation pressure on dust has little effect on the mass-loss rate. RGB stars do not normally appear to produce dust, whereas dust production by asymptotic giant branch stars appears commonplace, and is probably ubiquitous above the RGB-tip luminosity. We conclude that the strong wind begins with a step change in mass-loss rate and is triggered by stellar pulsations. A second rapid mass-loss-rate enhancement is suggested when the star transitions to the fundamental pulsation mode at a period of ∼300 days.

  12. Effects of 60-day bed rest with and without exercise on cellular and humoral immunological parameters.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Paula; Belavý, Daniel L; Huscher, Dörte; Lang, Annemarie; Hahne, Martin; Kuhlmey, Anne-Kathrin; Maschmeyer, Patrick; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Fitzner, Rudolf; Perschel, Frank H; Gaber, Timo; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Straub, Rainer H; Felsenberg, Dieter; Buttgereit, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Exercise at regular intervals is assumed to have a positive effect on immune functions. Conversely, after spaceflight and under simulated weightlessness (e.g., bed rest), immune functions can be suppressed. We aimed to assess the effects of simulated weightlessness (Second Berlin BedRest Study; BBR2-2) on immunological parameters and to investigate the effect of exercise (resistive exercise with and without vibration) on these changes. Twenty-four physically and mentally healthy male volunteers (20-45 years) performed resistive vibration exercise (n=7), resistance exercise without vibration (n=8) or no exercise (n=9) within 60 days of bed rest. Blood samples were taken 2 days before bed rest, on days 19 and 60 of bed rest. Composition of immune cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytokines and neuroendocrine parameters were analyzed by Luminex technology and ELISA/RIA in plasma. General changes over time were identified by paired t-test, and exercise-dependent effects by pairwise repeated measurements (analysis of variance (ANOVA)). With all subjects pooled, the number of granulocytes, natural killer T cells, hematopoietic stem cells and CD45RA and CD25 co-expressing T cells increased and the number of monocytes decreased significantly during the study; the concentration of eotaxin decreased significantly. Different impacts of exercise were seen for lymphocytes, B cells, especially the IgD(+) subpopulation of B cells and the concentrations of IP-10, RANTES and DHEA-S. We conclude that prolonged bed rest significantly impacts immune cell populations and cytokine concentrations. Exercise was able to specifically influence different immunological parameters. In summary, our data fit the hypothesis of immunoprotection by exercise and may point toward even superior effects by resistive vibration exercise. PMID:25382740

  13. Pulsation-triggered Mass Loss from AGB Stars: The 60 Day Critical Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Low- and intermediate-mass stars eject much of their mass during the late, red giant branch (RGB) phase of evolution. The physics of their strong stellar winds is still poorly understood. In the standard model, stellar pulsations extend the atmosphere, allowing a wind to be driven through radiation pressure on condensing dust particles. Here, we investigate the onset of the wind, using nearby RGB stars drawn from the Hipparcos catalog. We find a sharp onset of dust production when the star first reaches a pulsation period of 60 days. This approximately coincides with the point where the star transitions to the first overtone pulsation mode. Models of the spectral energy distributions show stellar mass-loss rate suddenly increasing at this point, by a factor of ˜10 over the existing (chromospherically driven) wind. The dust emission is strongly correlated with both pulsation period and amplitude, indicating stellar pulsation is the main trigger for the strong mass loss, and determines the mass-loss rate. Dust emission does not strongly correlate with stellar luminosity, indicating radiation pressure on dust has little effect on the mass-loss rate. RGB stars do not normally appear to produce dust, whereas dust production by asymptotic giant branch stars appears commonplace, and is probably ubiquitous above the RGB-tip luminosity. We conclude that the strong wind begins with a step change in mass-loss rate and is triggered by stellar pulsations. A second rapid mass-loss-rate enhancement is suggested when the star transitions to the fundamental pulsation mode at a period of ˜300 days.

  14. Effects of 60-day bed rest with and without exercise on cellular and humoral immunological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Paula; Belavý, Daniel L; Huscher, Dörte; Lang, Annemarie; Hahne, Martin; Kuhlmey, Anne-Kathrin; Maschmeyer, Patrick; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Fitzner, Rudolf; Perschel, Frank H; Gaber, Timo; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Straub, Rainer H; Felsenberg, Dieter; Buttgereit, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Exercise at regular intervals is assumed to have a positive effect on immune functions. Conversely, after spaceflight and under simulated weightlessness (e.g., bed rest), immune functions can be suppressed. We aimed to assess the effects of simulated weightlessness (Second Berlin BedRest Study; BBR2-2) on immunological parameters and to investigate the effect of exercise (resistive exercise with and without vibration) on these changes. Twenty-four physically and mentally healthy male volunteers (20–45 years) performed resistive vibration exercise (n=7), resistance exercise without vibration (n=8) or no exercise (n=9) within 60 days of bed rest. Blood samples were taken 2 days before bed rest, on days 19 and 60 of bed rest. Composition of immune cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytokines and neuroendocrine parameters were analyzed by Luminex technology and ELISA/RIA in plasma. General changes over time were identified by paired t-test, and exercise-dependent effects by pairwise repeated measurements (analysis of variance (ANOVA)). With all subjects pooled, the number of granulocytes, natural killer T cells, hematopoietic stem cells and CD45RA and CD25 co-expressing T cells increased and the number of monocytes decreased significantly during the study; the concentration of eotaxin decreased significantly. Different impacts of exercise were seen for lymphocytes, B cells, especially the IgD+ subpopulation of B cells and the concentrations of IP-10, RANTES and DHEA-S. We conclude that prolonged bed rest significantly impacts immune cell populations and cytokine concentrations. Exercise was able to specifically influence different immunological parameters. In summary, our data fit the hypothesis of immunoprotection by exercise and may point toward even superior effects by resistive vibration exercise. PMID:25382740

  15. WISE-2005: Integrative Cardiovascular Responses with LBNP during 60-Day Bed Rest in Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughson, R. L.; Kerbeci, P.; Arbeille, Ph.; Mattar, L.; Shoemaker, J. K.

    2005-01-01

    During 2005, 24 women will take part in the Women International Space-simulation for Exploration (WISE). In this paper we report on the first phase that studied 4 Exercise (EX+LBNP), 4 nutrition (NUT), and 4 no countermeasure control (CON) subjects. The EX+LBNP group completed regular exercise on a treadmill inside LBNP, flywheel resistive exercise and static periods of LBNP, and had recovery days. The NUT group received daily protein supplements. Integrative cardiovascular responses were obtained and here we report data for heart rate during LBNP, blood volume and angiotensin 11. LBNP was applied at 0, -10, -20 and -30 mmHg for 2-minutes for each stage. Blood was sampled prebed rest and on HDT-60. After 60-days head down bed rest, HR in the CON group increased by 6.1+/-2.8 bpm at rest and by 20.7+/-5.0 bpm at -30 mmHg LBNP. The EX+LBNP group had increases of 3.6+/-5.6 and 11.6+/-5.4 bpm, while the NUT group HR increased 2.6+/-3.1 and 9.4+/-3.6 bpm. The EX+LBNP group had almost no change in blood volume or plasma angiotensin II from pre-bed rest to HDT60, while both the CON and NUT groups had larger increases in plasma volume and almost double concentrations of angiotensin II. These data show a positive effect in the EX+LBNP group on the heart rate response as well as an unexpected possible benefit in the NUT group. Further studies are required to confirm possible cardiovascular benefits of the protein supplement.

  16. Bacterial oxidation of methyl bromide in fumigated agricultural soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, L.G.; Connell, T.L.; Guidetti, J.R.; Oremland, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    The oxidation of [14C]methyl bromide ([14C]MeBr) to 14CO2 was measured in field experiments with soils collected from two strawberry plots fumigated with mixtures of MeBr and chloropicrin (CCI3NO2). Although these fumigants are considered potent biocides, we found that the highest rates of MeBr oxidation occurred 1 to 2 days after injection when the fields were tarped, rather than before or several days after injection. No oxidation of MeBr occurred in heat-killed soils, indicating that microbes were the causative agents of the oxidation. Degradation of MeBr by chemical and/or biological processes accounted for 20 to 50% of the loss of MeBr during fumigation, with evasion to the atmosphere inferred to comprise the remainder. In laboratory incubations, complete removal of [14C]MeBr occurred within a few days, with 47 to 67% of the added MeBr oxidized to 14CO2 and the remainder of counts associated with the solid phase. Chloropicrin inhibited the oxidation of MeBr, implying that use of this substance constrains the extent of microbial degradation of MeBr during fumigation. Oxidation was by direct bacterial attack of MeBr and not of methanol, a product of the chemical hydrolysis of MeBr. Neither nitrifying nor methane-oxidizing bacteria were sufficiently active in these soils to account for the observed oxidation of MeBr, nor could the microbial degradation of MeBr be linked to cooxidation with exogenously supplied electron donors. However, repeated addition of MeBr to live soils resulted in higher rates of its removal, suggesting that soil bacteria used MeBr as an electron donor for growth. To support this interpretation, we isolated a gram-negative, aerobic bacterium from these soils which grew with MeBr as a sole source of carbon and energy.

  17. 76 FR 6818 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information..., 1201 Oakridge Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80525; Phone: 970-267-2106; Fax: 970-225-3597; E-mail: Bruce... Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80525; Phone: 970-267-2106; E-mail: Bruce_Peacock@nps.gov . FOR...

  18. 75 FR 42116 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information... Peacock, NPS Social Science Division,1201 Oakridge Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80525; or via phone at...

  19. 76 FR 10084 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-3035, J-1 Visa Waiver Recommendation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ...The Department of State is seeking Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the information collection described below. The purpose of this notice is to allow 60 days for public comment in the Federal Register preceding submission to OMB. We are conducting this process in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: J-1 Visa Waiver......

  20. 77 FR 28922 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-1884, Petition To Classify Special Immigrant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-1884, Petition To Classify Special Immigrant Under INA 203...: Petition to Classify Special Immigrant Under INA 203(b)(4) as an employee or former employee of the...

  1. 76 FR 16850 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Agency Form DS-4127, NEA/PI Online Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Agency Form DS- 4127, NEA/PI Online Performance Reporting... of 1995. Title of Information Collection: NEA/PI Online Performance Reporting System (PRS)....

  2. 75 FR 54690 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-160, Online Application for Nonimmigrant Visa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-160, Online Application for Nonimmigrant Visa ACTION... Collection: Online Application for Nonimmigrant Visa. OMB Control Number: 1405-0182. Type of...

  3. 78 FR 13688 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be Approved for Use in NIH Funded Research SUMMARY: In compliance with... Information Collection: The form is used by applicants to request that human embryonic stem cell lines be... within 60 days of the date of this publication. Proposed Collection: Request for Human Embryonic...

  4. 78 FR 61378 - 60 Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Survey of Market Absorption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60 Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Survey of Market..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Room 4176, Washington, DC 20410-5000... Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410, email Colette Pollard at...

  5. 78 FR 70957 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD-Owned Real Estate Good Neighbor Next Door...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD-Owned Real Estate Good Neighbor... Information Collection: HUD Real Estate Owned Good Neighbor Next Door. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0570. Type...

  6. 78 FR 45260 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Semi-annual Labor Standards Enforcement Report...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Semi-annual Labor Standards Enforcement Report- Local Contracting Agencies (HUD Programs) AGENCY: Office of Labor Relation, HUD. ACTION..., Office of labor Relation, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Room...

  7. 75 FR 13138 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information-Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Sevice 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information--Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: Department of the Interior; National Park Service. ACTION: Notice...

  8. 75 FR 4838 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice and request...

  9. 75 FR 12253 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information-Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Sevice 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information--Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: Department of the Interior; National Park Service ACTION: Notice...

  10. 75 FR 40849 - 60-Day Notice of Intention to Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention to Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice and request...

  11. 75 FR 19419 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information-Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Sevice 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information--Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice and request...

  12. 75 FR 20374 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information-Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information--Opportunity for Public Comment Agency: National Park Service, Interior. Action: Notice and request...

  13. 75 FR 20857 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information-Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information--Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: Department of the Interior; National Park Service. ACTION: Notice...

  14. 75 FR 19419 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information-Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information--Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice and request...

  15. 78 FR 14821 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for...

  16. 75 FR 14181 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information-Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information--Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: Department of the Interior; National Park Service. ACTION: Notice...

  17. 78 FR 52962 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing... Collection Title of Information Collection: Housing Finance Agency Risk- Sharing Program. OMB Approval Number... housing finance agencies (HFAs). Under this program, HUD provides full mortgage insurance on...

  18. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #20: 60-DAY PUBLIC COMMENT PERIOD FOR "OVERVIEW" REPORT FROM U.S. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The draft "Overview" report from the U.S. National Assessment was released today for a 60-day public comment period. The report, entitled "Climate Change Impacts on the United States: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change," was written by the National Asses...

  19. 77 FR 21618 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Civilian Response Corps Database In-Processing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Civilian Response Corps Database In-Processing Electronic Form... of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Civilian Response Corps Database In-Processing...

  20. 75 FR 27574 - United States Park Police; 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... National Park Service United States Park Police; 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: United States Park Police, National Park... Police (USPP) invites public comments on an extension of a currently approved collection of...

  1. 75 FR 15482 - Notice of Request for Public Comments; 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Forms DS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ...The Department of State is seeking Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the information collection described below. The purpose of this notice is to allow 60 days for public comment in the Federal Register preceding submission to OMB. We are conducting this process in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of...

  2. 77 FR 67860 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Statement Regarding a Lost or Stolen U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ...The Department of State is seeking Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the information collection described below. In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, we are requesting comments on this collection from all interested individuals and organizations. The purpose of this notice is to allow 60 days for public comment preceding submission of the collection to...

  3. 78 FR 57873 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD-Owned Real Estate-Sales Contract and Addendums

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ...HUD is seeking approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for the information collection described below. In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act, HUD is requesting comment from all interested parties on the proposed collection of information. The purpose of this notice is to allow for 60 days of public...

  4. 78 FR 9448 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Young Turkey/Young America Evaluation (YTYA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Young Turkey/ Young America Evaluation (YTYA) Survey ACTION... Information Collection: Young Turkey/Young America Evaluation (YTYA) Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Type...

  5. 78 FR 70066 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA Stakeholder Feedback for the New FHA Single...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA Stakeholder Feedback for the New.... Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: FHA Stakeholder Feedback for the...

  6. 78 FR 19723 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Evaluation of the Brain Disorders in the Developing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Evaluation of the Brain Disorders in the Developing World Program of the John E. Fogarty International Center...: Evaluation of the Brain Disorders in the Developing World Program of the John E. Fogarty International...

  7. 75 FR 35120 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-3053, Statement of Consent or Special...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-3053, Statement of Consent or Special Circumstances: Issuance of a Passport to a Minor Under Age 16, OMB Control Number 1405-0129 ACTION: Notice of request for...) approval for the information collection described below. The purpose of this notice is to allow 60 days...

  8. 75 FR 7151 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-5501, Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 60 Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-5501, Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form, OMB Control Number 1405-0153 Correction In notice document 2010-1863 appearing on page 4901 in the issue of...

  9. 78 FR 36231 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA-Disclosure of Adjustable Rate Mortgages...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA--Disclosure of Adjustable Rate... the proposed forms or other available information. Persons with hearing or speech impairments may... speech impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay Service...

  10. 9 CFR 147.25 - Fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of a sanitation program. APHIS disclaims any liability in the use of formaldehyde for failure on the... formaldehyde fumigation, published in the Dec. 4, 1987, Federal Register (52 FR 46168, Docket Nos. H-225,...

  11. 9 CFR 147.25 - Fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of a sanitation program. APHIS disclaims any liability in the use of formaldehyde for failure on the... formaldehyde fumigation, published in the Dec. 4, 1987, Federal Register (52 FR 46168, Docket Nos. H-225,...

  12. 9 CFR 147.25 - Fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of a sanitation program. APHIS disclaims any liability in the use of formaldehyde for failure on the... formaldehyde fumigation, published in the Dec. 4, 1987, Federal Register (52 FR 46168, Docket Nos. H-225,...

  13. 9 CFR 147.25 - Fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of a sanitation program. APHIS disclaims any liability in the use of formaldehyde for failure on the... formaldehyde fumigation, published in the Dec. 4, 1987, Federal Register (52 FR 46168, Docket Nos. H-225,...

  14. Fumigation efficacy and emission reduction using low-permeability film in orchard soil fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Many orchards in California, USA, apply fumigants to soil before replanting to reduce the impact of pest pressure or replanting disease on new tree establishment. Emission control of alternative fumigants to methyl bromide is mandatory in air quality (ozone) non-attainment areas. This s...

  15. Carbon dioxide fumigation for controlling bed bugs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Lü, Lihua; Xu, Ming

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) fumigation as a method for controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. The effect of bed bug developmental stage, temperature, and CO2 concentration on the minimum time to kill 100% of bed bugs was determined. The minimum CO2 concentration lethal to all bed bug stages was approximately 30% with 24 h exposure time at 25 degrees C. The minimum fumigation time required to kill 100% of eggs using 100% CO2 at 20, 25, and 30 degrees C were 3, 7, and 8 h, respectively; the minimum fumigation time to kill 100% of adult males/nymphs were 8, 13, and 14 h, respectively. The minimum time to kill 100% of adult males/nymphs using 50 and 70% CO2 at 25 degrees C were 18 and 16 h, respectively. We found that eggs were not completely killed after 24 h fumigation when the CO2 concentration was lower than 80%. Thus, bed bug eggs were more susceptible to 100% CO2 fumigation than nymphs and adult males but more tolerant than nymphs and adult males with lower CO2 concentration (50-80%). There were no significant differences among nymphs, adult males, and adult females in their susceptibility to 100% CO2 fumigation. A 24 h fumigation in sealed 158 liter (42 gallon) heavy duty garbage bags filled 90% full with fabric materials and/or boxes and 1,350 g dry ice per bag was sufficient to kill all stages of bed bugs hidden in the materials at room temperature (23-24 degrees C). Sealed heavy duty garbage bags maintained > or = 94% CO2 for at least 24 h. Custom-made double zipper plastic bags (122 x 183 cm) were also used to evaluate the effectiveness of CO2 fumigation for controlling bed bugs. Each bag was filled with fabric and boxes to 50-90% full. Bed bugs were hidden in various locations of each bag. CO2 was introduced into the bags through a CO2 cylinder. CO2 fumigation lasting 24-48 h was sufficient to kill all stages of bed bugs at room temperature, depending on the quantity of materials placed in each bag and whether CO2 was

  16. A 60day double-blind, placebo-controlled safety study involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract.

    PubMed

    Kaats, Gilbert R; Miller, Howard; Preuss, Harry G; Stohs, Sidney J

    2013-05-01

    Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine are widely consumed in dietary supplements for weight management and sports performance. p-Synephrine is also present in foods derived from a variety of Citrus species. Bitter orange extract is commonly used in combination with multiple herbal ingredients. Most clinical studies conducted on bitter orange extract alone have involved single doses. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of bitter orange extract (approximately 49mg p-synephrine) alone or in combination with naringin and hesperidin twice daily given to 25 healthy subjects per group for 60days in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled protocol. No significant changes occurred in systolic or diastolic blood pressures, blood chemistries or blood cell counts in control or p-synephrine treated groups. Small, clinically insignificant differences in heart rates were observed between the p-synephrine plus naringin and hesperidin group and the p-synephrine alone as well as the placebo group. No adverse effects were reported in the three groups. Bitter orange extract and p-synephrine appear to be without adverse effects at a dose of up to 98mg daily for 60days based on the parameters measured. PMID:23354394

  17. Successful electronic implementation of discharge referral decision support has a positive impact on 30- and 60-day readmissions.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Kathryn H; Chittams, Jesse; Heil, Eric; Topaz, Maxim; Rickard, Kathy; Bhasker, Mrinal; Tanzer, Matt; Behta, Maryam; Hanlon, Alexandra L

    2015-04-01

    In a quasi-experimental study, decision support software was installed in three hospitals to study the ability to scale (spread) its use from one hospital on paper to three hospitals as software, and to examine the effect on 30- and 60-day readmissions. The Discharge Decision Support System (D2S2) software analyzes data collected by nurses on admission with a proprietary risk assessment tool, identifies patients in need of post-acute care, and alerts discharge planners. On six intervention units, with a concurrent comparison group of 76 units, we examined the implementation experience and compared readmission outcomes before and after implementation. The software implementation finished one month ahead of schedule, and the software performed reliably. High-risk patients admitted in the experimental phase after implementation of D2S2 decision support had significantly fewer 30-day readmissions (a decrease from 22.2% to 9.4%). When high- and low-risk patients were analyzed together, D2S2 achieved a 33% relative reduction in 30-day readmissions (13.1 to 8.8%) and sustained a 37% relative reduction at 60 days. The software, available commercially through RightCare Solutions, was adopted by the health system and remains in use after 22 months. The D2S2 risk assessment tool can be installed easily in existing EHR systems. Future research will focus on how the tool influences discharge decision-making and how its accuracy can be improved in specific settings. PMID:25620675

  18. Successful electronic implementation of discharge referral decision support has a positive impact on 30 and 60-day readmissions

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, KH; Chittams, J; Heil, E; Topaz, M.; Rickard, K; Bhasker, M; Tanzer, M; Behta, M; Hanlon, A

    2015-01-01

    In a quasi-experimental study decision support software was installed in three hospitals to study the ability to scale (spread) its use from one hospital on paper to three hospitals as software, and to examine the effect on 30 and 60-day readmissions. The Discharge Decision Support System (D2S2) software analyzes data collected by nurses on admission with a proprietary risk assessment tool, identifies patients in need of post-acute care, and alerts discharge planners. On six intervention units, with a concurrent comparison group of 76 units, we examined the implementation experience and compared readmission outcomes before and after implementation. The software implementation finished one month ahead of schedule, the software performed reliably. High-risk patients admitted in the experimental phase after implementation of D2S2 decision support had significantly fewer 30-day readmissions (a decrease 22.2% to 9.4%) When high and low risk patients were analyzed together, D2S2 achi8eved a 33% relative reduction in 30 day readmissions (13.1% to 8.8%) and sustained a 37% relative reduction at 60 days. The software, available commercially through RightCare Solutions, was adopted by the health system and remains in use after 22 months. The D2S2 risk assessment tool can be installed easily in existing EHR systems. Future research will focus on how the tool influences discharge decision-making and how its accuracy can be improved in specific settings. PMID:25620675

  19. 78 FR 66945 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment request: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study (GuLF STUDY)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Collection: The purpose of the GuLF STUDY is to investigate potential short- and long-term health effects... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment request: Gulf Long-Term... effect if received within 60 days of the date of this publication. Proposed Collection: Gulf...

  20. 42 CFR 484.220 - Calculation of the adjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate for case-mix and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-day episode payment rate for case-mix and area wage levels. 484.220 Section 484.220 Public Health... Calculation of the adjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate for case-mix and area wage levels. CMS adjusts the national prospective 60-day episode payment rate to account for the following: (a)...

  1. Soil Fumigation: Principles and Application Technology

    PubMed Central

    Lembright, H. W.

    1990-01-01

    The principal soil fumigants and their order of discovery are carbon disulfide, chloropicrin, methyl bromide, 1,3-dichloropropene, ethylene dibromide, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, and methyl isothiocyanate. Biological activity of soil fumigants ranges from limited to broad spectrum. Fumigants diffuse through the continuous soil air space as gases. Physical and chemical characteristics determine diffusion rates, distribution between the soil air and moisture, and sorption onto and into the soil particles. The principal soil factors affecting the efficacy of each treatment are the size and continuity of air space, moisture, temperature, organic matter, and depth of placement. Application can be made overall with tractor injection or plow-sole, or as a row or bed treatment. Treatment for trees is best made in conjunction with tree site backhoeing. PMID:19287772

  2. Minimizing Emissions From Soil Fumigation By Surface Seal Methods.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fumigation is an important management practice for controlling soil pests in many high value crops. Reducing atmospheric emissions can minimize the impact of soil fumigation on the environment. Water seals (sprinkling water on the soil surface) to reduce fumigant emissions is more cost-effecti...

  3. STRAWBERRY PRODUCTION WITH ALTERNATIVE FUMIGANTS APPLIED THROUGH DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEMS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all California strawberry fields are fumigated before planting. Most are fumigated with methyl bromide, which is being phased out because it has been shown to deplete stratospheric ozone. We are seeking alternative fumigants that can be used for strawberry production. This particular resea...

  4. Using TIF tarp and reduced fumigation rates for almond replanting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almond replanting still relies on pre-plant soil fumigation to control soil-borne pests and diseases in order to establish productive and healthy trees. With the environmental constraints on fumigant use, fumigation methods for high pest control efficiency and low emissions are needed greatly. In l...

  5. Irradiated versus fumigated spices in sausage.

    PubMed

    Bolander, C R; Toma, R B; Davis, R M; Medora, N P

    1995-11-01

    The efficacy of gamma radiation and ethylene oxide fumigation as decontaminating treatments for spices used in sausages was compared. Microbial loads of sausages containing irradiated, fumigated or non-treated spices were examined over three intervals of time. No significant differences between microbial loads of Mexican sausages containing irradiated spices (10 kGy) verses ethylene oxide-treated spices were found. Mexican sausages containing treated spices had significantly lower yeast, mould and spore counts than control sausages. After 8 weeks of storage, only the microbial loads of control sausages suggested spoilage. No discernable differences in treatment efficacy were noted with respect to yeast, mould and spore counts in Italian sausages. PMID:8574858

  6. Gender-related Changes in Dorsal Hand and Foot Vein Function Following 60 Days of Head Down Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westby, Christian M.; Phillips, Tiffany; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that female astronauts are more likely to experience post-flight orthostatic hypotension and presyncope compared to male astronauts. It has been suggested that the disproportionally higher incidence of presyncope (83% of female vs. 20% male crewmembers) may be due to sex-related differences in vascular function between the upper and lower limbs. However, much of this evidence is specific to changes in resistance vessels. Given that more than 70% of the circulating blood volume resides in compliance vessels, it is conceivable that even small changes in venous function may contribute to post-flight orthostatic hypotension. In spite of this, little is currently known regarding the influence of microgravity exposure on venous function between males and females. PURPOSE: To determine the influence of 60 days of HDBR on dorsal foot and hand vein function between healthy males (M) and females (F). METHODS: Using 2-D ultrasound, dorsal hand and foot vein diameter responses to intravenous infusions phenylephrine (PE), acetylcholine (ACh), and nitroglycerine (NTG) were determined in 26 adults; 10 females (age:37 +/- 2 yr ) and 16 males (age:34 +/- 2 yr ). Changes in venous function were calculated as the difference between diameter at baseline and following each venoactive drug. Differences in venous function between limb and sexes across HDBR were determined using mixed-effects linear regression. RESULTS: In response to 60 days of HDBR, the change in venousconstrictor response to PE in the dorsal hand veins was not significantly different between M and F. Interestingly, the change in constrictor response in the dorsal foot veins (compared to pre HDBR) was approximately 30% greater in the F, whereas the constrictor response was approximately 45% less in the M (p=0.026). HDBR had no influence on the change in dilator response to ACh, or NTG between M and F and between vascular beds. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that 60 days of HDBR contributes to sex

  7. Cardiac and Arterial Adaptation to a 60 Day Bedrest with and without Counter-Measures (ES-I IBREP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbeille, Philippe; Yuan, Ming; Bai, Yanqiang; Jiang, Shizhong; Wan, Yuming; Li, Yinghui

    2008-06-01

    Objective was to quantified the impact of a 60-day head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) with countermeasures "CM" on the Cardiac arterial and venous hemodynamics at rest. Method: Twenty-one men (25-40y) divided into 3 groups [Control (Con), daily 30 min Foot vibration (Vib) and Chinese Herb (Herb)] were studied pre and at HDBR day 58. The subjects were allowed to have a daily 10 min squat/stand period for toilets. Post HDBR 10 min Tilt identified Finishers (F) and Non Finishers (NF). Result: (a) Most of the cardiac and arterial parameters reduced after 58d in HDBR as observed in other long term HDBR (b) the Vibration CM induced a reduction in lower limb vascular resistance (c) the short 10 min squat/stand period should have contributed to lower the proportion of NF at the post HDBR tilt.

  8. WISE 2005: Aerobic and resistive countermeasures prevent paraspinal muscle deconditioning during 60-day bed rest in women.

    PubMed

    Holt, Jacquelyn A; Macias, Brandon R; Schneider, Suzanne M; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Chang, Douglas G; Hargens, Alan R

    2016-05-15

    Microgravity-induced lumbar paraspinal muscle deconditioning may contribute to back pain commonly experienced by astronauts and may increase the risk of postflight injury. We hypothesized that a combined resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure protocol that included spinal loading would mitigate lumbar paraspinal muscle deconditioning during 60 days of bed rest in women. Sixteen women underwent 60-day, 6° head-down-tilt bed rest (BR) and were randomized into control and exercise groups. During bed rest the control group performed no exercise. The exercise group performed supine treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNP) for 3-4 days/wk and flywheel resistive exercise for 2-3 days/wk. Paraspinal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured using a lumbar spine MRI sequence before and after BR. In addition, isokinetic spinal flexion and extension strengths were measured before and after BR. Data are presented as means ± SD. Total lumbar paraspinal muscle CSA decreased significantly more in controls (10.9 ± 3.4%) than in exercisers (4.3 ± 3.4%; P < 0.05). The erector spinae was the primary contributor (76%) to total lumbar paraspinal muscle loss. Moreover, exercise attenuated isokinetic spinal extension loss (-4.3 ± 4.5%), compared with controls (-16.6 ± 11.2%; P < 0.05). In conclusion, LBNP treadmill and flywheel resistive exercises during simulated microgravity mitigate decrements in lumbar paraspinal muscle structure and spine function. Therefore spaceflight exercise countermeasures that attempt to reproduce spinal loads experienced on Earth may mitigate spinal deconditioning during long-duration space travel. PMID:26893030

  9. 46 CFR 147A.11 - Person in charge of fumigation; before fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...)(i) of this section; and (iii) In accordance with 49 CFR 173.9(c) or section 8.10 of the General... fumigation shall ensure that: (1) A marine chemist or other qualified person who has knowledge of...

  10. 46 CFR 147A.11 - Person in charge of fumigation; before fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...)(i) of this section; and (iii) In accordance with 49 CFR 173.9(c) or section 8.10 of the General... fumigation shall ensure that: (1) A marine chemist or other qualified person who has knowledge of...

  11. 46 CFR 147A.11 - Person in charge of fumigation; before fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...)(i) of this section; and (iii) In accordance with 49 CFR 173.9(c) or section 8.10 of the General... fumigated, including blanking off and sealing any ventilation ducts and smoke detectors; (4) The...

  12. 46 CFR 147A.11 - Person in charge of fumigation; before fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...)(i) of this section; and (iii) In accordance with 49 CFR 173.9(c) or section 8.10 of the General... fumigated, including blanking off and sealing any ventilation ducts and smoke detectors; (4) The...

  13. 46 CFR 147A.11 - Person in charge of fumigation; before fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...)(i) of this section; and (iii) In accordance with 49 CFR 173.9(c) or section 8.10 of the General... fumigated, including blanking off and sealing any ventilation ducts and smoke detectors; (4) The...

  14. Rice weevil response to basil oil fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basil oil, Ocimum basilicum L., is a volatile plant essential oil that is known to have insecticidal activity against stored product pests such as rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Basil oil was diluted in acetone and applied to a sponge held inside a tea strainer for fumigations in containers wi...

  15. Methyl Iodide Fumigation of Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Mark; Kane, Staci R; Wollard, Jessica R

    2015-09-01

    Fumigation techniques such as chlorine dioxide, vaporous hydrogen peroxide, and paraformaldehyde previously used to decontaminate items, rooms, and buildings following contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores are often incompatible with materials (e.g., porous surfaces, organics, and metals), causing damage or residue. Alternative fumigation with methyl bromide is subject to U.S. and international restrictions due to its ozone-depleting properties. Methyl iodide, however, does not pose a risk to the ozone layer and has previously been demonstrated as a fumigant for fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now, methyl iodide has not been evaluated against Bacillus anthracis. Sterne strain Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to methyl iodide fumigation at room temperature and at 550C. Efficacy was measured on a log-scale with a 6-log reduction in CFUs being considered successful compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency biocide standard. Such efficacies were obtained after just one hour at 55 °C and after 12 hours at room temperature. No detrimental effects were observed on glassware, PTFE O-rings, or stainless steel. This is the first reported efficacy of methyl iodide in the reduction of Bacillus anthracis spore contamination at ambient and elevated temperatures. PMID:26502561

  16. Methyl bromide fate in fumigated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.A.; Rice, P.J.; Cink, J.H.

    1995-12-31

    Although widespread use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a sail and structure fumigant has previously been recognized as a potential significant source of atmospheric MeBr, losses have not been well quantified. Our research indicates that, in laboratory studies, MeBr is volatilized rapidly from fumigated soils and that volatility increases with temperature (35{degrees}C > 25{degrees}C and 15{degrees}C) and moisture (0.03 bar and 0.3 bar > 1 bar > 3 bar). Degradation of MeBr in soil, as indicated by production of bromide ion, was also directly related to temperature and moisture. Most of the soil degradation of MeBr in these studies appears to be abiotic based on the observation of toxicity (reduced microbial respiration) in fumigated soils. We also determined the transformation and movement of MeBr in undisturbed soil columns. These studies also indicated that MeBT volatilizes rapidly (> 50% in 48 h) from soil. In addition, MeBr was not detected in the leachate from the soil columns, however, bromide ion was detected at levels above background 48 h after fumigation and peaked at 5 weeks.

  17. Orthostatic Intolerance Is Independent of the Degree of Autonomic Cardiovascular Adaptation after 60 Days of Head-Down Bed Rest.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiexin; Li, Yongzhi; Verheyden, Bart; Chen, Zhanghuang; Wang, Jingyu; Li, Yinghui; Aubert, André E; Yuan, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Spaceflight and head-down bed rest (HDBR) can induce the orthostatic intolerance (OI); the mechanisms remain to be clarified. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not OI after HDBR relates to the degree of autonomic cardiovascular adaptation. Fourteen volunteers were enrolled for 60 days of HDBR. A head-up tilt test (HUTT) was performed before and after HDBR. Our data revealed that, in all nonfainters, there was a progressive increase in heart rate over the course of HDBR, which remained higher until 12 days of recovery. The mean arterial pressure gradually increased until day 56 of HDBR and returned to baseline after 12 days of recovery. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and baroreflex sensitivity decreased during HDBR and remained suppressed until 12 days of recovery. Low-frequency power of systolic arterial pressure increased during HDBR and remained elevated during recovery. Three subjects fainted during the HUTT after HDBR, in which systemic vascular resistance did not increase and remained lower until syncope. None of the circulatory patterns significantly differed between the fainters and the nonfainters at any time point. In conclusion, our data indicate that the impaired orthostatic tolerance after HDBR could not be distinguished by estimation of normal hemodynamic and/or neurocardiac data. PMID:26425559

  18. Orthostatic Intolerance Is Independent of the Degree of Autonomic Cardiovascular Adaptation after 60 Days of Head-Down Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiexin; Li, Yongzhi; Verheyden, Bart; Chen, Zhanghuang; Wang, Jingyu; Li, Yinghui; Aubert, André E.; Yuan, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Spaceflight and head-down bed rest (HDBR) can induce the orthostatic intolerance (OI); the mechanisms remain to be clarified. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not OI after HDBR relates to the degree of autonomic cardiovascular adaptation. Fourteen volunteers were enrolled for 60 days of HDBR. A head-up tilt test (HUTT) was performed before and after HDBR. Our data revealed that, in all nonfainters, there was a progressive increase in heart rate over the course of HDBR, which remained higher until 12 days of recovery. The mean arterial pressure gradually increased until day 56 of HDBR and returned to baseline after 12 days of recovery. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and baroreflex sensitivity decreased during HDBR and remained suppressed until 12 days of recovery. Low-frequency power of systolic arterial pressure increased during HDBR and remained elevated during recovery. Three subjects fainted during the HUTT after HDBR, in which systemic vascular resistance did not increase and remained lower until syncope. None of the circulatory patterns significantly differed between the fainters and the nonfainters at any time point. In conclusion, our data indicate that the impaired orthostatic tolerance after HDBR could not be distinguished by estimation of normal hemodynamic and/or neurocardiac data. PMID:26425559

  19. A metabonomic investigation of the effects of 60 days exposure of rats to two types of pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Hui-Ping; Long, Ding-Xin; Li, Wei; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2013-11-25

    Type I and II pyrethroid insecticides display different neurotoxicity. To investigate the long-term (60 days exposure) metabolic effect of the two types of pyrethroid insecticides deltamethrin and permethrin, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabonomics was used to analyze the biochemical composition of urine and serum samples from rats administrated daily with deltamethrin or permethrin for 60 consecutive days, and principal component analysis used to visualize similarities and differences in the resultant biochemical profiles. Rats treated with either deltamethrin or permethrin displayed increased levels of urinary acetate, dimethylamine, dimethylglycine, trimethylamine and serum free amino acids, and decreased urinary 2-oxoglutarate, all of which are indicative of kidney lesions and nephrotoxicity. The reduced excretion of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, together with increased 3-D-hydroxybutyrate, acetate, and lactate in treated rats could suggest disturbance of the energy metabolism, including an increased rate of anaerobic glycolysis, enhanced fatty acid β-oxidation and ketogenesis. These results show that these two types of insecticides have similarities in the urine and serum spectra, indicating that similar metabolic pathways are perturbed by the insecticides, which induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. This approach may lead to the discovery of novel biomarkers of pyrethroids toxicity and thereby provide new insights into the toxicological mechanisms of pesticides pyrethroids. PMID:24121187

  20. WISE 2005-2006: 60-days of Head-Down Bed Rest Increases the Incidence of Menstrual Cycle Disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Charles

    Objective: It has been suggested that acute bed rest of short duration (11 days) disrupts the menstrual cycle of healthy subjects. Furthermore, use of countermeasures such as heavy exercise or dietary manipulations may adversely effect the menstrual cycle. We hypothesized that bed rest of 60 days and the use of countermeasures would increase the incidence of disruption of the menstrual cycle (MC). Methods: Twenty-four healthy subjects with a mean age of 32±0.8 yr, body mass of 59±0.8 kg and MC lengths of 25-32 days were enrolled. Three months prior to the study subjects did not use hormonal birth control methods. Subjects were assigned to one of three groups (n=8 per group): control, exercise countermeasures, and dietary countermeasures. MC lengthening was defined as an increase in duration of 10 or more days. Analysis was performed accounting for the effects of bedrest as well as treatment group. Results: Effects of countermeasures were not significant in the present analysis. After the conclusion of the study, subjects were classified as either normal (N; n=16) or oligomenorrhea (O; n=8) as determined by MC length during the pre-bed rest (PB) and bed rest (BR) periods. During the control period prior to bed rest one subject (4%) had an increase MC length. During the control period the average MC length was 31±0.8 days with a leutinizing hormone (LH) surge 12±0.8 days prior to menses. The duration of menses was 4±0.4 days. During BR there was an increase to 33% (p¡0.05) in the number of subjects having MC lengthening. In these subjects the mean length was increased from 31±0.9 to 62±8.2 days (p¡0.05). There was no change in the period from the LH surge prior to the next menses, 11±0.8 days, or duration of menses, 4±0.2 days. Plasma LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolacin (PRL), progesterone (PRG), estradiol (E2), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), aldosterone (Aldo), testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) were measured during PB, BR, early

  1. WISE-2005: effect of aerobic and resistive exercises on orthostatic tolerance during 60 days bed rest in women

    PubMed Central

    Guinet, Patrick; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Macias, Brandon R.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Hughson, Richard L.; Le Traon, Anne Pavy; Bansard, Jean-Yves; Hargens, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular deconditioning after long duration spaceflight is especially challenging in women who have a lower orthostatic tolerance (OT) compared with men. We hypothesized that an exercise prescription, combining supine aerobic treadmill exercise in a Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) chamber followed by 10 min of resting LBNP, 3 to 4 times a week, and flywheel resistive training every third day would maintain orthostatic tolerance (OT) in women during a 60-day head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR). Sixteen women were assigned to two groups (exercise, control). Pre and post HDBR OT was assessed with a tilt/LBNP test until presyncope. OT time (mean ± SE) decreased from 17.5±1.0 min to 9.1±1.5 min (−50±6%) in control group (p<0.001) and from 19.3 ±1.3 min to 13.0 ± 1.9 min (−35±7%) in exercise group (p<0.001), with no significant difference in OT time between the two groups after HDBR (p=0.13). Nevertheless compared with controls post HDBR, exercisers had a lower heart rate (mean±SE) during supine rest (71±3 versus 85±4, p<0.01), a slower increase in heart rate and a slower decrease in stroke volume over the course of tilt/LBNP test (p<0.05). Blood volume (mean±SE) decreased in controls (−9±2%, p<0.01) but was maintained in exercisers (−4±3%, p=0.17). Our results suggest that the combined exercise countermeasure fails to protect OT but improves cardiovascular response to subtolerance levels of orthostatic stress. PMID:19247686

  2. Response of light brown apple moth to oxygenated phosphine fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), poses a serious threat to California agriculture and is currently quarantined by several major trading partners. Fumigation is the only tool to assure pest-free postharvest vegetable and fruit products. However, current fumigants for ...

  3. Recovery of soil microbial communities after fumigation with time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past few decades, soil fumigants have been extensively used to control target soil borne pathogens and weeds for high value cash crops. However, the fumigants with broad biocidal activity can affect both target and non-target or beneficial microorganisms in soil, but the recovery of soil micr...

  4. Harmful Effects of Mustard Bio-fumigants on Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green manures, particularly mustards tilled into the soil preceding potato crops act as bio-fumigants that are toxic to plant parasitic nematodes, providing an alternative to synthetic soil fumigants. It is not known if mustard green manures also kill beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) tha...

  5. Nitric oxide as a potent fumigant for postharvest pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a great demand for safe and effective alternative fumigants to replace methyl bromide and other toxic fumigants for pest control. Nitric oxide, a common signal molecule in biological systems, was found to be effective and safe to control insects under ultralow oxygen conditions. Fumigatio...

  6. Totally impermeable film (TIF) reduces emissions in perennial crop fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orchard/vineyard replanting for fruit trees, nut trees, and grapevines in many situations still depends on soil fumigation for control of soil-borne pests and replanting diseases in California. Perennial tree and grapevine nurseries also rely heavily on soil fumigation to meet the state’s requiremen...

  7. Post fumigation recovery of soil microbial community structure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fumigants have been extensively used to control target soil-borne pathogens and weeds for the past few decades. It is known that the fumigants with broad biocidal activity can affect both target and non-target soil organisms, but the recovery of soil microbial communities are unknown until rece...

  8. Management strategies to reduce environmental impact from soil fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fumigation is an important agronomic practice for controlling soil-borne plant pests. However, all fumigant chemicals have relatively high vapor pressure values and are prone to emission losses to the ambient atmosphere. This poses significant safety and human health concerns for farmers and ...

  9. FUMIGATION AND FALLOWING EFFECTS ON REPLANT PROBLEMS IN CALIFORNIA PEACH.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl bromide will no longer be available for soil fumigation after 2005. It is an important pest control material for replant of orchards that suffer from "replant disorder". Several field trials tested effects of fallowing and drip-irrigation applied alternative fumigants. In all cases, methyl...

  10. DYNAMIC FLUX CHAMBER SYSTEMS FOR FUMIGANT EMISSION MEASUREMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of effective field practices on emission reductions from soil fumigation relies on continuous and reliable emission data. Dynamic (flow through) flux chambers can provide continuous sampling for fumigants volatilized from the soil surface. The objective of this project was to design and c...

  11. Reduction of Fumigant Emissions Using Chemical and Organic Amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water seal (water application to soil surface) has been shown as a cost effective method to reduce fumigant emissions in comparison with standard high density polyethylene (HDPE) tarp. Application of excess amount of water, however, inhibits fumigant diffusion within the soil profile and may affect ...

  12. 7 CFR 305.6 - Methyl bromide fumigation treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Methyl bromide fumigation treatment schedules. 305.6..., fumigation with methyl bromide for sapote fruit fly. Regulated citrus fruits originating inside an area... equal concentrations of methyl bromide throughout the chamber, a fan should be placed near the point...

  13. Fungicide residue remediation on table grapes using ozone fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone fumigation was explored as a means for degrading contemporary organic fungicides related to table grape production. Separate fumigations were conducted in a flow-through chamber on fungicides sorbed to model abiotic glass surfaces or to table grapes. Gaseous ozone at constant ozone concentrati...

  14. Simulation of fumigant transport and volatilization from tarped broadcast applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the ability of the HYDRUS 2D/3D model to simulate chloropicrin and 1,3-dichloropropene fate, transport and volatilization. Three fields with similar soil conditions were broadcast fumigated under a totally impermeable film (TIF). One field was used to calibrate HYDRUS by adjusting fumig...

  15. Water and methyl isothiocyanate distribution in soil after drip fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) generators, such as metam sodium (Met-Na), are used for soil fumigation of agricultural land. The ban on the fumigant methyl bromide (MBr) has resulted in greater use of MITC generators. In order to understand the efficacy of MITC, it is necessary to assess its generat...

  16. 75 FR 36463 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-1622, DS-1843, DS-1622P, and DS-1843P...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ...The Department of State is seeking Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the information collection described below. The purpose of this notice is to allow 60 days for public comment in the Federal Register preceding submission to OMB. We are conducting this process in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Medical History......

  17. 25 CFR 291.8 - What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not submitted an alternative proposal? 291.8 Section 291.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING...

  18. 25 CFR 291.8 - What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not submitted an alternative proposal? 291.8 Section 291.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING...

  19. 25 CFR 291.8 - What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not submitted an alternative proposal? 291.8 Section 291.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING...

  20. 25 CFR 291.8 - What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not submitted an alternative proposal? 291.8 Section 291.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES §...

  1. 25 CFR 291.9 - What must the Secretary do at the end of the 60-day comment period if the State offers an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... comment period if the State offers an alternative proposal for Class III gaming procedures? 291.9 Section... GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.9 What must the Secretary do at the end of the 60-day comment period if the State offers an alternative proposal for Class III gaming procedures? Within 30 days of receiving the...

  2. Covariations of SST and surface heat flux on 10-20 day and 30-60 day time scales over the South China Sea and western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang; Cao, Xi; Chen, Shangfeng

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the variability and relationship between intraseasonal sea surface temperature (SST) and surface net heat flux (NHF) variations in the South China Sea and western North Pacific regions. It is shown that the intraseasonal SST variations and their coherence with surface heat flux variations display large differences between winter and summer and between 10-20 day and 30-60 day time scales. The intraseasonal SST variability is comparable on 10-20 day and 30-60 day time scales but larger during summer than during winter. The NHF variability is much larger on the 10-20 day time scale and during winter. The coherence between intraseasonal SST and NHF variations is higher during summer than during winter due to the seasonal change in the mixed-layer depth. During summer, coherent intraseasonal SST and NHF variations are identified in a southwest-northeast tilted region from the South China Sea to the subtropics on the 10-20 day time scale but within a broad zonal band from the South China Sea to the Philippine Sea on the 30-60 day time scale. Such difference is not discernable during winter. The contribution of NHF to the SST tendency is larger on the 30-60 day time scale than on the 10-20 day time scale and during summer than during winter. Latent heat flux provides a much larger contribution than shortwave radiation to intraseasonal SST variations in most regions except for the South China Sea during summer on the 30-60 day time scale.

  3. The dominant patterns of the precipitation in China during the boreal winter and their relationship with 30-60-days intraseasonal oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yonghong; Wu, Qigang; Huang, Ying

    2013-04-01

    With the daily rainfall data from the National Meteorological Information Center of China and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis data, variability of the precipitation field during the boreal winter in China from 1979 to 2011 and its relationship with the 30-60-days intraseasonal oscillation activity is investigated in this study. It is shown that the distribution of the precipitation during the winter season (DJF) in China is featured by two typical patterns. The first one is characterized by the uniformly enhanced rainfall over the South China, and the second one is represented by meridionally banded dipole-like structure with the more or less precipitation changing alternatively between the Yangtze River Basin and the South China. The 30-60-day periodicity is found to contribute mostly to these two distribution patterns. The leading uniform pattern of the filtered precipitation with 30-60-day periodicity over the South China is closely related with the wavelike pattern of Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern, which is coupled with the dipole distribution pattern of the tropical convection, and with the convective center elongating from tropical Indian Ocean to Phillipine. The dipole-like pattern of the 30-60-day filtered precipitation is related to the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) and the Pacific-Japan (PJ) teleconnection pattern, and to the tripole pattern of tropical convection centering at tropical Indian Ocean, Phillipine and tropical western North Pacific respectively. It is suggested that the enhanced precipitation over the South China or Yangtze River Basin induced by the intensified southwesterlies flow is the result of the interaction between the southward movement of the middle and high latitude 30-60-days oscillation and the northward movement of the tropical convection in these areas during the boreal winter.

  4. Minimize emissions and improve efficacy with low permeability tarp and deep injection in soil fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fumigation targets high pest control efficiency and low environmental impact. Earlier field data show that most fumigated treatments provided 100% kill for plant parasitic nematodes in the soil above 3 ft depth, but not below due to insufficient fumigant delivery. A fumigation trial was conduct...

  5. Pentafluoronitrosulfane, SF5NO2.

    PubMed

    Lu, Norman; Thrasher, Joseph S; von Ahsen, Stefan; Willner, Helge; Hnyk, Drahomir; Oberhammer, Heinz

    2006-02-20

    The synthesis of pentafluoronitrosulfane, SF5NO2, is accomplished either by reacting N(SF5)3 with NO2 or by the photolysis of a SF5Br/NO2 mixture using diazo lamps. The product is purified by treatment with CsF and repeated trap-to-trap condensation. The solid compound melts at -78 degrees C, and the extrapolated boiling point is 9 degrees C. SF5NO2 is characterized by 19F, 15N NMR, IR, Raman, and UV spectroscopy as well as by mass spectrometry. The molecular structure of SF5NO2 is determined by gas electron diffraction. The molecule possesses C2v symmetry with the NO2 group staggering the equatorial S-F bonds and an extremely long 1.903(7) Angstroms S-N bond. Calculated bond enthalpies depend strongly on the computational method: 159 (MP2/6-311G++(3df)) and 87 kJ mol(-1) (B3LYP/6-311++G(3df)). The experimental geometry and vibrational spectrum are reproduced reasonably well by quantum chemical calculations. PMID:16471994

  6. Influence of Hydrogen Fluoride Fumigation on the Water Economy of Soybean Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Wiebe, H. H.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of hydrogen fluoride fumigation on water economy was studied using soybean (Glycine max [L] Merr.). Fumigation caused partial stomatal closure in 1 hour and practically complete closure within 4 hours. The transpiration rate was greatly reduced by fumigation, while the leaf temperature was increased. Water potential increased after 1 day but fell drastically when necrosis occurred. Effects of interrupted fumigation during the day were somewhat less severe in all respects than those of continuous fumigation; nighttime fumigation caused only minor effects. Fluoride uptake was also much less from nighttime than from daytime fumigations. PMID:16658337

  7. Bacterial colonization of a fumigated alkaline saline soil.

    PubMed

    Bello-López, Juan M; Domínguez-Mendoza, Cristina A; de León-Lorenzana, Arit S; Delgado-Balbuena, Laura; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Gómez-Acata, Selene; Rodríguez-Valentín, Analine; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Victor M; Luna-Guido, Marco; Verhulst, Nele; Govaerts, Bram; Dendooven, Luc

    2014-07-01

    After chloroform fumigating an arable soil, the relative abundance of phylotypes belonging to only two phyla (Actinobacteria and Firmicutes) and two orders [Actinomycetales and Bacillales (mostly Bacillus)] increased in a subsequent aerobic incubation, while it decreased for a wide range of bacterial groups. It remained to be seen if similar bacterial groups were affected when an extreme alkaline saline soil was fumigated. Soil with electrolytic conductivity between 139 and 157 dS m(-1), and pH 10.0 and 10.3 was fumigated and the bacterial community structure determined after 0, 1, 5 and 10 days by analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, while an unfumigated soil served as control. The relative abundance of the Firmicutes increased in the fumigated soil (52.8%) compared to the unfumigated soil (34.2%), while that of the Bacteroidetes decreased from 16.2% in the unfumigated soil to 8.8% in the fumigated soil. Fumigation increased the relative abundance of the genus Bacillus from 14.7% in the unfumigated soil to 25.7%. It was found that phylotypes belonging to the Firmicutes, mostly of the genus Bacillus, were dominant in colonizing the fumigated alkaline saline as found in the arable soil, while the relative abundance of a wide range of bacterial groups decreased. PMID:24846742

  8. Carbon isotope fractionation of methyl bromide during agricultural soil fumigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bill, M.; Miller, L.G.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2002-01-01

    The isotopic composition of methyl bromide (CH3Br) has been suggested to be a potentially useful tracer for constraining the global CH3Br budget. In order to determine the carbon isotopic composition of CH3Br emitted from the most significant anthropogenic application (pre-plant fumigation) we directly measured the ??13C of CH3Br released during commercial fumigation. We also measured the isotopic fractionation associated with degradation in agricultural soil under typical field fumigation conditions. The isotopic composition of CH3Br collected in soil several hours after injection of the fumigant was -44.5??? and this value increased to -20.7??? over the following three days. The mean kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with degradation of CH3Br in agricultural soil (12???) was smaller than the reported value for methylotrophic bacterial strain IMB-1, isolated from previously fumigated agricultural soil, but was similar to methylotrophic bacterial strain CC495, isolated from a pristine forest litter zone. Using this fractionation associated with the degradation of CH3Br in agricultural soil and the mean ??13C of the industrially manufactured CH3Br (-54.4???), we calculate that the agricultural soil fumigation source has a carbon isotope signature that ranges from -52.8??? to -42.0???. Roughly 65% of industrially manufactured CH3Br is used for field fumigations. The remaining 35% is used for structural and post-harvest fumigations with a minor amount used during industrial chemical manufacturing. Assuming that the structural and post-harvest fumigation sources of CH3Br are emitted without substantial fractionation, we calculate that the ??13C of anthropogenically emitted CH3Br ranges from -53.2??? to -47.5???.

  9. Modelling continuous fumigation of Nanticoke generating station plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, P. K.; Onlock, S.

    A shoreline fumigation model is verified with the data from two studies conducted for the Ontario Hydro generating station plumes at Nanticoke. The model reproduces the physical system of continuous fumigation reasonably well. Predictions are shown to agree with observed values within the framework of the uncertainties in various input parameters. As expected, the parameters defining the state of the onshore air mass are critical in the estimate of ground level concentrations inside the fumigation zone. Also, sampling time plays an important role, even though data from the averaging of three to four helicopter passes conform to half hourly average concentration data and model predictions very well.

  10. 25 CFR 291.8 - What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not submitted an alternative proposal? 291.8 Section 291.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.8 What must the Secretary do at...

  11. Relationship of boreal summer 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillation intensity over the tropical western North Pacific to tropical Indo-Pacific SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang; Cao, Xi

    2016-07-01

    The present study contrasts interannual variations in the intensity of boreal summer 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) over the tropical western North Pacific and their factors. A pronounced difference is found in the relationship of the two ISOs to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The 10-20-day ISO intensity is enhanced during El Niño developing summer, whereas the 30-60-day ISO intensity is enhanced during La Niña decaying summer. The above different relationship is interpreted as follows. The equatorial central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies modify vertical wind shear, lower-level moisture, and vertical motion in a southeast-northwest oriented band from the equatorial western Pacific to the tropical western North Pacific where the 10-20-day ISOs originate and propagate. These background field changes modulate the amplitude of 10-20-day ISOs. Preceding equatorial central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies induce SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean in summer, which in turn modify vertical wind shear and vertical motion over the tropical western North Pacific. The modified background fields influence the amplitude of the 30-60-day ISOs when they reach the tropical western North Pacific from the equatorial region. A feedback of ISO intensity on local SST change is identified in the tropical western North Pacific likely due to a net effect of ISOs on surface heat flux anomalies. This feedback is more prominent from the 10-20-day than the 30-60-day ISO intensity change.

  12. Alternative control technology document: Ethylene oxide sterilization/fumigation operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    This report presents technical information that State and local agencies can use to develop strategies for reducing VOC (i.e., EO) emissions for sterilization/fumigation facilities. The information in the document will allow planners to identify available control alternatives and evaluate the VOC reduction and cost of implementing controls. The document provides information on sterilization/fumigation processes, EO (ethylene oxide) emissions, and emission reductions, and cost associated with the application of control units. Section 2.0 presents a summary of the findings of the study. Section 3.0 provides a description of sterilization/fumigation facility operations and emission sources. Section 4.0 provides a description of alternative control techniques for the reduction of ethylene oxide emissions. Section 5.0 presents a cost analysis that includes a methodology for computing annualized equipment and operating costs. A list of contacts at various Federal agencies who are knowledgeable about sterilization/fumigation processes is presented in Appendix A.

  13. Fumigation of Alcohol in a Light Duty Automotive Diesel Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broukhiyan, E. M. H.; Lestz, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    A light-duty automotive Diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 35% and 50% of the total fuel energy respectively in order to determine the effect of alcohol fumigation on engine performance at various operating conditons. Engine fuel efficiency, emissions, smoke, and the occurrence of severe knock were the parameters used to evaluate performance. Raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract were screened for biological activity using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay. Results are given for a test matrix made up of twelve steady-state operating conditions. For all conditions except the 1/4 rack (light load) condition, modest thermal efficiency gains were noted upon ethanol fumigation. Methanol showed the same increase at 3/4 and full rack (high load) conditions. However, engine roughness or the occurrence of severe knock limited the maximum amount of alcohol that could be fumigated. Brake specific nitrogen oxide concentrations were found to decrease for all ethanol conditions tested. Oxides of nitrogen emissions, on a volume basis, decreased for all alcohol conditions tested. Based on the limited particulate data analyzed, it appears that ethanol fumigation, like methanol fumigation, while lowering the mass of particulated emitted, does enhance the biological activity of that particulate.

  14. Integrated Impacts of environmental factors on the degradation of fumigants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Yates, S. R.

    2007-12-01

    Volatilization of fumigants has been concerned as one of air pollution sources. Fumigants are used to control nematodes and soil-born pathogens for a pre-plant treatment to increase the production of high-cash crops. One of technologies to reduce the volatilization of fumigants to atmosphere is to enhance the degradation of fumigants in soil. Fumigant degradation is affected by environmental factors such as moisture content, temperature, initial concentration of injected fumigants, and soil properties. However, effects of each factor on the degradation were limitedly characterized and integrated Impacts from environmental factors has not been described yet. Degradation of 1,3- dichloropropene (1,3-D) was investigated in various condition of temperatures (20-60 °C), moisture contents (0 ¡V 30 %) and initial concentrations (0.6 ¡V 60 mg/kg) with Arlington sandy loam soil. Abiotic and biotic degradation processes were distinguished using two sterilization methods with HgCl2 and autoclave and impacts of environmental factors were separately assessed for abiotic and biotic degradations. Initially, degradation rates (k) of cis and trans 1,3-D isomers were estimated by first-order kinetics and modified depending on impacts from environmental factors. Arrhenius equation and Walker¡¦s equation which were conventionally used to describe temperature and moisture effects on degradation were assessed for integrated impacts from environmental factors and logarithmical correlation was observed between initial concentrations of applied fumigants and degradation rates. Understanding integrated impacts of environmental factors on degradation will help to design more effective emission reduction schemes in various conditions and provide more practical parameters for modeling simulations.

  15. Serum Brain Natriuretic Peptide Concentration 60 Days After Surgery as a Predictor of Long-Term Prognosis in Patients Implanted With a Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takuma; Seguchi, Osamu; Iwashima, Yoshio; Yanase, Masanobu; Nakajima, Seiko; Hieda, Michinari; Watanabe, Takuya; Sunami, Haruki; Murata, Yoshihiro; Hata, Hiroki; Fujita, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Nakatani, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support by a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is used to bridge patients with advanced heart failure to transplant or as a definitive treatment. We retrospectively sought predictors of long-term outcome in a cohort of 83 patients who had undergone LVAD treatment. We subjected perioperative clinical data of patients to statistical analysis to establish parameters associated with all-cause mortality, and the cutoff values, sensitivity, and specificity of those that had a statistically significant relation with survival. Mean follow-up was 717 days (standard deviation, 334 days; range, 17-1,592 days). Fourteen patients (16.8%) died, but nine (10.8%) were weaned from support. Serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration measured 60 days after implantation was significantly associated with all-cause mortality. The optimal BNP cutoff value to predict death during LVAD support was 322 pg/ml, with a sensitivity of 71.4% and specificity of 79.8%. Two-year survival was 92.0% in those with 60 days serum BNP concentration <322 pg/ml compared with 70.5% in those in whom it was ≥322 pg/ml (p = 0.003). The relation between BNP and survival likely reflects recovery of native myocardial function and improvements in global health and should assist clinicians in the on-going management of long-term LVAD therapy. PMID:26120957

  16. Serum Brain Natriuretic Peptide Concentration 60 Days After Surgery as a Predictor of Long-Term Prognosis in Patients Implanted With a Left Ventricular Assist Device

    PubMed Central

    Seguchi, Osamu; Iwashima, Yoshio; Yanase, Masanobu; Nakajima, Seiko; Hieda, Michinari; Watanabe, Takuya; Sunami, Haruki; Murata, Yoshihiro; Hata, Hiroki; Fujita, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Nakatani, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support by a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is used to bridge patients with advanced heart failure to transplant or as a definitive treatment. We retrospectively sought predictors of long-term outcome in a cohort of 83 patients who had undergone LVAD treatment. We subjected perioperative clinical data of patients to statistical analysis to establish parameters associated with all-cause mortality, and the cutoff values, sensitivity, and specificity of those that had a statistically significant relation with survival. Mean follow-up was 717 days (standard deviation, 334 days; range, 17–1,592 days). Fourteen patients (16.8%) died, but nine (10.8%) were weaned from support. Serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration measured 60 days after implantation was significantly associated with all-cause mortality. The optimal BNP cutoff value to predict death during LVAD support was 322 pg/ml, with a sensitivity of 71.4% and specificity of 79.8%. Two-year survival was 92.0% in those with 60 days serum BNP concentration <322 pg/ml compared with 70.5% in those in whom it was ≥322 pg/ml (p = 0.003). The relation between BNP and survival likely reflects recovery of native myocardial function and improvements in global health and should assist clinicians in the on-going management of long-term LVAD therapy. PMID:26120957

  17. Low-magnitude whole body vibration with resistive exercise as a countermeasure against cardiovascular deconditioning after 60 days of head-down bed rest.

    PubMed

    Coupé, Mickael; Yuan, Ming; Demiot, Claire; Bai, Yanqiang Q; Jiang, Shizhong Z; Li, Yongzhi Z; Arbeille, Philippe; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Levrard, Thibaud; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Li, Yinghui H

    2011-12-01

    Whole body vibration with resistive exercise is a promising countermeasure against some weightlessness-induced dysfunctions. Our objective was to study whether the combination of low-magnitude whole body vibration with a resistive exercise can prevent the cardiovascular deconditioning induced by a nonstrict 60-day head-down bed rest (Earth Star International Bed Rest Experiment Project). Fourteen healthy men participated in this study. We recorded electrocardiograms and blood pressure waves by means of a noninvasive beat-by-beat measurement system (Cardiospace, integrated by Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales and Astronaut Center of China) during an orthostatic test (20 min of 75-degree head-up tilt test) before and immediately after bed rest. We estimated heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, baroreflex sensitivity, and heart rate variability. Low-magnitude whole body vibration with resistive exercise prevented an increase of the sympathetic index (reflecting the sympathovagal balance of cardiac autonomic control) and limited the decrease of the spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity induced by 60 days of head-down bed rest. However, this countermeasure had very little effect on cardiac hemodynamics and did not improve the orthostatic tolerance. This combined countermeasure did not efficiently prevent orthostatic intolerance but prevents changes in the autonomic nervous system associated with cardiovascular deconditioning. The underlying mechanisms remain hypothetical but might involve cutaneous and muscular mechanoreceptors. PMID:21900640

  18. 60-Day Chronic Exposure to Low Concentrations of HgCl2 Impairs Sperm Quality: Hormonal Imbalance and Oxidative Stress as Potential Routes for Reproductive Dysfunction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Caroline S.; Torres, João Guilherme D.; Peçanha, Franck M.; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A.; Vassallo, Dalton V.; Salaices, Mercedes; Alonso, María J.; Wiggers, Giulia A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and bio-accumulative heavy metal of global concern. While good deals of research have been conducted on the toxic effects of mercury, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of male reproductive dysfunction induced by mercury. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects and underlying mechanisms of chronic mercury exposure at low levels on male reproductive system of rats. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups and treated for 60 days with saline (i.m., Control) and HgCl2 (i.m. 1st dose: 4.6 µg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07 µg/kg/day). We analyzed sperm parameters, hormonal levels and biomarkers of oxidative stress in testis, epididymis, prostate and vas deferens. Mercury treatment decreased daily sperm production, count and motility and increased head and tail morphologic abnormalities. Moreover, mercury treatment decreased luteinizing hormone levels, increased lipid peroxidation on testis and decreased antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase) on reproductive organs. Our data demonstrate that 60-day chronic exposure to low concentrations of HgCl2 impairs sperm quality and promotes hormonal imbalance. The raised oxidative stress seems to be a potential mechanism involved on male reproductive toxicity by mercury. PMID:25368988

  19. 60-Day chronic exposure to low concentrations of HgCl2 impairs sperm quality: hormonal imbalance and oxidative stress as potential routes for reproductive dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Caroline S; Torres, João Guilherme D; Peçanha, Franck M; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Vassallo, Dalton V; Salaices, Mercedes; Alonso, María J; Wiggers, Giulia A

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and bio-accumulative heavy metal of global concern. While good deals of research have been conducted on the toxic effects of mercury, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of male reproductive dysfunction induced by mercury. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects and underlying mechanisms of chronic mercury exposure at low levels on male reproductive system of rats. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups and treated for 60 days with saline (i.m., Control) and HgCl2 (i.m. 1st dose: 4.6 µg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07 µg/kg/day). We analyzed sperm parameters, hormonal levels and biomarkers of oxidative stress in testis, epididymis, prostate and vas deferens. Mercury treatment decreased daily sperm production, count and motility and increased head and tail morphologic abnormalities. Moreover, mercury treatment decreased luteinizing hormone levels, increased lipid peroxidation on testis and decreased antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase) on reproductive organs. Our data demonstrate that 60-day chronic exposure to low concentrations of HgCl2 impairs sperm quality and promotes hormonal imbalance. The raised oxidative stress seems to be a potential mechanism involved on male reproductive toxicity by mercury. PMID:25368988

  20. Mitigating iodomethane emissions and iodide residues in fumigated soils.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Richeng; Ashworth, Daniel J; Wu, Laosheng; Yates, Scott R

    2013-11-19

    Although long-regarded as an excellent soil fumigant for killing plant pests, methyl bromide (MeBr) was phased out in 2005 in the USA, because it can deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. Iodomethane (MeI) has been identified as an effective alternative to MeBr and is used in a number of countries for preplant pest control. However, MeI is highly volatile and potentially carcinogenic to humans if inhaled. In addition, iodide anions, a breakdown product of MeI, can build up in fumigated soils and potentially cause plant toxicity and contaminate groundwater via leaching. In order to overcome the above two obstacles in MeI application, a method is proposed to place reactive bags containing ammonium hydroxide solution (NH4OH) on the soil surface underneath an impermeable plastic film covering the fumigated area. Our research showed that using this approach, over 99% of the applied MeI was quantitatively transferred to iodide. Of all the resulting iodide, only 2.7% remained in the fumigated soil, and 97.3% was contained in the reactive bag that can be easily removed after fumigation. PMID:24151978

  1. Effects of phosphine fumigation on survivorship of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to regular and oxygenated phosphine fumigations at different temperatures to compare their susceptibilities to the two different fumigation methods and determine effective treatments in laboratory tests. LBAM eggs wer...

  2. Kinetic of NO2 uptake by Phleum pratense pollen: chemical and allergenic implications.

    PubMed

    Chassard, Guillaume; Choël, Marie; Gosselin, Sylvie; Vorng, Han; Petitprez, Denis; Shahali, Youcef; Tsicopoulos, Anne; Visez, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Phleum pratense pollen was exposed to NO(2) in a reactor allowing a continuous analysis of NO(2) concentration by FTIR. The uptake coefficient of NO(2) on pollen was calculated postulating a first order kinetic reaction and a value of (1.1 ± 0.1) x 10(-7) was determined. NO(2) uptake was faster when the pollen water content was increased and when the pollen was pre-treated with ozone. The effect of NO(2) exposure on pollen allergic properties was investigated by quantifying Th2- and Th1-associated chemokines in a model of human dendritic cells. Cellular analysis clearly showed that cells exposed to fumigated pollen favored the production of chemokines known to promote Th2-cell responses. Altogether these data demonstrate that NO(2) uptake by pollen directly correlates with increased Th2 response in human cells,and are in favor of the involvement of NO(2) pollution in the increase of allergic diseases. PMID:25463703

  3. 60 Days of Head-down Bedrest Differentially Alters Venous Function in Lower and Upper Body Between Healthy Men and Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westby, Christian M.; Platts, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of orthostatic intolerance after space flight is disproportionally higher in female compared to male crewmembers (83% vs. 20%). Experimental and human data suggest that the loss of orthostatic tolerance is due, at least in part, to microgravity-induced changes in venous compliance and that these changes are specific to the lower body. It is unknown however, whether the changes in venous compliance are different between males and females after space flight, and whether this is related to the disparity in orthostatic intolerance between the sexes. Using 6deg head-down bed rest (BR) as a model of space flight, we tested the following hypotheses; 1) females, compared to males, would experience a greater increase in venous compliance in dorsal foot veins as an effect of BR and 2) no differences in venous compliance would be found in dorsal hand veins between sexes and across BR days. Using 2-D ultrasound, dorsal hand (DHV) and foot vein (DFV) responses (diameter; expressed as sq mm) to 40 mmHg of congestion pressure (compliance) and to intravenous infusion of phenylephrine (PE; 3160ng/min) were determined in 10 females and 16 males before and after 60 days of BR. The relation between changes in vein diameter (in response to pressure and PE), sex, limb, and BR days were determined using a mixed-effect linear regression. It was found that after 60 days of BR, DFV dilator response to pressure was significantly greater in females and significantly less in males compared to pre-BR. As expected, there were no differences in DHV dilator response between sexes nor was there a significant difference between pre and post measures within groups. Notably, the venoconstrictor response to infusions of PE in the DHV and DFV where similar between sexes and across BR days. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that after 60 days of BR, dorsal foot veins are more compliant in women and less compliant in men. Moreover, the changes in lower body vein compliance in females do

  4. 46 CFR 147A.43 - Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants. 147A.43 Section 147A.43 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION Special Requirements for Flammable Fumigants § 147A.43 Other sources of ignition; flammable...

  5. Effect of application rate on fumigant degradation in five agricultural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumigants continue to be used in soil disinfestation for many high value crops. There is a significant knowledge gap on how fumigant concentration in soil impacts fumigant dissipation and determination of the most efficient rate. The aim of this study was to determine the degradation characteristics...

  6. Fumigant degradation as affected by different application rate in five soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fumigation is critical in controlling soil-borne pests and diseases and ensuring high yields for many crops. The excellent performance of the totally impermeable film (TIF) on fumigant emission control and pest control efficacy made it possible to use reduced fumigation rates under the tarp to ...

  7. Evaluation of TIF to reduce fumigant emissions and the potential to use reduced rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberry growers in California rely heavily on soil fumigation to assure profitable berries and high yields. However, the adverse impact on air quality from fumigant emissions threatens the availability of fumigants for agricultural use. The objective of this research was to determine the performa...

  8. The Effect of Ammonium Thiosulfate on Reducing Fumigant concenteration Under Tarp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface barriers, especially plastic films with low permeability (e.g., virtually impermeable film) are effective to reduce fumigant emissions by retaining fumigants under the tarp. Fumigants accumulated under the tarp, however, can be released into the air when the barrier is removed or planting ho...

  9. WHAT TO CONSIDER WHEN EMISSION REDUCTION IS REQUIRED FROM SOIL FUMIGATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emission is one of the key factors affecting fumigant use in California due to regulations. Many commodities depend on pre-plant soil fumigation to achieve profitable yield and healthy crops. The phase-out of methyl bromide as a broad-spectrum soil fumigant in pest control has placed formidable chal...

  10. Determining breakthrough of the soil fumigant chloropicrin from 120 mg XAD-4 sorbent tubes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emission to the atmosphere of soil fumigants such as chloropicrin represents a potentially important human exposure pathway. Commonly, determining the air concentration of fumigants is carried out by pumping air through sorbent tubes which chemically retain the fumigant. In order to obtain an ac...

  11. Emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin after soil fumigation under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fumigation is an important agronomic practice in the production of many high-value vegetable and fruit crops. The use of soil fumigant chemicals can lead to excessive atmospheric emissions and information is needed to develop best management practices so that use of soil fumigants does not har...

  12. 40 CFR 180.521 - Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fumigants for grain-mill machinery... Tolerances § 180.521 Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants may be safely used in or on grain-mill machinery in accordance with the following prescribed...

  13. 40 CFR 180.521 - Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fumigants for grain-mill machinery... Tolerances § 180.521 Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants may be safely used in or on grain-mill machinery in accordance with the following prescribed...

  14. Use of diphosphonates to correct disorders in calcium metabolism and mineral composition of bone tissue with 60-day hypokinesia in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morukov, B. V.; Zaychik, V. YE.; Ivanov, V. M.; Orlov, O. I.

    1988-01-01

    Compounds of the diphosphonate group suppress bone resorption and bone tissue metabolism, from which it was assumed that they can be used for the prevention of osteoporosis and disorders of calcium homeostasis in humans during space flight. Two compounds of this group were used for preventive purposes in 60 day hypokinesia in rats. The results showed that diphosphonates have a marked effect on calcium metabolism and the condition of the bone tissues under conditions of long term hypokinesia: they reduce the content of ionized calcium in blood, delay the loss of calcium and phosphorus by the bone tissue, and to a considerable degree prevent reduction of bone density. This confirms the possibility of using compounds of this group for correcting and preventing changes of bone tissue and mineral metabolism during long term hypokinesia.

  15. Effectiveness analysis of fumigation strategy in dengue disease prevention program (Case study: Jakarta province, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustine, D.; Mahatma, Y.; Aldila, D.

    2015-03-01

    Mathematical model of dengue disease with fumigation intervention for mosquito population will discussed in this article. Interaction between human and mosquitoes population will based on SIR-SI host-vector model. Side effect of fumigation where mosquito capable to developed a resistance to fumigation will be accommodated in to the model. Equilibrium points and basic reproductive ratio as the endemic criteria will be shown analytically. Some numerical results are shown to give a back up reasoning for analytical result. We conclude that resistance of mosquitoes to fumigation intervention play an important role in fumigation strategy.

  16. Transformation of two chlorinated fumigants by hydrogen sulfide species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chlorinated fumigants chloropicrin and 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) are extensively used to control soilborne pests. Transformation of these two pesticides by hydrogen sulfide species (H2S and HS-) was examined in well-defined anoxic aqueous solutions. Chloropicrin underwent an extremely rapid re...

  17. Improved retention of a soil fumigant during solid tarp application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field trial was conducted in Fort Pierce, Florida in cooperation with a commercial sod producer to investigate ways to improve the retention of soil fumigants during solid-tarp (broadcast) applications. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment was conducted examining the individual and combined effects o...

  18. Response of soil organisms to dimethyl disulfide fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After the commonly used soil fumigant methyl bromide (MeBr) was phased out in the United States, alternatives to MeBr such as dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) which is known to have broad pest control spectrum, is increasingly used. However, effectiveness of DMDS has been mainly investigated to study targe...

  19. Methods evaluated to minimize emissions from preplant soil fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing emissions from soil fumigation is required to comply with environmental regulations. Low emissions can be achieved through management of application methods such as deep injection and subsurface drip, physical barrier with plastic films, irrigation to form water seals or achieve relatively ...

  20. Improved soil fumigation by Telone C35 using carbonation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trial was conducted to investigate whether carbonating Telone C35 (1,3-dichloropropene with 35% chloropicrin) would improve the delivery of the fumigant to such an extent that the application rate could be decreased without sacrificing efficacy. The plastic films used were black virtually impe...

  1. FUMIGANT USE TRENDS IN CALIFORNIA - RESPONSE TO THE MEBR PHASEOUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pesticide Use Reporting (PUR) requirements in California allow tracking of the uses of methyl bromide (MeBr) and alternative fumigants during the phaseout. Use of MeBr declined gradually between 1991 and 1999, the first year of the phaseout. In 2000 and 2001, use dropped dramatically - the resul...

  2. Evaluation of two fumigants for rapid treatment of packaged seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commodity fumigation of packaged seed stocks prior to shipping is performed with the goals of both eliminating the risk of transporting live stored-product insect pests and other incidental species, and protecting these valuable commodities from insect feeding damage. To meet industry production go...

  3. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  4. Reactive films for mitigating methyl bromide emissions from fumigated soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions of methyl bromide (MeBr) from agricultural fumigation can lead to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, and so its use is being phased out. However, as MeBr is still widely used under Critical Use Exemptions, strategies are still required to control such emissions. In this work, nove...

  5. Structural fumigation efficacy against Tribolium castaneum in flour mills

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Structural fumigations of food processing plants to manage stored-product insects have been a major component of pest management programs, but limited information on field efficacy is available. Efficacy, based on pheromone trapping data, consists of initial reduction in captures after treatment and...

  6. Application techniques for maximizing pest control efficacy of soil fumigants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil-borne plant pathogens can cause devastating yield and economic losses for farmers. These types of plant diseases are difficult to control because of their association with roots and inaccessibility with common pest control strategies. Soil fumigation is one of the most effective techniques for...

  7. Mitigating iodomethane emissions and iodide residues in fumigated soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although long-regarded as an excellent soil fumigant for killing plant pests, methyl bromide (MeBr) was phased out in 2005 in the USA, because it can deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. Iodomethane (MeI) has been identified as an effective alternative to MeBr and is used in a number of countries ...

  8. Plastic Films for Soil Fumigation: Permeability and Emissions Reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fumigation is being increasingly regulated to protect human and environmental health. Current California regulations are based on field data and, in effect, assume that use of a standard polyethylene tarp does not reliably reduce emissions. Plastic tarps used to cover the soil surface during so...

  9. A 60-day probiotic protocol with Dietzia subsp. C79793-74 prevents development of Johne's disease parameters after in utero and/or neonatal MAP infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The research reported herein was designed to assess whether the bacterium, Dietzia subspecies C79793-74, used as a probiotic, could prevent development of parameters indicative of bovine paratuberculosis after potential in utero, birthing and neonatal (colostrum) exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Such exposure avenues are especially relevant for dairy farms practicing good management procedures since calves on these farms could be infected via dams that have yet to be identified as MAP-positive. Indeed, of 18 calves in the present study that became paratuberculosis parameter-positive, five had dams that were negative for all parameters pre-calving. Parameters used herein to define paratuberculosis status were serum ELISA, serum agar gel immunodiffusion, cultureable fecal MAP, histopathology at necropsy and clinical disease. Thirty-four newborn calves whose dams were paratuberculosis-positive were assigned to four different treatment groups. Ten were treated daily for 60 days with viable Dietzia added to their antibiotic-free milk feedings; none became positive for any parameter with age. In contrast, seven of eight calves that were not treated became positive for one or more paratuberculosis-associated parameter. Sixteen calves were treated with viable Dietzia for the first two days of life; eight were then not treated further, whereas the other eight were treated an additional 58 days with Dietzia added to tetracycline-fortified milk (Dietzia is sensitive to tetracycline). In these two groups, positivity developed in five of eight and six of eight, respectively. These results indicated that (a) a daily, 60-day treatment with viable Dietzia effectively prevented development of parameters indicative of paratuberculosis and (b) this treatment, in combination with good management practices, has the potential to eradicate MAP from animals/herds, which should curtail the spread of MAP. Such results should significantly reduce human

  10. Celebral, Splanchnic and Lower Limb Hemodynamic Response to LBNP after a 60 Day Bedrest With and Without Counter-Measures (WISE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbeille, P.; Kerbeci, P.; Mattar, L.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Hughson, R.

    2008-06-01

    Objective: quantified the impact of a 60-day head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) with countermeasures on the arterial response to LBNP. Method: 24 women (25-40y) divided into 3 groups [Control (Con), Exercise+LBNP (Ex-Lb) and Nutrition (Nut)] were studied during LBNP (0 to -45mmHg) pre and at HDBR day 55. A 10-min post- HDBR tilt test identified the finishers (F) or non-finishers (NF). Result: Left ventricle volume & myocardium, Portal flow were decreased from pre HDBR (p<0.05) in Con and Nut only. At post-HDBR LBNP: (1) HR increased more while Vao decreased more in all groups (2) Leg resistance increased less while the increase in MSNA was not different from pre HDBR in Con, Nut and NF (p<0.05) (3) both Femoral and Portal flow reduced less (less vasoconstriction) in 11 of 13 NF while in 10 of 11 F one of them at least reduced as pre HDBR (4) the [cerebral flow/(Fem + Portal flow)] ratio was higher or slightly reduced (<15%) in 10 of 11 F, but decreased >15% in 12 of 13 NF. Abnormal flow redistribution and orthostatic intolerance was partially prevented by Ex-LB.

  11. Trabecular and cortical bone density and architecture in women after 60 days of bed rest using high-resolution pQCT: WISE 2005.

    PubMed

    Armbrecht, Gabriele; Belavý, Daniel Ludovic; Backström, Magdalena; Beller, Gisela; Alexandre, Christian; Rizzoli, Rene; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2011-10-01

    Prolonged bed rest is used to simulate the effects of spaceflight and causes disuse-related loss of bone. While bone density changes during bed rest have been described, there are no data on changes in bone microstructure. Twenty-four healthy women aged 25 to 40 years participated in 60 days of strict 6-degree head-down tilt bed rest (WISE 2005). Subjects were assigned to either a control group (CON, n = 8), which performed no countermeasures; an exercise group (EXE, n = 8), which undertook a combination of resistive and endurance training; or a nutrition group (NUT, n = 8), which received a high-protein diet. Density and structural parameters of the distal tibia and radius were measured at baseline, during, and up to 1 year after bed rest by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). Bed rest was associated with reductions in all distal tibial density parameters (p < 0.001), whereas only distal radius trabecular density decreased. Trabecular separation increased at both the distal tibia and distal radius (p < 0.001), but these effects were first significant after bed rest. Reduction in trabecular number was similar in magnitude at the distal radius (p = 0.021) and distal tibia (p < 0.001). Cortical thickness decreased at the distal tibia only (p < 0.001). There were no significant effects on bone structure or density of the countermeasures (p ≥ 0.057). As measured with HR-pQCT, it is concluded that deterioration in bone microstructure and density occur in women during and after prolonged bed rest. The exercise and nutrition countermeasures were ineffective in preventing these changes. PMID:21812030

  12. Experimental Infection of Sheep at 45 and 60 Days of Gestation with Schmallenberg Virus Readily Led to Placental Colonization without Causing Congenital Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; De Regge, Nick; Cay, Brigitte; Saegerman, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background Main impact of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) on livestock consists in reproductive disorders, with teratogenic effects, abortions and stillbirths. SBV pathogenesis and viral placental crossing remain currently poorly understood. Therefore, we implemented an experimental infection of ewes, inoculated with SBV at 45 or 60 days of gestation (dg). Methodology “Mourerous” breed ewes were randomly separated in three groups: eight and nine ewes were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 ml of SBV infectious serum at 45 and 60 dg, respectively (G45 and G60). Six other ewes were inoculated subcutaneously with sterile phosphate buffer saline as control group. All SBV inoculated ewes showed RNAemia consistent with previously published studies, they seroconverted and no clinical sign was reported. Lambs were born at term via caesarian-section, and right after birth they were blood sampled and clinically examined. Then both lambs and ewes were euthanatized and necropsied. Principal Findings/Significance No lambs showed any malformation suggestive of SBV infection and none of them had RNAemia or anti-SBV antibodies prior to colostrum uptake. Positive SBV RNA detection in organs was rare in both G45 and G60 lambs (2/11 and 1/10, respectively). Nevertheless most of the lambs in G45 (9/11) and G60 (9/10) had at least one extraembryonic structure SBV positive by RTqPCR. The number of positive extraembryonic structures was significantly higher in G60 lambs. Time of inoculation (45 or 60 dg) had no impact on the placental colonization success rate but affected the frequency of detecting the virus in the offspring extraembryonic structures by the time of lambing. SBV readily colonized the placenta when ewes were infected at 45 or 60 dg but infection of the fetuses was limited and did not lead to congenital malformations. PMID:26418420

  13. Toxicity of phosphine fumigation against Bactrocera tau at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liu, Tao; Li, Baishu; Zhang, Fanhua; Dong, Shujun; Wang, Yuejin

    2014-04-01

    Bactrocera tau (Walker) is one of the most harmful pests to fruits and vegetables. To counteract this pest, the development of phytosanitary treatment is required to comply with the pest regulation requirements of certain countries. This study investigated the toxicity of phosphine fumigation against B. tau under low temperature conditions. Different growth stages (eggs and instars) of B. tau were exposed to 1.07 mg/liter phosphine for 1-10 d at 5 degrees C, and compared with unfumigated flies at 5 degrees C. The results showed that tolerance to cold treatment alone or phosphine fumigation at low temperatures generally increased with the stage of insect development. However, eggs incubated for 12 h at 25 degrees C represented the most tolerant growth stage to phosphine fumigation at 5 degrees C. Furthermore, 8.56- to 2.18-d exposure periods were required to achieve 99% mortality with a range of phosphine concentrations from 0.46 to 3.81 mg/liter. C0.62 t = k expression was obtained from the LT99 values, indicating that the exposure time was more important than the phosphine concentration. PMID:24772539

  14. In vivo studies on genotoxicity of a soil fumigant, dazomet.

    PubMed

    Peluso, M; Bolognesi, C; Munnia, A; Landini, E; Parodi, S

    1998-01-01

    Dazomet is a soil fumigant effective against germinating weed seeds, nematodes, soil fungi, and soil insects. Dazomet is primarily used for preplanting control in tobacco and forest nursery crops and is now marketed for a wider range of open field and greenhouse crops (e.g., vegetables, fruits, ornamental plants, lawns, and turfs). Swiss CD1 male and female mice were intraperitoneally treated with dazomet in order to evaluate its potential genotoxicity. DNA damage activity, namely, DNA single-strand breaks, DNA adducts, and increased micronuclei frequency due to treatment with the soil fumigant was observed in the experimental animals. Dose-dependent DNA adduct formation was detected in the liver, kidneys, and lungs of mice. DNA adduct levels in these three organs were 6.0 +/- 0.4 (SD), 4.8 +/- 0.1 (SD), and 2.2 +/- 0.4 (SD) adducts/10(8) nucleotides, respectively, at the highest dose of the soil fumigant tested (90 mg/kg). No adduct formation was observed in control mice. A significant increase in DNA single-strand breaks was detected in the liver and kidneys of mice treated with 100 mg/kg of dazomet (P < 0.05). A significant increase in micronuclei frequency was observed in the bone marrow of mice treated with 100 mg/kg of dazomet (P < 0.05). PMID:9776181

  15. Primary quantum yields of NO2 photodissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Edward P.; Sperry, Paul D.; Calvert, Jack G.

    1987-01-01

    The quantum yields of formation of NO, O2, and NO2 loss are measured for NO2 vapor at low pressures (0.13-0.30 torr) irradiated at 334-405 nm wavelengths and temperature in the range 273-370 K in order to study the primary quantum efficiencies of NO2 photodecomposition. The temperature and wavelength dependences of the primary quantum efficiencies are examined. It is observed that the primary quantum efficiencies increase rapidly from near zero at 424 nm to near unity for excitation at wavelengths less than 394 nm. The theory of Pitts et al. (1964) that the energy deficiency for photodissociation of NO2 excited at wavelengths greater than 397.9 nm is due to the rotational and vibrational energy of the NO2 molecules is confirmed by the data. Values for the primary quantum yields of NO2 photodecomposition as a function of wavelength are presented.

  16. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2012-06-01

    Low temperature regular phosphine fumigations under the normal oxygen level and oxygenated phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels were compared for efficacy against the aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature regular phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphid. However, a 3 d treatment with high phosphine concentrations of > or = 2,000 ppm was needed for complete control of the aphid. Oxygen greatly increased phosphine toxicity and significantly reduced both treatment time and phosphine concentration for control of N. ribisnigri. At 1,000 ppm phosphine, 72 h regular fumigations at 6 degrees C did not achieve 100% mortality of the aphid. The 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigation under 60% O2 killed all aphids in 30 h. Both a 72 h regular fumigation with 2,200 ppm phosphine and a 48 h oxygenated fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 were tested on romaine and head lettuce at 3 degrees C. Both treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. However, the 72 h regular fumigation resulted in significantly higher percentages of lettuce with injuries and significantly lower lettuce internal quality scores than the 48 h oxygenated phosphine fumigation. Although the oxygenated phosphine fumigation also caused injuries to some treated lettuce, lettuce quality remained very good and the treatment is not expected to have a significant impact on marketability of the lettuce. This study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation was more effective and less phytotoxic for controlling N. ribisnigri on harvested lettuce than regular phosphine fumigation and is promising for practical use. PMID:22812116

  17. Interaction between nitrification, denitrification and nitrous oxide production in fumigated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qiuxia; Mao, Liangang; Ma, Taotao; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2015-02-01

    Soil fumigation can increase mineral nitrogen due to the mineralization of soil microbial biomass killed during the fumigation, and as a result nitrous oxide (N2O) emission would increase. In addition, a fumigant's impact on soil nitrification and denitrification would also alter the dynamics of N2O production in fumigated soils. Laboratory incubation studies were conducted to quantify the dynamic changes in N2O production following various fumigant treatments, and to determine the interaction between nitrification, denitrification and N2O production in fumigated soils. Results showed a substantial increase in NH4+-N and dissolved amino acids (DAA) during 7 days fumigation at 1WAF (week after fumigation). The application of fumigants caused significant inhibition of nitrification. However the results relating to potential denitrification were quite different. The rates of potential denitrification in chloropicrin (Pic) and dazomet (DZ) treatments at 1WAF were 3.5 and 5.6 times higher than the untreated control. Potential denitrification was greatly stimulated after Pic and DZ fumigation. The N2O production rates in Pic and DZ fumigated soil were significantly higher than the untreated control at 1WAF in the tested soil type. The cumulative N2O emissions in Pic and DZ fumigated soil were also significantly higher than the untreated control, but there were no significant differences among 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and untreated control. A positive relationship between N2O production and potential denitrification (PDN) was observed (r = 0.951, P < 0.01). Pic and DZ are both nitrogenous compounds. The breakdown products of Pic and DZ would be available for microbial-aided denitrification reactions as nitrogen sources leading to N2O production, indicating that Pic and DZ degradation stimulated denitrification activity responsible for soil N2O production.

  18. Kinetics of soot oxidation by NO2

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Nguyen, Anh; Zheng, Zhongqing; Wu, Hao-Wei; Jung, Hee-Jung

    2010-06-15

    Modern technologies use NO2 to promote low temperature soot oxidation for diesel particulate filter regeneration. Most previous methods studied soot oxidation with NO2 using offline methods such as thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). In this study, the online aerosol-technique of high-temperature oxidation tandem differential mobility analysis (HTO-TDMA) is used to study kinetics of soot oxidation with NO2 under N2 environment. This method has significant advantages over previous offline methods in reducing heat and mass transfer diffusion limitations to the soot surface. Soot particles are exposed to varying temperature and NO2 concentration inside the furnace resulting from thermal decomposition of NO2 to NO. This causes soot oxidation rates to vary throughout the furnace. In this study, variations in temperatures, NO2 concentrations and particle residence times are thoroughly accounted for the first time, and soot oxidation rates are derived. Soot oxidation rate is calculated as a function of Arrhenius rate constant Asoot, activation energy Esoot, and partial pressure of NO2 PNO2 within the furnace at temperatures ranging 500- 950 C. Results suggest Asoot and Esoot values for soot oxidation with NO2 of 1.68 nm K-0.5 s-1 (Nm-2)-n and 46.5 kJ mol-1 respectively. The activation energy for soot oxidation with NO2 is significantly lower than oxidation with air. However, ppm levels of NO2 cause soot oxidation at low temperatures suggesting NO2 is a stronger oxidant than O2. This study also shows that a semi-empirical approach with just a few kinetic parameters could represent varying soot oxidation rates in a diesel engine cylinder or on a diesel particulate filter. Further studies should be directed towards understanding synergistic effects of other oxidants as O2 and H2O in addition to NO2 using the HTO-TDMA method.

  19. Effect of a 60-day oral gavage of a crude alkaloid extract from Chromolaena odorata leaves on hormonal and spermatogenic indices of male rats.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, Musa T

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of the crude alkaloids isolated from Chromolaena odorata leaves on the hormonal and spermatogenic indices of male rats. The alkaloids obtained from C odorata leaves using standard methods were administered to male rats for 60 days at the doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the alkaloid mixture produced 8 spots, 3 of which were alkaloids with R(f) values of 0.41, 0.49, and 0.55 as confirmed by the formation of orange color and creamy precipitates with both Dragendorff and Mayer reagents, respectively. The alkaloids were represented in the extract by a yield of 20.28 g, corresponding to a percentage yield of 90.05% of the total extract of 22.52 g. The final body weights of both the control and alkaloid-treated animals increased significantly (P < .05) compared with their respective body weights before treatment. The alkaloids significantly decreased (P < .05) the testes-body weight ratio; the concentrations of testicular total protein, glycogen, sialic acid, and cholesterol; and the activities of γ-glutamyl transferase, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase. The serum luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, as well as testicular and serum testosterone levels, also decreased significantly (P < .05). There were decreases in the sperm count, motility, and density, as well as morphological changes in the sperm cells. The pH and whitish-gray color of the semen were not significantly affected. All of the doses of the alkaloids increased the total mean number of sperm cell abnormalities, with the secondary type predominating over the primary sperm cell abnormality. The alterations in the levels of the hormones and secretory and synthetic constituents of the testes and the spermatotoxic effects by the alkaloids from C odorata leaves may be due to nonavailability or deprivation of testosterone to the target organ. This lack of testosterone may

  20. Revisiting satellite derived tropospheric NO2 trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Andreas; Hilboll, Andreas; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide levels can be used as tracer of anthropogenic pollution as NOx, the sum of NO and NO2, is released during fossil fuel combustion. With its short atmospheric lifetime, atmospheric NO2 can be easily linked to its sources. Using its structured absorption cross section in the blue spectral region, NO2 amounts can be derived from measurements of backscattered solar radiation with the help of Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy measurements. Satellite retrievals of tropospheric NO2 became possible with the launch of the GOME instrument in 1995, and since then a series of instruments including SCIAMACHY, GOME-2 and OMI provide spectral data which can be used to quantify NO2 columns in the troposphere. Using these observations, spatial distributions of NO2, its sources and transport pathways as well as temporal changes have been investigated over the last years. In particular the latter have shown remarkable atmospheric developments with large reductions of NO2 levels in many industrialised countries and dramatic increases in regions with growing economies, most notably in China but also in many other countries. In this study, recent trends of satellite derived NO2 columns are evaluated using data from all available instruments with a focus on the last years. Combination of data taken from the two GOME-2 instruments and OMI improves coverage and sensitivity, and also provides important constraints on the reliability of the satellite data set. As in previous studies, large changes in NO2 columns are found in many regions, in particular over China where after two years of stagnating NO2 levels an unexpected substantial reduction is observed for 2014.

  1. Surprises perilous: toxic health hazards for employees unloading fumigated shipping containers.

    PubMed

    Preisser, Alexandra M; Budnik, Lygia T; Hampel, Eva; Baur, Xaver

    2011-08-01

    The fumigation of freight containers to protect transported goods from fungal and pest infestation has increased worldwide in the last five years due to international regulations requiring fumigation or heat treatment of wooden packaging material and dunnage. We have found in 2008 that every sixth container and its contents do retain harmful concentrations of various fumigants and chemicals, representing a significant health risk for port and transport workers, customs officials, warehousemen, store employees and consumers. The shipping documents of these containers did not provide any information about the fumigation procedure or the used fumigant. We report here the cases of 26 patients introduced to our outpatient clinic with presumed intoxication to fumigants, or with symptoms due to inhaling the air out of fumigated containers. All patients were examined from 2007 to 2010 according to a standardized comprehensive diagnostic program. We were able to confirm the diagnosis based on typical symptoms and extensive clinical examination; by laboratory analysis we identified ethylene dichloride, methyl bromide, phosphine and methylene chloride. The predominant symptoms were headaches, concentration and memory problems, dizziness and nausea, irritation of the skin and mucous membranes and a reduced ability to do exercise. In addition to the neurological and neuropsychological impairments our analyses verified the development of reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) in 14 of 26 patients with long lasting symptoms due to their contact with fumigants. Intoxications with fumigants are serious and could be avoided. These systematical explored cases show the sustainable impact for health and socio-economic wellbeing. These findings also emphasize the necessity for international standards on permitted fumigants, appropriate labeling in the shipping documents and handling of fumigated containers. PMID:21636109

  2. Impact of NO2 Profile Shape in OMI Tropospheric NO2 Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamsal, Lok; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Pickering, K.; Schwartz, W. H.; Celarier, E. A.; Bucsela, E. J.; Gleason, J. F.; Philip, S.; Nowlan, C.; Martin, R. V.; Irie, H.; Knepp, T. R.; He, H.; Brent, L.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx NO + NO2) are key actors in air quality and climate change. Tropospheric NO2 columns from the nadir-viewing satellite sensors have been widely used to understand sources and chemistry of NOx. We have implemented several improvements to the operational algorithm developed at NASA GSFC and retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns. We present tropospheric NO2 validation studies of the new OMI Standard Product version 2.1 using ground-based and in-situ aircraft measurements. We show how vertical profile of scattering weight and a-priori NO2 profile shapes, which are taken from chemistry-transport models, affect air mass factor (AMF) and therefore tropospheric NO2 retrievals. Users can take advantage of scattering weights information that is made available in the operational NO2 product. Improved tropospheric NO2 data retrieved using thoroughly evaluated high spatial resolution NO2 profiles are helpful to test models.

  3. SOIL FUMIGATION WITHIN MONOCULTURE AND ROTATIONS: RESPONSE OF CORN AND MYCORRHIZAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The causative factors for corn (Zea mays L.) response to methyl bromide (CH,Br) fumigation, in the absence of known specific pathogens, are unknown. his study was conducted to determine if deleterious nonspecific rhizosphere microorganism are the causative agents. oil fumigation ...

  4. Fumigant emissions affected by bed design and other factors in fields tarped with low permeability films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raised-bed agricultural system is used for production of some annual high value fruit and vegetable crops such as strawberry in California and tomato in Florida. Fumigation is an important tool to control soil-borne disease in the raised-beds prior to planting. However, fumigant emissions have inevi...

  5. Emission and distribution of fumigants as affected by soil moistures in three different textured soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stringent environmental regulations are being developed to control the emission of soil fumigants to reduce air pollution. Water application is a low-cost strategy for fumigant emission control and applicable for a wide range of commodity groups, especially those with low profit margins. Although it...

  6. Effect of soil moisture on emission and behavior of fumigants in different textured soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stringent environmental regulations are being developed to control fumigant emissions and protect air quality in California. Water application is a low-cost strategy for fumigant emission control and applicable to a wide range of commodity groups especially for those with low-profit margins. Laborat...

  7. OPTIMIZING ANAEROBIC SOIL DISINFESTATION FOR NON-FUMIGATED STRAWBERRY PRODUCTION IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable financial resources are being invested in the search for chemical fumigant alternatives to methyl bromide (MeBr). However, current re-registration and regulation processes may severely limit the sustainability of fumigant-dependent production systems. Soilborne disease management withou...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF PRACTICES FOR MINIMIZING EMISSIONS FROM SOIL FUMIGATION USING FIELD PLOT TESTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emission reduction is essential to minimize the potentially negative impact on air quality from soil fumigation. To develop practices for minimizing emissions, studies were conducted using field plot tests following similar operation procedures as in growers’ fields. Fumigant emissions were measured...

  9. Comparison of using irrigation and organic amendment to reduce emissions from soil fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many perennial and annual crops require pre-plant soil fumigation to control soil pests for establishing healthy crops and profitable yields. Fumigant use, however, is highly regulated for minimizing emissions to improve air quality in California. To develop practical agricultural practices, we cond...

  10. Effect of Soil Moisture on Fumigant Emissions from a Loam Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions of soil fumigants must be minimized in order to protect air quality in California. Soil moisture is an important factor that can be managed at a relatively low cost prior to soil fumigation to reduce emissions. A previous study indicated that increasing soil water content up to field capac...

  11. Laboratory Assessment of Emission Reduction Strategies for the Agricultural Fumigants 1,3-Dichloropropene and Chloropicrin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the increased use of the agricultural fumigants 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP), it is important that strategies to reduce emissions of these fumigant from soil to the air are assessed to protect air quality. Using an established soil column approach, the following emission re...

  12. Soil biotic and abiotic responses to dimethyl disulfide spot drip fumigation in established grape vines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) is a soil fumigant used in agricultural systems as an alternative to methyl bromide (MeBr) for the control of soilborne pests and pathogens. However, fumigants including DMDS that have broad biocidal activity can affect both target and non-target organisms in soil. Many bio...

  13. Methods to facilitate the adoption of alternatives to methyl bromide soil fumigation by California strawberry growers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this project is to facilitate the adoption of strawberry production systems that do not use methyl bromide (MB). The five year project initially focused on fumigant alternatives to MB. The project has resulted in increased use of barrier films that reduce fumigant emission. The focus s...

  14. 46 CFR 147A.43 - Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fumigation, no person may use matches, smoking materials, fires, open flames, or any other source of ignition... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants. 147A.43 Section 147A.43 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS...

  15. 46 CFR 147A.43 - Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fumigation, no person may use matches, smoking materials, fires, open flames, or any other source of ignition... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants. 147A.43 Section 147A.43 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS...

  16. 46 CFR 147A.43 - Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... fumigation, no person may use matches, smoking materials, fires, open flames, or any other source of ignition... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants. 147A.43 Section 147A.43 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS...

  17. 46 CFR 147A.43 - Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fumigation, no person may use matches, smoking materials, fires, open flames, or any other source of ignition... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other sources of ignition; flammable fumigants. 147A.43 Section 147A.43 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS...

  18. Non-fumigant approaches for controlling Fusarium wilt and charcoal rot of strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilborne disease management without chemical fumigants is a major challenge for strawberry production in California. Current re-registrations and regulations are likely to intensify this obstacle by severely limiting availability of fumigants on a large percentage of strawberry acreage. Anaerobic s...

  19. Biochar Amendment to the Soil Surface Reduces Fumigant Emissions and Enhances Soil Microorganism Recovery.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guoqing; Ashworth, Daniel J; Gan, Jay; Yates, Scott R

    2016-02-01

    During soil fumigation, it is ideal to mitigate soil fumigant emissions, ensure pest control efficacy, and speed up the recovery of the soil microorganism population established postapplication. However, no current fumigant emission reduction strategy can meet all these requirements. In the present study, replicated soil columns were used to study the effect of biochar derived from rice husk (BR) and green waste (BG) applied to the soil surface on 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) emissions and soil gas distribution, and on microorganism population re-establishment. Relative to fumigated bare soil (no emission reduction strategy), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) treatments, BR gave dramatic emission reductions for both fumigants with no obvious emission peak, whereas BG was very effective only for 1,3-D. With BR application, the concentration of fumigant in the soil gas was higher than in the bare soil and ATS treatment. After the soil column experiment, mixing the BR with the fumigated soil resulted in higher soil respiration rates than were observed for HDPE and ATS treatments. Therefore, biochar amendment to the soil surface may be an effective strategy for fumigant emission reduction and the recovery of soil microorganism populations established postapplication. PMID:26726779

  20. Active solarization as a nonchemical alternative to soil fumigation for controlling pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deterioration of soil, water, and air resources by soil fumigants represents a serious threat to agricultural production in semiarid regions due to their high volatility and high emission rates. New pest control methods are needed that do not rely on fumigant chemicals. Soil heating via solarization...

  1. An improved method for determination of fumigant degradation half-life in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using the current approach, measurement of fumigant degradation half-lives under realistic soil conditions is problematic due to the large headspace that is necessary above the soil during incubation. This results in a poor degree of contact between the fumigant and the soil’s degrading surfaces; di...

  2. Water and Methyl-Isothiocyanate Distribution in Soil Following Drip Fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) generators, such as metam sodium (Met-Na), are used for soil fumigation of agricultural land. The ban on the fumigant methyl bromide (MBr) has resulted in greater use of MITC generators. In order to understand the efficacy of MITC, it is necessary to assess its generat...

  3. 40 CFR 180.521 - Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues. 180.521 Section 180.521 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.521 Fumigants...

  4. Use of soil fumigants and air quality issues in California, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many high value cash crops use soil fumigants for profitable production.The primary fumigants used in California are 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone®), chloropicrin, metam salts (sodium or potassium), and methyl bromide. Most of these toxic chemicals and their formulations are volatile compounds (VOCs),...

  5. 40 CFR 180.521 - Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues. 180.521 Section 180.521 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.521 Fumigants...

  6. Emission, pest control, and crop response in almond orchard soil fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many growers use soil fumigation to control plant-parasitic nematodes or diseases for successful orchard replanting. However, both high emission and poor efficacy with alternative fumigants to methyl bromide need to be addressed simultaneously. The objective of this research was to test if a commerc...

  7. 46 CFR 147A.31 - Removal of fumigation material and warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Removal of fumigation material and warning signs. 147A... material and warning signs. After ventilation is completed and a marine chemist or other qualified person... vessel, shall ensure that all warning signs are removed and fumigation containers and materials...

  8. Distribution, efficacy, and off-tarp emissions of carbonated fumigants in low permeability film tarped field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research in Florida indicated that carbonated fumigants can distribute more quickly and uniformly through soil which suggests that soil-borne disease control could be improved compared to conventional nitrogen pressurized fumigants. Tarping fields with totally impermeable film (TIF) may fur...

  9. Field testing of methyl bromide alternative fumigants for management of nematodes and grape replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preplant soil fumigation is a common practice to control plant parasitic nematodes to ensure uniform and healthy grapevine establishment in replant situations. An eight-year field study was conducted to evaluate a number of fumigation methods and rootstock effects on controlling soil pests and prod...

  10. Soil microbial community structure and target organisms under different fumigation treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several high-value crop producers in California rely heavily on soil fumigants to control key diseases, nematodes, weeds and volunteer crops. Fumigants with broad biocidal activity can affect both target and non-target soil organisms. The ability of non-target soil organisms to recover after fumigat...

  11. Emissions from soil fumigation in two raised bed production systems tarped with low permeability films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raised beds are used to produce some high-value annual fruit and vegetable crops such as strawberry in California (CA) and tomato in Florida (FL), USA. Fumigation is an important tool to control soil-borne pests in the raised beds before planting. However, fumigant emissions have detrimental environ...

  12. Ruby laser induced emission from NO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakala, D. F.; Reeves, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    Two different types of emission from excited NO2 were observed using pulsed ruby laser light at 6943 A. The first type of fluorescence was seen in the near IR and results from the single photon excitation of NO2 from the ground 2-A1 state. By observing the emission as a function of time an unexpected behavior was observed in the near IR and could be explained by a consecutive deactivation mechanism, wherein a secondary species is preferentially detected. A second type of emission recently observed in the blue spectral region is weaker and is due to a multiphoton process. The intensity of the blue emission is a function of the cube of the laser intensity at low pressures and approaches the square at high pressures. This variation is attributed to simultaneous deactivation of the excited NO2 intermediate by collision (square) and by anti-Stokes Raman scattering off of the excited NO2 (cube).

  13. Bacterial Oxidation of Methyl Bromide in Fumigated Agricultural Soils

    PubMed Central

    Miller, L. G.; Connell, T. L.; Guidetti, J. R.; Oremland, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The oxidation of [(sup14)C]methyl bromide ([(sup14)C]MeBr) to (sup14)CO(inf2) was measured in field experiments with soils collected from two strawberry plots fumigated with mixtures of MeBr and chloropicrin (CCl(inf3)NO(inf2)). Although these fumigants are considered potent biocides, we found that the highest rates of MeBr oxidation occurred 1 to 2 days after injection when the fields were tarped, rather than before or several days after injection. No oxidation of MeBr occurred in heat-killed soils, indicating that microbes were the causative agents of the oxidation. Degradation of MeBr by chemical and/or biological processes accounted for 20 to 50% of the loss of MeBr during fumigation, with evasion to the atmosphere inferred to comprise the remainder. In laboratory incubations, complete removal of [(sup14)C]MeBr occurred within a few days, with 47 to 67% of the added MeBr oxidized to (sup14)CO(inf2) and the remainder of counts associated with the solid phase. Chloropicrin inhibited the oxidation of MeBr, implying that use of this substance constrains the extent of microbial degradation of MeBr during fumigation. Oxidation was by direct bacterial attack of MeBr and not of methanol, a product of the chemical hydrolysis of MeBr. Neither nitrifying nor methane-oxidizing bacteria were sufficiently active in these soils to account for the observed oxidation of MeBr, nor could the microbial degradation of MeBr be linked to cooxidation with exogenously supplied electron donors. However, repeated addition of MeBr to live soils resulted in higher rates of its removal, suggesting that soil bacteria used MeBr as an electron donor for growth. To support this interpretation, we isolated a gram-negative, aerobic bacterium from these soils which grew with MeBr as a sole source of carbon and energy. PMID:16535728

  14. Bacterial oxidation of methyl bromide in fumigated agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Miller, L G; Connell, T L; Guidetti, J R; Oremland, R S

    1997-11-01

    The oxidation of [(sup14)C]methyl bromide ([(sup14)C]MeBr) to (sup14)CO(inf2) was measured in field experiments with soils collected from two strawberry plots fumigated with mixtures of MeBr and chloropicrin (CCl(inf3)NO(inf2)). Although these fumigants are considered potent biocides, we found that the highest rates of MeBr oxidation occurred 1 to 2 days after injection when the fields were tarped, rather than before or several days after injection. No oxidation of MeBr occurred in heat-killed soils, indicating that microbes were the causative agents of the oxidation. Degradation of MeBr by chemical and/or biological processes accounted for 20 to 50% of the loss of MeBr during fumigation, with evasion to the atmosphere inferred to comprise the remainder. In laboratory incubations, complete removal of [(sup14)C]MeBr occurred within a few days, with 47 to 67% of the added MeBr oxidized to (sup14)CO(inf2) and the remainder of counts associated with the solid phase. Chloropicrin inhibited the oxidation of MeBr, implying that use of this substance constrains the extent of microbial degradation of MeBr during fumigation. Oxidation was by direct bacterial attack of MeBr and not of methanol, a product of the chemical hydrolysis of MeBr. Neither nitrifying nor methane-oxidizing bacteria were sufficiently active in these soils to account for the observed oxidation of MeBr, nor could the microbial degradation of MeBr be linked to cooxidation with exogenously supplied electron donors. However, repeated addition of MeBr to live soils resulted in higher rates of its removal, suggesting that soil bacteria used MeBr as an electron donor for growth. To support this interpretation, we isolated a gram-negative, aerobic bacterium from these soils which grew with MeBr as a sole source of carbon and energy. PMID:16535728

  15. Coupling of soil solarization and reduced rate fumigation: Effects on methyl iodide emissions from raised beds under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using field plots, we studied the effect on methyl iodide (MeI) emissions of coupling soil solarization (passive and active) and reduced rate fumigation (70% of a standard fumigation) in raised beds under virtually impermeable film (VIF). The results showed that for the standard fumigation and the p...

  16. A standardized approach for estimating the permeability of plastic films to soil fumigants under various field and environmental conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minimizing atmospheric emissions of soil fumigants is critical for protecting human and environmental health. Covering the soil surface with a plastic tarp is a common approach to restrict fumigant emissions. The mass transfer of the fumigant vapors through the tarp is often the rate-limiting factor...

  17. Influence of fumigation with high concentrations of ozone gas on postharvest gray mold, quality, and fungicide residues on table grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To control postharvest decay table grapes are commercially fumigated with sulfur dioxide. We evaluated ozone (O3) fumigation with up to10,000 microl/l of ozone for up to 2 h to control postharvest gray mold of table grapes caused by Botrytis cinerea. Fumigation for 1 h with 2,500 or 5,000 microl/l o...

  18. Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengsha; Feng, Lifang; Jiang, Tianjia

    2014-04-15

    The effect of essential oil fumigation treatment on browning and postharvest quality of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was evaluated upon 16 days cold storage. Button mushrooms were fumigated with essential oils, including clove, cinnamaldehyde, and thyme. Changes in the browning index (BI), weight loss, firmness, percentage of open caps, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial activity and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) were measured. The results indicated that all essential oils could inhibit the senescence of mushrooms, and the most effective compound was cinnamaldehyde. Fumigation treatment with 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde decreased BI, delayed cap opening, reduced microorganism counts, promoted the accumulation of phenolics and ascorbic acid. In addition, 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde fumigation treatment inhibited the activities of PPO and POD, and increased PAL activity during the storage period. Thus, postharvest essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of button mushrooms. PMID:24295683

  19. Environmental Impacts from Pesticide Use: A Case Study of Soil Fumigation in Florida Tomato Production

    PubMed Central

    Sande, Doris; Mullen, Jeffrey; Wetzstein, Michael; Houston, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The search for alternative fumigants has been ongoing since the 1992 Parties of the Montreal Protocol classified methyl bromide as a Class I controlled substance with an ozone depletion potential (ODP) of 0.7 and destined it for phase-out. This paper focuses on the hazards from fumigants proposed as alternatives for pre-plant soil fumigation in tomato production. We use the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) developed by Kovach et al. to estimate the hazards from methyl bromide and the proposed alternative fumigants to workers, consumers, beneficial arthropods, birds, fish, and bees. Our findings indicate that iodomethane 98/2 has the lowest EIQ index value and field use rating, and is the alternative with the lowest relative risk. Among environmental categories, workers and beneficial arthropods experience the highest relative risks from the proposed tomato fumigants, and fish and consumers the least risks. PMID:22408594

  20. Modeling the transport of soil fumigants at field and laboratory scales

    SciTech Connect

    Jury, W.A.

    1995-12-31

    Soil fumigants have taken on increased importance in recent years because of concerns about their contribution to stratospheric ozone depletion. These concerns have heightened the need for transport models of fumigant movement and fate in soil, both for environmental impact assessment, and to study alternative management strategies. Because of their high vapor pressure and density, fumigants cannot simply be modeled by diffusion, except at low concentration. Pressure-driven mass flow and density effects must be taken into account as well. During the early stages of release, these latter two effects will be dominant. This paper will discuss the processes governing fumigant transport and volatilization in soil, and how fumigant fate is represented with simple and complex models. It will also provide some examples of modeling methyl bromide fate in soil and its loss to the atmosphere.

  1. NO2 photolysis frequencies in street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, P.; Garhammer, M.; Hess, M.; Roeth, E.-P.

    2010-08-01

    Photolysis frequencies for NO2 are modeled for the conditions in urban streets, which are taken into account as canyons with variable height and width. The effect of a street canyon is presented with absolute values and as a ratio RJ of the photolysis frequency within the street compared to that with free horizon. This allows further use of the existing photolysis parameterizations. Values are presented for variable solar elevation and azimuth angles, varying atmospheric conditions and different street properties. The NO2 photolysis frequency in a street depends strongly on the relative width of the street and its orientation towards the sun. Averaged over atmospheric conditions and street orientation, the NO2 photolysis frequency is reduced in comparison with the values for free horizon: to less than 20% for narrow skyscraper streets, to about 40% for typical urban streets, and only to about 80% for garden streets. A parameterization with the global solar irradiance is given for the averaged RJ values.

  2. Validation of SAGE II NO2 measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Zawodny, J. M.; Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Pommereau, J. P.; Goutail, F.

    1991-01-01

    The validity of NO2 measurements from the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment (SAGE) II is examined by comparing the data with climatological distributions of NO2 and by examining the consistency of the observations themselves. The precision at high altitudes is found to be 5 percent, which is also the case at specific low altitudes for certain latitudes where the mixing ratio is 4 ppbv, and the precision is 0.2 ppbv at low altitudes. The autocorrelation distance of the smoothed profile measurement noise is 3-5 km and 10 km for 1-km and 5-km smoothing, respectively. The SAGE II measurements agree with spectroscopic measurements to within 10 percent, and the SAGE measurements are about 20 percent smaller than average limb monitor measurements at the mixing ratio peak. SAGE I and SAGE II measurements are slightly different, but the difference is not attributed to changes in atmospheric NO2.

  3. Investigation of NO2 vertical distribution from satellite data by using two NO2 DOAS retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Lisa K.; Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    NO2 is an important indicator for air pollution from anthropogenic as well as natural sources. NOx emission sources and their horizontal distribution are well known from satellite measurements. In contrast, knowledge of the vertical NO2 distribution is only limited. To address this issue we developed a new NO2 differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) retrieval in the UV spectral range for satellite observations from the GOME-2 instrument on board EUMETSAT's MetOp-A satellite. This new UV NO2 retrieval is compared to a common NO2 retrieval in the visible spectral range. Here we show that by using retrievals in the UV and visible, sensitivity to the vertical distribution of NO2 can be achieved in satellite measurements. Box air mass factor calculations show that sensitivity below 9km is clearly higher in the visible spectral range whereas above 9km, the sensitivity is somewhat higher in the UV range. Due to the higher sensitivity of the visible spectral range closer to the ground, the NO2 slant columns derived from the visible spectral range are mostly higher than in the UV spectral range. Nevertheless, our new NO2 retrieval and the common NO2 retrieval from the visible spectral range show a similar horizontal distribution. In both spectral ranges, well known NO2 signals over highly polluted areas, e.g., China or biomass burning areas like Africa south of the equator can be observed. However in some areas, NO2 signals clearly visible in the visible spectral range cannot be detected in the UV spectral range, such as in Africa north of the equator over the biomass burning regions. From the differences in NO2 slant columns, we can gain insight into the vertical distribution of NO2. By using air mass factors, slant columns can be converted into vertical columns. For air mass factor calculations, an a priori NO2 profile is needed from model simulations, here the MACC2 interim reanalysis fields. If the model simulates the NO2 profile with correct height

  4. Contrast of local air-sea relationships between 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillations during May-September over the South China Sea and western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Kunhui; Wu, Renguang

    2015-12-01

    Present study compares local air-sea relationship of 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) over the South China Sea (SCS) and western North Pacific (WNP) during May through September for the period 1998-2010. It is shown that sea surface temperature (SST) has a larger intraseasonal variance in the North Indian Ocean, the SCS, and subtropical WNP on the 30-60-day time scale, but in tropical WNP on the 10-20-day time scale. The local correlation of SST with rain, surface shortwave radiation (SWR) and latent heat flux (LHF) displays a southwest-northeast tilted structure on the 10-20-day time scale, but a broad west-east pattern with a larger correlation on the 30-60-day time scale. The time of SST leading rain is larger in off-equatorial regions than in near-equatorial regions for both types of ISOs, whereas the time of rain leading SST is larger in near-equatorial regions than in off-equatorial regions. A similar feature is seen for SWR, but an opposite feature for LHF. The atmospheric ISOs induce intraseasonal SST variations through cloud-radiation and wind-evaporation changes. The intraseasonal SST variations feedback on the atmosphere through modulation of atmospheric stability over off-equatorial regions on both timescales. The SST impacts on the atmosphere appear larger on the 30-60-day time scale than on the 10-20-day time scale. The distinct spatial patterns of local air-sea relationship on the two types of ISOs are associated with different spatial structures in both atmospheric ISO-associated SWR and LHF anomalies and SST-induced atmospheric stability anomalies.

  5. [Ancient literature on the heat control of umbilicus fumigation method and the modern clinical research].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoning; Guo, Xin; Yu, Baoluo; Zhang, Na; Ma, Yuxia

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the clinical efficacy of the umbilicus fumigation method, the ancient literature with the heat control of umbilicus fumigation method involved is collected extensively and analyzed systematically, and the heat control, precautions and contraindications of this method are discussed. In association with the cases and the present clinical experience, the main factors to the heat control are introduced, such as preparation of doughnuts, filling quantity, size of moxa cone and numbers of moxa cones so that the clinical application of the umbilicus fumigation method can be promoted and enhanced. PMID:26946743

  6. Response of needle sulphur and nitrogen concentrations of Scots pine versus Norway spruce to SO2 and NO2.

    PubMed

    Manninen, S; Huttunen, S

    2000-03-01

    The results of two field studies and an open-top chamber fumigation experiment showed that the response of mature Scots pine to SO(2) and NO(2) differed from that of mature Norway spruce. Moreover, the response of pine seedlings to SO(2) and NO(2) differed from that of mature trees. The greater increase in the needle total S concentrations of pine suggested more abundant stomatal uptake of SO(2) compared to spruce. Both pine seedlings and mature trees also seemed to absorb more N from atmospheric deposition. Mature pine was able to assimilate SO(4)(2-) derived from SO(2) into organic S more effectively than mature spruce at the high S and N deposition sites, whereas both pine and spruce seedlings accumulated SO(4)-S under NO(2)+SO(2) exposure. Spruce, in turn, accumulated SO(4)-S even when well supplied with N. Net assimilation of SO(4)(2-) in conifer seedlings was enhanced markedly by elevated temperature. To protect the northern coniferous forests against the harmful effects of S and N deposition, it is recommended that the critical level for SO(2) as a growing season mean be set at 5-10 microg m(-3) and NO(2) at 10-15 microg m(-3), depending on the 'effective temperature sum' and/or whether SO(2) and NO(2) occur alone or in combination. PMID:15092988

  7. NO2 photolysis frequencies in street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, P.; Garhammer, M.; Hess, M.; Roeth, E.-P.

    2010-05-01

    Photolysis frequencies for NO2 are modeled for the conditions in urban streets, which are taken into account as canyons with variable height and width. The effect of a street canyon is presented with absolute values and as a ratio RJ of the photolysis frequency within the street against those with free horizon, which allows further use of the existing photolysis parameterizations. Values are presented for variable solar elevation and azimuth angles, varying atmospheric conditions and different street properties. The NO2 photolysis frequency in the street, averaged over atmospheric conditions and street orientation, is reduced to less than 20% for narrow streets, to about 40% for typical urban streets, and only to about 80% for garden streets, each with about ±5% uncertainty. A parameterization of RJ with the global solar irradiance is given for values that are averaged over the meteorological conditions and the street orientation.

  8. The reaction of OH with NO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonaitis, R.; Heicklen, J.

    1972-01-01

    NO2 was photolyzed with 2288A radiation at 300 and 423 K in the presence of H2O, CO, and in some cases excess He. The photolysis produces O(1D) atoms which react with H2O to give HO radicals or are deactivated by CO to O(3P) atoms. The ratio k sub 5/k sub 3 is temperature dependent, being 0.33 at 300 K and 0.60 at 423 K. From these two points the Arrhenius expression is estimated to be k sub 5/k sub 3 = 2.6 exp(-1200/RT) where R is in calories/mole - K. The OH radical is either removed by NO2 or reacts with CO.

  9. Prototype FAGE determination of NO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, L. A.; O'Brien, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    A low pressure laser-excited-fluorescence technique for the direct determination of atmospheric NO2 has been developed. Using a frequency-doubled Nd-YAG pump laser and a signal collection time of 20 s (10 s each signal and background), a detection limit of 450 pptv is calculated under laboratory conditions. Improved sensitivities will be possible with a higher repetition rate laser and lower fluorescence cell pressures.

  10. Quenching of the fluorescence of NO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braslavsky, S.; Heicklen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The fluorescence yield of NO2 was monitored at 25 C with incident wavelengths of 4047, 4358, and 4800A at fluorescence wavelengths of 4860, 5577, and 6300A. The NO2 pressure was varied between 0.004 and 0.080 torr. Measurements were taken both in the absence of foreign gases and in the presence of up to 30 torr. He, N2, and O2 at each NO2 pressure. In the absence of foreign gases, the self quenching follows a Stern-Volmer quenching mechanism, but foreign-gas quenching shows marked deviations from this mechanism. Both from lifetime and kinetic considerations, it is argued that the electronic state formed by absorption of the radiation cannot be the emitting state. Emission occurs from several vibrational levels of the emitting state, the various vibrational levels being formed by collisional cascade reactions. The appropriate quenching rate constant ratios were measured and tabulated. Even the two electronic state mechanism is insufficient to explain all the observations.

  11. Field Experience with Chlorine Dioxide Fumigation of a Hospital: Timeline and Lessons Learned

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine dioxide (Cl02) fumigation technology was developed and successfully used to remediate four large buildings contaminated with anthrax spores from 2001 through 2004. As a first application of the technology, those remediations were complex, costly and time consuming. There...

  12. Ethylene oxide emissions from commercial sterilization/fumigation operations: Background information for proposed standards. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Table of Contents: Ethylene Oxide Sterilization/Fumigation Processes and Emissions; Emission Control Techniques; Regulatory Alternatives; Environmental Impacts; Emission Control Costs, and The Economic Impacts of the Candidate Neshap Controls.

  13. Effects of sulfur dioxide fumigation on photosynthesis, respiration, and chlorophyll content of selected lichens

    SciTech Connect

    Beekley, P.K.; Hoffman, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    Four lichens - Parmelia bolliana Mull. Arg., Physcia stellaris (L.) Nyl., Xanthoria fallax (Hepp) Arn., and Physconia grisea (Lam.) Poelt - listed in order of decreasing mesophytism, were fumigated for 4 hr at 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 2.5 ppm sulfur dioxide to determine the effects on photosynthesis, respiration, and chlorophyll content. Photosynthesis decreased after fumigation at 1.0 and 2.5 ppm, but significant decreases occurred only after fumigation at 2.5 ppm. Expressed on the basis of per unit weight chlorophyll content, photosynthesis of Physconia grisea was most sensitive followed by that of Xanthoria fallax, Physcia stellaris and Parmelia bolliana. Expressed on the basis of per unit dry weight of lichen sample, photosynthesis of Physconia grisea was most sensitive followed by Xanthoria fallax, Physcia stellaris, and Parmelia bolliana. In both cases, the more xerophytic species were more sensitive. Chlorophyll content in these species was not measurably altered by fumigation. Comparison of chlorophyll a and b absorption spectra peaks for fumigated and control samples indicated that no phaeophytinisation occurred. Insignificant and inconsistent differences in chlorophyll a/b ratios were observed. Respiration of Physcia stellaris and Parmelia bolliana decreased significantly following fumigation with 2.5 ppm SO/sub 2/; both species were more sensitive than Xanthoria fallax. Physconia grisea was not tested for respiratory response. The effects of SO/sub 2/ fumigation on measured metabolic rates differed with the species. Photosynthetic rates of the xerophytic Xanthoria fallax and Physconia gresea were more sensitive than the more mesophytic Parmelia bolliana and Physcia stellaris. In contrast, respiratory sensitivities to SO/sub 2/ fumigation were greater for P. bolliana and P. stellaris.

  14. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs on lettuce.

    PubMed

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2014-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is a quarantined pest in most countries. Its establishment in California and potential spread to other parts of the state and beyond make it urgent to develop effective postharvest treatments to control the pest on fresh commodities. Fumigation with cylindered phosphine at low temperature has emerged to be a practical methyl bromide alternative treatment for postharvest pest control on fresh commodities. However, its use to control E. postvittana eggs on sensitive commodities such as lettuce is problematic. E. postvittana eggs are tolerant of phosphine and long phosphine treatment also injures lettuce. In the current study, E. postvittana eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigations to develop an effective treatment at a low storage temperature of 2 degrees C. In addition, soda lime as a CO2 absorbent was tested to determine its effects in reducing and preventing injuries to lettuce associated with phosphine fumigations. Three-day fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 achieved 100% mortality of E. postvittana eggs in small-scale laboratory tests. In the presence of the CO2 absorbent, a 3-d large-scale fumigation of lettuce with 1,700 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 resulted in a relative egg mortality of 99.96% without any negative effect on lettuce quality. The 3-d fumigation treatment without the CO2 absorbent, however, resulted in significant injuries to lettuce and consequential quality reductions. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation has the potential to control E. postvittana eggs and the CO2 absorbent has the potential to prevent injuries and quality reductions of lettuce associated with long-term oxygenated phosphine fumigation. PMID:25195424

  15. Sulfur Fumigation Processing of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs: Beneficial or Detrimental?

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Winnie Lai Ting; Ma, Bin; Lin, Ge

    2011-01-01

    Majority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs need to undergo post-harvesting processing to convert raw material into the form readily used for prescription. In general, processing procedures are either according to China Pharmacopeia or based on traditional methods. Recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used to replace traditional sun-drying for its pesticidal and anti-bacterial properties in a cheap and convenient manner. However, to date information on effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal safety and efficacy are limited. This article addresses potential destructive effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal efficacy and safety through reviewing currently available information. Since recently increased numbers of studies have demonstrated that sulfur fumigation-induced dramatic changes in chemical profiles of various sulfur-fumigated herbs, consequent alteration of efficacy, and/or potential incidence of toxicity are suspected. Therefore comprehensive investigations on effects of sulfur fumigation on toxicity, chemical profiles, pharmacokinetics, and bioactivities of TCM herbs are timely to provide scientific basis for standardization and regulation of this currently common but potentially harmful processing method. PMID:22207851

  16. Particle emissions, volatility, and toxicity from an ethanol fumigated compression ignition engine.

    PubMed

    Surawski, Nicholas C; Miljevic, Branka; Roberts, Boyd A; Modini, Robin L; Situ, Rong; Brown, Richard J; Bottle, Steven E; Ristovski, Zoran D

    2010-01-01

    Particle emissions, volatility, and the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated for a pre-Euro I compression ignition engine to study the potential health impacts of employing ethanol fumigation technology. Engine testing was performed in two separate experimental campaigns with most testing performed at intermediate speed with four different load settings and various ethanol substitutions. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was used to determine particle size distributions, a volatilization tandem differential mobility analyzer (V-TDMA) was used to explore particle volatility, and a new profluorescent nitroxide probe, BPEAnit, was used to investigate the potential toxicity of particles. The greatest particulate mass reduction was achieved with ethanol fumigation at full load, which contributed to the formation of a nucleation mode. Ethanol fumigation increased the volatility of particles by coating the particles with organic material or by making extra organic material available as an external mixture. In addition, the particle-related ROS concentrations increased with ethanol fumigation and were associated with the formation of a nucleation mode. The smaller particles, the increased volatility, and the increase in potential particle toxicity with ethanol fumigation may provide a substantial barrier for the uptake of fumigation technology using ethanol as a supplementary fuel. PMID:19994903

  17. Stimulation of nitrous oxide production resulted from soil fumigation with chloropicrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spokas, K.; Wang, D.

    Agricultural soils are a major source of the atmospheric greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2O). Agronomic practices such as tillage and fertilizer applications can significantly affect the production and consumption of N 2O because of alteration in soil physical, chemical, and biochemical activities. Soil fumigation is an agronomic practice used to control soil-borne disease pathogens, weeds, plant-parasitic nematodes, and fungi. The strong impact of fumigants on soil microorganisms can indirectly affect the production and/or consumption of N 2O and would potentially alter net emissions from agricultural soils. Laboratory incubation and field soil fumigation studies were conducted to determine the potential impact of soil fumigation on the dynamics of N 2O production. Laboratory soil incubations showed an eight-fold increase in the production rate of N 2O as a consequence of chloropicrin (CP) fumigation. This stimulation effect was confirmed by a seven-fold increase in N 2O emission rates in field plots following CP fumigation. The mechanism of N 2O production appeared to be microbial related; however, additional work is needed to fully elucidate the pathways.

  18. Metallurgical evaluation of FMPC Vessel No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bagnall, C.; Wise, W.N.

    1989-03-01

    A major purpose of this evaluation program was to accumulate information on the behavior and properties of a vessel at the Feed Materials Production Center, fabricated of Monel 400, after service exposure in a UF/sub 6/--UF/sub 4/ reduction tower. These data will then be used to aid in the formulation of an equation to predict remaining life for the vessels. In addition, data from this destructive evaluation will provide information on the reliability of the reaction vessel surveillance program currently in operation at FMPC. After 1400 h of operation, Vessel No. 2 was removed from service and assigned to this program for extensive study. The report describes an initial survey of the physical condition of the vessel, provides details of the sampling plan, and then proceeds to document information in the various areas of investigation. These include radiography, chemical analysis, and mechanical properties over a temperature range up to 1800/degree/F. Metallographic studies from six key locations of the reaction vessel were conducted; major weld areas and selected tensile specimens were also examined. The report continues with a summary of the findings and a discussion of key aspects in relation to pertinent literature. The final section of the report provides conclusions drawn from evaluation of Vessel No. 2, and sets forth recommendations related to fabrication and extension of its operating life. 12 refs., 43 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Kinetics of the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, S. P.; Peterson, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The flash photolysis/ultraviolet absorption technique was used to measure the rate constants for the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M over the pressure range 50-700 torr and temperature range 229-362 K using He, O2, and N2 as diluent gases. The data were fit to the expression derived by Troe (1979) and co-workers for describing the pressure and temperature dependence of reactions in the falloff region. By combining these data with recent measurements of the rate constant for HO2NO2 thermal decomposition values of 73.8 + or - 2 eu for the standard entropy and -12.6 + or - kcal/mol for the standard enthalpy of formation of HO2NO2 were obtained. A significant enhancement in the rate constant was observed when water vapor was added to the system.

  20. Coupling of soil solarization and reduced rate fumigation: effects on methyl iodide emissions from raised beds under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Daniel J; Yates, Scott R; Luo, Lifang; Lee, Sang R; Xuan, Richeng

    2013-12-26

    Using field plots, we studied the effect on methyl iodide (MeI) emissions of coupling soil solarization (passive and active) and reduced rate fumigation (70% of a standard fumigation) in raised beds under virtually impermeable film (VIF). The results showed that for the standard fumigation and the passive solarization + fumigation treatments, emissions from the nontarped furrow were very high (∼50%). Emissions from the bed top and sidewall of these treatments were relatively low but were increased in the latter due to the longer environmental exposure of the VIF covering with the coupled approach (increased tarp permeability). Overall, this approach offered no advantage over fumigation-only in terms of emission reduction. With active solarization + fumigation, the large application of hot water during solarization apparently led to severely limited diffusion causing very low total emissions (<1%). Although this suggests a benefit in terms of air quality, a lack of diffusion could limit the pesticidal efficacy of the treatment. PMID:24308342

  1. Profiling and characterization of volatile components from non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Flos Lonicerae Japonicae using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with chemical group separation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hao; Cao, Gang; Li, Li; Liu, Xiao; Ma, Xiao-Qing; Tu, Si-Cong; Lou, Ya-Jing; Qin, Kun-Ming; Li, Song-Lin; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ) is a popular herb used for many centuries in Traditional Chinese Medicine as a treatment of fever and inflammation. Non-fumigated processing of FLJ has been the traditional approach used in post-harvest preparation of the commodity for commercial use. However, in recent years, natural drying processing of FLJ has been replaced by sulfur-fumigation for efficiency and pest control. Sulfur-fumigation can induce changes in the volatile compounds of the herb, altering its medicinal properties. A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF/MS) method was established for the resolution and determination of volatile components in non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated FLJ. In this paper, analysis of the volatile oils in non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated (including lab-prepared sulfur-fumigated and industrial sulfur-fumigated) FLJ was performed using GC×GC-TOF/MS. Seventy-three representative volatile components were identified, including furans, alkalies, acids, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, terpenes, esters, and others, as the main components of FLJ volatile oils. The proposed method was successfully applied for rapid and accurate quality evaluation of FLJ and its related medicinal materials and preparations. PMID:23348991

  2. Effect of Fumigation on Rotylenchulus reniformis Population Density Through Subsurface Drip Irrigation Located Every Other Furrow

    PubMed Central

    Porter, D. O.; Archer, D.; Mullinix, B. G.

    2008-01-01

    Plots naturally infested with Rotylenchulus reniformis were sampled in the spring of 2006 and 2007 at depths of 15 and 30 cm in the bed, furrow over the drip tape, and “dry” furrow, and at approximately 40 to 45 cm depth in the bed and dry furrow. Then, 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone EC) was injected into the subsurface drip irrigation at 46 kg a.i./ha, and 3 to 4 weeks later the plots were resampled and assayed for nematodes. The transformed values for nematode population density (IvLRr) before fumigation were higher at 30 and 40 cm depths than at a 15 cm depth. IvLRr before fumigation was higher in the soil over the drip lines than in the bed or dry furrow and was higher in the bed than the dry furrow. IvLRr was higher in the plots to be fumigated than the plots that were not to be fumigated for all depths and locations except at a 15 cm depth over the drip lines, where the values were similar. However, after fumigation, IvLRr was lower over the drip lines at a 30 cm depth in plots that were fumigated compared to samples in a similar location and depth that were not fumigated. There were no other location/depth combinations where the fumigation reduced IvLRr below that in the nonfumigated plots. Yield in 2006, which was a very hot and dry year, was predicted adequately (R2 = 0.67) by a linear model based on the preplant population density of R. reniformis, with a very steep slope (-2.8 kg lint/ha per R. reniformis/100 cm3 soil). However, no relationship between nematode density and yield was seen in 2007, which had cooler weather for most of the season. Yield was not significantly improved by fumigation through the drip irrigation system in either year compared to plots treated only with aldicarb (0.84 kg a.i./ha), indicating that the level of control with fumigation did not kill enough R. reniformis to be successful. PMID:19440261

  3. Optoelectronic system for NO2 detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielecki, Zbigniew; Pregowski, Piotr; Wojtas, Jacek

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents application of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and Cavity Enhanced Spectroscopic (CEAS) techniques with blue laser diodes-based system for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) detection. CES technique bases on integration of the light from a resonator. Since the integrated intensity is proportional to the decay time, the experimental signal can be related to the absorption process. The minimum detectable concentration of the absorber for a specific transition is inversely proportional to the effective sample-path length, and directly proportional to the minimum intensity fluctuation detected by a receiving system. In the presented system, the blue laser diode was mounted in a temperature-controlled housing. The light transmitted through the cavity was focused onto a PMT of H5783-03 type. The detector signal enters a lock-in amplifier and next a computer with a 16-bit data acquisition board.

  4. Effect of application rate on fumigant degradation in five agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ruijun; Gao, Suduan; Ajwa, Husein; Hanson, Bradley D

    2016-01-15

    Soil fumigation is an important pest management tool for many high value crops. To address the knowledge gap of how fumigant concentration in soil impacts dissipation, and thereby efficacy, this research determined the degradation characteristics of four fumigants as affected by application rate. Laboratory incubation experiments were conducted to determine degradation rates of 1,3-dichloropropene (both cis- and trans isomers), chloropicrin (CP), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and methyl iodide (MeI) in five agricultural soils. Fitted to pseudo first-order kinetics, the degradation rate constant (k) of CP, DMDS, and MeI decreased significantly as application rate increased while the 1,3-D isomers were the least affected by rate. Half-lives increased 12, 17, and 6-fold for CP, DMDS, and MeI, respectively, from the lowest to the highest application rate. At low application rates, the degradation rate of all fumigants in the Hueneme sandy loam soil was reduced by 50-95% in sterilized soil compared to the biologically active controls. However, this difference became much smaller or disappeared at high application rates indicating that biodegradation dominates at low concentrations but chemical degradation is more important at high concentrations. When co-applied, CP degradation was enhanced with biodegradation remained above 50%, while 1,3-D degradation was either reduced or not changed. Among the fumigants tested, the relative importance of biodegradation was DMDS>CP>MeI>1,3-D. These results are useful for determining effective fumigation rates and for informing regulatory decisions on emission controls under different fumigation scenarios. PMID:26439645

  5. A method for measuring dermal exposure to solvents and fumigants

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a method for evaluating dermal exposure to deposits of volatile liquids. Telone II, a fumigant containing 1,3-dichloropropene (DCP), was used as an example. The approach included direct monitoring of dermal deposits and estimating the dermal absorbed dose. Charcoal cloth dermal dosimeters were developed for retaining the volatile deposits. Estimates are given for the retention efficiencies to be expected in various field conditions. The dermally absorbed dose is affected by the evaporation rate from the skin and by the percutaneous absorption rate (flux). Both factors were studied by the dermal dosing of ras with Telone, and monitoring evaporation and urine metabolites of cis-DCP. While relatively high flux values were calculated for rat and estimated for man, due to fast evaporation, the estimated absorbed fraction from a localized dermal deposit was less than 0.2%. Charcoal cloth dermal dosimeters and charcoal tubes were used in ten studies to monitor dermal and respiratory exposure of field applicators to Telone. The charcoal cloth dosimeter method is applicable for monitoring dermal exposure to other volatile chemicals also. However, evaluation of the exposure could be associated with relatively large variability, rendering the method semiquantitative.

  6. Efficiencies of free-air gas fumigation devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.; Hendrey, G.R.; Lewin, K.F.; Nagy, J.

    1992-03-01

    One of the key uncertainties relative to future increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} is the extent to which growth in future emissions will be accommodated by increased uptake by terrestrial vegetation, the so-called ``fertilization`` effect. Research on this issue is currently pursued by many research groups around the world, using various experimental protocols and devices. These range from leaf cuvettes to various types of enclosures and glass-houses to various types of open-field gas enrichment or fumigation systems. As research priorities move from crops to forests and natural ecosystems, these experimental devices tend to become large and enrichment gas (i.e., CO{sub 2}) requirements and costs become a major factor in experimental design. This paper considers the relative efficiencies of gas usage for different types of systems currently in use. One of these is the Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment System (FACE) designed and developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In this paper, we develop some nondimensional groups of parameters for the purpose of characterizing performance, i.e., enrichment gas usage. These nondimensional groups are then used as figures of merit and basically allow the required flow rates of CO{sub 2} to be predicted based on the geometry of the device, wind speed, and the incremental gas concentration desired. The parameters chosen to comprise a useful nondimensional group must not only have the correct dimensions, they must also represent an appropriate physical relationship.

  7. Efficiencies of free-air gas fumigation devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.; Hendrey, G.R.; Lewin, K.F.; Nagy, J.

    1992-03-01

    One of the key uncertainties relative to future increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} is the extent to which growth in future emissions will be accommodated by increased uptake by terrestrial vegetation, the so-called fertilization'' effect. Research on this issue is currently pursued by many research groups around the world, using various experimental protocols and devices. These range from leaf cuvettes to various types of enclosures and glass-houses to various types of open-field gas enrichment or fumigation systems. As research priorities move from crops to forests and natural ecosystems, these experimental devices tend to become large and enrichment gas (i.e., CO{sub 2}) requirements and costs become a major factor in experimental design. This paper considers the relative efficiencies of gas usage for different types of systems currently in use. One of these is the Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment System (FACE) designed and developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In this paper, we develop some nondimensional groups of parameters for the purpose of characterizing performance, i.e., enrichment gas usage. These nondimensional groups are then used as figures of merit and basically allow the required flow rates of CO{sub 2} to be predicted based on the geometry of the device, wind speed, and the incremental gas concentration desired. The parameters chosen to comprise a useful nondimensional group must not only have the correct dimensions, they must also represent an appropriate physical relationship.

  8. Bioreactors for removing methyl bromide following contained fumigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, L.G.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    Use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a quarantine, commodity, or structural fumigant is under scrutiny because its release to the atmosphere contributes to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. A closed-system bioreactor consisting of 0.5 L of a growing culture of a previously described bacterium, strain IMB-1, removed MeBr (> 110 ??mol L-1) from recirculating air. Strain IMB-1 grew slowly to high cell densities in the bioreactor using MeBr as its sole carbon and energy source. Bacterial oxidation of MeBr produced CO2 and hydrobromic acid (HBr), which required continuous neutralization with NaOH for the system to operate effectively. Strain IMB-1 was capable of sustained oxidation of large amounts of MeBr (170 mmol in 46 d). In an open-system bioreactor (10-L fermenter), strain IMB-1 oxidized a continuous supply of MeBr (220 ??mol L-1 in air). Growth was continuous, and 0.5 mol of MeBr was removed from the air supply in 14 d. The specific rate of MeBr oxidation was 7 ?? 10-16 mol cell-1 h-1. Bioreactors such as these can therefore be used to remove large quantities of contaminant MeBr, which opens the possibility of biodegradation as a practical means for its disposal.

  9. Assessment of Bacterial Communities and Predictive Functional Profiling in Soils Subjected to Short-Term Fumigation-Incubation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Luo, Yu; Xu, Jianming; Yu, Zhuyun; Zhang, Kaile; Brookes, Philip C

    2016-07-01

    Previous investigations observed that when soil was fumigated with ethanol-free CHCl3 for 24 h and then incubated under appropriate conditions, after the initial flush of CO2 was over, soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization continued at the same rate as in the non-fumigated soil. This indicates that, following fumigation, the much diminished microbial population still retained the same ability to mineralize SOC as the much larger non-fumigated population. We hypothesize that although fumigation drastically alters the soil bacterial community abundance, composition, and diversity, it has little influence on the bacterial C-metabolic functions. Here, we conducted a 30-day incubation experiment involving a grassland soil and an arable soil with and without CHCl3 fumigation. At days 0, 7, and 30 of the incubation, the bacterial abundances were determined by quantitative PCR, and the bacterial community composition and diversity were assessed via the 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. PICRUSt was used to predict the metagenome functional content from the sequence data. Fumigation considerably changed the composition and decreased the abundance and diversity of bacterial community at the end of incubation. At day 30, Firmicutes (mainly Bacilli) accounted for 70.9 and 94.6 % of the total sequences in the fumigated grassland and arable soil communities, respectively. The two fumigated soil communities exhibited large compositional and structural differences during incubation. The families Paenibacillaceae, Bacillaceae, and Symbiobacteriaceae dominated the bacterial community in the grassland soil, and Alicyclobacillaceae in the arable soil. Fumigation had little influence on the predicted abundances of KEGG orthologs (KOs) assigned to the metabolism of the main acid esters, saccharides, amino acids, and lipids in the grassland soil community. The saccharide-metabolizing KO abundances were decreased, but the acid ester- and fatty acid-metabolizing KO abundances were

  10. Responses of soil microeukaryotic communities to short-term fumigation-incubation revealed by MiSeq amplicon sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Xu, Jianming; Feng, Youzhi; Wang, Juntao; Yu, Yongjie; Brookes, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    In soil microbiology, there is a “paradox” of soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization, which is that even though chloroform fumigation destroys majority of the soil microbial biomass, SOC mineralization continues at the same rate as in the non-fumigated soil during the incubation period. Soil microeukaryotes as important SOC decomposers, however, their community-level responses to chloroform fumigation are not well understood. Using the 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we analyzed the composition, diversity, and C-metabolic functions of a grassland soil and an arable soil microeukaryotic community in response to fumigation followed by a 30-day incubation. The grassland and arable soil microeukaryotic communities were dominated by the fungal Ascomycota (80.5–93.1% of the fungal sequences), followed by the protistan Cercozoa and Apicomplexa. In the arable soil fungal community, the predominance of the class Sordariomycetes was replaced by the class Eurotiomycetes after fumigation at days 7 and 30 of the incubation. Fumigation changed the microeukaryotic α-diversity in the grassland soil at days 0 and 7, and β-diversity in the arable soil at days 7 and 30. Network analysis indicated that after fumigation fungi were important groups closely related to other taxa. Most phylotypes (especially Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Coccidia, and uncultured Chytridiomycota) were inhibited, and only a few were positively stimulated by fumigation. Despite the inhibited Sordariomycetes, the fumigated communities mainly consisted of Eurotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes (21.9 and 36.5% relative frequency, respectively), which are able to produce hydrolytic enzymes associated with SOC mineralization. Our study suggests that fumigation not only decreases biomass size, but modulates the composition and diversity of the soil microeukaryotic communities, which are capable of driving SOC mineralization by release of hydrolytic enzymes during short-term fumigation-incubation. PMID

  11. Study on effects of sulfur fumigation on chemical constituents of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Boju.

    PubMed

    Li, You-lian; Wang, Shan; Zhu, Jing-jing; Wang, Wei-hao; Xiang, Shi-xie; Feng, Wei-hong; Chen, Liang-mian; Wang, Zhi-min; Lu, Tu-lin

    2015-07-01

    A comprehensively comparison of the chemical profiles between sun-drying BJ (NBJ) and sulfur-fumigated BJ (SBJ) was conducted by HPLC analysis and the discrepant peaks were identified or tentatively assigned by HPLC-ESI-MSn. A total of 32 chemical components were used for qualitative comparison. Meanwhile, a quantitative comparison of BJwere conducted by HPLC analysis and determining seven compounds from 3 NBJ and 3 SBJ samples dramatic chemical changes were found. After sulfur fumigation, the contents of flavonoids glycosides and phenolic acids were remarkably reduced, but the contents of flavonoids aglycones were significantly increased. Multivariate statistics, including principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) were used to investigate the potential damaging effect of sulfur-fumigating process. The PCA score plots showed six samples were clearly classified into the sun-drying and sulfur-fumigating groups. And according to VIP >1, the most important chemical markers were apigenin, luteolin and 3,5-dicaffeoylquninic acid which could be used to distinguish NBJ and SBJ samples. Combining the results of qualitative and quantitative analysis, it showed that the sulfur fumigation has a significant effect on BJ. PMID:26697689

  12. Illness associated with exposure to methyl bromide-fumigated produce--California, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-07-15

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) is a toxic gas used to fumigate agricultural fields and some produce. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) requires MeBr fumigation of grapes imported from Chile to prevent invasion by the Chilean false red mite, Brevipalpus chilensis. In 2010, two workers were exposed intermittently to MeBr over several months as part of their job inspecting produce at a cold-storage facility in Carson, California. Both workers had disabling neurologic symptoms (e.g., ataxia, memory difficulties, and dizziness) and elevated serum bromide concentrations. An environmental investigation revealed the potential for MeBr to accumulate in enclosed areas during the transportation and storage of fumigated grapes. Some MeBr air concentrations measured at a single point in time exceeded current 8-hour exposure limits, suggesting that exposure in confined areas could result in poisoning. Possible measures for facilities managers to consider to reduce postfumigation MeBr exposures include 1) increased aeration time, 2) reduction of packaging that might absorb MeBr or limit aeration, and 3) changes in the stacking of pallets to improve air flow. Facilities should monitor air MeBr levels if they store MeBr-fumigated commodities in enclosed spaces entered by workers. Clinicians should consider occupational and environmental exposures in their differential diagnosis, and workers who might become exposed to fumigants should be informed of the health hazards related to these pesticides. PMID:21753746

  13. Nosocomial infections in ambulances and effectiveness of ambulance fumigation techniques in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alrazeeni, Daifallah; Al Sufi, Mohammed S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate infection control and the incidence of bacterial pathogens in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) ambulances in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The effectiveness of fumigation techniques used for these ambulances to minimize the spread of infection to transported patients and pre-hospital care providers was also assessed. Methods: Based on previous literature review indicating a higher propensity of microbial load, 3 areas within the ambulance, such as, stretcher handle, oxygen flow meter knob, and interior handle of the rear door were selected for specimen collection. Swab samples were collected both in the day and night shift, after the intended disinfection and cleaning (before and after fumigation). Micro-organisms were identified using standard procedures. This phase-I study was conducted at the Emergency Medical Services Department, Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz College of Emergency Medical Services, Al Malaz, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between October and November 2013, wherein a total of 10 ambulances from the Saudi Red Crescent Authority in Riyadh were selected for inclusion in the study. Results: The specimens from all 10 ambulances showed similar results. In post disinfection and before fumigation, swab samples showed positive cultures that grew moderate to large quantities of environmental and skin flora. However, almost all organisms were susceptible to the fumigation technique. Conclusion: This study confirms the importance of evaluating the frequency and efficiency of various fumigation techniques as an ambulance is a potential reservoir for microbial transmission to patients and staff. PMID:25399212

  14. Emissions of 1,3-Dichloropropene and Chloropicrin after Soil Fumigation under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Yates, Scott R; Ashworth, Daniel J; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Qiaoping; Knuteson, James; van Wessenbeeck, Ian J

    2015-06-10

    Soil fumigation is an important agronomic practice in the production of many high-value vegetable and fruit crops, but the use of chemical fumigants can lead to excessive atmospheric emissions. A large-scale (2.9 ha) field experiment was conducted to obtain volatilization and cumulative emission rates for two commonly used soil fumigants under typical agronomic practices: 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin. The aerodynamic method and the indirect back-calculation method using ISCST3 and CALPUFF dispersion models were used to estimate flux loss from the treated field. Over the course of the experiment, the daily peak volatilization rates ranged from 12 to 30 μg m(-2) s(-1) for 1,3-D and from 0.7 to 2.6 μg m(-2) s(-1) for chloropicrin. Depending on the method used for quantification, total emissions of 1,3-D and chloropicrin, respectively, ranged from 16 to 35% and from 0.3 to 1.3% of the applied fumigant. A soil incubation study showed that the low volatilization rates measured for chloropicrin were due to particularly high soil degradation rates observed at this field site. Understanding and quantifying fumigant emissions from agricultural soil will help in developing best management practices to reduce emission losses, reducing adverse impacts to human and ecosystem health, and providing inputs for conducting risk assessments. PMID:26001417

  15. Low temperature phosphine fumigation of pre-chilled iceberg lettuce under insulation cover for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumigation of chilled iceberg lettuce under an insulation cover was studied to develop economical alternatives to conduct low temperature phosphine fumigation for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on exported lettuce. Vacuum cooled commercial iceberg lettuce o...

  16. Distribution and chemical fate of 36Cl-chlorine dioxide gas during the fumigation of tomatoes and cantaloupe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution and chemical fate of 36Cl-ClO2 gas subsequent to fumigation of tomatoes or cantaloupe was investigated as was major factors that affect the formation of chloroxyanion byproducts. Approximately 22% of the generated 36Cl-ClO2 was present on fumigated tomatoes after a 2-hour exposure t...

  17. Pure phosphine fumigation treatment at low temperature for postharvest control of western flower thrips on lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. exported lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries often harbor western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), a quarantined pest in Taiwan, and therefore require quarantine treatment. Pure phosphine fumigation at a low temperature of 2°C was studied as an alternative fumigant to meth...

  18. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs on cut-flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana, eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2500 ppm ...

  19. Oxygenated Phosphine Fumigation for Control of Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Eggs on Cut-Flowers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2015-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments under 70% oxygen on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2,500 ppm phosphine for 72 h at 5°C. Egg mortality and postharvest quality of cut flowers were determined after fumigation. Egg mortalities of 99.7-100% were achieved among the cut flower species. The treatment was safe to all cut flowers except gerbera daisy. A 96-h fumigation treatment with 2,200 ppm phosphine of eggs on chrysanthemums cut flowers also did not achieve complete control of light brown apple moth eggs. A simulation of fumigation in hermetically sealed fumigation chambers with gerbera daisy showed significant accumulations of carbon dioxide and ethylene by the end of 72-h sealing. However, oxygenated phosphine fumigations with carbon dioxide and ethylene absorbents did not reduce the injury to gerbera daisy, indicating that it is likely that phosphine may directly cause the injury to gerbera daisy cut flowers. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation is effective against light brown apple moth eggs. However, it may not be able to achieve the probit9 quarantine level of control and the treatment was safe to most of the cut flower species. PMID:26470303

  20. Field Tests of Surface Seals and Soil Treatments to Reduce Fumigant Emissions from Shank-Injection of Telone C35

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Telone or 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) are increasingly used soil fumigants and their emission reductions are required to reduce contribution of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere and improve air-quality. Research has identified various methods to reduce fumigant emiss...

  1. Deep drip application and low permeability tarp on fumigant behavior in raised-bed systems for strawberry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High fumigant emission loss and insufficient pest control are often found in the raised-bed covered by polyethylene (PE) with shallow drip fumigation depth, which brings great challenges to strawberry growers. These dilemmas may be solved by tarping the beds with low permeability tarp such as totall...

  2. 78 FR 14508 - Notice of Affirmation of Addition of a Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Cottonseed AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... methyl bromide fumigation of cottonseed for the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp... Manual of the treatment described in the notice published at 77 FR 31564-31566 on May 29, 2012....

  3. Improving fumigation efficiency by increasing drip-tape number and using low permeability film in raised-bed production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drip fumigation is commonly used for controlling soilborne pests in raised-bed strawberry production systems in California. However, the high emission loss and poor pest control indicate that the current fumigation practice with two drip tapes and polyethylene film (PE) covering need to be improved....

  4. EMISSIONS OF 1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE AND CHLOROPICRIN FROM MANURE AMENDMENT AND POST-FUMIGATION WATER TREATMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minimizing fumigant emissions following field applications is required for achieving air quality standards. Application of organic materials (OM) to soil has been effective in reducing fumigant emissions during laboratory tests; but the potential to reduce emissions has not been evaluated consideri...

  5. Effects of Fumigant Nematicides on Yield and Quality of Paste Tomatoes Grown in Southwestern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, L. B.; Olthof, Th. H. A.; Potter, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    Field trials were conducted at the Delhi Research Station, Ontario, Canada, on a Fox loamy sand soil during 1987 and 1988 to evaluate the effects of row application of the fumigants Telone II, Telone C-17, Vorlex Plus, and Vorlex Plus CP on the yield and quality of paste tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Ferry Morse 6203). The four fumigants were equally effective in controlling the natural field populations of root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus penetrans Cobb). A significant reduction in marketable red fruit yield due to different nematode densities at time of transplanting was observed in 1988. Fumigation did not significantly affect the yield of nonmarketable fruit, the relative maturation rate, or the processing quality in either year. PMID:19283042

  6. Evaluation of non-fumigant alternatives to methyl bromide for weed control and crop yield in California strawberries (Fragaria ananassa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In California, USA, agricultural fumigant use regulations hinder the complete transition from methyl bromide (MB) to alternative fumigants. Alternative fumigants such as 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (Pic) are being used on approximately half of California conventional strawberry prod...

  7. Morphologic observations on respiratory tracts of chickens after hatchery infectious bronchitis vaccination and formaldehyde fumigation.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, A M; Soñez, M C; Plano, C M; von Lawzewitsch, I

    2000-01-01

    The histologic changes in the respiratory tracts of chickens were evaluated after hatchery fumigation with 40% formaldehyde vapors and vaccination against infectious bronchitis virus with live attenuated vaccine (Massachusetts serotype). One-day-old chickens were housed in four isolation units in controlled environmental conditions, fed and watered ad libitum, and separated into four groups: 1) fumigated and vaccinated birds (FV group); 2) nonfumigated and vaccinated birds (NFV group); 3) fumigated and nonvaccinated birds (FNV group); and 4) control group (C group). All birds were tested to be free from Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. After necropsy on the first, eighth, and twenty-sixth days after birth, samples from tracheal upper portion and lungs were conventionally processed for light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Tissue response was monitored by microscopic examination of trachea and lung. On the first day of observation, fumigated and vaccinated birds (FV group) showed extensively damaged tracheal epithelium with exfoliated areas and some active glands with electrodense granules, and in the lung, the primary bronchi epithelium had disorganized cilia and abundant lymphocytes, with emphysematous areas in tertiary bronchus. On day 8 after vaccination, cubical and cylindrical tracheal cell proliferation was observed, and on day 26, ciliated columnar epithelium was almost regenerated with heterophil corion infiltration, and hyaline cartilage nodules appeared in parabronchi. The nonfumigated and vaccinated birds (NFV) revealed less injury on the epithelial surface and a more rapid response to epithelial regeneration than the in only fumigated animals (FNV). The control group did not show remarkable morphologic changes. Postvaccinal and fumigation effects on the upper respiratory tract were temporary, whereas in lungs, increased emphysema, cartilage nodules in the interchange zone, and general lymphocyte infiltration had caused

  8. Field Observations of Increased Isoprene Emissions Under Ozone Fumigation: Implications for Tropospheric Chemistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, J. P.; Greenberg, J. P.; Harley, P. C.; Guenther, A. B.

    2003-12-01

    Isoprene is the most abundant biogenic hydrocarbon released from vegetation and plays a key role in the chemistry of the lower atmosphere. Isoprene is produced and emitted by many plant species, yet the reason plants produce this seemingly wasteful carbon compound is still in debate in the plant physiology community. It has been proposed that isoprene may protect plant leaves from thermal damage or damage from oxidant exposure by stabilizing cellular and chloroplast membranes or by direct reactions between exogenous isoprene and oxidative species. As part of the Chemical Emission, Loss, Transformation and Interactions within Canopies (CELTIC) study held at Duke Forest during the summer of 2003, we used dynamic cuvette systems to fumigate leaves of sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) with ozone at partial pressures ranging from 0 to 300 ppbv. During fumigations, the effluent air was monitored using infrared gas analysis, on-line proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography to quantify changes in partial pressure of CO2, water vapor, isoprene and other volatile organics. At fumigations above 100 ppbv ozone, leaf-isoprene emission increased 20-35% compared to pre-fumigation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported observation of increased isoprene emission under ozone fumigation. Over the timescale of our measurements (several hours), isoprene emissions, once elevated, did not decrease even after fumigation levels were reduced. The increase in isoprene emission could potentially be due to upregulation of the isoprene synthase gene or simply an increase in the production (or reallocation) of subcellular isoprene precursor species. However, our measurements did not elucidate or eliminate a particular mechanism. If increases in isoprene emission in response to ozone are common among isoprene emitting species, the feedback implications for the atmosphere could be large. Both a mechanistic understanding of the upregulation process and

  9. Proteomic analysis of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler responds to COS fumigation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Qu, Haixia; Zhan, Guoping; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin

    2010-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a new fumigant which has been a potential alternative to methyl bromide and phosphine in many applications. In this study, we investigated the fungitoxicity of COS towards the pathogen of pear black spot disease Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler (A. alternata). Moreover, proteomic analysis and RT-PCR was performed and our results showed that during the fumigation, the regulation of 21 proteins in protein expression and mRNA accumulation levels is involved, which respond to growth inhibition caused by COS. These results provide new clues for the mechanism of the fungitoxicity of COS. PMID:20036892

  10. The fumigant and repellent activity of aliphatic lactones against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Zygadlo, Julio; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Zerba, Eduardo; Faillaci, Silvina; Picollo, María Inés

    2006-02-01

    New alternative insecticides are necessary for the chemical control of head lice. In this study the fumigant knockdown time 50% (KT50) and repellency index (RI) of three aliphatic lactones was compared with two essential oils and DDVP, against permethrin-resistance Pediculus humanus capitis from Argentina. In the fumigant assay, none of the lactones were effective compared to the highest activity of eucalyptus (KT50 15.53 m). In the repellency test, the three lactones were equally or more effective (RI ranging from 60.50 to 76.68) than the positive control (piperonal). These lactones are promising as head lice repellents. PMID:16699710

  11. Comparative study on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng by ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Shen, Hong; Xu, Jun; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Wu, Jie; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Song-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Our previous study indicated that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng in post-harvest handling processes could induce chemical transformation of ginsenosides to generate multiple ginsenoside sulphur derivatives. In this study, the influence of sulphur-fumigation on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in ginseng was sequentially studied. The intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in rats after intra-gastric (i.g.) administration of sulphur-fumigated ginseng (SFG) and non-fumigated ginseng (NFG) were comparatively characterized by a newly established ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization negative (ESI-) mode. A novel strategy based on the characteristic product ions and fragmentation pathways of different types of aglycones (saponin skeletons) and glycosyl moieties was proposed and successfully applied to rapid structural identification of ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and relevant metabolites. In total, 18 ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and 26 ginsenoside sulphur derivative metabolites in the faeces together with six ginsenoside sulphur derivatives in the plasma were identified in the SFG-administrated group but not in the NFG-administrated group. The results clearly demonstrated that the intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng were quite different, which inspired that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng should not be recommended before the bioactivity and toxicity of the ginsenoside sulphur derivatives were systematically evaluated. PMID:24853104

  12. View southsouthwest of drydock no. 2 caisson with receiving ship ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south-southwest of drydock no. 2 caisson with receiving ship and ship FS 2 in background. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 2, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 7 CFR 51.562 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Grades § 51.562 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are reasonably well...

  14. 7 CFR 51.562 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Grades § 51.562 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics which are reasonably well...

  15. 15. Elevator no. 2: Scale floor above track shed, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Elevator no. 2: Scale floor above track shed, showing interlocking levers and beams, facing southeast - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  16. INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2, DRAWING ROOM, SHOWING A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2, DRAWING ROOM, SHOWING A FLOOR INDICATING FOURCAULT DRAWING MACHINE AND FURNACE. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  17. 13. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING EAST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING EAST FROM NORTHWEST CORNER OF RESERVOIR. POST OF ORIGINAL FENCE IS IN FOREGROUND - Portland Reservoir No. 2, 6007 Southeast Division Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  18. 9. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING CHAIN-LINK FENCE IN FOREGROUND AND FOUNDATION STRUCTURE IN THE MIDDLE OF RESERVOIR BASIN - Portland Reservoir No. 2, 6007 Southeast Division Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  19. 53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View towards northwest showing rear of Motor and Reduction Gear No. 2, installed in 1926. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER FURNACE NO. 2 SHOWING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER FURNACE NO. 2 SHOWING STEEL AND REFRACTORY BRICK SUPPORT SYSTEM. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  1. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF SLAVE QUARTERS No. 2 (right). Located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF SLAVE QUARTERS No. 2 (right). Located north of main house. The building at left is Slave Quarters No. 1 (HABS No. VA-1233 C) - Westend, Slave Quarters No. 2, Route 638 vicinity, Trevilians, Louisa County, VA

  2. 6. HOUSE NO. 2. DETAIL AT EAST END OF FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. HOUSE NO. 2. DETAIL AT EAST END OF FRONT SHOWING SIDING AND ROOF-WALL JUNCTURE DETAILS. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Holter Hydroelectric Facility, House No. 2, End of Holter Dam Road, Wolf Creek, Lewis and Clark County, MT

  3. Contextual view of quarters no. 2 quarters no. 1, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of quarters no. 2 quarters no. 1, and water tower, looking southwest. - Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Headquarters Complex, Quarters No. 2, 752 County Road 99W, Willows, Glenn County, CA

  4. Contextual photograph of quarters no. 2 and tower, looking southeasterly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual photograph of quarters no. 2 and tower, looking southeasterly from entrance road. - Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Headquarters Complex, Quarters No. 2, 752 County Road 99W, Willows, Glenn County, CA

  5. 2. GENERATOR BUILDING NO. 2, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERATOR BUILDING NO. 2, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Generator Building No. 1, South end of base, southwest of Generator Building No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  6. 1. GENERATOR BUILDING NO. 2, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERATOR BUILDING NO. 2, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING WEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Generator Building No. 2, Northeast of Generator Building No. 1, southwest of Administration Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  7. 1. GENERATOR BUILDING NO. 2, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERATOR BUILDING NO. 2, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Generator Building No. 1, South end of base, southwest of Generator Building No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  8. Alternative fumigants and grafting for tomato and double-cropped muskmelon production in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field trial was conducted at the USDA, ARS Farm in Fort Pierce, FL in a field infested with root-knot nematodes (RKN) (Meloidogyne incognita), soil-borne pathogens, and weeds. A split plot experiment with four replications was used to evaluate rootstock/scion combinations in fumigated and herbicid...

  9. WEED COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN TREE FRUIT NURSERIES TREATED WITH METHYL BROMIDE AND ALTERNATIVE FUMIGANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several agricultural cropping systems, for decades, have relied on methyl bromide (MeBr) for pest control including weeds. Alternative fumigants are being sought worldwide because MeBr has been identified as an ozone-layer depleting substance. Weed communities respond dynamically to alterations in...

  10. 78 FR 36507 - Notice of Availability of a Treatment Evaluation Document; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Blueberries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...We are advising the public that we have determined that it is necessary to immediately add to the Plant Protection and Quarantine Treatment Manual an additional treatment schedule for methyl bromide fumigation of blueberries for Mediterranean fruit fly and South American fruit fly. We have prepared a treatment evaluation document that describes the new treatment schedule and explains why we......

  11. LOW TEMPERATURE PHOSPHINE FUMIGATION FOR POSTHARVEST PEST CONTROL ON FRESH VEGETABLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. exported lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries often harbor western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), a quarantined pest in Taiwan, and therefore require quarantine treatment. Fumigation with pure phosphine at a low temperature of 2°C was studied to control western flower t...

  12. Postharvest fumigation of California table grapes with ozone to control Western black widow spider (Araneae: Theridiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of Western black widow spider (BWS), Latrodectus hesperus (Chamberlin and Ivie), in fresh table grapes destined for export from California USA. Mature adult female black widow spiders were contained in separate gas-permeable cages within a flo...

  13. PERENNIAL CROP NURSERIES TREATED WITH METHYL BROMIDE AND ALTERNATIVE FUMIGANTS: EFFECT ON WEED COMMUNITY COMPOSTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed communities can respond dynamically to shifts in management systems. Thus, transition from methyl bromide (MeBr) to alternative fumigants for pre-plant soil treatments may cause shifts in weed species composition. This hypothesis was tested in four perennial crop nurseries in California. The...

  14. Tractor-mounted, GPS-based spot fumigation system manages Prunus replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research goal was to use recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) and computer technology to apply just the right amount of fumigant where it is most needed (i.e., in a small target treatment zone in and around each tree replanting site) to control Prunus replant disease (PRD). We deve...

  15. Long Term Monitoring of Tribolium castaneum Populations in Two Flour Mills: Rebound After Fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Structural fumigations of food processing plants to manage stored-product insects has been a major component of pest management programs, but limited information on field efficacy is available. Efficacy, based on pheromone trapping data, consists of initial reduction in captures after treatment and ...

  16. Elm leaf beetle performance on ozone-fumigated elm. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, J.H.; Hall, R.W.; Townsend, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Leaves (1986) from elm hybrids ('Pioneer', 'Homestead', '970') previously fumigated in open-top chambers with ozone or with charcoal-filtered air (CFA) were evaluated for water and nitrogen content or were fed to adult elm leaf beetles (ELB), Xanthogaleruca = (Pyrrhalta) luteola (Muller), to determine host suitability for beetle fecundity and survivorship. ELB females fed ozone-fumigated leaves laid significantly fewer eggs than females fed CFA-fumigated leaves. Leaf nitrogen or water content was unaffected. Hybrid '970' (1988) was fumigated with CFA or with ozone concentrations to determine effects on ELB fecundity, leaf consumption, and survivorship. Significantly fewer eggs were laid at the higher concentration of ozone. Because higher levels of ozone are found in urban areas and because municipalities often replace American elms, Ulmus americana L., with Dutch elm disease-resistant elm hybrids that are susceptible to ELB defoliation, it is important to explore the relationships between ozone sensitivity of elm and susceptibility to ELB herbivory before recommending replacement use of these elms to municipal arborists. The study was conducted to determine whether ozone pollution influences host quality of elm for ELB and how ELB fecundity, leaf consumption rate, and survivorship are affected.

  17. Methyl bromide intoxication in four field-workers during removal of soil fumigation sheets.

    PubMed

    Herzstein, J; Cullen, M R

    1990-01-01

    Methyl bromide is a highly toxic and penetrating compound used extensively as an insecticide for dry foodstuffs and as a soil fumigant (in greenhouses and fields) for the control of nematodes, fungi, and weeds. More than 300 cases of systemic poisoning and 60 fatalities attributable to methyl bromide have been reported [Alexeeff and Kilgore, 1983], resulting in substantial regulations concerning its handling, storage, application, and disposal. A recent exposure incident at a Connecticut nursery represents to our knowledge the first report of toxicity stemming from exposures in the field during removal of plastic sheets days after injection of methyl bromide into soil. Following removal of polyethylene sheets covering soil fumigated with methyl bromide, four field-workers developed fatigue and light-headedness and 3 workers noted progressive respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), and neurologic symptoms. The acute systemic symptoms improved over several days, but later-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms persisted for several weeks. This incident stresses the need for improved worker education and strict adherence to safety precautions during all stages of methyl bromide fumigation and raises the possibility of an increased risk of toxicity associated with methyl bromide fumigation during a cool season. PMID:2305812

  18. FUMIGANT USE IN CALIFORNIA – RESPONSE TO THE PHASE-OUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pesticide Use Reporting (PUR) requirements in California allow tracking of the uses of methyl bromide (MeBr) and alternative fumigants during the MeBr phase-out. Use of MeBr declined gradually between 1991 and 1999, the first year of the phase-out. In 2000 and 2001, use dropped dramatically to b...

  19. Carbon tetrachloride/carbon disulfide exposures in grain fumigation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marano, D.E.; White, K.L.; Deer, H.; Alexander, G.

    1986-03-01

    The use of 80/20 compounds as liquid-fumigant mixtures in the grain-handling industry was considered. Worker exposures to carbon tetrachloride and carbon disulfide were measured at representative facilities throughout the industry. Work practices that may contribute to high exposure levels were cited. Approximately equal amounts of liquid fumigants and solid formulations of phosphine are used throughout the industry. As spraying is done on a sporadic basis, it does not appear likely to present a major problem such as might be encountered in continuous exposure situations. The authors conclude that grain workers do not appear to be an ideal study group for a neurotoxicity morbidity study due to the fact that the physical distance between study sites and the small number of workers at each site makes it difficult logistically. A concerted effort throughout the grain industry to educate those workers in the grain-handling portions of that industry toward the safe handling of fumigants should go far in alleviating any problems arising from exposure to fumigants.

  20. Potential of ozone as a fumigant to control pests in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) hives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone is a powerful oxidant that can be used as a sanitizer, capable of killing insects and germs, and eliminating odors, taste, and color. For these reasons, it could be useful as a fumigant to sanitize honey comb between uses. The ozone exposure levels required to kill an insect pest and spore for...

  1. The use of agricultural by-products to capture methyl bromide following post-harvest fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activated carbons were prepared from plum and peach stone as well as almond and walnut shell and comparatively evaluated as sorbents to minimize the atmospheric emission of methyl bromide following postharvest fumigations. A variety of methods were used to make the activated carbons and each is desc...

  2. Fumigant use and transition from methyl bromide to alternatives in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports fumigant use status and changes in response to the phase-out of methyl bromide (MeBr) and transition to alternative chemicals based on the 2010 Pesticide Use Reporting (PUR) database compiled by California Department of Pesticide Regulation. The data were analyzed from 2000 throug...

  3. Design, development and evaluation of a tree planting-site-specific fumigant applicator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this research was to use recent advances in the global positioning system (GPS) and computer technology to apply just the right amount of fumigant where it is most needed (i.e., tree-planting-site-specific application) to decrease the incidence of replant disease, and achieve the environ...

  4. Phase partitioning, retention kinetics, and leaching of fumigant methyl iodide in agricultural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although it is not currently being sold in the USA, the recent US registration of the fumigant methyl iodide has led to an increased interest in its environmental fate and transport. Although some work has now considered its volatile emissions from soil, there remains a lack of experimental data reg...

  5. 46 CFR 147A.23 - Person in charge of vessel; during fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... fumigant that is a danger to the health and safety of any person. (e) If the qualified person determines... danger to the health and safety of any person, the person in charge of the vessel shall take all measures that are, in his discretion, necessary to ensure health and safety of all persons who are on board...

  6. Mitigating 1,3-dichloropropene, chloropicrin, and methyl iodide emissions from fumigated soil with reactive film

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implicated as a stratospheric ozone-depleting compound, methyl bromide (MeBr) is being phased out despite being considered to be the most effective soil fumigant. Its alternatives, i.e., 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D, which includes cis- and trans- isomers), chloropicrin (CP) and methyl iodide (MeI), h...

  7. SOIL FUMIGATION WITHIN MONOCULTURE AND ROTATIONS: RESPONSE OF CORN AND MYCORRIHZAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The causative factors for corn (Zea mays L.) response to methyl bromide (CH3Br) fumigation, in the absence of known specific pathogens, are unknown. This study was conducted to determine if deleterious nonspecific rhizosphere microorganisms are the causative age...

  8. 77 FR 31564 - Notice of Availability of a Treatment Evaluation Document; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Cottonseed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Federal Register on April 6, 2012 (77 FR 20752-20756), EPA proposed to reinstate the tolerance of methyl...; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Cottonseed AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... add to the Plant Protection and Quarantine Treatment Manual a treatment schedule for methyl...

  9. Conversion of monogalactosyldiacylglycerols to triacylglycerols in ozone-fumigated spinach leaves. [Spinacia oleracea L

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaki, Takeshi; Saito, Kazuki; Kawaguchi, Akihiko; Kondo, Noriaki; Yamada, Mitsuhiro Keio Univ., Tokyo Univ. of Tokyo )

    1990-10-01

    Molecular species and fatty acid distribution of triacylglycerol (TG) accumulated in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves fumigated with ozone (0.5 microliter per liter) were compared with those of monogalactosyldiacylglyerol (MGDG). Analysis of positional distribution of the fatty acids in MGDG and the accumulated TG by the enzymatic digestion method showed that hexadecatrienoate (16:3) was restricted to sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone in both MGDG and TG, whereas {alpha}-linolenate (18:3) was preferentially located at sn-1 position in MGDG, and sn-1 and/or sn-3 positions in TG, suggesting that 1,2-diacylglycerol moieties of MGDG are the direct precursor of TG in ozone-fumigated leaves. Further analysis of TG molecular species by argentation chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that TG increased with ozone fumigation consisted of approximately an equal molar ratio of sn-1,3-18:3-2-16:3 and sn-1,2,3-18:3. Because the molecular species of MGDG in spinach leaves is composed of a similar molar ratio of sn-1-18:3-2-16:3 and sn-1,2-18:3, we conducted that MGDG was converted to 1,2-diacylglycerol and acylated with 18:3 to TG in ozone-fumigated spinach leaves.

  10. Fumigation with Phosphine for Postharvest Insect Control on Lettuce, Broccoli, and Strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. exported lettuce, broccoli, and strawberries often harbor western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), a quarantined pest in Taiwan, and therefore require quarantine treatment. Pure phosphine fumigation at a low temperature of 2°C was studied as an alternative to methyl bromide to contro...

  11. Minimize emission and improve efficacy with low permeability tarp in soil fumigation for perennials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California is a major productive region for tree fruits, tree nuts and grapes. Orchards and open-field nurseries of these crops rely on soil fumigation to control soil-borne pests or replanting diseases in order to establish vigorous, productive, and marketable trees....

  12. GROUND-LEVEL CONCENTRATIONS DUE TO FUMIGATION INTO AN ENTRAINING MIXED LAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory measurements on fumigation into a convectively mixed layer indicate how the near surface concentration behaves with time. For two categories of entrainment rate, slow and fast, the experiments indicate how the ensemble-averaged concentration near the surface reaches a ...

  13. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma risk and insecticide, fungicide and fumigant use in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Farming and pesticide use have previously been linked to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM). We evaluated agricultural use of specific insecticides, fungicides, and fumigants and risk of NHL and NHL-subtypes (including CLL an...

  14. Quantifying residues from postharvest fumigation of almonds and walnuts with propylene oxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel analytical approach, involving solvent extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) followed by gas chromatography (GC), was developed to quantify residues that result from the postharvest fumigation of almonds and walnuts with propylene oxide (PPO). Verification and quantification of PPO,...

  15. Deep drip fumigation in totally impermeable film tarped raised-beds production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tarping raised-beds with totally impermeable film (TIF) and applying fumigant to deeper depths may help strawberry growers to achieve pest control and emission reduction targets, but no field data are available to optimize these methods in the raised-bed production system. Under the support of Natio...

  16. Soil Fate of Agricultural Fumigants in Raised-Bed, Plastic-Mulch Crop Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil concentrations and degradation rates of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), chloropicrin (CP), 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) in the vapor and nonvapor phase were determined under fumigant application scenarios representative of commercial raised bed, plastic mulched veget...

  17. Effects of box liner perforation area on methyl bromide diffusion into table grape packages during fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plastic liners are used inside boxes of table grapes to retard moisture loss from the grapes and to contain sulfur dioxide gas released inside the packages to control postharvest decay. However, to control organisms of quarantine concern, regulators specify exported packages must be fumigated with m...

  18. Long Term Monitoring of Tribolium castaneum in Two Flour Mills: Seasonal Patterns and Impact of Fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from long-term Tribolium castaneum pheromone trapping programs in two flour mills was used to evaluate the impact of structural fumigations (n=23) on pest populations. The two mills differed in mean number of beetles captured and proportion of traps with captures of one or more beetles, but in...

  19. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated. 173.9 Section 173.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  20. Influence of fumigants on soil microbial diversity and survival of E. coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MeBr; CH3Br) and methyl iodide (MeI, iodomethane; CH3I) on the microbial community structure and diversity in two soils and determine the effects of microbial diversity on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7...

  1. Postharvest Control of Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructigena in Apples by Gamma Irradiation Combined with Fumigation.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Wonsu; Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Kim, Bong-Su; Lee, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-08-01

    To extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea, we evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation alone or gamma irradiation combined with fumigation on the control of postharvest decay caused by Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructigena. An irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy caused the maximal inhibition of B. cinerea and M. fructigena spore germination. The gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.76 and 0.78 kGy for B. cinerea and M. fructigena, respectively. Inhibition of conidial germination of both fungal pathogens occurred at a greater level at the doses of 0.2 to 1.0 kGy compared with the nontreated control; 0.2 kGy caused 90.5 and 73.9% inhibition of B. cinerea and M. fructigena, respectively. Treatment in vitro with the ecofriendly fumigant ethanedinitrile had a greater effect compared with the nontreated control. The in vitro antifungal effects of the gamma irradiation and fumigation treatments allowed us to further study the effects of the combined treatments. Interestingly, when irradiation was combined with fumigation, the percentage of disease inhibition increased more at lower (<0.4 kGy) than at higher doses of irradiation, suggesting that the combined treatments reduced the necessary irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing under storage conditions. PMID:27497129

  2. 40 CFR 1065.376 - Chiller NO2 penetration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chiller NO2 penetration. 1065.376... Chiller NO2 penetration. (a) Scope and frequency. If you use a chiller to dry a sample upstream of a NOX measurement instrument, but you don't use an NO2-to-NO converter upstream of the chiller, you must...

  3. 7 CFR 51.625 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.625 Section 51.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.625 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of grapefruit which meet the following requirements:...

  4. 7 CFR 51.625 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.625 Section 51.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Florida, California, and Arizona) Grades § 51.625 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of grapefruit...

  5. 7 CFR 51.625 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.625 Section 51.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.625 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of grapefruit which meet the following requirements:...

  6. 7 CFR 51.625 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.625 Section 51.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Florida, California, and Arizona) Grades § 51.625 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of grapefruit...

  7. 126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, FURNACE NO. 2, STOVES, POWER HOUSE, STACKS, FURNACE NO. 1 CAST SHED. FURNACE NO. 2 IS IN PROCESS OF RESTORATION. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. 7 CFR 51.341 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.341 Section 51.341 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Grades § 51.341 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of apples...

  9. 7 CFR 51.757 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.757 Section 51.757 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Grades § 51.757 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of...

  10. 7 CFR 51.562 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.562 Section 51.562 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Grades § 51.562 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of stalks of celery of...

  11. 7 CFR 51.625 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.625 Section 51.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.625 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of grapefruit which meet the following requirements:...

  12. 7 CFR 51.478 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.478 Section 51.478 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Grades § 51.478 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of cantaloups of...

  13. 7 CFR 51.686 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.686 Section 51.686 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing....686 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of oranges which meet the following requirements: (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.376 - Chiller NO2 penetration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chiller NO2 penetration. 1065.376... Chiller NO2 penetration. (a) Scope and frequency. If you use a chiller to dry a sample upstream of a NOX measurement instrument, but you don't use an NO2-to-NO converter upstream of the chiller, you must...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.376 - Chiller NO2 penetration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chiller NO2 penetration. 1065.376... Chiller NO2 penetration. (a) Scope and frequency. If you use a chiller to dry a sample upstream of a NOX measurement instrument, but you don't use an NO2-to-NO converter upstream of the chiller, you must...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.376 - Chiller NO2 penetration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chiller NO2 penetration. 1065.376... Chiller NO2 penetration. (a) Scope and frequency. If you use a chiller to dry a sample upstream of a NOX measurement instrument, but you don't use an NO2-to-NO converter upstream of the chiller, you must...

  17. 7 CFR 28.512 - Leaf Grade No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 2. 28.512 Section 28.512 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.512 Leaf Grade No. 2. Leaf grade No. 2 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1543 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.1543 Section 51.1543 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Grades § 51.1543 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of potatoes which...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1523 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.1523 Section 51.1523 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Grades § 51.1523 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1857 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.1857 Section 51.1857 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Grades § 51.1857 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of tomatoes which meet...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1213 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.1213 Section 51.1213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Peaches Grades § 51.1213 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of peaches of one...

  2. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  3. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  4. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  5. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  6. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  7. 7 CFR 28.502 - Color Grade No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color Grade No. 2. 28.502 Section 28.502 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... American Pima Cotton § 28.502 Color Grade No. 2. Color grade No. 2 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  8. 7 CFR 28.502 - Color Grade No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color Grade No. 2. 28.502 Section 28.502 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... American Pima Cotton § 28.502 Color Grade No. 2. Color grade No. 2 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  9. 7 CFR 28.502 - Color Grade No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color Grade No. 2. 28.502 Section 28.502 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... American Pima Cotton § 28.502 Color Grade No. 2. Color grade No. 2 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  10. 7 CFR 28.502 - Color Grade No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color Grade No. 2. 28.502 Section 28.502 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... American Pima Cotton § 28.502 Color Grade No. 2. Color grade No. 2 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  11. 7 CFR 28.502 - Color Grade No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color Grade No. 2. 28.502 Section 28.502 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... American Pima Cotton § 28.502 Color Grade No. 2. Color grade No. 2 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  12. Exposure of Brown Recluse and Brown Widow Spiders (Araneae: Sicariidae, Theridiidae) to a Commercial Sulfuryl Fluoride Fumigation.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Richard S; Hoddle, Mark S; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Thoms, Ellen

    2014-10-01

    The body of pesticide research on spiders is sparse with most studies using topical or residual applications to assess efficacy. Data on the effects of fumigation on spider survivorship are scarce in the scientific literature. In this study, we exposed adult male and female brown recluse spiders, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, and female brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, to a commercial fumigation event using sulfuryl fluoride directed at termite control. General consensus from the pest control industry is that fumigation is not always effective for control of spiders for a variety of reasons, including insufficient fumigant dosage, particularly, for contents of egg sacs that require a higher fumigant dosage for control. We demonstrated that a sulfuryl fluoride fumigation with an accumulated dosage of 162 oz-h per 1,000 ft(3) at 21°C over 25 h (≈1.7 × the drywood termite dosage) directed at termites was sufficient to kill adult brown recluse and brown widow spiders. The effectiveness of commercial fumigation practices to control spiders, and particularly their egg sacs, warrants further study. PMID:26309271

  13. Indoor winter fumigation with formic acid for control of Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae) and nosema disease, Nosema sp.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Robyn M; Currie, Robert W

    2009-10-01

    Indoor fumigation of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., with formic acid to control varroa mites, Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, allows simultaneous fumigation of multiple colonies with little labor input and good efficacy. Several experiments were designed to test the efficacy of formic acid as a treatment for honey bee mites, Acarapis woodi (Rennie) (Acari: Tarsonemidae), and nosema disease, Nosema sp., indoors in winter. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the efficacy of formic acid fumigation for honey bee mite control by using both the thoracic slice and live dissection methods and (2) to determine whether indoor fumigation can reliably prevent the buildup of nosema disease in overwintering honey bee colonies. Indoor winter fumigation of honey bee colonies with formic acid was effective in killing a high percentage of honey bee mites but did not significantly reduce the proportion of bees with infested tracheae over the duration of the experiments. Thus, the method used to determine the efficacy of the treatment affected the results. Under conditions of relatively low or decreasing levels of nosema, fumigation tended to suppress the mean abundance of nosema spores relative to the controls. In three separate fumigation experiments using a range of formic acid concentrations, there was no statistical difference between the buildup or maintenance of nosema spore mean abundance over the winter in bees from formic acid fumigated colonies compared with untreated controls. However, fumigation with formic acid during winter at a low concentration for extended periods significantly suppressed spore buildup of mixed populations of nosema (Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae) in 1 yr. PMID:19886435

  14. Efficacy of fumigation with Trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on embryonated egg shells.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Indu; Yin, Hsin-Bai; Nair, Meera S; Chen, Chi-Hung; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Darre, Michael J; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of two GRAS (generally regarded as safe)-status, plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs), namely trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EUG) applied as a fumigation treatment in reducing SE on embryonated egg shells. Egg shells of day-old embryonated eggs were spot inoculated with a 4-strain mixture of SE (∼6.5 log CFU/egg) and subjected to fumigation with the aforementioned PDAs (0 or 1% concentration) for 20 minutes in a hatching incubator. SE on the shell and embryo was enumerated on days 1, 3, 6, 9, 13, 16 and 18. On day 13, the eggs were re-inoculated, followed by fumigation treatment for 20 minutes. Since the two PDAs were dissolved in ethanol (final concentration 0.04%), eggs fumigated with ethanol were included as a control.Approximately 6 log CFU/egg of SE were recovered from the shell of untreated, inoculated eggs on days 1 and 13. The fumigation of embryonated egg shells with the two PDAs was more effective in reducing SE on the shell and embryo compared to controls (P < 0.05). On day 18, the eggs fumigated with ethanol were SE positive on the shell, whereas no pathogen was detected on eggs subjected to fumigation with TC and EUG. Similarly, although the embryos of eggs subjected to fumigation with ethanol yielded 1 log CFU/egg of SE on day 18, the embryos of TC and EUG treated eggs were devoid of the pathogen. This study demonstrated that TC and EUG dissolved in 0.04% ethanol could potentially be used as a fumigation treatment for reducing SE on embryonated egg shell, however, quality traits of eggs, including the hatchability need to be ascertained. PMID:26009758

  15. Primary NO 2 emissions and their role in the development of NO 2 concentrations in a traffic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anttila, Pia; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Niemi, Jarkko V.

    2011-02-01

    An assessment of the formation of NO 2 concentrations in heavily traffic-influenced environments in Helsinki, Finland was carried out. The proportion of primary NO 2 emissions from road traffic was estimated using a statistical model for the relationship between the mixing ratios of nitrogen oxides (NO + NO 2) and total oxidant (O 3 + NO 2) measured in 1994-2009. Based on this analysis, a quantitative estimate was derived for the relative importance of the primary NO 2 emissions, ambient NO-NO 2-O 3 equilibrium and background concentrations in the observed NO 2 concentrations. The proportion of primary NO 2 in the vehicular NO x emissions increased from below 10% in the 1990s to about 20% in 2009, with a more distinctive increase during the most recent years. This development was related to the changes in the proportion of diesel-powered passenger cars in Finland. Between 1994 and 2004, the photochemical NO-to-NO 2 conversion comprised on average 51% of the mean NO 2 concentration, while the primary NO 2 emissions contributed 31%. The role of the primary NO 2 emissions was limited by the steeply-decreasing total NO x emissions. More recent data (2005-2009) yielded higher primary NO 2 emission fractions (15 -21%), with a clearly increasing trend. As a result, the contribution of chemical conversion steadily decreased from 54% in 2005 to 43% in 2009, while that of the primary NO 2 emissions increased from 32 to 44%. In order not to exceed in future the annual limit of NO 2 concentration, set by the European Union, in the busiest street canyons in downtown Helsinki, the primary NO 2 emissions need to be addressed alongside the total NO x emissions.

  16. Preliminary Validations of the OMI NO2 Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celarier, E. A.; Brinksma, E.; Bucsela, E. J.; Veefkind, J. P.; Gleason, J. F.; Boersma, F. K.; Cede, A.; Ionov, D.; Goutail, F.; Bojkov, B.; Lambert, J.; Wenig, M. O.

    2006-12-01

    The OMI nitrogen dioxide (NO2) product is derived from the hyperspectral measurement of the Earth's spectral albedo in the range 415 - 465 nm. Processing data collected over a 24 hour period allows the construction of an"unpolluted" NO2 field, which approximates well the stratospheric and upper tropospheric components of NO2, which in turn allows both the identification of significant enhancements of tropospheric NO2 and a more accurate retrieval where they exist. The processed data are available from the NASA Goddard DAAC. A small number of field campaigns have been undertaken in which ground- and aircraft-based measurements of atmospheric NO2 have been made, coincident with OMI measurements. These include the INTEX-B campaign, the Dandelions campaigns, and some ongoing measurements made using a Brewer spectrophotometer, SAOZ, and a network of DOAS instruments deployed in various locations, from pole to pole, around the world. Some instruments are more sensitive to the tropospheric NO2, some to the stratospheric NO2, and some give accurate measurements of the total column NO2. This should allow the validation of the stratospheric/tropospheric separation process used in the retrieval algorithm. In addition, the retrieval algorithm rests on a set of climatological NO2 profiles. In-situ NOx measurements made during the INTEX-B campaign have been used to validate the assumed climatological profiles. In this poster we review the state of OMI NO2 validation efforts to date.

  17. A comparison of the decomposition of electronically excited nitro-containing molecules with energetic moieties C-NO2, N-NO2, and O-NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atanu; Guo, Yuanqing; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition of electronically excited nitro-containing molecules with different X-NO2 (X = C, N, O) moieties has been intensively investigated over the past decades; however, their decomposition behavior has not previously been compared and contrasted. Comparison of their unimolecular decomposition behavior is important for the understanding of the reactivity differences among electronically excited nitro-containing molecules with different X-NO2 (X = C, N, O) bond connections. Nitromethane (NM), dimethylnitramine (DMNA), and isopropylnitrate (IPN) are used as model molecules for C-NO2, N-NO2, and O-NO2 active moieties, respectively. Ultraviolet lasers at different wavelengths, such as 226, 236, and 193 nm, have been employed to prepare the excited states of these molecules. The decomposition products are then detected by resonance enhanced two photon ionization (R2PI), laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques, or single photon ionization at 10.5 eV. NO molecules are observed to be the major decomposition product from electronically excited NM, DMNA, IPN using R2PI techniques. The NO products from decomposition of electronically excited (226 and 236 nm) NM and IPN display similar rotational (600 K) and vibrational distributions [both (0-0) and (0-1) bands of the NO molecule are observed]. The NO product from DMNA shows rotational (120 K) and vibrational distributions (only (0-0) transition is observed) colder than those of NM and IPN. At the 193 nm excitation, electronically excited NO2 products are observed from NM and IPN via fluorescence detection, while no electronically excited NO2 products are observed from DMNA. Additionally, the OH radical is observed as a minor dissociation product from all three compounds. The major decomposition pathway of electronically excited NM and IPN involves fission of the X-NO2 bond to form electronically excited NO2 product, which further dissociates to generate NO. The production of NO molecules from electronically excited

  18. Laboratory research on the efficacy of chlorine dioxide fumigation for the remediation of mold-contaminated buildings--conference paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to determine the efficacy ofCl02 fumigation to inactivate viable mold, mycotoxins, and allergens on building materials. Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus Jumigatus, Chaetomium globosum, and Stachybotrys chartarum were indivi...

  19. Variation of stratospheric NO2 during the solar eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elansky, Nikolay F.; Elokhov, Alexander S.

    1994-01-01

    The numerical modeling of the changes of the concentration of trace gases in the atmosphere during the eclipse shows that the NO2 total content in the vertical column increases approximately by 80 percent. The first observations of the NO2 total content during the eclipse of 1981 have given 60 plus or minus 20 percent. In the observations of 1990 the more precise methods and instruments for stratospheric NO2 measurements were used. The surface ozone, NO, and NO2 concentrations were under control. The results of the observations give the increasing of the stratospheric NO2 during the eclipse by 55 plus or minus 6 percent. The maximum increasing of the NO2 content is observed at the moment of the maximum phase.

  20. 7 CFR 51.1002 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.1002 Section 51.1002 Agriculture... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Grades § 51.1002 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of Persian limes... green color characteristic of the Persian lime: Provided, That lots of limes which fail to meet the...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2077 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2. 51.2077 Section 51.2077 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Grades § 51.2077 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of almonds in the shell which meet the requirements of U.S. No. 1 grade, except that an additional tolerance...

  2. Evaluation of OMI operational standard NO2 column retrievals using in situ and surface-based NO2 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamsal, L. N.; Krotkov, N. A.; Celarier, E. A.; Swartz, W. H.; Pickering, K. E.; Bucsela, E. J.; Martin, R. V.; Philip, S.; Irie, H.; Cede, A.; Herman, J.; Weinheimer, A.; Szykman, J. J.; Knepp, T. N.

    2014-06-01

    We assess the standard operational nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data product (OMNO2, version 2.1) retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard NASA's Aura satellite using a combination of aircraft and surface in situ measurements as well as ground-based column measurements at several locations and a bottom-up NOx emission inventory over the continental US. Despite considerable sampling differences, NO2 vertical column densities from OMI are modestly correlated (r = 0.3-0.8) with in situ measurements of tropospheric NO2 from aircraft, ground-based observations of NO2 columns from MAX-DOAS and Pandora instruments, in situ surface NO2 measurements from photolytic converter instruments, and a bottom-up NOx emission inventory. Overall, OMI retrievals tend to be lower in urban regions and higher in remote areas, but generally agree with other measurements to within ± 20%. No consistent seasonal bias is evident. Contrasting results between different data sets reveal complexities behind NO2 validation. Monthly mean vertical NO2 profile shapes from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry-transport model (CTM) used in the OMI retrievals are highly consistent with in situ aircraft measurements, but these measured profiles exhibit considerable day-to-day variation, affecting the retrieved daily NO2 columns by up to 40%. This assessment of OMI tropospheric NO2 columns, together with the comparison of OMI-retrieved and model-simulated NO2 columns, could offer diagnostic evaluation of the model.

  3. Aircraft assembly shop plant no. 2, view looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aircraft assembly shop plant no. 2, view looking east - northeast. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Aircraft Assembly Shop Plant, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Have vehicle emissions of primary NO2 peaked?

    PubMed

    Carslaw, David C; Murrells, Tim P; Andersson, Jon; Keenan, Matthew

    2016-07-18

    Reducing ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) remains a key challenge across many European urban areas, particularly close to roads. This challenge mostly relates to the lack of reduction in emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from diesel road vehicles relative to the reductions expected through increasingly stringent vehicle emissions legislation. However, a key component of near-road concentrations of NO2 derives from directly emitted (primary) NO2 from diesel vehicles. It is well-established that the proportion of NO2 (i.e. the NO2/NOx ratio) in vehicle exhaust has increased over the past decade as a result of vehicle after-treatment technologies that oxidise carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and generate NO2 to aid the emissions control of diesel particulate. In this work we bring together an analysis of ambient NOx and NO2 measurements with comprehensive vehicle emission remote sensing data obtained in London to better understand recent trends in the NO2/NOx ratio from road vehicles. We show that there is evidence that NO2 concentrations have decreased since around 2010 despite less evidence of a reduction in total NOx. The decrease is shown to be driven by relatively large reductions in the amount of NO2 directly emitted by vehicles; from around 25 vol% in 2010 to 15 vol% in 2014 in inner London, for example. The analysis of NOx and NO2 vehicle emission remote sensing data shows that these reductions have been mostly driven by reduced NO2/NOx emission ratios from heavy duty vehicles and buses rather than light duty vehicles. However, there is also evidence from the analysis of Euro 4 and 5 diesel passenger cars that as vehicles age the NO2/NOx ratio decreases. For example the NO2/NOx ratio decreased from 29.5 ± 2.0% in Euro 5 diesel cars up to one year old to 22.7 ± 2.5% for four-year old vehicles. At some roadside locations the reductions in primary NO2 have had a large effect on reducing both the annual mean and number of hourly exceedances

  5. A model-based analysis of SO2 and NO2 dynamics from coal-fired power plants under representative synoptic circulation types over the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Víctor; Pay, María T; Baldasano, José M

    2016-01-15

    Emissions of SO2 and NO2 from coal-fired power plants are a significant source of air pollution. In order to typify the power plants' plumes dynamics and quantify their contribution to air quality, a comprehensive characterisation of seven coal-fired power plant plumes has been performed under six representative circulation types (CTs) identified by means of a synoptic classification over the Iberian Peninsula. The emission and the transport of SO2 and NO2 have been simulated with the CALIOPE air quality forecasting system that couples the HERMES emission model for Spain and WRF and CMAQ models. For the facilities located in continental and Atlantic areas (As Pontes, Aboño, and Compostilla) the synoptic advection controls pollutant transport, however for power plants located along the Mediterranean or over complex-terrains (Guardo, Andorra, Carboneras, and Los Barrios), plume dynamics are driven by a combination of synoptic and mesoscale mountain-valley and sea-land breezes. The contribution of power plants to surface concentration occurs mainly close to the source (<20 km) related to a fumigation process when the emission injection takes place within the planetary boundary layer reaching up to 55 μg SO2 m(-3) and 32 μg NO2 m(-3). However, the SO2 and NO2 plumes can reach long distances (>250 km from the sources) especially for CTs characterised by Atlantic advection. PMID:26433330

  6. Ethyl Formate Fumigation of Dry and Semidry Date Fruits: Experimental Kinetics, Modeling, and Lethal Effect on Carob Moth.

    PubMed

    Bessi, Haithem; Bellagha, Sihem; Lebdi, Kaouthar Grissa; Bikoba, Veronique; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2015-06-01

    Ethyl formate (EF) was studied as a fumigant agent with the objective to replace methyl bromide (MB) for date fruit disinfestations. Date fruits Phoenix dactylifera 'Deglet Nour' with different initial moisture content (16% for dry dates, 20% for semidry dates, and a mixture of the two types) were separately fumigated with EF at different concentrations: 28.6, 57.3, 85.9, and 114.6 g/m3 for 2 h. Experimental data of EF sorption during fumigation was successfully fitted to Peleg's model. This model allows the prediction of the effects of date moisture content and EF concentration on sorption behavior. Samples with different moisture content showed similar EF sorption behavior. Dates were artificially infested with carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller)) at different life stages. Eggs, third- and fifth-instars, and pupae were exposed to 28.6, 57.3, 85.9, and 114.6 g/m3 EF for 2 h. Among these life stages, fifth-instars were the most resistant to EF fumigation. A 2-h fumigation with 114.6 g/m3 EF provided complete control of eggs, third-instars, and pupae of carob moth, and generated 91.6% mortality of fifth-instars. A longer fumigation time or higher EF concentration may provide complete control of all life stages of carob moth. PMID:26470221

  7. 52. POWER HOUSE AREA, SANTA ANA NO. 2; DETAIL MAP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. POWER HOUSE AREA, SANTA ANA NO. 2; DETAIL MAP OF SANTA ANA NO. 1 AND NO. 2 HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT, EXHIBIT K, APR. 30, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523691 (sheet no. 6; for filing with the Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. 112. Detail of butterfly valve for turbine unit no. 2. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. Detail of butterfly valve for turbine unit no. 2. Beyond is a General Electric AC generator directly connected to turbine unit no. 2. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  9. NO2 lidar profile measurements for satellite interpretation and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volten, H.; Brinksma, E. J.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; Hains, J.; Bergwerff, J. B.; van der Hoff, G. R.; Apituley, A.; Dirksen, R. J.; Calabretta-Jongen, S.; Swart, D. P. J.

    2009-12-01

    Satellite instruments are efficient detectors of air pollutants such as NO2. However, the interpretation of satellite retrievals is not a trivial matter. We describe a novel instrument, the RIVM NO2 mobile lidar, to measure tropospheric NO2 profiles for the interpretation and validation of satellite data. During the DANDELIONS campaign in 2006 we obtained an extensive collection of lidar NO2 profiles, coinciding with OMI and SCIAMACHY overpasses. On clear days and early mornings a comparison between lidar and in situ measurements showed excellent agreement. At other times the in situ monitors with molybdenum converters suffered from NOy interference. The lidar NO2 profiles indicated a well-mixed boundary layer, with high NO2 concentrations in the boundary layer and concentrations above not differing significantly from zero. The boundary layer concentrations spanned a wide range, which likely depends on the wind directions and on the intensity of local (rush hour) traffic which varies with the day of the week. Large diurnal differences were mainly driven by the height of the boundary layer, although direct photolysis or photochemical processes also contribute. Small-scale temporal and spatial variations in the NO2 concentrations of the order of 20-50% were measured, probably indicative of small-scale eddies. A preliminary comparison between satellite and lidar data shows that the satellite data tend to overestimate the amount of NO2 in the troposphere compared to the lidar data.

  10. VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) SHARING THE SAME CAST HOUSE WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. ORE BRIDGE & BLOWER HOUSE TO RIGHT, HULETT CAR DUMPER IS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  11. VIEW NORTHEAST FROM TOP OF OIL TANK WITH NO. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHEAST FROM TOP OF OIL TANK WITH NO. 2 BLAST FURNACE TO LEFT, NO. 1 BLAST FURNACE CENTER, AND NO. 3 (JANE) WEST ORE BRIDGE RIGHT, FLOODED ORE YARD IS IN FOREGROUND, HULETT CAR DUMPER AT RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 768-Items Eligible for Expedited Licensing Procedures Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AVAILABILITY DETERMINATION PROCEDURES AND CRITERIA Supplement No. 2 to Part...

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 768-Items Eligible for Expedited Licensing Procedures Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AVAILABILITY DETERMINATION PROCEDURES AND CRITERIA Supplement No. 2 to Part...

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 768-Items Eligible for Expedited Licensing Procedures Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AVAILABILITY DETERMINATION PROCEDURES AND CRITERIA Supplement No. 2 to Part...

  15. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF 14' MILL ENGINE, NO. 2, DIRECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF 14' MILL ENGINE, NO. 2, DIRECT COUPLED TO NO. 4 STAND, COUPLED TO NOS. 5 AND 7 STANDS BY 9'2' PULLEY - U.S. Steel Corporation, Clairton Works, 14-Inch Mill Engines No. 1 & No. 2, 400 State Street, Clairton, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 7 CFR 51.1213 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Grades § 51.1213 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of peaches of one variety which are mature but not soft or overripe, not...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1213 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Grades § 51.1213 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of peaches of one variety which are mature but not soft or overripe, not...

  18. 7 CFR 51.3742 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Grades § 51.3742 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of honey dew or honey ball type melons which are mature, firm, fairly well formed, free from...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2077 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Grades § 51.2077 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of almonds in the shell which meet the requirements of U.S. No. 1 grade, except that an additional tolerance of 20 percent shall be allowed for almonds with shells damaged...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2077 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Grades § 51.2077 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of almonds in the shell which meet the requirements of U.S. No. 1 grade, except that an additional tolerance of 20 percent shall be allowed for almonds with shells damaged...

  1. 7 CFR 51.3197 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Grades § 51.3197 U.S. No. 2. U.S. No. 2 consists of...; (5) Dirt or other foreign material; (6) Mechanical; (7) Watery scales; (8) Insects; (9) Disease;...

  2. 7 CFR 51.3197 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Grades § 51.3197 U.S. No. 2. U.S. No. 2 consists of...; (5) Dirt or other foreign material; (6) Mechanical; (7) Watery scales; (8) Insects; (9) Disease;...

  3. 7 CFR 51.3197 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Grades § 51.3197 U.S. No. 2. U.S. No. 2 consists of...; (5) Dirt or other foreign material; (6) Mechanical; (7) Watery scales; (8) Insects; (9) Disease;...

  4. 7 CFR 51.3742 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Grades § 51.3742 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of honey dew or honey ball type melons which are mature, firm, fairly well formed, free from...

  5. 7 CFR 51.3742 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Grades § 51.3742 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of honey dew or honey ball type melons which are mature, firm, fairly well formed, free from...

  6. 7 CFR 51.3742 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Grades § 51.3742 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of honey dew or honey ball type melons which are...

  7. 7 CFR 51.3742 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Grades § 51.3742 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of honey dew or honey ball type melons which are...

  8. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL ARRANGEMENT BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2352, dated December 2, 1948, Denver Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  9. ARCHITECTURAL EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2360, dated Novermber 24, 1948, Denver Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  10. DISCHARGE PIPES. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2 WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISCHARGE PIPES. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2 WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 717+62.95. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2380, dated November 30, 1948, Denver Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  11. 7 CFR 51.1523 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Grades § 51.1523 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of plums or prunes of one variety which are not badly misshapen,...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1523 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Grades § 51.1523 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of plums or prunes of one variety which are not badly misshapen,...

  13. 1. EAST END OF MACHINE SHOP No. 2. THE TALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST END OF MACHINE SHOP No. 2. THE TALL STRUCTURE IS THE VERTICAL FURNACE BUILDING, AND THE TWO-STORY BRICK BUILDING WAS THE HEAT TREATING AND FORGING OFFICE. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Machine Shop No. 2, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 7 CFR 51.2926 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Grades § 51.2926 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” shall consist of apricots of one variety which are mature but not soft, overripe or...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2926 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Grades § 51.2926 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” shall consist of apricots of one variety which are mature but not soft, overripe or...

  16. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 768-Items Eligible for Expedited Licensing Procedures Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AVAILABILITY DETERMINATION PROCEDURES AND CRITERIA Supplement No. 2 to Part...

  17. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 736 - Administrative Orders

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative Orders No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 736 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... PROHIBITIONS Pt. 736, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to Part 736—Administrative Orders Administrative Order...

  18. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 768-Items Eligible for Expedited Licensing Procedures Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AVAILABILITY DETERMINATION PROCEDURES AND CRITERIA Supplement No. 2 to Part...

  19. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... boycotts (15 CFR part 369) published on January 25, 1978 (43 FR 3508) and contained in the 15 CFR edition... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretation No. Supplement No. 2 to... TRADE PRACTICES OR BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to Part 760—Interpretation The...

  20. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... boycotts (15 CFR part 369) published on January 25, 1978 (43 FR 3508) and contained in the 15 CFR edition... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretation No. Supplement No. 2 to... TRADE PRACTICES OR BOYCOTTS Pt. 760, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to Part 760—Interpretation The...

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 736 - Administrative Orders

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrative Orders No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 736 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... PROHIBITIONS Pt. 736, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to Part 736—Administrative Orders Administrative Order...

  2. 3. General view of elevators no. 2 and no. 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view of elevators no. 2 and no. 3 in background right, showing relation to associated Washburn Crosby Milling complex in foreground (left to right: utility building, A mill (with scaffolding), wheat house, Humboldt mill; elevator no. 1 in rear with gold medal flour sign), facing southeast - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  3. 7 CFR 51.341 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Grades § 51.341 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of apples of one variety, unless designated as mixed varieties, which... preparation for use will cause a loss of more than 12 percent, by weight, of the apple....

  4. 7 CFR 51.341 - U.S. No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Grades § 51.341 U.S. No. 2. “U.S. No. 2” consists of apples of one variety, unless designated as mixed varieties, which... preparation for use will cause a loss of more than 12 percent, by weight, of the apple....

  5. Comparisons of soil surface sealing methods to reduce fumigant emission loss.

    PubMed

    Gao, Suduan; Hanson, Bradley D; Qin, Ruijun; Wang, Dong; Yates, Scott R

    2011-01-01

    State and federal regulatory agencies depend on quality field data for determining the effects of agricultural management practices on fumigant emissions to develop sound, science-based policies and regulations on preplant soil fumigants. Field plot tests, using growers' standard field operation procedures, were used to simultaneously determine the effectiveness of several commonly proposed emission reduction methods, in a trial involving shank injection of Telone II [a.i. 1,3-dichloropropnene (1,3-D)] to a sandy loam soil to a target rate of 372 kg ha(-1). The experiment was conducted in late September 2008 in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Fumigant emissions were captured using dynamic flux chambers. The results showed that virtually impermeable film (VIF) reduced emissions >95% when compared to bare soil, and the glue joints in the film did not significantly affect the tarp performance. The VIF also created a more uniform distribution of gaseous fumigant in the soil profile, which would likely benefit pest control efficacy. Standard high-density polyethylene (HDPE) tarp reduced total 1,3-D emissions about 50% (higher than most reported values) in this trial, whereas postfumigation intermittent water treatments (seals) reduced cumulative emission losses by approximately 20%. Adding 49.4 Mg ha (equivalent to 20 tons per acre) of composted dairy manure to surface soils did not reduce 1,3-D emissions during this experiment. Use of VIF was the most promising technique in reducing emissions and has the potential to allow lower application rates while providing satisfactory pest control. PMID:21869510

  6. Planetary Aeronomy. 2; NO2 In the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warneck, P.; Marmo, F. F.

    1963-01-01

    The transmission curve of the Martian atmosphere derived by Opik is compared with transmission curves of an atmosphere containing various amounts of nitrogen dioxide. It is found that the amount of 6 x l0(exp 18) sq cm column NO2 (or even less) given by Sinton as an upper limit for the Martian NO2 content could adequately explain the phenomenon of the blue haze. This finding made it worthwhile to investigate the effect of the temperature and pressure sensitive equilibrium 2 NO2 reversibly yields N204 upon the total NO2 content and the altitude-number density distributions of NO2 and N204. Computations were carried out for surface temperatures of 273 K, 243 K, 213 K, and 183 K and for three different temperature distributions. The discussion of the results leads to the suggestion of several important new experiments.

  7. Effect of Thymol and Linalool Fumigation on Postharvest Diseases of Table Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi Ho; Kim, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hyo-Won; Keum, Yoong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Several postharvest diseases of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) occur during storage, and gray mold rot is a particularly severe disease because the causal agent, Botrytis cinerea, grows at temperatures as low as 0℃. Other postharvest diseases, such as those caused by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp., also often lead to deterioration in the quality of table grapes after harvest. The use of plant essential oils such as thymol and linalool, to reduce postharvest diseases in several kinds of fruits, including table grapes and oranges, has received much attention in European countries. However, to the best of our knowledge there has been no report of the use of thymol fumigation to control gray mold in table grapes in Korea. Thymol (30 µg/mL) and linalool (120 µg/mL) significantly inhibited mycelial growth and conidia germination of B. cinerea. The occurrence rate of gray mold rot of B. cinerea and other unknown fungi was significantly reduced by fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol in several table grape cultivars, such as Campbell early, Muscat Bailey A, Sheridan, and Geobong. In this study, fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol, had no influence on the sugar content and hardness of grapes, but reduced fungal infection significantly. This suggests that 30 µg/mL thymol could be utilized to reduce deterioration of grapes due to gray mold and other fungal infections during long-term storage. PMID:25346603

  8. Changes in mRNA and protein content of SO sub 2 -fumigated maple leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Stinemetz, C.L. ); Roberts, B.R.; Schnipke, V.M. )

    1989-04-01

    The effect of acute SO{sub 2} fumigation on foliar DNA, RNA, and protein levels in 2-yr-old containerized Acer seedlings was examined. While DNA content did not change appreciably in either SO{sub 2}-sensitive red maple (A. rubrum L.) or SO{sub 2}-tolerant silver maple (A. saccharinum L.), significant reductions in mRNA (35% for red maple; 21% for silver maple) were observed after 54 h fumigation (6 h/day {times} 3 days/wk {times} 3 wk) at 2.5 ppm SO{sub 2}. Reductions in mRNA and protein content were accompanied by a corresponding decline in net photosynthesis (Pn). The data from this study suggest that acute SO{sub 2} fumigation alters Pn in red and silver maple by disrupting molecular events, and that species sensitivity for these particular Acer spp may be related to the degree of change associated with mRNA and total protein content.

  9. Catalytic degradation of the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene in aqueous biochar slurry.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiaolong; Cheng, Yuxiao; Sun, Mingxing; Yan, Lili; Shen, Guoqing

    2016-11-01

    Biochar has been explored as a cost-effective sorbent of contaminants, such as soil fumigant. However, contaminant-loaded biochar probably becomes a source of secondary air pollution. In this study, biochars developed from cow manure and rice husk at 300°C or 700°C were used to investigate the catalytic degradation of the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in aqueous biochar slurry. Results showed that the adsorption of 1,3-D on the biochars was influenced by Langmuir surface monolayer adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity of cow manure was greater than that of rice husk at the same pyrolysis temperature. Batch experiments revealed that 1,3-D degradation was improved in aqueous biochar slurry. The most rapid 1,3-D degradation occurred on cow manure-derived biochar produced at 300°C (C-300), with t1/2=3.47days. The degradation efficiency of 1,3-D on C-300 was 95.52%. Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in biochars were detected via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and hydroxyl radical (·OH) in biochars were detected by using a fluorescence spectrophotometer coupled with a terephthalic acid trapping method. The improvement of 1,3-D degradation efficiency may be attributed to EPFRs and DOM in aqueous biochar slurry. Our results may pose implications in the development of effective reduction strategies for soil fumigant emission with biochar. PMID:27323331

  10. Effect of thymol and linalool fumigation on postharvest diseases of table grapes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi Ho; Kim, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hyo-Won; Keum, Yoong Soo; Chun, Se Chul

    2014-09-01

    Several postharvest diseases of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) occur during storage, and gray mold rot is a particularly severe disease because the causal agent, Botrytis cinerea, grows at temperatures as low as 0℃. Other postharvest diseases, such as those caused by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp., also often lead to deterioration in the quality of table grapes after harvest. The use of plant essential oils such as thymol and linalool, to reduce postharvest diseases in several kinds of fruits, including table grapes and oranges, has received much attention in European countries. However, to the best of our knowledge there has been no report of the use of thymol fumigation to control gray mold in table grapes in Korea. Thymol (30 µg/mL) and linalool (120 µg/mL) significantly inhibited mycelial growth and conidia germination of B. cinerea. The occurrence rate of gray mold rot of B. cinerea and other unknown fungi was significantly reduced by fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol in several table grape cultivars, such as Campbell early, Muscat Bailey A, Sheridan, and Geobong. In this study, fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol, had no influence on the sugar content and hardness of grapes, but reduced fungal infection significantly. This suggests that 30 µg/mL thymol could be utilized to reduce deterioration of grapes due to gray mold and other fungal infections during long-term storage. PMID:25346603

  11. Repellent and fumigant toxicity of essential oil from Thymus persicus against Tribolium castaneum and Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Moharramipour, S; Taghizadeh, A; Meshkatalsadat, M H; Talebi, A A; Fathipour, Y

    2008-01-01

    Repellent and insecticidal activity of the essential oil extracted from Thymus persicus (Roniger ex Reach. F.) Jalas was evaluated against two stored-product beetles Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Dry flowering aerial parts of the plant were subjected to hydro distillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The repellent and fumigant toxicity were tested against 1-7 days old adult beetles at 27 +/- 1 degrees C and 65 +/- 5% RH in dark condition. The repellency on C. maculatus and T. castaneum at highest concentration (2 microL/mL acetone) was 82.40% and 70.40% respectively. Fumigation bioassays showed that C. maculatus adults were significantly more susceptible (LC50 = 2.39 microL/L air) to the essential oil than T. castaneum adults (LC50 = 234.42 microL/L air). It could be concluded that T. persicus may have potential for applications in management of stored-product pests because of its safety, strong repellency and fumigant toxicity. PMID:19226805

  12. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and phosphine fumigation on the quality of white ginseng

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, J.-H. J.-H.; Byun, M.-W. M.-W.; Kim, K.-S. K.-S.; Kang, I.-J. I.-J.

    2000-03-01

    The hygienic, physicochemical, and organoleptic qualities of white ginseng were monitored during 6 months under accelerated conditions (40°C, 90% r.h.) by observing its microbial populations, disinfestation, and some quality attributes following either gamma irradiation at 2.5-10 kGy or commercial phosphine (PH 3) fumigation. In a comparative study, both treatments were found to be effective for disinfecting the stored samples. Phosphine showed no appreciable decontaminating effects on microorganisms contaminated including coliforms, while 5 kGy irradiation was sufficient to control all microorganisms related to the quality of the packed samples. Irradiation at 5 kGy caused negligible changes in physicochemical attributes of the samples, such as ginsenosides, amino acids, fatty acids, and organoleptic properties, whereas phosphine fumigation was found detrimental to sensory flavor ( P<0.01). Quality deterioration occurred in the commercially-packed samples was in the following order: the control, 10 kGy-, phosphine-, and 2.5-5 kGy-treated samples. Accordingly, irradiation at <5 kGy was found to be an effective alternative to phosphine fumigation for white ginseng.

  13. Satellite NO2 data improve national land use regression models for ambient NO2 in a small densely populated country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoek, Gerard; Eeftens, Marloes; Beelen, Rob; Fischer, Paul; Brunekreef, Bert; Boersma, K. Folkert; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2015-03-01

    Land use regression (LUR) modelling has increasingly been applied to model fine scale spatial variation of outdoor air pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 improved LUR model in very large study areas, including Canada, United States and Australia. The aim of our study was to assess the value of satellite observations of NO2 in modelling the spatial variation of annual average NO2 concentrations in a small densely populated country. We used surface level annual average NO2 concentration and geographic information system data from 144 monitoring sites spread over the Netherlands: 26 regional background, 78 urban background and 40 traffic sites for developing land use regression models. For the 144 monitoring sites we obtained the annual average tropospheric NO2 concentration for 2007 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor. These OMI data reflect a spatial scale of about 10 × 10 km. We calculated the correlation between satellite and surface level NO2 concentrations for all sites and for background sites only. We next evaluated whether adding satellite observations improved land use regression models. Annual average satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 correlated well spatially with annual average urban plus regional background (R = 0.74, n = 104 sites) and especially regional background NO2 concentrations (R = 0.88, n = 26). The correlation was moderate for all sites, including traffic locations (R = 0.51, n = 144). A LUR model including satellite NO2 observations performed better (overall R2 = 0.84) than LUR models including geographical coordinates or indicator variables (overall R2 65-74%) in modeling concentrations at the 104 background sites across the Netherlands. Satellite NO2 observations agreed well with measured surface concentrations at background locations and improved land use regression models, even in a small densely populated country.

  14. Airborne measurements of NO2 shipping emissions using imaging DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Andreas C.; Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Seyler, André; Ruhtz, Thomas; Lindemann, Carsten; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.

    2014-05-01

    NOx (NO and NO2) play a key role in tropospheric chemistry and affect human health and the environment. Shipping emissions contribute substantially to the global emissions of anthropogenic NOx. Due to globalization and increased trade volume, the relative importance emissions from ships gain even more importance. The Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP), developed at IUP Bremen, has been used to perform measurements of NO2 in the visible spectral range. The observations allow the determination of spatial distributions of column densities of NO2 below the aircraft. Airborne measurements were performed over Northern Germany and adjacent coastal waters during the NOSE (NO2 from Shipping Emissions) campaign in August 2013. The focus of the campaign activities was on shipping emissions, but NO2 over cities and power plants has been measured as well. The measurements have a spatial resolution below the order of 100 × 30 m2, and they reveal the large spatial variability of NO2 and the evolution of NO2 plumes behind point sources. Shipping lanes as well as plumes of individual ships are detected by the AirMAP instrument. In this study, first results from the NOSE campaign are presented for selected measurement areas.

  15. NO2 possible effects on human health in French Guiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobinddass, Marie-Line; Dendele, Beatrice; Molinie, Jack; panechou-pulcherie, Kathy; Gatineau, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recently declared air pollution carcinogenic to humans. Humans are continuously exposed to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions, a strong oxidizing pollutant commonly found in urban air and homes with unvented combustion appliances. Children and Individuals with asthma have been reported to be more sensitive to NO2exposure. Long-term exposure to NO2 pollution has been reported to induce defective pulmonary function, inflammation, irritations, respiratory infections like bronchitis, lung fibrosis, asthma exacerbation and an increase in inhalational allergies. Pollution peaks are responsible for older people premature death in city. According to W H O guideline values for NO2 emissions, a 1-hour level of 200 μg/m3 (0.1 ppm) and daily annual average of 40 μg/m3 (0.02 ppm) can be a real danger to human health. In general, current exposures in Europe are below this range. However, climate warming changes NO2 emissions and can become a real public health problem in few years. We will study here the temporal series of NO2 variation from data measurement campaigns of 2010 and 2014 in Cayenne city, the French Guiana capital. In this urban zone, NO2 is mainly created by cars traffic. Only 40% comes from combustion in thermal electric plan. A statistical approach will be used to compare NO2 Cayenne level to the daily and the annual threshold. Finally the NO2 evolution related to the climate warming and the growth of road traffic in French Guiana for the next year will be discussed.

  16. Bacterium-Based NO2− Biosensor for Environmental Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Michael; Larsen, Lars Hauer; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Revsbech, Niels Peter

    2004-01-01

    A sensitive NO2− biosensor that is based on bacterial reduction of NO2− to N2O and subsequent detection of the N2O by a built-in electrochemical N2O sensor was developed. Four different denitrifying organisms lacking NO3− reductase activity were assessed for use in the biosensor. The relevant physiological aspects examined included denitrifying characteristics, growth rate, NO2− tolerance, and temperature and salinity effects on the growth rate. Two organisms were successfully used in the biosensor. The preferred organism was Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens, which is an organism with a denitrifying pathway deficient in both NO3− and N2O reductases. Alternatively Alcaligenes faecalis could be used when acetylene was added to inhibit its N2O reductase. The macroscale biosensors constructed exhibited a linear NO2− response at concentrations up to 1 to 2 mM. The detection limit was around 1 μM NO2−, and the 90% response time was 0.5 to 3 min. The sensor signal was specific for NO2−, and interference was observed only with NH2OH, NO, N2O, and H2S. The sensor signal was affected by changes in temperature and salinity, and calibration had to be performed in a system with a temperature and an ionic strength comparable to those of the medium analyzed. A broad range of water bodies could be analyzed with the biosensor, including freshwater systems, marine systems, and oxic-anoxic wastewaters. The NO2− biosensor was successfully used for long-term online monitoring in wastewater. Microscale versions of the NO2− biosensor were constructed and used to measure NO2− profiles in marine sediment. PMID:15528518

  17. Evaluation of OMI operational standard NO2 column retrievals using in situ and surface-based NO2 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamsal, L. N.; Krotkov, N. A.; Celarier, E. A.; Swartz, W. H.; Pickering, K. E.; Bucsela, E. J.; Gleason, J. F.; Martin, R. V.; Philip, S.; Irie, H.; Cede, A.; Herman, J.; Weinheimer, A.; Szykman, J. J.; Knepp, T. N.

    2014-11-01

    We assess the standard operational nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data product (OMNO2, version 2.1) retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard NASA's Aura satellite using a combination of aircraft and surface in~situ measurements as well as ground-based column measurements at several locations and a bottom-up NOx emission inventory over the continental US. Despite considerable sampling differences, NO2 vertical column densities from OMI are modestly correlated (r = 0.3-0.8) with in situ measurements of tropospheric NO2 from aircraft, ground-based observations of NO2 columns from MAX-DOAS and Pandora instruments, in situ surface NO2 measurements from photolytic converter instruments, and a bottom-up NOx emission inventory. Overall, OMI retrievals tend to be lower in urban regions and higher in remote areas, but generally agree with other measurements to within ± 20%. No consistent seasonal bias is evident. Contrasting results between different data sets reveal complexities behind NO2 validation. Since validation data sets are scarce and are limited in space and time, validation of the global product is still limited in scope by spatial and temporal coverage and retrieval conditions. Monthly mean vertical NO2 profile shapes from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry-transport model (CTM) used in the OMI retrievals are highly consistent with in situ aircraft measurements, but these measured profiles exhibit considerable day-to-day variation, affecting the retrieved daily NO2 columns by up to 40%. This assessment of OMI tropospheric NO2 columns, together with the comparison of OMI-retrieved and model-simulated NO2 columns, could offer diagnostic evaluation of the model.

  18. The BLISS measurements of NO2 - Some new insights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pyle, J. A.; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Lary, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The present study compares the diurnal variation of NO2 measured near 30 km by the BLISS in situ laser spectrometer with calculations from a photochemical model that includes a detailed description of multiple scattering. Even better agreement is found between the data and the model, both at sunset and during the day. The conclusions of an earlier study that the high-resolution in situ measurements of NO2 facilitated validation of the understanding of the diurnal chemistry of NO2 are confirmed.

  19. Interpretation of NO2 absorption in twilight sky spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, B. B.

    1984-07-01

    A multiple scattering model has been developed to calculate nitrogen dioxide (NO2) absorption in the light from the zenith sky during twilight. Model studies show that this absorption is not very sensitive to the atmospheric temperature profile or to tropospheric NO2. The model was used to interpret some ground-based measurements of NO2 sky absorption. Values for the total stratospheric column amount vary from 2 to 12 x 10 to the 15th molec/sq cm, and the mean altitude of the stratospheric concentration profile is around 35 km. These observations are in broad agreement with those of other workers.

  20. Production of NO2 from Photolysis of Peroxyacetyl Nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazely, Troy L.; Friedl, Randall R.; Sander, Stanley P.

    1965-01-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) vapor was photolyzed at 248 nm, and the NO2 photoproduct was detected by laser-induced fluorescence. The quantum yield for the production of NO2 from PAN photolysis was determined by comparison to HNO3 photolysis data taken under identical experimental conditions. The average of data collected over a range of total pressures, precursor concentrations, and buffer gases was 0.83 +/- 0.09 for the NO2 quantum yield, where the statistical uncertainty is 2 standard deviations.

  1. Quantification of the effects of various soil fumigation treatments on nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in laboratory incubation and field studies.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qiuxia; Mao, Liangang; Li, Wei; Xie, Hongwei; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2013-01-01

    Better quantification of nitrogen mineralization and nitrification after fumigation would indicate if any adjustment is needed in fertilizer application. The effects of chloropicrin (Pic), 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and metham sodium (MS) fumigation on soil nitrogen dynamics were evaluated in lab incubation and field studies. Although some differences were observed in NH(4)(+)-N and NO(3)(-)-N concentrations in lab incubation and field experiments, both studies led to the same conclusions: (1) Soil fumigation was shown to increase soil mineral nitrogen only during the first 2 weeks after fumigation (WAF). In particular, Pic significantly increased soil mineral nitrogen in both studies at 1 WAF. However, for all fumigant treatments the observed effect was temporary; the soil mineral content of treated samples recovered to the general level observed in the untreated control. (2) All the fumigation treatments depressed nitrification temporarily, although the treatments exhibited significant differences in the duration of nitrification inhibition. In both studies, for a limited period of time, Pic showed a stronger inhibitory effect on nitrification compared to other fumigant treatments. An S-shaped function was fitted to the concentrations of NO(3)(-)-N in lab incubation samples. The times of maximum nitrification (t(max)) in DMDS and MS treatments were 0.97 week and 1.03 week, which is similar to the untreated control (t(max)=1.02 week). While Pic has the longest effect on nitrifying bacteria, nitrification appears to restart at a later time (t(max)=14.37 week). PMID:23062947

  2. 97. VIEW OF MILL SOLUTION PUMP No. 2 FROM SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. VIEW OF MILL SOLUTION PUMP No. 2 FROM SOUTHEAST. SUMPS ARE UNDER FLOOR, BEYOND. STAIR LEADS TO AGITATOR/GOLD TANK ACCESS PLATFORM. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  3. 41. EXTERNAL ELEVATIONS, POWER HOUSE SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. EXTERNAL ELEVATIONS, POWER HOUSE SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, EDISON ELECTRIC CO., NOV. 3, 1904. SCE drawing no. 5392. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. 51. SWITCHBOARD ELEVATIONS, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, DEC. 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. SWITCHBOARD ELEVATIONS, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, DEC. 14, 1951; REVISIONS, MAR. 20 AND SEPT. 19, 1952. SCE drawing no. 534984-2. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. 21. INTERIOR VIEW OF 1908 NO. 2 SHAFTROCKHOUSE WHICH DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. INTERIOR VIEW OF 1908 NO. 2 SHAFT-ROCKHOUSE WHICH DETAILS THE SKIP ROAD LEADING UP FROM GROUND LEVEL. LEVER ON LEFT CONTROLS SLIDING TRACK SECTION AND ACTIVATES THE LOWEST SKIP DUMP. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  6. Helium building no. 2 east and north sides. Looking 270 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Helium building no. 2 east and north sides. Looking 270 W. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Helium Tank Building No. 1, Near intersection of Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  7. Helium building no. 2 west and south sides. Looking 70 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Helium building no. 2 west and south sides. Looking 70 ENE. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Helium Tank Building No. 1, Near intersection of Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  8. The distribution of NO2(plus) in the lower ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Goldberg, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Data on the NO2(+)(46 AMU) were obtained with a rocket-borne quadrupole ion mass spectrometer. The ion 46(+) is most prevalent in the vicinity of 90 km and is always observed in the presence of 48(+), identified as NO(+)-H2O. The observed concentrations of O(+)(16), O2(+)(32), NO2(+)(46), NO(+)-H2O(48), electrons, and the ratio 48(+)/46(+) are tabulated for altitudes from 87.8 to 93.2 km. Reactions governing the distribution of NO2(+) are briefly discussed, and it is felt that photoionization and charge exchange reactions are insufficient to account for the NO2(+) concentration at 90 km.

  9. Simultaneous NO and NO(2) DIAL measurement using BBO crystals.

    PubMed

    Kölsch, H J; Rairoux, P; Wolf, J P; Wöste, L

    1989-06-01

    We report a new differential absorption lidar technique for measuring simultaneously the concentrations of NO and NO(2) in the atmosphere. The technique is based on the correlation of the 450-nm absorption band of NO(2) and 227-nm absorption band of NO by frequency doubling. This performance has been allowed by the advent of a new and highly efficient frequency doubling crystal: the beta-BaB(2)O(4). A test experiment on a NO/NO(2) emitter has been performed, demonstrating the efficiency of the technique. The detection limit is estimated to be ~1 ppm .m for NO(2) and 100 ppb.m for NO. The range of measurement is limited to 1 km, due to the strong UV Rayleigh scattering and O(2) absorption. PMID:20555467

  10. 111. Detail of butterfly valve for turbine unit no. 2. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. Detail of butterfly valve for turbine unit no. 2. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  11. 46. INTAKE DAM NO. 2, VIEW LOOKING UPSTREAM. THIS WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. INTAKE DAM NO. 2, VIEW LOOKING UPSTREAM. THIS WAS FORMERLY THE MAIN INTAKE FOR THE SYSTEM. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  12. 12. GENERATING UNIT NO. 2, WITH (LR) CONTINUOUS CURRENT EXCITER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. GENERATING UNIT NO. 2, WITH (L-R) CONTINUOUS CURRENT EXCITER, ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATOR, AND TURBINE GOVERNOR. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Powerhouse, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

  13. 69. September 1913 "No. 110. Placing no. 2 rock on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. September 1913 "No. 110. Placing no. 2 rock on top of foundation course which has been previously rolled. Experimental road section." - Crater Lake National Park Roads, Klamath Falls, Klamath County, OR

  14. 14. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR, EXCITER No. 2 SHOWING GENERAL ELECTRIC INDUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. POWERHOUSE INTERIOR, EXCITER No. 2 SHOWING GENERAL ELECTRIC INDUCTION MOTOR IN SERIES BETWEEN PELTON-DOBLE IMPULSE WHEEL AND GENERAL ELECTRIC GENERATOR. VIEW TO EAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  15. 23. UPSTREAM DETAIL OF PIER NO. 2 AND THROUGH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. UPSTREAM DETAIL OF PIER NO. 2 AND THROUGH AND DECK TRUSS END PANELS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  16. 25. DETAIL OF PIER NO. 2, SHOWING THROUGH AND DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF PIER NO. 2, SHOWING THROUGH AND DECK TRUSS BEARING SHOES. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  17. 24. DOWNSTREAM DETAIL OF PIER NO. 2 AND THROUGH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DOWNSTREAM DETAIL OF PIER NO. 2 AND THROUGH AND DECK TRUSS END PANELS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  18. 34. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM NO. 2 SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM NO. 2 SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO ALTERNATIVE FRONT DOOR ENTRYWAY. VIEW TO EAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  19. 12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA